Installing Windows XP Professional

Installing Windows XP Professional
www.IrPDF.com
1 YEAR UPGRADE
BUYER PROTECTION PLAN
Configuring and Troubleshooting
WINDOWS XP
Professional
Everything You Need to Install and Configure Windows XP Professional
• Step-by-Step Instructions for Performing a Network Installation of Windows XP
Professional
• Complete Coverage of Upgrading Legacy Systems to Windows XP
• Determine a Complete Security Policy for Windows XP Using Internet Connection
Firewall, Encrypting File System, and NTFS
Martin Grasdal
Technical Editor
Brian Barber
Chad Todd
Norris L. Johnson, Jr.
Robert Shimonski
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page i
www.IrPDF.com
[email protected]
With more than 1,500,000 copies of our MCSE, MCSD, CompTIA, and Cisco
study guides in print, we continue to look for ways we can better serve the
information needs of our readers. One way we do that is by listening.
Readers like yourself have been telling us they want an Internet-based service that would extend and enhance the value of our books. Based on
reader feedback and our own strategic plan, we have created a Web site
that we hope will exceed your expectations.
[email protected] is an interactive treasure trove of useful information focusing on our book topics and related technologies. The site
offers the following features:
■
One-year warranty against content obsolescence due to vendor
product upgrades. You can access online updates for any affected
chapters.
■
“Ask the Author” customer query forms that enable you to post
questions to our authors and editors.
■
Exclusive monthly mailings in which our experts provide answers to
reader queries and clear explanations of complex material.
■
Regularly updated links to sites specially selected by our editors for
readers desiring additional reliable information on key topics.
Best of all, the book you’re now holding is your key to this amazing site.
Just go to www.syngress.com/solutions, and keep this book handy when
you register to verify your purchase.
Thank you for giving us the opportunity to serve your needs. And be sure
to let us know if there’s anything else we can do to help you get the
maximum value from your investment. We’re listening.
www.syngress.com/solutions
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page ii
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page iii
www.IrPDF.com
1 YEAR UPGRADE
BUYER PROTECTION PLAN
Configuring and Troubleshooting
Windows XP
Professional
Brian Barber
Chad Todd
Norris L. Johnson, Jr.
Robert J. Shimonski
Martin Grasdal
Technical Editor
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page iv
www.IrPDF.com
Syngress Publishing, Inc., the author(s), and any person or firm involved in the writing, editing, or
production (collectively “Makers”) of this book (“the Work”) do not guarantee or warrant the results to be
obtained from the Work.
There is no guarantee of any kind, expressed or implied, regarding the Work or its contents.The Work is
sold AS IS and WITHOUT WARRANTY. You may have other legal rights, which vary from state to state.
In no event will Makers be liable to you for damages, including any loss of profits, lost savings, or other
incidental or consequential damages arising out from the Work or its contents. Because some states do not
allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages, the above limitation
may not apply to you.
You should always use reasonable care, including backup and other appropriate precautions, when working
with computers, networks, data, and files.
Syngress Media®, Syngress®, “Career Advancement Through Skill Enhancement®,” and “Ask the Author
UPDATE®,” are registered trademarks of Syngress Publishing, Inc. “Mission Critical™,”“Hack Proofing™,”
and “The Only Way to Stop a Hacker is to Think Like One™” are trademarks of Syngress Publishing, Inc.
Brands and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective
companies.
KEY
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
SERIAL NUMBER
MM99BX6YDF
AHDH9W8RAT
2BSKFJF4TG
DNDU75TA39
KQSER5R789
7GDATRZ575
86NHGHK8Y6
7GBFSE45LU
SVT5H7KER8
LVX23F35HY
PUBLISHED BY
Syngress Publishing, Inc.
800 Hingham Street
Rockland, MA 02370
Configuring and Troubleshooting Windows XP Professional
Copyright © 2001 by Syngress Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or
distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior
written permission of the publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored,
and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication.
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
ISBN: 1-928994-80-6
Technical Editors: Martin Grasdal
Freelance Editorial Manager: Maribeth Corona-Evans
and John M. Gunson II
Technical Reviewer:Will Schmied
Cover Designer: Michael Kavish
Co-Publisher: Richard Kristof
Page Layout and Art by: Shannon Tozier
Acquisitions Editor: Catherine B. Nolan
Copy Editor: Darren Meiss
Developmental Editor: Jonathan Babcock
Indexer: Jennifer Coker
Distributed by Publishers Group West in the United States and Jaguar Book Group in Canada.
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page v
www.IrPDF.com
Acknowledgments
We would like to acknowledge the following people for their kindness and support
in making this book possible.
Richard Kristof and Duncan Anderson of Global Knowledge, for their generous
access to the IT industry’s best courses, instructors, and training facilities.
Ralph Troupe, Rhonda St. John, and the team at Callisma for their invaluable insight
into the challenges of designing, deploying and supporting world-class enterprise
networks.
Karen Cross, Lance Tilford, Meaghan Cunningham, Kim Wylie, Harry Kirchner,
Kevin Votel, Kent Anderson, and Frida Yara of Publishers Group West for sharing
their incredible marketing experience and expertise.
Mary Ging, Caroline Hird, Simon Beale, Caroline Wheeler,Victoria Fuller, Jonathan
Bunkell, and Klaus Beran of Harcourt International for making certain that our
vision remains worldwide in scope.
Annabel Dent of Harcourt Australia for all her help.
David Buckland,Wendi Wong, Daniel Loh, Marie Chieng, Lucy Chong, Leslie Lim,
Audrey Gan, and Joseph Chan of Transquest Publishers for the enthusiasm with
which they receive our books.
Kwon Sung June at Acorn Publishing for his support.
Ethan Atkin at Cranbury International for his help in expanding the Syngress program.
v
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page vi
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page vii
www.IrPDF.com
Technical Editors and Contributors
Martin Grasdal (BA, MCSE+I on Windows NT 4.0, MCSE on
Windows 2000, MCT, CNE, CNI, CTT, A+) is Director of Cramsession
Content at BrainBuzz.com and is a co-founder of Eutechnia Solutions, a
computer consulting and training firm based in Edmonton, Canada.
Martin has been an MCT since 1995 and an MCSE since 1996. His
training and network experience covers a broad range of products,
including NetWare, Lotus Notes,Windows NT and 2000, Exchange
Server, IIS, Proxy Server, and ISA Server 2000. Martin was the Technical
Editor for the bestselling Syngress Publishing’s Configuring ISA Server
2000: Building Firewalls for Windows 2000 (ISBN: 1-928994-29-6) by
Thomas and Deb Shinder. Martin also works actively as a consultant. His
recent consulting experience includes contract work for Microsoft as a
Technical Contributor to the MCP Program on projects related to server
technologies. Martin lives in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, with his wife
Cathy and their two sons.
John M. Gunson II (MCSE, MCT, Master CNE, CCNA) is an infrastructure consultant, trainer, author, and speaker. He has worked in the
Information Technology field for nearly 13 years, designing and deploying
complex solutions utilizing Microsoft, Novell, and Cisco products for corporations in the Philadelphia and New York areas. John has written and
contributed to several Syngress Publishing titles, including Deploying
Windows 2000 with Support Tools, and PC Maintenance & Repair DVD Kit
(ISBN: 1-928994-41-5). He has also written several articles on Microsoft
and Cisco technologies for Windows 2000 Magazine and Microsoft
Certified Professional Magazine. John lives in the Philadelphia suburbs
with his family and ever growing collection of computer and network
equipment.
vii
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page viii
www.IrPDF.com
Contributors
David L. Hopper (MCSE, MCP+I, CCNP, NNCSS) is a Senior
Network Support Engineer with SBC Datacomm. David currently provides multivendor network support to internal network engineers and
contract clients. His areas of expertise include Microsoft Windows
NT/2000/XP, Cisco and Nortel routers, Symantec Enterprise Firewall
(formerly Raptor Firewall), and general network design, implementation,
and optimization. David’s background includes positions as a Senior
Infrastructure Engineer with the Anixter Inc. networking division, an
Enterprise LAN Engineer at Anixter Inc., and a Support Engineer with
Reeves Data Corporation. David resides in Waukegan, IL with his fiancée
Valerie.
Mark Horninger (A+, MCSE+I, MCSD, MCDBA) is President and
founder of Haverford Consultants Inc. (www.haverford-consultants.com),
located in the suburbs of Philadelphia, PA. He develops custom applications and system engineering solutions, specializing primarily in Microsoft
operating systems and Microsoft BackOffice products. He has over 10
years of computer consulting experience and has passed 29 Microsoft
Certified exams. During his career, Mark has worked on many extensive
projects including database development, application development,
training, embedded systems development, and Windows NT and 2000
project rollout planning and implementations. Mark lives with his wife
Debbie and two children in Havertown, PA.
Robert J. Shimonski (Cisco CCDP, CCNP, Nortel NNCSS, MCSE,
MCP+I, Master CNE, CIP, CIBS, CWP, CIW, GSEC, GCIH, Server+,
Network+, Inet+, A+) is a Lead Network and Security Engineer for
Thomson Industries Inc.Thomson Industries is the leading manufacturer
and provider of linear motion products and engineering. Robert’s specialties include network infrastructure design with the Cisco and Nortel
product line, network security design and management with CiscoSecure
viii
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page ix
www.IrPDF.com
and PIX Firewalls, network management and troubleshooting with
CiscoWorks and Sniffer-based technologies, systems engineering and
administration with Microsoft NT/2000/XP, UNIX, Linux, Apple, and
Novell Netware technologies, and developing a host of Web-based solutions for companies securing their market on the Web. He has also contributed to hundreds of articles, study guides, and certification preparation
software for Web sites and organizations worldwide, including
Brainbuzz.com and SANS.Org. Robert’s background includes positions as
a Network Architect at Avis Rent A Car and Cendant Information
Technology. Robert holds a bachelor’s degree from SUNY, NY and is a
part-time Licensed Technical Instructor for Computer Career Center in
Garden City, NY teaching Windows-based and Networking Technologies.
Brian Barber (MCSE, MCP+I, MCNE, CNE-5, CNE-4, CNA-3,
CNA-GW), co-author of Syngress Publishing’s Configuring Exchange 2000
Server (ISBN: 1-928994-25-3) is a Senior Technology Consultant with
Sierra Systems Consultants Inc. in Ottawa, Canada. As such, he provides
technical architecture consulting and analysis to public and private sector
clients. Brian specializes in technical and network architecture, focusing
on Web-enabled service delivery through directory services and messaging. His background includes positions as Senior Technical Analyst at
MetLife and Senior Technical Coordinator at the LGS Group Inc. (now a
part of IBM Global Services). He would like to thank his family for all of
their help, love, and support, and Glen Donegan at Microsoft Canada for
providing the software he needed to set up a test environment.
Chad Todd (MCSE, MCT, CNE, CAN, A+, Network+, I-Net+) is a
Systems Trainer for Ikon Education Services, a global provider of technology training. He currently teaches Windows 2000 and Windows XP
courses. In addition to training for Ikon, Chad also provides private consulting for small- to medium-sized companies. Chad is the author of
Syngress Publishing’s Hack Proofing Windows 2000 Server (ISBN:
1-931836-49-3). Chad first earned his MCSE on Windows NT 4.0 and
has been working with Windows 2000 and Windows XP since their first
beta releases. He was awarded Microsoft Charter Member 2000 for being
ix
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page x
www.IrPDF.com
one of the first 2000 engineers to attain Windows 2000 MCSE certification. Chad would like to thank his wife Sarah for her caring support and
encouragement.
Norris L. Johnson, Jr. (MCSE, MCT, CTT, A+, Network +) is a
Technology Trainer and owner of a consulting company in the SeattleTacoma area. His consultancies have included deployments and security
planning for local firms and public agencies, as well as providing services to
other local computer firms in need of problem solving and solutions for
their clients. He specializes in Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 issues,
providing planning and implementation and integration services. In addition to consulting work, Norris trains extensively in the AATP program at
Highline Community College’s Federal Way,WA campus, and has taught in
the vocational education arena at Bates Technical College in Tacoma,WA.
Norris holds a bachelor’s degree from Washington State University. He is
deeply appreciative of the guidance and support offered by his parents and
wife Cindy during the years of transition and education to make the career
change that has been so wonderful to be involved in.
Henk-Evert Sonder (CCNA) has over 15 years of experience as an
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) professional,
building and maintaining ICT infrastructures. In recent years, he has specialized in integrating ICT infrastructures with secure business applications. Henk’s company, IT Selective, works with small businesses to help
them develop high-quality, low cost solutions. Henk has contributed to
several Syngress Publishing titles, including the E-Mail Virus Protection
Handbook (ISBN: 1-928994-23-7), Designing SQL Server 2000 Databases
for .NET Enterprise Servers (ISBN: 1-928994-19-9), VB.NET Developer’s
Guide (ISBN: 1-928994-48-2), and the forthcoming BizTalk Server 2000
Developer’s Guide for .NET (ISBN: 1-928994-40-7). Henk lives in
Hingham, MA with his wife Jude and daughter Lily.
John Godfrey (MCSE, MCP+I, CNA) is currently a freelance consultant who has a wide range of experience gained from over 12 years in the
IT industry. John mainly specializes in Microsoft Technologies providing
x
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page xi
www.IrPDF.com
design, automation, process management, implementation, and development. He has provided consultancy for many leading companies in the
UK including leading financial institutions and IBM. In addition, he has
worked on many other technical publications as a reviewer and technical
editor more recently focusing on .NET technologies. John lives in the
Shrophsire Hills in the United Kingdom with his wife Rosalind and three
children Sophie, Jacob, and Polly.
xi
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_FM.qxd
11/13/01
8:29 AM
Page xii
www.IrPDF.com
Technical Reviewer
Will Schmied (MCSE) is a featured writer on Windows 2000 and
Windows XP technologies for CramSession.com. He has also authored
several works for various Microsoft certification exams.Will provides consulting and training on Microsoft products to small- and medium-sized
organizations in the Hampton Roads,VA area. He holds a bachelor’s
degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology from Old Dominion
University and is a member of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers and the National Society of Professional Engineers.Will currently resides in Newport News,VA with his family Allison, Christopher,
Austin, Andrea, and Hannah.
xii
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xiii
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Foreword
Exploring Windows XP
Professional
Windows XP Professional
takes the product to the
next level:
■
IntelliMirror
Technologies
■
Group Policy
Functionality
■
Encrypting File System
Support
■
Multiprocessor Support
Chapter 1 Next Generation Windows
Introduction
Introducing the Windows XP Family
Windows XP Home Edition
Multimedia Capabilities
Improved User Interface
Security Enhancements
Switching between User Sessions
Hardware and Software Compatibility
Windows XP Professional
The Future of Windows 2000 Server:
Windows .NET Servers
Introducing the Major Features of Windows XP
Professional
User Interface
Networking
Better Performance
Internet Features
Remote Assistance
Reliability Features
Multimedia Features
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
xxvii
1
2
2
3
3
5
6
6
7
8
8
9
9
12
13
13
13
14
15
16
16
17
xiii
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xiv
www.IrPDF.com
xiv
Contents
Answers to Your
Frequently Asked
Questions
Q: FAT or NTFS? Which
file system should you
choose during the
installation of
Windows XP
Professional?
A: In order to take
advantage of all of the
features of Windows
XP, such as Encrypting
File System, you need
to choose NTFS.
Chapter 2 Installing Windows XP
Professional
19
Introduction
20
Clean Installation of Windows XP Professional
23
Setup Issues
36
Performing an Upgrade to Windows XP
Professional
38
Upgrading from Windows 98/Me
40
Upgrading from Windows NT/2000
41
Starting the Upgrade
41
Network Installation of Windows XP Professional 47
Automating the Windows XP Professional Setup
48
Preparing for Setup
49
Command-Line Setup
49
Network Distribution Point
52
Distribution Point Directory Structure
52
Customizing Windows XP Professional Setup 54
Answer Files
54
Setup Manager 3.0
55
Further Customization with UDB
73
Preparing the Destination Computer
75
Using Sysprep
77
Overview of Sysprep
77
Sysprep Requirements
77
Sysprep Step by Step
78
Running Sysprep during Automated
Installation
81
Automating Setup of a Target Computer
81
Creating an Answer File Using Setup
Manager
82
Running Additional Programs After
Mini-Setup
84
Summary
86
Solutions Fast Track
86
Frequently Asked Questions
88
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xv
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Accessing the Desktop
Settings
You can access the
desktop settings several
ways:
■
Using the Control Panel
■
Right-Clicking and
Selecting from the
Pop-Up Menu
■
Via a Command Line
Chapter 3 Exploring the Windows XP
User Interface
Introduction
Configuring the Desktop
Desktop Settings
Accessing the Desktop Settings
Desktop Settings Modifications
Themes
Backgrounds
Appearance
Screen Saver
Overview of the Start Menu and the Taskbar
The Start Menu
The Taskbar
Configuring the Standard Desktop Programs
My Computer
My Network Places
My Documents
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 4 Managing Windows XP
Professional
Introduction
Creating Users and Groups
What Are User Accounts?
Local User Accounts
Exercise 4.1 Creating Local User
Accounts with the Computer
Management Console
Exercise 4.2 Creating Local User
Accounts by Using the Command
Line
Exercise 4.3 Deleting Local User
Accounts by Using the Command
Line
www.IrPDF.com
xv
91
92
93
93
93
98
102
103
108
110
111
111
122
124
125
126
126
128
128
130
133
134
134
134
135
136
140
141
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xvi
www.IrPDF.com
xvi
Contents
NOTE
A profile is a set of
configurations that
you can create, or
the machine creates
by default (usually
ending with a .DAT
extension) that
defines your environment when logging on. The
environment can
contain (among
other things)
window size and
position settings,
program items,
icons, and screen
colors.
Exercise 4.4 Creating Local User
Accounts with the Control Panel
User Accounts Applet
Domain User Accounts
Exercise 4.5 Joining a Domain
What Are Groups?
Local Groups
Exercise 4.6 Creating Local Groups
Exercise 4.7 Creating and Deleting
Local Groups from the Command
Prompt
Global Groups
New Functionality in XP for User Accounts
Password Hinting
Picture Uploading
Sharing Folders
Other Sharing Techniques
Managing Storage
Configuring Hard Drives
Converting a Drive to NTFS via the
Command Line
File Systems and NTFS versus FAT32
Exercise 4.8 Enabling Disk Quotas on
an NTFS Drive
Basic versus Dynamic Disks
Working with Removable Storage
Creating a Media Pool
Managing Devices
Enabling, Disabling, or Removing
Hardware and Changing and Updating
the Current Drivers
Using the Event Viewer
Event Logs
Navigating to the Event Viewer
Application Log
System Log
Security Log
www.IrPDF.com
141
145
146
147
147
148
150
150
151
151
151
152
158
161
163
165
165
167
169
171
172
173
175
177
177
177
178
178
178
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xvii
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Transferring Files and
Settings between
Computers
The Files and Settings
Transfer Wizard allows you
to migrate files and
settings from any
Windows system to a
Windows XP system. The
advantage of this System
tool is not so much in the
transfer of files, which can
also be achieved by the
Backup Utility, but the fact
that (nearly) all personal
settings can be reinstated
on the Windows XP
system, which saves a lot
of time and annoyance.
How to Work with and Troubleshoot
the Logs
Adjusting the Size of and Saving
Event Logs
Understanding Performance Logs
Monitoring and Logging
Performance Tuning and Troubleshooting
Baselining
The Performance Logs and Alerts
Console
Creating a New Counter Log
Creating a New Trace Log
Alerts
Creating an Alert
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 5 Working with System Tools
Introduction
Defragmenting Your Hard Disk
How Disk Defragmenter Works
The Limitations of Disk Defragmenter
Using Disk Defragmenter
Controlling Fragmentation of the Pagefile
and MFT
Cleaning Up Files
Transferring Files and Settings between
Computers
The Basics of the Files and Settings
Transfer
Selecting and Transferring the Files
and Settings
Receiving the Transferable Files and
Settings
Scheduling Tasks
Working with the Task Scheduler
www.IrPDF.com
xvii
179
180
182
182
182
183
183
184
186
187
187
189
189
192
195
196
196
198
199
201
210
215
220
221
222
228
231
232
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xviii
www.IrPDF.com
xviii
Contents
Using the QoS Packet
Scheduler
The QoS Packet Scheduler
is installed by default. QoS
has been enhanced in
Windows XP to
automatically optimize
TCP/IP for transmission
across different interfaces
that operate at different
rates. This is typically the
situation if you have
turned on Internet
Connection Sharing.
Managing Scheduled Tasks
Using the Scheduled Task Wizard
Changing a Scheduled Task
Backing Up Your Files
Backup Functionalities
Working with the Backup Tool
Using the Advanced Mode Backup Utility
The Backup Utility’s Menu Bar
Setting the Options in the Backup
Utility
Using the Welcome Tab Functions
Using the Backup Tab Function
Using the Schedule Jobs Tab Function
Using the Backup or Restore Wizard
Restoring Your System
Using the Restore Wizard (Advanced)
Using the Restore and Manage Media Tab
of the Backup Utility
Using the Restore Portion of the Backup
or Restore Wizard
Using the Automated System Recovery
Using the System Restore Tool
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 6 Windows XP Networking
Introduction
Overview of Networking Technologies
Open Systems Interconnection Reference
Model
Department of Defense Model
Windows XP Networking Architecture
Configuring Network Interfaces
The Local Area Connection
Using Loopback Adapters
Bridging Network Connections
www.IrPDF.com
239
240
242
250
250
253
256
257
259
264
273
276
277
282
282
285
286
286
287
292
293
297
299
300
301
304
306
308
309
309
312
313
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xix
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Network Client and Protocol Considerations
Configuring Microsoft and Novell Clients
Working with Network Protocols
Working with TCP/IP
Working with IPX/SPX
Working with RAS and VPN
Configuring a RAS Connection
Tunneling with a VPN Connection
Sharing Your Internet Connection
Configuring Internet Connection Sharing
Filtering and Firewalls
Using IP Packet Filtering
Configuring the Internet Connection
Firewall
Wireless Connectivity
Wireless Standards
Microsoft’s Implementation of IEEE
802.11 and 802.1x Standards
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Configuring Internet
Explorer 6
You can easily customize
Internet Explorer 6 to suit
business requirements and
individual tastes. Microsoft
has built-in features that
embrace Web standards,
guard the user’s privacy,
protect the user from
malicious sites, and make
browsing the Web more
convenient and efficient.
Chapter 7 Configuring Internet
Technologies
Introduction
Configuring Internet Explorer 6
What’s New in Internet Explorer 6?
Configuring the Browser
The General Tab
The Security Tab
The Privacy Tab
The Content Tab
The Connections Tab
The Programs Tab
The Advanced Tab
Using Internet Explorer 6
Advanced Configuration for the Corporate
Environment
www.IrPDF.com
xix
316
317
319
320
329
330
330
337
341
344
347
348
348
351
352
354
357
358
362
367
368
368
368
370
371
374
377
380
382
383
384
385
392
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xx
www.IrPDF.com
xx
Contents
Connecting to Other
Windows XP Machines
You do not have to be
running Windows XP to
set up a connection to a
Windows XP client. These
other versions of Windows
are supported:
■
Windows 95
■
Windows 98
■
Windows Me
■
Windows NT 4.0
■
Windows 2000
Configuring Outlook Express 6
Using Outlook Express 6
Corporate Considerations
Configuring Instant Messaging
Using Windows Messenger
Corporate Considerations
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
394
400
401
402
407
410
411
412
413
Chapter 8 Adding New Hardware
and Software
Introduction
Adding New Hardware to Your System
Using the Add Hardware Wizard
Installing Software
Adding Software
Removing Software
Working with Windows Installer
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
417
418
418
419
428
428
430
432
439
439
441
Chapter 9 Using the
Communication Tools
Introduction
Using Remote Desktop Sharing
Connecting to Other Windows XP
Machines
Connecting to Windows 2000 Terminal
Servers
Configuring Windows XP for Faxing
Sending Faxes Using XP
Connecting to the Internet
Collaborating with NetMeeting
Working with HyperTerminal
Summary
www.IrPDF.com
443
444
445
446
453
454
457
459
462
473
479
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xxi
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Answers to Your
Frequently Asked
Questions
Q: My machine is ACPIcompliant. When I look
at Power Management
Options, I do not see
an APM tab. Is this
OK? How do I
configure Advance
Power Management?
A: On ACPI-compliant
machines, APM is not
installed because it is
not required. ACPI
improves upon APM as
a power management
standard, and it
provides greater
control over devices
that are subject to
power saving
measures. You can
configure power
management by using
the remaining tabs.
The actual power
management that goes
on behind the scenes is
executed using the
ACPI standard, not the
APM standard.
Chapter 10 Using the Control Panel
Introduction
Setting Power Management Options
Windows XP Accessibility Options
Keyboard Settings
Sound Settings
Display Settings
Mouse Settings
General Settings
Other Accessibility Applications
Changing Mouse and Keyboard Settings
Configuring Regional and Language Settings
Working with System Properties
Computer Name and Domain Configuration
Automatic Updates
Remote Use Configuration
System Restore Settings
Advanced Settings
Performance Settings
User Profiles Settings
Startup and Recovery Settings
Environment Variables
Error Reporting
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 11 Understanding
Windows XP Security
Introduction
File System Security
NTFS
Modifying or Adding Standard File
and Folder Permissions
www.IrPDF.com
xxi
480
482
483
484
486
493
494
495
496
498
498
499
500
507
511
511
513
514
515
516
517
520
520
522
523
525
526
529
531
532
532
532
534
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xxii
www.IrPDF.com
xxii
Contents
Utilizing Network
Security
Several tools are included
with Windows XP to
secure network access:
■
The Internet
Connection Firewall
■
TCP/IP Filtering
■
Smart cards
■
EAP
■
802.1x
Modifying or Adding Advanced
File or Folder Permissions
Modifying File and Folder Permissions
Inheritance
Encrypting File System
Creating an Encrypted File or Folder
Decrypting Files or Folders
Account Security
Security Groups
Creating Groups
Adding or Removing Group Members
Deleting Groups that Are No Longer
Needed
Security Policies
Account Policy
Local Policies
Public Key Policies
Software Restriction Policies
IP Security Policies
Network Security
Using the Internet Connection Firewall
TCP/IP Filtering
Enabling and Configuring TCP/IP
Filtering
Disabling TCP/IP Filtering
Smart Cards
Extensible Authentication Protocol
Configuring EAP with VPN and
Dial-Up Networking
802.1x Authentication
Configuring Network Access
Control using 802.1x and EAP
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
www.IrPDF.com
537
539
546
548
550
550
551
555
557
558
558
559
561
568
570
571
573
573
577
578
579
579
580
581
585
585
586
586
588
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xxiii
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Planning for
IntelliMirror
It is important to have
Active Directory installed
and configured properly
prior to using IntelliMirror
for software deployment
and configuration
management. Be sure to
test Active Directory
completely before relying
on the IntelliMirror
functions.
Chapter 12 Using IntelliMirror
Technologies
Introduction
Group Policies
Group Policy Order
Group Policy Scenario
How Group Policies Are Applied
Troubleshooting Group Policies
Using Group Policy to Replace System
Policy
Resultant Set of Policy
Software Installation and Maintenance
Using Group Policy to Install Software
Changing Software Group Policy
Options
MSIEXEC.EXE
Software Installation Properties
Updating Software Packages
Offline Files and Synchronization
Working with Offline Files
Synchronizing Your Data with the Network
Remote Installation Services
Installing Windows XP with RIS
Customizing RIS
Prestaging a Client for RIS Operation
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 13 Working with Printers
Introduction
Adding a Local Printer
Printer Drivers
Exercise 13.1 Installing a Local Printer
Printing to a Local Printer from a
Remote Session
Sharing Your Local Printer
www.IrPDF.com
xxiii
589
590
590
592
592
601
601
603
603
608
609
613
618
619
620
620
623
623
624
625
626
629
631
631
632
635
636
637
637
638
645
645
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xxiv
www.IrPDF.com
xxiv
Contents
Troubleshooting
Hardware
Troubleshooting hardware
issues generally requires
good, basic
troubleshooting
methodology. Before you
begin, remember the
following caveats:
■
Troubleshooting
requires reproducible
events; it is rarely
effective in cases of
intermittent failure.
■
Troubleshooting tools
in Windows XP are
designed to operate
with hardware that is
in the Hardware
Compatibility List.
■
Follow your complete
troubleshooting path;
repair of symptoms
may not repair the
cause.
Configuring Print Drivers for Network
Clients
Exercise 13.2 Sharing a Local Printer
Connecting to a Network Printer
Exercise 13.3 Mapping to a Shared
Local Printer
Configuring Your Printer
The Properties of a Logical Printer
General Tab
Ports Tab
Advanced Tab
Security Tab
Device Settings Tab
Web-Based Printing
Exercise 13.4 Connecting to a Printer
via the Web Browser
The Print Queue
Troubleshooting Printer Problems
Exercise 13.5 Redirecting Printers
Printer Auditing
Exercise 13.6 Enabling Printer Auditing
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 14 Troubleshooting Windows XP
Introduction
Troubleshooting Resources
Knowledge Base
TechNet
Help and Support Center Page
Pick a Help Topic
Ask for Assistance
Pick a Task
Did You Know? and Options
Remote Assistance
Microsoft.com
www.IrPDF.com
646
646
649
650
653
654
654
656
658
661
663
663
663
664
665
666
667
667
671
671
673
675
676
676
677
677
678
678
679
681
685
686
696
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xxv
www.IrPDF.com
Contents
Using the Recovery
Console
Windows XP includes the
Recovery Console, which
was introduced in
Windows 2000. The
Recovery Console is a textbased command
interpreter, which is
different from the normal
Windows XP cmd.exe
command interpreter in
that it has a different set
of commands and it
allows you to access a
Windows XP system that is
not booting normally or is
otherwise inaccessible.
Troubleshooting the Logon Process
Troubleshooting Network/
Internet Connectivity
Troubleshooting System Performance
Task Manager
The Application Tab
The Processes Tab
The Performance Tab
The Networking Tab
Performance MMC
Troubleshooting Applications
Troubleshooting Hardware
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 15 Best Practice Disaster
Recovery and Prevention
Introduction
Booting in Safe Mode and Last Known Good
Using System Restore to Create Restore
Points and Recover from Failures
Creating a Manual Restore Point
Restoring a Previously Created Restore
Point
Using the Recovery Console
Installing the Recovery Console
Running the Recovery Console from CD
Using Recover Console Commands
Backing Up Your System
Recovering Your System with Automated System
Recovery
Summary
Solutions Fast Track
Frequently Asked Questions
Index
www.IrPDF.com
xxv
697
702
704
704
705
705
706
707
709
715
716
721
721
724
725
726
726
727
728
729
731
732
734
734
736
746
748
748
750
753
189_XP_TOC.qxd
11/13/01
8:31 AM
Page xxvi
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxvii
www.IrPDF.com
Foreword
As I write this foreword, the official release of Windows XP is only weeks away.
Already,Windows XP is proving to be an extremely popular operating system among
those fortunate enough to have access to prior beta releases or the Release to
Manufacture (RTM) version. Most of the Windows XP users I have talked to are
enthusiastic about Windows XP, and I have no doubt future users will be as well.
There is already a huge amount of Internet activity, in newsgroups and Web sites,
dedicated to the advent of this latest operating system from Microsoft.
For many home and corporate users, the replacement of Windows 98 and
Windows Me, in particular, with a stable operating system based on a 32-bit NT
kernel will likely be welcome news. Users who use NT Workstation or Windows
2000 Professional and already experience the benefits of a stable 32-bit NT kernel
will also likely be impressed by the many new and useful features of Windows XP
and will be strongly motivated to upgrade.
Time will tell what the ultimate success of Windows XP will be. However, early
indications are that its release will be comparable in some of its effects to the release of
Windows 95. Although Windows XP is unlikely to have the large impact on sales of
computer hardware that Windows 95 did,Windows XP may prove to be just as popular. Many corporate and home consumers will find its features attractive enough to
warrant purchasing it, especially if they are running an operating system based on the
Windows 9x code base. For those users running products such as Windows 95, 98, or
Me, the better stability of Windows XP is probably sufficient reason alone to upgrade.
With XP, the chances that poorly written code will cause the entire system to
fail, an event otherwise known as a stop error or “the blue screen of death (BSOD)”,
are greatly reduced. Stop errors may still occur because of faulty hardware. However,
software-related stop errors will only occur if the software in question is a poorly
written device driver (a program that provides the means of allowing the operating
system to communicate with a piece of hardware, such as a modem or sound card,
xxvii
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxviii
www.IrPDF.com
xxviii
Foreword
attached to the computer). A system-wide failure of Windows XP will not occur
because of a poorly written application, such as a game. If the application fails, only
the application stops, not Windows XP.
This kind of stability has long been available with Windows NT and Windows
2000. However, that stability has come at somewhat of a price: the inability to run as
many programs as the Win 9x code base can. As a result, NT Workstation and
Windows 2000 Professional have not been the first choice of many knowledgeable
home computer hobbyists, in particular those who like computer games.That issue
should no longer be a factor in the decision to use Windows XP.Windows XP is able
to a run wide range of legacy applications and to run them, if necessary, in an environment that emulates that of an earlier operating system, such as Windows 95.This
feature, known as the Program Compatibility Mode, ensures that a program specifically written for an earlier operating system will most likely run on Windows XP.
Because Windows XP is less prone to stopping and requiring a reboot, there is
less chance of file corruption and other related problems occurring that were beyond
the skills of many users to troubleshoot and correct without assistance.Windows XP
is also as easy to set up as Windows 98 or Me. For the home user, there are many
wizards and simplified interfaces that will make even hitherto advanced configurations relatively easy. In particular, home users will find that Windows XP offers
superb functionality for connecting the computer to the Internet and for making the
Internet available through Internet Connection Sharing to other computers in the
household.Windows XP is also potentially much more secure than the earlier consumer operating systems. For example,Windows XP includes an Internet Connection
Firewall, which will go a long way towards helping protect the computer from malicious users on the Internet.
Home and corporate users will be able to leverage the security and stability of
the NTFS file system. Users and administrators will be able to control access to individual files and folders based on permission, something not possible with the
Windows 9x operating systems. Furthermore, even if the computer stops or is turned
off unexpectedly, NTFS will make it far less likely that files are damaged.
Among the other benefits provided by NTFS in Windows XP are the Encrypting
File System (EFS) and compression. Users will be better able to secure sensitive files
on their computer by encrypting them with EFS.This is an especially desirable feature for laptop users whose computers may contain sensitive information.
Unfortunately, EFS is not available in XP Home, the edition that is targeted for the
mass consumer market.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxix
www.IrPDF.com
Foreword
xxix
Corporate administrators will also find that Windows XP offers a number of significant advantages over other operating systems. If the corporate network comprises
computers running the Windows 9x code base, administrators will find many reasons
to advocate upgrading to Windows XP.The most significant reason is probably the
reduction in time administrators will spend responding to help desk calls from users,
due to the superior stability of Windows XP and its other many improvements.
For companies that already use NT Workstation or Windows 2000 Professional as
their desktop standard, the benefits that result from a more stable operating system
should already be clear. In these cases,Windows XP represents an incremental
upgrade and provides fewer reasons for upgrading. However, one new feature of
Windows XP will turn many administrators into advocates for Windows XP: the
Remote Assistant.With the Remote Assistant feature, administrators will be able to
take control of a user’s desktop to correct a problem or to provide a teaching
demonstration to the user.The administrator will be able to do this from his workstation and will not have to be physically present at the user’s workstation.
The Remote Assistant uses the same technology as another tool in XP that will
help productivity: Remote Desktop.With Remote Desktop, which is available on XP
Pro but not XP Home, users can connect to their computers from a remote computer
using the Remote Desktop Connection client, which was previously called the
Terminal Services client. Upon connection, users are able to gain access to a session
running on the remote Windows XP computer.This means that they will be see the
desktop of the remote computer within a window on the local computer and be able
to work within that window as if they were sitting down at the remote computer. A
user working from home could connect to her computer on the corporate network
and be able to use it as if she were physically sitting down at it.The bulk of the traffic
that occurs between the two computers would mainly comprise information about the
desktop display on the remote computer, a very small amount of traffic. Even over relatively slow links, such as 28.8 Kbps dial-up connections, performance is excellent.
Help and Support in Windows XP features a completely new design that
improves greatly on the Help found in prior operating systems.The Help and
Support search engine not only searches its own local files for information, but will
also search the Microsoft Knowledge Base, if the computer has a connection to the
Internet.The Help and Support utility, like many of the tools on Windows XP, offers
a lot of configuration options. Users can turn off the ability to search the Knowledge
Base, or they can change the focus of the Knowledge Base search on the Microsoft
Web site to some other category.The Help and Support utility also provides useful
tips and advice in a “Did You Know?” section of the interface.The headlines in the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxx
www.IrPDF.com
xxx
Foreword
“Did You Know?” section are refreshed with content from the Web whenever users
launch the utility.This ensures that up-to-date and relevant information, such as security bulletins, is displayed here.
These are only a limited sample of some of the new and desirable features of
Windows XP that will help to drive its popularity.There are many other features of
Windows XP that administrators and users alike will find desirable and useful.
Windows XP, for all its ease of configuration and use, is a large and complex product.
To provide expert support for it and to make the most of it in the corporate or
home environment requires significant knowledge.
In creating this book on Windows XP, we were always mindful of the need for
the content of the book to provide an accurate reflection of the depth and complexity of the product itself.That is why this book is relatively large. Given the size
and complexity of the product and the enormous number of useful features included
in it, the book has to provide a lot of information to do justice to the product itself.
This book contains 15 chapters that together provide comprehensive information
on Windows XP. Chapter 1 establishes the foundation for the book and provides an
introduction to the new Windows XP and .NET family of products from Microsoft.
This chapter provides the larger overall context in which we can see where Windows
XP is positioned and how it fits into the strategic goals of the next generation of
Microsoft operating systems.The chapter also provides a discussion of the notable
new features that set it apart from Microsoft’s prior operating systems.
Chapter 2 provides information on the various methods for installing Windows XP.
Here, you will find information on how to install Windows XP from a CD or from the
network.You will also find information on how to use Setup Manager and how to
perform scripted, unattended installations of the product.We also discuss installing
Windows XP using Remote Installation Services (RIS), but we place this discussion in
Chapter 12, where we provide information on other IntelliMirror technologies.
The user interface of Windows XP has undergone significant changes from prior
versions of Windows. Chapter 3 guides you through the complexities of using both
the Windows XP and the Classic interface view.You will find advice and instruction
for configuring the interface so that you can use it productively, whatever your particular needs may be.You will find information on configuring the desktop, Start
menu, and taskbar. In Windows XP, Control Panel now provides two different views:
the Category and Classic views.This chapter will show you how to configure
Control Panel for your preferred view.
We next look at managing Windows XP in Chapter 4.This chapter covers a
wide range of topics that are central to the management of Windows XP.These
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxxi
www.IrPDF.com
Foreword
xxxi
topics include creating Users and Groups, sharing folders, managing devices and
storage, in addition to using tools such as Event Viewer and Trace and Performance
Logs.You will learn, for example, how to create Alerts to notify you when the computer encounters some critical event that you define, such as running out of disk
space or excessive CPU use.You will also find an explanation of the differences
between file systems such as NTFS and FAT32, as well as explanations of Basic Disks
and Dynamic Volumes.
System tools that will assist you in the maintenance of Windows XP are the subject of Chapter 5. If you haven’t looked at the System Tools in Windows XP, you will
be pleasantly surprised by the new additions and the functionality of these tools. For
example, you will find the new Disk Cleanup and System Restore tools in addition
to the tools you would normally expect to see, such as the Backup,Task Scheduler,
and Disk Defragmenter utility.You will find thorough information on the use of
these tools.
Chapter 6 provides a comprehensive examination of networking in Windows XP.
Because this book is intended for both new and experienced users and administrators, you will find a summary explanation of the basic concepts of computer networking. After this introduction to networking, the chapter takes you through the
details of configuring TCP/IP, IPS/SPX (NWLink), RAS and Virtual Private
Network (VPN) connections.We also look at how to configure Bridging, Internet
Connection Sharing (ICS), and the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). Chapter Six
also provides information on the new Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) standard,
which is more a networking standard than a hardware standard, in spite of its name.
The chapter ends with a discussion of the new features for wireless networking in
Windows XP.
Internet Explorer is no longer integrated with the operating system to the same
extent it was in Windows 9x or Windows 2000. However, because Internet Explorer
6.0 introduces a number of new and useful features and because it will be the
browser of choice for the majority of users, this book would not be complete
without a separate chapter that provides in-depth information on IE 6.0, along with
Outlook Express. One of the exciting new features of IE 6 that we examine in
Chapter 7 is the privacy settings that allow you to control whether your computer
will receive cookies, based on whether the Web site has a machine-readable privacy
policy.This is very recent and emerging technology, and we have striven to provide
you with the latest information on it. Of course, you will also find lots of good
information for configuring the familiar features of Internet Explorer and Outlook
Express for both the home and corporate environment.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxxii
www.IrPDF.com
xxxii
Foreword
Windows 95 introduced the world to a Plug and Play operating system and was
revolutionary in providing consumers with an easy way to add hardware devices to
their computers, hence the enormous boom in computer peripheral devices in recent
years. However, compared to the Plug and Play capability of Windows XP, that first
attempt at Plug and Play in Windows 95 seems crude.Windows XP will put to rest
the tired and clichéd joke of “Plug and Pray.” Plug and Play in Windows XP is much
more reliable than in previous operating systems.That said, you will still have to
know how Plug and Play works and how to add and remove hardware devices to the
computer running Windows XP.
Chapter 8 covers the topic of adding new and legacy hardware.The primary tool
for this is the Add Hardware Wizard, which makes it possible for novice and experienced users alike to install and configure hardware with relative ease. Chapter 8 also
covers installing new software through the use of the Add And Remove Programs
tool. Additionally, the chapter provides information on the use of Windows Installer
for managing the installation and removal of programs on your computer.Together
the tools for hardware and software addition and removal provides mechanisms that
enable Windows XP to repair itself to some degree and to eliminate much of the
frustration associated with troubleshooting and correcting failed software or hardware
components.
Windows XP provides a wide range of tools to enable communication with
other people and computers. Included among these tools is the new Remote
Desktop tool, which enables you to view the desktop on your Windows XP computer from another, remote computer. Chapter 9 begins with coverage of this tool
and then explores other tools that you can use for communication.These tools
include HyperTerminal and NetMeeting, which appears to be headed for replacement by Windows Messenger.The chapter also provides detailed information on
configuring Windows XP for faxing and configuring connections to the Internet.
Power management on Windows XP has been improved and offers better functionality and greater configurability than prior operating systems. Chapter 10 discusses the power management features that will allow you to minimize the power
you consume on both your laptop and desktop computer.
Making computers easier to use for persons with disabilities has been one of
Microsoft’s laudable goals for some time now.You will find a great deal of information
in Chapter 10 regarding the accessibility features Microsoft has built into Windows XP,
which again improves on the accessibility features of Windows 9x and 2000.
Windows XP is designed to be used in many geographic locales. Chapter 10 also
includes an in-depth look at the available regional and languages settings.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxxiii
www.IrPDF.com
Foreword
xxxiii
Chapter 10 ends with a thorough examination of the System Properties, one of
the most important interfaces in Windows XP.Through System Properties, you can
configure settings for Automatic Updates, System Restore settings, performance,
login, user profiles, remote desktop, and others.
Security is an important concern for anyone who uses computers.Windows XP
has many features that, if properly configured, will go a long way towards making your
system more secure. For example, one of the new features that Windows XP provides is
the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).With ICF, you can block any unsolicited traffic
from the Internet. If you have ICF enabled and configured with the most restrictive
settings, your computer will be invisible to other computers on the Internet (unless you
initiate the traffic to a remote host by, for example, using your browser) and will drop
any traffic, including pings, from any host.This is an especially useful feature if you are
connected to the Internet with a permanent connection.
ICF is only one feature of Windows XP that can enhance the security of your
system.There are many others, such as Encrypting File System and NTFS. Chapter
11 examines these features and also provides information and advice on configuring
file security, account security, network security, and other security-related topics.
If you are using Windows XP Pro, as opposed to Windows XP Home, you can
take advantage of the IntelliMirror technologies that Microsoft has developed for use
in Windows. IntelliMirror technologies, of which Group Policy is a core element,
allow you to control and manage all aspects of the Windows 2000 or Windows XP
desktop environments.These include Registry settings, software installation, logon
and logoff scripts, and so on. For example, with IntelliMirror you can control the
automatic installation (or deinstallation) of software through Group Policy settings.
Chapter 12 provides information on this topic, Group Policy, Resultant Set of Policy
(RSOP), Remote Installation Services (RIS), and other topics related to the use of
IntelliMirror.
Chapter 13 looks at printing from beginning to end, from installing a printer to
configuring auditing for it.
In spite of the improvements in Windows XP over other operating systems and
advances in computer hardware and computer hardware standards, users and administrator will still need to troubleshoot problems that may arise from any number of
causes.Windows XP includes a large number of useful tools to help you troubleshoot
problems that you may experience. One such tool is the new Network Diagnostics
tool, which provides a very detailed report on the status of your network connection
and system. Chapter 14 shows you how to locate and use the many tools that will
prove invaluable for troubleshooting.You will also find a detailed explanation of
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_fore.qxd
11/12/01
5:38 PM
Page xxxiv
www.IrPDF.com
xxxiv
Foreword
Remote Assistance, which will prove to be a boon for many administrators and help
desk personnel. Chapter 14 also includes some solid advice on how to approach
troubleshooting to help ensure success.
Finally, Chapter 15 looks at best practices for disaster recovery and prevention.
Windows XP includes an impressive array of new improvements that will help to
ensure you can recover your system in the case of a serious failure.You will find
detailed information on Automatic System Recovery (ASR), the Recovery Console,
the System Restore utility, and the Backup and Restore utility.The chapter discusses
when it is appropriate to use a particular disaster recovery method.
Working on this book has been a pleasure.When I first saw Windows XP in the
early beta versions, I was astonished by the number of additions and improvements
that Microsoft had incorporated into it.Windows XP is the most feature-rich and
useful desktop operating system yet. Because Windows XP includes so many new and
useful features, the prospect of mastering it may appear daunting. However, many
users will find that using Windows XP will make using a computer more enjoyable,
and that mastering XP is more a matter of play, rather than work.To put it simply:
XP rocks. I found both myself and the other contributors with whom I worked on
this book sharing a common enthusiasm for the product. It is our hope that we also
communicate this enthusiasm to you, and that you will find this book both informative and enjoyable.
—Martin Grasdal,Technical Editor and Contributor
MCSE + I on Windows NT 4.0, MCSE on
Windows 2000, MCT, CNE, CNI, CTT, A+
Director of Cramsession Content, Brainbuzz.com
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 1
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 1
Next Generation
Windows
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Introducing the Windows XP Family
■
Introducing the Major Features of
Windows XP Professional
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
1
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 2
www.IrPDF.com
2
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Introduction
Welcome to the next generation of Windows operating systems.Windows XP
(WinXP) represents the latest version released by Microsoft, and quite possibly,
the most comprehensive. Users have long requested an operating system that
would run both business and home applications equally well, and Windows XP is
the OS that will allow just that type of interoperability to take place.
This book provides a detailed look into the configuration and operation of
Windows XP Professional, which is the successor to Windows 2000 Professional.
We start off by talking about the various flavors of Windows XP—Home Edition
and Professional—and also discuss the next generation of server-class operating
systems, which will be named Windows .NET Server. Next, we provide a quick
overview of the features of Windows XP Professional.
The remaining chapters provide a detailed look into the configuration of the
components of Windows XP, such as networking, user configuration, and many
others.The Windows XP operating system takes the user experience to an
exciting new level, and we hope that this book will be your guide to all of the
features and functionality of Windows XP Professional.
Introducing the Windows XP Family
As mentioned earlier,Windows XP represents the combination of the best aspects
of several versions of Windows.Windows 9x and Me were known for their Plug
and Play (PnP) capabilities, their multimedia capabilities, and their home user
“friendliness.”Windows 2000 is known for its security features, its robustness, and
its business-class performance.Windows XP takes the best from both of these
operating systems.
You can choose from two different flavors of Windows XP:Windows XP
Home Edition and Windows XP Professional.The two versions have a large
number of similarities. All versions of Windows XP (including the .NET servers)
are built on the Windows 2000 code base. However, each has a place in the
market—Windows XP Home Edition is designed to replace Windows 98 and
Me in the home environment, and Windows XP Professional is meant to succeed
Windows 2000 in the office. Let’s take a closer look at what each of these versions brings to the table.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 3
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
Windows XP Home Edition
Windows XP Home Edition is the next release of Windows destined for the
consumer market. Although XP Home Edition and Professional are very similar,
XP Home Edition contains only a subset of the functionality of XP Professional.
Microsoft is expecting Home Edition to appeal to customers in a home environment, as well as to business customers who lack a formal IT staff.The key difference is that Home Edition is not meant to operate in a managed environment.
The best way to describe the features included in Home Edition is to compare the product to its predecessor.Windows XP Home Edition offers the following improvements over Windows 2000 Professional:
■
Improved multimedia capabilities
■
An improved user interface
■
A simplified security model
■
The ability to quickly switch between user sessions
■
Better hardware and software compatibility
Multimedia Capabilities
Microsoft added a number of new multimedia and Internet features to Windows
XP Home Edition, including the following:
■
Internet Explorer 6 (IE6)
■
Windows Media Player 8 (WMP8)
■
MSN Explorer browser
IE6 is the next version of the popular browser from Microsoft. In its newest
release, it contains a couple of interesting features, which are contained in the
Personal Bar.The Personal Bar contains a Search applet, an MSNBC News/
Stock/Weather applet, and a Media Player applet in a resizable window. However,
for the most part, IE6 acts like IE5. From the outside, it has been refreshed to
match the new interface, with redesigned icons and rounded edges.You can see
some of these changes in Figure 1.1.
Another addition to the Windows XP platform is Windows Media Player 8.
WMP8 builds upon the successful Windows Media Player 7 by adding new interface changes, improvements in copying from audio CD to hard disk (otherwise
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
3
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 4
www.IrPDF.com
4
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
known as ripping), and more skins for customizing the look of the player. Figure
1.2 displays a screenshot of WMP8.WMP8 now supports burning of audio CDs
from within the WMP itself.The following files types can be burned to audio
CD: .wma, .mp3 and .wav.
Figure 1.1 Internet Explorer 6 with Personal Bar
Figure 1.2 Windows Media Player 8
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 5
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
Improved User Interface
The user interface in Windows XP Home Edition has been completely remodeled. For starters, the Start menu button has changed, as well as the taskbar. A neat
feature of the new taskbar is the option to group similar programs together on a
single taskbar button.When you click on the button to restore the program, you
see a small menu listing the instances of the program, and you can choose which
to restore. Figure 1.3 shows Taskbar and Start Menu Properties.
Figure 1.3 Taskbar and Start Menu Properties
The Start menu has also been transformed into a panel of links to the various
features within the OS. Figure 1.4 shows an example of the new Start menu with
most of the options enabled.
Figure 1.4 New Start Menu
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
5
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 6
www.IrPDF.com
6
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Security Enhancements
In terms of security, Microsoft has attempted to provide the benefits of the
Windows NT/2000 security model, while still making the system easy to operate
and administer. XP Home Edition has two account types: Computer Administrator
and Limited (refer to Figure 1.5).The Computer Administrator can add, remove,
and change user accounts, make universal changes to the system, and install applications. A Limited user only has the capability to change his/her password.
Figure 1.5 Windows XP User Account Types
Users of XP Home Edition or XP Professional can log on using a
“Welcome” screen that lists the names of the user accounts, as shown in Figure
1.6. A user simply needs to click on her name and provide the password, and she
is authenticated onto the system. (A wise Administrator would be quick to turn
off the Welcome screen and Fast User Switching functions in a workgroup environment as they present an additional security risk that far outweighs the benefits
of this new nicety. It is important to note that turning off the Welcome screen
automatically turns off Fast User Switching.)
Switching between User Sessions
Microsoft has introduced a concept called Fast User Switching that will allow users
to switch between user accounts while leaving applications running in the background. For instance, let’s say that User1 is logged into the system. User2 would
like to check his e-mail. So, User2 will perform a “switch user,” log in as himself,
and check his mail. All of the applications that User1 was working on will stay
running in User1’s context.When User2 is finished, User1 can “switch user” back
to herself, and she can continue working on the applications that were open
when User2 logged on. Figure 1.7 shows the Switch User option dialog box.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 7
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
Figure 1.6 Welcome Screen
Figure 1.7 Logoff Screen with Switch User Option
Hardware and Software Compatibility
Lastly,Windows XP Home Edition has been designed to run many of the legacy
applications that are on the market today. Microsoft achieved this by adding a
compatibility mode to the operating system.This allows you to run an application
in Windows XP and emulate an older OS, such as Windows 95.Windows XP
will try to provide the hardware-level access that is requested by the application
without sacrificing the integrity of the kernel.
In terms of hardware compatibility,Windows XP has the most advanced Plug
and Play features of any Windows operating system. For the end user, this means
that many of the older first-generation PnP devices, as well as a number of nonPnP devices, will work with WinXP.WinXP also has an improved driver set.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
7
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 8
www.IrPDF.com
8
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Microsoft made the decision to leave out much of the enterprise features
from the Home Edition, choosing to include them in the Professional edition.
For example, if you need to add your PC to a Windows 2000 or Windows NT
domain, you must use Windows XP Professional.
Windows XP Professional
While Windows XP Home Edition adds a great deal to the feature set of
Windows 2000,Windows XP Professional takes the product to the next level.
Many of the neat things that are part of Windows 2000 Professional are excluded
from the Home Edition, but they are included in WinXP Professional.These features include the following:
■
IntelliMirror technologies
■
Group Policy functionality
■
Encrypting file system support
■
Multiprocessor support
As we mentioned in the preceding section,You can join XP Professional to a
Windows 2000 or Windows NT domain. In a Windows 2000 Active Directory
environment, XP Professional can take full advantage of those features that are
dependent on the domain login.These include the neat features described in the
preceding list, as well as roaming profiles and Remote Installation Services (RIS).
We delve into the feature list in much more detail shortly, but rest assured,
Windows XP Professional offers many advantages compared to Windows 2000
Professional.
The Future of Windows 2000
Server: Windows .NET Servers
What should you expect from the next version of Microsoft’s server product?
Well, the first thing will be another name change. Departing quickly from the
year-based name, the next edition will be named Windows .NET Server, signifying the tight cooperation with the .NET Framework on the development side.
However, once you get past the name, you should be pleasantly surprised to see a
number of improvements over Windows 2000 Server under the hood of .NET
Server. Here are a few of the features that Microsoft has listed for the next generation of Windows Server:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 9
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
■
You should expect to see even more improvement in the reliability of the Server product. Windows 2000 was quite a leap over
Windows NT 4, and you will see another level of reliability in the .NET
Server line. Microsoft is trying to achieve a consistent Five 9s in reliability, and the .NET server might be close to achieving this level.
■
Windows .NET Server will be faster than Windows 2000 Server.
This will be important for those customers who are using .NET Server
to host SQL Server 2000 or other transaction-based products.The next
release of Windows will also include support for 64-bit processors.
■
The next version will be easier to manage. This will be thanks to
features such as “headless” server support (no need for a monitor, keyboard, or mouse), remote administration, and Windows Management
Interface (WMI).
Introducing the Major Features
of Windows XP Professional
This section briefly shows you why you should choose WinXP Professional for
your environment.The decision should become fairly obvious, once you see the
impressive list of upgraded features over Windows 2000 Professional.
User Interface
We start with the new user interface. Microsoft performed many tests with consumers and used the test results to make significant changes to the Windows 2000
user interface. Most notably, they redesigned the Start menu and changed the
appearance of the standard Windows interface to reflect better usability. Here’s a
tour of what you can expect to see when you start using Windows XP.
Starting with the desktop,WinXP has a new look, as you can see in Figure
1.8. By default, all of the desktop icons are turned off.Yes, that’s right, you can
enable/disable the standard desktop icons, such as My Computer and My
Documents via the Control Panel. Microsoft claims that users preferred to start off
with a clean desktop. Figure 1.9 shows the configuration options for the desktop.
You’ll also notice the color scheme of the taskbar and Start button.
Throughout Windows XP’s user interface, Microsoft made a conscious effort to
use green buttons to represent events that opened or maximized windows, and
they used red buttons to represent events that closed or minimized windows.The
new Start button is the first example of this.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
9
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 10
www.IrPDF.com
10
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Figure 1.8 The Windows XP Desktop
Figure 1.9 Configuring the Desktop
Other new features that you’ll find here are improvements to the taskbar. If
you’ve ever opened a number of applications at one time before, you’ve experienced shrinking taskbar icons when the OS tried to represent a dozen applications at one time with miniscule buttons on the taskbar.Windows XP will
automatically group multiple sessions of the same application under one button.
For instance, if you are working on five Word documents at the same time,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 11
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
Windows XP will consolidate all of the Word sessions under a single button on
the taskbar.To access a particular document, you simply click on the Word
button, choose the appropriate session from a small menu, and your session will
maximize.
Not to be left out, the tray notification area (the area on the taskbar next to
the clock) has been improved.You have probably experienced a user who seemed
to have at least a dozen applications running in the tray, and this row of icons
consumed half of the taskbar by itself.You can now hide these icons by clicking
on an arrow next to the tray.
Figure 1.10 shows the new Start menu. Although it takes awhile to get used
to, the new design actually grows on you. By default, the menu will be configured as shown in Figure 1.9, with practically all options enabled.The good news
is that you can reduce this menu to only one or two items if you desire. On the
left-hand side of the menu are links to Internet Explorer and your e-mail program (Outlook Express is configured by default—you can also have Outlook XP
or even Hotmail on the menu). Below these two links are links to your recently
used programs.You can configure the Start menu to display between zero and
nine of your most recently used applications to appear on the menu. Below these
links is a “catch-all” link to All Programs, which gives you a menu that looks
much like the legacy Start menu from Windows 2000.
Figure 1.10 The New Start Menu
On the right-side of the menu are links to My Documents, My Recent
Documents, My Pictures, My Music, and My Computer.The middle of the
right-hand panel has links to the Control Panel and Printers and Faxes.To round
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
11
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 12
www.IrPDF.com
12
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
out the new Start menu are links to Help and Support, Search, and the Run
command.You can enable the Start menu to automatically expand the contents
of My Documents, My Computer, and the Control Panel.
Continuing on our tour of the new features of the user interface, we look at
the Control Panel. As you can see in Figure 1.11, the Control Panel now groups
related applets under a single icon, which makes finding the appropriate Control
Panel applet easier.
Figure 1.11 The New Look of the Control Panel
As you can see, Microsoft made a number of improvements to the user interface in Windows XP.They have done a lot of work to make it more useable and
friendly, but there will always be those users who like the old way.Thus, you can
configure every one of the new features we just discussed to look and act just
like they did in Windows 2000 Professional.
Networking
You’ll find support for 802.11b wireless networking in Windows XP, as well as a
number of other networking features. One new feature is the Internet Connection
Firewall, which provides firewall functionality for individual computers and small
networks. Internet Connection Sharing has been enhanced as well.
What does this mean to the average Windows XP user? If you’re working in
a corporate environment, you are probably already protected by a firewall in the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 13
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
data center.The Internet Connection Firewall wasn’t designed to provide the
level of protection that a hardware-based firewall can provide. Internet
Connection Sharing will probably not be much of a value-add in the corporate
world either.The environments where these features will shine will be in the
small office/home office (SOHO) market and in the home market.These are
places where you will probably not find a $15,000 hardware firewall or an expensive T-1 connection for the entire LAN to share. However, if you have a cable
modem or DSL connection, you could easily share this connection with a small
office or with other machines in your home with these new networking features.
Better Performance
Windows XP Professional offers incredible gains in performance over previous
versions of Windows.You’ll experience this performance first-hand from the
moment you boot the system—startup times have been reduced to nearly a
minute, as opposed to many minutes for older versions of Windows.This time
savings translates directly into increased productivity for both you and your
clients and customers.WinXP has also been designed to reduce the number of
reboots. Multiple processor and large memory support (up to 4GB) will allow for
increased workstation performance.
Internet Features
You’ll find the latest versions of Internet Explorer and Outlook Express in
Windows XP Professional. Other Internet features include WebDAV support for
publishing directly to the Web, Internet Explorer 6 Administration Kit (IEAK) for
managing the deployment of IE, and Windows Messenger.
Windows Messenger is an instant messenger application that you can integrate into Outlook XP or Hotmail/Passport to provide simple communications
between users on the local network or across the Internet. For the IT professional, Microsoft has included the IEAK for IE6 to help in customizing the
deployments of IE6 in a managed environment. Finally,WebDAV, which has been
around for a few years, allows users to publish content directly from Word XP to
their intranet.This will help users to share their documents and information
more efficiently in the workplace.
Remote Assistance
Remote Assistance is certainly one of the neater features of Windows XP.This
allows users to request help from other users or the help desk via the Remote
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
13
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 14
www.IrPDF.com
14
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Desktop Protocol, whereby the supporting user can interface directly with the
user on her desktop or via a chat session.
Here’s an example of how you can use Remote Assistance in the office place.
Let’s say a user has a problem with adding a local printer to her system. Normally,
this would generate a help desk call, and depending on the circumstances, a technician may have to visit the user’s desk to assist her with this task. Using Remote
Assistance, the user could send an “invitation” to the help desk for someone to
remotely connect to her machine to help out.The user generates this invitation
from the Help and Support link on the Start menu. Figure 1.12 shows this page.
Figure 1.12 Generating a Remote Assistance Invitation
From here, the user can send the invitation via Windows Messenger or e-mail
to the help desk.This invitation will have a description of the problem (the user
types this in the body), and it can also have a time window for the help desk to
connect.This is a security feature that limits the ability of another user to connect
without permission. Once the help desk gets the request, they make a connection
back to the user, and then they can remotely control the user’s session and provide
assistance. Remote Assistance is based on Terminal Services technology.
Reliability Features
Windows XP improves upon the reliability features of Windows 2000 by providing support for side-by-side DLL support, improved Windows File Protection,
improved code protection, and enhanced device driver signing.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 15
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
For average users, this means that they should experience less issues with
applications crashing or causing conflicts with other applications. For IT professionals, this means that they should get less support calls for application errors,
and building managed desktops with compatible applications will be much easier.
Multimedia Features
A proliferation of new multimedia devices are in the marketplace, including digital cameras, DVD players, MP3 players, and so on.Windows XP keeps the pace
by providing a rich multimedia experience that allows you to fully take advantage
of these new devices.WinXP supports CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD-RAM drives
directly in Windows Explorer.The Windows Media Player will play most
common media formats, such as MP3s and DVDs (with third-party decoders).
You can access digital cameras just like an external drive over a USB interface,
making the transfer of digital images to your hard drive as easy as copying a file
from a CD-ROM.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
15
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 16
www.IrPDF.com
16
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Summary
Windows XP, in both the Home Edition and Professional versions, represents the
next generation of operating systems from Microsoft.These two products continue to build on the success of Windows NT and Windows 2000, and they add a
rich and diverse feature set that raises the user experience to a new level.
Windows XP Home Edition is being marketed towards the home and small
business user.The dividing line between the Home Edition and Professional rests
on the need for manageability. Users who desire the management of a domain
environment are going to choose Windows XP Professional.Those users who are
looking for the performance, reliability, and security of the Windows engine, but
aren’t interested in the advanced features, are going to choose the Home Edition.
Windows XP Professional takes Windows 2000 Professional and adds a
number of new features to make it a compelling choice for businesses and enterprises looking to upgrade from earlier versions of Windows. XP Professional adds
improved performance, improved reliability, multimedia capabilities, and improved
networking support. In addition, features such as Remote Assistance and
improved power management extend the benefits gained from Windows 2000
Professional.
Finally,Windows .NET Server is gearing up to be the successor to Windows
2000 Server. Upon its release, it will build upon the success of Windows 2000
and add additional performance, reliability, and manageability.
Solutions Fast Track
Introducing the Windows XP Family
; You can choose from two different flavors of Windows XP: Home
Edition and Professional.The two versions have a large number of
similarities. All versions of Windows XP (including the .NET servers) are
built on the Windows 2000 code base.
; Windows XP Home Edition is designed to replace Windows 9x and
Windows Me in the home and SOHO markets.
; Windows XP Professional is designed to replace all Windows client
versions in the corporate world.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 17
www.IrPDF.com
Next Generation Windows • Chapter 1
; Windows .NET server is the replacement for the Windows 2000 server
products (Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server). It can be
used interchangeably with Windows 2000 Server.
Introducing to the Major Features
of Windows XP Professional
; Windows XP Professional sports a new user interface, including a new
Start menu, redesigned Control Panel, and improved task bar.
; Some of the new Networking features include the Internet Connection
Firewall and support for 802.11b wireless networking.
; Internet Explorer 6,Windows Media Player 8, and Windows Messenger
are some of the Internet and Multimedia improvements that you will
find in Windows XP Professional.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: If I choose to upgrade my company’s desktop systems to Windows XP
Professional, will I have to also upgrade to Windows .NET Server on the
back end?
A: No. Microsoft recommends that you continue to deploy Windows 2000
Server and Advanced Server when Windows XP Professional is released.The
release date for Windows .NET server is still unknown.
Q: I really dislike the new Windows XP user interface. Can I choose to use the
old Windows 2000 interface?
A: Yes.You can mix and match whatever components of the new interface that
you would like to use.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
17
189_XP_01.qxd
11/9/01
2:44 PM
Page 18
www.IrPDF.com
18
Chapter 1 • Next Generation Windows
Q: I am currently running Windows 2000 Professional on a dual processor system.
Which version of Windows XP should I use to support this configuration?
A: You will need to upgrade to Windows XP Professional. It will support up
to two processors.Windows XP Home Edition will only support a single
processor.
Q: I understand that Windows XP supports DVDs and DVD-RAMs. Do I need
anything else to play movies from my computer?
A: You will need to install a third-party DVD decoder software in order to
play DVDs from within Windows XP. Although it supports DVDs, it doesn’t
provide a decoder application, which is necessary to watch movies.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 19
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 2
Installing Windows
XP Professional
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Clean Installation of Windows XP
Professional
■
Performing an Upgrade to Windows XP
Professional
■
Network Installation of Windows XP
Professional
■
Automating the Windows XP
Professional Setup
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
19
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 20
www.IrPDF.com
20
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Introduction
In this chapter, we take a look at the installation of Windows XP Professional.We
walk through a clean install on a new PC, an upgrade from Windows 2000
Professional, and finally, we look at a few methods for automating the installation
of Windows XP Professional. First, let’s take a look at the requirements for
installing Windows XP Professional.Table 2.1 lists the requirements that
Microsoft specifies.
Table 2.1 Requirements for Windows XP Professional
Component
Recommendation
Processor
233 MHz minimum
300 MHz recommended
64MB minimum
128MB recommended
1.5GB available space
Super VGA (800x600) or higher
Memory
Hard Disk
Video
As you can see from the table, Microsoft has taken the additional steps to provide both minimum and recommended hardware requirements for the new OS.
You will obviously need a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive if you plan to install
from CD, or a network adapter if you plan to install from a network distribution
point. An important feature to note about Windows XP Professional that isn’t
mentioned in the table is its support for multiple processors.WinXP Pro will
support up to two processors, whereas WinXP Home Edition only supports one
processor.
If you were in the position to purchase new computers for a Windows XP
deployment, the best advice would be to buy the fastest you could afford.This
should (hopefully) protect you from needing to turn over your PC inventory
every two years. In fact, many major corporations try to plan for new PCs
sticking around for a minimum of three years.
Now that you’ve seen the requirements for Windows XP Professional, let’s
move on to the basics of installation. Microsoft supports two methods of installing
Windows XP Professional on target workstations: either an upgrade or a clean
installation. Upgrading to Windows XP Professional implies that the target workstation already has an existing operating system that may have its own settings and
configuration. If the target workstation is configured with an operating system
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 21
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
that is supported for upgrading, you can instruct the setup program to upgrade in
place, migrating all user settings and applications available.
If, however, the target workstation is a new machine, requires reinstallation, or
is configured with a nonsupported operating system, you must apply a clean
installation to the workstation.You can then install the primary drive of the target
workstation with Windows XP Professional without searching for existing data
(though you can preserve data), applications, or configuration settings.
Administrators and support engineers should take the time to perform the
upgrade and installation process numerous times to be aware of potential problems. Identifying show-stopping problems (such as the application not working)
may be a great deal easier than handling issues (such as the profile directory
changing to the Documents and Settings folder) that manifest much more subtly.
Several factors will influence your decision whether to upgrade or to apply a
clean installation of Windows XP Professional.These include the following:
■
Current workstation management levels If modifications to the
workstation’s operating system and applications have followed strict
change controls, the current state of the workstation will be well known.
An upgrade would best suit a well-managed environment, preserving the
investment in your configuration information. If the state of the workstations is indeterminate, a clean install of Windows XP Professional
would allow you to revert the configuration of the workstations back to
a known state.
■
User preferences and settings If your users have a level of control
over their workstation, they may have personalized certain settings and
preferences. Determining what settings exist can be difficult.To preserve
these settings, the best option would be to perform an upgrade.
■
Applications and data Some users may store data on their local
workstations, or install applications locally. An upgrade would be the best
choice to prevent inadvertently deleting data, and it would also ensure
that applications would still function (if compatible with Windows XP
Professional). Many businesses store data centrally for backup and management purposes, and as a result, you could consider a clean install.
■
Existing operating systems on client workstations The installation
type you choose will also be dictated by the operating system of the
client prior to deployment. If, for example, you are using Windows 3.1,
the only option available would be to perform a clean installation.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
21
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 22
www.IrPDF.com
22
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Upgrading from previous versions of Windows NT (version 4.0) is
inherently easier than upgrading from Windows 9x.This is due to the
commonality between the operating system kernel architecture, device
driver models, registry database, security architecture, and file systems.
Upgrading from existing Windows 98/Me installations can present additional issues that you would need to resolve.
■
Operating system history If your client workstations have been
through a regular cycle of upgrades, the preferred option would be to
perform a clean install, thus resolving possible legacy issues. Migrating
the workstation to Windows XP Professional from a platform that has
been repeatedly upgraded could negate some of the advantages (such as
stability) of deploying Windows XP Professional in the first place.
You can start the Windows XP Professional setup process in a number of
ways.You can initiate the setup or upgrade process by executing Winnt32.exe
from a command line on a host operating system that is compliant with the
upgrade paths discussed earlier.You can find the setup executable,Winnt32.exe,
in the i386 directory on the Windows XP Professional CD-ROM.You can also
execute setup from a bootable CD-ROM containing the relevant installation
files. Other solutions include using a network management application such as
Microsoft’s Systems Management Server (SMS), or a bootable floppy disk with
network drivers and a connection to the Windows XP Professional installation
source.
NOTE
Microsoft recommends a clean install of Windows XP Professional rather
than an upgrade. The upgrade process has been extensively tested but
cannot take into account every scenario. In addition, problems that
existed before an upgrade may just be transferred to the new operating
system.
When using the Winnt32.exe setup program to install Windows XP
Professional, you can use a number of command line parameters to modify the
installation.When attempting to install Windows XP from a bootable floppy disk,
you would use the Winnt.exe setup program.These bullets summarize the usage
for each of the setup programs:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 23
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
■
To clean install Windows XP Professional on DOS,Windows 3.1,
Windows 3.11,Windows for Workgroups,Windows 95, or Windows NT
3.51 Workstation, run Winnt.exe from a DOS prompt.
■
To clean install or upgrade from Windows 98,Windows ME, or
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, use Winnt32.exe.
Clean Installation of
Windows XP Professional
The process of installing Windows XP on a workstation whose hard drive can be
formatted (thus erasing all data), or on a workstation that will be booting
between two operating systems is known as a clean install. In order to proceed
with a clean installation, the only requirements are that the workstation should
meet the minimum hardware specifications for Windows XP Professional and
that the hardware be present on the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL). A clean
install will not have any settings other than those entered during setup, and they
may require individual customization.
To speed up the installation process, you can run Winnt32 with the Syspart
switch.The Syspart switch causes all of the installation files to be copied to a formatted hard drive on the preparation machine.When the drive is then removed
and placed in another workstation, it will continue with the next stage of setup.
This option is particularly useful for reducing deployment time in environments
with dissimilar hardware, or for use with disk imaging software.You must perform
a clean install in the following situations:
■
Target workstations are running Windows 3.1,Windows 3.11, and
Windows for Workgroups,Windows 95, and Windows 3.51 workstation
■
Target workstations are running a non-Microsoft operating system
■
Target workstations do not have an operating system installed
■
Target workstation must be built from CD-ROM
Let’s begin by walking through a clean installation of Windows XP from CD.
This installation method assumes that you have a new PC (one without an operating system), or a PC that already has an operating system, but you do not
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
23
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 24
www.IrPDF.com
24
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
intend to preserve the existing OS. In each of the installation examples that you’ll
see in this chapter, we take the installation step-by-step, using screen shots to
illustrate the decision points of the process.
1. Power-on your system and insert the Windows XP Professional CDROM in the tray.You will need to verify that your system is configured
to boot from the CD-ROM prior to performing this step.
2. After the system completes the POST, the setup routine for WinXP will
begin.This is also known as the text-based setup.The installation of
Windows XP involves four major steps:
■
Text-based setup
■
GUI-based setup
■
Installing the network components
■
Completing the setup
Figure 2.1 shows the initial file copy of the setup process. During
this process, the setup program is loading a minimal version of Windows
XP to support the setup process. Specifically, it is loading the drivers for
the common mass storage devices, as well as drivers for other common
hardware devices.This is done to allow WinXP to detect the correct
hardware in your system. Some manufacturers provide new drivers that
you need to load during this stage of the process. At one point in the
initial file copy,Windows XP will display a message prompting you to
press F6 to install third-party drivers. At this point, you can insert the
disk with the new driver, and the setup process will copy the driver to
hard disk.
Figure 2.1 Initial File Copy for the Windows XP Setup
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:33 PM
Page 25
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
3. Once the setup program has loaded the initial files and drivers, you will
have the ability to specify an installation partition, or if there are no partitions on the system, you will have the chance to create new partitions.
Note: If your system has existing partitions, you can delete those partitions during this stage of the setup.This is the point where you can erase
an existing operating system from your computer.You can also create
multiple partitions from this utility.
4. In Figure 2.2, you will notice that there aren’t any existing partitions.To
create a new partition, press C.
Figure 2.2 Preparing to Create a New Partition
5. Figure 2.3 shows the Partition creation screen. It will show the minimum and maximum possible size for the new partition, and ask for you
to type in the size partition you wish to create. Once you have typed in
a value that falls between the minimum and maximum, press Enter to
continue. Note that you will need to create a partition that is at least
1.5GB in size to meet the requirements of Windows XP Professional.
6. Your next decision is to choose how to format the new partition.Your
choices are NTFS (Quick), FAT (Quick), NTFS, and FAT (see Figure
2.4). Using the keyboard arrow keys, highlight the file system you want
to use, and then press Enter to continue.
7. The setup program will begin the format process on the new partition
that you created, as shown in Figure 2.5. Depending on the size of the
partition and the file system you have chosen, this may take anywhere
from 1 to 10 minutes to complete.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
25
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 26
www.IrPDF.com
26
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.3 Creating a New Partition
Figure 2.4 Choosing the File System for the New Partition
Figure 2.5 Formatting the New Partition
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 27
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Configuring & Implementing…
FAT or NTFS?
Which file system should you choose during the installation of Windows
XP Professional? In order to take advantage of all of the features of
Windows XP, such as Encrypting File System, you need to choose NTFS.
Table 2.2 compares FAT32 with NTFS.
Table 2.2 FAT32 and NTFS Comparison
Feature
FAT32
NTFS
Minimum volume size
512MB is
recommended
2TB
Microsoft recommends
a minimum of 10MB
2TB optimally, but
larger sizes possible
Size limited by size
of volume
Cannot be used on
floppy disks
Maximum volume size
File size limitations
Floppy disk use
4GB maximum
file size
Can be used on
floppy disks
The following is a partial list of features in Windows XP that are
dependent on NTFS:
■
Encrypting File System
■
File- and folder-level security
■
File compression (native)
■
Disk quotas (mainly on server volumes)
Microsoft strongly recommends the use of NTFS on Windows XP
volumes in order to take advantage of these features.
8. As shown in Figure 2.6, the next step in the setup process is to copy the
Windows XP source files from the CD to the new partition.This process
will take a few minutes. Once the file copy has completed, the system
will reboot, and the setup process will transition into the GUI mode.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
27
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 28
www.IrPDF.com
28
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.6 Windows XP Setup Copying Files to the New Partition
9. Upon reboot, you will see the new GUI screen (see Figure 2.7).This
screen displays the status of the installation on the left-hand side.You will
also see an estimate of the remaining time left.
Figure 2.7 Initial Windows XP GUI Setup Screen
10. The next step is to discover and install the devices on your PC (see
Figure 2.8).This process may cause the screen to flicker as Windows XP
attempts to determine what video card your system is using.This step
will also generate the estimated time of completion.
11. Once the installation discovers all of your devices, you will be asked to
verify your Regional and Language Options, as shown in Figure 2.9.
From this dialog box, you can set the Regional settings, such as the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 29
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Standards and Location, and also the text input language. Click Next to
continue.
Figure 2.8 Installing Devices
Figure 2.9 Choosing the Regional and Language Settings
12. Figure 2.10 shows the dialog box for typing your name and organization
information that will now appear. Once you have entered this information, click Next.
13. You now need to enter the Windows XP Product Key (see Figure 2.11).
This 25-character key is located on the Windows XP CD. Once you
have typed the key, click Next.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
29
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 30
www.IrPDF.com
30
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.10 Entering the Name and Organization Information
Figure 2.11 Entering the Windows XP Product Key
14. Type the computer name in the first box of the dialog box that appears
(see Figure 2.12). Next, enter the password for the local Administrator’s
account, and then re-enter the password for confirmation. Once this has
been done, click Next.
15. Next, you will set the correct date and time for your computer (see
Figure 2.13). Once this is complete, click Next.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 31
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.12 Entering the Computer Name and Administrator
Password
Figure 2.13 Entering the Date and Time Settings
16. As Figure 2.14 shows, you now must set the network settings for the
system.You have two choices:Typical and Custom. If you choose the
Typical settings option, the following options will be installed:
■
Client for Microsoft Networks
■
QoS Packet Scheduler
■
File and Print Sharing for Microsoft Networks
■
TCP/IP, configured for DHCP
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
31
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 32
www.IrPDF.com
32
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
If you choose Custom settings, you will be given the opportunity
to add and configure any of the network options that are available. Of
course, if you make a mistake at this step of the installation, you can also
go back once the system is ready and make necessary changes. For a
detailed examination of the networking options that are available in
Windows XP Professional after setup has completed, please refer to
Chapter 6. Once you have made your selection, click Next.
Figure 2.14 Configuring the Network Settings
17. You are now asked to provide either the workgroup or domain name for
the new system. Figure 2.15 shows the system being configured for
joining a workgroup named Workgroup. If you decide to join a domain at
this point, you will also need the username and password for an account
that is authorized to add computers to the domain. Click Next.
Figure 2.15 Specifying the Workgroup or Domain
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 33
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
18. Now, the Windows XP installation will begin copying files to support
the options you chose earlier (see Figures 2.16 and 2.17).
Figure 2.16 Setup Continues by Copying Files
Figure 2.17 File Copy Completes
19. At the completion of the file copy, the setup program will begin
installing the Start menu items.This is shown in Figure 2.18.
20. After the Start menu items have been installed, Setup will register the
Windows components, as shown in Figure 2.19. Next, Figure 2.20
shows the routine saving settings. Finally, the Setup program will remove
the temporary files from the hard drive that were used to support the
installation (see Figure 2.21).
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
33
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 34
www.IrPDF.com
34
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.18 The Setup Routine Configures the Start Menu
Figure 2.19 Setup Registers the Windows XP Components
21. Once the temporary files have been removed, the setup will be complete.Windows XP will reboot the system. Once this has finished, you
are ready to go.
As you can see, the installation of Windows XP Professional is very simple.
You’ll notice an obvious change to the installation graphics as compared to the
Windows 2000 Professional setup, but for the most part, these installation routines
perform the same steps. A CD-based clean installation will take anywhere from
60 to 90 minutes, depending on the processor speed and memory in your system.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 35
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.20 Setup Nears Completion
Figure 2.21 Windows XP Setup Removes the Temporary Files Prior
to Completion
Configuring & Implementing…
Windows XP Command-Line Tools
Windows XP Professional ships with a few handy command-line tools
that are located in the \Support\Tools folder in the Deploy.cab file. These
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
35
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 36
www.IrPDF.com
36
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
tools, used for viewing information about the hard disk as well as
performing actions on the hard disk, are described here:
■
Cvtarea.exe Used for viewing free space on FAT volumes.
■
Oformat.exe Used for creating a FAT32 volume on a hard
disk (combines Fdisk and Format). Can also be used to optimally align the clusters in preparation for a later conversion
to the NTFS file system.
■
Convert.exe Used to convert a FAT or FAT32 volume to NTFS.
■
Diskpart.exe A command interpreter that is used for performing a number of actions on hard disks and volumes. You
can also script Diskpart for a more automated experience.
Setup Issues
In a perfect world, the upgrade and installation process would be a seamless
activity that worked right every time.The fact that support engineers have such
productive careers is evidence enough that information technology is all but perfect.What can be done, however, is to provide proactive troubleshooting and fault
resolution. Discussing all of the problems that can arise during the setup process
is not possible, but a brief summary of some of the major generic issues may provide insight on where to begin:
■
Dependency service does not start Verify that settings and drivers
used during the setup process are correct.This is commonly an indication
that you may be having problems with one of your network components.
■
Stop messages One of the first actions after receiving a Stop message
(also known as the “Blue Screen of Death”) should be to consult the
HCL. Document the error carefully and search the TechNet and
Microsoft Web site for information on the error code.Try removing
exotic hardware from the workstation configuration. If you are doing
disk imaging, it may be related to having different HALs on the source
and target machines.
■
Insufficient disk space This could be an issue, due to the size of
Windows XP Professional.You will need to clear off unwanted files from
your system to make room for the upgrade.You may even need to temporarily remove some of the programs that you have installed.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 37
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
■
Setup stops in text mode Verify that the BIOS is up to date and
compatible with Windows XP Professional. In particular check
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) compliance and
settings and any IRQ assignments. ACPI is responsible for the interface
between the operating system and the workstation’s power management
and Plug and Play features.
■
Setup stops in GUI mode During the GUI portion of setup, device
detection takes place.With some hardware, this can prove problematic.
Check the vendors and the HCL for information.
■
Cannot contact a domain controller Check the network settings—
that is, did you specify an incorrect IP address on a previous screen or
did you specify a correct DNS server for the domain?
NOTE
After setup has completed, a number of log files are available for troubleshooting and general support information. %Windir%\Setupact.log contains a description of the actions performed during setup in chronological
order. %Windir%\Setuperr.log contains a detailed list of errors that
occurred during setup. %Windir%\Setupapi.log contains information
on the use of INF files.
Windows XP will generate a number of logfiles to help troubleshoot installation and startup problems. Here is a list of the logfiles, where they are located,
and what information they contain:
■
Setupact.log Logs all activity during setup, if you use Winnt32 with
the /debug switch.This logfile is located at the root of the drive.
■
Setuperr.log Logs all errors during setup, if you use Winnt32 with the
/debug switch.This logfile is located at the root of the drive.
■
Comsetup.log Contains information about component manager and
COM+ component installation. Located in c:\winnt.
■
Mmdet.log Contains detection information for multimedia devices.
Located in c:\winnt.
■
Setupapi.log Logs information each time a line in an INF file is parsed
during startup. Located in c:\winnt.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
37
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 38
www.IrPDF.com
38
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
■
Netsetup.log Logs information about the joining or disjoining of
workgroups or domains. Located in c:\winnt\debug.
The next section details the upgrade of a Windows operating system to
Windows XP Professional.
Performing an Upgrade
to Windows XP Professional
For many customers, their circumstances will dictate that they need to upgrade to
Windows XP Professional, rather than perform a clean installation on their systems.You might want to perform an upgrade to preserve applications and their
settings.Table 2.3 lists the eligibility of Windows legacy operating systems to
upgrade to Windows XP Professional.
Table 2.3 Legacy Operating Systems Eligible for a Windows XP Upgrade
Operating System
Upgrade to Windows XP Professional?
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
3.1
95
98
Me
NT 3.51
NT 4.0 Workstation SP 6
2000 Professional
XP Home Edition
Windows XP Professional supports the upgrade of the most recent of the
Windows-based family; this includes Windows 98 (and service packs),Windows
98 Second Edition,Windows Me, and Windows NT 4.0. Upgrading from
Windows 3.1,Windows 3.11,Windows for Workgroups,Windows 95 (OSR 1,
OSR 2, OSR 2.5),Windows NT 3.1, or Windows NT 3.5/3.51 is not supported
and will require a clean install.
Other points to remember are that during the upgrade process Windows XP
Professional searches the workstation’s hard drive for other installations of Windows
and will fail if multiple operating systems are installed on the installation partition.
You cannot upgrade from Windows 9x to Windows XP Professional if another
Microsoft Windows-based operating system is installed simultaneously.You must
remove the other operating system before proceeding with the upgrade.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 39
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
The setup program can also provide a pre-upgrade check that interrogates
hardware and software for compatibility with Windows XP Professional before
installation takes place.This check may indicate that you have to uninstall certain
applications or replace hardware or device drivers before proceeding. Particular
information generated may include reference to DOS configuration, Plug and
Play hardware,Windows Messaging Services, and software compatibility.The
check upgrade command generates a clear text report which includes all the relevant information generated and additional data, such as the amount of memory
on the workstation, free disk space on the target drive, and a breakdown of the
Start menu.You can also view the report during manual setup.You can initiate
the pre-upgrade check, which works for both Windows NT/2000 and Windows
98/Me, from the i386 directory on the Windows XP Professional CD as follows:
Winnt32 /checkupgradeonly
The Windows NT/2000 pre-upgrade check stores its report in the Winnt32.log
file in the %windir% directory; you could use it in a batch file similar to this:
winnt32.exe /CheckUpgradeOnlyQ
copy %windir%\winnt32.log \\srv1\ntupgrades\%computername%.txt
To automate the pre-upgrade check of Windows NT and 2000 workstations, use Winnt32.exe /CheckUpgradeOnlyQ instead of Winnt32.exe
/CheckUpgradeOnly. Appending the Q to CheckUpgradeOnly forces setup
to create the Winnt32.log file without requiring user input.
NOTE
You can manually run the pre-upgrade check at any time, the results of
which will be saved to %windir%\upgrade.txt for Windows 98/Me and
%windir%\winnt32.log for Windows NT/2000. This will detail the applications that may not work, what device drivers may require upgrading, and
which hardware is incompatible. You can also run this report from the
automated setup process, login script, or other management utilities,
and you may save it to a network share for later perusal. You can
uniquely save each report in the central location as the computer name
of the machine where the pre-upgrade check ran.
To minimize issues during the upgrade process, we recommend that you visit
your vendors’Web sites for compatibility information, updated drivers, and other
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
39
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 40
www.IrPDF.com
40
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
information. During the setup of a test lab, you will be able to run the upgrade
process on production-type machines to gain an understanding of what issues
may need to be resolved. As a general rule, you should remove custom powermanagement tools and custom Plug and Play solutions before upgrading
Windows NT/2000 and Windows 98/Me.
Upgrading from Windows 98/Me
Microsoft has invested a great deal of effort to ensure that the upgrade from
Windows 98/ME to Windows XP Professional is as smooth as possible.That said,
upgrading from Windows 98/ME is the least optimal of the upgrade paths available. Most administrators will be aware that distinct differences exist between
Windows NT/2000 and Windows 98, notably with the Registry, the accounts
database, and operating system structures.This implies that some applications
designed specifically for Windows 98 may not work under Windows XP
Professional, and that some hardware that functions under Windows 98/ME may
not function with Windows XP.
Several system utilities are not migrated during the upgrade process, such as
Scandisk, Defragger, and DriveSpace, because they are replaced with equivalent
functionality within Windows XP Professional. Compressed drives will also not be
upgraded and must be decompressed before upgrading. Certain legacy specific
binaries, called VxDs, will not migrate during the upgrade to Windows XP
Professional along with .386 drivers.The [386Enh] section of the system.ini file on
legacy workstations details the VxDs that are loaded.
Windows 98 and Windows ME are supported for upgrade.The upgrade process
will preserve the system and user state, that is, the file system, drive letters, and user
accounts.Windows XP Professional supports a wide range of file systems, including
FAT32 introduced with Windows 95.The upgrade process supports FAT32, though
no changes are made to the file system during the migration.You can instruct the
setup process to convert partitions to NTFS v5 or to leave the file system alone.
Additional considerations when upgrading include the following:
■
Specifying the installation directory You cannot change this from
the current Windows directory.
■
Machine accounts Windows 98/Me machines do not require machine
accounts in the domain, but Windows XP Professional workstations do.
■
User accounts and profiles During the migration process, the setup
program will attempt to migrate profiles and user accounts.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 41
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Upgrading from Windows NT/2000
Windows NT 4.0,Windows 2000, and Windows XP share a common architecture in many key areas—such as the Registry, file system, security, and operating
system kernel structures—which eases the upgrade path. Applications also have
common compatibility requirements for Windows NT/2000 and Windows XP.
When upgrading,Windows XP Professional supports a great deal of the
Windows NT 4.0 and 2000 legacy hardware, though this does not necessarily
imply that the same hardware is supported for clean installs.
The main software incompatibility culprits include antivirus programs, file
system filters (as used by backup programs and even storage devices such as CDROMs), and disk quota software. Ensuring that the machines BIOS revisions are
up to date is always a good idea.
Starting the Upgrade
If you have determined that your operating system is eligible to upgrade, here are
the steps for performing the upgrade to Windows XP Professional:
1. Insert the Windows XP Professional CD. Auto-run will start the setup
program.To begin, choose Install Windows XP, as shown in Figure 2.22.
