User`s Manual
User’s Manual
Version 9.4
Print-Limit Pro 9.4 User Manual
Table of Contents
Preface .......................................................................................................... xviii
1. About This Guide ................................................................................ xviii
2. Expectations & Prerequisites ............................................................... xviii
3. Terminology used in this document ...................................................... xviii
4. Notice .................................................................................................. xix
1. Introduction .................................................................................................... 1
1.1. What is Print-Limit Pro? ........................................................................ 1
1.1.1. Benefits .................................................................................... 1
1.1.2. Key Features ............................................................................ 1
1.1.3. System Requirements ................................................................ 2
1.2. How does Print-Limit Pro work? ............................................................ 3
1.2.1. Key Concepts ............................................................................ 3
1.2.2. Understanding the print process flow .......................................... 4
1.2.3. Architecture Overview ................................................................ 6
1.3. The Top-Ten Hidden Features! ............................................................. 7
1.3.1. One: Remote Administration ...................................................... 7
1.3.2. Two: Secondary Servers and Local Printers ................................ 8
1.3.3. Three: Shared Accounts ............................................................ 8
1.3.4. Four: Customizable Web Interface .............................................. 8
1.3.5. Five: XML Web Services and Command-line Control ................... 8
1.3.6. Six: Hold/Release Queues and Release Stations ......................... 9
1.3.7. Seven: Text Print Logs ............................................................... 9
1.3.8. Eight: 3rd Party Database Support .............................................. 9
1.3.9. Nine: Zero-install Client Deployment ........................................... 9
1.3.10. Ten: The Development Team ................................................. 10
2. Installation .................................................................................................... 11
2.1. Installation on Windows ...................................................................... 11
2.1.1. Step 1 - System Requirements & Network Setup ....................... 11
2.1.2. Step 2 - Print queue configuration ............................................. 12
2.1.3. Step 3 - Download and install ................................................... 13
2.1.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard ................................................... 14
2.1.5. Step 5 - Printer Configuration ................................................... 16
2.1.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software ............................................... 16
2.1.7. Step 7 - Testing ....................................................................... 16
2.1.8. What next? ............................................................................. 16
2.2. Installation on Apple Mac .................................................................... 16
2.2.1. Step 1 - System Requirements ................................................. 17
2.2.2. Step 2 - Print Queue Setup ...................................................... 17
2.2.3. Step 3 - Download and install ................................................... 17
2.2.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard ................................................... 17
2.2.5. Step 5 - Printer Configuration ................................................... 19
2.2.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software ............................................... 19
2.2.7. Step 7 - Testing ....................................................................... 19
2.2.8. What next? ............................................................................. 20
2.3. Installation on Novell OES Linux (iPrint) ............................................... 20
2.3.1. Step 1 - System Requirements ................................................. 20
2.3.2. Step 2 - Create the host user account and firewall settings ......... 20
2.3.3. Step 3 - Download and installing ............................................... 21
2.3.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard ................................................... 22
2.3.5. Step 5 - Printer/iPrint Configuration ........................................... 24
2.3.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software ............................................... 25
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2.3.7. Step 7 - Testing ....................................................................... 25
2.3.8. What next? ............................................................................. 25
2.4. Installation on Linux (CUPS and/or Samba) ......................................... 26
2.4.1. Step 1 - System Requirements ................................................. 26
2.4.2. Step 2 - Create the host user account and firewall settings ......... 26
2.4.3. Step 3 - Download and installing ............................................... 27
2.4.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard ................................................... 28
2.4.5. Step 5 - Printer Configuration ................................................... 30
2.4.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software ............................................... 31
2.4.7. Step 7 - Testing ....................................................................... 31
2.4.8. What next? ............................................................................. 31
3. Implementation by Example ........................................................................... 32
3.1. Scenario: The Small School ................................................................ 32
3.1.1. Requirements .......................................................................... 32
3.1.2. Implementation ........................................................................ 32
3.2. Scenario: The Large School ................................................................ 33
3.2.1. Requirements .......................................................................... 34
3.2.2. Implementation ........................................................................ 34
3.3. Scenario: The University ..................................................................... 35
3.3.1. Requirements .......................................................................... 35
3.3.2. Implementation ........................................................................ 35
3.4. Scenario: The Small Business ............................................................. 37
3.4.1. Requirements .......................................................................... 37
3.4.2. Implementation ........................................................................ 37
3.5. Scenario: The Medium to Large Business ............................................ 38
3.5.1. Requirements .......................................................................... 38
3.5.2. Implementation ........................................................................ 38
3.6. Scenario: The Public Library or Internet Cafe/Kiosk .............................. 39
3.6.1. Requirements .......................................................................... 39
3.6.2. Implementation ........................................................................ 39
4. Quick Tour .................................................................................................... 41
4.1. Navigation ......................................................................................... 41
4.1.1. Tabs ....................................................................................... 41
4.1.2. Actions ................................................................................... 41
4.1.3. Buttons ................................................................................... 41
4.1.4. Crumb Trail ............................................................................. 42
4.1.5. Status Messages ..................................................................... 42
4.1.6. Fields ..................................................................................... 42
4.2. Sections ............................................................................................ 43
4.2.1.
Users ............................................................................... 43
4.2.2.
Groups ............................................................................. 43
4.2.3.
Accounts .......................................................................... 44
4.2.4.
Printers ............................................................................. 44
4.2.5.
Reports ............................................................................ 44
4.2.6.
Cards ............................................................................... 44
4.2.7.
Options ............................................................................. 45
4.2.8.
Application Log ................................................................. 45
4.2.9.
About ............................................................................... 45
4.3. Basic User Operations ........................................................................ 45
4.4. Basic Printer Operations ..................................................................... 46
4.5. Client Software .................................................................................. 49
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4.5.1. Demonstrating the client software and account selection process 50
4.6. Interface Levels .................................................................................. 50
4.6.1. Admin Access ......................................................................... 50
4.6.2. User Access ............................................................................ 50
4.7. Assigning Administrator Level Access .................................................. 52
4.8. Charting, Statistics, Reports and Logs ................................................. 52
4.8.1. Charts .................................................................................... 52
4.8.2. Reports ................................................................................... 53
4.8.3. Logging .................................................................................. 55
5. Services for Users ......................................................................................... 57
5.1. Introduction ........................................................................................ 57
5.2. User Client ......................................................................................... 57
5.2.1. User Client Deployment ........................................................... 60
5.3. User Web Pages ................................................................................ 66
5.3.1. Summary ................................................................................ 67
5.3.2. Environmental Impact .............................................................. 67
5.3.3. Shared Accounts ..................................................................... 68
5.3.4. Rates ...................................................................................... 68
5.3.5. Use Card ................................................................................ 69
5.3.6. Transfers ................................................................................ 69
5.3.7. Transaction History .................................................................. 70
5.3.8. Recent Print Jobs .................................................................... 70
5.3.9. Jobs Pending Release ............................................................. 71
5.4. Mobile User Web Pages ..................................................................... 71
5.5. Gadgets/Widgets and more... .............................................................. 73
5.5.1. Windows Vista Gadgets ........................................................... 73
5.5.2. Web Widgets .......................................................................... 74
6. Advanced User Management ......................................................................... 76
6.1. Groups in Print-Limit Pro ..................................................................... 76
6.2. Setting up quota allocations ................................................................ 77
6.2.1. Custom Quota Scheduling Periods ........................................... 79
6.2.2. Advanced User Quota Management ......................................... 79
6.2.3. Automated Quota Allocation Example ....................................... 79
6.3. New User Creation Rules ................................................................... 80
6.4. Bulk User Operations ......................................................................... 81
6.5. Using Overdrafts ................................................................................ 82
6.6. Batch User Data Import and Update .................................................... 83
6.6.1. Batch User Import File Format .................................................. 84
6.7. Batch User Card/Identity Update ......................................................... 86
6.7.1. Batch User Card/Identity Update File Format ............................. 87
6.8. Disabling user printing with time latches ............................................... 87
6.9. User Management Quick Reference .................................................... 88
7. Advanced Printer Management ...................................................................... 90
7.1. Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers .................................. 90
7.1.1. On Windows ........................................................................... 90
7.1.2. On Mac ................................................................................... 91
7.1.3. On Linux ................................................................................. 92
7.2. The Template Printer .......................................................................... 93
7.3. Copying Printer Settings ..................................................................... 94
7.4. Disabling printers with time latches ...................................................... 94
7.5. Managing printing using differential charging ........................................ 95
7.5.1. Charging modes available ........................................................ 96
7.5.2. How duplex discounts are calculated ........................................ 97
7.6. Using filters and restrictions ................................................................ 98
7.6.1. Reduce printer jams ................................................................ 98
7.6.2. Controlling documents on slow Inkjets ...................................... 99
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7.6.3. Automatically deleting duplicate jobs ......................................... 99
7.6.4. Force sensible use .................................................................. 99
7.6.5. Automatically deny documents based on file extension or name . 99
7.6.6. Control who can print in color (Advanced) ............................... 100
7.6.7. Advanced Setups .................................................................. 100
7.7. Charge Rates ................................................................................... 100
7.8. Popup Authentication ....................................................................... 102
7.8.1. Where Popup authentication is used ....................................... 102
7.8.2. How does popup authentication work? .................................... 103
7.8.3. Configuration ........................................................................ 103
7.9. Color Detection ................................................................................ 106
7.9.1. Limitations of Page-Level Color Detection ............................... 107
7.10. Toner Levels (for supported printers) ............................................... 108
7.10.1. How toner level information is retrieved? ............................... 108
7.11. Printer Quick Reference .................................................................. 108
8. Shared Accounts ........................................................................................ 110
8.1. Creating a Shared Account ............................................................... 111
8.1.1. The Template Account ........................................................... 113
8.2. Account Naming Guidelines .............................................................. 114
8.2.1. Client / Matter Naming Model ................................................. 114
8.2.2. Project / Phase Naming Model ............................................... 118
8.2.3. Customer / Job Naming Model ............................................... 121
8.3. Client Security .................................................................................. 122
8.4. The Account Selection Popup ........................................................... 125
8.4.1. Standard Account Selection Popup ......................................... 125
8.4.2. Advanced Account Selection Popup ....................................... 127
8.4.3. Automatically charge to a shared account ............................... 129
8.5. Account Selection in Non-Domain Environments (Workgroups) ........... 130
8.6. Batch Shared Account Import and Update ......................................... 131
8.6.1. Batch Account Import File Format ........................................... 132
8.7. Shared Account Synchronization ....................................................... 135
8.7.1. Synchronization Options ........................................................ 136
8.8. Bulk Shared Account Operations ....................................................... 136
8.9. Advanced Shared Account Options ................................................... 137
9. Reports ...................................................................................................... 139
9.1. Report types .................................................................................... 139
9.1.1. User Reports ......................................................................... 140
9.1.2. Printer Reports ...................................................................... 140
9.1.3. Print Log Reports .................................................................. 140
9.1.4. Group Reports ...................................................................... 140
9.1.5. Shared Accounts Reports ...................................................... 140
9.1.6. Transaction Reports .............................................................. 140
9.1.7. Environmental Impact Reports ............................................... 140
9.1.8. Ratio Reports ........................................................................ 140
9.2. Report Formats ................................................................................ 140
9.3. Combining Filters and Reports .......................................................... 141
9.4. Scheduling and Emailing Reports ...................................................... 142
9.4.1. Usage ................................................................................... 143
9.4.2. Details .................................................................................. 145
9.5. Advanced Reporting Options ............................................................ 145
10. Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations .......................................... 147
10.1. Release Station Interfaces .............................................................. 147
10.1.1. Standard Release Station .................................................... 147
10.1.2. Web-based release station (Manager mode) ......................... 148
10.1.3. Web-based release station within the admin pages ................ 149
10.1.4. End-user web-based interface .............................................. 149
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10.2. Hold/Release Usage Scenarios ....................................................... 150
10.2.1. Saving paper and toner ........................................................ 150
10.2.2. Secure Printing .................................................................... 150
10.2.3. Pay per print (e.g. Library or Internet Cafe) ............................ 151
10.2.4. Expensive Printers (Approved Printing) ................................. 152
10.2.5. Unauthenticated printing ...................................................... 152
10.3. Release Station Configuration ......................................................... 153
10.3.1. Enabling hold/release support on a printer ............................. 153
10.3.2. Hold/Release Queue Managers ............................................ 154
10.3.3. Standard Release Station Configuration ................................ 155
10.3.4. End-User Web Based Release Interface Configuration .......... 159
11. Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing ............................................... 161
11.1. Find Me Printing ............................................................................. 161
11.1.1. Implementation by Example ................................................. 162
11.1.2. Find Me Printing and Web-Based Release ............................ 170
11.2. Requirements For Job Redirection (Load Balancing or Find Me Printing)
............................................................................................................... 171
11.2.1. Compatibility Testing ............................................................ 171
11.2.2. Find Me Printing Implementation Checklist ............................ 172
11.3. Advanced Configuration .................................................................. 173
11.3.1. Overriding cost and filter settings .......................................... 173
11.3.2. Cross-Server Job Redirection ............................................... 173
11.4. Printer Load Balancing .................................................................... 174
11.4.1. Example 1: Simple Load Balancing ....................................... 175
11.5. Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing FAQ ............................ 176
12. System Management ................................................................................. 178
12.1. Overview ....................................................................................... 178
12.2. User and Group Synchronization ..................................................... 178
12.2.1. Synchronization Options ...................................................... 178
12.2.2. Importing Card/Identity numbers from Active Directory or LDAP 181
12.2.3. On Demand User Creation ................................................... 182
12.2.4. Using Active Directory for user synchronization ..................... 183
12.2.5. Using LDAP for user synchronization .................................... 183
12.3. Assigning Administrator Level Access .............................................. 184
12.3.1. Assigning Administrator Access to a Group ........................... 185
12.3.2. Assigning Administrator Access to a User ............................. 186
12.4. System Backups ............................................................................ 186
12.4.1. Performing an Online Backup ............................................... 187
12.4.2. Restoring a Backup ............................................................. 187
12.4.3. Performing Offline Backups .................................................. 188
12.4.4. Backup File Retention .......................................................... 189
12.5. System Notifications ....................................................................... 189
12.5.1. Configuring Notifications ...................................................... 190
12.5.2. System Notifications (for Administrators) ............................... 193
12.5.3. Testing Notification Methods ................................................ 196
12.6. System Security Options ................................................................. 196
12.6.1. Application Server Connections ............................................ 196
12.6.2. Provider Connection Security ............................................... 197
12.7. Environmental Impact ..................................................................... 198
12.8. Using the Config Editor ................................................................... 199
13. PrintCards ................................................................................................ 201
13.1. Cards by Example .......................................................................... 201
13.1.1. The User's Perspective ........................................................ 201
13.1.2. The Administrator's Perspective ............................................ 201
13.2. The Card System ........................................................................... 201
13.3. Creating New Cards ....................................................................... 202
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13.3.1. Overview and Definitions ...................................................... 202
13.3.2. Using the Card Wizard ......................................................... 203
13.3.3. PrintCard Tips ..................................................................... 209
13.4. Using a Card .................................................................................. 211
14. Configuring Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached Printers .............. 213
14.1. Configuring a Windows Secondary Print Server ................................ 213
14.1.1. Step 1 - Ensure primary server is set up correctly .................. 213
14.1.2. Step 2 - Ensure firewall software is set to allow access to port 9191
....................................................................................................... 213
14.1.3. Step 3 - Install the print provider ........................................... 213
14.1.4. Step 4 - Configuration .......................................................... 214
14.1.5. Step 5 - Test ....................................................................... 214
14.1.6. Automated Install ................................................................. 214
14.2. Configuring a Macintosh Secondary Print Server .............................. 214
14.2.1. Step 1 - Ensure primary server is set up correctly .................. 214
14.2.2. Step 2 - Ensure firewall software is set to allow access to port 9191
....................................................................................................... 214
14.2.3. Step 3 - Create the host user account ................................... 215
14.2.4. Step 4 - Install the print provider ........................................... 215
14.2.5. Step 5 - Configuration .......................................................... 215
14.2.6. Step 6 - Test ....................................................................... 215
14.3. Configuring a Linux or Novell iPrint Secondary Print Server ............... 215
14.3.1. Step 1 - Ensure primary server is set up correctly .................. 215
14.3.2. Step 2 - Ensure firewall software is set to allow access to port 9191
....................................................................................................... 216
14.3.3. Step 3 - Account setup ......................................................... 216
14.3.4. Step 4 - Install the Print Provider .......................................... 216
14.3.5. Step 5 - Configuration .......................................................... 217
14.3.6. Step 6 - Test ....................................................................... 217
14.4. Print Monitoring Architecture ........................................................... 217
14.5. Multiple Print Servers ...................................................................... 218
14.6. Automating Secondary Server Deployment on Windows ................... 220
15. Advanced Customization ........................................................................... 222
15.1. Customizing the User Client Tool window ........................................ 222
15.2. Limiting the list of interface languages/translations ........................... 223
15.3. Customizing the User web pages .................................................... 224
15.4. Customizing the administration web interface ................................... 227
15.5. Customizing Report Headers .......................................................... 227
15.6. Data Access and Custom Reports ................................................... 227
15.6.1. Plain Text Print Log ............................................................. 228
15.7. Automation and Scripting ................................................................ 229
15.8. Custom User Directory Information Providers ................................... 230
16. Licensing and Support ............................................................................... 231
16.1. Installing a License ......................................................................... 231
16.2. Technical Support & Further Information .......................................... 231
17. Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS) ......................................... 232
17.1. Overview ....................................................................................... 232
17.1.1. Why use an external RDBMS? ............................................. 232
17.1.2. Supported Databases .......................................................... 232
17.2. Upsizing to an External RDBMS ...................................................... 232
17.2.1. Step 1 - Stop the Print-Limit Pro application ........................... 233
17.2.2. Step 2 - Perform a backup of the existing data ....................... 233
17.2.3. Step 3 - Create a new database in the external RDBMS ......... 233
17.2.4. Step 4 - Change the Print-Limit Pro connection details ........... 234
17.2.5. Step 5 - Initialize the new database ....................................... 236
17.2.6. Step 6 - Load the data into the new database ........................ 237
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17.2.7. Step 7 - Restart the Print-Limit Pro application server ............ 237
17.3. Database specific configuration ....................................................... 238
17.3.1. Configuring Microsoft SQL Express ...................................... 238
17.3.2. Configuring MySQL ............................................................. 239
17.3.3. Configuring Oracle (and Oracle Express Edition) ................... 240
18. Microsoft Cluster Environments .................................................................. 241
18.1. About Clustering ............................................................................. 241
18.2. Microsoft Cluster Server ................................................................. 241
18.2.1. Mode 1 - Clustering at the Print Provider layer ....................... 241
18.2.2. Mode 2 - Clustering at all application layers ........................... 244
18.2.3. Clustering Tips .................................................................... 247
18.3. Veritas Cluster Server ..................................................................... 247
18.3.1. Mode 1 - Clustering at the Print Provider layer ....................... 247
18.4. Client/Workstation Configuration ..................................................... 251
19. Print-Limit Pro on Linux ............................................................................. 252
19.1. The Installation Process .................................................................. 252
19.1.1. Manual extraction ................................................................ 252
19.1.2. The install process ............................................................... 252
19.1.3. Linux Print Queue Integration ............................................... 254
19.2. Advanced Configuration & Logs ...................................................... 257
19.3. Backups & System Management ..................................................... 257
19.4. User Directory and Authentication ................................................... 258
19.4.1. Standard Unix ..................................................................... 258
19.4.2. Samba/Windows Domain ..................................................... 258
19.4.3. Custom ............................................................................... 258
19.5. Unix Command-Line Release Station Client ..................................... 259
19.5.1. Installing the Command-Line Release Station Client .............. 260
19.6. Removing Print-Limit Pro from a Linux server ................................... 261
19.7. Linux FAQ ..................................................................................... 261
20. Print Authentication ................................................................................... 263
20.1. About Authentication and Printing .................................................... 263
20.1.1. What is authentication? ........................................................ 263
20.1.2. Why does authentication pose a problem? ............................ 263
20.1.3. How does Print-Limit Pro address authentication? ................. 264
20.2. Handling Unauthenticated (non-domain) Laptops ............................. 266
20.2.1. Option 1: Popup Authentication for Unauthenticated Laptops .. 266
20.2.2. Option 2: Release Station Authentication for Unauthenticated
Laptops .......................................................................................... 268
20.3. The Authentication Cookbook - Recipes by example ......................... 270
20.3.1. Windows systems with generic logins ................................... 270
20.3.2. Windows laptops that do not authenticate against a domain ... 270
20.3.3. Windows print server using LDAP or eDirectory authentication 271
20.3.4. Mac OS X systems with generic user accounts ...................... 272
20.3.5. Mac OS X systems using domain authentication via Open Directory
....................................................................................................... 272
20.3.6. Mac OS X systems using domain authentication via Windows Active Directory ................................................................................... 273
20.3.7. Mac OS X laptops (or single user systems) printing to Windows
print queues ................................................................................... 274
20.3.8. Linux Workstations in a lab environment with printers hosted on a
Windows server .............................................................................. 274
20.3.9. Linux Workstations in a lab environment with printers hosted on
Linux CUPS server ......................................................................... 275
20.3.10. Linux laptops (or single user systems) ................................. 275
20.3.11. Multiuser Unix terminal servers ........................................... 275
20.3.12. Further Recommendations ................................................. 276
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21. Mac Printing in Detail ................................................................................. 277
21.1. Mac hosted print queues ................................................................. 277
21.1.1. Step 1: Installing the printers on the server ............................ 278
21.1.2. Step 2: Enable Printer Sharing ............................................. 280
21.1.3. Step 3: Set up the printers on the workstations (pointing to the
shared server queues) .................................................................... 281
21.1.4. Publishing the printer via Workgroup Manager ....................... 283
21.1.5. Unauthenticated systems (e.g. Laptops) ................................ 285
21.2. Windows hosted print queues .......................................................... 286
21.2.1. Scenario One: My Own Mac (Single User) ............................ 287
21.2.2. Scenario Two: The Multi-User Mac with Popup Authentication 290
21.2.3. Scenario Three: Multi-user Macs using LDAP or Active Directory
authentication ................................................................................. 297
21.2.4. Scenario Four: Mac OS X Server .......................................... 300
21.2.5. Additional information and tips .............................................. 301
22. Running in a Workgroup Environment ........................................................ 302
22.1. Option 1: Common username and passwords on all systems ............ 302
22.2. Option 2: Authenticating via popup .................................................. 303
23. Managing Guests and Internal Users .......................................................... 306
23.1. Internal Users (users managed by Print-Limit Pro) ............................ 306
23.1.1. Implementation by Example ................................................. 307
23.1.2. Internal Users Options ......................................................... 309
23.1.3. Batch Internal User Import and Update ................................. 312
A. Tools (Advanced) ....................................................................................... 315
A.1. Server Commands (server-command) ............................................... 315
A.1.1. Accessing Server Commands remotely .................................. 316
A.1.2. Available Commands ............................................................ 316
A.2. Database Tool (db-tools) .................................................................. 323
A.2.1. export-db Command .............................................................. 324
A.2.2. import-db Command .............................................................. 324
A.2.3. init-db Command ................................................................... 325
A.2.4. delete-old-logs Command ...................................................... 325
A.3. The XML Web Services API ............................................................. 325
A.3.1. Web Services Example Code ................................................. 331
A.3.2. Security ................................................................................ 332
A.4. SSL/HTTPS Key Generation ............................................................ 333
A.4.1. Re-create the self-signed certificate ........................................ 333
A.4.2. Using a custom/or signed SSL Key ........................................ 333
A.5. User Client Options .......................................................................... 334
A.6. Stopping and Starting the Application Server ..................................... 340
A.6.1. Stopping/Starting the server on Windows ................................ 340
A.6.2. Stopping/Starting the server on Mac ....................................... 341
A.6.3. Stopping/Starting the server on Linux ..................................... 341
A.7. Automating / Streamlining Installation on Windows ............................. 341
B. Troubleshooting & Technical FAQ's ............................................................. 344
C. Advanced LDAP Configuration .................................................................... 349
C.1. LDAP Server Default Configuration ................................................... 350
C.1.1. Standard (Unix / Open Directory) ........................................... 350
C.1.2. Novell eDirectory Defaults ..................................................... 350
C.1.3. Microsoft Active Directory Defaults ......................................... 351
D. Capacity Planning ...................................................................................... 353
D.1. Database Sizing and Growth ............................................................ 353
D.1.1. Internal database growth ....................................................... 353
D.1.2. SQL Server database growth ................................................. 354
D.1.3. Sample database growth calculation ...................................... 355
D.2. Network Bandwidth Planning ............................................................ 356
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D.2.1. Bandwidth Estimates .............................................................
D.3. Managing Large Client Account Lists on Distributed Sites ..................
D.3.1. Known limitations ..................................................................
E. Upgrading From a Previous Version .............................................................
E.1. The recommended upgrade procedure ..............................................
F. Upgrading from Print-Limit Standard ............................................................
F.1. Upgrade process ..............................................................................
F.1.1. Step 1 - Stop and disable Print-Limit Standard ........................
F.1.2. Step 2 - Install Print-Limit Pro .................................................
F.1.3. Step 3 - Configure and test printers ........................................
F.1.4. Step 4 - Import the existing User Balances ..............................
F.1.5. Step 5 - Upgrade client software .............................................
F.1.6. Step 6 - Optionally uninstall Print-Limit Standard .....................
G. Example User Information Sheets ...............................................................
G.1. Example 1: Printing with the popup confirmation window ....................
G.1.1. Popup Confirmation Dialog ....................................................
G.1.2. The Printing Balance Window ................................................
G.1.3. Resolving Problems ..............................................................
G.1.4. Printing Denied Message ......................................................
G.2. Example 2: Printing with shared accounts (for staff) ...........................
G.2.1. Shared Account Selection Popup Window ..............................
G.2.2. Resolving Problems ..............................................................
G.2.3. Printing Denied Message ......................................................
G.3. Example 3: Printing using a release station .......................................
G.4. Example 4: Refunding a print job (for staff) ........................................
G.4.1. Full Refund ...........................................................................
G.4.2. Partial Refund ......................................................................
G.5. Example 5: Adding credit using a PrintCard .......................................
xii
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List of Figures
1.1. The user client tool ....................................................................................... 4
1.2. The User Client account selection popup ....................................................... 5
1.3. The Windows print queue ............................................................................. 6
1.4. Print-Limit Pro Architecture - an advanced configuration ................................. 7
2.1. Network printer configuration ...................................................................... 12
2.2. Configuring Windows print queue permissions ............................................. 13
2.3. Setup wizard .............................................................................................. 14
2.4. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard ............................................................. 14
2.5. User sync configuration wizard page ........................................................... 15
2.6. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard ............................................................. 18
2.7. User sync configuration wizard page ........................................................... 19
2.8. The Novell OES Linux install process .......................................................... 22
2.9. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard ............................................................. 23
2.10. eDirectory/LDAP configuration wizard page ................................................ 24
2.11. The Linux install process ........................................................................... 28
2.12. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard ........................................................... 29
2.13. User sync configuration wizard page .......................................................... 30
4.1. Application navigation tabs ......................................................................... 41
4.2. The Actions area. Click to perform the action. .............................................. 41
4.3. Buttons to validate and save settings ........................................................... 41
4.4. The crumb trail highlighting the location ....................................................... 42
4.5. A red status message indicating a validation error ........................................ 42
4.6. A field highlighted indicating a validation error .............................................. 43
4.7. Application navigation tabs ......................................................................... 43
4.8. Adjusting a user's credit up $10.00 .............................................................. 46
4.9. A 40% discount applied to double-sided printing ........................................... 47
4.10. Printer Filters and Restrictions ................................................................... 48
4.11. A printer disabled for 1 hour ...................................................................... 49
4.12. The user client displaying the "Advanced Account Selection Popup" ............ 49
4.13. The user client tool ................................................................................... 51
4.14. User 30-day account balance history ......................................................... 52
4.15. Printer utilization chart .............................................................................. 53
4.16. Print page history for a single printer .......................................................... 53
4.17. Printer report in PDF ................................................................................. 54
4.18. Printer usage log ...................................................................................... 55
4.19. User account transaction log ..................................................................... 55
5.1. The User Client Balance Window ................................................................ 58
5.2. User Client account selection popup (Standard Popup) ................................ 58
5.3. User Client (Advanced Popup) .................................................................... 59
5.4. Print-Limit Client on Mac OS X .................................................................... 59
5.5. Print-Limit Pro requires Mac OS X v 10.3.9 or later ....................................... 61
5.6. Connecting to a Windows server ................................................................. 62
5.7. The PCClient share's connection string ........................................................ 62
5.8. Add PCClient as a Login Item ..................................................................... 63
5.9. Control-click and open the package contents ............................................... 64
5.10. Double-click to install the login hook .......................................................... 64
5.11. A user's summary information ................................................................... 67
5.12. Draw a user's attention to their environmental impact .................................. 68
5.13. A list of available shared accounts ............................................................. 68
5.14. Printing costs as seen by the user ............................................................. 69
5.15. Using a PrintCard ..................................................................................... 69
5.16. Transferring funds to another user ............................................................. 70
xiii
Print-Limit Pro 9.4 User Manual
5.17. A user's recent balance transactions .......................................................... 70
5.18. A user's recent printing ............................................................................. 71
5.19. The user's view of jobs pending release ..................................................... 71
5.20. Mobile user web tools - summary page ...................................................... 72
5.21. View in Desktop mode link ...................................................................... 72
5.22. Mobile user web tools - balance ................................................................ 72
5.23. Mobile user web tools - environmental impact statistics ............................... 72
5.24. Mobile user web tools - redeem PrintCard .................................................. 73
5.25. Mobile user web tools - entering a PrintCard number .................................. 73
5.26. The Environmental Impact Gadget ............................................................ 74
5.27. The Print Balance Gadget ......................................................................... 74
6.1. Adding/removing groups ............................................................................. 77
6.2. The Group Details screen ........................................................................... 78
6.3. Initial settings applied to new users ............................................................. 80
6.4. Setting a user's overdraft to $20.00 ............................................................. 83
6.5. User printing disabled using a time-latch ...................................................... 88
7.1. The Template Printer .................................................................................. 93
7.2. Copy settings from one printer to others ....................................................... 94
7.3. Printer disabled using a time-latch ............................................................... 95
7.4. Advanced differential charging example ....................................................... 97
7.5. Some of the available printer filters and restrictions ...................................... 98
7.6. Three charge rates defined at the printer level ............................................ 101
7.7. Charge rates displayed in the Advanced Client Popup ................................ 102
7.8. Turning on popup authentication at the user level ....................................... 104
7.9. Print-Limit Pro client requesting for authentication ...................................... 104
7.10. The color detection setting for a printer .................................................... 106
7.11. Toner level information on Printer Details screen ...................................... 108
8.1. Selecting a shared account with the User Client popup ............................... 111
8.2. Creating a shared account ........................................................................ 112
8.3. The template account ............................................................................... 113
8.4. Template account settings ........................................................................ 113
8.5. Client / Matter Naming Model example ...................................................... 114
8.6. Searching accounts by client name in the client/matter code naming model . 115
8.7. Searching accounts by client code in the client/matter code naming model .. 116
8.8. Searching accounts by matter name in the client/matter code naming model 117
8.9. Searching accounts by matter code in the client/matter code naming model . 118
8.10. Project / Phase Naming Model example ................................................... 119
8.11. Searching accounts by project name or number in the project/phase code naming model ....................................................................................................... 120
8.12. Searching accounts by phase in the project/phase code naming model ..... 121
8.13. Selecting a shared account from the popup .............................................. 122
8.14. The user's popup settings under User -> User Details ............................... 123
8.15. Setting up shared account security .......................................................... 125
8.16. The standard account selection popup ..................................................... 126
8.17. Client popup options defined on a per-user basis ...................................... 127
8.18. The print job confirmation dialog (no account selection options) ................. 127
8.19. The advanced account selection popup ................................................... 129
8.20. Account selection option to automatically charge to a shared account ........ 130
8.21. Configuration allowing only selection of other user accounts ..................... 130
8.22. Popup requesting the user to enter their username and password ............. 130
9.1. An example report displaying different date ranges ..................................... 139
9.2. Selecting Ad-hoc date ranges and filters for reports .................................... 139
9.3. Printer log PDF report ............................................................................... 140
9.4. Clickable report icons to run reports in different formats (PDF, HTML, CSV
(Excel)). ......................................................................................................... 141
9.5. Filters applied to the shared account print log ............................................. 142
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Print-Limit Pro 9.4 User Manual
9.6. The Scheduled Reports page ....................................................................
10.1. The Standard Release Station .................................................................
10.2. Web-based release station (Manager mode) ............................................
10.3. Web-based release station within the admin pages ...................................
10.4. End-user web-based interface listing held jobs .........................................
10.5. All documents easily identifiable by document and machine name .............
10.6. End-user web based release interface options .........................................
11.1. Single Virtual Queue (High School) ..........................................................
11.2. Multiple Virtual Queues (Graphics Department) ........................................
11.3. Multiple Location Specific Virtual Queues (Large Company) ......................
11.4. Find Me Printing and Web Based Release Interfaces ................................
11.5. Simple Load Balancing ...........................................................................
12.1. User/group synchronization options .........................................................
12.2. Progress of a user/group synchronization process ....................................
12.3. On demand user creation options ............................................................
12.4. The list of users and groups granted admin access ...................................
12.5. The list of users and groups granted admin access ...................................
12.6. Options for a single system notification ....................................................
12.7. Printer error notification settings ..............................................................
12.8. Low toner notification settings .................................................................
12.9. Error level event notification settings ........................................................
12.10. Draw a user's attention to their environmental impact ..............................
13.1. Entering a batch ID .................................................................................
13.2. Defining a valid till date ...........................................................................
13.3. Options to edit the card design ................................................................
13.4. Enable Macros in MS Word 2007 ............................................................
13.5. Cards ready for printing ..........................................................................
13.6. Imported card numbers ...........................................................................
13.7. Inserting a new logo into a card ...............................................................
13.8. Propagate labels button in previous versions of MS Word .........................
13.9. Update labels button in MS Word 2007 ....................................................
13.10. Using a card .........................................................................................
14.1. Secondary server reporting back to primary server (application server) ......
14.2. Print-Limit Pro Architecture - an advanced configuration ...........................
15.1. Customized user client link ......................................................................
15.2. A customized end-user web designed for St Mary's Anglican Girls School ..
15.3. A customized end-user web designed for Williamstown High School ..........
15.4. Login Page with an instruction .................................................................
15.5. Example custom report header usage ......................................................
18.1. Stopping the service and setting to Manual startup ...................................
18.2. Creating a new cluster resource ..............................................................
18.3. Cluster service parameters configuration .................................................
18.4. Stopping the service and setting to Manual startup ...................................
20.1. Print-Limit Pro client requesting authentication .........................................
21.1. Setting up a printer (direct) on Leopard server using Jetdirect ...................
21.2. Enable IPP on each queue via Server Admin ...........................................
21.3. Setting up a workstation printer on Leopard .............................................
21.4. Printing settings via the Workgroup manager ...........................................
21.5. Add printer appropriate to the container (users, group, or computer) ..........
21.6. Print-Limit Client on Mac OS X ................................................................
21.7. Add a printer ..........................................................................................
21.8. Option-click for advanced printer addition types ........................................
21.9. Windows printer via SAMBA ....................................................................
21.10. Connecting to a Windows server ...........................................................
21.11. The PCClient share's connection string ..................................................
21.12. Add PCClient as a Login Item ................................................................
xv
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Print-Limit Pro 9.4 User Manual
21.13. Mac popup authentication dialog requesting username and password ..... 291
21.14. Add a printer ........................................................................................ 292
21.15. Option-click for advanced printer addition types ...................................... 293
21.16. Windows printer via SAMBA .................................................................. 294
21.17. Connecting to a Windows server ........................................................... 294
21.18. The PCClient share's connection string .................................................. 295
21.19. Command-click and open the package ................................................... 295
21.20. Double-click to install the login hook ...................................................... 296
21.21. Turning on popup authentication at the user level ................................... 296
21.22. Print-Limit Pro client requesting for authentication (Sorry: Windows screenshot!) ............................................................................................................. 297
21.23. Windows Component: Other Network File and Print Service .................... 298
21.24. Add a printer ........................................................................................ 298
21.25. Adding an LPR/LPD printer ................................................................... 299
21.26. Connecting to a Windows server ........................................................... 299
21.27. The PCClient share's connection string .................................................. 300
21.28. Double-click to install the login hook ...................................................... 300
22.1. Turn off simple file sharing ...................................................................... 303
22.2. Turn off simple file sharing ...................................................................... 304
22.3. Enable perform printing as other user ...................................................... 305
23.1. Internal users options ............................................................................. 310
23.2. Creating an internal user from the administration interface ........................ 310
B.1. Disable simple file sharing ........................................................................ 344
D.1. Database growth using the internal database ............................................ 354
D.2. Database growth using a Microsoft SQL Server database .......................... 355
G.1. Client Popup Confirmation Window ........................................................... 364
G.2. Printing balance window showing $10.00 of printing balance ...................... 365
G.3. Printing balance icon in the system tray .................................................... 365
G.4. Printing denied message .......................................................................... 365
G.5. Shared Account Selection Popup ............................................................. 366
G.6. Printing balance icon in the system tray .................................................... 367
G.7. Printing denied message .......................................................................... 367
G.8. Login screen ........................................................................................... 367
G.9. Print jobs waiting in a release station ........................................................ 368
G.10. Print History .......................................................................................... 369
G.11. Issuing a partial refund using Adjustments & Charges .............................. 369
G.12. Balance window showing the Details link ................................................. 370
G.13. Redeem Card page ............................................................................... 370
xvi
List of Tables
6.1. Quota schedule times ................................................................................. 78
6.2. User Import File Format .............................................................................. 85
6.3. User Card/Identity Update File Format ......................................................... 87
7.1. User Client Popup Config Keys ................................................................. 105
8.1. Shared Account Import File Format ........................................................... 134
9.1. Report Formats ........................................................................................ 141
9.2. Scheduled reports delivery times ............................................................... 145
9.3. Advanced Reporting Config Keys .............................................................. 146
10.1. Standard Release Station config settings ................................................. 156
10.2. Standard Release Station modes ............................................................ 157
12.1. Fields available in printing notifications .................................................... 191
12.2. Fields available in low balance notifications .............................................. 191
12.3. Fields available in printer error notifications .............................................. 195
12.4. Fields available in error level event notifications ....................................... 196
12.5. Environmental Impact Reporting .............................................................. 199
13.1. Card Terminology ................................................................................... 203
14.1. Print-Limit Pro services/components ........................................................ 217
15.1. User Client Customization Config Keys .................................................... 223
15.2. Files used to customize the user web pages ............................................ 226
15.3. Login instruction Config key .................................................................... 227
15.4. Text print log file format .......................................................................... 229
19.1. Secured Application Areas ...................................................................... 253
19.2. Standard print commands ....................................................................... 256
19.3. Advanced Configuration .......................................................................... 257
23.1. Internal User Import File Format .............................................................. 314
A.1. XML Web Services Methods ..................................................................... 331
A.2. User Client command-line options ............................................................. 339
A.3. Windows installer command-line options ................................................... 342
C.1. LDAP Config entries ................................................................................ 350
C.2. Unix / Open Directory LDAP default settings .............................................. 350
C.3. Novell eDirectory LDAP default settings .................................................... 351
C.4. Active Directory LDAP default settings ...................................................... 352
xvii
Preface
1. About This Guide
The Print-Limit Pro User Guide covers the setup, management and configuration of PrintLimit Pro.
For information regarding how to configure and install Print-Limit Pro, see the Quick Start
Guide in Chapter 4, Quick Tour, and the accompanying sections like Chapter 14, Configuring Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached Printers. Prior to installing the application please take a few moments to read key sections of this manual. In addition, people
new to print control may also find the accompanying implementation guide available from
the Netop website useful in managing the deployment process.
The latest version of this manual in HTML and a printable PDF format are available from
the Netop website at http://www.netop.com/printlimit_pro.
2. Expectations & Prerequisites
Print-Limit Pro is a network based server application. Experience with basic network concepts such as server administration and network connectivity is expected. Prior to installing
or evaluating Print-Limit Pro you should be familiar with:
•
The concept of sharing printers and print servers
•
Understanding of client-server relationships
•
Understanding of basic security concepts such as permissions, groups and users.
3. Terminology used in this document
To make reading this manual easier, the names of all of the screens, tabs and actions from
Print-Limit Pro are marked up in a different font. The User Details screen for instance.
A sub-screen or tab is indicated with an arrow. User Details → Adjustments means: select Adjustments & Charges tab from the User Details screen.
User Interface Buttons are indicated like this: Press OK to continue.
System output and keyboard input is indicated with a different font as well.
Field labels are indicated like this Username.
Important
Important notes are marked like this.
Tip
xviii
Preface
Tips provide useful advice to make your life easier.
Caution
Indicate situations where you have to be careful what you are doing.
Warning
Where extreme care has to be taken.
4. Notice
While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy and usefulness of this guide, we
cannot be held responsible for the occasional inaccuracy or typographical error. If you do
find an error, please let the Netop Development Team know.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. The names of companies,
products, people, characters, and data mentioned herein are fictitious and are in no way intended to represent any real individual, company, product, or event, unless otherwise
noted. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the
express written permission of Netop.
Print-Limit is a trademark of Netop.
(c) Copyright 1999-2008 Netop. All rights reserved.
xix
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. What is Print-Limit Pro?
Print-Limit Pro is a comprehensive solution designed to manage and control an organization's print usage. The expectations of management and control vary from organization to
organization, so Print-Limit Pro is designed for flexibility to ensure organizations of all
types, ranging from schools, universities, small businesses and large businesses, can utilize the system for their own requirements and purposes. Possible implementations can include:
•
Silent activity monitoring
•
Visible activity monitoring and expense tracking by work area, projects and departments
•
Quota/allowance enforcement
•
Up-front user pays systems or pay-per-print systems
In addition Print-Limit Pro provides system administrators with a kit of tools to manage
printers including:
•
Advanced print document/job filtering
•
Detailed logging and reporting
•
Access control
1.1.1. Benefits
Some of the key benefits of Print-Limit Pro are:
•
Transfers accountability to users or departments by individually tracking activity.
•
Creates responsibility and environmental awareness by drawing users' attention to their
own activities.
•
Reduces overall printing cost by virtue of either making users aware of their own activity, enforcing reasonable quotas, or recovering full costs from end-users.
•
Discourages overuse of IT resources.
•
Improves efficiency by allowing administrators to "encourage" use of underutilized printers and/or servers.
•
Improves network reliability by implementing rules to prevent printer queue jams, queue
hogging, and inappropriate printing types.
1.1.2. Key Features
Some of the key features of Print-Limit Pro are:
1
Introduction
•
Track all printing activity by user, client, printer and document metadata.
•
Enforce per user quotas, allowances or budgets
•
Full differential print cost/charging system allowing different costs to be assigned on a
per printer basis with advanced options to charge different amounts based on document type, user or group.
•
Hardware neutral solution supports all major printer types and operating systems. No
hardware vendor lock-in!
•
Both cross-platform and multi-platform support. Run a mix of Windows and/or Linux
print servers and support clients ranging from Windows, Mac, Linux and Unix.
•
Provides end-users with management options such as funds transfers, usage tracking
and reporting.
•
Provides end-users with advanced options to allocate print jobs to shared accounts,
cost centers, faculties or departments.
•
Single sign-on user authentication with native integration with Active Directory or the
system's underlying user management. (no separate passwords to manage!)
•
Flexible hold/release queue support with Release Station software allowing administrators to implement approved and secure printing environments.
•
Service Oriented Architecture utilizing the latest software design methods including, test
driven development, XML Web Services and layered architecture. This ensures scalability and stability by design.
•
Advanced reporting and charts available in standard formats including PDF, Excel, and
HTML. All reports accessible from anywhere on the network via a standard web
browser.
•
Ability to run on top of leading 3rd party Relational Database Management Systems
(RDBMS) including Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle and PostgreSQL Database.
•
Enterprise level security and encryption based on SSL.
•
Open architecture with source code access and API documentation.
1.1.3. System Requirements
Print-Limit Pro supports the following server platforms:
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 (any edition)
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 (any edition)
•
Microsoft Windows 2000 (Pro and Server)
•
Microsoft Windows XP (Pro and Pro x64)
•
Microsoft Windows Vista (any edition except Home editions)
•
Macintosh OS X 10.4 or 10.5 (e.g. Tiger or Leopard) (both PowerPC and Intel supported)
•
Novell Open Enterprise Server 2 (OES2 SP1+)
•
Most modern Linux operating systems including:
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (AS 3.0, ES 3.0, AS 4.0, ES 4.0)
•
Novell SuSE Linux (8.2, 9.0+)
•
Fedora Core
2
Introduction
• Debian (3.1+)
With print queues hosted via:
•
Samba based print queues
•
CUPS based print queues
Servers and clients must use user ID/username based authentication (e.g. Active Directory, Windows NT, LDAP, or local system accounts).
Sites with more than 500 users should consider a server class system with more than
512MB of RAM and 500 MB of free disk space.
Print-Limit Pro supports approximately 90% of printers on the market. Where possible we
recommend printers that support one of the two major printer language standards - Postscript or PCL.
On workstation clients:
•
All supported Microsoft Windows platforms (Windows 95 and later)
•
Macintosh OS X 10.3.9 or higher recommended
•
Most modern Linux and Unix Operating Systems (Java 5.0+ required for optional client
tool)
1.2. How does Print-Limit Pro work?
Before explaining how Print-Limit Pro works at a technical and end-user level, the reader
should be familiar with the following key concepts.
1.2.1. Key Concepts
1.2.1.1. Print Server
A print server is a system responsible for hosting print queues and sharing printer resources to desktop clients/workstations. Users on the workstations submit print jobs to a
print server rather then directly to the printer itself. A print server may be a dedicated server but on most networks this server may also perform other tasks such as file serving.
1.2.1.2. Print Queue
A print queue is first-in-first-out queue listing all jobs pending on a given printer.
1.2.1.3. User ID/Username
In a multi-user environment, users log on to a network or computer using a username and
password. These are often managed by services such as Active Directory or LDAP. The
username is known as the user's identity. Print-Limit Pro uses this identity to track printing.
1.2.1.4. Shared Account
A shared account is a Print-Limit Pro term used to represent an account (pool of funds or
allocation group) accessible to multiple users. Accounts usually represent "work areas" and
the term can be used interchangeably with terms such as Departments, Faculties, Projects,
Clients, Client/Matter, or Cost Centers.
3
Introduction
1.2.1.5. Client/Server Model
Client software is a small program that runs on each workstation and communicates with a
server. The printing process on most networks works on a client/server model with clients
(workstations) submitting jobs to a server. Print-Limit Pro also uses optional client software
to help provide information to end-users. This also runs in a client/server model.
1.2.1.6. Application Server
An application server is a server program responsible for centrally processing “business logic” and providing services to end-users. Print-Limit Pro uses the application server model
to provide a “business logic” unit for calculating user costs and providing a web browser interface to end-users.
1.2.1.7. Information Provider
A provider is a software component or program responsible for providing information to an
Application Server. Print-Limit Pro uses providers to submit print queue/job information to
its application server. This information provider is called the Print Provider. Other important
providers included with Print-Limit Pro include user directory and authentication providers.
1.2.1.8. Web Application Interface
A web application is a software program that interacts with end-users via a web browser.
Examples range from Google, Microsoft SharePoint, Hotmail, Internet banking and router
management consoles. Print-Limit Pro provides a web-based interface for system administration and management. Web applications offer administration flexibility by allowing access from any location on the network and avoid the need for installation of separate software.
1.2.2. Understanding the print process flow
To help explain what Print-Limit Pro is and how it works we'll introduce the system by example. We'll start with a simple high school example:
The student's perspective (transparent quota control):
1.
Matt is a student at a local high school. He has logged onto the network using his
username, matt.j.smith, and is surfing the Internet. He would like to print out a
web page for his school assignment.
2.
The network administrator has allocated Matt a printing credit budget of $10.00 a
month. He can see his current account balance of $4.50 in the Print-Limit Client Tool
window.
Figure 1.1. The user client tool
4
Introduction
3.
Matt prints the web page. 5 pages come out of the printer.
4.
The network administrator has set a cost-per-page inside Print-Limit on the printer at
$0.10. Matt's 5 page document costs $0.50.
5.
Matt's account balance is now at $4.00. He may continue to print until his account
drops to zero.
The teacher's perspective (allocation to accounts):
1.
John is a science and mathematics teacher at the same local high school.
2.
John needs to print out a presentation consisting of 122 page science worksheet for
his next class.
3.
The network administrator has granted John access to charge to either his personal
account or to either the Science Department or Math Department's shared accounts.
4.
John presses the Print button in the application.
5.
The Print-Limit client tool displays a popup and presents John with information about
the print jobs and requests an account selection. In this case accounts represent Departments but could also represent projects or other work areas.
6.
John selects the science department's shared account from the list.
Figure 1.2. The User Client account selection popup
7.
The print job is charged to the science department's account.
The technical perspective (behind the scenes):
1.
When the teacher, John, prints his 150 page print jobs, his workstation transfers the
print job to the server and places it in the print queue.
5
Introduction
Figure 1.3. The Windows print queue
2.
The Print-Limit Print Provider intercepts the print job in the queue prior to printing and
analyzes the information determining:
a.
Who printed the document
b.
The number of pages in the document
c.
Other information such as duplex, grayscale mode, paper size, etc.
3.
The Print Provider submits the job's information to the Application Server to process
the “business logic”.
4.
The Application Server determines that John needs to select the account to charge. It
notifies the Client Software on John's desktop.
5.
The Client Software displays the Popup requesting the account.
6.
After John selects the client account, the Application Server is notified of John selection.
7.
The Application Server charges the appropriate account, logs the job and instructs the
Print Provider to transfer the document onto the printer.
1.2.3. Architecture Overview
Print-Limit Pro was developed using the latest software development strategies, a strong
influence being Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The Print Provider, Application Server and Client Software all communication uses XML based web services over HTTP.
6
Introduction
Figure 1.4. Print-Limit Pro Architecture - an advanced configuration
A more detailed explanation of the architecture and how it relates to a multi-server installation can be found in subsequent sections.
1.3. The Top-Ten Hidden Features!
Much of Print-Limit Pro flexibility and usefulness comes not from the features you can see,
but from the advanced hidden features. Print-Limit Pro is packed full of handy tools, utilities
and options and you will read about these throughout this guide. To provide a quick overview now, the most popular hidden features are:
1.3.1. One: Remote Administration
Print-Limit Pro is a 100% web based application. Full system administration can be performed from anywhere on the network via a standard web browser - no special admin software is required! To access the administration section, point a browser at the server on
port 9191:
http://[server_name]:9191/admin
Encrypted SSL/HTTPS access is also available on port 9192:
https://[server_name]:9192/admin
Access is granted to the built-in admin, or to any user that has been granted administrator
level access.
7
Introduction
1.3.2. Two: Secondary Servers and Local Printers
Print-Limit Pro is an enterprise level application designed to be managed and controlled
from a central location. Multi-server environments are common in large organizations and
Print-Limit Pro handles them with ease. All servers are configured to report back to the
central Application Server. This ensures that all management, logging and control is centralized on the one location. These secondary servers simply run a light weight monitoring
component and communicate to the central server via XML Web Services calls.
Would you like to run some of your printers on an alternate operating system such as
Linux? Again, no problem! Print-Limit Pro supports mixed or heterogeneous networks as
well!
You can also use Print-Limit Pro to manage local desktop printers directly attached to a
workstation! Just treat the workstation as a Secondary Server and install the monitoring
component as normal!
See Chapter 14, Configuring Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached Printers for
more information.
1.3.3. Three: Shared Accounts
Many organizations would like to track their printing on more than a per-user level. With the
Shared Accounts feature, users can allocate jobs to cost areas such as Faculties, Departments, Projects, Clients, Cost Centers, or Pools. Shared accounts are selected via a customizable popup window. Two popup window types are available:
•
Standard - A simple window design ideal for most users.
•
Advanced - An advanced window designed for the power user including features such
as search, preference list, recent selections, comment entry and invoicing options. This
is ideal for businesses including Engineering, Law, Accounting and Architecture Firms.
Access to accounts is controlled via integrated network group membership or optionally
PIN's.
See Chapter 8, Shared Accounts for more information.
1.3.4. Four: Customizable Web Interface
Did you know that the end-user interface can be quickly customized to make it look like an
official part of your organization's infrastructure? With some simple HTML, you can make
the Print-Limit Pro end-user interface look just like your existing web site or intranet site.
See Section 15.3, “Customizing the User web pages” for more information.
1.3.5. Five: XML Web Services and Command-line Control
It seems like everything these days is Web Services enabled. Not to be outdone, Print-Limit Pro exposes dozens of API's via secured XML Web Services. This provides advanced
administrators and developers with the ability to programmatically remotely control, integrate and manage the application. The possibilities are endless... some of our users now
have their library fines hooked into the Print-Limit Pro system!
In addition to the Web Services API's, system administrators may hook into the inner workings of Print-Limit Pro via our advanced server-command application. This simple, but
8
Introduction
powerful command-line tool provides command based access to dozens of system functions. Maybe you have batch files or scripts managing back-ups, account creation or system maintenance. With server-command you can quickly integrate Print-Limit Pro into
your existing infrastructure. Some ideas:
1.
Schedule "online" backups to coordinate with your existing backup processes. No
need to take the system down to take a data snapshot.
2.
Create users in Print-Limit Pro automatically and as part of your existing user creation
scripts.
3.
Automatically import/sync list of accounts from a file, 3rd party system or existing directory structure. (Great for Engineering and Architecture firms)
4.
Automatically schedule user/group synchronization with Active Directory or another
environment. Have full control of how and when synchronization takes place.
See Section A.3, “The XML Web Services API” and Section A.1, “Server Commands
(server-command)” for more information.
1.3.6. Six: Hold/Release Queues and Release Stations
Do you have problems with users forgetting to collect their print jobs or other users accidentally picking up the wrong document? With Print-Limit Pro's secure print release station
support, administrators can alleviate many of these problems. Print-Limit Pro's hold/release
queues are also ideally suited to education environments and Internet Cafes where perprint-approval or pay-per-print is required.
See Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations for more information.
1.3.7. Seven: Text Print Logs
Print-Limit Pro maintains a real-time tab-delimited text log listing all printing activity in detail. The system already includes advanced analysis tools such as reports, statistics and
graphs, however many organizations would like to use the data for their own ad-hoc analysis. The real-time text print logs can be tapped and extract into applications such as external databases, scripts and even Microsoft Excel.
See Section 15.6, “Data Access and Custom Reports” for more information.
1.3.8. Eight: 3rd Party Database Support
Print-Limit Pro ships with its own preconfigured and self-maintaining database. The system
however is database independent and can be run on top of a number of leading database
systems. Maybe you have an existing Microsoft SQL Cluster and would like to take advantages of this infrastructure. No problem! Print-Limit Pro can be quickly configured to hook
into your preferred database.
See Chapter 17, Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS) for more information.
1.3.9. Nine: Zero-install Client Deployment
Print-Limit Pro is implemented using 100% server-side logic and no client software is required. A simple lightweight client tool is however provided so end-users have access to
advanced features such as shared accounts and the option of viewing their account balance in a popup window.
Deploying client software can be a time consuming and fiddly process. To streamline the
9
Introduction
process Print-Limit Pro allows its client to be run directly off a network share - no need to
install locally, or mess around with deployment tools! Just set the executable as a startup
program.
See Section 5.2, “User Client” for more information.
1.3.10. Ten: The Development Team
Software is only as good as the development process. Print-Limit Pro is developed in an
open and transparent fashion by a small development team. The team works closely with
key system users to architect new features. Suggestions and feedback is encouraged.
Please contact us if you have any good ideas!
10
Chapter 2. Installation
This chapter covers the initial installation and configuration of Print-Limit Pro in your network environment. Initial installation takes only a few minutes on a currently configured
server. This guide will walk you through installation and configuration step-by-step. The
process is summarized below:
1.
System requirements check
2.
Downloading and installing Print-Limit Pro
3.
Completing the configuration wizard
4.
Testing client software
5.
Testing printing and remote access
Print-Limit Pro is a cross-platform solution and the installation procedure will vary depending on the target operating system(s). Please jump to the appropriate section below:
•
Windows: Section 2.1, “Installation on Windows”
•
Mac: Section 2.2, “Installation on Apple Mac”
•
Novell: Section 2.3, “Installation on Novell OES Linux (iPrint)”
•
Linux: Section 2.4, “Installation on Linux (CUPS and/or Samba)”
2.1. Installation on Windows
Important
This guide assumes that you are using Windows Server 2003. The process is
similar for other Windows operating systems such as XP, Server 2008 or Vista.
If you're upgrading from a previous Print-Limit Pro version, please refer to the
directions outlined in Appendix E, Upgrading From a Previous Version.
2.1.1. Step 1 - System Requirements & Network Setup
Before installing Print-Limit Pro for either evaluation or production use, the system administrator should take a few minutes to verify system requirements.
Is the operating system version supported and patches up-to-date? Take a few minutes to
verify the system is current and supported (see Section 1.1.3, “System Requirements”).
In workgroup environments (i.e. where no domain is present), some additional configuration may be required. For more details see Chapter 22, Running in a Workgroup Environment.
Are printer(s) installed and hosted on this system? Print-Limit Pro needs to be installed on
the system directly hosting the printer(s). The printer should be installed as a "Local Printer" with a connection method such as TCP/IP Port, LPR, or JetDirect or directly connected
to the system via USB or LPT Port.
In a multi-user environment, printers are often shared with other network users. Other
11
Installation
workstations should connect to these printers as "Network Printers". Ensure workstations
are configured to print to the shared print queues. For example a Windows workstation
may connect to a printer via a path like: \\[samba_server]\[printer].
Ensure that printers are configured correctly and work before installing Print-Limit Pro.
Figure 2.1. Network printer configuration
Important
If you are running the Print-Limit Pro server on Windows XP (Professional) you
must disable "Simple file sharing". For more information please see Appendix B, Troubleshooting & Technical FAQ's.
If you are running a Windows workgroup network or using Windows XP/Vista
Home workstations, please see Chapter 22, Running in a Workgroup Environment.
2.1.2. Step 2 - Print queue configuration
When using release stations or account selection popups it is recommended to secure the
print queue so that users do not have permission to pause/resume documents in the
queue. This allows Print-Limit Pro to have full control of documents without interference
from users. To do this:
1.
Log onto the server hosting the printers as an Administrator.
2.
Open the printer configuration screen: Start → Printers
3.
Right-click a printer and select Properties.
4.
Select the Security tab.
12
Installation
5.
Select the CREATOR OWNER user and uncheck the Manage Documents permission. See Figure 2.2, “Configuring Windows print queue permissions”
6.
Press the OK button.
7.
Perform these steps for each of the monitored printers.
Figure 2.2. Configuring Windows print queue permissions
2.1.3. Step 3 - Download and install
Print-Limit Pro is supplied as a standard Windows setup.exe install program. The latest
version may be downloaded from http://www.netop.com/printlimit_pro. After the download
is complete, run the setup wizard as an administrator level user. A system restart is usually
not required but administrators are advised to perform installation on live production systems during periods of low activity - for example, not during backup operations or other administration activities.
13
Installation
Figure 2.3. Setup wizard
Select the "standard install" option and install Print-Limit Pro onto a hard drive with adequate free disk space. The default options will suffice for most systems.
2.1.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard
After installation, the install will open a web browser window. The configuration stages are
explained below:
2.1.4.1. Administrator Password
This is the master password for the main in-built admin account. This password is independent of the operating system or domain passwords. Keep knowledge of this password
secure! This screen also sets the system's physical location. Ensure the location and language setting is correct.
14
Installation
Figure 2.4. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard
Tip
Treat this password like your router/modem management passwords. It is independent of your domain accounts and needs to be kept secure.
2.1.4.2. Default Print Cost
This is the default cost-per-page assigned to the printers. This setting can be changed on a
per printer basis after installation. Choosing a sensible cost now will help minimize future
setup. For example in the USA, a value of $0.05 would be appropriate for many standard
black & white printers.
2.1.4.3. Initial User Credit
Users can be assigned an initial starting credit. This ensures they have funds in their account as soon as the system is enabled. An option also exists to control what happens
when users run out of credit/quota. If you are evaluating Print-Limit Pro it might be appropriate not to disable printing when a users funds run out. This way you can be assured that
user printing is not disrupted during the evaluation. These settings may be changed after
setup.
2.1.4.4. User/group synchronization
Print-Limit Pro extracts user information out of the System or Domain. The options presented here will vary depending on the Operating System and its environment. During evaluation, most sites will opt to import all users from the system/domain into Print-Limit Pro. An
option also exists to import a subset of users from a given group. This option is pertinent
when it is known that only a subset of users will only ever use the printers.
Figure 2.5. User sync configuration wizard page
Options on Microsoft Windows include Windows Standard, Active Directory, or LDAP. In
a domain enviroment, Active Directory is the default option as this offers access to Organization Units, Nested Groups and other AD features.
Use the Test Settings to test and confirm your settings before continuing.
2.1.4.5. Wizard Completion
After completing the configuration wizard you will be presented with a user synchronization
15
Installation
status screen and an option to Login. Take some time to log in and browse the interface.
There are many options and now is a good time to have a look at some of the key areas of
the application. Take some time to explore!
2.1.5. Step 5 - Printer Configuration
The printers should be automatically detected, and listed under the Printers section. If the
printers do not display, try printing a document as the first job will trigger registration.
2.1.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software
The Print-Limit Pro client software is located in the directory [app-path]/client. This
software needs to be shared over the network so workstations can access/install the client
application. The directory is automatically shared in read-only form as PCClient as part of
the install process. Confirm that you can access the client software via the network by
browsing to \\server\PCClient.
2.1.7. Step 7 - Testing
It is now time to test the system.
1.
Print a test document such as a web page or basic document.
2.
Navigate to the printer section and select the Print Log tab.
3.
Navigate to the Printers → Print Log tab.
4.
Your print job should now be listed in the log.
5.
Your user account should also be charged an appropriate amount.
2.1.8. What next?
This concludes the Install Guide. You may like to take some time to explore the features of
Print-Limit Pro before continuing reading at Chapter 3, Implementation by Example or
Chapter 4, Quick Tour. Business users may be particularly interested in trying the popup
client software as covered in Section 4.5, “Client Software”. If desired, the client software
should also be deployed to other workstations. This procedure is detailed in Section 5.2,
“User Client”.
2.2. Installation on Apple Mac
Important
This guide assumes that you are installing on Mac OS X (either server or workstation) hosting and sharing printers. This guide will refer to this system as the
'server'. This represents the role of the system rather than the 'edition' of the
operating system. Print-Limit Pro equally supports both the server and workstation versions of Mac OS. If you're upgrading from a previous Print-Limit Pro
version please refer to the directions outlined in Appendix E, Upgrading From
a Previous Version.
The following section assumes the reader has knowledge of general Mac OS
X server management. Although the installation process is graphical, it would
be an advantage to have knowledge of the command-line, creating users, editing configuration files and an understanding file permissions.
16
Installation
2.2.1. Step 1 - System Requirements
Before proceeding with the installation the system administrator should take a few moments to verify system requirements. Is the operating system version supported and are
patches up-to-date? Take a few minutes to verify the system is current and supported (see
Section 1.1.3, “System Requirements”). A system prerequisite is Java version 5.0 or higher. If your Tiger or Leopard server is fully patched, this requirement will be satisfied.
2.2.2. Step 2 - Print Queue Setup
Most small to medium Mac networks will have their workstations configured to print directly
to the physical printers. This method of printing is not supported by Print-Limit Pro and instead administrators will need to set up global server hosted print queues. Some administrators will be familiar with server queues, while others will need to invest some time into
understanding Mac printing in more detail. The topic of Mac printing is complex and is
hence deserves its own chapter! Please read the first section of Chapter 21, Mac Printing
in Detail and ensure your organization's printers are set up as required.
Administrators should ensure that the server based print queues are set up and working as
expected before attempting to install Print-Limit Pro.
2.2.3. Step 3 - Download and install
Print-Limit Pro is supplied as a standard disk image containing the installer. Log on as an
admin level account. Download and double-click Mac installer. Double-click on the installer
package named Print-Limit Pro Standard Installation.pkg. Follow the directions on the screen. The installation process will take between two and five minutes depending on the speed of the system. A system restart is not required but administrators are
advised to perform installation on live production systems during periods of low activity - for
example, not during backup operations or other administration activities.
The default install location is /Applications/Print-Limit Pro
Important
Make sure you're installing the correct package. The similarly named PrintLimit Pro Secondary Server Installation.pkg only installs part of
the application and is designed for more advanced networks.
2.2.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard
After installation, the install will open a web browser window. The configuration stages are
explained below:
2.2.4.1. Administrator Password
This is the master password for the main in-built admin account. This password is independent of the operating system or domain passwords. Keep knowledge of this password
secure! This screen also sets the system's physical location. Ensure the location and language setting is correct.
17
Installation
Figure 2.6. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard
Tip
Treat this password like your router/modem management passwords. It is independent of your domain accounts and needs to be kept secure.
2.2.4.2. Default Print Cost
This is the default cost-per-page assigned to the printers. This setting can be changed on a
per printer basis after installation. Choosing a sensible cost now will help minimize future
setup. For example in the USA, a value of $0.05 would be appropriate for many standard
black & white printers.
2.2.4.3. Initial User Credit
Users can be assigned an initial starting credit. This ensures they have funds in their account as soon as the system is enabled. An option also exists to control what happens
when users run out of credit/quota. If you are evaluating Print-Limit Pro it might be appropriate not to disable printing when a users funds run out. This way you can be assured that
user printing is not disrupted during the evaluation. These settings may be changed after
setup.
2.2.4.4. User/group synchronization
Print-Limit Pro extracts user information out of the System or Domain. The options presented here will vary depending on the Operating System and its environment. During evaluation, most sites will opt to import all users from the system/domain into Print-Limit Pro. An
option also exists to import a subset of users from a given group. This option is pertinent
when it is known that only a subset of users will only ever use the printers.
18
Installation
Figure 2.7. User sync configuration wizard page
Options include Mac Standard (PAM, Local NetInfo, etc.), LDAP (Open Directory), or
Samba. Select Mac Standard if the user accounts are setup and defined on the local system. This option will work with most Mac networks.
The LDAP option is appropriate for large networks with existing Open Directory domains.
This includes networks running Mac OS X Server with Open Directory, and Windows domains running Active Directory. Print-Limit Pro will do it's best to auto discover LDAP settings, but some knowledge of LDAP and/or Open Directory will be required. More information on LDAP is available in Section 12.2.5, “Using LDAP for user synchronization”.
Use the Test Settings to test and confirm your settings before continuing.
2.2.4.5. Wizard Completion
After completing the configuration wizard you will be presented with a user synchronization
status screen and an option to Login. Take some time to log in and browse the interface.
There are many options and now is a good time to have a look at some of the key areas of
the application. Take some time to explore!
2.2.5. Step 5 - Printer Configuration
The printers should be automatically detected, and listed under the Printers section. If the
printers do not display, try printing a document as the first job will trigger registration.
2.2.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software
The Print-Limit Pro client software is located in the directory /Applications/Print-Limit Pro/client. It may be useful to share this directory over the network so workstations can access/install the client application. If you're running Mac OS X
Server, use Server Admin to add a read-only file share called PCClient. Sharing with
Protocols AFP for Mac clients, and SMB for Windows clients is recommended.