Figure 2.22 Starting the Windows XP Upgrade
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
41
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 42
www.IrPDF.com
42
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
2. Windows Setup will begin.Your first decision is to choose whether this
is an Upgrade Installation or a Clean Installation (see Figure 2.23).
Choose Upgrade Installation and click Next.
Figure 2.23 Choosing the Installation Type
3. You must agree to the license agreement, as shown in Figure 2.24.To
agree to the terms of the license agreement, choose I accept this
agreement and then click Next.
Figure 2.24 Accepting the License Agreement
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 43
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
4. Figure 2.25 shows the process of entering the Windows XP product key,
which is a 25-character key that is attached to the Windows CD folder.
After you type the product key, click Next.
Figure 2.25 Entering the Product Key
5. The Windows XP setup routine adds a new feature called Dynamic
Update (see Figure 2.26).This allows you to check Microsoft’s Web site
for updated files prior to beginning the installation.The idea is that you
should have the most up-to-date program files if you choose to use
Dynamic Update. If you choose to skip this step, you can always use
Windows Update to get new files after Windows XP has been installed.
Make your selection, and then click Next.
6. After you proceed through the Dynamic Update screen (by either
choosing to download new files or skipping the procedure), your
computer will be restarted, as shown in Figure 2.27.
7. Upon restarting, you will see that the boot menu has been modified to
include a listing for Microsoft Windows XP Professional Setup (see
Figure 2.28).This will be the default option. Once the time elapses, the
GUI setup will begin.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
43
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 44
www.IrPDF.com
44
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.26 Using Dynamic Update to Get Updated Setup Files
Figure 2.27 Restarting the Computer after Dynamic Update
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 45
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.28 Boot Menu Defaults to Windows XP Professional Setup
8. The next step is to copy files from the CD to the hard drive, as shown
in Figure 2.29.When this is complete, the system will reboot again.
Figure 2.29 Preparing the Installation
9. When the system reboots, as shown in Figure 2.30, you will notice that
the startup screen has changed to the new Windows XP Professional logo.
10. The remaining steps of the installation are the same for both the clean
installation and the upgrade installation.Windows XP will discover and
install the devices in the system, configure the Start menu items, register
components, and remove the temporary files that were used for the
installation.These steps will look very similar to those that made up the
end of the clean install. Figure 2.31 shows one of these steps.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
45
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 46
www.IrPDF.com
46
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.30 System Reboot Indicates New Operating System
Figure 2.31 Beginning the File Copy
11. After the setup routine has completed the items specified in Step 10, the
system will reboot, and the upgrade will be complete.
We’ve now illustrated both the clean installation and upgrade installation of
Windows XP Professional from CD-ROM.You can also install the product from
a network share point.The next section discusses the network installation of
Windows XP Professional, as well as the command-line switches that you can use
with both the CD installation as well as the network installation.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 47
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Network Installation of
Windows XP Professional
In the two previous sections, we discussed the clean and upgrade installations of
Windows XP.You can also perform these types of installations from a network
share point.The network installation of Windows XP Professional works just like
the CD installation, and the installation steps will parallel those of the clean or
upgrade installation. For example, if you run the setup program (Winnt32.exe)
from within an operating system that can be upgraded, the network installation
will follow the same screen prompts as the CD-based upgrade. If you run the
DOS setup program (Winnt.exe) from a network boot disk, the installation will
mimic a CD-based clean installation.We won’t go through the screen shots for
these types of installations—you can simply refer to the earlier sections in the
chapter to see the steps.
Installing Windows XP from the network has some benefits. First, you don’t
need to run around to all of your machines with a CD-ROM.You can simply
execute the setup program from the network share. Secondly, you can instruct
Winnt32.exe to pull its setup files from multiple locations on the network simultaneously.This is a means of speeding up the file copy stage of the process
without putting all of the burden on a single share point.Third, you can easily
run the setup process and have it use an answer file that is stored on the network,
without having to tote around a floppy disk.
Using a network installation does have some drawbacks, however, especially
for those machines that are receiving a clean installation.You will need to build a
network boot disk that is configured for the network card drivers on the target
machine. Unfortunately, Microsoft discontinued the network boot disk generator
after Windows NT 4.0.You can, however, find a number of sites on the Internet
that offer boot disk images for download.You will just need to customize the
disk with your network information.
The simplest way to prepare for a network installation of Windows XP
Professional is to create a network share and copy the i386 folder from the
Windows XP Professional CD to the share.You can also use the Setup Manager
to create the folder and share, copy the files, and create the unattend.txt files for
performing unattended installations.This is discussed shortly. Nonetheless, you
will, at a minimum, need that i386 folder.
Often, the network installation process includes automating the setup routine.
The next section discusses automating the setup of Windows XP Professional to
include using the Setup Manager to create answer files and UDB files. Remote
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
47
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 48
www.IrPDF.com
48
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Installation Services is not discussed in this chapter because it is discussed in detail
in Chapter 12.
Configuring & Implementing…
Network Installation to a New Hard Drive
If you are going to install Windows XP on a machine with a new or newlyformatted hard drive over the network, you will need to create a formatted partition on the disk that is large enough to accommodate
Windows XP. You can do this with the DOS fdisk and format commands.
Automating the Windows XP
Professional Setup
One of the techniques available for automating the installation of Windows XP
Professional is using unattended installation scripts.Think of an installation script
just as you would a script for a play. Each actor has lines to say, and those lines are
spoken at certain points during the play. An installation script provides answers (the
lines of the play) to the questions asked by the setup process when they are needed,
without the need for someone to sit at the console and provide the answers.
Unattended installation scripts have a number of benefits, including the
following:
■
Most flexible option for large-scale deployments of Windows XP
■
Creates consistent installs
■
Reduces overall deployment time
■
Reduces user interaction
On the flip side of these benefits, one of the shortcomings is that the percomputer install time is longer than other automated installation methods, such as
disk imaging.The average install time using unattended installation scripts is
about 60 to 75 minutes, depending on system and network resources.
You must take several steps to use unattended installation scripts. (The terms
installation script and answer file are used interchangeably throughout this chapter.)
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 49
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
First, the source files for completing the installation must be made available.You
can do this via a network share or by using the source CD-ROM. Next, you
must properly prepare the target computer, including backing up any required
existing data. Last, you manually initiate the install process or use a batch file or
systems management software.
Preparing for Setup
As with most projects in life, one of your first steps is preparation.With respect to
automated installations, preparation involves making sure that the setup process
has all the files and settings it needs to complete the installation of Windows XP.
All of us who have been in this industry for more than a few weeks realize that
most software, including operating systems, require a setup or installation procedure.
Windows XP’s installation is initiated much as it was with previous versions of
Windows 2000 and NT—you launch the installation by typing in Winnt32.exe or
Winnt.exe from a command line (use Winnt.exe only when upgrading 16-bit
operating systems, such as Windows 3.x and DOS).The following sections look at
the number of options you have when running these programs
Command-Line Setup
Windows XP Professional has two installation programs that you can manipulate
using command-line options.These programs are Winnt.exe and Winnt32.exe.
The first of these programs is meant for use in 16-bit operating systems.The
second is designed for use in a 32-bit environment, such as Windows 98,
Windows Me,Windows NT 4.0, or Windows 2000. Let’s take a look at the
syntax for using each of these programs.
Winnt.exe
The syntax for running the Winnt.exe program from a DOS command prompt is
as follows:
winnt [/s:SourcePath] [/t:TempDrive] [/u:answer file][/udf:ID
[,UDB_file]] [/r:folder][/rx:folder][/e:command][/a]
Table 2.4 shows the some of the common parameters that may be used to
modify the operation of Winnt.exe.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
49
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 50
www.IrPDF.com
50
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Table 2.4 Common Parameters that You May Use to Modify the Operation
of Winnt.exe
Parameter
Description
/s:SourcePath
This parameter specifies the source location of the
Windows XP files. The location must be a full path of
the form x:\[Path] or \\server\share[\Path].
The /u parameter performs an unattended setup
using an answer file. The answer file provides answers
to some or all of the prompts that the end user
normally responds to during setup. If you use /u, you
must also use /s.
Indicates an identifier (ID) that setup uses to specify
how a Uniqueness Database (UDB) file modifies an
answer file (see /u). The UDB overrides values in the
answer file, and the identifier determines which
values in the UDB file are used. If you don’t specify a
UDB_file, setup prompts you to insert a disk that
contains the $Unique$.udb file.
Running Winnt.exe with the /? displays help at the
command prompt. This will show the entire list of
attributes available for this program.
/u:answer file
/udf:ID [,UDB_file]
/?
Winnt32.exe
The syntax for running the Winnt32.exe program from the Windows command
prompt is as follows:
winnt32 [/checkupgradeonly] [/cmd:command_line] [/cmdcons]
[/copydir:i386\folder_name]
[/copysource:folder_name] [/debug[level]:[filename]] [/dudisable]
[/duprepare:pathname]
[/dushare:pathname] [/m:folder_name] [/makelocalsource] [/noreboot]
[/s:sourcepath]
[/syspart:drive_letter] [/tempdrive:drive_letter] [/udf:id [,UDB_file]]
[/unattend[num]:[answer_file]]
The following section displays some of the common parameters that you can
use with the Winnt32.exe program to change its behavior during the installation.
Running Winnt32.exe with the /checkupgradeonly parameter allows you to
check your computer for upgrade compatibility with Windows XP. If you use this
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 51
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
option with /unattend, no user input is required. Otherwise, the results are displayed on the screen, and you can save them under the filename you specify.The
default filename is Upgrade.txt in the systemroot folder.You can run the setup program with this parameter from a login script ahead of your migration to Windows
XP to gather the compatibility information prior to starting the upgrade.
The /makelocalsource option instructs setup to copy all source files to the
local hard disk.You usually use this when performing a CD-ROM installation if
the CD-ROM drive becomes unavailable during the installation process.
The /s:sourcepath option points setup to the location of the Windows XP files.
You have the option of specifying additional /s:sourcepath (up to eight) as part of
Winnt32.exe to indicate multiple source locations. Setup can then copy files from
multiple locations, thereby speeding the installation process and taking the load off
a single server. If you are using multiple source paths, make sure that the first source
path listed is available when the installation starts, or setup will fail.
The /tempdrive:drive_letter option instructs setup to copy setup files to the
specified drive letter and to install Windows XP to that drive.
The /unattend[:answer_file]option runs setup in unattended mode.Without
the answer_file specified, the existing operating system is upgraded, and all users’
settings are preserved. If you specify an answer file, you can customize information during the setup process.
The /unattend [num] [:answer_file] option is similar to the previous one
with the exception of the num setting. Num specifies the number of seconds
setup should pause after copying files to the destination computer and rebooting
the computer.
The /udf:[id,[udf_file]] option provides additional customization to the
unattended answer file for each computer being upgraded (UDF stands for
uniqueness database file). By indicating an id and a UDB file, setup will override
information provided in the answer file with the specific info provided in the
UDB file for the id specified. For instance, you can provide unique computer
names for each computer by using a UDB file.
Here is an example of a complete Winnt32.exe command for an unattended
installation (this example assumes that drive h: is mapped to the share for the distribution files):
h:\winnt32.exe /s:h:\ /unattend:h:\unattend.txt /udf:comp1,unattend.udb
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
51
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 52
www.IrPDF.com
52
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Network Distribution Point
Now that you are comfortable with the Winnt32.exe command, let’s see what is
required to be in place prior to typing in that command.
At the most basic level, a distribution point is a network share that includes
the contents of the \i386 folder from the distribution CD-ROM for Windows
XP. Instead of placing the CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive and starting the
installation, you point Winnt32.exe to the network share and launch setup from
there.The distribution folder also includes the unattended answer file, named
unattend.txt by default. If you are using a UDB file, that too will reside in the
distribution folder.
Distribution Point Directory Structure
At the most basic level, a distribution point is a network share that includes the
contents of the /i386 folder.Taking a deeper look, we see that the network distribution point is made up of a number of subdirectories, each of which plays an
important role during an unattended installation.
The distribution point is a folder on a file server.You can name this folder
with any name you want.This folder is shared, and the share is the focus of the
\s command option for Winnt32.exe discussed previously.You place the contents
of the \i386 directory in the root of this folder. In addition to the folders of the
\i386 directory, there is an $OEM$ folder and a number of subfolders.This section concentrates on the $OEM$ folder and its subfolders.
As part of an unattended installation, you may need to provide additional files
required by setup that are not included with the Windows XP distribution.These
files include computer HALs, mass-storage device drivers, and Plug and Play
drivers. $OEM$ acts as the root for files and folders that are required during the
setup process.
The \$OEM$\$$ folder includes system files that are copied to the Windows
XP installation folder on the computer being upgraded.The $$ is equivalent to
\%windir%. So, if your install directory is \winnt, $$ is equal to \winnt.
\$OEM$\$$ can include subfolders that represent the subfolders in the system
folder, such as \system32.
The \$OEM$\$1 folder contains files that are copied to the system drive. $1
is equivalent to the %systemdrive% environment variable. For instance, if you are
installing Windows XP Professional to the C: drive, $1 is equal to C.
$OEM$\drive_letter equals $OEM$\C.This folder contains additional files and
folders that should be copied to the corresponding drive on the computer.This
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 53
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
differs from the $1 folder in that the drive letter is hardcoded for this folder.
This allows you to copy files and folders to additional drives if they exist on the
computer.
Configuring & Implementing…
Automated Installs from a Bootable CD-ROM
This section focuses primarily on performing an automated install from
a network share. You can also install Windows XP in an automated
fashion locally on a workstation using a bootable CD-ROM. Prior to initiating a CD-ROM-based install, you must make sure these preliminary
requirements are met:
1. Place the answer file onto a floppy disk and name it Winnt.sif.
2. Ensure that the destination computer supports booting
from a CD-ROM and supports the El-Torito non-emulation
specification.
3. The answer file needs to contain a valid [Data] section. The
[Data] section needs to include the following parameters:
■
UnattendedInstall=Yes
■
MSDosInitiated=No
■
AutoPartition=1; if this value is set to 0, the end user is
prompted to select the installation partition during setup.
4. Create the answer file by using Setup Manager as discussed
in detail in the following section on Setup Manager 3.0.
Modify the answer file with the [Data] information from the
previous step. Boot the destination computer using the
Windows XP CD-ROM and place the floppy disk containing
the Winnt.sif file into the floppy drive.
Here’s the kicker—Windows 98/Me does not support upgrading
Windows 9x or Windows NT 4.0 systems when booting from CD-ROM.
Booting from CD-ROM supports only a fresh installation of Windows XP. If
that didn’t hurt enough, installing from a CD-ROM doesn’t support the
$OEM$ directory structure discussed in the “Network Distribution Point”
section of this chapter. Needless to say, much of the flexibility of automated installations is stripped away when using a bootable CD-ROM.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
53
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 54
www.IrPDF.com
54
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
The $OEM$\Textmode folder is very important when dealing with installations on computers with dissimilar hardware. In it, you can place files that support different HALs and mass storage device drivers that are not included with
the distribution files.
All this information is good to know, but it can seem very complicated.
Luckily,Windows XP provides a tool called Setup Manager to help automate the
creation of a distribution folder.The next section briefly discusses this tool.
Customizing Windows XP Professional Setup
If you decide to launch a Windows XP installation from an existing Windows
NT or Windows 98/Me install using the /unattend command option without
specifying an answer file, the system will be upgraded using all the existing user
settings. If you want to customize the upgrade, you will need to use an answer
file and the $OEM$ directory structure discussed in the “Distribution Point
Directory Structure” section.The answer file provides answers to the questions
asked by the setup process and instructs setup on what to do with the distribution folders and files contained under $OEM$.This section provides some insight
into the answer file and then walks you through using Setup Manager to create
an answer file and the $OEM$ structure.
Answer Files
An unattended answer file is simply a text file that is formatted similar to an
INI file. Its role is to provide the setup process with the data it needs to complete
the installation of Windows XP Professional without having a user type in the
information.
An answer file is made up of a number of headings, and under each heading
are pairs of parameters and their assigned values.The format looks like this:
[Heading1]
Parameter1=value1
Parameter2=value2
[Heading 2]
Parameter3=value3
You are welcome to create the answer file manually by using a text editor
such as Notepad, but we recommend that you allow Setup Manager to automate
this process. After the answer file has been created, you can then go back and add
additional values or edit the answer file to further customize the installation.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 55
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Setup Manager 3.0
Setup Manager has been mentioned a number of times so far, but what is it and
what does it do? Setup Manager is a wizard-driven program that queries the user
on a number of topics in order to prepare an unattended answer file and construct the distribution folder.You can run through the wizard any number of
times to prepare additional answer files to address all of your installation needs. In
this section, we walk through the Setup Manager wizard, providing thorough
descriptions of each screen and suggestions as to what information to provide.
1. First, you need to start Setup Manager.The files needed to run Setup
Manager are available on the Windows XP distribution CD-ROM in
the deploy.cab file under \support\tools.You need to extract the
Setupmgr.exe and Setupmgr.chm files to your local hard drive and run
the Setupmgr.exe. Once you launch Setup Manager, the wizard walks
you through a number of dialog boxes, extracting the information it
needs to prepare the answer file and $OEM$ directory.
2. The first screen you see is the Welcome screen (see Figure 2.32). Click
Next to continue.
Figure 2.32 Setup Manager Welcome Screen
3. The next window asks whether you want to create a new answer file or
modify an existing one (see Figure 2.33).The first time through Setup
Manager you will select Create a new answer file. If you are creating
an additional answer file for a unique unattended installation, you can
choose Modify an existing answer file.This choice takes an existing
answer file you specify and places the data from that file as defaults
throughout the Setup Manager wizard, allowing you to make changes
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
55
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 56
www.IrPDF.com
56
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
along the way.The second selection is fairly self-explanatory in that each
wizard screen defaults to the current settings of the computer on which
Setup Manager is being run. For our example, we are creating a new
answer file. Make your selection and click Next.
Figure 2.33 Create a New Answer File or Modify an Existing One
4. The dialog box shown in Figure 2.34 asks you which type of answer file
to create—Windows Unattended Installation, Sysprep, or Remote
Installation Service. Setup Manager will display select screens based on
your choice. Remote Installation Services is discussed in Chapter 12.
Select Windows Unattended Installation and click Next to continue.
Figure 2.34 Indicate Which Type of Answer File to Create
5. You must indicate which platform is to be installed:Windows XP Home
Edition,Windows XP Professional, or Windows 2002 Server, Advanced
Server, or Data Center (shown in Figure 2.35.) Select Windows XP
Professional and click Next.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 57
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.35 Select the Appropriate Windows XP Product
6. In the window shown in Figure 2.36, you must decide what level of
user interaction you want to take place during the installation.The
choices and descriptions are as follows:
■
Provide defaults The answers you select during Setup Manager
are displayed as the defaults during Windows XP installation.The
user has the opportunity to change any setting.This does not result
in a fully automated installation.
■
Fully automated As its name implies, by selecting this option the
installation will proceed without any user interaction—the answer
file must supply all answers.
■
Hide pages Selecting this option results in a partially automated
installation. If the answer file supplies answers, the relevant installation pages are not displayed to the user performing the installation. If
no answer is available, the page is displayed, and the user must provide an answer manually.
■
Read only This setting includes the settings for Hide Pages and
Provide Defaults with an additional twist. If the page is not hidden,
it is displayed to the user in read-only mode restricting the user from
making any changes.
■
GUI attended By making this selection, you automate the text mode
portion of setup, but leave the GUI portion requiring user input.
For our example, choose Fully automated.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
57
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 58
www.IrPDF.com
58
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.36 Select the Level of User Interaction
7. You can instruct Setup Manager to create the distribution folder or
modify an existing distribution folder. By selecting Yes, create or
modify a distribution folder (see Figure 2.37), Setup Manager will
next prompt you for a folder name and share name for the distribution
folder. Setup Manager also creates the $OEM$ file structure under the
distribution folder. Also, Setup Manager will copy the Windows XP
source files to the root of the distribution folder to be used during the
unattended installation. If you are installing from the CD-ROM, select
No, this answer file will be used to install from a CD.
Figure 2.37 Provide a Name and Location for the Distribution Folder
and a Name for the Share
8. You are given the opportunity to specify the location of the Windows
XP setup files.You can choose either the CD-ROM drive on your
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 59
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
system, or you can choose a specific network location. Once you have
made this choice, as shown in Figure 2.38, click Next.
Figure 2.38 Specifying the Location of the Setup Files
9. You are now asked if you would like to create a new distribution folder
on your server or if you’d like to modify an existing distribution folder
(see Figure 2.39).You are also given the opportunity to provide a share
name for the folder.The wizard will provide a default name for both the
folder and the share.You can change this if you’d like. Once you have
named the folder and the share, click Next.
Figure 2.39 Naming the Distribution Folder
10. The next dialog box (Figure 2.40) asks you to enter a Name and
Organization. Keep in mind that this information is applied to all computers that use this answer file.You can create additional answer files if
different settings need to be applied, or use a UDB file, which is discussed later in this chapter. Simply put, a UDB file provides additional,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
59
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 60
www.IrPDF.com
60
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
per-computer customization during an unattended install. Enter the
information and click Next to continue.
Figure 2.40 Specify the Name and Organization to Be Applied to
the Installation
11. Figure 2.41 shows the wizard screen prompting you to customize the
display settings. As the window shows, you have the ability to select
values for colors, screen area, and refresh frequency. If you decide to
change these settings, and the settings you wish to use are not available
in the pull-down menus, you can customize your settings by clicking
Custom…. Figure 2.42 is then displayed allowing you to enter specific
data. Click OK when you are finished.
Figure 2.41 Select Display Settings
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 61
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.42 Customizing the Display Settings
12. You can select the time zone setting for the destination computers. Our
fictitious corporation is in New York City, so select Eastern Time
(shown in Figure 2.43). Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.43 Make the Appropriate Time Zone Selection
13. A new feature in the Windows Setup Manager is the ability to insert the
Product Key into the unattend.txt and sysprep.inf files directly from the
wizard (see Figure 2.44). In earlier versions, you had to manually edit the
unattend.txt file created by the wizard to add the Product Key. Once
you have entered the Product Key, click Next.
14. Figure 2.45 displays the next wizard screen, which asks you to specify
how you want to create computer names.You have a few options:You
can manually enter the list of computer names for the machines that are
being installed; you can import a text file that includes a list of computer
names, one per line with carriage returns; or you can have the answer
file generate random names based on the organization name you provided in Step 10. If you already have your Active Directory installed, you
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
61
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 62
www.IrPDF.com
62
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
can add the computers into Active Directory and export the listing using
the tools available in Active Directory Users and Computers.The file
can then be imported into this dialog box. In this example, a list of
names was imported from a text file. Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.44 Typing the Windows XP Product Key
Figure 2.45 Enter the Names of Destination Computers or Allow the
Answer File to Generate Them Automatically
15. Next, you are asked to enter the administrative password for the destination computer, as shown in Figure 2.46. A new feature in this version of
the Setup Manager is the ability to encrypt the Administrator’s password
in the unattend.txt file.You can also specify whether the Administrator
account should be automatically logged on after the computer reboots
and, if so, how many times.This feature is useful if you are going to
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:34 PM
Page 63
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
perform automated application installations after setup completes, and
the installations require an admin account.
Figure 2.46 Supply Administrator Account Information
WARNING
All-numeric computer names are not supported in Windows XP; however,
Windows NT did support this feature. For instance, in Windows NT you
could name a computer 100. This name is invalid in Windows XP because
all-numeric names can be interpreted incorrectly during name resolution.
Instead of a computer name, the number is treated as an IP address.
If you are upgrading a Windows NT system that has an all-numeric
name, Windows XP will perform the upgrade and retain the name. Any
changes to that name are then restricted by the naming conventions of
Windows XP.
16. The next window, shown in Figure 2.47, prompts you to choose the
typical settings for the network configuration or to customize these settings. For most, the default settings are adequate, providing TCP/IP and
DHCP with the Client for Microsoft Networks. By selecting
Customize settings, you can include additional network interface cards
and additional network components. In our example, the typical settings
are fine. Click Next to continue.
17. Figure 2.48 displays the window asking whether the destination computer will be part of a workgroup or part of a domain.When joining the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
63
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 64
www.IrPDF.com
64
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
destination computer to a domain, you must select Create a computer
account in the domain and specify the appropriate credentials, even if
the computer account has already been created.The reason for this is
that Windows XP uses Kerberos authentication, which requires that you
provide a valid domain account.When you specify this information, the
following lines are added to the answer file:
[Identification]
JoinDomain=<domain name>
DomainAdmin=<domain account>
DomainAdminPassword=<account password>
Figure 2.47 Accept Typical Network Settings or Choose to
Customize These Settings
Figure 2.48 Specify Whether the Destination Computer Will Join a
Workgroup or Domain
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 65
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
18. At this point, you have the option to further customize the unattended
installation or accept the defaults for the remaining settings.The additional
advanced settings include telephony, regional, language, browser, installation folder, printer installation, run once, and additional command configuration. If you decide not to customize these settings, you can simply
proceed through each of the following screens. Each of these additional
settings is prefaced by the word Advanced in the following steps.
19. Advanced Figure 2.49 displays the telephony settings window.The settings you specify here will apply only to destination computers that have
modems installed.
Figure 2.49 Select Telephony Settings for the Destination Computers
20. Advanced Next, you can specify any additional regional settings that
may be required on the end-user systems (see Figure 2.50). If you don’t
require any additional regional settings aside from those on the Windows
version currently installed, select to use the default. By specifying additional regional settings, you give end users the ability to use regionally
specific currency, keyboard layout, and measurement settings. For each
additional regional selection you make, the necessary files are copied to a
\lang folder under \$OEM$. Make your selection and click Next to
continue.
21. Advanced Figure 2.51 shows the languages settings screen. By specifying additional languages, you allow the end users to create and read
documents in the languages that are made available on the system. Click
Next to continue.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
65
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 66
www.IrPDF.com
66
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.50 If Necessary, Specify Any Additional Regional Settings
Figure 2.51 Include Support for Additional Languages
22. Advanced In the window shown in Figure 2.52, you have the option
of customizing the behavior of Internet Explorer.Your options include
the self-explanatory Use default Internet Explorer settings. In addition, you can select Use an autoconfiguration script created by the
Internet Explorer Administration Kit to configure your browser.
If you select this setting, you must specify an INS file, which is copied to
the \$OEM$ folder. An INS file is an Internet settings file that allows
you to preconfigure and lock down Internet Explorer.The third option
allows you to specify proxy and default home page settings for IE.
Because this isn’t a book about customizing IE, we’ll accept the default
settings. Click Next to continue.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 67
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.52 Specify Browser and Shell Settings
23. Advanced Figure 2.53 prompts you to enter information about the
folder to which Windows XP should be installed.The default selection is
to install Windows XP into a folder named winnt. By choosing to generate a uniquely named folder, setup will name the install folder
\winnt.x (x being 0,1…999) if a folder named winnt already exists on
the disk.You also have the option of specifying the name of the folder to
which Windows XP should be installed.The format for this entry is the
path name without a drive letter (windowsXP). If you want to specify
the drive letter, use the /tempdrive parameter with Winnt32.exe. For
our example, we are going to leave any existing winnt folders and allow
setup to create a new folder. Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.53 Select the Folder to Which Windows XP Should
Be Installed
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
67
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 68
www.IrPDF.com
68
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
24. Advanced If you need to preconfigure printers on your destination
computers, you can do this by using the dialog box shown in Figure 2.54.
Enter the UNC name of the printer share when specifying a printer to be
installed the first time a user logs on after setup completes. Note that the
user logging on must have the appropriate permissions to add the printer,
in order for this feature to work. Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.54 Configure Network Printers to Be Installed on
Destination Computers
25. Advanced If you want to run any programs automatically after the first
user has logged on, you can set this up by using the dialog box shown in
Figure 2.55.You can combine this with automatically logging on the
Administrator account x number of times after setup completes, as is discussed in Step 15. In Figure 2.55, we’ve entered a command to run
notepad.exe with the readme.txt file.This launches the readme.txt file,
which includes some introductory material for the end user.This program would run only once. In this case, we would not want the
Administrator account logged on automatically. Click Next to continue.
26. Previously, you were given the opportunity to enter commands to be
run once after the first user logged on the system after setup. Figure 2.56
displays a dialog box that prepares commands to be run immediately
after setup, but prior to the system restarting. Each command you enter
here is included in a cmdlines.txt file placed in the $OEM$ folder.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 69
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.55 Enter Commands to Run after the First User Logs on the
System after Setup Completes
Figure 2.56 Enter Commands to Be Run Immediately after Setup
27. The last few steps finalize the Setup Manager process, asking you to
name the answer file and then copying the setup files to the server.
These screens are shown in Figures 2.57 and 2.58.You can name the
answer file anything you want; you do not need to accept the default
(unattend.txt). Setup Manager also creates a uniqueness database file
(UDB file) if multiple computer names are provided. In addition, a BAT
file is created, which is listed in Figure 2.59.This is a sample file that is
executed by entering UNATTEND at the command line, followed by a
computer name or ID that matches a computer name in the UDB file.
More information on UDB files is provided in the next section.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
69
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 70
www.IrPDF.com
70
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Figure 2.57 Providing a Name and Location for the Answer File
Figure 2.58 Setup Manager Copies the Windows XP Files to the
Distribution Folder
Figure 2.59 An Example of unattend.bat Created by Setup Manager
@rem SetupMgrTag
@echo off
rem
rem This is a SAMPLE batch script generated by the Setup
Manager Wizard.
rem If this script is moved from the location where it was
generated, it may have to be modified.
rem
set AnswerFile=.\unattend.txt
set UdfFile=.\unattend.udb
set ComputerName=%1
set SetupFiles=\\fp2000\winXPdist\I386
if "%ComputerName%" == "" goto USAGE
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 71
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Figure 2.59 Continued
\\fp2000\winXPdist\I386\winnt32 /s:%SetupFiles%
/unattend:%AnswerFile%/udf:%ComputerName%,%UdfFile%
/makelocalsource
goto DONE
:USAGE
echo.
echo Usage: unattend ^<computername^>
echo.
:DONE
NOTE
When you name your answer file, that same name is applied to the UDB
and BAT files. For example, if you name your answer file myanswerfile.txt,
you also end up with myanswerfile.udb and myanswerfile.bat.
28. The last window in the Setup Manager wizard requires you to click
Finish so that Setup Manager can complete its work. In addition to
copying the Windows source files to the distribution folder and any
other files you indicated, Setup Manager generates an answer file and
places it at the root of the distribution folder. Here is a sample of an
answer file that was generated by the responses provided during this
Setup Manager walkthrough:
;SetupMgrTag
[Data]
AutoPartition=1
MsDosInitiated="0"
UnattendedInstall="Yes"
[Unattended]
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
71
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 72
www.IrPDF.com
72
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
UnattendMode=ProvideDefault
OemPreinstall=Yes
TargetPath=\WINDOWS
[GuiUnattended]
AdminPassword=44efce164ab921caaad3b435b51404ee32ed87bdb5fdc5e9cb
a88547376818d4
EncryptedAdminPassword=Yes
OEMSkipRegional=1
[UserData]
FullName=""
OrgName=""
ComputerName=*
[SetupMgr]
ComputerName0=floor-a-01
ComputerName1=floor-a-02
ComputerName2=floor-a-03
ComputerName3=floor-a-04
ComputerName4=floor-a-05
DistFolder=D:\winXPdist
DistShare=winXPdist
[GuiRunOnce]
Command0="rundll32 printui.dll,PrintUIEntry /in /n
\\fp2000\lj8050a"
Command1=notepad.exe c:\readme.txt
[Identification]
JoinDomain=bigcorp.com
DomainAdmin=installer
DomainAdminPassword=123456
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 73
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
[Networking]
InstallDefaultComponents=Yes
You should be able to disseminate what each heading means and where the
data comes from by going back through the Setup Manager steps. For a thorough
discussion of all the available parameters for an answer file, refer to the
unattend.doc file, which is included in the \support\tools\deploy.cab folder on
the Windows XP distribution CD-ROM.
Further Customization with UDB
One answer file usually does not cut it for most deployments because it only
provides a single source of answers for the setup process.You could create multiple answer files for each destination computer, but that can become quite
tedious. A better approach is to utilize a uniqueness database file (this has a UDB
extension). One way to think about the purpose of a UDB file is that the answer
file specifies the defaults and the UDB file specifies the exceptions. Any settings
included in the UDB file for a computer override the settings provided in the
answer file.
The UDB file generated by Setup Manager provides only unique computer
names for the destination computer.You need to add additional information if
necessary to further customize setup on individual systems. Here is a sample of
the unattend.udb file created by Setup Manager:
;SetupMgrTag
[UniqueIds]
floor-a-01=UserData
floor-a-02=UserData
floor-a-03=UserData
floor-a-04=UserData
floor-a-05=UserData
[floor-a-01:UserData]
ComputerName=floor-a-01
[floor-a-02:UserData]
ComputerName=floor-a-02
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
73
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 74
www.IrPDF.com
74
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
[floor-a-03:UserData]
ComputerName=floor-a-03
[floor-a-04:UserData]
ComputerName=floor-a-04
[floor-a-05:UserData]
ComputerName=floor-a-05
As you can see, the first heading, [UniqueIds], correlates with subsequent headings which include the ComputerName parameter.These subsequent headings
are prefaced with the UniqueId (such as floor-a-01) followed by a colon and
UserData. UserData is an answer file heading that is included in the unattend.txt
file listed earlier in the chapter.You can provide additional parameters under this
heading or add additional headings for each computer as long as the UniqueId of
the computer prefaces them. Let’s take a look at some examples.
Suppose you want to include unique user and organization names to each
computer. In order to do this, you need to add additional parameters to the
UserData portion of the UDB file for each machine. Here’s an example:
[floor-a-01:UserData]
ComputerName=floor-a-01
FullName=John Doe
OrgName=XYZ Affiliates
If you want to add additional headings, you can do that as well.The following
is an example that illustrates how to join computers to different domains using
parameters under the Identification heading.
[floor-a-03:Identification]
JoinDomain=sub01.xyz.com
DomainAdmin=installer
DomainAdminPassword=mypassword
[floor-a-04:Identification]
JoinDomain=sub02.xyz.com
DomainAdmin=installer
DomainAdminPassword=mypassword
The command line to launch setup with a UDB file is:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 75
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Winnt32.exe /s:<location of setup files> /unattend:<unattend file>
/udf:<UniqueID>, <udb file>
You can launch this command a number of ways.You can use the batch file
that was created by Setup Manager and provide the computer name.You can
include similar batch file commands in a logon script that is launched when the
user logs on the system. A word of caution about this method: It could overwhelm your distribution servers if a large number of users log on at the same
time and receive the same logon script. A third install option is to use a system’s
management application, such as Microsoft Systems Management Server, to
deploy Windows XP Professional.
Preparing the Destination Computer
You have an answer file and a UDB file and are ready to start your automated
installations.The final step is to prepare the destination computers for upgrade.
This involves ensuring that existing applications and utilities are supported under
Windows XP, that data on the disk is backed up, and that the drives to which
Windows XP is to be installed are healthy and have adequate space for the larger
footprint of Windows XP.
Looking Out for Incompatibilities
When upgrading a computer to Windows XP, you need to watch out for some
issues.What those issues are depends on whether you are upgrading from
Windows NT or from Windows 9x.When upgrading from Windows NT, look
out for the following incompatibility issues:
■
Antivirus applications and disk management applications that
rely on system filters to operate Due to changes in how Windows
XP handles these processes, you should uninstall legacy applications prior
to the upgrade.
■
Custom Plug and Play utilities Because Windows NT did not
natively support Plug and Play, some third parties develop tools to emulate
this functionality that was so convenient for laptop users.Windows XP
fully supports Plug and Play, so you should remove these custom utilities.
■
Custom power management utilities (usually for laptop systems)
Windows XP uses ACPI and Advanced Power Management (APM) to
address power management.You must remove any existing power management utilities on the Windows NT system prior to the upgrade.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
75
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 76
www.IrPDF.com
76
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
■
Networking protocols and clients that are not automatically
updated during the Windows XP installation
When upgrading from Windows 98/Me systems, watch out for these incompatibilities in addition to the ones mentioned under Window NT:
■
Any applications or utilities that make use of virtual device
drivers and .386 drivers
■
Any Control Panel applications installed by third parties These
often include network interface card utilities or display adapter utilities.
You also want to check the HCL maintained by Microsoft at
www.microsoft.com/hcl.
Please, Back Up Your Data
Once you are sure that your system and software is free of any known incompatibilities, and you have tested your automated installation in a lab and in pilots, you
need to back up the data on the destination computer in case the automated
installation fails.This is definitely one of the most often “shoulda dones” spoken
by IT professionals—“I shoulda backed up the data!” Don’t make the same mistake so many of your contemporaries have made. Although it extends the deployment time frame and can be an unglamorous job, backups are essential to prevent
disasters.
When backing up Windows NT systems, also be sure to back up the
Registry. If your backup software doesn’t support this function, you can use the
Regback.exe utility available in the Windows NT Resource Kit.
Do a Disk Checkup
If you perform an upgrade on a sick disk drive or one with inadequate space,
your installation will fail.Take some steps to repair any disk problems and provide
adequate disk space prior to the upgrade to Windows XP.
Use disk utilities that are available on the current operating system, such as
ScanDisk and Defrag (Windows 98 systems) to check your disks and repair any
problems. Next, make sure that you have enough room for Windows XP to be
installed.Windows XP is a much larger product than either Windows NT, 2000,
or Windows 9x.The minimum available free space needed for a Windows XP
Professional installation that takes place over a network is over 1GB.
By taking these simple precautionary steps you afford yourself a greater
chance of experiencing a problem-free automated installation.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 77
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Using Sysprep
You’ve purchased your imaging tool of choice, and you are ready to start imaging
your computer. Before you jump right into creating images, it is best to understand what features the Sysprep tool includes and the correct sequence of steps to
take when preparing a system to be imaged.
Overview of Sysprep
Simply stated, the Sysprep tool prepares a computer disk to be imaged and copied
to another disk. First, the Sysprep tool generates a unique SID for the target
machine when the target system first reboots. Second, it runs a modified version of
the GUI setup that takes only five to ten minutes and can be fully automated.
Third, Sysprep will run Plug and Play detection to detect any hardware devices that
exist on the target, but may not have existed on the source machine.
Sysprep Requirements
One limitation of using imaging to deploy Windows XP is the requirement that
some of the system hardware of the source be identical to that of the target.
Because Windows XP supports Plug and Play, certain hardware components can
be different on the target than those that existed on the source install.
In order to take advantage of Sysprep disk duplication using imaging, the following components must be the same on both the source and target:
■
HALs
■
ACPI support
■
Mass storage device controllers
Also, the size of the target disk must be equal to or larger than the source.
Any Plug and Play devices, such as sound cards, network interface cards, and
modems do not have to be identical on the source and target. If different Plug
and Play devices exist on the target machines, you must make sure that drivers
are available from the Windows XP distribution or added to the distribution
location in order for these devices to be installed correctly during Plug and Play
detection. How to do this is discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
77
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 78
www.IrPDF.com
78
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Designing & Planning…
HAL and ACPI Explained
In order to use the Sysprep for imaging disks, the source and target
must have identical HAL and ACPI support. The question is, “What the
heck are these things?”
The HAL is just what its name implies: It is software that abstracts
the hardware from the operating system so that all hardware looks the
same to the operating system itself. One example is that the HAL enables
Windows XP Professional to run on both single processor and multiprocessor systems without having to change the operating system. Some
companies, such as Compaq and Dell, have developed their own HALs
that can be installed so that the operating system makes use of the
hardware architectures used on some of their systems.
The ACPI specification provides additional enhancements to the
Plug and Play specification. It includes system board and BIOS interfaces
that extend Plug and Play to include power management. Windows
2000’s Plug and Play support is optimized for systems that include ACPI
system boards. Developers utilize the ACPI specification to integrate
power management features throughout the system. By utilizing the
ACPI specification, Windows 2000 is better able to manage which applications are active when evaluating the system for power management.
You can find more information about ACPI at www.teleport.com/~acpi/.
Sysprep Step by Step
The Sysprep installation process usually involves three or more devices.The first
machine is your source machine.The source machine is the computer on which
you install the operation system and applications and customize the configuration. Sysprep is run on this machine to prepare for disk imaging.The disk image
is created using a third-party application and stored on a network share or on
external media, such as CD-ROM, tape, or Jaz.The image is then loaded onto
one or more target devices.
The steps necessary to create and load a disk image using Sysprep and a
third-party imaging tool are enumerated in the upcoming list.The tasks that
require more discussion are explained in detail later in this section.
Install Windows XP Professional on the source machine.When setup prompts
you as to whether you want to join a workgroup or domain, select workgroup.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 79
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Do not choose to join a domain. Additionally, leave the administrator account
password blank. If you do not leave the password field blank, you will not be able
to change it during the setup process on the target.
1. Once the computer has rebooted, log on as Administrator and install and
configure additional applications and services. Be aware that some applications, like Microsoft Office, will create user-specific settings for the
currently logged on user.These settings might not be available to users
logging on to the target system after imaging takes place.You can find
instructions on Microsoft’s Web site that help make this process easier.
2. Test the operating system and applications to ensure that they are functioning correctly.
3. Create a folder in the system root called Sysprep.
4. Open deploy.cab from the \support\tools folder of the Windows XP
distribution CD and extract Sysprep.exe and setupcl.exe to the \Sysprep
folder on the system drive.
5. If you want full or partial automation, run Setup Manager to prepare the
Sysprep.inf answer file.You can save the Sysprep.inf file in the \Sysprep
folder or onto a floppy disk.
6. Run Sysprep with any optional parameters and shut down the system.
Do not reboot the system. If you reboot the system, Sysprep will launch the
mini–Setup Wizard on the source computer.
7. Create an image of the disk according to the imaging product’s
instructions.
8. Transfer the image to the target machine according to the imaging
product’s instructions.
9. Reboot the target machine, which initiates Plug and Play detection and
runs the mini–Setup Wizard. If you are using a Sysprep.inf file that is
stored on a floppy disk, insert it during the Windows startup process.
10. The Sysprep folder is deleted automatically and the system reboots
prompting for the first logon.
Steps 1 through 5 are fairly straightforward and don’t require much additional
explanation. An important point is that the \Sysprep folder must exist on the
system drive and Setupcl.exe must be present in that folder to run Sysprep.
Setupcl.exe is responsible for generating a unique SID and for running the
mini–Setup Wizard on the target machine.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
79
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 80
www.IrPDF.com
80
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Step 6 is optional, but if you want to use Setup Manager to create a
Sysprep.inf file, you can find more information in the section “Automating Setup
of a Target Computer” later in this chapter.
Step 7 instructs you to run Sysprep.exe with any optional switches.To do
this, open up a command prompt and change the directory to point to the
\Sysprep folder you created in Step 4 by typing cd Sysprep. At this point you
type in Sysprep.exe and one or more optional switches.The options available
with the Sysprep command include the following:
■
/QUIET This switch runs Sysprep without displaying onscreen messages.
■
/NOSIDGEN This switch runs Sysprep without creating a unique
SID for the computer.
■
/PNP This switch forces Plug and Play to initiate after the target
system reboots.
■
/REBOOT This switch will automatically restart the computer after
Sysprep has done its work. Do not use this switch if you will be creating
an image from this disk because mini–Setup Wizard will launch after
reboot.
Once you run Sysprep, a message window will pop up warning you that
some security parameters will be changed on the system. Click OK to continue.
Sysprep then configures the system to prepare it for imaging and shuts down.
You then need to use the tools available from your imaging software vendor to
create an image of the disk and store it to the proper media, as indicated in Step 8.
NOTE
Most imaging tools allow you to view and modify the contents of an
image file. In order to further reduce the size of an image file prepared
using Sysprep, you can delete the hyberfil.sys (hibernation file, if it
exists), pagefile.sys, and setupapi.log files from the image. Each of these
files is re-created during the mini–Setup Wizard.
Step 9 involves transferring the disk image to the target machine.You can do
this a number of ways, and you need to refer to your imaging software vendor’s
documentation to see what methods are supported by their product.
Step 10 indicates that after the image is transferred to the target machine, the
machine needs to be rebooted.The machine starts up and displays the normal
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 81
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Windows XP boot information and proceeds through the boot process.The GUI
phase of the boot process initiates Plug and Play detection.Then the mini–Setup
Wizard starts by displaying its Welcome screen. After clicking Next at the
Welcome screen, you are presented with a series of dialog boxes prompting you
for configuration information specific to this computer.The type of information
you are required to enter includes the following:
■
End-user license agreement
■
Product ID Key
■
Regional settings
■
Name and company
■
Network configuration
■
Workgroup or domain selection
■
Server licensing, if this is a server install
■
Time zone
Once you have completed the mini-setup, the wizard displays a summary
screen and requires you to click Finish.The system will then restart, and the first
user is prompted to log on.
Running Sysprep during Automated Installation
You may want to run Sysprep as part of an automated installation on a computer.
In order to do this, you need to create a special Sysprep folder as part of the distribution folder hierarchy.This folder is located at \I386\$OEM$\$1\SYSPREP.
The $1 is equivalent to the system drive letter.Type in $1, not the actual drive
letter.You then need to place the Sysprep.exe and Setupcl.exe files into this folder
along with the optional Sysprep.inf answer file.
To run Sysprep automatically after the automated installation completes,
you need to modify the automated installation answer file, which is usually
named unattend.txt. Open this file in a text editor, such as Notepad, and locate
the [GUIRUNONCE] section. Add the Sysprep command by typing
%SYSTEMDRIVE%\SYSPREP\SYSPREP.EXE –QUIET.This runs
Sysprep in quiet mode and will not display message windows.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
81
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 82
www.IrPDF.com
82
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Automating Setup of a Target Computer
You eliminate a great deal of the time required to deploy Windows XP by running Sysprep and creating an image of the disk.What if you could even automate
the mini–Setup Wizard discussed earlier? This would eliminate the need for
someone to be sitting at the console when the target is rebooted the first time
and the mini–Setup Wizard runs.You can use a Sysprep answer file, called
Sysprep.inf, to provide—you guessed it—answers to the questions posed by minisetup.This section covers the elements that make up Sysprep.inf and how to
create this file using Setup Manager.
Creating an Answer File Using Setup Manager
Creating a Sysprep.inf answer file using Setup Manager is an optional step when
preparing a system using Sysprep.When a target system first boots with an image
prepared by Sysprep, a mini–Setup Wizard runs and asks the user for user- and
machine-specific information.The information required by the mini–Setup
Wizard includes the following:
■
End-user license agreement
■
Name and organization
■
Whether the computer should join a domain or workgroup
■
Regional settings
■
TAPI info (if the computer has a modem)
■
Network protocol and services configuration
In order to fully or partially automate this wizard, you can use a Sysprep.inf
answer file.You can manually create the Sysprep.inf file (it is in a text-file
format), or you can create it using the Setup Manager tool.The Sysprep.inf file is
very similar to the answer file created for unattended installs, but contains only a
subset of the values.The following sections and keys are supported in the
Sysprep.inf answer file:
[Unattended]
OemSkipEula
OemPnPDriversPath
InstallFilesPath
ExtendOEMPartition
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 83
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
[GuiUnattended]
AdminPassword
AutoLogon
TimeZone
OEMDuplicatorString
OEMSkipWelcome
[UserData]
ComputerName
FullName
OrgName
ProductID
[LicenseFilePrintData]
AutoMode
AutoUsers
[GuiRunOnce]
[Display]
BitsPerPel
Vrefresh
Xresolution
Yresolution
[Regional Settings] *Note: These files must exist on the disk prior to
setup
InputLocale
Language
LanguageGroup
SystemLocale
UserLocale
[Networking]
InstallDefaultComponents
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
83
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 84
www.IrPDF.com
84
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
[Identification]
DomainAdmin
DomainAdminPassword
JoinDomain
JoinWorkgroup
MachineObjectOU
[NetClients]
[<MS_MSClient parameters>]
BrowseDomains
NameServiceNetworkAddress
NameServiceProtocol
[<MS_NWClient parameters>]
DefaultTree
DefaultContext
LogonScript
PreferredServer
[TapiLocation] *Note: These keys only apply when the target system has
a modem installed
AreaCode
CountryCode
Dialing
LongDistanceAccess
NOTE
If your deployment requires different information to be entered during
the mini–Setup Wizard for different machines, you can create multiple
Sysprep.inf files. Each Sysprep.inf file contains machine-specific information. In order to accomplish this, you will need to remove any copies of
Sysprep.inf from the \Sysprep folder on the system drive and supply a
floppy with the appropriate Sysprep.inf file during the Windows XP
startup.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 85
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Running Additional Programs After Mini-Setup
You can use the cmdlines.txt file to run additional programs after the mini-setup
process is complete. If you used Setup Manager to create an answer file, you were
able to enter the commands for cmdlines.txt (see Step 26).To manually configure
this functionality, you must create a \i386\$OEM$ folder in the \Sysprep folder
created for Sysprep.exe and Setupcl.exe. All files that are needed to run the application launched by cmdlines.txt must be placed in the \$OEM$ subfolder.The
syntax for the cmdlines.txt file is as follows:
[Commands]
"<command1>"
"<command2>"
Note that these are required quotation marks surrounding the command lines
that launch the applications.
After editing cmdlines.txt in a text editor, place the file in the \$OEM$
folder and add the following line to the Sysprep.inf file:
[Unattended]
InstallFilesPath = %systemdrive%\Sysprep\i386
The commands listed in the cmdlines.txt file are executed under the system
account and do not support multiple-user configurations. Any application-specific
user settings are applied to the default user registry area and will be used by all
future users created on the computer.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
85
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 86
www.IrPDF.com
86
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
Summary
This chapter covered the clean and upgrade installations of Windows XP
Professional from CD-ROM, the network installation, and the steps to prepare and
execute a fully automated installation of Windows XP using unattended installation
scripts.Windows XP Professional requires a 300 MHz Pentium II processor and
128MB of RAM for a recommended installation.The operating system needs
approximately 1.5GB of disk space. If you are upgrading from an older operating
system, you need to make sure your OS is supported for an upgrade.
Preparing for setup involves understanding the various command-line options
available with Winnt32.exe and how to use them.You also should understand
what the network distribution point is and the files and folders that compose it.
In order to customize the automated installation, it is necessary to use an
answer file. Although it is possible to manually create the answer file, it is much
easier to use the wizard-driven dialogs provided by Setup Manager.
Because a single answer file might not be flexible enough for a diverse user
population, uniqueness database files (UDB) give you the means to further customize settings applied to individual systems—the answer files are the default, the
UDB is the exception.
In order for your automated installation to run as smoothly as possible, take
the time to prepare the destination computers. Check for hardware and software
incompatibilities and back up the drives prior to upgrading to Windows XP.
To further wear out a well-worn cliché—there are no free lunches. It takes a
great deal of testing and trial and error to get an unattended installation to run
correctly. Once you’ve nailed down and mastered the process, the time and
money saved are very gratifying.
Solutions Fast Track
Clean Installation of Windows XP Professional
; Windows XP will work best with at least a 300 MHz Pentium II
processor and 128MB of RAM to operate, as well as 1.5GB of available
space.
; A clean installation of Windows XP Professional will take between 60
and 90 minutes, depending on the hardware.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 87
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
Performing an Upgrade to Windows XP Professional
; The following operating systems are supported for an upgrade
installation:Windows 98,Windows NT 4.0,Windows 2000 Professional,
and Windows XP Home Edition.Windows 3.x,Windows 95,Windows
NT 3.1, 3.5, 3.51, and Windows for Workstations are not supported for
an update, so a clean install will be required for these systems.
; You can use the Dynamic Update feature during the setup process to
update your setup files from Microsoft’s Web site.
Network Installation of Windows XP Professional
; The network installation of Windows XP Professional works just like the
CD installation, and the installation steps will parallel those of the clean
or upgrade installation.
; The simplest way to prepare for a network installation of Windows XP
Professional is to create a network share and copy the i386 folder from
the Windows XP Professional CD to the share.
Automating the Windows XP Professional Setup
; The Winnt.exe and Winnt32.exe programs are used to run setup from
DOS and Windows command prompts, respectively.
; A network distribution point is required for the automated setup.The
distribution point is a network share that includes the contents of the
/i386 folder, as well as a number of optional subfolders that can contain
additional files needed for the setup process.
; An unattended answer file is simply a text file that is formatted similar
to an INI file. Its role is to provide the setup process with the data it
needs to complete the installation of Windows XP Professional without
having a user type in the information.
; The Sysprep tool prepares a computer disk to be imaged and copied to
another disk. It is responsible for assigning a new SID to the target
computer once the new image has been applied.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
87
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 88
www.IrPDF.com
88
Chapter 2 • Installing Windows XP Professional
; You can use a Sysprep answer file, called Sysprep.inf, to provide answers
to the questions posed by the mini-setup after deploying a Sysprep
image.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: Which command-line setup program should I use from my network boot
disk?
A: If you are trying to set up Windows XP Professional from a DOS command
prompt (as from a network boot disk), you need to run Winnt.exe, which is
located in the \i386 folder on the CD or on the network share point.You
should run Winnt32.exe if you are trying to run setup from a Windows command prompt.
Q: When undecided whether to upgrade or clean install, which should I choose?
A: If the advantages and disadvantages are of equal weight, go for a clean install.
It allows you to know exactly what is present on target workstations while
ensuring that you do not inherit legacy issues.
Q: The computers on which we are installing Windows XP have a couple of
Plug and Play devices for which Windows XP does not ship drivers.Where
can we put the drivers so that they are available during setup?
A: You will want to copy your Plug and Play drivers to the
$OEM$\$1\PnPDrivers folder in your network distribution point and make
some modifications to your answer file. Name the PnPDrivers folder anything
you wish, up to eight characters long.This folder is copied to the %systemdrive% folder on the destination computer during setup. Next, you need to
tell setup where to look for these files by modifying the answer file. Add the
OemPnPDriversPath parameter under the [Unattended] heading of the
answer file specifying the folder in which you placed the drivers. For
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 89
www.IrPDF.com
Installing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 2
example, if you named your PnPDrivers folder PNPSource, you would edit
your answer file to include the following:
[Unattended]
OEMPnPDriversPath="PNPSource"
Q: I am trying to install Windows XP Professional from a bootable CD-ROM.
I know my machine supports this, but the computer is not booting from
CD-ROM.What can I do?
A: If you are sure that your machine’s CD-ROM drive and BIOS support this
feature, you need to check your system’s BIOS setup. Follow your machine’s
manual to enter your system’s BIOS setup (this usually involves pressing a key
or key sequence during system startup to enter this configuration mode).
Once there, make sure that the CD-ROM is available as a boot drive.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
89
189_XP_02.qxd
11/12/01
5:35 PM
Page 90
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 91
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 3
Exploring the
Windows XP
User Interface
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Configuring the Desktop
■
Overview of the Start Menu
and the Taskbar
■
Configuring the Standard
Desktop Programs
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
91
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 92
www.IrPDF.com
92
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Introduction
The user interface is the first experience people get when seeing a new operating
system release, especially when the default out-of-the-box look and feel appears
to be as radically different as Windows XP does. Emotions tend to run high and
the initial impressions that a new interface design can create can be quite important to the acceptance of a new product. I remember when I first installed
Windows 95—that was quite a departure in terms of interface than anything previously released by Microsoft.When the installation screen was installing, there
were sarcastic comments such as “Animated bitmaps, that’s really clever!” I suppose that this statement shows that some people aren’t adaptable to change, so
when a change occurs, hopefully it is for the better.
Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that the user interface is
how we interact with our operating environment and the applications that run
from within it. In fact, Microsoft spends millions of dollars each year on usability
labs to deliver an environment that helps you carry out this interaction in the
most easy and efficient way. Some of you may remember, perhaps fondly as I do,
of CLI (Command Line Interface) to the operating system. In fact, to automate
tasks and quickly carry out a process such as starting and stopping services, for
example, sometimes there is no substitute. However, for the majority of everyday
users the graphical element of the environment is something that they will have
to deal with day-by-day. My task in this chapter is to show you how to understand and manipulate the desktop environment of Windows XP and to take
advantage of the features it provides.This will not only help you to carry out
your tasks efficiently, but depending on your role within the organization, it may
help you to help others.
Windows XP has again evolved the Windows GUI (graphical user interface).
Some of you may remember the first attempt that Microsoft made at presenting a
graphical front-end to our operating system and applications back in the days of
Windows 3.0.This was of course something that Apple Mac users had had for
quite a while. Since then we have had the progression from what was known as
Program Manager in Windows 3.x and NT 3.x to the taskbar-orientated desktop
of Windows 9x/Millenium and NT4/Windows 2000.Windows XP still sticks
with the taskbar, but it includes some other subtle differences, such as the taskorientated approach that users can take to accomplish results and an unfamiliar
look and feel to this latest release of Windows that we explore in this chapter.
In this chapter, I show you how to do the following:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 93
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
■
Explore and configure the desktop settings
■
Change your desktop theme
■
Change the desktop background
■
Modify the appearance of the desktop
■
Configure and modify the Start menu and taskbar
■
Configure My Computer
■
Configure My Network Places
■
Configure My Documents
Configuring the Desktop
Everyone is an individual and Microsoft obviously recognizes that fact by
allowing you to customize the environment in a multitude of ways to suit our
individual tastes. For some having the “lunar” background with the default mouse
pointer, font, and so on may be to our liking, whereas others may want to download the desktop theme of the movie they went to see on the weekend. For
others, being able to change the video settings to 640x480 may be necessary so
that they can see the writing on the screen more clearly because of bad eyesight.
The more security conscious may want to invoke security on their screen savers
by requiring a password to unlock it.The environmental friendly amongst us
would perhaps want to change the power management options.This option also
enables laptop users to get a longer battery life, allowing them to work longer
when traveling. Of course, all of these settings are easily modified and are discussed in this section. Also note that you can centrally manage the complete
desktop environment through the use of Group Policies.
Desktop Settings
The following sections show you how to access the desktop settings, as well as
the actual modifications that you can make to suit a particular user’s tastes.
Accessing the Desktop Settings
You can access the desktop settings several ways, and these apply to the majority
of functions that we cover in this chapter.These include the following:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
93
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 94
www.IrPDF.com
94
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
■
Using the Control Panel
■
Right-clicking and selecting from the pop-up menu
■
Via a command line
To change the desktop settings via Control Panel, click Start | Control
Panel | Appearance and Themes, and you will be brought to the screen
shown in Figure 3.1.This and all subsequent examples make the assumption that
you have carried out a standard default installation of XP and have not made
changes to its appearance before reading this book.
Figure 3.1 Appearance and Themes Window
You now have two different ways to get to where you want to go, either by
choosing Change the screen resolution in the top task pane or by choosing
the traditional Control Panel Display applet and then selecting the Settings tab.
Either way you end up seeing the Display Properties screen shown in Figure 3.2.
As you can see, Microsoft took two main approaches with this release of
Windows. If you know exactly where you want to go, you can use the more traditional Control Panel approach. If you want to carry out a task but don’t know
how to get there, you can use the more task-orientated approach.
Alternatively, you could have reached the same screen via the desktop by
right-clicking anywhere on the desktop and selecting Properties, and again
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 95
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
selecting the Settings tab, or you could have achieved the same result via the
command line.To get to the Display Properties screen via the command line,
click Start | Command Prompt to bring up a command window and type
control desk.cpl, as shown in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.2 Display Properties
Figure 3.3 Command Line for Accessing Control Panel Applets
There isn’t really any reason, however, for the average user to use the command line to carry out any of the tasks that they require.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
95
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 96
www.IrPDF.com
96
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
From an administrator’s perspective, it is always useful to know what tricks
users can employ to circumvent any restrictions that you may have put in place.
Let me give you a real-life example. At one of the companies I did some consultancy for, the Control Panel had been rendered unavailable by use of the System
Policies. However, some clever users had obviously been doing some reading up
and were using the command line to invoke the desk.cpl file to allow them to
take off the standard background and disable the standard screen-saver settings to
lockout their workstation. It was amazing at how fast this knowledge was transferred around the company.The point I’m trying to make here is that there are
various methods that you can employ to prevent this type of action such as
tighter permission control, and so on. Remember though, you can’t prevent
something that you don’t know about.
You can find all of the cpl files listed in Table 3.1 in the %systemroot%\
system32 directory. If you haven’t come across %systemroot% before, it is an environmental variable. In the majority of cases, your %systemroot% directory will be
c:\winnt.
Table 3.1 Control Panel Applet Filenames
Control Panel Applet
CPL File
Accessibility Wizard
Add/Remove Programs
Display
Internet Settings
Regional & Language Options
Gaming Options
Mouse
Sounds & Audio Options
Network Connections
Administrative Tools\Data Sources (ODBC)
Power Options
System
Phone & Modem Options
Date & Time
Access.cpl
Appwiz.cpl
Desk.cpl
Inetcpl.cpl
Intl.cpl
Joy.cpl
Main.cpl
Mmsys.cpl
Ncpa.cpl
Odbc32.cpl
Powercfg.cpl
Sysdm.cpl
Telephon.cpl
Timedate.cpl
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 97
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Configuring & Implementing…
Environment Variables
If you come from a programming background, you will already be quite
familiar with variables. For those of you who aren’t familiar with them,
a variable is a placeholder for a value that is held in memory.
Environment variables are similar except that they operate only within
the environmental concerns of the operating system. An example of this
is the path variable which stores a list of directories on your computer.
For example, if you were in a command window and typed a program
name, it will use the path variable as a search path by looking for the
program in each of the individual directories specified in that variable.
The advantage of using environment variables is that because they are
stored in memory, they are very fast.
Windows has three different types of environment variables:
■
System environment variables, created for the operating
system
■
User environment variables
■
Those that have been specified in an autoexec.bat statement
You can view the environment variables that are available on the
system by either clicking the Environment Variables button in the
Control Panel system applet or by typing the command set from a command window.
In the day-to-day use of Windows, you may not have to worry
much about them, but it is useful to know that they exist and how
they work. You can also create your own via the Control Panel or again
via the command line; this can be especially useful for scripting
purposes, for example, if you need to hold a value temporarily. To create
a variable from the command line type the command set
variableName=variableValue, where variableName is the name that
you wish to call the variable and variableValue is its value. For example,
Set test=5 assigns the value 5 to the variable named test.
To test that the variable has been stored, just type set, and you will
see a list of all variables on your system, including the one you have just
created. Another way is to type the command echo %test% (remember,
all variables need to be referred to with the % delimiters), and the
output should be 5.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
97
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 98
www.IrPDF.com
98
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
You will notice that there are more .cpl files shown here than are
listed in Table 3.1. This is because not all Control Panel applets can be
manipulated through the command line in the way that we have
described. Also, specifically in the Administrative Tools folder in the
Control Panel, only the Data Sources applet has a corresponding .cpl file
because all the rest point to executables.
Desktop Settings Modifications
Now that you know the various ways that you can access the desktop settings, we
can discuss the actual modifications that you can make.
If you refer back to Figure 3.2, you can see the main display options that you
can change.The dialog box shows what monitor and video card you have installed
on the system.You can increase or decrease the resolution by dragging the slider,
and the monitor window will give a dynamic preview of how the screen will
appear.You can change the amount of colors displayed by clicking the drop-down
list box.The color options are displayed by quality and the number of bits.The
Medium (16 bit) setting will provide a display of 65,536 (216) colors on the
screen.The hardware in your computer, specifically the video card and the monitor, determine what the maximum settings are for your display. A common occurrence in the pre–Windows 95 days was for incorrect settings to be applied,
resulting in a problem with the system not being able to display them.This would
lead to a lot of unhappy users and the potentially difficult task for someone in the
support department to get that system working again. However, now Microsoft
allows you to get around these problems by giving you a chance to revert back to
the previous settings if newly chosen ones aren’t working correctly:
1. If you change your settings and click OK or Apply, you will receive the
warning box shown in Figure 3.4.
2. Click OK, and you will then get the message shown in Figure 3.5.
3. If you click Yes, you keep the new settings; if you click No, the previous
settings will be restored. If you choose neither option the system will
automatically revert back to the original settings in 15 seconds.
Remember, if the settings you chose are outside of the range that your
hardware can support, you probably won’t be able to see the message!
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 99
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Figure 3.4 Desktop Settings Change Settings Dialog Box
Figure 3.5 Desktop Settings Change Confirmation Dialog Box
When you experience difficulties and display problems, the Troubleshoot
button on the Display Properties window (shown back in Figure 3.2) comes in
handy. Clicking this will invoke the Help and Support Center, as shown in Figure
3.6.This type of help has been around for a while now in Microsoft products,
and it gets better with each new release.We don’t go into too much detail here,
but the Help and Support Center will attempt to answer any problems that you
have by leading you through a series of potential questions and answers to help
you to resolve the problem yourself.
Figure 3.6 Help and Support Center
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
99
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:29 PM
Page 100
www.IrPDF.com
100
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Clicking Advanced in the Display Properties screen (shown back in Figure
3.2) allows you to configure the monitor and video card settings as shown in
Figure 3.7.
Figure 3.7 Display Advanced Settings
The General tab is selected by default, and it allows you to change the font
size displayed on the system and how the system responds to changes made to
the display settings.
The Adapter tab gives general hardware information about the installed
video adapter, such as the amount of memory, chip type, and so on. Clicking List
Modes allows you to see all the available modes that the adapter supports.This
covers the screen resolution, color depth, and refresh rate. If you click
Properties, you see a subdialog box that covers the adapter properties, as shown
in Figure 3.8.
As you can see, the General tab shows the status of the device (if it is
working correctly or not) and again has a Troubleshoot button that invokes the
Help and Support Services wizard.The Driver tab allows you to carry out
driver maintenance, such as obtaining information about the system files used by
the driver via the Driver Details button; updating to a newer version via the
Update Driver button; rolling back to a previous driver version if an update to
the current driver fails via the Rollback Driver button; and finally the ability to
uninstall the current driver via the Uninstall button.The Resources tab shows
the different hardware settings used by the driver, such as memory range, I/O
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 101
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
range, and IRQ. It also shows whether any of these settings are in conflict with
another device installed on the system.
Figure 3.8 Video Adapter Properties
Going back again to the monitor and video card settings shown in Figure 3.7
and selecting the Monitor tab allows you to change the monitor settings.The
monitor type is shown along with the current refresh rate, which you can change
via the drop-down list box. Increasing the refresh rate is useful if you need to
eliminate screen flicker; however, choosing a rate higher than your monitor can
support may result in damage to the monitor itself. Clicking Properties allows
you to see and configure more detailed information about the hardware in the
same way as shown in the earlier paragraph for the video adapter.We don’t look
at these options—they are exactly the same as shown previously.
Selecting the Troubleshoot tab allows you to decrease the hardware acceleration; however, you shouldn’t change these options unless you are experiencing
difficulties. As you decrease the hardware acceleration level, certain features that
may be causing system problems are turned off.The checkbox for Write
Combining is turned on by default.This option speeds up the way that information is displayed on the screen. However, this function can cause screen corruption; therefore, we have the option of turning it off.
Finally, selecting the Color Management tab enables you to associate a
color profile with the monitor. Some monitors come with profiles that optimize
the way colors are displayed on-screen to best suit the monitor.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
101
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 102
www.IrPDF.com
102
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
While we are on the subject, it is probably prudent to explain what exactly
color management is and why it is important. For example, you may scan in an
image for a company brochure that is made available both over the Internet and
in a printed catalog for your customers. As you can imagine, this image will more
than likely go through several different processes depending on what it is being
used for, and if the image you see on the Internet, the brochure, and the original
are exactly the same then you would be extremely lucky.The goal of color management is to attempt to make this a reality through the use of standards that
allow colors to look the same no matter what devices and applications are used as
part of the process. Microsoft first implemented a color management system
(CMS) in Windows 95 as the Image Color Management (ICM) API to which
third parties can write. ICM supports International Color Consortium (ICC)
profile specification that categorizes devices such as scanners, monitors, and
printers, which are the devices commonly used within a design process in
Windows. Microsoft has now brought ICM to the Windows 98, 2000, and XP
platforms with ICM 2.0.You can find further information on color management
at www.microsoft.com/hwdev/devdes/icmwp.htm.
Themes
The default theme for XP is the Windows XP theme, but at some stage you may
want to change this.
To gain access to the property sheet for Desktop Themes, right-click anywhere on the empty desktop and select Properties. If it isn’t already selected,
select the Themes tab.The resulting dialog box looks like the one shown in
Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.9 Themes Tab of Display Properties
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 103
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
The drop-down list box allows you to choose another theme—a preview of
this will then be shown in the sample pane.You will notice that you have the
options Browse… and More Themes….These options either allow you to
browse for another installed theme that is not in the default location or take you
to the Microsoft Web page that allows you to install additional themes respectively.You can also download additional themes from many different sites for your
collection.You can also find utilities such as Desktop Architect, which allows you
to schedule automatic theme changes.You can also use the Save As button to
save the current theme under a different name.You can modify any of the
desktop settings, such as mouse pointers, backgrounds, and so on. If this dialog
box is then chosen, it will display Modified Theme as the selected choice.You
can then use this button to save the newly modified theme to the name of your
choice.We go more into the options of changing backgrounds and the like in the
following sections. If you haven’t yet changed any of the theme options, you will
notice that the Delete button is grayed out.The reason for this is that you
cannot delete any of the themes that are installed as part of the operating system
install; you can only delete other themes that you have installed or those that you
have created yourself by modifying an existing theme.
Backgrounds
Let’s now take a look at what we can do with our backgrounds, or wallpaper as
it’s commonly known.To access the dialog box where we can look at the different settings that we can apply, right-click the desktop, select Properties, and
then select the Desktop tab.The resulting screen looks like the one shown in
Figure 3.10.
A list box is displayed showing all the default background images, which are
located in %SystemRoot%, with a preview of the selected background image
above. Clicking Browse… allows you to choose a background image from
another location, such as My Pictures.Valid image types are those with an extension of .bmp, .gif, .jpeg, .jpg, .dib, .png, .htm, and .html. However, you will need
to change the drop-down Files of Type list box to show some of these.You will
notice that you have a Position drop-down list box with available options of
Tile, Center, and Stretch. To see how these options work in practice, select any
background image and change the position to Center, and you will see that it
takes up only a portion of the screen. Changing the position to Tile means that
the image is repeated in a tile format as many times as necessary to take up the
size of the screen, whereas Stretch will stretch the single image to the full size of
the screen.There is also an option to change the color, but this takes effect only if
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
103
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 104
www.IrPDF.com
104
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
you have no background image selected, and then you are free to change the
color of the background to any that you choose. Clicking Customize
Desktop… will present you with the screen shown in Figure 3.11.
Figure 3.10 Display Properties Dialog Box
Figure 3.11 Desktop Items Dialog Box
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 105
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
The options available here don’t really fit into the category of backgrounds as
you would perhaps think of them, but they will allow you to control which items
will appear on your background, as well as customize how they look. Placing a
checkmark next to the any of the items in the Desktop icons frame dictates
whether these system icons will appear on the desktop. Below this you have the
option of customizing how each icon appears. Let’s walk through customizing an
icon to see how this is done:
1. Click on the My Documents icon.
2. Click Change Icon… and you will see the two default icons available
for the this object called from the DLL file MyDocs.dll.
3. In the field Look for icons in this file, change the path to
%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll and click OK.
4. Highlight any icon you like and click OK.
5. Ensure that My Documents has a checkmark next to it in the
Desktop Items pane and click OK.
6. Once back in the Display Properties screen, click Apply.
7. If the desktop isn’t visible because it’s hidden by other screens, click the
Desktop Icon (see Figure 3.12) next to the Start button.
Figure 3.12 Taskbar Showing Desktop Shortcut
You will now see that the icon for the My Documents folder has changed
to the new icon that you chose.
Now that you have changed it, let’s put it back to the way it was:
1. Press Alt+Tab to get back to the Display Properties dialog box.
2. Click Customize Desktop….
3. Click the My Documents folder and then click the Restore Default
button. As long as you hit OK or Apply when back in the Display
Properties dialog box all will be back to normal.
The other option in this dialog is the Desktop Cleanup Wizard. By default,
the wizard will run every 60 days and automatically remove unused icons from the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
105
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 106
www.IrPDF.com
106
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
desktop.To prevent this from happening, just clear the checkbox. Alternatively, you
have the option of running the wizard at any time you choose, just click on the
Clean Desktop Now….This will walk through and allow you to deselect any
items that you don’t want removed. It’s worth noting that you don’t lose these
items forever.The first time the wizard runs it creates an unused desktop shortcuts folder on the desktop and will store any removed icons in here.
For those of you who are of a more traditional mindset, you can always gain
access to the older style of icons by using moreicons.dll in place of shell32.dll.
All of these options are accessed by the General tab, which is selected by
default.The other tab is the Web tab; clicking on this, you see the screen shown
in Figure 3.13.
Figure 3.13 Desktop Items Web Tab
This dialog box gives you the same kind of functionality as what is generally
known as Active Desktop in that it allows dynamic content to be available, as per a
Web page for example, on your desktop.The default option is My Current
Home Page, which corresponds to your home page in Internet Explorer (IE).
Using and configuring IE is covered in detail in Chapter 7.You can add any
dynamic Web content by clicking New…, which gives you the option of typing
in a valid URL to a Web site, choosing content from the Microsoft Gallery on
the Internet by clicking Visit Gallery… or clicking Browse… to use a .htm or
.html file from your computer.There is also the checkbox to Lock Desktop,
which allows you to prevent your Web content on the desktop from being
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 107
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
moved. Highlighting any of the available Web sites and clicking Properties
presents the screen shown in Figure 3.14.
Figure 3.14 Web Properties
This dialog box has three tabs, Web Document, Schedule, and Download,
with the default being Web Document. On this page you can see general statistical information, such as the URL, number of times visited, and so on.You will
also find a checkbox that makes the Web page available offline. If you deselect
this box, the other tabs will disappear—this is because they contain options that
are relevant only to offline content. However, if for example you have your home
page set to my.yahoo.com, and you deselect this checkbox, then your desktop will
only display the page once you connect to the Internet.The Synchronize
button allows you to immediately synchronize the selected Web site with your
desktop content. For example, say that you have your background set to a Web
site that displays industry news. If you don’t have a 24-hour connection to the
Internet, the content on your desktop will become out of synch with what is displayed on the live Web site. Clicking Synchronization synchronizes your
desktop with the live content.
If you click the Schedule tab, you can then decide how to control when
your desktop Web content is synchronized.The default option is for you to synchronize your content as described in the preceding paragraph, but if you select
Use the Following Options, you can click the Add… button and define a
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
107
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 108
www.IrPDF.com
108
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
schedule for automatic updates to your desktop content.The final tab is
Download, which give options for specifying how many pages deep that you
want from your external content. For example one page deep equates to the Web
site home page, whereas you can specify up to three pages deep and select the
checkbox to allow for links outside the chosen Web site. Be warned though,
having several layers can take up an awful lot of disk space. For this reason, there
is a checkbox that allows you to select and specify how much disk space is taken
up by the offline content.This dialog box has a couple more options, one is to fill
in your e-mail details, and then Internet Explorer will notify you by e-mail when
the Web page changes. Chapter 7 covers e-mail settings in more detail. Some sites
may require that you log on, and for this reason there is the Login… button that
allows you to enter a username and password.
Appearance
Appearance covers the general style of the dialog boxes and the color schemes
used.To access the dialog box where you change these settings, click Start |
Control Panel | Appearance and Themes | Display and click the
Appearance tab.You may not have noticed yet, but dialog boxes remember their
last-used tabs. For example, if you were in the Screen Saver tab previously, this
time it will be the default tab. Anyway, the resulting dialog box looks like the one
shown in Figure 3.15.
Figure 3.15 Display Properties Appearance Tab
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 109
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
As you can see from Figure 3.15 the Windows and buttons drop-down list
box is set to Windows XP style as default.This is the new modern look GUI
rather than the older Windows Classic look that is the other available option.
You can use the Advanced option to further customize your Appearance settings, but you will have slightly less control over them than if you were using
Windows Classic style.
Clicking Effects… enables you to change the same options no matter
whether you are in Windows XP or Classic mode. It covers various options,
such as the transition method for menus and tool tips; the method for smoothing
the edge of screen fonts (standard or ClearType, which we discuss further in a
moment); whether to use large or small icons; whether menus have shadows
underneath; whether the windows contents are shown while dragging them
across the screen; and, finally, whether the underline that signifies the letter for
the keyboard shortcut is shown or hidden until the Alt key is pressed.
If you come out of the Effects options and return to the Display
Properties dialog box and change the Windows and buttons to Classic
style, all the different color schemes that were available in previous versions of
Windows are available. Note that the different options for the Font Size are
only available with certain color schemes. It is now possible to click the
Advanced… button and tweak your color schemes to your hearts content—
changing the color, font, size, and style of virtually every aspect of your Windows.
If you get your Windows classic look in a real mess, you can easily get it back to
the default setting by changing back to Windows XP style and then changing
back to Classic style again. It will now show the classic look in its original
format before you modified it.
We briefly mentioned the screen font options of both standard and ClearType
earlier in this section, but we look at these a bit more closely now. ClearType is a
Microsoft patented technology that was first used with Microsoft Reader on
Windows PocketPC devices, also known as CE 3.0. Although using ClearType
will have no apparent effect to a standard desktop user, it dramatically improve
the readability of your screen if you use either a CE- or laptop device. In fact, a
research study undertaken by Clemson University found that using ClearType
improved readability judgment and produced lower levels of mental fatigue.
If you use a CE device, you don’t get the choice of whether this is enabled, but
for a standard XP installation the choice is optional. For those of you using laptops,
you should change it straight away—you will be amazed at the difference.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
109
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 110
www.IrPDF.com
110
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Microsoft touted the advantages of better power management features as one
of the primary reasons for laptop users to upgrade to Windows 2000. My guess is
that ClearType will more than likely be the marketing hook for upgrading to XP.
If you want more technical details on ClearType, have a look at http://research
.microsoft.com/~jplatt/cleartype/.
Screen Saver
The good old screen saver options haven’t changed at all.To access the screen
saver options, click Start | Appearance and Themes | Choose a Screen
Saver and select the Screen Saver tab. I’ll briefly go through the different
options in this dialog box for the benefit of those of you who have never set
screen saver options before.
You can choose among a variety of built-in screen savers from the Screen
Saver drop-down listbox, and of course, as we discussed earlier, you can get
others just as easily as you can find themes. In fact, all themes usually come with
their own screen saver. Clicking Settings allows you to customize the screen
saver with regards to such options as how often it changes, number of objects displayed, and so on. However, each one is different and dependant on the features
provided by the selected screen saver.The selected screen saver is automatically
previewed in the monitor image within the dialog box. If you want to see it fully
in action, click the Preview button to see what it’s like in full monitor size.
Selecting the On resume, password protect checkbox will lock the computer,
requiring the entry of your logon username and password to unlock the computer once the screen saver has been activated.The Wait option allows you to
specify the number of minutes that the computer is inactive (this means that the
keyboard or mouse isn’t touched) before the screen saver is activated.
Notice the Energy symbol and the button labeled Power…. This is another
way to access the power management options; we cover them in detail in
Chapter 10.
Finally, just to point out something a bit different for the “old hands” amongst
you, there is a new screen saver. It’s the My Pictures Slideshow screen saver.
This picks up any images that you have in your My Pictures folder and presents
them as a slideshow for your screen saver.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 111
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Overview of the Start
Menu and the Taskbar
If you look at Figure 3.16, you will see that—apart from some cosmetic
changes—there doesn’t appear to be any radical changes to the way you access
your programs.The only major difference that is noticeable is that the programs
appear to be accessed on the left-hand side, and there is also easy access from the
menu to My Computer, My Documents, and so on.
Figure 3.16 Windows XP Style Start Menu
The new Start menu looks a bit funkier now, and if you don’t like it, you can
always change it to look more like the older version, which we look at shortly.
You still get the right-click functionality to manipulate items that came with
Windows 95. Underneath it all is some changes, and it’s a lot easier to manipulate
than previous versions and appears to give you a quicker and easier way to run
your programs.
The Start Menu
If you open the Start menu and look at the top, you will see the logged on username next to an image. In Windows XP, you can have digital photographs or
images associated with user accounts. In Figure 3.16, you will notice a couple of
programs, which in this instance are Internet Explorer and Outlook, above a
dividing line with more programs underneath.The ones above the line are pinned
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
111
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 112
www.IrPDF.com
112
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
programs. Programs that can be pinned are those that are built-in Windows programs such as Internet Explorer, MSN, command prompt, and so on. All you
need to do to pin them is to right-click the icon and select Pin to Start
menu—this command is available no matter where you are, be it in More
Programs, Windows Explorer, and so on.When you start a program for the
first time, the associated program icon will automatically be added to the Start
menu underneath the dividing line. However, you can easily remove any program
by right-clicking it and selecting Remove from list.
Selecting More Programs from the Start menu takes you into the more traditional classic style Start menu, where you can see all the installed programs.
Programs that you have never been used before are highlighted in a different color.
Easy access is now provided on the right-hand side to personal folders such as
My Documents, My Music, My Pictures, My Network Places, and My
Computer. Previously, to gain access to these you had to go back to the desktop
to open them or select them in an Explorer window.
Each icon has context-sensitive help. If you hover the mouse over an icon for
a couple of seconds, you will see a text box description of what that icon does.
This is a fully configurable property of the majority of icons on the Start menu.
The only ones that do not have this are those that carry out built-in functions,
such as Search, Control Panel, and so on.To look at the options available,
right-click on any program icon, such as Windows Media Player, and click
Properties.The resulting screen looks like Figure 3.17.
Figure 3.17 Windows Media Player Properties
The Target field is configurable and points to the location of the executable
to run the application, in this case it is wmplayer.exe for the Windows Media
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 113
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Player.The next three options are no different than in previous versions of
Windows. Start in allows you to specify a folder for the application to use to
find any required files not in the path or directory in which it is installed. For
example, if you had a custom DLL for an in-house application stored on the network to allow it to be easily maintained and managed, you would use the Start
in field to specify that location.The Shortcut field allows you to specify
keystrokes that will launch the application. For example, if you decided that you
wanted to launch the media player with Ctrl+Alt+M, you would enter that key
combination in this field. Note that you do not have to type in each letter, in
fact, it won’t let you. In this example, you just need to have the cursor in the
Shortcut field and then press the keys that you want to use. In the case of this
example, simply pressing M would create the keystroke combination.The Run
field gives three options: running the program maximized, minimized, or in a
window.Your choice of these options depends on a combination of personal
choice and the requirements of the program.The final field is the Comment.
This is the text that you see when the mouse hovers over the icon in the Start
menu. However, 9 times out of 10 you probably have no need whatsoever to
modify any of these settings.
Clicking the Find Target… button allows you to browse to the target application that the shortcut is pointing to.The Change Icon… button allows you to
change the icon that is used, although your choices may be limited in their
variety.This is because the default choices are extracted from the executable file
itself. However, as we saw earlier, you can choose from many more by browsing
to moricons.dll or shell32.dll.
If you click on the Advanced… button, you will see the screen shown in
Figure 3.18.This option is a very useful feature because it allows you to run
applications under a different username with different permissions.When you
launch a shortcut to a file that has this checkbox selected, you will be prompted
for authentication.You may have noticed that if you right-click on a shortcut in
the Start menu, for example, you can set this option from there.
This feature is very useful for administrators. If you are a systems administrator, you will be aware that good practice dictates that you should run two separate user accounts. One should be for general everyday use with permissions as
per a regular user and the other should be your Administrator account that has
the necessary rights to carry out your administration functions. Being able to run
a program with different credentials allows you to work with your regular
account and still be able to run the programs that require administrator rights
without you having to log off and back on again.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
113
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 114
www.IrPDF.com
114
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Figure 3.18 Windows Media Advanced Properties
While we are looking at the properties dialog box, just click on the General
tab and let’s have a look at some other information that is available.The majority of
this dialog box is taken up with summary information that is fairly self-explanatory.
At the bottom of the dialog box are a couple of checkboxes to make the icon
read-only so that it cannot be changed and also the option of making it hidden.
You are probably thinking, why would you want to hide an icon that starts your
program? If you can’t see it, how can you run it? The answer to this is that you
wouldn’t want to, but there is a fairly straightforward explanation for this option
being available: In this instance, an icon is basically a file in its own right that just
acts as a pointer—or shortcut as it’s known—to the program that you run. Because
of this, it inherits the properties of a file, which aren’t really relevant to it in this situation. Properties such as hidden are much more relevant to system files.
Finally, click on the Compatibility tab. Certain programs may experience
problems running under Windows XP due to compatibility problems; if you
select the checkbox to Run this program in compatibility mode for, you
can designate any of four different versions of Windows to help alleviate problems
such as this. Also, there are other checkboxes that allow you to modify the display
settings that are used.
Clicking the Advanced… button gives you access to some other properties
that you can modify.
These properties are relevant to both files and folders:
■
File is ready for archiving This property is generally used by backup
programs and normally referred to as the archive bit.When this is set,
the file will be backed up by the program, depending on how the
backup is set to run.
■
For fast searching, allow Indexing Service to index this file If
you select this option, the Indexing Service allows you faster access, and
it also means that you can search on the properties, such as date.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 115
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
■
Compress contents to save space Basically this means that a compression algorithm is used to reduce the size of the file. Note that if a
file is compressed it cannot be encrypted.
■
Encrypt contents to secure data The file is encrypted to prevent
unwanted access.This is covered in detail in Chapter 11.
That about wraps it up for the properties, so click on Start | Control
Panel to look at some other aspects of the Start menu. Bits and pieces of this
have been covered previously, so we won’t spend too long looking at this. Check
out Figure 3.9 again and on the left-hand side you will see Control Panel and
See Also.You can use these new menu options to either change the Control
Panel view back to a classic look (see Figure 3.19) or access Help and Support
or Windows Update (which was on the Start Menu in previous versions)
respectively.You can hide the menu options by clicking the double inverted
chevrons next to each menu.
Figure 3.19 Control Panel Classic View
If you aren’t in Category View, switch to it by clicking Switch to Category
View on the left-hand side of the Control Panel. Doing so categorizes everything
on the right-hand main window, and all related tasks that correspond to that category are grouped together. Depending on what type of function you want to carry
out, you can just click the relevant option. Some functions, such as Add or
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
115
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 116
www.IrPDF.com
116
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
remove programs will take you straight there to do the task because there aren’t
really any other options. However, clicking Network and Internet Connections
will take you into another window where you can either carry out a particular task
that you want to do or choose the traditional control panel applet.
Notice also how the menus on the left-hand side change? You should now
see other related tasks under See Also, and the Troubleshooters menu will
show related help links.
Moving on, let’s now look at ways to manipulate shortcuts within the Start
Menu. Click Start | More Programs to show the full list of all your installed
programs. If you left-click the mouse on an icon and keep it held down, this then
allows you to move the icons location, you can navigate the menu as per normal,
opening up subfolders.When you are ready to place it, just release the mouse
button and it will be moved to the location depicted by a thick black line. If you
right-click on an icon, you will see several options, as shown in Figure 3.20.
Figure 3.20 Pop-Up Menu
Table 3.2 shows the available menu options for a program icon and what
they do.
Table 3.2 Pop-Up Menu Commands
Menu Option
Description
Open
Run As
Starts the program associated with the icon
Specifies that the program can be run under the context
of a different user account.
Only available to built-in programs, such as Internet
Explorer.
Sends the shortcut to a predefined location such as My
Documents, a: drive, and so on
Removes the shortcut when it is pasted into a new
location
Pin to Start menu
Send to
Cut
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 117
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Table 3.2 Continued
Menu Option
Description
Copy
Copies the shortcut when it is pasted into a new
location
Creates a copy of the shortcut in the same location, but
with a different name
Deletes the shortcut
Renames the shortcut
Sorts all the icons in the menu alphabetically by name
Displays the properties of the shortcut
Create Shortcut
Delete
Rename
Sort by Name
Properties
Finally, let’s move on and look at how we can customize both the Windows
XP and the Classic Style Start menu.
To open the properties window for the taskbar and Start menu, right-click on
either one.What you will see is a generic dialog box with tabs to allow for customization of both the taskbar and the Start menu (see Figure 3.21). For the
moment, we concentrate on the Start menu and move onto the taskbar shortly, so
if it isn’t selected already, click the Start Menu tab.
Figure 3.21 Taskbar and Start Menu Properties Screen
Another way to get to the properties dialog box is to click Start | Settings
| Taskbar and Start Menu.You will notice two options, one for the new Start
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
117
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 118
www.IrPDF.com
118
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
menu and the other for the Classic Start menu.We look at the latter option
first, so select this radio button and click Customize….The resulting screen
looks like the one shown in Figure 3.22.
Figure 3.22 Classic Start Menu Customization Screen
In the top section of this dialog box are various options, such as Add,
Remove, and so on.These options offer another way to administer your menus.
For example, clicking Advanced opens up an Explorer interface to the Start
menu so that you can administer the folders directly.Table 3.3 summarizes the
various options and what they do.
Table 3.3 Classic Start Menu Options
Option
Description
Add
Remove
Advanced
Sort
Add another item to the Start menu
Removes an item from the Start menu
Opens an Explorer window to the Start menu
Sorts the items in the Start menu
alphabetically
Removes recently accessed documents,
programs, and Web sites
Displays the Administrative Tools folder in the
Start menu, under the Programs folder
Shows the Favorites folder in the Start menu
Clear
Display Administrative Tools
Display Favorites
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 119
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Table 3.3 Continued
Option
Description
Display Run
Shows the Run icon in the Start menu
Enable dragging and dropping Allows folders and icons to be dragged and
dropped with the mouse
Expand Control Panel
Shows a submenu off the Control Panel icon
rather than just opening an Explorer window
when clicked
Expand My Documents
Shows a submenu off the My Documents
folder in the Start menu rather than just
opening an Explorer window when clicked
Expand My Pictures
Shows a submenu off the My Pictures folder
in the Start menu rather than just opening
an Explorer window when clicked
Expand Network Connections Shows a submenu off the Network Connections folder in the Start menu rather than just
opening an Explorer window when clicked
Expand Printers
Shows a submenu off the Printers and Faxes
folder in the Start menu rather than just
opening an Explorer window when clicked
Scroll Programs
Dictates whether all programs are displayed
in the Start menu or whether you have to
scroll with the mouse to see all available
programs
Show Small Icons in Start Menu Whether small or large icons are shown in
the Start menu
Use Personalized Menus
Keeps menus tidy by hiding items that
haven’t been used recently. Hidden items
are accessed by clicking the down arrow at
the bottom of the menu
Now that we have looked at all the options available on the Classic Start
menu, we move on and look at the new style, simply identified as Start menu. If
you aren’t there already, click Start | Settings | Taskbar and Start Menu.