2.2.7. Step 7 - Testing
It is now time to test the system.
1.
Print a test document such as a web page or basic document.
2.
Navigate to the printer section and select the Print Log tab.
3.
Navigate to the Printers → Print Log tab.
4.
Your print job should now be listed in the log.
5.
Your user account should also be charged an appropriate amount.
19
Installation
2.2.8. What next?
This concludes the Install Guide. You may like to take some time to explore the features of
Print-Limit Pro before continuing reading at Chapter 3, Implementation by Example or
Chapter 4, Quick Tour. Business users may be particularly interested in trying the popup
client software as covered in Section 4.5, “Client Software”. If desired, the client software
should also be deployed to other workstations. This procedure is detailed in Section 5.2,
“User Client”.
2.3. Installation on Novell OES Linux (iPrint)
Important
The following section assumes the reader has knowledge of general Novell
OES Linux system management including using the command-line, creating
users, editing configuration files and understanding file permissions.
2.3.1. Step 1 - System Requirements
Before proceeding with the installation the system administrator should take a few moments to verify system requirements. Is the operating system version supported and are
patches up-to-date? Take a few minutes to verify the system is current and supported (see
Section 1.1.3, “System Requirements”). Print-Limit Pro is designed to integrate with iPrint
on Novell OES Linux. If your printers are currently hosted on iPrint on a Netware server or
even under legacy NDPS, you will first need to migrate your queues over to a OES Linux
based server. Ensure your printing is correctly working under iPrint on OES Linux before
continuing to the next step.
2.3.2. Step 2 - Create the host user account and firewall settings
Print-Limit Pro runs and installs under a non-privileged user account called "printlimit". The
printlimit user's home directory location denotes the application install location. /
home/printlimit is recommended, however Administrators may consider alternate install locations depending on personal preference. Alternatives may include:
•
/usr/local/printlimit
•
/opt/printlimit
The host user account is not an eDirectory account but a local system account. One way to
create the "printlimit" account on OES Linux is:
1.
Open YaST Control Panel and select User Management under Security and Users.
2.
Click Add to create a new user.
3.
On the User Data tab, enter a username of printlimit and assign a secret password.
4.
On the Details tab, select Empty Home with permissions 755 and change the Home
Directory path to define an alternate install location.
5.
Create the account by clicking the Accept button.
20
Installation
Important
This quick start guide assumes the install location is /home/printlimit. If
an alternate home location is defined, some of the paths listed in subsequent
sections will require modification.
Novell OES Linux has a strict default firewall policy. Print-Limit Pro uses ports 9191 (for
HTTP) and ports 9192 (for HTTPS/SSL) and these ports must be open. To open these
ports:
1.
Open YaST Control Panel and select Firewall under Security and Users.
2.
Select Allowed Services, then click the Advanced... button.
3.
Add ports 9191 and 9192 to the TCP Ports list (separated by spaces).
4.
Click OK, Next, then Accept to apply the changes.
2.3.3. Step 3 - Download and installing
Important: Please make sure you download the correct architecture for your distribution.
i686 is for 32-bit operating systems. x64 is for 64-bit systems (also known as x86_64 or
amd64).
Print-Limit Pro is supplied as a self-extracting and self-installing archive. The installation is
performed under the rights of the newly created printlimit account and temporary
root access will be required. Please have the root password handy. (Administrators who
are after a detailed explanation of the install process should also consult the background
information in Chapter 19, Print-Limit Pro on Linux).
Log on as the newly created printlimit user and download and execute the installer
from the command prompt. Here is an example using wget to fetch the installer:
shell> su - printlimit
shell> wget [download url from Netop website]
shell> sh ./plp-setup-novell-oes-linux.sh
Follow the installation instructions and enter the root password when requested.
Important
Ensure you login as the user printlimit so that the user's environment is
sourced and the home directory (install location) is correctly defined.
21
Installation
Figure 2.8. The Novell OES Linux install process
The installation process will take between two and five minutes depending on the speed of
the system. A system restart is not required but administrators are advised to perform installation on live production systems during periods of low activity - for example, not during
backup operations or other administration activities.
2.3.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard
After installation, you will be prompted to open a web browser at http://[server-name]:9191/admin to complete configuration. The configuration
stages are explained below:
2.3.4.1. Administrator Password
This is the master password for the main in-built admin account. This password is independent of the operating system or domain passwords. Keep knowledge of this password
secure! This screen also sets the system's physical location. Ensure the location and language setting is correct.
22
Installation
Figure 2.9. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard
Tip
Treat this password like your router/modem management passwords. It is independent of your domain accounts and needs to be kept secure.
2.3.4.2. Default Print Cost
This is the default cost-per-page assigned to the printers. This setting can be changed on a
per printer basis after installation. Choosing a sensible cost now will help minimize future
setup. For example in the USA, a value of $0.05 would be appropriate for many standard
black & white printers.
2.3.4.3. Initial User Credit
Users can be assigned an initial starting credit. This ensures they have funds in their account as soon as the system is enabled. An option also exists to control what happens
when users run out of credit/quota. If you are evaluating Print-Limit Pro it might be appropriate not to disable printing when a users funds run out. This way you can be assured that
user printing is not disrupted during the evaluation. These settings may be changed after
setup.
2.3.4.4. User/group synchronization
Print-Limit Pro extracts user information out of the System or Domain. The options presented here will vary depending on the Operating System and its environment. During evaluation, most sites will opt to import all users from the system/domain into Print-Limit Pro. An
option also exists to import a subset of users from a given group. This option is pertinent
when it is known that only a subset of users will only ever use the printers.
23
Installation
Figure 2.10. eDirectory/LDAP configuration wizard page
Print-Limit Pro has native support for eDirectory LDAP schemas. This will be the default
user import option for most sites. Print-Limit Pro will do it's best to auto-discover LDAP settings, but some knowledge of eDirectory and/or LDAP will be required. More information on
LDAP is available in Section 12.2.5, “Using LDAP for user synchronization”.
2.3.4.5. Wizard Completion
After completing the configuration wizard you will be presented with a user synchronization
status screen and an option to Login. Take some time to log in and browse the interface.
There are many options and now is a good time to have a look at some of the key areas of
the application. Take some time to explore!
2.3.5. Step 5 - Printer/iPrint Configuration
Print-Limit Pro works by directly integrating with the Novell iPrint Print Manager. iPrint must
however be configured to use Print-Limit Pro as an accounting control source. In the current release, this configuration is done manually at the individual print queue level:
1.
Log into iManager, expand iPrint, and select Manage Printer Manager
2.
Select the Printer Manager associated with one of your print queues.
3.
Click the Manage health monitor link. A list of all your printers should appear.
4.
Select a Printer Agent from the list.
5.
Click Configuration Options.
24
Installation
6.
Enter printlimit under the Accounting Autoload Command.
7.
Click Apply.
8.
Click Back, then Back and repeat steps 4 through 7 for all printers that should be
monitored/controlled by Print-Limit Pro
9.
Finally restart the Printer Manager in iManager by pressing Shutdown then Startup.
After this, all jobs on the queues should be tracked.
2.3.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software
The Print-Limit Pro client software is located in the local directory:
/home/printlimit/client
This software needs to be shared over the network so workstations can access/install the
client application. Novell iManager provides a number of file sharing options. One simple
solution is to add a read-only NCP or Samba share called PCClient pointing to /
home/printlimit/client. Established networks will benefit from ensuring the client
files are available in their Distributed Files Services. The deployment of the client software
(e.g. zero-install deployment) is covered in Section 5.2, “User Client”.
2.3.7. Step 7 - Testing
It is now time to test the system.
1.
Print a test document such as a web page or basic document.
2.
Navigate to the printer section and select the Print Log tab.
3.
Navigate to the Printers → Print Log tab.
4.
Your print job should now be listed in the log.
5.
Your user account should also be charged an appropriate amount.
2.3.8. What next?
This concludes the Install Guide. You may like to take some time to explore the features of
Print-Limit Pro before continuing reading at Chapter 3, Implementation by Example or
Chapter 4, Quick Tour. Business users may be particularly interested in trying the popup
client software as covered in Section 4.5, “Client Software”. If desired, the client software
should also be deployed to other workstations. This procedure is detailed in Section 5.2,
25
Installation
“User Client”.
2.4. Installation on Linux (CUPS and/or Samba)
Important
The following section assumes the reader has knowledge of general Unix/
Linux system management including using the command-line, creating users,
editing configuration files and understanding file permissions.
2.4.1. Step 1 - System Requirements
Before proceeding with the installation the system administrator should take a few moments to verify system requirements. Is the operating system version supported and are
patches up-to-date? Take a few minutes to verify the system is current and supported (see
Section 1.1.3, “System Requirements”).
Are printer(s) installed and hosted on this system and are they exposed to the network
either via CUPS or Samba? Administrators should ensure that the print queues are set up
and working as expected before attempting to install Print-Limit Pro.
In a multi-user environment, printers are often shared with other network users. Other
workstations should connect to these printers as "Network Printers". Ensure workstations
are configured to print to the shared print queues. For example a Windows workstation
may connect to a samba exposed printer via \\[samba_server]\[printer]. Other
Linux or Mac workstations will use IPP via CUPS.
If the printers are currently not installed and configured, this task should be performed and
verified before proceeding further.
2.4.2. Step 2 - Create the host user account and firewall settings
Print-Limit Pro runs and installs under a non-privileged user account called "printlimit". The
installation location for the application is the printlimit user's home directory. Create a
user account on this system called printlimit. This is usually done by logging in as
root and at the command prompt entering:
shell> useradd -d /home/printlimit printlimit
The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Linux.
They may also be called adduser and addgroup.
The user's home directory (the -d option) denotes the install location. /
home/printlimit is the recommended location. Administrators may however also consider alternate install locations depending on personal preference. Alternatives may include:
•
/usr/local/printlimit
•
/opt/printlimit
26
Installation
Important
This quick start guide assumes the install location is /home/printlimit. If
an alternate home location is defined, some of the paths listed in subsequent
sections will require modification.
Some Linux distributions have strict default firewall policies. Print-Limit Pro uses TCP ports
9191 (for HTTP) and ports 9192 (for HTTPS/SSL) and these ports must be open. Take
some time now to ensure these ports are open. Consult your distribution documentation for
details on how to open firewall TCP ports.
2.4.3. Step 3 - Download and installing
Important: Please make sure you download the correct architecture for your distribution.
i686 is for 32-bit operating systems. x64 is for 64-bit systems (also known as x86_64 or
amd64).
Print-Limit Pro is supplied as a self-extracting and self-installing archive. The installation is
done under the rights of the newly created printlimit and temporary root access will
be required for part of the install. Please have the root password or sudo password handy.
(Administrators who are after a detailed explanation of the install process should also consult the background information in Chapter 19, Print-Limit Pro on Linux).
Log on as the newly created printlimit user and download and execute the installer:
shell> su - printlimit
shell> wget [download url from Netop website]
shell> sh ./plp-setup-*-linux-*.sh
Follow the installation instructions and enter the root password when requested.
Important
Ensure you login as the user printlimit so that the user's environment is
sourced so the home directory (install location) is correctly defined.
27
Installation
Figure 2.11. The Linux install process
The installation process will take between two and five minutes depending on the speed of
the system. A system restart is not required but administrators are advised to perform installation on live production systems during periods of low activity - for example, not during
backup operations or other administration activities.
2.4.4. Step 4 - Configuration Wizard
After installation, you will be prompted to open a web browser at http://[server-name]:9191/admin to complete configuration. The configuration
stages are explained below:
2.4.4.1. Administrator Password
This is the master password for the main in-built admin account. This password is independent of the operating system or domain passwords. Keep knowledge of this password
secure! This screen also sets the system's physical location. Ensure the location and language setting is correct.
28
Installation
Figure 2.12. Print-Limit Pro Configuration wizard
Tip
Treat this password like your router/modem management passwords. It is independent of your domain accounts and needs to be kept secure.
2.4.4.2. Default Print Cost
This is the default cost-per-page assigned to the printers. This setting can be changed on a
per printer basis after installation. Choosing a sensible cost now will help minimize future
setup. For example in the USA, a value of $0.05 would be appropriate for many standard
black & white printers.
2.4.4.3. Initial User Credit
Users can be assigned an initial starting credit. This ensures they have funds in their account as soon as the system is enabled. An option also exists to control what happens
when users run out of credit/quota. If you are evaluating Print-Limit Pro it might be appropriate not to disable printing when a users funds run out. This way you can be assured that
user printing is not disrupted during the evaluation. These settings may be changed after
setup.
2.4.4.4. User/group synchronization
Print-Limit Pro extracts user information out of the System or Domain. The options presented here will vary depending on the Operating System and its environment. During evaluation, most sites will opt to import all users from the system/domain into Print-Limit Pro. An
option also exists to import a subset of users from a given group. This option is pertinent
when it is known that only a subset of users will only ever use the printers.
29
Installation
Figure 2.13. User sync configuration wizard page
Options on Linux include Unix Standard (PAM, NIS, etc.), LDAP, or Samba.
Select Unix Standard if the user accounts are setup and defined on the local system as
standard Unix accounts or mapped into the system from a central directory service such as
LDAP via nsswitch.conf and PAM. Most large established networks will use this option.
The LDAP option is appropriate for large networks with existing Open Directory domains.
This includes networks running Open LDAP and Windows domains running Active Directory. Print-Limit Pro will do it's best to auto-discover LDAP settings, but some knowledge of
LDAP and/or Open Directory will be required. More information on LDAP is available in
Section 12.2.5, “Using LDAP for user synchronization”.
Select Samba if the central user directory is a Windows Domain. The Samba option is only
available if Samba is installed on the system. The Samba option is appropriate on medium
to small networks currently operating in a Windows Domain environment.
The Samba option requires additional information such as the name of a domain server,
and login credentials for an Administrator level account. This information is requested on
the subsequent wizard screen. Take care to ensure this information is complete and correct.
More information on user/group synchronization on Linux is available in Chapter 19, PrintLimit Pro on Linux.
2.4.4.5. Wizard Completion
After completing the configuration wizard you will be presented with a user synchronization
status screen and an option to Login. Take some time to log in and browse the interface.
There are many options and now is a good time to have a look at some of the key areas of
the application. Take some time to explore!
2.4.5. Step 5 - Printer Configuration
Unlike Windows and Mac with single print system environments, Linux is a more complex
environment with a choice of print system implementations. At this stage some manual
printer configuration is required. Please see Section 19.1.3, “Linux Print Queue Integration”
and follow the steps for integrating with the print queues in your environment before returning to this section and following on with the next step.
Printers hosted a machine other than the Print-Limit Pro server will require additional installation steps to be configured as 'secondary' servers. Please see Chapter 14, Configuring Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached Printers for details.
30
Installation
2.4.6. Step 6 - Sharing Client Software
The Print-Limit Pro client software is located in the directory [app-path]/client. It may
be useful to share this directory over the network so workstations can access/install the client application. Common sharing methods include:
•
Samba - used to share files to Windows based workstations. Mac OS X Server tools
such as the Workgroup Manager or other 3rd party tools such as SharePoint may help
with sharing the client directory via Samba. Similar GUI tools exist on Linux.
Advanced system administrators may be comfortable sharing this directory by handediting the /etc/smb.conf file. The following configuration will share the directory in
read-only form:
[pcclient]
path = /home/printlimit/client
comment = Print-Limit Client
public = yes
only guest = yes
read only = yes
•
NFS - a popular sharing method used for Linux/Unix based workstations.
2.4.7. Step 7 - Testing
It is now time to test the system.
1.
Print a test document such as a web page or basic document.
2.
Navigate to the printer section and select the Print Log tab.
3.
Navigate to the Printers → Print Log tab.
4.
Your print job should now be listed in the log.
5.
Your user account should also be charged an appropriate amount.
2.4.8. What next?
This concludes the Install Guide. You may like to take some time to explore the features of
Print-Limit Pro before continuing reading at Chapter 3, Implementation by Example or
Chapter 4, Quick Tour. Business users may be particularly interested in trying the popup
client software as covered in Section 4.5, “Client Software”. If desired, the client software
should also be deployed to other workstations. This procedure is detailed in Section 5.2,
“User Client”.
31
Chapter 3. Implementation by
Example
Print-Limit Pro is a feature-packed application designed to meet the print management requirements of all types of organizations. It's unlikely that any single organization would use
or need all the features in Print-Limit Pro. The key to a successful implementation is with
identifying the features that are most needed, and utilizing them in the correct manner.
This chapter covers common implementation scenarios in a case study form. It discusses
the requirements common to the scenario, and how these requirements are satisfied using
key features. The aim of this chapter is to guide implementers towards identifying and utilizing the most appropriate features.
Locate the scenario that's the closest fit to your organization. It may also be beneficial to
read other scenarios that might apply to your situation. For example, a large business may
benefit from some of the ideas presented in the small business case and so on.
3.1. Scenario: The Small School
Fast River School has a student population of 200 and caters to students in Kindergarten
through 6th grade. A teacher is responsible for each class. The school has a two computers in each class room and a small computer lab for older students. All computers are
networked. A single server acts as a domain controller and a file and print server. The students in each year level log on to the computers using the username and password allocated to their class.
3.1.1. Requirements
1.
Each grade level has a monthly printing budget of $50.
2.
If the budget is exceeded, teachers may discuss additional funding with the school
principal.
3.
Student use of color printers should be approved by teachers.
4.
The teacher for each grade level should have access to activity reports in order to
track the class's printing volume.
5.
The school principal needs a summary report of class printing activity at the end of
each semester.
3.1.2. Implementation
3.1.2.1. Initial Installation
Print-Limit Pro should be installed on the school's file and print server. The initial installation process is covered in Chapter 2, Installation.
3.1.2.2. Requirement 1
The monthly budget can be automated by applying a $50.00 monthly quota to the [All
Users] group. The domain login accounts used for each year level are automatically
placed in the [All Users] group. See the following areas for more information:
32
Implementation by Example
•
Section 6.1, “Groups in Print-Limit Pro”
•
Section 6.2, “Setting up quota allocations”
3.1.2.3. Requirement 2
Teachers can be warned when their class's balance has reached a low balance limit. The
notification can be via email. The notification option is located under: Options → Notifications → Low Balance Notifications. Enable the email option for email notifications.
3.1.2.4. Requirement 3
The system administrator can set up the printers so only selected users (i.e. teachers) can
approve jobs issued to color printers. By selecting the Only managers can release option
on a given printer, jobs are held in a queue. Teachers can then approve the student print
jobs by accessing the web based release software accessed via the URL:
http://server_name:9191/release
Where server_name is the name of the organization's print server.
3.1.2.5. Requirement 4
Teachers can view print activity and account balance by connecting a web browser to:
http://server_name:9191/user
Where server_name is the name of the organization's print server. Access to the enduser pages is covered in Section 4.6, “Interface Levels”.
3.1.2.6. Requirement 5
Summary reports can quickly be generated by any user with Print-Limit Pro's system administrator access. Granting administrator access and running reports is discussed in Section 4.7, “Assigning Administrator Level Access”.
3.2. Scenario: The Large School
North Shore High has a student population of 2000 students. Their network consists of:
•
Three student Windows PC labs and one Macintosh lab with other computers scattered
around the school for student use.
•
A mixture of Mac and Windows laptops used by staff.
•
A Windows Active Directory environment hosted on a number of servers.
•
Printers are hosted on two separate Windows servers.
•
Some teaching staff have desktop printers attached locally to their workstations.
•
Each lab has a black and white laser printer.
•
Two high-end color copier/printers and large format printers are located in a print room
situated away from the computer labs.
Students have their own login account and small home directories for storage.
33
Implementation by Example
3.2.1. Requirements
1.
The system must support the mixed Mac and Windows environment.
2.
The system should support multiple print servers and locally attached desktop printers.
3.
The school would like to experiment with hosting printers on a Linux system with the
aim of using Linux for print serving tasks to help save on future Windows licensing
costs.
4.
Students are to be granted a small $5 a month printing budget. Final year students
have a $10 a month allowance.
5.
If students need additional printing, they must purchase it. The payment process
should be simple and easy to manage.
6.
Jobs issued to printers situated in the print room should be held in a queue and only
printed on the physical printers after the user has arrived at the room to collect the job.
7.
Staff members should have the option of charging printing to department accounts or
to a small personal account, depending on the type of print job.
3.2.2. Implementation
3.2.2.1. Initial Installation
The mixture of operating systems and multiple-servers makes this a complex installation.
Prior to deployment, it is advisable for the network manager and/or network administrator
to plan the deployment and familiarize themselves with the Print-Limit Pro software.
3.2.2.2. Requirement 1
Print-Limit Pro is a cross platform solution designed for all major operating systems. Given
the existence of an existing domain environment, the installation of Windows systems is
typically straightforward. The Macs however can be set up in a number of different ways.
Network administrators should consult Chapter 21, Mac Printing in Detail.
3.2.2.3. Requirement 2
Multi-server installations are commonplace on larger networks. One system needs to be
nominated as the primary Print-Limit Pro server. This system is responsible for running the
"brains" of the system and storing all data. The other servers, secondary servers, report
back to the central primary server via XML Web Services. The system architecture, deployment considerations, and recommendations are outlined in Section 14.5, “Multiple Print
Servers”.
3.2.2.4. Requirement 3
Linux is becoming ever popular in the server space. First web hosting, and now common
file and print services are being serviced with the Linux operating system. Print-Limit Pro is
available for Windows, Mac and Linux systems. Not only that, its architecture allows all
three systems to run side-by-side sharing a common central server. This school may experiment with hosting printers on Linux by running a Linux based secondary server alongside their main Windows servers. See Section 14.3, “Configuring a Linux or Novell iPrint
Secondary Print Server” for additional information.
3.2.2.5. Requirement 4
34
Implementation by Example
Quotas or allowances are allocated to users on a per-group basis. By adding network domain groups to Print-Limit Pro that represent the respective student groups, system administrators can automate the allocation process. See Section 6.2, “Setting up quota allocations” for further information.
3.2.2.6. Requirement 5
The purchase of additional quota/credit is best managed by the PrintCard system. The system reduces the data entry and management requirements associated with manual transactions. More information on PrintCards is covered in Chapter 13, PrintCards.
3.2.2.7. Requirement 6
Print release in the print room is best achieved with the release station. By running a special full-screen application on a dedicated terminal in this room, students can release their
jobs once they arrive at the room. The release station and secure printing in general is
covered in detail at Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations.
3.2.2.8. Requirement 7
Tracking and allocating staff printing to departments is best achieved by using Shared Accounts. When set up, teaching staff are presented with a popup window asking them to select an account to charge. Account access can be controlled via domain group membership or via PINs. More information on shared accounts is available at Chapter 8, Shared
Accounts.
3.3. Scenario: The University
West Face University has a student population of 10,000 full-time students and off-campus
and part-time students. IT services are centrally control the network, however individual
faculties and departments also offer and manage some of the specialist IT infrastructure.
All major operating systems are in used on both the workstations and servers.
3.3.1. Requirements
1.
Centrally managed printers are hosted in a clustered print server environment. The
solution needs to support clustering.
2.
IT services wants to provide the option for department labs to also have their printers
controlled via the central system.
3.
Client software needs to be optional. It would be preferable for students to have access to their account details via a web browser.
4.
The design of the web interface should be customizable.
5.
The system must be secure and support SSL-based encryption.
6.
The system should run on top of a database system and allow data access to facilitate
custom reports using packages such as Crystal Reports.
3.3.2. Implementation
3.3.2.1. Initial Installation
University-wide deployments can be quite involved. Most large universities that have deployed Print-Limit Pro have worked closely with the Print-Limit Pro development team dur35
Implementation by Example
ing implementation. A lot can be gained by arranging a teleconference or similar with the
development team. We're always happy to help our larger customers deploy the ideal solution.
3.3.2.2. Requirement 1
Print-Limit Pro supports clustering at all application layers including the print server, the
database server, and the application server on both Microsoft Windows and Linux. Setting
up Print-Limit Pro in Microsoft Clustering Services is covered in Chapter 18, Microsoft
Cluster Environments. The Print-Limit Pro development team has experience using LinuxHA (High-Availability Linux) and other tools to support customers who use Linux.
3.3.2.3. Requirement 2
Printers and labs hosted by individual faculties and departments outside the central IT services area can optionally be joined into the campus-wide system via Print-Limit Pro's secondary server support. Central IT staff can approve these secondary servers via IP address and grant selected staff administrator level access to the system's admin web interface on a case-by-case basis. See Chapter 14, Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
Locally Attached Printers for more information on secondary servers.
3.3.2.4. Requirement 3
Print-Limit Pro's client software is optional in a basic charging/quota environment. Users
can access their accounts and view their account balance, transaction and printing history,
and use advanced tools such as PrintCards and transfers. More information on the webbased users tools is available at Section 4.6, “Interface Levels”.
3.3.2.5. Requirement 4
The design and layout of the end-user web interface can quickly be changed using HTML
and Cascading Style Sheets. Customizing the end-user web design is covered in Section 15.3, “Customizing the User web pages”.
3.3.2.6. Requirement 5
Print-Limit Pro provides secure connections for report access and administration via SSLbased encryption. Larger universities often have their own certificate signing procedure for
SSL based servers. Print-Limit Pro can even accept these signed certificates. SSL-based
encryption is set up by default and is accessed via a URL such as:
https://[server_name]:9192/admin
Information on using a custom SSL certificate is covered in Section A.4, “SSL/HTTPS Key
Generation”.
3.3.2.7. Requirement 6
Hosting the Print-Limit Pro system on top of an external database system such as Microsoft's SQL Server offers a number of advantages including easy data access, better
performance and scalability, and the ability to take advantage of existing backup processes. More information on external RDMS support is available at Chapter 17, Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS).
The data structure is simple and administrators with report writing skills will quickly be able
36
Implementation by Example
to access the data for custom reporting via tools such as MS Access or Crystal Reports.
3.4. Scenario: The Small Business
Northwoods Inc. is a small twelve-person Engineering and Architect Drafting office serving
the local area. Their network consists of a mix of Windows XP and Windows Vista workstations connected on a Workgroup based network. Wireless network access is also provided
to employees with laptops. Most staff work on a project basis and there is a need to track
use by project code and sub-project. Some staff work on a freelance basis and management would like to track and charge for color printer use on a monthly basis.
3.4.1. Requirements
1.
The system must be easy to set up and maintain as there is no full-time IT staff.
2.
The system must work in a Windows workgroup environment.
3.
Staff are to have unlimited access (i.e. no budgets).
4.
Staff need to allocate their printing to projects and cost centers so printing and drafting
costs can be passed back onto the clients (chargeback).
5.
Managers need access to view real-time reports.
6.
Data should be able to be exported to Excel on a monthly basis for billing.
3.4.2. Implementation
3.4.2.1. Initial Installation
One system on the network needs to be allocated the task of hosting the printer and the
Print-Limit Pro application. Users will print via this system so it needs to be left on most for
most of the time. An existing file server is ideal, however someone's desktop system will
also suffice (must be left on at all times).
3.4.2.2. Requirement 1
Print-Limit Pro is well known for its ease-of-use. It is a self-maintaining system with a
simple to use web-based interface. Apart from the initial set up, and the recommendation
to incorporate the application's data into a backup procedure, no further technical administration and support is required.
3.4.2.3. Requirement 2
Workgroup environments are common on small networks. They differ from a domain environment in that they are not centrally authenticated via a server. Users may use a system
that automatically logs in as "a user" or maybe they just log in locally on their workstations.
See Chapter 22, Running in a Workgroup Environment for more information on the ways in
which Print-Limit Pro can be installed in a workgroup environment.
3.4.2.4. Requirement 3
All users can be set up as "unrestricted". In this mode, users can start of with a zero balance and count down as they print. Their balance indicates their printing value to date.
3.4.2.5. Requirement 4
37
Implementation by Example
Shared accounts can be created to represent the current projects with sub-accounts used
to represent areas under these projects (sub-projects). The client popup software can be
enabled on user accounts forcing users to allocate printing to the project/client. In addition,
the advanced client popup will allow premiums to be charged for special printing such as
reporduction of expensive mylar film.
Selected staff can run monthly or quarterly invoice reports at any time to quickly determine
printing associated with a given client/project. More information on shared accounts and reporting can be found in Chapter 8, Shared Accounts.
3.4.2.6. Requirement 5
Print-Limit Pro records data in real-time. Full print logs and reports are available at any
time and can be accessed using a standard web browser. The manager can log into the
administration interface and access the reports at any time.
3.4.2.7. Requirement 6
All reports and activity lists can be exported to Microsoft Excel. To access the Excel data,
click on the small Excel icon located next to the report name, or the icon at the bottom of
the print log.
3.5. Scenario: The Medium to Large Business
SandComp is a large manufacturing company consisting of 3000 employees spread over 4
sites. All sites are connected via a fast Wide Area Network (WAN). Printers are hosted on
local servers with the largest site hosting printers in a Microsoft Cluster environment.
3.5.1. Requirements
1.
Must support a Microsoft Cluster environment.
2.
Must centrally store print data on a server located at the main office.
3.
Must not cause disruption if the WAN link goes down between offices.
4.
The consulting division needs to be able to track printing by project (client/matter
format) so costs can be passed back to their clients.
5.
The finance department needs secure print release on their shared printers stored in
the utility room.
3.5.2. Implementation
3.5.2.1. Initial Installation
The implementation of Print-Limit Pro in this environment would best be managed using
staggered or step-by-step approach. First, the software should be installed and tested on
the central offices' clustered environment, then rolled out to the other offices, and finally the
secure printing and client popups should be implemented. A staggered approach is likely to
minimize disruption allowing network administrators to focus on the tasks at hand.
3.5.2.2. Requirement 1
Print-Limit Pro supports Microsoft Clustering Services. The installation process is documented at Chapter 18, Microsoft Cluster Environments.
38
Implementation by Example
3.5.2.3. Requirement 2
The print servers at the remote locations can be installed as secondary servers reporting
back to the primary server. All data will be stored in one location. The services communicate using XML Web Services and only consume a few bytes per print job. Hence the system will work well over the WAN.
3.5.2.4. Requirement 3
Print-Limit Pro has a fail-open design. This means that if a failure occurs, such as the network fails between servers, printing will continue as normal.
3.5.2.5. Requirement 4
The consulting division can make use of the share accounts feature to track their printing
by client. More information on shared accounts is available in Chapter 8, Shared Accounts.
These advanced users would benefit from using the advanced popup. The advanced
popup offers advanced searching features allowing end-users to quickly located the appropriate account and enter job comments as required.
3.5.2.6. Requirement 5
Secured print release can be facilitated by setting up a terminal (a low-end PC will do) in
the finance department's utility room. When a member of the finance department prints to a
shared printer, their document will hold in the queue until that member goes to the utility
room and releases the print job with his or her username and password. This process ensures that documents stay secure and can't be "accidentally" collected by other people.
3.6. Scenario: The Public Library or Internet Cafe/Kiosk
The Sandy Beach Cafe is a typical Internet cafe offering Internet access, faxing, printing
and other services. This business has 50 computers and two printers. A black & white laser
printer called "Black and White Printer" and a high-end color inkjet system named as "Color
Printer". They would like to implement a pay-per-print system that meets the following process and requirements:
3.6.1. Requirements
1.
The customer prints the job to the appropriate printer.
2.
At the front desk, the customer pays a staff member for the print job.
3.
The staff member releases the job for printing.
4.
The customer collects the print job.
3.6.2. Implementation
Print-Limit Pro's hold/release queues are ideally suited to the Internet cafe scenario. More
information on the hold/release queues are available at Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues
& Print Release Stations. Print-Limit Pro provides both an application interface for release
station managers (i.e. desk staff) as well as a convenient web browser-based interface. To
summarize a typical implementation:
1.
The Print-Limit Pro server software is installed on the system hosting the printers. An
existing server or desktop system will suffice.
39
Implementation by Example
2.
Workstations are configured to print to the printers shared on the system set up in step
1.
3.
Inside the Print-Limit Pro admin interface, the printers should have the manager only
release option selected.
4.
Desk staff can view and control pending print jobs, their cost, and other details via the
web based release interface accessible at the URL:
http://server_name:9191/release
40
Chapter 4. Quick Tour
This section will guide you through the main areas of the application and cover some common management tasks.
4.1. Navigation
Before we jump in and start our tour of Print-Limit Pro it is important to take some time to
understand the application's navigation tools. The subsequent sections detail the major
user interface elements.
4.1.1. Tabs
Figure 4.1. Application navigation tabs
Application areas are grouped into tabs that logically separate parts of the system. Selecting a tab displays the controls and information related to that area. Users will be familiar
with the concept of tabs from many other applications.
4.1.2. Actions
Figure 4.2. The Actions area. Click to perform the action.
Throughout the application, the Actions area lists a number of tasks or actions that can be
performed. The Actions list is always located in the top left-hand corner of the application
window. Actions are adaptive and the list of actions changes depending on the area of the
application being viewed.
4.1.3. Buttons
Figure 4.3. Buttons to validate and save settings
Changes made to options, user settings or configurations are only validated and applied
after submitting the change. Screens that you can save in the application will have the fol41
Quick Tour
lowing buttons located at the bottom:
•
Apply - Validate and save the changes and return to this location/object
•
OK - Validate and save the changes and return to the data list ready to select and edit
another object.
•
Cancel - Don't save and changes.
4.1.4. Crumb Trail
Figure 4.4. The crumb trail highlighting the location
The crumb trail serves two purposes. It maps out the navigation path followed by the user
and provides a way to navigate up (back) the navigation path. For example, while editing a
user's account, the crumb trail provides a hyperlink up one level back to the User List.
4.1.5. Status Messages
Figure 4.5. A red status message indicating a validation error
Important status messages are displayed in the top section of the application window. Messages relating to an error or requiring user intervention are displayed in red. Standard messages are displayed in green and cautions in yellow.
4.1.6. Fields
42
Quick Tour
Figure 4.6. A field highlighted indicating a validation error
Configuring printers, users or settings are often done via text fields. Changes made to
fields are validated after pressing OK or Apply buttons. If the field fails validation, the offending data is marked with a red asterisk. Typical validation errors include invalid number
or currency formats.
4.2. Sections
The Print-Limit Pro administration interface is grouped into task oriented sections. These
are denoted by the tabs at the top of the screen. The sections are:
Figure 4.7. Application navigation tabs
4.2.1.
Users
•
View a list of all users
•
View and change a user's credit balance
•
View a user's statistics and charts
•
List a user's printing activity
•
Change user privileges and settings
•
Related sections:
4.2.2.
•
Section 4.3, “Basic User Operations”
•
Chapter 6, Advanced User Management
Groups
•
Add/Remove domain or network groups required for user management
•
Define rules controlling how new users are created
•
Perform bulk user operations
•
Control user quota allocations
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Quick Tour
•
4.2.3.
Related sections:
•
Section 6.1, “Groups in Print-Limit Pro”
•
Chapter 6, Advanced User Management
Accounts
•
View, edit and create shared accounts
•
View and change the shared accounts credit balance
•
List all charges against shared accounts
•
Set account access security
•
Related sections:
4.2.4.
•
Chapter 8, Shared Accounts
•
Section 5.2, “User Client”
Printers
•
View and edit printer costs and settings
•
Define printer filter rules and restrictions
•
View all recent print jobs
•
View printer statistics and charts
•
Related sections:
4.2.5.
•
Section 4.4, “Basic Printer Operations”
•
Chapter 7, Advanced Printer Management
Reports
•
Access to standard reports for viewing, export and printing
•
Run “one click” reports for quick overviews
•
Run reports over Ad-hoc date ranges
•
Related sections:
4.2.6.
•
Section 4.8, “Charting, Statistics, Reports and Logs”
•
Chapter 9, Reports
Cards
•
Managed PrintCards
•
View card use and activity
•
Download and install the card creation wizard
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Quick Tour
•
Import new cards
•
Related sections:
•
4.2.7.
Chapter 13, PrintCards
Options
•
Access general system settings
•
Control administrator access and security
•
Perform network user and group synchronization tasks
•
Perform backup snapshots
•
Related sections:
4.2.8.
•
Chapter 12, System Management
•
Appendix A, Tools (Advanced)
Application Log
•
View system audit, security and application events
•
Related sections:
•
4.2.9.
Chapter 12, System Management
About
•
List version and build information
•
Access update news
•
Install and view license information
•
Related sections:
•
Chapter 16, Licensing and Support
4.3. Basic User Operations
The user section is dedicated to user management. Common user oriented tasks include
assigning additional credit to users, viewing a user's activity, and controlling user privileges.
Users in Print-Limit Pro can be assigned either:
•
Restricted access where access to resources is denied once their credit drops to zero
(or to the overdraft limit).
•
Unrestricted access meaning the user is never denied access.
To change a user's restriction privileges:
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Quick Tour
1.
Log in as the built-in admin user.
2.
Click on the Users section.
3.
Select the user from the list (or enter the user name in the quick find).
4.
Scroll down to the Account Details section.
5.
Click on the Restricted checkbox.
6.
Click on the Apply button to save the change. A save success message will appear.
To increase a user's account balance by $10.00:
1.
Select the user from the list (or enter the user name in the quick find).
2.
Select the Adjustments and Charges tab.
3.
Enter $10.00 in the adjustment field.
4.
Enter a comment to associate with the transaction.
5.
Click the Apply button.
Figure 4.8. Adjusting a user's credit up $10.00
To view a user's transaction and print history:
1.
Select the user from the list (or enter the user name in the quick find).
2.
Select the Transaction History tab to view the user's transaction.
3.
Select the Print History tab to view the user's recent print activity.
4.4. Basic Printer Operations
All printers managed by Print-Limit Pro are configured under the Printers section. Printer
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Quick Tour
configuration may include:
•
Setting a cost-per-pages or defining more complex charging rules.
•
Defining advanced filter and restriction rules. For example, configuring a printer to deny
jobs of a selected size or automatically removing duplicate documents.
•
Controlling the enabled/disabled status via time-latches.
To define a basic cost-per-page of $0.10:
1.
Log in as the build-in admin user.
2.
Select the Printers section.
3.
Click on the printer who's page cost is to be defined.
4.
Enter a page cost of $0.10 under the configuration section.
5.
Press the Apply button to save the change.
To define an advanced cost model offering a 40% discount for duplex (double sided) printing:
1.
Under the Printers section, select the printer whose cost model is to be modified.
2.
Click on the Advanced Charging tab.
3.
Select a charge type of by category.
4.
Enter 40% in the duplex discount field and select Percent less from the dropdown list.
5.
Click the Apply button to save the change.
Figure 4.9. A 40% discount applied to double-sided printing
Filters provide administrators with access to a set of rules to control what type of documents are allowed access to the printer. Filter rules can be used for a variety of tasks such
as:
•
Enforcing good printing practices
•
Preventing queue jamming and hogging
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Quick Tour
•
Ensure printers are used for the purpose they are designed for
Filter options include:
•
Control by the jobs cost
•
Control by a document's page count
•
Denying jobs based on their color mode
•
Filtering by document name
•
Automatically denying and deleting duplicate documents
Example - To apply a filter preventing jobs over 100 pages:
1.
Under the Printers section, select the printer to which the filter should be applied.
2.
Click on the Filters tab.
3.
Scroll to the Page Count section.
4.
Click and select the deny jobs based on number of pages.
5.
Enter in 100 in the maximum filed.
Figure 4.10. Printer Filters and Restrictions
To disable a printer for the next hour using a time latch:
1.
Under the Printers section select the printer to lock or disable.
2.
On the Summary tab, scroll to the Configuration section.
3.
Select Disable for next hour from the drop-down list.
4.
Click the Apply button to save the change.
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Quick Tour
Figure 4.11. A printer disabled for 1 hour
4.5. Client Software
The client software is optional and not required for basic logging, however it does provide
users with access to advanced features. These features include:
•
Real-time feedback to the user including their account balances and event messages
such as "print job denied" reasons.
•
Access to the account selection popup so users can allocate print jobs to shared accounts - for example, accounts representing departments, projects, clients, etc. This is
particularly important in a business environment.
Figure 4.12. The user client displaying the "Advanced Account Selection Popup"
49
Quick Tour
4.5.1. Demonstrating the client software and account selection process
Create a Shared Account:
1.
Log into Print-Limit Pro as an administrator (e.g. admin account).
2.
Select the Accounts tab.
3.
Click the Create a new account action.
4.
Enter an appropriate name for the account. For example "test account".
5.
Click the Apply button to save the account.
6.
Select the security tab and ensure the [All Users] group has access to the account. If not, add the group by selecting it from the drop-down and pressing Add.
7.
See Chapter 8, Shared Accounts for more details about creating and managing
shared accounts.
Grant account selection access to your account:
1.
Select the Users tab.
2.
Locate and click on your personal user account.
3.
Under the Account Selection section, select the option Show the advanced account selection popup.
4.
Print the OK button to save and apply changes.
Launch the client software (Windows Platform):
1.
Log into a workstation using your user account as modified above (note: The server itself can also be used for this testing if desired)
2.
Open Windows Explorer (File Explorer).
3.
In the address bar, enter \\server_name\pcclient where "server_name" is the
name of the server hosting the Print-Limit Pro software. This will bring up files located
on the PCClient share.
4.
Launch the pc-client.exe program by double-clicking on the file. An icon should
appear in the task tray.
5.
Print a test page (for example a web page). The advanced client popup should appear
allowing you to select the "test account" set up in the preceding section.
More information about shared accounts can be found in Chapter 8, Shared Accounts and
information about client software deployment is covered in Section 5.2, “User Client”.
4.6. Interface Levels
Print-Limit Pro provides two layers of system access, Admin and User.
4.6.1. Admin Access
Admin access provides access to the system for administration and management. This
level is usually only granted to selected individuals in the organization, such as network administrators or management staff. To assign admin rights to an individual or group of users
see Section 4.7, “Assigning Administrator Level Access”.
4.6.2. User Access
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Quick Tour
End users are granted access to a set of basic web pages providing them with access to:
•
View their account balance
•
List recent account activity
•
Use tools such as PrintCards and funds transfers to other users
The User Client Tool (Print-Limit Pro User Client Software) complements the web pages by
providing users with a quick view of their current account balance.
Important
Access to the user area, like the admin area, requires authentication - that is
the user must enter their network username and password. Authentication is
required because user information such as print history is confidential. Access
to the user's funds transfer feature also needs to be protected. This is particularly important in schools. Students can rest assured that should they leave
their workstation for a few minutes another student can't transfer their account
balance to themselves!
To access the user pages via the User Client Tool:
1.
Start the client software if it is not already running. On the server this may be started
via the Client Start menu item. See the client software section for details on how to
start this on a remote workstation or desktop.
Figure 4.13. The user client tool
2.
Click the Details... link. The web browser will open.
3.
Enter your username and password and click Login.
4.
The user page pages will display.
To access the user pages directly via a web browser:
1.
Open a standard web browser.
2.
Enter the URL http://[servername]:9191/user where [server_name] is the
network name assigned to the system running Print-Limit Pro. The login screen will
appear.
3.
Enter your username and password and click Login.
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Quick Tour
4.7. Assigning Administrator Level Access
Print-Limit Pro sets up one administrator account called “admin”. This is the master administrator account, with access to all features, whose password is assigned during the configuration wizard. In large organizations it is likely that administrator level access will need to
be granted to more than one person. One solution is to give all persons the master password; however the recommended approach is to assign administrator rights to these individual's network user accounts. The advantages of this approach are:
•
They can access the administration pages using their own username and password
(they don't have to remember another password!).
•
Different levels of administrator access can be assigned to different users. Print-Limit
Pro includes an advanced Access Control List (ACL) allowing different administrators
access to different functions and areas of the application.
•
Most activity is audited so changes can be sourced to an individual.
For more information see Section 12.3, “Assigning Administrator Level Access”.
4.8. Charting, Statistics, Reports and Logs
One of the key features of Print-Limit Pro is the advanced charting, statistics, reporting and
logging. This information can be used by administrators to:
•
Determine which printers are most used
•
Spot areas where printers may be inappropriate for the task.
•
View user and printer trends over time.
4.8.1. Charts
Charts are ideal for obtaining a quick visual overview. All users and printers have a line
chart displaying activity over the last 30-days.
Figure 4.14. User 30-day account balance history
The Charts Tab under the Printers section hosts a set comparison charts allowing administrators to compare printers side by side.
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Quick Tour
Figure 4.15. Printer utilization chart
Under each individual printer the Statistics section provides information on all jobs printed
on a given printer.
Figure 4.16. Print page history for a single printer
4.8.2. Reports
Reports provide a tabular data display, often in a printable format, of system information
ranging from activity histories, summaries, transaction details, etc. Reports are typically run
to print a summary of user activity, printer activity, or group or account activity. To streamline access to common reports, Print-Limit Pro provides a series of predefined one-click report links under the Reports section. Most reports can be generated over a variety of common date ranges or user defined date ranges.
53
Quick Tour
Standard reports include:
•
•
•
User Reports
•
Print summary statistics grouped by user
•
Quick list of the most active print users
Printer Reports
•
Summary of print activity grouped by printer
•
Quick lists of the most active/busiest printers
Group Reports
•
•
Shared Account Reports
•
•
Summary of print activity grouped by network group (Note: The group needs to be
defined under the Groups section.)
Summary of print activity grouped by shared account charged
Print Log Reports
•
Detailed lists of all print jobs over a given period
•
Quick list of the largest print jobs
Figure 4.17. Printer report in PDF
Standard reports are provided in a variety of output formats including, HTML, PDF and MS
Excel. PDF reports are ideal for printing. HTML versions of the reports are provided for
systems without a PDF viewer.
Tip
In addition to the standard reports, administrators can run other reports on adhoc data by using the Export/Print option available under most of the data
lists. This is covered further in the subsequent report section (See Chapter 9,
Reports).
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Quick Tour
4.8.3. Logging
The Print-Limit Pro activity logging can be classed into the following areas:
4.8.3.1. Usage Logging
Usage logging records information about usage events such as printing. Information includes:
•
The date of the use
•
Who performed the use
•
Details of the type of user including, cost and other attributes
Figure 4.18. Printer usage log
4.8.3.2. Transaction Logging
All modifications or deductions to an account (user or shared) are recorded in the transaction log. Information recorded includes:
•
The date of the transaction
•
Who performed the transaction
•
Any comment or note associated with the transaction (if performed by a user)
Figure 4.19. User account transaction log
4.8.3.3. Application Activity Logging
The Application Log records system events messages such as:
•
User logins
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Quick Tour
•
Security errors such as incorrect password attempts
•
Backup times and scheduled tasks
•
Any system errors or warning
It is similar to the operating system's event log. It is recommended that system administrators view this log on a daily basis for the first week and weekly thereafter.
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Chapter 5. Services for Users
5.1. Introduction
How a user experiences and interacts with Print-Limit Pro will vary depending on how it is
implemented. When configured as a silent monitoring solution, users may not even know
Print-Limit Pro is in use. In other environments, users will make extensive use of the various services that are available.
Services are provided to users through one of two interfaces:
the User Client
The User Client is an optional piece of software that provides additional functionality.
Its purpose is to display to the user their balance, deliver notification messages (such
as low balance notifications), assist in selecting accounts to charge, and it can also
provide an extra layer of authentication.
The appearance of the user client tool may be customized to fit in with your organization. More information is available in Section 15.1, “Customizing the User Client Tool
window”.
the User Web Pages
The User Web Pages provide additional features that may be of use to users. Functionality includes summaries and logs of usage, using PrintCards, transferring funds
and displaying usage costs. The User Web Pages are accessed either via the Details... link on the User Client window, or via the browser URL http://[server_name]:9191/user .
The appearance of the user web pages may be customized to fit in with your organization's existing intranet, web pages or color scheme. More information is available in
Section 15.3, “Customizing the User web pages”.
More information about each of these areas is available in the following sections.
5.2. User Client
The Print-Limit Pro activity tracking and charging is implemented using 100% server-side
technology. User Client software is not required as part of the activity monitoring process.
Note
The use of client software for activity monitoring could open up security problems as client software is readily accessible to end-users. By design Netop developers endeavor to implement all monitoring at the server level eliminating
client-side loopholes. The client software supplied with Print-Limit Pro is simply
a presentation layer around server-side implementation.
Client software is provided to facilitate three tasks:
•
Allow users to view their current account balance via a popup window
•
Allow users to select shared accounts via a popup, if administrators have granted access to this feature.
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Services for Users
•
Display system messages such as the "low credit" warning message.
Figure 5.1. The User Client Balance Window
Figure 5.2. User Client account selection popup (Standard Popup)
58
Services for Users
Figure 5.3. User Client (Advanced Popup)
The client software is available for most major platforms including:
•
Microsoft Windows
•
Macintosh OS X
•
Linux and Unix
Figure 5.4. Print-Limit Client on Mac OS X
The client software and deployment tools are installed automatically on the server under
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Services for Users
the [app-path]\client directory. On a Windows based server this directory is automatically shared in read-only form providing network users with access to the client executables.
The following chapters contain further information about the user client:
•
Command line and config options are discussed in Section A.5, “User Client Options”.
•
Customization of the user client is discussed in Section 15.1, “Customizing the User Client Tool window”.
Tip
The behavior of the user client, such as where on the screen it pops up or
which option is selected by default, can be customized. This is discussed in
Section A.5, “User Client Options”.
To educate the users about the user client, administrators might find the
sample information sheets helpful.
5.2.1. User Client Deployment
5.2.1.1. Deployment on Windows
The Print-Limit Pro client software may be deployed to workstations using a variety of deployment methods. The deployment options are covered in details in the
[app-path]\client\README.txt file.
Options include:
1.
If you're after a manual "setup wizard" style installer, run the program client-local-install.exe located in the network share PCClient. You can access this
share
by
typing
the
following
address
into
Windows
Explorer.
\\<MyServer>\PCCClient\win, where MyServer is the name of the server where
Print-Limit Pro is installed.
2.
Administrators looking for an automated install/deployment option should consider the
"zero install" strategy. See below for details.
The recommended approach with Windows Domains is the "zero install" strategy. This involves configuring the workstations via group policy or otherwise, to run the client executable directly off the PCClient share - a share set up during installation. This avoids the
need to undertake a separate installation process on each workstation and ensures the client software is automatically updated in conjunction with server updates.
The client can simply be run directly from the PCClient share setup on the server. Two
executables provide this launch functionality:
pc-client.exe
pc-client-local-cache.exe
pc-client.exe will launch the client directly off the network share. The "local-cache"
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Services for Users
version (pc-client-local-cache.exe), is a smarter version that first copies itself and
associated files to the local drive and launches itself from there. The local-cache version
has the advantage that any future startups will use the local copy and hence minimize network traffic. The cache is self-managing and kept up-to-date ensuring that any new versions of the client are automatically and transparently copied down to the client.
Using pc-client-local-cache.exe is recommended on large networks. It does
however require a globally writable cache directory. By default the cache is created in a directory on the system drive (normally C:\Cache). An alternate cache can be specified with
the --cache command-line switch. Administrators should ensure than standard users
have write access to the system drive, or manually create the cache directory if required.
The zero-install deployment option is not appropriate for all situations. A local install is recommend on Windows Laptop systems that are not permanently connected to the network
or centrally managed by network administrators. The client-local-install.exe program can assist end users with a standard "setup wizard" install process. This installer may
also be streamlined / automated by using command-line options, see Section A.7,
“Automating / Streamlining Installation on Windows” for more details.
For
more
information
on
alternate
[app-path]\client\README.txt file.
deployment
options
see
the
5.2.1.2. Deployment on Mac OS X
This section covers the installation of the Print-Limit Pro client on Apple Macintosh systems. The complexities of Mac printing in general are discussed in Chapter 21, Mac Printing in Detail. Before installing the client software, we recommend that administrators study
Chapter 21, Mac Printing in Detail and ensure printing is working as expected.
The Mac client is a supplied as a native Macintosh .app package. It's a universal application supporting Mac OS X 10.3.9 (fully patched) or higher on both PowerPC and Intel hardware.
Figure 5.5. Print-Limit Pro requires Mac OS X v 10.3.9 or later
The three common installation methods are outlined below cover most situations. The instructions for the "single user install" is very standard and should be able to be conducted
by any Mac end-user. The other installation methods are more technically focused and
aimed at Mac network administrators.
The client software will work best if Java 5 is installed. Java 5 is available for OS X 10.4 or
higher. If Java 5 is not already installed, the installer is available from the Apple website at:
http://www.apple.com/support/downloads/java2se50release3.html.
5.2.1.2.1. Single User Install
This method is suitable for a Mac computer used by a single user. For example, a personal
Mac desktop or laptop. The installation process simply involves clicking on the clientlocal-install program. This copies the PCClient application into the over to the system's Applications folder and starts the client in the "confirm network identity" mode.
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Services for Users
The simplest way to run the install process is to connect to the server's pcclient share
over the network, however alternate methods such as copying the folder contents via a
USB key or drive are also possible.
To install the Mac client from the server's share:
1.
Start and Log into the Mac computer. Ensure it's connected to the network.
2.
Open the Finder.
3.
From the Go menu, select Connect to Server....
Figure 5.6. Connecting to a Windows server
4.
Enter the pcclient share's connection details like: smb://server_name/pcclient
Figure 5.7. The PCClient share's connection string
5.
Enter password information if requested.
6.
Double-click the client-local-install file. This will execute a small AppleScript
program that will commence the install/copy process.
7.
Test the application by double-click on the PCClient application icon in the system's
local Applications folder.
If the user needs the client for printing - for example to use the shared account popup - it's
advisable to configure the application to automatically open upon start-up:
1.
Open System Preference... from the Apple menu.
62
Services for Users
2.
Select Accounts.
3.
Select your login account.
4.
Click the Login Items tab.
5.
Click the + button and browse and locate the PCClient application.
Figure 5.8. Add PCClient as a Login Item
6.
Test by restarting the computer. The client should automatically after the reboot and
login is complete.
5.2.1.2.2. Multi-User Install
On a multi-user Mac system, setting up a Login Item for each user would be a tedious
task. To streamline this process, the PCClient application can be configured to start on
login via the login hook. A login hook is an advanced Mac feature that works by running a
script when a user logs in. The PCClient package includes a command script resource
that installs the login hook.
To install the client on a multi-user system:
1.
Start and Log into the Mac computer. Ensure it's connected to the network.
2.
Open the Finder.
3.
From the Go menu, select Connect to Server...
4.
Enter the pcclient share's connection details like: smb://server_name/pcclient
5.
Enter password information if requested.
6.
Drag the PCClient package over to the local hard disk's Applications folder. The
copy process will commence.
7.
Control-click on the newly copied PCClient application in the Applications directory.
Select Open Package Contents.
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Services for Users
Figure 5.9. Control-click and open the package contents
8.
Browser to Contents/Resources/.
9.
Double-click on the install-login-hook.command script.
Figure 5.10. Double-click to install the login hook
10. Restart the system and verify the client starts on login.
Important
If you're already using a login hook for other script tasks, the setup process will
be different. Instead in step 9, double-click on the set-permissions.command file. Then insert the following line at the end of your current
login script:
/Applications/PCClient.app/Contents/Resources/login-hook-start "$1"
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Services for Users
The set-permissions.command script ensures the software is set up with
the correct permissions, ensuring it's accessible to all users.
The login hook, once installed, can be removed with the terminal command:
sudo defaults delete com.apple.loginwindow LoginHook
5.2.1.2.3. Zero-Install Deployment
This deployment method is for advanced Mac network administrators and is suitable for
medium to large Mac networks. Knowledge of the Mac's Unix underpinning and scripting is
required.
A more flexible option over locally installing the PCClient package on each Mac system,
is to directly launch the client from the pcclient share. The advantage of this deployment
method is that any updates applied on the server (and hence updates to the client directory) will automatically be propagated to all workstations.
The process of setting up zero-install deployment will vary form network to network depending on the directory environment in use and administrator preferences. The process
can however be summarized as:
1.
Configure the Macs to mount the pcclient share as a volume on login or start-up.
2.
Configure a login hook to start the client off the share. The install-login-hook.command resource script explained in the multi-user install above may
help.
The typical way to mount the share is to use mount_smbfs in a boot script. See the Apple
documentation
on
mount_smbfs
at:
http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man8/mount_smbfs
.8.html
Further information on Mac printing is available at Chapter 21, Mac Printing in Detail.
5.2.1.3. Deployment on Linux and Unix
The Print-Limit Pro user client software may be deployed on Linux and other Unix based
operating systems using the following installation procedure.
5.2.1.3.1. Step 1 - Install Java 5.0+
Linux and Unix workstations are supported via Java. Java version 5.0 or higher is required.
Your Linux distribution may come with Java pre-installed or have the option to install. If no
Java option exists, Sun Microsystems provides a self-install Java distribution for Linux and
other major Unix platforms.
Ensure Java 5.0 is installed and the JAVAHOME environment variable is defined on the
PATH.
5.2.1.3.2. Step 2 - Copy (or Mount) the Print-Limit Pro user client files
Like the Windows version of the client software, the Linux/Unix Java version is installed in
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Services for Users
the ~/client directory on the server. All files in this directory need to be copied, or make
available to the Linux/Unix workstation. Common methods include:
•
Copying the files from the server using file transfer programs such as FTP or scp.
•
If the server is Windows based, connecting using smbclient or the Gnome or KDE
smb:// file browsing tools. The client files are shared via a read-only share called
\\[server_name]\PCClient.
•
If the server is Linux based, consider exporting the ~printlimit/client directory
via NFS and mounting on the workstations. The client can then be ran directly from the
mount.
If the workstation is used by multiple users, the client directory should be copied to a common location such as /usr/local/printlimit/client.
5.2.1.3.3. Step 3 - File permissions
Open a command prompt and set execute permissions on the pc-client-linux.sh file
as follows:
cd /usr/local/printlimit/client
chmod 755 ./pc-client-linux.sh
5.2.1.3.4. Step 4 - Testing
Log on as a user (a user listed in the Print-Limit Pro system) in your preferred Linux
desktop
GUI
environment.
Locate
and
execute
the
file
/
usr/local/printlimit/client/pc-client-linux.sh. The Print-Limit Pro client
should open displaying the user's account balance.
It is usual to configure the client as a "Startup Program" or "AutoStart Program" launched
during login. See your desktop documentation to see how to define a startup program.
A number of command-line options are available to change the client's behaviour. More information can be found in Table A.2, “User Client command-line options”.
5.3. User Web Pages
The User Web Pages are accessed either via the Details... link on the User Client window,
or via the browser URL http://[server_name]:9191/user .
The User Web Pages provide a range of services for users, including:
•
Summary: A summary of usage and balance history.
•
Shared Accounts: Lists the shared accounts that the user may use for printing.
•
Rates: The current costs for printing and internet usage.
•
Use Card: Add balance by using a PrintCard.
•
Transfers: Transfer funds to other users.
•
Transaction History: A history of balance transactions.
•
Recent Print Jobs: A list of the user's recent printing.
•
Recent Internet Use: A list of the user's recent internet usage.
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Services for Users
•
Jobs Pending Release: Print jobs pending release (when using a release station).
The services available provide a range of functionality that empowers users to make the
most of Print-Limit Pro without requiring intervention from administrators. The user web
pages allows users to do what they need for themselves, and quickly get back to what they
were doing.
Many services can be switched on or off as required. This is useful for situations where a
particular service is not suitable for exposing to the users. For example, some organizations may like to disable the ability for users to transfer funds.
Each service is discussed in the following sections.
5.3.1. Summary
This page provides a summary of the information most important for a user, including their
current balance, a summary of their printing usage, and a graph of their balance history.
Figure 5.11. A user's summary information
5.3.2. Environmental Impact
One of the primary aims of Print-Limit Pro is to reduce printing levels by changing a user's
printing behavior. Implementing monitoring, quotas and charging are a good way of drawing a user's attention to their habits. The topic of the environment, global warming, and
waste management is currently an area of debate and interest to many. Highlighting the
environmental aspects of their activities is another good way of modifying a user's behavior.
The Environmental Impact section appears on the Summary page and provides the user
67
Services for Users
with feedback on the environmental impact or footprint associated with their activities. Information presented includes an indication on how their printing equates to trees, CO2
emissions and energy.
For more information about how these values are calculated, see Section 12.7,
“Environmental Impact”. If desired, this option can be disabled via the Options section.
Figure 5.12. Draw a user's attention to their environmental impact
5.3.3. Shared Accounts
Shared accounts page lists the balances of the shared accounts that a user can access.
Figure 5.13. A list of available shared accounts
More information about shared accounts can be found in Chapter 8, Shared Accounts.
5.3.4. Rates
The rates page lets users know the printing costs associated with each printer. Displaying
costs to users is a good way for them to see and understand the costs involved without
having to spend time distributing the information to them.
Armed with this information, users can seek the most cost effective way to manage their
printing. With discounts for grayscale and duplex printing clearly visible, ink and paper usage will be reduced by the users own accord.
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Services for Users
Figure 5.14. Printing costs as seen by the user
5.3.5. Use Card
From here users can use a PrintCard. When a valid card number is entered, the value of
the card is transferred to the user's balance. More information about cards is available in
Chapter 13, PrintCards.
Figure 5.15. Using a PrintCard
5.3.6. Transfers
This page allows users to transfer credit to other users. Transferring balance can be useful
in situations such as:
•
A student transferring credit to a fellow student for printing something for them
•
A teacher transferring credit to a student for extra printing
•
Teachers trading printing credit between each other
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Services for Users
Figure 5.16. Transferring funds to another user
5.3.7. Transaction History
The transaction history page displays a user's balance history in detail. Here a user can
see how, when any why their balance was affected. If there is ever doubt about why a
user's balance is at the current amount, or what they have been spending their credit on,
the transaction history page has the answer.
Figure 5.17. A user's recent balance transactions
5.3.8. Recent Print Jobs
This page displays the user's printing history. It allows a user to see the cost of their print
jobs, or to find a particular print job. The filter criteria allows for many different views of
printing, and can be used to easily drill-down to find the information required.
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Services for Users
Figure 5.18. A user's recent printing
5.3.9. Jobs Pending Release
This page allows users to view and interact with jobs held in a hold/release queue. From
here, jobs that have been held in a managed queue can be released (printed) by the user.
This allows for them to confirm the cost and details of the job before printing, and/or confirm their identity before the job is released.
Figure 5.19. The user's view of jobs pending release
More information about hold/release queues is covered in Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
5.4. Mobile User Web Pages
When the user web pages are accessed from a mobile browser (e.g. Mobile Safari from an
iPhone) the user will be presented with a lightweight interface that has been optimized for
smaller screen sizes.
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Services for Users
Figure 5.20. Mobile user web tools - summary page
The user may choose to view the user web pages in desktop mode instead by clicking
View in Desktop mode.
Figure 5.21. View in Desktop mode link
Features available in the mobile user web pages include:
•
Checking user balance
Figure 5.22. Mobile user web tools - balance
•
Viewing environmental impact statistics
Figure 5.23. Mobile user web tools - environmental impact statistics
•
Redeeming a PrintCard
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Services for Users
Figure 5.24. Mobile user web tools - redeem PrintCard
Figure 5.25. Mobile user web tools - entering a PrintCard number
For more information about the full (desktop) user web pages see Section 5.3, “User Web
Pages”.
5.5. Gadgets/Widgets and more...
Gadgets/Widgets are a lightweight application that sits on a user's desktop. Windows Vista
has in-built support for sidebar gadgets. The equivalent on the Mac is the Widget. PrintLimit Pro offers two useful Gadgets as well as a series of AJAX/JSON style embeddable
components that can be leveraged by intranet developers.
5.5.1. Windows Vista Gadgets
Two Windows Vista Gadgets are available:
•
The Print Balance Gadget: Used to display user's personal balance on the desktop or
sidebar. This is called PCBalance.gadget.
•
The Environmental Impact Gadget: Used to provide the users with feedback on the environmental impact associated with their printing activities. Highlighting the environmental aspects is useful in modifying a user's behavior towards printing. For more information about how these values are calculated, see the section called Section 12.7,
“Environmental Impact”. This gadget is called PCEnvironmentalImpact.gadget.
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Services for Users
Figure 5.26. The Environmental Impact Gadget
Figure 5.27. The Print Balance Gadget
To install a Gadget:
1.
Log in as administrator
2.
Browse
to
the
share
on
\\server\PCClient\win\Gadgets
3.
Copy all *.gadget folders to the local directory C:\Program Files\Windows
Sidebar\Gadgets
4.
Users should now see the Print-Limit Pro Gadgets as available Gadgets on the system.
the
Print-Limit
Pro
server
at
5.5.2. Web Widgets
Print-Limit Pro also provides web widgets that can be easily embedded within pages on
your intranet site. These widgets work in a similarly to Google Web Gadgets or the Google
Maps APIs. All that is required is to paste a few lines of HTML/JavaScript on your pages.
There are two built-in web widgets that offer balance and environmental impact (and look
identical to the Vista widgets above). However if the built-in widgets do not suit your needs
you can create your own that better suit your site.
There are only two requirements to running web widgets on your intranet site:
1.
You require edit access to the intranet pages to add the required HTML/JavaScript.
2.
The username of the logged in user is required so the web widget knows whose details to load. This will usually require that users login to the intranet. When using a Microsoft Active Directory domain and Microsoft IIS web server the user is automatically
logged in and their username is available.
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Services for Users
The simplest way to get started with web widgets is to look at some examples. There are
detailed and well commented examples available on the Print-Limit Pro server in the directory [app-path]/server/examples/webwidgets/examples.html. These examples
should be used as a starting point to implement web widgets on your site.
The basic steps to adding a web widget to a page are:
1.
Add a <div> element to your page. The widget will be drawn within this tag. The div
element must be given a unique ID.
2.
Include scripts into your page to load the widget and user data from the Print-Limit
Pro.
3.
Edit the included script to set pcUsername to the logged in user.
4.
Edit the included script to set pcServerURL to base URL of the Print-Limit Pro server.
5.
Add some script to draw the built-in widgets to the page. You can use one of the builtin widgets, or create your own.
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Chapter 6. Advanced User
Management
This section covers some of the more advanced user management tasks. On large networks managing users on an individual basis is not practical. Management needs to be
handled either via a level of automation, or manually at group level. Some common user
management tasks that typically consume time on a large network include:
•
Allocating user credit or quotas.
•
Creating new user accounts
•
Performing administration tasks such as allocating additional allowances or applying
different privileges.
Print-Limit Pro offers a number of features to help automate these tasks.
6.1. Groups in Print-Limit Pro
Groups are collections of users. Print-Limit Pro uses the network domain or computer's
groups, meaning administrators can take advantage of the existing network structure.
Groups in Print-Limit are used in the following ways:
1.
To control how quota/credit is allocated to users on a regular basis.
2.
To automate the addition of new (future) user accounts.
3.
To assist with making modifications to user accounts by group.
4.
For group based reporting.
Print-Limit Pro mirrors (caches) domain network group memberships for performance reasons. Hence changes in group membership made at the domain level may not be immediately reflected in Print-Limit. The group membership can be refreshed at any time via the
User/Group Sync option under the Options section. Groups are mirror/cached for two
reasons:
•
For fast reporting and search performance.
•
To ensure Print-Limit Pro is a good network application and does not overload domain
controllers with group membership requests.
Many large networks may contain hundred of groups and/or organizational units. In many
cases only a small percentage of these groups are pertinent to Print-Limit Pro management. To ensure administrators are not overwhelmed with all groups, Print-Limit Pro only
lists the groups selected as relevant by the administrator.
To add a group to Print-Limit Pro:
•
Navigate to the Group section.
•
Select the Add/Remove Group link at the bottom of the groups list.
•
Select the group(s) required on the left-hand-side and click the Add arrow.
•
Click the OK button to add the group(s).
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Advanced User Management
Figure 6.1. Adding/removing groups
Print-Limit Pro includes one built-in group called the [all users] group. This group is
not related to any existing network group and simply is a "catch all" group that represents
all users list in the Print-Limit system. It is similar to the "Everyone" special group in Windows.
Note
Print-Limit Pro sources groups and group members from your selected directory/domain source. There are however some situations where maintaining
groups within the network directory source is not possible. For example, may
you only have read-access to the domain. If for technical reasons it's not possible to define the required groups in your network directory, groups may also
be defined via a text file (e.g. a tab-delimited file). Simply place your group
definition
file
at
the
location
[app-path]/server/data/conf/additional-groups.txt. See the
template file additional-groups.txt.tmpl in the same directory for an
example and further information.
6.2. Setting up quota allocations
In many organizations Print-Limit Pro is used to control and restrict users to sensible use
by allocating a quota or allowance (a budget). For example a user may be allocated $10.00
a week. This type of control is particularly popular in schools and universities. The process
of quota allocation can be automated via the Groups section.
To allocate a $10.00 a week to members of the Students group:
1.
Navigate to the Groups section
2.
Add the Student group via Add/Remove Groups if not already listed.
3.
Select the Student group
4.
Under the Quota Scheduling section, select a period of Weekly and enter 10.00 in
the Schedule amount.
5.
Click the Apply button to save the change.
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Advanced User Management
Figure 6.2. The Group Details screen
To configure quotas correctly it is important to understand how quota allocations work.
Users receive quotas for all groups they belong to. For example, consider the situations
where Students and Student Newspaper groups are defined in Print-Limit Pro, with
$20/month and $10/month quotas respectively. If a student belongs to both groups they will
receive a $30/month of quota. If they belong to only the Students group they will receive
only $20/month.
If you configure a quota on the special [All Users] group then all users in the system
will receive this quota in addition to quotas defined on other groups.
Credit will be assigned to group members at just past 12:00am (midnight) on the day of the
schedule. Administrators can verify that this has taken place by inspecting log entries in the
Application event log and/or users' transaction logs.
Task
Time
Daily Allocations
Applied at 12:10am every day (7 days a
week).
Weekly Allocations
Applied at 12:20am on Sunday.
Monthly Allocations
Applied at 12:30am on the first day of the
month.
Custom Allocations
Applied at 12:10am on the given day (after
the daily allocations).
Table 6.1. Quota schedule times
One potential issue associated with quota allocation in some organizations (for example
Schools or Universities) is that users can "bank up" their quota allowance over time leading
to excessive use at periods of the year such as the end of semester. The Only allow ac78
Advanced User Management
cumulation up to option can be used to implement a "use it or lose it" policy!
6.2.1. Custom Quota Scheduling Periods
In some cases quotas may need to be scheduled for unusual times. A good example of
this is unusual term or semester start dates. The Custom quota scheduling period allows
specifying any date for which to run quotas. To set a custom quota scheduling period:
•
Select the group for which to allocate quotas
•
Under the Quota Scheduling section, select a Period of Custom.
•
Enter a date in the ISO international date format YYYY-MM-DD (e.g. 2007-03-15).
Multiple
dates
may
be
entered,
separated
by
a
comma
(e.g.
2007-03-15,2007-08-20).
•
Click the Apply button to save the change.
Tip
The year may be omitted to specify that quota allocations should take place on
the same date every year. E.g. entering 03-15 will result in quotas being allocated on March 15th every year.
6.2.2. Advanced User Quota Management
Some organizations may require scheduling quota allocations for periods other than those
available above. For example, an education organization may like to schedule quota allocation per term, semester (period) or academic year, which may not have set dates. This
can be achieved by a manual update when necessary though Bulk user actions ... in the
Users or Groups tab. More information is available in Section 6.4, “Bulk User Operations”.
It is also possible to automate the allocation of user quota through the use of Server Commands (see Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)”) or XML Web Services
(see Section A.3, “The XML Web Services API”).
6.2.3. Automated Quota Allocation Example
One way to automate quota allocation is through the use of Server Commands. Following
is an example of how to use Server Commands to automate quota allocation in a Microsoft
Windows environment:
North Shore High would like to automate their quota allocation on a per-term basis. There
are four terms in a year, and terms do not necessarily start on the same date every year.
Junior students are to receive $5 per term printing budget, and senior students are to receive $10 per term. The domain has the groups junior-students and senior-students to reflect the students' grade.
Using the information from Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)”, we can
see that the Server Command adjust-user-account-balance-by-group will meet
the needs of this situation. Create a batch file with a name like assign_term_quotas.bat with content similar to the following (depending on your environment):
cd "C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win"
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Advanced User Management
server-command adjust-user-account-balance-by-group "junior-students" \
+5.00 "$5 term budget for junior students"
server-command adjust-user-account-balance-by-group "senior-students" \
+10.00 "$10 term budget for senior students"
Note: backslash indicates text should appear on the same line.
Running this script will allocate $5 to all members of the group junior-students, and
$10 to all members of the group senior-students. The script can then be scheduled to
run at the specified dates by the use of a tool such as Windows Task Scheduler ( Control
Panel → Scheduled Tasks → Add Scheduled Task).
This example can be found with your Print-Limit Pro installation under
[app-dir]/server/examples/scripting/batch/assign-term-quotas.bat.
6.3. New User Creation Rules
It is inevitable that new users will be added to your network in the future. To streamline account setup, Print-Limit Pro offers the option of having new users automatically assigned
initial settings such as starting credit, privilege level, and other settings based on their
group membership. Users are automatically added to Print-Limit Pro when either:
•
The user sends his or her first print job
•
Overnight during user/group synchronization
•
When a manual user/group synchronization is performed
Taking the time to configure initial settings rules means one less job for administrators to
perform! The group based control offers maximum flexibility and ensures that it's possible
to have a different set of initial settings rules for different types of users. This flexibility is
particularly important in an academic environment where students of different year levels
need different settings.
For example an administrator may wish for new users belonging members of the Senior
Students group to be allocated $10 starting credit and restricted access, while all
other students receive $5.00 starting credit.
New user creation rules are controlled under the Groups → Group Details → New User
Settings section. When a new group is added it does not provide any new user settings.
To enable user creation rules for a group the Use this group to define new user settings
option must be enabled.
Figure 6.3. Initial settings applied to new users
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Advanced User Management
Important
Changes made to new user settings are in the Groups section only affect
users NOT yet listed in the system. (i.e. future users). Any users already listed
in the system are not affected. Initial user settings also do not apply when
users change groups. To modify settings or credit on existing users, see Bulk
user actions in the following section.
Tip
Initial settings can become confusing when a user belongs to more than one
group. Print-Limit Pro uses the following logic to allocate initial settings:
•
The user obtains a starting credit that is the sum of all the matching groups
(the special [all-users] group is ignored).
•
If any of the matching groups has unrestricted access, the user will inherit unrestricted status.
•
If any of the matching groups has account selection popup settings, the
user will inherited the ON settings.
•
If the user does NOT belong to any group with new user settings defined,
they will inherit the settings applied to the special [all-users] group.
Tip
To control when users are automatically created, see Section 12.2.3, “On Demand User Creation”.
6.4. Bulk User Operations
A bulk user operation refers to an operation that is applied to more than one user. This operation was referred to in previous Print-Limit releases as "Group level functions". Bulk
user operations are best described by example.
John is a network administrator at a local high school. A number of students from each
year level have been placed on the school newspaper committee. The head teacher has
requested that John allocated an extra $10.00 of printing credit to these students. The students are all in a network group called "NewspaperCommittee". John performs this operation as follows:
1.
Clicking the Bulk user actions link under the Users section.
2.
Selecting NewspaperCommittee as the group to perform the action on.
3.
Selecting the Adjust credit by option and entered $10.00 in the amount field.
4.
Entering a transaction comment of "extra allowance for newspaper committee role".
5.
Clicking the OK button to apply the change.
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Advanced User Management
Bulk user operations apply changes to all users matching the selected group and other criteria. Settings under the Groups section or shared accounts are not affected.
Warning
Group level operations are one-way and cannot be undone. Always carefully
consider the operation before proceeding. If you are unsure of the function or
behaviour, performing a backup prior to undertaking the operation is advised.
Other bulk user operations available under Bulk user actions include:
•
Adjust or set the users' credit (perform a transaction).
•
Change the users' restriction status
•
Modify account selection popup options
•
Reset the users' count statistics
•
Apply user level overrides like print cost adjustments, and disabling printer filters for a
user
•
Disable printing for a specified period of time
6.5. Using Overdrafts
The overdraft setting applies to restricted users (and restricted Shared Accounts). An overdraft allows a user to continue to use services even though their account has dropped below zero. In essence, the overdraft value moves the "zero-point" allowing users to overdraw the account to the agreed limit. An overdraft can also be referred to as a credit limit.
Reasons for using an overdraft include:
•
Provide users with flexibility between budget, quote or allocation periods. For example,
an overdraft will allow a user to "draw on" a portion the next month's quota allocation.
•
To Implement a credit system with credit limits rather than an up-front pay system.
•
Grant trusted users a "loan" on a case-by-case basis.
An overdraft can be defined at two levels:
1.
Globally as a default affecting all users and shared accounts.
2.
On an individual user or account basis.
The default overdraft is zero. This can be changed by Options → General → Account
Options → Default overdraft limit
Optionally, a separate overdraft can be applied to an individual user (or shared account)
using the following procedure:
1.
Click on the Users section.
2.
Select the user.
3.
Ensure the account is set as Restricted.
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Advanced User Management
4.
In the Overdraft field, select the option Individual overdraft.
5.
Enter a positive value in the adjacent overdraft balance field.
6.
Click Apply to save the changes.
Figure 6.4. Setting a user's overdraft to $20.00
6.6. Batch User Data Import and Update
The user data batch import and update feature allows the administrator to import users,
user information and optionally update existing users details by reading data from a simple
text file. It enables administrators to update the following user data:
•
Credit balance
•
Restriction status
•
Full name
•
Email address
•
Department
•
Office
•
Card/ID Number
•
Card/ID PIN
•
Notes
Examples of where the batch user details import feature is useful include:
•
To set the user email addresses that are stored in another system (like a student management system).
•
When importing user and balance data from another external or legacy system.
•
When moving user balances from previous Print-Limit editions to Print-Limit Pro.
For more information on using the batch import to import data from previous Print-Limit editions, please see Appendix F, Upgrading from Print-Limit Standard.
Tip
Print-Limit Pro is designed to import user information from the underlying system or network domain. The batch user data import feature is not designed to
replace this but rather complement it by allowing importing of user data from
other systems our sources. For information about managing a set of users in
addition to those in a user directory see Section 23.1, “Internal Users (users
managed by Print-Limit Pro)”.
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Advanced User Management
To perform a batch import:
1.
Manually inspect your file in a text editor and ensure it's in the prescribed tab-delimited
format as detailed at Section 6.6.1, “Batch User Import File Format”.
2.
Navigate to the Users section.
3.
Click the Batch import ... action (on the left).
4.
Click Browse to select the file to import. (The format of the file is described in Section 6.6.1, “Batch User Import File Format”).
5.
Choose whether you want the import to create new users if they do not already exist. If
you clear this checkbox, lines that contain users that do not exist will be ignored and
only existing users will be updated.
6.
Press the Import button.
7.
Upon completion you will be told how many users were updated and how many users
were created.
Caution
Batch imports are a major operation modifying data en masse. Best practise
suggests:
•
Always run a backup before proceeding with the import.
•
First experiment/test the import process with a small batch of users before
moving onto the full batch.
6.6.1. Batch User Import File Format
The import file is in tab delimited format and contains the following fields in the given order.
No.
Field
Description
Optional?
1.
Username
The user's
name
user- Mandatory
2.
Credit Balance
The user's
balance
credit Optional - balance
not set if blank
3.
Restricted Status
The user's restricted Optional - restricted
status. (Y/N)
status not set if
blank
4.
Full Name
The user's full name
5.
Email
The user's email ad- Optional - email not
dress
set if blank
6.
Department
The user's depart- Optional
84
Optional - full name
not set if blank
-
depart-
Advanced User Management
No.
Field
Description
Optional?
ment or faculty
ment not set if blank
7.
Office
The user's office or Optional - office not
location
set if blank
8.
Card/ID Number
The user's identity/ Optional - card/id
card number
number not set if
blank
9.
Card/ID PIN
The user's card PIN Optional - card/id
number
PIN not set if blank.
If the field is '-' then
the PIN is set to
zero.
10.
Notes
Notes
user.
about
the Optional - notes not
set if blank
Table 6.2. User Import File Format
Other limitations: Although any actual limit to the size of an import file should be large
enough for any purpose, we recommend keeping the file size below 10MB.
Tip
A simple way to create a tab delimited file is to create a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, and then save it in the Text (Tab delimited) format.
6.6.1.1. Import File Format Examples
The following lines shows importing all the above fields. (The fields are separated by tabs).
matt 20.00
103251
john 25.00
963254
Y Matt Johnson [email protected] Science Dept Head office \
NoteA
N John Jackson [email protected] Administration Other office \
NoteB
Note: backslash indicates text should appear on the same line.
The following lines shows importing user email addresses only. NOTE: That the tabs still
exist for balance, restriction, full name fields, but each entry is blank.
matt
john
[email protected]
[email protected]
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Advanced User Management
The following lines shows importing the credit balance and full name for the first user and
the credit balance and email address for the second user. NOTE: That the tabs characters
still exist for blank fields.
matt 10.00
john 15.00
Matt Johnson
[email protected]
6.7. Batch User Card/Identity Update
In Print-Limit Pro a unique card/identity number can be associated with each user. This
number may represent student or employee numbers and can assist in searching for a particular user using the quick find. (Do not confuse this number with the PrintCards.) The
number may also be used as an alternative to usernames/passwords for authentication at
software release stations, or at hardware terminals attached to photocopiers.
The batch user card/ID update feature allows the administrator to update user card/ID
numbers and optionally import or update PINs by reading data from a simple text file. User
card/ID numbers may also be imported using the batch user import/update feature (see
Section 6.6, “Batch User Data Import and Update”) or from a directory server such as Active Directory or LDAP (see Section 12.2.2, “Importing Card/Identity numbers from Active
Directory or LDAP”).
Example: To update/import the card/ID numbers or PINs of all the users in the import.txt
file on a windows system.
C:\> cd C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win
server-command batch-import-user-card-id-numbers "C:\card numbers\im
Note that the import path should be quoted if it contains spaces.
Important
The card/ID number must uniquely identify a user, so care should be taken to
ensure that no two users have the same card/ID number. This means that the
card/ID numbers defined in the import file should be unique. If Print-Limit Pro
encounters a non-unique card/ID number that user will not be updated.
A batch user card/ID update may be performed by calling the batch-import-user-card-id-numbers server-command. Use of server-command is detailed in
Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)”. The import file format is detailed in
Section 6.7.1, “Batch User Card/Identity Update File Format”.
Caution
Batch updates are a major operation modifying data en masse. Best practise
suggests:
•
Always run a backup before proceeding with the import.
•
First experiment/test the update process with a small batch of users before
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Advanced User Management
moving onto the full batch.
6.7.1. Batch User Card/Identity Update File Format
The import file is in tab delimited format and contains the following fields in the given order.
No.
Field
Description
Optional?
1.
Username
The user's
name.
user- Mandatory
2.
User Card/ID Num- A unique card/ID Optional
(card/ID
ber
number for this user. number not set if
blank)
3.
User Card/ID PIN
The user's card/ID Optional
(card/ID
PIN.
PIN not set if blank)
Table 6.3. User Card/Identity Update File Format
Other limitations: Although any actual limit to the size of an update file should be large
enough for any purpose, we recommend keeping the file size below 10MB.
Tip
A simple way to create a tab delimited file is to create a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, then save it in the Text (Tab delimited) format.
6.8. Disabling user printing with time latches
Print-Limit Pro allows printing to be disabled for particular users using time-based locks.
These time latches allow a user's printing to be disabled for a predetermined amount of
time. After this time has passed, the user's printing is re-enabled without the need for
manual intervention. Some examples of where time latches may be useful include:
•
Student discipline - Under some circumstances it might be useful to disallow printing for
a student who has been misbehaving in class, abusing computer resources or for other
disciplinary reasons. The user's printing can be disabled for the duration of a class, or
indefinitely. Once the time period has passed, printing will automatically be enabled for
this user.
•
Classroom Management - Using the bulk user actions screen, printing can be disabled
for a group of users. This can be useful to stop a classroom from printing for a period of
time.
•
User Management - If a employee or student is away for an extended period of time
and may return, printing can be disabled so that their details and balance is unchanged
but no-one can use their account for printing.
The disable printing option is located on each user on the user details screen.
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Advanced User Management
Figure 6.5. User printing disabled using a time-latch
6.9. User Management Quick Reference
How do I add credit to a user?
Select the user from the groups list, and click on the adjust link next to the credit or select
the Adjustment & Charges tab.
How do I add a new user to the system?
Print-Limit Pro will automatically add users to the system the first time they print. If your
new user initial settings rules are defined correctly under groups section, the user will automatically be created with the designated starting credit and settings.
If you have added a large batch of new users, you can force the addition of these users immediately via the User/group synchronization option under the Options section. For
more information see Section 12.2, “User and Group Synchronization”.
How should I make a change to more than one user?
If you need to make a change to more than one user, consider using the Bulk user actions link located under either the User or Groups section. This allows bulk modification of
user settings based on their network group membership. See Section 6.4, “Bulk User Operations”.
How do I grant administrator access to a trusted person to manage a group of
users?
Administrator level access can be granted to trusted individuals. See Section 4.7,
“Assigning Administrator Level Access”. By using advanced access control rights, administrators can be limited to a subset of users (a group) via the option Limit access to users
only in group.
How can I prevent new users from being added automatically?
See Section 12.2.3, “On Demand User Creation”.
Due to technical reasons I'm unable to create new groups in my domain. Can I create
groups in Print-Limit Pro?
Yes. Groups may also be defined via a text file (e.g. a tab-delimited file). Simply place your
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Advanced User Management
group
definition
file
at
the
location
[app-path]/server/data/conf/additional-groups.txt. See the template file
additional-groups.txt.tmpl in the same directory for an example and further information.
I have two different networks with different username naming conventions (e.g.
j.smith and jsmith). Is this supported?
Yes. There is a username aliases file that can be used to map usernames in one format to
the format expected by Print-Limit Pro. Aliases are defined in the file
[app-path]/server/data/conf/username-aliases.txt. See the comments in
this file for more information.
Can I manage my own set of users inside Print-Limit Pro (as well as / instead of importing users from a user directory)?
Yes. Print-Limit Pro is designed to keep user management simple and automated, but it is
possible to manage users inside Print-Limit Pro as well as or instead of using users from a
user directory. Users managed by Print-Limit Pro are termed internal users. For more information see Section 23.1, “Internal Users (users managed by Print-Limit Pro)”.
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Chapter 7. Advanced Printer
Management
This section covers some of the more advanced printer management tasks. Advanced
printer management can be grouped into the following high-level concepts:
•
Activity monitoring
•
Encouraging appropriate use
•
Managing the addition of new printers
This section addresses these management areas and covers tools available in Print-Limit
Pro to assist administrators.
7.1. Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers
7.1.1. On Windows
Print-Limit Pro tracks all print queues local to the system by default. Local print queues are
those that have been set up on the server running Print-Limit Pro with a local port, such as:
a TCP/IP connection to a network printer, an LPR connection, or a printer attached locally
via USB or LPT. Standard Windows print queues that are hosted on a different system, or
“re-shared”, are not tracked (these queues may be tracked by setting up a secondary print
server, see Chapter 14, Configuring Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached
Printers).
New print queues added to the system should show up automatically in Print-Limit Pro,
however in some rare situations the printer may only show up after the first print job has
been sent.
Under some situations it may not be desirable to track all printers. Some examples of why
an administrator may choose not to monitor a printer include:
•
The printer is a “virtual printer” such as a PDF generator, FAX, or document management program.
•
The administrator may wish to offer free printing on a selected printer and not be concerned with monitoring (silent monitoring with a zero page cost will also achieve this).
•
The printer may not be supported by Print-Limit Pro and may need to be ignored.
The Print Provider component is responsible for locating and tracking the printers. To instruct it to ignore a printer:
1.
Open the file [app_dir]\providers\print\win\print-provider.conf in a
text editor such as Notepad.
2.
Locate the line IgnorePrinters= and enter the full name of the printer on the righthand-side of the equals line. For example:
IgnorePrinters=Office Printer
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Advanced Printer Management
Note: This is the printer's locally assigned name and not the name of its network
share.
If you have multiple printers to ignore, then separate the each printer name with a
comma. For example:
IgnorePrinters=Office Printer,Copy Room Printer
3.
Restart (stop then start) the Print-Limit Print Provider component under
Start → Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Services
4.
If the printer data is no longer required for reporting purposes, log into Print-Limit Pro's
admin interface and select the Printers section, then click on the printer to be removed and select Delete printer from the Actions list.
5.
Test the changes by printing to the deleted printer and ensuring the printer does not
re-register itself in the system. It if does, verify the name assigned under the IgnorePrinters= setting is correct.
7.1.2. On Mac
The list of monitored printers is configured when installing Print-Limit Pro. To change the
list of monitored printers, run the script at /Applications/Print-Limit Pro/
Control Printer Monitoring.command. Please read the script's instructions carefully and ensure that the Print Setup Utility is closed/quit when running this script.
After running the script the printers should now be registered. Log into Print-Limit Pro as
admin and verify that the printers are now listed under the Printers section. Perform a test
print on each printer and verify that the jobs are tracked correctly.
Note
At the technical level, Mac systems use the Common UNIX Printing System
(CUPS). Print-Limit Pro tracks printing by integrating with CUPS. (For system
administrators familiar with CUPS, Print-Limit Pro integrates by wrapping or
proxying the CUPS backend). The Control Printer Monitoring.command script simply edits the file /etc/cups/printers.conf and prefixes
the DeviceURI with printlimit:, enabling monitoring on the selected printer.
System administrators experienced with the terminal may prefer to edit the
printers.conf file directly with a text editor. See Section 7.1.3, “On Linux”
for more details.
To delete a printer:
1.
Double click on the Control Printer Monitoring.command script.
2.
Choose to disable monitoring on the printer(s) to delete.
3.
If the printer data is no longer required for reporting purposes, log into Print-Limit Pro's
admin interface and select the Printers section, then click on the printer to be removed and select Delete printer from the Actions list.
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Advanced Printer Management
4.
Test the changes by printing to the deleted printer and ensuring the printer does not
re-register itself in the system. It if does, verify that it is not being monitored using
Control Printer Monitoring.command.
7.1.3. On Linux
Print-Limit Pro tracks printing by integrating with the Common UNIX Printing System
(CUPS), the printing system on Linux. For a printer to be tracked, CUPS needs to be told
to route print jobs through Print-Limit Pro before printing.
To do this, the printers.conf file must be edited. This can either be done manually, or
assisted via the configure-cups script.
To
use
the
script,
run
the
script
file
at
[app-dir]/providers/print/linux-*/configure-cups. Please read the script's
instructions carefully to enable monitoring on the desired printers.
To edit the file manually:
1.
Open your printers.conf in a text editor such as vim. On most Linux distributions
printers.conf is located at /etc/cups/printers.conf.
2.
Prepend printlimit: to the DeviceURI of the printers you wish to track. After the
modification a DeviceURI line might look like:
DeviceURI printlimit:ipp://1.2.3.4/printers/My_Printer
3.
Restart CUPS in the way appropriate to your distribution. E.g.:
/etc/init.d/cupsys restart
4.
Perform a test print on each printer. This will cause the printers to be registered. This
step is not required with the configure-cups script, because the script registers the
printers automatically.
5.
The printers should now be registered. Log into Print-Limit Pro as admin and verify
that the printers are now listed under the Printers section. Verify that the test prints
sent previously were tracked correctly.
To delete a printer:
1.
Double click on the configure-cups script (or manually edit printers.conf), and
choose to disable monitoring on the printer(s) to delete.
2.
If the printer data is no longer required for reporting purposes, log into Print-Limit Pro's
admin interface and select the Printers section, then click on the printer to be removed and select Delete printer from the Actions list.
3.
Test the changes by printing to the deleted printer and ensuring the printer does not
re-register itself in the system. If it does, verify that it is not being monitored using
configure-cups.
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Advanced Printer Management
7.2. The Template Printer
The Information Technology field is a rapidly moving environment. Change is driven by two
main forces:
•
Business and end-user requirements
•
Technology advances
It is change that often consumes a network administrator's time. Print-Limit Pro endeavors
to alleviate some of the more mundane tasks via automation. The New User Initial Settings section under Groups assists with the creation of new user accounts. The addition of
new printers, although less common, is also inevitable. Print-Limit Pro helps administrators
streamline new print setup using a concept of a template. A template is a pattern or initial
condition used as a starting point. Print-Limit Pro has a special virtual printer called the
[template printer]. This is not a real printer, but a special printer used as a template
for printers added in the future.
The [template printer] is best described by an example:
1.
Jane is a network administrator at a local business. She has implemented a print
policy across all printers as follows:
a.
The page cost for a standard page is $0.10.
b.
Double sided printing is encouraged with a 40% discount.
c.
A filter exists on all printers to prevent jobs of over 100 pages. This prevents
users from holding up the queues with large single jobs.
2.
Jane has set up her policy on all existing printers and then adjusted settings on a printer-by-printer basis depending on the type and functions.
3.
She has also set up this policy on the [template printer].
4.
Two months later Jane adds 4 new printers. No change in Print-Limit Pro needs to
take place as the printers automatically set themselves up based on the settings in the
[template printer].
5.
When Jane has spare time later in the month she fine tunes printer configuration as
required.
As the example shows, the template printer not only helps alleviate future configuration
work, but also ensures a consistent policy is applied on printers by default. It brings PrintLimit Pro one step closer to the "zero-administration" goal.
It is recommended the administrators take a few minutes to configure the template printer
on any network of more than 100 users.
Figure 7.1. The Template Printer
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Advanced Printer Management
7.3. Copying Printer Settings
Another way to quickly configure printers and have a consistent charging policy is to copy
printer settings (costs, filters, etc.) from one printer to another.
Warning
Copying settings to printers is a one-way operation and cannot be undone. Always carefully consider the operation before proceeding. If you are unsure of
the function or behavior, performing a backup prior to undertaking the operation is advised.
To copy printer settings from one printer to another:
1.
Navigate to the Printers tab.
2.
Select the printer you wish to copy the printer settings from. The Printer Details
screen appears.
3.
Click the Copy settings to other printers action link.
4.
Choose which settings to copy. There is a choice of the cost and the filter settings.
5.
Select the printers to copy the settings to.
6.
Press Copy to perform the copy.
Figure 7.2. Copy settings from one printer to others
7.4. Disabling printers with time latches
A new feature introduced in Print-Limit Pro is time latch based locks. Time latches allow a
printer to be disabled for a predetermined amount of time. After the disable time has ex94
Advanced Printer Management
pired, the printer is re-enabled without the need for manual intervention. Some examples of
where time latches may be useful include:
•
Printer maintenance - A printer may be consistently jamming and require maintenance.
The administrator can lock the printer for 24 hours until the maintenance is performed.
Users receive a notification message if they try to use the locked printer.
•
Classroom management in schools - A teacher may wish to disable printer use to force
students to focus on their work for the duration of the class. The printer can be locked
for the duration of the class. After the class has finished the printer is re-enabled automatically ready for the next class.
The disable option is located on each printer under the printer configuration area.
Figure 7.3. Printer disabled using a time-latch
7.5. Managing printing using differential charging
In a quota-based or charged environment, one of the most important tools at the administrator's disposal is the ability to charge different amounts for different types of documents
or on different types of printers. Printers are designed for a particular task and a particular
work rate. For example an inkjet color printer is ideal for photos or the occasional color
page but should not be used print 1000-page black and white documents when the heavy
duty laser printer is located just down the corridor.
Print-Limit Pro allows administrators to:
•
Charge different cost-per-page amounts for each printer
•
Charge different amounts based on the type of document including:
•
Discounts for black and white printing
•
Discounts for double-sided or duplex printing
•
Different amounts based on the size of the page
Administrators can use differential charging to encourage users to use the correct printer
and printer settings for the task at hand. This ensures maximum utilization of the resources
available.
Example: David is a network administrator at a local university. The printer comparison
charts in Print-Limit Pro suggest that one of the printers on the 4th floor in the computer
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Advanced Printer Management
science wing is only used half as much as other printers. Upon investigation he finds that
students prefer to use the closer printer located in the corridor outside the lab. David decides to relocate the printer at the end of semester. In the meantime he encourages its use
by reducing the price thereby taking load off the other printers.
7.5.1. Charging modes available
Print-Limit Pro offers a very powerful array of charging rule possibilities. To help simplify
configuration, charging options are divided into modes.
7.5.1.1. Simple Mode
Simple mode is the default mode and is appropriate to all types of printers. It allows administrators to define a simple cost-per-page setting only. For example if the cost per page
was defined at $0.10, 50 pages would cost $5.00.
7.5.1.2. Charging by Category
Category based charging is the most commonly used mode for printers that support advanced print attributes including:
•
Duplex or double-sided printing
•
Color or Black & White printing modes
•
Multiple paper trays offering standard and large sizes
Category based charging allows administrators to define costs based on the document's
attributes. Black and white (grayscale) documents can be granted a discount over full color. An option also exists to discount and encourage double-sided printing. Discounts can
be applied either as fixed amounts or as a percentage of document cost.
A practical example, Mary has a color printer that supports letter and legal paper and duplex. She would like to define rules to:
•
Charge $1.00 per page for letter (standard size) color printing.
•
Charge $0.40 per page if the users select grayscale (black & white) - a $0.60 discount
for grayscale
•
Charge an extra $0.80 if they use large legal size paper
•
Offer a 50% discount for duplex to encourage double sided printing.
To accomplish this complex set of charging rules, Mary should setup the Advanced charging options for the particular printer as defined in the screenshot below.
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Advanced Printer Management
Figure 7.4. Advanced differential charging example
7.5.1.3. Charging by Paper Sizes
The charging by paper size mode is designed for printers with multiple trays and a variety
of available paper sizes. Administrators have full flexibility to define cost for each of the paper sizes support by the printer. For example, printing a letter size page would cost less
than printing a legal size page. This mode includes options to enable discounts for grayscale and/or duplex jobs. Discounts can be applied either as fixed amounts or as a percentage of document cost.
7.5.1.4. Charging by Paper Area
This mode is designed for plan printers, plotters or printers that support a variety of paper
sizes. For example, many engineering firms use these types of printers for plotting CAD
design diagrams. Charging by area allows the cost of the print job to be a function of the
paper area.
7.5.1.5. Charging by Paper Length
This mode is designed for plotters or printers that use a paper roll or fixed width media.
Charging by length allows the cost of the job to be a function of the paper/plot length.
7.5.2. How duplex discounts are calculated
Many of the supported cost modes allow a discount to be applied to printing duplex documents. The discount is entered as either a percentage or a constant amount per page. It is
important to understand that Print-Limit Pro counts a single side of printing as a one page.
For example, if you have a 50 page Word document, Print-Limit Pro will count this as a 50
page document, whether it is printed single-sided or duplex.
When calculating the cost of a job, the duplex discount is only applied to pages when there
is printing on both sides of a sheet paper. If a document contains an odd number of pages,
the duplex discount is not applied to the last page. For example, if a 11 page document is
printed as duplex, the duplex discount is applied to the first 10 pages, but not the last page.
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Advanced Printer Management
Some printers allow multiple copies of a document to be printed as a single job. Print-Limit
Pro will calculate the cost using the above rules. i.e. If a copy contains an odd number of
pages, it will not apply the discount to the last page of each copy.
7.6. Using filters and restrictions
Print-Limit Pro offers advanced filter options to provide network administrators with the ability to filter or restrict print jobs using a set of rules. Filtering options available include:
•
Restrict printer access to one or more user groups
•
Detect and delete duplicate print jobs
•
Define the maximum cost of a single print job
•
Define the maximum number of pages allowed in a single print job
•
Filter documents based on the file extension or name
•
Allow only selected paper sizes
•
Set a printer to allow only color or black and white documents
Each printer has its own set of restrictions. The rules can either apply to all users or restricted users only (the filter scope). You access these settings by selecting the appropriate printer in the charging list and clicking the Filters tab.
Figure 7.5. Some of the available printer filters and restrictions
The printer restrictions provide network administrators with advanced control over printer
usage. Some common examples include:
7.6.1. Reduce printer jams
Many printers expect print jobs to be on single size of paper, or maybe two sizes if the
printer has multiple paper trays. A non-standard size will cause the printer to enter a manual load state causing the queue to halt. Print-Limit Pro Filters section allows Administrators
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Advanced Printer Management
select the allowed sizes. Non-standard sizes are automatically deleted before they're sent
to the printer. It's an effective way of reducing one of the most common causes of queue
jams.
7.6.2. Controlling documents on slow Inkjets
Inkjet printers have very low throughput rates. A large color document can hold up a queue
preventing other users from getting their "fair share" of print time. By setting an upper page
count via the printer's Filters section, network administrators can prevent large print jobs.
The page count forces users to split up large documents and allows other users access to
the printer.
7.6.3. Automatically deleting duplicate jobs
Print-Limit Pro can also monitor the print queues and automatically delete duplicate print
jobs. This option is useful on networks with novice users. New users often "double click" an
application's printer icon causing two identical print jobs to be sent to the queue. This
wastes paper and users' print quota. Network administrators can enable duplicate job detection via the Filters section. A popup message warns the user and the duplicate job is
removed from the queue.
Important
This option can affect multiple prints from Microsoft Excel and some other applications. Users wishing to print multiple prints from Excel may need to reprint
the document 30 seconds apart.
7.6.4. Force sensible use
Restrictions can be set to define a maximum cost per job. This will prevent users from accidentally spending all their credit/quota in one print job.
7.6.5. Automatically deny documents based on file extension or name
There are many reasons why users should not print certain files. For example, maybe a report from the accounting application consists of 400 pages. Users may not be aware of this
and "accidentally" print the report expecting only a few pages. Print-Limit Pro can be configured to match this document via its name and automatically deleted it from the queue.
Use the Filters keyword filter to implement this functionality.
Additionally it's also possible to filter documents based on file extension by entering a
keyword like .htm or .pdf.
To filter a document name based on a regex (regular expression), enclose the keyword in
forward slashes. Note that the regex matches the entire document name. For example:
•
To disallow printing of any documents ending in .htm:
/.*\.htm/
•
To disallow printing documents of the form account-12345.pdf:
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Advanced Printer Management
/account-\d*\.pdf/
Important
This is not a security option. It is easy to circumvent the filter by simply renaming the document. Some systems may not even report type information!
7.6.6. Control who can print in color (Advanced)
By combining Print-Limit's ability to restrict color printing (allow only grayscale), and standard printer access permissions, it's possible to control which users have access to color
printing.
To implement:
1.
On the print server, set up two print queues that point to the same physical printer.
Call one queue Grayscale Only and the other Color. You will now have two printer
icons (logical printers) each connected to the same physical printer.
2.
Share the printers as normal.
3.
Set Windows access permissions on each queue as required. Users that require color
access should be able to print to the color printer. Other users should only be provided
access to the "black and white" only printer.
4.
Add the printers to Print-Limit Pro and define appropriate costs.
5.
From the printer's Filters & Restrictions tab in Print-Limit Pro ensure that the Color
Mode restriction is configured to Allow grayscale documents only on the grayscale
printer.
7.6.7. Advanced Setups
Print-Limit Pro provides printer management features that can be easily extended to more
advanced network setups including:
•
Environments with multiple print servers
•
Monitoring of locally attached network printers.
•
Central monitoring over Wide Area Networks (WAN) or VPN.
These topics are an advanced subject and covered in subsequent sections.
7.7. Charge Rates
Charge Rates are used in conjunction with the User Client's Advanced Popup (see Section 8.4.2, “Advanced Account Selection Popup”). They allow an administrator to define a
user selectable list of different rates that can be applied to the current print job. The rate,
defined as a percentage, is applied to the print job's cost. Charge Rates are commonly
used in the Engineering and Architectural Drafting fields. Examples include:
•
Charging different rates for premium print material. For example 150% for use of Mylar
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Advanced Printer Management
drafting film.
•
Offering a discount of selected situations. A 2nd copy of an architectural plan printed on
draft quality paper may be charged at 50% normal rate.
•
Ad-hoc discounting for selected customers/circumstances.
Charge Rates are defined at the printer level - that is, the list of rates can vary depending
on the target printer selected. The rates are defined in the format:
Rate1:100%,Rate2:150%,Rate3:75%
(A comma separated list of rates in the format of "Name" and "Rate" separated by a colon)
A rate above 100% will add a premium to a job, while one below 100% will discount the job
accordingly. The first rate listed in the default rate and is automatically selected in the Advanced Client Popup. If the option Always require manual selection is enabled then the
default selected rate will read “Select...”, requiring that users manually select a charge rate
every time they print.
Figure 7.6. Three charge rates defined at the printer level
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Figure 7.7. Charge rates displayed in the Advanced Client Popup
7.8. Popup Authentication
Print-Limit Pro normally relies on the underlying operating system and the associated print
queues to perform authentication. For example, in normal operation, a user logs into a
workstation using a domain/network level authentication method such as a username and
password. The print queues also use this authentication and Print-Limit Pro can trust the
supplied identity. However in some network environments, relying on network level authentication may either not be possible, or may not be reliable. Common examples include:
•
All users log in with a common generic username and password meaning that it's not
possible to distinguish between users.
•
A print queue that does not enforce authentication.
For a detailed explanation of print authentication, please Chapter 20, Print Authentication.
7.8.1. Where Popup authentication is used
Some real life examples covering these two situations include:
7.8.1.1. The Student Lab
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Some student labs are set up so everyone logs in using a generic username and password. For example, username: student, password: student. This is common in Apple Mac
labs, where enabling multi-user authentication is complex and can often prevent selected
applications from running correctly.
7.8.1.2. LPR/LPD or CUPS
The Line Printer Daemon print protocol, often used in UNIX environments, is a nonauthenticated system. The username associated with the print jobs is passed through to
the print queue, however the name is not verified and can easily be forged. An extra level
of authentication is required.
CUPS, the modern print system often used on Linux, Apple Mac and some Unix systems,
is often implemented in a non-authenticated fashion. Although CUPS can support authentication, technical considerations such as the inability to interface with Active Directory domain authentication often prevent its use.
7.8.1.3. Mac Print Queues
Mac OS X server use the CUPS print system. Current Apple implementations prevent administrators from enabling CUPS authentication. This is not usually a problem in an environment where logins can be controlled at individual workstation level. It does however
pose a problem if users have local admin access - for example, individual owned laptops.
Print-Limit Pro popup authentication provides a way to work around the non-authentication
issue.
More information, including a discussion of platform specific issues is available in
Chapter 20, Print Authentication.
7.8.2. How does popup authentication work?
The popup authentication works by authenticating the user via the Print-Limit Pro
software. The client software pops up a window requesting the user's username and
word. The password is sent to the server via an SSL encrypted connection and is
ated. On successful validation, a session is formed that associates the user with this
station. The session is valid for a length of time as selected by the user - the default
5 minutes - or until the user logs out.
client
passvalidworkbeing
7.8.3. Configuration
The following sections cover how to enable popup authentication on either the user account level or the print queue level.
7.8.3.1. Popup authentication and generic user accounts
The following notes explain how to enable popup authentication when a user logs in under
a generic user account - for example, student.
•
Add the account to the domain called student. You may already have such as account set up.
•
Perform a User/Group Sync or print a job from this account so the username is listed
in Print-Limit Pro
•
Select the generic user and set the account to a zero balance and a restricted status.
This will ensure that users can't charge against this account.
•
Check the Unauthenticated option and click on the Apply button to save the changes.
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Figure 7.8. Turning on popup authentication at the user level
•
Install client software on workstations. See Section 5.2, “User Client” for details.
•
When a user logs in as the generic student, they will be prompted for their domain
level username and password.
Figure 7.9. Print-Limit Pro client requesting for authentication
7.8.3.2. Popup authentication on a print queue
The following notes explain how to enable popup authentication when a user attempts to
print to a non-authenticated printer such as one hosted via an LPR/LPD queue or a CUPS
print queue:
•
Add the printer to the system and normal. Perform a few test prints to ensure the printer
is functioning and tracking as expected.
•
Log into Print-Limit Pro and check the Unauthenticated option under the relevant print
to enable the popup authentication.
•
Install the client software on any workstation that will print to this printer. See Section 5.2, “User Client” for details.
•
When a user attempts to print to this printer, they will be prompted for their username
and password.
7.8.3.3. User Interaction
When running in popup authentication mode, the client makes available a number of additional options including:
•
Logout
•
Login as another user
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The Logout option is available on Windows via either the right-click option on the task try
icon, or when running on Mac or Linux, via a right-click popup menu (Option Click) access
via the icon on the balance window.
The Login as... option is made available if the client starts as an unauthenticated user.
This option allows users to authenticate or quickly switch user identity.
7.8.3.4. Advanced Popup Configuration
The login box displayed to the user offers the choice of how long their authentication details should remain active. An administrator can control the options presented to the user
by modifying the following system configuration keys. These configuration keys are edited
under Options → Actions → Config editor (Advanced)
Config name
Description
client.config.auth.ttl-values
A comma separated list of values to display
in the popup authentication login box. Positive numbers represent the number of
minutes to remember the authentication for.
The value of 0 indicates that the authentication is remembered for "this print job only".
The value of -1 indicates that the authentication is remembered until the user logs
out or exits the client. The value of -2 indicates that the authentication is remembered indefinitely, even after restarting
the client. For security reasons the client
does not save the password. Instead a
server generated cookie is placed in a file
in the user's home directory.
The default is: 1,5,15,30,60,-1
client.config.auth.ttl-default-minutes
The default time-to-live value automatically
selected when the login authentication window displays.
cliDetermine if the client should request auent.config.auth.popup-on-startup-if-unauthe thentication when the client starts if the opnticated
erating system user is unauthenticated. Set
to Y (yes = enabled) or N (no = off).
Table 7.1. User Client Popup Config Keys
Important
User client tools that are already running will pick up changes made via the
config editor the next time they are restarted.
Please see Section 12.8, “ Using the Config Editor ” to find out how to change config keys.
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Advanced Printer Management
7.9. Color Detection
The color detection setting determines the method used by Print-Limit Pro to analyze documents for the presence of color. Changing the detection method may require some additional printer configuration. Please read this section in its entirety.
The standard way used by Print-Limit Pro to handle color in documents is to see if the
printer's driver has set the grayscale flag. When this flag has been set on a document
sent to a color printer, the grayscale discount is applied. Otherwise, the document is
charged at the printer's standard rate. This may be an inconvenience for users when a
large document is printed with just a few color pages.
For example, a user prints a 21 page document to a color printer. The document is all grayscale except for a color header on the first page. When using standard color detection, the
user is charged for 21 pages at the color printer's standard rate. As a workaround, the user
could send the document as two print jobs (one with just the first page containing color,
and another with the rest of the document), but this is an inconvenience. An enhanced alternative is to use page-level color detection. When this option is selected, the user would
be charged for one page at the color printer's standard rate, and receive the grayscale discount for the other 20 pages.
Print-Limit Pro has three options for document color detection:
•
Grayscale only (for grayscale printers)
•
Standard color detection (also referred to as document-level detection)
•
Page-level color detection
The color detection setting is available for each printer controlled by Print-Limit Pro. To access the setting, click on a printer from the Printers tab to bring up the Printer Details
page.
Figure 7.10. The color detection setting for a printer
'This is a grayscale printer'
This option indicates that the printer is not capable of printing color documents, so color
detection should be bypassed. This will ensure that the color page count for this printer is
always zero.
'This is a color printer (use standard detection)'
When this option is active, documents are treated as being either grayscale (where a printer's driver has set the grayscale flag) or color. This mode is available in almost all color
printers, and is the standard color detection method in Print-Limit Pro. Where users print
documents containing both grayscale and color pages, this option encourages users to use
color printers only for their color printing.
'This is a color printer (use page-level detection)'
Page-level color detection is a relatively new feature for Print-Limit Pro (introduced in
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Advanced Printer Management
November 2006), and continues to be under active development. This feature scans each
page of a document for traces of color. The grayscale discount is applied to any grayscale
pages, and other pages are charged at the printer's standard rate.
Currently, Print-Limit Pro can perform page-level color detection with most PostScript,
PCL5 and HPGL printer drivers (with PCL6 support coming soon). Many manufacturers offer PostScript and PCL drivers as well as proprietary ones - check your printer manufacturer's website for availability.
Important: To use page-level color detection:
1.
Ensure the printer is using a PostScript or PCL5 printer driver on both the server and
workstations.
2.
Apply the page-level detection option for the printer in Print-Limit Pro.
3.
On Windows based servers the Print Provider service will be notified of the setting change every 2 minutes. This can be sped up by manually restarting (stop and
starting) the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider service via Control Panel →
Administrative Tools → Services. Linux and Mac systems will pick up the change
immediately.
4.
For Windows based servers, disable the setting Enable advanced printing features
on the Advanced tab of the printer's Windows Properties page. This option needs to
be changed on the print server. This forces documents to spool in the driver's native
PostScript or PCL language that Print-Limit Pro can analyze.
5.
Print a few test documents with both grayscale and color pages and ensure Print-Limit
Pro is correctly charging the document. The Print Log under the Printers tab is a
good place to monitor the detection in real-time.
Important
Ensure that the three conditions listed above are met before enabling pagelevel color detection. Page level color detection is a new and maturing feature
that the development team continues to enhace. If you do encounter any issues, please raise them with the development team.
7.9.1. Limitations of Page-Level Color Detection
Page level detection works by inspecting the contents of the document looking for color
use. The aim is to track down simple black and white only pages so it can offer the user the
grayscale discount on these pages. There are a few situations that may cause a seemingly
grayscale page to list as color - referred to as a 'false positive'. These situations are rare
and are discussed below:
•
The use of some image formats, even if they look grayscale, may detect as color. For
example, JPEG is a lossy format and artifacts as a result of compression may cause
speckles of color. Print-Limit Pro will handle most of these situations but grayscale
JPEG images in PDF files can cause false positives.
•
The use of 'color' white-space in Microsoft Word can cause a false positive with some
print drivers. For example, the user selects a color font, enters a single space or newline, and then changes back to black. Print-Limit Pro in most cases will correctly filter
out the 'color space' but may experience problems with some drivers leading to a false
positive.
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Advanced Printer Management
7.10. Toner Levels (for supported printers)
Managing printer toner on a large fleet of printers can be a time-consuming task. The administrator must track toner usage and ensure that replacement toner cartridges are available when printer toner runs out. Often the administrator is only made aware that a printer
is out of toner after receiving complaints from users. Print-Limit Pro can track the toner
levels for supported printers and provide toner level information in reports or email notifications when the toner is low.
Armed with this information the administrator can purchase toner supplies in advance and
replace toner cartridges before the printer runs out of toner. This saves the administrator
time and ensures that printer downtime is minimized.
For more information on low toner notifications see Section 12.5.2.2, “Printer low toner notifications”.
Figure 7.11. Toner level information on Printer Details screen
7.10.1. How toner level information is retrieved?
Print-Limit Pro retrieves toner information from supported printers using the SNMP network
protocol. Most modern network printers allow the toner information be queried via SNMP.
Print-Limit Pro can retrieve toner information for printers that meet the following requirements:
•
The printer is networked (i.e. it is connected to your network and not directly to a computer with a USB or parallel port).
•
The printer supports SNMP and it is enabled.
•
The printer supports the SNMP standard for printers (RFC 1759) that allows toner information to be retrieved in a standardized way. Most network printers support this
standard.
•
The Print-Limit Pro server can establish SNMP connections to the printer. Ensure that
your network (e.g. routers, firewalls, etc) allow SNMP connections between the PrintLimit Pro server and your printers.
Print-Limit Pro regularly updates the toner information to ensure the data is kept upto-date.
7.11. Printer Quick Reference
How do I view printing history?
Printing history can be quickly accessed via a number of areas. The most appropriate area
depends on the information required.
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Advanced Printer Management
•
To view a user's print history select the Print History under the user's details page.
•
To view recent print jobs printed on a printer, select Recent Jobs under the appropriate
printer's details page.
•
To view all print jobs printed on the network with advanced search and filtering options,
use the global Print Log under the Printers section.
How do I add a new printer?
On Windows systems, new printers will be added to the system automatically once the
printer is added to a monitored server. On a Mac or Linux system, after Print-Limit Pro is
enabled on the printer, it will list in the administration interface after first print. New printers
are assigned initial settings based on the configuration assigned to the [Template
Printer].
How do I delete a printer?
Once the printer has been removed from the operating system's print list, the printer may
be deleted from Print-Limit Pro via the delete printer action under the printer's detail page.
This action will remove the printer from the monitored list. Print history logs are still maintained allowing access to historical data. Always confirm your action before proceeding
with the delete!
How do I disable a printer?
Printers can be disabled indefinitely or for a specified time via the Disable option under the
printer's details section.
How do I tell Print-Limit Pro to ignore (not monitor) a printer?
By default on Windows systems all printers are tracked by Print-Limit Pro. The Print Provider can be instructed to ignore a printer by setting the IgnorePrinters= attribute in the
print-provider.conf file. A restart may be required for this to take affect. Note: This
setting only stops monitoring. The printer will continue to be listed under the printer list section until it is manually deleted via the Delete printer action.
For more information see Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
What can I use the printer notes field for?
The Notes field under each printer is useful for tracking all manner of information. Typical
uses include:
•
Tracking configuration changes
•
Recording maintenance and/or toner replacements
•
Documenting problems
•
Leaving notes/comments to assist other administrators.
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Chapter 8. Shared Accounts
Print-Limit Pro has two types of accounts - personal accounts and shared accounts. Each
user has a personal account. This is the default account charged under normal operation.
In some organizations and businesses it may be useful to provide users, or selected users
with the option to charge printing to a shared account. Some uses of shared accounts include ...
In business:
•
Allocate and budget printing by business areas (e.g. cost center)
•
Track printing by project, phase, client or account
•
Track printing by client/matter - popular in legal and accounting firms
In a school or university:
•
Budget staff use via shared faculty or department accounts
•
Provide share accounts for classes or subjects
•
Track printing costs by subject areas
Shared account scenario
East Beach High School has implemented Print-Limit Pro to control their printing. Students
are allocated a $5.00 a month budget. Pre-paid cards are sold at the library for students
who need extra credit above this allowance.
Teachers and staff are given a small personal budget to cover casual printing with curriculum material to be allocated to share accounts. Shared accounts exist for each faculty.
The network administrator has granted staff members access to the share account popup.
Access to faculty accounts is controlled via Active Directory group membership.
Sarah is a Science and English teacher at the school. When she prints she is able to allocate the print job to either her personal account or either the Science or English shared account via a drop-down list. She can also view the shared accounts balances from the User
web pages.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.1. Selecting a shared account with the User Client popup
Tip
To educate the users about shared accounts, administrators might find the
sample information sheet helpful.
8.1. Creating a Shared Account
Personal user accounts are automatically created when users are first imported into the
system. Shared accounts are created manually on an as-need basis. Normally shared accounts are created manually via the administration interface, however organizations with
many accounts and good IT skills can automate the account creation process by importing
accounts. Import options include via a file (for example Excel, or an export from a 3rd party
system) or by scanning an existing directory structure. More information on automatic importing can be found in Section 8.6, “Batch Shared Account Import and Update”.
To create a shared account:
1.
Log into Print-Limit Pro as an administrator (e.g. admin account).
2.
Select the Accounts tab.
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Shared Accounts
3.
Click the Create a new account action.
4.
Enter an appropriate name for the account. Account names should be as descriptive
as possible.
5.
Complete other details such as starting balance, restrictions status and notes as appropriate.
6.
Click the OK button to save the changes and return to the accounts list.
Figure 8.2. Creating a shared account
By default shared accounts default to an unrestricted status. This means that the account's
balance is allowed to drop below zero. Many organizations use shared account to track
printing expense. A common strategy is to start the account off at a zero balance and let it
count down into the negative. By setting the account to restricted and allocating an initial
starting balance, shared accounts can be used as a budget control system as printing to
the account is denied once credit is exhausted.
Tip
Print-Limit Pro has support for advanced parent/child account structures. The
subsequent account naming conventions section covers many of the common
practices. See Section 8.2, “Account Naming Guidelines” for more details.
Each account can also be assigned a PIN/Code that helps uniquely identify an account.
Many users use the codes to represent cost-centers, clients, projects, etc. These codes
are often also used in other systems (like the accounting system) to identify these accounts
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Shared Accounts
consistently across the organization. Once defined, these codes can be used in the client
software to quickly search for accounts, and can also displayed in account-based reports.
The account PIN/code can be entered on both parent and sub-accounts. For example, it is
common to use parent accounts to represent clients and sub-accounts to represent
projects for those clients. In this scenario, the parent account code would represent a client
code, and the sub-account code would represent the project code.
8.1.1. The Template Account
The [Template Account] is designed to save time by applying the most common settings to all newly created accounts. The [Template Account] can be found on the
Shared Account List page of the Accounts tab.
Figure 8.3. The template account
Any settings applied to the template account will be applied to new accounts when they are
created.
Figure 8.4. Template account settings
Some examples of where the template account might prove useful include:
•
Applying common security settings. For example, if the Staff group should have access to all accounts, adding the group to the template account will ensure group members can also charge to future accounts.
•
Applying a starting balance. The starting balance might represent the standard department print quota or the amount of 'free printing' a customer has before they are billed
for the excess.
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Shared Accounts
8.2. Account Naming Guidelines
Administrators are encouraged to create accounts as logically related groups. Doing so
makes for easier searching and charging, and better integration with existing accounting
systems.
Different account models may be adopted by organizations depending on their requirements. Common models are:
•
Faculty or Department - a simple flat list familiar to schools, colleges and Universities.
•
Client / Matter model - familiar to legal and accounting firms
•
Project / Phase model - familiar to engineering and technology firms
•
Customer / Job model - familiar to other customer based firms and common in accounting software
The following sections describe how to configure Print-Limit Pro to best match the three
advanced models.
8.2.1. Client / Matter Naming Model
The client / matter model is one with which legal and accounting firms are familiar. In this
model:
•
Top level accounts are created for each client
•
Sub-accounts are created for each matter under the relevant client
Usually, charging directly to a client (without a matter) is not allowed in this model. Instead
users should charge to the relevant matter. System administrators should set each top
level account to be inactive (disabled), and all sub-accounts to active, as shown in Figure 8.5, “Client / Matter Naming Model example”. This will enforce use of sub-accounts
only.
Figure 8.5. Client / Matter Naming Model example
As shown in the example, the shared account code is used as the client code for the top
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Shared Accounts
level client accounts, and the matter code for the matter sub-accounts. In the account list,
the sub-account codes are displayed as [parentCode]-[subCode]. For the shared account code to be visible, the option Make shared account PIN / code visible must be enabled. For more information see Section 8.9, “Advanced Shared Account Options”.
By including both the client/matter code and name, users are able to search for a particular
account by either client code, matter code, client name or matter name. The following examples demonstrate this:
1.
Searching by client name will display the client plus all matter codes for the client.
Figure 8.6. Searching accounts by client name in the client/matter code naming model
2.
Searching by client code will display the client plus all matter codes for the client.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.7. Searching accounts by client code in the client/matter code naming model
3.
Searching by matter name will display the matching matters plus the client for each
matching matter.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.8. Searching accounts by matter name in the client/matter code naming model
4.
Searching by matter code will display the matching matters plus the client for each
matching matter.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.9. Searching accounts by matter code in the client/matter code naming model
8.2.2. Project / Phase Naming Model
Engineering and IT firms will be familiar with the project / phase model:
•
Parent accounts are created for each project
•
Sub-accounts are created for each project phase or stage
Usually, charging directly to a project is not allowed in this model - instead users should
charge to the relevant project phase. System administrators should set each parent ac118
Shared Accounts
count to be inactive (disabled), and all the sub-accounts to be active, as shown in Figure 8.10, “Project / Phase Naming Model example”.
Figure 8.10. Project / Phase Naming Model example
When projects have a job or project number, it is recommended that it be included as the
shared account code. For the shared account code to be visible, the option Make shared
account PIN / code visible must be enabled. For more information see Section 8.9,
“Advanced Shared Account Options”.
By including the project name, project number and phase name, users can search for a
particular account using any of these fields. The following examples demonstrate this:
1.
Searching by project name or number will display the project plus all phases for that
project.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.11. Searching accounts by project name or number in the project/phase code naming model
2.
Searching by phase will display all matching project phases, plus the project name for
each phase.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.12. Searching accounts by phase in the project/phase code naming model
8.2.3. Customer / Job Naming Model
Organizations that deal with customers on a per-job basis will be familiar with the customer
/ job model, as will those who use common accounting software packages. In this model:
•
Parent accounts are created for each customer
•
Sub-accounts are created for each job
The basic principals of the customer / job naming model are the same as the project /
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Shared Accounts
phase naming model. See Section 8.2.2, “Project / Phase Naming Model”, substituting
project for customer and phase for job.
8.3. Client Security
By default all printing is automatically charged to the user's personal account. For a user to
be able to select a shared account the user needs to be granted access to account selection popup.
Figure 8.13. Selecting a shared account from the popup
Access to the account selection popup, as shown in the above figure, is controlled at the
user level on the user's details page. The Show the account selection popup option
needs to be selected for each user that requires access to shared accounts. System administrators might find the Bulk user actions section under the User List screen convenient for applying this change to many users.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.14. The user's popup settings under User -> User Details
Note
It is also possible to automatically charge printing to a single shared account
without the need for the popup. This can be useful in environments where a
user only ever needs to charge to a single shared account, and it is not desirable to display the popup.
Important
Users need to restart their workstation (or manually restart the Print-Limit client
software) for this change to take affect.
Users with the Show the account selection popup option enabled need to
be running the client software at all times. Print jobs will not print until the user
has selected the account.
In addition to granting users access to the popup they also need to be granted access to a
shared account. Shared accounts access can be controlled using two methods:
•
Network group membership
•
PINs (also known as security codes or passwords)
If an account is allocated a PIN (an alpha-numeric access code) users with knowledge of
the PIN can select the account. A PIN based system would be a sensible selection in an
organization when PINs are already in use for other systems such as photocopiers or door
access codes.
Tip
PINs/Codes can also be used when using parent and sub-accounts. To select
a specific sub-account from the client software, both the parent and sub123
Shared Accounts
account pins are required. They should be entered in the format of:
[parentPIN]-[subPIN] (i.e. they are separated by a hypen).
An alternate method is to delegate access to the shared account via network group membership. One advantage of group based control is that users do not have to remember
PINs. Most medium to large organizations will already have their network structured into
suitable groups representing their position, title, department or work area. These existing
groups may be used to control access. Access to shared accounts can also be granted on
an individual user basis, however best practice suggests group-based management for
medium to large networks.
Tip
In a Windows Active Directory environment, Organization Units are treated as
special groups. Hence they also can be used to control access to a shared account.
Controlling access to shared accounts via group membership rather than individual user accounts is recommended. By using group based control, new
users created on the network inherit the correct account access by virtue of
their network group membership. This alleviates the need for additional user
setup inside Print-Limit Pro.
To grant access to a shared account or all members in a given network group:
1.
Log into the system as an administrator (i.e. admin account).
2.
Select the Accounts tab.
3.
Select the appropriate shared account from the list.
4.
Click on the Security tab.
5.
Select the appropriate group from the drop-down list.
6.
Click the Add button.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.15. Setting up shared account security
Tip
Security settings of multiple shared accounts can be changed simultaneously
by clicking on the Bulk account actions... link under the Accounts tab. More
information is available in Section 6.4, “Bulk User Operations”.
8.4. The Account Selection Popup
The account selection popup is a feature of the User Client that allows allocating printing to
shared accounts. There are two types of account selection popup:
•
Standard account selection popup
The standard account selection popup provides the basic features required to charge to
shared accounts. It's ideal for sites with simple account structures.
•
Advanced account selection popup
The advanced account selection popup includes additional features that are suitable
when shared accounts are used frequently, and especially when many shared accounts
exist.
•
Automatically charge to a single shared account
This is a special mode that allows automatically charging all printing to a selected
shared account, without any user interaction or popup.
8.4.1. Standard Account Selection Popup
The standard account selection popup offers four account selection types:
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Shared Accounts
1.
Charge to personal account.
2.
Charge/allocate to a shared account selected by a PIN.
3.
Charge/allocate to a shared account from list (taking into account security settings).
4.
Perform print as another user (username and password required).
Figure 8.16. The standard account selection popup
When a user selects the a shared account, there is the option to:
1.
Charge the print to a shared account.
2.
Charge the print to personal account (and allocate to shared account for reporting).
The option to charge a to personal account allows printing to be tracked against shared accounts while allowing the use of user-based quotas. When this option is selected, the cost
of the print job is deducted from the user's personal account, but the job is allocated
against the shared account which allows for account based print reporting.
System administrators can control on a per-user basis what options are available in the
user's popup.
Note
Changes to the options available in the account selection popup come into ef126
Shared Accounts
fect immediately. There is no need to restart the client software for these settings to take effect.
Figure 8.17. Client popup options defined on a per-user basis
The Charge to personal account with popup notification option displays a popup with
no account selection features. This option is useful in environments where the system administrator desires to provide users with cost confirmation prior to printing.
Figure 8.18. The print job confirmation dialog (no account selection options)
Tip
To educate the users about the pop-up confirmation window, administrators
might find the End-user handout example helpful.
8.4.2. Advanced Account Selection Popup
The advanced account selection popup allows charging to personal or shared accounts,
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Shared Accounts
and has the following additional features:
1.
A searchable account list
The account list can be searched by the account name or code, making it much easier
to find an account when there are many in the list. The search can also be remembered for next time.
2.
Structured account list
The account list is hierarchical; that is, sub-accounts are shown indented from their
parent accounts for clarity.
3.
A preferred list of accounts
The most commonly used accounts can be saved to a list. This is a useful feature
when many accounts exist, but each user mostly just uses a few of them.
4.
A list of recently selected accounts
The accounts that have been recently selected are saved to a list for quick selection.
5.
Comments on print jobs
The advanced account selection popup allows assigning a comment to a print job for
future reference.
6.
Charge rates
Charge rates offer the ability to charge different rates per print job. For example, a
200% charge rate could be defined for manually loading photo paper (charge twice the
standard cost). Other common examples of charge rates include; Mylar Film, draft paper, draft printing mode, discounts for "special" customers/jobs, and extra for binding
and manual handeling. Charge rates are defined at the printer level and are documented in detail in Section 7.7, “Charge Rates”.
7.
Option to not show a print job on invoices
Sometimes there are print jobs that need to be allocated to an account but not appear
on any invoice reports. The advanced account selection popup has an option to allocate a 'non invoiceable' print job to an account.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.19. The advanced account selection popup
As in the standard account selection popup, there are two charging options for shared accounts:
•
Charge shared account
•
Charge personal account (and allocate to shared account for reporting)
8.4.3. Automatically charge to a shared account
This special account selection mode allows all printing to be automatically charged to a
single shared account, without user interaction or the need to run the User Client software
on the workstation. This mode is useful when a user will only ever charge printing to a
single shared account and does not want the inconvenience of responding the the account
selection popup then they print.
An example of where this would be useful is in a school or business environment where
shared accounts represent a department within the organisation. In this situation user printing should be automatically allocated to a single shared account without any user interaction. Although this can mostly be achieved with the standard account selection popup, it requires the user to respond to each popup when they print.
This option can be selected for an individual user, set on multiple users using the Bulk
User Actions or set in the initial user settings in the Group section. Once the Automatically charge to a shared account option is selected, then enter the account name to
charge. To select a sub-account the account name must be entered in the parent\sub-account format.
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.20. Account selection option to automatically charge to a shared account
8.5. Account Selection in Non-Domain Environments (Workgroups)
Many small networks may not be controlled via a central domain server. These networks
are sometimes referred to as workgroups or peer-to-peer networks. On these networks
users may not log on to their desktop, or computers may be shared by multiple users. The
Allow user to perform printing as another user option may be useful in non-domain/logon environments. User accounts can be set-up in the system hosting the printers
and users can select their account using usernames and passwords for each print job, irrespective of which user account is currently logged onto the workstation.
Figure 8.21. Configuration allowing only selection of other user accounts
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Shared Accounts
Figure 8.22. Popup requesting the user to enter their username and password
Tip
Print-Limit Pro can also be configured to manage its own set of user accounts.
See Section 23.1, “Internal Users (users managed by Print-Limit Pro)” for more
details.
8.6. Batch Shared Account Import and Update
The batch import and update feature allows the administrator to import accounts, and optionally update existing account details by reading data from a simple text file or directory
structure. In addition to being able to create accounts, it enables administrators to update
the following account data:
•
Enabled / disabled status
•
Account PIN / Code
•
Credit balance
•
Restriction status
•
Users allowed to use the account
•
Groups allowed to use the account
•
Invoicing options
•
Comment options
•
Notes
Examples of where the batch import feature is useful include:
•
When importing account and balance data from another external system (e.g. a project
management or accounting system).
•
To reset the account balances at the end of a billing period (year/term/semester).
•
To bulk update the users and groups who are allowed to use/access the accounts
(security).
Tip
To update shared accounts from a tab delimited file on a regular basis, see
Section 8.7, “Shared Account Synchronization” instead. You can also synchronize shared accounts against the directory structure of a file system, for
example when there is a separate folder for each department or customer.
To perform a batch import:
1.
Manually inspect your file in a text editor and ensure it's in the prescribed tab-delimited
format as detailed at Section 8.6.1, “Batch Account Import File Format”.
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Shared Accounts
2.
Navigate to the Accounts section.
3.
Click the Batch Import / Update action (to the left).
4.
Click Browse to select the file to import. (The format of the file is described in Section 8.6.1, “Batch Account Import File Format”).
5.
Choose whether you want to delete accounts that exist in Print-Limit Pro but not in the
import file.
6.
Press the Test Settings button.
7.
The window shown will tell you how many lines were processed, and how many
shared accounts will be imported, updated or deleted when Import is pressed.
8.
If you are happy with the results of the test, press the Import button.
Tip
Consider testing your import file format with a small sample first (e.g. maybe a
copy of the file containing only the first five lines). This way any formating mistake will only propagate to a few accounts rather than all!
8.6.1. Batch Account Import File Format
The import file is in tab delimited format and contains the following fields in the given order.
No.
Field
Description
Optional?
1.
Parent
Name
2.
Sub-account Name
When creating a Optional - account
sub-account (1 level will be top level if
deep only), enter its blank
name here.
3.
Enabled
Whether or not this Optional - account
account is enabled. will be enabled if
(Y/N where Y = blank
YES, and N = No).
4.
Account PIN/Code
The account PIN/ Optional - PIN not
Code. For parent ac- set if blank
counts, the code
must be unique for
all parent accounts.
For
sub-accounts,
the
code
must
Account The name of this ac- Mandatory
count's
parent.
When creating a top
level account, leave
the
sub-account
name blank (and
this will be the account's name).
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Shared Accounts
No.
Field
Description
Optional?
unique amongst accounts
with
the
same parent account.
5.
Credit Balance
The account
ance.
bal- Optional - Balance
set to 0 if blank
6.
Restricted Status
The account's re- Optional - if blank,
stricted status. (Y/N set to a configurable
where Y = YES, and default
N = No).
7.
Users
The usernames of Optional - users are
users that are al- not updated if blank
lowed to select this
account from the list
(no CODE/PIN required). The list of
users is pipe (|) delimited. To specify
that all access users
should be removed,
enter a hyphen (-).