Select the Start menu radio button, click Customize, and select the General
tab, and you will see the dialog box shown in Figure 3.23.
You can select Large icons or Small icons for the items in the Start menu
by selecting either option.The Programs pane allows you to select how many
items will appear on the right-hand side underneath the pinned programs; you
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
119
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 120
www.IrPDF.com
120
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
can also click Clear List to remove any existing items.The most interesting feature is perhaps the options in the Show on Start Menu pane for the Internet
and E-mail programs. Selecting either checkbox will mean that the programs
selected from the drop-down lists—such as Internet Explorer and Outlook—will
be shown at the top of the Start menu. However, these will generally be the
defaults—at least IE will be. However, if you have another browser, such as
Netscape, this will be an available option as well.
Figure 3.23 Start Menu General Tab
Click the Advanced tab and you will see the screen shown in Figure 3.24.
Figure 3.24 Start Menu Advanced Tab
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 121
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Designing & Planning…
The Send To Shortcut
A user normally wants to carry out tasks in the quickest way possible.
The Sent To menu option is one of those useful shortcuts that allows
files to be quickly sent to a destination, such as a floppy disk, Mail
Recipient, My Documents folder, just by right-clicking the item, selecting
Send To, and choosing the required destination.
Being able to customize this menu option and add other destinations to suit your environment is very useful, for example, users may
have to send a report file daily to another user or perhaps send files regularly to a network location.
Extending the available option is very easy. The Send To function is
a hidden subfolder in the user profile in which you can easily create
shortcuts to other locations, these then appear on the shortcut menu
with the other default options.
One good use of extending the Send To menu is to drag your
favorite printer into the folder. When you want to print a file, all you
have to do is right-click, choose Send To, and select your printer from
the available choices.
This tab offers quite a few options, which are summarized in Table 3.4.
Table 3.4 Start Menu Options
Option
Description
Open submenus when I pause
on them with my mouse
When hovering over an item with the
mouse, the submenu will open without
being clicked
Highlights new icons on the Start menu
as a result of a new program installation
Whether the Control Panel icon is shown
and if so, whether the shortcut is a link
or menu
Enables/disables the favorites folder
Allows folders and icons to be dragged
and dropped with the mouse
Enables/disables Help and Support icon
Highlight newly installed
programs
Control Panel
Favorites menu
Enable dragging and
dropping
Help and Support
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
121
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 122
www.IrPDF.com
122
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Table 3.4 Continued
Option
Description
My Computer
Whether the My Computer icon is shown
and if so, whether the shortcut is a link or
menu
Whether the My Documents folder is shown
and if so, whether the shortcut is a link or
menu
Whether the My Music folder is shown and
if so, whether the shortcut is a link or menu
Enables or disables the My Network Places
icon
Whether the My Pictures folder is shown
and if so, whether the shortcut is a link
or menu
Enables/disables Network Connections icon
Enables/disables Printers icon
Enables/disables the Run command
Enables or disables the Search icon
Enables or disables the showing of the
Administrative Tools menu
Whether the recent documents folder is
displayed
Clears the recent documents list
My Documents
My Music
My Network Places
My Pictures
Network Connections
Printers and Faxes
Run command
Search
System Administrative
Tools
List my most recently opened
documents
Clear List button
The Taskbar
The taskbar is probably the most frequently used item of the whole Windows
GUI. Let’s face it, every time you want to access any of your programs on the
Start menu, you generally access them via the taskbar. If you look at back at
Figure 3.12, you can see a typical taskbar. Note that your toolbar may not be
exactly the same as the one shown in the graphic.This is because we’ve turned
on all the options.We cover how to do this in a moment. Starting from the lefthand side, you see the Start button. Next to this are a few icons, which in this
case contains a few shortcuts.The first one, which is the desktop shortcut, along
with IE and Outlook Express are default programs.You may notice that each side
of the icons are vertical lines of dots, these mark the boundaries where you are
allowed to place shortcuts, but if you place the mouse cursor over the right-hand
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 123
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
marker, it will change into a thick horizontal black line with an arrow at each
end.When visible like this, you can click and hold down the left mouse button
and drag to resize the area.You can place any shortcut in this area by just dragging
it from the desktop.What we are discussing here is the Quick Launch toolbar. If
you right-click on the toolbar and select Toolbars from the pop-up menu, you
have are other choices, such as the following:
■
Address Shows an IE address bar, where you can type in either a folder
path or a URL, which will launch the appropriate application.
■
Desktop Shows all the items on the desktop.
■
Links Lists your Favorites.
Selecting any of the available toolbars will toggle the option on or off.You
can also create your own, by selecting New Toolbar. If you choose this option,
you will see a screen that allows you to browse to a new location. If, for example,
you select My Documents, this will now appear on your taskbar enabling you to
access the contents of it directly from here.
You can remove a toolbar by right-clicking the label and selecting Close
Toolbar.The other option you may notice on the pop-up is Lock Toolbar,
which will lock the toolbar in place so that it cannot be moved. If this is not
selected, you are able to resize and move the toolbar to the left/right/top and
bottom (default) of the screen. It also affects the behavior of any toolbars you’ve
added. For example, if you have added the desktop toolbar and Lock Toolbar is
on, then to access its contents you will click the double chevron icon to the
right. However, if Lock Toolbar is off, in addition to this you can double-click the
label and it will expand it’s contents across the toolbar.
To move the location of the toolbar, drag and drop the toolbar to the desired
location If you place the mouse on the edge of the toolbar, the mouse pointer will
change to a black vertical line with arrows at both ends. Drag the toolbar until you
are happy with the size. On the far right, in what is known as the notification area of
the toolbar, the time is normally shown and in our example the keyboard indicator
as well. Any other programs that are started automatically are also placed here.
Now let’s look at some more properties of the taskbar. Right-click the
taskbar, select Properties, and click the Taskbar tab to see the screen shown in
Figure 3.25. Here are a few options related to the appearance of the taskbar:
■
Lock the taskbar Locks the taskbar to prevent it from being moved.
■
Auto-hide the taskbar Hides the taskbar until the mouse cursor is
put over the toolbar position.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
123
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 124
www.IrPDF.com
124
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
■
Keep the taskbar on top of other windows Means that the taskbar
is always visible.
Figure 3.25 Taskbar Properties Dialog Box
Other options are related to the notification area.These are Show the clock,
which shows the system time, and Hide inactive icons. The latter option has a
Customize button that allows you to specify the state of any program icons in
the notification area. Possible states are as follows:
■
Always hide
■
Hide when inactive
■
Always show
You can use the Restore Defaults button to restore these options to the
original settings if you change them.
Configuring the Standard
Desktop Programs
The standard desktop programs are those that typically reside on and are accessed
from the desktop.The following are not enabled by default, and you will need to
customize the desktop to add them:
■
My Computer
■
My Network Places
■
My Documents
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 125
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
My Computer
You can access My Computer in a number of ways. If the Start menu hasn’t been
changed to Classic mode, the easiest method is to click Start | My Computer,
which yields the screen shown in Figure 3.26. Most people prefer to double-click
the My Computer icon on the desktop, but because this is not an option by
default, the desktop will need customizing to be able to support this method.
This has already been covered in the preceding text.
Figure 3.26 My Computer Folder
On the left-hand side are the Tasks, Other Places, and Details menus. On the
right-hand side are details about any shared folders, internal storage (floppy and
hard disk drives), removable storage (CD, Zip drives, and so on), and any mapped
drives.Your screen may look similar, or it may be arranged in a different way. For
example, if you right-click on any part of the window you will get the familiar
pop-up menu and be able to customize the way the items in the right-hand pane
are displayed by use of the View and Arrange icons by menus.The only
option that is dynamic when different items are selected is the Details menu
because this will display details of the selected item, along with the size in
megabytes, for a disk or mapped drive.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
125
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 126
www.IrPDF.com
126
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
My Network Places
You can reach My Network Places via the Start menu or the desktop; you can
even reach it directly from the My Computer folder by selecting it from the
Other Places menu on the right-hand side. If you open My Network Places, it
will look similar to Figure 3.27.This folder displays all the shortcuts on your
computer to remote locations, such as mapped network drives and shortcuts on
MSN, and it allows you to browse the network for other locations via the Entire
Network icon.
Figure 3.27 My Network Places Folder
Double-clicking any of the folders will allow you to open up an Explorer
window directly on that location. However, if you want to browse for a destination, you can double-click the Entire Network icon.This will open up another
folder and allow you to browse different types of networks, such as terminal services, MSN Web sites, and probably the most popular destination if you are on a
company network, the Microsoft Network.
My Documents
The My Documents folder is the default storage location for your personal files.
Again, it is a shortcut to a physical location, which is stored under your profile
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 127
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
information in c:\documents and settings\userName\My Documents, where
userName is the user ID that you use to log on. However, systems administrators
can redirect this folder to another location, such as your home directory on a
server using Group Policy.To open the My Documents folder click Start |
My Documents or double-click on the My Documents folder on the desktop
(see Figure 3.28).
Figure 3.28 My Documents Folder
Your window will be probably look quite a bit different, in that you will have
different folders. However, Figure 3.28 does show the default subfolders, which
are My Pictures for image files, My Music for .wav and .mp3 files, and My
Webs for storing the files related to any Web sites that you have created.These
are fairly self-explanatory—their names describe the type of data they are
expected to hold. However, for example, you don’t have to store image files in
the My Pictures folder.You can store any type of file that you like, but from a
logical point of view it doesn’t make much sense to do otherwise.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
127
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 128
www.IrPDF.com
128
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Summary
In this chapter, we have looked at and discussed the new GUI for Windows XP.
Visually, it is quite a bit different, but as you have discovered you can still keep
much of the original look and feel of the previous version.While exploring the
desktop settings, you discovered how to change your display options and change
the general appearance of your desktop by using themes and different backgrounds including dynamic Web-based backgrounds.We introduced the use of
screen savers and how they can have a practical use with regard to security as well
as being visually appealing.We showed the various ways to access the desktop settings, along with use of the command line to access Control Panel applets by the
use of their .cpl files.
The Start menu is the way that the majority of users will access their programs, but we also looked at the taskbar, which can provide a quick and functional way to access frequently used programs.We also covered how to customize
both of these to suit your aesthetic tastes and the way you prefer to work. Finally,
we discussed My Computer, My Network Places, and My Documents, which are
the built-in folders are the way to access information.
Solutions Fast Track
Configuring the Desktop
; You can change desktop settings by either using the new task-based
approach or by directly using the Control Panel applet in the traditional
manner. Alternatively, you can invoke many applets from the command
line.
; You can use Desktop Themes to enhance the visual appearance of the
desktop.You can either use the standard themes that come with Window
XP, or you can download third-party themes from the Internet.You can
also customize the background and desktop colors yourself or amend
existing themes.
; You can set the screen saver to activate after a predetermined amount of
time that the workstation keyboard and mouse are inactive.You can also
use it to secure the workstation by requiring a password regain access.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 129
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Overview of the Start Menu and the Taskbar
; The Start menu has been revamped for Windows XP, but you can still
use what is known as Classic Style, which is similar to the Start menu
found in previous versions of Windows.
; You can customize the Start Menu to show or hide your e-mail and
Internet browser programs.You also have the option to choose
alternative programs, such as Netscape Navigator and Eudora, if they
have been installed.
; You can reposition the taskbar on any of the screen edges.You can also
customize it with different toolbars.
Configuring the Standard Desktop Programs
; My Computer is a built-in, top-level folder that shows the storage
devices that are installed in your system and any mapped drives. It
provides some immediately-available summary information, such as disk
space, on these devices and allows you to drill down and explore the
files and folders contained in these devices.
; My Network Places is the starting point for allowing you to browse any
networks that your system is connected to. It also acts as a convenient
location for any shortcuts that you have to remote systems.
; My Documents is a personal storage area that is the default location
where all your personal files are saved. It normally is located under your
profile directory on the local hard drive, but system administrators can
redirect it to a network location by using Group Policies.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
129
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 130
www.IrPDF.com
130
Chapter 3 • Exploring the Windows XP User Interface
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: The Quick Launch area from which I could click a button and get back to
the desktop has disappeared. How do I get it back?
A: To restore any of the Taskbar toolbars, right-click the taskbar, select Toolbars,
and click the ones that you wish to display.To restore the Quick Launch
toolbar, right-click the taskbar, select Properties, and select the checkbox
Show Quick Launch.
Q: How do I display the system time on my taskbar?
A: Right-click the taskbar, select Properties, and select Show the system clock.
Q: How do I quickly see what storage devices I have in my system?
A: Open My Computer and it will immediately display any local floppy, hard,
and removable disks. It will also show any mapped network drives.
Q: I’ve been using the Windows Classic look and customized my folder settings.
Now it is difficult to see things clearly. How can I get things back to the way
they were?
A: Change the appearance to Windows XP style and then back again to Classic
style.This will restore the settings.
Q: My screen resolution is set to 1024x768, but I have poor eyesight. How can I
change it to 640x480?
A: Right-click the desktop, select Properties, and then the Settings tab.You
can change the desktop screen resolution here. However, your systems administrators may have group policies implemented that prevent you doing this.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 131
www.IrPDF.com
Exploring the Windows XP User Interface • Chapter 3
Q: I’m responsible for supporting laptop users in my company. I often get complaints when issuing new laptops about how difficult it is for them to read
text. How can I improve things?
A: Right-click the desktop, select Properties, and then the Appearance tab.
Click Effects… and check that the Screen fonts are enabled and set to use
ClearType. This will greatly improve the display quality and readability of
text for laptop users.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
131
189_XP_03.qxd
11/9/01
2:30 PM
Page 132
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 133
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 4
Managing Windows
XP Professional
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Creating Users and Groups
■
Sharing Folders
■
Managing Storage
■
Managing Devices
■
Using the Event Viewer
■
Understanding Performance Logs
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
133
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 134
www.IrPDF.com
134
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Introduction
Many people today have been exposed to some version of Windows.Whether
you enjoy working on computers or not, most jobs require that you use a computer to some extent. One of the goals of XP is to make an operating system that
is easier for nontechnical people to use and manage. XP is a great platform for
“power users”—users that know the ins and outs of Windows—and “novice
users” alike. In this chapter, we discuss the concepts of managing Windows XP
Professional.
First, we look at creating users and groups in XP.This is an administration
task required to manage permissions on a local Windows XP machine. Instead of
creating new users and groups, we can use the built-in accounts, such as
Administrator and Guest.The built-in users and groups have predefined permissions.We examine the permissions assigned to these accounts by default in addition to how and when to change the defaults.We discuss how to make shared
folders and when to use them.We touch on managing storage and devices.This
includes topics such as basic disks, dynamic disks, volumes, partitions, and file systems. Lastly, we discuss troubleshooting by using the Event Viewer and
Performance Logs.
Creating Users and Groups
Every time you use your Windows XP machine, you must provide a valid user
account to log in and access the local machine.This user account must have the
appropriate permissions to use the machine or access will be denied.You can
assign permissions directly to the user account, or you can assign them to groups.
When assigning permissions to groups, you affect all of the users within the
group. In this section, we define the different types of user accounts and groups
available.We also learn how to create and manage each type of user and group.
What Are User Accounts?
What exactly is a user account? Think of it as your passport to access resources,
such as printers and files.Windows XP requires mandatory logon, which means
that to interact with your machine, you must have a valid user account and password. Depending on the types of resources you want to access—local or network—you need either a local user account or a domain user account.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 135
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Local User Accounts
Local user accounts are just that, “local” to the machine that you are logging into.
Every XP machine maintains its own database. If you were logging into XP’s
database, it would mean that you are logging on to the local computer, or logging
on locally. A local user account gives you rights that are associated only with that
specific machine, and not the entire network. Remember: “Local” means just
that, local to the machine you are logging into.
Table 4.1 shows the default user accounts provided by Windows XP
Professional during installation.The two accounts created are Administrator and
Guest. Exercise 4.1 walks you through creating local users.
Table 4.1 Default Local User Accounts Provided with Windows XP Professional
Account
Account Function
Administrator
The Administrator account is the first account you will ever
use to log into Windows XP. Once you log in, you may
create new accounts and begin to configure your workstation. A few important features of the Administrator
account are that you can never delete or disable it nor can
you remove it from the Local Administrators group.
However, you can rename the account.
The Guest account is used by users who do not have an
actual account on the workstation for them to log in with,
so they can log in as guests. The Guest account does not
have a password. The Guest account is disabled by default
so you need to enable it to use it.
Guest
NOTE
One good way to secure your machine up is to create a “dummy”
Administrator account. Rename the actual Administrator account, set up
a new account called “administrator” with limited rights, and audit it
carefully. Now you can see if someone is trying to break into your
machine by using the Administrator account.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
135
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 136
www.IrPDF.com
136
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Exercise 4.1 Creating Local User Accounts
with the Computer Management Console
To create a local user, you must first navigate to the Computer Management
MMC:
1. Navigate to the Computer Management applet in your administrative
tools program group (Start | Control Panel | Administrative Tools
| Computer Management).
2. Expand System Tools in Computer Management; you will see the
Local Users and Groups Icon.
3. Expand Local Users and Groups.You will see two folders, Users and
Groups. Figure 4.1 shows these folders.
Figure 4.1 Local Users and Groups within the Computer
Management Console
4. Right-click the Users folder and select the option New User…. This
will bring you to the New User dialog box shown in Figure 4.2.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 137
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Figure 4.2 New User Properties Dialog Box
5. Supply the following information:
■
User name The name that will be used by this account to log on.
■
Full name The actual name of the user (this may be different from
the user name).
■
Description Adds other details about the user or account (such as
what floor the user works on).
6. Enter the password and confirm it.
7. Check the desired account options:
■
User must change password at logon Requires the user to enter
a new password when he logs on.
■
User cannot change password Makes it impossible for the user
to change her password.
■
Password never expires Ensures that the password does not have
to be constantly changed by the user.
■
Account is disabled Disables the account, preventing it from being
used by anyone trying to log on.This is not the same as deleting the
account, because it still exists, but it is technically inoperable.
8. To finish, click Create, and the new user account will be created.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
137
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 138
www.IrPDF.com
138
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
NOTE
One thing to remember is that the minimum password age is set by
default to 0 days, and the maximum password age by default is 42 days.
If this is inappropriate for your organization, you can change it in the
Local Security Settings dialog box. Go to Start | Control Panel |
Administrative Tools | Local Security Policy | Security Settings and
expand down to Password Policy. In the contents pane (right-hand side) of
Local Security Settings, you will see the default settings. Double-click the
settings to change them to what is appropriate for your security policy.
The new account will appear in the contents pane of the MMC.To find
more options or to change other options on your new user, simply right-click
new user for a pop-up menu of options, including the following:
■
Set password
■
Rename
■
Delete
■
Properties
One thing you may want to investigate is the user’s properties. Clicking on
the Properties field allows you to apply a few more important options for this
user.You will find the following two new tabs:
■
Member of Allows you to add specific groups to the user account you
have created (groups are covered in the next section).
■
Profile tab (shown in Figure 4.3) The Profile path field assigns the
profile used by your new Local User account upon logon to the
machine.The Logon script field assigns a batch file–based login script.
The Home Folder section sets the user account to a local path for its
home folder or maps the user account to a home folder on a network
share. A home folder is where users should save all of their data.
Remember, it is best to have all data in one centralized area so that it
can easily be located and backed up.
Let’s look at another way to create a user account. First, we have to get to the
command prompt, which is a 32-bit program that runs text-based commands. It
looks like DOS (Disk Operating System), but it is not DOS. It is called
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 139
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Command (abbreviated CMD) and can be run from the Run dialog box. Click
Start | Run. From the Run dialog box, type in the CMD and click OK.Typing
net and pressing ENTER will give you the window shown in Figure 4.4.
Figure 4.3 A User Account’s Profile Tab
Figure 4.4 The Command Prompt
Figure 4.4 shows all of the possible options used with the net command.To
see a list of options (including the correct syntax) for creating a user, run the following command from the command prompt:
NET USER /HELP
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
139
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 140
www.IrPDF.com
140
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
NOTE
A profile is a set of configurations that you can create, or the machine
creates by default (usually ending with a .DAT extension) that defines
your environment when logging on. The environment can contain
(among other things) window size and position settings, program items,
icons, and screen colors.
The output from this command will display more information than can fit on
one screen. Let’s view all of the output by scrolling back to the top of the command prompt (use the scrollbar on the right side of the command prompt
window). Scroll down slowly and read all of the command’s switches.This may
appear to be a difficult way of creating users, but at times it is easier than going
through the graphical user interface (GUI).This is generally faster than using the
GUI.You also have the flexibility of adding these commands to a script or batch
file to automate your administrative task. Exercise 4.2 walks you through creating
a user from the command prompt. Exercise 4.3 walks you through deleting a user
account from the command prompt. Exercise 4.4 walks you through creating
local user accounts with the Control Panel User Accounts applet.
Exercise 4.2 Creating Local User
Accounts by Using the Command Line
1. Open a command prompt. Go to Start | Run. Type CMD and
click OK.
2. Next, type NET USER newuser1 /ADD.You should see “the command completed successfully” message.This lets you know that your user
was created.
3. To use the GUI to verify that your user was created, Go to Start |
Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Computer Management
and navigate down to the Users folder.You will see the new account
NEWUSER1. Minimize Computer Management.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 141
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Exercise 4.3 Deleting Local User
Accounts by Using the Command Line
1. Go back to the command prompt and type NET USER newuser1
/DELETE.
2. This will delete the newly created user.To verify that the user account was
deleted, maximize Computer Management and refresh the right side contents pane by pressing F5.The NEWUSER1 local account disappears.
Another way to check this is to pull up the command prompt and type
NET USER, which will show all the user accounts that are available on
the local machine.
Exercise 4.4 Creating Local User Accounts
with the Control Panel User Accounts Applet
Lastly, you can create a new local user account via the Control Panel by using the
following steps:
1. Go to Start | Control Panel | User Accounts Applet and doubleclick the User Accounts Applet.
2. You will be asked to pick a task.You can change a current account,
create a new one, or change the way a user logs off. Select Create a
new user account from the menu.
3. In the Type a name for the new account box, type in XPTEST.
Afterwards, click Next to continue.
4. Choose whether to create a Computer Administrator or a Limited
account.The Computer Administrator account will give the new user
account administrative rights.The Limited account will give the new
user account rights to change their password, view files it creates, view
files in the shared documents folder, and change the settings for its profile. Select the Computer Administrator radio button and click
Create Account.You will now see the account listed under the Pick an
account to change section of the User Accounts window.
Using the User Accounts Applet
Now that you have seen how to create local user accounts, let’s look at how to
manage them with the User Accounts applet (see Figure 4.5) from the Control
Panel.This applet provides many useful features:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
141
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 142
www.IrPDF.com
142
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
■
Changing the login interface for users
■
Resetting users passwords
■
Changing the role of a user
■
Renaming an account
■
Enabling Fast User Switching
Figure 4.5 The User Accounts Applet
From the User Accounts window, you can create a new account or you can
modify an existing account.You can also change the way users log on and off.
(See Exercise 4.4 to learn how to create a new account.) Figure 4.6 shows the
logon and logoff options.
In Figure 4.6, you see two options—Use the Welcome screen and Use
Fast User Switching.The Welcome screen is an alternative way of logging onto
your computer. Instead of getting the normal Ctrl+Alt+Delete logon box, users
are given a screen that lists the available user accounts for their machine.The user
simply clicks on the user that he wishes to log on as (entering a password if
needed), and he is logged on. Disabling the Welcome screen returns the
Ctrl+Alt+Delete logon box.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 143
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Figure 4.6 Selecting Logon and Logoff Options
Enabling the Welcome screen is a requirement for Fast User Switching. Fast
User Switching is a new feature in Windows XP. It is available only when your
PC is in workgroup mode.You use Fast User Switching by clicking Start | Log
Off. On the Log Off Windows dialog box, click Switch User.You will now be
at the Welcome screen.You can log on as the same user or a different user by
choosing her name from the list.
Configuring & Implementing…
Logging On with Original Administrator Account
The Welcome screen and Fast User Switching are enabled by default in
Workgroup mode. If you have created other accounts, you may notice
that the original Administrator account is not shown on the Welcome
screen as one of the available accounts. If you wish to log on as
Administrator, you can press Ctrl+Alt+Delete twice, which will cause
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
143
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 144
www.IrPDF.com
144
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
the familiar login dialog box to appear. Another method for logging on
as Administrator is to restart Windows XP in Safe Mode.
If you want the Administrator account to show up in the list of
available accounts on the Welcome screen, you can remove all accounts
from the Administrators group and add them to the users (if you are
using the User Accounts Wizard, you would change their account type
to Limited). When the Administrator is the only account in the
Administrators group, it will show up on the list. Also, you can edit the
Registry to make the Administrator account show up on the Welcome
screen. Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows
NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\SpecialAccounts\UserList and add DWORD
Value with a name of Administrator and a value of 1.
As a security measure, you should avoid logging on to Windows XP
with accounts that have administrative privileges. If you need to administer your computer, you can always use the “Run As” feature, which will
allow you to launch applications in the context of the Administrator
account, even though you are logged in as someone else.
When you use Fast User Switching, users are not logged off. All of their programs continue to run. XP puts their desktop in the background and allows
another user to open a new desktop (similar to how Terminal Server works).You
can switch back and forth between the user’s desktops without having to close all
applications and save your data. Pressing the Windows logo key + L takes you
directly to the Welcome screen.You may use this, for example, when you are at
home writing a paper and someone else wants to check her mail.You can switch
over to her desktop and let her check mail without disturbing your desktop.
Figure 4.7 shows the options available for configuring a user account.This is
an easy way to manage your accounts. If you desire more options, you will need
to use Local Users And Computers from within Computer Management or run
lusrmgr.msc from the Run line.The options available with the User Accounts
applet are listed here:
■
Change the user’s login name
■
Reset the user’s password
■
Change the icon that appears next to the user’s name on the Welcome
screen and on the Start menu
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 145
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
■
Change the account from a limited account to an Administrator account
and vice versa
■
Delete the account from the local accounts database
Figure 4.7 Configuring User Account Options
Domain User Accounts
Before we cover what a domain user account is, you need to understand
domains. In Microsoft technologies, a domain is created when you make a
Windows NT or 2000 server a domain controller. Domains provide a single
point of administration and a single point of logon. All domain controllers within
the domain share the same database. Users can log into this database from any
computer within the domain.This is different than the stand-alone machine
approach we have been dealing with thus far. Now instead of users having to
remember a different username and password for each machine that they log
into, they can use the same account on every machine.This makes administration
easier as well. Now administrators have to manage only one account.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
145
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 146
www.IrPDF.com
146
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
The process of joining a Windows XP machine to a domain creates a logical
association between the machine and the domain controllers. Joining the domain
creates a computer account in the domain database.This allows administrators to
centrally manage your machine with the other machines joined to the domain. A
common example of this is to create Group Policy Objects that apply machine settings to all machines in the domain.This allows administrators to apply the settings
once and have them apply to all machines versus having to assign policy locally on
each machine. Exercise 4.5 walks you through joining your PC to the domain.
Exercise 4.5 Joining a Domain
1. Click Start | Control Panel | System Applet and click the
Computer Name tab. Click Network ID.This will start the Network
Identification Wizard.
2. From the How Do You Use This Computer window, choose This
computer is part of a business network, and I use it to connect
to other computers at work. Click Next to continue.
3. You will now be asked what type of network your company uses.
Choose My company uses a network with a domain. Click Next
to continue.
4. You will now be told that you need to enter the following information:
■
Username
■
Password
■
User account domain
You may optionally need to enter the following information:
■
Computer name
■
Domain name
Click Next to continue.
5. You will be asked for a domain to join and the name and password of a
user account that has the rights to join this machine to the domain.
Follow the remaining prompts and click Finish.You will have to restart
your XP Professional machine.
6. After rebooting, use the System applet in Control Panel (Use the
Computer Name tab) to verify that you are now part of the correct
domain.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 147
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
What Are Groups?
A group represents a basic container where you can add user accounts. All of the
user accounts added to a group share in the security permissions associated with
that group. In other words, when you assign permissions to a group, those permissions are automatically applied to all of the user accounts that are members of
the group. Creating groups can ease and aid your administrative efforts either on
the local machine or on a domain controller. Now, instead of having to assign
and manage permissions for 1,000 users, you can put those 1,000 users in a group
and assign permissions once to the group.When the permissions change, you can
change the permissions once for the group instead of 1,000 times for each user. A
group can be local or global, depending on where you make it. Let’s look at the
difference between the different types of groups.
Local Groups
Table 4.2 shows the local groups for a default installation of Windows XP
Professional. Like local users, local groups are local to the XP machine you are
currently logging into.These groups are stored in the unique database stored
locally on each XP machine. A local group can only be assigned permissions to
resources on the local machine and not to resources on the network. Exercise 4.6
walks you through creating local groups.
Table 4.2 Default Local Groups Provided with Windows XP Professional
Group Name
Group Function
Administrators
The local Administrators groups has unlimited and
unrestricted access to the computer.
Backup Operators can override security restrictions
for the sole purpose of backing up or restoring
files.
Guests have the same access as the members of
the Users group, except for the Guest account,
which is further restricted.
Members of this particular group have some
administrative privileges to manage configuration
of networking features and properties.
Power Users possess more administrative rights
with limited restrictions.
Backup Operators
Guests
Network Configuration
Operators
Power Users
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
147
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 148
www.IrPDF.com
148
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Table 4.2 Continued
Group Name
Group Function
Remote Desktop Users
Members of this group have the right to log on
remotely.
This group supports file replication within a domain.
Users are prevented from making system changes.
They have the least amount of system privileges of
all groups.
This is the group for the Help and Support Services.
Replicator
Users
HelpServicesGroup
Exercise 4.6 Creating Local Groups
You have created local users within XP and now are going to create local groups.
There is little difference between creating a user and a group. Let’s look at creating a local group within Computer Management:
1. Click Start | Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Computer
Management. Expand System Tools, expand Local Users and
Groups, and then expand the Groups folder.
2. Right-click the Groups folder and select New Group from the menu.
This will give you the window shown in Figure 4.8.
Figure 4.8 Creating a Group in the New Group Dialog Box
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 149
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
3. Type in a Group name. A good rule of thumb is to name the groups in
accordance with the users they will contain. (For instance, put all accountants into the “Accounting” group). Figure 4.8 shows a new group named
NewGroup1, to keep it simple.You can optionally add a description for
quick viewing within the contents pane of the MMC console.
4. Click Add to add members to the group.When you click Add, you are
presented with the Select Users dialog box.To add a user, type in the
name of the account. For this exercise, add the Administrator to the new
group by typing Administrator in the field below the words “Enter the
object names to select.”
5. Once you type it in, click Check Names on the right and it will
resolve the administrator to the local machine account. (You know it is
resolved because it will be underlined.)
6. Once it is resolved, click OK and you will see the Local Administrator
account appear in the Members list of the new group.
7. Click Create to create the new group.
Now you will see your new local group show up in the contents pane of
Computer Management in the Groups folder (you may have to hit F5 to refresh
your screen). Just like when you made the local user account, you can configure
the group by right-clicking it and selecting from the following options:
■
Add to a Group
■
Delete
■
Rename
■
Properties
NOTE
No new configuration tabs show up in the Local Groups Properties sheet,
as they did when you right-clicked on the new Local User account.
Now that you have created a Local Group form within the GUI, let’s use the
command prompt to do the same thing.We briefly cover these steps in Exercise
4.7, because they are very similar to the steps for creating a user account from the
command prompt.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
149
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 150
www.IrPDF.com
150
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Exercise 4.7 Creating and Deleting
Local Groups from the Command Prompt
1. Display the available options for the NET command. Open a commend
prompt and type net /?.
2. You will see an option for localgroup.Type net localgroup and you
will see the currently configured local groups on your XP system.
3. Type in net localgroup TEST /add and press Enter.This creates a
new group called TEST.You can see the new group by repeating Step 2.
4. Now let’s delete the new group.Type net localgroup TEST /delete.
You can confirm deletion by following Step 2 again.
Here are several rules to remember when dealing with groups:
■
Local groups can contain users
■
Local groups can contain global groups
■
Local groups can’t contain local groups
Global Groups
A global group is not local to the machine. It is created on a domain controller
with the Active Directory MMC called Active Directory Users And Computers.
When you make the group there, it is a domain-based group. If you promote a
standalone server to a domain controller, the ability to make local groups is disabled (you can’t use the local accounts database anymore, you must use the
shared database instead) and everything is stored in Active Directory.This makes
administration and management even easier by centralizing everything into
one database.
NOTE
Technically speaking, you can still create local groups on a domain controller, but they are not the same type of local groups previously discussed. They are called domain local groups, and they are used in the
same manner as XP’s local groups. The difference is that an XP local
group is unique to the standalone XP machine. Domain local groups are
unique to the domain in which they belong. In addition to domain local
groups and global groups, domains also have another type of group
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 151
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
called a universal group. Both global groups and universal groups are
used to organize users. Domain local groups are used to assign permissions to domain-based resources, such as printers or file shares.
New Functionality in XP for User Accounts
Windows XP has lots of new features. Password Hinting is a new option in XP
that is useful for users that forget their passwords. Another new feature is the
ability to upload your picture to be seen next to your Logon ID at the Welcome
screen.This makes it easy to identify the user that corresponds to the user
account.
Password Hinting
Password Hinting is an option that will allow users who have trouble remembering their passwords to get a “hint” from the computer.This hint should
remind them of their password. Password hinting can only be used in a workgroup or standalone mode setting, not in a domain-based network. In other
words, it cannot be used if the computer has joined a domain.
To configure local user accounts with this added functionality, open the User
Accounts applet from Control Panel.Within this applet, you will find your local
user accounts listed under the Or Pick An Account To Change section. Click the
account that you want to configure with a password hint.This will bring up a set
of new options labeled What Do You Want To Change About Your Account.
Click Change my password.You will find in the last field that you can add a
hint to your password options. Notice that it explicitly mentions that this hint
will be available to everyone who uses the PC. Because this is the case, make the
hint something that would make sense only to the user. Add your hint and click
OK. When you log off and attempt to log back on, you will see a question mark
next to your login ID.This represents the hint. Clicking on the question mark
presents you with the hint. Remember, anyone sitting down at the computer has
access to the hint, and they may be able to figure out what the password is from
looking at it.
Picture Uploading
You can configure XP to display your picture next to your logon name at the
Welcome screen. Open the User Accounts applet from Control Panel. Under
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
151
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 152
www.IrPDF.com
152
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
the Or Pick An Account To Change section, click the user account that you want
to configure. Choose Change my picture.You can select one of the default
pictures, or you can upload your own picture by clicking Browse for more
pictures. Browse to the location of the required picture. Select the picture and
click Open.Your picture will now be displayed when you attempt to log on to
the machine. As with Password Hinting, this is not available if your computer is a
member of a domain.
Sharing Folders
To share a folder (which is essentially a resource on the machine) is to share its
contents to other users on the network. Once you share a folder, anyone with the
correct permissions can access it across the network. Permissions are granted to
user accounts or groups. Remember that you can share a folder, but not a file. In
this section, you will learn how to create shared folder resources, as well as why it
is important to share folders in the first place.
First, let’s create a new folder. Right-click a blank spot on your desktop and
select New | Folder. Give it the name New Share. It will appear on your
desktop as shown in Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9 View of a New Folder in XP
Now that you have created this new folder, let’s share it. Right-click the
folder and select Sharing.You will be shown a dialog box that looks different
than the sharing window from Windows 2000.You can think of this new
window as the “simple file sharing view”.You can change the view in the
Control Panel | Folder options applet.You can also change this through the
folder options of any folder (Tools | Folder Options) and clicking the View
Tab.When you open the Folder Options applet, go to the View tab and scroll to
the very bottom.The last check box will allow you to toggle between the simple
file sharing view and the normal file sharing view.The Security tab allows you to
add users and groups and to select individual permissions for each one. Figure
4.10 shows the Sharing tab in the New Share Properties dialog box.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 153
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Figure 4.10 The Sharing Tab in the New Share Properties Dialog Box
Let’s look at the differences. Notice that in this dialog box you have an
option to make this shared folder private and only accessible to you.This is nice
because most of the time you are only sharing out a folder on your local
machine to yourself.The other option is to share it out as “share name,” and then
you can select to have users “change” your files. For this demonstration, let’s share
this folder on the network with a name of New Share. Let’s also allow users to
change the files. Once you are done, click OK and you will see a little hand
appear under your folder, as shown in Figure 4.11.This signifies that it has been
shared out as a resource. It is important to know that you can only have privately
shared out folders if you using the NTFS file system (NTFS is covered in the
next few sections).
Figure 4.11 A Shared Folder in XP
How do you monitor all the shares on your machine? You can monitor shares
in a variety of ways.The easiest method is to view them within the Computer
Management console, as shown Figure 4.12. Open Computer Management
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
153
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 154
www.IrPDF.com
154
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
and expand System Tools, then Shared folders, and then the Shares subfolder.
Click the Shares folder (this takes the place of the Server Applet in Windows NT
4.0).You will now see all of the shares that are currently available on the local
machine.We made only one share, called New Share. So why do six shares
appear, as shown in Figure 4.12?
Figure 4.12 Using the MMC to View Shares on a Local Machine
What do you notice about the five shares that we did not create versus the
one share that we did? The five shares end with a dollar sign. So what do all of
those dollar signs mean? A dollar sign indicates a hidden share.This allows
Administrators to easily perform remote administration of a system. For example,
moving files located on a server directly to the local XP desktop. A hidden share
is just that—“hidden” from the eyes of possible viewers on the network. It does
in fact exist; it is just not accessible within Network Neighborhood. Any user on
the network who was browsing through the network using Network
Neighborhood would never see the shared resource. However, if the user knew it
was out there, he could try to access it via a UNC (Universal Naming
Convention) as shown here:
\\<Computername>\<sharename> where sharename is admin$
By using this command, users could map to your admin$ share.The
admin$ share maps to the %systemroot% folder on your local hard drive (where
%systemroot% is the installation location of Windows XP) Usually %systemroot%
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 155
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
is C:\Windows. In addition to the admin$ share, all of the hard drives within
your system are shared out as drive letter dollar. For example, your C drive and D
drive are shared as C$ and D$, respectively.You can remove the default hidden
shares, but they will regenerate when you reboot your computer. However, you
must have administrative rights on the local machine to access one of the default
hidden shares.These shares are to be used by Administrators only, and are referred
to as the administrative shares.
Configuring & Implementing…
Special Shares
You may want to disable the default hidden shares without having to
run a script every time you log on. By adding the following REG_DWORD
values to the Registry, Windows XP will not create the default hidden
shares:
KEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer
\Parameters\AutoShareServer
and:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\
LanmanServer\Parameters\AutoShareWks
This task is covered step by step in the Microsoft article Q288164.
See http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q288/1/64.ASP for
details. Please make sure that you have a good backup up of your
Registry before you manually change it with a Registry Editor such as
Regedt32 or Regedit.
Use the following steps to automatically remove the administrative shares
every time that you log on:
1. Open Notepad.exe from the command prompt (or use Start | Run |
Notepad).
2. Enter the following lines:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
155
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 156
www.IrPDF.com
156
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
@echo off
net share C$ /delete
net share admin$ /delete
3. Save the new document as delete.bat.
4. Paste the new batch file in your Startup folder in the Start menu.You
can find this folder by going to Start | All Programs | Startup.
Every time you reboot the machine, the shares will be deleted.
Configuring & Implementing…
Hiding Your Computer
Our discussion thus far has been about hidden shares (sharenames that
end with a “$” and do not appear when you browse to a computer). We
can take this a step further by hiding the entire computer. This keeps
users from seeing a computer in the browse list. Go to the command
prompt and type in the following command:
net config server /hidden:yes
By running the net start server command at the command
prompt, you will be able to start the server service which enables you to
have this functionality. It can be stopped by running the net stop server
command. Similarly, the browser can be started and stopped by typing
net start browser and net stop browser, respectively. The hidden computer may still be connected as well, which you can check if you know
it’s name or IP address.
Now let’s look at how to manage share resources from the command prompt.
Let’s first delete the hidden C$ share and then put it back:
1. Open a command prompt (Start | Run) and type CMD. Click OK.
2. To see the syntax for the net share command, type NET SHARE /? at
the command prompt and press Enter.
3. Typing NET SHARE and hitting Enter will shows what resources are
currently shared.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 157
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
4. First, type in the following syntax: NET SHARE C$ /delete.You will
receive a message indicating that C$ was deleted successfully. Now, when
you refresh the shares folder within Computer Management, C$ is gone
(or when you type NET SHARE at the command prompt).
Now that we have successfully deleted the C$ share, we need to put it back:
1. Go back to the command prompt.
2. Type NET SHARE C$=C: and then press Enter.
3. Type NET SHARE to view that it was shared out again.
Now that we can create and delete shares from the command prompt, let’s
practice doing the same thing from within the GUI. Open Computer
Management and expand down until you are in the Shares folder. In the contents
pane, you will see all currently shared resources. Right-click a blank spot of the
panel and select New File Share from the pop-up menu.This brings up a
wizard for sharing folders. Let’s follow along with the wizard step by step:
1. First let’s pick a sharename.Your sharename does not have to match the
actual folder or resource name.You can share out a folder with a long
name, such as MYMPTHREE.This share would appear on the network
as MYMPTHREE, but the actual folder name will remain the same.
Let’s share this out as SHARETEST.Type SHARETEST in the Share
name field.
2. Second, let’s select a folder to share.This time we are going to share a
folder that doesn’t currently exist. In the Folder To Share field type
C:\NewShare2.When you press Enter, the machine will ask you if
you want to make this directory. Click Yes and let XP make it for you.
3. Optionally, enter in the Description field. For this demonstration type A
New Share for XP into the Description field. Click Next to continue.
You will be presented with the window shown in Figure 4.13.Click the
radio button labeled Customize share and folder permissions to
assign customized permissions to the share. By using the preset options of
the other three radio buttons, you can enable all users to have full control, Administrators to have full control but users to have read only access,
or Administrators to have full control and users to have none.
4. For this example, let’s give all users full control. Select the first radio
button and click Finish.You will be told that your operation was
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
157
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 158
www.IrPDF.com
158
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
successful and the wizard will ask you if you want to share out something else. Click No.
Figure 4.13 The Create Shared Folder Wizard
Other Sharing Techniques
By default (when in workgroup mode), you may not be able to share out any
resources.You can change this within the Local Security Policy. Change to the
“traditional” view of file and print sharing as demonstrated in the following steps:
1. Go to the Local Security Policy utility in the Administrative tools folder.
Go to Start | Control Panel | Administrative Tools and open the
Local Security Policy utility.
2. Go to Local Policies and select Security Options.
3. Scroll down to Network Access: Sharing And Security Model For Local
Accounts and double-click it.You will see the window shown Figure
4.14.This window allows you to change from Classic-local users
authenticate as themselves to Guest only-local users authenticate
as Guest and vice versa. Select the Classic View and click OK to save
your changes. (Classic View is the default when your computer is joined
to a domain.)
NOTE
If you select Guest Only, you will see the dialog box represented in
Figure 4.15 when you attempt to share out a resource.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 159
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Figure 4.14 Network Access Dialog Box
4. Go back up to the desktop and try to share out a folder again (follow
the steps outlined earlier in this section).You should see that the options
are different and now you have the ability to have share permissions and
file security on NTFS volumes when you use the Classic View.This is
the same way shares were created in Windows 2000 Professional.
There is an easy way to flip between the two modes of file sharing.You can
open any folder that you are planning to share and quickly toggle between the
two modes by using the following steps:
1. Open a folder.
2. Select Tools | Folder Options.
3. Select the View tab from the dialog box.
4. Scroll down to the bottom of the advanced settings and select Use
simple files sharing.This will give you the dialog box shown in
Figure 4.15 when you attempt to share a folder.
5. If you unselect the check box, you will revert back to being able to set
full security on the share.Toggle between the two modes and you will
see the difference.
The last items that we need to discuss related to folder sharing are the option
to see what resources are currently in use, and the option to disconnect users
accessing shares on your local computer.You may want to disconnect users from
your machine if you want to reboot your machine or maybe to perform a
backup of your machine. NTBackup doesn’t back up open files. So in order to
properly back up all of the files on your computer, you must make sure that they
are not currently being accessed.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
159
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 160
www.IrPDF.com
160
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Figure 4.15 Item Properties with Simple File Sharing Enabled
Configuring & Implementing…
Enabling Sharing in Workgroup Mode
If Windows XP is in Workgroup Mode, the ability to share files is initially
turned off by default. The simplest way to turn on file sharing in this situation is to run the Network Setup Wizard. You can find the Network
Setup Wizard on the Sharing tab of properties of the folder you want to
share. Figure 4.15 shows the option to run the wizard. Once you enable
file sharing in Workgroup mode, you will find that remote users connect
in the context of the Guest account. You can change this behavior by
modifying the local security policy on the window shown in Figure 4.14.
Change this setting to Classic-local users authenticate as themselves,
if you want remote users to connect with their own logon credentials,
rather than the Guest account.
To view open resources, open Computer Management and expand System
Tools and click the Shared Folders icon. Click the Sessions folder to view the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 161
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
open sessions or connected users that are using your shared resources.You can
easily right-click a particular one or right-click a blank spot in the contents pane
of the MMC and select Disconnect all sessions from the Action menu.The
Sessions folder is for you to view connected sessions and produce a list of all network users currently accessing your resources.This folder provides you with a
way to disconnect some or all of them.The Open Files folder is like the Sessions
folder except it allows you to view a list of all open files by remote users. It
allows you to disconnect the users accessing the open files by right-clicking the
file and selecting to disconnect it.
Managing Storage
Most users are not familiar with the topic of managing data storage. Storage is a
coined term that could simply stand for “where all your data is kept.” Data is usually stored on hard drives installed within a machine, so this is where the topic of
managing storage begins. Managing the data saved on the installed hard drives is
just as important as saving it in the first place. Some questions you can ask yourself about managing storage are the following:
■
What file systems are to be put on the storage?
■
Are you using hard drives, or removable storage such as ZIP drives?
■
After installing and formatting the drives, where are they managed?
What exactly does it mean when we talk about storage? Think of it like this:
The data you use every day must be kept somewhere. Generally, when you work
with data on your machine, it is kept in memory to provide fast access to the data.
When you want to save something, it needs to be kept somewhere. Remember that
everything stored in RAM is lost when you turn off your machine.Whatever you
use to hold the saved data is considered a storage device.The nice thing about
storage is that it also provides a place to have data centrally located and backed up.
In addition to knowing how to save data, you also need to understand how to
manage the stored data. In this section, we take a look at the following topics:
■
Creating a basic and dynamic disk (and understanding the differences
between them)
■
Choosing a file system to maximize data storage size and to protect your
stored data
■
Managing removable storage
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
161
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 162
www.IrPDF.com
162
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
The best way to follow along with this section would be to have the actual
storage available to configure and manage.What follows are detailed steps to perform all the tasks outlined in the preceding list.
Configuring & Implementing…
Managing Disks
When you want to install a new storage device such as a hard drive,
make sure you follow the safety procedures outlined in the device’s
manual. Pay particular attention to setting jumpers correctly on hard
drives or IDs on SCSI devices. Also, pay attention to ESD best practices
when you open the case as to not damage the hardware inside. For
removable storage, follow the manual that comes with the device.
The Disk Management Utility, shown in Figure 4.16, is used to manage the
hard disk attached to your machine.You can find the Disk Management Utility
within Computer Management.To access the console go to Start | Control
Panel and open Administrative Tools. Click Computer Management
Console, then Storage, then Disk Management.
Figure 4.16 The Disk Management Utility within the Storage Icon
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 163
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
What is nice about the MMC is that is has everything you need right there
in one easy-to-use console.You can also configure it differently by adding or
removing components (these components are called snap-ins).Windows XP
allows online disk management.This helps you avoid the millions of dreaded
“reboots” that plague Windows NT.The following list is some of the features
available within the Disk Management Console:
■
Change drive letters
■
Change the file systems by reformatting the drive
■
Create logical drives
■
Remotely administer (if you have the correct permissions)
other machines’ disk management
NOTE
You must be a member of the Administrators group to run Disk
Management.
Configuring Hard Drives
Let’s use Disk Management to configure a drive. First, we need a device to configure. Let’s open the MMC for Computer Management, navigate down to the
Storage icon, and expand it until you see Disk Management.This will bring
you to the screen shown in Figure 4.17. From here, you will see your current
drive configuration.You can see that the machine has one hard disk separated
into a Boot and System Partition.
WARNING
Do not install a hard drive if you do not know how to change jumpers
and configure a CMOS/BIOS. Please seek help if you are not experienced
in this area.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
163
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 164
www.IrPDF.com
164
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Figure 4.17 The Disk Management Utility in Computer Management
As you can see from Figure 4.17, a new Storage device (G:\) has been added
and formatted as FAT32.The original storage device has three partitions. Each
partition is formatted as NTFS. Use the following steps to add a new drive to
your system:
1. Boot the PC.Windows will find the new disk.
2. Open the MMC for Computer Management and expand to the Disk
Management Console. Here you will see the new disk, but it will have
no file system on it.
3. Right-click the drive and choose to give it a drive letter (in the demonstration drive letter G: was used).
4. Right-click the drive again and choose to format it (in the demonstration FAT32 was used).
If you ever want to change a drive letter you can right-click the drive and
choose Change Drive Letter and Paths…. If you would like to format it with
a different file system, you can do so by right-clicking the partition or volume
and selecting format (formatting a drive erases all data stored on that drive).You
cannot format the partitions or volumes that contain the boot and system files.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 165
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Converting a Drive to NTFS via the Command Line
One way to convert a drive from the FAT file system to NTFS without destroying
any data is to use the Convert.exe utility.To do so, open a command prompt and
type convert /?.This will show the correct syntax for the convert command.
For our demonstration, let’s convert the G: drive to NTFS.Type convert G:
/FS:NTFS and press Enter. Follow the defaults and reboot when asked.When
you reboot, the conversion will actually take place. If you don’t want your drive
reformatted with a different file system, please do not go though these steps.
File Systems and NTFS versus FAT32
A file system is what you have on your disk so that the operating system knows
where to send, retrieve, store, and move data.When you format a drive, you are
essentially putting numbered sectors (and sometimes clusters) on it to organize it
logically.There are multiple systems you can use, but the two most common are
FAT32 and NTFS.
What Is FAT32?
FAT32 is an enhanced version of FAT (File Allocation Table—a.k.a. FAT16) that
was introduced into the world of Windows with Windows 95 OSR2 (a.k.a.
Window 95B). It became a standard with Windows 98 and has followed all versions of Windows (minus Windows NT 4.0) since.Windows XP Professional is
no different. It also has support for FAT32. Here are some points to consider
when dealing with FAT32:
■
FAT32 will increase the amount of free disk space because of its smaller
cluster size.
■
FAT32 is not limited to the 2GB partition size restriction of regular
FAT (4GB limit in NT 4.0).
■
FAT32 partitions 8GB or smaller allow for a 4K cluster size.
■
FAT32 supports drives up to 2TB in size.
■
FAT32 can relocate the root folder and use the backup copy of the FAT
instead of the default copy.
■
Converting from FAT16 to FAT32 is a one-way trip.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
165
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 166
www.IrPDF.com
166
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
NOTE
A cluster is a logical unit that represents a grouping of sectors that is
managed by the FAT. A cluster’s size varies depending on the hard drive
size and how it is partitioned. What is nice about FAT32 is that is brings
the cluster size down to about 4K. This is desirable because a file that
takes up 2K of a 4K cluster wastes 2K, because nothing else can be saved
to that cluster. With a 4K-cluster size, the most you waste is about 3K. If
you were using FAT16, the cluster size would be either 16K or 32K. With
FAT16, a 1K file could waste 15 to 31K of space per cluster. This is a
great advantage of using FAT32.
What Is NTFS?
NTFS (NT File System) is not really new technology anymore because it has been
around since the inception of Windows NT. File-level security is the main driving
force behind NTFS. Here are some facts about NTFS for you to consider:
■
NTFS provides fault tolerance because it is able to hot fix drive problems automatically versus needing a user to kick off the repair process.
Hard disk repairs are done automatically without user intervention.With
FAT32, you need to run a scandisk to repair errors.
■
NTFS cannot be penetrated via a DOS boot disk. It can, however, be
penetrated via third-party software that allows access to the NTFS partitions via a DOS prompt.
■
NTFS also allows you to set file-level permissions on files where FAT
will only allow you to use share-level–based permissions. FAT does not
allow you to use file level permission.With FAT, you can only provide
protection for the files from across the network. A local user has full
access to the files.
■
Disk quotas, file compression, and file encryption are available only on
NTFS formatted drives. Disk quotas and file encryption are new features
to Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Exercise 4.8 walks you through
configuring disk quotas.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 167
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Exercise 4.8 Enabling Disk
Quotas on an NTFS Drive
1. Disk quotas are individually configured for each partition or volume in
the system. Use Windows Explorer or My Computer to go to the
volume that you want to configure for disk quotas.
2. Right-click the volume and choose Properties from the pop-up menu.
3. Click the Quota tab.This will give you the window shown in Figure
4.18. If you don’t see a Quota tab, either you don’t have the permissions
to configure disk quotas or you are viewing a FAT or FAT32 volume.
Figure 4.18 The Quota Tab of a Volumes Properties
4. Check the box labeled Enable quota management.This allows quotas
to be set for this volume.
5. Check the box labeled Deny disk space to users exceeding quota
limit. If you don’t check this box, users will be warned when they reach
their limit, but they will not be denied from adding more data to the
volume.
6. Now you need to set a default limit for all new users accessing the
volume. Click the radio button next to Limit disk space to. Choose
the amount of space allowed and set at what limit to warn the user.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
167
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 168
www.IrPDF.com
168
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
7. To manually add a quota restriction for a user, click Quota Entries.
This will give you the window shown in Figure 4.19.
Figure 4.19 The Quota Entry Window
8. Choose Quota | New Quota.
9. Type in the name of the user to be assigned quota restrictions.
10. Click Check Names resolve the name.
11. Click OK to continue.This will give you the Add New Quota Entry
window shown in Figure 4.20.
12. Choose either to not limit disk usage or enter in a maximum size limit
and click OK.Your new quota entry will appear in the list of assigned
quotas, as shown in Figure 4.19.
Why use one file system over the other? It is really a matter of choice and
preference. Use FAT32 if you are looking for compatibility with other Windows
operating systems (maybe to dual-boot between 98 and XP) and increased disk
space over FAT16. Use NTFS if you need file-level security and a self-healing
file system. Also, use NTFS if you need support for compression, file encryption,
or disk quotas.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 169
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Figure 4.20 Adding a New Quota Entry
Basic versus Dynamic Disks
There are multiple types of storage and multiple types of volumes.To begin,
“basic” storage uses normal partition tables, which are supported by all versions of
Windows-based operating systems.When you configure a hard disk for “basic”
storage, you configure it to hold primary and extended partitions with logical
drives. Basic storage uses partitions, not volumes. Dynamic disks contain volumes.
A volume is an area of storage on your hard disk. A volume is formatted with a
file system and has a drive letter assigned to it. Remember a single hard disk can
have multiple volumes and volumes can span many hard disks.
A basic partition in Windows XP will support volume sets and stripe sets if
they were already in place before you upgraded your computer from Windows
NT 4.0 Workstation to Windows XP. However, you cannot create any new stripe
sets or volume sets on basic disks after upgrading to XP.To create these special
disk sets, you must convert your hard disk from basic to dynamic. On dynamic
volumes, the disk configurations are named differently than in NT (as shown in
the following list).
A dynamic volume can be one of five types:
■
Simple They are not fault tolerant, but can be extended as needed.
■
Spanned They can be extended to a max of 32 disks.They are used to
allow multiple drives to have the appearance of being one large drive,
but they do not provide fault tolerance.
■
Mirrored They can be created only on Windows 2000 servers or later.
Requires at least two dynamic disks. Mirrors provide fault tolerance by
keeping a duplicate copy of everything on a second drive.The same
drive letter is used for both drives in the mirror.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
169
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 170
www.IrPDF.com
170
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
■
Striped Requires at least two dynamic disks.They can use up to 32
disks and are not fault tolerant.They provide an increase in drive performance because multiple (up to 32) drive heads are reading and writing
at the same time.
■
RAID 5 RAID 5 volumes are fault tolerant, and they function by
having data striped across three or more hard disks. Parity enables you to
recreate the data when a failure occurs. In RAID level 5, both parity and
data are striped across a set of disks.The downside to this is that write
performance of RAID 5 is not very fast.
Windows XP supports only simple, spanned, and striped volumes.Windows XP
does not support fault tolerant disk sets, such as mirrored or RAID 5 volumes.
Only the Windows Server operating systems support fault tolerant disk sets.
Using spanned volumes gives you flexibility with your drive configuration.
For example, let’s say that you have four 3GB hard drives. One is used as the boot
and system partition for XP.The other three are used for storage. Instead of
having three separate 3GB volumes (each with their own drive letter), you could
combine all of the disks into one larger 9GB volume. Now you don’t have to
remember which drive contains the data you need. All data appears to be stored
in the same place.
Striped volumes provide the same flexibility as spanned volumes, but they
also increase your hard disk performance. Just like with the spanned volume, you
would have three separate 3GB drives functioning as one larger 9GB volume.
The difference is in the way that the information is stored on the disk. Even
though spanned volumes appear as one volume, the data is still written to one
drive at a time.When one drive becomes full, the information is written to the
next drive in the set.With striped volumes, all of the drives read and write at the
same time. Having more drive heads working for you at the same time provides
faster access time and better overall performances.
Here are a few important facts to be remember about dynamic disks:
■
You can only create dynamic volumes on dynamic disks.
■
Only computers running Windows 2000 or later are able to access
dynamic volumes.
■
Dynamic volumes are not supported with removable storage or portable
storage.
■
If a computer will be dual-booted between Windows 2000 and
Windows XP, do not use dynamic disk.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 171
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
We now go over the steps necessary to make a dynamic disk and to create a
volume.You already made a basic disk in the last section when you installed the
new drive and configured it to use FAT32.To convert that drive to a dynamic
disk, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the drive (not the volume or partition) and select Convert
to dynamic disk…. Once this is selected, you will be asked what disks
you want to participate. Choose Disk 1.
2. You will be shown a list of what is about to be made dynamic, click
Convert button.
3. You will be warned that the volumes on this particular disk will become
inoperable for other systems to be able to boot from. Click Yes and also
agree to dismount any file systems.You will (after a few seconds) see the
word “Basic” turn into “Dynamic.”
Configuring & Implementing…
Dynamic Disks
Each dynamic disk made maintains a 1MB database. This database contains information about the volumes on that disk and all other dynamic
disks on that system. The database is duplicated on every disk so that in
the event of a database crash, you stand a better chance of not losing
the data. When converting a basic disk to dynamic, you must have at
least 1MB of unpartitioned space in order to create the 1MB database.
Working with Removable Storage
Removable Storage is a service used for managing removable media (such as
tapes and discs) and storage devices (libraries). Removable Storage allows applications to access and share the same media resources.The Removable Storage icon
is located in Computer Management under the Storage section.This tool helps
you label, catalog, and track your removable media. Removable Storage works
together with your backup system to make it possible to use removable media
with NTBackup.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
171
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 172
www.IrPDF.com
172
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Removable storage uses media pools to organize all the media in your libraries
into separate sections.You must enable the device and right-click it to create the
actual media pool. Removable Storage is mainly utilized when you have highend backup equipment. For more information on the creating and managing of
media pools you can use the Windows XP Professional Help system.To access
Help, go to Start | Help and Support and use the search engine to look for
“media pools” or “removable storage.”
Creating a Media Pool
Both a Zip drive and your CD-ROM can function as removable media. In the
following steps, we are using both. Follow these steps to create a media pool:
1. Open Computer Management (Start | Control Panel and open
Administrative Tools and then Computer Management).
2. Expand Storage.
3. Expand Removable Storage. (Make sure your CD-ROM and Zip
drive are installed and configured properly.)
4. Click the Media icon.You will see your CD-ROM and Zip drive
mounted in the right-hand side of the MMC.
5. Expand the Libraries folder.You will see your storage as shown in
Figure 4.21.
Figure 4.21 Removable Storage Contents within the Management
Console (Simple View)
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 173
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
6. Right-click on Removable Storage and choose View | Full.
7. The Media Pools icon will appear in the Console. Expand Media Pools.
8. Right-click Media Pools and select Create Media Pool.
9. Name the media pool New Pool.You will see it created in the
contents pane.
10. Right-click New Pool and select Create another media pool.
11. Call this new pool ZIP. In the media information box, click Contains
media type and scroll through the drop-down box until you can find
Iomega Zip. Select it and click OK.
12. Do the same from the CD-ROM (name it CD ROM and select CD
ROM from the drop-down box). A new media pool has been created.
Managing Devices
The Device Manager is a graphical utility that you can use to do many tasks on
your machine. In this section, we cover these tasks in detail and go over the
importance of each one.You have to know how to work with Device Manager
in order to successfully troubleshoot Windows XP.
From Windows 95 up (except for Windows NT 4.0, which doesn’t have
Device Manager), you can find Device Manager in the Control Panel’s System
applet amongst the various tabs. XP has the Device Manager accessible in two
locations.You can find it either in Computer Management, or in the Control
Panel by clicking System, clicking the Hardware tab, and clicking Device
Manager. Figure 4.22 shows Device Manager.
Once you get to the Device Manager, simply click it to produce the Utility
contents in the Contents pane of the MMC.You will find all the hardware currently installed on your machine.This is a handy utility because you can do the
following things:
■
Troubleshoot hardware by using the error signs (red X, yellow exclamation point, and question marks)
■
Enable, disable, or remove hardware
■
Change and update current drivers
■
Scan for hardware changes
■
Find driver details and resource usage, and modify advanced hardware
settings
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
173
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:47 PM
Page 174
www.IrPDF.com
174
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Figure 4.22 The Device Manager Utility in Computer Management
In order to troubleshoot device drivers, you need to be logged on as an
Administrator.To troubleshoot hardware with error signs (red X, yellow exclamation point, and question marks) all you need to do is open Device Manager, and
it will display the troubled devices. Figure 4.23 shows Device Manager indicating
a disabled network card.
Figure 4.23 The Device Manager Utility with a Disabled NIC
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 175
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
You can see that the Linksys NIC card has been disabled because of the red
X over the NIC icon.This is the sign for a disabled hardware.You can go into
the properties of the device by right-clicking the device and selecting
Properties from the pop-up menu. From the hardware device properties dialog
box, you can see that the device is disabled.
A question mark usually signals that a device is unknown and you need to
install the correct drivers. Generally, this happens when an unknown device was
picked up by Plug and Play but was never configured. A yellow exclamation point
means that an attempt may have been made to configure the device, but a critical
error occurred, or the wrong drivers were used, as shown in Figure 4.24. Most of
the time it is a driver issue, but always dig deeper into your troubleshooting steps
to isolate what it could be.There have been occasions where a boot sector virus
produced yellow exclamation points on hard disks in Device Manager.
Figure 4.24 Device Manager Showing a Problem with a Hardware Device
Enabling, Disabling, or Removing Hardware and
Changing and Updating the Current Drivers
You can disable devices to help you troubleshoot.What if you needed to resolve a
hardware resource conflict issue? Isolating the problem by disabling one of the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
175
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 176
www.IrPDF.com
176
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
devices is almost guaranteed to assist you in understanding the problem. Maybe
you want to force a rescan of the system to reinstall a piece of hardware. If you
want to force detection using Plug and Play, you can refresh the Device Manager
and it will scan the machine looking for new hardware.When the hardware is
found, you will be prompted to install it. Other options within a device’s (a hard
disk, in this example) properties sheet are shown in Figure 4.25. From here, you
can change specific things based on the hardware that you choose.
Figure 4.25 Hardware Device Properties
You can find IRQ (Interrupt Request) values and more within the View menu
of Device Manager. Select View | View Resources by Connection.This is how
you can isolate a piece of hardware to be disabled in order to find a resource conflict.This rarely happens these days, unless you are using older devices.
NOTE
Device Manager by default does not show you all of the details on currently installed hardware. Choose View | Show Hidden Devices to see
everything.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 177
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Using the Event Viewer
If you have a problem with a machine, the first place you should look is the
Event Viewer. It is the easiest and most informative tool (sometimes).When
troubleshooting a problem, chances are good that the Event Viewer has logged
the problem. In addition to helping you solve problems, the Event Viewer can
help you audit events.The basic idea here that the Event Viewer is used to view
events that happen on your system.
Event Logs
What exactly is a log anyway? A log is a file that contains information.This information is often used to audit what events are taking place or to troubleshoot a
failed event.There are all types of logs, such as installation error logs (which help
you troubleshoot a failed installation), RSVP logs (used to troubleshoot Windows
XP’s Quality of Service), and backup logs (which indicate which files have been
successfully backed up). In this section, we focus on the logs found within the
Event Viewer. If you have a system event, like a service not starting or a device
driver failure, the event log will pick up on it, timestamp it, and log it. Event
Viewer displays detailed information about specific system events that includes
date, time, the ID of the Event, and the user who was logged on when the event
took place.
Navigating to the Event Viewer
To open Event Viewer, go to Start | Control Panel and open Administrative
Tools and then Computer Management. Scroll down to Event Viewer under
System Tools, as shown in Figure 4.26.You will see three logs here by default—
Application, Security, and System.
NOTE
Sometimes you may want to check out the Event Viewer of a remote
machine. With the appropriate permissions, you may do so in Computer
Management. To do this, open Computer Management and right-click
Computer Management (Local) and select Connect to another computer. Type in the name of the remote computer and click OK.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
177
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 178
www.IrPDF.com
178
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Figure 4.26 The Event Viewer Utility within Computer Management
Application Log
The first log is the Application log.You can use the Application log for viewing
event with applications that are installed on your machine.The Applications log
contains events that occur from both applications and programs, and it will report
problems with either of them.When you turn on Security auditing, it puts a
notice in the Application log.
System Log
The System log is where you would want to go to find system-related or systemgenerated events.This could be an issue with a logon problem, an issue with certain system services not starting (such as netlogon), or maybe when and what
service pack or hot fix was installed on the machine. Remember that the System
log will log system component events.
Security Log
The Security log is disabled by default.You must enable auditing in the Local
Security Policy applet in the Administrative Tools folder. Once you enable
auditing (it will indicate in the application log that you turned it on), you will
have logs of successes or failures of audited objects.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 179
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
To enable auditing, go to the Local Security Policy MMC in the Administrative
Tools folder. Select Audit Policy under the Local Policies folder. In the contents
pane of the MMC, you will find the following choices:
■
Audit account logon events
■
Audit account management
■
Audit directory service access
■
Audit logon events
■
Audit object access
■
Audit policy change
■
Audit privilege use
■
Audit process tracking
■
Audit system events
Double-click the event that you wish to audit and select Success, Failure, or
both. Click OK. Now XP will audit the selected events.
NOTE
You will see other logs besides these three on domain controllers. You
will see Directory Service logs, FRS logs, and possibly DNS logs. You can
customize logs towards specific things, which makes troubleshooting
much easier. You will not see these extra logs on Windows XP
Professional, just be aware that they are out there.
How to Work with and Troubleshoot the Logs
Knowing how to manage the logs is important. Managing includes configuring,
adjusting, saving, and securing the logs.You need to know how to customize
them so that you can filter only information you want to see. In order to understand filtering, you need to first address the different possible types of events:
■
Error A significant problem likely to cause a loss of functionality.
■
Warning Not very significant, but may eventually lead to a problem.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
179
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 180
www.IrPDF.com
180
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
■
Information This points out the successful operation of an event, such
as a service starting.
■
Success Audit If security auditing is turned on, it will point out the
success of that audit.
■
Failure Audit If security auditing is turned on, it will point out the
failure of that audit.
Now that you know about the types of events, you are able to filter these
events in a specific log. As an example, you may want to filter information events
because you want to see only successful operations. Use these steps to set up a log
to filter the information-based events:
1. Open Computer Management.
2. Right-click the Application log and select Properties.
3. Click the Filter tab.
4. When something is checked, that means it is logged, so uncheck
everything except the Information check box.
5. Click OK.When you look through your log, you should see only
information events.
Adjusting the Size of and Saving Event Logs
Let’s go back into the properties of the Application log. Right-click it and go to
Properties. On the General tab, you will find settings for your Application log.
You can change the display name of your log, and you can see where this log is
actually stored on your hard disk. At the end of this path, you see an EVT file.
This is a binary file you can open only with the Event Viewer.This adds to the
security of your EVT files by preventing potential hackers from maliciously
changing events that occur in the log to cover their tracks.You may have limited
disk space and want the log file to stay at a specific file size. By default, the size of
each log is 512KB, as shown in Figure 4.27.To adjust the log file size, type in the
required size in 64K increments.The best way to do it is to use the arrows to
make the adjustment.You can also state when items should be deleted either by
meeting certain criteria (such as a specific amount of days) or as they are needed.
Another reason why you may want to increase the log size is so that you don’t
lose information if it fills up too quickly.The Application log could grow to
enormous sizes quickly and could have a problem logging information.This
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 181
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
occurs when you do not have enough space reserved for the log file and the log
fills up faster than the viewer can overwrite the older events.The best way to
plan for this is to make log file sizes larger than the default.
Other information you can derive from the dialog box shown in Figure 4.27
is the file’s current size and the date it was created, accessed, and last modified;
you can also change it for a low-speed connection.You can also clear the log
from here with the Clear Log button.To restore the log to it default settings,
click Restore Defaults and click Yes when prompted to restore the defaults.
Figure 4.27 Application Log Properties Dialog Box
You may need to save the logs and refer to them periodically. For example,
you may want to save a log as to baseline the machine for current and future
problems.To save a log file, right-click the log and select Save. If you want to
open a saved log file, right-click the log and select Open Log.
NOTE
Although it is stored in binary format (by default) as an EVT file, you
could also archive a log in a CSV (Comma Delimited) file. When connecting to a remote computer, you must save the log file as a CSV file
(EVT will not be an option). Saving to a CSV file will allow you to open
the log in Excel. Be careful, because when you do so the log does not
retain its binary data.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
181
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 182
www.IrPDF.com
182
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Configuring & Implementing…
Event Viewer
Saving log files can be a chore. Finding specific ones can become a
nightmare. It is recommended that you create a schedule of saving files;
let’s say every Friday, with a day/month/year syntax. If today was Friday,
August 24, 2001—then you could save the file as 082401app.EVT. You
can specify what type of log is located in the file to make it even more
granular (such as <app> for Application log). By saving your log file in
this manner, you will have an easier time finding a specific log file when
you need it.
Understanding Performance Logs
You can monitor performance on an XP system with the Performance MMC
(Start | Programs |Administrative Tools | Performance).You can get to
the Performance Logs and Alerts icon from within Computer Management, as
shown in Figure 4.28, but you don’t get all of the functionality of the
Performance MMC. Performance monitoring—used to monitor and troubleshoot system components—is critical to system administration.
Monitoring and Logging
The goal with monitoring is to proactively look for problems versus reactively
fixing problems. In other words, if you see your CPU utilization spiking 10 hours
out of the day, you may need to upgrade the processor.This would be proactive.
You are taking action before a serious problem occurs. If you didn’t know your
CPU was behaving that way, you may continue to pile applications on your XP
system and wonder why it takes a long time to do things, maybe even eventually
overloading the processor. Now you are in reactive mode.You are fixing a
problem after it occurs, versus keeping the problem from appearing in the first
place.
Performance Tuning and Troubleshooting
So now you know you have a CPU that may not be holding its weight; you can
use the logs to fine-tune or further troubleshoot the problem.You may be able to
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 183
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
fine-tune the problem by making optimization settings changes to application
and background services (Control Panel | System, click the Advanced tab,
and click Performance Settings).The Performance logs will give you proof
that your changes are helping the problem.
Baselining
You need to baseline your system.You knew that the CPU was the problem
solely because you monitored the logs over a period of time.You did not just open
the log and say, “look! The CPU is spiked at 100 percent, quick change it!” CPU
spiking is normal.You must monitor your computer over a predetermined period
of time to determine if it is continuously spiking up to 100 percent. In other
words, how can you know if something is performing out of the ordinary if you
don’t know how it ordinarily performs? You must baseline your system during
normal activity in order to have something to compare your logs to.
The Performance Logs and Alerts Console
Let’s open Performance Logs and Alerts, as shown in Figure 4.28. Open
Computer Management (Start | Control Panel, open Administrative Tools
and then Computer Management). Once there, expand System Tools and
expand Performance Logs and Alerts.This will show Counter Logs,Trace
Logs, and Alerts.
Figure 4.28 Computer Management MMC Console
Performance monitoring can provide you with the following:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
183
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 184
www.IrPDF.com
184
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
■
Detailed data about the system resources that are being used by XP
■
Graphs that provide a display for this data
■
Logs that provide a way to record data
■
Alerts that will provide messages when certain thresholds are crossed
Creating a New Counter Log
Remember, the key to good network and systems management is to proactively
manage your system.You don’t want to react to problems all the time.Try to
catch the problems through analysis before they occur.This tool can help you to
do that. Let’s walk through setting it up:
1. Open the Performance Console within the Administrative Tools
folder.
2. Scroll down to the Performance Logs and Alerts icon and expand it.
3. You will see the Counter Logs,Trace Logs, and Alerts Icons (see
Figure 4.28).
4. Right-click the Counter Logs icon and select New log settings.
5. Give the log a name. For this exercise call it CPULOG.
6. You will now be presented with the settings dialog box for the new log,
as shown in Figure 4.29.
Figure 4.29 Log File Settings and Properties
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 185
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
7. You must first add a counter to be logged. Click Add Counters.
8. This will open a new dialog box; select the default, which is to monitor
Total Processor Time Percentage.
9. Within this dialog box, you can select from multiple counters and
objects. Once you click OK, the selected counters will be shown under
the Counters section of the CPULOG properties dialog box.
10. You could change the frequency of this interval to seconds, minutes,
hours, or days.You could also set a RUNAS-based password.This allows
the alert to run with administrative privileges.
11. Click the Logs tab and select the type of log files you would like to
create (SQL, CSV, and so on).
12. Click the Schedule tab.This is where you can adjust when the log
should start and stop as well as configuring an action script for when a
log file closes.
NOTE
The PerfLogs folder may need to be created when you click OK. If XP asks
you, select the defaults to create the PerfLogs folder.
You just set up a Performance counter log to monitor the CPU.This is only
the start.You could set up Counter logs for any of the objects you saw in the settings for the new log. Setting up these logs can really help with troubleshooting.
The default log interval is 15 seconds.You may want to adjust that to better fit
your situation.
One way to troubleshoot your system is to use relogging. Remember that a
good baseline is the key to successful troubleshooting. Relogging is logging multiple counters and, after further analysis, logging (for the second time) areas of
interest to a new log file.You need to baseline performance over time so that you
can get an “honest” idea of network activity. If everyday at 9:00 A.M. the server is
getting flooded with logon requests, watching this for a month will show this to
be normal activity. If you did performance checks only at 3:00 P.M. every other
Tuesday, you would never know about this peak of activity first thing on the
morning.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
185
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 186
www.IrPDF.com
186
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Creating a New Trace Log
Trace logs are used as a place to record when specific activities occur.You may be
asking yourself what the difference is between this log and the Counter log.
Counter logs take periodic samples of data after a specific update interval has
occurred.Trace logs measure data continuously. Use these steps to setup a Trace log:
1. Open the Performance Management console.
2. Move down to where you see Performance Logs and Alerts and
expand it.
3. Right-click the Trace Logs icon and select New Log Settings.
4. Name your log NewTrace. Click OK.You will see a window similar to
the Counter Logs dialog box.
5. You need to set a provider (nonsystem providers are used by default to
keep overhead to a minimum). In the Nonsystem Providers field, “add”
and pick the LSA, or Local Security Authority.
6. Go ahead and click OK.You have now created a New Trace log. Click
the Trace Logs icon in the left navigation pane of the performance
MMC and you will find your new Trace log up and running.
NOTE
The logs may be different colors: Red means it is stopped, green means
it is running.
One of the new Windows XP features is the command line tracerpt.You
can view the tool by typing tracerpt at the command prompt (Start | Run,
then type CMD and press Enter). The tracerpt utility will process binary
event trace session log files (or real-time streaming) from the trace providers to
create a CSV file (or report) to describe these events.Type tracerpt /? at the
command prompt to get the full syntax for this tool. If you want to work with
Excel to export the reports, the Performance Logs and Alerts service must be
stopped. Open Start | Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services
and scroll down to the Performance Logs and Alerts service. Right-click it
and choose Stop from the pop-up menu. Make sure you turn it back on when
you are done if you want it to continue logging.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 187
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Alerts
An alert is created so that you can monitor a threshold that you configure on the
XP Professional machine. An alert is simply a feature that can detect when you
have a rise or fall in a counter that you predefine.The alert is delivered to you via
the Windows XP Professional messenger service.
Creating an Alert
These steps walk you through creating an alert:
1. Open the Performance Management Console and scroll down to
Performance Logs and Alerts.
2. Right-click the Alerts icon and select New Alert Settings.
3. Name your alert CPUoverLimit as a test name.
4. Click Add below the counters field.
5. Select the default of % processor time and click Add below the
counters field. Click Close.
6. Choose Over from the drop-down box next to Alert when the
value is.
7. Make the limit 90.
8. Make the Interval every 10 minutes.
9. Click OK.You will find a new icon in the Contents pane of the MMC.
Now you have created a new alert for your system, and you will be alerted
when utilization exceeds your alert threshold, as shown in Figure 4.30. After creating your new alert, you need to define the actions for the alert.To do this,
follow these steps:
1. Open the Performance MMC.
2. Click the Performance Logs and Alerts icon and expand down to
the Alerts icon.
3. Right-click the alert you made (CPUoverLimit) and select Properties.
4. Click the Action tab.
5. By default, you will see that the alert is logged to the Application Event
log.You can leave this, but you must periodically check the log to see if
the threshold was exceeded.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
187
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 188
www.IrPDF.com
188
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
6. You can send an alert to the Administrator by selecting Send a network message to and typing administrator as the username (this
works with any username, not just Administrator).
7. You can also select Start performance data log.When you pull down
the drop-down menu, you will find the CPULOG you made earlier. Go
ahead and pick that one.
8. You could also run a particular program if you desire.The program
would most likely be a batch file or script.
Figure 4.30 Event Properties Showing Alert Threshold Exceeded
Configuring & Implementing…
Event Viewer and Alert Notification Warning
One thing we stumbled across while testing this product was that in the
Alerts Notification field, you can type in the name of a user to be alerted
and not have it resolve back to the machine. Always watch your spelling
and make sure that you have a valid account. Check the Application log
when applying a new user to be alerted.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 189
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Summary
You should now have a solid understanding of why and how to utilize management.You have been exposed to monitoring your systems performance and proactively managing it, using tools to help you troubleshoot XP, configuring hard
disks, file systems, and logs. More important than how to do these things is why to
do them. Remember that you want to solve problems before they happen, and not
after—hopefully to make it so the problems don’t occur in the first place.
You have seen how to create local users and groups.This is imperative in
managing who has access to your XP professional machine.You now know how
to set environment variables and passwords for your users.You learned how to
make and share folders, including how to work with the default hidden shares
and creating new hidden shares.You can manage open sessions to your shares and
see who is using what resources.We covered how to manage storage in XP,
including how to prepare a new hard disk for use.
We went over how to troubleshoot and manage the hardware in your
machine through Device Manager,We covered the Event Viewer in great detail,
including how to manage, filter, and save logs.You also learned the basics of how
to set up manage auditing through the Security log in Event Viewer. Lastly, we
covered how to set up logging with Performance logs.
Hopefully after working through this chapter, you have a greater understanding of managing resource in Windows XP (especially as it relates to troubleshooting). Microsoft provides you with many tools to assist in maintaining
your computers. By utilizing the tools discussed in this chapter, you are on your
way to a fine-tuned, great performing XP machine.
Solutions Fast Track
Creating Users and Groups
; When you log onto your local machine you need a valid user account.
The local user account is stored on the machine that you are locally
logging into. If you log into a domain controller , you will be using
what it called a domain account. Domain accounts are stored on the
domain controllers.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 190
www.IrPDF.com
190
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
; Password and environment management is very important.You must
know how create a user, change the password, and perhaps add a login
script to the user’s profile properties.
; You add users to groups to better manage access to resources. Instead of
adding 40 users’ accounts to a resource, it is much better to make a
group, give the group permissions to the resource, and add and remove
users from the group.
Sharing Folders
; Right-clicking a folder and selecting sharing is how you give someone
access to a folder over the network.
; Make sure you give the correct access permissions to the share; this way
only the intended users can access it.
; All hard disks and the %systemroot% folder (the folder where XP was
installed) are “shared” by default.The hard disks are shared as driveletter$
(that is, C$, D$, E$, and so on).The %systemroot% folder is shared as
admin$. Anything with a dollar sign ($) after it is a hidden share.
Managing Storage
; Storage management is the process of managing the disk space you have
on your machine.Your goal is to effectively store information and make
it fault tolerant if needed.You can do this by making a dynamic disk so
you can work with the dynamic volumes.
; The opposite of dynamic disks are basic disks, which are the default.
Basic disks employ partitions, whereas dynamic disk employ volumes.
; FAT32 and NTFS are available file systems within Windows XP. FAT32
is used to create partitions up to 32GB in size and used to keep cluster
size small to optimize disk space. NTFS is used to provide file-level
security and extensive disk fault tolerance.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 191
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Managing Devices
; Device Manager allows you to view the status of your currently installed
hardware. Device Manager will show you (among other things) if the
hardware is functioning correctly, what drivers are installed, and what
system resources are being utilized.
; You can view problems by looking at the hardware in Device Manger and
seeing if it has been flagged with a red X (disabled), a yellow exclamation
mark (possible driver problems), or a yellow question mark (which may
point out that the hardware is recognized but not installed correctly).
; You can disable and enable hardware by right-clicking the hardware and
selecting Enable or Disable.
Using the Event Viewer
; Event Viewer will give you information, warning, error, and audit successes
and failures information collected by the system.You can filter these to
narrow down entries in the log and make it easier to find what you need.
; You can save Event logs and put them into a Report log for future
review—or you can save them in binary format to view them through
Event Viewer at a later time.
; You must configure Security logging in the Local Security Policy
console before you can view auditing failures and successes.
Understanding Performance Logs
; Use Performance logging to help you run XP efficiently and manage
how XP is performing. Use the logs to help you create baselines and
perform performance tuning.
; Logs are configured in the Performance MMC or in Computer
Management.
; Alerts are not really logs, but events that you configure.These events are
entered into the Application Log of the Event Viewer by default.This
allows you to see if predefined threshold have been crossed for critical
system processes.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
191
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 192
www.IrPDF.com
192
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: I pressed Ctrl+Alt+Delete and I can’t log off.What happened to logging off
this way and how do I do it now?
A: This happens because you are not joined to a domain.When you press
Ctrl+Alt+Delete in workgroup mode, you are greeted directly with Task
Manager.You can log off in XP several ways:
■
Within Task Manager, choose Shut Down | Log Off.
■
Go to the Users tab of Task Manager, select the particular user to log off,
and click Logoff.
■
Choose Start | Log off.
■
Use the User Accounts applet in Control Panel to bring back the
Ctrl+Alt+Delete logon window. However, this will disable Fast User
Switching.Within the User Accounts applet choose Change the way
users log on or off.Then uncheck Use the Welcome screen.
Q: I boot up the machine and I see a different login screen than I am accustomed to.There are icons to click with user names already supplied. It does
not look like the standard login dialog box that I would see with Windows
2000 Professional. How do I log in?
A: This only appears when you are in workgroup mode. If you join your PC to
a domain, it will look the same as a Windows 2000 logon.When you boot
your PC, you will see a Welcome screen that directs you to click the local
user account you want to login with. Click the user’s account name or picture and XP will prompt you for a password. Put in the password and click
the green arrow or press Enter.You are now logged in to the desktop of
Windows XP Professional. Note: Pressing Ctrl+Alt+Delete twice at the
Welcome menu will give you the “Windows 2000–style” logon box.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 193
www.IrPDF.com
Managing Windows XP Professional • Chapter 4
Q: How do I find My Computer? I am accustomed to right-clicking it for a
quick set of options and now I cannot.Where is it now and what do I do to
put it back on the desktop?
A: You can accomplish the same thing by right-clicking the My Computer icon
on your Start menu. If you prefer to have it appear on your desktop as well,
right-click the desktop and choose Properties. Click the Desktop tab. Click
Customize Desktop and check the box next to My Computer (on the
General tab).This will put the My Computer icon back on your desktop.
Q: Which is better, log on as an Administrator or run certain functions as an
Administrator with the RUNAS command?
A: Best practices defines using the RUNAS command as an Administrator. It is
risky to use a computer while logged on as an Administrator. If your computer happens to become infected with a virus or a Trojan while you are
logged on as an Administrator, the payload of the virus or Trojan will execute
in the security context of the administrative account.When using RUNAS,
you can pick specific functions and run them as an Administrator without
logging into the machine with Administrator rights.This is a much safer and
faster way to perform administrative tasks.
Q: In regard to Disk Defragmenter, should I analyze a volume first or just defrag
it? In addition, what is a good schedule for monitoring my volumes?
A: You should always analyze a volume before defragging it.The analyzer will
tell you if you should run the defrag tool or not.Try to analyze weekly if you
do heavy deletions or file movements. If you do not have much usage on the
volume, checking it once a month is safe.
Q: I want to manage NTFS permissions more precisely, but the Security tab on
the properties of the file folder is not present. I know that the drive is formatted with NTFS.Where do I set NTFS permissions?
A: Go to Start | Control Panel and choose Tool Menu | Folder Options.
Click View and scroll all the way to the bottom of the menu. Look at the
very last option, which is to Use Simple File Sharing and make sure it is
not selected. If it is, you will not be able to see the Security tab when modifying a folder’s properties.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
193
189_XP_04.qxd
11/9/01
2:48 PM
Page 194
www.IrPDF.com
194
Chapter 4 • Managing Windows XP Professional
Q: I read somewhere disabling the Guest account is a good idea. However, if I
disable the Guest account, I find that no one in my household can connect to
shared resources on the Windows XP Professional computer, which is running in Workgroup mode.
A: When you initially set up your Windows XP computer to share resources
using the Network Setup Wizard, it allows remote users to connect in the
context of the Guest account. As such, if you disable the Guest account, no
one will be able to connect remotely to shared resources. If you wish to leave
the Guest account disabled, you can change the security settings for Network
Access: Sharing And Security Model For Local Accounts to Classic—local
users authenticate as themselves.You can find this setting in the Local
Security Policy application under Security Options. However, if you take this
approach, keep in mind that remote users trying to connect to the shared
resources on the Windows XP computer will have to be logged on to their
local machines with credentials that are the same as those defined in the local
accounts database of the Windows XP computer.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 195
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 5
Working with
System Tools
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Defragmenting Your Hard Disk
■
Cleaning Up Files
■
Transferring Files and Settings between
Computers
■
Scheduling Tasks
■
Backing Up Your Files
■
Restoring Your System
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
195
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 196
www.IrPDF.com
196
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Introduction
By now, you might have noticed that Windows XP Professional is not just a
simple update of Windows 98/Me, or of Windows 2000 Professional for that
matter. Perhaps it would be best to call it a successful merging of the reliable
Windows 2000 kernel and file system with the multimedia features of Windows
Me, all wrapped in a slick new GUI. However, as with any complex operating
system, using Windows XP will, over time, wear down the system in terms of
reliability and performance.
The only way of keeping your system in tip-top condition is to actively maintain it, even though XP will try to do so on its own the best it can. A number of
you would probably rather not have to bother with system maintenance and
would prefer to have the system take care of itself. Left to itself, the system will
most likely make less than ideal decisions, unaware of how you want to use the
system and what you expect of it.Taking care of system maintenance yourself will
result not only in better overall performance, but also give you a more thorough
understanding of how XP operates and how to get the most out of it.
Windows XP does not leave you out in the cold in dealing with the nittygritty maintenance chores. It comes with a limited, but very useful set of System
Tools that can do a good job in assisting you in the maintenance. In this chapter,
we discuss a number of System Tools focusing on their functionalities and how
you can use them. If you are already familiar with Windows 2000 Professional,
you will probably recognize most of them. However, you will find that some of
the familiar tools now have additional or different functionalities. In case you are
not that familiar with Windows 2000, you will be happily surprised with what
you can do with these System Tools.
Defragmenting Your Hard Disk
The first system tool we examine is the Disk Defragmenter, which you can
run by selecting Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools (see
Figure 5.1).The purpose of this tool is to reorganize the occupied space of a disk
volume within Windows XP, so that each file is written to a contiguous part of
the volume.