8.
Groups
The groups that are Optional - groups
allowed to select this are not updated if
account from the list blank
(no CODE/PIN required). The list of
groups is pipe (|)
delimited. To reference the special 'All
Users' group, use
the syntax [All
Users]. To specify
that
all
access
groups should be removed, enter a hyphen (-).
9.
Invoice Option
The invoicing option Optional - set to
defines how prints USER_CHOICE_ON
allocated to this ac- if blank
count are invoiced.
Available values are:
ALWAYS_INVOICE prints allocated to
this account are always invoiced
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Shared Accounts
No.
Field
Description
Optional?
NEVER_INVOICE prints allocated to
this account are
never invoiced
USER_CHOICE_ON it is up to the user
whether or not to invoice prints allocated to this account.
The default is yes.
USER_CHOICE_OFF
- it is up to the user
whether or not to invoice prints allocated to this account.
The default is no.
10.
Comment Option
The comments option defines whether
or not comments
should be added to
prints allocated to
this account. Available values are:
Optional - set to
COMMENT_OPTIONAL if
blank
NO_COMMENT - comments may not be
added
COMMENT_REQUIRED comments must be
added
COMMENT_OPTIONAL - it
is up to the user
whether or not to
add a comment
11.
Notes
Notes about the Optional - notes not
shared
account set if blank
(placed in the Notes
field).
Table 8.1. Shared Account Import File Format
Other limitations: Although any actual limit to the size of an import file should be large
enough for any purpose, we recommend keeping the file size below 10MB.
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Shared Accounts
Tip
A simple way to create a tab delimited file is to create a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, and then save it in the Text (Tab delimited) format.
8.6.1.1. Import File Format Examples
The following lines shows importing all the above fields. (The fields are separated by tabs).
Maths
Y 12 5 N user1|user2 group1|group2 ALWAYS_INVOICE COMMENT_REQUIRED
Science Physics Y 1620 100 Y user3
NO_COMMENT A Note
Science Biology N 16 12.50 N
group3 USER_CHOICE_OFF
The following lines show updating only the groups that can access the account. NOTE:
The tabs still exist for the enabled status, pin, balance, restriction and users fields, but
each entry is blank.
Maths
group1|group2|group3
Science Physics
group1
Science Biology
group3
Tip
The shared account import process can be triggered via the command-line
scripting tool server-command. See Section A.1, “Server Commands
(server-command)”.
8.7. Shared Account Synchronization
The shared account synchronization feature allows the administrator to define an external
source for shared accounts. This is useful for situations where shared accounts are managed by an external system, and allows Print-Limit Pro to mirror the accounts without any
additional administration.
To enable shared account synchronization:
1.
Navigate to the Accounts section.
2.
Click the Account Sync tab.
3.
Choose appropriate settings. The available settings are discussed in Section 8.7.1,
“Synchronization Options”.
4.
Press Test Settings
5.
The window shown will tell you how shared accounts were processed, and how many
shared accounts will be imported, updated or deleted when Synchronize Now is
pressed.
6.
If you are happy with the results of the test, press the Synchronize Now button. This
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will trigger a shared account synchronization, and synchronization will continue to occur at the chosen interval.
8.7.1. Synchronization Options
Shared Accounts can be synchronized against two possible sources: a text file or a directory structure. This is configured in the first option on the Account Sync tab: Sync source.
•
Text file - Synchronize shared accounts against a text file. The format of this text file is
discussed in Section 8.6.1, “Batch Account Import File Format”.
•
File System Directory Scan - Synchronize shared accounts against a directory structure. Many organizations will have a 'Customers' folder or similar in their file system
which will contain one folder per customer. For example, given Customers/Client 1
and Customers/Client 2, synchronizing against the Customers directory will import Client 1 and Client 2 as shared accounts.
Tip
The location of the text file or directory (the sync source) is relative to the system where Print-Limit Pro is installed, not the system being used to access the
admin interface. The sync source should either be physically on that system,
or accessible via a mapped / mounted drive. Additionally, the source should
have permissions to be readable by the Local System account on Windows,
or the printlimit account on Mac or Linux.
The other options include:
•
File location / directory location - The location of the file or directory to sync against.
The location is relative to the server.
•
Perform sync - How often the account sync should take place. The available options
are Hourly and Overnight. If new accounts are being added regularly throughout the
day, Hourly is probably the best choice. The Overnight sync occurs nightly at approximately 1:15am.
•
Treat subdirectories as sub-accounts - This option is only available with directory synchronizing against a directory. When checked, subdirectories will be treated as subaccounts. For example, a directory structure of Customers/Client 1/Project 1
will produce a top level account called Client 1 and a sub-account of Client 1
called Project 1.
•
Delete accounts that do not exist in the selected source - This option will delete accounts that exist in Print-Limit Pro but not in the sync source. Use this option to clean
out 'old' accounts. This option is not 'remembered' for the automatic synchronization, so
accounts can only be deleted by checking this box and pressing Synchronize Now.
Deleting is a destructive operation. Don't forget to perform a test first and a backup is
also advised!
8.8. Bulk Shared Account Operations
A bulk shared account operation refers to an operation that is applied to more than one
shared account. There are occasions where the same task needs to be performed on multiple accounts. With a large number of shared accounts, it may take too long to perform the
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Shared Accounts
task manually on each one; this is where bulk account operations are useful.
Bulk account operations... can be found in the Actions list while on the Accounts tab.
Some examples of where bulk account operations might come in useful include:
•
Shared account balances need to be reset at the start of a new billing period.
•
A new printing policy or account model is being introduced, and needs to be rolled out
across all shared accounts.
•
Shared accounts are to be temporarily disabled. For example over the holiday period
when there should be no shared account based printing.
•
A particular group needs to be given access to all the shared accounts.
Warning
The bulk account operations are one-way and cannot be undone. Always carefully consider the operation before proceeding. If you are unsure of the function
or behaviour, performing a backup prior to undertaking the operation is advised.
The following tasks can be performed through bulk account operations:
•
Adjust of set the accounts' credit (perform a transaction)
•
Change the accounts' restriction status
•
Disable the accounts for a specified period of time
•
Change the invoicing option
•
Change the comments option
•
Change the security settings
8.9. Advanced Shared Account Options
It is possible to customize the functionality of shared accounts to suit a wide range of uses.
There are several advanced options available throughout Print-Limit Pro to control this customization:
•
Make shared account PIN/code visible
When this option is active, the purpose of the shared account PIN is changed. Usually
the PIN is equivalent to a password, and can be required before a user is able to
charge to a shared account. When this setting is active, the PIN is treated as a 'code'
instead; that is, a unique identifier for a given shared account. For example, an organization dealing with projects might allocate a shared account the project code 123.
When this option is active it has several effects throughout Print-Limit Pro, including:
•
The shared account list (on the Accounts tab) includes the shared account code.
•
Reports dealing with shared accounts display the code.
•
On the account selection popup dialogue of the user client tool, the code is visible
when entering (i.e. it is no longer hidden by stars). This allows charging to a shared
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Shared Accounts
account by code, rather than scrolling through the dropdown list to find the correct
account by name.
To activate this option:
•
•
Go to the Options tab
•
Check the option Make shared account PIN/code visible
•
Press Apply
Apply to all documents in queue
This option appears at the bottom of both the standard and advanced account selection
popups. When checked, the settings being applied to the current print job will be applied to all waiting jobs automatically. The text will let you know how many jobs this will
affect (e.g. "Jobs: 5").
This setting is useful when printing a batch of documents for the same purpose. For example, when printing a letter, diagram and spreadsheet for a client, the client account
can be selected on the account selection popup along with any other appropriate settings, and the settings will be applied to all three jobs. This saves the time taken to apply the settings for each job.
•
Changing the time after which jobs are deleted when awaiting popup response
If a user does not respond to the account selection popup after a defined time, their
print job will be automatically deleted. This is to prevent a buildup of old jobs in the print
queue. For more information see Section A.5, “User Client Options”.
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Chapter 9. Reports
A report is a representation of data, often in a printable tabular format. Print-Limit Pro
provides a set of built-in reports. These include simple pre-built reports accessed via oneclick, up to more advanced reports constructed using custom filters.
Tip
Print-Limit Pro is an open system. System administrators with database management experience may choose to run the system on an external database
system. 3rd party reporting tools can then be used to construct custom reports.
The Netop Development team can also consult on custom report development.
Reports can be produced by selecting the date range and then clicking on one of the report
format icons. Common date ranges, such as Last 30 days, and Previous Month can be
selected via the drop down box. The Ad-hoc option may be used to generate the reports
with custom date ranges and filters (e.g. generate a User printing - summaryreport limited to a particular department). A sample of each report can be seen by clicking on the
Show sample link. A sample report gives an indication of what the final report will look like.
Figure 9.1. An example report displaying different date ranges
Figure 9.2. Selecting Ad-hoc date ranges and filters for reports
9.1. Report types
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Reports
The one-click reports accessed under the Reports section can be grouped into the following areas.
9.1.1. User Reports
These are reports producing information about users. They range from a list of users, their
names and current account balance, to detailed reports listing all print jobs printed by a
user over a particular time-frame.
9.1.2. Printer Reports
Printer reports produce information on printers including configuration, usage summaries
and statistics.
9.1.3. Print Log Reports
The print log is a detailed list of all printing performed on the network. The print log reports
allow administrators to produce reports list all jobs over a given date range with simple
one-click version for today's print jobs and largest print jobs.
Figure 9.3. Printer log PDF report
9.1.4. Group Reports
These reports group printer usage by network group allowing system administrators to determine which group of users performs the most prints. These reports are ideal for gaining
a quick overview of printing costs performed by work area, department, floor, management
level, etc.
9.1.5. Shared Accounts Reports
Administrators may use the shared account reports to track printing allocated to shared accounts via the popup.
9.1.6. Transaction Reports
These provide a summary of the transactions / balance adjustments.
9.1.7. Environmental Impact Reports
These reports summarize the environment impact of printing.
9.1.8. Ratio Reports
These reports compare relative printing usage.
9.2. Report Formats
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Reports
All reports are available in three different formats. Access to all formats depends on the
software installed on your system. Alternate formats are accessed via the three icons located next to the report period drop down box.
Figure 9.4. Clickable report icons to run reports in different formats (PDF, HTML, CSV (Excel)).
There are three report formats available.
Format
Description
PDF Reports
PDF is the most appropriate format for
printing. To view these reports your computer must have a PDF viewer installed.
Adobe Acrobat Reader is a free PDF viewer available from adobe.com.
HTML Reports
HTML Reports will work on all systems and
don't require an external PDF viewer.
These reports may not print or format as
well as the PDF versions and are designed
for either a quick review of data or for systems that don't have a PDF viewer.
CSV/Excel Reports
The CSV/Excel reports can be used to access the data in plain text format. The
format is suitable for importing data into
programs such as Microsoft Excel.
Table 9.1. Report Formats
9.3. Combining Filters and Reports
All data list views in Print-Limit Pro have export/print option linked at the bottom of the list.
The export/print links run a report over the data currently displayed in the list. The lists
column order and filter options are taken into consideration when generating the report
data. This functionality can be used to produce ad-hoc or custom reports. This functionality
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Reports
is best described by example.
To run a report to see who and how much people have printed against a shared account
over the month of September:
1.
Navigate to the Accounts.
2.
Click on the appropriate shared account.
3.
Select the Print History tab.
4.
Click the Show Filters link.
5.
Select the 1st of September in the from date and enter the 30th of September in the
to date.
6.
Click Apply Filter button. The data displayed in this list should be all print jobs printed
against this shared account for the month of September.
7.
Click on the Summary by user link to produce the PDF report.
Figure 9.5. Filters applied to the shared account print log
To run a report listing all transactions issued against a user's account over the month of
September ordered by transaction amount:
1.
Navigate to the Users tab.
2.
Click on the appropriate user account. The user details page will display.
3.
Select the Transactions tab.
4.
Click the Show Filters link.
5.
Select the 1st of September in the from date and enter the 30th of September in the
to date.
6.
Click Apply Filter button.
7.
Click on the Amount column to order the data by amount value.
8.
Click on the Export/Print button at the bottom of the list to produce the report.
9.4. Scheduling and Emailing Reports
The one-click reports in the Print-Limit Pro web interface are good for finding important
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Reports
data fast, however sometimes it is more convenient to have important data 'pushed' to interested parties. This can be achieved through the use of scheduled reports.
Print-Limit Pro can schedule reports to run periodically and have them automatically sent
out via email. Scheduling reports can be used for a variety of purposes, for example:
•
Sending a department manager a summary of the department staff's printing.
•
Sending a teacher a summary of printing for each student in their class.
•
Producing a regular CSV report for import into an external system, such as an accounting package.
•
Producing a regular report for billing or invoicing purposes.
9.4.1. Usage
The scheduled reports page can be found at Reports → Scheduled Reports.
Important
Before scheduled reports can be sent via email, Print-Limit Pro needs to know
where to find the SMTP server (outgoing email server). For information about
how to configure email sending, see Section 12.5.1.3, “Configuring Email Notifications”.
Figure 9.6. The Scheduled Reports page
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Reports
To create a scheduled report, choose the desired report options and press Add. The process is best described by way of example:
9.4.1.1. Example 1: Faculty based reporting in education
Joe is head of the science faculty at a university. Faculty staff have the ability to charge
printing back to the faculty. Joe would like to see, on a regular basis, how much printing
each user charges to the faculty.
To do this:
1.
Navigate to the Scheduled Reports page.
2.
Click Schedule a new report... if the panel is not already displayed.
3.
Choose the report Type of Shared account printing - user summary.
4.
Under Optional parameters → Account name, enter Joe's faculty shared account
name, Science.
5.
Change the report title to "Science Faculty Account Printing".
6.
Leave the report Format as PDF.
7.
Make the report deliverable every week by setting Send report to Weekly.
8.
Enter Joe's email address under Recipients.
9.
Press Add.
The report is now scheduled to run every week, and should now be shown in the table below. Joe will receive an email every Sunday showing the previous week's printing in his
faculty. To find out exactly when the report will be sent, see Section 9.4.2, “Details”. To see
an example of what the report will look like, press [show example] next to the report. To
manually run the report (generate it and email to Joe now), press [run now]. The
The [run now] operation also provides a convenient way to resend the previous period's
report if the original delivery failed or if the email was accidentally deleted.
9.4.1.2. Example 2: Division based reporting in business
Mary is head of marketing division at a company. She would like to see which printers her
staff use most, to make decisions about printer redistribution and purchasing. Also of interest are the sizes of paper being used, and how much color printing is being performed.
To do this:
1.
Navigate to the Scheduled Reports page.
2.
Click Schedule a new report... if the panel is not already displayed.
3.
Choose the report Type of Group printing - printer summary.
4.
Under Optional parameters → Group name, enter Mary's division group name, Marketing.
5.
Leave the report Format as PDF.
6.
Make the report deliverable every fortnight by setting Send report to Fortnightly.
7.
Enter Mary's email under Recipients.
8.
Press Add.
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Reports
The report is now scheduled to run every fortnight, and should now be shown in the table
below. Mary will receive an email every second Sunday showing the previous fortnight's
printer usage by her division.
9.4.2. Details
Each report Period determines when the report will run. When the report includes date
based usage information (such as printing usage), the period also determines the date
range of the data to include.
Period
Report Run Time
Report Date Range
Daily
Early every morning, about The previous day.
01:15.
Weekly
Every Sunday in the early The previous week, from
morning, about 01:15.
Sunday to Saturday
Fortnightly
Every second Sunday in the The previous fortnight, from
early morning, about 01:15. two Sundays ago to SatFortnightly reports are run urday.
on even weeks, i.e. the
second week of the year,
the fourth week of the year,
etc.
Monthly
Early morning on the first The previous month.
day of every month, about
01:15.
Table 9.2. Scheduled reports delivery times
Tip
If a user has their email address set in Print-Limit Pro, their username can be
entered in the Recipients instead. For example, instead of entering
[email protected], entering just joe will work.
9.5. Advanced Reporting Options
The following configuration keys can be used to configure report behavior. Configuration
keys can be edited at Options → Actions → Config editor (advanced).
Config name
Description
reports.max-rows
The maximum number of rows that a report
will produce. Once the number of rows in a
report reaches this value, the data in the report will be cut short (and the report will
contain a message to indicate this has
happened). This is a 'sanity limit', intended
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Reports
Config name
Description
to avoid producing overly large reports by
accident. The default value is 10000.
reports.top-x-rows
The number of rows to display in 'top X' reports, such as the Largest print users report. The default value is 100.
Table 9.3. Advanced Reporting Config Keys
Please see Section 12.8, “ Using the Config Editor ” to find out how to change config keys.
146
Chapter 10. Hold/Release Queues &
Print Release Stations
In a standard network printing environment, when a user prints from an application, the job
is sent directly to the printer and starts printing immediately. In some environments it may
be advantageous to place the job in a holding state prior to printing. Some common examples include:
•
Secure Printing - In a secure printing environment jobs are only printed when the user
arrives at the print area and confirms his or her identity. This ensures the user is there
to collect the job and other users can't "accidentally" collect the document.
•
Approved Printing - In some organizations it may be appropriate to hold jobs until they
are approved by selected individuals. A good example would be a teacher approving
printing on an expensive color printer.
•
Authentication - Hold/Release queues can be used as a form of authentication in an unauthenticated environment. Users must authenticate prior to releasing their jobs allowing Print-Limit Pro to confirm their identity.
Print-Limit Pro provides the framework and software interface to implement hold and release queues.
Users can interact with the Hold/Release Queues (e.g. release their jobs) in a number of
ways. This normally takes the form of a Release Station - a dedicated computer terminal
located next to the printers, however other interaction methods include access via a
browser-based interface. Hold/Release Queues are used for a wide variety of purposes depending on the requirements of the organization. This section outlines a number of these
scenarios, and also how to install and configure the release interface.
The simplest way to get started with hold/release queues is to read through the scenarios
below (see Section 10.2, “Hold/Release Usage Scenarios”), and decide which best suits
your needs. These scenarios will outline the steps required to configure and manage a
queue.
Tip
Hold/release queues may be used to implement a find me printing environment. See Chapter 11, Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing for details.
10.1. Release Station Interfaces
Print-Limit Pro includes four different interfaces to manage hold/release queues. Three of
these are variations of a web-based interface and one is a software version that is typically
used for dedicated release stations. These interfaces are described below.
10.1.1. Standard Release Station
The standard release station is typically used on dedicated workstations located near-by
the printers. It usually runs in a full-screen mode that cannot be exited. The release station
can be run in a number of modes that changes its behavior depending on your needs.
These modes are described in Section 10.3.3.1, “Release Station Modes”.
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Hold/Release Queues & Print Release
Stations
For more information regarding deployment of the Standard Release Station see the
[app-path]\release\README.txt file. For information regarding configuration of the
Standard Release Station see Section 10.3.3, “Standard Release Station Configuration”.
The release station scenarios below describe which mode to use for different situations.
Figure 10.1. The Standard Release Station
Tip
To educate users about printing using a release station, administrators might
find the sample information sheet helpful.
10.1.2. Web-based release station (Manager mode)
The web-based release station provides functionality equivalent to the standard release
station running in "Manager mode". However, the web-based release station can be more
convenient because it can be run from anywhere using a web browser.
The web-based release station can be access by visiting the following URL, and logging in
as a user with admin or release station manager permissions.
http://[servername]:9191/release
where [servername] is the name of the Print-Limit Pro server. To make a user a hold/release queue manager see Section 10.3.2, “Hold/Release Queue Managers”.
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Hold/Release Queues & Print Release
Stations
Figure 10.2. Web-based release station (Manager mode)
10.1.3. Web-based release station within the admin pages
When logged into the admin pages, an administrator can view all jobs held by release stations by:
•
Navigating to the Printers section.
•
Selecting the Jobs pending release tab.
This interface is identical to the full-screen web-based release station, but can be more
convenient for users already logged into the administration pages.
Figure 10.3. Web-based release station within the admin pages
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Hold/Release Queues & Print Release
Stations
10.1.4. End-user web-based interface
When end-users are logged into the user web interface, they can view their print jobs that
are currently held pending release. The administrator can decide whether this interface is
visible to end users, and which type of jobs a user may release. More information can be
found at Section 10.3.4, “End-User Web Based Release Interface Configuration”.
Figure 10.4. End-user web-based interface listing held jobs
10.2. Hold/Release Usage Scenarios
This section describes various usage scenarios discussing why and how to use a hold/
release queue. They provide a good starting point for your own implementations.
10.2.1. Saving paper and toner
A large source of wasted paper in organizations are documents that were never collected
from the printer. Some of these uncollected documents are caused by accidental printing,
and others were just forgotten. But the majority of these documents end up in the bin.
If the document is not printed until a user walks to the printer to collect it, then this source
of waste can be mostly eliminated.
To implement a release station to save paper:
•
Set up a low-end workstation near the printer(s).
•
Run the Standard Release Station in the default mode (Release Any mode). More information can be found at Section 10.3.3.1, “Release Station Modes”.
•
In Print-Limit Pro, enable the printer(s) for release station use. More information can be
found at Section 10.3.1, “Enabling hold/release support on a printer”.
•
To allow users to release jobs via the end-user web based release station, also enable
Release Any mode for the web tools interface. More information can be found at Section 10.3.4, “End-User Web Based Release Interface Configuration”.
10.2.2. Secure Printing
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Hold/Release Queues & Print Release
Stations
When users print documents that contain sensitive information, it is important that no one
else picks up the document from the printer. Even when the printers are close-by, people
can be distracted and accidentally leave sensitive documents on the printer. Print release
stations can be used to implement Secure Printing, which ensures that a document can
only be released by the person who printed it and only when that person is standing near
the printers.
Secure printing is implemented as follows:
•
Setup a low-end workstation near the printer(s).
•
Run the Standard Release Station in "Secure" mode. More information can be found at
Section 10.3.3.1, “Release Station Modes”.
•
In Print-Limit Pro, enable the printer(s) for release station use. More information can be
found at Section 10.3.1, “Enabling hold/release support on a printer”.
Secure printing requires users to be authenticated on the network when printing (i.e. an
Active Directory domain). This allows the release station to enforce the secure printing so
that users can only release documents they print.
10.2.3. Pay per print (e.g. Library or Internet Cafe)
Libraries and Internet cafes usually only allow printing once a user has paid for the cost of
the printed document. Previously, implementing pay-per-print often involved deploying expensive card-based payment solutions, however Print-Limit Pro release stations allow this
to implemented in a more cost effective way.
An example of how print release stations would be used in this scenario is:
1.
Users print documents from a workstation without any assistance from staff.
2.
The printed documents will be held in the queue until released by a staff member.
3.
The user goes to the staff desk and asks for the document to be released.
4.
The staff member opens a release station (the program or a web page), finds the
user's job, notes the cost and collects the payment from the user.
5.
The staff member presses the "Print" button, allowing the job to be printed.
6.
The user then collects the printed document from the printer.
If the user never pays for a print then the print job will be automatically deleted without any
staff interaction.
To implement a pay-per-print hold/release queue:
•
In Print-Limit Pro, enable the hold/release option on the printer(s). See Section 10.3.1,
“Enabling hold/release support on a printer”.
•
In Print-Limit Pro, setup the staff to be a "hold/release queue manager". This will allow
them to log in to the "manager mode" release stations. See Section 10.3.2,
“Hold/Release Queue Managers”.
•
On the staff desk workstations, run the release station in "Manager mode". See Section 10.3.3.1, “Release Station Modes”.
•
There are two release interfaces to choose from:
•
Standard Release Station in "Manager mode" - requires minimal setup.
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Hold/Release Queues & Print Release
Stations
•
Web-based release interface - requires only a web browser.
10.2.4. Expensive Printers (Approved Printing)
At times it is necessary to restrict access to an expensive printer (like a color laser printer),
or other printer that should only be used with an administrator's permission. Instead of locking the printer away where no one has access to it; the printer can be configured so that
only administrators or hold/release managers can release print jobs. In this situation:
1.
The user prints the document to the restricted printer.
2.
The document is held in the queue awaiting approval by an authorized person.
3.
The user talks to the administrator (or approved user) who would decide whether the
user should be allowed to perform the print.
4.
The administrator logs into the web-based release interface from any machine on the
network, and "Release" or "Cancel" the job as appropriate.
To implement admin/manager only release interface:
•
In Print-Limit Pro, enable the hold/release mode on the printer(s), and select the "Admin/
Manager only release" mode. See Section 10.3.1, “Enabling hold/release support on a
printer” for more info.
•
It is not necessary to set up a dedicated release station near the printer, because the
web-based release interface can be used from any machine on the network.
•
It is also a good idea to put a notice on the printer that tells users how to have their documents released.
10.2.5. Unauthenticated printing
In some environments it is not possible (or very difficult) to have users authenticated when
printing. This could be due to a technology constraint (like using Macs in mainly Windows
environment) or could be for convenience (like having kiosk computers in the library that
people can use without logging in).
In these scenarios, print jobs are printed under one name, but charging should be allocated
to another. For example, a job is printed by an generic "library user", but there is a need to
charge to the user's real account. In order to charge the correct user for printing, Print-Limit
Pro needs to identify the user to charge, and this can be achieved by using a release station in "Release Any" mode.
This works as follows:
1.
The user prints from a workstation but is not authenticated, so jobs are allocated to a
generic user.
2.
The print job is held in the queue awaiting release.
3.
The user walks to the release station and enters a username and password. Alternatively the user may log into the Print-Limit Pro web interface and select Jobs Pending
Release.
4.
All jobs held are listed. Jobs can be identified by document name or workstation machine name.
5.
The user selects his or her jobs. Any jobs released are charged to that user's account.
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Figure 10.5. All documents easily identifiable by document and machine name
To implement unauthenticated printing using a release station:
•
Set up a low-end workstation near the printer(s).
•
Run the Standard Release Station in "Release Any" mode. See Section 10.3.3.1,
“Release Station Modes”.
•
In Print-Limit Pro, enable the printer(s) for release station use, and select the "User release" mode. See Section 10.3.1, “Enabling hold/release support on a printer”.
•
To allow users to release jobs via the end-user web based release interface, also enable Release Any mode for the web tools interface. More information can be found at
Section 10.3.4, “End-User Web Based Release Interface Configuration”.
To implement unauthenticated printing using the browser interface:
•
In Print-Limit Pro, enable the Hold/Release mode on the appropriate printer(s). See
Section 10.3.1, “Enabling hold/release support on a printer”.
•
Ensure end-users have the ability to view held jobs and can release any job (charging
to their account). More information can be found at Section 10.3.4, “End-User Web
Based Release Interface Configuration”.
10.3. Release Station Configuration
This section describes various aspects to configuring release stations.
Some additional installation notes can also be found in the release station README file
located here:
[app-path]\release\README.txt
10.3.1. Enabling hold/release support on a printer
By default, print jobs will be sent directly to the printer and will not be held. To turn on hold/
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release support on a given printer:
1.
Log on to the administration section.
2.
Navigate to the Printers section.
3.
Select the printer.
4.
Select the option to Enable hold/release queue.
5.
Choose the appropriate release mode for your needs.
The two release modes available are:
•
User Release - this is the standard mode that allows users to release and view only the
jobs printed under their name/user account.
•
Admin/Manager only release - in this mode, jobs can only be released by administrators
or hold/release queue managers.
Tip
To configure multiple printers with hold/release queue support, the Copy settings to other printers function can be used. To use this, configure one printer as required, press the Copy settings to other printers and select the printers to copy the settings to.
10.3.2. Hold/Release Queue Managers
A hold/release queue manager is a user that has additional privileges to manage release
stations and jobs held in hold release queues. Managers can:
•
Log on to the "manager mode" release stations (both the software and web-based release station).
•
Log on to the "secure mode" release stations which switches them into manager mode
so that users' print jobs can be released.
•
Release jobs that can only be released by managers or administrators.
•
Can close the Standard Release Station when running in full-screen mode.
To make a user a hold/release queue manager:
1.
Log on to the administration pages.
2.
Navigate to the Options section.
3.
Find the Release Station security section.
4.
Enter user's username in Hold/Release Queue Managers field. To enter multiple
users, separate usernames with a comma (,).
Important
Print-Limit Pro administrators can automatically perform all operations that
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hold/release queue managers are allowed to.
10.3.3. Standard Release Station Configuration
The Standard Release Station is configured using a configuration file located in the directory where the release station executables are located. The default configuration file is:
[app-path]\release\config.properties
This configuration file allows you to configure the behavior and look of the release station
in a number of ways. Each of the configuration items are described in the table below:
Config name
Description
mode
The mode changes the behavior of the release station depending on the need. The
available modes are described in Section 10.3.3.1, “Release Station Modes”.
use-username-authentication
(Y/N) - Enable username authentication.
Users will be required to enter their domain
username to log into the release station.
They may also be required to enter their
password, depending on the 'mode' setting.
Default: Y (Yes).
use-card-authentication
(Y/N) - Enable card-based authentication.
This is designed for use with dedicated
hardware card readers. The card number is
validated against the user's card-number
field. Default: N (No).
printers
Filters the list of jobs to only those printers
listed. This is a comma separated list of full
printer names (i.e. server\printer). This is
useful when there are multiple release stations, each managing the queues of a different set of printers.
display-columns
Used to customize the columns displayed
and the order they appear in the list of print
jobs.
The
default
value
is:
date,user,printer,document,machine,pages,
cost
display-column-widths
Used to customize the width of columns
displayed. The setting can only be used if
the display-columns is defined. The
number of values must match the number
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Config name
Description
of values in the display-columns setting. The default value is: 8,12,25,30,15,8,8
hide-printer-server-names
(Y/N) - Used to hide the printer server
names from the list of print jobs. Default: N
(No)
show-release-all
(Y/N) - Indicates whether the "Release All"
button should be displayed. Default: Y
(Yes)
show-cancel-all
(Y/N) - Indicates whether the "Cancel All"
button should be displayed. Default: Y
(Yes)
max-idle-secs
The number of seconds without user input,
before the user is logged out of the release
station. The default is 30 seconds.
background-color
Allows for customizing the background color of the release station to match the organization's colors. The color format is the
hexadecimal color code used in HTML #RRGGBB (where RR is the red component, GG is the green component and BB is
the blue component).
font-color
Allows for customizing the font/foreground
color used in the release station. The color
format is the hexadecimal color code used
in HTML.
title
The title that appears at the top of the release station screen.
instructions
The instructions to display at the login
page. A <br> can be included to start a
new line.
card-and-username-instructions
The instruction text that appears when using both card authentication and username
authentication, appearing in-between the
card entry and username entry fields. A
<br> can be included to start a new line.
logo-image
Allows a custom logo image to be displayed. For best results the image should
be between 50 and 80 pixels in height.
PNG, JPG or GIF images are allowed.
Table 10.1. Standard Release Station config settings
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Tip
When running release stations from the \\server\PCRelease share, each
workstation can have its own configuration file. The "config.properties" is used
for default settings for all release stations, but settings can be overridden by
defining another configuration file for each release station. These files should
be put in the same directory and be named using the following convention:
config.[machine-name].properties
where [machine-name] is the name of the machine running the release station.
A custom configuration file may also be specified as a startup command-line
option using the following syntax:
pc-release.exe --config "[config file path]"
10.3.3.1. Release Station Modes
The release station modes available are described below. The release station mode is
changed in the configuration file as described in Section 10.3.3, “Standard Release Station
Configuration”.
Mode
Description
ReleaseAny
This is the default mode. It allows a user
who logs onto the release station to release
any held jobs. Any jobs released will be
charged to the logged in user.
Manager
Manager mode allows only administrators
or hold/release queue managers to log in to
the release station. In release station
mode, all jobs are listed and users are not
automatically logged out due to inactivity.
Secure
Secure mode allows users to only see and
release print jobs that they have printed.
Release station managers can see and release all users' print jobs.
NoPassword
This works similar to the secure mode,
however users don't need to enter the
password to view jobs.
Table 10.2. Standard Release Station modes
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In all modes except Manager mode, users are logged out automatically after a period of inactivity defined in the configuration file, the default being 30 seconds.
10.3.3.2. Card-based User Authentication
In some environments, users are issued with identity cards that can be used for authentication. The cards might be used to gain entry to buildings, or borrow from a library. The cards
can also be used to authenticate users at the standard release station. Using a card is often much more convenient and less error-prone than entering a username and password.
To use card-based authentication an appropriate hardware card-reader is required. The
card reader must be connected to the machine running the release station and act like a
keyboard. i.e. when the user swipes/scans their card, the card reader outputs the digits just
as if someone entered them using the keyboard. There are card readers that can do this
for all commonly used card types (e.g. magneetic stripe, barcode, etc). An easy way to test
a card reader is to open a text editor and place the cursor in a new text document. Then
when a card is swiped the card number will appear in the text file.
The card numbers entered at the release station are validated against the Card/Id number
field for the user. This can be found at the bottom of the user details screen in the admin
interface. Before card authentication can be used, the users' card numbers must be associated with the user record in Print-Limit Pro. The numbers can be entered manually, automatically synchronized from Active Directory or LDAP (see Section 12.2.2, “Importing
Card/Identity numbers from Active Directory or LDAP”) or imported in bulk using the Batch
User Import file (see Section 6.6, “Batch User Data Import and Update”).
Once card numbers are associated with users, the card-based authentication can be enabled in the release station by setting the use-card-authentication to Y in the release station's config.properties file. Once the release station is restarted it will be in
card-authentication mode, and can be tested by swiping a card through the card-reader.
The config.properties file has some other settings to change how the card-number is
read from the reader. For example, you can change the header and trailer characters used
by some card readers to indicate the start and end of the card number. See the config file
for details.
10.3.3.3. Friendly client machine aliases
In some environments (for example public libraries), it can be important for users to identify
print jobs by the client machine they were printed from. By default, the release station will
list the either the IP address or the machine's unique network name Neither of these are
helpful to release station users. To avoid this problem the administrator can define a list of
aliases, that map the unfriendly names to a more user-friendly name.
For example, print jobs might appear in the release station as 192.168.1.100 or winpc0076, but would be more meaningful for the user to appear as Public PC 1.
These
aliases
are
defined
in
the
[app-path]/release/client-machine-aliases.properties file. The entries are
in the format:
[machine]=[alias]
It is also valid to have multiple entries that map to the same alias. So to add aliases for the
example above the following lines would be added to the client-ma158
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chine-aliases.properties file:
192.168.1.100=Public PC 1
winpc0076=Public PC 1
10.3.3.4. Job timeout
If a user does not release their held job after a defined time, their job will be automatically
deleted. This is to prevent a buildup of old/abandoned jobs in the hold/release queue. The
default timeout is 30 minutes, and can be changed as follows:
1.
Navigate to Options → General → Hold/Release Queues and find the option Delete
held jobs if not released after.
2.
Enter the number of minutes to wait for users to release their job before it is deleted.
3.
Press Apply
10.3.4. End-User Web Based Release Interface Configuration
Configuration options for the end-user web based release interface can be found in the administrative interface at Options → General → User Features. These options control the
availability of the Jobs Pending Release option available to end users. The available options are:
Figure 10.6. End-user web based release interface options
•
Allow users to view held jobs - this option enables the Jobs Pending Release screen
in the user web tools. When this option is disabled, no related functionality is available
from the user web tools interface.
•
Users have permission to: - this option changes which type of jobs users can see and/
or release. The available options are:
•
•
view their own jobs only - users may see their own jobs that are held in the hold/
release queue. Jobs printed by other users are not displayed. They may cancel their
own jobs, but cannot release them. This is useful if users are required to be physically at the printer to release a job, where a standard release station is running.
•
release their own jobs - users may release or cancel their own jobs. Jobs printed
by other users are not displayed.
•
release any jobs (charged to their account) - users may release or cancel any job
that is being held, including jobs from other users. If a user releases a job that was
sent by a different user, the releasing user is charged for the job. This option is equivalent to the Release Any mode used in Release Station and is ideal for authenticating printing in a unauthenticated environment.
Enable the 'Release All' and 'Cancel All' buttons - enabling this option allows users to
release or cancel all held jobs by clicking one button. When this option is disabled,
users must release or cancel jobs individually.
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Hold/Release Queues & Print Release
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This option is purely for the convenience of the users. It can save a user a few clicks
when they want to release all their jobs at once. However if the user is able to release
jobs other than their own, a user might accidentally release (and be charged for) many
other users' jobs.
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Chapter 11. Find Me Printing and
Printer Load Balancing
This chapter covers two advanced concepts: printer load balancing and "find me" printing.
•
Find Me Printing - solves the problem of finding the closest printer from a long list of
available printers. It is a roaming print service that allows print jobs to find users based
on their physical location. It's sometimes referred to as "Pull Printing", "Push Printing" or
"Follow Me" printing.
•
Printer Load Balancing - covers the act of automatically distributing print load between
multiple physical printers.
These are two advanced features pertinent to large sites with a large number of printers.
These topics are addressed together in this chapter as they both involve the concept of
print job redirection, where a job is taken from one queue and transferred to another.
The topics covered in this chapter are advanced in nature and targeted towards the administrator who is already comfortable with Print-Limit Pro and print queue configuration. If implementing Print-Limit Pro for the first time it is recommended to plan a simple configuration in the first phase, then return to implement find me printing or load balancing in a later
phase once users and administrators are comfortable with the basic features.
11.1. Find Me Printing
Find Me Printing is best described not by what it does but by the problem it solves. Consider a large organization with hundreds of printers. The task of selecting the "best" printer
from the list at the time of print can be daunting. Organizations tend to mitigate this concern using a number of methods:
•
Naming Conventions - network administrators will adopt a printer naming convention
that helps users locate the best printer. A common convention is to use the room name
or floor number. This is usually complemented by a sign on the printer itself.
•
Location Adaptive Login Scripts - in many respects a location adaptive login scripts is a
most elegant solution. The login script automatically adds the printers to the workstation
based on the workstation's physical location (denoted by the document name). For example, any workstation containing "lvl2" in the name will have the two printers on Level2 by default. Users will only need to consult the full list of printers in the rare occasion
that they wish to print to a printer outside their physical level/room.
•
Global Profile - administrators map the "best" printer based on location globally on the
workstation (e.g. using rundll32 printui.dll,PrintUIEntry /ga /
n\\server\printer on Windows). Any user that logs on to the workstation will have
the most appropriate printer selected by default.
All these methods have their drawbacks and require careful planning on the part of administrators, and the need for end-users to understand conventions/processes. Find Me Printing solves the problem by "asking the job to find the user, rather than having the user find
the printer". It works as follows:
1.
The user prints to a single site-wide global queue.
2.
The user then walks up to a Release Station logs in, locates their job and releases it.
3.
The job will then proceed to automatically print to the closes physical printer.
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Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing
Find Me Printing is referred to by users as other terms such as Follow-me printing
(because print jobs follow you to a printer), Pull Printing (because the job is pulled from the
global queue) or Push Printing (because the release station pushes the job to the nearest
printer).
Before implementing a Find Me Printing scenario, the administrator should be familiar with
release stations (see Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations). Administrators will also need to consider and plan hardware and driver compatibility. Find Me
Printing works by re-directing a job targeted at one queue to another and hence printer
compatibility is important. For example, a job designed to print on an inkjet photo printer
will not usually be suitable for printing on a laser printer. The topic of printer/driver compatibility is discussed in detail in the section proceeding the examples below.
11.1.1. Implementation by Example
Implementing Find Me Printing is best described by way of example. The following sections
cover some common scenarios for implementing Find Me Printing.
11.1.1.1. Example 1: Single Virtual Queue (High School)
11.1.1.1.1. Scenario
East Beach High School has seven high volume laser printers of the same model at various locations throughout the campus. When sending a print job students must currently select the printer nearest to them before retrieving the document. Students often send jobs to
the wrong queue and rather than going to pick it up they re-send the document to a closer
queue and leave the original document uncollected.
The current print queues are named laser-1 through laser-7 with the number corresponding to a label on the printer. All printers are hosted on the print server called printserver. All printers are the same make and model (using the same driver).
In the library there are two printers, laser-6 and laser-7, side by side.
The goal is to implement one central queue to receive all print jobs. A release station will
be set up next to each printer. Each release station will allow users to have their job printed
at the nearby printer.
11.1.1.1.2. Implementation
The first step is to create a new print queue on the print server. This queue will be a virtual
queue with hold/release enabled. When students print to the virtual queue their job will be
held, and the release station the user releases the job at will determine to which printer the
job is sent (the job is pulled from the virtual queue to a printer near the user).
A new queue will be called find-me-queue is created by the administrator on printserver using the normal methods for the operating system in use. The queue is created
using the same driver that laser-1 through laser-7 use. The queue points to the IP address of one of the printers - this is not strictly necessary as the "virtual queue" is just a collecting queue that forwards jobs to real queues, however some printer drivers "complain" if
they do not point to a real printer.
The administrator ensures that the print queue has registered itself with Print-Limit Pro by
checking the Printers tab of the administration interface. Information about adding printers
can be found in Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
After creating of the new virtual queue the administrator performs the following:
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Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing
1.
Navigates to Printers → find-me-queue → Summary in the Print-Limit Pro administration interface.
2.
Changes the Queue type option to This is a virtual queue (jobs will be forwarded
to a different queue). This reveals the Job Redirection Settings section.
3.
The option Jobs may be forwarded to these queues: determines which queues
find-me-queue is capable of redirecting to. The queues print-server\laser-1
through print-server\laser-7 are selected.
4.
Enables the option Enable hold/release queue and sets Release mode to User release (the default). This ensures that jobs are held in the virtual queue and not automatically forwarded to one of the targets.
5.
Clicks OK.
The next step is to configure the release stations:
1.
The administrator first configures each release station as per Section 10.3, “Release
Station Configuration”. The administrator decides that students should only be able to
see and release the jobs they have personally printed, so sets up the release station in
Secure mode.
2.
Each release station should be configured to release jobs on the printer it is associated with by setting the releases-on option in the release station config file. E.g. for
the release station set up near the printer laser-4, the option should be set to:
releases-on=print-server\\laser-4
In the library (where there are two printers side by side) the administrator configures a
single release station to release to either printer by setting the option to:
releases-on=print-server\\laser-6,print-server\\laser-7
In this case when a user releases a job at the library release station Print-Limit Pro will
select either laser-6 or laser-7 based on a load balancing algorithm (see Section 11.4.1, “Example 1: Simple Load Balancing”).
Now when students print from a lab computer to the virtual find-me-queue queue their
job will be held. The student can visit any release station and see their job. When the student releases their job at a release station the job will be pulled from the virtual queue into
the queue or queues associated with the release station for printing. This setup is illustrated in Figure 11.1, “Single Virtual Queue (High School)”. Administrators should also ensure that the find-me-queue queue is set as the default queue on all workstations.
The administrator may now optionally un-share all but the virtual queue. This would enforce that users use the "find me" process rather than printing directly to one of the target
printers.
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Figure 11.1. Single Virtual Queue (High School)
11.1.1.2. Example 2: Multiple Virtual Queues (Different Printer Types)
11.1.1.2.1. Scenario
West Face University has a Graphic Design department who use two wide format plotters
and seven color laser printers. The two plotters and two of the laser printers are located in
the department print room, while the other laser printers are scattered around various locations. The plan is to add more printers next year.
The two wide format plotter queues are named wf-plotter-1 and wf-plotter-2, and
the color laser printers are named color-laser-1 through color-laser-7. Laser 1
and 2 are located in the print room with the plotters.
The goals of the project are:
•
Implement Find Me Printing so users don't need to remember the names associated
with the ever growing list of printers.
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Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing
•
Implement release stations. This will ensure the student/staff member is there to collect
their work minimizing the chance of one person accidently collecting another's work.
•
Ensure the procedure is similar for all types of printers, meaning users only have to
learn one process.
•
Automatic load balancing in the print room to ensure all printers receive an equal load
and throughput is maximized.
11.1.1.2.2. Implementation
This implementation differs from the previous implementation in that we have two distinct
printer types. It is not technically possible to have one "find-me-queue" as jobs rendered by
the application for the wide-format printer can't be printed on a laser printer and vice versa.
See Section 11.2, “Requirements For Job Redirection (Load Balancing or Find Me Printing)” for more discussion on compatibility.
The first step is to create a new print queue for each printer type on the print server. These
queues will be virtual queues with hold/release enabled. When a student prints to a virtual
queue their job will be held at displayed at the release station. When a student releases
their job, Print-Limit Pro knows which target queues are compatible (based on configuration) and selects one of the available target queues using an intelligent load balancing algorithm.
Two new queues called wf-plotter and color-laser respectively are created by the
administrator on the print server graphics-print. wf-plotter is created using the
same driver as the existing queues wf-plotter-1 and wf-plotter-2, and likewise
color-laser uses the same driver as its counterparts. Both new queues point to any
physical device of the same type, e.g. wf-plotter to wf-plotter-1. This last point is
not strictly necessary but some printer drivers complain if they do not point to a real printer.
The administrator ensures that both print queues have registered themselves with PrintLimit Pro by checking the Printers tab of the administration interface. Information about
adding printers can be found in Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
Following creation of the new queues the administrator performs the following:
1.
Navigates to Printers → wf-plotter → Summary in the Print-Limit Pro administration
interface.
2.
Changes the Queue type option to This is a virtual queue (jobs will be forwarded
to a different queue). This reveals the Job Redirection Settings section.
3.
The option Jobs may be forwarded to these queues: determines which queues wfplotter
is
capable
of
redirecting
to.
The
queues
graphicsprint\wf-plotter-1 and graphics-print\wf-plotter-2 are selected.
4.
Enables the option Enable hold/release queue and sets Release mode to User release (the default). This ensures that jobs are held in the virtual queue and not automatically forwarded to one of the targets.
5.
Clicks OK.
6.
Repeats steps 2 through 5 for the color-laser queue, except the option Jobs may
be forwarded to these queues: in step 4 is instead set to graphicsprint\color-laser-1 through graphics-print\color-laser-7.
The next step is to configure the release station:
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Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing
1.
The administrator first configures a release station as per Section 10.3, “Release Station Configuration”. The administrator decides that students should only be able to see
and release the jobs they have personally printed, so sets up the release station in Secure mode.
2.
A single release station should be configured to release jobs to the printers it is associated with by setting the releases-on option in the release station config file. In the
print room the administrator sets the option to the four printers:
releases-on=graphics-print\\wf-plotter-1,graphics-print\\wf-plotter-2,\
graphics-print\\color-laser-1,graphics-print\\color-laser-2
3.
A separate release station is also set up next to each of the five remaining laser printers in the department. The releases-on is set to the single adjacent printer in each
case.
Now when a student prints from a lab computer to either virtual queue (wf-plotter or
color-laser) their job will be held. The student can visit the release station and see their
job. When the student releases their job in the print room, the system will automatically implement load balancing and select an available compatible printer. This setup is illustrated
in Figure 11.2, “Multiple Virtual Queues (Graphics Department)”.
Important
Load balancing may not be appropriate on the plotters if manual loading of paper media is required, as it is not possible to know beforehand which target
printer will be selected. In this case a separate release station may be required
for each plotter.
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Figure 11.2. Multiple Virtual Queues (Graphics Department)
11.1.1.3. Example 3: Multiple Location Specific Virtual Queues (Large Company)
11.1.1.3.1. Scenario
Acme Inc. is a large organization with hundreds of printers located throughout. They maintain a common printer fleet of grayscale devices and a smaller but matching fleet of color
devices.
The
existing
grayscale
devices
use
a
naming
scheme
like
site1-server\B02_F12_G04, where B02 represents "building 2", F12 represents "floor
12", G04 meaning it is the fourth grayscale printer on that floor. Color devices use the
same naming scheme except the G is replaced with a C.
Each floor of each building has a print room with several grayscale devices and two color
devices. The organization also has multiple offices located and separate physical sites.
Each sites hosts their local print queues on their own local print server, however all sites
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exist in a single WAN and shared domain.
Through trial testing, the IT administrators have confirmed that the Postscript drivers supplied with the color devices also work with the lower cost grayscale-only version of the
printers. This means that one common driver will work across the full fleet.
The main goals of the project are:
•
Simplify the printing process for users, so that they do not need to decipher the naming
scheme to work out their closest available printer.
•
Implement a system/procedure common across all sites.
•
Reduce wasted printing by ensuring the user is physically present in the print room to
pick up their job when it prints.
•
Ensuring high uptime by minimizing single points of failure.
11.1.1.3.2. Implementation
This implementation differences from the previous implementation in that there is a large
number of printers and users spread across multiple physical sites. Although it would be
possible to implement one global virtual "Find-Me Queue", there are some benefits in implementing multiple virtual queues - one per site:
•
Minimize network traffic - jobs should only spool on queues on the local server where
possible.
•
No single-point-of-failure - if an issues occurs on the single "find me queue", it would affect printing on all sites.
Implementing multiple virtual queues will offer considerable benefits. One queue per site,
or maybe even one queue per floor/department on larger sites should be considered as the
benefits will outweigh the small additional overhead in administration/setup.
The first step is to create the new print queues that will become the virtual queues. The administrator installs a separate queue for each site called "find-me-queue" on each of the
site's servers. This queue is set up using the common Postscript driver that has been confirmed to work with all models in the printer fleet.
The administrator ensures that all print queues have registered themselves with Print-Limit
Pro by checking the Printers tab of the administration interface. Information about adding
printers can be found in Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
After creation of the new queues the administrator performs the following on each new virtual queue. (site1 example).
1.
Navigates to Printers → site1-server\find-me-queue → Summary in the Print-Limit
Pro administration interface.
2.
Changes the Queue type option to This is a virtual queue (jobs will be forwarded
to a different queue). This reveals the Job Redirection Settings section.
3.
The option Jobs may be forwarded to these queues: determines which queues are
compatible. Because this virtual queue is capable of forwarding to all printers in the organization the Select all printers is clicked.
4.
Enables the option Enable hold/release queue and sets Release mode to User release (the default). This ensures that jobs are held in the virtual queue and not automatically forwarded to one of the targets.
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5.
Clicks OK.
6.
Repeats steps 2 through 5 for all other find-me-queue's on each site server.
The next step is to configure a release station for each floor's print room:
1.
The administrator first configures a release station as per Section 10.3, “Release Station Configuration”. The release station is configured in Secure mode so that staff can
only see and release the jobs they have personally printed.
2.
The release station should be configured to release jobs to the printers it is associated
with by setting the releases-on option in the release station config file. The administrator sets the option to the full name of the printer(s) in each print room:
releases-on=site1-server\\B02_F1_G01,\
site1-server\\B02_F1_G02,site1-server\\B02_F1_C01
All workstations should be configured to use the local find-me-queue on each site by default.
Now when a staff member prints to either virtual queue their job will be held. The staff
member can visit the release station and see their job. When the staff member releases
their job it will be sent to any of the available and compatible devices in the floor's print
room. This setup is illustrated in Figure 11.3, “Multiple Location Specific Virtual Queues
(Large Company)”.
Advanced: Print-Limit Pro can also support redirection between print queues in different
servers. In this example, it may occur when a laptop user that roams between sites prints.
Their laptop may be configured to print to the virtual queue on site1, but they have release their job on a printer hosted on the server in site2. Directing between different servers is supported, however some additional configuration may be required. See Section 11.3.2, “Cross-Server Job Redirection” for further information.
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Figure 11.3. Multiple Location Specific Virtual Queues (Large Company)
11.1.2. Find Me Printing and Web-Based Release
The Find Me printing examples covered above involve setting up a release station so that
users can release jobs to the printers at their current location. The web based release interfaces are also supported (via the user web tools, admin interface or full screen web
based release interface), although due to the lack of location information the user is asked
to select the destination printer.
When a user releases a job held in a virtual queue using one of the web based release interfaces they are presented with a list of target printers and their locations, as shown in
Figure 11.4, “Find Me Printing and Web Based Release Interfaces”.
Figure 11.4. Find Me Printing and Web Based Release Interfaces
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When using web based release interfaces in conjunction with Find Me Printing it is recommended to populate the Location field on printers for the convenience of users.
11.2. Requirements For Job Redirection (Load Balancing or Find Me
Printing)
The ability to redirect print jobs from one print queue to another is limited by several
factors. Firstly, the destination printer must be able to handle the rendered print job. This
means that the source (or virtual) print queue and the target print queue must at least use
drivers that produce the same print language (e.g. PostScript to PostScript or PCL5 to
PCL5). However due to the differences in the way each manufacturer uses a print language, and even differences between models from the same manufacturer, compatibility
can be limited to printers of the same or similar models. E.g. if a print job has been
rendered for a letter page size, it may not print correctly (or at all) when sent to a printer
with ledger paper in its tray. The ideal setup for job redirection is when all target printers
are of the same model. In reality this is not always possible, so when setting up job redirection to heterogeneous printers be sure to conduct thorough testing beforehand.
When selecting the driver to use for a virtual (source) print queue, pick a simple lowest
common denominator driver and test it for compatibility with each one of your printers. On
the Mac the "Generic Postscript Driver" is a good choice. On Windows select a Color Postscript driver for a mid range popular model. Always carefully test driver compatibility before
implementing Find Me Printing. Take care to address corner cases such advanced graphics options, grayscale mode, paper sizes, duplexing, tray selection, etc. If a common driver
can not be found, you may need to implement multiple virtual queues as discussed in Example 2 above. The following sections provide a simple procedure that can be followed to
to test printer compatibility.
11.2.1. Compatibility Testing
1.
Select your candidate driver to use for your global virtual queue. Use it to set up a print
queue on the server, and share the queue.
2.
Select the new printer in Print-Limit Pro and change it a virtual queue.
3.
In the list of compatible queues, select the printers for which you'd like to test compatibility.
4.
Enable the Hold/Release option on the queue.
5.
Print a test document (e.g. print an email) to the virtual queue from a workstation. The
job should hold in the virtual queue.
6.
On the Jobs Pending Release tab under the Printers section, release the held job.
Select a target queue to test when prompted.
7.
Verify that the job printed correctly. Also check the App. Log sections for any error reports.
8.
Repeat the previous 3 steps for all printer types and using different document settings
and applications.
Make sure you test a variety of print options targeted at all device types. Problems may
manifest in various and maybe subtle ways:
•
Error events logged in Print-Limit Pro's App Log.
•
Error status on the printer (e.g. a red light and failed print status message).
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Or more subtle issues like:
•
Truncated documents because of different device margin sizes (printable area).
•
Errors only when non-default options options are selected (e.g. finishing options).
•
Issues only on very large documents (due to printer memory limitations).
•
Errors/problems when certain paper sizes are selected.
If issues/problems/errors occur:
1.
Try disabling the Enable Advanced Printing Features option in Windows on the virtual queue on the server. This is accessed by right-clicking on the printer, selecting
Properties..., then the Advanced tab. This change can improve redirection results
with some drivers.
2.
If you continue to experience compatibility issues, you may need to consider setting up
multiple virtual queues (for each printer type/class) as discussed in Section 11.1.1.2,
“Example 2: Multiple Virtual Queues (Different Printer Types)”.
11.2.2. Find Me Printing Implementation Checklist
Setting up Find Me Printing involves several configuration steps that must be completed
before the setup will work. Following is a checklist that can be used to ensure that the main
requirements have been carried out. It can also serve as a troubleshooting guide in case of
unexpected results.
1.
A new print queue should be created to function as the virtual queue. This print queue
should be created using the standard methods or tools provided by the host operating
system.
2.
The driver in use by the virtual queue should be confirmed to be compatible with the
target printers. The output produced by this driver is what will be sent to the printer, so
it must be compatible.
3.
The following settings should be configured in the Print-Limit Pro administration interface for the virtual print queue:
a.
Queue type should be set to This is a virtual queue (jobs will be forwarded to
a different queue).
b.
Jobs may be forwarded to these queues should be configured to reflect the
possible or compatible targets for redirection.
c.
Enable hold/release queue should be enabled.
4.
When using Find Me Printing release stations are recommended because they can
automatically choose the best nearby printer (based on a match between the virtual
queue's configured compatible queues, the release station's configured "releases on"
queues and current printer load). If the web based release interface is used instead
the user must choose the desired printer from the list of all compatible queues.
5.
The releases-on option in the release station configuration file should be configured
to reflect where jobs released at this station can be sent. Print-Limit Pro will compare
this list with the Jobs may be forwarded to these queues setting of the virtual queue
to find possible target queues. Take care to ensure the name is spelt exactly the same
as listed in the printer list.
6.
The show-jobs-from-queues option in the release station configuration file may
optionally be configured to limit the jobs shown in the release station to one or more
queues. This can be useful for situations with multiple virtual queues and release sta172
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tions running in Release Any mode.
7.
If there are multiple print servers and the ability to redirect jobs across print servers is
required, ensure that the requirements in Section 11.3.2, “Cross-Server Job Redirection” are met.
11.3. Advanced Configuration
11.3.1. Overriding cost and filter settings
The default (and recommended) setup is to have the filter and cost settings applied to the
virtual queue, for example the global "find-me-queue" as explained in the examples. This
ensures that you have a common cost and access policy across all printers associated with
that queue - a model that your end-users can easily understand. There may however be
some special cases where you may wish to instead apply cost and filter settings based on
the target queue/printer selected:
•
A printer may have less memory that others and jam/error on large jobs. Implementing
a page or job size filter at the target queue level may help prevent problems.
•
A printer may not support the full range of paper sizes and may jam if an incorrect paper size is selected.
The settings are overridden by the option Cost and filter settings are overridden by the
target queue. Please use this option with care and careful consideration.
Important
If used incorrectly, the Cost and filter settings are overridden by the target
queue option can be very confusing to end-users. For example, the cost that is
displayed in the release station and/or client popup will be as calculated by the
virtual queue settings. If, after the job is redirected, the cost changes, the user
may become confused. As a general rule, don't override the cost, or if it must
be overridden, communicate this situation to your users beforehand.
11.3.2. Cross-Server Job Redirection
Print-Limit Pro supports redirecting print jobs across print servers, but due to technical limitations the print servers must be running the same operating system (e.g. Windows to
Windows, Mac to Mac, etc.).
11.3.2.1. Cross-Server Job Redirection On Windows
To enable redirection of print jobs from one Windows print server to another some additional configuration is required. This section covers the steps necessary to set it up.
The Print-Limit Pro Print Provider service is the Windows service responsible for interaction
with print queues. For security reasons this service, as for most other Windows services,
runs as the Local System account. This account does not have the privileges required to
access another system and place a print job in one of its queues. Therefore to enable this
functionality the privileges of the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider service must be escalated.
The recommended way to escalate the privileges of the Print-Limit Print Provider service to the required level is as follows. First a service account is created with
permission to create new print jobs:
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1.
On each print server create a new domain user called printlimit_service (or
something suitably descriptive).
2.
Ensure this user has the rights to print on all printers. It's not a requirement that it be
an Administrator level user.
3.
Ensure that the Password never expires option is enabled.
Next the Print-Limit Print Provider service on each print server is configured to
run as the new service account (changed from default SYSTEM to
printlimit_service):
1.
Open the Windows Services list.
2.
Stop the service Print-Limit Print Provider.
3.
Right-click the Print-Limit Print Provider service and select Properties.
4.
Select the Log On tab.
5.
Select the option This account.
6.
Enter the username and password of the newly created service account.
7.
Press OK.
8.
Start the Print-Limit Print Provider service.
Now Print-Limit Pro should have the ability to redirect jobs to the remote print queues it has
been provided access to. Test by setting up a simple job redirection scenario, such as that
described in Section 11.4.1, “Example 1: Simple Load Balancing”.
11.4. Printer Load Balancing
Printer load balancing means distributing the printing load between two or more printers.
While this can be implemented quite effectively by relying on users to pick a printer that is
free, thereby distributing the load, the term generally refers to automatically managed load
balancing.
Load balancing can be implemented in Print-Limit Pro as part of Find Me Printing as discussed in the proceeding section, or separately without the need for release stations in a
direct printing environment. This section discusses load balancing in general including how
it works, as well as how to set it up in a direct printing environment (without release stations).
Load balancing can be implemented at several different layers (none of which are usually
mutually exclusive), including:
•
the hardware/network layer, otherwise known as clustering (see Chapter 18, Microsoft Cluster Environments).
•
the operating system layer, known as printer pooling in Windows and Novell environments, and CUPS classes in Mac and Linux.
•
within Print-Limit Pro itself, which will be the topic of this chapter.
Print-Limit Pro adds value to the load balancing available in clusters and operating systems
by ensuring equal load between printers. For comparison the primary objective of Windows
printer pools is to provide fault tolerance while load balancing is secondary and to a large
extent non-existent. Printer pooling on Windows will often simply pick the first available
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printer in a predefined order. The result is that wear and tear of printers is not even; the
first printer in the group will see the heaviest usage and the others may be mostly idle. System administrators often mitigate this by rotating printers periodically. With load balancing
in Print-Limit Pro none of this is necessary: jobs are distributed evenly between queues
based on intelligent algorithms taking into account several factors:
•
An estimate of the current print load (i.e. pages remaining to print) by inspecting past
print history. The estimate is done by using a Pages Per Minute (PPM) for an average
printer, however Print-Limit Pro will improve on the PPM value by "watching" the printer
and learning over time.
•
The printer that is likely to get the job done quickest is selected.
•
If all printers are currently equal (e.g. all idle), then a random printer is selected. This
ensures that over time, load is distributed evenly.
•
Printers currently in an error condition are avoided if possible.
Find Me Printing also makes use of printer load balancing while giving users the option of
where to send their print job. For more information about Find Me Printing see Section 11.1, “Find Me Printing”.
Implementing load balancing in Print-Limit Pro is best described by way of example. The
following section covers a common scenario for implementing printer load balancing.
11.4.1. Example 1: Simple Load Balancing
11.4.1.1. Scenario
The science department at East Beach High School has a computer lab with a high volume
of printing. Students send their print jobs to the nearby print lab, which hosts two high
volume laser printers of the same model.
The current print queues are named sci_laser_1 and sci_laser_2, and are hosted on
the print server called science-lab. Both queues use the same printer driver and settings.
In this scenario there is some natural form of load balancing, as students may select a
queue at random or perhaps know which queue is available. Ideally this load balancing
would be automatic, and students would not need to concern themselves with which queue
to select.
11.4.1.2. Implementation
The first step is to create a new print queue on the print server. This queue will be a virtual
queue. Students will print to this virtual queue, and Print-Limit Pro will handle the load balancing to the target ("real") queues.
A new queue simply called sci_laser is created by the administrator on the science_lab print server using the normal methods for the operating system in use. The
queue is created using the same driver that sci_laser_1 and sci_laser_2 use. The
queue points to the same physical printer that sci_laser_1 points to. This last point is
not strictly necessary but some printer drivers complain if they do not point to a real printer.
The administrator ensures that the print queue has registered itself with Print-Limit Pro by
checking the Printers tab of the administration interface. Information about adding printers
can be found in Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
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Following creation of the new queue the administrator performs the following:
1.
Navigates to Printers → sci_laser → Summary in the Print-Limit Pro administration
interface.
2.
Changes the Queue type option to This is a virtual queue (jobs will be forwarded
to a different queue). This reveals the Job Redirection Settings section.
3.
The option Jobs may be forwarded to these queues: determines which queues
sci_laser is capable of redirecting to. The queues science-lab/sci_laser_1
and science-lab/sci_laser_2 are selected.
4.
Clicks OK.
Now when students print from a lab computer to the virtual sci_laser queue Print-Limit
Pro will intelligently redirect the job to either sci_laser_1 or sci_laser_2, as illustrated
by Figure 11.5, “Simple Load Balancing”.
The administrator may now optionally un-share the sci_laser_1 and sci_laser_2
queues. Doing so ensures that all printing will be via sci_laser and hence load balanced.
Figure 11.5. Simple Load Balancing
11.5. Find Me Printing and Printer Load Balancing FAQ
11.5.
1.1. Why do redirected jobs have document names starting like R:123456:?
This is a security feature. Print-Limit Pro marks redirected jobs with a special token in
the document name to both distinguish between regular jobs and prevent circumvention by users.
11.5.
1.2. When jobs are redirected are they logged in Print-Limit Pro against the virtual queue
or the target queues?
Jobs are logged against target queues. Virtual queues do not represent real printers
and hence have no printing associated with them. This is why the Recent Jobs and
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Statistics pages are disabled when viewing a virtual queue.
177
Chapter 12. System Management
12.1. Overview
This section discusses various options and features to assist the administrator manage
and configure the application. Print-Limit Pro is designed to work with minimal initial configuration and is self-maintaining once set up. This section outlines some of the options available to the administrator, including:
•
Configuring the synchronization of users and groups
•
Managing backups
•
Configuring user notifications
•
Exporting/import the data
•
Defining security options
•
Disabling features in the user web interface
•
Display options (like whether to display the currency sign).
12.2. User and Group Synchronization
One of the most important parts of managing the system is to configure the User and
Group synchronization options. Print-Limit Pro synchronizes user and group information
from a source such as Windows Active Directory (or Windows Domain). This simplifies the
administration of the system by avoiding the need to manage a separate database of users
and groups. If a user is added to the domain or is removed from a group then Print-Limit
Pro will automatically synchronize this information without any intervention from the administrator. For example:
•
Jason configures Print-Limit Pro to assign an initial credit of $10 to users that are members of the "Students" windows security group.
•
At the start of the new school year Jason, the system administrator, has just added 100
new students to the Windows Active Directory.
•
Jason also adds all the users to the "Students" Windows security group.
•
When Print-Limit Pro next synchronizes with Active Directory, the 100 new users are
added to Print-Limit and automatically assigned the $10 of initial credit. This was done
automatically without any additional work by Jason.
12.2.1. Synchronization Options
The synchronization options are located on the Options → User/Group sync tab. There
are five options to select:
•
Sync source - this selects where the users/groups should be imported from. (Active
Directory, Windows NT Domain, LDAP, or Custom provider).
•
Import users from Group - use this setting to import a subset of users from a single
group rather than the whole domain/directory.
•
Delete users that do not exist in the selected source - deletes users from Print-Limit
Pro if they no longer exist in the selected synchronization source. This setting only affects users added via the synchronization source (e.g. the domain) and will not delete
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internal users.
•
Update users' full-name, email, department and office when synchronizing - if a
user's details in Print-Limit Pro do not match those in the synchronization source, they
will be updated.
•
Update the users' unique card/identity number from the AD/LDAP field - allows a
user card or ID number to be imported from an Active Directory or LDAP field specified.
For more information see Section 12.2.2, “Importing Card/Identity numbers from Active
Directory or LDAP”.
•
Import new users and update details overnight - when selected, synchronization will
be automated to occur each night at approximately 1:15am. This option will never delete users from Print-Limit Pro.
Figure 12.1. User/group synchronization options
If the Print-Limit Pro server is a member of an Active Directory domain it is recommended
to use this option. The advantages over the "Windows Standard" include:
•
Allows using Active Directory organizational units.
•
Supports nested groups for simplified user management.
•
Allows importing of users from other trusted Active Directory domains.
By default, Print-Limit Pro automatically re-syncs the user and group information each
night, however the sync process can also be initiated manually. To initiate a manual sync:
1.
Navigate to the Options → User/Group sync tab.
2.
Press the Synchronize Now button.
3.
The sync process will start and a status window will open showing the status of the
sync process.
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Figure 12.2. Progress of a user/group synchronization process
Tip
By default, the Active Directory user source will import all users, including
those that are disabled. It is possible to change this behaviour using an advanced config entry. To do this:
1.
Navigate to the Options tab.
2.
Press the Config Editor (Advanced) action on the left.
3.
Find the user-source.config-arg property.
4.
Change the value to enabled-users-only .
5.
Press the Update button next to the config property.
Take care when changing this option if you temporarily disable user accounts
for disciplinary or other reasons. If you do this, performing a user sync will
cause disabled users to be deleted if you also have the Delete old users
when syncing option enabled.
Tip
By default, Print-Limit Pro automatically syncs user and group information with
your directory each night. However additional full user/group syncs may be
performed by scheduling a script to run the appropriate server-command
command. More information on using the server-command can be found in
Appendix A, Tools (Advanced).
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12.2.2. Importing Card/Identity numbers from Active Directory or LDAP
In Print-Limit Pro a unique card/identity number can be associated with each user. The
card number is used as an alternative to usernames/passwords for authentication at software release stations, or at hardware terminals attached to photocopiers. The card/ID
number can also be searched in the user quick-find in the User List page.
The card/ID number can be entered manually in the user interface, imported using the
batch user import/update feature (see Section 6.6, “Batch User Data Import and Update”),
or imported using the batch user card/identity update feature (see Section 6.7, “Batch User
Card/Identity Update”), however it is usually more convenient to automatically import them
from Active Directory or LDAP. Unlike other fields like full-name and email address there is
no single field used exclusively for card numbers. For this reason Print-Limit Pro allows
specifying the field to import the card/ID number from.
To enable importing the card/identity number, first enable the Update users' full-name,
email, department and office when synchronizing and the Update the users' unique
card/ID number from the AD/LDAP field options. Then enter the field name to import the
card/identity number from and press Apply. For more information on the field names to
use, see the sections on Active Directory and LDAP below.
Important
The card/ID number must uniquely identify a user, so you should ensure that
no two users have the same card/identity number. The card/identity numbers
you have defined in your user source should be unique. If Print-Limit Pro finds
a non-unique card/identity number it will not update the user's details, and will
display a warning in the synchronization results.
12.2.2.1. Importing the Card/Identity number from Active Directory
Active Directory has a number of user fields that can be used to store the user's card/
identity number. Some of these fields are editable in the user's properties in the Active Directory Users and Computer tool, but others can only be updated with other tools. By default, Print-Limit Pro will import the card/identity number from the user's pager number field
(i.e. the pager field). This field was chosen because it is rarely used and is also editable in
the Windows user interface. If this field is not suitable, you can choose any valid Active Directory user field.
The list of standard Active Directory user fields can be found on the Microsoft web site
here: http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms683980.aspx. The field name entered in
Print-Limit Pro must be in the LDAP display name format. For example, if you want to use
the Employee-Number field, then the field name entered into Print-Limit Pro should be
employeeNumber as shown on the Employee-Number attribute page here: http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms675662.aspx
Important
If the field name is entered incorrectly, the synchronization will fail. It is therefore important to test your configuration changes. To test the changes, press
the Test Settings button. If the card number is retrieved correctly, then they
will be listed as the 4th user field in the test output.
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12.2.2.2. Importing the Card/Identity number from LDAP
LDAP provides a very flexible way to store a variety of user related information. The fields
available depend on LDAP server being used and how that is configured. Many LDAP
servers also allow administrators to create custom fields to store additional custom user information. It is recommended you consult your LDAP server's documentation or talk to your
LDAP administrator to understand which LDAP field your stores the user card/ID number.
By default, Print-Limit Pro uses the employeeNumber field to retrieve the card number.
This is a standard LDAP field, but id this is not suitable, you can choose any valid LDAP
user field.
Important
It is important to test the card numbers are being retrieved correctly. To test
the changes, press the Test Settings button. If the card number is retrieved
correctly, then they will be listed as the 4th user field in the test output.
12.2.3. On Demand User Creation
The On Demand User Creation setting defines if and when Print-Limit Pro will create new
users. The settings applied to newly created users are defined by their group membership
(for more information see Section 6.3, “New User Creation Rules”). By default, new users
are created automatically when they print for the first time, start the user client tool or log
into the user web tools. This makes administration much easier, as there is no need for additional administration when new users come along; they can use Print-Limit Pro straight
away.
In some situations it may be preferable to change the way new users are treated. For example when just one department is being tracked, but there are other departments using
the same printers, it may be preferable to allow the other departments' users to print, but
not to track them using Print-Limit Pro.
There are three options available for the setting When the user does not exist:
1.
create the user on demand (default) - users are created when they interact with PrintLimit Pro for the first time. E.g. when they print for the first time.
2.
do not create the user and allow usage - users interacting with Print-Limit Pro who do
not already exist will not be created, but their usage will be allowed. The usage will not
be logged.
3.
do not create the user and deny usage - users interacting with Print-Limit Pro who do
not already exist will not be created, and their usage will be denied. The usage will not
be logged.
Figure 12.3. On demand user creation options
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To change the behavior, select the desired option and press Apply.
12.2.4. Using Active Directory for user synchronization
Print-Limit Pro's Active Directory integration is performed at a native level and supports advanced features such as nested groups and OU's. Some additional options provided with
the Active Directory interface include:
•
Import disabled users - If set, all users, including disabled accounts will be imported
from the domain. In an education environment it is recommended to leave this option
on as often student accounts are disabled for disciplinary actions, and removing the account from Print-Limit Pro is not appropriate.
•
Enable multi-domain support - This is an advanced option and is appropriate for larger
sites running multiple trusted domains. For example, in an education environment it is
common to have separate domains for students and staff/teachers with a one-way trust
relationship. This option can bring in groups, OU's and users from both domains.
The list of domains is semicolon separated (;). This list should contain the name of the
domains in DNS dot notation, and should include the name of the current domain if importing from this domain is desired.
Trust domain relationships are a complex area and administrators are advised to use
the Test button to verify that the settings result in the desired behaviour. The total number of user accounts is a good measure.
12.2.5. Using LDAP for user synchronization
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) directories usually store information about
user and groups in an organization. One of the most common uses of LDAP is to provide
single sign-on on a network that comprises multiple platforms and applications. When a
network consists of only Windows computers, then an Active Directory domain can be
used. But when there is a mix of Windows, Apple and Linux machines then LDAP can
provided the single source of user, group and authentication information. (It is worth noting
that both Active Directory and Novell eDirectory implement the LDAP protocol).
Print-Limit Pro can use an LDAP directory for user authentication and as a source of user
and group information. LDAP can either be enabled at installation time, or by changing the
user source option in Options → User/Group sync. When enabling LDAP, a number of
configuration settings must be specified to allow the application to connect to the LDAP
server. Please ask your LDAP administrator what values to use for the various options:
•
LDAP Server Type - Determines which LDAP fields are used to get user and group information.
•
LDAP Host address - The hostname or IP address of the LDAP server.
•
Use SSL - Indicates if an encrypted SSL connection should be used to connect to the
LDAP server. The LDAP server requires SSL support to be enabled and should accept
connections on the standard LDAPS port 636.
•
Base DN - This is the Base DN of the LDAP server. This is the equivalent of the "suffix"
config setting of the OpenLDAP server. For example, if the domain hosted by the LDAP
server is "domain.com" then the Base DN might be DC=domain,DC=com. The format
of the Base DN can differ significantly depending on configuration. Some examples:
DC=myschool,DC=edu,DC=au
DC=myorganization,DC=com
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OU=OrgUnit,DC=domain,DC=com
DC=local
•
•
Admin DN - The DN of the user who has permission to connect to and query the LDAP
server. This is typically an administrative user, although it can be a user that only has
read-only access to the LDAP server. An example of the DN of the Administrator user
on
a
Windows
AD
domain
"domain.com",
would
be
CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=domain,DC=com. The exact format of the DN
depends on the LDAP server. Some examples:
•
Windows Active Directory: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=domain,DC=com
•
Windows
Active
Directory
(in
organizational
CN=administrator,OU=OrgUnit,DC=domain,DC=com
•
Mac Open Directory: uid=diradmin,CN=users,DC=domain,DC=com
•
Unix
Open
LDAP:
uid=root,DC=domain,DC=com,
uid=ldapadmin,DC=domain,DC=com
unit):
or
Admin password - The password for the above user.
Tip
Some LDAP servers are configured to allow 'anonymous' LDAP query access.
In these situations, the Admin DN and Admin password may be left blank.
Print-Limit Pro supports the following server types:
•
Novell eDirectory
•
Microsoft Active Directory
•
Unix / Open Directory
However, it is easy to support other server types by adjusting the LDAP fields Print-Limit
Pro searches. This is discussed in Appendix C, Advanced LDAP Configuration.
12.3. Assigning Administrator Level Access
Print-Limit Pro sets up one administrator account called “admin”. This is the master administrator account, with access to all features, whose password is assigned during the configuration wizard. In large organizations it is likely that administrator level access will need to
be granted to more than one person. One solution is to give all persons the master password; however the recommended approach is to assign administrator rights to these individual's network user accounts. The advantages of this approach are:
•
They can access the administration pages using their own username and password
(they don't have to remember another password!).
•
Different levels of administrator access can be assigned to the user. Print-Limit Pro includes an advanced Access Control List (ACL) allowing different administrators access
to different functions and areas of the application.
•
Most activity is audited so changes can be sourced to an individual.
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Administrator access may be assigned at the group or user level. Assigning admin access
to a group is convenient for giving the same permissions to multiple users. Assigning admin access to a user is useful when specific permissions are required. See the following
sections for more detail.
Important
Print-Limit Pro allows different levels of administrator access to be defined via
access control list. The access list is presented as a series of checkboxes enabling or disabling access to selected features or application areas.
For security reasons it is advisable to:
•
Grant the user's own accounts administrator level rights rather than have
them use the general built-in admin account.
•
Grant the administrator the minimum level rights need for them to perform
their job.
•
ACL configuration can be complex. Always test that the ACL rights assigned work as expected by asking the administrator to log in and verify
that they can access the required program functions.
12.3.1. Assigning Administrator Access to a Group
Assigning administrator access to a group is useful when many users all require access to
the same functionality. For example, the Management group might be assigned access to
reporting functionality only.
Groups in Print-Limit Pro are mirrored from the domain / directory server. Before a group
can be used, it must be added to Print-Limit Pro (see Section 6.1, “Groups in Print-Limit
Pro” for more information). By default Print-Limit Pro synchronizes users' group membership with the domain / directory server overnight. If a user has been added to a group in
the domain / directory and requires group level admin access on the same day, a manual
synchronization should be run. See Section 12.2, “User and Group Synchronization” for
more information.
Example: assigning the Management group access to reporting features:
1.
Log in to the system as the built in admin user.
2.
Ensure that the Management group has been imported into Print-Limit Pro (see Section 6.1, “Groups in Print-Limit Pro” for more information).
3.
Navigate to the Options → Admin Rights page.
4.
In the field titled Assign administrator access to this group:, select the Management group from the list, and click Add Group.
Figure 12.4. The list of users and groups granted admin access
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5.
By default Management will have access to all features. To change this, click on the
show/hide details link to the right of Management's entry.
6.
Deselect all access rights for Management except Access reports section. When
finished, click Apply to save the changes.
7.
Test by logging into the administrator interface as a user in the Management group,
and checking that access is allowed just to the Reports section.
Tip
The scheduled reports feature can automatically deliver selected reports via
email to interested parties. See Section 9.4, “Scheduling and Emailing Reports” for more information.
Figure 12.5. The list of users and groups granted admin access
12.3.2. Assigning Administrator Access to a User
Assigning access to an individual user is suitable when the access rights are specific to
that user. For example, the junior system administrator mary might be assigned access to
all functionality except the ability to grant administrator rights to other users.
Assigning the user with login name mary all admin rights except the ability to grant admin
rights to other users:
1.
Log in to the system as the built in admin user.
2.
Navigate to the Options → Admin Rights page.
3.
Enter mary into the field titled Assign administrator access to this user: and click
Add User.
4.
By default mary will have access to all features. To change this, click on the show/
hide details link to the right of mary's entry.
5.
Deselect the access right Access admin rights settings for mary.
6.
Click on the Apply button to save the change.
7.
Verify that Mary can now log into the administrator interface, but is unable to access
the Admin Rights section.
12.4. System Backups
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System Management
As with any application, it is important to ensure that backups are performed regularly.
Print-Limit Pro includes a built-in backup process that saves the state of the database to a
file. The in-built backup functionality is designed to complement (not replace) a good system-wide backup policy and procedure. The backup is stored in the industry standard XML
format that is compressed using the standard ZIP format to reduce disk-space on the server and your backup medium. The use of these open standards ensures that your data is always available and accessible.
Print-Limit Pro makes the process of managing backups simple by automatically performing a weekly backup. The backup file is in the following directory:
[app-dir]\server\data\backups
The weekly backups are performed at 20 minutes past midnight on Sunday morning (or as
otherwise defined by the schedule.weekly config key. Please see Section 12.8, “ Using
the Config Editor ” to find out how to change config keys.)
Tip
In accordance with backup best practice, the above directory should be regularly backed-up to offline media (e.g. tape, CD or remote server). This will allow the data to be restored in the case the server hard-drive is corrupted. An
example backup script called copy-backups-to-remote-server.bat
found at [app-path]/server/examples/scripting/batch/ may help
administrators automate the process of maintaining an off-disk copy.
On larger networks, it may be desirable to perform backups more frequently
than the in-built once a week period. The server-command tool may be used
to execute the backup task at other times. Simply write a script (e.g. batch file)
to execute server-command perform-online-backup. Schedule the
script to run at the desired intervals. More information on server-command is
available in Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)”.
12.4.1. Performing an Online Backup
In addition to the automated weekly backups, it is also possible to manually initiate a
backup. This might be useful to back up the system before performing an upgrade. To perform a manual backup:
1.
Navigate to the Options → Backups page.
2.
Press the Backup Now button.
3.
A window will open showing the backup progress and the location where the backup
file is saved.
12.4.2. Restoring a Backup
There are a number of situations when it might be necessary to restore a database, including:
•
Hardware or system failure requires you to rebuild the server and reinstall Print-Limit
Pro.
•
A new print server was purchased and Print-Limit Pro is being moved to a new server.
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•
To import data into an external RDBMS (See Chapter 17, Deployment on an External
Database (RDBMS)).
To restore from a backup:
1.
Locate a previous backup file.
2.
Shutdown the application server (See Section A.6, “Stopping and Starting the Application Server”). The database cannot be in-use when performing the restore, so the application server needs to be stopped first.
3.
Open a command prompt. Change to the server binaries directory. On a Windows system the directory location is [app-path]\server\bin\win\.
4.
Re-initialize the database back to an empty state by typing the following:
db-tools init-db -f
5.
Run the import process by executing the following:
db-tools import-db -f "C:\path\to\backup\backup-file-name.zip"
(Or, ./db-tools on some systems. See Section A.2, “Database Tool (db-tools)” for
more information on using db-tools)
6.
The import will ask whether the existing database data should be deleted before proceeding.
7.
Once the import has completed, restart the application server (See Section A.6,
“Stopping and Starting the Application Server”).
12.4.3. Performing Offline Backups
Performing an online backup (as discussed above) is a simple and convenient process, but
it is sometimes necessary to perform an offline backup. For example:
•
To integrate into your existing backup procedures, it might be necessary to write a
script or batch file to perform a backup at a known point in time.
•
When it is necessary to guarantee that the backup captures all the data. When performing an online backup the system is still in use so data could be modified after the
backup completes.
To perform an offline backup:
1.
Stop the application server (See Section A.6, “Stopping and Starting the Application
Server”). To ensure all data is captured, the application server must be stopped to perform an offline backup.
2.
Open a command prompt. On a Windows system change to the following directory:
[app-path]\server\bin\win\
3.
Run the database export process by executing:
db-tools export-db
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(This will create a backup file in the system backups directory and the filename named
with a timestamp).
The export command has additional options that allows you to specify a different directory or filename. See Section A.2.1, “export-db Command” for more details.
12.4.4. Backup File Retention
Backup files in
[app-dir]\server\data\backups
will be retained for 30 days and then deleted. This number of days can be changed on the
Options → Backups page under "Keep backups for ... days". This period will automatically
be extended should backups not be performed on a regular basis, i.e. when automatic
backup have been temporarily disabled for a time or when skipping scheduled backups
due to a system outage. Older backups files will not be deleted unless a number of new
backups have been performed. At the very least the latest backup file will always be retained regardless of its age.
12.5. System Notifications
This section describes system notifications and how they can be configured to assist your
users and administrators. Print-Limit Pro includes built-in notifications to alert users and administrators of a important pieces of information. Examples of these notifications include:
•
Alerting a user when their account balance drops below a given balance.
•
Displaying a message explaining why a print job was denied (e.g. not enough credit;
the printer is disabled; the print job contains too many pages).
•
Alerting administrators or key IT support staff to problems such as printer jams, or application errors.
The message that is delivered to the user can be customized to suit your organization. For
example, if the user is denied printing for some reason, you may wish to direct the user to
the intranet page that discusses printing policies and guidelines.
Important
Notifications are important to your users because they let them know why their
print jobs were denied. If notifications are not enabled, users print jobs might
be deleted without them knowing and they will not understand what happened.
They might then contact the Administrator or Help Desk for assistance. If they
received a notification, then this situation is avoided.
System notifications can be delivered to the user in a number of ways, and the administrator can decide the preferred option. The delivery options available include:
•
Winpopup (or "net send") - this is useful in a Windows network but workstations running
other operating systems may not receive these messages.
•
User Client - messages are sent to users running the Print-Limit Pro User Client tool.
This option is guaranteed to work in all environments where the user runs the user cli189
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ent.
•
Email - messages are delivered by email, to the email address defined in the system.
This is a good alternative for "low balance warning" messages but is not recommended
for real-time messages like when printing is denied.
•
Custom - this allows you to develop your own message delivery mechanism. This might
be useful if your organization has an instant messaging infrastructure.
12.5.1. Configuring Notifications
Print-Limit Pro provides flexible options for configuring the various notifications. The administrator can choose to:
•
Enable/disable each of the notification types.
•
Change the notification message to suit your organization.
•
Choose the delivery method for each notification type.
Notification text can be modified to suit your organization's requirements. The notification
text is a template that can include some special fields that are replaced by the system
when the message is sent. They can be used to provide more detailed information to the
user. These fields are surrounded by percent characters (%).
The default notification text in the application shows a variety of examples using these
fields. For a list of the fields available in each type of notification, see the following sections
covering each notification type in more detail.
12.5.1.1. Printing Notifications
To change printing notification options, navigate to Printers → Notification Options.
Field
Description
%user%
The username of the user receiving the
message.
%full_name%
The full name of the user receiving the
message.
%date%
The date/time that the message was sent.
%balance%
The user's current balance.
%cost%
The cost of the print job.
%printer%
The printer the job was printed to.
%document%
The name of the document printed.
%pages%
The total number of pages in the print job.
%copies%
The number of copies of the document
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Field
Description
printed.
%paper-size%
The size of the paper used to print the document.
Table 12.1. Fields available in printing notifications
12.5.1.2. Low Balance Notification
To change low balance notification options, navigate to Options → Notifications, and
scroll down to the "Low Balance Notification" section.
Figure 12.6. Options for a single system notification
Using the notification options (shown above), the notification can be enabled, the notification text can be changed, and the delivery type can be modified.
Field
Description
%balance%
The user's current balance.
Table 12.2. Fields available in low balance notifications
Important
This low balance notification is only sent to users who are set as restricted.
12.5.1.3. Configuring Email Notifications
Before sending notifications via email, the system needs to know the SMTP server to deliver emails to. The SMTP server can be internal or external to your organization however it
must allow forwarding of emails to your users. The SMTP server will typically be the same
server that users set in their email application to send emails.
To set the SMTP server:
1.
Navigate to Options → Notifications.
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2.
Find the Email Options section.
3.
Enter the SMTP server in the field provided.
4.
It is also recommended that the subject and from address are changed to be applicable for your environment.
5.
Press the Apply button.
Tip
If your email server requires SMTP authentication, the username and password can be configured by setting the notify.smtp.username and notify.smtp.password settings in the advanced configuration editor. For more
information see Section 12.8, “ Using the Config Editor ”.
Important
Anti-virus software running on the Print-Limit Pro server can block/disallow
SMTP connections because it attempts to block SPAM sent by viruses and trojans. Ensure that any anti-virus software is configured to allow Print-Limit Pro
to make SMTP connections (e.g. add an exception or disable the SMTP blocking).
When anti-virus is blocking email delivery Print-Limit Pro will log errors like:
Mail server connection failed. Software caused connection
abort.. These errors are displayed in the application log or on-screen when
performing email notification tests.
If there are other SMTP connection problems, you should check that your firewall allows SMTP connections, and that your SMTP server is configured to accept connections from the Print-Limit Pro server.
12.5.1.4. Configuring Email Addresses
To send notification messages to users via email, an email address needs to be defined for
the user. User email addresses can be entered in the User Details screen. However, if all
email addresses match the pattern [username]@yourdomain.com, then the email addresses can be defined globally using the global email suffix. An example of how this
works is as follows:
1.
An email notification needs to be sent to user brian.
2.
No email address has been defined in Brian's user details, but a global email suffix of
@myschool.com is defined in the Email Options section.
3.
To generate Brian's email address, the username (brian) and suffix
(@myschool.com) are combined to form the email address [email protected]
To define the global email suffix:
1.
Navigate to Options → Notifications.
2.
Find the Email Options section.
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3.
Enable the Use email suffix to build user email addresses option.
4.
Enter the Email Address Suffix.
5.
Press the Apply button.
To confirm that the email suffix is working as expected:
1.
Navigate to the Users section.
2.
Select a user from the list.
3.
The Use global email suffix option should be enabled, and the email field should
contain the address constructed from the username and suffix.
12.5.2. System Notifications (for Administrators)
Hardware and software errors will happen on all networks from time to time. The key to
minimizing disruption is to act on errors fast. Print-Limit Pro's error notifications feature will
help keep response times down by proactively notifying key staff of error events. Take for
example a paper jam. It might take several hours before an annoyed user reports the problem as most users may simply opt to use another printer. Automated email notifications
take the "human factor" out of the loop.
Print-Limit Pro's can also notify the administrator when printer toner levels are low (for supported printers). This allows for toner to be purchased and replaced pro-actively to minimise downtime of the printer fleet.
To enable and configure error notification options, navigate to Options → Notifications,
and scroll down to the "System Notifications" section. The following notification types are
available:
•
Printer errors: Notify when a printer enters an error state for a selected period of time.
•
Low Toner warnings: Notify when a printer runs low on toner (for supported printers).
•
Application errors: Notify if a software or application error is detected. This option will allow administrators to proactively act on errors raised in the App. Log section.
•
License errors: Notify on important license events such as exceeding the licensed user
limit.
All error notifications can be enabled using the checkbox, and a list of recipient email addresses can be specified. Multiple email addresses can be entered by separating them
with a comma, e.g. [email protected],[email protected]
Tip
Consider SMS alerts: Error notifications are often important and require urgent
attention. Many organizations use an email-to-SMS gateway service to ensure
technical staff can receive urgent messages from anywhere in the building via
the text message service on their cell/mobile phones.
12.5.2.1. Printer error notifications
Printer error notifications can be used to give advance warning when printers go into an er193
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ror state.
Print-Limit Pro detects a printer error if either the print queue or the job at the top of the
print queue are in an error state. This is equivalent to clicking on the print queue from the
operating system and checking its status.
Some errors that might be seen on print queues or jobs include: paper jam, out of
paper, out of toner, out of memory, device is offline, device door is
open, or a generic error. The actual errors reported depend on the printer driver and which
ones it supports.
The message can include information such as the name and location of the printer, the
reason for the error, and how many jobs are pending in the queue (an indication of the impact).
Figure 12.7. Printer error notification settings
The setting Time a printer has been in error before sending notification can be used to decide how soon a notification should be sent after a printer goes into
error. For example if there is a paper jam the user might be able to fix it themselves, and
raising an immediate notification is unnecessary. The suggested default is 10 minutes as
problems lasting longer than this are probably more serious and will need technical intervention.
The following special fields can be used in printer error event notifications:
Field
Description
%time%
The time the printer error was first reported.
%printer%
The name of the errored printer.
%location%
The location of the errored printer.
%error%
The error message detail. E.g. Paper
jam.
%num_jobs%
The number of print jobs currently in the
queue. This information can be used as a
guide to judge the severity of the error. For
example, if a printer goes into error while
there are 30 jobs in the queue, there are
probably quite a few people waiting.
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Field
Description
Table 12.3. Fields available in printer error notifications
12.5.2.2. Printer low toner notifications
Printer low toner notifications are used give advance warning when printers are running
low on toner. This allows administrators to ensure that printers never run out of toner and
improves printer uptime.
The printer toner notifications are available for supported network printers. The toner information is retrieved from the printer using SNMP over the network. To use low toner notifications, ensure that SNMP is enabled on your printer and that your network/firewalls/switches allows the Print-Limit Pro server to send SNMP requests to the printers. For
more information see Section 7.10, “Toner Levels (for supported printers)”.
The notification message lists each printer that is low in toner, and includes toner levels for
all the printer's toner cartidges. The notification message is sent each weekday at 10:30am
by default.
Figure 12.8. Low toner notification settings
12.5.2.3. Error level event notifications
Error level event notifications help to draw the attention of the administrator to any errors
that might occur. This could involve events such as problems contacting a directory server,
software crashes, or processing problems.
Figure 12.9. Error level event notification settings
The following special fields can be used in error level event notifications:
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Field
Description
%error%
The error message detail.
Table 12.4. Fields available in error level event notifications
12.5.3. Testing Notification Methods
Once the system notifications are configured, it is useful to test that messages can be delivered. Print-Limit Pro provides a function to send test messages to users. This allows you
to verify that notifications are working without having to try to produce notifications artificially. To send a test notification:
1.
Navigate to the Options → Notifications.
2.
Scroll to the bottom of the page to the Test Notifications section.
3.
Enter the username of the user to send the message to.
4.
Select the delivery method to use.
5.
Enter the notification message to send.
6.
Press the Send Test Notification button
7.
Verify that the notification was received.
12.6. System Security Options
The default installation of Print-Limit Pro is configured to be secure by default. After initial
installation only the admin user defined during the setup process is permitted to administer
the system. To allow additional users to administer Print-Limit Pro follow the instructions
defined in Section 4.7, “Assigning Administrator Level Access”.
12.6.1. Application Server Connections
By default Print-Limit Pro runs an internal web server on port 9191. All communication with
the server uses HTTP to this port and includes connections by:
•
administrators to connect to the administration interface
•
users to connect to the end-user interface
•
the user client to communicate with the server to get the user balance and receive notifications; and
•
the information providers (as discussed in Section 1.1.2, “Key Features”) to send information to the server
It is therefore important that all of the above clients can access this port on the server from
across the entire network. If your organization uses firewalls between departments or campuses then it will be necessary to allow inbound HTTP connections on port 9191 to the
Print-Limit Pro application server.
The application server port can be changed from 9191 to any other value.
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Important
If the application server port is changed, the port number also must be
changed in the applications that connect to the server. i.e, the print provider
and the user client.
To change the application server port:
1.
On the server, navigate to the [app-path]\server\ directory.
2.
Open the file server.properties.
3.
Change the server.port to setting to the desired port.
4.
Change the server port in all providers installed on your network. The server port is set
in the print-provider.conf file in the provider directory.
5.
Change
the
server
port
in
the
[app-path]\client\config.properties.
user
client
config
file:
Important
If the client is installed locally on workstations, then the config file will need
to be changed on each workstation.
On Linux/Unix systems, the server runs under the privilege of a non-root
account. Some systems may prevent non-root users from binding to ports
lower than 1024. An alternate option is to use kernel level TCP port redirection (e.g. iptables).
6.
Restart the application server. (See Section A.6, “Stopping and Starting the Application Server”).
12.6.2. Provider Connection Security
The Print-Limit Pro architecture (as discussed in Section 1.2.3, “Architecture Overview”
and Section 14.4, “Print Monitoring Architecture”) involves having a central application
server and multiple information providers that send data to the server to process. One example of a provider is the print provider which monitors printing and sends the printer activity to the central server.
Print-Limit Pro supports an unlimited number of information providers and they can be located on anywhere on the network. By default Print-Limit Pro allows these providers to connect from any machine on the network. This can be restricted to a reduced set of machines
by specifying a list of IP addresses or subnets that are allowed to submit information to the
application server.
To define the list of addresses that providers can connect from:
1.
Navigate to Options → General.
2.
Scroll down to the Security section.
3.
Enter the list of IP addresses or subnet masks to allow. The list of addresses is
comma separated. The format of the subnet is X.X.X.X/Y.Y.Y.Y (where X repres197
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ents the address and Y the subnet mask).
4.
Press Apply.
5.
It is then recommended to test all providers to ensure that they can still submit information to the application server. To test the print provider, perform a test print job to the
server that the provider is running on.
12.7. Environmental Impact
One of the primary aims of Print-Limit Pro is to reduce printing levels by changing a user's
printing behavior. Implementing monitoring, quotas and charging are a good way of drawing a user's attention to their habits. The topic of the environment, global warming, and
waste management is currently an area of debate and interest to many. Highlighting the
environmental aspects of their activities is another good way of modifying a user's behavior.
Figure 12.10. Draw a user's attention to their environmental impact
The Environmental Impact section is available to end-users via their web summary page
(See Section 5.3.2, “Environmental Impact” for more details). Administrators also can view
the impact of a user and a printer via the details pages in the admin interface.
The meaning of the reported values and how they are calculated are detailed below:
Field
Description
Trees
This value corresponds to percentage of a
tree that has gone into making the paper.
The value assumes the user is printing on
standard A4 or Letter sheets and 80,500
sheets make up a tree a
This value is set by the config key: environment.sheets-per-tree
Carbon
This value corresponds to greenhouse
gases released in the production of the paper (CO2 equivalent). The value assumes
that the user is printing on standard A4 or
Letter sheets and one sheet equals 8.6g
CO2 b.
The default value takes in account CO2
produced as a byproduct of the paper production only. It does not take into account
the power consumed by the printer or
power associated with the ink / toner use
and production. Finding referenced figures
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Field
Description
on these values is difficult, and one could
argue that the printer power consumption is
not a function of the user's usage as the
printer would be there consuming power
even if they choose not to use the device.
This value is set by the config key: environment.co2-grams-per-sheet
Energy
This value represents the manufacturing
energy used to produce the paper. The energy value is represented by relating it to
the equivalent energy consumed by a
standard light bulb. This provides users
with a real world understanding of the
value. This value assumes the user is printing a standard A4 or Letter sheet and that
the manufacturing cost per sheet is 17Wh
c
. This is an appropriate amount for virgin
office paper. 12Wh is more appropriate for
100% recycled paper d.
This value is set by the config key: environment.watt-hours-per-sheet
Table 12.5. Environmental Impact Reporting
a
A single tree can produce about 80,500 sheets of paper according to How Much Information? 2003 filed by University of California at Berkeley, http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/print.htm.
b
Office paper produces 0.53 metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE) per ton of paper, according to the USA
EPA report Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Management of Selected Materials in Municipal Solid Waste, 1998,
p26,
http://yosemite.epa.gov/OAR%5Cglobalwarming.nsf/UniqueKeyLookup/SHSU5BUMGJ/%24File/greengas.pdf. This
amount is equal to 1.9 metric tons of CO2. The Environmental Energy Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy indicate that there are about 220,000 paper sheets in a ton: http://eetd.lbl.gov/paper/ideas/html/copyfactsM.htm.
c
According to the Environmental Energy Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, the manufacturing cost of virgin office paper is 17 Watt hours: http://eetd.lbl.gov/paper/ideas/html/issues.htm.
d
According to the Environmental Energy Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, the manufacturing cost of 100% recycled office paper is 12 Watt hours: http://eetd.lbl.gov/paper/ideas/html/issues.htm.
Tip
Config keys can be set by at Options → Config editor (advanced).
12.8. Using the Config Editor
Most of the settings in Print-Limit Pro are easily accessible via the main admin interface
(e.g. the Options tab). Some advanced settings are however only accessible via the Config
Editor. The Config Editor stores keys or information used by Print-Limit Pro to configure
various options and functions. This is very similar to the Windows System Registry database.
Administrator can edit config keys using the following procedure:
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1.
Login to the system as an administrator (e.g. the built-in admin account).
2.
Navigate to the Options section.
3.
Click on the "Config editor (advanced)" link in the Actions list on the left.
4.
In the quick find, enter the config key name and press GO.
5.
Locate the required key and enter a new value.
6.
Press the Update button to the right to apply the change.
Example of some keys that are often changed by administrators include:
•
config.client.link-url - Used to change the URL displayed at the top of the user client.
•
client.config.link-text - Used to customize the text visible at the top of the user client.
•
display.login-instruction - Used to display login instructions on the user/password
screen.
Important
Take care when using the Config Editor. If you use the Config Editor incorrectly, you may cause serious problems which can only be fixed by reinstallation of the application.
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Chapter 13. PrintCards
Many organizations run Print-Limit Pro in either a silent logging mode or as a way of enforcing sensible quotas. On the other hand, other organizations choose to run Print-Limit Pro
in “charging mode” requiring users to make payments in advance. Recording and entering
payments can be a time consuming process for staff or system managers. Print-Limit Pro
offers a web interface for user account management to assist with the process, however
there is still the need for someone to manually assign credit. The PrintCard system included with Print-Limit streamlines the payment process and moves much of the manual
handling over to the end-user.
Cards are also known as:
•
Vouchers
•
Re-Charge Cards
•
Pre-Paid Cards
13.1. Cards by Example
The card system is best described by walking through the payment process:
13.1.1. The User's Perspective
Amy is a student at a local high school. The school uses Print-Limit Pro for their charging.
Amy is allocated $5.00 a week for printing and Internet use. This week she has used all her
allocation but still has one assignment to print on Friday. She purchases a $5.00 Card from
the school canteen. The card contains a 16-digit identification number. She logs onto the
schools intranet site, enters the Print-Limit section, and enters the card's ID number. Her
account is automatically credited $5.00.
13.1.2. The Administrator's Perspective
Andrew is a system administrator at the same high school. At the start of the term he used
the Print-Limit Pro card wizard to generate 500 PrintCard of $5.00 value. These were generated in 2 batches. The first batch was prefixed with C1 and the second batch L1. The C1
batch was sold at the school canteen and the L1 batch sold at the school library. The cards
are kept secured at these locations.
The card wizard generated a number definition file for each batch. Andrew imported these
numbers into Print-Limit. Andrew took the time to customize the look of the cards to include
the school logo and simple instructions on how to redeem the card.
During the year Andrew is able to track the cards sold and uses the batch prefixes to track
where students like to purchase cards. Andrew also keeps an eye on the event log and has
disciplined students attempting to guess card numbers.
13.2. The Card System
Netop has worked with a number of organizations to design the PrintCard system. A number of payment technologies were evaluated over the period of two years. These technologies included vending machines, smart cards, micro-payment systems, and manual processing. The card system proved to be the most successful and cost effective solution. The
card concept is now the de facto standard in other industries such as pre-paid mobile
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PrintCards
phones.
The Print-Limit Pro card system is 100% software based. There is no need for special
hardware such as smart card readers or special vending machines.
The card system is included as standard with Print-Limit Pro. The system includes:
•
A card wizard application for assisting with the process of creating new cards.
•
A web page for end-users to enter card numbers.
•
A security framework for tracking card redemption and implementing fraud prevention.
13.3. Creating New Cards
13.3.1. Overview and Definitions
Cards are generated using the Card Wizard. The card wizard is a Microsoft Windows application that integrates with Microsoft Word. The card wizard install can be downloaded
from inside the Print-Limit Pro administration login under the Card section. The download
link is located in the Actions area.
Important
The Card Wizard integrates with Microsoft Word. Please ensure that Microsoft
Word is installed before using the Card Wizard.
Term
Definition
Card Wizard
A tool to help administrators produce a set
of cards. The wizard generates cards ready
for printing and a number definition file suitable for importing into the Print-Limit Pro
system.
Card Number
All cards are designated a random unique
number. Print-Limit uses this number to
identify the card and its value. Users enter
this number to allocate the credit to their
account. An example number:
P0409-1945-4833-5750-4452
Batch ID
A batch ID is a user defined ID or number
assigned to all cards in a batch. The batch
ID will prefix all card numbers and are used
to identify the source of a card. A unique
number should be assigned to each batch.
Valid Till Date (Expiration Date)
Define the date on which a card can no
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Term
Definition
longer be used. It's analogous to a “use by”
date on a gift certificate. Expiration dates
ensures cards only remain in circulation for
a limited period of time. A six to 12 month
period is recommended. In a school environment it may be useful to define an expiration date as the last day of the semester.
Mail Merge
Mail merge is an advanced feature of Microsoft Word. The mail merge feature takes
a design template and a data source, and
merges the two together to construct a
composite document. In the card wizard's
case, the number list is the data source and
the design template is the template Microsoft Word document.
Number Definition File
The number definition file contains information on all cards in a batch including a list of
card numbers, their expiration date, and
value. The card wizard creates this file during the generation process and the system
administrator will import this file into the
Card administration section.
Card Number Entry Page
The card web entry page is a designated
page inside the user login section.
Table 13.1. Card Terminology
13.3.2. Using the Card Wizard
This section will walk you through the process of creating a batch of PrintCards. The example covers creating a batch of 100 cards of value $10.00 each.
The Cards feature is accessed via the Cards tab. If there is no Cards tab, enable the feature by navigating to the Options section and selecting Enable use of TopUp/PrePaid
Cards. Click Apply.
13.3.2.1. Step 1 - Install the card wizard
Log onto a desktop system with Microsoft Word installed (normally not the server!). Open a
web browser at:
http://[server_name]:9191/admin
Log into Print-Limit Pro as admin and navigate to the Cards section. Download the card
wizard from the Download card wizard action. Run the install program and complete the
installation process.
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PrintCards
13.3.2.2. Step 2 - Welcome
Open the Card Wizard from the start menu, and press Next>.
13.3.2.3. Step 3 - Batch ID & Format
Enter a unique batch ID to define this batch and click Next>. We recommend adapting a
consistent convention. For example, choose numbers representing the date, or a sequential numbering scheme.
The wizard offers a choice of two popular card number formats. The Numeric format is the
most secure and generates long numbers. The Alphanumeric format produces a shorter
format consisting of letters and numbers. The Alphanumeric format is a little less secure
due to the reduced number of possible permutations, however it does offer a shorter, more
convenient entry format.
Figure 13.1. Entering a batch ID
13.3.2.4. Step 4 - Card Attributes
Ensure that the number of cards is set up to 100 and the value of each card is $10.00. By
default the valid till date is set 6 months in the future. We recommend defining an appropriate date that corresponds to a fixed event such as the end of the year, budget year, term or
semester.
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PrintCards
Figure 13.2. Defining a valid till date
13.3.2.5. Step 5 - Design
To produce a set of standard cards, custom design is not required. Simply click the Next>
button to move to the next step. Modifying the custom design requires knowledge of Microsoft Word's mail merge functionality. See the Section 13.3.3, “PrintCard Tips” for further
details.
Figure 13.3. Options to edit the card design
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PrintCards
13.3.2.6. Step 6 - Generate Numbers
Press Next> to generate the card numbers. The card wizard will prompt you for a location
to save the number definition file. Save the file on the local hard driver or a secure network
drive.
13.3.2.7. Step 7 - Create Cards
The card wizard will now generate a merged Microsoft Word document. Before generating
the Word document, the card wizard will ask you if Macros have been enabled in Microsoft
Word. If the answer is no, or you are unsure, please say No and the card wizard will guide
you through the process of enabling Macros. The card wizard uses Word Macros to automate much of the card generation process.
If using Word 2007, after opening the document a Security warning is displayed on the
Message Bar. You will need to enable macros by selecting "Enable this content" after clicking on "Options" on the Message Bar.
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PrintCards
Figure 13.4. Enable Macros in MS Word 2007
13.3.2.8. Step 8 - Printing Cards
A new Microsoft Word document will open, listing all 100 cards. The cards are standard
business card size suitable for printing on heavy paper and cutting with a paper cutter. For
a professional look, consider forwarding a PDF version to your local printing shop. See
Section 13.3.3, “PrintCard Tips” for more ideas.
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PrintCards
Figure 13.5. Cards ready for printing
13.3.2.9. Step 9 - Importing
The final step is to activate the cards by importing the number definition file in the PrintLimit Pro admin section.
1.
Navigate to the Card section.
2.
Select the Import New Cards action.
3.
Click the Browse button and locate the number definition file as saved in step 5
above.
4.
Click the Upload button.
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PrintCards
Figure 13.6. Imported card numbers
13.3.2.10. Step 10 - Testing
It is good practice to test the card process by using one of the cards on a test account
(standard user level). Remember to destroy the spent card used for the test!
13.3.3. PrintCard Tips
13.3.3.1. Security
The Print-Limit Pro card system is designed with security in mind. All fraudulent card redemption attempts are detected, trapped and logged. The number allocation system is
highly secure and guessing a number is “statistically impossible”. With 1,000 cards in circulation, the chance of guessing a number is 1-in-10,000,000,000,000, or in nonmathematical terms, it would take over 300,000 years to guess a number if a person enters
one number every second!
Like many IT security systems, the weakest link in the system is the human interface.
Cards are a form of virtual currency. Care should be taken to protect the cards from unauthorized access and disclosure.
•
Ensure the generated Microsoft Word document is deleted or saved in a secure place
after the cards are printed.
•
Always delete the number definition file after importing the batch into Print-Limit.
•
Never leave the cards in an unsecured or visible location. Consider sealing cards in envelopes.
•
Check the Print-Limit Pro application event log on a weekly basis for security messages. Print-Limit will log and trap unauthorized card use.
•
Use the card log to track card redemption and allocation.
•
Cancel/Expire lost or stolen cards by batch number as soon as the problem is reported.
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PrintCards
Important
The cards are like a form of cash and should be treated with the same care.
Make sure the cards are carefully secured.
13.3.3.2. Cards Design
The Edit Template... button in Step 4 of the card wizard opens the standard card template
for editing. The card wizard is able to use any standard mail merge design. It's even possible to convert the template layout to letters rather than cards. Microsoft's mail merge support is designed for Word “power users”. Consider taking the step-by-step mail merge tutorial provided with Microsoft Word help if you do not have experience with Word's mail
merge functionality.
Consider keeping your customizations initially simple and work up towards more complex
configuration.
To change the logo graphic:
1.
Click the Edit Template... button in step 5.
2.
Say Yes to Enable Macros.
3.
Select the standard Print-Limit logo on the first card and press the Delete button on
the keyboard.
4.
Select Insert → Picture → From File...
5.
Locate the desired logo and click Insert.
Figure 13.7. Inserting a new logo into a card
6.
If using pre-2007 MS Word click on the Propogate Labels button on the mail merge
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PrintCards
tool bar. The new logo should propagate across all cards on the page.
Figure 13.8. Propagate labels button in previous versions of MS Word
In MS Word 2007, click on the Update Labels button on the Mailings tool bar.
Figure 13.9. Update labels button in MS Word 2007
7.
Repeat the steps above to change other working and layout as required. Always
change the first card then press the Propagate Lables or Update lables button to apply the changes to all cards. IMPORTANT: Do not accidently delete the special
<<Next Record>> field as this cause the merge to move to the next card number
before printing the next card. Removing this will result in all cards displaying the same
card number.
8.
Click File → Save and close Microsoft Word.
9.
Test the template by running a batch in the card wizard.
Tip
Design Recommendations:
•
Consider changing the logo and adding your organization name
•
Change the URL reference to point to your intranet site or event your network/card policy page.
•
Provide basic instructions on how to redeem the card or the location of an
information page.
13.4. Using a Card
The following information should be distributed to end-users - for example, via the "Print
Policy" page on your organization's Intranet site.
To redeem a PrintCard:
1.
Purchase a card from the appropriate person or place. The network administrator creates cards specific for your organization. In schools, cards are often sold at the library,
general office or school cafeteria.
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PrintCards
2.
Open a web browser and navigate to the Print-Limit Pro user login page. After logging
in, your account status should display.
3.
Click on the Redeem Card link on the left-hand navigation bar.
4.
Enter the Card Number in the Card Number box and press Redeem Card. Take care
to enter the number exactly as listed including any dashes (-).
5.
If the card's number is valid, the credit as listed on the card will be transferred to your
account and this will list in your transaction history.
Figure 13.10. Using a card
Tip
To educate the users about redeeming their PrintCard, administrators might
find the sample information sheet helpful.
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Chapter 14. Configuring Secondary
Print Servers and Locally Attached
Printers
This section covers the setup of a secondary print server in "Quick Start" format. For a detailed explanation of the underlying technology and what's happening behind the scenes
see the subsequent sections.
A secondary print server is a system that directly hosts a printer. In many situations it may
be a dedicated server, however a secondary server may also be a desktop system hosting
a directly attached USB printer. If this printer is to be controlled and tracked by Print-Limit
Pro, a small monitoring component needs to be installed. The monitoring component intercepts the local printing and reports this use back to the primary Application Server. A secondary server may either be:
1.
A server style system hosting many printers.
2.
A desktop style system hosting printer(s) also shared to other network users.
3.
A desktop style system with the printer used only for local users (not shared).
The monitoring service is also referred to as a Print Provider as its task is to provide information back to the main Application Server.
The process of setting up a secondary print server, depends on the operating system.
Read the section appropriate to the required operating system.
14.1. Configuring a Windows Secondary Print Server
This section describes the process of setting up a secondary Windows print server.
14.1.1. Step 1 - Ensure primary server is set up correctly
Before installing a secondary server you should take some time to ensure the primary server (central application server) is set up and running correctly. If it is not running fine now
adding an extra server will only "add an extra variable to the equation" and complicate
troubleshooting. Take some time now to verify that the primary server is functioning correctly. For example, verify that:
•
Printers on this server are being tracked.
•
Users are allowed top login to user pages from their workstations.
•
Administrators can access the system.
14.1.2. Step 2 - Ensure firewall software is set to allow access to port 9191
Secondary server needs to communicate (initiate a TCP connection) on port 9191. Administrators should ensure that any firewall software on the primary Application Server is not
set to block any incoming local network traffic on this port.
14.1.3. Step 3 - Install the print provider
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Locally Attached Printers
Install the print provider software onto the secondary server. On a Windows server, this is
done by selecting the "Secondary Print Server" option in the installation wizard.
14.1.4. Step 4 - Configuration
The Print Provider on the secondary server needs to know where the primary server is installed.
1.
Open a text editor such as Notepad.
2.
Open the file:
[app-dir]\Print-Limit
Pro\providers\print\win\print-provider.conf
3.
Locate the line starting with ApplicationServer= and change localhost to the
name or IP address of the primary server.
4.
Restart the server so the new configuration is detected. To avoid a restart, an administrator may also choose to manually restart the Print-Limit Print Provider service.
14.1.5. Step 5 - Test
The secondary server should now be configured. Log into the system as "admin" and verify
that the printers are now listed under the Printers section. Perform a multi-page test print
on each printer and verify that print jobs are tracked correctly.
14.1.6. Automated Install
The installation of the secondary server component on Windows systems can be automated. This may be handy when the Print Provider component needs to be installed on a
number of desktop systems running locally attached printers. For more information see,
Section 14.6, “Automating Secondary Server Deployment on Windows”.
14.2. Configuring a Macintosh Secondary Print Server
This section describes the process of setting up a secondary Mac print server. The primary
Application Server may either be a Windows, Mac or a Linux basis system. Print-Limit Pro
has full support for "mixed" or heterogeneous printing environments.
14.2.1. Step 1 - Ensure primary server is set up correctly
Before installing a secondary server you should take some time to ensure the primary server (central application server) is set up and running correctly. If it is not running fine now
adding an extra server will only "add an extra variable to the equation" and complicate
troubleshooting. Take some time now to verify that the primary server is functioning correctly. For example, verify that:
•
Printers on this server are being tracked.
•
Users are allowed top login to user pages from their workstations.
•
Administrators can access the system.
14.2.2. Step 2 - Ensure firewall software is set to allow access to port 9191
Secondary server needs to communicate (initiate a TCP connection) on port 9191. Admin214
Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
Locally Attached Printers
istrators should ensure that any firewall software on the primary Application Server is not
set to block any incoming local network traffic on this port.
14.2.3. Step 3 - Create the host user account
Print-Limit Pro runs under a non-privileged user account called "printlimit". This invisible
system account is created automatically upon first install. Advanced system administrators
may however have a preference to create this account manually. If you fall into this category, create the printlimit account now prior to installation.
14.2.4. Step 4 - Install the print provider
Install the print provider software onto the secondary server. Download the latest Mac
DMG disk image and execute the contained installer called Print-Limit Pro Secondary Server Installation.pkg.
14.2.5. Step 5 - Configuration
The Print Provider on the secondary server needs to know where the primary server is installed. The installer may open the appropriate configuration file after the install completes.
1.
Open a text editor such as TextEdit.
2.
Open the file:
[app-dir]/Print-Limit
print-provider.conf
Pro/provider/print/
mac/
3.
Locate the line starting with ApplicationServer= and change localhost to the
name or IP address of the primary server.
4.
Save the file and exit the text editor.
Double-click on the command script /Applications/Print-Limit Pro/Control
Printer Monitoring.command, and enable monitoring on the appropriate printers.
14.2.6. Step 6 - Test
The secondary server should now be configured. Log into the system as "admin" and verify
that the printers are now listed under the Printers section. Perform a multi-page test print
on each printer and verify that print jobs are tracked correctly.
14.3. Configuring a Linux or Novell iPrint Secondary Print Server
This section describes the process of setting up a secondary print server on a Linux system. The primary Application Server may either be a Windows, Mac, Novell or a Linux
based system. Print-Limit Pro has full support for "mixed" or heterogeneous printing environments.
14.3.1. Step 1 - Ensure primary server is set up correctly
Before installing a secondary server you should take some time to ensure the primary server (central Application Server) is set up and running correctly. If it is not running fine now,
adding an extra server will only "add an extra variable to the equation" and complicate
troubleshooting. Take some time now to verify that the primary server is functioning correctly. For example, verify that:
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Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
Locally Attached Printers
•
Printers on this server are being tracked.
•
Users are allowed user login to user pages from their workstations.
•
Administrators can access the system.
14.3.2. Step 2 - Ensure firewall software is set to allow access to port 9191
Secondary server needs to communicate (initiate a TCP connection) on port 9191. Administrators should ensure that any firewall software on the primary Application Server is not
set to block any incoming local network traffic on this port. A good way to test, is to open a
browser on the planned secondary server and confirm you can access the administration
web interface on port 9191.
14.3.3. Step 3 - Account setup
On the secondary server, create a user account called printlimit. The printlimit
user's home directory should be set to the desired install location. This is normally /
home/printlimit. The method of creating this account is the same as that used for the
primary server setup. See Chapter 2, Installation for more details if required.
14.3.4. Step 4 - Install the Print Provider
Important
The instructions below assume i686 architecture. If your system OS is 64-bit,
replace i686 with x64 in all file paths.
Install the Print Provider software onto the secondary server by copying all files and directories from the primary Application Server's directory:
[app_dir]/providers/print/linux-i686/*
To the equivalent location on the secondary server:
/home/printlimit/providers/print/linux-i686/
on the secondary server. Perform the copy operation as the printlimit user so that files
are owned by the printlimit user. You may use any method to copy the files, including
over the network or via a USB key. If the primary server is also Linux, the simplest way
would be use Secure Copy (scp) as follows:
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
su - printlimit
mkdir -p providers/print
cd providers/print
scp -r primary.server.name:/home/printlimit/providers/print/* .
After the copy operation is performed, execute the setperms and roottasks scripts as
root:
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Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
Locally Attached Printers
shell> su - root
shell> sh ~printlimit/providers/print/linux-i686/setperms
shell> sh ~printlimit/providers/print/linux-i686/roottasks
14.3.5. Step 5 - Configuration
The Print Provider on the secondary server needs to know where the primary server is installed (e.g. Its IP address).
1.
Open the file:
/home/printlimit/providers/print/linux-i686/print-provider.conf
in a text editor.
2.
Locate the line starting with ApplicationServer= and change localhost to the
name or IP address of the primary server.
The binaries copied in step 4 now need to be integrated into the CUPS, Samba or Novell
iPrint print queues. This process is detailed in Section 19.1.3, “Linux Print Queue Integration” and Section 2.3.5, “Step 5 - Printer/iPrint Configuration”.
14.3.6. Step 6 - Test
The secondary server should now be configured. Perform some test printing on all of this
secondary server's printers. Log into the system as "admin" and verify that the printers are
now listed under the Printers section. Perform a multi-page test print on each printer and
verify that print jobs are tracked correctly.
14.4. Print Monitoring Architecture
This section covers Print-Limit Pro print monitoring architecture from a technical perspective. Knowledge of advanced networking is expected.
Print-Limit Pro is designed using the latest software design principles. An important design
principle used is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Print-Limit Pro divides key operational areas into components. These components communicate using an XML Web Services standard. Two of the main services are:
Service/Component
Description
The Application Server
The central logic service responsible calculating user costs and providing the web and
admin interface.
Print Provider Service
A service responsible for monitoring and
analyzing print jobs and reporting this information using XML Web Services to the
application server.
Table 14.1. Print-Limit Pro services/components
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In a single server setup, an administrator does not need to be concerned with the two components as they automatically act as one (it's only noticeable in that two processes are running on the server). On a multi-server/system environment a deeper understanding of the
architecture is required.
14.5. Multiple Print Servers
Many large networks, or even smaller networks with a legacy design, may be composed of
more than one print server. Reasons for separating printers across servers/systems include:
•
Legacy design - “That's the way the previous admin set it up.”
•
Networks with 100 printers or more may need multiple servers to spread the printing
load.
•
Networks spanning multiple physical sites or subnets may have separate servers minimize cross-site network traffic.
•
Servers may exist to support different operating systems
•
A local desktop printer attached to a system is also a remote print server.
One of the servers on the network needs to be nominated as the primary server. This system runs the Application Server software responsible for providing the user interface, storing the data, and managing the application logic. The system nominated for this task is
usually a print server (but could be any server). It needs to be a system with spare capacity
to run the Print-Limit Pro application server software. This system should have good performance, have at least 500 Mb of free hard-disk space, and be included in an off-disk
backup routine.
Other print servers are known as secondary servers. These servers run the Print Provider
component and communicate back to the central server. The following diagram illustrates
this setup.
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Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
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Figure 14.1. Secondary server reporting back to primary server (application server)
When a client prints to a secondary server, the Print Provider intercepts the print job and
forwards the information to the central server for processing. Communication is via XML
Web Services over HTTP on the Print-Limit Application Server's nominated port (normally
port 9191). The web services protocol is specifically designed to facilitate easy firewalling,
scalability, and will work over a wide range of network speeds.
Print-Limit Pro Service Oriented Architecture offers many advantages for network administrators including:
•
Secondary servers run the minimum amount of software
•
Communication between servers uses minimal bandwidth. Physically separated servers
connected via WAN links, VPNs or other slow links are supported with minimal or no
impact on printing performance.
•
All data, logging and configuration information is stored on one single central server facilitating central backup from one location.
•
Management may be conducted centrally from one location.
Print-Limit Pro's SOA design allows advanced setups including:
•
Decentralized deployment
•
Separation of concern (servers dedicated to separate tasks such as database server,
application server and print server)
•
Options to remove points of failure via clustering or fail-over
219
Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
Locally Attached Printers
Figure 14.2. Print-Limit Pro Architecture - an advanced configuration
14.6. Automating Secondary Server Deployment on Windows
The secondary server installation process can also be automated via command line
switches issued to the installer program. This may be useful when there is a need to install
the Print Provider on a number of desktop systems hosting local attached printers.
To automate the installation:
1.
Copy the windows installer program, plp-setup.exe, into a directory accessible to
the target systems (i.e. A network share or mapped drive).
2.
Copy the print-provider.conf file from main server. This file is located at
[app-dir]/providers/print/win. Place the file in the same directory as the install program (as performed in step 1.)
3.
Edit the print-provider.conf file and define the correct server name or IP address of the main application server in the line starting with ApplicationServer= .
4.
Use a batch file or equivalent to start the install program as follows:
plp-setup.exe /TYPE=secondary_print /SILENT
Note: The installer requires administrator level - needed to install a system service.
Note:
•
The executable name of the installer program may vary depending on the version.
•
Replacing the /SILENT option with /VERYSILENT will suppress all visual output during
the installation process.
•
The copy of the print-provider.conf file is used during the install process to ensure the installation is aware of the location of the main application server.
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Configuring Secondary Print Servers and
Locally Attached Printers
•
For a full list of command-line arguments, see Section A.7, “Automating / Streamlining
Installation on Windows”.
221
Chapter 15. Advanced Customization
Print-Limit Pro is an important part of network infrastructure at many thousands of organizations. Having the ability to seamlessly integrate Print-Limit into an existing network is important. There are a number of ways to ensure end-users see the system as part of the
network rather than an add-on. These include:
•
Changing the URL or link on the User Client window
•
Customizing the look and feel of the use web pages
•
Using the Print-Limit Pro back-end data in other procedures such as custom reports
This section covers some of the customization options available within Print-Limit Pro. For
general information about the user client, see Section 5.2, “User Client”.
15.1. Customizing the User Client Tool window
The pc-client.exe program displays a small window highlighting the current logged in
user's current account balance. This window contains two links. One called Details that
takes the user to the User Pages login. The other defaults to the Netop website. The link
to the Netop website can be replaced. Some suggestions include linking to your organization's website or intranet site, or linking to a page containing your organization's network
usage policy. The logo used on the window can also be customized.
To change the link on the User Client window:
1.
Login to the system as an administrator (e.g. the built-in admin account).
2.
Navigate to the Options section.
3.
Click on the Config editor link in the list of actions.
4.
In the quick find are enter client.config and press GO.
5.
Locate the key titled config.client.link-url and enter a new value pointing to
your new destination. The link should be a complete URL including the http:// component. e.g. http://www.myorganization.com/printpolicy.htm.
6.
Press the Update button to the right to apply the change.
7.
Locate the key titled config.client.link-text and enter the text that should be
displayed. e.g. Print Policy.
8.
Press the Update button to the right to apply the change.
9.
The next time the client tool is started on one of the workstations, the new link will be
displayed.
Figure 15.1. Customized user client link
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There are other configuration keys that allow an administrator to customize the user client
for their organization. The table below outlines all of the client customization keys available. These values are updated by following a similar process as described above.
Config name
Description
client.config.link-text
The text to appear on the link at the top of
the user client.
client.config.link-url
The destination URL of the link displayed at
the top of the user client. For example, this
can be point to the internal intranet page
describing printing policies.
client.config.show-link
Indicates whether the link at the top of the
user client should be displayed. To display
set the value to Y, to hide set the value to
N.
client.config.show-details-link
Indicates whether the "Details" link that
points to the user web interface is displayed. To display the link set the value to
Y, to hide set the value to N.
client.config.show-document-cost
Determines whether to show the document
cost to the user in print popup notifications.
To show the cost set the value to Y, to hide
set the value to N.
Table 15.1. User Client Customization Config Keys
The logo used on the User Client balance window and the account selection dialog can
also be customized by placing a file called client-logo.png in the directory
[app-path]/client - the same directory as the executable. The image must satisfy the
following requirements:
•
Comply to the PNG (Portable network graphic) format.
•
A size of 64px by 64px.
•
Display correctly on different background colors (make use of transparencies or alpha
channels).
On the Apple Mac platform the process is a little more involved. The image needs to be
placed inside the App package at: PCClient.app/Content/Resources. To access this
directory, Option-click on the PCClient icon and select Show package contents....
The user client can also be configured by passing command-line parameters to the program. This is described in Section A.5, “User Client Options”.
15.2. Limiting the list of interface languages/translations
Print-Limit Pro has been translated into a number of languages. Some of these translations
are complete and done at an official level while others are partial and done by Print-Limit
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Advanced Customization
Pro users working in cooperation. Many of these languages may not be appropriate for
your environment and it may make sense to limit the list - the user selects the language in
the drop-down list on the web login screen. The list of available languages can be set by
changing config key language.available to a comma-separated list of ISO language
codes. The list should be a subset of:
cs,de,el,es,fi,fr,hu,it,ja,ko,nl,pt,sk,sv,zh_HK,zh_CN
For example setting language.available to en,de would limit the list to English and
German only.
Please see Section 12.8, “ Using the Config Editor ” to find out how to change config keys.
15.3. Customizing the User web pages
The user pages display information about the user's account and provide access to features such as PrintCards. The visual design of these pages can be tailored to make them
fit into the look and feel of an existing internet or intranet site. This gives the pages an official look ensuring your users see the system as an important part of your organization's
network.
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Advanced Customization
Figure 15.2. A customized end-user web designed for St Mary's Anglican Girls School
Figure 15.3. A customized end-user web designed for Williamstown High School
Netop offers a service where their developers will undertake design work based on an existing website. If you would like assistance with the customization, please email the Netop
support team.
Organizations whose staff have good to advanced HTML experience may choose to customize the pages in-house.
The design of the user pages is controlled via HTML "include" files for the header and footer areas of the page, with page styling controlled via Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Placing the following files in the Print-Limit Pro directory structure at
[app-path]/server/custom/web overrides page layout and style.
Filename
Description
user.css
If this file exists, the contents of user.css
is included as an overriding stylesheet.
Styles in this file can be used to define
fonts, colors and sizes.
header.inc
If the header include file exists, the HTML
in the header area of the pages is replaced
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Advanced Customization
Filename
Description
with the contents of the file.
footer.inc
If the footer include file exists, the HTML in
the footer area of the page is replaced with
the contents of the file.
login-logo.png
If this file exists, the logo on the web-based
login page is replaced with the supplied image. The file should be an image of size
250px by 64px in PNG format.
Table 15.2. Files used to customize the user web pages
Tip
Any custom content placed in [app-path]/server/custom/web, such as
additional images, can be accessed via a URL beggining with /custom. For
example,
if
a
file
named
header.jpeg
is
placed
in
[app-path]/server/custom/web, it can be accessed via the URL /
custom/header.jpeg.
Some organizations may benefit from providing further instructions to users on how to log
in. For example, some organizations have other passwords used on the network and it
may be appropriate to provide instructions on which password should be used.
Figure 15.4. Login Page with an instruction
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Advanced Customization
A custom login instruction message can be configured using the following config key:
Config name
Description
display.login-instructions
Used to display login instructions on the
user/password screen.
Table 15.3. Login instruction Config key
Please see Section 12.8, “ Using the Config Editor ” to find out how to change config keys.
15.4. Customizing the administration web interface
As the Print-Limit Pro administration interface is designed for use by administrators there
generally isn't the need to customize it to the extent of the user web interface (for information about customizing the user web interface see Section 15.3, “Customizing the User
web pages”). An organization logo or other image can be displayed in the header of the administration interface however.
To place a custom image in the header of the administration interface, save your image as
admin-logo.png and place it in the directory at [app-path]/server/custom/web.
The image will be scaled to 250px by 42px, so for best results the image should have
these dimensions.
15.5. Customizing Report Headers
The standard Print-Limit Pro report header logo can be replaced with an alternate image.
This can be used to include an organization logo and address for example, which may be
useful when attaching reports to customer invoices, or just to make reports look more professional.
Figure 15.5. Example custom report header usage
To
use
a
custom
report
header
logo,
place
an
image
at
[app-dir]/server/custom/web/report-header.png. The image should be 250px
by 80px in PNG format.
15.6. Data Access and Custom Reports
The default Print-Limit Pro installation stores data in an internal database. For the interested person, the database is Apache Derby - an open source database written by IBM
and based on their DB2 Cloudscape Database. The internal database is optimized for embedded use, is very robust, ACID compliant and scales well. The internal database
however is not designed for multi-application access. To access the data from an exteral
source such as a reporting program, you'll need to consider running Print-Limit Pro on an
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Advanced Customization
external database (RDMS) designed for multi-user and multi-applicaiton user access.
Common database solutions include Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, and Postgresql. For
more information see Chapter 17, Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS).
The Print-Limit Pro data structure is relatively simple and people with Crystal Report or
SQL experience should have no problems extracting data or written custom reports. Report
developers should keep in mind:
•
Only access the data in a read-only mode. Modifying data directly underneath the application may cause unpredictable behavior.
•
Always test any custom reports after an upgrade as the underlying data format may
have changed. Netop developers try to minimize data structure changes but they are
expected to occur in major upgrades.
15.6.1. Plain Text Print Log
In addition to storing print log information in the database, a real-time, plain text log is also
written into the directory:
[app-path]/server/logs/print-logs
The log file is in a tab delimited format and a new log is created for each day. Files are
named with the format printlog_yyyy_mm_dd.log and files are archived for 30-days.
The tab delimited file can easily be imported into programs such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access or other database.
Field
Description
Field 1
Date in format yyyy-MM-dd\th:mm:ss
a/p
Field 2
Server Name
Field 3
Printer Name
Field 4
User who printed the document
Field 5
Account charged (usually the user's personal account but could be a shared account)
Field 6
Client/Workstation Name
Field 7
Document name
Field 8
Total number of pages
Field 9
Total number of color pages
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Advanced Customization
Field
Description
Field 10
Number of copies (this has already been
used to calculate the total pages).
Field 11
Cost
Field 12
Duplex status
Field 13
Grayscale status (Color mode)
Field 14
Paper Size (e.g. Letter, A4)
Field 15
Paper Height in Millimetres (divide by 24.5
for inches)
Field 16
Paper Width in Millimetres (divide by 24.5
for inches)
Field 17
Print job size in KB
Field 18
Printer Language
Field 19
Charge Rate Name
Field 20
Charge Rate Percentage
Field 21
Job Type (PRINT/COPY)
Table 15.4. Text print log file format
15.7. Automation and Scripting
Print-Limit Pro provides a detailed set of server commands and Web Services API's. These
services may be used to automate common operations and management tasks. Some examples of where an administrator may choose to use scripting/automation include:
•
Automate tasks such as backups and domain user/group synchronization.
•
Integrate account creation and management into existing scripts or processes.
•
Manage account balances and transactions outside the application.
The automation and scripting tools are written for software and script developers. It is expected that readers intending on using these tools are comfortable with developing system
management and server monitoring programs.
The server-command and Web Services API's are included as standard with Print-Limit
Pro. More information on using these tools is detailed in Appendix A, Tools (Advanced) in
Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)” and Section A.3, “The XML Web Services API”.
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Advanced Customization
15.8. Custom User Directory Information Providers
Print-Limit Pro is a modern application designed with a modern architecture. It supports
plug-ins and extensions at a number of different levels. One such layer is the User Directory source. Organizations with very complex domains, such as those seen in large universities, can be accommodated either with the standard options, or if the standard options
are not sufficient, via a custom plug-in.
For example, a University may have multiple domains, one running Active Directory and
the other LDAP/NIS. A custom plug-in could support this by first querying Domain A, and if
the user is not found, the query Domain B via LDAP. The Print-Limit Pro development team
is happy to provide API documentation and sample source code to assist organizations
with custom requirements.
For some working examples available in your current
[app-dir]/server/bin/linux-i686/sambauserdir,
[app-dir]/server/bin/linux-i686/authsamba
[app-dir]/server/bin/linux-i686/src/ .
230
installation,
look
in:
and
Chapter 16. Licensing and Support
This section describes how to install the Print-Limit Pro license you receive after purchase,
and also provides information about gaining support and assistance.
16.1. Installing a License
Print-Limit Pro licenses are issued as a digitally signed file. Installing the license file into
the application enables the software for use within your organization.
To install the license file supplied by your vendor:
1.
Save the license file to your hard disk. Files are typically named Print-Limit Pro[orgname].license.
Tip
There is no need to unzip the file. The file can be loaded into the system
as supplied.
2.
Log into the administration interface.
3.
Navigate to the About section.
4.
Scroll down to the Register section and click the Browse... button.
5.
Locate the license file saved in step 1 and click Open.
6.
Click the Install license button.
7.
Verify license information is correctly listed in the About page.