You should understand that Windows will writes files to a disk block-byblock, based upon a list of free data blocks. Although Windows tries to find the
largest free contiguous space on the volume, a large file can still be divided over
more than one free volume area; this occurs when the free areas are all smaller
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 197
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
than the file size. In extreme cases, each block of a file can be located on different
part of the volume. For example, if you have a large file that needs to be divided
over three free areas, the first block could be located at the beginning of the hard
disk, the second block could be located somewhere at the end, and the third block
could be located in the middle. Every time you open this file, the head of the disk
must move first to the beginning, then to the end, and subsequently to the middle
of the volume to retrieve the file. It goes without saying that each time the head
needs to move to different portions of the volume is lost time.Therefore, to speed
up the retrieval of files, you should occasionally defragment your files.This is not
only true for data blocks of files, but also for files on the volume. Even if files are
defragmented, but the files are scattered all over the disk, reading subsequent files
can also mean that the head of the disk needs to “move around” a lot.The biggest
problem is that fragmentation triggers fragmentation.The best way to see this is to
start with the image of a disk that has just one big contiguous part of free disk
space. Adding, extending, and removing files, not only introduces fragmentation of
files, but it also slices up the free space in smaller pieces, leaving Windows eventually only the possibility to write files to storage in fragments.This slicing up of free
space is called free space fragmentation. NTFS, thus Windows, will never be able to
recover from this situation, letting the situation of fragmentation get totally out of
control.The defragmenting tool can also take care of moving files closer together,
although this is not a priority aspect.
Figure 5.1 The Systems Tools Menu
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
197
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 198
www.IrPDF.com
198
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Disk Defragmenter (see Figure 5.2) targets two type of fragmentation: file
fragmentation, where file are stored in noncontiguous storage areas, and free
space fragmentation, where the total free space on the storage does not occupy
one contiguous storage area.
Figure 5.2 The Disk Defragmenter Tools upon Starting
How Disk Defragmenter Works
The main goal of the Disk Defragmenter is to place every file in one contiguous
space, so when you access a file, it can be read in one stream.The tool will analyze the volume to determine to what extent the files on it are defragmented. For
FAT/FAT32 volumes, it checks the File Allocation Table (FAT); for NTFS volumes, it uses the Master File Table (MFT). Both table types record the data blocks
that are used by each file, so the defragmenter can easily determine which files
are using discontiguous volume space.
After the Disk Defragmenter has analyzed the volume, it can defragment it by
going through the list of fragmented files, and every file is moved to a place of
sufficient free storage to hold the complete file. If such a space is not available, it
will try to defragment the other fragmented files first, assuming it can open up
more contiguous space.The Disk Defragmenter will move a file to the free space
that is closest to the size of the file.This means that it will move a file even it is
surrounded with free space, as long as there is a better fitting piece of storage.
Remember that Disk Defragmenter has its limitations, especially because a running system will always be subject to storage changes.The best proof is running
two consecutive defragmentations, whereupon you will notice that it will make
changes to the volume.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 199
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
You also will notice that after a defragment operation there will still be
pockets of free disk space.This occurs because the Disk Defragmenter is neither a
disk reorganizer nor a compacter. In general, defragmenting will improve your
system performance, because the process will improve average file access speed.
The Disk Defragmenter will not always defragment all files, and you should
not be surprised that at the end of the defragmentation if it reports that it was
not able to defragment small files, even if enough free space is available to do so.
Before you start wondering about the usefulness of Disk Defragmenter, we
should look to the purpose and intent of this tool and the limitations that come
with it.
NOTE
NTFS is less prone to fragmentation then FAT or FAT32 because its file
allocation process tries to prevent fragmentation. It will eventually have
to turn to file fragmentation as the free space becomes more and more
fragmented. Once a volume runs out of space in the MFT, as more files
are added to the volume, it will need to extend the MFT, resulting in a
fragmented MFT. This makes it even harder to control fragmentation.
The Limitations of Disk Defragmenter
The best way to identify the usage of Disk Defragmenter is to quote Microsoft
from its Knowledgebase document “Running Windows 2000 Disk Defragmenter
Requires Administrator Privileges” (Article ID Q231176):
“Disk Defragmenter was designed primarily for stand-alone workstations or
servers whose users have the ability to log on locally with administrator privileges. Disk Defragmenter is not intended to be a tool for administrators to maintain networked workstations.”
Taking this into account, along with information from the documents
“Windows 2000 Disk Defragmenter Limitations” (Article ID Q227463) and
“Files Excluded by the Disk Defragmenter Tool” (Article ID Q227350) we come
up with the following limitations of Disk Defragmenter:
■
It can only be used by users with administrator rights.
■
It can only be started from the console.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
199
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 200
www.IrPDF.com
200
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
It can only defragment local volumes, thus not networked volumes.
■
It can only defragment one volume at a time.
■
Only one copy of Disk Defragmenter can run at a time.
■
It can’t scan a volume while defragmenting another volume.
■
It can’t defragment the MFT and Paging file(s).
■
It can only run a complete defragment process if at least 30 percent of
disk space is free (this is a rule of thumb).
■
It can’t run in a Windows script, nor can it run as a scheduled task; you
need the command-line version of Disk Defragmenter, called defrag.
■
It can only run at normal priority and needs to compete with other
running applications.
NOTE
The 30 percent free space is a number supplied by Microsoft at
www.microsoft.com/technet/win2000/win2ksrv/technote/w2kexec.asp.
The online documentation of Disk Defragmenter on Windows XP states
that it uses 15 percent. The difference originates from the fact that the
former percentage takes the space that the MFT claims from the free
space, being about 12 percent, into account. This is true for a NTFS
volume, however if it is a FAT or FAT32 volume, the 15 percent free disk
space is true.
These limitations of Disk Defragmenter are not shortcomings, because the
tool has been specifically designed for standalone systems.The Disk Defragmenter
tool was developed for use on the Windows NT platform by Executive Software
(www.executivesoftware.com) under the supervision of Microsoft. In the agreement between both parties, Microsoft uses Executive Software’s knowledge on
disk defragmentation to have a bare-bones Disk Defragmenter as a standard
system tool. In a situation where you have to manage more than a few PCs, you
may feel that the limitations of Disk Defragmenter restrict you. Commercial disk
defragmentation tools are available that have fewer limitations. But remember, in
essence, they are not different from Disk Defragmenter.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 201
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Using Disk Defragmenter
As your volume gets defragmented, it will subsequently slow down your whole
system, especially because the disk is still a slow device compared to memory and
the CPU. Additionally, severe fragmentation increases the chances of system
errors. So when and how should you use Disk Defragmenter? The “when”
depends on how fast your volumes change, as a result of the following:
■
Installing software (including OS installation and upgrade)
■
Uninstalling software
■
Copying a large number of files to the volume
■
Deleting a large number of files from the volume, for example after a
cleanup (see the “Cleaning Up Files” section)
■
Using applications that make extensive use of temporary files
In general, it is good practice to run a defragment directly after you install or
uninstall software and to run a periodical defragment at least once a month.
Because the Disk Defragmenter has the ability to perform just a fragmentation
analysis, it is good practice to run such an analysis at least once a week. After the
analysis, the Disk Defragmenter will report whether you need to defragment. If it
reports that a defragment is in order, you should wait until you are not using
your computer to initiate it.The reason is clear: Both the defragmentation and
your other applications will operate much more slowly if they are running simultaneously. Now let’s take a look how you can use Disk Defragmenter.
After you start Disk Defragmenter (refer back to Figure 5.2), notice that the
fixed-storage volumes are displayed in the upper part of the window, and the
lower part provides a graphical representation of the “before” and “after” disk
usage for the selected volume. Below these two bars, the buttons Analyze and
Defragment are active, while the other three are inactive.The reason for this is
because the Disk Defragmenter by default selects the first volume, even if it is
not explicitly shown in the volume list. It is always good practice to do an analysis before you starts a defragment, because this enables you to inspect the results
of the analysis before actually performing the defragmentation.
So, let’s get started. Click the Analyze button.The analysis is visualized by
the filling in of the Estimated disk usage before defragmentation (see Figure 5.3).
At the end of the analysis, a dialog box will inform you whether you need to
perform a defragment. If the majority of the “before bar” is red, chances are that
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
201
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 202
www.IrPDF.com
202
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
the recommendation of the Analyze tool will most likely be that a defragmentation is necessary.
Figure 5.3 Analyzing the Level of volume Defragmentation
The dialog box that advises you on the necessity of defragmenting the disk
contains three buttons:
■
Close This will close this dialog box.
■
Defragment This will start the defragment, independent of the analysis
result.You can also perform a defragment from the main window.
■
View Report This button will bring up the Analysis Report dialog
box (see Figure 5.4).This option is now available from the main
window.
Figure 5.4 The Analysis Report Dialog Box Showing the
Fragmentation Vitals
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 203
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
The Analysis Report dialog box consists out of two list boxes.The upper one,
called volume Information, shows the following:
■
Volume fragmentation This information is what the defragmentation
uses to advise you on performing a defragmentation. Note that this box
also lists Free space fragmentation, which will always be zero percent.
Why? Because Disk Defragmenter does not check on free space fragmentation.The Disk Defragmenter will attempt to create as much contiguous free space as possible during file defragmentation, but the result
is not always predictable.
■
File fragmentation The most important value is Total Fragmented
Files.The average values are nice if you like statistics but are not overly
practical in meaning. Nevertheless, you can use the averages for determining the MFT Zone sizes (see the section “Controlling Fragmentation
of the Pagefile and MFT” for further information).
■
Pagefile fragmentation This is important information, because the
pagefile is heavily used if you have a number of applications open or
work with large applications on a regular basis. A fragmented pagefile
can severely impact total system performance. Unfortunately, the Disk
Defragmenter is not able to defragment pagefiles, although you can
work around this, as you will see further on in the chapter.
■
Folder fragmentation The importance of this value is to determine
how many of the Total folders are fragmented folders. Folders will be
defragmented during the defragment process.
■
MFT fragmentation Again important information, because the more
fragments that exist, the bigger the impact on performance, and the
faster the volume gets fragmented. Again, the Disk Defragmenter does
not defragment the MFT; however there is a way to reduce the chance
of the MFT getting fragmented.
The lower list box of the Analysis Report dialog box shows the Most fragmented files.You can take a look at it, but this is not really important information, because the only thing you can do is perform a defragment and hope they
disappear from the list. However, because this is not a perfect tool, it may be well
the case that even after performing a defragment, this list will not be completely
empty.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
203
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 204
www.IrPDF.com
204
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
You have the option to print or save the report. It is good practice, or at least
should be, to do at least one.This enables you to monitor the fragmentation
behavior over time.
Now we are going to perform a defragment, which you can do by clicking
Defragment on the Analysis Report dialog box or by clicking Defragment on
the main window. Either way, this action will start the defragmentation process by
performing an analysis, the same one we just discussed. It starts the defragment
immediately after the analysis.You can follow the defragmentation process by
observing the progress bar in the status line at the bottom of the Disk
Defragmenter main window. After a while, the Estimated disk usage after defragmentation will also start progressively showing the changes on the volume (see
Figure 5.5).
Figurer 5.5 Defragmenting a NTFS volume using Disk Defragmenter
As you defragment a NTFS volume, you will notice one or more green areas
labeled Unmovable files.These areas are the fragments where the MFT, MFT
Zone, and pagefile are located, which is why you do not see these green areas on
FAT/FAT32 formatted volumes.The MFT Zone is the space that is claimed for
the MFT to be able to grow (the 12 percent we mentioned earlier). Even though
this space is not available for other files, it is still added to the total amount of
free space.When the defragmentation is finished, a dialog box opens to inform
you that the defragmentation is complete. It will most likely state, “Some files on
this volume could not be defragmented.”To get a better look at this, click View
Report on this dialog box or from the main window.This Defragmentation
Report dialog box is very similar to the Analysis Report dialog box, with the difference being that the lower list box is labeled Files that did not defragment.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 205
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Hopefully this is a short list, but what you will notice is that there are also small
files that could not be defragmented.This is partially because these files were
open during the defragment, which should lead you to the conclusion you need
to close as many applications as possible before starting the defragmentation. If
you scroll through the volume information list box, you will notice under
volume Fragmentation that both Total fragmentation and File fragmentation are
zero percent, even if fragmented files still exist.
Instead of the Windows Disk Defragmenter, you can make use of the command-line version defrag with the following syntax:
Defrag <volume> [-a] [-f] [-v]
The parameters have the following meaning:
■
<volume> Give the name of the volume on which you want to perform a defragmentation, such as C:.
■
a Perform only an analyze. (Note:The square brackets mean that this is
an option.)
■
f Force a defragmentation even if less than the advised 30 (or 15)
percent volume storage is free.
■
v Verbose, which means that the analyze and/or defragment report is
printed.
You can use this program from the command prompt (Start | Accessories
| Command Prompt), and therefore defrag can be part of a command-line
script (DOS) that you can run as a scheduled task.This is not the best way to circumvent certain shortcomings of the windows Disk Defragmenter.You need to
have administrator rights to be able to successfully execute this command. Also,
you cannot run defrag and Disk Defragmenter at the same time, because they
are mutually exclusive.This has to do with the fact that the service provider
delivering the defragmentation service grants only exclusive access to one process. Here’s what the execution of the Defrag looks like:
C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>defrag c: -a -v
Windows Disk Defragmenter
Copyright (c) 2001 Microsoft Corp.
International, Inc.
and Executive Software
Analysis Report
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
205
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 206
www.IrPDF.com
206
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
volume size
= 2.98 GB
Cluster size
= 512 bytes
Used space
= 1.89 GB
Free space
= 1.09 GB
Percent free space
= 36 %
volume fragmentation
Total fragmentation
= 0 %
File fragmentation
= 1 %
Free space fragmentation
= 0 %
File fragmentation
Total files
= 16,491
Average file size
= 137 KB
Total fragmented files
= 183
Total excess fragments
= 941
Average fragments per file
= 1.05
Pagefile fragmentation
Pagefile size
= 192 MB
Total fragments
= 108
Folder fragmentation
Total folders
= 1,010
Fragmented folders
= 16
Excess folder fragments
= 103
Master File Table (MFT) fragmentation
Total MFT size
= 17 MB
MFT record count
= 17,756
Percent MFT in use
= 99
Total MFT fragments
= 3
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 207
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
The fragmentation of the MFT prevents further optimization. In a practical
sense, you may notice a slight performance improvement, but because the fragmentation of the pagefile and MFT is still untouched, you won’t achieve major
performance improvement.
Configuring & Implementing…
Before Running defrag or Disk Defragmenter
You should never forget that defragmentation is a radical operation on
your storage. If the volume contains errors or is any other way compromised, defragmentation can have dire consequences, as bad as
Windows being unable to complete the boot sequence successfully.
Before you start the defragmentation, it is good practice to obtain confirmation on the health of the volume/disk. You should run the command-line chkdsk utility—which has been in existence since DOS—to
get this confirmation. If you are familiar with chkdsk, you know that you
need to use the /F switch (parameter) to fix detected problems. However,
you will notice when doing so on a NTFS volume, you get the warning
message “Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another
process…” It then goes on to ask you “Would you like to schedule this
volume to be checked the next time the system restarts?” The process
chkdsk is referring to is the Mount Manager, which is the owner of the
disk handles. When you start up your system, sometime during the process the drives are mounted. The only moment you can perform a
chkdsk is before the mounting starts. You can use the /X switch of
chkdsk to dismount the volume, but this will not be accepted for the
system (boot) drive, and on other volumes this means that access to
open files (through file handles) will be severed. There is no reason to
use this switch, because you can do this check when you boot your
system, as chkdsk is asking to do. In fact, this happens by default
already.
During every boot of the system, the autochk command is started,
which will check a Registry HKEY to determine which volumes need to
be checked. This default value is autocheck autochk *, which means
that all volumes (NTFS and FAT/FAT32) are checked on the volume’s
“dirty bit” to decide if the chkdsk should be run against the volume. In
case errors are detected, chkdisk /F is run on it. The Hive key is:
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
207
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 208
www.IrPDF.com
208
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
My Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\
Control\Session Manager\BootExecute.
The dirty bit is set by the system if, during the access of the volume,
the file system returns an error. When the dirty bit is set, this a “hands
off” signal for tools like Disk Defragmenter. However, if you answer
“yes” when chkdsk asks you to schedule the volume check, it will not
set the dirty bit; instead, the HKEY is modified to explicitly force the
chkdsk to run on a volume. After you answer “yes” on scheduling on a
volume (for this example we will use the D drive), the HKEY value is:
autocheck autochk /p \??\D: autocheck autochk *. As you notice, it
shows two separate commands. The /p means that it will not use the
dirty bit to determine if the chkdsk must be run, but just goes ahead
and performs a chkdsk. After you reboot the system and the autochk is
executed, the key is reset to the default value.
It is important to know that you can control the content of the
BootExecute key. You can use the chkntfs utility to do so. Of course, you
can do this using RegEdt32.exe, however, we do not encourage you to
do so. Note: If you are familiar with editing directly in the Registry, you
may want to know that within Windows XP you can now also directly
edit the Multi-String values (type REG_MULTI_SZ) and do not have to
edit in binary/hexadecimal values.
As you run chkntfs /? from the command line, the following syntax
is shown:
Displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.
CHKNTFS volume [...]
CHKNTFS /D
CHKNTFS /T[:time]
CHKNTFS /X volume [...]
CHKNTFS /C volume [...]
volume
Specifies the drive letter (followed by a
colon), mount point, or volume name.
/D
Restores the machine to the default behavior;
all drives are checked at boot time and
chkdsk is run on those that are
dirty.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 209
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
/T:time
Changes the AUTOCHK initiation count down
time to the specified amount of time in
seconds.
If time is not specified,
displays the current setting.
/X
Excludes a drive from the default boot-time
check.
Excluded drives are not accumulated
between command invocations.
/C
Schedules a drive to be checked at boot
time; chkdsk will run if the drive is dirty.
If no switches are specified, CHKNTFS will display if the
specified drive is dirty or scheduled to be checked on next
reboot.
A few remarks on the syntax:
■
You can only use one switch (parameter) per command, but
you can list more than one volume per command.
■
The /T switch refers to the fact that you can prevent autochk
from being run. You can use this switch to set a countdown
time—the time you are given to intervene before autochk
starts. This switch controls the setting of the Hive Key:
My Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\
CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\AutoChkTimeOut.
■
The /X switch modifies the BootExecute key. For example /X
D: will add the string autocheck autochk /k:D.
■
The /C switch modifies the BootExecute key. For example /C
E: will add the string autocheck autochk /m \??\D:.
■
Only the last chkntfs on a volume is effective, the previous
one will be replaced.
The chkdsk run by autochk will also produce output; however, this
is not displayed on the console (monitor). Instead it is first saved in a
temporary log file and then written to the application event log. By
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
209
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 210
www.IrPDF.com
210
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
checking the Event Log, you can find out if chkdsk has run and what the
result was.
We mentioned the dirty bit and that the system will set it when the
file system returns an error on a volume. Within Windows XP there is a
command-line utility, called fsutil, that enables advanced users to control a number of file system settings; one is setting the dirty bit. To set
the dirty bit on volume D:, you should issue the following command:
fsutil dirty set D:.To check the setting of the dirty bit, use fsutil dirty
query D:.
Note that fsutil is not available for other operating systems (yet). To
be able to use these command-line utilities, you need to be at least
member of the Administrator group. You can find more information on
these commands in the following Microsoft’s KnowledgeBase articles:
■
Q191603: Modifying the Autochk.exe Time-out Value
■
Q160963: CHKNTFS.EXE: What You Can Use It For
Controlling Fragmentation
of the Pagefile and MFT
You can curb the fragmentation of a pagefile two ways: through tools such as
Diskeeper or by re-creating the pagefile. Let’s take a look at the latter. However,
you will only be able to re-create the pagefile if Windows XP has more than one
volume available. Because you need to remove the pagefile on your primary
volume, you need a second volume on which you can create a temporary paging
file.Therefore, you have to open the Virtual Memory dialog box (see Figure 5.6):
1. Right-click My Computer on the desktop.
2. Select the Advanced tab.
3. Click Settings in the Performance frame.
4. Select the Advanced tab.
5. Click Change in the Virtual Memory frame.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 211
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Figure 5.6 Setting the Paging File Size in the Virtual Memory Dialog box
The list box at the top of the dialog box shows the available volumes and the
pagefile that exists on that volume. In the case of Figure 5.6, only one volume
exists, preventing the capability to defragment the pagefile. If you have other volumes, you need to take the following steps to defragment your paging file:
1. Select the drive on which you want to make a temporary paging file.
Paging file and Pagefile, as it is called in Disk Defragmenter, refer to the
same thing.
2. Select Custom size in the Paging file size for selected drive frame and
enter an Initial size and Maximum size. For both use, the Recommended size as stated in the frame Total paging file size for all drives.
3. Click Set.This will create the paging file.
4. Select the volume with the primary paging file. In most cases, this is the
volume from which the system has booted. Change the Initial size and
Maximum size to zero (0).
5. Click Set and close all windows.
6. Reboot your system, which will release all paging space on the volume.
You can do this because there is another paging file available to the
system.
7. Start Disk Defragmenter and run Defragment on the volume where
you set the paging file to zero.This will reuse the space previously
claimed by the paging file as free space.
8. Open the Virtual Memory dialog box again and select the volume you
just defragmented.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
211
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 212
www.IrPDF.com
212
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
9. Change the Initial size and Maximum size to at least the recommended size. Be sure you have this size available as one piece of contiguous free space, or it is likely that it will be fragmented right from the
start. By choosing an initial size that is significant, you can postpone the
moment the paging file starts to fragment. Depending on the initial size,
you can set the maximum size. As you move the initial size up, you can
use the same maximum size. A large initial size is recommended to prevent fragmentation in the long haul, and because disks are so large
nowadays, you should be able to afford it.
10. Click Set.
11. Select the volume for which you previously created the temporary
paging file and set the Initial size and Maximum size to zero and
click Set.
12. Close all windows and reboot the system.
After the system is restarted again, you may decide to remove the temporary
paging file altogether by selecting the No paging file option for that volume in
the Virtual Memory dialog box.
Preventing the defragmentation of the MFT is trickier, because it is fully controlled by the Windows XP system.Without going into too much detail, it is
important to know that the size of the MFT and the MFT Zone are both based
on the size of the volume.The MFT size is calculated as the NTFS volume is
created, while the MFT Zone size, also based on the volume size, is calculated
during the mounting of the volume and reserved for the MFT growth. Note that
the system will always claim the same piece of storage on the volume for the
MFT Zone, because it happens as part of the mounting process and therefore is
the first process that has access to the volume. However, if during the uptime the
system runs out of MFT Zone space, it has to claim another piece of volume
storage to create a new MFT Zone, hence MFT fragmentation.The only way to
prevent this is claiming as much MFT Zone as possible.
You can control the size that is claimed for the MFT Zone through a
Registry setting, called NtfsMftZoneReservation.The value can range from 1 to
4, where 1 is the default value and will claim the minimum MFT Zone size, thus
equal to what Windows XP by default claims. Setting this HKEY value to 4
claims the maximum MFT Zone size. Microsoft does not document how these
values correspond to the actual volume space that is claimed, but suggests a value
of 2 or 3 if the MFT tends to fragment quickly under a default size MFT Zone.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 213
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
You have to add this HKEY to the Registry using RegEdt32.exe or by a REG
file that contains the following:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem]
"NtfsMftZoneReservation"=dword:00000003
If you would rather use RegEdt32.exe (see Figure 5.7) take the following steps:
1. Open RegEdt32.exe from Start | Run.
2. Got to the subkey My Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\
System\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem.
3. Select Edit | New | DWORD Value.
4. Rename the key to NtfsMftZoneReservation.
5. Double-click NtfsMftZoneReservation.
6. Change the Value Data to 3.
7. Click OK.
8. Close RegEdt32.exe.
9. Reboot the system.
Figure 5.7 Setting the NtfsMftZoneReservation HKEY Using RegEdt32.exe
If you do not want to poke around in the Registry, which can be dangerous,
you can use the fsutil tool (see sidebar “Before running defrag or Disk
Defragmenter”):
1. Select Start | Run.
2. Type cmd and click OK.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
213
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 214
www.IrPDF.com
214
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
3. Type fsutil behavior set mftzone 3.
4. Type exit.
5. Reboot the system.
It is hard to determine upfront if and when you are going to run out of
volume space. Because every file occupies an entry in the MFT, the more files
you add to the volume, the sooner you deplete the MFT and MFT Zone.
However there is a limiting factor, namely the volume size. After the volume is
filled up, it no longer matters how much space is left in the MFT Zone.
Therefore, the average file size and the remaining volume space can give you an
indication of how quickly the MFT and MFT Zone are filling up. If the average
file size decreases and the available volume space is decreasing, the MFT and
MFT Zone are filling up at a faster pace. However, if the average file size is
increasing while the available volume space is decreasing, then the MFT and
MFT Zone are filling up at a slower pace.
The best way to go about dealing with the MFT and paging file is to take
the following steps:
1. Install the minimal operating system from scratch. Do not perform an
update from a previous Windows version.
2. Create the volume(s) directly with the NTFS format and do not convert.
3. If you have more than one volume available, create the temporary
paging file on the nonbootable volume and set the paging file on the
bootable volume to zero.
4. Reboot the system.
5. Add the NtfsMftZoneReservation HKEY to the Registry with value 3.
6. Reboot the system.
7. Create the paging file on the bootable volume with an large initial size.
8. Reboot the system.
9. Run Disk Cleanup (see the next section).
10. Run Disk Defragmenter.
11. Install the rest of the software (operating system and applications).
12. Run Disk Defragmenter.
You can find more information on this subject from the following:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 215
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windows2000pro/reskit/
part6/proch30.asp
■
KnowledgeBase article “How NTFS Reserves Space for its Master File
Table (MFT) “(Article ID Q174619)
■
KnowledgeBase article “Files Excluded by the Disk Defragmenter Tool”
(Article ID Q227350)
■
KnowledgeBase article “Cannot Use Command-Line Switches with
Disk Defragmenter Tool” (Article ID Q223146)
Cleaning Up Files
While working on your system, you will create a slew of files you no longer
need, but which will contaminate your volumes.These files will not only occupy
valuable disk space, but they will also contribute to the fragmentation of the volumes and will slow down file lookups.Therefore, you should clean up these
unusable files before performing a defragmentation.
To clean up your files, you will use Disk Cleanup, which you can find in
Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools.You can also start Disk
Cleanup from Windows Explorer:
1. Right-click the volume you want to clean up and select Properties.
2. Click Disk Cleanup at the right of the Capacity pie (see Figure 5.8).
Figure 5.8 Accessing Disk Cleanup from the Disk Properties Dialog Box
A third way to start this tool is by running the program cleanmgr from
Start | Run.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
215
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 216
www.IrPDF.com
216
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Even though Disk Cleanup is a simple tool, it is invaluable. It will check all
the known places where these temporary and forgotten files hang out and determines how much volume space they take up. It will present you with a list with
categorized dispensable files.The best way to understand the workings of this
tool is to take a walk through the execution of Disk Cleanup:
1. Start the Disk Cleanup by choosing Start | All Programs |
Accessories | System Tools. If you have more than one disk volume,
you will see the Select Drive dialog box, in which you first have to
select a volume.
2. After selecting a volume, the Disk Cleanup dialog box (see Figure 5.9)
will appear, showing the progress of the tool scanning the volume for all
kinds of redundant files.
Figure 5.9 The Disk Cleanup Dialog Box Showing the Progress of
Scanning the Volume for Redundant Files
3. After the scanning phase, the tool will show the Disk Cleanup for
<volume> dialog box (see Figure 5.10).This dialog box has two tabs: More
Options, which we will discuss later, and Disk Cleanup.The latter is
shown by default.The Disk Cleanup tab consists of two list boxes. Files to
delete lists the different categories that contain redundant files that you
can delete without the system becoming corrupted.The Description
frame below it gives a description of the group/category you selected. It
also gives you the opportunity to browse to the files of that category, using
the View Files button.This option is not available for all categories.
4. If you browse through the category list and view the files, you will get a
better idea of where Windows XP is looking for redundant files. As you
use this option on different volumes or on the same volumes over time,
you will notice that the list can differ from volume to volume, and from
time to time.The reason is that it is only after you use a specific functionality that such a category/group is created. An example is “Offline
Web Pages.”This category is created only after you add a Web page to
your Favorites list and make it available offline. Other categories, such as
Recycle Bin, are always there.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 217
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Figure 5.10 The Disk Cleanup for Win-XP Dialog Box Showing the
Amount of Redundant Files
5. You need to select the check box for the category you want to clean, or
deselect it if you do not want that category to be cleaned. For example
the category Temporary Internet files is your local cache of Web pages.
You may want to keep these files to speed up access to your favorite
Web pages.
6. After you have selected all categories of files you want to clean up,
click OK.
7. A dialog box comes up that ask you “Are you sure you want to perform
these actions?” Click OK.
8. The Disk Cleanup dialog box appears (see Figure 5.11), and the physical
disk might start to rattle.The dialog box enables you to monitor the
progress of the cleanup. A small note:The green progress bar can reach
the end before the process is finished, in which case the bar empties and
starts over again.
9. If Disk Cleanup finishes, the dialog box disappears and no further
reporting is given.
Figure 5.11 The Disk Cleanup Dialog Box Informs You about the
Progress of the Cleanup
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
217
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 218
www.IrPDF.com
218
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Several categories need some additional explanation:
■
Compress old files This option will only show on NTFS volumes; it
enables you to compress files that are not used within a predetermined
period. Compressing files has the advantage that you can, over time, free
up a significant amount of storage, without the files being removed from
the volume.The obvious disadvantage is that accessing a compressed file is
slower than usual, because it has to be decompressed before you can use it.
Remember that once a file has been compressed, you need to manually
decompress the file if you want to start using it again. As you scroll down
the list to select this category, the description in the frame below will
change, and the button changes to Options. Clicking the button will
bring up the Compress Old Files dialog box (see Figure 5.12).This dialog
box allows you to change the cutoff date for unaccessed files to be compressed.The default value is 50 days and the maximum value is 500 days.
Figure 5.12 The Compress Old Files Dialog Box Lets You Determine
the Cut-Off Time for Compression
■
Catalog files for the Content Indexer This is also a category present
only for NTFS volumes. As the Indexing Service runs on your systems,
it will frequently update the catalog, leaving older catalog files behind.
The size of the files depends on the number of files/documents on the
volume. Remember that you are in control in starting and stopping the
Service.
Let’s get back to the point where Disk Cleanup gives us the overview of the
amount of disk space per category that can be freed (see Figure 5.10). As mentioned earlier the Disk Cleanup window has a second tab called More Options,
which has a page showing three frames (see Figure 5.13), each accompanied with
its own Clean up button.The first two options give you an easy entry to the
tools that can help you remove unnecessary applications:
■
Windows components This Clean up button starts the Windows
Components Wizard.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 219
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
Installed programs This Clean up button starts the Add or Remove
Programs tool, which you can also find under Start | Control Panel.
■
System Restore This Clean up button opens a dialog box that
prompts you with “Are you sure you want to delete all but the most
recent restore point?”What a restore point is and how this should be handled is discussed in the section “Restoring Your System.”
Figure 5.13 The More Options Tab Presents You with an Easy Entry to Other
Cleanup Tools
NOTE
If you are running out of volume space and cleanup does not free up
sufficient space, you can always compress a complete NTFS volume or
any directory on a NTFS volume. In the former case, bring up the
volume’s Properties dialog box (see Figure 5.8) and select the check box
Compress drive to save disk space and click Apply to confirm. This will
be followed by the Confirm Attribute Change dialog box, that lets you
decide if you want this change only for the root of the volume, or for
the complete volume. The complete volume is the default selection,
which you should go with by clicking OK.
If you want to compress a single directory, bring up the directory’s
Properties dialog box, click Advanced, and then select the check box
Compress contents to save disk space and click OK to confirm.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
219
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 220
www.IrPDF.com
220
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Disk Cleanup is very useful for keeping your volumes neat and tidy, it is not
perfect. It does not target all places of “discomfort,” especially related to Internet
use. So Disk Cleanup will not remove cookies or your browser’s History log.You
will have to use the cleanup functionalities of the browser to do so, or you could
consider buying a cleanup tool that does all cleanups in one go.
Transferring Files and
Settings between Computers
Suppose you have bought a new PC with Windows XP and you want to move
your files, documents, and settings from your old computer to this new computer.
Or you are an administrator and you want to set up the office PC exactly the same,
but you do not want to install all the files and settings for every computer and synchronize the settings. For these types of file and setting transfers, you can use the
File and Settings Transfer Wizard.The big benefit of this tool is that it can transfer
(most) of the application settings, because this utility is in a way “aware” of how the
settings are saved on the old system and how they need to be stored on Windows
XP.To give you an idea of which files and settings we are referring to, we list some
of them that by default will be part of the transferable settings:
■
Internet Explorer settings
■
Outlook Express settings
■
Network printers and drives
■
Dial-up connections
■
Regional settings
■
Taskbar options
■
Folder options
■
Microsoft Office
■
Desktop
■
Documents
■
My Documents
■
My Pictures
■
Shared Desktop
■
Fonts
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 221
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Before going through the wizard, we should first go through the basics of the
files and settings transfer.
The Basics of the Files and Settings Transfer
For the transfer, you need two or three computers:
■
The Recipient The system that will retrieve the files and settings. In
our case, this will be a Windows XP system.The Wizard will refer to the
Recipient as the new computer.
■
The Server The system where the files and settings to be retrieved
actually reside. In our case, this can be our old PC or office server.
■
The Donor The system from which the files and settings are used to
transfer. In our case, this can be our old PC or the office PC that functions as the “template” for other office PCs.The wizard refers to the
Donor as the old computer.
This requires additional explanation, because the Windows XP documentation does not make this explicit breakdown. For the sake of our discussion, let us
assume that we have the systems involved all connected to the same local network. As you will see in the subsequent sections where we go through the workings of this wizard step-by-step, before you can transfer the files and settings you
need to collect the files and settings from the originating system. All files and settings are compressed in a data file (with the .DAT extension). In cases where you
have a new PC with Windows XP and an old one with Windows Me, you want
to transfer the settings and files from the Windows Me system to your new
system with Windows XP. Because your Windows Me system donates the files
and settings to the new system, it needs to wrap these files and settings in a DAT
file for the Recipient to pick it up.
This DAT file will very likely reside on the computer that is also the Donor,
under the condition that you have enough storage to host this file. However, in
an office environment, you may want to place this data file on a server, which
makes it easier for the Recipient to retrieve the files and settings. In both cases,
the system that hosts the DAT file is called the Server.To summarize:
■
On the Donor, you create the DAT file containing the files and settings
to transfer.
■
The DAT file must be moved to a shared folder on the donor or a separate server, becoming the Server.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
221
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 222
www.IrPDF.com
222
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
The Recipient can transfer the files and settings from the Server.
Let us take a look how these steps unfold.
Selecting and Transferring the Files and Settings
After you start up the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard on the Recipient, you
will be asked in the fourth page to create a Wizard Disk for the Donor (Start |
All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Files and Settings Transfer
Wizard).You will be given a few options. Let us presume that your old system
also has a CD-ROM drive, which is not unlikely. So you should go for the third
option I will use the wizard from the Windows XP CD.This means that
you will move to the Donor and start the Windows XP CD:
1. The Welcome screen asks you what you want to do. Click the second
option Perform additional tasks.
2. You will be shown three tasks to choose from. Click the third option
Transfer files and settings.
3. A number of files get copied before the Files and Settings Transfer
Wizard starts.
4. Click Next.
5. The next screen will inform you that the wizard is “preparing the next
step” were it determines the available files and settings that it can transfer
and if a local network is present, it will try to detect a system on the
network that has the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard started as the
“new computer,” thus as Recipient.
6. Now the wizard will show the page named Select a transfer method
(see Figure 5.14). It gives you the following options:
■
Direct Cable You can hook up two PCs by connecting the serial
ports with a special cable.This method is relatively slow, but a good
alternative if you do not have a local network and the amount of
data to transfer is too much to put onto removable media. If you
choose this option, you should start it up during a period when you
do not plan to use the computers.
■
Home or small office network This option is active only if the
wizard has found another system on the local network that has also
the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard started in the capacity as
Recipient. If you have to make the transfer only once between your
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 223
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
old and new PC, this is the best option. However if you work in an
office environment were you have to perform the transfer more than
once, you should go for the fourth option. If this option is indeed
active, it will also be selected as default option. Note: Using this
option can create significant data traffic on your network. If many
systems are using the nonswitched network at the same time, you
should consider performing the transfer at a time where the network
is not in use, such as after office hours or during lunch.
■
Floppy drive or other removable media This option is only
useful if you have a tape device that has sufficient storage capacity,
such as an Iomega Jaz Drive (1GB) or DAT drive (>1GB).The
screen states also that the systems that are part of the transfer have
the same type of media type.
■
Other This is a folder on a local or networked drive, including a
recordable CD-ROM drive, assuming you have formatted and
mounted the CD as a local drive. Of course, you can only use the
networked drive, if the system is connected to a local network and
you map a shared folder on a different system to a drive on the
Donor. Use this if you need to perform the transfer more than once,
or you want to create the DAT file now and transfer it later. If you
have enough storage to create the DAT file, you should consider this
the preferred option.
Figure 5.14 Selecting the Transfer Mode to Move Your Files
and Settings
7. If you selected the Direct Cable option (a cable that connects your
computers’ serial ports), once you click Next you will be brought to the
Set up your serial connection page. Here you will be shown directed to
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
223
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 224
www.IrPDF.com
224
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
connect both computers with a serial cable called a serial PC to PC
transfer cable, also known as a null modem cable.You must be sure that the
Wizard on the other computer is also showing the same Set up your
serial connection page. If this is the case, you can click Autodetect. It
will now check all available serial ports to see if it can contact the other
computer. Of course, you can also select a serial port from the dropdown list. If the other computer is detected and the connection is synchronized, you can click Next. If you select the option Home or small
office network (which is the default selection), click Next. If you select
the option Floppy drive or other removable media, you can select
one of the available devices in the drop-down list. If you have selected
the desired media, click Next. If you select the option Other (for
example, a removable drive or network drive), you can click Browse and
select the desired folder or drive. Once you have done that, click Next.
8. The What do you want to transfer? page (see Figure 5.15) will now
appear. It contains the following:
■
What do you want to transfer? Using radio buttons, you can
choose among Settings only, Files only, and Both files and settings.The latter is the default selection. If you choose settings only,
the Settings subtree will show. If you choose files only, the Specific
folders and File types subtree will show. If you choose both files and
settings, all three subtrees will show.
■
Let me select a custom list of files and settings This is a check
box option; you should use it if you want to control what files and
settings must be transferred. Select this check box and be sure that the
radio button Both files and settings is selected. Click Next.
Figure 5.15 Controlling What Should Be Transferred
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 225
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
9. Because we decided to customize the list of files and settings that need
to be transferred, we are presented with the Select custom files and settings page (see Figure 5.16).This page shows a large list box that lists all
viable settings, specific folders, and file types. If you selected an option
different from both files and settings, the list will differ accordingly. At
the right of the list box you find five buttons that enable you to add or
remove entries.These buttons will always be available, independent from
the selection you made in the previous step:
■
Add Setting Enables you to add a setting to the list. By clicking
this button, the Add a setting dialog box is shown.This lists only the
settings that are not already in the selection. By selecting one of the
listed settings and subsequently clicking Add, this dialog box will
close and the Setting is added to the Settings subtree.
■
Add Folder Enables you to add a folder to the Specific folders subtree. After you click this button, the Browse for folder dialog box will
appear. After selecting the folder, click OK, and the dialog box will
close and the folder is added. Note that the Browse for folder dialog
box also enables you to create (empty) folders, because the Wizard
makes use of some default library functions. Ignore this button.
■
Add File Makes it possible to add specific files to the list. After you
click this button, the Add a File dialog box will appear. After
selecting a file and clicking Open, the dialog box is closed and the
file is added to the list, under a new subtree called Specific Files.
■
Add File Type Lets you add a file type definition to the list. After
clicking this button, the Add a file type dialog box will appear. After
you have selected a file type and clicked OK, the dialog box will disappear and the file type is added to the File type subtree. Microsoft
did not document how the selection of file type for the primary list
is performed and why you have to add file types for files that already
appear in the transfer list.Take notice that the wizard collects all files
with an extension that appears in this list, independent of the specific
folders and/or specific files you have selected.
■
Remove Lets you remove a specific entry from the transfer list, be
it a setting, specific folder, file type, or specific file, by selecting the
appropriate object and clicking Remove. Of course, you can always
add removed objects.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
225
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 226
www.IrPDF.com
226
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Figure 5.16 The Files and Settings Transfer Wizard Lets You Select
the Transferable Data
10. After you complete the list, click Next.This will bring up the next page
of the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard, called Collecting in
Progress….The activities that take place during this phase are divided
into two parts:
■
Collecting all files and settings that need to be transferred It
will scan all accessible volumes (drives), so be careful with network
drives.
■
Transferring the files and settings The way this is done depends
on the transfer method you selected.The data is compressed before it
is transferred.The selected method determines how the transfer takes
place:
■
Direct Cable Starts transferring the files, under the assumption that
the connection is still up-and-running.The files are first written into
a temporary directory (C:\USMT.TMP\USMT2.HN) before they
are decompressed and installed in their proper place.The installation
of files and settings takes place in a separate process, which means
that once the files are transferred, they are picked up and installed.
Note:This means that you need to have enough free space on this
volume, not only for the files to be installed, but also to temporarily
store transferred compressed files. Because the serial cable connection
is relatively slow, a new PC will be able to keep up with the transfer.
So, the need for additional storage is limited. However, if you want
to install Windows XP on an older computer, you need more temporary storage.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 227
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
Home or Small Office Network Will not start transferring data
until the donor has authenticated itself to the Recipient.Therefore, at
the Donor side, a dialog box appears that asks you to enter a code
that is shown on the Recipient’s monitor, which is only possible if
the same person controls both the Donor and Recipient.This prevents rogue Recipients, or Donors for that matter, from misusing the
system. Because the code is randomly generated every time a transfer
is set up, intercepted codes are unusable the second time around.
Microsoft does not mention if data is encrypted during transfer, and it
appears not to be the case. Also, in this case, the compressed files are
temporarily stored in a folder named C:\USMT.TMP\USMT2.HN
before they are decompressed and moved to the proper place. Again,
you need sufficient storage to hold these transferred files. Because
nowadays networks are fast, it is more than likely that your Recipient
cannot keep up with the transfer, as is the case of the Direct Cable
method, and this temporary folder needs a large amount of storage,
depending on the amount of data you want to transfer. For the sake
of the example, you decide to transfer all files and settings on your
old system to your new Windows XP system. First, you need to
roughly determine how much data this is.You can do this easily
through the Properties dialog box of the volumes/drives that hold the
data you want to transfer. Multiply this by 1.75 and you have the
amount you need to have free on your Recipient system to run a
clean transfer without receiving “nearly out of disk space” messages.
Remember that the factor 1.75 is based on the Recipient being
slower than the Donor.
■
Floppy or other removable media The total amount of data that
needs to be transferred is calculated and a dialog box will inform you
how many media units, such as floppies and tape cartridges, you
need to meet the required storage (see Figure 5.17). A DAT file
named UMT2IMG.DAT is created. In case the file is larger than one
media unit can hold, it will span as many media units as possible.
■
Other A folder, called USMT2.UNC, is created in the destination
folder you selected in Step 7. In that folder, two files are created; one
with the DAT extension (by default: IMG000001.DAT) and a file
called status, validating the state of the DAT file.This status file must
prevent other Files and Settings Transfer Wizard clients from
accessing the DAT file before the file is completed.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
227
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 228
www.IrPDF.com
228
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Figure 5.17 The Files and Settings Transfer Wizard on the Donor
Tells You the Needed Storage Capacity
After the transfer is finished the final page of the Wizard shows,
telling you whether the transfer was completed successfully. In either situation, click Finish to end the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard.
If you have chosen the Other transfer method, you need to make the folder
USMT2.UNC available to the recipient. If this directory is still on the Donor,
you have some different possibilities:
■
Make the transfer folder shared
■
Move the transfer folder to an existing shared folder
■
Move the transfer folder to a server from where this folder can be shared
Receiving the Transferable Files and Settings
You will have probably already started the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard on
your Windows XP system (the Recipient). However, we will start discussing the
Wizard from the beginning, giving you the complete story. Let’s start up the Files
and Settings Transfer Wizard from Start | All Programs | Accessories |
System Tools:
1. The wizard’s Welcome screen informs you what you can do with the
Wizard. Click Next to continue.
2. The Which computer is this? page is shown (see Figure 5.18) and asks
Is this your new computer or your old one? You can choose
between New computer, being the Recipient, or the Old computer,
being the Donor.Take notice of the “Note” that is shown at the bottom
on that page.
3. Choose New Computer and click Next. Note: If you choose Old
Computer, you are following the same course as described in the previous section “Selecting and Transferring the Files and Settings.”
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 229
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Figure 5.18 Choosing the Role of Recipient or Donor
4. The page informs you that the Wizard is “preparing for the next step.”
In fact, it is collecting the system information it needs to determine
which drives your system has.
5. The next page is called Do you have a Windows XP CD? (see Figure
5.19).You have to choose how you want to start up the Files and
Settings Transfer Wizard on the Donor system.You are offered the following options.
■
I want to create a Wizard Disk in the following drive This will
copy two files, FASTWiz.exe and migwiz.cab, to the drive you can
select from the drop-down list.The default choice is the floppy drive.
If you select to use this option, click Next and a dialog box will
appear that asks you to put a blank and formatted diskette (or a media
unit that is related to the drive selected). After doing so, click OK and
the wizard will copy these two files to the media unit, while showing
the progress on the page Disk creation in progress….
■
I already have a Wizard Disk This means that you created a
Wizard Disk at some prior time. If this is the case, select this option
and click Next.
■
I will use the wizard from the Windows XP CD This is the
most likely option you will choose. In this case, you will do a direct
computer-to-computer transfer. If you choose this option, click Next.
■
I don’t need the Wizard Disk This means that you have already
performed the collection of files and settings on the Donor and have
it available on a shared folder or on a media unit, such as the floppy
or tape cartridge. If you choose this option, skip ahead to Step 7.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
229
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 230
www.IrPDF.com
230
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Figure 5.19 Setting Up the Wizard on the Donor System
6. The Now go to your old computer page will appear, which we referred
to in the previous section as “the fourth page.”The upper half of the
page will differ depending on the selection you made.
■
In case you want to do a direct transfer over the local network
(home network or small office network), it is now time to go to the
Donor system to start up the wizard there. Because the wizard is
running on the Recipient, the Donor will detect this and give you
the option to use the local network. If the Donor contacts the
Recipient to start the actual transfer, the code exchange has to take
place first After you have done this, the wizard is ready to start the
transfer. Once this is done, go to the last step.
■
In case you want to use direct cable, floppy, or other media or
transfer from a shared network folder, you can click Next.
7. The Where are the files and settings? page asks you Where should
the wizard look for the items you collected? The options are as
follows:
■
Direct Cable Choose this if you will use a serial cable between the
two computers to transfer the files and settings.This option is selected
by default. If you choose this option, click Next and go to Step 8.
■
Floppy drive or other removable media Use this if you already
have the files and settings recorded on a media unit. As you select
this option, you can choose a drive from the drop-down list. If you
want to go for this option, click Next and the Transfer in Progress
page (see Figure 5.20) will show. Additionally, a dialog box will show
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 231
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
asking you to insert the first media unit in the drive. After doing so,
click OK and the transfer begins. Now go to Step 9.
■
Other Enables you to transfer the files and settings you already collected and placed in a shared network folder. After you select this
option, click Browse to select the appropriate folder. After selecting
the folder, click Next and go to Step 9.
Figure 5.20 Keeping You Informed on the Transfer’s Progress
8. The Set up your serial connection page will now come up.When you
choose to use the direct cable option, you need to establish a synchronized connection between the computers first, before the files and settings can be transferred.To do so, click Autodetect and the computer
will start checking the serial ports to determine which one the other
computer is connected to. After it finds the correct port and synchronizes the connection, you can click Next.
9. The Transfer in Progress page (see Figure 5.20) will show as the transfer
starts. After the transfer finishes, you can click Finish and you are done.
Scheduling Tasks
As you use your system, you will have to perform the same tasks over and over
again. If such a task can run unattended, you can schedule that task at a time
when it does not interfere with your work and does not stress the computer
while you are using it. Another advantage is that once you add a job to the list, it
will automatically run, without you having to remember to run it manually. Of
course, it is good practice to regularly check to see if these jobs produced any
errors. An example of a job you can run unattended is the command-line utility
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
231
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 232
www.IrPDF.com
232
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
defrag.You can make sure that this utility will be run every week at a particular
time, assuming you have the computer up and running at that time.To schedule
defrag, you may want to create a batch script to run one or more subsequent
defragmentations.
You can start Scheduled Tasks from All Programs | Accessories |
System Tools, which will open an Explorer window (see Figure 5.21).The right
pane shows all scheduled tasks and an Add Scheduled Task Wizard at the top of
the list.
Figure 5.21 The Scheduled Tasks Windows Let You Manage Scheduled Jobs
You maintain Scheduled Tasks in an Explorer window because every task is a
file with a special file type that is identified with the extension .job.These jobs
are located in the folder C:\WINDOWS\TASKS (assuming that you do not
have a multiboot system where the drive letter may be something else then C:\).
Working with the Task Scheduler
Windows XP has a service (process) running in the background called Task
Scheduler, which takes care of starting a scheduled task at the right moment.This
means that scheduled tasks will only run if the Scheduler is running. By default,
this service is automatically started when you boot your system. However, it may
be that you do not want the Scheduler to start scheduled tasks for some reason,
either temporarily or permanently.You can control this from the Advanced menu,
which offers the following options:
■
Stop Using Task Scheduler By clicking this option, the Task
Scheduler Service will stop and exit, and will be removed from memory,
preventing any scheduled tasks from running.This option will now
change to Start Using Task Scheduler.You could use this option to shut
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 233
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
down the Task Scheduler when you do not have any scheduled task to
be run. Note that the Task Scheduler is automatically started every time
you restart Windows XP.
■
Pause Task Scheduler By clicking this option, the Task Scheduler will
stop operating, although it will not exit from memory.This option will
now change to Continue Task Scheduler.You use this option to do maintenance to the system without interference from any scheduled tasks.
■
Notify Me of Missed Tasks This option is enabled if it is preceded
with a check mark. Clicking it again will disable this option and remove
the check mark. Only members of the Administrator group will receive
a notification.This notification comes in a Warning dialog box (see
Figure 5.22) as soon as you (re)start the Task Scheduler.
Figure 5.22 The Task Scheduler Service Warning about Missed
Scheduled Jobs
■
AT Service Account Lets you enter the username and password of
the account under which permission tasks that are entered using the AT
command are run. For more information on the AT command, see the
side bar “Using Command-Line Task Scheduling.”
■
View Log Opens the Task Scheduler log file in Notepad.
Configuring & Implementing…
Using Command-Line Task Scheduling
Before Windows had the Scheduled Tasks tools, the Windows NT system
could only schedule programs through the AT command that you had to
start from a command line. With AT, you can only run programs that can
be started from a command line. AT is used often to run maintenance
scripts. We want to make you aware of this command, not only because
it is supplied with Windows XP, but also because you may wind up using
older NT/2000 programs that use AT, because it is simple and effective.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
233
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 234
www.IrPDF.com
234
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Besides AT, there is a second scheduling tool that you can run from
the command-line called schtasks. This is different from AT, because it
is in fact the command behind the Scheduled Tasks Explorer. If you run
schtasks from the command line, you will see the list of scheduled tasks
you have created using Scheduled Tasks. However, if you ran AT from the
command line, you will probably get the message “There are no entries
in the list.” This is because AT is obviously an older tool than schtasks.
So if you run schtasks, or Scheduled Tasks for that matter, the tasks
scheduled with AT are also listed. These jobs are easily recognizable by
there name: “At<Job Id>”, for example “At55”. We discuss the AT
syntax in brief, although we advise you to use schtasks if you want to
schedule tasks from the command line, because it has a richer set of
parameters.
As you run AT /? from the command line, you will get the following
output, omitting the first text lines:
AT [\\computername] [ [id] [/DELETE] | /DELETE [/YES]]
AT [\\computername] time [/INTERACTIVE]
[ /EVERY:date[,...] | /NEXT:date[,...]] "command"
\\computername
Specifies a remote computer. Commands are
scheduled on the local computer if this
parameter is omitted.
id
Is an identification number assigned to a
scheduled command.
/delete
Cancels a scheduled command.
If id is
omitted, all the scheduled commands on
the computer are canceled.
/yes
Used with cancel all jobs command when no
further confirmation is desired.
time
/interactive
Specifies the time when command is to run.
Allows the job to interact with the
desktop of the user who is logged on at
the time the job runs.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 235
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
/every:date[,...]
Runs the command on each specified day(s)
of the week or month.
If date is
omitted, the current day of the month
is assumed.
/next:date[,...]
Runs the specified command on the next
occurrence of the
day (for example, next Thursday). If date
is omitted, the current day of the month
is assumed.
"command"
Is the Windows NT command, or batch program
to be run.
Note the parentheses surrounding the command parameter, which
is necessary if the command has parameters of its own, thus having
spaces. Also, for AT jobs, the Task Scheduler Service needs to be running.
To get a better understanding of the syntax and the way you add a
job using AT to the list, let’s take a look at the following example:
AT \\WIMAD01\jdoe-xp-01 11:11pm /EVERY:M,T,W,Th,F
"cmd /c copy *.* \\WIMAD01\HQPDC01\home\"
In this example, the copy command is run on the local system every
weekday at 11.11pm. Instead of naming the days, you could also use
calendar days. For example, if you wanted to schedule this command
every seven days starting on the first of every month, you would put
down /EVERY:1,8,15,22,29.
If you run AT on the command line, it will list the scheduled commands, which look like this:
Status ID
Day
Time
Command Line
-----------------------------------------------------------OK
1 Each M,T,W,Th,F
\\WIMAD01\HQPDC01\ home\"
11:11 PM
"cmd /c copy *.*
Taking a look at the syntax of schtasks /?, you will notice first of all
that the help has already been broken down in part, to keep things organized. Again, we did some minor editing:
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
235
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 236
www.IrPDF.com
236
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
SCHTASKS /parameter [arguments]
Description:
Enables an administrator to create, delete, query,
change, run and end scheduled tasks on a local or
remote system.
Replaces AT.exe.
Parameter List:
/Create
Creates a new scheduled task.
/Delete
Deletes the scheduled task(s).
/Query
Displays all scheduled tasks.
/Change
Changes the properties of scheduled
task.
/Run
Runs the scheduled task
immediately.
/End
Stops the currently running
scheduled task.
/?
Displays this help/usage.
If you run Schtasks /Run /? to bring up the help, you would see
this:
SCHTASKS /Run [/S system [/U username [/P password]]] /TN
taskname
We left out the description and parameter list, because their
meaning is clear. Note that the task you enter after the /TN must been
previously created using schtasks /Create or the Scheduled Tasks
Explorer. An example of the schtasks /Run could look like this:
Schtasks /Run /S \\WIMAD01\Jdoe-XP-01 /U JDoe /P secret
/TN "CopyIt"
The syntax of the schtasks /Create contains even more parameters:
SCHTASKS /Create [/S system [/U username [/P password]]]
[/RU username [/RP password]] /SC schedule [/MO
modifier] [/D day]
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 237
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
[/I idletime] /TN taskname /TR taskrun [/ST
starttime] [/M months]
[/SD startdate] [/ED enddate]
Writing the AT example using schtasks would come out like this:
Schtasks /Create /S jdoe-XP-01 /U WINAD01\jdoe /P secret /SC
WEEKLY
/D MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI /TN CopyIt
/TR "cmd /c copy *.* \\WIMAD01\HQPDC01\home\" /ST 23:11:00 /SD
10/20/2001
As you saw with schtasks, you could supply a username and password to the scheduled task. This can be done in two different ways. The
AT command does not have this provision. Nevertheless the AT tasks
need to run under a user context. By default, it uses the System account
as the user context, but you can set another account name and password within the Scheduled Tasks Explorer under Advanced | AT Service
Account. The only limitation is that this user context is used for all AT
scheduled tasks, whereas with schtasks you can set a user context per
task. Using the System account is convenient, however, it has unlimited
access, and a crashing task under a System account can technically take
the whole machine down with it. You are better off creating a special
account that services the AT tasks that will very likely need Administrator
rights, at least when you want to schedule tasks such as defrag.
Without going into detail, you will need to curtail certain User rights of
this special AT account so that it acts like a Service account that does not
have any interactive capabilities. You can set these access rights in the
Local Security Policy tool (located at Start | All Programs |
Administrative Tools) under Security Settings | Local Policies | User
Rights Assignments.
Although using the Scheduled Tasks Explorer is much easier, it is
good to know that you can also script scheduled tasks. You can find
more information on schtasks in the online Help and Support.
Here is a quick note on how you can control the Task Scheduler in more
detail. If you have ever performed administrative tasks on a Window NT/2000
platform, this will seem familiar. However, if you have been working with
Windows 98/Me up until now, this may get a little confusing, but just bear with
us, we don’t go into too much detail:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
237
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 238
www.IrPDF.com
238
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
1. Open the Services window located under Start | All Programs |
Administrative Tools, and you are presented with a long list of services
(see Figure 5.23).
Figure 5.23 Controlling the Task Scheduler by Using the Services
Window
2. Remove the Console tree in the Services window by clicking the
Show/Hide Console Tree button, which give you a better overview.
3. Select the Task Scheduler service in the list of services.
4. You will see that in the left pane the Task Scheduler name and description appear, together with three shortcuts if the Task Scheduler is running. If it is not, only the Start shortcut shows.Two of these, the Stop
and Pause shortcuts, have already been discussed.The third one,
Restart, will be new to you.You will use this option if you have the
feeling the service is not running properly. Restart will stop (shut down)
the service and start it up from scratch, thereby fully initializing the service. By the way, you can also find these three shortcuts in the button
bar:They are the three black buttons on the right of the button bar.
5. To get a better understanding what the Task Scheduler is about, you
should double-click it to open up the Task Scheduler’s Properties dialog
box. Make no changes to it if you are not sure what different properties
entail, because this may prevent the service from running altogether.
6. As mentioned earlier, the Task Scheduler is automatically started every
time you start up Windows XP. If you do not want this to happen—
because you do not want to use the Task Scheduler—you need to
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 239
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
change the Startup Type.You do this by right-clicking the Task
Scheduler and selecting Properties.This will bring up the Task
Scheduler Properties dialog box. On the middle of the General tab, you
will see the option Startup Type. It will currently have the value
Automatic. Click on the drop-down list and two other values will show:
■
Manual This enables you to start the Task Scheduler from the
Scheduled Task Explorer window, using the Start shortcut.
■
Disabled This will prevent the Task Scheduler from starting altogether; even the Start shortcut will not work.
7. We leave it at that, but if this discussion raised your interest on this subject, you can start out reading the online help. Another good source is
the Microsoft’s Windows 2000 site (www.microsoft.com/windows2000/
default.asp) because the services of Windows 2000 are exactly the same
as in Windows XP.
Managing Scheduled Tasks
Now that we have the Task Scheduler up-and-running we can start working on
our Scheduled Tasks.Within the Schedule Tasks Explorer, you can do the following:
■
Add a scheduled task
■
Change a scheduled task
■
Delete a scheduled task
■
Immediately run a scheduled task
■
Immediately stop a scheduled task
Because your list of scheduled tasks is empty, we will first add a scheduled
task.You can do this in two ways:
■
Using the Scheduled Task Wizard In the next section, wetake a
detailed look at the wizard.
■
By selecting File | New | Scheduled Task This will create an
empty task name called New Task followed by a sequence number. After
creating this empty task, you will need to change it, in order to make it
work. In the upcoming section “Changing a Scheduled Task,” we take a
detailed look at the different properties of a scheduled task.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
239
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 240
www.IrPDF.com
240
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Deleting a scheduled task is simple and straightforward; you right-click the
task and select Delete.You will be prompted with a Confirm File Delete dialog
box. Notice that it will reference the scheduled task as the actual file with the
.job extension.You can choose Undo Delete to bring the task back.
Suppose that you have just added a new scheduled task, and you want to be
sure that it will run properly instead of finding out later that it did not work.
Right-click the scheduled task and select Run. Of course, it is also possible that a
scheduled task is running in the background and it does not stop by itself, possibly due to some problem, or that you want it to stop right now because you
need to do some maintenance to the system and you do not want any tasks to
interfere with it.To stop a running task, you can right-click the scheduled task
and select End Task.
Using the Scheduled Task Wizard
In this section, we go step-by-step through the Scheduled Task Wizard. Open the
Scheduled Task Explorer and double-click Add Scheduled Task, which is located
at the top of the Task list:
1. The wizard’s welcome page will show. Click Next to continue.
2. The next page shows the list of all registered applications, including their
version numbers. Select the application you need and click Next to
progress to the next page. If the application or shortcut you need is not
in the list, you can click Browse, which will bring up the Select
Program to Schedule explorer. Locate the desired file and click
Open.The wizard will automatically go to the next page. Note: For the
sake of the example you can select any application you like.
3. The third page (see Figure 5.24) lets you add a task name that is by
default the name of the application. Below that you have to choose how
often you want to perform this task, which can be any of the following:
■
Daily You can enter the time on the next page. If you select this
option, click Next and go to Step 4.
■
Weekly You can enter the day of the week on the next page. If you
select this option, click Next and go to Step 5.
■
Monthly You can enter the day of the month on the next page. If
you select this option, click Next and go to Step 6.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 241
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
One time only You can enter the date and time, somewhere in the
future, on the next page. If you select this option, click Next and go
to Step 7.
■
When my computer starts If you select this option, click Next
and go to Step 9.
■
When I log in If you select this option, click Next and go to
Step 9.
Figure 5.24 The Scheduled Task Wizard Enabling to Add a
Scheduling Job Quickly
4. When you select Daily, you have to enter the following options:
■
Start time
■
Perform this task: every day, weekdays, or every x days
■
Start date—the first day you want the scheduling to start
5. When you select Weekly, you have to enter the following options:
■
Start time
■
Every x weeks
■
The day(s) of the week
6. When you select Monthly, you have to enter the following options:
■
Start time
■
The day of the month—Day x or the day of the week. For example
Day 13 or the third Tuesday
■
The month of the year
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
241
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 242
www.IrPDF.com
242
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
7. When you select One time only, you have to enter the following
options:
■
Start time
■
Start date
8. When you have determined when the task needs to run, click Next.
9. In the next wizard’s page, you need to enter the user name and enter the
password for which identity the task will run under. Note:This user needs
to have sufficient privileges/access rights to successfully complete the task.
10. Click Next and you will be brought to the finish page of the Scheduled
Task Wizard. Here the task’s properties are summarized, which will give
you the opportunity to review them. In case you are not satisfied, you
can use the Back button to revisit the properties.This page has a check
box option called Open advanced properties for this task when I
click Finish. If you select the check box, it will open the scheduled
task’s Properties dialog box. Because we do this in the next section
anyway, do not check it and click Finish.
11. You have entered your first scheduled task. Right-click it and select
Run to check if everything is working.
Changing a Scheduled Task
Once you have added a Scheduled Task to the list, it may be fine for now, but
over time you may want to make changes to it. In case you used the second
option to add a new task (File | New | Scheduled Task) you will need to
change it, because it is in fact an empty task. For both situations, understanding
the task’s properties is important.
Go to the Scheduled Tasks Explorer window, select the task you just added,
right-click it, and select Properties.This will bring up the task’s properties dialog
box (see Figure 5.25).This dialog box has three tab pages:
■
Task The general information of the application you run with this task.
■
Schedule The scheduling information of the task, which is more
extensive than could be set with the wizard (see Figure 5.25).
■
Settings This has additional settings to control the behavior of the
scheduled task.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 243
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Figure 5.25 The Scheduled Task Properties Dialog Box Showing the
Schedule Tab
The Task tab enables you to alter the following properties:
■
Run The application or shortcut you run with this task. In case you
want to alter it, you can click Browse and locate the appropriate
application/shortcut.
■
Start in Determines the folder from which the application/shortcut
will be executed. By default, this is the directory where the application/
shortcut is located.
■
Comments Here you are able to add some comments or description
regarding the task so that you and other people know later on what your
purpose and intent was when you created this scheduled task.
■
Run as Determines under which user account this application must
run. By default, this is the user account that created the task, or the user
account you entered when using the wizard.
■
Enabled Determines if the task is run when the scheduled time is
reached. By default, the check box is selected. If you deselect the check
box, the task will remain in the list, but it will never be executed.
Click the Schedule tab to bring up the scheduling information.What you see
is the scheduling details as you have entered them.The tab contains three parts:
■
At the top, you find the description of the schedule. Select the check
box Show multiple schedules and you see the passive text change in a
field with a drop-down box and two buttons, New and Delete (see
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
243
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 244
www.IrPDF.com
244
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Figure 5.25).This shows that you can run a task at different schedule
frequencies.
■
In the middle are two fields, named Schedule Task and Start time and
an Advanced button.The Schedule Task field is always enabled, but
depending on its value, the Start time field and Advanced button will
be enabled or disabled.
■
At the bottom you find a frame, detailing the scheduling dependent on
the value in the Schedule Task field. For example, if the Schedule
Task field contains the value Weekly, the frame below is named
Schedule Task Weekly and will contain the fields that you could fill in
when you created the scheduled task using the wizard.
We now look in more detail at these parts, starting from the top and moving
down.The usage of multiple schedules is very handy if you need to run an application on different schedule sequences. For example, you need to schedule a
reporting application running against a Sales database on Monday in the first
week of the month;Tuesday in the second week of the month; on Wednesday in
the third week of the month, and on Thursday in the fourth week of the month.
This means that you have to run four schedules. If you don’t create multiple
schedules for one scheduled task, you would need to create four separate scheduled tasks.This is not a problem, except if the execution parameters of that
reporting application happen to change, in which case you would have to change
them in four places, increasing the chance of errors:
1. Select the check box Show multiple schedules.
2. Click New at the top of the tab.You should notice two things. First,
Show multiple schedules becomes disabled.This will only be enabled
as you delete schedules until only one is left. Second, every new
schedule will have a default scheduling for Every day at 9:00am
starting <today>.
3. The Schedule Task field controls the rest of the tab. And as you pull up
the drop-down list, you will notice that these are the same values you
could choose in Step 3 of the wizard (see Figure 5.24) with one difference: When Idle. As you select this value, the frame Schedule Task
When Idle appears, which lets you determine how many minutes the
computer should be idle before the scheduled task should start. Simply
put your system is Idle when no major application is running. Suppose
that you go out for lunch, have a meeting or go shopping; you will
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 245
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
probably leave the computer behind doing nothing. So after a number of
minutes (10 by default), the Task Scheduler kicks in to start a task that is
run when idle. One note on this: other tools use idle periods to perform
unattended system maintenance, such as reindexing the volumes or
defragmenting volumes.You must be aware of this, because they can
interfere with your scheduled task and vice versa.
4. When the Schedule Task field is calendar-related, the Advanced button
is enabled.When you click Advanced, the Advanced Schedule Options
dialog box (see Figure 5.26) shows. Although the chance that you will
be using these options is very slim, we discuss it to be complete. It allows
you to set two properties of the scheduled task:
■
Set a Start Date and End Date to a scheduled task, determining a
period within which the task is allowed to run. If you used the
Scheduled Task Wizard, you will have set a start date that you now
can change.The wizard does not set an end date, meaning that by
default the task will remain schedulable forever.With the advanced
options, you can now also set an end date. Note: if you selected
Once for the Schedule Task field, you are not allowed to set an
end date, for the obvious reason that it will only start once and end
then and there.
■
In the Repeat task frame, you are able to let the scheduled task run
more than once between the fixed scheduling moments.You may
wonder why this is.Think of two groups of applications or tools.
The first group is applications and tools you want to run in shorter
intervals than once daily, for example every two hours.These applications or tools are short-running and will probably have another
characteristic, namely that they are able to start where they left off.
Here is a simple example; you have an application that generates
report files that are dumped in a specific folder and because these
files have to be moved to another system, you need a script that will
move these files every hour to their proper destination.
1. As you select the check box Repeat task, the field in the frame
becomes active.
2. Now you have to determine with which frequency this task has
to be repeated. In our example, we mentioned every hour. So
enter for the mandatory Every option 60 minutes or 1 hours.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
245
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 246
www.IrPDF.com
246
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
3. Following this, you have to determine when you want these
repeats to stop. For this mandatory Until option, you can choose
between a Time or a Duration, where Time is a clock time
and Duration is the period starting from the first time the script
is scheduled to run. For our example, we can use either. Because
the first time this script will run is determined as 9am and the
office hours end at 6pm, you can select Time and enter the
value 6:00pm or you can select Duration and enter 9 hour(s)
and 0 minute(s).
4. The last choice is optional and lets you determine what to do if
the next repeat is started while the previous one is still running. If
you select the check box If the task is still running, stop it at
this time, you will prevent more copies of the same task from
being run simultaneously.The reason is that more than one
instance of the same application/tool doing the same thing may
cause interference between them. However, you need to be sure
that you can terminate this application/tool without dire consequences, like leaving loose ends or leaving files in limbo and therefore inaccessible.You also need to be sure that the application/tool
does not perform a rollback when it is killed, undoing all the work
it already did.
Figure 5.26 The Advanced Schedule Options Dialog Box Let You Set
Repeat Task Properties
Let’s proceed to the third Tab, called Settings (see Figure 5.27).This Tab deals
with how your system should handle the scheduled task.The Tab is divided into
three frames:
■
The Scheduled Task Completed frame lets you set two options:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 247
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
■
If you want a task that no longer will be scheduled to run automatically removed from the task list, you should select the check box
Delete the task if it is not scheduled to run again.This option
is not set by default
■
To prevent a task from running indefinitely and consuming valuable
system resources, you can set a maximum time that a scheduled task
is allowed to run.You can do this by selecting the check box Stop
the task id it runs for x hour(s) y minute(s). By default, this is
72 hours and 0 minutes and the maximum time can be 999 hours
and 59 minutes.
The Idle Time frame lets you set two options. In a way these are odd
settings, because you not only schedule a task based on the calendar, but
also make the limitation that this will only happen if the computer is
doing nothing at that time. For example, normally you run a daily maintenance tool on every office PC at 7 P.M. However, you know that once
in a while people work overtime beyond 7 P.M. So to prevent the maintenance tool from interfering with the employees working late, you can
use these options.
■
By selecting the check box Only start the task if the computer
has been idle for at least x minute(s).The default period is 10
minutes and the maximum period is 999 minutes.You must also
enter a period for If the computer has not been idle that long,
retry it up to x minute(s).The default value is 60 minutes and the
maximum value is 999 minutes.You can use this to prevent a scheduled task from not being run, because just at the time it should be
run the system left the idle state. So for example, you know that the
employees will normally not work later than 9 P.M. So by leaving the
first time to 10 minutes, but increasing the second one to 150 minutes, you can create a window that will give an opportunity for the
maintenance tool to run, even if employees work until 9 P.M.
■
By selecting the check box Stop the task if the computer ceases
to be idle, you can force a scheduled task to run only if the system
is idle. If the system leaves the idle state, the scheduled task is terminated.You should only set this option if the task can be terminated
at any time, without causing problems.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
247
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 248
www.IrPDF.com
248
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
The purpose of these three options available here is to prevent depleting
the notebooks’ batteries too quickly.The first two options are selected by
default, while the third is not.The options are as follows:
■
Don’t start the task if the computer is running on batteries.
■
Stop the task if battery mode begins. Here again, be sure that the
termination of the task does not cause problems.
Wake the computer to run this task. Specifies whether the computer
wakes to run the task at the scheduled time, even if the computer is
in Sleep mode and uses OnNow power management.
Figure 5.27 The Scheduled Task Properties Dialog Box Showing the
■
Settings Tab
Scheduled tasks are always run locally.To have a task run on every computer,
you have to create this job on every single computer. However, it would be a
major hassle, if not downright unfeasible, to do so. Luckily, Microsoft felt the
same way, because you can remotely access the scheduled tasks of a computer and
make changes to them.You are not able to use the Add Scheduled Task Wizard to
create a new job on the remote computer.Therefore, you need to create the
Scheduled Task first locally, copy it to the remote computer, and if needed, complete and test it. Let us look at both issues a little more closely, because both take
a somewhat different approach.
Before you can do either, you need to make the drive on which the tasks
folder is located shared. Make sure that you explicitly give only the
Administrators group access to the folder where the Windows system is located.
Secondly, you can only access the scheduled tasks if you have an account that has
Administrator access to the remote system. In order to be able to edit the tasks
remotely, you also must assure yourself that the systems allow remote Registry
access, which is the case if you install the systems by default.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 249
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
First, we access and edit the scheduled tasks on a remote system:
1. Right-click My Network Places on the desktop and select Explore,
which will open the My Network Places Explorer.
2. Expand Entire Network.
3. Expand Microsoft Windows Network.
4. Expand the appropriate workgroup or domain.
5. Expand the appropriate computer.
6. Select the Scheduled Tasks folder.The list with scheduled tasks will
appear.
7. Double-click the appropriate task to open the task’s Properties dialog
box, and you can edit the scheduling properties. Of course you can also
delete a job.
To add a new job you need to first create the desired job locally,
using the Add Scheduled Task Wizard, as we previously discussed in this
section.You then move it from the local to the remote Scheduled Tasks
folder and modify it.You should then test the job.To do so, continue
from Step 7, where we left off.
8. Go back to the appropriate workgroup or domain (see Step 4).
9. Expand your local computer.
10. Select the Scheduled Tasks folder.
11. Double-click the Add Scheduled Task Wizard.
12. Create a scheduled task.
13. After you create the task, it appears in the list. If necessary select View |
Refresh (or press F5).
14. Right-click the newly created scheduled task and drag the job to the
Scheduled Tasks folder of the remote computer.
15. A pop-up menu appears from which you can select Copy or Move.
Choose one depending on your needs.
16. Select the Scheduled Tasks folder of the remote computer, and you
will see the new task in the list.
17. Remember that a scheduled job does not run if there is no valid username and password supplied on the scheduled task. Note: “valid” is relative for the computer the task runs on.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
249
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 250
www.IrPDF.com
250
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
This finishes up the discussion on using scheduled tasks, a tool that is very
useful if you want to get the most out of your computer, even if you are not
using it yourself.
Backing Up Your Files
Of all the System Tools we discussed in this chapter, or even in this book, the
Backup tool is perhaps the most important one, and perhaps the least used.We
have the tendency to think that nothing bad will happen to us, so we don’t need
to back up our files. Other reasons why we do not back up include the lack of
functionality of the backup tools, the fact that you cannot work on the computer
while you do backups, the time it takes to perform a backup, and the fact that
many people find the process bothersome. If you did not use the backup tool of
Windows 98/Me because of these reasons, you will be happily surprised with the
Backup tool for Windows XP. It is a leap forward; in fact you can even call it a
full-blown professional tool.Windows 2000 users may already be familiar with
the tool, because Microsoft used much the same backup tool for that operating
system, although it does have certain differences. Microsoft teamed up with
Veritas Software Corporation (www.veritas.com)—a renowned manufacturer of
backup software—to come up with this tool. Before working our way through
the Backup tool, let’s first list its functionalities.
Backup Functionalities
Here are the most important features of the Windows XP Backup tool:
■
Easy selection of what has to backed up, ranging from a complete
volume to a single file (also remote folders and removable storage).
■
Easy selection of what must be restored, ranging from a single file to a
complete volume, from any backup.
■
System State backup/restore. Note:You can only back up the system
state of a local system.The system state of Windows XP encompasses the
following:
■
The Registry
■
Boot files (including system files, even if they are under Windows
File Protection)
■
COM+ Class Registration Database
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 251
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
Different levels of backup:
■
Full backup Under Windows XP called Normal backup.The
Normal backup will back up all files that are selected for backup.
After the Backup utility has written the file to the backup
file/media, the file on disk gets marked as being backed up.This is
done by clearing the Archive bit.The Normal backup will not check
this Archive bit prior to the backup; the Backup utility does not
care.We only know that after the backup the Archive bit of every
backed up file is cleared.
■
Incremental backup Will only back up the selected files that have
been added or changed since the last Full or Incremental backup. As
a file is created or changed, the Archive bit is set.The Incremental
backup uses this bit to determine if the file, or folder for that matter,
has to be backed up. After doing so, it will clear the Archive bit.
■
Copy backup A Full backup of the selected files/folders; only the
Archive bit will be untouched. It can be set or cleared, although this
is irrelevant for the Copy backup. All we know is that after the Copy
backup has taken place, the Archive bit of all backed up files/folders
is the same.The Copy backup does not interfere with any backup
scheme involving Full and Incremental backups.You should use the
Copy backup if you need a quick copy of a folder structure,
including files, to move to another system.
■
Daily backup A backup of all selected files/folders that are
changed on the day the Daily backup is run, thereby using the Last
Modified date to determine what files and folders meet this criteria.
The Daily backup leaves the Archive bit untouched, thereby not
interfering with your regular Full–Incremental backup scheme.
■
Differential backup Will back up all selected files/folders that are
changed since the last Full or Incremental Backup, thus that have the
Archive bit set.The Differential backup will also not make changes
to the Archive bit and therefore not interfere with an existing
Normal–Incremental backup scheme.You need to understand that
with two consecutive differential backups, between which no
Normal or Incremental backup is performed, the first differential
backup becomes obsolete, because the second one will at least contain everything that is part of the first differential backup plus every
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
251
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 252
www.IrPDF.com
252
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
file/folder that has been added or changed between these two differential backups.This is because the Archive bit is used to determine if
a file/folder needs to be backed up, but after the backup, the Archive
bit is not changed.
■
Creating advanced automated backup schemes You can create
backup jobs by using the Task Scheduler (see the “Scheduling Tasks” section as well as the sidebar “Backing Up Your Data, All Year Long” for a
discussion on backup schemes).
■
The backup can run alongside active applications Even when
backing up files in use by these applications.
■
Creating volume shadow copy An exact copy of a volume from the
moment the backup started, including open/in-use files.
■
Creating Automated System Recovery Set (ASR) Creates a
system backup and a recovery floppy so that you can make a full
recovery from a disk crash.
■
Backup files can be stored online You can store files in a folder on
your own computer or another networked computer/server, or store
them offline (such as a floppy or tape cartridge).
■
Complete backup logs.
■
A command-line version of the Backup tool The tool is called
ntbackup.exe; it enables you to make backup scripts (see the sidebar
“Using the Command-Line Backup”).
■
You can make users members of the Backup Operators group
This gives them sufficient administrator access rights to perform
backups. (see Chapter 4 for further information on users and groups).
NOTE
A common misunderstanding is that Differential and Incremental
backups are regarded as one and the same. This is not the case. Both use
the Archive bit to determine if a file needs to be backed up, but only the
Incremental backup will clear this Archive bit. As mentioned in the
Differential backup discussion, subsequent Differential backups make the
earlier Differential backup obsolete. However, subsequent Incremental
backups do not share any equal file.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 253
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
As you can see from these main features, you really get a professional backup
tool that is fun to use. However, if you are not familiar with these kinds of tools,
the functionality can be overwhelming. It can even be scary, because how can
you know if you did the backup correctly, and if you do a restore, how do you
know it will not ruin your system? The next sections guide you through the
backup side of the backup tool, and the subsequent section “Restoring Your
System” discusses the restore side of the tool.
Before doing so, we want to make you aware of something you will very
likely know already, but which we want to emphasize anyway:You use a Backup
tool only to be able to do a restore.This is important to keep in mind because
this is not about doing a quick backup simply to get it over with. If push comes
to shove, you want to be sure you can easily restore your files or even the complete system, so you need to make an effort when performing a backup.
NOTE
As you open the menu under All Programs | Accessories | System
Tools, you will also see the option System Restore. This has nothing to
do with the backup utility, but we will discuss it in the next section,
along with the restore function of the backup tool. System Restore is a
small but significant tool that is only available for Windows XP.
Working with the Backup Tool
Start up the Backup tool from All Programs | Accessories | System Tools
(see Figure 5.1), and the Backup Or Restore Wizard will welcome you.This
may come as a surprise, but Microsoft was aware that home users of Windows
9x/Me could be overwhelmed by a full-blown backup tool, so they try to bridge
the gap by providing a wizard that can simplify backing up and/or restoring.We
discuss this wizard at the end of the section, but to give you a good understanding of the Backup tool, we focus on the Advanced Mode Backup Utility:
1. Deselect the check box Always start in wizard mode, so you do not
have to switch to advanced mode every time. Once in advanced mode,
you can go back to the wizard mode through the option Tools |
Switch to Wizard Mode or the Wizard Mode hyperlink (that is by
default blue and underlined) on the Welcome tab of the Advanced Mode
Backup Utility.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
253
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 254
www.IrPDF.com
254
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
2. Click the Advanced Mode hyperlink. This brings you to the Advanced
Mode Backup Utility, which we refer to as the Backup Utility during
the rest of the discussion.
Configuring & Implementing…
Using the Command-Line Backup
Although you may not be aware of it, when using the Backup Utility, the
actual application behind the GUI is named %SystemRooot%\
System32\ntbackup.exe. An easy way to see how it works is to take a
look in the Scheduled Tasks Explorer, after you create a scheduled
backup job. Because these backup jobs appear in the list of Scheduled
Tasks, you can not only see them, but also modify them, which we do
not advise. Keep using Backup Utility to maintain your backup jobs; the
last thing you want to happen is to find out when you try to restore a
backup that your manual changes resulted in an empty backup.
Before showing the ntbackup syntax, we show you an example
that is taken from a scheduled backup job. Do this by performing these
steps:
1. Going into the Scheduled Tasks Explorer.
2. Double-clicking the backup job to open up the Properties
dialog box.
3. Copying the Run field from the Task page.
4. Pasting it here.
The result is one long line we reformatted to give it a decent
appearance:
C:\WINDOWS\system32\ntbackup.exe backup
"@C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Local
Settings\Application Data\
Microsoft\Windows NT\NTBackup\data\Weekend.bks" /a
/d "Set created 9/24/2001 at 2:39 AM" /v:yes /r:no /rs:no
/hc:off /m normal
/j "Weekend" /l:s /f \\Hqpdc01\ad\downloads\Weekend.bkf
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 255
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
If you open the Scheduled Job Options dialog box of this backup
job and select the Backup Details tab, the Job summary lists:
Normal Backup.
Summary log.
Verify Data.
Do not use hardware compression.
Do
not restrict access to owner or administrator.
Some file types excluded.
Append to media.
Append to media.
Use set description 'Set
created 9/24/2001 at 2:39AM'.
Note: It really does mention “Append to media” twice, possibly a
slip up.
The ntbackup syntax is as follows:
ntbackup backup [systemstate] "bks filename" /J "job name"
[/P "pool name"] [/G "guid name"] [/T "tape name"]
[/N "media name"] [/F "filename"] [/D "set description"] [/A]
[/V:yes|no] [/R:yes|no] [/L:f|s|n] [/M backup type]
[/RS:yes|no] [/HC:on|off] [/UM] [/SNAP:on|off]
Let’s take a look at all the parameters (in bold) and variables (in
italic):
■
backup Indication of a backup command. Note there is no
“restore” (mandatory).
■
systemstate When used, the system state is also backed up
(optional).
■
“bks filename” The name of the backup selection file
(mandatory).
■
/J “job name” The name of this backup job that will appear
in the log file (mandatory).
■
/P “pool name” Gives the name from the pool where the
backup media has to be taken from. If you use this parameter do not use: /A /F /G /T (optional).
■
/G “guid name” Optional; gives the name of the tape the
backup needs to be written to; If the supplied tape has a different name the backup will take place. If you use this
parameter, do not use: /P.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
255
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 256
www.IrPDF.com
256
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
/T “tape name” Optional; gives the name of the tape the
backup needs to be written to. If the supplied tape has a different name the backup will take place. If you use this
parameter do not use /P.
■
/N “media name” Optional; specifies a new name for the
tape. If you use this parameter do not use: /A.
■
/F “filename” Optional; the filename (including full path) of
the backup file. If you use this parameter do not use /G /P /T.
■
/D “set description” Optional; a description that is used to
label the backup set.
■
/A Optional; means append backup to tape. Must be used
together with /G or /T. If you use this parameter, do not
use /A.
■
/V:yes|no Optional; verify the backup after it is completed.
■
/R:yes|no Optional; restrict access to only owner and
administrator.
■
/L:f|s|n Optional; determines the type of log file: long,
summary, or none.
■
/M backup type Optional; determines backup mode (type):
normal, incremental, copy, differential, daily.
■
/RS:yes|no Optional; determines if the Remote Storage
database has to be backed up.
■
/HC:on|off Optional; determines if Hardware Compression
should be on or off.
■
/UM Optional; specifies that an Unformatted Medium, thus
tape, is presumed. The ntbackup will look for the first available media, format and label it after which it starts writing
the backup to this tape. No human interaction is needed. You
also need to specify the /P parameter.
■
/SNAP:on|off Optional; determines the use of volume
Shadow Copy.
Using the Advanced Mode Backup Utility
The Backup Utility window (see Figure 5.28) presents you with a lot of
information:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 257
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
The menu bar, with Job and Tools as the important entries
■
Four tabs:Welcome, Backup, Restore And Manage Media, and Schedule
Jobs.The Welcome tab shows three wizards:
■
Backup Wizard (Advanced) Named to distinguish it from the
Backup And Restore Wizard.
■
Restore Wizard (Advanced) Named to distinguish it from the
Backup And Restore Wizard.
■
Automated System Recovery Wizard
Figure 5.28 The Backup Utility Window Showing the Welcome Tab
First, we look at the backup-related options in the menu bar, after which we
discuss the tabs.
The Backup Utility’s Menu Bar
The menu bar has two entries that are unique to the Backup utility.They contain
the following options in the drop-down menu:
■
Job Contains options that become active as you work in the Backup
page, including the following:
■
New Clears the current backup job selection.You can compare it to
the New option in Word, which creates a blank document.
■
Start Runs a backup for the current selection of files/folders.
■
Load Selection Lets you open a file that has by default a .bks
extension.This is a text file that lists the files/folders you want to
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
257
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 258
www.IrPDF.com
258
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
back up and the media on which you want to make this backup.The
Backup Selection files are located in %User%\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Windows
NT\NTBackup\data.
■
■
Save Selection Lets you save the current files/folders selection.
■
Save Selection As Lets you save the current selection under a different name.
Tools Contains additional tools/options:
■
Switch to Wizard Mode Brings you back to the Backup And
Restore Wizard, which you saw when you started the backup tool
for the first time.
■
Backup Wizard The wizard that also appears on the Welcome tab
and is called Backup Wizard (Advanced). As you select this option
you will notice that the Backup tab is activated before the wizard
starts.
■
Restore Wizard The wizard that also appears on the Welcome tab
and is called Restore Wizard (Advanced). As with the Backup
Wizard, the Backup tab becomes active before the wizard starts.
■
ASR Wizard The wizard that also appears on the Welcome tab and
is called Automated System Recovery Wizard.The Backup tab
becomes active before the wizard starts.
■
Catalog a backup file Enables you to get a complete overview of
everything that has been backed up in the backup file you have
selected.This option becomes active only if the Restore And Manage
Media tab is active. Note: A catalog is a complete list of all folders
and files, including the complete folder structure, that are contained
in the backup file.The benefit of the catalog is that you can quickly
see what is in the backup file and where else you need to scan the
whole backup to determine what is on it.When you use catalogs,
they will be written at the start of the backup file or tape. However,
to accelerate access to the catalog, it can also reside on local storage.
In the former situation, it is referred to as on-media catalog; in the
latter, it is called on-disk catalog.
■
MediaTools Lets you perform a limited number of actions on tape
media, like format, retension, and erase.This option becomes active
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 259
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
only if you are in the Restore and Manage Media tab and have a
tape-based device installed in your computer.
■
Report Brings up the Backup Reports dialog box that lists all the
backups that are performed.You can select a specific report and view
or print it. If you click View, Notepad opens with a plain-text log
file of that backup.These backup log files are located in the folder:
%User%\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Windows NT\
NTBackup\data.
■
Options Opens the Options dialog box that let you set a number of
backup- and restore-related options (see the following section).
Setting the Options in the Backup Utility
After you select Tools | Options, the Options dialog box (see Figure 5.29)
opens. Again, you see a number of check box options. Let’s address these in a tabby-tab fashion. Note that the Options dialog box is context sensitive and the tab
that opens will be the one most related to the current task you are working on.
For example, if you are working on the Welcome tab and you open Options, the
General tab is selected. If you are working in the Backup tab, the Backup Type
tab of Options is selected.
Figure 5.29 The Options Dialog Box of the Backup Utility Showing the
General Tab
General Tab
The following options are available on the General tab:
■
Compute selection information before backup and restore
operations If selected, the backup/restore process will determine how
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
259
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 260
www.IrPDF.com
260
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
many files you selected to back up/restore, the amount of bytes these
total, and how much time it takes to back up/restore them (See Figures
5.30 and 5.33).The latter is a rough estimate that is based on tape device
speeds. If you are doing a backup to the disk of another computer over
100 Megabit Ethernet, this will go much faster.
Figure 5.30 The Selection Information Dialog Box Displays On-TheFly Computations on the Backup Figures
■
Use the catalogs on the media to speed up building restore catalogs on disk If selected, this will write a catalog of all the files that are
backed up at the beginning of a backup file. If you want to restore from
a backup file, it reads the catalog after which you can select the files/
folders you want to restore. If you deselect this options, it will not write
the catalog to the backup file, which of course saves you a little time and
space, but if you want to restore, the restore process has to create a catalog by first reading the whole backup file. If the backup file is large and
resides on tape, it can take a significant amount of time before it completes the catalog building. Advice: Always keep this option selected.
■
Verify data after the backup completes This will go over the
whole backup file and recheck it, to confirm that everything is correctly
written to the backup file.This can take a significant amount of time if
you back up large amounts of data. Because you can set the Verify
option per backup job, leave it unselected here, unless you only have
small amounts of data to back up.
■
Back up the contents of mounted drives If selected, it will back up
the data that is on a mounted drive. If deselected, it will only back up
the path information of the mount, but will not back up the contents.
Example:You have mounted your CD-ROM drive (accessible under the
E drive) on C:\devices\CDROM. If you have this option selected, it
will back up everything that is on the CD-ROM that resides in the
drive at the time of the backup. If this option was deselected, it will only
back up the path information (mount point) and leave the content of
the CD-ROM untouched.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 261
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
NOTE
If you are using Removable Service and Remote Storage service, you should
regularly make a backup of the following two folders: %SystemRoot%\
System32\NtmsData and %SystemRoot%\system32\RemoteStorage,
because these are where the databases of both services remain. Normally
these folders are only backed up when the %SystemRoot% folder,
including subfolders, is backed up. The backup of the system files will
happen infrequently, because on average not much happens with system
changes on a regular basis. You should back up these folders at least
weekly. Note: These databases are not part of the System State.
As you can read in the sidebar “Using the Command-Line Backup”
the command-line ntbackup utility has a special switch/parameter (/RS)
for the backup of the Remote Storage database.
■
Show alert message when I start the Backup Utility and
Removable Storage is not running As discussed in Chapter 4,
Removable Storage is a service that manages tape units and drives alike.
If this service is not running and you try to back up to tape, the backup
will fail.To warn you, an Alert dialog box is shown as you start up the
Backup Utility. However, if you schedule a backup at night and the
Removable Storage service is not running, you will only notice the next
morning that the backup failed. If you use a tape unit to back up, you
should keep this option selected, otherwise it is safe to deselect it.
■
Show alert message when I start the Backup Utility and there is
recognizable media available This is also related to the Removable
Storage service, so if you start the Backup Utility, it will communicate
with this service and will relay information on the available media to the
Backup Utility, which will alert you to this through a dialog box. If you
use a tape unit to back up, you should keep this option selected, otherwise deselect it.
■
Show alert message when new media is inserted Again, this is
related to the Removable Storage service that will relay information on
current and new media available. If you use a tape unit to back up, you
should keep this option selected, otherwise deselect it.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
261
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 262
www.IrPDF.com
262
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
Always allow use of recognizable media without prompting If
selected, it will add any new media that is reported by the Removable
Storage service to the list of Backup Destinations.This option is by
default deselected, and it is only necessary to select it if you make a new
Removable Storage device available.
Restore Tab
To prevent fragmentation of information we will discuss this tab here and not in
the next section. It holds a single option named When restoring a file that is
already on my computer.You have to choose one of the following values:
■
Do not replace the file on my computer (recommended)
Because Windows recommends this, it is also the default value. It is
the safest option of the three; however, it’s not always the one you need
to use.
■
Replace the file on disk only if the file on disk is older This is
very useful if you are doing a complete restore of a volume, for example
because the volume has become inaccessible. In advanced backup
schemes, you may first need to do a restore of the last Full backup, followed by the Incremental back ups that have been made since this Full
backup to bring a volume back in the most recent state.The Incremental
backup will always contain files that are newer than the ones on the Full
backup; therefore replacing older files is always necessary.
■
Always replace the file on my computer This is useful if you want
to bring the state of a volume back to a previous version, based on available backups. Now you need to overwrite newer files with older versions. In more ad hoc situations, you run the risk of overwriting the
wrong files, only because the filenames match but do not have contents
that are related.
Backup Type Tab
This tab allows you to select a Backup Type that will be used as the default
backup mode. Note that this option is only used if you start a backup on the
Backup tab, using the Start Backup button.The BackupWizard (Advanced) will
not use this option.The possible values, already mentioned in the “Backup
Functionalities” section, are Normal (the default), Copy, Differential, Incremental,
and Daily.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 263
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Backup Log Tab
This tab also has a single option to set, called Information.You can use this
option to set the level of information the Backup log file should contain.You
have the following values:
■
Detailed This will list every folder and file that was backed up in the
backup log, including all other information related to this backup.
Advice: Do not use this option unless you want to find out what the
backup actually writes to the backup file. Remember that if you use this
on a Full backup, with more then 15,000 files, you are not going to be
happy if you want to review the backup log.
■
Summary This will only record the primary information of the
backup.This is the default value.
■
None No log file is created.You should never use this option, because it
leaves you without a simple way of tracking your backups.
Exclude Files Tab
This tab enables you to exclude specific files from ever being backed up (see
Figure 5.31), even if they reside in a folder that is backed up. Here you will add
files that do not contain essential information (for the system or for you), such as
the pagefile, certain log files, and temporary files. Note you can use wild cards or
file extensions to exclude a complete group of files, for example *.tmp or *.mp3.
When you select the Exclude Files tab, you will notice it is divided in two sections.The upper section is labeled Files excluded for all users; the lower section is
labeled Files excluded for user <“current user”>.The latter will change based on
the user currently logged in. If you use this section, remember that you can only
add entries that relate to the current user being the owner of the file.
Both sections have three buttons: Add new, Edit, and Remove.The
Remove button will not delete the entry right away—it first brings up a confirmation dialog box. Both the New and Edit buttons bring up the Add Excluded
Files dialog box (see Figure 5.32).The dialog box shows the frame labeled Do
not back up files of these types, which lets you select a Registered File Type that
you can further specify in the Custom File Mask. Below that the Applies To Path
field determines if the root folder for this exclude is valid.
If you select the check box Applies to all subfolders, every file that is in
one of the subfolders and matches the Custom file mask is excluded from the
backup. In Figure 5.31, you see in the upper section a few entries, note that the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
263
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 264
www.IrPDF.com
264
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
third line has two folders in front of it, indicating that it applies to all subfolders.
The second line is selected and applies to the log file of the Task Scheduler.We
show it here because it contains the same error we pointed out in the
“Scheduling Tasks” section:The name of the log file is Schedlog.txt and not
SchedLgU.txt. So you can change it by clicking Edit, which brings up the dialog
box shown in Figure 5.32.
Figure 5.31 The Options Dialog Box of the Backup Utility Showing the
Exclude Files Tab
Figure 5.32 The Add Excluded Files Dialog Box Creates Filters to Exclude Files
from Being Backed Up
Using the Welcome Tab Functions
The Welcome tab contains three wizards (see Figure 5.28) that enable you to perform the three primary functions of the Backup Tool quickly. As you will see, the
Backup Wizard and the Restore Wizard can be one- or two-stage utilities.The
second stage (Advanced) lets you set more specific options. Because the first stage
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 265
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
of the wizard has a limited number of options, it relies on the Options settings
(under Tools | Options) for more fine-tuning. Let’s examine the Backup
Wizard and the Automated System Recovery Wizard.We discuss the Restore
Wizard in the “Using the Backup Or Restore Wizard” section. Remember that
you can also start these wizards from the Tools menu.
The Backup Wizard (Advanced)
To take a closer look at the Backup Wizard (Advanced), follow these steps:
1. Select the Welcome tab.
2. Click the Backup Wizard (Advanced) button.The first thing you will
notice is that the Backup tab will be selected. If you previously made a
files/folders selection, a dialog box will appear asking you if you want to
use this selection for the wizard. Click No to clear the selection. Now
the Welcome page of the Backup Wizard appears.
3. Click Next.
4. The What To Back Up page appears, which gives you three backup
schemes to choose from:
■
Back up everything on this computer Will back up all local
drives, system state, and mounted drives if you selected this option
on the General page of the Options dialog box (Tools | Options).
■
Backup selected files, drives, or network data Lets you select
the file/folders from My Computer, My Documents, and My
Network Places.This will also lets you select the system state.
■
Only back up the System State data This is self explanatory.
■
If you choose the first or last option go to Step 6. Otherwise, click
Next.
5. Because you choose to do the selection of files/folders and/or system
state yourself, the page Items to Back Up is displayed. Select the folders
and drives you want to back up. Note that the system state is located
under My Computer. Remember that mounted drives are only backed
up if you selected the corresponding option on the General tab of the
Options dialog box. After you complete the selection, click Next.
6. The next page is called Backup Type, Destination, And Name.The name
says it all, you have three options to select:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
265
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 266
www.IrPDF.com
266
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
Select the backup type This is only enabled if more types are
available.The default value is File; another type can be Tape. Note:
This has nothing to do with the Backup Type we discussed earlier,
regarding the Normal, Copy, Incremental, Differential, and Daily
setting.
■
Choose a place to save your backup By default, this is Floppy
(A:), but you can determine another drive/device or folder as the
destination.
■
Type a name for this backup This is by default Backup, but you
should choose a more identifying and unique name. In case the
name already exists, a dialog box appears asking whether you want to
overwrite it.The Backup tool will automatically add the extension
.bkf to the name.
7. Click Next and you will reach the last page of the wizard, called
Completing The Backup Wizard. It gives you a summary of the backup
settings.You can change them by going back, using the Back button.
You also see the Advanced button, which will bring you to the second
stage. If you do not want to go to the Advanced stage, click Finish and
the backup will start.
8. If you do choose to set the options in the second stage, click
Advanced.
9. The first advanced page is the Type Of Backup page. It will let you
select between Normal, Copy, Incremental, Differential, and Daily. Note
that the default selection always is Normal and is not determined by the
setting on the Backup Type page of the Options dialog box (Tools |
Options). Click Next.
10. The How To Back Up appears, which enables you to select the following check box options:
■
Verify data after backup The default setting depends on how this
option is set on the General tab of the Options dialog box.
■
Use hardware compression, if available This is only enabled if
you use a tape device. Setting this option is only useful if the drive
indeed has the hardware compression functionality on board.
■
Disable volume shadow copy This is deselected by default, but if
selected it prevents open files from being written to the backup file.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 267
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
We strongly recommend that you keep this option deselected,
because in most cases volume shadow copy is beneficial to you. A
case in which you would not want to do this is if your Database
Server is active. If the Database Server is not shut down, the backup
of the database files is worthless, because they will not be synchronized.You have two choices: shutdown the Database Server or leave
the database backup to the Database Backup Utility.
11. Click Next and the Backup Options page is shown, which presents you
with two options:
■
Append or Replace existing databases This enables you to
append the current backup to the media after the backups that
already reside on that media.Therefore, you should select the
Append choice. If you use the Replace choice, the backup files on
that media will be overwritten.
■
Allow only the owner and the Administrator access This is
only enabled if you are replacing the backups on a media. In most
circumstances, you don’t want to limit the access, especially if you
have proper backup procedures in place. By default, this check box is
not selected.
12. Click Next and the When To Back Up page is shown.You have to
answer the question “When do you want to run the backup?” You have
two choices:
■
Now This is the default setting.
■
Later You can use this to schedule the backup job. After you select
this option, the content of the Schedule Entry frame is enabled and
lets you enter the Job name.The Start date is set to the current
date and time—you can change this by clicking Set Schedule. If
you do so, the Schedule Job dialog box is displayed and except for
the Task tab, it is similar to the Scheduled Task Properties dialog box
(see Figure 5.25).
13. If you selected to run the backup job now, go to Step 14. If you selected
Later, click Next and the Set Account Information dialog box pops up,
asking you to enter a username and password.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
267
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 268
www.IrPDF.com
268
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
14. Click Next and that will land you on the last page, named Completing
The Backup Wizard.This indeed finishes the second stage after you click
Finish. Depending on how you set the schedule, the backup may or
may not start now.
Configuring & Implementing…
About Volume Shadow Copy
The ability of the backup utility to create a volume Shadow Copy should
be seen as a big advantage of the backup utility. To understand this, you
should first know what the volume Shadow Copy is all about. The concept is fairly simple: Instead of starting to back up the files and folders
of a volume, the volume is first copied in the state it is, including
open/in-use files. The shadow copy is made at system level and controlled by the “MS Software Shadow Copy provider.” This copy is a
replica of the volume at content level, so you know that you can make
an exact restore of the volume at the time the shadow copy has been
made. Other advantages of using volume Shadow Copy are as follows:
■
Running the backup will not interfere with user access to the
volume, thus users do not have to be locked out in order to
make a backup.
■
Open files are also being backed up, because the shadow
copy of these files are the “closed” version.
■
Only reliable files, without inconsistencies or which are not
corrupted in any other way, are part of the shadow copy, and
therefore the backup does not contain inconsistent files.
■
Applications do not have to be shut down to be able to back
up the application’s (open) files. Note that only databases
that totally reside on a single volume can be backed up reliably, thus without loss of data.
The drawback of the shadow copy is that you need sufficient
storage space to accommodate the shadow copies, and we are talking
gigabytes. To get a sense of the shadow copies that are locally retained,
you can use the command-line tool Vssadmin.exe (volume Shadow copy
Service Administrative command-line tool). The syntax of the Vssadmin
tool is as follows:
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 269
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Vssadmin list shadows [/set={shadow copy set GUID}]
Vssadmin list providers
Vssadmin list writers
The first command lists all the shadow copies that reside on local
storage. The set switch/parameter references the set of shadow copies
that are made at the same time, based on the GUID (Globally Unique
Identifier).
The second command list all the shadow copy providers that are
running on the system. The default setting for this is a single provider
called “MS Software Shadow Copy provider 1.0.”
The third command lists all the shadow copy writers, controlled by
the provider. By default there will be five writers: “Microsoft Writer
(Bootable State),” “Microsoft Writer (Service State),” “WMI Writer,” “IIS
Metabase Writer,” and “MSDEWriter.”
Once you click Finish, you are not able to change the backup settings. If the
backup job is already started, you cancel it and start over again. If you scheduled
the backup job sometime in the future, you have to delete it and start over again.
However, you are able to change the scheduling properties. As the backup is running, you can follow the progress of the backup on the Backup Progress dialog
box (see Figure 5.33).
Figure 5.33 The Backup Progress Dialog Box Gives Detailed Information on
the Backup Process
Once the backup has finished, you can click Report to see the backup log.
To give you an idea what a Report (backup log), looks like, here is an actual
example:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
269
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 270
www.IrPDF.com
270
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Backup Status
Operation: Backup
Active backup destination: File
Media name: "Backup.bkf created 9/23/2001 at 11:02 AM"
Backup (via shadow copy) of "C: WIN-XP"
Backup set #1 on media #1
Backup description: ""
Media name: "Backup.bkf created 9/23/2001 at 11:02 AM"
Backup Type: Copy
Backup started on 9/23/2001 at 11:04 AM.
WARNING: Portions of "\WINDOWS\JAVA\Packages\ZZVNBXBD.ZIP" cannot be
read. The backed up data is corrupt or incomplete.
This file will not restore correctly.
Backup completed on 9/23/2001 at 11:20 AM.
Directories: 808
Files: 13776
Corrupt: 1
Bytes: 899,280,348
Time:
15 minutes and
47 seconds
Backup (via shadow copy) of "System State"
Backup set #2 on media #1
Backup description: ""
Media name: "Backup.bkf created 9/23/2001 at 11:02 AM"
Backup Type: Copy
Backup started on 9/23/2001 at 11:20 AM.
Backup completed on 9/23/2001 at 11:24 AM.
Directories: 140
Files: 2117
Bytes: 338,119,614
Time:
3 minutes and
39 seconds
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 271
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Backup (via shadow copy) of "C: WIN-XP"
Backup set #3 on media #1
Backup description: ""
Media name: "Backup.bkf created 9/23/2001 at 11:02 AM"
Backup Type: Copy
Backup started on 9/23/2001 at 11:24 AM.
Backup completed on 9/23/2001 at 11:24 AM.
Directories: 3
Files: 2
Bytes: 15,417
Time:
2 seconds
The Automated System Recovery Wizard
Let’s look at the Automated System Recovery Preparation Wizard (ASR Wizard).
This wizard is a special variant of the Backup Wizard.This wizard makes a Normal
backup of the complete system, thus all volumes, no questions asked. Additionally, it
will copy a few configuration files to a floppy, again no questions asked.The files
put on the floppy are equal to the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) you have in
other Windows versions. Only the ERD could help you with boot, Registry, and
system file problems. If your disk crashed, the only way out was to reinstall the
complete system and then restore the backups you had.This ASR Wizard goes a
step further, by also making a complete backup of your system.The Recovery
Console (see Chapter 15) can restore this backup without first reinstalling the
system. Because the ERD and the backup are made at the same time, they form a
perfect pair and will not contain inconsistencies and discrepancies.
Remember that you will need a backup medium that is accessible by the
Recovery Console; this will most likely require several gigabytes of data. Note
that in case of a recovery, your restore is as up-to-date as the backup made.You
are advised to run the ASR Wizard every time a significant hardware and/or software change is made to a system. Note that you need to run on every system to
be able to make a clean recovery, and never be convinced that two PCs are the
same because you bought them at the same time. Now let us look what it takes
to run the ASR Wizard and create a recovery point for your system.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
271
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 272
www.IrPDF.com
272
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
1. Select Tools | ASR Wizard.
2. The first thing you will notice is that the Backup tab will be selected. In
the situation you previously made files/folders selection, a dialog box
will appear asking you if you want to use this selection for the wizard.
Click No to clear the selection. Now the Automated System Recovery
Preparation Wizard open with its Welcome page. Click Next.
3. The next page is called Backup Destination. Note that the ASR Wizard
will make a backup of everything on your Windows XP system, so you do
not get an option to make a selection. On this page, you need to choose:
■
Backup media type
■
Backup media or file name Notice that you cannot choose the
Floppy as a backup media. Use Browse to determine the destination.
4. Click Next.
5. In case you have selected a media type that is not local to the system, for
example a backup unit or folder of a Windows Server in the network, a
Warning dialog box is displayed, informing you that this media may not
be accessible during a recovery. Click OK to continue, or Cancel if you
want to rethink the situation.
6. You have reached the last page of the wizard, but you are not off the
hook yet. Click Finish.
7. The Full backup will promptly start and continue for a while, depending
on the amount of data that needs to be backed up and the speed of
the backup media. Instead of staring to the monitor, make use of the
time available and get a blank diskette or one with at least 300 kilobytes
available.
8. Once the backup finishes, you will be asked to insert a blank floppy in
the A drive.Three files will be written to the floppy: asr.sif, asrpnp.sif,
and setup.log. All three are plain-text files that describe the current
system state. If you lose one of these files, you are not able to perform an
automated System Recovery. Note: “asr” stands for Automated System
Recovery; “asrpnp” stands for Automated System Recovery Plug ‘n Play
(describing the current PnP settings); and “sif ” stands for State
Information File, or System Information File.
How the recovery takes place is addressed in the “Restoring Your System”
section. Chapter 15 also addresses the topic of recovery in a broader setting.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 273
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Using the Backup Tab Function
When you select the Backup tab, you will see a page that is similar to Figure 5.34.
It shows different types of information:
■
The Folder Explorer lets you browse your local and network drives and
select drives, folders, and/or files, including the System State to be
backed up. As you are accustomed to, the right pane shows the content
of the drive/folder you selected in the left pane, which is the folder list.
■
The Backup Destination, which you can set to File or Tape, depending
on the backup devices that you have locally available.
■
The Backup media or file name, which you can set using the Browse
button.
■
At the right of the Backup Destination are the primary Backup options,
which you can set through the Options dialog box (Tools | Options).
■
At the far right, the Start Backup button resides. As you click Start
Backup, the Backup Job Information dialog box will appear.
Figure 5.34 Backup Tab of the Backup Utility Enables the Direct Creation of a
Backup Job
The Backup Job Information dialog box (see Figure 5.35) enables you to
set/enter additional information to control the backup job and is therefore more
than an information dialog box.The different items are the following:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
273
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 274
www.IrPDF.com
274
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
Backup description By default, this is set to Set created <today> at
<current time>, but you can change it to your own liking or naming
convention.
■
If the media already contains backups frame Lets you choose
whether to Append the new backup to the media or to Overwrite all
backup files currently available on the media.
■
If the media is overwritten, use this label to identify the media
Must be seen as the Media Description that is set by default to <backup
filename> created <today> at <current time> and again you can rename
it to anything you want the media to be defined by. Note: If you are using
tapes, it makes sense to have a naming convention that lets you easily
identify a tape out of your media set. For example, if you have a set of six
tapes (five workdays and one weekend) that you change daily, you can
have a naming convention “<System Name>.<Day Name>.<Set number>”.
This would make the following tape names:“jdoe-XP-01.Mon.1”, …. ,
“jdoe-XP-01.Fri.1”, and “jdoe-XP-01.WkEnd.1”.
■
Allow only the owner and the Administrator access This is the
same field seen on the Backup Wizard (Advanced) and is only enabled if
you are replacing the backups on a media.
■
The Start Backup button Starts the backup when you click it.
■
The Schedule button Brings you to the Scheduled Job Options
dialog box, which enables you to enter a Job name and set a Start
Date.You can set the Start Date by clicking Properties, which brings
up the Schedule Job dialog box, as already described in the “Backup
Wizard (Advanced)” section, and lets you create a backup job that is
handled by the Task Scheduler. Note: As you click Schedule, a
Scheduling dialog box may appear informing you that in order to
schedule the backup job you need to save the selection. Remember
what was mentioned when the we discussed the Job menu.You can save
the selection that you have made in the backup Folder Explorer, as you
can load a selection. In order for the scheduled backup job to run somewhere in the future, it must have a way of knowing what it needs to
back up. It uses a Backup Selection file to bring this about. So if by
some twist of faith you rename, overwrite, or delete one or more of
these selection files, it is more than likely that one or more backup job
will no longer run, because they lost their selection information.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 275
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
■
The Advanced button Brings you to the Advanced Backup Options
dialog box.The default settings in the dialog box are based on the settings in the Options dialog box (under Tools | Options).The options
are as follows:
■
Back up data that is in Remote Storage
■
Verify data after backup
■
If possible, compress the backup data to save space
■
Automatically backup System Protected Files with the System State
■
Disable volume shadow copy
■
Backup Type (thus one of Normal, Copy, Incremental, Differential,
or Daily)
The Cancel button Breaks off the creation of a backup job.
Figure 5.35 The Backup Job Information Dialog Box Finalizes the Creation of
a Backup Job
NOTE
At a number of places, we mentioned the ability to schedule backup
jobs. After entering one or more scheduled backup jobs, you should
open the Scheduled Tasks Explorer. You will see that these backup jobs
are part of the Scheduled Tasks list. If you open the Properties dialog box
of one of these scheduled backup jobs, you will see that it calls the command-line application ntbackup.exe.
After all this information, you may wonder how you ever can control all this.
In a way, we have been spinning loose ends that we are about to tie together.
Remember that we mentioned at the beginning of the discussion on the Backup
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
275
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 276
www.IrPDF.com
276
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Tool that the main reason you backup up is to be able to restore. Restoring means
getting information back with a minimum loss of data.You can only do this if
you regularly make backups.This is much easier to do if you schedule these
backup jobs automatically.
Using the Schedule Jobs Tab Function
As you open the Schedule Jobs tab, you are welcomed by a monthly calendar (see
Figure 5.36).When you take the calendar as your primary view, setting up
backup jobs become surprisingly easy.Take a closer look at Figure 5.36.You see
on every Monday through Friday an icon with a capital “I.” On the monitor, this
will appear in green; in this book it will be light grey.The icon shows something
resembling a disk unit and a tape unit united by a magic wand, representing the
Backup Wizard.The Weekend days have the same icon, with a darker grey “N,”
which will be blue on your monitor.The “N” stands for Normal backup and the
“I” stands for Incremental backup.
Not only does it look straightforward, but if you work with it you will see
how easy it is to manage. So what do you have to do? First of all, you need to
know what kind of backup you want to perform on what dates. In Figure 5.36,
you have the Incremental backups on weekdays and Full backups on the
weekend days. By combining the information that is provided under Scheduling
Tasks and the Backup Wizard, you can go ahead and create backup jobs:
1. Select a date on the calendar and click Add Job to start the Backup
Wizard (Advanced).You can also double-click the day on the calendar,
which does the same thing.You can add as many backup jobs on one
day as possible. As long as there is room on the calendar date, an icon is
added to that date.
2. Point to a backup icon on the calendar and click it.This will open up
the Scheduled Job Options dialog box, which lets you change the
scheduling properties, and it shows you the backup information on the
Backup Details tab.
Although you work from a calendar, the Task Scheduler manages the backup
jobs.The calendar is a representation of the possible jobs on the calendar dates
shown. In fact, the Task Scheduler will calculate the next scheduling time, after
the current one becomes outdated.The calendar determines the backup jobs
based on the scheduling formula.This means that as you scroll through the calendar, for every new month the Backup Utility will check which of the available
backup jobs would have a scheduling formula that is valid for that specific date.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 277
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
You need to understand that a backup job is not scheduled separately for every
day, so there is no practical chance of running of out room on the calendar.What
this also means is that the backup jobs that are shown on the calendar somewhere
in the future are “predictions” based on the scheduling formula. As the formula
changes, these predictions change as well.
Figure 5.36 The Schedule Jobs Tab Enables Calendar Controlled Backup
Scheduling
Using the Backup Or Restore Wizard
As mentioned in the beginning of the section “Working with the Backup Tool”,
we now return to the Backup Or Restore Wizard.We did not get further than
the Welcome page, but now we will go through the remainder of the Backup Or
Restore Wizard.
1. If you are still in Advanced Mode, select Tools | Switch to Wizard
mode to get back to where we left off.
2. Click Next.This will bring you to the Backup Or Restore page. By
default Backup files and settings is selected.That is OK, because we
only want to discuss the backup part here.
3. Click Next and the What To Back Up page shows. It asks you “What do
you want to back up?” and gives you four possibilities:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
277
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 278
www.IrPDF.com
278
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
My Documents and settings This will back up your information,
which is everything located under <SystemDrive>:\Documents and
Settings\<UserName>, for example C:\Documents and
Settings\Administrator. It will also backup the system state.
■
Everyone’s documents and settings This will back up the
information of all users, thus everything
under<SystemDrive>:\Documents and Settings.
■
All information on this computer This will perform an
Automated System Recovery Preparation.
■
Let me choose what to back up
Figure 5.37 The First Page of the Backup or Restore Wizard Presents
Four Discrete Backup Options
4. If you choose one of the first three options, go to Step 5. If you choose
the last option, click Next.This will bring up the Items To Back Up
page (see Figure 5.38). By now this will be familiar to you. Select the
part you want to back up.
5. Click Next, which will bring you to the page Backup Type, Destination,
And Name.We have also discussed this page in the context of the
Backup Wizard (Advanced).You can select the following options:
■
Select the backup type.
■
Choose a place to save your backup—use the Browse button to
locate the location.
■
Type a name for this backup.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 279
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Figure 5.38 Selecting the Files to be Backed Up Using the Backup or
Restore Wizard
6. Click Next, which brings you to the final page (of the first stage). Click
Next to start the backup and click Advanced if you want to continue
to the second advanced stage. From this point on, these steps are exactly
the same as discussed in “The Backup Wizard (Advanced)”section, so
don’t discuss them again here.
Designing & Planning…
Backing Up Your Data, All Year Long
Being aware of the need to make backups is important, and acting upon
it even more so. You should take several factors into account when setting up your backup plan:
■
The number of documents, databases, and other files that
change on a daily/weekly basis.
■
The importance of these files. In other words what is the
damage if you should lose them.
■
The number of changes made to your system configurations,
such as installing/uninstalling applications, on a weekly basis.
As with all security issues, your backup strategy has everything to
do with risk management. The higher the risk, the more proactive steps
you need to take. The bigger the damage when losing documents/files,
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
279
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 280
www.IrPDF.com
280
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
the higher the investment should be to provide an adequate backup
solution. The more changes are made to a system, the higher the risk of
the system becoming corrupted.
To give you an example of a sensible backup cycle, we will assume
that we are discussing a five-PC office environment connected to a local
network to share printers, where all the business documents are stored
on a local disk and one or two times per month, changes are made to
the system. One of the PCs has a tape unit.
A good backup cycle would be as follows:
■
Approximately once a month, a Normal back up of the complete system (to tape)
■
Weekly, a full backup of My Documents of All Users, application data, and System State (to tape)
■
Daily, an Incremental backup of My Documents of All Users,
application data, and System State (to tape)
■
Every four hours, a Differential backup of My Document of
All Users, as well as application data (to another PC)
Let’s start with the last point, because that one will raise the most
questions. A Differential backup will back up everything that is changed
since the last Full (Normal) backup, without affecting the Archive bit.
These Differential backups are used to reduce the loss of data during the
day. By writing these different backups to another PC, this goes quickly
but does not interfere with the daily backup. The chance that both the
primary PC and the PC with the differential backups are going on the
blink at the same time is very slim. We do not opt for Incremental
backups every four hours, because that would mean that restoring a
system could become very bothersome. For example, a PC “dies” on
Friday afternoon, just before the weekly full backup. You have to restore
last week’s Normal backup, followed by at least four incremental
backups a day, totaling at least 18 incremental backups. This is not feasible. In the backup scheme proposed, this would mean one Normal
backup, four Incremental backups, and one Differential backup. Note
that every Differential is equal to the previous incremental plus the
changes in the last four hours.
The daily incremental backup and weekly Normal (Full) backup are
straightforward, but because only one of the PCs has the tape unit
attached, you have to find a way to use it effectively. The easiest way is
the make the backup file of the four PCs without the unit to the one
having the unit, then make the Incremental/Normal backup directly to
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 281
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
tape. Most important is to get the timing right, so that the backup to
tape does not start before all other four backups are completed. A way
to do this is make use of the “system idle” aspect of the scheduled task.
As the other systems are still backing up, which can be done parallel, the
system will certainly not idle. So using the Idle Time option (on the
Settings tab of the scheduled tasks Properties dialog box), you should
set it in a way that the system should have been idle for 10–15 minutes,
and if not, keep retrying for the coming hours.
Another slightly more elaborate way is to write a script that checks
the backup folder for all four files to be present, before it runs ntbackup
backup application from the script. The script is wrapped up in a scheduled task, where you should use the Repeat Task option on the Advanced
Schedule Options dialog box. After the backup, the files should be
removed from the backup folder to prevent repetitive backing up.
The monthly Normal (Full) Backup of the complete system, creates
a point in time that makes all previously made backup obsolete, because
everything is in this backup. Because this backup will take up the most
time and storage, you should consider running them not all five at the
same day/night. A better solution is to use every Sunday to perform this
backup for one system, and because we only have five systems, we can
do it in a five-week cycle.
Another consideration is performing an Automated System
Recovery Preparation for the system with the tape unit on a regular,
because the closer the ASR backup is to the current configuration, the
quicker you can have this system up and running again. For the other
four systems, you can use a somewhat different approach, based on a
minimal installation. Make a bare-bones installation of the PC, including
networking and make an ASR backup, but before doing so, perform a
cleanup and Disk Defragmentation. You need a portable removable
storage device that can hold the backup. In case one of these four systems make an unrecoverable crash, you need to perform the following
restore backup, of course after the system’s hardware is made fully
operational again:
1. Perform an Automated System Recovery.
2. Restore the last Monthly (five-week) Normal backup; first
restore it from tape to the system containing the tape unit.
3. Restore the last Weekly Normal backup; first restore it from
tape to the system containing the tape unit.
4. Restore all Daily Incremental backup, made after the last
weekly Normal backup; again first restore from tape.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
281
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 282
www.IrPDF.com
282
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
5. Restore the last Differential backup, made before the crash.
You should take one other issue into consideration, namely “tape
rotation.” Important to keep in mind is that tapes are not perfect and
are subject to wear, so do not try to save money on tapes, because that
may turn out to be very expensive money one day. It is good practice to
retire all tapes in a yearly cycle, thus replacing them with new ones.
Additionally, create two-week sets of tapes, each containing six tapes
and two monthly tapes. The idea behind this is to increase your opportunities to be able to restore a system. Remember you are never sure you
can read a tape back without errors until you do it. After two weeks you
start overwriting the tapes again. This has another advantage, you have
a two-week window in which you can restore prior versions of files. This
is a simple tape rotation scheme that works great is the sheer majority
of situations.
We end this sidebar with a final note: Consider to periodically, each
two to three months, running a complete restore procedure, to test if
your backup procedure and backups are A-OK.
Restoring Your System
Even though we hope it never happens, it is very likely that we at one time will
run into the misfortune of losing a few files to an irreversible disk crash. But
because you have a rock-solid backup strategy, you will only lose a few hundred
bucks for a new hard disk.The only issue is now, how to restore the backups you
made. Let’s first list what the different restore possibilities are, before going into
detail:
■
The Restore Wizard (Advanced)
■
The Restore And Manage Media tab of the Backup Utility
■
The Restore part of the Backup Or Restore Wizard
■
The Automated System Recovery
■
The System Restore tool
Using the Restore Wizard (Advanced)
To use the Restore Wizard (Advanced), follow these steps:
1. Open the Backup Tool in Advanced Mode and select the Welcome tab.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 283
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
2. Start the Restore Wizard (Advanced) through the button on the
Welcome tab or through Tools | Restore Wizard.
3. Before the Welcome page of the wizard appears, it first selects the
Restore and Manage Media Tab in the Backup Utility.
4. The Welcome page of the Restore Wizard shows, click Next to open
the What To Restore page.The primary part of the page is the Media
Explorer.You start out with the available media in the left list and the
right list the backup files on that medium. As you expand the media in
the left list you can select the backup file of which the root of the
backup catalog is shown in the right pane.You can drill-down to file
level, enabling you to make a selection of drives, files, and folders from
different backups you want to restore. Note:You can use the Browse
button to locate backup files that are not listed. Once you are done
selecting, click Next.
5. This brings you on the final page of the Restore Wizard and after you
click Finish the restore will begin.You can monitor the progress
through the Restore Progress dialog box. Note: If you pay close attention to the information display in the Restore Progress dialog box, you
will notice that before starting the actual restore, a System Restore
Checkpoint is created. See the section “Using the System Restore Tool”
for more information on this subject.
6. Before you click Finish you have the option to go to the second stage,
by clicking Advanced. If you do so, you arrive on the first advanced
page, which is named Where To Restore; it lets you set one option:
Restore Files To, which can have the following values:
■
Original location Restores every file and folder back to its original location, determined from the root of the same drive.
■
Alternate location Restores the files and folders to a different
root.That is, you can select a different root. For example, suppose all
the files and folders were backed up relative to C:\. Now you determine an alternate location, E:\RestoreHere.This means that a file
whose path was originally C:\Program Files\Appl1\File1, will now
be placed in E:\RestoreHere\Program Files\Appl1\File1. After you
select this option, a new field called Alternate Location, will show,
including a Browse button.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
283
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 284
www.IrPDF.com
284
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
Single Folder Will restore only files and place all these files in a
single directory, independent from the original folder where they
were located. If you select this option, a new field called Folder
Name will show, including a Browse button.
After you make your choice, click Next.
7. You will now see the How To Restore page, again with one option:
When restoring files that already exist on your computer.You
can choose from the following options:
■
Leave existing files (Recommended) This is called Do not
replace files on the Restore tab of the Options dialog box.
■
Replace existing files if they are older than the backup files
■
Replace existing files
After you make your choice, click Next.
8. You will now see the Advanced Restore Options, with three check box
options:
■
Restore security settings As you back up NTFS volumes, the
security settings of files and folders are also backed up.You have to
decide if you want these settings to be restored. If you restore the
files to the system from which they were backed up, this may not
cause problems. However, if you restore data on another system, perhaps even in another domain, it is very likely that significant security
conflicts will occur.
■
Restore junction points, but not the folders and file data
they reference This has to do with mounted drives.We don’t discuss it any further, because it requires expert knowledge to fully
comprehend.
■
Preserve existing volume mounting points Again has to do
with mounted drives, but here you prevent current mounting points
from being overwritten by the restore.
Click Next and you arrive at the final page of the second.
9. Click Finish to start the restore.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 285
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
NOTE
The catalogs that are presented to you are the on-line catalogs. Most of
the time they are actual, but if you want to restore large amounts of
data from tape, or any other medium for that matter, you should read
the catalog from the backup file. You do this by right-clicking the desired
backup file and selecting Catalog.
Using the Restore and Manage
Media Tab of the Backup Utility
We skipped the Restore and Manage Media tab when we discussed the Backup
Utility, so that we could it discuss it together with the other Restore functions.
So, let’s take a look at it:
1. If you do not already have the Backup Utility started, do so.
2. Click the Restore and Manage Media tab, which will show something similar to Figure 5.39.You notice a lot of things you already saw.
Let’s recap what is shown:
■
The Media Explorer that lets you select the files/folders you want to
restore
■
Below the Explorer, you find the option Restore Files To, as discussed in the previous section “Using the Restore Wizard
(Advanced).” Here you can select one of the three values.The
Alternate Location field, including the Browse button will appear
if the value is not set to Original location.
■
To the right of this field is additional restore information that is
based on the option set in the Options dialog box.
■
At the far right is the Start Restore button.
3. As you click Start Restore, the Confirm Restore dialog box appears,
asking you to confirm the restore of data.To do so click OK. However,
this dialog box also has an Advanced button.
4. Clicking Advanced brings up the Advanced Restore Options dialog
box that contains the three options previously discussed in the section
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
285
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 286
www.IrPDF.com
286
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
“Using the Restore Wizard (Advanced).”Two additional options are
listed, both disabled. Because they have nothing to do with Windows XP
Professional, but are already reserved for the successor of Windows 2000
Server, we will not discuss them here. Click OK and you return to the
Confirm Restore dialog box, and you can click OK to start the restore.
Figure 5.39 The Restore and Manage Media Tab of the Backup
Utility Enables Specific Restores
Using the Restore Portion of
the Backup or Restore Wizard
We can keep it very brief, because this is a repeat of previous material. As you
switch back to the Backup or Restore Wizard and select Restore files and settings on the second page of the wizard, followed by clicking Next, the page
What to Restore appears. From this point the Backup or Restore Wizard is
exactly the same as the Restore Wizard (Advanced).
Using the Automated System Recovery
When, somewhere in the future, you come to a point that your system was
unable to boot from hard disk, your Automated System Recovery (ASR) can
come to the rescue. Remember that the ASR brings your system back to the
state it was when you created the ASR.You will still need to restore the last Full
backup and eventual Incremental backups.You will need the ASR diskette you
made, the media where the full ASR backup was saved, and you need the
Windows XP Professional CD-ROM.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 287
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
First, be sure that you repair or replace the hard disk and assure yourself it is
working properly. Now you can boot from the Windows XP Professional CDROM. In the first stage of the Setup, you can choose to perform an ASR. Choose
that option by pressing F2. Now you will be asked to insert the floppy, and after
the Setup reads these ASR files, it starts off with an accelerated Setup procedure.
Once all the initial information is entered, it will ask you to supply the media with
the Full backup. After restoring the backup and rebooting the system, you have an
operational Windows XP box again. All that is left is restoring the last backups you
have in order to bring your system completely up to date.
Using the System Restore Tool
The first time that you start the System Restore Tool, you will see something that
will not be in sync with what you expect. So open System Restore (under Start
| All Programs | Accessories | System Tools).The System Restore
window will show (see Figure 5.40). Before continuing, let’s first discuss what
System Restore is. System Restore is a utility that is first introduced with
Windows XP. If System Restore is enabled, it will take periodic (once a day)
snapshots of the System State, also called System Restore Checkpoints. It automatically makes a backup of the System State on disk. As Windows XP becomes
corrupted through a wrong restore of a backup or install/uninstall of an application, you are able to restore a Restore Checkpoint that is made at a point prior
to the moment where things went wrong.This is why the Restore Wizard first
makes a System Restore Checkpoint before performing the restore. If the backup
would overwrite essential information, you are able to undo it by restoring the
system to just before the restore.
The best advice is to make a Restore Checkpoint prior to major changes to
your system. Especially because this Restore leaves your documents, e-mail, and
so on untouched. So even though the system is restored to a prior state, e-mails
and documents that are created after that Restore Checkpoint remain available.
Beside the Restore Wizard creating automatic Restore Points and the manual
creation of Restore Points, there are other moments that Windows XP will automatically create a Restore Point:
■
Initial Restore Checkpoint This is made the first time the installed
Windows XP system is booted.
■
Windows XP Automatic Update Service Restore Checkpoints
These are made if you install an automatic update.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
287
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 288
www.IrPDF.com
288
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
■
Application Installer Restore Checkpoints These are made if an
application is installed using a latest version of an installer program such
as Windows Installer or InstallShield.
■
Periodic System Restore Checkpoints These are made once every
24 hours, or if the system has been turned off for more than 24 hours, a
restore point is created after the system is booted and idle.
■
Restoration Restore Checkpoints These are made every time you
perform a System Restore, so that you are able to restore the system to
the state it was in just before you performed the System Restore.
■
Unsigned Device Driver Restore Checkpoints These are made
before a driver is installed that doesn’t have signature/certification of the
Windows Hardware Quality Labs. A driver gets this certification only if
it passes all compliance tests for Windows XP, by which Microsoft wants
to increase the stability and reliability of the Windows system. And
because a nonsigned device driver may not comply with these rigid
standards, it may create instability, which is why a Restore Point is created before it is installed.
Figure 5.40 The System Restore Window Enables the Creation or Restoration
of Restore Checkpoints
Let’s get back to the System Restore tool.The Welcome to System Restore
page has one option, called To begin, select the task that you want to perform.The options are as follows:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 289
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
■
Restore my computer to an earlier time
■
Create a restore point
■
Undo my last restoration This option will only be available if you
have performed a System Restore.
You can select one of the three and then click Next. Before doing so, you
should take notice of the System Restore Settings hyperlink at the left side of
the page. If you click the link, the System Properties dialog box will open with
the System Restore tab selected (see Figure 5.41). On this page, you can turn on
and off the System Restore Service. Of course you must be member of the
Administrator group to do so.You can also set the Disk space usage that can be
used by Restore Points. Note: One of the reasons you should regularly run a
Disk Cleanup is to remove old restore points. Note that no System Restores will
be made as the reserved space is depleted. Only cleaning up old Restore Points
will reinstate the creation of Restore Checkpoints. Also note that turning off the
System Restore Service will automatically clear all existing System Restore
Checkpoints.The reason is that the System Restore Service has no way of
knowing how reliable these Restore Checkpoints are, because it can not determine what happened to the system while it was turned off.Therefore, removing
them will prevent any confusion. By the way, every time there has been an interruption of creating Restore Checkpoints, such as an “out of storage” situation,
old Restore Checkpoints are removed and a new one is created with the reinstating of the checkpoint creation.
Figure 5.41 The System Restore Page of the System Properties Dialog Box
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
289
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 290
www.IrPDF.com
290
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Now let’s see what these options do, starting with the least harmful Create a
Restore Point:
1. Select the Create a Restore Point option and click Next.This will
bring up the Create a Restore Point page.
2. You are prompted to enter a Restore point description, which makes it
easier to distinguish the restore point later on when you need it.
3. Click Create and the system gets busy for a number of seconds.
4. You should now see the Restore Point Created page, showing the date,
time, and description of the Restore Point. Click Home to go back to
the Welcome page.
The next option is Undo my last restoration:
1. Select the Undo my last restoration option and click Next.
2. This will bring up the Confirm Restoration Undo page, which contains
a number of warnings.We just click Next.
3. The hard disk becomes active and the system shuts itself down.
4. The System Restore dialog box appears that shows the Restoring files’
progress.
5. After the restore is completed, the system will reboot again.
6. Once the system is rebooted, the System Restore dialog box shows the
Undo Complete page; click OK and the System Restore tool finishes
and you can check whether everything still works.
And finally, the Restore my computer to an earlier time option:
1. Select the Restore my computer to an earlier time option and click
Next.
2. The Select a Restore Point page (see Figure 5.42) will be brought up.
This shows a monthly calendar and a daily window listing the restore
points that were made on the selected date. Note that the days that have
a Restore Point have their day number in bold.
3. After you have selected a Restore Point, click Next.
4. The Confirm Restore Point Selection page shows, again with warnings.
Click Next.
5. The system will be shut down and restarted.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 291
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Figure 5.42 The Select A Restore Point Page of the System
Restore Tools
6. The System Restore dialog box appears, showing the Restore progress.
7. After the restoring of files is completed, the system reboots.
8. Once the system is rebooted, the System Restore dialog box shows
the Restoration Complete page; click OK and the System Restore tools
finishes.
9. You need to check if the problems the system had are solved. If not, the
problem lies somewhere other than the System State.
A final note on System Restore: If you encrypted one or more of the system
files that are also part of a System Restore, a subsequent System Restoration can
put back the unencrypted versions.Therefore, delete all existing Restore Points,
thus turning off System Restore, before encrypting the files and the subsequent
activation of the System Restore will do the trick.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
291
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 292
www.IrPDF.com
292
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Summary
Maintenance of your system to sustain its reliability and performance is a crucial
factor in the usage of Windows XP, as it is for every (complex) operating system.
To assist you in this task,Windows XP comes with a set of Systems Tools. After
you installed from scratch or upgraded your previous OS, which we do not
advise, the first System Tool you should be using is Disk Cleanup, to get rid of
temporary files and other reminisces of that installation/upgrade. Adding files and
subsequently removing them introduces disk fragmentation, which can spiral out
of control, slowly decreasing your system’s performance if you do not take control.To curb this behavior, you can use Disk Defragmenter, which will reduce the
defragmentation of files to virtually none, additionally trying to group the free
disk space.
Once you have your system installed, you can pursue two paths, either will
lead to the same goal: a finalized Windows XP system ready to use.The smart
approach is to use System Restore, which enables you to take a snapshot of the
System State, covering the Registry, COM+ Class Database, and boot files, and
some other vital files and settings.This snapshot is called a Restore Checkpoint,
which you can roll your system back to if an installation goes south and corrupts
the Registry or general working of the system. Backing up your system, using the
Backup Utility is an even a better thing to do, in case your systems grind to a halt.
In fact, the Backup Utility comes with an Automated System Recovery Wizard
that not only makes a full backup of your system, but also will provide you with
the means to make a quick recovery from such a significant failure. Using one of
the five Backup Utility modes, you can save your valuable data by regularly
backing up your system automated by the calendar-driven backup job scheduling.
This will lead you to the Scheduled Tasks tool that offers you the opportunity to
schedule tasks you have to perform on a regular basis. Once you have created the
task, your Windows XP system will take care of it from there on.
We mentioned two paths; the second path will start you off with transferring
your files and settings from your previous “old” system to your new Windows XP
system.You can do this by diskette, tape, but also over the network. It will not
only transfer everything in the My Documents folder, but even all your applications settings and Favorites, saving a lot of time now that you do not have to
configure your Windows XP applications.This File And Settings Transfer Wizard
is also a new tool to Windows; it can transfer files and settings back and forth
between all Windows platforms.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 293
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
The Windows XP System Tools may never become the most popular part of
Windows XP, but at one point or another, you will recognize the importance of
them. So use them and keep control over your system, before it takes over and
cruises down a road you do not want to go.
Solutions Fast Track
Defragmenting Your Hard Disk
; The Disk Defragmenter tool rearranges the files on a disk/volume, so
that every file occupies a contiguous space on disk storage, eliminating
file fragmentation. It will also try to group the different blocks of free
disk space in one large contiguous area, eliminating free space
fragmentation. So after significant changes to a volume, like after a Disk
Cleanup or uninstalling of an application, you should run the Disk
Defragmenter to improve speed and reliability of the disk.
; The Disk Defragmenter is built to provide defragmentation functionality
for local storage on standalone systems and servers.This tool does have
its limitations, but it also has great benefits, such as keeping up the
reliability and performance.
; As with the most other System Tools, you need to be member of the
Administrators group to be able to use Disk Defragmenter. But before
running Disk Defragmenter, you should make a backup of the system.
Cleaning Up Files
; At different places on the system disk/volume and other disks/volumes,
temporary files and other obsolete files will occupy storage, fragmenting
the volumes and slowing access to the volumes. Periodically running
Disk Cleanup will identify these files and enable the administrator to
remove them from disk.
; You can only run Disk Cleanup interactively because it requires the user
to select the categories of files that need to be removed. Disk Cleanup,
based on Registry information, automatically determines these
categories. One of the categories is temporary Internet files, which can
take up a lot of disk space.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
293
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 294
www.IrPDF.com
294
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
; After Disk Cleanup has run it is advised to consecutively run the Disk
Defragmenter, which will not only defragment the volumes, but also
keep free space defragmentation under control. Note that free space
fragmentation speeds up file fragmentation. Of course, you can only run
Disk Cleanup if you have Administrator rights.
Transferring Files and Settings between Computers
; The Files And Settings Transfer Wizard allows you to migrate files and
settings from any Windows system to a Windows XP system.The
advantage of this System tool is not so much in the transfer of files,
which can also be achieved by the Backup Utility, but the fact that
(nearly) all personal settings can be reinstated on the Windows XP
system, which saves a lot of time and annoyance.
; This wizard consists out of a Sender and a Recipient part.The Sender
can make the transfer to a file on a networked storage that is accessible
by both sender and recipient or removable medium. At a later point, the
Recipient can retrieve this information. It is also possible to let the
Sender and Recipient directly communicate with each other by means
of a serial cable or local network. In this case, the transferred files are
only temporarily stored for transfer.
; Among the settings that can be transferred (migrated) are Internet
Explorer settings, Outlook Express settings, network printers and drives,
dial-up connections, regional settings, and Microsoft Office settings.
Because the wizard allows the custom tuning of files and settings that
need to be transferred, it is possible to only transfer the files and settings
that are needed or desired. For example, a customized transfer could
select all MPG files to be transferred, but the AVI files will not be
moved to the Windows XP system.
; You can also use the Files And Settings Transfer Wizard to quickly
configure new systems.This is done by first creating a Windows XP
system that contains all the correct settings and shared data.This system
can be the template for other files.This saves a lot of time because
individual systems do not need to be separately configured. Using
backups or ghost images to copy files and settings may not only be in
conflict with license agreements, but may also interfere with the
Windows Product Activation (WPA).
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 295
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Scheduling Tasks
; The Task Scheduler and Scheduled Tasks Explorer make it possible to
periodically run applications/tools without an administrator or user with
administrator rights to intervene.The requirement is that theses
applications/ tools are automated and can run unattended, thus not
requiring user interaction. Often batch scripts are created that contain
one or more command-line version of existing tools.
; Perhaps the biggest advantage is not so much the fact that an
administrator does not need to be around to start these applications, but
that they can be started at a time of day the system is not in use, thereby
not interfering with the regular use of the system.The Task Scheduler is
even so flexible that you can configure it in a way that the execution of
a scheduled job is postponed if the system is still actively used by
another application.
; Windows XP also has a command-line version of the Scheduled Task
Explorer, called schtasks.exe that enables the administrator to create
batch scripts that can manage existing and new scheduled tasks.
; Scheduled tasks can be remotely managed, preventing the need for an
administrator to physically have access to that computer.The
requirements are that the Tasks folder and the system volume of that
system are made shared. Additionally, it is not possible to create new tasks
on the remote system; therefore a scheduled task must first be created
locally and then copied to the remote system.
Backing Up Your Files
; The Backup Utility that comes with Windows XP is a full-featured tool
for a standalone environment. It consists of three primary wizards: the
Backup Wizard, the Restore Wizard, and the Automated System Recovery
Preparation Wizard. Additionally, you can switch from Wizard Mode to
Advanced Mode and back.The Wizard Mode is the Backup Or Restore
Wizard that simplifies the backup and restore process even further.
; For backup purposes, you can use the Backup Utility from a Calendar
approach. Besides the possibility to select the folders and files that need
to be backed up during the backup job, you can also explicitly back up
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
295
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 296
www.IrPDF.com
296
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
the System State—consisting of the System/Boot files, COM+ Class
Registration Database, and Registry. Scheduled backup jobs use the
command-line application ntbackup.exe.
; The restore process is, of course, the reversed process of the backup, only
the restore can be done by selecting the folders/files that need to be
restored from different backup files.This is enhanced by the use of ondisk catalogs of the backup files. It is possible to restore a complete
volume in one go, by selecting the last Normal (Full) backup and the
subsequent Incremental backups that have been made.
; The Automated System Recovery Preparation Wizard (ASR Wizard), is a
combination of the Create Emergency Recovery Disk, known from
previous Windows versions, and a Normal backup of the full system. In
case of a permanent system failure, it is not necessary to reinstall the
system first, instead the Normal backup made by the ASR Wizard can
be used restore the system back to a far more recent installation state.
Additional restores can bring the system back to a point close to the
moment it failed.
Restoring Your System
; The System Restore tool is a new feature in Windows XP that has not
been available before. Under a number of conditions, for example before
the installation of an Automatic Update, software installation using
Windows Installer or InstallShield, every 24-hour period or installation
of a unsigned device driver, the System State, called System Restore
Checkpoints, is saved. In case the system becomes instable after a system
modification, the system can be rolled back to a previous State, undoing
the destabilizing modifications.
; Windows XP reserves a limited amount of disk space to store these
System Restore Checkpoints.These checkpoints need to be periodically
removed, using Disk Cleanup. If this is not done and the system runs out
of storage, Restore Checkpoints will no longer be saved, and this will
also invalidate the Restore Checkpoints that where previously made.
; After the system is rolled back to a previous System Restore
Checkpoint, an application that was installed after the date of the
checkpoint that was restored will no longer be functioning properly.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 297
www.IrPDF.com
Working with System Tools • Chapter 5
Although System Restore leaves the application untouched, it does
restore the Registry that does not contain the Registry information of
that application.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: How can I prevent disk fragmentation from happening altogether?
A: Disk fragmentation can never be prevented.The good news is that you can
keep it under control. However, you need an understanding of the system and
the way fragmentation occurs.To help you out in limiting disk defragmentation, you should follow these guidelines: If you want to install Windows XP,
never upgrade your system, but make a clean install. If you have just one
system, make it into a multiboot system. After installation of Windows XP,
perform a Disk Cleanup and subsequent Disk Defragmenter.Then increase
the pagefile and MFT Zone size, as described in this chapter. Next install the
applications, and because most applications have compressed files, it will likely
use a lot of temporary files, hence trigger fragmentation. If you install large
applications it cannot hurt to run a Disk Cleanup and at least use Disk
Defragmenter to analyze if defragmentation is needed after each installation.
By placing personal data on a different volume as the system/application, you
can also control increased fragmentation. And if you regularly install applications for testing or curiosity purposes, do it also on a separate volume.The
reason is that in all three cases different storage usage behavior can be identified. And at least run a defrag on a weekly basis. And if you get tired of the
limitations of Disk Defragmenter, you can always consider buying its bigger
brother, Diskeeper 6.
Q: What happens if a backup fails?
A: Not much.That is, the Backup Utility will activate a rollback (undo) procedure, undoing all the changes made to the backup media, the folder/files
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
297
189_XP_05.qxd
11/9/01
2:35 PM
Page 298
www.IrPDF.com
298
Chapter 5 • Working with System Tools
Archive bit, on-disk catalogs and temporary files on disk. Because you will
probably use volume Shadow Copy, because it is active by default, the Backup
does not touch any file, except for the Archive bit.You can redo the backup
as if nothing has happened.
Q: What should I do if a restore of a backup file crashed halfway? Am I able to
resume the restore?
A: The restore does not perform a rollback, however, it can rely on a Restore
Checkpoint if necessary. A Restore process that breaks is not completed..The
best thing to do is to perform a chkdsk on that volume; if that is the system
volume, you need to schedule the chkdsk and reboot the system. If the
system also was brought down by the crashing restore process, you have no
choice other than rebooting and the chkdsk will run automatically. If
restoring the system state was part of the restore, you should restore the
System Checkpoint that was made just before the restore started. Once this is
all done, you need to redo the restore and there is no simple way of determining where the restore left off.You have to do the complete restore again.
But because you do not know what triggered the crash, you better stay alert
and present with the restore to see if things now go smoothly. It is very well
possible that a corrupt backup will bring the system to its knees. If you are
able to catch it, you can circumvent restoring the folder that holds this file.
Q: How do I know for sure if a restoration of a System Checkpoint solves the
problem?
A: You don’t. Only by doing the System Checkpoint restore you can find out if
the problems disappear.You have to realize that the System Checkpoint
restoration only restores a limited number of files, if the problems originate
from another place, you can only kill the problem by other means, like uninstalling an application and reinstalling it again, performing a chkdsk /F, or
even restoring the system from a previous backup.The “trick” of the System
Restore is primarily that it restores the Registry and the COM+ Class
Registration database, making the system mute for the application or driver
that causes the problem.The files of the application or driver are still present,
but because they are no longer part of the Registry and/or COM+ Class
Registration database,Windows XP no longer knows of its existence.The use
a System Restore is for the more advanced Windows users or administrators
who can make the proper assessment of the problem.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 299
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 6
Windows XP
Networking
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Overview of Networking Technologies
■
Configuring Network Interfaces
■
Network Client and Protocol
Considerations
■
Working with RAS and VPN
■
Sharing Your Internet Connection
■
Filtering and Firewalls
■
Wireless Connectivity
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
299
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 300
www.IrPDF.com
300
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Introduction
For most computer users, being able to connect to the Internet or other computers
is a necessary requirement of any operating system. As the Microsoft family of
operating systems has matured, so has implementation of networking capabilities of
those operating systems.With the release of Windows for Workgroups 3.11,
Microsoft made networking capability a fundamental element of all its operating
systems, for both home and corporate use. However, the implementation of networking capabilities in Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was somewhat primitive by
today’s standards. For example, to install the TCP/IP protocol, which is necessary to
communicate on the Internet, you had to manually install additional software.
Thankfully, for most users, that situation no longer exists. Instead of being an
adjunct or add-on to the operating system, network capability is installed as a fundamental part of any recent Microsoft operating system, putting it on par with the
parts of the operating system that make possible the operating system’s capability to
communicate with storage devices such as hard drives and CD-ROMs.
With Windows XP, Microsoft continues its drive to improve the integration
of networking capabilities with the operating system and to provide greater functionality of its networking.TCP/IP, for example, is now a core component of the
operating system and cannot be uninstalled.
Windows XP supports a wide range of hardware devices to enable communication with other computers.There is wide support for traditional network
devices, such as network interface cards (NICs), and modems. For the home user,
there is support for Host Phoneline Network Adaptors (HPNA), which allow
people to use their existing telephone lines inside their house as a medium for
computers to communicate with one another. In addition, there is support for
wireless devices that allow you to use infrared or radio frequencies as media for
computers to communicate with one another.Therefore, whether you are a corporate administrator or a home user,Windows XP should make it easier for you
to set up or use an existing infrastructure to enable networking.
Windows XP also provides enhancements to the functionality of its networking capabilities. It is possible, for example, to use Windows XP as a network
bridge between networks that use different kinds of devices, such as NICs and
HPNAs. For connecting to the Internet,Windows XP provides a number of
useful features.You will find it easy, for example, to create a connection to your
Internet service provider (ISP) using Point-to-Point over Ethernet (PPPoE) protocols, should you have the misfortune of having no other choice for a broadband connection to the Internet in your area.There is also support for Internet
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 301
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Connection Sharing (ICS), which makes it possible for multiple computers to
share a single connection to the Internet through a single computer running XP.
ICS has been around for a while and is familiar to many people. However, new
to Windows XP is the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).This feature provides
your computer and those that may rely on it for ICS with some very good protection from unwanted and potentially harmful inbound traffic from the Internet.
If you have to work away from the office, you will find some very good support for creating secure connections to your workplace using virtual private networks (VPNs).VPN support in Windows XP extends to both of the popular
standards for VPNs: Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Layer Two
Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).You can even configure Windows XP to allow others
to dial in to your computer or to connect via infrared or Parallel cable.
In this chapter, you will learn about some of the basic theory of networking
that will assist you if you have to troubleshoot problems with network connectivity.You will also learn information that will allow you to configure the various
networking components in Windows XP.
Overview of Networking Technologies
For the most part, installing Windows XP and getting it to communicate with the
other computers on your network or the Internet will be trouble free.Windows
XP can properly detect a variety of networking-capable devices, including those
that use USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire). In addition, with XP’s support for
Universal Plug and Play Control Point (UPnP) applications that will make it
transparently easy for clients to discover a computer running ICS, home users and
administrators alike will find connecting a computer to a network a simple matter
of ensuring physical connectivity and making a few appropriate mouse clicks. ICS
itself has been enhanced with Network Address Translation (NAT) Traversal,
which will make it possible to use more applications through ICS.
Unfortunately, problems with network communications can occur in spite of
(or sometimes because of) the facility with which Windows XP can detect the
correct components and automatically install and configure the appropriate software.When there are problems with network communications, people often find
themselves at a loss to develop an effective troubleshooting strategy to resolve the
problem. In these situations, it is helpful to have some basic knowledge of the
underlying theory and principles of networking technologies.
In the simplest terms, the necessary conditions for any two computers to communicate with one another are some physical medium (cable, radio frequencies,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
301
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 302
www.IrPDF.com
302
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
etc.) over which communication can occur, the appropriate hardware and software
for the computer to send and receive signals over the communications medium,
and the mutual capability for each computer to understand the other (protocols
such as TCP/IP or IPX/SPX).This is analogous to what we need to communicate
with one another using speech.We need a physical medium (air) by which sound
can propagate, the ability to send signals (create subtle changes in air pressure) and
to receive and interpret those signals (detect and convert changes in air pressure to
a signal that the brain can understand), and a common language, such as English,
French, and so on.
In a typical network, computers will usually communicate with one another
over some form of cabling (most commonly 10BaseT) using standard protocols,
such as Ethernet and TCP/IP.When two computers communicate with each other,
the sending computer will divide the data into frames, units of standard length and
structure, and transmit them on the wire as differences in voltage using a transceiver
(NIC).The receiving computer’s NIC will detect those changes in voltage, convert
them to bits, and reconstruct the frames for further processing.
If we have many computers sending and receiving information on the same
segment, we need some way to control the communications to ensure that messages intended for one computer are not delivered to the wrong computer, or
that one message doesn’t get mixed up with another. For most computer networks, that means using Ethernet as a standard for network communications.
Designing & Planning…
Ethernet Standards
The Institute of Electronics and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) establishes and maintains consensus-based standards for Ethernet and other
technologies, such as FireWire (IEEE 1394). The IEEE 802 designation is
used to define standards for local and municipal area networks
(LAN/MAN). These include standards for Ethernet networks (IEEE 802.3)
and wireless networks (IEEE 802.11). For more information on IEEE 802,
go to http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/about.html.
The Ethernet standards define the length and the structure of the frames that
are used for network communications. Ethernet standards also define how flow
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 303
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
control is handled to prevent data loss that could result from many computers
communicating at the same time.The Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standard, for
example, defines a mechanism called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) to guard against data loss on 10 megabits per
second (Mbps) and some 100 Mbps networks (those that use hubs rather than
switches). Before the transceiver sends a signal on the wire, it listens to see if there
is a carrier (signal) present. If there isn’t, it will transmit the frame. On CSMA/
CD networks, transceivers will retransmit the data if they detect a collision. In
addition to defining mechanisms to deal with collisions, the IEEE 802.3 standard
also defines the speeds at which networks can operate: 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1
gigabit per second (Gbps), and 10 Gbps.
A number of different types of frame types will be required for different types
of hardware; for example,Token Ring, which will use the frame type defined by
IEEE 802.5. For the TCP/IP suite of protocols, the underlying frame type is
Ethernet_II, or Ethernet Type 2.The Ethernet_II frame type was in use before
IEEE defined the IEEE 802.3 standard and is almost identical to it, the difference
being a 2-byte field of the frame called the Type field. Both frame types can easily
coexist on the same network.
The frame contains the data that needs to be transmitted, and information
within structured fields of a predefined length to make communication possible.
Two of these structured fields are used for Media Access Control (MAC)
addresses of the source and the destination network devices.The MAC address is
a unique 6-byte number usually burned into the ROM of the NIC.You will
often see this MAC address expressed as a 12-digit hexadecimal number.
When one computer wants to establish communication with another, it will
use some mechanism to discover the MAC address of the receiving computer if it
is on the same physical network (if the destination computer is on a different
network, the source computer will try to discover the MAC address of the router
that will forward the traffic to its final destination). On a computer that uses
TCP/IP, the discovery mechanism will be Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
Once the sending computer learns the MAC address of the destination on its
cable segment, it can put frames on the wire containing that address. All computers on the segment will “hear” the frame, but they will discard it when they
determine that the MAC address in the Destination field does not match theirs.
Only the computer with a matching MAC address will process the frame up the
protocol stack.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
303
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 304
www.IrPDF.com
304
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model
So far, we have talked about networks primarily in terms of the physical nature of
that communication: as a structured sequence of voltage changes that are interpreted as frames by network adaptors. However, computers must also be able to
speak the same language; in other words, use the same protocol. Protocols define
the rules by which network communication occurs. A computer that uses
TCP/IP as a protocol will not be able to understand a computer that uses
NetBEUI or IPX/SPX as a protocol.
Using the rules defined by the protocols, sending computers are able to construct the frames to transmit, and receiving computers are able to “deconstruct”
the frames correctly. Protocols provide mechanisms (rules) to ensure that data is
routed to the correct destination if that destination is not on the same LAN, to
guarantee the error-free delivery of that data, or to discover the MAC address of
the destination computer.
In order to represent generalized patterns of the mechanisms that various
protocols use and thus facilitate the development of protocol communication
standards, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed
the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model in 1977.The OSI
model comprises seven layers that describe the generalized functions of network
communications:
1. Physical This layer describes how information is transmitted on the
various media, such as cable or radio frequencies.The hardware
described at this layer includes such devices as hubs, repeaters, multiplexers, and modems.
2. Data Link This layer describes the rules for organizing the data into
frames, controlling data flow (e.g., CSMA/CD), detecting and correcting
errors, and identifying devices on the network. It is the responsibility of
this layer to ensure the correct delivery of frames.The hardware
described at this layer includes NICs, bridges, switches, intelligent hubs.
This Data Link layer relies on physical addressing (MAC addresses).
3. Network This layer describes the rules for communicating with computers on other, physically separate networks. It is the responsibility of
this layer to translate logical addresses, such as IP addresses, to physical
addresses (MAC addresses), and to find the best route to a particular destination.The devices that operate at this layer include routers, brouters,
and ATM switches.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 305
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
4. Transport This layer describes the rules for creating segments or
packets for handling by the Network layer or reliably delivering segments to the Session layer.This layer might implement connection-oriented
or connectionless protocols. A connection-oriented protocol, such as
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), will try to ensure that data is
delivered in sequence and error free through the use of acknowledgments for successful delivery that are sent between the two computers
(end-to-end flow control). If no acknowledgments are returned, packets
are retransmitted. A connectionless protocol, such as User Datagram
Protocol (UDP), does not use acknowledgments and does not try to
ensure delivery. An upper-layer protocol will determine the underlying
transport that it uses. For example, Hyper Text Transport Protocol
(HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transport Protocol
(SMTP) and other protocols that need reliable delivery of the data will
use TCP as their underlying transport. However, other protocols, such as
DNS or Real Audio, will use UDP because TCP has too much overhead
for the required rate of data transmission, or the amount of information
to be delivered is small (as in the case of a DNS lookup), or because the
responsibility for reliable delivery will be handled by a higher-level protocol.The devices that operate at this layer are gateways and brouters.
5. Session It is the responsibility of this layer to create, maintain, and tear
down one-to-one communication sessions between computers.This
layer also provides checkpoints so that data can be synchronized and can
be retransmitted from the last good checkpoint, rather than from the
beginning of the session. Another responsibility of this layer is to determine whether communication takes place as half duplex (only one computer can talk at a time) or full duplex (both computers can talk at the
same time). Some common protocols that operate at this layer include
Network File System (NFS) and Remote Procedure Call (RPC).
6. Presentation This layer makes sure that the data is presented in an
acceptable format for the upper and lower layers. It handles character
conversion (ASCII, EBCDIC), compression, and encryption. Software
gateways, such as e-mail gateways that convert e-mail from one format
to another, operate at this layer.
7. Application This layer makes it possible for applications written for it
to communicate over the network by providing access to the lower-layer
services.These applications include file transfer applications, such as FTP
and HTTP, or messaging applications, such as SMTP.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
305
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 306
www.IrPDF.com
306
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
When a computer wants to send data from an application, the Application
layer will add a header containing instructions to the data and send the data and
the header down to the Presentation layer, which will add another header and
send the data and its header down to the Session layer. As an analogy, you can
think of each layer placing the data it receives from an upper layer into an envelope and sending that envelope down to a lower layer, where it in turn is placed
in another envelope—like a series of Russian dolls, each placed within the other.
The process of adding header information to the data and header received from
the upper layer continues until a frame is constructed and sent on the wire.
The receiving computer will follow the instructions of the first header, strip it
off, and send the resulting data to the upper layer. Each layer subsequently reads
the header information for instructions provided by the same corresponding layer
on the sending computer, strips the header away, and then passes the data to the
next layer.
Of course, the OSI Reference Model is a generalized and idealized version of
protocol standards. In reality, you will often find that specific protocols do not
map neatly to specific layers, and that particular protocols might overlap one or
more layers of the model.The model itself was an attempt to provide standards
for the development of new protocols, and, although a few were developed, they
never achieved widespread adoption, primarily because having a full seven layers
added significant overhead to network communications. Furthermore, not all of
these functions described by the model need to be implemented where the
model places them. For example, the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol implements connection-oriented functionality in the hardware.
That said, most protocols need to implement the functionality defined by
most, if not all, of the layers of the model. As such, the OSI Reference Model is
an extremely useful way to conceptualize networking standards. Moreover, by
creating logical layers that describe network communications, it provides an
important analytical tool for troubleshooting network communication problems.
If two computers can’t communicate with one another, often the most effective
way to troubleshoot the problem is to test whether components operating at each
layer starting with the Physical layer and working up through the higher layers to
the Application layer are working properly.
Department of Defense Model
The OSI Reference Model was an attempt to provide a standard way of looking
at network communications. At the time, there was no generalized standard to
describe the way all protocols behaved.The OSI Reference Model was itself
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 307
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
based in some degree on the earlier Department of Defense (DoD) model, also
referred to as the Defense Advanced Research Projects and Authority (DARPA).
The DoD model was developed at the same time as and along with TCP/IP. Like
the OSI Reference Model, it presents a layered, generalized model; however, the
DoD model creates logical layers to specifically represent only the mechanisms
and rules by which TCP/IP works. Instead of seven layers, the DoD uses four
layers. However, these four layers roughly correspond to the seven layers of the
OSI Reference Model.The four layers of the DoD model are as follows:
1. Network Interface This layer maps to the Data Link and Physical
layers of the OSI model.TCP/IP has no protocols that operate at this
level. However, Ethernet_II and other protocols, such as Token Ring,
operate at this level.
2. Internetworking This layer closely maps to the OSI Network layer.This
layer deals with IP addresses, which are logical addresses, and routing
between separate networks. A number of protocols operate at this level.
They include Internet Protocol (IP), Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6),
ARP, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), and Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Protocols such as RIP and OSPF
allow the determination of the shortest routes to particular destinations.
3. Host-to-Host (Transport) The Host-to-Host layer has the same
functionality as the Transport layer of the OSI model. Like the OSI
model, it is responsible for ensuring reliable transmission of data based
on the end-to-end communication established by its lower layer.TCP
and UDP are found at this layer.
4. Application This layer corresponds to the top three layers of the OSI
model: Session, Presentation, and Application. However, the Session layer
does not map very cleanly to the Application layer;TCP, for example,
creates sessions by means of a three-way handshake between hosts. Many
protocols are found at this layer, including HTTP, Post Office Protocol
version 3 (POP3), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP),
SMTP, and others.
Like the OSI Reference Model, the DoD model is a good conceptual model
to use for troubleshooting. Because we know the protocols that are implemented
at each layer, it is relatively easy to narrow down where the problem originated.
Again, the most effective way to troubleshoot a communications problem is to
start at the bottom of the model and work your way up.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
307
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 308
www.IrPDF.com
308
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Windows XP Networking Architecture
Since the first version of NT, Microsoft has provided a modular network architecture that also employs layers. In this layered, modular approach, Microsoft
implements a specific type of layer called a boundary layer.There are three
boundary layers: the Application Programming Interface (API) boundary layer, the
Transport Device Interface (TDI) boundary layer, and the Network Device Interface
Specification (NDIS) boundary layer.These three boundary layers serve to provide
interfaces to the operating-specific components found within Microsoft’s implementation of networking. For example, Microsoft’s implementation of TCP is
found between the NDIS and TDI boundary layers.
The modular approach, combined with the use of boundary layers, has a
number of advantages. One is that it is relatively easy for a third-party vendor to
create a networking component to integrate with Microsoft’s networking component. For example, a network card vendor need not be concerned itself with the
particular details of Microsoft’s implementation of TCP/IP. It need only concern
itself with creating a driver that uses the methods specified by the NDIS boundary.
Furthermore, the same driver will make it possible for the network adaptor to use
all of the installed protocols, or a vendor such as Novell can more easily create a
client component to enable communication with a NetWare server.
Likewise, if software developers use the methods specified by the API
boundary, they need not be concerned about creating separate methods for
accessing the hard drive and the network, since from the point of view of the
application there is no difference between data that is on the network and data
that is local to the computer. Between the API and the TDI boundary layers,
Microsoft implements the network Server redirector, which responds to requests
from other workstations on the network, and the Workstation redirector, which
makes requests on the network, as file system drivers. Additional file system
drivers make it possible to access the NTFS and FAT partitions as well as CDROMs.The manner in which Microsoft implements Network redirectors as file
system drivers explains why Windows 98 computers are able to access files stored
on an NTFS partition across the network.When the Server redirector receives a
request, it simply redirects the request to the NTFS file system driver for
retrieval. Once the NTFS driver retrieves the data, the Server redirector can send
the data over the network to the Windows 98 computer requesting the data.
Given that MS implements the network redirectors as file system drivers and
integrates network functionality so tightly into the operating system, you can
easily appreciate that networking is a core function of Windows XP. Now that we
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 309
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
have considered some of the theory behind the operation of networks, let’s focus
on configuring Windows XP to take advantage of a wide range of networking
capabilities.
Configuring Network Interfaces
When you install Windows XP, it will always attempt to automatically detect and
configure network devices, such as NICs, using TCP/IP as the default protocol.
Because many environments will be using standard hardware and automating
TCP/IP configurations with Dynamic Host Configuration protocol, you might
find that you rarely have to configure any software interfaces in the Network
Connections folder. Getting the computer to communicate on the network is, in
these circumstances, as sometimes as simple as installing the device (if it is not
already present) and starting the computer. However, if you want to do more
than just achieve basic connectivity, such as troubleshoot network problems or
configure a VPN connection, you will have to know your way around the software interfaces in the Network Connections folder.
The Local Area Connection
The most fundamental and important object in the Network Connections folder
is the Local Area Connection object.The Local Area Connection object will
appear whenever you have an appropriate network-capable device installed on
your computer. Usually, that device will be a NIC. However, if you have a new
FireWire-capable computer, you will find that your FireWire port causes the
Local Area Connection object to appear.The Local Area Connection object contains configuration settings for your network-capable device.
Let’s look at the Network Connections folder.There are a number of ways to
get to the folder from the Start menu, depending on the Start menu mode you
are using. However, you will always find it under Control Panel. If you open
Network Connections, you should see something that looks like Figure 6.1.
Of course, your Network Connections folder might look a little simpler than
this one.This folder contains a number of other objects, which we discuss later in
this chapter. Initially, this folder will only contain the Local Area Connection for
enabled network devices, which are created automatically.The other objects you
see in the figure have to be added manually.
Clicking on the Local Area Connection object will allow you to see some of
the details of its configuration at a glance. In Figure 6.1, for example, you can
view some of the details of its TCP/IP configuration. Additionally, you will
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
309
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 310
www.IrPDF.com
310
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
notice a Network Tasks list in the upper left-hand corner of the folder.This list is
similar to the context menu that you could bring up by clicking on the
Connection object with the alternate mouse button.
Figure 6.1 Network Connections Folder
Let’s look at the properties of the Local Area Connection. Click on the Local
Area Connection object with the alternate mouse button and select
Properties from the context menu, or click Change settings of this connection from the Network Tasks list.You should see something that looks like
Figure 6.2.
Figure 6.2 Properties of the Local Area Connection
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 311
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Configuring & Implementing…
QoS Packet Scheduler
The QoS Packet Scheduler is installed by default. QoS has been enhanced
in Windows XP to automatically optimize TCP/IP for transmission across
different interfaces that operate at different rates. This is typically the
situation if you have turned on Internet Connection Sharing. Usually,
traffic has to cross from a slow to a fast connection, or vice versa. With
QoS, Windows XP will ensure that the appropriate window size is used
for traffic on either adaptor, thus avoiding the congestion that can occur
if too large a window of data has to be retransmitted as a result of lost
packets.
TCP uses something called sliding windows as a method of flow
control. The window size is the number of bytes the transmitting host
will send before requiring an acknowledgment from the receiving host.
When the sender receives acknowledgment from the receiver that it
received the data, the sender will move the window to the next chunk
of data for transmission. If the window size is too small, the sending
host will spend too much time waiting for acknowledgments from the
receiving host before sending data. If the window size is too large, data
might get lost and the sender will have to retransmit too many packets.
Figure 6.2 shows a fairly standard configuration.When you install a network
adaptor,Windows XP Pro will install TCP/IP with DHCP enabled as the default
protocol. It will additionally install Client for Microsoft Networks to allow the
computer to connect to shared files on other computers running the Microsoft
Server service, File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks to allow the
computer to share files on the network, and QoS Packet Scheduler to allow the
reservation of bandwidth through devices that support the Resource Reservation
protocol.Through this Properties page, we can install other protocols, clients, and
services. For some of the components, we can also configure additional properties
or settings.We discuss these installed components and their settings in more detail
later in the chapter.
Figure 6.2 also shows two additional tabs, Authentication and Advanced.We
examine the settings for these in more detail later in the chapter as well.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
311
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 312
www.IrPDF.com
312
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Using Loopback Adapters
Because Windows XP,Windows 2000, and NT so closely integrate networking
capability into the operating system, you must have some type of networkcapable device in order to properly install the OS. If your system does not have a
modem or a network adaptor, you can install a device referred to as the MS
Loopback adaptor.This virtual device emulates the function of a network adaptor
in the absence of a real one, although it is unlikely a new computer would lack
any type of network-capable device. However, in the event a network-capable
device is not present, the presence of the MS Loopback adaptor would allow an
IP address configuration to be assigned to your computer. Even if you have network-capable devices installed on your computer, you might want to install the
device to do some testing, depending on your needs.
To install the MS Loopback adaptor, you follow the steps you normally
would for manually installing any new network adaptor (or device) that isn’t recognized by Windows XP Plug and Play.
1. From the Start menu, go to Control Panel and select Add Hardware
(switch to Classic View to see the icon).
2. Click Next when you see Welcome to the Add Hardware Wizard.
3. Select Yes, I have already connected the hardware radio button
when prompted.
4. In the subsequent list, scroll to the bottom and select Add a new hardware device, and click Next.
5. Select Install the hardware that I manually select from the list
(Advanced).
6. In the subsequent list, select Network adaptors, and click Next.
7. From the subsequent list, select Microsoft Loopback Adaptor (it
should be the only possible selection), click Next twice, and then click
Finish.
When you have finished installing the Loopback adaptor, you will be able to
configure it like any device on your network. If you wish to uninstall the Loopback
adaptor, you can go to Device Manager and select Uninstall from the context
menu you invoke by clicking on the object with the alternate mouse button.
You should be aware that the Loopback adaptor will also show up in the
Network Interface Performance object in System Monitor, along with the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 313
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
MS TCP Loopback Interface.The MS TCP Loopback Interface always
appears here, regardless of whether you install the Loopback adaptor.
Bridging Network Connections
Bridging is a new feature included with Windows XP. Many home and small
offices will find it a very useful feature as well. Microsoft included this feature to
make it easier for small environments that might have limited resources to provide full connectivity for all computers, regardless of the network devices they
were using.
Here is a typical problem that bridging can resolve for you. Let’s say that you
have a number of computers in your home. Some of these computers are connected to one another using HPNAs.These adaptors allow you to use your telephone lines for network communication. Other computers are connected to one
another using network adaptors and 10BaseT cabling. In other words, you have
two separate networks. Computers that are on one network will not be able to
communicate with computers on the other.
One way around this problem is to connect a server product to both networks and configure routing on the server. However, a server license is considerably more expensive than a workstation license, and configuring routing requires
some advanced technical knowledge. In the past, this would have been your only
option because workstation products, such as NT Workstation, cannot be configured as routers.
Microsoft’s current solution is to use something called bridging, which enables
computers on the two separate physical segments to communicate through your
Windows XP computer.Windows XP, like the workstation products that preceded it, cannot be configured as a router. Routing, if you remember, works at
Layer 3 of the OSI model. Instead, Microsoft employs a technology that works at
Layer 2 of the OSI model, the Data Link layer.
To begin, you install and configure an HPNA device and a network adaptor
in your Windows XP computer.You then configure both devices to be a part a
bridged connection. Once you do this, computers on either segment will be able
to communicate with each other. If you have three network devices installed and
one of them is used for connecting to the Internet, you can configure ICS to
allow computers on both segments access to the Internet.To create this type of
configuration, you need a minimum of three devices, because a device that is
used for ICS cannot be used as part of a bridged connection.
In Figure 6.3, we show a total of four network devices in use. One of them is
used to provide a shared connection to the Internet.The other three devices, two
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
313
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 314
www.IrPDF.com
314
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
NICs and an IEEE 1384 FireWire device, are bridged so that any hosts that are
connected to the physical segments attached to the Windows XP workstation will
be able to communicate with each other.
Figure 6.3 Bridged Network Connections
In Figure 6.3 you see an additional device: the network bridge itself. In fact,
the bridged network device is a logical device that is treated as it were an actual
physical device, such as a NIC.To see this point more clearly, Figure 6.4 shows
you the output of the IPCONFIG command after the bridge has been created.
Figure 6.4 Output of IPCONFIG Command After Configuring Network Bridge
In Figure 6.4, notice that the output of IPCONFIG does not show all four
installed devices. Instead, the output shows the configuration for only two devices,
the virtual network bridge and the NIC hosting the shared connection.The reason
for this is that the devices that comprise the network bridge are treated as a single,
logical device. Remember, the bridge is performing a function defined at Layer 2
of the OSI model, the Data Link layer. At this layer, we do not deal with logically
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 315
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
assigned addresses, such as IP addresses, and routing among separate network segments. At this layer, we are dealing with physical or MAC addresses. Indeed, as far as
all the network-capable devices that are connected to the Windows XP computer
are concerned, they are on the same physical segment. Being on the same virtual
segment, there is no need for the routing function provided at Layer 3.Why use
Layer 3 when you can use Layer 2 to accomplish the same goal? Bridging is much
more efficient and easier to configure than routing is.
Bridging is very easy to configure.To configure the network bridge, you must
be an administrator of the computer and there must not be a security policy in
place that prevents the creation of the network bridge. In addition, remember
that any device that is being used for ICS cannot be part of the bridge.To create
a network bridge:
1. Open the Network Connections folder in the Control Panel.
2. While holding the Ctrl key down, use the mouse to click on the
devices that will be part of the network bridge.
3. Using the alternate mouse button, click on one of the highlighted
devices to invoke the context menu.
4. From the context menu, click Bridge Connections.
Once you establish the network bridge, you can add other devices easily, as long
as they are all Ethernet-capable devices. Once devices become part of a network
bridge, you will find that their individual Properties pages contain little information
and don’t provide you with interfaces for installing and removing components. So,
where do you install and remove those components? You install the component
through the Properties page of the network bridge, as Figure 6.5 shows.
Figure 6.5 Properties of the Network Bridge Object
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
315
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 316
www.IrPDF.com
316
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
As you can see in Figure 6.5, configuration items for each of the devices that
comprise the bridge are present in the Properties pages for the network bridge. If
you want to install a component, such as the Network Monitor Driver, simply
press Install and follow the subsequent wizard.
You might be wondering how you would configure an individual device if it
is part of a network bridge. Let’s say you wanted to install a component for monitoring network traffic on just one of the devices.To do this, press the Shift key
and continue to hold it down while you click on the network adaptor with the
alternate mouse button and select the Properties context menu item.You would
then be able to install the Network Monitor Driver for that adaptor only.
Network Client and
Protocol Considerations
For two computers to communicate with one another, they must speak the same
language. In computer parlance, this means they must both use the same protocols. For most computers, this means they will most likely use TCP/IP. Any two
computers that use TCP/IP will be able to communicate with one another.
Your Windows XP workstation can communicate with a Microsoft, Unix, or
Novell server, as long as all the computers are running TCP/IP. However, the
degree to which you can communicate with these servers will depend on what
other protocols, in addition to the TCP/IP suite of protocols, are installed. For
example, if the Novell server is hosting a Web or an FTP service, you can use
your Web browser or FTP client to retrieve data from the Novell server. If the
Novell server is also running a client/server application, such as an Oracle
database application or Lotus Notes, you will be able to gain access to that application. However, what if you want to have some type of access to the file system
in the Novell server that isn’t part of the files available through the Web or the
FTP service on the Novell server? The fact is that you would not be able to
access these files because you still lack a common protocol for this type of access.
For file system access across the network, Novell uses a proprietary protocol
called NetWare Core Protocol (NCP). If you want to access the files on the
Novell server, you will need to install a Novell client, which will automatically
provide you with a redirector that uses NCP.
In the next section, we look at installing Microsoft and Novell clients and
configuring the protocols they use:TCP/IP and IPX/SPX.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 317
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Configuring Microsoft and Novell Clients
When you install Windows XP, the Client for Microsoft Networks is installed by
default.The client is equivalent to the NT 4.0 Workstation Service. In fact, the
service is still known by the same name in the Registry as the Lanman
Workstation Service.The Client for Microsoft Networks allows you to gain
access to other computers running the Microsoft Server service or equivalent on
the network.There is very little to configure on the client.You can change the
Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Name Service Provider from the default
Windows Locator to a Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Cell
Directory Service. If you do this, you must also provide a network address for the
service itself.You would only do this if you had a specific need to do so.To gain
access to the properties of the Client for Microsoft Networks, go to the general
Properties page of the Local Area Connection object, click on Client for
Microsoft Networks, and click Properties.
Windows XP provides you with one other client, the Client Service for
NetWare (CSNW).This client will allow you to log on to NetWare servers that
are using IPX/SPX to gain access to the file and print services running on those
servers. CSNW is not installed by default.To install the client:
1. Open the Network Connections folder.
2. Click on your Local Area Connection object; from the Network Tasks
list on the left-hand side, select Change settings of this connection.
3. In the general Properties page of the Local Connection object, click
Install, choose Client, click Add, and then choose Client Service for
NetWare. Figure 6.6 shows the screens you will see when you install
CSNW.
Once you have installed the CSNW, you will be prompted to reboot the
computer. Upon startup, you will be prompted to enter information that will
allow you to connect to the NetWare server.You can choose to fill in the information now, or you can do it later.
You will notice a number of changes after you install the client. First, you will
notice that your Local Area Connection object now contains two additional
items that XP installed as a result of your installing CSNW: NWLink NetBIOS
and NWLink IPX/SPX NetBIOS Compatible Transport.The NetWare client
that comes with Windows XP provides support for only NCP over IPX/SPX
and does not provide support for NCP over IP.You must, therefore, use NWLink,
which is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX, if you want to log on to and use the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
317
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 318
www.IrPDF.com
318
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
file and print services of a Novell server. If you don’t have this protocol installed
before you install CSNW,Windows XP installs it for you.
Figure 6.6 Installing Client Service for NetWare
Now that CSNW is installed, you will want to configure it to allow you to log
on to the Novell server.The Microsoft client is not as full-featured as the Novell
client. Furthermore, the client supports only NCP with IPX/SPX. Recent versions
of the Novell operating system now have the capability to use TCP/IP only as their
network protocol. If you need access to file and print services over TCP/IP exclusively, you will need to install a client supplied by Novell.
That said, CSNW is a good choice if all you need is the capability to log on to
the Novell server and gain access to file and print services on it.To log on to the
Novell server, you will have to configure CSNW for that task.You can configure
CSNW after you restart your computer (you will see a screen asking for Novell
login information every time you restart your computer) or sometime later through
the CSNW object in Control Panel. Figure 6.7 shows the configuration screen for
CSNW.To see this page, open Control Panel, and select CSNW.
As you can see, there is not much information you will need to provide here.
We can use this screen for controlling what server or context we use for the
Novell login, to specify some printing options, and to control whether or not
NetWare login scripts will run.
You can use the client to connect to an older version (3.x or lower) of
Novell that is running bindery services, or a newer version (4.x and later) that is
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 319
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
running Novell Directory Services (NDS). If you need a bindery services login,
you should configure CSNW with the name of a Preferred Server in the CSNW
configuration page. If you leave the setting at None, you will be prompted to
select a name every time you want to log in. If, during login, you don’t provide
the name of a server, you will be connected to the nearest Novell server.
Figure 6.7 Client Service for NetWare Configuration Screen
You should be able to select the name of the server from the drop-down list.
If you don’t see the name of the server in the list, you can type it in. If there are
multiple Novell 3.x servers in your environment, you must have an account
defined on each server you wish to connect to.
If the Novell server you wish to log in to is using NDS, you should configure
the CSNW with a default tree and context, even though the Novell server might
allow a bindery services connection for backward compatibility and allow you to
connect to a preferred server.Your NetWare administrator will be able to provide
this information to you.
If you have configured CSNW with the correct server or tree information
and find that you still can’t log in, you might not be using the same frame type for
IPX/SPX that the Novell server is running.We look at this issue, and others, in
the next section.
Working with Network Protocols
In many environments where you are using TCP/IP,Windows XP and other
workstations will receive their TCP/IP configurations automatically through
DHCP. A DHCP service running somewhere on the network will provide
DHCP clients with an IP address and a subnet mask as a minimum configuration
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
319
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 320
www.IrPDF.com
320
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
when the clients start up.The DHCP service has the capability of providing more
configuration information to the client, such as the addresses of Domain Name
Servers (DNS), at the discretion of the administrator. Even in a small office/home
office (SOHO) network, DHCP might be present in the form of the DHCP
allocator that is part of ICS.
Obviously, managing TCP/IP address configuration through DHCP is preferable to managing TCP/IP address configuration manually. DHCP hands out
addresses from a predefined pool of addresses and keeps track of what addresses
are in use.This avoids many of the problems that are the result of errors that
inevitably occur when address information is entered manually.
If you are using IPX/SPX in addition to or instead of TCP/IP, you will find
that Windows XP automatically configures the protocol with the correct frame
type, making manual configuration of the protocol a rare occurrence.
The fact that many environments will use DHCP or that Windows XP automatically defaults to being a DHCP client and automatically senses the correct
frame type for IPX/SPX merely hides the complexity of configuring these protocols from the majority of users.You will still have to work with the details of
TCP/IP and IPX/SPX configuration in order to support Windows XP in any
environment.