Note
The file supplied is simply a digitally signed and zipped text file containing your
license information. It's converted to ZIP format to minimize size. If you're interested in viewing the contents of the file, rename the file to .zip and simply open
it in any ZIP extraction utility.
If you have a question about your license or need assistance please email the Netop technical support team and they will be more than happy to assist you.
16.2. Technical Support & Further Information
The Netop technical support team is always happy to assist customers with further technical questions. Please feel free to contact us for assistance. Contact information is listed on
our website at http://www.netop.com/printlimit_pro.
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Chapter 17. Deployment on an
External Database (RDBMS)
17.1. Overview
This section describes the process of running Print-Limit Pro on an external relational database, and describes why an organization would choose to do this. By default Print-Limit
Pro uses an internal database product known as Apache Derby. This database engine was
donated to Apache by IBM and was previously known as IBM Cloudscape.
17.1.1. Why use an external RDBMS?
The internal Print-Limit Pro database is stable, scalable, self-maintaining and provides very
good performance. For this reason most organizations do not need to run Print-Limit Pro
on an external database system. However there are some good reasons to run Print-Limit
Pro on an external RDBMS, including:
•
Your organization has existing database infrastructure and would like to consolidate all
applications on the same database platform.
•
Your organization has an existing database maintenance and backup procedure and
would like Print-Limit Pro to take advantage of this.
•
People would like to use 3rd party reporting and analysis tools (like Crystal Reports) to
view and analyze the Print-Limit Pro database.
•
Your organization is very large and requires the performance benefits of a dedicated
RDBMS. This also allows the database to reside on a separate server to Print-Limit
Pro, which improves the system scalability.
17.1.2. Supported Databases
Netop supports the following two external databases out-of-the-box:
•
Microsoft SQL Server 2000/2005/2008 (either 32 or 64 bit)
•
Microsoft SQL Express 2005/2008 (free from Microsoft)
•
PostgreSQL 7.1+ (the free open source database).
•
MySQL 5.0+ (requires an optional support module. Please contact Netop for details).
•
Oracle 9.2+ (including the free Oracle Express Edition).
These databases were chosen to cater for the majority of our customers. Most customers
have existing SQL Server licenses so can take advantage of this support. PostgreSQL was
chosen as the second alternative RDBMS because it is free, open-source and supported
on all common platforms.
17.2. Upsizing to an External RDBMS
Upsizing to an external RDBMS is a simple process that should take approximately 15-30
minutes. The high-level steps to upsize are:
•
Backup the existing data.
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
•
Create and initialize the new database.
•
Load the backed-up data into the new database.
•
Restart the application.
These steps are discussed in detail below.
This chapter also includes some sections that describe database specific configuration.
See Section 17.3, “Database specific configuration” for more details.
17.2.1. Step 1 - Stop the Print-Limit Pro application
To upsize to an external database the application server should be stopped. This allows
the data to be backed up, guaranteeing that all data is saved and ready to load into the
new database.
The instructions to stop the application server can be found in Section A.6, “Stopping and
Starting the Application Server”.
17.2.2. Step 2 - Perform a backup of the existing data
Perform a backup of the database. This data will be loaded into the application in a future
step. A detailed discussion about backups can be found in Section 12.4, “System
Backups”. To backup the database:
1.
On the server, open a command prompt.
2.
If running on Linux or Mac, use su or equivalent to become the identity of printlimit.
e.g.
Mac:
Linux:
3.
sudo su - printlimit
su - printlimit
Change (cd) to the server binaries directory. e.g.
Windows:
Mac:
Linux:
cd "C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win"
cd "/Applications/Print-Limit Pro/server/bin/mac"
cd ~printlimit/server/bin/linux-*
4.
Run the following command: db-tools export-db
5.
The output of the above command shows the name of the backup file created. Take
note of this because it will be required in a future step.
17.2.3. Step 3 - Create a new database in the external RDBMS
This step depends on the external database you are using, and it is assumed that the administrator knows how to create a new database. No matter what database is used the following steps must be performed:
1.
Create a new empty database for dedicated use by Print-Limit Pro. When creating the
database make sure to select the correct character encoding for your language. For
SQL Server, the character encoding is set in the Collation field on the new database
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
screen. For other databases like PostgreSQL or MySQL it is recommended to select a
unicode character set (like UNICODE or UTF8) that allows all possible characters to
be stored.
2.
Create a new database user (and password) for the Print-Limit Pro to use to connect
to the database.
3.
Assign the appropriate permissions to the new user to give them full access to the new
database (e.g. permission to create/drop tables, and select/insert/update/delete in all
tables).
Important
To use SQL Server you must ensure that SQL Server has the TCP protocol,
and the server authentication option is set to "SQL Server and Windows Authentication".
Important
The database user created for Print-Limit Pro should only have minimal set of
permissions required for the application. The user should have full permissions
to create/drop tables and have full access to any created tables. However, the
user should not have permissions to access other databases installed on the
database server.
17.2.4. Step 4 - Change the Print-Limit Pro connection details
The next step is to configure Print-Limit Pro to connect to the new external database. To do
this:
1.
On the server, open the server config file:
[app-path]/server/server.properties
2.
On the server, open the server config file:
[app-path]/server/server.properties
in a text editor (e.g. Notepad).
3.
Comment out the line:
database.type=Internal
by adding a # (hash) character to the beginning of the line.
4.
Find the database connection details for the database type you require (e.g. SQL
Server or PostgreSQL), and uncomment the lines by removing the # (hash) characters.
5.
Set the username and password used to connect to the database
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
database.username=[your-db-user]
database.password=[your-db-password]
6.
Set the database URL, which describes the location and connection details of the external database. See below for details of the format of the database URLs for different
database types.
Important
If using Microsoft SQL Server, the username specified in the configuration settings is a SQL Server database user, not a Windows user. This user needs to
be created in the SQL Server and granted full rights to the application database.
17.2.4.1. SQL Server Database Connection URL Format
The SQL Server URL format is:
jdbc:jtds:sqlserver://[server]/[database]
The [server] parameter is the name of the server running the SQL Server database, and
must be resolvable from the Print-Limit Pro server. If the SQL Server instance is running on
the same machine then localhost can be used.
The [database] parameter is the name of the SQL Server database you created in Step
3 above.
When using SQL Server instances, the instance name is specified in the connection URL
as follows:
jdbc:jtds:sqlserver://[server]/[database];instance=[instancename]
17.2.4.2. SQL Server Express Database Connection URL Format
The SQL Server Express format is:
jdbc:jtds:sqlserver://[server]:[port]/[database]
The [server] parameter is the name of the server running the SQL Server database, and
must be resolvable from the Print-Limit Pro server. If the SQL Server instance is running on
the same machine then localhost can be used.
The [port] parameter is the port the SQL Server Express edition is configured to listen
on. For more information on configuring SQL Express, please see Section 17.3.1,
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
“Configuring Microsoft SQL Express”.
The [database] parameter is the name of the SQL Server database you created in Step
3 above.
17.2.4.3. PostgreSQL Database Connection URL Format
The Postgres URL format is:
jdbc:postgresql://[server]/[database]
The [server] parameter is the name of the server running the PostgreSQL database,
and must be resolvable from the Print-Limit Pro server. If the PostgreSQL instance is running on the same machine then localhost can be used.
The [database] parameter is the name of the PostgreSQL database you created in Step
3 above.
17.2.4.4. MySQL Database Connection URL Format
jdbc:mysql://[server]/[database]
The [server] parameter is the name of the server running the MySQL database, and
must be resolvable from the Print-Limit Pro server. If the MySQL instance is running on the
same machine then localhost can be used.
The [database] parameter is the name of the MySQL database you created in Step 3
above.
17.2.4.5. Oracle Database Connection URL Format
jdbc:oracle:thin:@[server]:[port]/[SID]
The [server] parameter is the name of the server running the Oracle database, and
must be resolvable from the Print-Limit Pro server. If the Oracle instance is running on the
same machine then localhost can be used.
The [port] specifies the port number that the Oracle services are listening on. By default
this is 1521.
The [SID] specifies the Oracle service identifier used to identify the database. The SID for
Oracle Express edition is XE.
17.2.5. Step 5 - Initialize the new database
The next step is to initialize the new database, creating the required database tables and
initial data. To initialize the database:
1.
On the server, open a command prompt.
2.
If running on Linux or Mac, use su or equivalent to become the identity of printlimit.
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
e.g.
Mac:
Linux:
3.
Change (cd) to the server binaries directory. e.g.
Windows:
Mac:
Linux:
4.
sudo su - printlimit
su - printlimit
cd "C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win"
cd "/Applications/Print-Limit Pro/server/bin/mac"
cd ~printlimit/server/bin/linux-i686
Run the following command: db-tools init-db
A message will be displayed to indicate that the connection details are correct the database was initialized correctly.
17.2.6. Step 6 - Load the data into the new database
This step loads the data (that was exported in Step 2) into the database. To import the
data:
1.
On the server, open a command prompt.
2.
If running on Linux or Mac, use su or equivalent to become the identity of printlimit.
e.g.
Mac:
Linux:
3.
sudo su - printlimit
su - printlimit
Change (cd) to the server binaries directory. e.g.
Windows:
Mac:
Linux:
cd "C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win"
cd "/Applications/Print-Limit Pro/server/bin/mac"
cd ~printlimit/server/bin/linux-i686
4.
Run the following command: db-tools import-db "backup file name"
5.
This command will show progress importing the data.
If no errors occurred then the application is ready to restart.
17.2.7. Step 7 - Restart the Print-Limit Pro application server
The data has now been moved to the new database and the server can be restarted.
The instructions on how to start the server can be found in Section A.6, “Stopping and
Starting the Application Server”.
Wait 30 seconds for the server to start, then log in to the admin console. If you can log in
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
successfully, then the upsizing process worked successfully.
17.3. Database specific configuration
This section includes database specific configuration for use with Print-Limit Pro.
17.3.1. Configuring Microsoft SQL Express
Microsoft SQL Express provides enterprise class database performance for free. However
it does have some limitations when compared to the full version of SQL Server. But these
limitations are not likely to adversely affect most Print-Limit Pro users. These limitations include:
•
4GB limit on database sizes
•
Limited to only use 1 CPU
•
Limited to only use 1GB of RAM
This section described how to configure Microsoft SQL Express edition for use with PrintLimit Pro. It is assumed that SQL Server Express is already installed with the default configuration.
Once this configuration is complete, the database can be used with Print-Limit Pro by following the instructions in Section 17.2, “Upsizing to an External RDBMS”.
17.3.1.1. Enable TCP/IP connections
Print-Limit Pro uses TCP/IP to connect to the SQL Server database, but SQL Server Express does not enable TCP support by default. To enable TCP/IP:
1.
On the machine with SQL Express installed, open the SQL Server Configuration
Manager.
2.
Expand the SQL Server Network Configuration node on the left.
3.
Select the Protocols for SQLEXPRESS node on the left.
4.
Right-click the TCP/IP item on the right and select Properties.
5.
On the General tab, change Enabled to Yes.
6.
On the IP Addresses tab, under the IPAll node clear the TCP Dynamic Ports field.
Also enter the port to listen on in the TCP Port field. For example, 1450. Remember
this port, because it needs to be used in the Print-Limit Pro connection string.
7.
On the OK button to save the changes.
8.
Restart the Microsoft SQL Server Express service using either the standard service
control panel or the SQL Express tools.
17.3.1.2. Enable SQL Server authentication
Print-Limit Pro requires SQL Server authentication to be enabled on the instance of SQL
Express. To do this:
1.
On the machine with SQL Express installed, open the SQL Server Management Studio Express tool.
2.
Right-click the instance of SQL Express to configure, and select Properties.
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Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
3.
Select the Security section on the left.
4.
Change the Server Authentication to SQL Server and Windows Authentication
mode.
5.
Restart the Microsoft SQL Server Express service using either the standard service
control panel or the SQL Express tools.
17.3.1.3. Create Database User
Print-Limit Pro requires a user to connect to the database. To create this user:
1.
On the machine with SQL Express installed, open the SQL Server Management Studio Express tool.
2.
Right-click the Security->Logins node, and select New Login ....
3.
Enter the username (e.g. printlimit).
4.
Change the Server Authentication to SQL Server and Windows Authentication
mode.
5.
Enter the user's password.
6.
Disable password expiration.
7.
On the OK button to create the user.
8.
After creating the Print-Limit Pro database assign this user db_owner permissions on
the database, so that it can create the required database tables.
9.
To initialize the database, follow the instruction in Section 17.2, “Upsizing to an External RDBMS”.
17.3.2. Configuring MySQL
MySQL is a free/open-source database solution that provides robust, proven and scalable
storage at a great price. Print-Limit Pro supports MySQL 5.0 and higher.
Important
In line with our external database support policy, requires separate licensing.
Please contact Netop for licensing details.
17.3.2.1. Database Driver
Print-Limit Pro does not ship with a database driver for MySQL because the MySQL licensing does not allow redistribution of the driver. These drivers can be downloaded for free
from the MySQL website as described below.
To download the required version of the driver:
1.
Visit the MySQL web site here: http://www.mysql.com/products/connector/j/
2.
Select the appropriate driver version (the latest version is best).
3.
Download the driver package and unzip the contents to a temporary directory.
4.
Find the driver JAR file,
or-java-X.Y.Z-bin.jar.
which
239
is
typically
named
mysql-connect-
Deployment on an External Database
(RDBMS)
5.
Copy the JAR file into the [app-path]\server\lib-ext directory. This will allow
Print-Limit Pro to find and load the driver.
Once the driver is installed into Print-Limit Pro the standard upsizing procedure can be followed. See Section 17.2, “Upsizing to an External RDBMS”.
17.3.3. Configuring Oracle (and Oracle Express Edition)
Oracle is a high-end database solution that provides a very robust and scalable data storage solution. And with the release of Oracle Express Edition, it is available at no cost, but it
does have some limitations that should not impact Print-Limit Pro installations.
Print-Limit Pro supports Oracle versions 9.2 and higher. Oracle 8 (and earlier) are not supported because they did not support the TIMESTAMP datatype required by Print-Limit Pro.
17.3.3.1. Database Driver
Print-Limit Pro does not ship with a driver for Oracle because Oracle does not allow us to
redistribute the driver and the recommended driver depends on the version of Oracle used.
These drivers can be obtained from the Oracle website as described below.
To download the required version of the driver:
1.
Visit
the
Oracle
web
site
here:
tp://www.oracle.com/technology/software/tech/java/sqlj_jdbc/index.html
ht-
2.
Select the appropriate Oracle version.
3.
Download the driver file for JDK 1.4 or later. The filename is usually called: ojdbc14.jar
4.
Copy the downloaded file into the [app-path]\server\lib-ext directory. This will
allow Print-Limit Pro to find and load the driver.
Once the driver is installed into Print-Limit Pro the standard upsizing procedure can be followed. See Section 17.2, “Upsizing to an External RDBMS”.
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Chapter 18. Microsoft Cluster
Environments
18.1. About Clustering
Print-Limit Pro is designed to scale to 60,000+ users. To ensure reliability on networks of
this size, network architects may adopt strategies including:
•
Load balancing - spreading tasks across multiple servers.
•
Clustering - building in redundancy by implementing a failover strategy.
Print-Limit Pro is a cluster compatible application. It supports clustering using two different
technologies (Microsoft Cluster Server and Veritas Cluster Server) at all levels of the application, including
•
Clustering at the print spooler service layer by integrating with clustering services.
•
Failover based clustering at the Application Server layer using clustering services.
(Print-Limit Pro's Application Server is web and web services based, and hence can
support other failover methods such as heartbeat driven DNS).
•
At the database layer by utilizing cluster aware databases such as Microsoft SQL Server or Oracle.
Setting up Print-Limit Pro in a cluster environment is an advanced operation. This chapter
assumes the reader has a high level of expertise in system and cluster configuration. The
cluster environment should be operational before undertaking the Print-Limit Pro installation. Readers should also have a good understanding of Print-Limit Pro's Service Oriented
Architecture - specifically its two main components, the Application Server and the Print
Provider and how they work together (Section 14.4, “Print Monitoring Architecture”).
In a cluster environment, Print-Limit Pro can be set up in one of two possible configurations. Mode 1 is the simplest configuration and is suitable for most organizations. It implements clustering in the “front line” - that is the printer and print monitoring layer. Mode 2 implements clustering on all levels of the application for maximum fault tolerance. Mode 2 is
somewhat more demanding to configure and should only be attempted by organizations
with staff experienced with advanced cluster and database management.
Please refer to the subsequent sections for an explanation on how to set up Mode 1 or
Mode 2 in your environment.
18.2. Microsoft Cluster Server
This section discusses both Mode 1 and Mode 2 configuation in Microsoft Cluster Server.
Sites using Veritas Cluster Server should jump to the following section.
18.2.1. Mode 1 - Clustering at the Print Provider layer
The Print-Limit Pro Print Provider is the component that integrates with the print spooler
service and provides information about the print events to the Print-Limit Pro Application
Server. At a minimum, in a cluster environment, the Print Provider component needs to be
included and managed within the cluster group. The Application Server component (The
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
Standard Install option in the installer) is set up on an external server outside the cluster.
Each node in the cluster is configured to report back to the single application server using
XML Web Services over TCP/IP.
18.2.1.1. Step 1 - Application Server Setup
Install the Application Server component (Standard Install option) on your nominated system. This system will be responsible for providing Print-Limit Pro's web based interface and
storing data. In most cases this system will not host any printers and is dedicated to the roll
of hosting the Print-Limit Application Server. It may be one of the nodes in the cluster;
however a separate system outside the cluster is generally recommended. An existing domain controller, member server or file server will suffice.
18.2.1.2. Step 2 - Installing the Print Provider components on each node
The Print Provider component needs to be separately installed on each node involved in
the print spooler cluster. This is done by selecting the Secondary Print Server option in
the installer. Follow the secondary server set up notes as detailed in Chapter 14, Configuring Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached Printers . Take care to define the correct
name or IP address of the nominated application server set up in step 1.
18.2.1.3. Step 3 - Decouple service management from nodes
By default the Print Provider component is installed under the management of the node. To
hand over management to the cluster, the service start-up type needs to be set to manual.
On each node navigate to Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Services, locate the
Print-Limit Pro Print Provider Service. Stop the service and set the start-up
type to Manual. Repeat for each node in the cluster.
Figure 18.1. Stopping the service and setting to Manual startup
18.2.1.4. Step 4 - Adding the Print Provider service as a resource under the print
spooler's cluster group
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
1.
Open the Cluster Administrator.
2.
Right-click on the cluster group hosting the spooler service and select New → Resource.
Figure 18.2. Creating a new cluster resource
3.
In the new resource wizard, enter a name of Print-Limit Print Provider and
select a resource type of Generic Service. Click Next.
4.
Click Next at Possible Owners.
5.
Ensure that the Print Spooler Service resource is set as a required dependency, then click Next.
6.
On the Generic Service Parameters page, enter a service name of PCPrintProvider and ensure the Use Network Name for computer name option is checked.
Click Next.
Figure 18.3. Cluster service parameters configuration
7.
Click Finish at the Registry Replication page.
18.2.1.5. Step 5 - Bring up all cluster resources and test
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
Perform operations to verify that:
1.
Print jobs log as expected.
2.
No error message appear in the Print Providers text log located at: C:\Program
Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print\win\print-provider.log on
each node.
18.2.1.6. Active/Active Clustering - Special notes regarding multiple virtual servers
On large networks it is common to distribute load by hosting print spooler services under
two or more virtual servers. For example, two virtual servers may each host half of the organization's printers and hence sharing the load. This is sometimes referred to as Active/
Active clustering - all be it not an entirely correct term, as the print spooler is still running in
Active/Passive.
Virtual servers cannot share the same service on any given node. For this reason if the virtual servers share nodes, you'll need to manually install the Print-Limit Print Provider service a second time under a different name. This can be done via the command
line as follows:
cd C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print\win
pc-print.exe PCPrintProvider2 /install
The argument proceeding /install is the unique name to assign to the service. The recommended procedure is to suffix the standard service name with a sequential number.
18.2.2. Mode 2 - Clustering at all application layers
Mode 2 implements failover clustering at all of Print-Limit Pro's Service Oriented Architecture software layers, including:
•
Clustering at the Print monitoring layer
•
Clustering at the Application Server layer
•
Optional clustering at the database layer
Mode 2 builds upon Mode 1 by introducing failover (Active/Passive) clustering in the Application Server layer. This involves having an instance of the application server on each of
the cluster nodes. When one node fails, the other automatically takes over the operation.
Both instances use a share data source in the form of an external database (see
Chapter 17, Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS)). Large sites should consider
using a clustered database such as Microsoft SQL Server.
18.2.2.1. Step 1 - Application Server Installation
On one of the cluster's nodes, install the Print-Limit Pro Application Server component by
selecting the Standard Install option in the installer. Follow the setup wizard and complete
the process of importing all users into the system.
18.2.2.2. Step 2 - Convert the system over to an external database
The system needs to be configured to use an external database as this database will be
shared between both instances of the application server. Convert the system over to the
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
required external database by following the procedure detailed in Chapter 17, Deployment
on an External Database (RDBMS). The database may be hosted on another system, or
inside a cluster. As per the external database setup notes, reference the database server
by IP address by entering the appropriate connection string in the server.properties
file.
18.2.2.3. Step 3 - Setup of 2nd Node
Repeat steps 1 and 2 on the second cluster node.
18.2.2.4. Step 4 - Decouple service management from the nodes
By default the Print-Limit Pro Application Server component is installed under the management of the node. It needs to be managed inside the cluster, so the service's start-up type
should be set to manual. On each node navigate to Control Panel → Administrative
Tools → Services locate the Print-Limit Application Server. Stop the service and set its
start-up type to Manual. Repeat this on both nodes.
18.2.2.5. Step 5 - Create a new cluster group
The Print-Limit Pro Application Server should be designated to run inside its own cluster
group. Create a new cluster group containing the two nodes. Add an IP Resource and a
Network Name resource. Give the network name resource an appropriate title such as
PCAppSrv.
The need for a new cluster group is not hard and fast. It is however recommended as it
gives the most flexibility in terms of load balancing and minimizes the potential for conflicts.
18.2.2.6. Step 6 - Adding the Print-Limit Application Service as a resource managed
under the new cluster group.
1.
Open the Cluster Administrator.
2.
Right-click on the cluster group hosting the spooler service and select New → Resource.
3.
In the new resource wizard, enter a name of Print-Limit Pro Application
Service and select a resource type of Generic Service. Click Next.
4.
Click Next at Possible Owners page.
5.
Click Next at Dependency page.
6.
On the Generic Service Parameters page, enter a service name of PCAppServer
and ensure the Use Network Name for computer name option is checked. Click
Next.
7.
Click Finish at the Registry Replication page.
18.2.2.7. Step 7 - Bring the cluster group online
Right-click on the cluster group and select Bring online. Wait until the application server
has started, then verify that you can access the system by pointing a web browser to :
http://[Virtual Server Name]:9191/admin
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
Login, and perform some tasks such as basic user management and User/Group Synchronization to verify the system works as expected.
18.2.2.8. Step 8 - Set up the Print Provider layer
Interface the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider layer with the clustered spooler service by following the same setup notes as described for Mode 1. The exception being that the IP address of the application server will be the IP address assigned to the Virtual Server assigned in step 5.
18.2.2.9. Step 9 - Client Configuration
The client and release station programs are located in the directories:
[app-path]/client/
[app-path]/release/
These directories contain configuration files that instruct the client to the whereabouts of
the server. The IP address and the server name in the following set of files will need to be
updated to the Virtual Server's details (Name and IP address):
[app-path]/client/win/config.properties
[app-path]/client/linux/config.properties
[app-path]/client/mac/PCClient.app/Contents/Resources/config.properties
[app-path]/release/connection.properties
Edit the files using Notepad or equivalent and repeat this for each node. Also see Section 18.4, “Client/Workstation Configuration”.
18.2.2.10. Step 10 - Test
Mode 2 setup is about as complex as it gets! Take some time to verify all is working and
that Print-Limit Pro is tracking printing on all printers and all virtual servers.
18.2.2.11. Advanced: Load distribution and independent groups
It is possible to split the two application layers (Resources) into two separate Cluster
Groups:
•
Group 1: Containing only the Print-Limit Pro Application Server Service.
•
Group 2: Containing the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider Service and the
Print Spooler. These services are dependent and hence must be hosted in the
same group.
Separating these resources into to groups allows you to set up different node affinities so
the two groups usually run on separate physical nodes during normal operation. The advantage is that the load is spread further across the systems and a failure in one group will
not necessarily fail-over the other.
To make this change after setting up the single group Mode 2 configuration:
1.
Change
the
ApplicationServer=
option
in
[app-path]/providers/print/win/print-provider.conf on each physical
node to the IP or DNS name of the virtual server.
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
2.
Create a new group called Print-Limit Pro Application Server Group.
3.
Set the Preferred owners of each group to different physical nodes.
4.
Restart or bring on line each group, and independently test operation and operation
after fail-over.
18.2.3. Clustering Tips
Tip
Take some time to simulate node failure. Monitoring may stop for a few
seconds while the passive server takes over the role. Simulating node failure is
the best way to ensure both sides of the Active/Passive setup is configured
correctly.
It is important that the version of Print-Limit Pro running on each node is
identical. Ensure that any version updates are applied to all nodes so versions
are kept in sync.
The Print-Limit Pro installation sets up a read-only share exposing client software to network users. If your organization is using the zero-install deployment
method, the files in this share will be accessed each time a user logs onto the
network. Your network may benefit from exposing the contents of this share
via a clustered file share resource.
18.3. Veritas Cluster Server
This section discusses configuring Print-Limit Pro on a Veritas Cluster Server (VCS). The
section provides a brief overview and is designed to supplement guidance from the PrintLimit Pro development team. If you are about to commence a production deployment on
VCS, please feel free to get in touch with the development team for further assistance if required.
18.3.1. Mode 1 - Clustering at the Print Provider layer
The Print-Limit Pro Print Provider is the component that integrates with the print spooler
service and provides information about the print events to the Print-Limit Pro Application
Server. At a minimum, in a cluster environment, the Print Provider component needs to be
included and managed within the cluster group. The Application Server component (The
Standard Install option in the installer) is set up on an external server outside the cluster.
Each node in the cluster is configured to report back to the single application server using
XML Web Services over TCP/IP.
18.3.1.1. Single Virtual Server (Active/Passive)
Print-Limit Pro supports both Active/Passive and virtual Active/Active in VCS. This section
discusses configurating Print-Limit Pro on a single virtual server running Active/Passive. If
your organization hosts mutliple virtual servers, jump to the following section covering Active/Active.
18.3.1.1.1. Step 1 - Set up the cluster, print spooler and printers
First, set up and verify that the cluster and print server is working as expected. The system
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
should be fully configured and tested before proceeding to the next step and installing
Print-Limit Pro.
18.3.1.1.2. Step 2 - Set up the Print-Limit Pro Application Server on a system outside the
cluster
Install the Application Server component (Standard Install option) on your nominated system. This system will be responsible for providing Print-Limit Pro's web based interface and
storing data. In most cases this system will not host any printers and is dedicated to the
role of hosting the Print-Limit Pro Application Server. It may be one of the nodes in the
cluster; however a separate system outside the cluster is generally recommended. An existing domain controller, member server or file server will suffice.
18.3.1.1.3. Step 3 - Install Print-Limit Print Provider on both nodes
The Print Provider component needs to be installed separately on each node involved in
the print spooler cluster. This is done by selecting the Secondary Print Server option in the
installer. Follow the secondary server set up notes as detailed in Chapter 14, Configuring
Secondary Print Servers and Locally Attached Printers. Take care to define the correct
name or IP address of the nominated application server set up in step 1.
18.3.1.1.4. Step 4 - Configure the Print-Limit Print Provider Service to bind to the virtual
server
By default the Print-Limit Print Provider component will associate itself with the physical
node. A configuration change is required to force it to bind to the virtual server. Add the following lines (or uncomment the example lines) to the file:
C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print\win\print-provider.conf
ServerName=[VIRTUAL SERVER NAME]
PrintServerName=\\[VIRTUAL SERVER NAME]
Where [VIRTUAL SERVER NAME] is the network name associated with your virtual server. Note that the PrintServerName must be prefixed with two back-slashes (\\). The
first setting is used to override the name reported to the Print-Limit Pro Application Server.
The PrintServerName setting instructs the print provider to search for printers on the virtual server rather than on the physical server.
18.3.1.1.5. Step 5 - Decouple service management from nodes
By default the Print Provider component is installed under the management of the node. To
hand over management to the cluster, the service start-up type needs to be set to manual.
On each node navigate to Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Services and locate
the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider service. Stop the service and set the start-up
type to Manual. Repeat for each node in the cluster.
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
Figure 18.4. Stopping the service and setting to Manual startup
18.3.1.1.6. Step 6 - Add the Print-Limit Print Provider Service as a Generic Service
The Print-Limit Pro Print Provider service needs to be added to the Veritas Cluster group
associated with the virtual server. This is to ensure that the service is managed within the
same group as the print server and will fail-over as part of the group. Create a new GenericServer resource called Print-LimitPrintProvider01. Set the service name to
PCPrintProvider. The account, password and domain can be left as defaults.
18.3.1.1.7. Step 7 - Set up dependencies
The PCPrintProvider service must start after the print spool resource. Create a dependency link between Print-LimitPrintProvider01 and the PrintSpooler using
the tools on the Veritas Cluster Resources tab associated with this virtual server.
18.3.1.1.8. Step 8 - Test
Take some time to test and ensure printing is monitored as expected. Use the Veritas
Cluster administration console to simulate node failure and ensure monitoring continues
after failure.
18.3.1.2. Multiple Virtual Servers (Active/Active)
On large networks it is common to distribute load by hosting print spooler services under
two or more virtual servers. For example, two virtual servers may each host half of the organization's printers and hence share the load. This is sometimes referred to as Active/Active clustering - albeit not an entirely correct term, as the print spooler is still running in Active/Passive.
Virtual servers cannot share the same service on any given node. For this reason if the virtual servers share nodes, you'll need to manually install the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider
service a second time under a different name. Use the following procedure.
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
18.3.1.2.1. Step 1 - Set up one Virtual Server
Set up one virtual server using all steps in the preceding section. After this virtual server is
tested, perform the steps below to set up the 2nd virtual server.
18.3.1.2.2. Step 2 - Create a 2nd instance of the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider on each
physical node
A 2nd copy of the Print-Limit Pro Print Provider needs to be created on each physical
node. This is required so that a separate service can be installed and configured to bind to
the 2nd virtual server. Copy the following directory, and all its contents:
C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print
to
C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print2
Repeat this step on both physical nodes.
18.3.1.2.3. Step 3 - Configure the copied instance to bind to the 2nd virtual server
Add the following lines (or uncomment the example lines) to the file:
C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print\win\print-provider.conf
ServerName=[VIRTUAL SERVER NAME 2]
PrintServerName=\\[VIRTUAL SERVER NAME 2]
Where [VIRTUAL SERVER NAME 2] is the network name associated with your 2nd virtual server. Note that the PrintServerName must be prefixed with two back-slashes (\\).
Repeat this step on both physical nodes.
18.3.1.2.4. Step 4 - Manually install the a 2nd instance of the PCPrintProvider service
Services need a unique name. We'll install a 2nd instance of the service under the name
PCPrintProvider2. This is done by typing the following commands at the command
prompt.
cd C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\providers\print2\win
pc-print.exe PCPrintProvider2 /install
Repeat this step on both physical nodes.
18.3.1.2.5. Step 5 - Add this service to the resource group associated with the 2nd virtual
server
Repeat steps 5 through 8 in the preceding section, this time using the service name
PCPrintProvider2 rather than PCPrintProvider. The recommend unique name for
the cluster resource in step 6 is Print-LimitPrintProvider01.
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Microsoft Cluster Environments
18.4. Client/Workstation Configuration
In a clustered environment the behaviour of Print-Limit Pro on the workstations is identical
to that of a non-clustered environment. The one exception however is in terms of configuration - The clients need to be configured to connect to the Virtual Server rather that directly
connecting to a node (i.e. network connections need to be made via virtual server's designated IP address). The changes necessary are:
1.
Update User Client's configuration file config.properties with the Virtual Server's
details as per Section 18.2.2.9, “Step 9 - Client Configuration”.
2.
Ensure that any URL's pointing to Print-Limit Pro's web administration and user interfaces; http://[server]:9192/admin and http://[server]:9192/user user
the virtual server's name. For example, any links on the organization's intranet site or
links supplied to other system administrators.
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Chapter 19. Print-Limit Pro on Linux
This section is designed to supplement the Install Guide (see Section 2.4, “Installation on
Linux (CUPS and/or Samba)”). It provides an in-depth explanation of the Linux installation
process, the directory layout and tools.
Information in this chapter is technical in nature. It is expected that readers have prior experience with:
•
The Unix command line environment
•
Unix file permissions
•
Configuring CUPS and/or Linux print queues
•
Or basic Samba configuration
19.1. The Installation Process
The Linux version of Print-Limit Pro is supplied as a pre-compiled self-installing application.
The installation process is designed to work with all major Linux distributions. Due to the
varied nature of some installations and administrator preferences, often some manual configuration is required. This section describes the installation process in detail as well as
some additional options available to system administrators.
19.1.1. Manual extraction
The Linux version of Print-Limit Pro is supplied in a self-extracting, self-installing archive.
The archive is simply a tar archive compressed with gzip, and headed with a shell script
to facilitate self-extracting. After extraction is complete, the installation script named install is executed to begin the install process. Some system administrators may like to inspect the contents of the archive, and possibly the installation process itself prior to the actual install. The self-extracting installer takes a number of command line arguments. The e argument will extract the archive into the current working directory ready for inspection.
Further options and documentation is available via the --help option.
Usage: plp-setup.sh [-e|-i|-l] [-v] [-n] [list ...]
-e
Extract the files and then exit without installing.
-i
Install after extracting the files (default).
-l
List the contents of the archive and exit without extracting.
-v
Verbose. Print the names of the files as they are extracted.
list
The list of files to extract."
19.1.2. The install process
Even though the majority of the installation process is completed under the identity of the
non-privileged user account called printlimit, most administrators would like to know
what the install process does. The main steps are outlined below:
19.1.2.1. Extraction
The first stage in the install process extracts the archive to /tmp or a location as defined
by an environment variable TEMDIR. The command-line programs tar and gunzip are
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Print-Limit Pro on Linux
used during this phase.
19.1.2.2. Installation
After extraction is complete the installation script is called. The install script, called install, will present the EULA and request acceptance. The script then determines the install location. This is the printlimit user's home directory. The home directory is determined by the HOME environment variable, or if not set, the result of a call to getpwnam().
Files are then copied into the printlimit user's home directory. Care is taken not to
overwrite any existing data or configuration files if this is an install-over-the-top upgrade.
19.1.2.3. Permissions
To ensure the default installation is secure by default, permissions are applied to key files.
The following area of the application are restricted to the printlimit user only:
Area
Comments
~/server/server.properties
Contains server configuration including the
default admin password.
~/server/data
This directory contains application data including database files. Some of this data
may contain sensitive information.
~/server/bin/linux-[x64|i686]
This directory contains a setuid-root binary.
Even though the binary is no use to an enduser or hacker, good security practice stipulates that we should only allow the
printlimit user access to this directory.
Table 19.1. Secured Application Areas
Permissions can be checked and re-applied at any time post-install by running the scripts:
~/server/bin/linux-*/setperms
~/providers/print/linux-*/setperms
19.1.2.4. Firewall
The Print-Limit Pro Application Server (pc-app process) listens on port 9191. This port is
used for browser based administration access, for client access, and other services. Ensure that any firewall or local IP filtering software such as iptables is set to allow local
network traffic access to this port.
19.1.2.5. Root Level Tasks
A small part of the install process needs to run as the root account. The tasks conducted
as root include:
•
Setting the authpam binary as setuid-root. This binary is used for password verification.
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Print-Limit Pro on Linux
•
Installing a CUPS backend. This is done by placing a symlink in the CUPS lib/backend
directory.
•
Setting up SYSV style start scripts if the system uses this boot process. This is done by
placing symlinks in the:
/etc/init.d/
/etc/rc3.d/
/etc/rc5.d/
and so on...
If the administrator decides not to run the root-level tasks during the install process, the
tasks can be run again post-install by executing the shell scripts:
~/server/bin/linux-*/roottasks
~/providers/print/linux-*/roottasks
Alternatively the administrator can view the scripts and make the required changes by
hand.
19.1.3. Linux Print Queue Integration
Print-Limit Pro is able to integrate with and monitor CUPS, Samba and Novell iPrint based
print queues. The configuration and an explanation of the integration methods follows:
19.1.3.1. CUPS Configuration Overview
If the print queues are managed and controlled via CUPS, the Device URI on each printer
should be modified so the printlimit backend is incorporated into the print process.
This can be done either via the CUPS web admin interface or by manually editing the
CUPS printers.conf file.
1.
Open printers.conf (e.g. /etc/cups/printers.conf)
2.
Prefix the DeviceURL for each printers with "printlimit:". For example:
DeviceURI socket://192.168.1.200:9100
Would become:
DeviceURI printlimit:socket://192.168.1.200:9100
3.
Restart cupsd so the new configuration is detected (e.g. /etc/init.d/cupsd reload)
19.1.3.2. CUPS Integration Explained
CUPS, the Common UNIX Printing System, is a popular system for managing printers on
Linux servers. CUPS uses a chain-of-commands concept where filters and backends
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combine together to form a process steam - a workflow. Print-Limit Pro hooks into this
workflow at the backend level, intercepting the job before it's passed on to physical printer
hardware.
The interception is done by wrapping or proxying the real CUPS backend. CUPS calls the
Print-Limit Pro backend which processes the job. If the job is approved, it passes the document onto the real backend. If the job is denied, it is deleted and proceeds no further. The
Print-Limit Pro backend is usually set up and installed by default during the standard installation.
Setting up the Print-Limit Pro CUPS backend proxy is a relatively simple task. All the administrator needs to do is prefix the existing DeviceURI with printlimit:. For example
the entry:
DeviceURI socket://192.168.1.200:9100
would become:
DeviceURI printlimit:socket://192.168.1.200:9100
The printer will register itself with Print-Limit Pro on the first print event.
19.1.3.2.1. Print-Limit Pro CUPS Architecture
The Print-Limit Pro CUPS backend is a native compiled binary. In Print-Limit Pro documentation it is referred to it as a Print Provider - a component that provides print event information to the Application Server. It's responsible for analyzing the print job and then
communicating this information to the Application Server component. Communication is via
an XML-RPC based Web Services call. This means that the backend does not even need
to be on the same server as the system hosting the Application Server component.
19.1.3.3. Samba Configuration Overview
If the print queues are exposed to network workstations using Samba (Samba Website)
[http://www.samba.org/], and a print system other than CUPS is used (e.g. BSD, LPRNG,
SYSV, etc.) the smb.conf needs some additional configuration. The "print command"
needs to be replaced with a Print-Limit Pro command.
1.
Open the smb.conf (e.g. /etc/samba/smb.conf)
2.
Under the [global] section insert the line:
print command=/home/printlimit/providers/print/linux-i686/samba-print-provid
-u "%u" -J "%J" -h "%h" -m "%m" -p "%p" -s "%s"
-a "[standard print command]" &
(IMPORTANT: The above information should appear all on a single line.
Note the use of the & (ampersand) on the end of the line.)
where [standard print command] is the command that would normally called for
printing. Typical examples of commands usually used for printer are listed below:
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Type
Command
BSD, AIX, QNX, LPRNG or PLP
lpr -r -P%p %s
SYSV or HPUX
lp -c -d%p %s; rm %s
Table 19.2. Standard print commands
More information on standard print commands is available under the Samba documentation installed on your system (see man smb.conf).
19.1.3.4. Samba Integration Explained
Samba is used to provide file and print sharing to Windows systems and is a popular solution. One of the main reasons for its popularity is that it avoids the need for expensive Microsoft Windows server licenses!
Samba exposes the locally set up Linux/Unix printers as network shared Windows printers.
It does this by wrapping the underlying print system - usually CUPS or LPR/LPD. In the
case of LPR, Samba calls the standard lp command line programs to perform printing.
Print-Limit Pro works by wrapping or proxying the "print command". More information on
how Samba interacts with the underlying print system is available in the Samba documentation.
A typical entry in the Samba configuration file smb.conf defining the Print-Limit Pro print
command wrapper would be:
print command=/home/printlimit/providers/print/linux-i686/samba-print-provi
-u "%u" -J "%J" -h "%h" -m "%m" -p "%p" -s "%s"
-a "[standard print command]" &
(IMPORTANT: The above information should appear all on the one line.
Note the use of the & (ampersand) on the end of the line.)
where [standard print command] is the command that would normally be called for
printing.
The %u, %p, etc., are Samba substitution variables. These are replaced with content such
as the username, printer name, etc. and are used by Print-Limit Pro in the reporting and
logging.
The printer will register itself with the Print-Limit Pro web interface after the first print is received.
19.1.3.4.1. Print-Limit Pro Samba Architecture
The Print-Limit Pro Samba print command wrapper is a native compiled executable. The
Print-Limit Pro documentation refers to it as a Print Provider. It's responsible for analyzing
the print job and then communicating this information to the Application Server component.
Communication is via an XML-RPC based Web Services call. This means that the command does not even need to be on the same server as the system hosting the Application
Server component.
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19.1.3.5. Novell iPrint Configuration
Print-Limit Pro works by directly integrating with the Novell iPrint Print Manager. The configuration process is detailed in Section 2.3.5, “Step 5 - Printer/iPrint Configuration”. The
development team at Netop has worked with the Novell iPrint engineers during 2008 to ensure an iPrint API was avaliable that allow iPrint users to have access to the same feature
set as seen on Windows, Mac and Linux CUPS. Print-Limit Pro uses this API set to intercept and account for jobs as they pass into the iPrint queue.
19.2. Advanced Configuration & Logs
The majority of Print-Limit Pro configuration is conducted in the Application Server's web
interface. Some additional configuration options are available in the following configuration
files:
Config File
Comments
~/server/server.properties
Contains server configuration including the
default admin password, the server's TCP
port and external database connection
parameters.
~/providers/print/linux-[x64|i68 The Print Provider's configuration file used
6]/print-provider.conf
by both the Samba and CUPS Print Providers. This file defines items such as the
Application Server's IP address and port,
process timeouts and other.
Table 19.3. Advanced Configuration
Most important application logging is available via the Application Log section of the Application Server's web interface. Some additional advanced level logging is maintained in
standard text files located at:
~/server/logs/*
~/providers/print/linux-[x64|i686]/print-provider.log
Administrators may wish to consult these logs when attempting to diagnose or troubleshoot
problems.
19.3. Backups & System Management
Suggested backup procedures are detailed in Section 12.4, “System Backups”. Common
system management functions are covered in Chapter 12, System Management.
Administrators managing Linux servers should also consider adopting the following management policies:
•
Regularly check for Print-Limit Pro updates. Updates can be applied with a simple, install-over-the-top procedure.
•
Remember to add the Print-Limit Pro backend or command when configuring new printers.
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•
Always check Print-Limit Pro's functionality after a system updates (i.e. new versions of
CUPS or Samba, or configuration changes).
19.4. User Directory and Authentication
Print-Limit Pro synchronizes its user directory with the underlying operating system or network. The Linux version of Print-Limit Pro ships with two user directory implementations.
Due to the nature of Linux, some organizations may have customized user directory implementations. Print-Limit Pro can support customization in this area. This section details the
user/group/authentication options available as standard, as well has how one would go
about developing customized implementation.
19.4.1. Standard Unix
The Standard Unix user directory provider uses standard Unix API's to enumerate user
and group information. This allows group information to be defined on either the local system or via another source as configured via nsswitch.conf. For example, the system
may be configured via nsswitch.conf to obtain user directory information from a centralized LDAP server or Novell's eDirectory.
User password authentication is performed via PAM. (Note: For administrators wishing to
customize the PAM authentication method at the application level, Print-Limit Pro reports itself as "printlimit".)
19.4.2. Samba/Windows Domain
If the user and group information is provided by a Windows Domain such as an NT Style
Domain or Active Directory, the Samba option is most appropriate. This option would normally be used on networks where the printers are hosted on a Linux server and exposed to
Windows users via Samba.
At the technical level, the Samba support is implemented as a set of Perl script wrappers
around standard Samba commands such as net and smbclient. Administrators should
ensure these Samba commands are on the printlimit user's path.
19.4.3. Custom
Some large networks, particularly those found at established universities, may have custom user directory and authentication services not directly supported by Print-Limit Pro. To
support these networks, administrators can use scripting and other technologies to build a
new custom User Directory Information Provider.
Print-Limit Pro works by handing off user, group and user authentication tasks to a separate program/process. The external process must accept a set of commands as commandline arguments and return the answer in a tab delimited prescribed format on standard out.
More information on the format can be found in Section 15.8, “Custom User Directory Information Providers”. The source code for the standard Print-Limit Pro supplied User Directory Information Provider are also supplied as part of the installation, and these may
prove to be a good example. The source code is provided in:
~/server/bin/linux-i686/src/
~/server/bin/linux-i686/sambauserdir
~/server/bin/linux-i686/authsamba
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19.5. Unix Command-Line Release Station Client
In a modern Linux environment, the most commonly used print system is usually CUPS.
Print-Limit Pro can be configured to integrate with CUPS to conveniently track printing. On
Legacy Unix systems CUPS is often not an option and printing is performed via the Line
Printer tools such as lp or lpr. LPR/LPD is a non-authenticated printing protocol so the
identity of the user associated with a print job can't be trusted. Instead, the authentication
must be performed at the Print-Limit Pro application layer. The Print-Limit Pro client tool
with popup authentication as discussed at Section 21.2.2, “Scenario Two: The Multi-User
Mac with Popup Authentication” is a good option but not appropriate for a terminal-only environment. Terminal-only environments can be supported via a release station queue (see
Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations for more detail). Jobs held in a
release station queue are normally accessed and released via a dedicated terminal or a
web browser based interface, however for the benefit of terminal-only users, a commandline job release client is also provided.
This process is best explained using an example:
1.
John uses the lp command to print a Postscript document from his Unix terminal session. The job arrives in the queue under the username identity "john". (Although the
name can't be trusted.)
2.
The administrator has enabled the Print-Limit Pro release station on this print queue.
The job is placed into a holding state.
3.
John must now authenticate, proving his identity and release the job. He chooses to
do this via the command-line release station client.
4.
John enters the command release-print-job. This command was set up by the
system administrator.
5.
John enters his username and password, confirms the job's name, cost and page
count and releases the job for print. The following is an example of the output seen:
Please enter your username: john
Please enter your password:
Current balance: $8.00
18:04:13 - Name: "Configuring Linux", Pages: 2, Cost: $0.40
Print this job? [yes]
Released 1 job(s).
6.
The job prints and John's account is charged.
Enabling the release station on a printer is a global option - it affects all jobs from all users.
In some environments it may not be appropriate to have all jobs controlled via a release
station - for example, jobs originating from Windows systems are already authenticated
and should print directly. An alternate strategy is to have two queues for the same printer.
The first queue does not use the release station option and only allows printing from authenticated workstations/users, while the other queue has the release station option enabled.
Print-Limit Pro managed print queues can be exposed for access via LRP/LPD using various methods. The optional Windows system component, "Print Services for Unix" can be
used if the queues are hosted on a Windows system. An LPD interface is available for
CUPS if the queues are hosted on Linux.
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Tip
Windows system administrators can control which queues are exposed via
LPR/LPD by setting printer permissions. Queues set up to explicitly deny permission to access from the SYSTEM account will not be accessible via LPR.
19.5.1. Installing the Command-Line Release Station Client
The following installation instructions assume the reader has prior Unix system administration experience.
1.
Ensure that Java 1.5 or newer is installed on your system. To check, type java version at the terminal. If you do not have Java 5 (1.5) or higher, please install it before continuing. Java is available for all major Unix operating systems.
2.
Copy the release station files from your primary server to the system for which you
wish to set up the command line release station client. These can be found in
[app-dir]/release. If your primary server is running Windows, this folder will be
shared by default (accessible via //[server]/release). You may be able to use
tools such as Samba (smbclient) to help copy these files. Ensure all files in the
folder are copied taking care to preserve the existing heirarchy.
The recommended location to install the release station command line client is /
usr/local/printlimit/release/.
3.
Ensure that the command line release station client has execute permissions for all
users. This can be achieved with the following command when in the release directory:
chmod 755 ./pc-release-cmd-line.sh
4.
For convenience, an alias can be created for the command line release station client.
This is typically done by entering the following line in a global profiles file, or each
user's .profile file:
alias "release-print-job" = \
"/usr/local/printlimit/release/pc-release-cmd-line.sh
5.
Users will now be able to release their print jobs by typing release-print-job.
It may also be useful to create a 'wrapper' for lp to run the command line release station
client after a user has sent a print job. The following script print-doc provides an example:
#!/bin/sh
echo "Printing document using lpr..."
/usr/bin/lpr "[email protected]"
echo "Printing done, calling program to release job..."
sleep 1
cd /usr/local/printlimit/release
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./pc-release-cmd-line.sh
echo "Done."
For the convenience of users, the command line release station client should be installed
on all systems where printing from the terminal may be performed.
19.6. Removing Print-Limit Pro from a Linux server
Print-Limit Pro can be completely removed from a system with the following procedure:
•
Remove all files from the printlimit user's home directory.
•
Remove the printlimit user account and home directory.
•
Remove any server start scripts matching:
/etc/init.d/printlimit
/etc/rc*.d/*printlimit
19.7. Linux FAQ
19.7.1. Troubleshooting & Installation Questions
Q:
How can I run the root installation tasks manually?
A:
If you opt not to run the root level tasks during installation, or if they fail, they can be
manually run later by running the following shell scripts as root:
~/server/bin/linux-*/roottasks
~/providers/print/linux-*/roottasks
Q:
I am unable to open a browser to http://[server_name]:9191/admin. What is
wrong?
A:
The first step is to check to see if the Print-Limit Pro is listening on the port. The command:
netstat -anp | grep 9191
should list the pc-app as the owner of the process on port 9191. If nothing is listed,
check that the application server has started (e.g. ps -ef | grep pc-app).
If the server is already running, the next step is to ensure no IP filtering is applied to
the port. Some Linux distributions have strict iptables filters enabled by default.
Ensure that port 9191 is accessible from all local network systems.
Q:
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I would like to use a custom script to start the server. Is this possible?
A:
The SYSV style start script included should work with all systems using an /
etc/rc*.d style boot process. Some administrators may wish to replace the appserver with a custom script that better fits in with their Linux distributions style
guide. Administrators should consider storing this script outside the Print-Limit Pro install structure so it's not overwritten in any further upgrade.
Q:
Can I run/install Print-Limit Pro under an account other than "printlimit"?
A:
No. At the moment the installation, and other scripts, assume the existence of a user
called printlimit. This may however change in the future. E-mail your thoughts to
the development team!
Q:
Is an RPM or .deb package available?
A:
No. At the moment we're supplying it as a self-extracting and self-installing archive.
This gives us the flexibility to support install-over-the-top for upgrades and maintain
full control over the installation process. The process will also allow Print-Limit Pro to
run and install on systems not using RPM or apt. We also plan on supporting other
Unix based operating systems in the future such as FreeBSD and Solaris. The current installation method should work with all standard Linux distributions.
19.7.2. General Questions
Q:
Is Print-Limit Pro open source?
A:
Print-Limit Pro in not "open source" in reference to it being available under the GPL
or another popular open source license. Source code is however provided to customers. As a company we are transparent in our development approach, work closely
with our users, and support a number of open source projects both financially and
with code submission. Print-Limit Pro however remains a commercial application with
commercial support at the current time.
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Chapter 20. Print Authentication
Modern large multiuser networks, like those typically seen in Higher Education, are made
up of mix of operating systems, authentication methods, personal student laptops, print
protocols and disparate networks. This heterogeneous mix poses problems for system administrators working towards a unified and centralized print management system. PrintLimit Pro sports an array of tools to help administrators meet their unification goals. PrintLimit Pro's flexibility is however a double-edged sword and the multitude of options also
bring complexity. This section discusses cross-platform support in detail, and hopes to arm
the reader with the knowledge needed to make the correct architecture decisions. Solutions are presented as "recipes" with the aim of directing the reader to appropriate procedures and other chapters.
The objective of a centralized and unified Print-Limit Pro system is to offer all users, irrespective of their operating system or access method, access to the full array of features in
a secured and authenticated way. Print-Limit Pro offers cross-platform client software
providing end-user features on all major operating systems, however the need for secured
and authenticated access adds an extra, somewhat complex dimension.
20.1. About Authentication and Printing
20.1.1. What is authentication?
Authentication in a printing environment is the act of confirming the digital identity of the
person who issued a print job. Knowledge of the user's identity allows Print-Limit Pro to offer the user access to functions such as allocating the cost of a job to their account, or offering them access to shared accounts. In a Windows domain environment, authentication
is handled at the point of login using a username and password. A web-of-trust is then established between servers and services.
20.1.2. Why does authentication pose a problem?
By default Print-Limit Pro assumes the printer queues are authenticated and trusts the
username that is associated with the print job. It is this user is charged for for the printing.
On fully authenticated networks (like 100% Windows Active Directory networks), Print-Limit
Pro can trust the username associated with the job. There are a few common scenarios
where authentication is not as simple:
1.
Generic, common, or shared user accounts. (e.g. generic "student" login).
2.
Systems that auto-login as a set user.
3.
Unauthenticated print queues or print protocols (e.g. LPR).
4.
Users' personal laptops that are not authenticated on the network.
Generic or shared login accounts are seen in some computer lab and network environments. In these environments administrators ask users to log into selected systems using
standard user names such as "student" or "user". This practice is particularly common on
the Apple Mac operating system as a single login helps streamline system and application
management. The use of the Window auto-login feature also poses a similar problem - authentication is not enforced at the time of system startup. An extra layer of authentication is
required on these systems to correctly identify the person that performs printing.
Unauthenticated print queues also pose problems in cross platform environments. In an
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ideal world all computers would talk the same protocols and happily work together in a
single centrally authenticated environment. We can come close to this goal in a 100% Microsoft Windows environment, however if we mix in Unix, Linux and Mac, it's a different
story. Although initiatives such as CUPS (Common Unix Printing System) and the Internet
Printing Protocol (IPP) offer some hope, unification in the area of authenticated printing is
still some way off. Unfortunately technical reasons often prevent networks from using
CUPS authentication or exclusively using the authenticated Microsoft printing protocol.
The use of personal laptops or other unauthenticated workstations in an otherwise authenticated network is another cause of problems. These machines may not be able to authenticate to your network for number of reasons:
•
The operating system does not support authentication (like Windows Home editions).
•
It is too complex to configure authentication on personal laptops.
•
Users log in to their laptop with their personnally chosen username and password.
•
You cannot force users to change the configuration of their personal laptops.
20.1.3. How does Print-Limit Pro address authentication?
If technical reasons prevent authentication at the print queue level, Print-Limit Pro provides
a number of alternate authentication options. These options change Print-Limit Pro's default behavior of trusting the username associated with a print jobs, and instead the user
will be required to re-authenticate before the job is printed. The two alternate authentication
options are described below.
20.1.3.1. Popup Authentication (IP session based authentication)
This method involves associating the workstation's IP address with a user for a specified
period of time - a session. Any print jobs arriving from this IP address are deemed to be associated with this user. Authentication is provided by the Print-Limit Pro client software in
the form of a popup dialog requesting a username and password. Data is transmitted to the
server via an SSL encrypted connection. To print with popup authentication the client software must be running on the workstations or laptops.
Popup authentication can be used to:
•
Authenticate users that print from a generic login or auto-login account. This is done by
flagging the generic account as unauthenticated in Print-Limit Pro.
•
Authenticate users not authenticated to the network (e.g. personal laptop users). This is
done by marking the print queues as unauthenticated in Print-Limit Pro.
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Figure 20.1. Print-Limit Pro client requesting authentication
More information on popup authentication can be found in Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication”.
20.1.3.2. Release Station Authentication
Release stations work by placing print jobs in a holding queue. Users must authenticate at
a release station before being given access to release their job. A release station normally
takes the form of a dedicated terminal located next to the printer(s), however the holding
queue may also be accessed via a web browser. The act of a user releasing a job causes
it to be charged to their account. Release stations can be used without installing the client
software on user's workstations.
The hold/release queues are enabled on a printer queue level within Print-Limit Pro
More information on setting up and using release stations is discussed in Chapter 10,
Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations. To achieve authentication, the Release
Station will be run in "release any" mode.
20.1.3.3. Choosing the right authentication option for your network
The choice of the authenticatation approach depends on the constraints of your network
and your requirements. Below are some points to consider when making this decision:
•
Popup Authentication: Usually the most user-friendly option, but it requires the client
software to be installed and running on all workstations that print. In some environments it is not possible to mandate that software be installed on personal laptops.
•
Release Station Authentication: Users do not need any additional software installed but
the process of releasing a print job is more involved. You must install standard release
stations nearby all your printers, or make use of the end-user web release station. If
you are already using hold/release queues, then it makes sense to also use them for
authentication.
20.1.3.4. Handling partially authenticated networks
Many sites have a heterogenous network with a mix of both authenticated an unauthenticated printing. A common example, is a college where all lab computers are connected to
the domain and users must login to the workstations to print. The college also allows students to print using their personal laptops that are not authenticated on the network.
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An administrator can choose to enable Print-Limit Pro authentication for all users. This is
the simplest to setup but may be inconvenient for users who are already fully authenticated. Why should an authenticated user have to reauthenticate with Print-Limit Pro to
print?
To overcome this it is recommended to setup two sets of print queues, one for the authenticated users and another for the unauthenticated users. These queues can point to the
same physical printers, but are configured differently in both Print-Limit Pro and the operating system. The authenticated print queues:
•
Must only be accessible to authenticated users (i.e. through network security or operating system permissions).
•
Should not have the authentication enabled within Print-Limit Pro (i.e. do not enable the
hold/release queue or unauthenticated printer options on the print queue).
•
Should not be published to unauthenticated users.
The unauthenticated print queues:
•
Must be configured to allow printing by unauthenticated users.
•
Must have the authentication enabled within Print-Limit Pro. i.e. Enable the hold/release
queue or flag the printer as unauthenticated.
•
Must be published to anonymous users so they know how to connect/user the printers.
If the descision as been made to split up printers into two seprate queues (authenticated
and unauthenticated), administrators can use tools such as IP address filtering, firewalls, or
user/group access permsisions to control who has access to which set of queues (i.e. deny
"guest" account access on authenticated queues in Windows).
For a detailed explanation of setting up Print-Limit Pro for unauthenticated laptop printing
see Section 20.2, “Handling Unauthenticated (non-domain) Laptops”
For discussion of many other authentication scenarios see Section 20.3, “The Authentication Cookbook - Recipes by example”
20.2. Handling Unauthenticated (non-domain) Laptops
Schools and colleges commonly allow students to use their personal laptops for printing to
campus printers. They also want to allocate/charge printing from these unauthenticated
users to the correct person. However if the systems haven't authenticated with the network,
then user credentials are not provided with the print job (or worse, their personal laptop
username is associated with the job). For example, on Windows networks, the jobs may list
as guest. Print-Limit Pro addresses this this problem by providing alternate print authentication options. This section provides a step-by-step guide to configuring these authentication options.
Before continuing it is highly recommended to read the introduction to print authentication
(see Chapter 20, Print Authentication). It introduces the important concepts required to understanding print authentication.
20.2.1. Option 1: Popup Authentication for Unauthenticated Laptops
Having chosen popup authentication to authenticate your laptop users, you should review
Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication” for a detailed explanation of the feature.
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20.2.1.1. Step 1: Decide whether to enable popup authentication on all printer queues
First decide whether to enable authentication for all queues, or only the queues accessed
by unauthenticated laptop systems. For more information please read Section 20.1.3.4,
“Handling partially authenticated networks”.
If you choose to only enable authentication for your unauthenticated laptops, you must
configure a second set of unauthenticated print queues. These queues can point to the
same physical printers as your authenticated queues.
Often the simplest way to setup these unauthenticated queues is to configure a separate
print server that allows anonymous printing. You can make use of a firewall or operating
system permissions to ensure that the anonymous users cannot access the "authenticated
queues". On Windows networks, you may need to enable the guest account on the domain/system so users running the "Home" editions of Windows can print to these queues.
20.2.1.2. Step 2: Install/run the user client software on laptops
To use popup authentication, the client software must be installed and running on the unauthenticated laptops. You should make the client available for your users along with instructions of how to install the software on their laptops. The software can be easily installed on all common operating systems (Windows, Mac and Linux).
For more information on installing and deploying the client software see Section 5.2.1,
“User Client Deployment”.
20.2.1.3. Step 3: Mark the printer queue as "Unauthenticated"
By default Print-Limit Pro trusts the usernames that are associated with the print job. When
printing from unauthenticated laptops this username cannot be trusted. By flagging the
printer queue as "unauthenticated", Print-Limit Pro will no longer trust the username and
will prompt the user to authenticate.
Advanced: An alternate approch on Windows networks is to enable the unauthenticated
option at the user-level on guest only rather than at the queue level.
To flag the printer as Unauthenticated:
1.
Log in as the built-in admin user.
2.
Click on the Printers section.
3.
Select the printer you wish to mark as Unauthenticated.
4.
In the Configuration section, enable the Unauthenticated printer checkbox.
5.
Press the OK button to save the changes.
6.
Repeat this process for each printer that requires popup authentication enabled.
Important
Once the printer is flagged as Unauthenticated, no print jobs will be printed until the user has authenticated using the client software. It is important that all
workstations using these print queues are running the client software.
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20.2.1.4. Step 4: Test the popup authentication
It is important to test the popup authentication once enabled. To do this:
1.
Start-up an unauthenticated laptop/workstation.
2.
Ensure that the user client software is installed and running.
3.
Perform a test print job to the queue on the print server you flagged as Unauthenticated.
4.
The client software should popup the authentication dialog box. The print job should
not print until you successfully authenticate.
5.
Once authenticated, verify that the print job completes and the job is logged against
the correct username in Printers->Print Jobs.
20.2.2. Option 2: Release Station Authentication for Unauthenticated Laptops
Having chosen release stations to authenticate your laptop users, you should review
Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations for a detailed explanation of
the feature.
20.2.2.1. Step 1: Decide whether to enable release station authentication on all print
queues
First decide whether to enable the the hold/release queue for all print queues, or only the
queues accessed by unauthenticated laptop systems. For more information please read
Section 20.1.3.4, “Handling partially authenticated networks”.
If you choose to only enable the hold/release queue for your unauthenticated laptops, you
must configure a second set of unauthenticated print queues. These queues can point to
the same physical printers as your authenticated queues.
Often the simplest way to setup these unauthenticated queues is to configure a separate
print server that allows anonymous printing. You can make use of a firewall or operating
system permissions to ensure that the anonymous users cannot access the "authenticated
queues".
20.2.2.2. Step 2: Choose which Release Station interface to use
You can choose between the Standard/Software release station interface and the end-user
web interface. The standard release station:
•
Requires a dedicated workstation nearby the printers that is configured to run the release station.
•
Requires less user education because when they walk up to fetch their print jobs it is
obvious they need to use the release station to user the job.
The end-user web release station:
•
Requires no workstations configured near the printers. Users simply use a web browser
to login to the end-user web interface and release their jobs.
•
Users must be provided with instructions on how to print and then login to the web release station to release their print jobs.
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After choosing the release station interface, proceed to the appropriate step below.
20.2.2.3. Step 3a: Run and configure the Standard Release Station
If using the standard release station:
1.
Deploy the standard release station to workstations located nearby your printers. See
Section 10.3, “Release Station Configuration” for information on deploying the release
station.
2.
Run the release station in "Release Any" mode which allows users to login and see all
print jobs awaiting release. When they release a job it will be charged to their user account. For more information see Section 10.3.3.1, “Release Station Modes”.
20.2.2.4. Step 3b: Enable and configure the End-user Web Release Station
If using the end-user web release station:
1.
Log in as the built-in admin user.
2.
Click on the Options section.
3.
In the User Features section, enable the Allow users to view held jobs
(hold/release queues) option.
4.
Change the Users have permission to setting to Release any jobs (charge to their
account).
5.
Press the Apply button to save the changes.
20.2.2.5. Step 4: Enable the Hold/Release queue for the print queues
By default, Print-Limit Pro allows the jobs to be printed without any interaction from the
user. The hold/release queue feature will hold the print job until the user logs into a release
station and releases the job. To enable the hold/release queue for a printer:
1.
Log in as the built-in admin user.
2.
Click on the Printers section.
3.
Select the printer you wish to enable the Hold/Release queue on.
4.
In the Configuration section, enable the Enable hold/release queue checkbox.
5.
Press the OK button to save the changes.
6.
Repeat this process for each printer that requires the hold/release queue enabled.
Important
Once the hold/release queue is enabled, no jobs will print until released using
a release station. It is important to instruct your users how to use the release
station, otherwise they will not be able to print.
20.2.2.6. Step 5: Test the release station
It is important to test the release station once enabled. To do this:
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1.
Start-up an unauthenticated laptop/workstation.
2.
Perform a test print to a print queue with the hold/release queue enabled.
3.
For the standard release station, go to the print release station and login as a user.
Select the job you printed and press the Print link to release the job. The job should
begin to print.
4.
For the end-user web release station, login to the end-user web pages at http://yourserver:9191/user. Select the Jobs pending release link. Select the
job you printed and press the [print] link to release the job. The job should begin to
print.
5.
Login to the Print-Limit Pro admin pages and verify the print job was allocated to the
correct user in the Printers->Print Jobs section.
20.3. The Authentication Cookbook - Recipes by example
This section discusses various solutions to the "authentication problem" in recipe style. The
aim is not to provide detailed step by step instructions, but rather guide the user to the relevant procedures and chapters in other parts of the manual.
20.3.1. Windows systems with generic logins
This scenario arises either when users log into systems using a common username such
as user or student, or if the workstations auto-login as a generic user. See introduction
for details.
20.3.1.1. Preferred Method:
•
Ensure all users have an account (username and password) on the server (or domain)
hosting the Print-Limit Pro software.
•
Install client software on all systems. See Section 5.2, “User Client” for more detail.
•
Enable popup authentication by selecting the Unauthenticated option on the corresponding generic user account.
•
See Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication” for more detail.
20.3.1.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use standard release station in "Release Any" mode, or the end-user web release station configured to allow users to release any jobs. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
2.
Consider implementing domain level logins.
20.3.2. Windows laptops that do not authenticate against a domain
Portable systems may spend most of their time outside the organization's network and
hence setting up domain authentication may not be desirable. The laptops/notebooks are
often owned by a single individual and are not under the control of a central administrator.
20.3.2.1. Preferred Method:
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Use popup authentication or hold/release queues as discussed in Section 20.2, “Handling
Unauthenticated (non-domain) Laptops”.
20.3.2.2. Alternate Method 1:
If using a version of Windows that can authenticate with a domain (i.e. not the Windows
Home editions), then the laptop can be configured to authenticate with the network as follows.
•
Teach the user how add their domain username and password to their Stored usernames and passwords:
1.
Start → Control Panel → User Accounts
2.
Select the user's laptop login account
3.
Click Manage my network passwords
4.
Click Add
5.
Enter the name of the server and the user's network domain username and password
•
Teach the user how to add a network printer in the form \\server\printer.
•
Optional: Locally install client software using the client-local-install.exe install
program. This is located on the \\Server\PCClient\win share. At the end of the install process the client will open asking the user to confirm their network identity. See
Section 5.2, “User Client” for more detail.