Working with TCP/IP
TCP/IP is the protocol used for communication on the Internet, and is a core
component of the Windows XP operating system. By default,Windows XP configures TCP/IP to use DHCP to receive configuration information. If a DHCP
server is not available, the Windows XP computer will use Automatic Private IP
Addressing (APIPA) to assign itself a private address that will allow the computer to
start up properly with a TCP/IP configuration.This might be acceptable if your
computer had no need to communicate on the Internet or with other computers.
However, if DHCP is not available, you will want to configure TCP/IP manually.
TCP/IP requires that all hosts use unique 32-bit addresses.These addresses are
expressed in the form of dotted decimal numbers, such as 192.168.0.1.The reason
we use the dotted decimal format is to make it easier for us to use the number.
Each segment of the dotted decimal represents 8 bits of the 32-bit number;
because they use 8 bits, these segments are sometimes referred to as octets.
Part of this number represents the unique host address, and another part represents a network address. Computers that are connected on the same physical network segment use the same network address, but unique host addresses. If your
computer wishes to communicate with another computer that uses a different
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 321
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
network address, your computer must communicate with a router that will forward the packets from your computer to a different network.
Configuring & Implementing…
Resetting TCP/IP
Because TCP/IP is a core component of the Windows XP operating
system, you cannot uninstall it. However, in situations that might call for
the reinstallation of TCP/IP, you can reset the protocol using the NetShell
utility. Resetting TCP/IP has the same effect as uninstalling and reinstalling the protocol by returning it to its state at the installation of the
operating system. For more information on this, see the Microsoft
Knowledge Base article Q299357 at http://support.microsoft.com.
Imagine that the IP addresses represent house addresses. Each house on the
street has a unique house number, but the complete address will use a common
street address for each house on the same street. If you want to deliver a letter to a
house on the same street, you can walk the letter to the house yourself. However, if
you want to deliver the letter to a house on a different street, you need to use the
services of the post office (router) to get your letter to the correct destination.
In order to distinguish the host portion of the IP address from the network
portion of the address,TCP/IP uses the subnet mask.The subnet mask tells
TCP/IP how many bits in the address are used to represent the host and the network portions of the address. For example, a subnet mask that is expressed as
255.255.255.0 will tell TCP/IP that the first three octets are used for the network portion of the address, and the last octet is used for the host portion of the
address.Therefore, given a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, a computer with an
address of 172.16.17.2 and anopther with an address of 172.16.25.8 would be
seen by TCP/IP to be on different networks, because the portion of the address
“masked” by the subnet mask changes (172.16.17 and 172.16.25). However, if we
were to change the subnet mask to 255.255.0.0, both computers would be seen
by TCP/IP to be on the same network, because the portion of the address
“masked” by the subnet mask (172.16) does not change.
Computers use binary numbers (0s and 1s).This is true of TCP/IP as well—
computer names and dotted decimal notation are something we use to make it
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
321
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 322
www.IrPDF.com
322
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
easier to remember addresses and work with numbers.When one computer tries
to communicate with another using TCP/IP, it will “AND” its subnet mask with
its own IP address and the IP address of the remote computer. ANDing is analogous to multiplication and is the process of performing a bitwise operation on
binary numbers. Any time we AND a 0 with a 1, the result is 0; any time we
AND a 1 with a 1, the result is a 1. If the results of the ANDing are the same for
both addresses,TCP/IP will see both addresses as being on the same network. If
they are different,TCP/IP will see the addresses as being on different networks.
Designing & Planning…
Binary Numbering
Binary numbering uses two digits, 0 and 1. Binary numbers work like all
numbering systems, including decimal. A decimal number such as 123
can be expressed (1 x 102) + (2 x 101) + (3 x 100) = 100 + 20 + 3 = 123.
Keep in mind that any number raised to the power of zero is one. With
a binary number, we do something similar, except we are working with
a base 2, rather than a base 10, number. Therefore, a binary number
such as 1101 could be expressed as (1 x 23) + (1 x 22) + (0 x 21) +
(1 x 20) = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 13. A binary number such as 11111111 could
be expressed as 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 255. Breaking
the 32-bit TCP/IP address into four units of 8 bits each (octets) makes
them easier to work with.
Of course, where both computers actually are located is important. If both
computers are not on the same network cable, but we enter a subnet mask that
indicates that they are, the two computers will not be able to communicate with
each other. Likewise, if both computers are on different network segments, but
we give them a subnet mask that tells TCP/IP that they are on the same network, no communication can occur between them.
Here’s how it works. If TCP/IP sees both the source and destination address
as being on the same network,TCP/IP will use ARP to send a broadcast on the
local network segment requesting the MAC address of the destination host. All
computers on the network segment hear the broadcast, but only the computer with
the destination IP address will respond with its MAC address. Once the sending
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 323
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
computer receives the MAC address, the two hosts can communicate with each
other using each other’s MAC address as their respective destination addresses.
Designing & Planning…
Classless Address Convention
It has now become standard practice to use classless address notation
when referring to a TCP/IP address. With classless notation, we indicate
the number of contiguous bits used for the subnet mask immediately
following the TCP/IP address. For example, an IP address of 172.16.33.6
that uses a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 is expressed as 172.16.33.6/16.
If the subnet mask were 255.255.255.0, the address would be expressed
as 172.16.33.0/24.
If TCP/IP sees both computers as being on different networks, it will send
out a broadcast on the network segment requesting the MAC address of the
router that can forward packets to the destination.When the router responds with
its MAC address, both the source host and the router start communicating with
one another. Usually, most computers are configured with one route—the default
gateway.This means that any packets that need to be forwarded to another location will be sent to the IP address of the default gateway. However, it is possible
to configure specific routes to instruct the computer to use different routers
according to the destination address.
As you can appreciate, correct TCP/IP address configuration is of critical
importance if computers are to communicate with one another. A mistake in the
IP address, subnet mask, or default gateway configuration could cause communication to fail.That’s why most administrators prefer to use DHCP for address
configuration.There are just too many opportunities for errors, if you enter these
numbers manually.
Figure 6.8 shows the general Properties page for the TCP/IP configuration of
your local area connection.To get to this configuration screen, highlight Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) in the Properties of the Local Area Connection, and
click Properties.
Figure 6.8 shows the default configuration for TCP/IP on Windows XP,
which is to receive IP address configuration automatically using DHCP.You can
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
323
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 324
www.IrPDF.com
324
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
override these settings for both the IP address and DNS configuration by clicking
on the appropriate radio button and entering the appropriate information.You
might want to note that you can override the DNS configuration information
supplied by the DHCP server while still getting address configuration information from DHCP.
Figure 6.8 TCP/IP Configuration Screen
Designing & Planning…
Calculating Subnets
It is beyond the scope of this book to discuss the calculation of subnets.
However, there are some excellent resources available on the Internet
where you can learn how to do this. Probably the best and most comprehensive resource is Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You
Ever Wanted to Know by Chuck Semeria. You can find this resource at
www.3com.com/solutions/en_US/ncs/501302.html. Some other good
links include www.learntosubnet.com and http://itresources.brainbuzz
.com/tutorials/tutorial.asp?t=S1TU851.
Notice the Alternate Configuration tab.This feature is new to Windows XP.
The purpose of this tab is to assist mobile users who are using a DHCP server at
the office but require a different configuration when they take their computers
home and a DHCP server is unavailable.The default is for the Windows XP
computer to assign itself a private IP address using APIPA when a DHCP server
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 325
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
is unavailable. However, mobile users can override this default behavior by providing an alternate IP address configuration.This tab will disappear if you manually configure IP address information on the main Properties page.
Configuring & Implementing…
Troubleshooting TCP/IP
If you are having problems connecting over TCP/IP, there are a number
of tools you can use. The first tool you should use is IPCONFIG. You
invoke IPCONFIG from the command prompt. It will show you your current TCP/IP configuration. If you use the /ALL switch, you can see the
details of your configuration. You can also use IPCONFIG to release and
renew your DHCP address. Another good tool is PING. If your configuration looks okay in the output of IPCONFIG, you should systematically
ping hosts on your network. You should start with your own computer
by pinging both the loopback address (127.0.0.1) and your own IP
address. If that works, ping another host on your network, such as the
default gateway. Then, ping a host on the remote side of the gateway.
If all of these pings work, then you have a problem with an application.
If you select Advanced from the Properties page, you will see a screen that
resembles Figure 6.9.
Figure 6.9 Advanced TCP/IP Properties Page
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
325
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 326
www.IrPDF.com
326
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Notice that it is possible to configure the computer with more than one IP
address and default gateway by clicking on the respective Add buttons. However,
there are a couple of things you should keep in mind if you are using multiple IP
addresses or gateways. First, NetBIOS can bind only to the first IP address that is
bound to the adaptor. Any operations that require the use of NetBIOS over
TCP/IP will only work for one IP address per adaptor.
Second, even though you might see more than one gateway configured here,
only one of them can be active at a time. If Windows XP discovers that the active
gateway is dead through a mechanism called Dead Gateway Detection, it will
switch to the next configured gateway address in the list. If that gateway is dead,
XP will try the next gateway. If there are no other gateways in the list,Windows
XP will loop back to the top of the list.
The or Automatic Metric check box allows you to control whether
Windows XP will construct TCP/IP routing table entries with metrics based on
the speed of the connection.Windows XP will assign lower values to routing
table entries that use faster connection. A routing table contains a type of “map”
to various destinations. A lower metric means the destination is “closer” than one
with a higher metric.You can see an example of a routing table in Figure 6.23.
Figure 6.10 shows the DNS property page of the Advanced TCP/IP Settings.
You can use this page to configure domain suffixes to be automatically appended
when you enter an incomplete domain name in an application that requires a
fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for DNS resolution.
Figure 6.10 DNS Advanced TCP/IP Settings
When you enter a partial name in an application, such as Internet Explorer,
Windows XP will append your primary and connection-specific suffixes to the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 327
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
name, and will also attempt to use parent suffixes in an effort to resolve the name
to an IP address using DNS. As an example, let’s say your primary DNS suffix is
boston.syngress.com (the primary DNS name is configured in the properties of
the Network Identification tab of the System Properties for My
Computer).You open Internet Explorer and enter http://www as a destination.Windows XP will query DNS with www.boston.syngress.com as the
FQDN. If that attempt fails, it will then try www.syngress.com as the FQDN
(syngress.com being the parent domain of boston.syngress.com).You can also
create your own list of suffixes that Windows XP will append every time you try
to query DNS with an incomplete domain name.
You can also use this property page to configure per-adaptor domain suffixes.
This setting might useful on multihomed machines, in which the adaptors automatically register their names and IP addresses with a DNS server.You can also
use this property page to prevent adaptors from registering in DNS.This would
certainly be a desirable setting for a multihomed Windows XP computer that was
using one of its adaptors for ICS. If both adaptors registered with a DNS server,
this might create problems for internal clients that use DNS to resolve the IP
address of the Windows XP computer to connect to it.
Figure 6.11 shows the settings for the WINS tab of the Advanced TCP/IP
Settings property pages.The primary use of this page is to indicate the IP
addresses of the WINS servers that the computer will use to register its NetBIOS
computer name, and to query for the IP addresses of other NetBIOS computers
on your internetwork.
Figure 6.11 WINS Advanced TCP/IP Settings
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
327
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 328
www.IrPDF.com
328
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
By default, Enable LMHOSTS lookup is turned on. An LMHOSTS file
can provide a backup for NetBIOS name resolution if name resolution fails after
contacting the WINS server or doing a broadcast on the local subnet.You should
leave this turned on.
The NetBIOS settings on this page are of particular importance if your
Windows XP computer is part of a Windows network that is using Active
Directory and has no need for NetBIOS.You can use this page to let DHCP
control whether NetBIOS over TCP/IP is turned on.
Even more important is the relevance the NetBIOS settings have for the security of your computer if it is connected to the Internet. If NetBIOS is enabled on
the adaptor that is connected to the Internet, you are potentially exposing your
computer to some significant security risks. Regardless of whether you are using
the ICF or some other product to protect your computer, you should always disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP on the adaptor that is connected to the Internet.
Configuring & Implementing…
Diagnosing Network Configuration
Windows XP comes with some very powerful troubleshooting tools. One
of the most useful is the Network Diagnostics utility. This tool will allow
you to diagnose and fix network and system problems. It also performs a
variety of tests to determine the status of your network configuration,
including the configuration of applications such as Outlook Express and
Internet Explorer. For example, the Network Diagnostics utility will ping
your SMTP and POP3 gateways. The output of the Network Diagnostics
utility is detailed and clearly indicates whether something passes or fails a
particular test. This tool will be particularly useful in the hands of a support professional who may be assisting an inexperienced user. The easiest
way to find this tool is to go to the Start menu and select Help and
Support. In Help and Support, search for Network Diagnostics. Select
Scan your System once you have located the tool in Help and Support.
The Options tab on the Advanced TCP/IP Settings allows you to set up
filtering for TCP, UDP, and IP traffic. However, the TCP/IP filtering you find here
is really a legacy holdover from Windows XP’s predecessors and is of limited utility.
If your computer is connected to the Internet, you should disable NetBIOS on the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 329
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
external interface and turn on the ICF at a minimum to protect your computer.
The ICF will provide you with a more secure and robust form of packet filtering
than you can find here.We discuss ICF later in this chapter.
Working with IPX/SPX
Generally, the fewer protocols you need to install, the better.TCP/IP is the dominant networking protocol in use today and is installed by default. Unless you
have a good reason, such as a need to authenticate to and use the file and print
services of a Novell server using IPX/SPX, there is no need to install IPX/SPX.
Adding another protocol will merely serve to add traffic to your network.
Moreover, if the Novell server is using native IP, you should install the NetWare
client from Novell so that you can use NCP over TCP/IP. If you decide to use
Microsoft’s Client Services for NetWare instead of Novell’s client, you must also
use NWLink, Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. Not surprisingly, if you uninstall
Client Services for NetWare,Windows XP will automatically uninstall NWLink.
Fortunately, if you do have to install NWLink, you will find that configuration is automatic and trouble free—only rarely will you run into trouble. If you
do run into difficulties with IPX/SPX, chances are that the difficulty will be
related to the selection of the frame type. Figure 6.12 shows the configuration
settings page for NWLink.
Figure 6.12 NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Configuration Settings
By default, the frame type is set to Auto detect.This screen shot, however,
shows you the drop-down box where you can manually select the various frame
types. If you install Client Services for NetWare and NWLink and can’t log on to
the appropriate Novell server, you might have selected the wrong frame type.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
329
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 330
www.IrPDF.com
330
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Windows XP will automatically detect and configure the appropriate frame type
if there is only one on the network. However, if it detects both Ethernet 802.3
and Ethernet 802.2, it will select 802.2 as the frame type. If you are trying to
connect to a server that is using 802.3, you won’t be able to. If you manually
configure a frame type, you will also have to enter a network number.This is a
number that identifies the cable segment where your computer is located and is
analogous to the network portion of a TCP/IP address.Your Novell administrator
will be able to tell you this number.
Working with RAS and VPN
Remote Access Services (RAS) makes possible the ability for you to connect to
remote resources via an asynchronous dial-up connection or a VPN.With
Windows XP, you can also use RAS to set up your computer to accept one
active inbound connection. Perhaps the most common use of RAS is to connect
to an ISP using an asynchronous dial-up connection. However, PPPoE and VPNs
are becoming increasingly common.
Many broadband users (those who have broadband connections to the
Internet through devices such as cable modems) are finding that their ISPs are
taking a step backward by forcing them to use PPPoE. PPPoE allows the use of
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is used for dial-up connections and is part
of RAS, over an Ethernet connection.The result of this is that a login is required
for access to the Internet over the broadband connection.This is really no different from using a dial-up connection to the Internet, except for the fact that
you don’t use an asynchronous modem.With PPPoE, ISPs can apparently more
easily track accounting information for individual customers. Regardless of the
reasons, PPPoE introduces complexity to the use of a broadband connection to
the Internet. Fortunately,Windows XP provides a wizard to configure PPPoE.
As more and more people and companies look for solutions that allow people
more flexibility in their work schedules,VPNs have become an increasingly popular
means for employees to connect to the network at their workplace. Because the
traffic over a VPN is encrypted, there is less risk that any data transmitted between
the telecommuter at home and the workplace will be intercepted and stolen.
Configuring a RAS Connection
You configure RAS connections through the New Connections Wizard that
you invoke from the Network Connections folder.To invoke the wizard, go to
the Network Connections folder and click on Create a new connection in
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 331
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
the Network Tasks list on the left-hand side. In the subsequent welcome screen,
click Next.You should see the screen represented in Figure 6.13.
Figure 6.13 Network Connection Type
Let’s step through the process of creating a dial-up connection to the
Internet. Make sure that Connect to the Internet is selected, and click Next.
Figure 6.14 shows the subsequent screen you see.
Figure 6.14 Getting Ready Configuration Screen
In this screen, you will see three choices. If you live in the United States, you
can use the default option to choose from a list of ISPs to configure to automate
the configuration of your connection.We discuss this option in more detail in
Chapter 9.You can also automate the configuration of your connection settings
by using a CD supplied by the ISP.
To set up the connection manually, choose Set up my connection
manually, and click Next. Figure 6.15 shows the next choices for the wizard.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
331
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 332
www.IrPDF.com
332
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Figure 6.15 Internet Connection Type
The two choices, Connect using a dial-up modem and Connect using
a broadband connection that requires a user name and password, are
almost identical.The only difference between them is that the wizard will prompt
you to enter a telephone number if you choose Connect using a dial up
modem.You would select the second choice if you needed to configure a
PPPoE connection.The final choice, Connect using a broadband connection that is always on, is not necessary if you already have a NIC installed and
connected to the cable modem.
If you select either of the first two choices, you will be asked to enter the
ISP’s name and whether you want the connection object to be available for all
users or just yourself. If you are creating a dial-up connection, you will see an
additional screen prompting you for a telephone number. After responding to
these various prompts, you will see the screen represented in Figure 6.16.
Figure 6.16 Internet Account Information
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 333
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
If you wish, for security reasons, to provide a password each time you log in
to the ISP, you can leave the Password fields blank. However, if you are also going
to use this connection for ICS, you will need to provide complete login information.You can also choose to make this connection a default connection to the
Internet if you want. However, if you already have a connection to the Internet,
you will want to clear this check box.
Now that you have configured a dial-up connection, you will see a dial-up
connection object in the Network Connections folder. If you need to do additional configuration, you will now be able to gain access to more properties of
the object here.
Let’s look at some of these Properties screens. Go to the Network
Connections folder, select the new dial-up connection object, and then select
Change settings of this connector.You will see a screen that looks like
Figure 6.17.
Figure 6.17 Dial-Up Connection Properties Pages
In the General tab, you can configure alternate telephone numbers and the use
of dialing rules if you call from different locations.This latter option is particularly
useful if you travel a lot with your computer to the same places, and will save you
from having to reconfigure your dial-up settings every time you go to a different
location.The Configure button allows you to set the properties for your modem,
such as flow control, hardware compression, and error correction settings.
In the Options tab (Figure 6.18), you can configure such things as the
number of dial-up attempts and the time between attempts.You can also use this
property page to configure whether you wish to be prompted for the telephone
number, username and password. If you want to completely automate the use of
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
333
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 334
www.IrPDF.com
334
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
this connection, you can turn these prompts off. Finally, this is the page where
you can configure X.25 settings.
Figure 6.18 Options Properties Page for Dial-Up Connection
The Advanced tab is used to configure ICS and the ICF.We discuss this property page later in the chapter.The Security and the Networking tabs are particularly important, because if there is a problem with the connection, there is a good
chance that the problem is related to one of the settings we find in these tabs.
Figure 6.19 shows the Security tab Properties page. At the bottom of the
graphic, you will notice check boxes for configuring interactive logon and
scripting. Some RAS servers require that you open a terminal-emulation window
and log on within the window.Typically, you will find this to be the case if you
log on to a server that uses Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), rather than PPP;
however, this could also be a requirement of a PPP connection.You can create
scripts that will allow you automate the logon in the terminal-emulation
window.You can find a sample SWITCH.INF script that performs this function
in the %systemroot%\system32\Ras folder.
Figure 6.20 displays the drop-down box with the typical security options. By
default, the connection is set up with Allow unsecured password selected.This
is the lowest level of security and is the one that ISPs will typically require. If you
select Require a secure password, you can also select to encrypt the data.You
can also choose to use a smart card for security. However, this would require that
you attach a smart card reader to your computer. If your authentication is failing,
it is likely that you have mismatched security settings with the remote dial-up
computer to which you are trying to connect.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 335
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Figure 6.19 Security Properties Page for Dial-Up Connection
For the most part, this property page should have all the options you need to
configure the correct security settings for most dial-up servers. However, if you
need finer control of security settings, you can click Advanced, which will show
you the screen you see in Figure 6.20.
Figure 6.20 Advanced Dial-Up Security Settings
The drop-down box for data encryption partially obscures a drop-down box
for configuring Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).With EAP, vendors are
able to provide different authentication mechanisms that could be used for dialup protocols. For example, you might use EAP if you were using a smart card
reader or digital certificates to manage the security of the data. For example, to
encrypt L2TP with IPSec, you might use a digital certificate that you install in
the computer. However, this is a very advanced security topic and outside the
scope of this book.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
335
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 336
www.IrPDF.com
336
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
One fact to note for this configuration is that to use Microsoft Point-to-Point
Encryption (MPPE), which allows you to encrypt the data, you must use
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP) or MSCHAP v2. Any of the other check boxes you see on this page represent less
secure ways of connecting than provided by either version of MS-CHAP.
Designing & Planning…
Authentication Protocols for RAS
Challenge Host Authentication Protocols (CHAP) avoid the problems of
sending passwords in the clear. When a dial-up client connects to RAS
server, the RAS server sends it a random challenge. The client calculates
a response to the challenge based on the password. The RAS server
receives the response and compares it with the value it calculated using
the password it found associated with the user account in the database.
This is certainly more secure than Password Authentication Protocol,
which sends passwords as clear text. MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2 are
more secure mechanisms for authenticating clients than the original
CHAP. Nonetheless, some weaknesses are associated with CHAP, and this
is one reason that Microsoft introduced EAP with Windows 2000. This
allows the addition of other authentication mechanisms, such as those
based on X.509 certificates.
The Networking tab allows you to control settings specific the protocols you
are using for the dial-up connection. For example, you can specify IP addresses
for DNS and WINS servers, and you can disable NetBIOS on the connection. In
most respects, the screens you see under the Networking tab are the same as
those we discussed earlier in the chapter. If you are manually setting up a dial-up
connection to the ISP, you will probably have to manually configure the properties of TCP/IP with the IP addresses of DNS servers.
Figure 6.21 shows the Advanced properties of the TCP/IP protocol within
the dial-up connection. Notice that the General tab shows two check boxes that
are specific to dial-up connections.The check box for IP header compression
might be useful to toggle on and off if you are trying to troubleshoot an inability
to connect to a RAS server.The Use default gateway on remote network is
useful when we are creating a VPN, which we discuss in the next section.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 337
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Figure 6.21 TCP/IP Dial-Up Connection Advanced Properties
Tunneling with a VPN Connection
A VPN is a secure “tunnel” that is created between one computer and another
over the Internet and other networks using RAS. All data within the tunnel is
usually encrypted. It is as if you had scrambled the information you want to send
and then placed it in an envelope for sending on the Internet using TCP/IP.
Only the intended recipient of the envelope can open the envelope and read the
contents. From a more technical perspective, a VPN encapsulates the PPP frame,
which is a Layer 2 protocol, in a tunnel header.The encapsulated PPP frame
includes data and the link control procedures used for authentication.
Furthermore, when you create a VPN connection to your workplace network, it is as if your computer at home is a member of the network at work.
Your computer will receive an IP address from the subnet at your workplace. For
example, if your computer at home has an IP address of 192.168.0.5/24 and your
office uses a network ID of 10.107.2.0/24, connecting to your office using a
VPN will cause your computer to acquire an address from the 10.107.2.0/24
network. Because you will have an IP address on the internal network, you will
potentially be able to use network resources, such as printers and file shares, on
the internal office networks as if your computer were actually present on the
office network. Nor are you limited to using TCP/IP.You could also tunnel
IPX/SPX within the VPN.
Windows XP comes with two protocols for use with VPNs, PPTP and L2TP.
Both protocols are similar; the most significant difference is that L2TP requires
the use of IPSec to provide encryption, whereas PPTP can use MPPE. Both
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
337
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 338
www.IrPDF.com
338
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
L2TP and PPTP use Point-to-Point protocol and therefore require the use of
RAS. In fact, the creation and configuration of an L2TP or PPTP connection is
very much like the creation and configuration of a dial-up connection. However,
instead of using a telephone number to dial to establish the connection, you dial
an IP address.
Let’s look at creating a VPN connection using PPTP:
1. Open the Network Connections folder and select Create a new
connection from the Network Tasks list on the left-hand side.
2. Click Next on the Welcome to the New Connection Wizard page,
select Connect to my network at the workplace, and click Next.
3. Select Virtual Private Network connection, and then click Next.
4. Type in a company name for the connection (this is how the connection
will be identified in the Network Connections folder), and click Next.
5. In the subsequent screen, you are given the option to dial a connection
before establishing the VPN. If you are using a dial-up connection to the
Internet, this could be a convenient option. If you have a permanent
connection to the Internet, you will not want to dial another connection first. Select the appropriate options, and click Next.
6. Enter a host name (you must be able to resolve the host name to an IP
address) or IP address that the VPN connection will dial, and click Next.
7. Finish the wizard by indicating whether the connection object is available to anyone or just you.
When you finish creating the connection, you can review its properties by
highlighting the object in the Network Connections folder and selecting
Change settings of this connection from the Network Tasks list.When you
do this, you will see a property page that looks like the one in Figure 6.22.
As you can see, the tabs on this Properties page are similar to those you see
on the dial-up or Local Area Connection Properties pages.There are a few differences, however. On the Security tab, you will see a button for IPSec Settings.
This button allows you to type in a pre-shared key for use by IPSec to encrypt
data over an L2TP connection.This feature is new to Windows XP. Formerly, in
Windows 2000, you had to make changes to the Registry in order to use a preshared key for IPSec encryption.Your network administrator will have to supply
you with the pre-shared key.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 339
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Figure 6.22 VPN Connection General Properties Page
The Networking tab allows you to select the type of VPN connection you
want to establish.The default is Automatic.The two other choices are PPTP
VPN and L2TP IPSec VPN.
When you connect to a remote network using a VPN connection, your computer acquires an IP address configuration that puts your computer on the subnet
of a remote network.
Additionally, when you make the VPN connection, your routing table changes
and the default gateway on the remote network becomes your new default
gateway. Figure 6.23 shows the type of change that occurs to your routing table.
Figure 6.23 Changes to the Routing Table Once the VPN Connection
Is Established
Notice that there are two entries for the 0.0.0.0 Network Destination, and that
one of these entries has a metric of 1 (look at the right-hand side).The 0.0.0.0
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
339
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 340
www.IrPDF.com
340
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
address is the “all networks” address.What this means in terms of the routing table
is that any time your computer does not know where to send a packet, it will send
it to the IP address of the defined gateway. In the preceding example, that gateway
will be 192.168.179.207, by virtue of having the lowest metric. However, in this
case, 192.168.179.207 is the IP address from the remote network that was assigned
to this computer when it established a VPN connection.
Configuring & Implementing…
Automatic Routing Metrics
You will see larger values in the metric column of your routing table if
you have Automatic Metric enabled in the Advanced properties of the
TCP/IP protocol for each connection. The metric column is used to tell
TCP/IP how “far” destination networks are from the computer—the
higher the value of the metric, the farther the destination. If there are
two routes to the same destination in the routing table, TCP/IP will
choose the route with the lowest metric. If you see larger values in the
metric column, this means that Windows XP is assigning metrics to
entries in your routing table based on the speed of the connection.
Therefore, a routing table entry that relies on a 100 Mbps connection
will have a lower value than an entry that relies on a 10 Mbps connection. By assigning a value to the routing table entry based on the speed
of the connection, Windows XP ensures that it will use the fastest connection to reach a destination when there is more than one route to that
destination through connections of different speeds.
The relevance of this is that you will not be able to browse to other resources
on the Internet while you are connected to the VPN. If you want to browse
resources on the Internet while connected to the VPN, you will have to clear the
Use default gateway on remote network check box.You can find this check
box on the Advanced TCP/IP Settings page of the VPN connection object.
Figure 6.21 also displays this check box.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 341
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Configuring & Implementing…
Using CMAK to Handle Routes on Remote Networks
One of the challenges that administrators face is that home users often
lack sufficient experience to set up their own dial-up and VPN connections. The Connection Manager and the Connection Manager
Administration Kit (CMAK) will help simplify the task of setting up a VPN
at home for your users. With the CMAK, you can pre-configure dial up
settings for distribution to home users. The latest version of CMAK supports “split tunneling,” which will allow you to configure the client to
access the Internet and the secure network at the same time. In addition, you can use CMAK to add static routes to the client configuration.
This is important in situations where the client needs access to a complex internal network that consists of a number of subnets. The CMAK is
not available in the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK) 6.0,
although it is available in earlier versions. Instead, the CMAK is part
Windows 2000 Server or later. You can find the both earlier and later
versions of the IEAK at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ieak/. For
more information on CMAK, consult www.microsoft.com/windows/
ieak/techinfo/deploy/60/en/.
Sharing Your Internet Connection
One of the more desirable features of Windows XP is its capability to allow other
computers to share its connection to the Internet.With ICS installed on a
Windows XP computer connected to the Internet, you can enable computers on
the internal network to cause the ICS computer to dial up and connect to an
ISP, if you don’t have a connection to the Internet that is permanently on.You
can also control and monitor the Internet connection on the ICS computer. ICS
works by providing Network Address Translation (NAT) from the external to the
internal network, and vice versa. It manages to do this translation by keeping a
map of the open ports and IP addresses associated with connections that are
made through ICS.This is sometimes referred to as port mapping.
All applications, such as Web browsers and FTP servers and clients, use port
addresses when they connect to remote resources. In simple terms, a port is a
type of address on a server where a particular service resides. A Web server resides
at TCP port 80, an SMTP mail server at TCP port 25, a POP3 server at TCP
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
341
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 342
www.IrPDF.com
342
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
port 110, and so on.When a client makes a request to connect to a Web server,
the frame contains a request to connect at TCP port 80.Within the same frame,
the client informs the destination host what port it has opened for the response.
The port that is requested for the reply changes every time the browser makes a
new connection.
When a computer on the internal network makes a request through ICS, the
outgoing packet is intercepted.The “source” field information containing the IP
address and port number are exchanged with the IP address of the NAT device
(the NIC with ICS enabled) and a new source port number.The original destination and source IP addresses and ports are stored in a table, along with the
information the NAT device placed in the frame.When the destination host
receives the packet, it replies to the source IP address and port of the NAT
device. Because the reply arrives at a particular port, NAT can consult its table to
learn to what computer it should send the reply.
Designing & Planning…
Universal Plug and Play
UPnP bears a similarity to Plug and Play in that both share the same
goal: ease (or absence) of configuration for end users when they add
devices. However, whereas Plug and Play refers to an architecture that
enables automatic configuration of devices attached to a computer,
UPnP refers to a peer-to-peer networking architecture that enables automatic configuration of UPnP-compliant devices when they are attached
to the network. UPnP is based on open Internet standards, such as
TCP/IP, XML, and HTTP, and many of the methods UPnP devices use for
automatic configuration will sound familiar. For example, UPnP devices
will be capable of acquiring an IP address, announcing their names and
the capabilities, and discovering other UPnP devices on the network. As
an analogy, one can think of servers acquiring IP addresses from DHCP
servers and announcing the services they offer through broadcasts on
the local subnet and directed datagrams to WINS servers.
UPnP standards can be implemented on a wide range of applications and hardware. As the text of this chapter mentions, NAT Traversal
is only one consequence on the implementation of UPnP standards.
UPnP can be implemented on any device that is capable of being connected to the network, wired or wireless. Toasters, clocks, coffee
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 343
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
machines, TVs, surveillance cameras, baby monitors, home security systems, home automation systems, automobiles—any thing that can be
plugged into a network can be made to take advantage of UPnP standards so that it can be integrated with other UPnP devices. For example,
a home surveillance camera can be mounted in a baby’s room and the
image displayed on the TV in another room. Or, in a cold climate, your
home computer could monitor the internal temperature of the car in the
garage, start the engine at a certain temperature, and then shut it off
when the temperature rose sufficiently or the carbon monoxide levels
rose too much. Or, your WebTV could automatically configure itself for
use with your ICS-enabled Windows XP workstation. This kind of interoperability with other UpnP-capable devices would take place with zero
or little configuration on the part of the user. In the case of wireless networks, automatic configuration of the UPnP-capable device could occur
when a user merely brought it into the proximity of the network.
Both Windows ME and Windows XP are UPnP-compliant operating
systems by default, and there are plans for a wide range of UPnP-compliant devices for consumers. For example, a number of vendors have
announced that they intend to build UPnP NAT Traversal capability into
their gateway products. The UPnP forum, which is responsible for the
UPnP standards, has broad support from hundreds of vendors, including
Microsoft. As more and more UPnP-compliant products become available to consumers, the UPnP standard will help to drive acceptance and
the extension of networking technologies into broader areas of everyday
life. Just as the Plug and Play capability of Windows 95 made a wide
range of computer peripheral devices available and acceptable to consumers, UPnP promises to do the same for network-capable devices.
UPnP will be able to do so because of its capability to take the burden
of configuration away from the user.
For more information on UPnP, you might find the following URLs
helpful:
www.upnp.org/default.htm
www.upnp.org/forum/members.htm
www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/techinfo/planning/
upnp/default.asp
www.microsoft.com/WindowsXP/pro/techinfo/planning/
networking/nattraversal.asp
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
343
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 344
www.IrPDF.com
344
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
For most applications, NAT works very well. However, NAT also causes
many of them to fail. For example, some applications put the IP address of the
source host in the payload of the data. NAT does not touch the payload.This IP
address will be a private, nonroutable address. Consequently, if the receiving
application uses the address in the payload for the reply, the connection will fail.
With Windows XP, Microsoft introduces a number of improvements to ICS.
One improvement is Internet Discovery and Control, which allows the internal
ICS clients to control the connection through an icon they see on their desktop.
Internet Discovery and Control will work on Windows 98 and later clients, as
long as they are running IE 5 or better and you run the Network Setup Wizard
from the XP CD on them.
Another improvement is support for a technology called NAT Traversal,
which is part of the Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) specification. NAT Traversal
will allow UPnP-capable software to discover they are using NAT to communicate with applications on the Internet, and to embed information in the payload
that will allow the application on the Internet to respond to the NAT device,
rather than a private IP address.The use of NAT Traversal will allow a wider
range of applications to work through NAT.
Configuring Internet Connection Sharing
Configuring ICS is a straightforward operation. However, before you can share
your connection, you need to ensure that you have the necessary configuration in
place. First, ICS requires that you have at least two network-capable devices
installed in your computer. One of these devices will be used for the connection to
the Internet.You can use a dial-up as well as a broadband connection that is permanently on. If you use a dial-up connection, you can configure it so that any request
from an internal computer to connect to the Internet will cause the ICS computer
to dial up and connect to the ISP. In order for this feature to work, you must have
configured your dial-up components to log on automatically to the ISP.
If you have more than a single network-capable device for the internal network, you should bridge the connection, as we discussed earlier in the chapter.
All of the computers on the internal network should be configured as DHCP
clients. ICS contains a service called the DHCP allocator, which acts as a miniDHCP server. It will respond to the requests of the DHCP clients.
Once you are ready, you can enable ICS.To do so:
1. Open the Network Connections folder and select Change settings
of this connection in the Network Tasks list.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 345
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
2. In the Advanced tab, click the check box to enable ICS, as in
Figure 6.24.
Figure 6.24 Advanced Settings for Connection Object
Figure 6.24 shows the screen you would see if you were using a dial-up connection for ICS.When you are using a permanent connection to the Internet,
the ICS configuration screen looks slightly different and a bit simpler. If you are
using a dial-up connection to the Internet and are concerned about potential
incoming calls or telephone charges, you might want to check the box to Allow
other network users to control or disable the shared Internet connection.When this box is checked, you can control and monitor the connection
from computers on which you have enabled ICS Discovery and Control.You
should note that Establish a dial-up connection whenever a computer on
my network attempts to access the Internet is independent of the setting to
control or disable the shared connection. Internal users can still cause the ICS
computer to connect to the ISP if the Establish a dial-up connection box is
checked, even though they might not be using ICS Discovery and Control.
After turning on ICS (or ICF), you can configure it to allow clients on the
Internet access to your services running on your computer or your internal network.To do this, click Settings.You will see a screen that looks like Figure 6.25.
Using this interface, you can add service definitions to the list you see here,
or you can edit the current entries to provide external access to services running
on your internal network.To add a service destination, you must supply the IP
address of the computer that is hosting the service, as well as the port number for
it. If you would like to view a list of port numbers, please visit www.iana.org/
assignments/port-numbers.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
345
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 346
www.IrPDF.com
346
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Figure 6.25 Services Tab for ICS and ICF
Figure 6.26 shows one of the interfaces for configuring access to an internal
service.
Figure 6.26 Service Settings for ICS and ICF
Note that the Service Settings property page allows you to configure port
remapping.That is, you can configure Windows XP to receive traffic at the
external interface on one port and redirect that traffic to a different port on an
internal server.This might be useful if you are one of the many broadband users
who found that their ISP had globally blocked inbound traffic on TCP Port 80 as
a result of the Nimda virus.You can still run a Web server using your broadband
connection. However, you will not be able to connect to the Web server from the
Internet using the default port for HTTP,TCP Port 80, and you must use some
other TCP for inbound Web traffic. If you had an internal Web server that was
listening on TCP Port 80, you could configure Windows XP to redirect traffic
sent to a different port on the external interface to your internal Web server. In
this way, you would not have to reconfigure your internal Web server to use a
different port.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 347
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Configuring & Implementing…
Internet Discovery and Control
When you enable Internet Discovery and Control on client computers,
they receive an icon through which you able to control the ICS connection and see statistics for the connection to the Internet on the ICS computer. Internet Discovery and Control can be installed on Windows 98,
ME, and XP. Internet Discovery and Control requires that you are running
IE 5 or higher. To install Internet Discovery and Control, you need to run
the Network Setup Wizard from a floppy disk or from the Windows XP
Setup disks. You can find the install Internet Discovery and Control by
running setup from the Windows XP source CD and selecting Perform
Additional Tasks when you see the splash screen. On the next screen,
select Set up a home or a small office network.
Filtering and Firewalls
Unfortunately, the number of security risks on the Internet has grown tremendously in the past few years.The increase of these risks coincides with the arrival
of relatively inexpensive broadband connections that allow computers to be continuously connected to the Internet. In addition, tools that allow even the most
inexperienced computer user to compromise security on a remote computer are
widely available. No talent or experience is now required to compromise your
computer’s security if it is connected to the Internet. If talent or experience were
necessary in order to compromise security, we would see fewer problems with
security. All that is now required appears to be malicious intent, and that we seem
to have in abundance. If you have a permanent connection to the Internet
through a broadband connection, you would probably be dismayed to discover
how frequently the ports on your computer were being scanned by unauthorized
users in an attempt to discover open ports that are vulnerable to attack.
To protect computers against attack, it is advisable to protect them with some
form of firewall. A firewall is a combination of hardware and software that is
placed between your internal network and the Internet. Although there are many
kinds of firewalls that can provide different kinds of capabilities, they all have in
common the capability to control access through packet filtering and to log the
traffic so that you can be alerted to potential security threats.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
347
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 348
www.IrPDF.com
348
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Using IP Packet Filtering
All firewalls provide some form of “stateful” packet filtering.What this means is
that the firewall will intercept all packets and examine the information contained
within them, such as the source and destination IP address and the source and
destination port numbers. Unless the firewall has a rule that allows the traffic, the
packet is dropped and the event is recorded in a log.This packet filtering works
on both inbound and outbound traffic. A firewall will treat unsolicited and
solicited traffic differently. For inbound traffic that is the result of a request from
an internal computer, the firewall will maintain a table containing the details of
the request so that the firewall can allow the response.
Configuring the Internet Connection Firewall
A desirable addition to Windows XP is the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).
ICF provides stateful packet filtering, logging, and alerting. As you learned in the
previous section, stateful filtering means that ICF will examine the contents of
each packet as it arrives. Based on the source and destination IP addresses and
port numbers, ICF will either drop or allow the traffic based on a table it maintains for this purpose. ICF works in concert with ICS to provide access for unsolicited traffic. For example, if you have configured the ICS service definition to
allow Web server (HTTP) traffic, ICF will allow this traffic. Disabling the service
definition for the Web server will result in ICF dropping that traffic.
Enabling and configuring ICF requires only a few clicks of the mouse.To
enable ICF:
1. Open the Network Connections folder and select Change settings
of this connection in the Network Tasks list.
2. In the Advanced tab, click the check box to enable ICF. (See Figure
6.24 for a screen shot of this property page.)
3. Click Settings to see the Services, Security Logging, and
ICMP tabs.
Once you have enabled ICF, you can configure a number of settings for it.
These include the service definitions, security logging options, and ICMP filters.
As we learned earlier, if you enable a service definition for a particular application, you automatically configure ICF to allow traffic associated with that application.You should always consider the consequences of allowing any traffic through
ICF.The less traffic you allow into your network, the more secure it will be.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 349
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
With Security Logging, you can configure how much log information you
want.You can log both successful connections and dropped packets, as you can
see in Figure 6.27.You can also configure the location and maximum size of the
log file.
Figure 6.27 Security Logging Screen
If you log both successful connections and dropped packets, the log file might
grow rather quickly. If you want to log this type of detail, you might want to
configure a fairly large size for the log file. However, when the log file fills with
data,Windows XP will rename the file to pfirewall.log.1 and create a new log
filename pfirewall.log. Regardless of the size you configure for your log file, you
will want to keep an eye on the disk space that these log files consume.
The log file itself is a standard W3C Extended log file format that is used in
Web logs. It includes information on the time, source IP address, destination IP
address, source port, destination port, and so forth.The Windows XP help files
under the topic “Internet Connection Firewall security logging” contain a complete description of the fields you see in the log file. Figure 6.28 shows the content of a typical log file. In the very last line of this example, you can see that ICF
drops the attempted connection to TCP port 139, which is a particularly vulnerable port used for NetBIOS.
The ICMP tab, which you can see in Figure 6.29 gives you a mechanism to
allow certain types of ICMP traffic. For example, you can configure ICF to allow
ICMP echo traffic, which is used for ping. However, there is no reason why you
should allow ICMP echo or other ICMP traffic unless you have a specific need
for it; for example, to do some troubleshooting.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
349
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 350
www.IrPDF.com
350
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Figure 6.28 ICF Log File
Figure 6.29 The ICMP Tab
Configuring & Implementing…
Verifying Protection Provided by ICF
The port scan that you see represented in Figure 6.28 is the result of a
security test that was performed on a Windows XP computer. The test is
available at www.grc.com. The site makes available a Web-based application called Shields Up! The application, which is free to use, provides
a port scan of your system to determine if some of the more vulnerable
ports are open and vulnerable to attack. The Web site also has some
good information on security topics.
As you can see, the ICF provides only the most basic configuration elements,
but it does a pretty good job of protecting your network. However, even though
you might be using ICF, you should not be lulled into a false sense of security. If
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 351
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
your computer is attached to the Internet, you should also disable NetBIOS on
the external network device.You should also activate as few service definitions as
possible on your Windows XP computer. For example, unless you have some
need to, don’t allow unsolicited access to any Web, FTP, SMTP, or other network
services on your internal network or computer. FTP is a particularly bad service
to run, but any service that is accessible via the Internet is vulnerable. Finally,
don’t forget about outgoing traffic.The ICF can do nothing to prevent undesirable outbound traffic from leaving.This traffic might include packets from spyware you have inadvertently installed. (Spyware surreptitiously reports information
back to the company that manufactured the software or some third-party company.) However, there are some good inexpensive or free products, such as Zone
Alarm, available at www.zonelabs.com, which can help you detect and monitor
unauthorized outbound traffic.
Wireless Connectivity
To be free of the “tether” (the network cable) is the promise that wireless networking holds out to us. For home users, wireless networking can provide a solution to the complex job of stringing new Ethernet Category 5 cabling to
multiple rooms, especially in older houses. For the workplace, wireless networking means that we might be able to eliminate some of the challenges that
providing physical ports for many computers can bring. Some buildings might
even restrict the use of cabling, making it impossible to provide network access
through wires. In addition, if employees are issued laptop computers, they might
be able to bring these laptops to board rooms for meetings or to other places
within the wireless zone and still have access to their data on the network,
without having to physically connect cables to gain access.This freedom provides
a great deal of flexibility to employees and creates opportunities for greater productivity. Many corporations, such as Microsoft, appreciate the benefits that wireless technologies can bring to the workplace, and are beginning to use wireless
technologies extensively to provide network access for employees.
While wireless technologies provide a great many advantages, they also provide
a number of challenges. First, there is an issue with security. If you are connecting
over a cable, an eavesdropper would have to be able to tap into the network
cabling at some point. Although this is possible, it requires physical access to the
building.With wireless communication, it would be a relatively easy matter to put
together the hardware to allow the eavesdropper to pick up signals in open, unsecured areas without having to have physical access to the interior of a building.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
351
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 352
www.IrPDF.com
352
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
A second challenge involves roaming users who might move from one wireless
zone to another, which may in fact use a different subnet. Or, it may be that the
user roams to a zone that is in a different administrative domain, and the user
might not have access to a domain controller to authenticate with, and hence not
be able to log in to the network. It should be possible for users to move seamlessly
from zone to zone without having to reconfigure any components. In situations
where the wireless zone is in a different administrative domain, users should be
able to contact the appropriate domain controller, even if that zone is, for
example, located in an airport or another office that provides wireless connectivity.
Microsoft has introduced a number of enhancements to address these challenges. However, before we discuss these solutions, we should look at wireless
standards in general.
Wireless Standards
Currently, there are two predominant wireless standards.The first standard is
HomeRF, and the second is IEEE 802.11b, also known as High Rate.You might
sometimes see IEEE 802.11b devices labeled as Wi-Fi™ compliant.This means
that the vendor is part of the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA).
Any device that uses this logo can communicate with other Wi-Fi-compliant
devices from other manufacturers.
Using a 900 MHz radio frequency, HomeRF is relatively slow at 1 to 2
Mbps, although there are claims for devices that can transmit at up to 10 Mbps.
The maximum range of HomeRF devices is around 150 feet. Because HomeRF
is relatively inexpensive and will meet the needs of most home users, it is well
suited for home use. Intel and Proxim are two vendors that developed products
based on the HomeRF standards. However, Intel is now developing products
based on the IEEE 802.11b standard, and Microsoft is focusing its efforts on
enhancing support for the IEEE 802.11b standard.
The IEEE 802.11b standard has wider industry adoption and is intended for
corporate use, although the rapid decline in prices of devices over the past year
has made it attractive to home users as well, as evidenced by the number of such
devices you can find in consumer electronics stores. IEEE 802.11b devices can
transmit in the 2.4 GHz range at speeds of up to 11 Mbps and a range of up to
1500 feet outdoors, according to the data sheets of some vendors.The standard
also requires the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), which means
that devices must synchronize with one another to use a pattern of frequency
switching. Receivers that are not capable of interpreting DSSS would hear very
low-power background noise at this frequency range.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 353
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
IEEE 802.11b networks, like their wired Ethernet counterparts, must also
have some mechanism for data flow control to ensure that data does not get lost
as a result of many computers trying to communicate with one another simultaneously.To this end, IEEE 802.11b uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
like typical Ethernet networks; however, it uses collision avoidance, rather than
collision detection.With CSMA/CA networks, devices will wait until the
channel is clear before sending the data.The receiving station will send an ACK
back to the sending system when it receives the frame. If the ACK is not received
by the sending device within a particular time, it will retransmit the frame.
Although it is possible for an IEEE 802.11b network to be set up with an
independent peer-to-peer topology or two or three computers, sometimes
referred to as an ad hoc network, it is more common for the wireless network to
extend an Ethernet network that is currently in place. Extending the current network requires one or more wireless access points that plug in to either a computer or hub or switch.When setting up the wireless network like this, the
wireless access point allow users to exchange data between the wired and the
wireless network, just like a cell tower allows users to make telephone calls using
cell phones. Depending on the hardware, a wireless access point can support a
few or many wireless users (over 50).
Configuring & Implementing…
WEP Naming Conventions
There is some confusion among various vendors with regard to referring
to encryption strength. You will see vendors variously referring to 40-,
64-, 104-, and 128-bit encryption. In reality, vendors refer to 40- and 64bit and 104- and 128-bit encryption interchangeably. The length of the
secret keys will be 40 or 104 bits (depending on the strength of encryption), but each will use a 24-bit vector initialization vector (e.g., 40 plus
24 = 64 and 104 plus 24 = 128).
You might think that because the wireless devices use frequency switching, it
would be difficult to eavesdrop on the communication.This is not the case, and,
in any event, DSSS is used to ensure optimal data transmission, not provide protection.To address security concerns,Wi-Fi defines a Wireless Equivalent Privacy
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
353
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 354
www.IrPDF.com
354
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
(WEP) standard to provide various levels of encryption for data transmission.
WEP 64-bit encryption is not sufficient for corporate communication that needs
to be secure; however, IPSec could be used to provide additional security.
Moreover, while WEP 128-bit encryption provides a high degree of security,
there are concerns about it as well, in particular with how keys are exchanged in
order to determine the encryption of the data.
With Windows 2000 and XP, additional security could be provided through
the use of IPSec. However, another standard, IEEE 802.1x addresses concerns
related to the security of wireless networks. IEEE 802.1x supports the Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol.The IEEE 802.1x standard specifies a mechanism for using port-based network access control, using the
physical characteristics of a switched LAN network. A wireless access point will
act as an authenticator when a wireless client (supplicant) comes within range.
The wireless access point will issue a challenge to the client over a logical
“uncontrolled” port.When the client responds to the challenge, the wireless
access point then forwards the challenge to a RADIUS server for authentication
services.The RADIUS server will then request further credentials from the
client, verify the credentials, and send an encrypted authentication key to the station.The authentication keys are encrypted in such a way that only the receiving
station can decrypt them.These keys are used to establish the session, including
the WEP encryption, over the controlled port. If authentication fails, access to the
wireless network is denied.
Microsoft’s Implementation of
IEEE 802.11 and 802.1x Standards
Because Microsoft’s implementation of support for wireless networking can make
use of the mechanisms specified by the IEEE 802.1x standard—in particular,
RADIUS—this makes it possible to authenticate users to the appropriate administrative domain where their user account is located. As long as the wireless access
point can communicate with a RADIUS server that can provide authentication
services for the administrative domain where the user is located, the client can be
provided access to any wireless network. One scenario that Microsoft envisions is
a wireless access point at a location such as an airport communicating with
remote RADIUS servers to authenticate users on their own home networks.
To meet other challenges created by roaming users, Microsoft, working with
802.11b vendors, has enhanced NDIS to make possible what it refers to as
Wireless Zero Configuration service.This service can automate the detection and
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 355
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
selection of an available wireless network with which the NIC will try to
authenticate. In the event that more than one wireless network is detected, you
can specify a preferred order or limit the networks with which you communicate. If no wireless network is detected, the service can disable the adaptor or go
into peer-to-peer (ad hoc) mode. For users,Wireless Zero Configuration will
greatly simplify connecting to wireless networks.The wireless adaptor can automatically scan for a wireless network and transparently configure itself appropriately. For the Wireless Zero Configuration service to work on your computer, the
wireless adaptor must support it.
If you don’t have an adaptor that supports the Wireless Zero Configuration service, it will still run in Windows XP. However, if you change to a zone that uses a
different Service Set Identifier (SSID), different WEP settings, or uses a different
network type (infrastructure or ad hoc), you might have to manually reconfigure
your device. Generally, you will find those configuration details in the Advanced
tab on the Properties pages of the wireless network adaptor in Device Manager
(these property pages are also accessible if you click Configure in the property
pages of the Local Area Connection).
Configuring & Implementing…
Support for Wireless Zero Configuration
At the time of this writing, it was difficult to find information on whether
a wireless vendor’s adaptors supported the Wireless Zero Configuration
service. Although a number of the larger vendors were providing support
for this service before Windows XP was publicly released, their Web sites
at the time did not advertise the fact using the term Wireless Zero
Configuration. You should check with the vendor to confirm that the wireless adaptor supports the Wireless Zero Configuration service and the IEEE
802.1x standard before you purchase it.
Installing a wireless network device is simply a matter of plugging in the
wireless hardware, which may be in the form of PCI and PC cards, or even USB
devices.Windows XP will, in most instances, recognize the devices and install the
appropriate drivers.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
355
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 356
www.IrPDF.com
356
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
Figure 6.30 shows the settings that enable access control-based IEEE 802.1x
for both wired and wireless networks.You can find these settings by going to the
properties of the wireless network adaptor and selecting the Advanced tab.
Figure 6.30 Authentication Settings for Networks
For the EAP type, you can enable Smart Card or other Certificate or
MD-5 Challenge.You can also choose to attempt authentication with the network if user information is not available because, for example, the user is not
logged in.
The IEEE and wireless vendors are continuing to improve wireless standards.
At the time of publication of this book, hardware devices based on a much faster
standard, IEEE 802.11a, were close to being made available by wireless vendors.
The advent of these devices should result in even more affordable IEEE 802.11b
devices, making them an even more attractive alternative to HomeRF devices.
Wireless standards have matured enormously in the past few years and continue
to do so, in part pushed by Microsoft’s support for IEEE 802 standards.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 357
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Summary
Networking in Windows XP is a large and complex topic. In this chapter, we
covered many topics related to networking in general and its implementation in
Windows XP specifically.To provide a context with which to more completely
and fully understand networking in Windows XP, we began with an overview of
some basic networking concepts. Central to this overview is a description of the
OSI and DoD protocol models to illustrate in a generalized fashion how networked devices communicate with each other.We learned that both models
describe network communications in terms of layers that perform specific functions, such as routing and address resolution. In addition, while few protocols will
cleanly and precisely implement all seven layers of the OSI model as a result of
the overhead this would impose on them, the model is particularly useful as a
tool to troubleshoot problems with network connectivity.The DoD model,
although referencing only four layers, also provides us with the means to develop
a good conceptual understanding of the implementation of TCP/IP and to assist
in troubleshooting any problems related to network communications.
We briefly examined the network architecture of Windows XP and how that
architecture uses a modular approach to facilitate the development of drivers and
other networking software components.Then, we looked at how to install and
configure various network interfaces that you can find in the Network
Connections folder. Chief among these interfaces is the Local Area Connection,
which is the connection object associated with a network interface card (NIC).
We also looked at how to install and configure the MS Loopback adaptor. In
addition, we looked at how to bridge two or more Ethernet-capable devices to
create a “virtual” adaptor that enables communication among physically different
Ethernet segments.
After looking at configuring these components, we discussed network protocol and client considerations. Specifically, we discussed the details of configuring the clients for Microsoft and Novell networks.We further discussed some
of the details of TCP/IP and IPX/SPX (NWLink).We learned that every
TCP/IP address is a 32-bit number usually expressed as four decimal numbers,
and that every TCP/IP address has to be unique and has to be configured with
the correct subnet mask in order to work properly on the network.We also
learned that the subnet mask is what makes it possible to distinguish between the
network and the host portion of a TCP/IP address. For both the TCP/IP and
NWLink, we had a detailed look at the various property pages associated with
the configuration of these protocols.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
357
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 358
www.IrPDF.com
358
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
The next topic we discussed was the implementation of RAS in Windows XP.
We looked at how to configure dial-up networking, which also included information on the various dial-up authentication protocols, such as MS-CHAP. As we
saw, the virtual private network (VPN) components are part of the dial-up networking components, so this provided a natural segue to a discussion of configuring a VPN.We learned that a VPN can provide a secure tunnel within TCP/IP
in order to create a virtual network between a computer and remoter network.
We then looked at how to configure Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) and
the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). ICS allows us to share a single connection to the Internet so that other computers can have access to the Internet
through the ICS computer.The ICF provides us with the protection we require
when connected to the Internet. ICF provides stateful packet filtering, which
allows it to examine every packet as it crosses the interface and accept or deny
that packet based on the rules and tables it uses.We also suggested some best
practices for protecting your computer.
Finally, we looked wireless connectivity in Windows XP.With Windows XP,
Microsoft introduced a number of improvements that will make wireless networking more secure and easier to configure.The implementation of IEEE
802.1x standard makes it possible to permit or deny access to the wireless network, and to leverage RADIUS to provide authentication for the computers and
users trying to attach to the network.The standard also provides for a more
secure exchange of information to initialize WEP encryption. Furthermore, the
Wireless Zero Configuration service can make roaming from one wireless zone
to another a seamless and transparent experience for users of wireless devices. By
using the service, wireless devices will be able to automatically detect the presence of a wireless network or the transition to a new one, and configure themselves appropriately without user intervention.
Solutions Fast Track
Overview of Networking Technologies
; Computers and other network-capable devices can communicate with
one another if they can transmit and receive signals over a shared
medium and if they use the same protocols.
; Protocols are analogous to language and are implemented as rules for
interpreting data that computers send and receive.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 359
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
; The OSI Reference and the DoD protocol models provide a generalized
view of the operation of network protocols. Both models describe the
operation of network protocols in terms of layers. At the sending
computer, header information is added to the data at an upper layer
before it is sent to a lower layer, where the process is repeated. At the
receiving computer, header information is read at a lower layer, stripped
off, and the resulting data passed up to the next layer.
; Protocol models can be very useful for troubleshooting network
communications problems because they provide a mechanism for
analyzing network communications. One common recommendation for
troubleshooting network communications is to start looking for
problems and solutions at the bottom of the model and work up
through the various layers.
Configuring Network Interfaces
; The Network Connections folder is the container for the objects that
you use to configure the properties of network interfaces, including the
addition, removal, and configuration of protocols and network services.
In many instances, configuration will be automatic. However, if you
want to configure bridging, add objects for VPN or dial-up connections,
or change default settings, you will find all the tools in this folder.
; The context menu on the objects in the Network Connections folder
contains a Repair option that will assist in resolving problems that can
occasionally arise, such as failure to renew a DHCP TCP/IP
configuration.
; Bridging can be configured among Ethernet-compatible devices on
separate physical media to create a “virtual” adaptor that can be used to
connect all the devices on all the media attached to the Windows XP
computer.
Network Client and Protocol Considerations
; The default for Windows XP is to configure TCP/IP to use DHCP,
which automates the configuration of TCP/IP. However, if you have to
manually configure TCP/IP, you must at a minimum provide an IP
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
359
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 360
www.IrPDF.com
360
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
address and a subnet mask. If you want the computer to communicate
with computers on a different segment, you must also add a default
gateway.
; All TCP/IP addresses must be unique and the subnet mask entered
correctly in order for computers to communicate properly with one
another.You can use the IPCONFIG command to verify TCP/IP
configuration.You can use the PING command to verify
communication with computers on local and remote segments.
; To use the file and print services of a Novell server, a Windows XP
server requires a special client that can access these services. Microsoft
provides Client Service for NetWare (CSNW) that will work with
Novell servers that use IPX/SPX for a protocol.You can also get a client
from Novell that provides more functionality and will allow you to use
TCP/IP to gain access to file and print services on a Novell server.
; Computers running IPX/SPX (NWLink) need to use the same frame
type in order to communicate with one another.You can set the frame
type in the Properties of the NWLink protocol in the connection
object.
Working with RAS and VPN
; Configuring dial-up and VPN connections is performed manually
through the use of wizards that step you through the process.
; Windows XP provides support for Point-to-Point Protocol over
Ethernet (PPPoE).This support removes the need to install special
software to connect to ISPs that use PPPoE.
; The selection of the appropriate authentication protocols is critical to
being able to successfully connect to a dial-up or VPN server.
; If you want the data to be encrypted during transmission using
Microsoft Point to Point Encryption (MPPE), you must use either
MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP v2.
; Encryption of L2TP is accomplished through the use of IPSec.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 361
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Sharing Your Internet Connection
; Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) provides a mechanism for allowing
access to the Internet for all computers on your network through the
Windows XP computer.
; All internal computers that will be using the shared connection must be
configured as DHCP clients. ICS uses a DHCP allocator to provide IP
address configurations to internal clients.The internal adaptor on the
Windows XP computer will receive a new IP address configuration
when you turn on ICS.
; You can’t use bridging on an adaptor that is used for ICS.
; When you turn on ICS, you can also configure service definitions to
allow Internet users access to services running on internal computers
and the computer running ICS.
Filtering and Firewalls
; Windows XP provides a stateful mini-firewall in the form of the
Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). “Stateful” means that ICF will
inspect the content of the packets as they cross the external interface. If
port numbers and IP addresses contained within the packet do not
correspond to those allowed that are permitted and listed in a dynamic
table that the ICF maintains, ICF will drop the packets at the interface.
; Whenever a computer is connected to the Internet, you should turn on
ICF, unless you have another firewall in place. ICF can only provide
protection against inbound traffic; it cannot be used to monitor or
control outbound traffic.
; ICF can log packets that are dropped and allowed.The log files use a
standard W3C format, which is a format used to log Web traffic as well.
The log files will increment every time the current log file fills up, so it
is important that you monitor them for disk space consumption as well
as security.
; Turning on ICF also turns on service definitions that make it possible to
provide unsolicited access from the Internet users to services running on
the ICF computer.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
361
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 362
www.IrPDF.com
362
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
; The default configuration for ICF enables the maximum amount of
protection ICF can provide. Making any changes from the defaults
weakens security.
Wireless Connectivity
; Microsoft has focused its efforts on providing support for the IEEE
802.11 standard for both corporate and home users.
; Windows XP makes it easy for roaming users to move from one wireless
zone to another.With Wireless Zero Configuration,Windows XP will
automatically configure wireless adaptors as users roam from zone to
zone.Wireless adaptors have to support the Wireless Zero Configuration
service in order to take advantage of it.
; Wireless security and authentication mechanisms are improved through
the implementation of the IEEE 802.1.x standard.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: I recently installed a second computer in my household.To connect the computers, I purchased and installed network adaptors, a hub, and cabling.
However, the second computer does not have access to the Internet through
the first computer.What should I do?
A: In troubleshooting this problem, you should always start at the bottom of the
OSI model and work your way up the model. Starting with the Physical
layer, you would want to examine the cabling, hubs, and network adaptors.
Make sure everything is securely plugged in. Most devices have indicator
lights to tell you whether they detect a signal on the wire.Your network
adaptor and your hub might have these lights, which you can check to see if
there is a signal. In addition, you might want to check what ports on the hub
you used to connect your network cables. Unless you purchased a special type
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 363
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
of cable called a crossover cable, you will not want to use the Uplink port on
the hub. Look in Device Manager on your computer to confirm that the
network adaptors have been installed properly. Check Event Viewer for any
messages that might indicate a problem with the startup of services related to
the network.Then, at both computers, open a command prompt and type
IPCONFIG.This will show your current TCP/IP configuration for each
active network device. Check for any IP addresses that start with the number
169.This indicates that your computer did not receive an address from the
DHCP server. If this is the case, check to make sure that you did in fact turn
on ICS to enable the DHCP allocator. If you did get a valid IP address, try to
ping the IP address of the other computer. Chances are that if you can ping
the other computer, the problem is most likely related to your connection
with the ISP.
Q: I brought my computer out of Hibernate mode, and now the computer will
not communicate on the network.
A: Short of rebooting the computer, there are two things you might try. Access
the context menu for the adaptor by clicking on it with the alternate mouse
button.Then, select Repair from the menu. If that doesn’t work, select
Disable and then select Enable.
Q: I configured a dial-up connection to my ISP. However, every time I try to
connect, the ISP drops the connection right after I enter my login information.The error message is not very helpful either. It merely reports Error 619
and tells me the port has been disconnected.
A: If you can connect to the remote modem pool, and the failure occurs after
you attempt to log on, the most likely reason is that there is some mismatch
between your security settings and the ISP’s. Set your dial-up security settings
to the lowest possible level and try to connect again. If that fails, systematically work your way through higher security levels.
Q: I live in a country where I am charged for individual telephone calls. I
recently configured ICS for my dial-up connection so that other computers
in my household could use the dial-up connection. Now, I find that the dialup connection is frequently invoked even though no one is using any computers at the time.This is costing me a lot of money.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
363
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 364
www.IrPDF.com
364
Chapter 6 • Windows XP Networking
A: The operating system or an application on one of your computers is most
likely sending information to the Internet without user interaction.When an
internal computer tries to gain access to the Internet, ICS will invoke the
dial-up connection and cause your computer to connect to the ISP. A
number of products, such as Zone Alarm, can detect what applications are
responsible for this behavior. Alternatively, you can go to the ICS Properties
page and clear the check box to Establish a dial-up connection whenever a computer on my network tries to access the Internet.
However, doing so will remove a feature that makes using ICS convenient
and easy from an internal computer.
Q: I have enabled the Internet Connection Firewall on my computer. Now, a
friend tells me he is unable to ping my computer’s IP address.
A: This is normal behavior. By default, the ICF drops all ICMP traffic. If you
want to your friend to be able to ping your computer, you can allow ICMP
Echo traffic in the ICF settings. However, doing so creates a security risk in
that you are making your computer visible to others on the Internet. Unless
you need to be able to ping your computer for diagnostics purposes, you are
better off not allowing ICMP traffic.
Q: I recently installed a wireless adaptor in my laptop, but it won’t connect to my
wireless network at home. I can, however, connect to the access point in the
office. Both the access point at home and the adaptor are Wi-Fi compliant.
A: There could be any number of reasons for this, but most commonly, you will
find that the problem is related to a mismatch in the settings of your wireless
card and the wireless access point. For example, a mismatch in WEP settings
(disabled/enabled, encryption strength, passphrase, wireless network key, etc.)
or network type (infrastructure or ad hoc) could all potentially cause your
inability to connect to the wireless access point. If your adaptor does not support Wireless Zero Configuration, you will have to change these properties,
either using a configuration utility the vendor provides or in the properties of
the device itself in Device Manager. Furthermore, you will have to change
the settings that are causing problems every time you move from one zone to
the other. If your adaptor does support Wireless Zero Configuration and you
have enabled it, you will be able to add and save the wireless setting for the
wireless zone at home. If your access point at home broadcasts its SSID, you
should be able to see your access point listed as an available network in the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 365
www.IrPDF.com
Windows XP Networking • Chapter 6
Wireless Network Connection Properties pages. Once you have configured
the settings for your home network, you will be able to roam between zones
without having to reconfigure your adaptor settings.
Q: Does Windows XP support IPv6?
A: Well, that depends on what you mean.You can install IPv6 on Windows XP.
However, the Help file in Windows XP states that IPv6 is intended for testing
and research and should never be used in a production environment. For
more information on IPv6, please consult the Windows XP Help.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
365
189_XP_06.qxd
11/12/01
9:26 AM
Page 366
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 367
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 7
Configuring
Internet
Technologies
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Configuring Internet Explorer 6
■
Configuring Outlook Express 6
■
Configuring Instant Messaging
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
367
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 368
www.IrPDF.com
368
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Introduction
Windows XP is built for the Internet, because it has been designed to fully
embrace Web technologies. Studies demonstrate that the two most common
activities for which people use the Web are reading and sending e-mail and
viewing Web pages.Working on the Web is becoming increasingly sophisticated,
and the fundamental enabling tools—the Web browser and mail client—have
become more robust and feature-rich.These tools are no longer used for synchronous communication alone; they now facilitate collaboration regardless of
where users are situated. Instant messaging has added another dimension to collaboration over the Internet by enabling real-time communication and file
transfer.
Internet Explorer 6, Outlook Express 6, and Windows Messenger are
included in Windows XP as the default browser, mail client, and instant messaging utility, respectively.These products are more than a simple browser and
client. Instant messaging and media tools, among others, have been integrated
into all of these products. All products address privacy and security concerns, and
because their use is proliferating in the workplace, and business over the Internet
is increasing, Microsoft has made it possible to accommodate these and other corporate considerations.
The following chapter addresses the configuration of Internet Explorer,
Outlook Express, and Windows Messenger.We describe the new features, and
we address the aspects of configuring these products for both everyday and corporate use.
Configuring Internet Explorer 6
You can easily customize Internet Explorer 6 to suit business requirements and
individual tastes. Microsoft has built-in features that embrace Web standards, guard
the user’s privacy, protect the user from malicious sites, and make browsing the
Web more convenient and efficient.The following section describes new features
in Internet Explorer 6, how it is configured, and some considerations for corporate users and network administrators.
What’s New in Internet Explorer 6?
Internet Explorer 6 is a set of core technologies in Windows XP. It also happens
to be available for other Windows platforms, from Windows 98 to Windows
2000, inclusive. Internet Explorer 6 includes many new and enhanced features
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 369
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
that can simplify the daily tasks that you perform on the Web.The most prominent additions to Internet Explorer 6 are three new toolsets to make working on
and with the Web more comfortable:
■
Privacy enhancements Microsoft has added privacy enhancements so
that the user has the ability to make decisions about accepting cookies.
This provides a sense of ease when one wants to guard his identity on a
Web that is increasingly being used to gather information about its users.
■
Image Toolbar The Image Toolbar adds the capability to instantly capture and e-mail an image from a Web page and a quick way to reduce
the image size before sending without loss of quality. Users can save pictures in the My Pictures folder and view them offline.When the user
selects pictures in Web pages, an image toolbar appears with options to
choose My Pictures functions.
■
Media Bar The Media Bar, coupled with the new Windows Media
Player for Windows XP, delivers high-quality audio and video from the
browser window. In previous versions, users had to open Windows
Media Player on its own to deal with streaming audio and video for
many sites.
The Image Toolbar (including Auto Image Resize) and the Media Bar provide increased flexibility when browsing the Web, but they require little, if any,
configuration.
Internet Explorer 6 provides the capability to protect the user’s privacy, and it
assists in controlling the personal information that Web sites collect.These tools
support the Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P), a technology under development by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Internet Explorer protects the
user’s privacy by supporting a wide range of Internet security and privacy standards that allow for secure information transfer and financial transactions over the
Internet, and by providing encryption and identification capabilities to ensure the
privacy of their information on the Web.
Microsoft has also enhanced Internet Explorer’s stability and reliability in three
ways. First, it has new fault collection services that enable users to extract information about an Internet Explorer problem and upload the data to Microsoft for analysis.This information can help identify potential issues Microsoft needs to address
in future Internet Explorer Service Packs. Second, Microsoft has augmented the
existing suite of supported Web technology standards with new and emerging standards, such as the expanded Document Object Model and Cascading Style Sheets
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
369
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 370
www.IrPDF.com
370
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
(DOM 1/CSS 1) support and the Internet Explorer Dynamic HyperText Markup
Language (DHTML) Platform, so that the browser is capable of dealing more competently with whatever is out there in the Web.
The third and probably the most significant feature is that Microsoft has
“decoupled” Internet Explorer from the operating system. For the past several
generations of Internet Explorer, the browser has been intertwined with the
operating system. In Windows XP, it is an additional Windows component that
you can add or remove in the Add or Remove Programs applet without adverse
impact on the core operating system.This gives users additional flexibility in
choosing a browser for their systems because they no longer have to be concerned with cohabitation issues when multiple browsers are installed. Other
prominent, freely available browsers are Netscape (www.netscape.com) and Opera
(www.opera.com).
Configuring the Browser
As mentioned earlier, Internet Explorer 6 is very customizable. Note that you
configure all browser options from a single window, in the Internet Properties
applet. As with every other configuration applet in Windows XP, it has a number
of tabs for dealing with the vast majority of configuration options:
■
General Miscellaneous settings for the default home page and the
retention of information from visited sites.
■
Security Settings for security levels in different Internet zones.
■
Privacy Settings that determine the way in which Web sites interact
with the user.
■
Content Settings that determine the way in which the user interacts
with Web sites.
■
Connections Settings that determine how the user connects to the Web.
■
Programs Applications used with different Web services.
■
Advanced Any additional settings that may be required at some point
in time.
Two paths lead to the Internet Properties applet: through Windows XP by
Start | Control Panel | Internet Options, and from the Internet Explorer 6
main menu bar by selecting Tools | Options.The former path is practical in
times when you need to configure the browser without invoking an actual
Internet connection.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 371
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
Two other prominent features greatly enhance the usability of the browser
and require some configuration: offline browsing and synchronization and
importing and exporting Favorites and cookies. For those with a dial-up connection to the Internet, time is money; therefore, the option to download content
from Web sites to read when disconnected presents the opportunity to leverage
the most out of the time and money spent when actually connected.This is also
a good feature for mobile users.They can synchronize the sites they need and
read them in transit or where there is no Internet connection.
The capability to import and export Favorites and cookies is useful for a
couple of reasons. First, many users use more than one browser on a system.
Being able to synchronize these files facilitates consistency between or among
each tool. Second, importing and exporting Favorites and cookies is a definite
asset and is helpful when changing from one browser to another, or when
changing systems. Users can transfer files among browsers on a local system or
from one system to another across a network.They also copy files to some form
of removable media to transfer or for backup.
The General Tab
The General tab of the Internet Options applet deals with how Web pages are
displayed.The Home page section determines what page opens when you launch
the browser.The easiest way to configure this is to navigate to the desired page
and click Use Current.This button will be disabled if the browser is not open,
as shown in Figure 7.1.The page you use does not need to be on the Internet;
you can use a page stored on a local hard drive or a shared network drive as well.
Figure 7.1 Internet Explorer General Settings
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
371
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 372
www.IrPDF.com
372
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Temporary Internet files are files that are stored on the local hard drive for
viewing offline.This is an especially helpful feature for those who are always on the
run and do not have a perpetual connection to the Internet, or for those who have
only a dial-up connection want to view pages offline to save money.You can use
the three buttons—Delete Cookies…, Delete Files…, and Settings…—to control the collection of files that are stored on the local drive and the method and
duration of how the collection is stored. As shown in Figure 7.2, you can configure
Internet Explorer for when to check for newer versions of Web pages versus those
that are already stored in the Temporary Internet Files folder; the default setting is
Automatically.Temporary Internet files are stored in a folder in the local user
profile. Use the size limitation in the Settings window to prevent the accumulation
of a considerable number of files. If a workstation has a few user profiles where the
size is not limited, the disk could easily become overrun with data.
Figure 7.2 Internet Explorer Temporary Internet Files Settings
With the View Files button in the Settings window, the user can view all
temporary Internet files stored in his User Profile and the default profile.The
user’s cookies are stored among all of the Web pages and images in this cache.
From this view, you can delete individual cookies, which might prove useful for
situations where more than one person uses the same computer to visit the same
site that uses a cookie-based logon. Not all cookies are harmful; in fact, some are
quite useful.Take extra precaution before deleting individual cookies to avoid
ones that contain valuable preferences, such as authentication information.
The History settings on the General tab are for configuring the length of
time Web pages, images, and cookies stay in the Temporary Internet Files folders.
In the Days to keep pages in history setting, 20 days is the default, but a
smaller number might be appropriate if disk space is at a premium.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 373
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
The settings behind the four buttons at the bottom of the tab in Figure 7.1,
as displayed in Figures 7.3 through 7.6, are for changing the default appearance of
Web pages. For pages where the color (Figure 7.3), font (Figure 7.4), or language
(Figure 7.5) are not specified within the page’s code, you can configure the page
to be displayed in the color, font, or language that is more to your liking.Visually
impaired users can also use the Color… and Font… buttons in conjunction
with the Accessibility… button to display pages in a manner more comfortable
for reading. By checking the boxes in the Accessibility window (Figure 7.6), the
chosen color and font settings will be overridden by these preferences, even if
font size, style, and color are specified in the page’s code. Format documents
using my style sheet specifies that Internet Explorer 6 should use a custom
style sheet to format all Web pages when they are displayed, and it provides a
place to enter the path to the style sheet. Style sheets can specify the default font
style, size, colors, and background for text and headings. All preferences are saved
in a local User Profile.
Figure 7.3 Setting the Default Color for Web Pages
Figure 7.4 Setting the Default Font for Web Pages
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
373
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 374
www.IrPDF.com
374
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Figure 7.5 Setting the Default Language for Web Pages
Figure 7.6 Setting the Default Accessibility Options for Viewing Web Pages
The Security Tab
The Security tab, shown in Figure 7.7, is one of several tabs that assist in protecting you from the dangers that lurk out on the Web. Internet Explorer 6
divides Internet content into four zones:
■
Internet All Web sites that are uncategorized.
■
Local intranet All “internal” sites, or sites on a company’s intranet.
■
Trusted sites All sites that the user trusts to not cause damage to the
system or data.
■
Restricted sites All sites that the user deems harmful to data or to
the system.
For each zone, you can move the slider that assigns a security level to a specific zone.The security levels on the slider are Low, Medium-low, Medium, and
High. Low permits the most interaction with the site, whereas high is the most
restrictive and lets almost nothing through to the browser. No single security
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 375
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
level is a good fit for all four zones.The default level for each zone provides the
best balance of productivity and security. All that being said, you can customize
the security level for each zone to suit your needs.
Figure 7.7 Configuring Security Zones According to Web Site Content
For security zones to be effective, the user must add the URLs for sites in the
appropriate zone. For Intranet,Trusted, and Restricted sites, all that is required to
add a URL is clicking the Sites… button, entering the URL in the Add this
Web site to the zone: field, and clicking Add. For sites in the Intranet and
Trusted zones, you have the option of requiring a secure connection by checking
the Require server verification (https:) for all sites in this zone; this is
enabled by default in the Trusted zone.The Intranet zone includes all sites that
are defined as local sites by a network administrator; you can enter sites manually
by clicking Advanced on the initial window that pops up.The Intranet zone
can include sites that are not listed in other zones, sites that bypass a proxy server,
and sites that are accessed through UNC paths, rather than through a Web server.
You cannot add URLs to the Internet zone; it is the “catch all” zone for security
settings.
The custom Security Settings window in Figure 7.8 lists just about every
conceivable setting.The slider on the Security tab actually selects options from
this list depending on the level at which it is set. For more granular control over
what can be done in a given zone, you can pick a setting from the drop-down
box at the bottom and tweak the settings by selecting radio buttons in the list.
The drop-down box is also helpful if you lose track of your changes, because you
can quickly set the level back to an established level. As soon as you make and
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
375
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 376
www.IrPDF.com
376
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
apply a change, the security level for that zone is labeled Custom, and the slider
disappears.
Figure 7.8 Setting Custom Security Properties
You can also further customize the settings for Java Permissions.The
Microsoft Virtual Machine was an integral part of previous versions of Windows
and Internet Explorer. In Windows XP and Internet Explorer 6, it is no longer
installed by default; however, you can download it as required. Under the
Microsoft VM subcategory, click Custom under Java Permissions.This brings up
a button for customizing these permissions at a more granular level.
Designing & Planning…
A Secure Internet Client Environment
Most Internet users think only about securing the browser when they
contemplate Internet security. In fact, you should secure everything that
is used to access the Internet. The browser, operating system, network
connection, and mail client, even the office productivity suite, all contribute to a secure environment from where you can start to work
securely with the Web.
The first task is to apply all service packs and updates. Windows
Update is a great place to start for downloading and installing updates
for the browser and the operating system. Also, Microsoft’s TechNet site
that concentrates on security issues (www.microsoft.com/technet/
security/) has security white papers, bulletins, and hotfixes available for
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 377
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
download often before they are packaged and made available through
Windows Update. Updates for all other software should be available
from the vendors’ Web sites.
The second important step to take is to install and maintain up-todate antivirus software. There is little point in having antivirus software
if it has not been updated since 1998. Barely a week passes between virulent outbreaks of new e-mail–based worms and other viruses. Antivirus
vendors typically update their files frequently in response to new virus
threats. Monitor these sites regularly and download and apply the
updated files as soon as they become available.
Encryption is good protection against someone attempting to “sniff”
your connection for a username and password. Use the highest encryption
available to guarantee the security of your data in transmission.
Finally, a new tool—Microsoft Personal Security Advisor—will scan
your environment, identify security deficiencies, and provide solutions.
You can find it at www.microsoft.com/technet/mpsa/start.asp. If it finds
a few deficiencies, you may need to reboot a few times to get them all
cleared up.
Because Windows XP is an Internet platform, the whole platform
has to be maintained from a security perspective. All software, including
the operating system, must be kept current with all new software
updates, especially antivirus software. Finally, you should guard the network connection with the highest available level of encryption when
transmitting sensitive or personal data.
The Privacy Tab
The Privacy tab, shown in Figure 7.9, represents one of the new features discussed
at the beginning of the chapter. Its purpose in life is to manage the cookies that
Web sites place, or try to place, on the local hard drive. A cookie is a file created
by a Web site that stores information on the workstation, such as viewing preferences for that particular Web site, usernames, passwords, and personal data. A session
cookie is a temporary cookie that is stored in memory and gets deleted when the
browser is closed. A persistent cookie is one where the lifetime of the cookie is
longer than the time spent at the site; it is saved from memory to disk upon
exiting the browser and discarded when it reaches its defined expiration time.
Setting the privacy level is much the same as setting the security level for an
Internet zone, except that the slider has more graduations, making the selection
more specific.The privacy setting ranges from Accept All Cookies at the
bottom of the scale to Block All Cookies at the top of the scale.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
377
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 378
www.IrPDF.com
378
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Figure 7.9 Managing Cookies with the New Privacy Tab
The Advanced… button overrides automatic cookie handling. If enabled, it
specifies what action to take—Accept, Block, or Prompt—for first- and thirdparty cookies.You can also enable or disable session cookies by checking or
clearing the Always allow session cookies check box, respectively.The Edit…
button permits you to override the current privacy setting for how cookies from
specified sites are handled by the system. By entering the URL in the appropriately named field and clicking either Block or Allow, you can manage cookies
from individual Web sites.This is particularly helpful when you want to stick
with a particular setting, but have an individual requirement for a few sites.
NOTE
For more information, please refer to www.w3.org/P3P/.
Internet Explorer 6 takes individual privacy a step further by protecting the
user against information collection by third parties.This will have a huge impact on
advertisers. A lot of Web sites include ad banners that are served from a third-party
advertiser, such as Doubleclick.These banners often include cookies so that advertisers can collect statistics on how many views and clickthroughs they receive. Using
Doubleclick as an example, when IE6 detects a cookie from ad.doubleclick.net
while you are viewing a page on a different Web site, it will block that cookie
entirely unless Doubleclick provides a P3P-compliant compact policy. A compact
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 379
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
policy is a machine-readable summary of a privacy policy that is stored on the Web
server. P3P is a policy that is created by a Web site developer responding to a standardized set of multiple-choice questions and covers all the major aspects of the
site’s privacy policies.The responses define how the site will handle personal information about its visitors. P3P-enabled Web sites make this information available in
a standard, machine-readable format, and compliant browsers can import this snapshot automatically to compare it to the consumer’s own set of privacy preferences.
The Privacy tab is a friendly interface for working with the privacy settings on
Web sites that have implemented P3P-compliant compact policies.
Designing & Planning…
Anyone for Cookies?
If you browse through your temporary Internet files, also known as the
browser cache, you will notice that a number of files whose names
begin with cookie will accumulate over time. You may also be prompted
to approve the creation of a cookie to your local hard disk. Simply put,
a cookie is a file that contains information about the user, such as personal information, preferences, or even system information that is
stored in memory or on the local hard drive for use by a visited Web site.
There are many reasons for using cookies, including personalizing information, assisting with e-commerce, and tracking popular links and
demographics, among others. A cookie is a useful tool for developers to
keep site content current and to tailor content to visitors’ preferences.
Technically, a cookie is an HTTP header that consists of a text-only
string that gets entered into the memory of a browser. This string contains
the domain, path, lifetime, and value of a variable that a Web site sets. If
the lifetime of this variable is longer than the time the user spends at that
site, this string is saved to file for future reference. Because HTTP is a stateless (nonpersistent) protocol, it is impossible to differentiate between
visits to a Web site, unless a Web server can somehow “mark” a visitor. A
cookie maintains the state variables required by Web sites by storing information on the visitor’s system in a cookie file. Cookies can store database
information, Web page preferences, or any other required information,
including authentication information.
After the cookie is transmitted through an HTTP header, it is stored
in the memory of your browser. This way the information is quickly and
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
379
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 380
www.IrPDF.com
380
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
readily available without retransmission. The lifetime of a cookie can be
configured to exceed the amount of time that the browser could reasonably expect to be open. Consequently, the browser saves the cookie
from memory to the hard drive. When the browser is launched again, all
of the cookies that have not expired are still available for use. A browser
constantly performs maintenance on its cookies. Every time the browser
is opened, cookies are read into memory from disk, and when the
browser is closed, nonexpired cookies are resaved to disk. When a cookie
expires, it is discarded and is no longer kept on the system.
Many people are suspicious of cookies, especially where it concerns
privacy and the collection of personal data. Although a cookie, by itself,
is not capable of collecting personal information about the user, it can
be used as a tracking device to help individuals and organizations whose
job it is to gather this kind of information. As information is gathered
about the visitor, it is associated with a value kept in the cookie file. The
only way that personal information can find its way into a cookie is if
that information is provided to a site that saves the information to the
site’s cookie file on the local system. Some organizations form visitor
profiles by aggregating the personal and preference information stored
in cookie files to tailor Web site content and advertising; Doubleclick is
a prime example. To maintain control of privacy, you should carefully
evaluate what personal information you want to knowingly and
unknowingly disseminate over the Web and set your browser security
and privacy settings accordingly.
A good reference site is www.cookiecentral.com, especially
www.cookiecentral.com/faq.
The Content Tab
As mentioned earlier, the Content tab (Figure 7.10) is for configuring the way in
which you interact with Web sites.The Content Advisor works with RSACirated sites to block or allow sites that fail or comply with the configured sensitivity level. Although this appears to be an effective method of blocking offensive
material, not many sites that have offensive material will be registered with
RSAC (Recreational Software Advisory Council, now known as the ICRA
[Internet Content Rating Association]).That being said, the administrator of the
workstation can specify sites that are safe to view, and he can use passwords to
restrict travel to other material. For this feature to work correctly,Web developers
must submit the pages that constitute their Web sites to RSAC for a rating. A
metatag that contains the rating must be included in the pages for their Web sites.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 381
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
When enabled, the default setting is to disallow viewing any site that does not
have a rating.
Figure 7.10 Safeguarding Browsing Activities and Identities on the Web
The Certificates and Personal information sections assist with identity management on the Internet. Digital certificates are used to positively identify people,
certification authorities, and certificate publishers.The buttons in the section
manage the certificates that belong to the user.The Personal information section
assists with filling out forms and entering other data. AutoComplete helps in
filling out Web addresses and forms by completing fields as you type, and collecting information in a history file. AutoComplete knows what to enter because
it is using data from your Microsoft Personal Assistant and a history file. If you are
a frequent AutoComplete user, have a look at what is contained in My Profile;
the completeness of information in your profile might surprise you.
NOTE
For more information on the ICRA and Web site rating, navigate to
www.rsac.org.
A notable absence from Windows XP is Microsoft Wallet. Its disappearance
in Internet Explorer 6 from this tab in previous versions can be attributed to
Microsoft’s increasing reliance on Passport, Microsoft’s identity management
service. Anyone who has subscribed to any Microsoft service, such as Hotmail,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
381
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 382
www.IrPDF.com
382
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
MSN, or TechNet, has an account in Passport.This Passport account can be
included in the User Profile for use when browsing the Web.
The Connections Tab
The purpose of the Connections tab, displayed in Figure 7.11, is to configure the
many ways that you can connect to the Internet.The Setup… button at the top
of the tab launches the Internet Connection Wizard.This wizard configures mail
and news accounts, dial-up networking, and default Internet connections. For the
Dial-up and Virtual Private Network settings, the Add… button launches the
Network Connection Wizard; the Remove… button deletes a highlighted connection from the list; and the Settings… button configures the highlighted connection with settings for automatic configuration, proxy server, username,
password, and domain.The Local Area Network (LAN) Settings… button is
for configuring the workstation to connect to the Internet over a perpetual network connection.
Figure 7.11 Configuring the System’s Internet Connection
You can use the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings window in Figure 7.12
to establish automatic configuration and proxy server settings. For most corporate
environments, a proxy server address and port number will not be required
because the default setting of Automatically detect settings should pick up
the proxy server as a gateway to the Internet. If your gateway does not support
automatically detecting the LAN settings, you must specify a proxy server.You
should check the box in the Proxy server section and enter an IP address and
port number in the appropriate fields.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 383
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
Figure 7.12 Configuring the Browser to Work Properly over a Local Network
For automatic detection and configuration scripts to work, the network has
to be set up properly.You can configure DHCP, for example, with a custom
option that provides information to the browser regarding the location and port
used for the Web proxy service. Automatic configuration specifies to automatically detect proxy server settings or automatic configuration settings, which are
used to connect to the Internet and customize Internet Explorer. Use automatic
configuration script specifies the file that contains the automatic configuration
settings that are executed when the browser is launched.The Proxy server section
is for configuring the browser to use a specific proxy server to access the
Internet. A proxy server acts as an intermediary between your internal network,
or intranet, and the Internet by retrieving files from remote Web servers. Bypass
proxy server for local addresses configures the browser so that a request will
not be redirected to the proxy server if the name in the address field of the
browser is not in the form of a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), such as
www.syngress.com. If a FQDN is used to access a Web server that is on the
internal network, the browser will attempt to access the site on that server
through the proxy server and will not be able to reach it, unless the server is
included in a list in the Exceptions field behind the Advanced button.This
button leads to a window to manage entries in the list of Exceptions and to configure what specific proxy servers, and their specific port addresses, will be used
for different tasks. For example, you can configure the browser to access one
proxy server for HTTP requests and another for FTP requests.