20.3.2.3. Alternate Method 2:
•
Add a generic "LaptopUser", or "guest" user account to the domain. Make the password
known to all users (e.g. password).
•
Set the unauthenticated option on this user (enable popup authentication).
•
Locally install client software using the client-local-install.exe install program.
This is located on the \\Server\PCClient\win share. At the end of the install process the client will open asking the user to confirm their network identity. See Section A.5, “User Client Options” for details.
•
Teach the user how to add a network printer pointing to \\server\printer.
•
See the preceding scenario for more detail.
20.3.3. Windows print server using LDAP or eDirectory authentication
The Microsoft Windows operating system does not play well in non Active Directory domain environments such as LDAP or eDirectory. Although it is possible to configure a Windows print server on any network, Windows does not normally provide the ability to use
LDAP as an authentication source. Jobs will either list under a local Windows user identity
or a guest account. Print-Limit Pro's popup authentication, bound to LDAP, can be used to
work around this limitation.
20.3.3.1. Preferred Method:
•
Set up the Windows server and install and share printers.
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•
Set printer permission to allow printing from a general "guest" type account. This will
usually take the form of the built-in guest account, or a local account with a known username and password (e.g. printuser).
•
Configure printers on each workstation. Ensure all workstation users can print and jobs
list in the print queue under the guest account configured in the previous step.
•
Install the Print-Limit Pro software. Select the LDAP server as your user/group source.
Print-Limit Pro will then use this source for the user list and authentication. See Section 12.2.5, “Using LDAP for user synchronization” for more information about LDAP.
•
Set the Unauthenticated option on each printer (print queue). This will enable popup
authentication. See Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication” for more information.
•
Install client software. See Section 5.2, “User Client” for more detail.
20.3.3.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use release station. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations.
20.3.4. Mac OS X systems with generic user accounts
Mac OS X workstations in a lab environment are often set up so users log in using a common, generic, or standard account. For example, "macuser" or "student".
20.3.4.1. Preferred Method:
•
Install client software. See Section 5.2, “User Client” for more detail.
•
Add a domain/network user account that matches the generic login account (i.e. "macuser"). This ensures that account will list in Print-Limit Pro.
•
Set the Unauthenticated option on the "macuser" account.
•
Add the printer(s) so jobs list under the "macuser" account. If the print queues are hosted on Windows, add the printer using Samba. (e.g. A DeviceURI like
smb://macuser:[email protected]/printer). See Chapter 21, Mac Printing
in Detail for an explanation on how to add a printer using this method.
20.3.4.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use standard release station in "Release Any" mode, or the end-user web release station configured to allow users to release any jobs. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
2.
Consider setting up domain-level authentication.
20.3.5. Mac OS X systems using domain authentication via Open Directory
Mac systems can be configured to authenticate users via a central Mac OS X server running Open Directory. Each user has their own login account.
20.3.5.1. Preferred Method:
•
Set up print queues on the Mac OS X Server.
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•
Set up Print-Limit Pro on the server either as a primary server, or as a secondary server
reporting to another primary server (either Mac, Linux or a Windows system). See
Chapter 2, Installation.
•
Add printers to each Mac workstation. Ensure the local printers point to the shared print
queue set up on the server.
•
Optional: Install client software as discussed in Section 5.2, “User Client”.
20.3.5.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use standard release station in "Release Any" mode, or the end-user web release station configured to allow users to release any jobs. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
2.
Set up print queues on a Windows system and use popup authentication - see next recipe.
20.3.6. Mac OS X systems using domain authentication via Windows Active
Directory
Mac systems can be configured so users log in using their Windows Active Directory domain username and password. The Mac Windows printer support using Samba/SMB
however requires printers to be added using a single username and password and this is
shared by all users. For this reason an extra layer of authentication is required.
20.3.6.1. Preferred Method:
•
Host printers and the Print-Limit Pro system on the Windows server.
•
Ensure the print server is running in Mixed mode or Pre-Windows 2000 Compatibility
Mode. Macs currently have problems with Native Mode networks.
•
Add a domain/network user account that matches the generic login account (i.e. "macuser"). This ensures that the macuser account will appear in Print-Limit Pro's user list.
•
In Print-Limit Pro, turn on the Unauthenticated option on the "macuser" account to enable popup authentication. Also ensure that the account has zero balance and is restricted.
•
Add the printer(s) so jobs list under the "macuser" account. If the print queues are hosted on Windows, add the printer using Samba. (e.g. A DeviceURI like
smb://macuser:[email protected]/printer). See Chapter 21, Mac Printing
in Detail for an explanation on how to add a printer using this method.
•
Install client software as discussed in Section 5.2, “User Client”.
20.3.6.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use LPR as a connection method. See Section 21.2.3, “Scenario Three: Multi-user
Macs using LDAP or Active Directory authentication” in detail.
2.
Use standard release station in "Release Any" mode, or the end-user web release station configured to allow users to release any jobs. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
3.
Host printers on a Mac Server (see the previous recipe).
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20.3.7. Mac OS X laptops (or single user systems) printing to Windows print
queues
Mac systems that are owned/used by a single user can benefit from having the printers added in such a way in that they automatically authenticate under their identity.
20.3.7.1. Preferred Method:
•
Teach users how to add printers using the method described in Section 21.2.1,
“Scenario One: My Own Mac (Single User)”.
•
Use popup authentication or hold/release queues as discussed in Section 20.2,
“Handling Unauthenticated (non-domain) Laptops”.
20.3.7.2. Other Methods:
1.
Locally install client software using the client-local-install program located in
the directory [app-path]/client/mac. This install script will cause the client to display a popup asking them to confirm their network identity (via username/password).
20.3.8. Linux Workstations in a lab environment with printers hosted on a Windows server
Linux workstations typically use the CUPS print system. CUPS, through the use of Samba,
can print directly to Windows print queues.
20.3.8.1. Preferred Method:
•
Ensure the system is configured to deny remote shell access to standard users - that is,
only allow direct screen/console access. This ensures the system's IP address can be
associated with a single user providing a suitable environment for popup authentication.
•
Ensure the print server is running in Mixed mode or Pre-Windows 2000 Compatibility
Mode. Some Linux distributions currently have problems with Native Mode networks.
•
Add a domain/network user account that matches the generic login account (i.e. "linuxuser"). This ensures the "linuxuser" account will appear Print-Limit Pro's user list.
•
In Print-Limit Pro, turn on the Unauthenticated option on the "linuxuser" account to enable popup authentication. Also ensure that the account has zero balance and is restricted.
•
Add the printer(s) so jobs list under the "linuxuser" account. If the print queues are hosted on Windows, add the printer using Samba. (e.g. A DeviceURI like
smb://linuxuser:[email protected]/printer). Please refer to the CUPS
or distribution documentation to read more how to add a CUPS printer using an smb
backend.
•
Install client software as discussed in Chapter Section 5.2.1.3, “Deployment on Linux
and Unix”. If users login to the workstations using a username that matches their Active
Directory password, no additional client configuration is required. If users log in using a
generic or non-matching account, use command-line options or the config.properties file to force the client to display under the user's domain identity.
See Section A.5, “User Client Options” for more information.
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20.3.8.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use standard release station in "Release Any" mode, or the end-user web release station configured to allow users to release any jobs. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
2.
Host printers on a CUPS server running on Linux.
3.
Install "Print Services for Unix on the Windows server" and use a LPR rather than
CUPS (or CUPS with an LPR backend).
20.3.9. Linux Workstations in a lab environment with printers hosted on Linux
CUPS server
Many network administrators running Linux labs may be most comfortable hosting the
printers on a Linux server running CUPS. For convenience, CUPS is set up without authentication.
20.3.9.1. Preferred Method:
•
Set up CUPS print queues on a Linux server.
•
Ensure each user has an account on this system (or the domain depending on PrintLimit Pro's selected user list source)
•
Set up Print-Limit Pro on the server either as a primary server, or as a secondary server
reporting to another primary server (either Mac, Linux or a Windows system). See
Chapter 2, Installation.
•
Set the Unauthenticated option on each printer (print queue). This will enable popup
authentication. See Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication”.
•
Ensure the system is configured to deny remote shell access to standard users - that is,
only allow direct screen/console access. This ensures the system's IP address can be
associated with a single user providing a suitable environment for popup authentication.
•
Install client software as discussed in Section 5.2, “User Client”.
20.3.9.2. Other Methods:
1.
Use standard release station in "Release Any" mode, or the end-user web release station configured to allow users to release any jobs. See Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
2.
Use CUPS Authentication.
20.3.10. Linux laptops (or single user systems)
Modern Linux laptops will make use of the CUPS print system. This environment is equivalent to the Mac laptop recipes described above.
20.3.11. Multiuser Unix terminal servers
Unix or Linux systems allowing remote SSH, Telnet, VNC, or X connections differ from the
other scenarios discussed above. These systems can not use the popup authentication as
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it is not possible to uniquely identify a user from the system's IP address. The only secure
option is to use the release station.
20.3.11.1. Preferred Method:
•
Setup Print-Limit Pro on your preferred server - this does not need to be the multiuser
terminal system itself. It could be another Windows or Linux server.
•
Ensure Print-Limit Pro sources its user list from the same source as that used by the
multiuser terminal server - most likely an LDAP server.
•
Enable the release station option on all printers that will be accessed via users of the
multiuser terminal system. Important: Enabling the release station option may be incompatible with objectives of other operating systems so it may be appropriate to set up
a separate set of print queues. See Further Recommendations below for more detail.
•
Set up a release station. This commonly takes the form of a dedicated terminal located
near the printers, however other options worth considering using the Print-Limit Pro
end-user web interface to release jobs, or the release station command-line client. See
Chapter 10, Hold/Release Queues & Print Release Stations for details.
•
Instruct users on how to use the release station.
20.3.11.2. Other Methods:
1.
No alternate methods.
20.3.12. Further Recommendations
1.
Decide on an authentication method and use it consistently throughout the organization and network. For example, using popup authentication on some systems and release stations on others may be confusing for users. Try to offer a consistent user experience.
2.
Where possible, configure workstations to communicate with the server using the
server's native print protocol. For example, use SMB or standard Windows printing
when printing to a Windows server, and Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) when printing
to a CUPS server. Servers are most reliable when talking their own language!
3.
Consider the scope of any configuration change. For example, enabling popup authentication or release station on a print queue will affect ALL users of that printer. For
example it may be desirable to ask Linux users to use the release station, however
this may be regarded as an inconvenience for Windows users. In these cases, it may
be advantageous to set up two print queues for each physical printer - the first queue
without release station enabled for Windows users and the other with the release station option enabled for Linux users.
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Chapter 21. Mac Printing in Detail
Apple Mac printing is a complex topic and deserves its own chapter. The developers started on Print-Limit Pro for the Mac in 2006. Developing software on the Mac was an enjoyable experience and presented very few technical challenges. The challenges instead
came in the area of general printer setup and idiosyncrasies with printer configuration. Mac
administrators will be all too familiar with these challenges! This chapter addresses Mac
printer setup (on both the client and server) and presents solutions for common setup and
deployment scenarios. The Chapter is split into two sections:
•
1st Section: Organizations hosting their print queues on a Mac (e.g. Mac OS X Server)
•
2nd Section: Organizations hosting their print queues on Windows Servers but supporting Mac clients
In most cases only one section will apply on your network. Jump to the relevant section as
appropriate.
21.1. Mac hosted print queues
This section discusses printer setup on systems where the print queues are hosted on a
Mac system. For example, Print-Limit Pro is installed on a Mac system such as Mac OS X
Server. See the next section if your print queues are hosted on a Windows server.
This section assumes Mac OS X Server (e.g. Leopard Server), however Print-Limit Pro
also supports running on the workstation version of Mac OS X. These notes apply in part to
both operating systems. The term 'server' is used to represent the system hosting the
Print-Limit Pro software, and not necessarily the edition of Mac OS X.
Before we delve into configuring server based print queues in a Mac environment, we'll first
take a few moments to discuss common terminology:
Note
Print Queue: There are typically two ways of providing shared multi-system
access to a printer:
1.
Configure each system to print directly to the device. The device needs to
be networkable (e.g. have an Ethernet connection) and support multiple
connections.
2.
Configure a shared print queue. In this setup, only one system connects
directly to the device (e.g. a server) and in turn the device is shared on the
network via a print queue. Other systems on the network print to the
shared queue rather than directly to the device.
Option 2 is regarded as a better solution on multi-user networks as it provides
a higher level of scalability, allows for centralized administration, and allows
administrators to move or remap devices without needing to propagate
changes to workstations. Print-Limit Pro requires a shared print queue as it
works by intercepting the jobs as they pass through the server's queue.
CUPS: CUPS is the print queue system used by Mac. This is the same queue
system used by many other UNIX based platforms including popular Linux distributions. Apple is a major supporter of CUPS.
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Mac Printing in Detail
IP Printing: This is a generic term used to describe a number of print protocols that are used to exchange print documents between a computer, a server
queue, or a physical printer. (Note: This term is also occasionally used incorrectly to describe the "JetDirect" print protocol discussed below)
IPP: This is an acronym for Internet Printing Protocol. This is the "native" print
protocol used by CUPS and hence the Mac. It's a modern protocol designed to
work well on modern networks including local networks, or even over the internet or a WAN.
LPR: LPR/LPD is the traditional UNIX based print protocol.
JetDirect/Socket: This is a very simple print protocol used to transmit print
jobs to a physical printer on a TCP network. The printer simply accepts connections on port 9100. In Windows, this print protocol is often referred to as a
Standard TCP/IP Port, and in some cases generally as IP Printing. Almost all network printers support this method.
Bonjour Printing: This is not a print protocol, but instead is a way of publishing printers on a network so workstations can locate the device/queue.
Where possible we have designed Print-Limit Pro to work with all print protocols, however
we do recommend some over others. The following setup procedure highlights methods
that have shown to work in most environments.
The Print-Limit Pro compatible setup procedure can be summarized as follows:
1.
Step 1: Install the printers on the server using a compatible driver
2.
Step 2: Enable Printer Sharing
3.
Step 3: Set up the printers on the workstations to point to the server's shared queue
Each one of these steps is discussed in detail below:
21.1.1. Step 1: Installing the printers on the server
Install the printer on the system running Print-Limit Pro using a compatible driver. For example, a driver supplied by Apple or the manufacturer. If there is a choice of driver, opt for
a Postscript or PPD based driver. Follow the manufacturer's suggested setup procedure, or
Apple's recommended Queue setup procedure (Apple Print Services Administration Guide)
if running on 10.5 Server. If the manufacturer supports various connection methods, we recommend using JetDirect/Socket if possible. Here is an example of a procedure that will
set up a standard printer using a plain JetDirect/Socket connection on all Mac versions
(server/workstation 10.4/10.5):
1.
From the Apple Menu select System Preferences...
2.
Select Print & Fax
3.
Click on the + button to add a new printer
4.
Click on the IP icon on the toolbar
5.
Select HP Jetdirect - Socket in the Protocol list
6.
Enter the printer's assigned IP address
7.
For convenience, give the printer a simple name without spaces
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Mac Printing in Detail
8.
Select the driver or printer model from the list and press Add
Figure 21.1. Setting up a printer (direct) on Leopard server using Jetdirect
Test printing using a local application (e.g. Print a web page from Safari). Confirm that
printing works as expected.
Important
For new printers it is necessary to configure Print-Limit Pro to monitor the new
printer. This is discussed in Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
Important
Continue to the next step only after printing from the server is working. If you
have problems, see the troubleshooting section below.
21.1.1.1. Optional Hardware Configuration
Some high-end printer models support other connection methods such as LPR, IPP or
even direct AppleShare or Boujour printing. If the printer offers the option to disable these
protocols, e.g. via a web based configuration page, take the time to turn these off. This will
minimize the chance of incorrect future configuration, and minimize the chance of a work279
Mac Printing in Detail
station user discovering the printer directly. Some printers also support access control via
IP addresses. If available, consider setting access control so only the server IP can submit
print jobs to the physical printer.
21.1.1.2. Notes & Troubleshooting
•
If your printer does not support JetDirect/Socket, consider using LPR as the 2nd choice.
•
Some printers support proprietary connection methods (e.g. selected Epson printers).
Always try Jetdirect/Socket first and use proprietary methods as a last resort.
•
If you're not able to install or find a driver for your printer, try the Generic Postscript
Driver/Printer.
21.1.2. Step 2: Enable Printer Sharing
By default locally installed printers are not shared as public print queues. Printer sharing
needs to be manually enabled. If you're running the workstation version of Mac OS X, this
is done by enabling "Printer Sharing" under System Preferences. On Mac OS X Server,
use the following procedure:
1.
Open Server Admin, and select your server.
2.
Select Settings, then Services and enable the Print service.
3.
Save the change.
4.
In the server list on the left, select your server, expand, and highlight the newly created Print service.
5.
Select Queues from the toolbar. Your newly installed printers should be listed.
6.
Select each printer and ensure that at least the IPP protocol is selected. It may also be
useful to enable LPR and expose via Bonjour.
7.
Ensure "Enforce Quotas for this queue" is turned off as Print-Limit Pro manages this.
8.
Click the Save button or save when prompted.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.2. Enable IPP on each queue via Server Admin
9.
Restart the Print Service by pressing Stop Print followed by the Start Print. Note: In
some cases we've seen issues where server admin changes have not been immediately picked up. If you suspect this, and can afford the downtime, schedule a system
restart now.
21.1.3. Step 3: Set up the printers on the workstations (pointing to the shared
server queues)
Once the printers are set up on the server and shared, the next step is to install the printers
on the workstations. In the Windows world this is an easy process - the user just doubleclicks on the print queue and the drivers are automatically deployed and configured. The
process is a little more manual on the Mac, but we'll also discuss a method of automating
deployment via the Workgroup Manager. First, we'll address manual setup.
The goal is to add the printer on the workstation so it communicates with the server (its
queues) rather than directly to the printer. Protocols include, IPP, LPD, or LPD added via
Bonjour. The recommended setup is to use IPP as this is the native protocol.
21.1.3.1. Recommended Manual Setup
1.
Log onto a workstation
2.
Open the Printer Setup Utility or if on Leopard System Preferences → Print & Fax
3.
Click the add new printer button (or +).
4.
Select IP as the type and select IPP as the Protocol.
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Mac Printing in Detail
5.
Enter your server name (or the server's IP Address) in the Address field.
6.
Enter the the printer's Queue Name prefixed with printers/ in the Queue field. For
example: printers/my_office_printer. Note: if you have selected LPR as the
connection method, the printers/ prefix will not be required (see the following section).
The queue name of the printer will have been set when the queue was first created on
the server, and may be different to the printer name. On Mac OS 10.5, the queue
name can be found at: System Preferences → Print & Fax → [select printer] → Options & Supplies → General → Queue Name. On Mac OS 10.4, the queue name can
be found at: System Preferences → Print & Fax → [select printer] → Printer
Setup... → Name & Location → Queue Name.
7.
Select the appropriate printer model. If this is not listed, you may need to install the
manufacturer's driver, then repeat steps 2 through 6.
8.
Take some time to print from the workstation and confirm that printing succeeds.
Figure 21.3. Setting up a workstation printer on Leopard
If you have problems obtaining a driver for your printer, try the Generic Postscript Driver.
This option will work with most printers. If after a test print the printer stops with a connection error, check the printer sharing permissions on the server or try the alternate method
discussed below.
21.1.3.2. Alternate Manual Setup (LPD/LPR)
1.
Log onto a workstation
2.
Open the Printer Setup Utility or if on Leopard System Preferences → Print & Fax
3.
Click the add new printer button (or +).
4.
Select IP as the type and select LPD as the Protocol.
5.
Enter your server name (or the server's IP Address) in the Address field.
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Mac Printing in Detail
6.
Enter the the printer's Queue Name in the Queue field.
The queue name of the printer will have been set when the queue was first created on
the server, and may be different to the printer name. On Mac OS 10.5, the queue
name can be found at: System Preferences → Print & Fax → [select printer] → Options & Supplies → General → Queue Name. On Mac OS 10.4, the queue name can
be found at: System Preferences → Print & Fax → [select printer] → Printer
Setup... → Name & Location → Queue Name.
7.
Select the appropriate printer model. If this is not listed, you may need to install the
manufacturer's driver, then repeat steps 2 through 6.
8.
Take some time to print from the workstation and confirm that printing succeeds.
21.1.4. Publishing the printer via Workgroup Manager
Manually installing the printer on each desktop on a large network may be tedious. Large
networks using Open Directory may benefit from automating the process using Workgroup
Manager. The key to successfully deploying/publishing printers via the Workgroup Manager is to publish the configuration from a working workstation rather than the server itself.
This is counter intuitive as normally administration is conducted by running Workgroup
Manager on the server itself. This however would publish the server's printer configuration
(the server is configured to print direct to the device and not to the queue hence this is why
it's not appropriate to publish its configuration). Instead we need to install the Workgroup
Manager software on a configured workstation/client and publish its known configuration.
Use the following procedure:
1.
Select one workstation on your network. Follow the manual setup procedure as discussed above.
2.
Test and confirm this workstation is configured and printing correctly. Also choose other settings as appropriate such as tray, duplex and other defaults.
3.
Install the Workgroup Manager on this client workstation (found on the Mac OS X
Server install disk).
4.
Open the Workgroup Manager, connect to your directory and select an appropriate
user group or computer group used to manage client settings.
5.
Enter the Settings/Preferences area and select Printing.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.4. Printing settings via the Workgroup manager
6.
Select Manage Always and add printer(s) set up in step 1.
Figure 21.5. Add printer appropriate to the container (users, group, or computer)
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Mac Printing in Detail
7.
Save settings and exit (e.g. click Done).
8.
Log onto another workstation and confirm that printer settings are being published as
expected.
Tip
•
Only publish the printer configuration after it's been tested.
•
If you have problems with the manufacturer supplied driver, try the "Generic
Postscript Printer"
•
Always publish the printer config from a tested client workstation and never
from server itself.
21.1.5. Unauthenticated systems (e.g. Laptops)
The print queues in current Mac OS X server releases (both Tiger 10.4 and Leopard 10.5),
are unfortunately unauthenticated (editor's note: CUPS supports authentication, however
Apple have decided not to expose/support this feature). Authentication in an Open Directory environment is instead performed at the time of system login. Unauthenticated systems
such as laptops however fall outside this check. The introduction of unauthenticated systems on your network mandates the need for an extra layer of authentication. Print-Limit
Pro offers two options:
1.
Popup authentication via the client software, or
2.
authentication via a release station or the web based release interface (end-user login
-> Jobs pending release).
Network administrators must decide if the authentication policy/procedure is to be applied
to all network systems, or just "untrusted" laptops.
21.1.5.1. Network-wide policy
This is the simplest solution and provides a consistent procedure/policy across all your
users irrespective of their access method (workstation or their own laptop). Select your authentication method such as popup authentication or hold/release queue and enable this
option on ALL print queues. The setup procedure for both methods is summarized as follows:
Using Popup Authentication:
1.
Select the Unauthenticated printer option on all printers
2.
Ensure that all workstations have the client software installed. This includes both authenticated lab systems and laptops. The client must be running to have printer access.
3.
Instruct users that they will need to enter their username/password in the client when
requested.
Using Hold/Release Queue Authentication:
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Mac Printing in Detail
1.
Check the Enable the hold/release queue option on all print queues. Jobs will not
print until a user has authenticated and released the job.
2.
Set up release stations, or ensure the Jobs pending release option is enabled in the
end-user web interface.
3.
Instruct users on how to release their jobs. This procedure must be followed by all
users.
21.1.5.2. Laptop Only Policy (Advanced)
One problem with the network-wide policy discussed above is that it the authentication
method (e.g. client popup or hold/release queue) also applies to authenticated systems. In
some ways this is a positive (i.e. provides a consistent policy), while in other ways it can be
viewed as an unnecessary on trusted authenticated systems. This section discusses a
solution appropriate for larger sites.
The solution is to set up two servers. One server hosts a set of queues for authenticated
systems, while the other server provides queues for unauthenticated systems. Network
router or firewall rules are used to ensure that only authenticated systems have access to
the authenticated queues. Laptops systems must use the other queues. This is best done
with partitioned IP address ranges and/or subnets. An experienced network administrator
will be able to assist with restricted server access by IP address.
21.1.5.3. Future Plans
The Laptop Only Policy is best described as a "hack" and is only suitable for larger sites
with good network administrators. In the current release this is a supported solution. The
developers do however have some ideas to streamline the setup. These include:
•
An ability to "endorse" the authenticated systems so the username is trusted by default.
For example, a special file can be copied to these systems (readable only by the root
user).
•
An IP address range filter restricting systems that can use a given priter.
If you are using this method please take the time to write to the developer team to share
your thoughts and ideas.
21.2. Windows hosted print queues
Print-Limit Pro is a multi-user application designed to integrate with an authenticated network. The Macintosh system has a long history. It's grown up from a single-user desktop
heritage and is now based on a full multi-user Unix kernel. However, some "singleuser-isms" remain, and these can pose challenges for Administrators. One area in particular is remote printer configuration and credential management.
Figure 21.6. Print-Limit Client on Mac OS X
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Mac Printing in Detail
When a network printer, for example a shared Windows printer, is added to a Macintosh
system, the Printer Setup Utility requests printer access credentials in the form of username and password. Any user that prints to this printer uses these supplied credentials.
This means that on the print server, all jobs originating from this Mac system list with supplied username irrespective of who's actually using the Mac.
This chapter discussed some of the multi-user challenges and their solutions.
Macs can be set up to work with Print-Limit Pro in a number of configurations or scenarios.
There is no "one best" set up. The ideal solutions will vary from network to network and will
depend on factors like:
•
Your existing network configuration.
•
The mix and makeup of operating systems used on the network.
•
The underlying directory technologies (Active Directory, LDAP, etc.) if used.
•
Whether Macs are used by a single owner or multiple users.
The following sections outline common set up scenarios and their pros and cons. Your
solution may fit one of these scenarios or may be composed of a combination.
21.2.1. Scenario One: My Own Mac (Single User)
Many networks, particularly those in a business environment, have a dedicated desktop
system for each user. This allows the desktop system's global settings to be customized for
the user. Common examples include:
•
Dedicated computers used in a business
•
Staff laptops or desktops used in education
21.2.1.1. Requirements
•
Printers hosted and shared from a Windows or Linux server.
•
Mac systems used by a single user (or small group of known users).
•
Each user has a domain account and password.
•
The username associated with the account on the Mac matches the domain username
(either the account used to login, or the account set up as the automatic log in account).
•
Running Mac OS X 10.3 or higher.
21.2.1.2. Installation
Check the user account information:
1.
Start up the Mac and ensure the system is connected to the network.
2.
From the Apple Menu select System Preferences...
3.
Select Accounts
4.
Click MyAccount.
5.
Ensure that the Short name associated with the account matches the user's domain
account username. If not, create a new working account as appropriate.
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Set up the printers that the user requires access to:
1.
Open the Printer Setup Utility from Applications -> Utilities.
2.
Click the Add/+ button to add a new printer.
Figure 21.7. Add a printer
3.
Tiger: Option-Click More Printers.... (Important: Hold the Option key down) Select Advanced from the top drop-down list.
Figure 21.8. Option-click for advanced printer addition types
Leopard: Control-Click on the Toolbar and select Customize Toolbar.... Drag the Advanced icon to the bar. Click the newly added Advanced button.
4.
Select a Windows device type (called Windows Printing via Samba on Tiger).
5.
In Name field, enter a friendly and informative printer name.
6.
Enter a Device URL in the form:
smb://username:[email protected]_name/printer_name
Where username and password are the user's domain account login details. server_name is the name of the server hosting the printer, and printer_name is the
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Mac Printing in Detail
printer's share name. On recent fully patched versions of Leopard 10.5, the username:[email protected] component can be skipped as the OS will instead prompt for the
username and password on first print.
Figure 21.9. Windows printer via SAMBA
7.
Select the Print Model to install and configure drivers.
8.
Click the Add button.
9.
Test print and ensure jobs are logged in Print-Limit Pro under the user's network identity.
To install the Print-Limit Pro client software:
1.
Open the Finder and select Go -> Connect to Server....
Figure 21.10. Connecting to a Windows server
2.
Enter smb://servername/pcclient where servername is the name of the server
hosting Print-Limit Pro.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.11. The PCClient share's connection string
3.
Drag the PCClient application across to the local Applications directory.
4.
Open System Preferences... from the Apple menu.
5.
Select Accounts.
6.
Click the Login items tab.
7.
Click the + button and select the newly installed PCClient application.
Figure 21.12. Add PCClient as a Login Item
8.
Restart the system and ensure the client starts upon login.
21.2.2. Scenario Two: The Multi-User Mac with Popup Authentication
Schools and universities often have Macs available for student use in dedicated computer
labs. In these environments the Macs are shared by many users and Scenario One is not
appropriate. Larger Mac networks already using LDAP or Active Directory authentication,
or planning on doing so, may wish to consider Scenario Three explained in the next section.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.13. Mac popup authentication dialog requesting username and password
Scenario Two uses a popup authentication model. This is discussed in detail in Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication” and discussed further below:
The end-user's perspective:
1.
The user sees the client tool (PCClient) running.
2.
When the user prints a job, the client pops up a window requesting the user to enter a
username and password. See Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication”.
3.
The user enters a domain username and password.
4.
If the credentials are valid, the job is charged to the user account.
The explanation:
1.
The print event is performed as a generic user - for example "macuser", "student",
etc.
2.
In Print-Limit Pro, the "macuser" account is set up to use popup authentication by enabling the option Unauthenticated user. See Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication” for
further details.
3.
The popup requests the user to enter a username and password.
4.
The password is authenticated and printing is charged against the supplied account.
21.2.2.1. Requirements
•
Printers hosted and shared off a Windows, Mac or Linux server.
•
Mac systems set up to login under a generic account name. (e.g. macuser, student,
etc.)
•
The domain contains a user account matching the generic account.
21.2.2.2. Installation
Domain account set up:
1.
Log onto the print server or the domain controller.
2.
Open Active Directory Users and Computers (or equivalent user management tool)
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Mac Printing in Detail
from Start -> Administrative Tools.
3.
Add a new domain user called macuser.
4.
Define a password for macuser and set the password to never expire.
Mac account set up:
1.
Start up the Mac and ensure the system is connected to the network.
2.
From the Apple menu select System Preferences...
3.
Select Accounts.
4.
Create an account called macuser. Ensure the account's short name is macuser.
5.
Set this account as the automatic login account, or alternatively make the password
known to all users.
Set up the printers that the user requires access to:
1.
Open the Printer Setup Utility from Applications -> Utilities.
2.
Click the Add button to add a new printer.
Figure 21.14. Add a printer
3.
Option-Click More Printers... (Important: Hold the Option key down).
4.
Tiger 10.4: Option-Click More Printers.... (Important: Hold the Option key down) Select Advanced from the top drop-down list.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.15. Option-click for advanced printer addition types
Leopard 10.5: Control-Click on the Toolbar and select Customize Toolbar.... Drag the
Advanced icon to the bar. Click the newly added Advanced button.
5.
Select a Windows device type (called Windows Printing via Samba on Tiger).
6.
In Name field, enter a friendly and informative printer name.
7.
Enter a Device URL in the form:
smb://macuser:[email protected]_name/printer_name
Where password is the password for the macuser domain account, server_name
is the name of the server hosting the printer, and printer_name is the printer's share
name. On recent fully patched versions of Leopard 10.5, the username:[email protected]
component can be skipped as the OS will instead prompt the user for their username
and password on first print.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.16. Windows printer via SAMBA
8.
Select the Print Model to install and configure drivers.
9.
Click the Add button.
10. Test print and ensure jobs are listing in the print queue under the macuser identity.
To install the Print-Limit Pro client software:
1.
Start and Log into the Mac computer. Ensure it's connected to the network.
2.
Open the Finder.
3.
From the Go menu, select Connect to Server...
Figure 21.17. Connecting to a Windows server
4.
Enter the pcclient share's connection details like:
smb://server_name/pcclient
Where server_name is the name of the server hosting the Print-Limit Pro server software.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.18. The PCClient share's connection string
5.
Enter password information if requested.
6.
Drag the PCClient package over to the local hard disk's global Applications folder.
The copy process will commence.
Figure 21.19. Command-click and open the package
7.
Command-click on the newly copied PCClient application in the Applications directory. Select Open Package Contents.
8.
Browser to Contents/Resources/.
9.
Double-click on the install-login-hook.command script.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.20. Double-click to install the login hook
10. Restart the system and verify the client starts on login.
Configure the popup settings:
1.
Log on to Print-Limit Pro's administration interface as built-in admin user.
2.
Select the macuser account from Users.
3.
On the macuser's details screen, set the account balance to zero.
4.
Ensure the user is set to Restricted.
5.
Check the Unauthenticated option and save the changes.
Figure 21.21. Turning on popup authentication at the user level
6.
Click the Apply button to save the changes.
Testing:
1.
Log on to a Mac. Verify that the PCClient program starts automatically.
2.
Print to the newly set up printer. On the server's print queue the job appears under the
user identity of macuser.
3.
The popup should display on the Mac. Enter a valid domain username and password.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.22. Print-Limit Pro client requesting for authentication (Sorry: Windows screen-shot!)
4.
The corresponding user should be charged for the job.
21.2.3. Scenario Three: Multi-user Macs using LDAP or Active Directory authentication
Larger networks often run the Macs in a domain environment either authenticating with an
Active Directory or an LDAP network. In an authenticated domain environment, the identity
of the user (the user's username) is known and verified at the time of login. With the help of
the TCP/IP Printing Services for Microsoft Windows, and the LPR/LPD support on the Mac,
print jobs can be identified on the server and associated with the user's login name. This
avoids the need for the popup authentication used in Scenario Two.
21.2.3.1. Requirements
•
Macs set up in multi-user mode authenticating off a domain. Either Active Directory or
LDAP.
•
Printers hosted on a Windows print server.
•
The server needs the TCP Printing Services installed (also known as Print Services for
Unix).
21.2.3.2. Installation
On the server hosting the printers, setup TCP/IP Printing:
1.
Log into the server as a system administrator.
2.
Select Control Panel → Add Remove Programs.
3.
Click on Add/Remove Windows Components.
4.
Select Other Network File and Print Services
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.23. Windows Component: Other Network File and Print Service
5.
Click Details... and ensure Print Services for Unix is selected.
6.
Click Next to complete the installation.
Tip
Some systems running firewall software may block LPD printing. On systems
running firewall software, ensure that incoming connections from the local network are allowed on port 515.
On each Mac, add the required printers:
1.
Open the Printer Setup Utility from Applications -> Utilities.
2.
Click the Add button to add a new printer.
Figure 21.24. Add a printer
3.
Click the IP Printing button at the top toolbar.
4.
From the Protocol dropdown, select Line Printer Daemon - LPD.
5.
Enter the IP address of the server hosting the printers in the Address field.
6.
Enter the printer's share name in the Queue field.
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Mac Printing in Detail
Figure 21.25. Adding an LPR/LPD printer
7.
Define a user friendly name in the Name field and select the printer type.
8.
Click the Add button.
9.
Repeat for other printers as necessary.
To install the Print-Limit Pro client software:
1.
Open the Finder.
2.
From the Go menu, select Connect to Server...
Figure 21.26. Connecting to a Windows server
3.
Enter the pcclient share's connection details like:
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Mac Printing in Detail
smb://server_name/pcclient
Where server_name is the name of the server hosting the Print-Limit Pro server software.
Figure 21.27. The PCClient share's connection string
4.
Enter password information if requested.
5.
Drag the PCClient package over to the local hard disk's global Applications folder.
The copy process will commence.
6.
Control-click on the newly copied PCClient application in the Applications directory.
Select Show Package Contents.
7.
Browse to Contents/Resources/.
8.
Double-click on the install-login-hook.command script.
Figure 21.28. Double-click to install the login hook
9.
Restart the system and verify the client starts on login.
Testing:
1.
Restart the system and ensure the client starts on login and lists the user's account
balance.
2.
Ensure print jobs correctly account under the user's Print-Limit Pro account.
21.2.4. Scenario Four: Mac OS X Server
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If the printers used by Mac clients are hosted/shared from a Mac server system (or Mac
workstation system acting as a server), then the preferred solution is to install Print-Limit
Pro's Mac server software. The Mac server may either be set up as the primary server or
as a secondary server reporting back to an existing primary server.
The Macintosh server support and initial setup is documented in Section 2.2, “Installation
on Apple Mac”.
21.2.5. Additional information and tips
The client install process is also covered in Section 5.2, “User Client”. After the first Mac is
set up and the printing process is tested, the simplified client install notes covered in Section 5.2.1.2, “Deployment on Mac OS X” may be appropriate to provider to end-users or
other system administrators.
The Mac client makes use of Java. Users running Mac OS X 10.4 are advised to install
Java 5.0. Java 5.0 is installed by default on Mac OS X 10.4.5 and higher. Java 5.0 for earlier Mac OS versions is available as a dmg from the Apple website. Java 5.0 contains new
features that allow the client to display popups in an always-on-top mode above all other
application windows.
Mac client can accept command line options as explained at Table A.2, “User Client command-line options”. If the client is started via the login hook, the command-line options can
be defined in the file:
/Applications/PCClient.app/Contents/Resources/login-hook-start
Look for the line starting with client_args and the associated comments above.
301
Chapter 22. Running in a Workgroup
Environment
A workgroup environment differs from a network domain model. In the domain model,
users authenticate using a common username/password as defined in a central server.
Users can typically access and use any PC on the network by using their username and
password. In a workgroup, the PC's are loosely coupled and user identity is validated locally rather than centrally. The PC's are either set up to automatically log in as a general
"user", or user accounts are set up on the PC's as required.
For systems running Windows XP Home, 'simple file sharing' cannot be disabled, forcing
client machines to try to authenticate as the Guest user. For this reason, we do not recommend the use of Windows XP Home in multi-user environments.
Users may still authenticate with Print-Limit Pro on Windows XP Home by entering their
details into the User Client utility. This is similar to how user authentication is performed
with Mac clients. For more information see Section 22.2, “Option 2: Authenticating via
popup”.
Print-Limit Pro offers a number of options for running and authenticating users in a workgroup. The two common options are:
22.1. Option 1: Common username and passwords on all systems
This option is suitable for networks running Windows 2000 or Windows XP Pro.
1.
Nominate a system to host the printers and the Print-Limit Pro server software.
2.
Set up the printers and share with appropriate names.
3.
Windows XP only: Turn off simple file sharing by opening Windows Explorer, select
Tools → Folder Options..., and un-ticking the appropriate option on the View tab.
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Running in a Workgroup Environment
Figure 22.1. Turn off simple file sharing
4.
On the nominated host system, ensure that the Guest account is disabled. To do this
on a system running Windows XP:
a.
Open the Local Users screen: Start → Control Panel → Administrative
Tools → Computer Management → Local Users and Groups → Users
b.
Right-click on the Guest user and select Properties.
c.
On the General tab, check Account is disabled.
d. Press the OK button.
This should also be performed for any system running a release station.
5.
On the nominated host system, set up user accounts for all users. This can be done
via under User Accounts in the Windows Control Panel.
6.
Set permission on the printer so only these users can access the printer shares (i.e.
don't allow guest).
7.
Install the Print-Limit Pro server software and complete the configuration wizard.
8.
Instruct each user to log onto their workstation using an account with the same username and password as set up for them on the nominated host system. This will ensure that their jobs list in the queue under their username.
22.2. Option 2: Authenticating via popup
Option 1 may not be appropriate for some environments. For example, Windows XP Home
edition has a limitation that ensures that all users list as "guest" when printing to a remote
printer. This limitation can be worked around with popup authentication.
1.
Nominate a system to host the printers and the Print-Limit Pro server software.
2.
Windows XP only: Turn off simple file sharing by opening Windows Explorer, select
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Running in a Workgroup Environment
Tools → Folder Options..., and un-ticking the appropriate option on the View tab.
Figure 22.2. Turn off simple file sharing
3.
On the nominated host system, ensure that the Guest account is disabled. To do this
on a system running Windows XP:
a.
Open the Local Users screen: Start → Control Panel → Administrative
Tools → Computer Management → Local Users and Groups → Users
b.
Right-click on the Guest user and select Properties.
c.
On the General tab, check Account is disabled.
d. Press the OK button.
This should also be performed for any system running a release station.
4.
On the nominated system, set up user accounts for all users.
5.
Install the Print-Limit Pro server software and complete the configuration wizard.
6.
Print from another workstation. The job should list in Print-Limit Pro under the user
"guest".
7.
In the Print-Limit Pro admin interface, enable the account selection popup and turn
off the Allow user to charge to their personal account option and enable the Allow
user to perform printing as another user.
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Running in a Workgroup Environment
Figure 22.3. Enable perform printing as other user
8.
Install the client software on each workstation. See Section 5.2, “User Client”.
9.
When the user prints to the shared printer, a popup will now ask users to enter their
username and password.
305
Chapter 23. Managing Guests and
Internal Users
Print-Limit Pro is designed to keep user management simple and automated by synchronizing against an external user directory source such as Active Directory, Open Directory,
eDirectory or LDAP. This simplifies administration of the system by avoiding the need to
manage a separate database of users, passwords, user details and groups. Synchronizing
against a user directory is the recommended way to manage user accounts, and ensures:
•
The tool is right for the job. User directories are specifically designed for managing
users, and can provide a wide range of useful features. It also allows for "single signon", allowing users to log in with the same username and password across many different applications.
•
Scalability and centralization of user management. Many applications may access the
same user directory, so the effort to set up users only needs to be performed once,
rather than once for each application.
•
Application vendor neutrality. Switching to a different application is possible, because
the users are not 'locked in' to any particular application.
The first option should always be to manage users in a user directory, but there are some
situations where this is not possible or not ideal, for example:
•
When a guest visits the organization they may require access to network resources, but
it requires too much effort to create them an account in the user directory. (They may
receive a temporary / generic login instead.)
•
Some parts of the organization want to manage their own set of users that cannot or
should not be created in the main user directory. For example a university may run a
short course where the students only require limited or sporadic access to network resources. They will not have accounts in the user directory, but still require the ability to
print.
•
The organization does not have enough users to warrant a user directory / domain (i.e.
a workgroup or peer-to-peer environment is in place).
For these situations, Print-Limit Pro provides the internal users feature. The following section discusses how to get started with the internal users feature, and how to configure it to
suit your environment. Internal users are best thought of as user accounts that only exist
inside Print-Limit Pro and are independent of the domain, network or operating system.
23.1. Internal Users (users managed by Print-Limit Pro)
The internal users feature allows management of users inside Print-Limit Pro, removing the
need to create or manage them in an external user directory. There are several ways the
feature can be utilized:
•
Selected staff can be given access to create internal user accounts. This gives staff
control over who can receive a new account, preventing the creation of unwanted accounts (e.g. with offensive usernames).
•
Users can be given the ability to create their own internal accounts via a web based registration form. This can be useful for providing guests the ability to register their own
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
accounts and begin printing immediately, removing the need for staff intervention.
•
Administrators can create a new batch of internal users via a text based file import. This
can be used to import or update a set of users that are managed separately to the regular domain users. For more information about the internal users batch import and update feature, see Section 23.1.3, “Batch Internal User Import and Update”.
The following sections present several different environments and how the internal users
feature can be used to accommodate them. For information about specific configuration,
Section 23.1.2, “Internal Users Options” provides full details about each available option.
23.1.1. Implementation by Example
23.1.1.1. Scenario One: Manually Managed Guest Accounts
North Shore University has a campus that occasionally hosts students from other universities. These guest students do not have a login in the universities domain, and it is considered too much effort to go through "official channels" to create one for them.
The administrator would like to provide selected staff the ability to create Print-Limit Pro accounts for these guest students as needed. To go about this, the administrator performs
the following:
1.
The guest students are first provided with access to computers or network resources
using the generic login guest, password guest.
2.
The generic guest login is marked as Unauthenticated using the Print-Limit Pro administration interface. This option is available on the user's details page.
3.
Navigates to Options → User/Group Sync → Internal User Options.
4.
Checks the Enable internal users option, and under Access control selects Only
admins can create users.
5.
The Confirmation message is tailored to provide relevant information such as how to
log in.
6.
Presses Apply.
7.
Print-Limit Pro administrator access is assigned to the staff who will be responsible for
creating the new student guest accounts. The administrator right Create internal
users is required for this purpose. For more information about assigning administrator
rights see Section 12.3, “Assigning Administrator Level Access”.
8.
Ensures that the Print-Limit Pro client software is running on workstations where guest
printing will be allowed.
The system is now configured to allow selected staff the ability to create internal accounts
for the guest students. When a guest student prints from the generic guest login, the
Print-Limit Pro client tool will display the authentication popup. This will allow them to enter
their personal username and password, assigned by the administrator when registering
their internal user account.
Staff can create an internal user account for a guest student as follows:
1.
Log into the Print-Limit Pro administration interface, and select the Create internal
user... action from the Actions menu of the Users tab.
2.
Complete the from and press Register.
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
23.1.1.2. Scenario Two: Automated Guest Management (self-registration)
West Face College is a large community college that regularly has members of the public
visiting to use the library resources.
It is not feasible to create a domain login for every visitor, and manually creating an internal
user account for each guest would require too much time of the administrators or staff, so
the decision is made to automate the process and allow guests to register their own internal user accounts.
To set up the internal users feature and allow guest self-registration, the administrator performs the following:
1.
The guests are first provided with access to computers or network resources using the
generic login guest, password guest.
2.
The generic guest login is marked as Unauthenticated using the Print-Limit Pro administration interface. This option is available on the user's details page.
3.
Navigates to Options → User/Group Sync → Internal User Options.
4.
Checks the Enable internal users option, and under Access control selects Users
can register their own account.
5.
Checks Display registration links on login screens so that users will have easy access to the registration interface.
6.
Changes the Link text to Guests click here to register, to provide a better
clue for guests.
7.
Adds more information about the organization's printing policy, how to access printing
resources, etc. under Additional registration instructions. A note is also added to
specify that only guests need to register to access printing resources - students or
users with existing accounts do not need to register.
8.
Presses Apply.
9.
Ensure that the Print-Limit Pro client software is running on workstations where guest
printing will be allowed.
10. Creates an information sheet for guests, providing instructions about how to register,
how to print, and where to find additional help. Most people will not need this kind of
information to work out how to use the system for themselves, but some people appreciate step-by-step instructions.
The system is now configured to allow guests to register their own internal user accounts.
When a guest user prints from the generic guest login, the Print-Limit Pro client tool will
display the authentication popup. This will allow them to enter their personal username and
password, chosen when registering their internal user account.
For a guest to create an internal user account, they must:
1.
Click the Register as a New User link on a login screen (the web interface login
screen, or on the authentication popup), or access the registration web interface directly at http://[server-name]:9191/register.
2.
Complete the from and press Register.
23.1.1.3. Scenario Three: Managing Users in a Non-Domain Environment
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
Southmark Inc. is a medium sized ten person real estate office service the local area. Their
network consists of a mix of Windows XP and Windows Vista workstations connected to a
workgroup based network. No user directory / domain exists, and setting one up is not a
current priority. They would like to take control of their printing costs and volumes, and use
Print-Limit Pro to identify the amount of printing performed by each staff member.
Because no user directory exists, Print-Limit Pro will be used to maintain user accounts,
details and passwords for all staff. To set this up, the administrator performs the following:
1.
Navigates to Options → User/Group Sync → Internal User Options in the Print-Limit Pro administration interface.
2.
Ensures that the Enable internal users option is enabled.
3.
Removes (sets to blank) the value for Prefix usernames with:. There is no need for
an internal username prefix, because all users will be internal!
4.
Collects a chosen username and password from each staff member. This is used to
construct a batch import file, using the format specified in Section 23.1.3.1, “Batch Internal User Import File Format”.
5.
Imports the batch file into Print-Limit Pro using server-command to create a new internal user account for each staff member, following the directions in Section 23.1.3,
“Batch Internal User Import and Update”.
6.
Follows the directions in Section 5.2.1, “User Client Deployment” to deploy the client
software to each workstation in the office.
7.
When staff send print jobs from their workstations, they arrive at the print server under
the generic guest username. The administrator marks this generic account as Unauthenticated using the Print-Limit Pro administration interface. This option is available
on the user's details page.
The batch of internal user accounts has now been imported, ready for the staff to use
them. When a staff member next sends a print job, the Print-Limit Pro client tool will display
the authentication popup. This will allow them to enter their personal username and password, provided to them on arrival, having been assigned by the administrator in the batch
import file.
23.1.2. Internal Users Options
The options for configuring internal users are located at Options → User/Group Sync →
Internal User Options in the administration interface.
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
Figure 23.1. Internal users options
The available options are:
•
Enable internal users - enables or disables the feature in general. If the feature is disabled, internal users will not be able to be created.
•
Access control - determines who may create internal users. The available options are:
•
Users can register their own account - A web based interface will be available for
users to register their own account. This allows users to register their own accounts
without intervention from staff or administrators.
•
Only admins can create users - Only administrators will be able to create users
via the Print-Limit Pro administration interface. For information about delegating this
access to additional users see Section 12.3, “Assigning Administrator Level
Access”.
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
Figure 23.2. Creating an internal user from the administration interface
•
Display registration links on login screens - When enabled, Print-Limit Pro login
screens will display a Register as a New User link. Clicking this link takes the user to
the web based registration interface, allowing the user to create their own internal user
account. If disabled, registration links will not appear, and users may only access the
web based registration interface by navigating to the URL at http://[server-name]/register.
•
Link text - The text used for registration links on login screens. The default link text is
Register as a New User. An example of alternate link text might be Guests
click here to register.
•
Additional registration instructions - This option allows providing additional instructions to users when registering, and are displayed above the web based registration
form. Specific instructions will vary from site to site, but could include information such
as how to log in and print, how to add credit to their account, or where to find additional
help.
•
User must enter an email address - Enable this option to require that the user enters
an email address. If disabled, entering an email address is optional.
•
Allow user to choose their own identity number - If enabled, the user will be able to
enter/choose their own identity number. The chosen identity number must be at least 6
digits, and must be unique. If disabled, a unique identity number will be automatically
generated for the user. Identity numbers may be used for logging into some devices
where only a numeric keypad is available.
•
Allow user to choose their own ID PIN - If enabled, the user will be able to enter/
choose their own ID PIN. The chosen PIN must be at least 4 digits. If disabled, a random PIN will be automatically generated for the user.
•
Prefix usernames with: (optional) - This prefix will be applied to the username of all
users registering via the web based interface. E.g. if a user chooses the name john,
and the username prefix is guest-, their allocated username will be guest-john.
This prevents name clashes with existing or future users from the configured user/
group sync source, and immediately identifies the user as being internal.
•
Confirmation message - This message is displayed to the user after they have completed registration. It may also be emailed to the user (see next option).
•
Also email confirmation message to user - If this option is enabled the confirmation
message will be emailed to the user after registration (if an email address was
provided).
Tip
•
An alternative to the Print-Limit Pro client tool's authentication popup is to
use a print release station in Release Any mode. After ensuring that
guest users have their own internal account, this will allow users to submit
a print job under a guest/generic login, then authenticate at the release station and choose which job(s) they would like to release. For more information about setting up a release station see Chapter 10, Hold/Release
Queues & Print Release Stations.
•
To delete an internal user, navigate to their User Details page in the administration interface by clicking on the user in the User List, then select
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
the Delete user item from the Actions list. The domain/network-level User
and Group Synchronization settings and opperations do not affect and will
not delete internal users.
•
The special [Internal Users] group contains all internal users. It can
be used to produce reports showing information about internal users, or to
apply a bulk user operation on all internal users.
23.1.3. Batch Internal User Import and Update
This section covers the batch importing and updating of internal users. Internal users are
managed internally by Print-Limit Pro, and may be used in addition to those in the configured user directory source. For more information about internal users see Section 23.1,
“Internal Users (users managed by Print-Limit Pro)”. For information about importing and
updating regular users see Section 6.6, “Batch User Data Import and Update”.
The batch internal user import and update feature allows the administrator to import users,
user information and optionally update existing internal user details by reading data from a
simple text file. In addition to being able to create internal users, it enables administrators
to update the following user data:
•
Password
•
Credit balance
•
Restriction status
•
Full name
•
Email address
•
Department
•
Office
•
Card/ID Number
•
Card/ID PIN
•
Notes
Important
An internal user can be deleted by selecting the Delete user action while viewing the user. Features to simplify the deletion of multiple users (a 'batch delete') will be introduced in a future version.
Examples of where the batch user import feature is useful include:
•
Several guests to the organization will be arriving at the same time and will require their
own accounts in Print-Limit Pro.
•
A set of users needs to be managed separately / externally to the existing user directory source. For example, the users of a certain computer lab require their own accounts
in Print-Limit Pro, but it is not possible to create accounts for them in the existing user
directory.
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Managing Guests and Internal Users
•
Details for existing internal users needs to be updated.
To perform a batch internal user import:
1.
Manually inspect your file in a text editor and ensure it's in the prescribed tab-delimited
format as detailed at Section 23.1.3.1, “Batch Internal User Import File Format”.
2.
Follow the directions in Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)” to run the
server-command batch-import-internal-users.
For example, to import/update internal users from a file import.tsv on a Windows
system:
C:\> cd "C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win"
server-command batch-import-internal-users "C:\extra users\import.tsv"
Note that the import path should be quoted if it contains spaces.
3.
The import process will start running in the background. See the App. Log tab in the
administration interface to check the status of the import or if any errors were encountered.
Caution
Batch imports are a major operation, modifying data en masse. Best practice
suggests:
•
Always run a backup before proceeding with the import.
•
First experiment/test the import process with a small batch of users before
moving onto the full batch.
23.1.3.1. Batch Internal User Import File Format
The import file is in tab delimited format and contains the following fields in the given order:
No.
Field
Description
1.
Username
The internal user's Mandatory
username. If the
policy is to use a
username prefix for
internal users, include the prefix here
(e.g.
guestuser123).
2.
Password
The user's password Optional - although
internal users cannot log in without a
password
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Optional?
Managing Guests and Internal Users
No.
Field
Description
3.
Credit Balance
The user's
balance
4.
Restricted Status
The user's restricted Optional - restricted
status. (Y/N)
status not set if
blank
5.
Full Name
The user's full name
6.
Email
The user's email ad- Optional - email not
dress
set if blank
7.
Department
The user's depart- Optional - department or faculty
ment not set if blank
8.
Office
The user's office or Optional - office not
location
set if blank
9.
Card/ID Number
The user's identity/ Optional - card/id
card number
number not set if
blank
10.
Card/ID PIN
The user's card PIN Optional - card/id
number
PIN not set if blank.
If the field is '-' then
the PIN is set to
zero.
11.
Notes
Notes
user.
about
Optional?
credit Optional - balance
not set if blank
Optional - full name
not set if blank
the Optional - notes not
set if blank
Table 23.1. Internal User Import File Format
Other limitations: Although any actual limit to the size of an import file should be large
enough for any purpose, we recommend keeping the file size below 10MB.
Tip
•
If an optional field is not specified in the import file then it will not be updated. To remove or "blank out" an existing value, use a single "-" (hyphen
/ dash).
•
A simple way to create a tab delimited file is to create a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, then save it in the Text (Tab delimited) format.
For some examples of using tab-delimited files, see Section 6.6.1.1, “Import File Format
Examples”.
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Appendix A. Tools (Advanced)
This appendix outlines the command line tools and advanced programming tools that come
with Print-Limit Pro. Using these tools has been discussed throughout this manual,
however this provides a reference guide to these tools and their use.
Caution
The advanced tools provided with Print-Limit Pro are very powerful and offer
opportunities for all manner of customizations and enhancements. However, if
used incorrectly, these tools could lead to unexpected results. Many of the advanced tools are written for software and script developers. It is expected that
readers intending to use advanced tools are comfortable with using the command-prompt, and developing system management and server monitoring programs.
A.1. Server Commands (server-command)
The server-command tool provides access to dozens of server operations ranging from
user management, system maintenance, account manipulation and printer control. The
server-command tool is ideal for controlling the Print-Limit Pro Application Server via the
command-line or automating via scripts.
Some examples of how an Administrator may choose to use the server-command tool:
•
Scheduling of online backups and data snapshots.
•
Scheduling user and/or group synchronization tasks.
•
Automating the addition of new users after the accounts are added to the network.
•
Performing account transactions such as adding funds/quota to user accounts.
•
Automating user account creation using custom scripts.
•
Disabling/Enabling printers.
•
Disabling/Enabling printing for users.
•
Controlling user restriction levels.
•
Managing shared accounts.
The server-command program is a command-line tool. It accepts the commands as arguments and outputs the results of the command on the console (standard-out). For security
reasons only users with read access to the server.properties (normally only the Administrators group) have rights to execute the commands.
Typical use on a Windows system:
Add $10.00 to a user named 'testuser':
C:\> cd [app-dir]\server\bin\win
C:\> server-command adjust-user-account-balance "testuser" 10.00 \
"Added $10.00 to your account"
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Tools (Advanced)
Note: backslash indicates text should be on the same line.
A.1.1. Accessing Server Commands remotely
Server commands can also be called remotely using standard remote command tools.
A.1.1.1. On Windows
Use PsExec [http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx] - a remote
command program provided by the Sysinternals team at Microsoft. For example:
psexec.exe \\remoteserver "c:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\server\bin\win\serve
A.1.1.2. On Linux/Novell/Mac
Use SSH [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secure_Shell] - a secure remote command/shell program. SSH can be run non-interactively in scripts with the use of an authorized public key
added under the printlimit account's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list. For example:
ssh [email protected] "/home/printlimit/server/bin/linux-i686/server-comm
A.1.2. Available Commands
A full list of commands is available via server-command --help.
Usage: server-command COMMAND [ARGS...]
COMMAND
ARGS
: The server command name.
: A list of arguments to supply to the command.
COMMANDS:
user-exists <username>
Test to see if a user exists.
<username> - the username to test.
get-user-account-balance <username>
Get a user's current account balance.
<username> - the user's username.
get-user-property <username> <property>
Gets a user property.
<username> - the name of the user.
<property> - the name of the property to get. Valid properties include:
balance - the user's current account balance
card-number - the user's card number
card-pin - the user's card pin number
department - the user's department
disabled-net - whether or not the user's internet access is
currently disabled
disabled-print - whether or not the user's printing is currently
disabled
email - the user's email
full-name - the user's full name
notes - notes for the user
office - the user's office
print-stats.job-count - the total print job count for the user
print-stats.page-count - the total printed page count for the user
net-stats.data-mb - the internet data used by the user (in MB)
net-stats.time-hours - the internet time used by the user (in hours)
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Tools (Advanced)
restricted - whether or not the user is currently restricted
set-user-property <username> <property> <value>
Sets a user property.
<username> - the name of the user.
<property> - the name of the property to set. Valid properties and
values include:
balance - the user's current account balance (a decimal number)
card-number - the user's card number (any text)
card-pin - the user's card pin number (any text)
department - the user's department (any text)
disabled-net - whether or not the user's internet access is
currently disabled (TRUE or FALSE)
disabled-print - whether or not the user's printing is currently
disabled (TRUE or FALSE)
email - the user's email (an email address, or any text)
full-name - the user's full name (any text)
notes - notes for the user (any text)
office - the user's office (any text)
password - the user's password (for internal users only) (any text)
restricted - whether or not the user is currently restricted
(TRUE or FALSE)
<value> - the value to set (see <property> for valid values).
adjust-user-account-balance <username> <adjustment> <comment>
Adjust a user's account balance.
<username> - the user's username.
<adjustment> - the adjustment amount as a number. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
adjust-user-account-balance-if-available <username> <adjustment> <comment>
Adjust a user's account balance if there is enough credit available.
<username> - the user's username.
<adjustment> - the adjustment amount as a number. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
adjust-user-account-balance-if-available-leave-remaining \
<username> <adjustment> <leave-remaining> <comment>
Adjust a user's account balance if there is enough credit available
to leave the given amount available in the account.
<username> - the user's username.
<adjustment> - the adjustment amount as a number. +ve or -ve.
<leave-remaining> - the amount to leave in the account.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
adjust-user-account-balance-by-group <group> <adjustment> <comment>
Adjust the account balance for all users in a group. This process
happens in the background.
<group> - the group for which all users' accounts are to be adjusted.
<adjustment> - the adjustment amount as a number. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
adjust-user-account-balance-by-group-up-to <group> <adjustment> <limit>
<comment>
Adjust the account balance for all users in a group, but don't increase
user balance beyond the given limit. This process happens in the
background.
<group> - the group for which all users' accounts are to be adjusted.
<adjustment> - the adjustment amount as a number. +ve or -ve.
<limit> - don't increase user balance beyond this limit.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
set-user-account-balance <username> <balance> <comment>
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Tools (Advanced)
Set a user's account balance to a set value.
<username> - the user's username.
<balance> - set the account to this value. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
set-user-account-balance-by-group <group> <balance> <comment>
Set the balance for each member of a group to the given value. This
process happens in the background.
<group> - the group for which all users' balance is to be set.
<balance> - the value to set all users' balance to. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
reset-user-counts <username> <reset_by>
Reset the page and job counts associated with a user.
<username> - the user's username.
<reset_by> - name of the user/script/process resetting the counts.
re-apply-initial-user-settings <username>
Re-applies initial settings on the user. Initial user settings are based
<username> - the user's username.
disable-printing-for-user <username> <minutes_disabled>
Disable printing for a user for a set period of time.
<username> - the name of the user to disable printing for.
<minutes_disabled> - the time in minutes to disable. -1 indicates
forever.
add-new-user <username>
Trigger the process of adding a new user account. Assuming the user
exists in the OS/Network/Domain user directory, the account will be
created with the correct initial settings as defined by the rules
set up in the admin interface under the Groups section.
<username> - the user's system username.
rename-user <current_username> <new_username>
Rename the given existing user. Use this method with care. Renaming a
user should be performed in conjunction with renaming the user in the
OS/Network/Domain.
<current_username> - the name of the user to rename.
<new_username> - the user's new name.
delete-existing-user <username>
Delete a user account from the system. Use this method with care.
Calling this will perminantly delete the user account from the user
list (print history records remain).
<username> - the user's system username.
list-user-accounts
List the names of all the user accounts in the system, sorted by
username, one per line.
list-shared-accounts
List the names of all the shared accounts in the system, sorted by
shared account name, one per line.
list-user-shared-accounts <username>
List the names of all the shared accounts accessible by the given user
sorted by account name, one per line.
shared-account-exists <account_name>
Test to see if a shared account exists.
<account_name> - the shared account name to test.
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Tools (Advanced)
get-shared-account-account-balance <account_name>
Get shared account's current account balance.
<account_name> - the shared acount's full name.
get-shared-account-property <account_name> <property>
Gets a shared account property.
<account_name> - the name of the user.
<property> - the name of the property to get. Valid properties include:
access-groups - the shared account's access groups)
(a comma separated list)
access-users - the shared account's access users
(a comma separated list)
balance - the shared account's current balance
comment-option - the shared account's commenting option
disabled - whether or not the shared account is currently disabled
invoice-option - the shared account's invoicing option
notes - notes for the shared account
pin - the shared account's PIN
restricted - whether or not the shared account is currently
restricted
set-shared-account-property <account_name> <property> <value>
Sets a shared account property.
<account_name> - the name of the shared account.
<property> - the name of the property to set. Valid properties and
values include:
access-groups - the shared account's access groups)
(a comma separated list)
access-users - the shared account's access users
(a comma separated list)
balance - the shared account's current balance (a decimal number)
comment-option - the shared account's commenting option. One of:
NO_COMMENT - no comment may be entered
COMMENT_REQUIRED - a comment must be entered
COMMENT_OPTIONAL - the user may enter a comment or not
disabled - whether or not the shared account is currently disabled
(TRUE or FALSE)
invoice-option - the shared account's invoicing option. One of:
ALWAYS_INVOICE - print jobs will always be invoiced
NEVER_INVOICE - print jobs will never be invoiced
USER_CHOICE_ON - the user can choose (default on/yes)
USER_CHOICE_OFF - the user can choose (default off/no)
notes - notes for the shared account (any text)
pin - the shared account's PIN (any text, must be unique)
restricted - whether or not the shared account is currently
restricted (TRUE or FALSE)
<value> - the value to set (see <property> for valid values).
adjust-shared-account-account-balance <account_name> <adjustment> <comment>
Adjust a shared account's account balance.
<account_name> - the shared account's full name.
<adjustment> - the adjustment amount as a number. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
set-shared-account-account-balance <account_name> <balance> <comment>
Set a shared account's balance to a set value.
<account_name> - the shared account's full name.
<balance> - set the account to this value. +ve or -ve.
<comment> - a comment to be associated with the transaction.
add-new-shared-account <shared_account_name>
Add a new shared account.
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Tools (Advanced)
<shared_account_name> - the name of the shared account.
delete-existing-shared-account <shared_account_name>
Delete a shared account from the system. Use this method with care.
Calling this will permanently delete it from the shared account list
(print history records will remain).
<shared_account_name> - the name of the shared account to delete.
add-shared-account-access-user <shared_account_name> <username>
Allow the given user access to the given shared account without using
a pin.
<shared_account_name> - the name of the shared account to allow access
to.
<username> - the name of the user to give access to.
add-shared-account-access-group <shared_account_name> <group_name>
Allow the given group access to the given shared account without using
a pin.
<shared_account_name> - the name of the shared account to allow access
to.
<group_name> - the name of the group to give access to.
remove-shared-account-access-user <shared_account_name> <username>
Revoke the given user'- access to the given shared account.
<shared_account_name> - the name of the shared account to revoke access
to.
<username> - the name of the user to revoke access for.
remove-shared-account-access-group <shared_account_name> <group_name>
Revoke the given group's access to the given shared account.
<shared_account_name> - the name of the shared account to revoke access
to.
<group_name> - the name of the group to revoke access for.
get-printer-property <server_name> <printer_name> <property>
Gets a printer property.
<server_name> - the name of the server the printer is hosted on.
<printer_name> - the name of the printer.
<property> - the name of the property to get. Valid properties include:
disabled - whether or not the printer is currently disabled
print-stats.job-count - the total print job count for this printer
print-stats.page-count - the total printed page count for this print
cost-model - the cost model used by the printer (e.g. SIMPLE)
set-printer-property <server_name> <printer_name> <property> <value>
Sets a printer property.
<server_name> - the name of the server the printer is hosted on.
<printer_name> - the name of the printer.
<property> - the name of the property to set. Valid properties and
values include:
disabled - whether or not the user is currently disabled
(TRUE or FALSE)
<value> - the value to set (see <property> for valid values).
set-printer-cost-simple <server_name> <printer_name> <cost_per_page>
Sets the printer's page cost (using SIMPLE charging model).
<server_name> - the name of the server the printer is hosted on.
<printer_name> - the name of the printer.
<cost_per_page> - the cost per page (simple charging model)
get-printer-cost-simple <server_name> <printer_name>
Get the printer's page cost (using SIMPLE charging model).
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<server_name> - the name of the server the printer is hosted on.
<printer_name> - the name of the printer.
reset-printer-counts <server_name> <printer_name> <reset_by>
Reset the page and job counts associated with a printer.
<server_name> - the name of the server hosting the printer.
<printer_name> - the printer's name.
<reset_by> - name of the user/script/process resetting the counts.
disable-printer <server_name> <printer_name> <minutes_disabled>
Disable a printer for a set period of time.
<server_name> - the name of the server hosting the printer.
<printer_name> - the printer's name.
<minutes_disabled> - the time in minutes to disable. -1 indicates
forever.
delete-printer <server_name> <printer_name>
Delete a printer.
<server_name> - the name of the server hosting the printer.