The Programs Tab
The Programs tab demystifies the process of associating Internet services with the
appropriate applications. Up to a certain point in Internet Explorer’s history, this
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
383
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 384
www.IrPDF.com
384
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
tab did not exist, and applications fought amongst themselves for which one was
going to be the default application to facilitate a particular service.With this tab,
you can choose, not only which application is the default, but also which application will be used. For example, in Figure 7.13, Notepad is the default HTML
editor, but Microsoft FrontPage is also in the list.When you choose to edit a page
from the icon on the Standard Buttons bar in Internet Explorer 6, both applications are available.The default application is the one that comes up automatically.
Figure 7.13 Establishing the Default Application for Different Types of
Network Activities
The Advanced Tab
The Advanced tab appears to list every conceivable Internet Explorer 6 setting, as
shown in Figure 7.14. Actually, these advanced settings are options that are not
covered under any of the other tabs, buttons, sliders, or drop-down boxes.There
are really too many settings listed to go into detail about each one.They are
grouped into the following categories:
■
Accessibility
■
Browsing
■
HTTP 1.1 settings
■
Microsoft VM
■
Multimedia
■
Printing
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 385
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
■
Search from the Address bar
■
Security
Figure 7.14 Configuring Advanced Browser Settings
NOTE
The options for configuring the new image and media features in
Internet Explorer 6 are in the Multimedia section.
The options in each of the subcategories are for tweaking Internet Explorer 6
when it does not behave the way you think it should, or if you just want it to
behave differently. Perhaps pages are not appearing correctly, secure browsing
cannot be enabled, or multimedia is showing up in the last place you want it to.
If these or similar scenarios are having an impact on working with Internet
Explorer 6, changing one or two options at a time may help. Internet Explorer 6
indicates where enabling or disabling an option requires that the system be
restarted.
Using Internet Explorer 6
The capability to view Web pages offline and to move among browsers with a
familiar collection of Favorites and cookies definitely enhances the usability of
the browser.You can import favorite intranet and Internet destinations from other
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
385
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 386
www.IrPDF.com
386
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
browsers and configure them for viewing while disconnected from the intranet
or the Internet.
Configuring a Web page for offline browsing is a relatively straightforward
process.The first step is to navigate to the desired page on the target Web site and
add it to the list of Favorites.You can accomplish this through the Favorites menu
(Favorites | Add to Favorites… or Favorites | Organize Favorites…).You
can also accomplish this through the Web page’s properties by clicking Favorites,
right-clicking the Web site name, and selecting Properties.Then check the
Make available offline box and click OK.The initial synchronization will then
occur; regular synchronization will take place on demand when initiated manually, or at predetermined intervals on a specified schedule. Figure 7.15 displays a
Web page’s properties from the Organize Favorites window. Note that the Make
available offline box is checked.
Figure 7.15 Configuring a Web Page for Offline Browsing through
Organize Favorites
If the Web page properties route is chosen, checking the Make available
offline box produces some different behavior. On the Web Document tab of the
Web page properties windows, when the box is checked, two additional tabs
(Schedule and Download) appear, as shown in Figure 7.16. In addition, the Web
Document tab contains fields to enter or edit the URL and the Shortcut key, and
many summary statistics, such as number of visits, last synchronization, the amount
of disk space that the downloaded site occupies, and success or failure of the last
download.The capability to edit the URL is useful if the Web site’s address
changes or if you need to synchronize only a specific portion of the Web site.
As mentioned earlier, synchronization for offline browsing can be a manual or a
scheduled process. As shown in Figure 7.17, the preference is specific for each site
listed in Favorites, and the first radio button on the Schedule tab is for manual
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 387
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
synchronization.The Tools menu in Internet Explorer 6 has a Synchronize item, or
you can press F9 in the active browser to launch the Items to Synchronize applet,
which will present a choice of offline files and Web pages to be synchronized.
Figure 7.16 Configuring a Web Page for Offline Browsing through Web
Page Properties
Figure 7.17 Configuring Manual Synchronization of a Web Site for
Offline Browsing
The other radio button on the Schedule tab is for assigning a synchronization
schedule to a Favorite. Figure 7.18 displays the window to configure the synchronization interval and the time at which the synchronization will occur.You
can save the schedule with a descriptive name, and the If my computer is not
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
387
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 388
www.IrPDF.com
388
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
connected… check box facilitates unattended, or “hands-off,” synchronization.
Enabling this feature provides the option of synchronizing the Web site at a time
when rates are less expensive or when the user’s ISP is less busy.
Figure 7.18 Configuring Scheduled Synchronization of a Web Site for
Offline Browsing
As the Schedule tab dictates when the Web site is synchronized, the
Download tab, shown in Figure 7.19, dictates how and what is synchronized.The
Download pages … links deep from this page option determines how
many additional levels of pages that are linked to the selected page are downloaded. If desired, you can download off-site links as well if you check the
Follow links outside of this page’s Web site box. Checking the Limit harddisk usage for this page to box and selecting a limit in the associated scroll
box will limit the amount of disk real estate occupied by offline Web pages. Note
that if you select 500K, and the site is larger than that, an error notification will
be displayed, and only the first 500K is downloaded.You can also be notified by
e-mail when pages change.This is especially useful for important sites that change
frequently, such as sites that track security issues.The final option on this tab is
for synchronizing Web sites that require authentication. Clicking Login… and
entering a username and password enables automatic login during synchronization.This is another one of those useful “hands-off ” features.
Offline browsing saves time.The capability to view Web pages at any time
and to synchronize them only when needed provides much-needed flexibility in
users’ daily routines. In addition, it adds little, if any, strain on system resources;
the only consideration is that disk space can be gobbled up quickly with a large
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 389
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
number of synchronized sites or when larger sites are synchronized and disk space
limits are not established.You not only have the capability to synchronize your
Favorites, you can have your Favorites and cookies follow them around from
system to system and from browser to browser.
Figure 7.19 Configuring How a Web Site Is Downloaded
The Import/Export Wizard automates the process of importing and
exporting Favorites and cookies. All importing and exporting activities follow a
similar process. For example, importing cookies requires a source folder or application but offers no choice of destination.You can launch the wizard from an
item in the File menu of Internet Explorer 6 (File | Import and Export…).
The window in Figure 7.20 indicates that process is ready to proceed. For
demonstration purposes, we describe the process for importing Favorites.
Figure 7.20 Starting the Import/Export Wizard
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
389
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 390
www.IrPDF.com
390
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
The first step towards completing the wizard is to select the import or export
activity. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, all importing and exporting activities are variations on a theme. All involve selecting a source or destination, or both.
The source can either be another application, a local folder, a network share, or a
URL.The available options depend on the selected activity, and when selected in
the window, as shown in Figure 7.21, all activities have an accompanying description.The user will select the desired operation and click Next to proceed.
Figure 7.21 Selecting the Import/Export Activity
Once you choose the activity, the next step in the process involves choosing
the source. If you have other browsers installed, such as Netscape Navigator or
Opera, the Import from an application box will have the applications listed.
If only one browser is installed, this option is grayed out, as demonstrated in
Figure 7.22. Alternatively, you can import Favorites from a specific file or URL
address. If importing from a file or URL, you can either manually enter the location in the appropriate field, or you can use the Browse button to identify the
location.The folder locations can either be on the local system or on a network
share.When exporting Favorites, you are prompted only to specify a folder or
URL. For cookies, importing can only be from another application, and when
exporting, this step is skipped because the choice of source is rather obvious.
The next step is to choose the destination folder, as shown in Figure 7.23.
You can import Favorites into either the main Favorites folder or into a subfolder; you can only export Favorites to a file or URL.When importing or
exporting Favorites, you simply need to click on the desired folder and then click
Next. As mentioned previously, when importing cookies, there is no choice of
destination application, and for exporting, the destination application is the only
available option.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 391
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
Figure 7.22 Choosing the Source Folder from Which to Import
Figure 7.23 Selecting the Destination Folder
WARNING
The Import/Export Wizard doesn’t have a facility to create a new subfolder for imported Favorites. If you want a new folder, you must create
it prior to launching the wizard.
The final step involves completing the Import/Export Wizard by actually performing the activity chosen at the start of the process.The window in Figure 7.24
summarizes the action or actions that will occur when you click Finish. No files
have been touched up to this point in the process. Once you click Finish, the process will execute the tasks listed in the window using the source and destination
parameters established in the previous steps.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
391
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 392
www.IrPDF.com
392
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Figure 7.24 Finalizing the Process and Performing the Selected Activity
Cookies and favorite Internet destinations are valuable pieces of information
for every user because they personalize the Internet experience, and they can
generally make life easier.The capability to preserve this information so that you
can move it from application to application or from system to system can definitely preserve your productivity. It avoids the hassle of having to remember this
information and the necessity of re-entering it when you change the preferred
browser or when you upgrade a system.
Advanced Configuration for
the Corporate Environment
In providing corporate access to the Internet beyond electronic messaging, the
organization should pay special attention to how the Internet is being used.The
Internet has proven to be an incredible resource to employers and employees;
however, due to the Internet’s “dark side,” organizations must manage how the
organization is exposed to forces that can cause damage, either to its assets or to
its reputation.You can customize Internet Explorer 6 to reflect the security policy
of your organization, using its native Privacy and Security settings combined to
protect the exposure of the individual and your organization’s assets to the
Internet.
You may want to go one step further by dictating where and when
employees can travel on the Web.You can configure filtering firewalls and proxy
servers to deny access to questionable sites and restrict Web browsing to certain
times of the day.You should also monitor the logs produced by the filtering
devices to see if you need to add any sites to the list.Your organization’s name
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 393
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
can end up being dragged through the mud by the discovery of objectionable, or
even questionable, material on its workstations by someone outside the organization. A security breech can be just as damaging because it can cause the erosion
of public faith in the organization itself.With an ever-increasing number of organizations extending Internet access to its members, organizations must be increasingly vigilant in protecting their assets and their reputation.
Security aside, if an organization has 1,000 users, more than likely there are
roughly 1,000 Web browser configurations.This can create a support nightmare
for IT staff.You can use the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK) to
develop and maintain a custom browser package that reflects the security needs
of the organization and prevents users from configuring browsers to do things
that IT never wants it to do. See the sidebar for a description of the IEAK.
Configuring & Implementing…
Using the IEAK to Deploy Internet Explorer 6
The IEAK includes the Internet Explorer Customization Wizard and the
IEAK Profile Manager, which enable the development and maintenance
of custom browser packages that are tailored to meet the needs of the
organization. It can save network administrators a considerable amount
of time and money in deploying and managing Internet Explorer.
You can establish policies and restrictions to preconfigure settings
for Internet Explorer 6 features. You can use either the Internet Explorer
Customization Wizard or the IEAK Profile Manager to set the policies
and restrictions for a number of features, notably security and privacy
settings.
You can manage security zones, privacy settings, and content ratings according to the policies of the organization. You can customize
settings for each security zone, and you can set the level of privacy
regarding cookies for all users. Through content ratings, you can prevent
users from viewing content that may be considered offensive or otherwise inappropriate within the corporate setting.
The Internet Explorer Customization Wizard permits the customization of the privacy settings for all users. You can define privacy preferences that determine whether Internet Explorer will check Web sites for
an established privacy policy and whether Internet Explorer will disclose
users’ personal information to those Web sites. The privacy preferences
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
393
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 394
www.IrPDF.com
394
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
also determine whether Internet Explorer will allow these Web sites to
store cookies on users’ computers. You can also prevent users from
viewing the Privacy tab in the Internet Options applet.
The IEAK includes a new Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) snap-in to
help in planning browser policies before you deploy them. The snap-in
to review policy information is set up for computers and users, and
when the snap-in is added, the RSoP Wizard allows you to choose logging mode to access the policy information for an existing computer and
user, or you can choose planning mode to generate policy information.
If using Active Directory, all of these browser policies are available
through Group Policy Objects.
For users who do not have administrator privileges on Microsoft
Windows NT and Windows 2000 workstations, the IEAK can create
custom packages that will retain administrator privileges after the computer restarts. After the computer restarts and a user logs on, the
Windows Installer component completes the registration of the Internet
Explorer system files. In either case, users are not required to have
administrator privileges the next time they log on to the computer.
For more information about the IEAK for Internet Explorer 6, visit
www.microsoft.com/windows/ieak/default.asp.
Configuring Outlook Express 6
The most common Internet-related activity, by a vast margin, is electronic messaging. Outlook Express 6 is the latest version of the messaging client; it ships
with Windows XP and with Internet Explorer 6 for other platforms. Outlook
Express 6 is communications central for Windows, handling mail messages, newsgroup access, and instant messaging, and it is compliant with most messaging protocols, including POP3, IMAP, NNTP, SMTP, and HTTP. Although it is not the
full-blown collaboration tool that Outlook is, Outlook Express is a very capable
contact manager that can handle multiple messaging accounts and identities.
You can perform the majority of configuration tasks in Outlook Express
within the two applets found at the bottom of the Tools menu: Internet Accounts
and Options. Because it is tightly integrated with Internet Explorer 6, it “piggybacks” on much of its configuration, notably the connection methods and security. Basic functionality in Outlook Express can begin with the configuration of a
single mail account.
Probably the most appealing aspect of Outlook Express in past versions was
its capability of handling multiple accounts and multiple types of accounts within
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 395
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
a single interface.The essence, therefore, of Outlook Express configuration is to
create the accounts that will be managed by this application. Mail, News, and
Directory Service are all types of accounts available to the user, as demonstrated
in Figure 7.25. Messaging accounts work with mail from POP3, IMAP, SMTP,
and HTTP mail servers. News accounts use NNTP to interact with subscribed
newsgroups.
Figure 7.25 Managing Multiple Accounts with the Internet Accounts Applet
The information required for account setup should be readily available from
the user’s Internet Service Provider (ISP). On the General tab in the account
properties window, the user can enter a name for the account and any user information that will be visible to mail recipients; the user information does not need
to be complete or filled in at all for the account to be functional. On the Servers
tab, the provider’s incoming mail server type and name, the outgoing mail server
name, and the username and password are required.The Connection tab specifies
which connection method will be used for downloading and uploading messages
for that account. Certificates and encryption algorithm selection takes place on
the Security tab. Finally, the Advanced tab contains settings for tweaking connection parameters, such as SMTP timeout settings; whether large messages should
be broken apart in transmission; and deleting messages from the server.
Key configuration options on the Advanced tab for users who want to read
and send e-mail from more than one computer are the Delivery settings.
Downloading POP3 messages to a single system makes for easier management
because the messages are all in one place and not spread over several machines.To
facilitate this, the Delivery settings define the configuration for leaving or
deleting messages on a server.The default for POP3 is to download messages
from the server and then remove them from the server.To download mail to a
particular workstation and have the ability to check mail from the same account
from another location, check the Leave a copy of messages on the server
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
395
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 396
www.IrPDF.com
396
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
box on all systems that are not “home base.” Checking the Remove from
server when deleted from ‘Deleted Items’ is a good idea when you want to
have the ability to streamline the download of messages to the “home base”
system, such as for those with a dial-up connection at home.
Configuring a News account is very similar to the process of configuring a
Mail account, except that there are fewer server options and no Security tab.
Checking the box at the bottom of the General tab configures the News account
to check for newsgroup messages as part of a Send and Receive Mail action.
You can use directory service accounts for searching for people. A directory service is a directory that can contain the identities of people and businesses around
the world.The capability to search these directories from inside Outlook Express
turns it into a powerful tool for managing contacts.The Outlook Express Address
Book supports LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) for accessing
directory services, and comes with built-in access to several popular directory services. Users can also add additional directory services from their respective
Internet service providers. A notable member of this list is Microsoft’s own Active
Directory. If your organization is using Active Directory, you can configure
Outlook Express to search for people in it.
The Options applet contains every configuration parameter not related to
accounts. As shown in Figure 7.26, the options are vast and focus mainly on
working with mail and news messages. One could literally write an entire book
on working with Outlook Express options. For the purposes of this chapter, the
message preferences will be left for you to choose; the nonmessaging configuration options are located on the Security, Connection, and Maintenance tabs.
Figure 7.26 The Opening View of the General Tab in the Options Applet
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 397
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
As mentioned earlier, Outlook Express 6 leverages many configuration
options from Internet Explorer 6.The first section of the Security tab in Figure
7.27 is an example of this. Outlook Express can be configured to use different
security zones depending on where the user tends to conduct his or her business
on the Internet. If the user tends to stick to “safer” sites, the Internet zone would
be appropriate.The default setting of “Restricted sites zone” is the safest option.
A very reassuring feature is the “Warn me when other applications try to send
mail as me.”This provides the user with a measure of control over guarding his or
her identity.The final option in this section prevents the user from becoming a
relay in the proliferation of Worm viruses that seem to be constantly flying
around the Web.This being said, there is no substitute for a good antivirus application that can read this information and is completely up to date. Configuring
Outlook Express 6 for security and having the antivirus software is best.
Figure 7.27 Configuring Outlook Express for Conducting Internet Activities
in a Secure Fashion
The second section on the Security tab has all of the settings for working
with secure messaging. By using digital IDs with Outlook Express, you can prove
your identity and encrypt messages (using the Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions [S/MIME] specification). A digital ID is composed of a public key, a
private key, and a digital signature.When a message is digitally signed, the digital
signature and public key is added to the message.The combination of a digital
signature and public key is called a certificate. For a digital signature, the sender
uses his private key to create a hash.The recipient uses the sender’s public key to
read the hash and verify identity and determine whether the message has been
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
397
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 398
www.IrPDF.com
398
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
tampered with.The Certification Authority (CA) is relied upon as a trusted
third-party to verify identity of a person whose public key is stored in the
Address Book. For encrypting messages, the sender uses the recipient’s public key
to perform the encryption. Only the recipient with the corresponding private
key can read the message.
With Outlook Express, you can choose which certificate others will use when
sending encrypted replies to encrypted messages. Mail recipients can use this digital
signature to verify a user’s identity, and they can use the public key to send
encrypted e-mail where only that intended recipient could read the sender’s private
key.To send encrypted messages, the Address Book must contain digital IDs for the
recipients. Independent CAs issue certificates, and when application is made at a
CA’s Web site, the applicant’s identity is verified before the certificate is issued.The
three buttons are for information on digital identities and certificates, for choosing
certificates, and for applying for a certificate.The two checkboxes are options for
enabling and disabling the sending of encrypted and signed messages.
The Connection tab has two categories of settings.The first is for the dial-up
Internet subscribers, and the second is a button that links to the Connection tab
of Internet Explorer (see Figure 7.28).The Ask before switching dial-up
connections option is for users with more than one dial-up connection where
the connection that was in use has failed.When enabled, Outlook Express will
prompt for another dial-up connection and resume business.The Hang up after
sending and receiving option prevents forgetful folks from walking away from
their workstations with their Internet connections tying up their phone lines and,
if using anything other than an unlimited time account, making additional money
for their ISPs.The Internet Connection Settings options are discussed in the
“Configuring Internet Explorer 6” section earlier in the chapter.
The Maintenance tab, shown in Figure 7.29, is for keeping Outlook Express
6 running smoothly. Anyone who deals with even a normal volume of e-mail
knows that it can pile up quickly. Because Outlook Express 6 uses a unified store
for each message folder, all mail and news data is kept in several files on the
workstation, as opposed to a system where each message or attachment is contained in its own file. A large message store will not only slow down Outlook
Express 6, it also opens the possibility for corruption and data loss within the
store itself. Using the options in the Cleaning Up Messages section will definitely
help in keeping the message store to a reasonable size.The Clean Up Now…
button leads to a window where you can compact the message store, remove
message bodies, delete message headers and bodies, and reset the message store so
that message headers can be redownloaded.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 399
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
Figure 7.28 Working with Connection Configuration Settings that are
Shared with Internet Explorer
Figure 7.29 Cleaning Things Up on the Maintenance Tab
The Troubleshooting section of the Maintenance tab initiates logging of messaging activity.This can be especially helpful where a single service does not
appear to be working.The logging is verbose and thus very useful for determining the root cause of the problem. Make sure that logging is disabled when
not needed because it can have a detrimental effect on the performance of the
workstation. Log files can grow undetected, and their size can quickly overwhelm
a disk partition in a busy period or, if left enabled, over a long period of time.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
399
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 400
www.IrPDF.com
400
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Using Outlook Express 6
You can use Outlook Express for electronic mail, instant messaging, newsgroup
browsing, and people finding.The opening view when you launch the application is shown in Figure 7.30. From left to right, the displayed panes on the
Outlook Express 6 window are the Outlook bar, the Folder List (top), the
Contacts bar (bottom), and the Outlook Express Welcome screen.The layout of
the application window is completely customizable using items in the View
menu.You can add and remove bars and lists.You can also change colors and
styles to suit your preferences.
Figure 7.30 Working on the “Business End” of Outlook Express
All accounts appear in the folder list.When using Outlook Express 6 to
manage multiple accounts, this is in the your favor.The Tools menu has all of the
options for working with accounts, message sending and retrieval, newsgroup
subscription, and configuration settings. Like the name suggests, the Message
menu provides for just about any conceivable action that you would want to take
when sending and receiving messages.
The button bar, below the menu bar, changes depending on what kind of
account you select.The four buttons that appear in every button arrangement are
Create Mail, Send/Recv (Send and Receive Mail), Addresses, and Find.The
Create Mail button opens a new message window.The arrow on the right side
of the button allows you to choose stationery for the background of the message.
The Send/Recv button has a variety of options that permit the choosing of
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 401
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
accounts to check up on and whether to just send or receive.The Addresses
button is a link to the Outlook Express 6 Address Book for the main identity, the
individual who is currently logged in at the workstation.The Find button is for
searching the message store for a piece of information and for searching for
people in the Address Book and in Directory Services.
NOTE
An identity can be described as the aggregation of information that
defines how an individual appears to others. In the context of the
Internet, an identity is how one presents herself to other users of the
Internet, including businesses, Web site operators, and other individuals.
On the Internet, an individual may have and use more than one identity
depending on the tasks being performed. For example, an individual who
does not want to mix politics with business may use one identity that is
apolitical when transacting business and the other when performing
partisan activities.
Because Outlook Express 6 is solely focused on messaging, you can pick up
its basic functions relatively easily. It doesn’t include calendaring, and contact
management features are straightforward. In addition, its simple interface will definitely flatten the learning curve for the vast majority of users.
Corporate Considerations
Although Outlook Express 6 handles messaging very well, it may not be the best
choice for every corporate environment. A deterring factor is its inability to connect natively to a Microsoft Exchange Server. If an organization is not managing
its own mail, or users are connecting to Exchange using POP3 or IMAP,
Outlook Express 6 could suffice. Chances are, however, that if Exchange has been
implemented and deployed, users will be working with the full Outlook client,
because it has been bundled with copies of Exchange. In addition, the lack of calendaring, especially shared calendaring, rules out Outlook Express 6 as a complete collaboration tool. As hosted Exchange servers become more popular,
organizations may turn to Outlook Express because it is installed with Windows
XP by default and because of its attractive price (free).
Another area is security. Outlook and Outlook express are the prime targets
for virus writers because they are the most prevalent mail clients. Outlook has an
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
401
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 402
www.IrPDF.com
402
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
advantage over Outlook Express in that, in the past, Outlook has been able to
manage only one profile for one account, which means that it is getting its mail
from one source; this limitation disappears with Outlook XP. Outlook Express,
with its capability to handle multiple accounts, is capable of receiving potentially
infected mail from any of those accounts. If either Outlook Express or Outlook
XP is chosen as mail clients for an organization, that organization must develop
and enforce a strict antivirus monitoring and cleaning regimen. Furthermore,
Outlook XP has a built-in feature that prompts the user whenever something
tries to access the user’s Address Book. Even PDA synchronization can signal
Outlook Express to notify the user.
A further consideration for the corporate environment is firewall configuration. Each type of service, such as POP3, NNTP, and IMAP, has its own protocol
that requires its own TCP/IP port; therefore, to grant access to POP3, NNTP,
and IMAP services for an organization’s users requires that ports 110, 119, and
143, respectively, be opened on the firewall. Additional services will require the
opening of additional ports. Because a firewall is often the first (and maybe the
only) line of defense for an organization’s connection to the public Internet, the
ports that are open on it should be restricted to those that are absolutely necessary for conducting business.
Configuring Instant Messaging
Electronic messaging, through electronic mail, is the simplest form of asynchronous communications. Synchronous connections, also known as instant messaging, are adding another dimension to electronic messaging by facilitating
real-time collaboration through videoconferencing, group authoring tools, and
Internet telephony. A real-world example will illustrate this well. I was involved
in the migration of a corporate messaging system for a law firm that had offices
in eight cities across the country. On the weekend when all of the data was transferred from the old system to the new system, instant messaging, through the
MSN Messenger service, was used to maintain communications among all of the
participating consultants in each city during every phase of the project simultaneously and in real time.The service was mainly used to provide status reports, ask
for support, and pass along the occasional joke. In addition, patches and other
support-related files were distributed using the service’s file transfer facility. In
Windows XP, instant messaging is inextricably intertwined with the operating
system, and uses Windows Messenger as a portal to text, audio, and video conferencing services from the desktop.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 403
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
The Microsoft version of instant messaging is very similar to Yahoo!
Messenger and AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) in that it relies on an external service to manage contact availability and message transport and transaction. None
of these systems, however, can “talk” with each other because each requires its
own account and uses its own instant messaging system. Instant messaging using
native tools and services from within a Windows environment requires either a
Passport account and an Internet connection, or an account in Active Directory
and Exchange 2000 as the messaging system. Passport is a public service that
Microsoft provides to manage Internet users’ digital identities and to aggregate
Internet services that also use Passport. Hotmail and MSN are two prime examples of services that require a Passport account. In Windows XP, if a user has a
Passport account, it can be integrated into the local user profile for use by
Windows Messenger, Internet Explorer, and Outlook Express.
NOTE
Windows Messenger is not an optional Windows component. It, along
with Windows Media Player, is a part of the operating system, akin to
previous versions of Internet Explorer.
Windows Messenger is a key component in Microsoft’s .NET strategy. One
of the most prominent uses for Windows Messenger, beyond instant messaging, is
its role as the gateway to .NET My Services, Microsoft’s Web-based service
package. .NET My Services are subscription-based Internet services that retrieve
and display dynamic Web content through a variety of devices that connect to
Passport for authentication.The .NET My Services Alerts service is the first of
what will be many similar .NET services. Examples of content that will be delivered through the Alerts service include up-to-the-minute stock, news and sports
updates, and the progress of auctions that a user could be involved in on eBay. All
of this will be displayed in its own tab in Windows Messenger.
In similar fashion to Internet Explorer and Outlook Express, you can manage
the majority of Windows Messenger’s configuration though the Options applet.
You’ll find this applet under the Tools menu (Tools | Options), and it consists
of five tabs:
■
Personal How the user appears to other instant messaging users.
■
Phone What information is displayed.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
403
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 404
www.IrPDF.com
404
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
■
Preferences How windows messenger operates.
■
Privacy Who sees the user.
■
Connection How windows messenger connects to the internet.
You can configure how you appear to other users in the Contact List on the
Personal tab (see Figure 7.31).This includes the screen name, the screen font, and
special characters to add emotion and color that will appear in text conferences.
In the My Display Name, you can enter a name that will show up in other users’
Contact Lists. Possible reasons for doing this may be that you want to use a nickname or want to customize the way your appears. If you leave this field blank, the
Passport sign-in name (your e-mail address) will appear. By checking the My
Password checkbox, you voluntarily disable pass-through authentication for
other Passport-enabled services.When you check this box, you will be required
to log in to each Passport-enabled service before accessing the service.
Figure 7.31 Configuring How You Appear to Others
The My Message Text section presents the option of changing the font face,
size, and other test attributes, and of adding emotion to text. Changing the font is
useful in multiperson conferences to make the users contribution distinct from
the others. Emoticons are special characters that add another level of expression to
what can be an emotionless medium.These characters are especially useful when
a statement can be taken a few “less-than-positive” ways, such as a complimentary
statement that could be taken as sarcasm.
You should give careful consideration to the personal information you make
available to those on your Contact Lists.With Windows Messenger’s capability to
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 405
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
work with mobile devices, however, including a mobile telephone number may be
desirable.The Phone tab, shown in Figure 7.32, includes fields for home and work
telephone numbers, as well as a number for a mobile device, such as a cellular
phone or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).The country or region code determines
how numbers will be dialed; you simply have to select the country you are in.
Figure 7.32 Establishing Phone Numbers and Dialing Rules
The aptly titled Preferences tab, shown in Figure 7.33, is where you configure
how the program will function within Windows XP.The General section contains options for when Windows Messenger starts, how it runs, and when your
availability status will change. If you don’t have a persistent Internet connection,
you should uncheck the Run this program when Windows starts box, and
you should start Windows Messenger manually. If not, then the program will
automatically attempt to connect to the Internet. Unchecking this option gives
you greater control over the use of your Internet connection.The Allow this
program to run in the background option enables Windows Messenger to
continue to run in the system tray on the taskbar, even after you close the
window. Enabling the Show me as “Away”… option and entering a desired
timeout period will cause Windows Messenger to change the availability status to
Away after a period of inactivity.Various instant messenger events can trigger
visual and auditory notification by checking the appropriate boxes in the Alerts
section.You can use the file transfer section of the Preferences tab to configure
the folder where files received through Windows Messenger’s file transfer utility
will be stored.The default setting is the logged-in user’s My Documents folder.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
405
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 406
www.IrPDF.com
406
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Figure 7.33 Configuring How Windows Messenger Operates on the Desktop
The purpose of the Privacy tab (see Figure 7.34) is to provide you with the
capability to manage your visibility on other users’ Contact Lists.You can move
contact names back and forth between the Allow List and the Block List, and the
View button opens a window that displays whose lists the user is on.You should
check the Alert me when other users add me to their contact lists box so
that you can approve or disapprove requests from other users.This is an additional
safeguard so that you can exercise control over which Contact Lists your name
appears on.
Figure 7.34 Controlling the Visibility of the User on other Users’ Contact Lists
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 407
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
The Connection Tab is critical for users who need to connect to the .NET
Messenger Service through a proxy server.Where a system is connected directly to
the Internet, or it is connected through a transparent firewall where no ports are
blocked, you won’t need to visit this tab. If the connection to the Internet is
directed through a proxy server or a specific port on the firewall, you should check
the I use a proxy server box, and the Windows Messenger will need some further information about the proxy server. In this situation, the required information
is the type of proxy server, the server name, and the port number. For a proxy
server that uses the SOCKS Version 5 protocol, a username and password is also
required.The status message at the bottom of the window displays the status of the
connection and how the connection has been made. Figure 7.35 displays the status
of a system that is directly connected to .NET Messenger Service.
Figure 7.35 Using the Connection Tab to Direct Instant Messaging through a
Proxy Server
Using Windows Messenger
You can perform most of the main tasks from the icon in the system tray on the
taskbar. Double-clicking on the Windows Messenger icon will open the main
window. Clicking on the icon brings up a menu where you can send an instant
message, see who is online, sign in or sign out, change your status, or exit the program.This is the only way to shut down Windows Messenger. Closing the main
window when minimized or maximized does not close the program; it merely
closes the window, and the program continues to run in the taskbar.To greatly
enhance the usability of the Windows Messenger client, you need to carry out
two key activities: adding contacts and setting up audio and video capabilities.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
407
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 408
www.IrPDF.com
408
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
Adding contacts is an activity that you will perform regularly, and a wizard
assists with this.The Add A Contact Wizard guides you through the process of
adding other users to your Contact Lists.You can either specify the new contact
by e-mail address or Passport sign-in name or by searching Passport for the new
contact, as shown in Figure 7.36.
Figure 7.36 Adding Names to the User’s Contact List
If you know the new contact’s e-mail address or Passport sign-in name,
choose the first radio button, as seen in Figure 7.36, and enter it in the appropriate field on the following window, shown in Figure 7.37. Examples of acceptable e-mail addresses are listed below the field. Clicking Next confirms the
choice for the process to continue.
Figure 7.37 Specifying the New Contact’s Passport Sign-In Name
If you’re not sure of the e-mail address or Passport sign-in name, you can search
for that information in the directory of one of the Passport-enabled services.You
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 409
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
can search by first name, last name, or country by default, as demonstrated in Figure
7.38. For certain countries, such as the United States, you will also have the capability to search by city and state.
Figure 7.38 Searching for the New Contact’s Credentials
WARNING
Voluntarily opting to list your contact information in the Hotmail
Member Directory can open your Hotmail account to receiving frequent
servings of Spam (unsolicited mail). If you wish to list yourself in the
Directory, you should enable the Junk Mail Filter to examine incoming
messages and move the messages it has identified as junk to your Junk
Mail Folder. High protection is the default setting.
At this point the process is essentially over.The final step confirms the selection and sends a notification to the new contact directly or through e-mail.The
message on the final window asks whether you want to add another contact.To
add another contact, click Next, and the process will start over at the beginning.
Clicking Finish or Cancel indicates that there are no more contacts to be added
and terminates the wizard.
Another aspect to configuring the Windows Messenger environment is setting up audio and video input and output.The Audio and Video Tuning Wizard
(see Figure 7.39) guides the user through verifying that the system’s camera,
speakers, and microphone are working correctly.Windows Messenger uses these
devices to facilitate Internet telephony and video conferencing.These two services work best over a high bandwidth Internet connection, or over a LAN. Due
to the sheer number of device combinations, describing the specific process for
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
409
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 410
www.IrPDF.com
410
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
configuring these devices is virtually impossible.The wizard will automatically
detect what categories of devices are connected and will configure those devices.
For example, the wizard will not prompt you to configure video settings if you
don’t have a camera attached to the system.
Figure 7.39 Configuring Audio and Video Input and Playback Device Settings
Corporate Considerations
There are two considerations when enabling an instant messaging service in a
corporate environment: the capability to transfer files and the requirement for
opening additional ports on a corporate firewall.The capability to transfer files
directly from one system to another raises a serious virus concern, notably with
Trojan viruses. At the time of writing, no known viruses use Windows Messenger
to propagate.The probability of transferring a malicious file is remote because
transfer must be initiated by a contact on the user’s Contact List and must be
acknowledged by the user. However, if the contact’s account is compromised, this
becomes a genuine possibility.
The firewall configuration considerations for instant messaging are virtually
the same as those for Outlook Express.The service that supports instant messaging requires that TCP port 1863 be opened on the firewall, and that all network users know which kind of proxy server your network uses (HTTP, SOCKS
Version 4, or SOCKS Version 5) with the corresponding details, such as server
name and port number. As mentioned earlier, SOCKS Version 5 requires a username and password for authentication. In addition the internal network must
have access to the Domain Name System (DNS) servers to resolve the names of
external hosts. Additional services will require the opening of additional ports. As
it is with any network application, the only ports that should be open on it are
those that are required for business purposes.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 411
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
Summary
Because the two most common activities for which people use the Web are
reading and sending e-mail and viewing Web pages, Microsoft appropriately
included Internet Explorer 6 and Outlook Express 6 as the default browser and
mail client. Instant messaging in Windows XP, using the Windows Messenger
client, adds a real-time dimension to person-to-person communications over the
Internet. Although it hardly takes any configuration to begin using Internet
Explorer 6, Outlook Express 6, and Windows Messenger, a vast array of configuration options makes it possible to customize and personalize each tool to suit
individual tastes and business requirements.The goal for configuring these tools is
to create a secure environment that performs well.
You should configure security options to protect both the identity and assets
of the individual or organization.You should also configure it so that Internet
activity is not so restrictive that the capability to conduct necessary business
activity is constrained or adversely affected. Invoking the new privacy management features that focus on cookies best protects the individual or organization’s
identity.You can also configure Outlook Express to prevent messages from being
sent as the user by other applications.You can use security zones to restrict Web
sites from downloading or running potentially harmful files and applications.You
can further customize these zones to tailor security settings to allow for increased
or decreased Web site functionality depending on the trustworthiness of the Web
site operator. Both applications are designed to accommodate for any comfort
level that the user or organization may have. Because you choose who will appear
in the Contact List in Windows Messenger, privacy is managed by specifically
blocking users who do not need to send messages or see the availability status. In
addition, you have the ability to see on whose lists your name appears.
You should also configure Internet Explorer and Outlook Express to optimize performance, and optimizing for performance focuses on managing disk
space. Specifically, the goal is to have enough frequently-used content locally to
perform routine tasks quickly, not so much content that the browser or mail
client grinds to a halt while scanning for new or changed content. For example, a
large cache of temporary Internet files in Internet Explorer or a large mail store
in Outlook Express will significantly reduce the capability of either application to
respond quickly to user requests. Large files, especially in Outlook Express, also
increase the possibility of data corruption and data loss. From a performance perspective,Windows Messenger hardly consumes any system resources; however, if it
is necessary to conserve even the few processor cycles that the client uses, you
can configure Windows Messenger so that it starts and runs only on demand.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
411
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 412
www.IrPDF.com
412
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
The best Internet experience is one that is free of frustration or at least one
where frustration is kept to a minimum.This is achieved when users are comfortable enough to work on the Web without the risk of threat to their identities or
their assets with tools that perform well. Internet Explorer 6, Outlook Express 6,
and Windows Messenger possess more than adequate features to guarantee these
two qualities.The configuration of each can be as minimal or as robust as
required to guarantee that working with the Web is as efficient as possible.
Solutions Fast Track
Configuring Internet Explorer 6
; Use security zones and custom security settings to create a security
policy that balances security with functionality.
; You can manage privacy settings through the Privacy tab in the Internet
Options applet.You can block or allow cookies from Web sites on a siteby-site basis.
; Monitor the amount of disk space that temporary Internet files occupy.
On workstations that are shared by a number of users, restrict the
amount of disk space for storing the files for every user profile.
; Use the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK) to deploy a
custom browser package that reflects the security policy of the
organization.
Configuring Outlook Express 6
; Outlook Express 6 can handle multiple identities using multiple
accounts. All account-related configuration is performed in the Accounts
applet (Tools | Accounts).
; Outlook Express 6 leverages security and connection method
configuration settings from Internet Explorer 6.
; Monitor and maintain the size of the message store to ensure the
integrity of the data and the performance of the workstation.You can
perform this on the Maintenance tab of the Options applet (Tools |
Options).
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 413
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
Configuring Instant Messaging
; On the Privacy tab, you can move contact names back and forth
between the Allow List and the Block List.The View button displays
whose lists the user is on. Enable the Alert me when other users add
me to their contact lists option to manage requests from other users.
; Enter proxy server configuration on the Connection tab. For systems
that connect to the Internet through a proxy server, check the I use a
proxy server box, and complete the fields for the proxy server type, the
server name, and the port number.Where the SOCKS Version 5
protocol is used, a username and password is also required.
; The Add A Contact Wizard (File | Add a Contact) and the Audio and
Video Tuning Wizard (Tools | Audio and Video Tuning Wizard)
guide you through the processes of adding contacts and configuring
audio and video input and output devices for use within the Windows
Messenger client, respectively.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: I want to protect myself from sites that may cause harm to my system, but I
may need to visit these sites to do some research.What can I do?
A: Add the URLs for the suspicious sites to the Restricted Sites security zone.
You can further customize the zone for absolute security by disabling every
activity in the custom security settings.You should also ensure that all service
packs and hotfixes for the browser and operating system have been applied
before visiting these sites.
Q: I am concerned about compromising my privacy on the Internet by spreading
around my personal information through cookies; however, there are a few sites
where cookies enable me to log in automatically, and they contain personalized
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
413
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 414
www.IrPDF.com
414
Chapter 7 • Configuring Internet Technologies
display and content preferences. How can I keep these cookies and avoid
cookies from other sites?
A: On the Privacy tab of the Internet Explorer Options applet, you could move
the slider to a higher setting, or click Advanced and check Override automatic cookie handling to manage specific settings.You could then click
Edit to manually enter each URL for the sites for which you want to keep
cookies enabled. Click Allow for each URL to approve keeping the cookie.
Q: I am constantly on the move? How can I save Web pages for viewing while
not connected to the Internet?
A: Add the sites you want to view to your Favorites. Open the Favorites menu,
right-click on the Web site, and select Make available offline from the
drop-down menu. Simply follow the prompts from the Offline Favorite
Wizard to configure the amount of information to download and the synchronization schedule
Q: I am switching from another browser to Internet Explorer 6. Can I bring my
bookmarks over from my old browser?
A: You can import bookmarks (called Favorites in Internet Explorer) and
cookies to and exported from Internet Explorer using the Import/Export
Wizard.You can launch the Wizard from the main menu bar in Internet
Explorer by choosing File | Import and Export…. The Wizard will guide
you through the process of selecting the target and source folders.
Q: I am trying to check my home e-mail account from work, but I get errors
that I cannot connect to the mail server. How can I troubleshoot this
problem?
A: First, ensure that you have an active connection to the Internet. Second,
verify that your ISP’s mail server name and your username and password for
the ISP have been correctly entered for the account with which you are
attempting to connect. If you are still unsuccessful, check with your organization’s systems administrator to verify that the correct port, or ports, are open
on the firewall.
Q: I have noticed that news posts I downloaded in the recent past have been
disappearing.Where did they go?
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 415
www.IrPDF.com
Configuring Internet Technologies • Chapter 7
A: Most users would be lead to believe that the posts have been removed from
the server. In some cases they may have been; however, more often than not
the real culprit is the news settings for Outlook Express. On the Maintenance
tab of the Options applet, there are settings for retaining news messages.
When news messages disappear, they are older than the number of days specified in the Delete news messages … days after being downloaded
option. Increase the number in the drop-down box to increase the amount of
time that news messages are retained. Be mindful of the amount of space
required to preserve news messages for a long time, especially for busy newsgroups. If you require a long retention time, you may want to enable the
Delete read message bodies in newsgroups option to retain a list of the
headers and save some disk space.
Q: I have enabled emoticons. How do I get them to appear?
A: Emoticons are created with two or three sequential keystrokes using various
character combinations. For example, typing a colon (“:”) followed by a right
parenthesis [“)”] produces a happy face :), when read sideways. Some interesting combinations, out of several dozen others, are “(Y)” and “(L)”. (Do not
include the quotation marks.)
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
415
189_XP_07.qxd
11/12/01
9:56 AM
Page 416
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 417
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 8
Adding New
Hardware and
Software
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Adding New Hardware to your System
■
Installing Software
■
Working with Windows Installer
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
417
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 418
www.IrPDF.com
418
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
Introduction
A workstation is a pretty boring thing if you can’t add anything to it.The ability
to add software and hardware to a system gives you a tool that suits your needs.
In Windows XP, this type of customization and personalization is straightforward
and often automatic.You can add, modify, and remove hardware and software
with a minimum of intervention.
Most configuration procedures in Windows XP are facilitated with wizards.
The Add Hardware Wizard assists you with installing and configuring hardware
devices.The Windows Component Wizard makes an efficient process out of
adding and removing additional Windows components. In many cases, you can
now reconfigure software installation parameters without removing and reinstalling the application.
Also, you can perform most of this configuration in a single interface.The
Add Hardware Wizard has multiple options to allow for device installation,
removal, modification, and troubleshooting from a single applet.The Add Or
Remove Programs applet is a “one stop shop” for all software management,
including installation, modification, upgrade, and removal.The Windows Installer
is a software management service that runs without additional configuration or
user intervention.These three features of Windows XP combine to demystify systems configuration and management.
Adding New Hardware to Your System
The process of manually selecting hardware is not particularly manual in
Windows XP compared to what it was for users of NT Workstation and Server.
Users who are upgrading from Windows 95, 98, Me, and 2000 will notice little
difference in the process for adding hardware due to Windows XP’s Plug and
Play capabilities.Those who are migrating to Windows XP from the Windows
NT lineage are in for a welcome change. Adding certain devices, such as sound
and network cards, was a particularly uncomfortable process in Windows NT;
moving cards from one PCI slot to another required significant reconfiguration.
As a rule of thumb, a newer operating system will always work better with
older hardware; however, always has its limits, especially for obscure or virtually
obsolete hardware.Your chances for getting older hardware to work correctly are
greater if the vendor is still in business and providing driver support for legacy
devices.The drivers that ship with Windows XP are digitally signed. Digital
signing of drivers ensures that the driver is certified to work with Windows XP
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 419
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
and has not been changed. It also guarantees the identity of the source of the
driver.These benefits all work together to ensure that a device with a digitally
signed driver is optimized for use under Windows XP.
Vendors will often ship devices with unsigned drivers. In virtually every case,
these drivers will work as well as their signed counterparts.They merely haven’t
been put through the barrage of tests to certify it with Microsoft’s Certified for
Windows XP logo program. Some users and organizations derive a measure of
comfort from using a driver that is certified by Microsoft. Although these individuals and institutions can rest assured that a Microsoft-certified driver will be of
high quality and well written, plenty of uncertified drivers out there are at least
as good. Certification assures only a certain level of quality.The lack of certification does not necessarily mean that a driver is of inferior quality.
NOTE
Use Windows XP’s System Restore utility to create a Restore Point before
you install hardware and any associated software, such as a new scanner
and its imaging software. If either installation fails, you have the ability
to roll back the installations to that Restore Point and try again without
any lasting damage to the system.
Using the Add Hardware Wizard
The one and only method of adding hardware to a Windows XP system is through
the Add Hardware Wizard. Even if devices are automatically discovered through
Plug and Play, the series of windows that you will see prompt for hardware type
and driver locations, among other information, are a simplified version of this
wizard.The Add Hardware Wizard lays out the steps very clearly as you walk
through an installation, and Windows XP works well with the workstation’s BIOS
to settle IRQ and I/O addressing issues.You can get to the Add Hardware Wizard
by choosing Start | Control Panel | Add Hardware, as shown in Figure 8.1.
In the Category View (see Figure 8.2), double-click on Add Hardware in the See
Also window; in the Classic View, the Add Hardware icon is displayed.
Another less obvious way to get to the Add Hardware Wizard is to open
System Properties and select the Hardware tab. Click Device Manager and
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
419
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 420
www.IrPDF.com
420
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
then right-click on any device type in the list. Select Scan for hardware
changes from the drop-down menu that appears, as demonstrated in Figure 8.3.
Figure 8.1 Launching the Add Hardware Wizard from the Control Panel
(Classic View)
Figure 8.2 Launching the Add Hardware Wizard from the Control Panel
(Category View)
Once the process has been initiated, you are greeted with the friendly
Welcome screen, as shown in Figure 8.4, that introduces the purpose of the
wizard and gives a warning.The warning is the application of the maxim mentioned earlier about older hardware working better with newer operating systems.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 421
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
In most cases, the manufacturer’s CD or the most recent software downloaded
from the manufacturer’s Web site for a particular device will be the best choice
for selecting an appropriate driver. Newer hardware may not have drivers that
work with Windows XP, especially if it was released after the release of the operating system. If you have software from the manufacturer that will automatically
install and configure your device, click Cancel to close the wizard and launch
the manufacturer’s setup routine.
Figure 8.3 Launching the Add Hardware Wizard from the Device Manager
Figure 8.4 The Add Hardware Wizard
Clicking Next prompts Windows XP to search for any changes to the workstation’s hardware configuration. A new search is performed every time the
wizard is run so that all hardware changes are detected.This process will even
detect hardware that has been removed and Windows XP only thinks that it is
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
421
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 422
www.IrPDF.com
422
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
still there. If no changes are detected, the wizard asks if the hardware is connected
to the workstation. If you have not yet physically installed the hardware, the
wizard terminates and asks you to shut down the machine and install the device.
If the hardware is installed, select the Yes radio button and click Next to proceed
with the rest of the installation.
NOTE
The Next button is highlighted by default in every step. You can press
Enter, rather than using the mouse, to accept the defaults and confirm
your selections.
At this point, another search is performed.This time the search is for all hardware devices—hardware that has already been installed and configured, and hardware that is attached to the workstation but not configured in the operating
system.The wizard displays a list of the hardware already installed in the system
(see Figure 8.5). Selecting one of the devices in the list opens the properties
window for that device. From there, you can either run the troubleshooter in
Windows XP Help—a wizard that walks you through a thorough troubleshooting session—or you can upgrade the driver.To proceed with the installation,
click Next.
Figure 8.5 Hardware That Is Already Installed on or Attached to the System
You must now choose whether to let Windows XP search for a new device
or specify the device yourself.The main difference between the two options is
having a vague idea of what exactly it is that you are installing, or knowing
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 423
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
exactly what it is that you are installing. If you are sure that you know exactly
what device you want to install and feel comfortable in selecting the appropriate
driver, selecting the second option makes sense.The automatic search is useful for
a few reasons. If you have only a general idea of what needs to be installed or
simply want to see if there is anything in the workstation that has not yet been
installed, the first option would be more appropriate. For example, oftentimes
changes have been made in the BIOS to port, power management, or other
system settings that have an impact on device configuration, and the operating
system has not picked this up.The search will detect any changes where hardware
has been removed, and it will delete the configuration for the removed devices.
Basically, if removing the cover from your workstation to visually identify hardware causes you to break out in a sweat, or if there is hardware that you cannot
visually identify, the search and automatic install option is for you.
The Search for and install the hardware automatically option in Figure
8.6 is fairly self-explanatory. If you select this option,Windows XP conducts a
much more thorough search of the workstation for new devices than the initial
search for Plug and Play devices does.The search process polls all interrupts
(IRQs), memory addresses, I/O addresses, and ports to generate responses from
devices that use or are attached to any of these system resources.This search is
done by device type.Windows XP compares the list of responses to a list of
devices that are already installed, and it produces a list of new devices that are
ready to install.The search process window is depicted in Figure 8.7.The top
progress bar in the window tracks the overall progress of the search; the second
bar tracks the progress of searches by device type. Once complete, the list of new
devices is displayed. If no devices are found, you are prompted to select a device
manually or end the Add Hardware Wizard. Click the Next to proceed.
Figure 8.6 Choosing Whether to Search for or Specify the Device to
Be Installed
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
423
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 424
www.IrPDF.com
424
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
Figure 8.7 Searching for New Devices in Progress
The Install the hardware that I manually select from a list option in
Figure 8.6 is a task for an advanced user. It is not, however, an overly difficult
operation if you are prepared with the device type, manufacturer name, model
name, and any hardware settings that may be appropriate. Drivers and additional
software from the manufacturer may also be necessary.With this option selected,
clicking Next from the “search or select” window takes you to the window with
a list of common hardware types, as shown in Figure 8.8.These categories are the
same on every hardware platform. For the purposes of illustration, an installation
of NT APM/Legacy Support for a laptop computer will be performed. Select the
hardware category that the yet-to-be-installed device belongs to and click Next.
Figure 8.8 Selecting the Device Type
Because NT APM/Legacy Support is a module distributed by Microsoft,
Microsoft is shown as selected in the list of manufacturers, and NT APM/Legacy
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 425
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
Support is shown as selected in the list of models, as demonstrated in Figure 8.9.
(If you were installing another device, you would need to select the appropriate
manufacturer and model.) Clicking Next brings up the first confirmation
window, shown in Figure 8.10.
Figure 8.9 Selecting the Manufacturer and Model
Figure 8.10 The First Confirmation Window
If the manufacturer or model is not in the list, and you have a specific driver
for the device, you can click Have Disk… to continue. Have Disk… is also a
good option to choose—even if the manufacturer and device is listed—when you
have a more recent driver than one that would be included with Windows XP.
After you click Have Disk…, you are prompted to specify the location of the
driver. After you click OK, you are taken to the confirmation window shown in
Figure 8.10. Most likely, a number of devices will be listed in this confirmation
window if a driver from the device manufacturer is being used for the installation.This is because manufacturers frequently bundle the drivers for several
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
425
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 426
www.IrPDF.com
426
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
devices on one disk, or there is more than one mode to install the device in, such
as PnP or Legacy, or 16- or 32-bit.The most likely option will be listed at the
top and highlighted.To go with the highlighted selection, click Next, or you can
select another option from the list and click Next.This window also indicates
whether the chosen driver is digitally signed. If it is not digitally signed, a driver
confirmation will pop up and ask if you want to continue using this driver; click
Yes if you want to proceed.
A second confirmation window then appears (see Figure 8.11).This window
presents only the choices of proceeding with or canceling the installation. At this
point, no changes to the configuration of the workstation have taken place.
Canceling the installation will leave the system in the same state it was in when
you started.To proceed with the installation, click Next to install the device.
Figure 8.11 The Second, and Last, Confirmation Window
At this point, the process is complete.You will be greeted with a window that
announces either the success or failure of the procedure, as in Figure 8.12. If
unsuccessful, the reasons are listed. Click Finish to end the procedure. A reboot
of the workstation may or may not be required, depending on the nature of the
device that was installed.
The key to a successful hardware installation, as with anything, is being prepared. Ensure that you have physically inserted or attached the device in a secure
fashion.Verify that cables are tightly inserted; that cards and memory are seated
firmly in appropriate slots; that drives and fans are receiving a sufficient supply of
power; and in some cases, that the BIOS has been configured properly to accommodate for additional devices.You should have the device manufacturer’s name
and the model name or number of the device itself. Driver software—on CD,
diskette, or on a local or network drive—should be readily available in case no
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 427
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
suitable or current driver is included in Windows XP. As mentioned earlier, the
hardware installation is not the painful process it once was.The Add Hardware
Wizard and adequate preparation make it very easy for you to have the devices
you want.
Figure 8.12 Completing the Add Hardware Wizard
Configuring & Implementing…
Working with BIOS Settings to
Accommodate Legacy Hardware
Legacy devices that can be set to PnP should be set to PnP. Life will be
much easier. For non-PnP-capable legacy devices on newer hardware,
the BIOS may need to be configured to accommodate them. Specifically,
hardware IRQs need to be allocated for the legacy device. Although this
may sound quite daunting, it is relatively easy to configure.
First, you need to gather some information. In Device Manager,
select View | Resources by connection and expand Interrupt request
(IRQ) to check for an available IRQ. Some IRQs are safe to assign to a
device; some are not. Usually 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11 are safe, unless they are
used by another device. Once you find an available IRQ, write it down,
or better yet, print the whole list (Action | Print).
Second, you need to configure the device itself. To set the IRQ on
the hardware, most legacy devices have jumpers or DIP switches on the
device or a configuration utility to configure the firmware. You should
set the IRQ to the number that was written down in the previous step.
Do not throw that piece of paper out yet.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
427
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 428
www.IrPDF.com
428
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
Third, power the workstation off and physically install the device.
Make sure that cables are tightly connected and that cards and memory
modules are seated firmly in appropriate slots. Restart the workstation
and press the appropriate key to access the BIOS setup settings; for most
BIOSs, it is the Delete key. Once the BIOS setup menu is displayed, locate
a menu item that deals with PCI device settings, navigate to it, and press
Enter. The exact wording of the PCI menu item will vary from BIOS manufacturer to BIOS manufacturer and BIOS version to BIOS version.
Again, depending on the BIOS manufacturer and version, an IRQ
will either need to be freed up from the pool assigned to PCI devices,
specifically reserved for the device setting, or assigned to a particular
slot on the motherboard. Find the IRQ that was configured on the device
(and written down on the paper) in the earlier step and make the
appropriate reservation or assignment. Also make sure that the operating system type is set to Plug and Play. Once you have made all the
changes, save the changes and restart the workstation.
If the configuration is correct and the device can use the configured
IRQ, Windows XP should discover it upon startup. If Windows XP does
not discover it, use the Add Hardware Wizard to install and configure
the device in the operating system. There is a very good chance that the
driver is included in Windows XP; if it is not included, it may be available
for download from the manufacturer.
Installing Software
You can choose among several different methods of getting software onto your
system and managing it once it gets there.The fundamental tool for performing
these tasks is the Add or Remove Programs applet.This applet is used to initiate
an installation and to manually manage installed software.The following sections
focus on manually adding and removing software, updating Windows XP, and
managing Windows components.
Adding Software
The Add or Remove Programs applet in Control Panel provides the most straightforward way of managing software that is or will be installed on the system. It has a
single interface for adding and removing software and Windows XP components. It
also presents a simple interface for changing software parameters.
The vast majority of software that is currently shipping does not need to be
installed through the Add or Remove Programs applet. Because most of it ships
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 429
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
on CDs that work with the autorun feature, which is enabled by default, all you
have to do is insert the CD and follow the commands of the routine. Most of the
time, choosing the default option at every step will produce an acceptable result.
If autorun happens to be disabled or if the vendor has not equipped the CD
with an autorun.inf file, click CD or Floppy on the Add New Programs
window of the Add or Remove Programs applet, as shown in Figure 8.13, to start
the installation sequence.You will be prompted for the name of the file that starts
the installation routine.You can then follow the on-screen prompts to install and
configure the application to suit the configuration of the system. In the past,
installing software through this applet was the only way to have the software
package listed in the Remove Selected Applications window—now called
Change Or Remove Programs.This has not been the case for quite some time
because software publishers have built that functionality into their applications. In
any case, if software has to be manually installed, installing it through this applet is
a good practice.
Figure 8.13 Installing Software and Updating Windows XP through the Add
New Programs Windows
Clicking Windows Update opens Internet Explorer, connects with the
Windows Update Web site (http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com), and checks
for available operating system updates and add-on applications. Introduced with
Windows 98 and Internet Explorer 5.0, it checks for updates on its site against
the installed operating system-related files on the workstation.These updates
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
429
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 430
www.IrPDF.com
430
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
include newer versions of Windows components, system files, security updates,
and device drivers.You can also access Windows Update through the Start menu
in Windows XP and the Tools menu in Internet Explorer.
WARNING
Windows Update must be run with an account that is a Computer
Administrator. Limited Users accounts do not have sufficient privileges to
update system files.
The box below the title Add Programs From Your Network will contain applications that are published through Group Policies in Active Directory.These are
applications that have been associated with the Active Directory Organizational
Unit in which your user account resides. Double-clicking on the listed application
will initiate the application installation; this is an unattended installation that uses
the Windows Installer and does not require any user input.
Removing Software
Removing software will be the task you execute most often in the Add or
Remove Programs applet. Most software installs without the applet, but the
applet is the best way to rid yourself of unwanted or unneeded programs. All
installed programs that can be managed with the applet will be listed in the
Currently Installed Programs window of Change Or Remove Programs, as
shown in Figure 8.14. Another useful task that you can perform here is the
changing of application parameters without having to reinstall the application.
Because virtually all software registers itself here, you can remove it with a
single click. Clicking Remove will uninstall the application. In some circumstances, files and folders are left behind.This is not necessarily a bad thing because
the files left behind are usually files that you created—either files that hold personal configuration settings or data files.You can save these to another directory if
desired.You will then need to manually delete the unwanted program directories
and files in order to completely remove from the system any trace of the application.You can do this through Windows Explorer.
Some applications will have a Change/Remove button and others will have a
separate Change and Remove button.The difference is significant. In all likelihood, for applications with a single Change/Remove button, no options are
available for changing parameters.You are at the mercy of the installation and
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 431
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
uninstallation routine, and the only option, in most situations, is to remove the
application. For those with the two buttons, you definitely have other options for
changing application parameters.
Figure 8.14 Currently Installed Programs in the Add or Remove
Programs Window
Clicking Change leads to a screen that presents you with the option to
modify, repair, or remove the application.You can remove the application by
clicking Remove. Clicking Modify permits you to change features and installation parameters, such as the installation folder location. Clicking Repair repairs
errors in the application’s installation by repairing or replacing corrupt or missing
files, shortcuts, and registry entries.
NOTE
Run Windows Update after every install of additional Windows components. Additional components change the system configuration and add
system files. Running Windows Update will ensure that all of the latest
system and security updates have been applied, especially for components with specific security needs, such as Internet Information Server.
The final button on the Add or Remove Programs applet is the Add/
Remove Windows Components button. If you installed Windows XP from the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
431
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 432
www.IrPDF.com
432
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
installation CD on your workstation, this looks very familiar. It is the same
window that pops up towards the end of the Windows XP installation routine.
Clicking the button in the applet launches the Windows Component Wizard, as
depicted in Figure 8.15.
Figure 8.15 The Windows Component Wizard
The Windows Component Wizard is the tool to add or remove components.
Dozens of components are available, from Accessibility options to networking
utilities. As it was with Windows 2000, a full version of Internet Information
Server is included as an additional component for installation on the workstation.
All available components are considered optional; hence, you can be install and
remove them without having a negative impact on the core operating system. An
interesting item of note is that Internet Explorer is now considered an optional
component and can be uninstalled.
Working with Windows Installer
Introduced as an operating system component in Windows 2000, the Windows
Installer runs as a service to provide the operating system with the ability to
manage the software installation process.The Windows Installer lies in wait for an
application to be installed, and once the installation routine for the application is
launched, it automatically springs into action, as shown in Figure 8.16, to take over
the installation process.Windows Installer is both the installation support tool and
the software management system for Windows XP. It manages the installation and
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 433
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
removal of applications by applying a set of centrally defined setup rules during
the installation process.These setup rules define the installation and configuration
of the installed application. In addition, the Windows Installer monitors file
integrity and performs basic disaster recovery tasks through software roll-backs.
All new software that carries the Windows XP certification uses the Windows
Installer.
Figure 8.16 The Preparing to Install Window
The Windows Installer technology consists of the Windows Installer service
for the Windows operating systems and the package (.msi) file format used to
hold information regarding the application setup and installations.
Windows Installer technologies are divided into two parts that work in combination: a client-side installer service (Msiexec.exe) and a package file (.msi file).
Windows Installer uses the information contained within a package file to install
the application.The Msiexec.exe program is a component of Windows Installer.
This program uses a dynamic link library, Msi.dll, to read the package files (.msi),
apply transforms (.mst), and incorporate command-line options.The installer performs all installation-related tasks: copying files onto the hard disk, making registry modifications, creating shortcuts on the desktop, and displaying dialog boxes
to query user installation preferences when necessary.
When Windows Installer is installed on a computer, the file association capabilities of the operating system are modified to recognize the .msi file type.When
a file with the .msi extension is double-clicked, the operating system associates
the .msi file with Windows Installer and runs the Msiexec.exe application.
Each package (.msi) file contains a relational type database that stores all the
instructions and data required to install (and uninstall) the program across many
installation scenarios. Because the database is relational, changes made to one
table are propagated automatically throughout the database.This is a very efficient
process for introducing consistent changes into the installation process that simplifies customizing a large application or group of applications.The Windows
Installer database tables reflect the general layout of the entire group of applications, including the following:
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
433
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 434
www.IrPDF.com
434
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
■
Available features
■
Components
■
Relationships between features and components
■
Necessary registry settings
The Windows Installer database package ( the .msi file) consists of multiple interrelated tables that together compose a relational database of the information necessary to install a group of features.Table 8.1 describes these groups of related tables.
Table 8.1 Interrelated Table Groups that Contain All Information Relating to
an Application’s Installation
Group
Description
Core table group
Describes the fundamental features and
components of the application and installer
package
Contains the files associated with the installation package
Contains the registry entries
Tracks the tables and columns of the installation database
Used to search the registry, installer configuration data, directory tree, or .ini files for the
unique signature of a file
Holds properties, bitmaps, shortcuts, and
other elements needed for the application
installation
Manages the tasks performed during the
installation by standard actions and custom
actions
File table group
Registry table group
System table group
Locator table group
Program installation group
Installation procedure group
You can customize a generic installation process by applying transforms to the
installation database. A transform makes changes to elements of the database.
Windows Installer transform files modify the installation package file at installation time, thus they can dynamically affect the installation behavior.
Customization transforms remain cached on the computer.These transforms are
applied to the base package file whenever Windows Installer needs to perform a
configuration change to the installation package.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 435
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
Designing & Planning…
Automatically Deploy Software
without Granting Administrative Rights
Automatic software distribution, installation, and configuration saves a
lot of administrative and support time and effort. In the past, however,
you had to be made at least a Power User and in some cases an
Administrator of the local workstation so that software would be
installed properly. Because of this, security was often sacrificed for efficiency. The Windows Installer has changed this. You can install software
without giving away the keys to the farm.
The key to securely deploying applications that automatically install
and configure themselves is to grant the user limited access and
repackage applications into .msi files. Ensure that user accounts are created as Limited Users, or that all local users of a particular workstation are
members of the Users group. Because Windows Installer runs as the Local
System Account, and it, not the user, performs the installation, it has the
required permissions and performs the installation on behalf of the user.
As for repackaging applications into .msi files, you can use many
tools, including WinBatch, Wise Installer, and WinInstall. They all work in
a similar way. All other running applications on a reference workstation
are stopped, and the installation tool is launched to take a snapshot of
the system. The designated application is then installed and any additional configuration and customization is carried out. Finally, the installation tool is launched again. This time it takes a snapshot of the system
and enumerates the differences—additional files, registry and configuration file changes, and replaced files. The differences, in terms of additional files and changes, and the rules for applying the differences, are
packaged into an .msi file.
All that is remaining is to get the .msi file to the workstation for
installation. In an enterprise-wide deployment with no user involvement,
a Group Policy in Active Directory would be the best choice. In a more
limited deployment, the .msi file can be pushed out in a login script or
a pointer to the package or a shared drive can be sent out in an e-mail
message with the instruction for users to double-click on the package.
Make it very clear as to what they should do. In a deployment to a very
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
435
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 436
www.IrPDF.com
436
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
select group of users or to individual users, send instructions in an e-mail
with the package as the attachment.
In a real-world example, a certain organization deployed a particular piece of software to over 100 workstations. The deployment
required a technician to install the application, and a database administrator (DBA) to configure it. Each installation lasted 30 minutes, and
every workstation was visited, totaling over 50 hours of combined
effort, not to mention lost productivity for each user. When the next version was ready for release, the support personnel installed the application once, the DBA made the configuration changes once, and the
differences were then captured in an .msi file that was pushed out to all
users simultaneously in a login script. This time the whole deployment
lasted five minutes, and all the users had to do was watch the progress
and wait for a reboot.
WARNING
Because transforms are applied at initial installation, they cannot be
applied to an already installed application. Make sure that any customization is complete before deploying the application, or the deployed
application will need to be rolled back and redeployed.
Windows Installer requires little, if any, configuration.The default settings are
perfect for any conceivable situation. For troubleshooting purposes, there are two
key parameters: startup type and Log On As. Because Windows Installer runs as a
service, you can configure it with a variety of startup options. Because it is a
rarely used service, it does not need to be running constantly. For this reason, it is
a good idea to keep the startup type at its default setting of Manual in the
General tab of the Windows Installer Properties screen, as shown in Figure 8.17.
When you double-click an .msi file, msiexec.exe will launch to handle the installation, and it will stop when no longer required.
The Log on as setting should be left at, or set to, Local System account,
as shown in Figure 8.18. (You should also enable the Allow service to interact
with desktop option.) Although any service can run as any user, there are a
number of reasons why this should be left at Local System Account.The most
important reason is that for an organization to deploy uniform applications to be
installed and configured without intervention from the user, the Windows
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 437
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
Installer service must be allowed to run behind the scenes on every workstation
without having to interact with the local security database. If a domain user or
other local user account is used, there is no guarantee that every workstation will
permit the Windows Installer running as that user to install applications.
Furthermore, if you decide to use another account, every workstation will have
to be visited to make the change.The administrative burden would be overwhelming, and the probability of error would be high.
Figure 8.17 The General Tab of Windows Installer Properties
Figure 8.18 The Log On Tab of Windows Installer Properties
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
437
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 438
www.IrPDF.com
438
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
The Allow service to interact with desktop option, when enabled,
enables you to control the service, regardless of what local account is used. It
specifies whether the service has an interface on the desktop that can be used by
whoever is logged on when the service is started.This option is only available
when the service is running as the Local System Account, as opposed to an
account that is specified in the This Account fields.
The Windows Installer is a definite help for administrators and users alike. It
simplifies the software installation process and provides for more granular management of the software on the system.The ability to modify, repair, and remove
applications simply makes a gentle slope out of the learning curve and improves
the integrity of the system.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 439
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
Summary
Most of the guesswork is taken out of systems configuration and management
through the use of wizards and by locating all functions that deal with hardware
and software management in specialized applets.You can use the Add Hardware
Wizard almost exclusively to install, configure, troubleshoot, and remove hardware.The fundamental tool for adding and removing software, updating Windows
XP, and managing Windows components is the Add or Remove Programs applet.
Finally, the Windows Installer is both the installation support tool and the software management system for Windows XP, in that it manages the installation and
removal of applications according to predefined rules.
These tools not only make it easier for you, they also contribute to the
overall stability and integrity of the system. Many users know the frustration of
having one component—hardware or software—of an otherwise well-behaved
workstation stop working the way it should and bring the entire system’s quality
into question.Windows XP’s ability to repair itself, isolate problem components,
and assist in troubleshooting serve to minimize that inevitable frustration, or even
eliminate it to some degree. Average users can perform many tasks that were once
complex or impossible.This means that, in Windows XP, systems configuration
and management is no longer the exclusive realm of the guru or expert.
Solutions Fast Track
Adding New Hardware to Your System
; Verify that cables are tightly connected, cards and memory are seated
firmly in appropriate slots, and drives and fans are receiving a sufficient
supply of power. In some cases, the BIOS will need some
reconfiguration to accommodate for additional devices.
; Select the Search and automatically install option if you have only
an idea of what needs to be installed, or simply want to see if there is
anything in the workstation that has not yet been installed.
; The device manufacturer’s name, the model name or number of the
device, and the driver software, on CD, diskette, or on a local or network
drive, should be readily available.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
439
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 440
www.IrPDF.com
440
Chapter 8 • Adding New Hardware and Software
Installing Software
; Most software will be installed automatically when the CD is inserted.
You can launch software installation routines in Add New Programs of
the Add or Remove Programs applet.
; You can modify, repair, and remove software through the Change Or
Remove Programs window of the Add or Remove Programs applet.
; You can add or remove additional Windows components, including
Internet Explorer, from the system at any time without affecting the
integrity of the core operating system.
Working with Windows Installer
; Repackaging applications as .msi files for installation by the Windows
Installer provides for unattended installation and configuration without
having to grant administrator-level access.
; You should configure the Windows Installer to run manually as the
Local System Account.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 441
www.IrPDF.com
Adding New Hardware and Software • Chapter 8
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: How do I know if my hardware will work in Windows XP?
A: Search the Hardware Compatibility List on the installation CD or on
Microsoft’s Web site for your device. If it is there, Microsoft has tested it and has
certified that it will function under Windows XP. Even if it is not there, the
device manufacturer may have a Windows XP driver available for download.
Q: I want to remove an application, but the application is not in the list of available programs.Where else should I look?
A: Look for an UnInstall [application name] icon in the same Start menu folder
where application icon resides. Many applications ship with their own uninstall programs.
Q: I would like to add accessibility options to my workstation. How do I do that?
A: Navigate to the Add or Remove Programs applet (Start | Control Panel |
Add or Remove Programs) and click Add/Remove Windows
Components. Accessibility options are under Accessories. Highlight
Accessories and click Details…; select Accessibility options and
click OK.
Q: How do I install the applications listed in the Add programs from your
network window?
A: Simply double-click on the application you need, and the Windows Installer
will take care of the rest.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
441
189_XP_08.qxd
11/12/01
9:58 AM
Page 442
www.IrPDF.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 443
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 9
Using the
Communication
Tools
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Using Remote Desktop Sharing
■
Configuring Windows XP for Faxing
■
Connecting to the Internet
■
Collaborating with NetMeeting
■
Working with HyperTerminal
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
443
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 444
www.IrPDF.com
444
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Introduction
Communication tools are the different mechanisms used to communicate with
others across different media. By media, we mean telephone lines, local area networks, satellite links, and so on.Think about it—what do you do during a typical
day at the office?
My office is a bit of a mish-mash in terms of technology.You would think
that I have everything completely computerized, which is almost, but not quite,
true.The main reason is that my office is also used by my wife occasionally and
she wants to be able to use a variety of communication tools. I have a few
servers, a printer, a scanner, and so on, but I also have a manual fax machine,
which is probably true for many people. For my daily routine, I get up in the
morning, check my e-mails, and browse the Internet for the latest news.When
normal office hours commence, I start receiving and making phone calls and
faxes via my fax machine and also video conference with my partner when we
want a face-to-face chat.
Windows XP provides the majority of mechanisms that allow you to use it as
a true communications tool across many different mediums.You can now share
your desktop and then log on to it from your home computer, gaining access to
it as though you were still sitting in front of it at the office, albeit with a slower
response time. NetMeeting provides videoconferencing (providing you have a
video camera attached, of course), whiteboard, and application sharing and chat
facilities over the LAN or Internet.You can send and receive faxes by using the
built-in fax service.You can use the HyperTerminal program to connect to bulletin boards and to gain a terminal connection to other systems, such as routers,
digital switches, and modems, to configure them. Finally, you can connect to the
Internet and the wealth of information that it provides using either Internet
Explorer or any other browser of your choice. In this chapter, we discuss these
mechanisms and how you can configure Windows XP to send and receive
remote information.
Amongst the tools covered in this chapter, only Remote Desktop Sharing is a
new technology for Windows. Actually, Remote Desktop Sharing has been
around for quite a while now in the disguise of Terminal Services, and
NetMeeting has also used the term. If you have used Terminal Services at all, you
will understand the concept of a remote server sharing its desktop to many simultaneous users. For those of you responsible for implementing Windows 2000
Server, we’re sure you have turned on Terminal Services Administration mode.
Windows XP expands on this technology, extending it to the desktop as well
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 445
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
(although we should point out that this kind of functionality has been available
for many years through third-party products such as PC Anywhere).
Using Remote Desktop Sharing
We’ve covered some of the features of Remote Desktop Sharing in the
Introduction, but now let’s define what exactly Remote Desktop Sharing allows
you to do:
■
Log on to your desktop computer from another computer,
gaining access to the remote desktop as if you were sitting in
front of it directly Other users cannot see the screen—it shows the
Ctrl+Alt+Del logon screen.
■
Host many simultaneous sessions This means that another user can
log on to your machine, and your current desktop sessions, including
running programs, are preserved. It works in much the same manner as a
Terminal Server.This is actually a really useful feature for a couple of reasons. For example, a user from another office may want to quickly access
and print some documents. Before this feature was available, you might
balk if someone requested this, or you might deny the request because
you might be running a process that couldn’t be interrupted without
starting over.With this feature, the other user can log on, carry out his
task, and then log off—leaving your desktop exactly as you left it.The
other point that we want to mention is that in the past, you often needed
a dedicated workstation sitting in the corner—dedicated to carrying out
some task.You no longer need that dedicated workstation because its
function can be carried out in another session, while you continue to use
the workstation in your own totally separate session. However, you probably shouldn’t do this in practice, but it’s nice to know the possibility is
available for you to carry out this kind of function.
■
Fast Switching Microsoft uses this term to define the ability to keep
your user session intact while disconnecting a remote session. For
example, say that you are working remotely on a desktop workstation,
and you need to disconnect for some reason.When you reconnect, the
session will be still be intact.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
445
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 446
www.IrPDF.com
446
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Connecting to Other Windows XP Machines
Remote Desktop Sharing is not an optional installation; it is an integral part of
the operating system. However, it is not enabled by default, you need to perform
the following steps to set it up:
1. Click Start |Control Panel.
2. If you are in Category View, switch to Classic View and double-click
the System applet.
3. Select the Remote tab, and the dialog box shown in Figure 9.1 appears.
4. Select the checkbox Allow users to connect remotely to this
computer.
5. Click OK after reading the Remote Assistance message box.
Figure 9.1 Remote Tab of System Applet
The Select Remote Users… allows you to specify which user accounts—
both local and remote—are able to access your workstation via Remote Desktop
Sharing.
Now that your computer has been set up for sharing, let’s walkthrough connecting to it from another Windows XP workstation.To carry out this exercise,
you will need two different workstations running Windows XP. If you don’t have
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 447
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
this hardware available, you can use a utility such as VMWare that allows you to
simultaneously run different operating systems on the same physical machine. If
you don’t have such a utility, just follow along with the text—the process isn’t all
that difficult.
On the workstation you want to use as the controller, click Start | All
Programs | Accessories | Communications | Remote Desktop
Connection, and you will be prompted to enter the computer name of the
workstation you want to connect to, as shown in Figure 9.2.
Figure 9.2 Remote Desktop Connection Dialog Box
To immediately connect to the remote workstation, type in the computer
name and click Connect. However, let’s investigate a few of the available settings
via the Options button. Click this first, and you will see the dialog box shown in
Figure 9.3.
Figure 9.3 Remote Desktop Connection Options
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
447
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 448
www.IrPDF.com
448
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
As you can see, the default tab displayed is the General tab, which allows you
to enter your authentication credentials (such as username, password, domain, and
the computer that you want to connect to). Use the Save As… button to save
the configuration stored in this and all the other tabs; likewise, Open… allows
you to load up a previously saved configuration.
Select the Display tab to change the display settings used for the connection,
including the size of the remote desktop window, number of colors used, and
whether the connection bar is displayed when in full-screen mode.These settings
are useful from an aesthetic point of view, and you can also use them to increase
performance.
The Local Resources tab covers settings such as whether sounds generated
on the remote workstation are heard there or generated on your own workstation. It also covers how the Windows key cominations (Ctrl+Tab) are handled:
remotely, locally, or effective only in full-screen mode. Finally, you can specify
what physical devices you have access to on the remote computer.
The Programs tab is for setting a program to start automatically upon connection.When the checkbox is selected, you can enter the name of a program to
run and the folder that it starts in.You might be wondering why you would want
to do this within a desktop environment. If you typically access a remote workstation to access only one program, you can specify it here, and it will be
launched automatically for you when you connect. Note that in this case, as soon
as you close the program down, it will automatically end your session.
Finally, the Experience tab enables you to specify the connection type and
other settings that enhance the look of the desktop.The option Bitmap caching
is enabled by default and is recommended as it will speed up the connection by
caching frequently used images on the local hard drive.
Once you are happy with the settings, click Connect…. After a short delay,
you will be prompted to log on. Note that if a user is already logged on, they will
be logged off, and your session will continue. Note that this does not happen
automatically.The current user of the remote workstation will be prompted that a
connection is being made, and at this stage they have the option to deny or
accept it. However, when we say “logged off ” in this context, the other user is
not logged off in the traditional sense—their session continues, and they can
easily switch back to it. In fact, the logoff screen includes an extra option called
Switch User—this is what we discussed earlier as fast switching. In fact, this is not
limited to Remote Desktop Sharing, because the ability to switch users in this
manner also applies when working directly at a workstation. A quick way to
invoke this is to press the Windows logo key + L. Although some keyboards
may not have the Windows Logo key, the majority of newer computers these
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 449
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
days do.There are a few caveats here.The first is that fast switching, although
enabled by default, can be switched off. It is also not available when the workstations concerned are in a domain environment.The last is that if you use the same
user account to initiate a remote connection as the one on the remote workstation, you will not get the warning messages.This last one is fully understandable,
because if you are logging in to your workstation from home, who is going to be
in the office to click the messages for you?
From an administration perspective, you should train your users in what they
can expect, and what to do if they see a Remote Desktop dialog box appear.You
should also ensure that your security is such that not anyone can easily have the
ability to take control of another workstation.
Once you decide to end the connection, you have two ways with which to
do this.You can either log off in the normal manner as you would do if you were
sitting at your own workstation, or you can disconnect your session, which you
do by clicking the Close icon on the connection bar at the top of the screen.The
difference between these is that the former will log you off in the traditional
sense, whereas the latter will disconnect your session but leave any running programs intact.The next time you make a connection to the same workstation, it
will be exactly as you left it, albeit any processes that were running may have progressed somewhat.
You do not have to be running Windows XP to set up a connection to a
Windows XP client.These other versions of Windows are supported:
■
Windows 95
■
Windows 98
■
Windows Me
■
Windows NT 4.0
■
Windows 2000
To set up a connection from one of these other versions of Windows, insert
the Windows XP CD, and providing that autoplay is enabled, you will see the
Welcome to Windows XP splash screen shown in Figure 9.4.
From this screen, select Perform additional tasks, and on the subsequent
screen, select Set up Remote Desktop Connection.The wizard will now walk
you through the installation routine.This doesn’t require any configuration as
such, so I won’t repeat the process here because it is self-explanatory.This process
installs the Remote Desktop Sharing client, and once the installation is complete,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
449
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 450
www.IrPDF.com
450
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
you can start the program by clicking Start | Programs | Accessories |
Communications | Remote Desktop Connection. Note that the system
will not require a reboot before running this.
Figure 9.4 XP Installation CD Autoplay Screen
Another feature that you may remember from earlier times is the Remote
Assistance collaboration (refer to Figure 9.1). Selecting this allows you to be
able to send out requests to a colleague via a MAPI compliant e-mail program
such as Outlook Express or Windows Messenger. Once accepted, your colleague
will be able to see your screen at the same time as you and chat in real-time.
With your permission, she will be able to take control of your mouse and keyboard as well.We discuss this further in Chapter 14.
To complete our discussion about Remote Desktop Sharing, we look at the
Remote Desktop Web Connection feature. Essentially, this is an application that
sits on a Web server, specifically Microsoft Internet Information Server. Because
the interface to the application is browser-based, the Remote Desktop
Connection program doesn’t need to be installed. It’s a neat way to allow your
legacy operating systems to have access in this way, and it means that you don’t
have to worry about the administration overhead of installing and maintaining
the client software.The only stipulation is that the client must be able to run
Active X controls.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 451
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
1. To set up IIS for Remote Desktop Sharing, click Start | Control
Panel | Add/Remove Programs | Add/Remove Windows
Components.
2. Select Internet Information Services and click Details….
3. Select World Wide Web Service and click Details….
4. Ensure that Remote Desktop Web Connection is selected and
click OK.
NOTE
Microsoft Help states that this is not enabled by default, and that it can
also be enabled on Windows 2000, but this is incorrect.
Once this has been enabled, type in the URL http://serverName/tsweb/ in
your browser, and you’ll see the screen shown in Figure 9.5.
Figure 9.5 Remote Desktop Web Connection Screen
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
451
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 452
www.IrPDF.com
452
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
The functionality provided by this control is exactly the same as that provided
by the Terminal Server Advanced Client ActiveX control that allows you to log
on to the Terminal Server in the same manner or by a custom VB program. Note
that for the security conscious amongst you, the connection to the Web server is
made using HTTP over port 80. Once the connection is made, the ActiveX is
then downloaded to your workstation, and the connection to the remote workstation is made over port 3389.
Another point to note is that having a Web server running on your workstations/servers may seem like a good idea, but it does open up a can of worms
with regard to security. Although securing a Web server is beyond the scope of
this book, I’m sure you have enough to be doing without adding extra workload
when it’s not necessary. Keeping up with Web server security patches alone is a
full-time job for some people. Evaluate whether you really need to have Web services running on a machine. If they aren’t necessary, don’t do it—simple as that.
You will not be able to try this out on a single workstation running IIS
because the scripts will not allow you to carry out a connection to the same console from which you are attempting to run the session. Also, if you try this using
two workstations on the same domain, you will not get the warnings if you’re
using the same user account.
As per the normal Remote Desktop Connection client, type in the name of
the workstation or server that you wish to connect to, specify the screen size that
you want displayed and click Connect.The first time you run this on a workstation, you’ll be prompted to install the Microsoft Terminal Services Control.
After a short delay, you’ll see a security warning message (shown in Figure 9.6).
Click OK when you have made your choices on selections. As per the workstation client, the user will be prompted to accept or deny the disconnect request
before you are connected. As I said earlier, and as you’ve hopefully now experienced, Remote Desktop Web Sharing is a quick and good alternative to the
standard client.
Figure 9.6 Remote Desktop Connection Security Warning Dialog Box
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 453
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
Connecting to Windows 2000 Terminal Servers
Moving on from what until now has been a discussion about a desktop multiuser
environment, we now look at connecting to a typical Windows 2000 application
terminal server from Windows XP.
Gone are the days of having to install the Terminal Services client application,
which is no longer necessary. As you may have guessed by now, we have been
working with Terminal Server technology all along. In fact, you don’t need to do
anything different than you have done previously in this chapter with Remote
Desktop Sharing or for the Web version.The methods that you used previously
are exactly the same, along with the results.
Designing & Planning…
Virtual Machines
VMWare is a utility that allows you to run different operating systems
simultaneously on the same physical machine, each in its own separate
virtual machine (VM). Some readers from mainframe environments will
recognize this concept.
It can be installed on an existing installation. When you create a
new virtual machine, you configure it to use as much disk space as
required for its own directory structure, which it uses to store a new
operating system and the amount of memory that will be allocated to it
also. As you can guess, you will require a fairly memory-rich workstation
to run what is effectively two operating systems at the same time,
although effectively there isn’t a theoretical limit, because the limiting
factor is the amount of memory and disk space that you have available
against the system requirements of the operating systems that you
intend to simultaneous run.
As the VM shares all the existing peripherals—including network
cards—when you boot it up from within its own separate window, it is
just like booting up a brand new workstation with no operating system.
Once the new operating system has been installed and configured
in the usual way, with its own IP address, it can communicate with your
existing installation as if it was a workstation down the corridor on the
same LAN.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
453
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 454
www.IrPDF.com
454
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Virtual machines are a simple and effective way for you to simulate
a multicomputer environment when you have limited hardware available. Evaluation versions are available from www.vmware.com. Note
that www.connectix.com provides similar tools.
Configuring Windows XP for Faxing
Faxing is not a new feature for the Windows family of operating systems. It was
first included in Windows 95 but has been absent since, although it was available
as an add-on for a while from the Microsoft Web site. A few notable third-party
products are around, the most famous probably being WinFax Pro. Also, a large
proportion of fax modems generally come with their own faxing software, but
their functions are limited.To be quite honest, it’s great to have a built-in bit of
software as part of Windows with functions such as broadcast, deferring sending
until discount rates apply, and so on. Also, being able to print a Word document
directly to a fax printer and have that sent sure beats printing a fax in the office
and then manually sending it via a good old-fashioned fax machine. It also saves a
few trees as well.
You can manage faxes in Windows XP in the following ways:
■
Send and receive
■
Monitor the status of fax devices
■
Archive faxes
■
View faxes
■
Print faxes
In fact, all the operations that you would typically expect or want to do with
faxes are available. Notable exceptions are the more advanced features such as
broadcast.
Faxing is not enabled by default in Windows XP and installing support for
faxing will require a fax-compatible modem.The online help states that you need
to install it by using the Add/Remove programs applet. However, a much easier
and quicker way is to click Start | Printers and Faxes and select Set up
faxing from the Printer Tasks section on the left-hand side.You will need to
make sure that the Windows XP CD is in the drive or be able to specify a path
where the XP source files reside.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 455
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
When the installation routine has finished, the Printers and Faxes screen
will display a new fax device, as shown in Figure 9.7.
Figure 9.7 Printers and Faxes Folder
Configuring the fax device is fairly straightforward.You can adjust the configuration of the fax device by right-clicking with the mouse and selecting Properties,
and the resulting dialog box, shown in Figure 9.8, appears with the General tab
displayed.
Figure 9.8 Fax Properties Dialog Box
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
455
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 456
www.IrPDF.com
456
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
As you can see, there is not very much information that you can adjust here.
However, you can rename the device by overtyping the default name of Fax.You
can also fill in the optional Location and Comment fields. If you click
Printing Preferences, you can change the Paper Size, Image Quality, and
Orientation.
The Sharing tab is available because a fax device is classified as a printer in
the Microsoft world, and therefore we have a generic dialog box. However, if you
select this tab, you will see that you cannot share the fax because it isn’t supported for fax devices.
Selecting the Devices tab shows the physical device being used for faxing
and what modes it currently supports, (that is, send and receive). Note that the
default selection is to send only; however, if you click Properties…, you will be
presented with another dialog box, as shown in Figure 9.9.
Figure 9.9 Fax Device Configuration Dialog Box
This gives you a lot more control on how you deal with outgoing and
incoming faxes. As you can see on the Send tab, the default selection of allowing
the fax to send is already selected by default.The TSID (Transmitting Subscriber
Identification) allows you to specify a fax identifier that is displayed on the
receiving device. As the dialog box says, this is normally the telephone number
and or business name. However, you can put any information that you choose in
here. Selecting the Include Banner usually includes the date and time of transmission, the TSID, and the page number.You can specify the number of times the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 457
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
fax will retry and the interval between attempts before it is classed as a failed
transmission. Also, you can specify the start and stop times of the discount period
for call charges.
Selecting the Receive tab allows you to configure all the settings related to
receiving faxes.The CSID (Called Subscriber ID) is exactly the same as the
TSID on the send tab, except that this will be displayed on the calling fax
device.You can specify whether the incoming fax calls are manually answered or
whether this is automatic, along with the number of rings before it is picked up.
By selecting the Print On checkbox, you can specify that incoming faxes are
automatically printed.This can either be a local printer, which will be shown as
an option on the drop-down list box, or alternatively you can specify the UNC
name of a remote printer.The checkbox Save a copy in folder will save a
duplicate fax in a directory that you specify, in addition to saving a copy in the
incoming faxes archive folder.
Finally, the Cleanup tab has one function, which is to allow failed faxes to be
automatically deleted after a certain number of days.
When you have finished examining the properties in this dialog box and
return to the one shown in Figure 9.8, there are a couple more tabs of interest.
The first is the Tracking tab, which allows you to be notified of the progress
and success and failure of incoming and outgoing faxes in the Notification Area
of the taskbar.You can specify that the fax monitor program is automatically
opened when sending and receiving faxes. Finally, if you click Configure Sound
Settings…, you can enable sounds to play when certain fax events occur.
The final bit of configuration is covered under the Archive tab.This tab
allows you to enable or disable whether incoming and outgoing faxes are
archived and the path to the folder to which they are sent.
Sending Faxes Using XP
Now that we have finished the configuration, let’s move on to sending our first
fax and discussing the kind of information that we need to provide in the process. Go back to the Printers and Faxes screen (see Figure 9.7). If you can’t see
Send a fax as the only option under the Printer Tasks section on the left-hand
side, just click anywhere on the Printers and Faxes window (except on an
existing device), and it should become visible. Incidentally, you’d think that this
option would be available by right-clicking the fax device, but it isn’t. Again, this
is because it shares the common code for printers. Anyway click Send a fax and
the Send Fax Wizard will start. Click Next to skip the initial page, and you
will see the resulting dialog box shown in Figure 9.10.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
457
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 458
www.IrPDF.com
458
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Figure 9.10 Send Fax Wizard Dialog Box
From here, you can enter a recipient name and destination fax number, or
you can click Address Book… to choose an existing entry from your address
book, which will fill in this information for you.You can also add multiple recipients for your fax.