<printer_name> - the printer's name. Use "[All Printers]" to delete
all printers on the specified server.
add-new-group <group_name>
<group_name> - add a new group to the system's group list. The
group should already exist in network directory.
set-group-quota <group_name> <quota_amount> <period> <quota_max_accum>
<group_name> - the name of the group to set.
<quota_amount> - the quota amount.
<period> - the schedule period (i.e. DAILY, WEEKLY, MONTHLY).
<quota_max_accum> - the quota maximum accumulation amount.
use-card <user_name> <card_number>
Redeem a card and place the credit on the user's account.
<user_name> - the name of the user with the account to credit.
<card_number> - the number of the card to use.
perform-online-backup
Start an online backup. The back file is written to
~/server/data/backups. as a dated, zipped XML file. This process
happens in the background.
perform-group-sync
Start the process of synchronizing the system's group membership with
the OS/Network/Domain's group membership. This process happens in the
background.
perform-user-and-group-sync
Start a full user and group synchronization. This is equivalent to
pressing on the "Synchronize Now" button in the admin user interface.
The of the sync process, such as deleting old users, is
determined by the current system settings as defined in the admin
interface. This process happens in background.
perform-user-and-group-sync-advanced <delete_old_users> <update_details>
An advanced version of the user and group synchronization process
providing control over the sync This process will happen in
the background.
<delete_old_users> - set to TRUE remove old users, else FALSE.
<update_details> - set to TRUE if exist users details (e.g. email,
full-name, etc. ) are to be updated.
add-new-users
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Calling this method will start a specialized user and group
synchronization process optimized for tracking down adding any new
users that exist in the OS/Network/Domain user directory and not in
the system. Any existing user accounts will not be modified. A group
synchronization will only be performed if new users are actually added
to the system.
is-task-complete
Returns TRUE if a long running task such as perform-group-sync,
perform-user-and-group-sync, or add-new-users has completed.
get-task-status
Returns status information such as progress, completion status and,
error messages, on the current or last run long running task such as
perform-group-sync, perform-user-and-group-sync, or add-new-users.
batch-import-shared-accounts <import_file> <test>
<delete_non_existent_accounts>
Import the shared accounts contained in the given tab-delimited import
file.
<import_file> - the import file location.
<test> - (TRUE or FALSE) If TRUE, perform a test only. The printed
statistics will show what would have occurred if testing
wasn't enabled. No accounts will be modified.
<delete_non_existent_accounts> - (TRUE or FALSE) If TRUE, accounts that
do not exist in the import file but exist in the
system will be deleted. If FALSE, they will be
ignored.
batch-import-users <import_file> <create_new_users>
Import the users contained in the given tab-delimited import
file. See the user manual chapter 'Batch User Data Import and Update'
for a description of the file format.
<import_file> - the import file location.
<create_new_users>
If TRUE, users only existing in the import file will be newly crea
otherwise ignored.
batch-import-internal-users <import_file> <overwrite_existing_passwords>
<overwrite_existing_pins>
Import the internal users contained in the given tab-delimited import
file. See the user manual chapter 'Managing Guests and Internal Users'
for a description of the file format.
<import_file> - the import file location.
<overwrite_existing_passwords> (optional, default TRUE) - (TRUE or
FALSE) If TRUE, passwords from the import file will overwrite
existing passwords where a user already has a has a password set.
If FALSE, existing passwords will not be changed.
<overwrite_existing_pins> (optional, default TRUE) - (TRUE or FALSE) If
TRUE, PINs from the import file will overwrite existing PINs where
a user already has a has a PIN set. If FALSE, existing PINs will
not be changed.
batch-import-user-card-id-numbers <import_file> <overwrite_existing_pins>
Import the user card/ID numbers and PINs contained in the given
tab-delimited import file (see the chapter 'Advanced User Management'
in user manual for a description of the file format).
<import_file> - the import file location.
<overwrite_existing_pins> (optional, default TRUE) - (TRUE or FALSE) If
TRUE, PINs from the import file will overwrite existing PINs where
a user already has a has a PIN set. If FALSE, existing PINs will
not be changed.
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create-user-client-accounts-file
Creates a file containing shared accounts data for the user client.
See the manual for more information on how this feature can be used.
The file will be saved on the server to the location:
[app-path]\server\data\client\client-accounts.dat
If this file already exists it will be over-written.
get-config <config-name>
Gets the value of the given config value printing the result.
If the config value does not exist, a blank string is displayed.
<config-name> - the name of the config value to get.
set-config <config-name> <config-value>
Sets the value of the give config item.
NOTE: Take care updating config values. You may cause serious
problems which can only be fixed by reinstallation of
the application. Use the set-config command at your own risk.
<config-name> - the name of the config value to set.
<config-value> - the value to set.
Tip
server-command is ideal for scripting via batch files or shell scripts. Administrators wishing to control Print-Limit Pro using a programming language such
as C#, Java, Visual Basic, Perl, Ruby or Python should consider the XML Web
Services API's. All commands available via the server-command tool are
also accessible via calls to the Web Services layer.
More information on the XML Web Services API is available in Section A.3,
“The XML Web Services API”.
A.2. Database Tool (db-tools)
The db-tools command-line tool provides a variety of functionality manipulating the PrintLimit Pro database and data. The syntax of the command is:
db-tools command [options]
The valid commands are:
•
export-db - export/backup the database data
•
import-db - import/restore the database data
•
init-db - create tables and initial data in a new database
•
delete-old-logs - delete old log data (transaction, print, app log, etc)
db-tools is a command-line application accessed via the Command Prompt on Windows, or a Command Shell (e.g. bash or a terminal) on Linux and Mac. On Linux or Mac
the command must be run as the printlimit user. Example use on the Apple Mac:
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sudo su - printlimit
db-tools import-db -f /Users/bob/printlimit-backup.zip
db-tools needs exclusive access to the database. It is important that any Print-Limit Pro
services and processes are stopped before executing any commands. Failure to do so will
result in a "database in use" error message. The db-tools command is a powerful lowlevel utility and its use on a production system should be carefully considered. The available commands are discussed in detail below.
A.2.1. export-db Command
The export-db command exports the data from the database. The application server must
be stopped before performing the export. The syntax and options for the export-db command are:
usage: db-tools export-db [options]
-d,--dir <dir>
Exports the database to the given directory.
-f,--file <file>
Exports the database to the given file.
-h,--help
Displays this help.
If no options are specified then the database export file is created in the
[app-path]\server\data\backups directory and the file is named export[date-time].zip.
The --dir option is used to override the default backup directory. The filename will still be
named export-[date-time].zip.
The --file option is used to specify the full path and filename where the backup is
saved.
Caution
If the directory or filename parameters contains space, then the argument
needs to be quoted.
A.2.2. import-db Command
The import-db command imports the data (from a previous export) into the database.
The application server must be stopped to perform the import. The syntax and options for
the import-db command are:
usage: db-tools import-db [options] import-file
-f,--force
Deletes any existing data before loading the data.
-h,--help
Displays this help.
The --force option is required when the data is loaded into a database that already contains data. In this situation, the force option indicates that existing data will be deleted first.
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Caution
If the import-file contains spaces this argument will need to be quoted.
A.2.3. init-db Command
The init-db command initializes a database, creating the required tables and initial data.
The application server must be stopped before you initialize the database. The syntax and
options for the init-db command are:
usage: db-tools init-db [options]
-f,--force
Re-initializes the database even if it already exists.
-h,--help
Displays this help.
The --force option is required to initialize a database that already contains the tables
and data. In this case the force option will drop the existing tables before recreating the
tables.
A.2.4. delete-old-logs Command
The delete-old-logs is used to delete old log data from the system. This command will
permanently delete the following data.
•
Printer usage logs - Record all print history and statistics
•
Account transactions - Record all adjustments to user and shared accounts
•
Application logs - Record application status and error messages
usage: db-tools delete-old-logs [options] delete-older-than-days
-n,--non-interactive
Perform deletion without confirmation.
-h,--help
Displays this help.
The --non-interactive option will perform the deletion without confirmation from the
user. This can be useful when automating this deletion through a scheduled task or cron
job.
The delete-older-than-days option determines what data will be deleted. If deleteolder-than-days is 90, then all log data more than 90 days old will be deleted. A value
of zero (0) will remove all historical log data from the system.
A.3. The XML Web Services API
Over the past few years, Web Services has been one of the IT industry's "buzz words" and rightly so! Web Services provide a standardized way to transfer data and call functions
across different operating system, programming languages, and networks. Web Services
data is transmitted over standard HTTP and uses standardized XML mark-up.
There are two main Web Services implementations used for Remote Procedure Call
(RPC):
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•
SOAP/WSDL
•
XML-RPC
Print-Limit Pro uses XML-RPC. XML-RPC is a lightweight web services implementation
and has good support for all major programming and scripting languages such as C#,
Java, Visual Basic, Perl, Ruby and Python. The list of XML-RPC methods exposed by
Print-Limit Pro at the URL http://[server_name]:9191/rpc/api/xmlrpc are summarized below:
Method
Description
api.isUserExists
Test to see if a user exists in the system/
database.
api.getUserAccountBalance
Get the user's current account balance.
api.getUserProperty
Gets a user property. Properties include the
user's full name, department, email, notes,
office and restriction status among others.
api.setUserProperty
Sets a user property. Properties include the
user's full name, department, email, notes,
office, password (for internal users) and restriction status among others.
api.adjustUserAccountBalance
Adjust a user's account balance by an adjustment amount. An adjustment may be
positive (add to the user's account) or negative (subtract from the account).
api.adjustUserAccountBalanceByGr Adjust the account balance for all users in a
oup
group by an adjustment amount. An adjustment may be positive (add to the user's account) or negative (subtract from the account).
api.adjustUserAccountBalanceByGr Adjust the account balance for all users in a
oupUpTo
group by an adjustment amount, but not
above the given limit. An adjustment may
be positive (add to the user's account) or
negative (subtract from the account).
Set the balance on a user's account to a
set value. This is conducted as a transaction.
api.setUserAccountBalance
api.setUserAccountBalanceByGroup Set the balance for each member of a
group to the given value.
Reset the counts (pages and job counts)
associated with a user account.
api.resetUserCounts
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Method
Description
api.reapplyInitialUserSettings
Re-applies initial settings on the user. Initial
user settings are based on group membership.
api.disablePrintingForUser
Disable printing for a user for selected period of time.
api.addNewGroup
Add a new group to system's group list.
api.setGroupQuota
Set the group quota allocation settings on a
given group.
api.getGroupQuota
Get the group quota allocation settings on a
given group.
api.addNewUser
Triggers the process of adding a new user
account defined by a given username. Assuming the user exists in the OS/Network/Domain user directory, the account
will be created with the correct initial settings as defined by the rules set up in the
admin interface under the Group's section.
Calling this method is equivalent to triggering the "new user" event when a new user
performs printing for the first time.
api.renameUserAccount
Rename a user account. Useful when the
user has been renamed in the domain / directory, so that usage history can be maintained for the new username. This should
be performed in conjunction with a rename
of the user in the domain / user directory,
as all future usage and authentication will
need to use the new username.
api.deleteExistingUser
Delete/remove an existing user from the
user list. Use this method with care. Calling
this will perminently delete the user account
from the user list (print and transaction history records remain).
api.listUserAccounts
List all user accounts (sorted by username)
starting at offset and ending at limit.
This can be used to enumerate all user accounts in 'pages'. When retrieving a list of
all user accounts, the recommended page
size / limit is 1000. Batching in groups of
1000 ensures efficient transfer and processing.
E.g.:
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Method
Description
listUserAccounts("authToken", 0, 1000) returns users 0 through 999
listUserAccounts("authToken", 1000, 1000)
returns users 1000 through 1999
listUserAccounts("authToken", 2000, 1000)
returns users 2000 through 2999
List all shared accounts (sorted by account
name) starting at offset and ending at
limit. This can be used to enumerate all
shared accounts in 'pages'. When retrieving
a list of all accounts, the recommended
page size / limit is 1000. Batching in
groups of 1000 ensures efficient transfer
and processing.
api.listSharedAccounts
E.g.:
listSharedAccounts("authToken", 0, 1000)
returns users 0 through 999
listSharedAccounts("authToken", 1000, 100
returns users 1000 through 1999
listSharedAccounts("authToken", 2000, 100
returns users 2000 through 2999
List all shared accounts the user has access to (sorted by account name), starting
at offset and ending at limit. This can
be used to enumerate the accounts in
'pages'. When retrieving a list of all accounts, the recommended page size / limit
is 1000. Batching in groups of 1000 ensures efficient transfer and processing.
api.listUserSharedAccounts
E.g.:
listUserSharedAccounts("authToken", "user
returns users 0 through 999
listUserSharedAccounts("authToken", "user
returns users 1000 through 1999
listUserSharedAccounts("authToken", "user
returns users 2000 through 2999
api.isSharedAccountExists
Test to see if a shared account exists in the
system/database.
api.getSharedAccountProperty
Gets a shared account property. Properties
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Method
Description
include access groups, balance, comment
options, disabled status, notes, pin and restriction status among others.
api.setSharedAccountProperty
Sets a shared account property. Properties
include access groups, balance, comment
options, disabled status, notes, pin and restriction status among others.
api.setSharedAccountAccountBalan Sets a shared account's current account
ce
balance.
api.adjustSharedAccountAccountBa Adjust a shared account's account balance
lance
by an adjustment amount. An adjustment
may be positive (add to the account) or
negative (subtract from the account).
api.setSharedAccountAccountBalan Set the balance on a shared account to a
ce
set value. This is conducted as a transaction.
api.addNewSharedAccount
Create a new shared account with the given name.
api.deleteExistingSharedAccount
Delete a shared account from the system.
Use this method with care. Deleting a
shared account will permanently delete it
from the shared account list (print history
records will remain).
api.addSharedAccountAccessUser
Allow the given user access to the given
shared account without using a pin.
api.addSharedAccountAccessGroup
Allow the given group access to the given
shared account without using a pin.
api.removeSharedAccountAccessUse Revoke the given user's access to the givr
en shared account.
api.removeSharedAccountAccessGro Revoke the given group's access to the givup
en shared account.
api.getPrinterProperty
Gets a printer property. Available properties
include: disabled, print-stats.job-count,
print-stats.page-count.
api.setPrinterProperty
Sets a printer property.
api.getPrinterCostSimple
Get the page cost if, and only if, the printer
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Method
Description
is using the Simple Charging Model.
api.setPrinterCostSimple
Set a page cost using the Simple Charging
Model.
api.resetPrinterCounts
Reset the counts (pages and job counts)
associated with a printer.
api.disablePrinter
Disable a printer for select period of time.
api.deletePrinter
Delete a printer. Use the special text "[All
Printers]" to delete all printers on the specified server.
api.performOnlineBackup
Instigate an online backup. This process is
equivalent to pressing the manual backup
button in the web based admin interface.
The data is exported into the server/
data/backups directory as a timestamped,
zipped XML file.
api.performGroupSync
Start the process of synchronizing the system's group membership with the OS/
Network/Domain's group membership. The
call to this method will start the synchronization process. The operation will commence and complete in the background.
api.performUserAndGroupSync
Start a full user and group synchronization.
This is equivalent to pressing on the "Synchronize Now" button in the admin user interface. The behavior of the sync process,
such as deleting old users, is determined
by the current system settings as defined in
the admin interface. A call to this method
will commence the sync process and the
operation will complete in the background.
api.performUserAndGroupSyncAdvan An advanced version of the user and group
ced
synchronization process providing control
over the sync behavior. A call to this method will commence the sync process and the
operation will complete in the background.
Calling this method will start a specialized
user and group synchronization process
optimized for tracking down and adding any
new users that exist in the OS/Network/Domain user directory and not in the
system. Any existing user accounts will not
be modified. A group synchronization will
api.addNewUsers
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Method
Description
only be performed if new users are actually
added to the system.
api.getTaskStatus
Return the status (completed flag and a
status message) associated with a backgrounded task such as a sync operation
started by the performGroupSync API. This
method returns a struct (hashtable/map)
containing elements with keys completed
and message. This method may be polled
to determine if a sync has completed.
api.batchImportSharedAccounts
Import the shared accounts contained in
the given tab separated import file (located
on the server).
api.batchImportInternalUsers
Import the internal users contained in the
given tab-delimited import file (located on
the server). See Section 23.1.3, “Batch Internal User Import and Update” for details
of the required file format.
api.batchImportUserCardIdNumbers Import the user card/ID numbers and PINs
contained in the given tab-delimited import
file.
api.getConfigValue
Gets the value of a configuration settings.
api.setConfigValue
Sets the value of a configuration setting.
NOTE: Take care updating config values.
You may cause serious problems which
can only be fixed by reinstallation of the application. Use the setConfigValue API at
your own risk.
Table A.1. XML Web Services Methods
A.3.1. Web Services Example Code
The best way to demonstrate how to use the Web Services interface is using example
code. Print-Limit Pro ships with example code for Java, C#, Python and Ruby located in:
[app-path]/server/examples/webservices/
The C# and Java examples also include a full documented Proxy class - a proxy is a common program design pattern. The Proxy wraps and exposes the Web Services methods as
standard methods. The setup and use of the underlying XML-RPC library is all handled in
the proxy class meaning you can just focus on calling the methods.
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Please see the README.txt files in the examples directories for more information. The
Java example includes full JavaDoc style documentation under examples/webservices/java/docs/api.
Developers using other languages such as Perl or Python will need to use an XML-RPC
library to call the methods directly. All methods are exposed via the URL http://[server_name]:9191/rpc/api/xmlrpc.
Tip
All the XML Web Services commands are also accessible via the servercommand program. An alternative to using a full programming environment to
automate Print-Limit Pro via Web Services is to use the server-command
program to call the commands via a script such as a batch file or shell script.
This may be a simpler solution for common automation tasks such as scheduling a User/Group synchronization each night.
More information on the server-command program can be found in Section A.1, “Server Commands (server-command)”.
A.3.2. Security
The Web Services API's provide full access to the system's internals and hence need to be
secured. Print-Limit Pro secures access using two security layers:
1.
IP address level security
2.
Authentication tokens - required for each method call
The IP address level security is used to control which systems, denoted by IP address, are
allowed to connect to the server and call the API's. By default this is restricted to localhost (127.0.0.1) only. If the program/script making use of the API's resides on another
system, then this system's IP address will need to be added to the list of approved addresses under Options → General → Allowed XML Web Services callers.
The first argument to all method calls is an authentication token (authToken). In the default setup the authentication token is the built-in admin user's password (This is password
defined for the admin during the initial configuration wizard). Optionally an alternative web
service authentication token may be defined via configuration - see below. This token must
be supplied with all method calls.
To specify an alternative web service authentication token, to avoid the need to use/share
the built-in admin user's password:
1.
Login to the system.
2.
Navigate to the Options section.
3.
Click on the Config editor link in the list of actions.
4.
Find the auth.webservices.auth-token config setting.
5.
Enter a new value that will be the new web services authentication token.
6.
Press the Update button to the right to apply the change.
7.
This authentication token can now be used in addition to the built-in admin user's
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password.
A.4. SSL/HTTPS Key Generation
Configuring SSL can be a confusing experience of encryption keys, certificates, protocols
and formats. During the install process, Print-Limit Pro generates an self-signed key/
certificate issued for the host's machine name. This key is used by default when the system is accessed via HTTPS on port 9192.
The default SSL certificate provides good security, however there are two downsides to using a self-signed certificate:
1.
When users access the HTTPS site using a fully-qualified domain name, the browser
will issue a "Domain mismatch warning". To avoid this warning, re-create the selfsigned certificate with the machine's fully qualified domain name, see Section A.4.1,
“Re-create the self-signed certificate”.
2.
The browser will also warn the user that the certificate is not signed by a trusted authority. To overcome this you must use a certificate signed by a trusted authority, see
Section A.4.2, “Using a custom/or signed SSL Key”.
Eliminating these warnings provides a smoother experience for the end users of Print-Limit
Pro.
A.4.1. Re-create the self-signed certificate
The tool create-ssl-keystore can be used to re-create the key/certificate (stored in a
keystore file) for a different hostname eliminating the browser domain mismatch warning.
An example of the command's use:
cd [app-path]/server/bin/win
create-ssl-keystore -f "myserver.fullname.com"
More information is available via the --help command line option.
Usage: create-ssl-keystore [-f] [-k FILE] [SYSTEM_NAME]
-f
Force. Overwrite any existing keystore file.
-k FILE:
Define a keystore file location. If not set the keystore
is created in the default location
(server/data/default-ssl-keystore).
SYSTEM_NAME: The name of the computer/server used to generate keystore.
If not defined, the current computer name is used.
A.4.2. Using a custom/or signed SSL Key
Large organizations may wish to use their own SSL key signed by a trusted certificate authority (CA). Such trusted CAs include: AddTrust, Entrust, GeoTrust, RSA Data Security,
Thawte, VISA, ValiCert, Verisign, beTRUSTed, amongst others. The advantage of a
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ted by this website was not issued by a trusted certificate authority."
Caution
Configuring SSL and generating signed keystores is complex! The following
documentation assumes that the reader has a good understanding of the SSL/
HTTPS process and has configured SSL on other web based application servers such as Apache, IIS, or secured mail servers.
A good summary of the process of generating a Print-Limit Pro compatible certificate keystore is explained in detail on the Jetty HTTP Server website at: http://jetty.mortbay.org/jetty5/faq/faq_s_400-Security_t_ssl.html.
To configure the Print-Limit Pro Application Server to use the new key/certificate:
1.
Copy your signed keystore onto the server running the Print-Limit Pro Application
Server. The suggested location is in the directory [app-path]/server/custom/.
2.
Open the file [app-path]/server/server.properties with a text editor (e.g.
Notepad).
3.
Locate the section titled SSL/HTTP Configuration
4.
Remove the # (hash) comment maker from all server.ssl lines.
5.
Define the location of your keystore and the keystore and key password. The file
should look something like this:
server.ssl.keystore=custom/my-ssl-keystore
server.ssl.keystore-password=mypassword
server.ssl.key-password=mypassword
6.
Restart the Print-Limit Pro Application Server and verify all is working. If the server
fails to start, error messages will be recorded in logs located in the server's logs directory.
A.5. User Client Options
The user client is used to display user balances, system notifications and request information from the users. This is discussed in more detail in Section 5.2, “User Client”. The user
client implements a number of command-line options that change it's behavior.
Option
Description
--silent
The silent option tells the client not to report
errors if it has problems connecting to the
server. If the server is unavailable at time of
startup (e.g. the client is not connected to
the network), or if the user does not currently exist in the database, the client will
simply sleep waiting for the condition to
change.
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Option
Description
This option can also be set by adding a
silent=Y line to the client config.properties.
The debug option tells the client to log
activity to a file called user-client.log which
will be created in the user's home directory.
--debug
This option can also be set by adding a
debug=Y line to the client config.properties.
The minimized option tells the client to start
minimized. On windows the client will be
minimized to the task tray.
--minimized
This option is recommended if the user's
balance is not important to the user. For example, if a user is only allowed to assign
print jobs to a shared account, then their
personal balance is of little importance, so
the user client should be minimized.
This option can also be set by adding a
minimized=Y line to the client config.properties.
The noquit option tells the client that it stop
the user from closing or quitting the client.
--noquit
This option can also be set by adding a
noquit=Y line to the client config.properties.
The option tells the client to hide the task
tray icon.
--disabletasktrayicon
This option can also be set by adding a
disabletasktrayicon=Y line to the client config.properties.
The user option allows the client to be run
using a different username.
--user <username>
This can be useful if the user is logged into
a machine with a different username than
he or she is authenticated to the server/
printers as. For example, if a user is using
a laptop that is not a part of the domain.
This option can also be set by adding a
user=<username> line to the client config.properties.
335
Tools (Advanced)
Option
Description
--cache <cache directory>
This argument is actioned by pcclient-local-cache.exe. It defines
the location of the globally writable cache
directory on the system's locale hard drive.
The cache is used to minimize network
traffic on future launches. The default location is C:\Cache. Standard users will require WRITE and READ access to this directory.
--neverrequestidentity
The client will use the username of the
logged in user to identify itself with the
server. In a domain environment, users always login using their network identity and
the names will always match. However on
non-domain systems where local accounts
are used (e.g. Laptops), these names may
not match. The client will display a popup
requesting the user to confirm their identity.
This option will suppress this dialog.
This option can also be set by adding a
neverrequestidentity=Y line to the
client config.properties.
Specify where the client window should appear. The valid options include top-left,
top-right, bottom-left or bottomright.
--windowposition <position>
In addition to the above set of fixed positions, co-ordinates of the window can also
be specified by setting the <position>
parameter to XY<x>,<y>. The <x> value
sets the x co-ordinate of the window (if negative the value indicates the distance from
the right of screen). The <y> value sets the
y co-ordinate of the window (if negative the
value indicates the distance from the bottom of screen). Some examples include:
336
•
XY100,100 - position the window 100
pixels from the left and 100 pixels from
the top of the screen.
•
XY-50,100 - position the window 50
pixels from the right and 50 pixels from
the top of the screen.
•
XY50,-100 - position the window 50
pixels from the left and 100 pixels from
the bottom of the screen.
Tools (Advanced)
Option
Description
The window position can also be set by
adding a windowposition=<position>
line to the client config.properties.
Allows the window title to be customized. If
the <title> includes {0} then this will be
replaced by the user's username.
--windowtitle <title>
The window title can also be set by adding
a windowtitle=<title> line to the client config.properties.
Changes the background color of the client's balance window. The colors are
coded in standard hexadecimal RGB ("web
colors",
see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors for an
explanation). E.g. to set the background
color to red, use:
--background-color <color>
--background-color=FF0000
The balance window background color can
also be set by adding a background-color=<color> line to the client config.properties.
Changes the text color of the client's balance window. The colors are coded in
standard hexadecimal RGB ("web colors",
see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors
for an explanation). E.g. to set the text color
to blue, use:
--text-color <color>
--text-color=0000FF
The balance window text color can also be
set by adding a text-color=<color>
line to the client config.properties.
Changes the color of the link on the client's
balance window. The colors are coded in
standard hexadecimal RGB ("web colors",
see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors
for an explanation). E.g. to set the link color
to a dark gray, use:
--link-color <color>
337
Tools (Advanced)
Option
Description
--link-color=333333
The balance window link color can also be
set by adding a link-color=<color>
line to the client config.properties.
--default-selection <option>
Specifies the default selected option on the
account selection popup. This option can
be used to save mouse clicks / keyboard
presses by setting the default selected option to the one that is most commonly used.
Options include:
•
charge-personal - The "Charge to
my personal account" option is selected.
•
charge-account-list
The
"Charge to shared account" option is
selected.
•
charge-account-pin - The "Charge
to shared account using PIN / Code"
option is selected.
•
print-as-user - The "Perform print
as user" option is selected.
For example, applying a default selection of
charge-account-list ensures that the
option Charge to shared account is selected, and the dropdown list of accounts is
highlighted. This allows the user to begin
navigating the list of shared accounts immediately via the keyboard, and saves
them having to select the option first.
This option can also be set by adding or
enabling
the
default-selection=<option> line in the client config.properties file.
Specifies the default selected account on
the account selection popup. This option
can be used to save mouse clicks / keyboard presses by setting the default selected account to the one that is most commonly used.
--default-account <option>
For example, setting the default account to
"sales\invoices" results in this account being selected when the account selection
338
Tools (Advanced)
Option
Description
popup shows. This allows the user to
quickly confirm the selection by just clicking
OK in those cases that the print should be
charged to this account. The selection can
still be changed in case the print should not
be charge to this account.
This option can also be set by adding or
enabling
the
default-account=<option> line in the client config.properties file.
--accounts-file
<account-file-path>
Specifies the location of the local accounts
file to load. For more information, see Section D.3, “Managing Large Client Account
Lists on Distributed Sites”.
--auth-ttl-values
<ttl-value-mins>
Comma separated list of authentication ttl
values in minutes. This overrides the values configued on the server. See Section 7.8, “Popup Authentication”.
This option can also be set by adding or
enabling the auth-ttl-values= line in
the client config.properties file.
The default time-to-live value automatically
selected when the login authentication window displays. This overrides the values
configued on the server.
--auth-ttl-default
<default-mins>
This option can also be set by adding or
enabling the auth-ttl-default= line in
the client config.properties file.
Table A.2. User Client command-line options
The command-line arguments listed above are usually used in the area/method used to
start the client - a login script, shortcut, or the relevant registry key in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run\.
The command-line arguments may also be set in the config.properties file. This is
particularly helpful on Apple Mac systems where command-line arguments are difficult to
implement. The config.properties file is located in the same directory as the client executable on Linux and Windows. On the Mac it can be found at:
[app-dir]/PCClient.app/Contents/Resources/config.properties
Additionally settings may be changed at the user-level by placing a file in the user's Library
Preferences folder located at:
339
Tools (Advanced)
~/Library/Preferences/PCClient/config.properties
The file should contain the options in a properties file form like:
user=mary
minimized=Y
windowposition=top-left
windowtitle=Print Balance: {0}
•
Changing the time after which jobs are deleted when awaiting popup response
If a user does not respond to the account selection popup after a defined time, their
print job will be automatically deleted. This is to prevent a buildup of old jobs in the print
queue. The default timeout is 10 minutes, and can be changed as follows:
1.
Navigate to the Options tab
2.
In the section Client Software, find the option Delete jobs awaiting popup response after...
3.
Enter the number of minutes to wait for users to respond to the popup before their
job is deleted
4.
Press Apply
A.6. Stopping and Starting the Application Server
Most of the time it will not be necessary to stop or start the server; however there are some
circumstances where this is required:
•
Performing an offline backup
•
Upsizing the database to an external database
•
Upgrading the application
The procedure for stopping the server depends on the platform the server is run on.
Important
When you start the application server, wait approximately 15-20 seconds for
the service to start before accessing the admin interface. This gives the system time to initialize.
A.6.1. Stopping/Starting the server on Windows
The Print-Limit Pro application server runs as a Windows service when installed on Windows, and it can be stopped and started using the Services control panel applet. To stop/
start/restart the application server:
1.
Open the services control panel. (Start → Control Panel → Administrative Tools →
Services)
340
Tools (Advanced)
2.
Find the service name Print-Limit Application Server.
3.
Right-click on the service.
4.
Select the option you want to perform (e.g. Stop/Start/Restart).
An alternative to using the services applet is to run the batch files located in the directory
[app-path]\server\bin\win. Using the batch files might be more convenient when
the process needs to be automated (like scripting a database backup). The batch files to
stop/start the server are called:
•
start-server.bat - starts the service
•
stop-server.bat - stops the service
A.6.2. Stopping/Starting the server on Mac
To start/stop the application server you will need to run the scripts located under
[app-path]\server\bin\mac. The scripts are called:
•
start-server.command - starts the server
•
stop-server.command - stops the server
A.6.3. Stopping/Starting the server on Linux
To start/stop the application server you will need to run the scripts located under
[app-path]\server\bin\linux-i686. The scripts are called:
•
start-server - starts the server
•
stop-server - stops the server
A.7. Automating / Streamlining Installation on Windows
In some cases organizations may wish to streamline the installation of Print-Limit Pro or a
particular Print-Limit Pro component for automating deployment. For example when installing on many secondary print servers, or installing the user client tool locally on many
desktops (although the recommended installation procedure is the "zero install" strategy see Section 5.2.1, “User Client Deployment”).
The installer command-line options provide the ability to pre-select the installer options,
such that there is no need to click through them when installing. The options in table Table A.3, “Windows installer command-line options” are valid for the Windows installers for
Print-Limit Pro (the main installer), the user client tool and the card wizard.
Option
Description
/SILENT or /VERYSILENT
Instructs the installer to be 'silent' or 'very
silent'. When silent the installation begins
immediately, and only the progress window
is displayed. When very silent, installation
begins immediately with nothing displayed.
If any errors are encountered, the error
messages are still displayed with either op341
Tools (Advanced)
Option
Description
tion.
/DIR="x:\dirname"
Overrides the default installation directory.
This can be used to install Print-Limit Pro to
a different directory than the default.
/TYPE=secondary_print
Selects the install type/options:
Server installer:
•
full - The Print-Limit Pro server. The
default option.
•
secondary_print - Install option to
set up a secondary print server. Only installs the print provider component.
/GROUP="folder name"
Overrides the default Start menu group /
folder into which Print-Limit Pro is installed.
/NOICONS
Disables the creation of a Start menu group
/ folder.
/LANG=language
Specifies the language to use during installation. By default this is automatically detected based on your language settings, but
can be overridden by specifying a language. The available languages are:
•
de - German
•
en - English
•
es - Spanish
•
fi - Finnish
•
fr - French
•
it - Italian
•
nl - Dutch
•
pt - Portuguese
•
pt_BR - Brazilian Portuguese
•
zh_CN - Chinese (Simplified)
•
zh_HK - Chinese (Traditional)
Note: This option only specifies the language during installation. More languages
and regional options are available in PrintLimit Pro once installed, which are configured separately.
342
Tools (Advanced)
Table A.3. Windows installer command-line options
343
Appendix B. Troubleshooting &
Technical FAQ's
There are a number of problems you may run into in the course of installing and using
Print-Limit Pro. Many will be resolved once you get a better idea of how Print-Limit Pro
works, while others may require you to dig deeper into the application's workings.
In addition to this section, some platform specific FAQ's are available at Section 19.7,
“Linux FAQ”.
B.1. Troubleshooting & Installation Questions
Q:
I am running Print-Limit Pro server on Windows XP Professional. Is this supported?
A:
Yes, Print-Limit Pro server is supported on Windows XP Professional. It is recommended that you disable Simple File Sharing. This feature causes Windows XP to
authenticate all users as Guest, which causes two problems:
•
All printing is recorded as being printed by the Guest user.
•
Username/password authentication does not work correctly, because Windows
XP will authenticate as Guest, even if the username/password is entered incorrectly.
To disable Simple File Sharing, open Windows Explorer, select Tools → Folder
Options..., and un-tick the appropriate option on the View tab.
Figure B.1. Disable simple file sharing
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Troubleshooting & Technical FAQ's
Q:
I am running Print-Limit Pro in a workgroup environment (i.e. not as part of a domain). What considerations should be taken into account?
A:
See Chapter 22, Running in a Workgroup Environment.
Q:
Print-Limit Pro is not detecting jobs printed from a network clients. How can I fix this?
A:
There are two main causes of this problem:
•
Users are not correctly logging on to your network domain or computer. If the domain server does NOT authorize users, Print-Limit Pro has no way of knowing
who submitted the print job. With system policies, login onto the domain can be
made mandatory, eliminating this problem. Alternatively printer permissions can
be set on the print server to ensure only valid users may print to the printers.
•
Alternatively the client computer may be configured to print directly to the network
interface printer. Ensure all network clients are configured as outlined in the PrintLimit Pro installation guide. All print jobs must pass through the print server running Print-Limit Pro.
Q:
Print-Limit Pro is not counting/detecting pages correctly. What's causing this?
A:
Print-Limit Pro currently supports about 90% of printers on the market. If a printer's
language is not recognized, Print-Limit Pro will not detect any pages and record the
print job as a zero page count. This is usually accompanied with an error message in
the Application Event Log. We recommend you try the following problem resolution
actions in this order:
1.
Many printers come with a variety of driver options. Install the Postscript drivers
if one is available for the printer. Do this on both the Print Server and all network
clients.
2.
Try the drivers included with the Windows CD. Print-Limit Pro supports the majority of drivers distributed with recent Windows releases.
3.
Try turning Enable advanced printing features as follows:
4.
a.
On the print server, Start->Settings->Printers.
b.
Right-click on the printer and select Properties...
c.
Select the Advanced Tab.
d.
Turn off (disable) the Enable advanced printing features.
If you're still having problems, email Netop support. The development team may
be able to recommend a suitable set up or even supply a recent update supporting your hardware.
Q:
How do I ignore (not monitor or delete) a printer?
A:
The Print Provider may be configured via its configuration to ignore a printer. For
more information see Section 7.1, “Adding and Removing/Deleting/Ignoring Printers”.
Q:
The system is not displaying the correct currency sign.
345
Troubleshooting & Technical FAQ's
A:
Print-Limit Pro will format the currency based off the operating system's default regional settings. If the default regional settings are incorrect, the format can be
changed by defining your location under Options → General → Display Settings →
Location.
Q:
I've setup a secondary print server. The printers on this server are not listed and not
being monitored. What's wrong?
A:
There are a number of possible explanations. The first step is to open the Print Provider's log file on the secondary server. This file will often contain error messages indicating the cause or type of error. On a Windows system the log file is located at:
[app-dir]\providers\print\win\print-provider.log The file can be
opened from any text editor such as Notepad.
Some common issues are:
1.
Verify that the secondary server's name is correctly defined in the printprovider.conf file. Open a command prompt on the secondary server and
use the ping command to verify that the server can be contacted under this
name. A server restart (or a manual restart of the Print-Limit Print Provider service) is required for any changes to the file to take effect.
2.
Ensure that firewall software on the primary server is not preventing the secondary server from connecting on port 9191. Firewalls should be configured to allow
all local network traffic on this particular port.
A quick way to see if the secondary server can connect to the primary server is
to use the command-line telnet program. Simply type: telnet servername
9191 at a command prompt.
3.
•
If you receive an error like Could not open connection to host, then
there is probably a network/firewall issue not letting the connection through.
•
If the screen goes blank then the connection was established successfully.
Press Ctrl+] then type quit to close the telnet session.
Check that the Print Provider process/service is in fact installed and running. On
a Windows system this is located under: Start → Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Services
Q:
The client software is not displaying the user's account balance and is displaying a
network error. How do I fix this?
A:
The client software needs to contact the application server. For the technical readers,
the client makes an XML web services request to the server on port 9191. Most problems relate to either firewalls blocking access or the application server's name is not
correctly defined. Ensure that:
1.
Any firewalling software on the server allows local network access to port 9191.
2.
The client.properties file (a text file) lists the correct server name or IP address of the server. If you've used the zero-install deployment option, this file is
located
on
the
server
in
the
directory:
[app-dir]/client/client.properties
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Troubleshooting & Technical FAQ's
B.2. General Questions
Q:
How do I change the built-in admin user's password?
A:
The admin user's password is set up on initial install during the configuration wizard.
This password can be changed post-install by logging into the application as the admin user and navigating to the Options → Advanced tab, and selecting the Change
internal admin password option.
If you have forgotton the internal admin password, it can be reset by editing the admin.password
property
in
the
text
file
located
at
[app_dir]/server/server.properties.
Q:
I run a small peer-to-peer network and my users don't log onto the workstations. Can
I still use Print-Limit Pro?
A:
Print-Limit Pro is primarily designed for networks managed under a domain and/or
authenticated environments. Peer-to-peer networks or Workgroups are however supported. The first option should be to consider requiring users to log onto the workstations using their username and password. If this is not possible, an alternate option is
to set up the user accounts on system hosting the printers (system running the PrintLimit Pro server software) and configuring the account selection popup with the
Charge to other users option selected. Users can then enter their username and
password in the popup that displays each time they print.
Q:
I would like to start the user inquiry tool (client software) with the window minimized.
Is this possible?
A:
Yes. The client software can be started minimized by executing the program with a
command-line switch -minimized. See Section A.5, “User Client Options”.
Q:
How do I stop users from closing/shutting down the client software?
A:
If the user running the client software is configured to either:
•
select shared accounts
•
confirm the print job via a popup
the client software must be running at all times. If the user is configured in either of
these modes, the client software's exit option is disabled. Note: The client software
will need to be restarted to pick up this option after the user's options have been
changed.
Q:
Why does Print-Limit Pro cache the group membership?
A:
Print-Limit Pro caches group membership by replicating the user/group relationship
structure internally in the system. Typically network group membership is relatively
static, and is usually set up when a user account is initially created. Print-Limit Pro
tries to be a good network application by avoiding common no-no's such as flooding
domain controllers with group lookup requests. This is achieved by caching. Operations such as Bulk user operations, quota allocations, group reports and group fil347
Troubleshooting & Technical FAQ's
tering all need to do group membership lookups. Caching speeds up these operations and prevents excessive callouts to the domain servers.
The downside to caching is that group membership changes are not immediately reflected inside Print-Limit Pro. To force Print-Limit Pro to detect the change perform a
User/Group synchronization under the Options section. The system will also automatically refresh group membership overnight during low network activity.
Q:
I have noticed a lot of extra options available under the Config Editor (Advanced)
area. Can I change these?
A:
The config area contains all of the Print-Limit Pro system wide settings. Some of
these can be changed via the normal options interface while others are designed for
internal developer use and tuning and are only accessible via the config editor. Any
changes made in the config editor should be done with care as an invalid entry may
require you to reinstall the system!
Q:
I'd like to write some custom extensions. Do you support this?
A:
The development team may be able to assist with detailed API documentation and
source code. If you would like feedback on your ideas, please email our support
team.
Q:
What external databases are supported?
A:
Running Print-Limit Pro on top of an external database is an advanced option. This is
discussed in details in system management section.
Q:
What is the internal database format?
A:
Print-Limit Pro's internal database is Apache Derby - an open source database written by IBM and based on IBM's DB2 Cloudscape database system. The internal
database has proven to scale very well and is suitable for networks of all sizes.
Q:
What language is Print-Limit Pro developed in?
A:
Print-Limit Pro is developed under a number of languages and development environments. The printer monitoring component and other native operating system interfaces such as user authentication are written in C/C++. The application server and
web services are written in server-side Java.
Q:
I'd like to investigate server cluster support?
A:
The Print-Limit Pro is designed as a cluster compatible application and supports clustering at all layers of the application. For more information on configuring Print-Limit
Pro in a Microsoft Cluster environment, please see Chapter 18, Microsoft Cluster Environments. If you'd like to investigate clustering options on other platforms (Linux)
please contact our support team.
348
Appendix C. Advanced LDAP
Configuration
Print-Limit Pro supports the following LDAP server types out-of-the-box:
•
Novell eDirectory
•
Microsoft Active Directory
•
Unix/NIS/Posix
and basic configuration options for these platforms/environments are discussed at Section 12.2.5, “Using LDAP for user synchronization”.
However, other server/schema types can be supported by defining the fields to query and
the LDAP searches to perform. These options are configured by adjusting config entries in
the Config Editor, which can be opened from the Options tab. The following config items
are available:
Config name
Description
ldap.schema.user-name-field
The LDAP field that contains the user's
username.
ldap.schema.user-full-name-field
The LDAP field that contains the user's full
name.
ldap.schema.user-email-field
The LDAP field that contains the user's
email address.
ldap.schema.user-department-field
The LDAP field that contains the user's department.
ldap.schema.user-office-field
The LDAP field that contains the user's office location.
ldap.schema.user-name-search
The LDAP search to retrieve the user. The
{0} in the search is replaces with * when
listing all users, and [username] when
searching for a specific user. If no search is
defined,
the
default
is
([userNameField]={0}).
ldap.schema.group-name-field
The LDAP field that contains the group's
name.
ldap.schema.group-member-field
The LDAP field that contains the group
members.
ldap.schema.group-search
The LDAP search to retrieve the group.
The {0} in the search is replaced with * for
all group searches. If no search is defined,
349
Advanced LDAP Configuration
Config name
Description
the
default
is
([groupMemberField]={0}),
which
means get all entries with at least one
member.
ldap.schema.posix-groups
If Y, then the group member field contains
the user's username. If N, then the group
member field contains the user's DN.
Table C.1. LDAP Config entries
C.1. LDAP Server Default Configuration
When a particular LDAP server type is selected (e.g. Novell eDirectory), Print-Limit Pro
uses the following defaults to query the LDAP server. These defaults can be used as a
starting point for customizing the LDAP searches or for supporting other server types.
C.1.1. Standard (Unix / Open Directory)
If the LDAP server is configured to support Unix based authentication then this schema
type can be used. The following defaults are used.
Config name
Default value
ldap.schema.user-name-field
uid
ldap.schema.user-full-name-field
cn
ldap.schema.user-email-field
mail
ldap.schema.user-department-field
departmentNumber
ldap.schema.user-office-field
[not set]
ldap.schema.user-name-search
(uid={0})
ldap.schema.group-name-field
cn
ldap.schema.group-member-field
memberUid
ldap.schema.group-search
(memberUid={0})
ldap.schema.posix-groups
Y
Table C.2. Unix / Open Directory LDAP default settings
C.1.2. Novell eDirectory Defaults
If the LDAP server is a Novell eDirectory then the following defaults are used.
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Advanced LDAP Configuration
Config name
Default value
ldap.schema.user-name-field
cn
ldap.schema.user-full-name-field
fullName
ldap.schema.user-email-field
mail
ldap.schema.user-department-field
OU
ldap.schema.user-office-field
l
ldap.schema.user-name-search
(&(cn={0})(objectClass=person))
ldap.schema.group-name-field
cn
ldap.schema.group-member-field
member
ldap.schema.group-search
(&(member={0})(objectClass=group
OfNames))
ldap.schema.posix-groups
N
Table C.3. Novell eDirectory LDAP default settings
C.1.3. Microsoft Active Directory Defaults
If the LDAP server is a Microsoft Active Directory then the following defaults are used.
Config name
Default value
ldap.schema.user-name-field
sAMAccountName
ldap.schema.user-full-name-field
displayName
ldap.schema.user-email-field
mail
ldap.schema.user-department-field
department
ldap.schema.user-office-field
physicalDeliveryOfficeName
ldap.schema.user-name-search
(&(sAMAccountName={0})(objectCat
egory=person)(objectClass=user)(
sAMAccountType=805306368))
ldap.schema.group-name-field
sAMAccountName
ldap.schema.group-member-field
member
351
Advanced LDAP Configuration
Config name
Default value
ldap.schema.group-search
(&(member={0})(objectCategory=gr
oup))
ldap.schema.posix-groups
N
Table C.4. Active Directory LDAP default settings
352
Appendix D. Capacity Planning
This section discusses capacity planning considerations to allow administrators to plan future infrastructure requirements and make decisions about how to deploy the application.
Print-Limit Pro is designed to be self-maintaining, however it is important that the administrator understands the disk-space requirements and how this changes overtime.
D.1. Database Sizing and Growth
The most important part of capacity planning for Print-Limit Pro is the size and growth of
the underlying database. All other aspects of the system manages itself, but care must be
taken to ensure there is enough disk space to hold the growing database.
The size and growth of the database depends on the database being used. Each database
uses a different format to store their data, therefore the growth characteristics of databases
will differ. This section outlines the database growth characteristics of:
•
The internal database (Apache Derby)
•
Microsoft SQL Server
For more information on running Print-Limit Pro on external databases, see Chapter 17,
Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS).
Database growth is very dependent on the usage patterns and therefore differs significantly from site to site. The best way to predict database growth is based on the rate of print
jobs performed. Although, there is some overhead for other data (like users, groups, printers, etc.), this data is static and does not grow over-time. The majority of database growth
is caused by print and transaction logs.
The growth calculations performed below provide an indication of growth per 1000 or
10000 print jobs. Then using these numbers and your estimate of the rate of printing in
your organization a growth estimate can be made. See Section D.1.3, “Sample database
growth calculation” for an example of this calculation.
D.1.1. Internal database growth
Most Print-Limit Pro installations use the internal database. This database is suitable for
most organizations, however some prefer to run using an external database (as discussed
in Chapter 17, Deployment on an External Database (RDBMS)).
The following graph shows the database size increase with the number of print jobs.
353
Capacity Planning
Figure D.1. Database growth using the internal database
These results show that the internal database grows by approximately 8.5MB per 10,000
print jobs.
D.1.2. SQL Server database growth
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Capacity Planning
Figure D.2. Database growth using a Microsoft SQL Server database
These results show that a Microsoft SQL Server database grows by approximately 4.5MB
per 10,000 print jobs.
D.1.3. Sample database growth calculation
This section provides a sample of how to estimate the database growth for your environment. To perform this calculation we need to make a number of assumptions. These assumptions should be adjusted to suit your organization. The assumptions are:
•
1 print job per user per day
•
20 working days in a month
•
Therefore, 20 print jobs per user per month
Here is a sample database growth calculation based on a 500 user site using the internal
database:
1.
Calculate the total number of print jobs expected for the month. (i.e. the total number
of users multiplied by the number of print jobs). 500 * 20 = 10,000. So in this example,
Print-Limit Pro is handling 10,000 print jobs a month.
2.
Calculate the monthly growth rate by dividing the jobs per month by 10,000 and then
multiplying by the database growth rate (i.e. for the internal DB this is 8.5MB for
10,000 jobs). So, 10,000 / 10,000 * 8.5 = 8.5MB/Month. Therefore in this situation the
internal database will grow by approximately 8.5MB per month.
3.
To estimate the growth per year, multiply the above by 12. Therefore in this situation,
the database will grow by 10.2 * 12 = 122.4MB per year.
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Capacity Planning
D.2. Network Bandwidth Planning
With modern switched Ethernet networks, bandwidth is rarely a factor when planning PrintLimit Pro deployments. The bandwidth consumed by Print-Limit Pro is usually dwarfed by
the print document data - e.g. the Postscript spool data sent across the network. Bandwidth does however become a consideration when planning deployments crossing physical
site boundaries such as networks linked via a WAN.
Print-Limit Pro uses an XML based web services protocol for communication between client-to-server and server-to-server. This protocol is very bandwidth efficient and designed
to work well on low bandwidth and high latency networks.
D.2.1. Bandwidth Estimates
Bandwidth consumption can be summarized as follows:
D.2.1.1. Server-to-Server
Other than normal print server traffic (standard job spooling), Print-Limit Pro will generate
XML-RPC based Web Services based traffic on port 9191. Connections are made from the
print server to the main Print-Limit Pro server (Primary Server). Normal activity is around
1-2kb of traffic for for each print job. Connections are instigated from the secondary server.
Network packets are only sent during printing activity.
D.2.1.2. Client-to-Server
Connections are instigated by the client inbound to the server on port 9191 and 9192
(Encrypted SSL). While at idle, the client consumes a few bytes once every minute (a
keep-alive heartbeat). During print activity, up to 1-2kb per print job may be consumed depending on client popup settings.
If using account selection popups, the client must download the latest account list from the
server whenever it is updated. The accounts are downloaded in a very efficient compressed format (approximately 20 bytes per account). If you have 10's of thousands of accounts, and many clients running on remote sites with limited bandwidth, please see Section D.3, “Managing Large Client Account Lists on Distributed Sites”.
D.3. Managing Large Client Account Lists on Distributed Sites
When using the print account selection dialogs, the user client displays a list of client accounts for the user to choose from. This account list is downloaded from the server
whenever the account list is updated (i.e. new accounts added). The accounts are downloaded in a very efficient compressed format (taking approximately 10-20 bytes per account). This works very well on the vast majority of sites that have less than 10,000 accounts and are running on fast network connection.
On sites that have 10's of thousands of accounts and many workstations on remotes with
bandwidth-limited WAN connections the accumulated bandwidth usage could be significant. To reduce this bandwidth usage, the clients can be configured to load the accounts
from a file stored locally at each site. When the accounts are updated on the server, the file
can be re-copied to each site. This distributes the client account list to all users at a site by
sending the account list over the network only once, instead of one copy per workstation/client.
The process works as follows:
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Capacity Planning
1.
On the server the administrator sets up a scheduled task to run the server command
to generate the client accounts file as follows:
server-command create-user-client-accounts-file
This
creates
the
client
account
[app-path]/server/data/client/client-accounts.dat.
file
in
For more information running server-command see Section A.1, “Server Commands
(server-command)”. See below for a sample batch file.
2.
Copy the client-accounts.dat to each of the sites running the client software. It
should be copied to a shared location accessible by all users running the client (e.g. a
file share).
Tip
If you are using Microsoft distributed file system (DFS), you can copy the
client account file to the distributed share. DFS will then efficiently distribute the file to all your remote sites.
3.
Configure
the
user
client
to
run
with
the
--accounts-file
"\\fileserver\path\to\client-accounts.dat" option. Clients at each site
should use the accounts file stored locally at that site. The account file location can
also be specified in the client's config.properties file. For more information on client configuration settings see Section A.5, “User Client Options”.
4.
Clients then load the accounts from the file and not directly from the server. The client
will only load the accounts from the server if it fails to load the accounts file (i.e. the file
does not exist).
Below is an example batch script that can be scheduled to run regularly on your Print-Limit
Pro server. This should be scheduled to run whenever your shared accounts are updated
(e.g. once a day). You will need to modify the script to reflect where Print-Limit Pro is installed and where the client file should be distributed.
REM Batch file to create and distribute the client accounts file
REM Create the client account file
[app-path]\server\bin\win\server-command create-user-client-accounts-file
REM === COPY TO SERVER 1 ===
REM Copy to destination server
REM Create temp file, so clients do not load an incomplete file.
copy /y [app-path]\server\data\client-accounts.dat \\svr1\share\accounts.tmp
REM Rename the temp file the final account file name used by the user clients
move /y \\svr1\share\accounts.tmp \\svr1\share\client-accounts.dat
REM === COPY TO SERVER 2 ===
copy /y [app-path]\server\data\client-accounts.dat \\svr2\share\accounts.tmp
move /y \\svr2\share\accounts.tmp \\svr2\share\client-accounts.dat
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Capacity Planning
D.3.1. Known limitations
There is one minor limitation of using the client account file approach. When the account
selection popup appears, it will list all the defined accounts (even if the user does not have
permission to charge to these accounts). The server still enforces security to ensure that
users can only charge to the accounts they have permission to access.
358
Appendix E. Upgrading From a
Previous Version
This appendix describes the Print-Limit Pro standard upgrade procedure. Print-Limit Pro
supports upgrades using a simple install-over-the-top procedure. We recommend reviewing all steps prior to commencing the upgrade procedure.
E.1. The recommended upgrade procedure
1.
Download the Print-Limit Pro installer for your platform. In accordance with best practice we recommend that you archive your install programs just in case you need to reinstall in the future or roll back to a previous version.
2.
Schedule approximately 10 minutes downtime. It is suggested to choose a time of day
with minimal network activity. If there is a large volume of data in the system (for example if the system has been running for more than a year, or there are more than
5,000 users) the upgrade may take longer. With very large installations it may be appropriate to schedule an hour or more of downtime.
3.
Take a point-in-time backup of the data by pressing the Backup Now button located
under Options → Backups. This will ensure you have a copy of the important data.
4.
As a precaution on very large systems, we recommend backing up the whole PrintLimit Pro directory. Existing overnight backups may have taken care of this task,
however take a few moments to grab an up-to-date backup now. For example, create
a zip archive of the directory:
C:\Program Files\Print-Limit Pro\
or the equivalent path on Linux or Mac.
5.
Run the installer downloaded in step 1 and install into the same location as the existing install.
6.
After the install is complete, log into the system and perform some tests to ensure all
is working as expected and the system is monitoring user activity as expected.
359
Appendix F. Upgrading from
Print-Limit Standard
This appendix describes the process for moving from Print-Limit Standard to Print-Limit
Pro, and includes instruction of importing user balances and restriction settings from the
old Print-Limit Standard installation.
These instructions assume that Print-Limit Pro will be installed on the same machine as
Print-Limit Standard, however the instructions can also be applied when Print-Limit Pro is
installed on a new machine.
F.1. Upgrade process
F.1.1. Step 1 - Stop and disable Print-Limit Standard
Firstly the Print-Limit Standard services should be stopped to ensure that they do not interfere with Print-Limit Pro. You should not uninstall Print-Limit Standard at this stage because we need the user database to import user balances into Print-Limit Pro.
To stop and disable the Print-Limit Standard services:
1.
Open the Windows services manager ( Start → Control Panel → Administrative
Tools → Services).
2.
Find the Print-Limit Print Charging service.
3.
Right-click on the server and select the Properties menu.
4.
Change the Startup Type to Disabled
5.
Press the Stop button to stop the service.
6.
Press OK to save the settings changes.
F.1.2. Step 2 - Install Print-Limit Pro
Install Print-Limit Pro as discussed in Chapter 2, Installation.
During the setup wizard, it is recommended that the user import settings be set up in the
same way as was configured in Print-Limit Standard. For example, if you import users from
the full Active Directory domain in Print-Limit Standard, also set this up in Print-Limit Pro.
Check that the users have been imported correctly. To adjust the user import settings and
re-perform the user synchronization process, go to the Options → User/Group Sync
screen. This is similar to the Tune-up function in Print-Limit Standard.
Once installed it is recommended that the groups are set up in the same way as in PrintLimit Standard. Groups are used to determine the default settings for new users and also
how quotas are allocated. For more information on groups see Section 6.1, “Groups in
Print-Limit Pro”.
F.1.3. Step 3 - Configure and test printers
The next step is to set up the printers in Print-Limit Pro to reflect the require page costs
and print restrictions. To do this:
360
Upgrading from Print-Limit Standard
1.
Navigate to the Printers section.
2.
Select the printer to adjust by clicking on the printer name.
3.
Enter the cost and filter settings.
4.
Press the OK or Apply buttons to save the changes.
For a detailed explanation of setting printer costs and restrictions, see Chapter 7, Advanced Printer Management.
Tip
If all your printers are configured with similar costs and filters then the settings
can be copied from one printer to the other printers. This is discussed in Section 7.3, “Copying Printer Settings”.
Tip
It is recommended that the administrator set up the [template printer].
This printer is used as a template when new printers are added to the system.
The template printer is discussed in detail in Section 7.2, “The Template Printer”.
To ensure that the printers are setup correctly, perform a test print to one of the configured
printers. Once printed, check the print log (Printers → Print Log) that the job was recorded and the correct cost calculated.
F.1.4. Step 4 - Import the existing User Balances
Moving the user balances and restricted status from Print-Limit Standard to Print-Limit Pro
is a simple process. If the server is running Windows then:
1.
Navigate to the Users section.
2.
Click the Batch import ... action (on the left).
3.
Press the Browse and locate the Print-Limit Standard
(PCUserDB.mdb).
This
is
typically
located
at:
Files\Print-Limit\Database\PCUserDB.mdb
4.
Press the Import button to start the import process.
5.
Upon successful completion, the number of users updated and created will be displayed.
6.
Perform some checks of the user balances and restricted statuses to ensure they are
set to the values from Print-Limit Standard.
user database
C:\Program
If the Print-Limit Pro server is not running on Windows, the Print-Limit Standard database
converter can be run manually on a Windows system, and the resulting text file can then
be imported in a process similar to the above. To convert the Print-Limit Standard user
database manually:
1.
Copy the [app-path]/server/bin/win/PCQuotaExport.exe file from the serv361
Upgrading from Print-Limit Standard
er (running the non-windows OS), to the Windows machine running Print-Limit Standard. Copy the exporter to the Print-Limit Standard database directory (usually
c:\Program Files\Print-Limit\Database).
2.
Open the command prompt, by running cmd.exe from Start → Run.
3.
Change to the Print-Limit Standard database directory. e.g.
cd "c:\Program Files\Print-Limit\Database"
4.
Run the converter, with the location of the PCUserDB.mdb as the argument. For example:
PCQuotaExport.exe "PCUserDB.mdb" > user-export.txt
If running the exporter from a different directory to the database, the full path to the
database should be provided.
5.
The above command creates a text file called user-export.txt that contains the
user data from Print-Limit Standard. The file can be opened in a text editor to review
the contents.
6.
The file can then be imported into Print-Limit Pro. First log in to Print-Limit Pro.
7.
Navigate to the Users section.
8.
Click the Batch import ... action (on the left).
9.
Press the Browse and locate the user-export.txt file, created in the above step.
10. Press the Import button to start the import process.
11. Upon successful completion, the number of users updated and created will be displayed.
12. Perform some checks of the user balances and restricted statuses to ensure they are
set to the values from Print-Limit Standard.
F.1.5. Step 5 - Upgrade client software
The old Print-Limit Standard client software is not compatible with Print-Limit Pro. The old
client software must be uninstalled off all workstations and the new client software deployed. The zero-install deployment method can greatly assist with this process. More information on the client deployment is detailed in Section 5.2, “User Client”.
Note: It is not 100% accurate to claim that the old client software must be removed. Once
the old server-side software is disabled, the old client will sit in an inactive state and do no
harm. Having said that however, it will consume some system resources on the workstations and hence it is generally recommended that it be uninstalled.
F.1.6. Step 6 - Optionally uninstall Print-Limit Standard
Once the Print-Limit Pro installation is completed and tested you can optionally uninstall
Print-Limit Standard. If you would like to view historical print data then we recommend
keeping the old application installed so you can view the historical data. If this is not important then the application can be uninstalled.
To uninstall:
362
Upgrading from Print-Limit Standard
1.
On the Windows server running Print-Limit Standard, go to: Start → Control Panel →
Add or Remove Programs).
2.
Find and select Print-Limit Standard in the list of installed programs.
3.
Click the Remove button to start the uninstall process.
363
Appendix G. Example User
Information Sheets
Usually administrators are responsible for educating users about policy or system changes
when Print-Limit Pro is deployed on their network. Providing the right information and
guidelines for users is important for the success of any new system.
This chapter contains examples of information sheets which could be distributed to users.
The purpose of these information sheets is to assist the administrator in providing important information about the new system and how to use it. These examples can act as templates or starting points for your own information sheets.
We suggest you enhance the information sheets to include information such as:
•
Details of your organization's printing policy, such as the standard cost per page and
whether or not more printing balance may be added after the user has run out.
•
Location of the printers.
•
How to report problems or receive assistance, such as refunding a failed print job.
•
How to contact the help desk.
•
How to provide feedback about the new system.
G.1. Example 1: Printing with the popup confirmation window
New software to manage printing costs has been installed on the network. To allow effective printing please make sure you understand the following points:
G.1.1. Popup Confirmation Dialog
After sending a print job a popup dialog will appear and ask you to confirm the details.
Click Print to confirm the job and agree to the cost. Otherwise, click Cancel if you no
longer wish to print the job.
Figure G.1. Client Popup Confirmation Window
Note: Large documents might take a while to display the number of pages and cost.
G.1.2. The Printing Balance Window
364
Example User Information Sheets
After logging on to a workstation you will see a window showing your printing balance.
Figure G.2. Printing balance window showing $10.00 of printing balance
If the balance window is not visible (or if you have closed or minimized it) click the icon in
your system tray to show it again.
Figure G.3. Printing balance icon in the system tray
When you confirm a print job by pressing Print in the popup dialog the cost will be deducted from your printing balance.
G.1.3. Resolving Problems
If the popup window does not appear or the icon is missing from your system tray, the print
control system may not be active and printing will be denied. Please try restarting your system, or ask for assistance if problems continue.
G.1.4. Printing Denied Message
If you do not have enough printing balance for a job you will see a Printing Denied message, and your document will not be printed.
Figure G.4. Printing denied message
G.2. Example 2: Printing with shared accounts (for staff)
365
Example User Information Sheets
New software to manage printing costs has been installed on the network. The system will
allow the college to track printing expenses according to the individual, faculty or department. To allow effective printing please make sure you understand the following points:
G.2.1. Shared Account Selection Popup Window
After sending a print job a popup dialog will appear and ask you to confirm the details. The
print job may be charged to your personal account (using your personal printing balance),
or to a shared account (a faculty, using the faculty budget). After choosing an account to
charge, click Print to confirm the job and agree to the cost. Otherwise, click Cancel if you
no longer wish to print the job.
Your personal account should be selected when printing non-faculty related documents.
For example:
•
Printing your personal bank or phone statement.
•
Occasional personal use of a photo printer.
A shared account should be selected for faculty printing. For example:
•
Student handouts.
•
Student reports.
•
Course syllabus.
•
Class lists.
Selecting the right faculty account from the drop-down list is important. Different staff members will have access to different faculty accounts. If an account that you require is missing
from the list, please contact the system administrator. Please note that the use of faculty
accounts is monitored and faculty heads are provided with printing reports.
Figure G.5. Shared Account Selection Popup
Note: Large documents might take a while to display the number of pages and cost.
366
Example User Information Sheets
G.2.2. Resolving Problems
If the popup window does not appear or the icon is missing from your system tray, the print
control system may not be active and printing will be denied. Please try restarting your system, or contact the network administrator if problems continue.
Figure G.6. Printing balance icon in the system tray
G.2.3. Printing Denied Message
If you do not have enough printing balance for a job you will see a Printing Denied message, and your document will not be printed.
Figure G.7. Printing denied message
G.3. Example 3: Printing using a release station
The printing procedure has been changed on the network. Now when you print a job, it will
not print it immediately, but instead will be held in a queue. You will need to attend a release station and release the job to print. This new system ensures that you are present
and ready to collect your job. Please follow the steps listed below:
1.
Select Print from your application (e.g. File → Print...)
2.
Walk up to the release station located next to the printer.
3.
Log in to the release station using your network username and password.
Figure G.8. Login screen
4.
After login the system will display a list of print jobs. Search for your document by look367
Example User Information Sheets
ing for your user name or document name.
Figure G.9. Print jobs waiting in a release station
Note: If you can't find your print job it may have 'timed out'. Print jobs are held by the
release station for 30 minutes. If they have not been released after this time they will
be deleted.
5.
Check the cost and details of the job.
6.
Click Print to release the job. Please note that it may take up to 30 seconds for the
printer to warm up after clicking Print.
G.4. Example 4: Refunding a print job (for staff)
Selected staff members have been granted access to refund print jobs in the new print
control system.
Reasons for refunding a print job may include:
•
There was a paper jam or the document failed to print correctly.
•
The document failed to print at an acceptable quality.
As a staff member you will need to make an assessment about whether or not to issue a
refund. A print job may be fully or partially refunded. A full refund is the more common
scenario.
G.4.1. Full Refund
To issue a full refund:
•
Log
in
to
the
Print-Limit
Pro
administration
interface
at
tp://servername:9191/admin using your network username and password.
•
Find the user to refund from the Users tab by entering their username in the Quick find
box or clicking on their username.
•
Click on the Print History tab. This will list recent print jobs printed by the user, with the
most recent at the top.
•
Look for the print job that needs refunding and click the refund link next to it.
368
ht-
Example User Information Sheets
Figure G.10. Print History
G.4.2. Partial Refund
A partial refund may be issued in special situations such as:
•
A user printed a 20 page document and only the last 2 pages did not print correctly
(e.g. due to the toner running out).
•
A user printed (and was charged for) 2 copies of a document but only 1 copy was printed due to a hardware failure.
To issue a partial refund:
•
Log
in
to
the
Print-Limit
Pro
administration
interface
at
tp://college:9191/admin using your network username and password.
•
Find the user to refund from the Users tab by entering their username in the Quick find
box or clicking on their username.
•
Click on the Adjustments & Charges tab.
•
Enter the positive adjustment in the Adjustment to apply box and enter an appropriate
comment - the reason for the refund.
•
Click Apply to perform the adjustment.
ht-
Figure G.11. Issuing a partial refund using Adjustments & Charges
G.5. Example 5: Adding credit using a PrintCard
New software to manage printing costs has been installed on the network. Without suffi369
Example User Information Sheets
cient printing credit in your account printing will be denied. To add more credit you can buy
PrintCards from the nominated venues around the college. Each card is a voucher or
coupon with a unique number. Please make sure your card number is kept secret until use.
To add credit to your account using a card:
•
Log in to a computer. Soon after login, your printing balance window will appear.
•
Click the Details ... link on the balance window.
Figure G.12. Balance window showing the Details link
•
A web page will open requesting your network username and password.
•
After logging in click the Redeem Card link from the left menu.
•
Enter the number from the card. It should be entered exactly as shown on the card including any dashes (-).
Figure G.13. Redeem Card page
•
Click Redeem Card. The value of the card will immediately be added to your printing
balance.
•
Click Summary from the left menu and check your balance to confirm the card's value
has been added to your account.
Note: The card is valid for a single usage only. The card should be recycled or disposed of
after use.
370
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