Once you have finished adding your recipient details, click Next and you
will then be able to specify one of four different cover page templates. If you are
following this through the text closely, you may notice that selection of a cover
page is mandatory in this case. Although this appears to be optional due to the
checkbox, it is grayed out.This is because we are interfacing directly through the
fax device. If, for example, we had printed a document to the fax device, we
would have had the option of including a cover page.You can enter any additional information on the cover page that you may require by using the Subject
Line and the Note field. Clicking Sender Information… allows you to enter
your personal details, some of which will be included with the transmission.You
need to fill in this information once only, and it will be then used as the default
information for any subsequent faxes that you send. However, you may want to
override this information, without wiping out your original details. If this is the
case, select the checkbox Use the information for this transmission only
and amend the details as necessary.The new details will be used only for this
single transmission. Clicking Next again will take you to the schedule page
where you can specify when the fax is sent—either immediately, at a specified
time, or when discount rates apply (you may remember that you could amend
the applicable times for discount rates when initially configuring the fax device).
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 459
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
You can also adjust the priority of the fax. Clicking Next for the final time takes
you into the summary page.This allows you to check the details of the fax, such
as recipient, time, and so on, and also allows you to invoke the Windows
Picture and Fax Viewer to preview the fax being sent.This is a useful application that allows you to edit, rotate, copy, annotate, and so on. Clicking Finish
will complete the process and the fax will be sent, unless you specified that it
should be scheduled for a later time.
One notable feature is missing, unfortunately, and that is the ability to include
attachments.There is a simple reason for this. If you are sending written information via fax, you will most likely be in your word processor and send it to the fax
as a print job. However, I can’t help wondering if this is by design or an oversight.
Before we finish our discussion on faxing, let’s cover the accessory programs
that are installed when you install faxing. Click Start | All Programs |
Accessories | Communications | Fax. From here you can do the following:
■
Invoke the Send Fax Wizard by selecting Send a Fax
■
Edit and create personal cover page templates with the Cover Page Editor
■
Manage faxes with the Fax Console
The fax console is very useful console because it allows you to manage all the
functions of faxing. It will enable you to carry out any of the functions that we
have covered in this section, and it also has interfaces for sending a fax and the
cover page editor.
Connecting to the Internet
One of the biggest and fastest growing communications mediums of all time is
the Internet. Chances are that you will want to configure Windows XP to connect to the Internet at some point in time. Fortunately, the process isn’t a difficult
one, and as long as you have a modem and telephone line, you are halfway there.
For those of you working for a large corporation, chances are that you just start
your browser and begin any configuration, except for perhaps having to configure your browser for a proxy server. In this section, we discuss how you can
invoke the wizard that sets up a new connection and how you can use the available options.
To get started, click Start | Control Panel. If the Classic view isn’t visible,
switch to it and double-click Network Connections. From the Network
Tasks pane on the left-hand side, select Create a new connection which will
invoke the New Connection Wizard.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
459
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 460
www.IrPDF.com
460
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Or, you could just click Start | All Programs | Accessories |
Communications | New Connection Wizard, or from within Internet
Explorer click Tools | Internet Options | Connections | Add.You will
need Administrative privileges to configure a new connection and run the New
Connection Wizard.
If this is the first time you have carried out any connection-orientated tasks
such as this, before the wizard is invoked, you will be prompted to enter some
regional telephone settings.This includes your telephone number, area code, and
the number to dial an outside line, if required.
The wizard summarizes the tasks it can carry out, including the one we are
interested in, which is connecting to the Internet, so click Next.The screen
shown in Figure 9.11 allows you to select which particular function you want to
carry out.
Figure 9.11 New Connection Wizard
Our choice is already selected by default so click Next.This is where things
now get slightly interesting because you have the choice of the following:
■
Choosing from a list of ISPs
■
Setting up the connection manually
■
Using a CD that you received from an ISP
These different options, by design, are meant to be very easy to follow. In
addition, many ISPs have setup routines that mean you can bypass this wizard
altogether. In fact, some automatically dial the Internet for you and run remote
scripts that automatically set up your configuration. However, we are straying
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 461
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
slightly.The last option in the list when selected will tell you to insert the CD
you received from the ISP and that the setup program will start automatically.
Your ISP may have used the Connection Manager Administration Kit—a
utility provided by Microsoft for just this purpose. It is one of the tools found
within the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK), and although this is a
tool targeted mainly at ISPs, corporations use it as well.
Let’s look at the other two options in turn. Choosing from a list of ISPs will
present you with the dialog box shown in Figure 9.12.
Figure 9.12 New Connection Wizard Internet Connections Choice Dialog Box
As you can see, if you are in the U.S., you can set up Internet access with
MSN. For the rest of this, you are left with the last two options. Selecting Select
from a list of other ISPs and clicking Finish will create a shortcut in the
Online Services folder. Double-clicking this shortcut will dial a referral number
to an online service that allows you to select from a list of Microsoft partner service providers in your region. Clicking File and Settings Transfer Wizard
starts the wizard that will allow you to transfer settings that were previously created on another workstation to this one.This includes a variety of options such as
desktop, display, e-mail from Outlook and Outlook Express, Internet Explorer,
and dial-up connections.To do this, you will need a direct cable or LAN connection. Or, you can save and import via floppy disk.
The final option is to set up a connection manually. For new users, this is the
most complicated method, and it allows you to set up your connection for dialup or broadband access (you may find some ISPs referring to broadband as
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE), which is the access protocol
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
461
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 462
www.IrPDF.com
462
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
used for broadband). In some ways, it seems fairly simplistic in that it prompts for
phone number, username, and password. However, you will need to know a
variety of connection settings, such as DNS entries, after the wizard has finished.
This is the minimum information that you will require, which in most cases will
be enough. Some ISPs may require some more obscure settings to be set, so you
will need to check with them if you encounter difficulties.
Collaborating with NetMeeting
NetMeeting is a pretty cool program, especially as it comes free with the OS. It
allows you to collaborate real-time with other people via your company’s
LAN/WAN or the Internet. It provides the following features:
■
Chat Type and receive text data.
■
White boarding Work on virtual tablets with text and drawing tools.
■
Video conference Provided that the parties on the conference have a
video camera installed, you can see and talk to each other.
■
Application sharing Share the application so that it is available to
multiple users.
■
File transfer The ability to transfer files to the remote system with
which you are communicating.
To be able to use all the facilities that NetMeeting provides, you need the following hardware:
■
Connection to the network on which you want to make NetMeeting
calls, such as a dial-up modem, broadband, or LAN connection
■
Video camera, commonly referred to as a WebCam
■
Soundcard, preferably full-duplex
■
Speakers or headphones—headphones would be preferable in a busy
office to prevent creating additional noise
■
Microphone, although some WebCams have these built-in
If NetMeeting is already installed, you can invoke it by clicking Start | All
Programs | Accessories | Communications | NetMeeting. If it isn’t, you
need to install it.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 463
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
To install NetMeeting, click Start | Run, click on Browse… to locate the
file C:\program files\NetMeeting\conf.exe, click OK, and then click Open.The
initial NetMeeting screen will be displayed, as shown in Figure 9.13.
Figure 9.13 NetMeeting Initial Configuration Dialog Box
Click Next, and you will be prompted to enter some information about yourself, such as name, e-mail address, location, and any comments. Note that you will
not be able to proceed until you enter your name and e-mail address; the location
and comment fields are optional. Click Next, and you will have the options of logging onto a directory and having your details stored in the directory, specifically the
Microsoft Internet Directory. Logging onto the directory allows you to look up
other people in the same manner as you would a telephone directory, and storing
your details gives you your own entry. Click Next, and you can specify the connection speed that you will be using to make NetMeeting calls.This optimizes
NetMeeting according to the speed you select. Click Next, and this just gives you
the option of placing shortcuts to NetMeeting on your desktop and in the quick
launch area of the taskbar (see Chapter 3). Click Next, and this screen just warns
you that you are going to configure the audio settings, and that you should close
any other programs that play or record sounds, so click Next again.The first screen
in the audio tuning process allows you to test and adjust the volume settings for
your speakers/headphones. Adjust the volume slider as necessary. If you don’t hear
any sounds coming from your speakers, you need to start troubleshooting. Check
your physical connections; if these appear to be okay, check out the Sounds and
Devices applet in Control Panel when using Classic View. This allows you to
access and configure all aspects of your sound card and provides a convenient link
to a troubleshooter if you are experiencing problems. In fact, you should probably
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
463
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 464
www.IrPDF.com
464
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
go here before invoking NetMeeting for the first time to check that everything is
working properly.When you have finished testing audio, click Next.The following
screen allows you to test the level of speech through your microphone and allows
you to adjust the recording level. Click Next when you have finished and then
click Finish to complete the configuration. NetMeeting will now start and you
will see the screen shown in Figure 9.14.
Figure 9.14 NetMeeting Console
The majority of the commands, like many well designed applications, are also
available via the traditional menu structure. First, we discuss the commands you
can invoke on this front screen.When we move onto the menu structure, we skip
any commands we have already covered. (We also assume that all of the default
settings are still in place.)
The first thing to do is establish your first call. After all, there is little point in
doing anything in NetMeeting without having someone to share it with. If you
refer back to Figure 9.14, you will see the drop-down list box directly below the
menu structure.You can type in the workstation name or IP address, or you can
choose one that you have already called previously in this field. Or, you can use
the phonebook icon on the right-hand side to search a directory for a name.
Anyway, once the field is filled in, click the phone icon. A message box will
appear waiting for a response from the other end while also giving you the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 465
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
opportunity to cancel the call. If the call is accepted, the status bar will show that
you are in a call (providing it is visible), and the title bar will also change to show
that you are connected.To end the call at any time, you can click the icon that
shows the phone being hung up.
Configuring & Implementing…
NetMeeting Architecture Issues
The Microsoft Directory is an example of what is known as an Internet
Locator Server (ILS). Some organizations will only want to use
NetMeeting for internal purposes and implement their own ILS.
Fundamentally, an ILS is a directory service based on Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). To set up your own ILS, you can use the
Personalization and Membership features of Site Server 3.0. You can find
instructions for doing this in the Microsoft article HowTo: Set Up
Internet Locator Server 3.0 on Site Server 3.0 [Q238994], which you
can find on the Microsoft Web site or Technet.
Once you have set up your own ILS server, you will probably want
to remove the default ILS as an option from your NetMeeting clients. To
do this, carry out the following:
1. Within NetMeeting, select Tools | Options. Ensure that the
General tab is selected and select Logon to a directory
when NetMeeting starts.
2. In the Directory field, overtype any existing entry with the
name of your own ILS.
3. Using the Registry editor, delete all of the values except
Default in the following key: HKEY_USERS\.Default\Software\
Microsoft\Conferencing\UI\Directory.
Once you have done this, you can use one of the default policies for
NetMeeting to stop users adding their own ILS entries. You could also
create your own custom .adm file and apply the above Registry change
via group policy as well. This will enable you to easily modify all of your
clients if the directory name ever changes.
Another architectural consideration that you need to take into
account is passing NetMeeting traffic through firewalls. NetMeeting
requires the following ports to be available:
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
465
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 466
www.IrPDF.com
466
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
■
389 Internet Locator Server (TCP)
■
522 User Location Service (TCP)—required only if supporting
NetMeeting 1.0 clients
■
1503 T.120 (TCP)
■
1720 H.323 call setup (TCP)
■
1731 Audio call control (TCP)
■
Dynamic H.323 call control (TCP)
■
Dynamic H.323 streaming (Real Time Protocol over User
Datagram Protocol)
Some firewalls cannot support an arbitrary number of virtual
internal IP addresses, or they cannot do so dynamically. If your firewalls
suffer from this limitation, you will be able to send audio and video
transmission to outside the firewall, but it will not accept incoming
traffic of this nature. In a worst-case scenario, you will not be able to use
NetMeeting through your firewall at all if it is a Web proxy server with
no generic connection-handling mechanism.
Using NetMeeting over firewalls is a complicated business, and
opening up all the ports for NetMeeting can expose your organization
to security breaches. Also, Microsoft appears to be moving more
towards the use of H.323 GateKeeper. When used in conjunction with
ISA server, you can then use the GateKeeper in place of a directory and
also have a means of using NetMeeting through a firewall. This subject
is beyond the scope of this book, and if you require further information,
you can find it in Configuring ISA Server by Thomas and Deborah
Shinder, (Syngress) ISBN 1-928994-29-6.
Below the NetMeeting display screen, which is directly underneath the dropdown list box, are three more icons.The first is similar to your VCR and allows
you to start and stop the video stream that is shown in the window.The second
icon, which looks like a rectangle within a rectangle, is picture-on-picture.This
will show your own image within the video received from the calling or called
party.The third icon allows you to control what is shown underneath these; by
default this is a picture of a person. Click this and it shows you the names of the
people who are on the call and changes its image to that of a microphone and
speaker.When the microphone and speaker controls are visible you can adjust the
audio levels and also mute them by deselecting the checkboxes.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 467
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
Now that we have covered some of the basics, we ca now move on to the
some of the really cool functionality that NetMeeting provides.The first button
on the left-hand side at the bottom of the screen invokes application sharing.
Figure 9.15 shows two applications that are available for sharing: Desktop and
Paint.The desktop application is always available and sharing this enables any
application to subsequently be made available. By default, no running applications
are shared out; to share them, you will need to highlight the one you want your
calling party to have access to and click Share. If you want to stop sharing a program, you click Unshare.The presence of the Unshare All button indicates that
you are not limited to sharing one application at a time.
Figure 9.15 Application Sharing Configuration Dialog Box
As soon as you share an application, a screen is automatically displayed on the
called party’s screen, and a tick is placed next to the application in your list of
available applications to indicate that it is being shared.You should only enable
the Share in true color checkbox if you have a connection with high-bandwidth. Selecting it will enhance the experience but degrade performance.
Programs are only shared as read-only unless you specify otherwise, this
means that the called party can only see what you are doing with the application
and cannot interact with it. On the receiving end, the screen has a Control
menu, but these are grayed out. However, you can allow them to take control
and interact with it by clicking Allow Control.When you do this, the title of
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
467
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 468
www.IrPDF.com
468
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
the screen on the other end will change and append Controllable to the title so
that they know they can interact with this program.They are then able to take
control of the application by invoking the Control command from the menu.
Depending on whether you have selected the checkbox Automatically accept
requests for control, this will either happen automatically, or you will have to
give permission in the resulting dialog box displayed on your screen. Note that
they can also forward control to another party in the call—however, they must be
running NetMeeting version 3.0 or higher.You can temporarily disable requests
for control by selecting the checkbox Do not disturb with requests right now,
and the person trying to gain control will receive a message that you are busy.
Going back to the main console and selecting the second button from the left
invokes Chat (see Figure 9.16). Chat has been around for a long time as an application in its own right. It first reared its head in Windows for Workgroups, which
was Microsoft’s first networked GUI client. Many of you will have seen a much
more recent and popular use of this kind of application for communicating over
the Internet in the guise of Windows Messenger. In fact, Chat may be replaced by
this in later versions of NetMeeting, which is becoming a very popular method of
communicating within organizations as an alternative to the phone system.
Figure 9.16 Chat Message Window
There isn’t much to Chat—it is a very simple application that allows you to
send and receive text messages. Again, like all the programs within NetMeeting, as
soon as you invoke it, a window pops up on the screen of the other parties in the
call. Any messages sent to you are visible in the main window at the top of the
dialog box. If you want to send a message to someone else on the call, you can
select their name from the drop-down list box at the bottom. By choosing
Everyone in Chat, it will be sent to all parties.To send a message, just type it in
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 469
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
the Message field and click the send message button to the right. If you select
the View menu, you can add or remove the edit window (where you type in
your message) and status bar. Selecting Options allows you to configure the user
information, message format, and font style for different types of messages. Finally,
you can save the contents of a chat session by selecting File | Save As in either
HTML or text format.
The next mini-application in our list is the third from the left-hand side on
the main console window and is the Whiteboard.This will be immediately
familiar territory for the vast majority of you because it is simply Microsoft Paint
(see Figure 9.17). We won’t go into how to use any of the paint functions, but
we just cover a few options that are relevant to its use in the context of a virtual
whiteboard.The three options that are of interest to you are the following:
■
Remote pointer
■
Lock contents
■
Synchronize
Figure 9.17 Whiteboard Screen
By invoking remote pointer, a finger pointing hand appears on all whiteboard
screens, and you can drag it to point to the area of interest.When finished, just
select it again from the menu.
Lock contents allows you to effectively “lock” the whiteboard, preventing
anyone else from making changes to it.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
469
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 470
www.IrPDF.com
470
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
By default, the whiteboards are in sync with each other, meaning that updates
are in real-time. However, toggling off synchronization allows you to work in
private; you can then re-enable by toggling the switch back on to sync up with
the other whiteboards when required.
NetMeeting 3.0 has two versions of Whiteboard.The standard is known as
the standard Whiteboard and confirms to industry standards.The other version is
the NetMeeting 2.x Whiteboard that was present in that version of NetMeeting.
If everyone on the call is using NetMeeting 3.0, the standard version is used, otherwise it will revert to all parties using the NetMeeting 2.x version.
The final mini-app that we look at is File Transfer, which is the last of our
icons on the main console. It’s shown in Figure 9.18.
Figure 9.18 File Transfer Screen
This is a very simple program that allows you to send files to other users on
the call.The buttons from left to right are as follows:
■
Add files Allows you to add files from your computer to a list of files
ready for sending.
■
Remove files Deletes any existing files in the list that are highlighted.
■
Send all Sends all files in the list to the recipient(s) specified in the
drop-down list box on the right.
■
Stop sending Cancels a file transfer session that is already in progress.
■
View received files Opens the folder where received files are stored.
To finish off our tour of NetMeeting, we briefly discuss the options available
via the menu structure that we haven’t previously covered.
The Call menu holds Host Meeting, perhaps one of the most useful functions of NetMeeting. Where all communications within NetMeeting, be they
audio, video, or chat, are classified as meetings, when you host a meeting you can
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 471
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
have multiple participants. From here, you can set up a conference call that multiple people can join.You are able to specify a name, set security, and control the
launching of NetMeeting applications.You will notice that the Meeting
Properties command is not available until you have set up a meeting.The Do
not disturb command allows you some privacy and it means that other users
will be informed that you are not available if they try to place a call with you.
Automatically accept calls allows you to automatically accept calls. Create
speedial enables you to create a speed dial entry for another user.You can specify
their directory name, IP address, or workstation name, and you can specify the
type of connection to use.You can save this in the speed dial list or as a shortcut
on your desktop.
The View menu contains the commands that allow you to alter the look of
your console. Status Bar enables/disables the status bar at the bottom of the
console. Dial Pad changes the default video screen view with a dial pad for
making calls. Compact removes the bottom half of the console but leaves you
with a Show/Hide Audio Controls button on the right-hand side, which isn’t
very obvious.The Data Only command is pretty much the reverse to
Compact. The final command is Always on top, which dictates whether the
NetMeeting console stays on top of all other running applications.
The Tools menu holds all the configuration options.The first two options
allow you to configure your audio and video.The middle five commands allow
you to launch the NetMeeting applications, which we have already covered.The
bottom two are perhaps of more interest. Remote Desktop Sharing allows you
to invoke a wizard to set up your workstation for this, which we covered at the
beginning of the chapter. Options displays a dialog box that allows you to configure and fine-tune your settings, as shown in Figure 9.19.
The General tab allows you to change the configuration options set when
you initially configured NetMeeting for the first time. Run NetMeeting in the
background when Windows starts does as it says, but you cannot have this
option set when you have Remote Desktop Sharing enabled. If you do, selecting
this option will disable it. Show the NetMeeting icon on the taskbar dictates
whether the NetMeeting icon is visible in the Notification Area of the taskbar.
Advanced Calling… allows you to configure NetMeeting to use a gateway.This
allows NetMeeting to use a gateway computer to access other networks.
The Security tab allows you to specify if incoming and outgoing calls should
be encrypted and the type of security certificate to use.You can either use the
default NetMeeting Certificate or a personal certificate. Note that if you do not
enable incoming calls for security, any incoming secure calls will be rejected. Also,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
471
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 472
www.IrPDF.com
472
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
you cannot use audio and video for secure outgoing calls, although you can override this setting when you place the call.
Figure 9.19 NetMeeting Configuration Dialog Box
NOTE
It was noted in the text that a clean XP installation doesn’t provide the
NetMeeting icon on the Start menu, although if you are upgrading from a
previous version it will be available. Windows XP comes with
.NetMessenger Service version 4.0, previously known as MSN Messenger,
which many of you may already be familiar with as well as other similar
products such as Yahoo Messenger. The XP version has all the features of
this technology such as viewing the online status of friends and colleagues
while allowing you to change your own status very easily. With the release
of version 4.5 it will also combine the functionality found in NetMeeting,
leading us to the conclusion that NetMeeting technology has been superseded. For full Real-Time Collaboration IETF SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
Proxy Servers can be used. The SIP is the underlying protocol used by messenger over TCP/IP for negotiation and communication. Further details for
this can be found at RFC 2543 www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2543.txt?number=2543
and Session Description Protocol (SDP) which is also used at RFC 2327
(SDP) www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2327.txt?number=2327.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 473
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
The Audio tab allows you to invoke the tuning wizard that was run when
you originally configured NetMeeting. Both the Audio and Video tabs have
several options for fine-tuning the settings to improve performance.
Working with HyperTerminal
HyperTerminal is a very useful tool that is often not taken advantage of. It allows
you to carry out a variety of functions, such as being a Telnet client, dialing up to a
bulletin board system (BBS), and creating a direct connection to a modem, router,
and so on, which allows you to carry out configuration tasks. All in all, it is a very
flexible and useful tool. However, most people associate it with being used to dialup BBSs, which have declined somewhat over the last few years since the Internet
has taken off. For example, it was once quite common to access a manufacturer’s
bulletin board to download updated drivers. Now a task such as this is done either
by HTTP or FTP from a Web server. However, try to configure security on a
modem with a Web browser, and chances are that you won’t get very far, at least
not in the short term. HyperTerminal’s real value these days lies in its use as a
Telnet client, which most of you will use in your arsenal of administration tools.
However, its multitalented abilities can still be useful in certain circumstances.
You’ll find HyperTerminal in the Communications folder, along with the
rest of the programs discussed in this chapter.The first time you launch the program, you will be prompted to make HyperTerminal your default Telnet program.This is a personal preference, but unless you have a third-party Telnet GUI,
it’s probably best to accept Microsoft’s recommendation on this one. Note that
you can invoke a Telnet session from a command prompt by using the Telnet
command, but it is a command-line interface.
When you start HyperTerminal by calling the program in this way, it will
automatically assume that you want to create a new connection, and it will
prompt you for a connection name and allow you to choose from a range of
icons that you can assign to it, as shown in Figure 9.20.
The reason for this is that when you have created a connection (no matter
what type), you can save it.You can then access this connection again by choosing
the shortcut from the HyperTerminal subfolder in the Communications folder.
Note that you do not have to save and invoke the connection from there, it can be
done from anywhere, such as the desktop.
Enter a name for the connection, choose a suitable icon, and then click OK.
You will now be prompted to enter the telephone details for the connection.
This is because the default option is to use a dial-up modem. However, if you
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
473
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 474
www.IrPDF.com
474
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
select the Connect Using drop-down list box, you will see that other available
choices are through any of the COM ports or via a TCP/IP Winsock session.
Figure 9.20 HyperTerminal New Connection Dialog Box
If you wanted to connect to a BBS, for example, you would choose the
modem entry and enter the phone number of the remote system that you want
to call. Click OK, and you are now given the chance to modify the dialing properties for the connection. Perhaps the most important option here is Modify…,
although any setting that has the option to cause a call to fail could be classified
as important. Clicking Modify… will open a new dialog box with a default tab
of Connect to. From here you can modify your initial settings for the call.
We’ve mentioned using a direct cable connection from a serial port to configure another device.To do this, create a new connection and choose one of the
available COM ports when making the connection. Obviously, the COM port
that you use will be the one with a cable attached to it and the remote device.
Click OK, and you will be prompted for the port settings.These settings must be
exactly the same as those expected by the device at the other end, otherwise the
two can’t communicate.
Lastly, we deal with HyperTerminal being used as a Telnet client because this
is probably what it is most often used as these days. First, we deal with at as a
means of obtaining a console session with another Windows XP machine.This
covers its use as a remote administration tool. Second, we cover setting up a
Telnet peer-to-peer connection so that we can look at some of the other features
provided by HyperTerminal. Having two workstations to walk through this
would be ideal, but it isn’t entirely necessary.We will have a couple of sessions
running at the same time, so for all intents and purposes it will be no different.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 475
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
Before we make a Telnet connection, it must be running a Telnet Daemon, or
in our case, it must be running the Telnet service that allows our workstation to
act as a Telnet server. (Remember, this is for the purposes of demonstration
only—having this service running is a potential for security breach.) you can do
this a couple of ways. One way is to open up a command prompt and type net
start telnet, as shown in Figure 9.21.
Figure 9.21 Starting Telnet via the Command Line
The other method is to get back to the desktop, right-click My Computer,
and select Manage, which will open up the Computer Management MMC
shown in Figure 9.22.
Figure 9.22 Computer Management MMC
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
475
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 476
www.IrPDF.com
476
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Expand Services and Applications in the tree and then click Services,
which will display a list of all services that are available on the workstation. Scroll
down the list, and when you find Telnet, start the service. Now the workstation
is running the Telnet server service and can accept incoming calls. Start
HyperTerminal and type in a name for the connection and click OK. From
the Connect Using drop-down list box, select TCP/IP (winsock) and either
enter the hostname of your workstation or the IP address, and you will see a
screen similar to that shown in Figure 9.23.
Figure 9.23 HyperTerminal Telnet Session Screen
Enter the username and password, and you will be authenticated and taken to
the default home directory for the user account that you used.You can now do
anything that you could do from a command line while sitting at the workstation
yourself (remember—security permissions still apply, just as in all remote access
situations). Just to prove this (we need to stop the Telnet service anyway), we will
use a rather unorthodox approach.Type in net stop telnet, and you will receive
a message that the Telnet server is shutting down. Normally, you would receive an
additional message that the service was stopped successfully, but in this case it
doesn’t get that far because we have been disconnected by this time. If you
wanted to end the session cleanly, you would have typed Exit. Don’t close down
the application, because we haven’t quite finished with it.Tidy things up a bit by
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 477
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
typing cls and pressing Enter to clear the screen. Now click File | Save As and
save the session to a convenient place, such as your desktop.
Before we close our discussion on Telnet, we need to highlight its use as an
administration tool. As we’ve discussed, it allows you to set up a remote console
session with another workstation. However, it is probably most often used, at least
in e-commerce environments, as a way to check whether a particular service is
running. As you know, services such as the Web, SMTP, FTP, and so on, each have
their own port allocation. My favorite use of Telnet is to use it to test that they
are working properly. For example, to check that the Web service is running correctly, you can type Telnet IPAddress 80. If the Web service on the remote
machine is running, you will get a response.
Now that we have taken a brief look at using HyperTerminal and Telnet for
remote administration, we move on and look at some of the other features.
Double-click on the file that you created just a few moments ago.When it starts,
it will automatically attempt to connect to your workstation, but this will fail
because the service is no longer active. Bring up your previous session and try to
position both windows so that they are side-by-side. Both windows should show
a status of disconnected in the status bar. On the first session, select Call | Wait
for a call from the menu. On the second session, select Call | Call, and you
will notice that the status changes to connected on both windows. If you now start
typing in either window, it will be visible on the other.
Let’s look at some of the options we have with incoming data. From the
Transfer menu on one of the sessions, select Capture Text, and you will be
prompted to enter a filename. A path will already be chosen by default, so you
can accept this, type in a new folder, or browse to a new folder.You will need to
append a filename which you want text captured to. For this, accept the default
path of your desktop and append the filename test.txt. From the other session,
start typing some text, and it will appear on the other screen. If you get mixed up
with which session is doing what, you can always tell because Capture is displayed
in the status bar at the bottom of the window that is set up for capturing.The
text you type will still be shown in the other window and will not be flushed to
the text file until you select Transfer | Capture Text | Stop from the menu.
To look at the results, just open up the text file, and all the information available
on-screen you will find in the file. If you would rather the screen dump went to
a printer instead, you can always select Transfer | Capture to Printer.
The last option we look at is for sending and receiving files. On one of the
sessions, select Transfer | Receive File from the menu and specify a path for
any received files to go. Leave the protocol as ZModem with crash recovery,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
477
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 478
www.IrPDF.com
478
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
click Receive, and the screen should look like Figure 9.24. Switch to the other
session and select Transfer | Send File from the menu and browse to a file that
you want to send—preferably from a different path than the one it is it is being
sent to. Again, leave the protocol as default and click Send.
Figure 9.24 HyperTerminal File Transfer Screen
To close the discussion on HyperTerminal, if you have accepted the recommendation to use it as your Telnet client, you may at some stage want to change
this. Here’s how:
1. Open My Computer.
2. Select Tools | Folder Options.
3. On the File Types tab, scroll down until you see URL: Telnet Protocol.
4. Highlight URL:Telnet Protocol and click Advanced.
5. Highlight Open and then Edit.
6. Overtype the Application used to perform action field and type
rundll32.exe url.dll,TelnetProtocolHandler %.
7. Click OK to save the changes.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 479
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
Summary
We have covered a fair bit of ground in this chapter and dealt with all the XP
tools that allow you to communicate in an effective manner. Of course, we didn’t
cover Internet Explorer, but that got a whole chapter all to itself in Chapter 7.
We discussed Remote Desktop Sharing that is based on Terminal Server
technology that allows you to easily provide a desktop remote control solution
without the need for third-party tools. It also has great potential for a reliable
helpdesk tool. For those of you who are using the remote control console provided with Microsoft Systems Management Server to provide remote control
support for your clients, you will be pleased with the improved performance
capabilities of this technology. Because it is so easy to use, we’re sure that it can
encourage peer support with the request assistance feature. However, you will still
need to be careful with this technology—there may still well be performance
considerations with regard to network bandwidth, especially if everyone in the
organization suddenly starts using it.
We looked at fax support and how it provides many of the features that you
require from a fax client, including broadcast, scheduled sending and discount
periods.We also showed that it is easy to set up, use, and manage.Third-party
products would give more advanced features, such as greater control over billing,
but Microsoft Fax is built-in and free. However, large organizations will still find
a place for the true Enterprise Solutions.
We briefly covered connecting to the Internet, and we discussed how to invoke
the wizard.This took you through the different options, such as the following:
■
Setting up an Internet connection via MSN (for U.S. users only)
■
Creating a shortcut to dial a referral number for a list of regional ISPs
■
Importing previous connection settings
■
Using a CD supplied by an ISP
We also discussed the issues surrounding setting up a manual dial-up
connection.
Collaborating with NetMeeting enables you to look at what is a great tool
for communicating with others.You can make calls to other users either through
keying in a computer name, IP address, or searching for someone on a directory.
The applications that are available are Whiteboard, Chat,Video Conferencing,
Application Sharing, and File Transfer, which allow you to share information
from anywhere as if you were sitting next to the person you are communicating
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
479
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 480
www.IrPDF.com
480
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
with. As well as being used as a direct peer-to-peer tool, we found that it can also
be used to hold multiuser conferences with security features such as password
protected conferences. For the more security conscious, NetMeeting sessions can
also be encrypted.
Finally, we looked at HyperTerminal and how it was a multifaceted communication tool that allows you to connect to BBS systems via a dial-up connection,
configure devices via serial connections, and use it as a Telnet client for remote
administration.We also looked at how we could establish a connection over Telnet
and capture screen information to a text file or printer. It also includes a facility to
send and receive binary files via a variety of transfer protocols.
Solutions Fast Track
Using Remote Desktop Sharing
; No additional software is required for using Remote Desktop Sharing, it
just needs to be enabled in the system applet within Control Panel.
; Previous versions of Windows can still use Remote Desktop Sharing by
installing the client software from the Windows XP CD.
; You can enable Remote Desktop Sharing on your IIS Web Server
allowing non-Windows XP clients that do not have the client installed
to remotely access systems via the Web.
Configuring Windows XP for Faxing
; Faxing is not installed by default, and you will need to add it via
Add/Remove Programs or via the Printers and Faxes page.
; The ability to send and receive faxes is dependant on your hardware.
You will need a fax modem to be able to do this. However, the good
news is that virtually all modern modems are capable of sending and
receiving faxes.
; You can send faxes either by directly interacting with the fax device via
the Printers and Faxes page or by printing a document to the fax device
as if it was a printer. If you print to it, using cover sheets is optional; if
not, then it is mandatory.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 481
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Communication Tools • Chapter 9
Connecting to the Internet
; The New Connection Wizard will walk you through setting up a
connection to the Internet.You can set up a connection manually, use
the referral service, or use a CD provided by an ISP.
; If you have been previously connected to the Internet on a different
machine, you can save and import the settings via the File and Transfer
Wizard so that you don’t have to repeat the process.
; You can set up a connection to an ISP manually. However, this is
probably the most difficult option for new users.You will need to make
sure that you have available all the settings required for your ISP, such as
phone number and DNS settings.
Collaborating with NetMeeting
; Application sharing allows you to share running applications that you
specify with your colleagues. By giving them the ability to control the
applications, they are able to interact with them.
; Chat gives you the ability to have a simple text conversation with other
people. Many organizations use this kind of application as an alternative
for internal communications rather than conferencing by telephone.
; Whiteboard gives you a virtual drawing board to brainstorm ideas with
others.
Working with HyperTerminal
; You can carry out a variety of tasks by using HyperTerminal, such as
establishing dial-up sessions to bulletin boards, configuring hardware
components via a serial port connection, and acting as a Telnet client.
; You can send and receive files by using HyperTerminal and can also
capture incoming text streams either to file or send them directly to a
printer.
; To establish a Telnet session to a remote system, it must be running a
Telnet server service. Under Windows XP, this is likely to be the built-in
Telnet service, or it could be a HyperTerminal Session in “waiting for
call” mode.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
481
189_XP_09.qxd
11/12/01
10:00 AM
Page 482
www.IrPDF.com
482
Chapter 9 • Using the Communication Tools
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: I’m trying to send a document as a fax, but the wizard doesn’t allow me to
add an attachment. How can I do this?
A: You cannot add attachments if you directly interact with the fax device to
send a fax.You can only send the document as a fax by printing it and
choosing your fax device as the printer.
Q: I’ve created a manual dial-up connection to my ISP. It dials the phone
number and connects, but I don’t seem to be able to get to any Web sites in
my browser.Why?
A: You haven’t set up any DNS servers in the connection’s TCP/IP properties. If
you don’t know what they should be, check with your ISP.
Q: I want to use NetMeeting to communicate with my colleagues, but someone
told me I can’t use it without a WebCam, is this true?
A: No—You don’t need a WebCam to use NetMeeting.You will still be able to
speak and listen to your colleagues, and you can use whiteboarding, application sharing, and chat.
Q: I want to be able to host a conference with a few of my colleagues, but I can
only seem to call one person at a time. How can I set up conferencing?
A: Conferencing is available within NetMeeting. Choose Call | Host Meeting.
Q: I’m trying to connect to a workstation at work by using HyperTerminal on
my home workstation, and I can’t seem to connect. Both machines are running Windows XP, and I know the Telnet service is definitely running on my
workstation at work because my colleague at work can connect to it.What is
wrong?
A: Telnet uses TCP/IP port 23 to establish a connection. Chances are that a
firewall is in the way, and it’s dropping packets that use this port.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 483
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 10
Using the
Control Panel
Solutions in this chapter:
■
Setting Power Management Options
■
Windows XP Accessibility Options
■
Changing Mouse and Keyboard Settings
■
Configuring Regional and
Language Settings
■
Working with System Properties
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked questions
483
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 484
www.IrPDF.com
484
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Introduction
Windows XP is the first version of Windows where the Windows 95/98/Me
code base is merged with that of Windows NT, and it is quite clear that
Microsoft’s goal is to create a user environment that is comfortable to both new
and experienced users.The Control Panel has all of the options to customize the
appearance and functionality of your computer. It is the first stop for every
Windows user to add or remove programs and hardware, set up network connections, and administer user accounts, among other tasks. “Normal” users will visit
here occasionally, because they tend to leave the configuration alone. Others,
however, need to tweak and experiment obsessively.They seem to spend more
time in the Control Panel than in their Web browsers.The Control Panel is one
of the few aspects of Windows that has not changed dramatically since Windows
3.0, or even earlier.
One aspect of the Control Panel for Windows XP that is different from previous Windows versions is the capability to choose the most suitable views to
work in, as shown in Figures 10.1 and 10.2.The Classic view (see Figure 10.1)
presents the Control Panel in the way that Windows users have become accustomed to, where all icons are displayed in a single window.The Category view
(see Figure 10.2) is new in Windows XP. It displays a list of broad categories of
configuration tasks, such as Appearance and Themes, Network and Internet
Connections, and Performance and Maintenance. Selecting one of these categories produces a list of tasks, listed beneath the heading Pick A Task…, such as
See Basic Information About Your Computer; Free Up Space On Your Hard
Disk; and Back Up Your Data.These links connect the user to either a utility,
such as Disk Defragmenter, or to wizards, such as the Network Setup Wizard. It
also produces a list of the relevant Control Panel icons under Or Pick A Control
Panel Icon. Each icon appears only once amongst all of the categories.The only
default icon that is not in any category is Mail; you can find it through the See
Also pane to the left of the categories under Other Control Panel Icons.
Incidentally, this is also where additional Control Panel icons are placed through
application install routines.
Arguably, the most important operations in workstation configuration for the
user and for those that shape, deploy, and support Windows XP Professional desktops are power management configuration, accessibility, input devices, language
and locale settings, and the system itself.
In typical Microsoft fashion, you can get at many of these Control Panel
functions in several ways, and not all of them are necessarily through the Control
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 485
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Panel. In this chapter, we describe all of the different paths. Some optional paths
are far more convenient than digging through levels of views to perform routine
tasks.You can even access the Control Panel itself through Start | Control
Panel or My Computer | Other Places | Control Panel.
Figure 10.1 Control Panel Classic View
Figure 10.2 Control Panel Category View
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
485
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 486
www.IrPDF.com
486
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Setting Power Management Options
When one thinks about power management, laptops immediately spring to mind,
and this is for good reason. Just about every component in a portable computer is
optimized to minimize power consumption. Getting even fifteen more minutes
out of a battery can mean the difference between finishing that report on the
plane to Albuquerque or arriving unprepared.Windows XP is well equipped with
features that suit mobile computing, and it is no slouch in the power management department.
Power management, however, is not just for laptops. Desktops can make use
of Windows XP’s energy saving features through Power Management Schemes.
Also, given the poor quality and quantity of power in many parts of the world, an
ever-increasing number of workstations are connected to uninterruptible power
supplies (UPSs) to maximize uptime.Windows XP’s Power Options controls
every aspect of managing the electricity that flows though your system, regardless
of what kind of system you are running.
You can access the Power Options Properties in two ways.Through the
Control Panel: Start | Control Panel | Power Options (Classic View), Start
| Control Panel | Performance and Maintenance | Power Options
(Category View); or through the Display Properties in the Control Panel windows or by right-clicking anywhere on the desktop and selecting Properties from
the menu that appears.The Power button is on the Screen Saver tab.
NOTE
Use apmstat.exe to determine whether or not the workstation’s BIOS has
any known issues. Apmstat.exe is located in the \support\tools folder on
the Windows XP installation disk. If ampstat.exe finds any problems, you
should check with your motherboard manufacturer for a BIOS upgrade.
The Power Options Properties tabs change depending what BIOS settings
have been enabled or disabled. Specifically, it depends on whether Advanced
Power Management (APM) is enabled or not, and whether the system complies
with the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) standard or not.
APM is built into every motherboard that ships today and has been for some
time. It is the means by which your system consumes less power. If APM is
enabled, the window appears as it does in Figure 10.3. If APM is not enabled, a
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 487
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
UPS tab replaces the Alarms and Power Meter tabs. Alarms and Power Meter are
features that are exclusive to laptop systems, because a battery-powered system
does not “play nicely” with a UPS.These features are discussed in the following
paragraphs. Basically, if your system does not have a battery, you do not need
APM. If the system is ACPI-compliant, the APM tab does not appear at all.
Figure 10.3 APM Controls How Battery Power Is Consumed on a
Non-ACPI System
Power management in Windows XP is based on the ACPI specification,
which enables reliable power management through improved hardware and operating system coordination. ACPI, which must be supported by the system’s BIOS,
defines a hardware level interface that enables the operating system to implement
power management in a consistent, platform-independent way. In Windows XP,
on an ACPI-compliant system, the operating system has direct control over how
power is consumed and does not require the additional APM interface to the
hardware.This means that the operating system, not APM, controls the power
management requirements of putting the system in standby mode or hibernating
the system. Because the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) of the operating
system is not the barrier to accessing board-level hardware that it once was under
Windows NT 4.0 and earlier,Windows XP can work directly with the settings in
your motherboard’s BIOS.
NOTE
A system that does not have ACPI can still make complete use of Power
Options through Windows XP’s APM interface to the board-level hardware.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
487
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 488
www.IrPDF.com
488
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
The most visible way that APM and ACPI features are applied to your
system’s power management is through Power Schemes (see Figure 10.4). Both
APM and ACPI machines can make full use of Power Schemes; however, ACPI
machines will perform better during the transition times between power saving
states.They basically turn off devices or the system after a period of inactivity.
Figure 10.4 Power Schemes Are Used to Shut Down Devices after a
Configured Period of Activity
The Turn off monitor setting is the best option for cutting power consumption costs.Your monitor is the most power-intensive and hence the most
costly piece of equipment to operate. Even when your screen saver is running, it
is using as much power as it does for all other business. Setting Turn off monitor to the delay you set for your screen saver will reduce power consumption
and energy costs and may even prolong the life of your monitor.This is arguably
the most useful power management setting for desktop systems.
Using the Turn off hard disks setting spins the hard disks down to the
point where they are consuming virtually no power. If you leave your system at
home on all day doing nothing while you are at work, there would be no harm
in enabling this, but the gain is marginal.This is mainly a laptop setting.
If you want a quick startup after a period of inactivity, System standby is a
great setting. Standby keeps the computer running on low power and maintains
the user session with data still in memory. System hibernates enables you to
pick up where you left off. Hibernation saves the user session to disk, including
the contents of the system’s physical memory and shuts the power off.The user
session is restored when the system is started again.This may sound like a patronizing statement, but it should be said: Standby and hibernation should not be
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 489
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
configured on systems that act as servers.We discuss configuring Windows XP as
a server later in the chapter.
A number of Power Schemes, provided by default, relate to the different circumstances you can imagine a system to be in. Having Max Battery
Performance selected during a sales presentation would be a very bad idea,
especially when your audience begins filing out as you are restarting your laptop.
If none of these schemes meet your power management needs exactly, you can
configure your own and save it with a distinctive, yet descriptive name.
As mentioned earlier, the two battery powered-exclusive tabs are Alarms and
Power Meter. Both deal with the amount of “juice” left in the battery.The
Alarms tab, as shown in Figure 10.5, lets you configure the thresholds for the low
and critical battery alarms, as well as the notification type and actions to take.
Moving the slider along the bar configures the thresholds; the exact percentage
will update as you make your changes. Notifications consist of a pop-up text
message and an audible alarm over the PC speaker; you can configure both at the
same time. Predefined actions include Standby, Hibernate, and Power Off, but
you can also configure a program to run when the alarm sounds. It defies the
imagination as to what application one would launch as the life drains from a
battery; however, you can enter the name of any registered file type into the
When the alarm occurs, run this program field and click on OK to confirm the entry.
Figure 10.5 You Can Configure Alarms and Actions to Occur as Battery
Levels Drop through Defined Thresholds
The Power Meter tab, shown in Figure 10.6, is for information only.The only
configurable option is whether the battery details are displayed. Displaying the
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
489
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 490
www.IrPDF.com
490
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
battery details is useful, especially for laptops that can accommodate two batteries.
If two batteries are installed, you can view the remaining power levels of each. If
the system has only one battery, the bar graph should suffice; however, that is
more a matter of individual preference than anything else. Furthermore, changing
settings here has no bearing on the Power Meter that pops up when you doubleclick the Power icon in the system tray on the taskbar. Configuring the taskbar
icon is a setting on the Advanced tab.
Figure 10.6 The Power Meter Can Display Details for Up to Two Batteries
The Advanced tab changes in appearance depending on whether Windows
XP is installed on a laptop or a desktop system. On both the laptop and the
desktop, the user is presented with two check boxes in the Options section:
Always show icon on the taskbar, and Prompt for password when computer resumes from standby.The former option is purely a preference of the
user. If you are the kind of user who prefers to have everything within one
mouse click, or like to have the notification in plain sight, check the box for that
option. It is especially useful when running off of battery power because you can
hover the mouse pointer over the battery icon in the system tray to verify the
percentage of remaining battery power. If you have two batteries installed, you
will see two icons. If you prefer a Spartan desktop, free of any clutter, or you have
a desktop system and do not really need to see that your system is running off of
AC, leave the box empty.
The second option is a security issue, which you should enable. Modern laptops and desktops are both equipped with energy saving features. On desktops
the feature is often called sleep. If you are away from your system for an extended
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 491
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
period of time, and your system goes into standby or sleep mode, you definitely
do not want someone else to wake it up and pick up where you left off.You
should enable this option at all times so that you do not have to remember to
enable it when you change Power Schemes.
On desktop systems, the Advanced tab has another section—the Power buttons.The Power buttons section is displayed on ACPI-compliant systems only, as
demonstrated in Figures 10.7 and 10.8.The Power Buttons options are for configuring what the system will do when the user performs certain actions,
including closing the lid on a laptop, or pressing the Power or Sleep buttons.The
associated drop-down box presents the options of Power off and Standby.The
Power and Sleep buttons that the option refers to are the ones that are on the
system’s case, or keyboard if so equipped.
Figure 10.7 Advanced Tab for a Non-ACPI laptop (Note the Absence of
Power Buttons Options)
WARNING
Some systems do not wake up properly from Standby Mode and require
a reboot. Hibernation is the only alternative for these systems. If your
computer does not wake up properly, look into adjusting the settings on
the Advanced tab for troubleshooting. Getting rid of standby mode for
various circumstances may be your best alternative.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
491
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 492
www.IrPDF.com
492
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Figure 10.8 Advanced Tab for an ACPI-Compliant Laptop with Power
Buttons Options
Hibernation is a very useful option for mobile computing. It permits users to
pick up from where they left off, even if the machine was off for any period of
time. It is the software version of the Suspend to Disk options that have been
shipping with laptop hardware for quite a while. Originally, the laptop owner had
to configure a partition of the same size as the physical memory with a utility
that came with the laptop so that the laptop would know where to save the data.
The downside of this is that if the laptop’s physical memory were upgraded, the
partition would need to be increased, which meant that the hard drive would
need to be erased, repartitioned and reformatted, and the operating system and all
applications reinstalled.
Hibernation, starting in Windows 2000, saves the user session, which is in
memory, to an allocated spot in the system partition, and shuts the power off.The
user session is restored when the system is started again. If memory is upgraded,
the hard disk does not need to be repartitioned.You can enable hibernation
without a reboot, and any changes in memory size are automatically detected.
Before you enable Hibernation, as demonstrated in Figure 10.9, verify that you
have enough disk space for the amount of memory on your system. It takes
longer to restart from hibernation mode than from standby, but given that you do
not need to relaunch the applications in which you were last working or accommodate for other changes, such as network connectivity or removed hardware,
Hibernation can be a real time-saver.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 493
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Figure 10.9 Hibernation Can Save Time When Changing Locations
WARNING
Before you enable Hibernation, verify that you have enough disk space
for the amount of memory on your system. The amount of free space is
displayed in the Disk Space For Hibernation window.
Windows XP Accessibility Options
Windows XP’s environment is very accommodating to all kinds of users will all
kinds of needs.Those users who require special assistance with aspects of
Windows XP can find help through Accessibility Options.The options themselves fall into one of three categories according to the type of impairment they
address.The options provide assistance for those with the following:
■
Mobility impairments
■
Aural or hearing impairments
■
Visual impairments
The Accessibility Options for those who are mobility impaired focus on the
user’s ability to use the keyboard and to manipulate the mouse. Hearing and visually impaired individuals can derive assistance from both sound and display functions of Windows XP. Although the options themselves are robust and genuinely
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
493
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 494
www.IrPDF.com
494
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
helpful, they are no replacement for hardware and software specifically designed
for the many requirements of daily use by these individuals. For example,
although Windows XP’s narrator clearly reads the contents of the active window,
it is no match for the capability of a full-featured screen reader. If you support
individuals with special physical needs, these options will get you by in certain
situations, such as providing a functional workstation for a very occasional user, or
in temporary circumstances, such as waiting for software or hardware on order to
arrive. However, investing in specific tools is a much better way of meeting the
users’ requirements.
NOTE
You can configure the Windows XP environment for individual special
needs from one spot through the Accessibility Wizard (Start | All
Programs | Accessories | Accessibility | Accessibility Wizard).
You can access Accessibility Options in two ways: through the Control Panel:
Start | Control Panel | Accessibility Options (Classic View) or Start |
Control Panel | Performance and Maintenance | Accessibility Options
(Category View); or through Start | All Programs |Accessories |
Accessibility.The All Programs path leads the user to the Accessibility Wizard,
and the Magnifier, Narrator, On-Screen Keyboard, and Utility Manager utilities.
The Utility Manager configures the startup options for the Magnifier, Narrator,
and On-Screen Keyboard in one window.
Keyboard Settings
The Keyboard Settings options, shown in Figure 10.10, assist those users who are
mobility and visually impaired.The keyboard in Windows XP can be a tricky
thing, even to those who can manipulate multiple keys at once. For those who
have difficulty holding down several keys simultaneously, StickyKeys allows you
to press multiple key combinations, such as Ctrl+Alt+Del, by pressing one key
at a time.
FilterKeys tells the keyboard to ignore brief or repeated keystrokes. Clicking
on the Settings button brings up the FilterKeys configuration window.The
default delay setting for the second option, Ignore quick keystrokes and slow
down the repeat rate, is one second, which means that Windows XP will
accept only keystrokes that are spaced at one-second intervals.You can increase or
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 495
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
decrease this depending on the typing ability and the degree of motor control of
the individual. Selecting the top radio button, the option to “Ignore repeated
keystrokes,” configures the environment to ignore repeated keystrokes altogether.
The speed setting for this option also instructs Windows XP as to how long it
should wait for the next valid keystroke.
Figure 10.10 Keyboard Options
ToggleKeys, when enabled, plays alternating high and low tones when you
press Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Scroll Lock.The visually impaired user will
hear a high-pitched tone when these keys are enabled and the keyboard LED is
lit, and a low-pitched tone when they are disabled.
Sound Settings
Sound Settings options specifically address the needs of hearing impaired users.
Because many applications, including Windows XP, alert the user through sound
only, these options force the environment to make a visual representation of those
sounds for those who are hard of hearing. SoundSentry displays visual warnings
when your computer makes a sound (see Figure 10.11).The three options for
setting which part of the screen will flash (aside from No warning) are Flash
active caption bar, Flash active window, and Flash desktop. ShowSounds
tells applications that only communicate through speech and sounds to display
captions or informative icons.
The two options, when used together, should provide the user with an accurate picture of what is going on with the system. Sounds have become a familiar
part of computing and are often taken for granted by the hearing user.These
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
495
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 496
www.IrPDF.com
496
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
options provide the hearing impaired user with visual alarms and information
that make day-to-day work easier to deal with.
Figure 10.11 Sound Options
Display Settings
This useful option assists the visually impaired to enhance the readability of the
desktop environment. An appearance scheme will change the background and foreground color and the font size. A new feature for Windows XP is Cursor Options,
which assists users with locating and following the cursor in applications.
For appearance schemes, white text on a black background is the default.
Black on white and a custom scheme are other options. For a custom scheme,
the user can select any of the available appearance schemes found in Display
Properties.The visually impaired user can choose among several high contrast
schemes with various color combinations and three font sizes: normal, large, and
extra large. Images in Figure 10.12 and Figure 10.13 illustrate the contrast
between a normal view and a high contrast view.The selected high contrast
appearance scheme in Figure 10.13 is the default white on black with the normal
font size. Schemes with the large or extra large font display very well on a 19inch or larger monitor
The Cursor Options affect how the cursor is displayed in applications.
Individuals who may have trouble locating the cursor in the currently displayed
window should adjust the cursor Blink Rate to a slower frequency and also
adjust the cursor Width.The changes you make are displayed as you make them.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 497
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Figure 10.12 Normal View of Display Options (High Contrast Not Enabled)
Figure 10.13 High Contrast View of Display Options
WARNING
Keep in mind that the Blink Rate appears in Keyboard Properties as well.
Do not set one rate in Accessibility Options for all users and a different
rate in Keyboard Properties for the current user. If you set different rates,
the latest changes are kept.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
497
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 498
www.IrPDF.com
498
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Mouse Settings
MouseKeys lets you control the mouse pointer with the numeric keypad. As with
the Mouse icon in Control Panel, the user has very flexible options for
MouseKeys settings.These settings, shown in Figure 10.14, provide the ability to
configure the mouse pointer’s top speed and acceleration, the Num Lock status
when MouseKeys will be enabled, and whether or not an indicator is displayed in
the system tray.
Figure 10.14 MouseKeys Settings
Those who want to use MouseKeys regularly will want to ensure that the
status of Num Lock is consistent during and after the logon process every
time they log in. A predictable environment is easier to deal with for everyone
involved.You can configure this by changing the Registry keys HKEY_USERS\
.DEFAULT\Control Panel\Keyboard\InitialKeyboardIndicators and
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Keyboard\InitialKeyboardIndicators
to have string values of 0 to disable Num Lock by default or to have values of
2 to enable it.The next step is to ensure that the corresponding status is chosen
in the MouseKeys settings.
General Settings
The General Settings are a collection of administrative and specialized universal
configuration options that do not exactly fit under the other tabbed headings.
The options for enabling, disabling, and resetting Accessibility Options, and for
displaying notification messages, displayed in Figure 10.15, are intended to assist
administrators of the workstation in configuring it for use by more than one user.
They assist the administrator in deciding whether all users of a particular workwww.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 499
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
station will use the configured Accessibility Options, or if just the individual who
is currently logged in will use them.This could be beneficial in configuring a
dedicated workstation to be shared amongst several users with individual accessibility requirements, or amongst users with and without impairments.
Figure 10.15 General Accessibility Options
The SerialKeys option is critical for setting users up with input devices that
address the needs of specific mobility impairments. SerialKeys is used by accessibility aids to provide input in place of that provided by the workstation’s keyboard or mouse for those who cannot use one due to physical impairments. For
them, there are augmentative or alternative communication (AAC) devices,
which connect to the computer’s serial port. By design, the computer receives
input from the user via the keyboard and mouse; therefore, connecting an AAC
device to the computer’s serial port alone will not allow the mobility-impaired
user to operate the computer. SerialKeys software is designed to allow an AAC
device to communicate to the computer through a serial port, and it translates
the data into keyboard or mouse events. For SerialKeys to work correctly with an
AAC device, it requires setting the serial interface (COM port) to which the
AAC device is connected and the speed at which it operates.
Other Accessibility Applications
Other Accessibility Options that you can configure through the Category View
of the Control Panel are the Magnifier and On-Screen Keyboard. As shown in
Figure 10.16, the Magnifier magnifies a portion of the desktop for the visually
impaired.This is one of those “get by in a pinch” options. A large screen monitor
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
499
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 500
www.IrPDF.com
500
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
with the appropriate resolution and appearance scheme will better serve the user
on a daily basis.
Figure 10.16 The Magnifier in Action
NOTE
The Magnifier is also available during the GUI portion of the Windows XP
installation process.
The On-Screen keyboard is displayed in Figure 10.17.When enabled, it will
always be displayed on top of all windows and, as the message says, it provides a
minimum level of functionality for the mobility-impaired user.This user would be
better served with a specialized SerialKeys-type input device for day-to-day use.
Changing Mouse and Keyboard Settings
The introduction of the graphical user interface (GUI) marked the rise of importance of the mouse.With any operating system that has a GUI as its primary
interface with the user, the mouse has become the primary tool for navigation
and application operation.The GUI also sparked demand for larger monitors.The
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 501
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
implication for the user is that the mouse has to be comfortable not only to
manipulate, but also to see.This is critical in preventing the use of Windows XP
from being a frustrating experience and in helping to prevent conditions like eyestrain and headaches.The keyboard still plays a crucial role, and is completely
configurable to accommodate individual preferences. Bear in mind that any configuration for the mouse or keyboard is associated only with the user who is
logged in. If another user logs in to the workstation, the settings will revert back
to the default settings.
Figure 10.17 The On-Screen Keyboard Entering Text in WordPad
Configuring & Implementing…
Multiuser Workstations
Many operations are set up such that each user does not have a specific
workstation to sit at each day. Users move around a building or work on
different shifts. This kind of flexible workstation “ownership” used to be
a nightmare for administrators when users were demanding that the
workstation be configured for their individual preferences. Life became
easier for the technical staff when the technology surrounding roaming
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
501
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 502
www.IrPDF.com
502
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
profiles matured, but that was only for organizations large enough to
justify centralized administration with profiles stored on a central server
in its file system or in a directory service, such as Active Directory. How
can workstations be installed and configured for smaller operations,
such as small businesses or families, with fewer computers than users?
Options in various Control Panel applets are used together to configure
personal user environments.
A good place to start is to create a local user account for each user
that will share the system. A local profile will automatically be created
as soon as the user logs in for the first time. Every change that the user
makes will be saved in her local profile. Users can configure the following parts of their environment to customize and personalize them
according to their tastes:
■
Mouse and keyboard settings
■
Language preferences
■
Accessibility options
■
Application parameters
■
User environment variables
■
Desktop background and themes
In addition, the contents of the My Documents, My Pictures, and
My Music folders are saved to the local profile.
An administrator for the workstation, that is a user who is a
Computer Administrator, will need to take additional steps to create a
unique environment for each user. A good practice is to create each
account as a Limited User Account; that way, the user has defined
boundaries in which to operate, and no user’s settings will overwrite the
settings of another. Local file permissions will need to be assigned to
protect data from prying eyes. Furthermore, it is critical for the administrator to go through all of the applets that users can use to customize
their environments and decide which features will apply to all users and
cannot be changed, and which will apply to individual users on the local
system, such as Regional and Language options.
What happens when more than one user needs to use a particular
workstation at the same time? Remote Desktop and Fast User Switching
permits access for a user to a Windows session that is running on
another system when that user is at a different system. It also allows a
user to work in an individual session directly on that system. Remote
Desktop allows multiple users to maintain separate program and configuration sessions on a single computer. When the user connects to the
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 503
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
remote system, Remote Desktop automatically locks that system so that
no one else can access it in the user’s absence. Upon his return, the user
can unlock it by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del and then supplying the correct
username and password. Remote Desktop also allows more than one
user to have active sessions on a single system. This means that multiple
users can leave their applications running, while preserving the state of
their Windows sessions, even while others are logged on.
With Fast User Switching, a user can easily switch from one account
to another on the same system. A scenario from the Windows XP Help
file describes a situation where a user is working at home and is logged
on to his or her system at the office to update an expense report. While
working away at the report, a family member needs to use your home
computer to check for an important e-mail message. The user disconnects Remote Desktop, allows the other user to log on and check mail,
reconnects to the computer at your office, and picks up working on the
expense report exactly where she left off. Fast User Switching works on
standalone computers and computers that are members of workgroups.
Making appropriate use of local user accounts and profiles, local file
permissions, and Remote Desktop will enable organizations to effectively
meet the increasing demands of users with a short supply of workstations.
With Windows XP, the user can configure individual preferences for using
the mouse and for seeing the mouse pointer on the screen through Mouse
Properties.The Buttons tab in Figure 10.18 is the comfort tab. From here, you
can access all of the settings that help to make your wrist, hand, and fingers
happy.The Button configuration is used to accommodate left-handed people by
switching the primary and secondary mouse buttons. Actually, the equivalent tab
in Windows 2000 has radio buttons for right-handed and left-handed. Because
the majority of people are right-handed,Windows XP caters to the right-handed
folks by default and has a check box for the lefties.The box has a check mark to
switch all functions that are normally associated with the left mouse button to
the right mouse button, such as double-clicking, dragging, and selecting text.
Double-click speed sets the delay that Windows XP expects between mouse
clicks to interpret the action as a double mouse click.The folder on the right,
shown in Figure 10.18, is for testing the setting.This is a useful setting for those
who may not be familiar with manipulating a mouse, or for those who have a
difficult time performing a double-click quickly enough for Windows XP to recognize it as such. Lowering the speed may help children, seniors, and individuals
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
503
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 504
www.IrPDF.com
504
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
with some degree of mobility impairment.The Open files with one click that
was in Windows 2000 is not included in Windows XP.
Figure 10.18 The Buttons Tab Has the Settings for Configuring the Use of
Mouse Buttons
ClickLock is a new feature that enables the user to highlight text or files, or
to drag text or files, without holding down the primary mouse button. One click
on the object highlights the selection for the user to drag. A second click, when
the activity is complete, ends the highlight or drops, respectively.
The purpose of the Pointers tab is to provide the user with the ability to
select an individual pointer scheme.The graphic in Figure 10.19 shows the 19
schemes that are included with Windows XP with a variety of pointer sizes,
colors, and animations. Roughly six schemes are installed by default and additional schemes are installed using the Add and Remove Software icon in
Control Panel. Choose Add or Remove Windows Components and select
mouse pointers under accessories. Pointer schemes are included for mostly aesthetic reasons, but there are some practical purposes for them as well. Animations
consume more system resources than static pointers, but they can be helpful
when you are staring at the screen wondering if the system is actually doing
something or if it is completely locked up. For example, if the little dinosaur is
still walking, the system is still thinking. Pointer schemes are also useful for individuals with some degree of mobility impairment, as there are high-contrast
schemes and schemes with larger pointers.
Pointer Options, shown in Figure 10.20, are configured to assist with the visibility of the mouse pointer in the screen and the pointer’s behavior as the mouse
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 505
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
is moved around. Personalizing these settings to suit the way that you work can
actually increase the speed of common tasks; however, some of these take some
getting used to and can end up being annoying. On a larger monitor with high
screen resolution, increasing the pointer speed would be a good idea, or the user
will be forever picking up the mouse and moving it when trying to move the
pointer across the screen. At 1024x768, changing the speed may not be necessary.
Snap To is useful for dealing with dialog boxes because whenever the pointer is
anywhere near an OK button, for example, it will automatically snap to the
center of the button.This may make things a little easier for those who have
trouble manipulating the mouse.
Figure 10.19 Mouse Pointer Schemes Are Plentiful in Windows XP
Figure 10.20 Pointer Options Affect the Behavior and Visibility of the
Mouse Pointer
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
505
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 506
www.IrPDF.com
506
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
The Visibility section has three features to assist in locating and following the
mouse pointer: Display pointer trails, Hide pointer while typing, and Show
location of pointer when I press the Ctrl key. Pointer trails leave an imprint
on the screen as the mouse pointer moves, creating an effect not unlike a comet
trail.When enabled, the effect produced by Show location of pointer when I
press the Ctrl key is a miniature bullseye target around the pointer.These two
features are helpful for displays where a small mouse pointer can easily be lost
amid other effects on the monitor, such as low-visibility laptop screens and also
for large monitors with high screen resolution.The Hide pointer while typing
effect is very helpful for those who work in mainly in word processors and
spreadsheets, any application where the mouse pointer can get in the way. From
personal experience, it is indispensable when working on a laptop with a
touchpad mouse. Inevitably, a wayward thumb will hit the touch-pad while
typing and all of a sudden the cursor has moved to where the mouse pointer is,
resulting in much cutting, pasting, deleting, and frustration.
As shown in Figure 10.21, there are only two tabs for configuring Keyboard
Properties: Speed and Hardware.The Speed tab performs two functions: It configures the settings for repeated keystrokes and configures how fast or slow the
cursor blinks. Capable touch typists who are constantly writing will want to slow
down the repeat delay and increase the repeat rate so that they can fly through
documents with fewer repeated characters.The repeat delay instructs Windows
XP as to how long it should wait for the next valid keystroke. FilterKeys tells the
keyboard to ignore brief or repeated keystrokes.The repeat rate affects the pace at
which a character is entered when holding a key down for any length of time.
Changing the cursor blink rate will speed up, slow down, or stop the blinking
altogether.This setting is purely aesthetic.
Users can take care of the hardware configuration of the mouse and keyboard
through the Hardware tab, which is found in both Mouse Properties and
Keyboard Properties.The Hardware tab for the Keyboard and Mouse Properties
are virtually identical in appearance and purpose.The top half of the window displays the device name and type if it exists in the Hardware Manager, and other
information regarding the device properties—manufacturer’s name, the port to
which it is connected, and the device’s status. Mice have serial, PS/2, and
Universal Serial Bus (USB) interfaces, while keyboards can be connected to
either the on-board keyboard port or via USB.You can update and change
drivers through the Properties button.This tab also provides access to the device
troubleshooter for the mouse and keyboard, depending on which properties
window you access the troubleshooter from, of course.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 507
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Figure 10.21 The Character Repeat Rate Can Be Tailored to the User’s
Typing Speed
Configuring Regional
and Language Settings
Windows XP can accommodate a number of languages and settings for regional
conventions for displaying times and dates, numbers, and currencies.These settings determine the way in which this data shows up in compatible applications,
which is about every current version.The Regional and Language Options applet
enables the user or administrator to change these date and number formats, display and text input languages, and non-Unicode character sets.
The selection of regional preferences is very extensive. For example, there are
thirteen variations on English depending on the country and the way in which
those citizens are accustomed to seeing their locale-specific information.This
option does not determine what language is displayed; the Languages tab has the
configuration for the installed languages.This setting configures the country-specific conventions for the displayed text, regardless of the installed language.The
Location setting, shown in Figure 10.22, is new to Windows XP; it governs what
local information content, such as news and weather, is provided by the operating
system and the way that it is displayed.
The Languages tab, shown in Figure 10.23, is where Windows XP’s language
support is configured.The top section of the tab leads to the Text Services and
Input Languages window through the Details… button, which is described in
the next paragraph.The Supplemental language support section has options for
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
507
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 508
www.IrPDF.com
508
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
installing additional languages that have more complex character sets.The first
check box prompts for the install of script-based languages and languages that
read from right to left, such as Hebrew and Arabic.When you select languages of
this type for installation, the files to support all of the aspects of these languages
are installed, and the appropriate changes to the displayed language and desktop
environment are applied. For example, if you select Arabic as the default language, the entire desktop “flips” from left to right; even the Start button moves to
the bottom-right corner on the taskbar, and the system tray moves to the left.
East Asian languages have advanced, multipoint character sets; thus, they require
their own specific files.
Figure 10.22 Configuring the Way Locale-Specific Information Is Displayed
Figure 10.23 Using the Languages Tab to Configure Language Support
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 509
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
NOTE
Advanced character sets require a greater rendering effort on the part of
the system. Because graphic rendering is a particularly processor-intensive operation, use workstations with faster processors for those that will
have languages with advanced character sets installed.
The default language is configured in the Text Services and Input Languages
window, on the solitary Settings tab (see Figure 10.24).This window appears
when the user clicks the Details button on the Languages tab. In Windows XP,
the default language is defined as the one that is displayed when the system is
booted up. Installed services groups text input devices with layouts hierarchically
by input language.This permits additional flexibility over previous versions in
assigning keyboard layouts and the layouts of other input devices with the languages you use every day. Imagine a scenario where an employee of a Swiss firm
with offices in the United States routinely works with French, German, Italian,
and English documents.The preferred default language is German (Switzerland),
and the preferred keyboard layout is United States—International. Configuring
the desktop environment for all of these parameters is possible. Bear in mind that
the user would need to install additional language modules for productivity and
line of business applications for tools such as grammar and spelling checkers.
Figure 10.24 Text Input Devices with Layouts Are Grouped Hierarchically by
Input Language
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
509
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 510
www.IrPDF.com
510
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
In Windows XP, the Advanced tab (see Figure 10.25) is where the character
set for non-Unicode applications is configured.The first section is where you
select the default language.To render the state of Unicode compliance for any
application invisible to the user, selecting the language that the user will work in
on a daily basis is highly recommended.The second section is where you choose
the non-Unicode character sets.You can select any number of these, and when
you launch an application that does not use a Unicode character set, the application will look for the character set it needs among the list of selected languages.
If it finds what it is looking for, the application will display characters contained
in that character set. If it does not find the required character set, an error will be
displayed, and it will try to use a default set, usually with unpleasant visual results.
For organizations that do not work in multiple languages, languages with complex character sets, or poorly written legacy client-server applications, this is a tab
that will be rarely visited.
Figure 10.25 Selecting the Default Language and Character Sets for Use by
Non-Unicode Applications
At this point, an explanation of Unicode would be helpful. Unicode is a
superset of the ASCII character set that uses two bytes for each character, rather
than one.This enables it to handle 65,536 character combinations, rather than just
256. As a result, it can house the alphabets of most of the world’s languages.
Unicode accomplishes this by providing a unique number for every character,
regardless of the platform, application, or language. As far as platforms and applications are concerned, it is supported in Windows XP and many other operating
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 511
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
systems, all current-generation Web browsers, and many other commercial off-theshelf (COTS) applications. ISO/IEC 10646 is another superset of ASCII, but it
defines a four-byte character set for world alphabets and uses Unicode as a subset.
Working with System Properties
Changing the System Properties will do more to affect the performance and
behavior of your system than just about any other configuration activity.You can
adversely affect the system on a permanent basis in many other ways, but that is
not was we are talking about here.The System Properties dictate your workstation’s participation on a network, hardware configuration, application performance, how updates are applied, and virtual memory settings, among many other
items. As any long-time Windows user can attest, anyone who has a Windows XP
Professional workstation for any length of time will more than likely visit this
icon at least a few times.
You can access System Properties in three ways.Through Start | Control
Panel | System (Classic View); Start | Control Panel | Performance and
Maintenance | System (Category View); by right-clicking My Computer
and selecting Properties from the drop-down menu; and by pressing the
Windows logo key + Pause/Break.
The General tab, shown in Figure 10.26, is for information only. It identifies
the different aspects of the operating system (name, version, most recently
installed service pack), the registration information (owner’s name and company
name), and some scant details about the computer on which it is running. One
noticeable improvement over previous versions of Windows is that the processor
is identified and described by its commonly recognized name, such as Intel
Pentium II processor as opposed to x86 Family Model 6 Stepping 0.
Computer Name and Domain Configuration
The Computer Name tab, shown in Figure 10.27, is where you add all of the network identification information. It is also the place where you configure a workstation to join a domain, either Active Directory or Windows NT.The computer
description is what shows up next to the computer name in My Network Places. It
can be free form text with any characters or punctuation up to 256 characters. If
there is a computer account on the network for the Windows XP workstation, or
you need to rename the workstation, click Change… to join the domain or enter
a new name, respectively. For those who need a little extra help, click Network ID
to open a wizard that takes you through the process rather painlessly.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
511
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 512
www.IrPDF.com
512
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Figure 10.26 General Tab of System Properties
Figure 10.27 Use Either Button to Join a Domain or a Workgroup
Of course, you need to be connected to the network before any of this will
work correctly. At a point during both methods of joining the domain, you will
need a username and password for an account that has sufficient rights to add
you to the domain. It would be a good idea to line this person up before you
start the process. If you are joining an NT 4.0 domain, you will need to use an
account that has administrator-level permissions to join the domain; however,
with Windows 2000 and Windows XP, anyone with a user and computer account
that has already been created can join a computer to a domain. If you are joining
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 513
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
a workgroup, all you need is the username and the password of a local account—
no special permissions are required.
Automatic Updates
The Automatic Updates feature is the next generation of the Critical Update
Notification and Windows Update, introduced with Windows 98 and Internet
Explorer 5.0. Only those users who are Computer Administrators can configure
and run Automatic Updates.
The default setting is Download the updates automatically and notify
me when they are ready to be installed.The default setting is great for those
with a high-speed connection to the Internet such as LAN, xDSL, and cable.
Network administrators should consider that permitting users to manage their
own updates could result in workstations with versions of Windows XP at many
different degrees of completeness.This is an especially troublesome thought when
it comes to security updates.
If you are a mobile user or your primary connection to the Internet is over a
dial-up connection, such as through an ISP or through RAS, the best setting is
Notify me before downloading any updates and notify me again before
installing them on my computer, as demonstrated in Figure 10.28.With the
default selected, as soon as you connect to your ISP,Windows XP will start
downloading the updates and, in practical terms, prevent you from doing anything with your Internet connection until the download and installation is complete.The predictable reboot would then terminate your connection. In this
situation, the “notify me first” option leaves control in the hands of the user.
Figure 10.28 Automatic Updates Configured for a Dial-Up User
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
513
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 514
www.IrPDF.com
514
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Another helpful feature is the ability to return to updates you declined to
install. In the event that you are notified of an update that you are not too sure
about, you are free to decline to update. For example, if the notification pops up
with updates you do not think you need, or you are concerned that the updates
might adversely affect the way you work, or you do not have the time to apply
the updates at the time or in the future, you would decline installing the updates.
The Previous Updates section of the tab, shown in Figure 10.28, lets you restore
declined updates. Simply click on the appropriately named button.
Remote Use Configuration
New to Windows XP, Remote Assistance provides a way for a peer or support
professional in another location to connect to your computer from another computer running a compatible operating system to provide assistance. Once the
other individual has connected, he will be able to view your computer screen
and chat online with you in real time. Once permission has been granted, this
individual can work with you on your computer through his own.
The Remote Assistance section of the Remote tab configures whether or not
remote assistance requests can be sent from the system (see Figure 10.29). Only a
Computer Administrator for the local system can configure these settings. For
Remote Assistance to work, both individuals must be using either Windows
Messenger or a MAPI-compliant e-mail account, such as Microsoft Outlook
or Outlook Express, and be connected to the Internet. If you are working on a
corporate or local area network, firewalls might stop you from using Remote
Assistance. In this case, check with your network administrator before using
Remote Assistance.
Figure 10.29 Configuring the System to Be Accessed from Other Workstations
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 515
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Remote Desktop supplies access to a Windows session running on the system
when you are at another computer.This capability facilitates telecommuting, collaborating, and allowing multiple users to share a console. Once connected to the
remote system, Remote Desktop automatically locks that system so that no one
else can access its applications and files while unattended. Once the user returns
to the system, pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del and supplying a password will unlock it.
For Remote Desktop to function properly across the Internet, at least two
systems are required.The first must be a Windows XP system with a permanent
connection to the Internet, either directly or through a network.The second
system must have access to the Internet via network, dial-up, or virtual private
network (VPN) connection, and have Remote Desktop Connection installed.
Remote Desktop will also function within the confines of a local network, as
long as the “target” system has Remote Desktop Connection installed. Remote
Desktop Connection was formerly called the Terminal Services client. All systems
must have appropriate user accounts and permissions.To designate accounts that
can use Remote desktop, click Select Remote Users… from the Remote
Desktop section of the Remote tab.The user accounts that you select for
Remote Use must be local system accounts, which you can create and modify
through the User Accounts applet.
System Restore Settings
System Restore is a powerful rollback facility in Windows XP. It permits a user to
create a restore point, essentially a bookmark, during her progress through configuring a system so that if disaster strikes, she can roll back any system changes to
that book marked point when the system was stable.This is especially useful in an
application test lab or training facility.You must be a Computer Administrator to
even see the System Restore tab, let alone configure System Restore settings.
WARNING
Entering a check mark on the System Restore tab turns off System
Restore monitoring on all drives. Verify that the check box is empty to
enable System Restore.
It is very important to create the first restore point. System Restore can be
constantly monitoring the system’s drives; however, if there are no restore points,
the system has no place to which it can roll back. A good time to create the first
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
515
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 516
www.IrPDF.com
516
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
restore point is right after the operating system and office suite are installed, and
all services packs and hotfixes have been applied. Once the system is in this “pristine” state, launch the System Restore utility.
You can find the System Restore utility in Start | All Programs |
Accessories | System Tools.The utility is a wizard that is used to either create
restore points with descriptive names or restore a system to a chosen restore point. A
good idea is to create a restore point before installing a large application or before
experimenting with or making manual changes to the system Registry. In the event
that things go horribly wrong, you would have the safety net of being able to completely reverse those changes. As shown in Figure 10.30, System Restore for all
drives in the workstation is enabled by default, and that should not be changed.The
individual drive settings are straightforward. Select the drive and click Settings to
specify whether the drive will be monitored and how much space will be devoted
to System Restore. More disk space means more restore points.
Figure 10.30 Monitoring Disk Partitions for Changes for System Restore
Advanced Settings
For the vast majority of users, this is a tab that they will very rarely use, if ever.
However, some users want to squeeze every last drop of performance out of
Windows XP, and some users need to run legacy applications. It is not inconceivable to use Windows XP Professional as a server.There are machines out there
installed with Windows NT 4.0 Workstation being used as file and print servers
or installed with database middleware tools, and Windows 2000 Professional
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 517
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
machines used as internal Web servers. As shown in Figure 10.31, the Advanced
tab is the gateway to five important areas of advanced system configuration:
■
Performance settings
■
User profiles
■
Startup and recovery options
■
Environment variables
■
Error reporting
Figure 10.31 Using the Advanced Tab for Advanced System Configuration
Performance Settings
If you have an underpowered system, or are trying to conserve processing cycles,
you may want to adjust the Performance Options (see Figure 10.32). Adjusting
either or both of the Visual Effects and Advanced settings can make a very appreciable difference in the way that Windows XP performs during routine tasks.
Removing Visual Effects in whole or in part makes Windows XP appear to perform better and alleviate some of the load off of the processor.Tweaking the
parameters under the Advanced tab will genuinely affect the way in which
Windows XP manages processor and memory utilization for the desktop and for
running applications.
Visual Effects settings dictate the way that different actions appear on-screen.
They do not perform any meaningful role; they make the desktop environment a
little flashier. As a result, they increase the load on the processor, albeit by not
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
517
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 518
www.IrPDF.com
518
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
much. On an underpowered machine, such as one that is at or not far off from
the minimum recommended system requirements, these effects can slow down
the system noticeably. Adjust for best performance disables all effects, and
Adjust for best appearance enables them. Let Windows choose what’s best
for my computer enables all effects, except for the ones that are the most processor-intensive.
Figure 10.32 Tuning the System for Performance by Changing Visual
Effects Settings
Advanced Performance Options, shown in Figure 10.33, permits the manual
configuration of processor and memory settings.This collection of applets has
probably the greatest impact on system performance. By having the ability to
tailor the system for its primary role and for the type of applications it will run,
the workstation owner can have horsepower at his fingertips that he wouldn’t
have had if the system was left at its default settings.
In Processor scheduling, you can optimize Windows XP as a workstation or
to perform server-type functions. If the system will serve as a workstation, you
should select Programs.This setting configures the system so that the foreground application utilizes a greater share of processor resources. Configuring the
system for Background services means that every running process on the
machine receives an equal share of processor resources.This setting is the better
choice if the system will be a server.
Memory usage is to physical memory what Processor scheduling is to the
processor. By default, the Programs option is selected, and the system is set to
use a greater share of memory to run your applications.This is preferable you are
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 519
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
going to use the system primarily as a workstation. Applications will perform
better, and the system cache size will be the default size that came with Windows
XP. Select System cache if the system will be employed as a server or if there
are applications that require a large system cache, such as multimedia editing programs and Web servers.
Figure 10.33 Configuring the System to Perform Like a Workstation
or a Server
Virtual memory in Windows XP is the paging file that resides on one or several of your hard disks or several of your hard disks on separate disk controllers.
Once the physical memory installed on your system fills up,Windows XP begins
swapping data in this volatile memory to the paging file on disk.The rule of
thumb for the size of the paging file is that it should be a minimum of at least
one and one-half times the amount of installed physical memory.The configuration of the paging file is definitely not something that one does every day.
To access the virtual memory settings, click Change in the Performance
Options window.You may want to manually set the size of the paging file if you
install additional memory after Windows XP is installed; however it may be easier
to select the System Managed Size radio button to let Windows XP set the
paging file to a size that the system calculates based on the amount of memory.
You can manually set the size of the file by simply selecting Custom size radio
button, entering your desired size, and clicking Set. Any change you make will
not take effect until after you restart the workstation.
You can achieve a performance boost by placing the paging file on another
drive or splitting it across multiple drives. Select the drive from the list in the top
pane and select the paging file size. For multiple drives, select the first drive or
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
519
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 520
www.IrPDF.com
520
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
partition and set the size, and then repeat for as many drives as you desire. Bear in
mind that the accumulated total must be at least one and one-half times the
physical memory of the workstation.
The most difficult aspect to fine-tuning a system is knowing when to stop. It
is critical to let the system run for a period of time after making any change so
that you can assess the impact of the change. Few things are worse than making
several changes, having things go wrong, and being left with trying to figure out
what change caused the problem.
User Profiles Settings
User Profiles contain desktop settings and any other information related to your
account or logon identity. User profiles also contain information and environment
variables about applications associated with applications installed for that particular
user.You can create a different profile on each system that you use; however, a
better way, where the system is connected to a network, is to have a roaming profile created so that your profile follows you around to every system that you use.
In this applet, as shown in Figure 10.34, the user can only change the type of
profile, delete a profile, and copy the profile to another location.To create or otherwise modify an actual account, you must use the User Accounts applet in
Control Panel.
Figure 10.34 Managing Locally Stored User Profiles
Startup and Recovery Settings
You can use the Startup and Recovery Settings applet to change the default
operating system that starts when you power up the system, as well as what
actions Windows XP should take when the system stops unexpectedly.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 521
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
The Default operating system section, shown in Figure 10.35, lists the available operating systems installed on your computer.To change the default operating system, click one of the systems in the list. Time to display list of
operating systems is the setting that specifies the amount of time allowed
before the operating system starts automatically.When you start your computer,
the default operating system starts automatically if you don’t select a different
system from the list or the timer runs out.The Time to display recovery
options specifies how long to display the “For troubleshooting and advanced
startup options for Windows, press F8” message. Pressing F8 leads to the
Advanced Options menu for options such as Safe Mode, Enable Boot Logging,
and Last Known Good Configuration, among others.
Figure 10.35 Default Startup and Recovery Settings
WARNING
You may need to manually edit the Startup and Recovery options in
boot.ini if you install Windows XP over a previous version of Windows that
uses a different file system in the same partition (such as installing over
Windows 98 in the first primary partition). The entry for the previous version, in most instances, is left in boot.ini, and if selected, the system will
not boot to an operating system, and a restart will be required.
A new feature in Windows XP is the facility to manually edit the startup
options.You could always manually edit boot.ini in previous versions; however,
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
521
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 522
www.IrPDF.com
522
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Windows XP includes an Edit button in this applet that opens boot.ini in a
Notepad window.You can then enter and save changes with the user having
absolute control over the editing process. Editing boot.ini is for advanced administrators only. An incorrect parameter can prevent the system from booting into
any of the installed operating systems.
The System failure options are completely unchanged from Windows 2000.
These options specify what notification and recovery actions Windows XP performs when the system stops unexpectedly and the name of the file in which the
debugging information is stored.The options in the Write debugging information
section specify what type of information should be captured in the specified dump
file.The feasible option is determined by the amount of available disk space that
can be allocated. A Small Memory Dump captures the smallest set of useful information that will help identify why the system stopped unexpectedly.This option
requires a paging file of at least 2MB on the boot volume of your computer and
specifies that Windows 2000 will create a new file each time the system stops
unexpectedly. A history of these files is stored in the directory listed under Small
Dump Directory. A Kernel Memory Dump records only kernel memory, which
speeds up the process of recording information in a log when the system stops
unexpectedly. Depending on the amount of memory in your computer, you must
have from 50MB to 800MB available for the paging file on the boot volume.
Complete Memory Dump records the entire contents of system memory when
the system stops unexpectedly. If you choose this option, you must have a paging
file on the boot volume large enough to hold all of the physical memory plus
1MB. For example, if you have a workstation with 256MB of physical memory,
you should definitely have 257MB of available disk real estate.You must be logged
on as a member of the Administrators group to set recovery options.
Environment Variables
The Environment Variables applet, as displayed in Figure 10.36, is used to associate environment variables such as drives, paths, or filenames with symbolic
names that can be used by Windows XP.This window appears when the user
clicks Environment Variables on the Advanced tab. Existing values should not
need to change; however, certain legacy applications may require specific entries
in order to run correctly, or even run at all.
An incorrectly configured environment variable can also make the system
unstable. Be very careful when changing default variables or any other variable
that may be required by other applications.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 523
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Figure 10.36 Configuring User and System Environment Variables
NOTE
You can get more detailed Environment Variables by typing set at a command prompt. Additional information includes information on the user
logon environment. You can also use the set command to create and
change environment variables at the command prompt.
User variables list user environment variables (such as a path where files are
located) that are defined by you or by programs.These variables are associated with
the user profile of the user who is logged in. System variables list system environment variables defined by Windows XP, which are the same regardless of who is
logged in at the computer.Third-party applications may rely on these values, and if
different, the application may not function correctly.You must be logged on as a
member of the Administrators group to change values or add new variables.
Error Reporting
Error Reporting first emerged in an update to Internet Explorer. Its purpose is to
send error logs to Microsoft when the browser terminates abnormally. In Windows
XP, this feature has been expanded to send along all related error information when
the operating system or any selected applications start doing all the things you
never wanted them to do. By default,Windows XP is configured with error
reporting enabled just for the operating system, as shown in Figure 10.37.This
window appears when the user clicks Error Reporting on the Advanced tab. It can
be expanded to report on installed applications, as well.With the Programs check
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
523
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 524
www.IrPDF.com
524
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
box filled in, the user can click Choose Programs… to select whether errors will
be reported on all applications or just those that are selected in the displayed list.
Figure 10.37 Configuring the System to Report Errors to Microsoft
With one of the “all programs” options selected, you can chose which
installed applications to exclude from reporting in the lower box, shown in
Figure 10.38. For example, you might not want to send error information on
custom developed, in-house applications to Microsoft; imagine all of your users
reporting a error in your home-grown company phone directory to Microsoft.
To add applications to either list, All programs in this list or Do not report
errors for these programs, you must provide the complete filename for the
application, including the filename’s extension.
Figure 10.38 Choosing Which Errors to Report and Which to Not Report
You can disable error reporting. If this is a preferable option, entering a check
mark in the But notify me when critical errors occur box would be a good
idea to at least track what is happening on your system. Knowing when and how
critical errors occur definitely helps in any troubleshooting effort.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 525
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Summary
The Control Panel is configuration central for customizing the appearance, operation, and performance of your Windows XP Professional workstation. It will
prove to be the first stop for every user to add or remove programs and hardware,
set up network connections and administer user accounts, among other tasks.The
majority of users will only visit here occasionally; however, once they arrive they
will discover the wealth of available configuration options. In this chapter, the following Control Panel applets and associated solutions were covered:
■
Power Management Options
■
Accessibility Options
■
Mouse and Keyboard Settings
■
Regional and Language Settings
■
System Properties
Power management is a great feature for both laptops and desktops.Windows
XP’s Power Options control every aspect of managing the electricity that flows
though your system, regardless of what kind of system you are running.The
Power Options Properties tabs change depending on the system’s compliance
with the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) standard and how
the BIOS has been configured, that is whether Advanced Power Management
(APM) has been enabled or not.
You can adapt the Windows XP environment to accommodate to all kinds of
users, including those with special needs. Users who require special assistance
with aspects of Windows XP can find help through Accessibility Options.The
options themselves fall into one of three categories according to the type of
impairment they address: mobility, hearing, or visual.The Accessibility Options
for those who are mobility impaired focus on the user’s ability to use the keyboard and to manipulate the mouse. Hearing and visually impaired individuals
can derive assistance from both sound and display functions of Windows XP.
Although the options themselves are robust and are genuinely helpful, there is no
substitute for hardware and software that is specifically designed for the many
requirements of daily use by these individuals.
The mouse and keyboard are the fundamental navigational and input devices
for Windows XP and are completely configurable to accommodate individual
preferences.The mouse has to be comfortable not only to manipulate, but also to
see.The user can configure individual preferences for using the mouse and for
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
525
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 526
www.IrPDF.com
526
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
seeing the mouse pointer on the screen through Mouse Properties. Capable
touch typists who are constantly writing will want to slow down the repeat delay
and increase the repeat rate in Keyboard Properties to suit their typing speed.
Note that any configuration for the mouse or keyboard is stored in individual
User Profiles.
Windows XP has been designed to accommodate regional conventions for
displaying times and dates, numbers and currencies, and a number of languages.
These settings determine the way in which this data shows up in and can be
input into compatible applications.The Regional and Language Options applet
enables the user or administrator to change these date and number formats, display and text input languages, and non-Unicode character sets.
System Properties is the gateway to a collection of applets that have the
greatest potential for affecting the performance and behavior of your system.
System Properties dictate your workstation’s participation on a network, hardware
configuration, application performance, how updates are applied, and virtual
memory settings, among many other items. Although the vast majority of
Windows XP users will not be frequenting these applets, there is a good possibility that over the long term that anyone who has a Windows XP Professional
workstation for any length of time will get here at least a few times.
Solutions Fast Track
Setting Power Management Options
; Even if APM is enabled in the BIOS,Windows XP will control all
power management features that it has control over. For example,
Windows XP can shut off the monitor after a defined period of time,
but it has no control over Wake-On LAN properties.
; Use Power Schemes on all systems, both desktop and portable, to reduce
overall power consumption.The user can employ a predefined scheme
or can design a custom scheme.
; The Hibernate feature lets the user shut down the workstation and pick
up where she left off when it is powered back on. Any changes are
detected, and all applications that were open before the shutdown open
again as if they were never shut down.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 527
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Windows XP Accessibility Options
; Mobility impaired users will find StickyKeys, FilterKeys, MouseKeys,
SerialKeys devices, and the On-Screen Keyboard useful.
; ShowSounds assists hearing impaired users.
; Visually impaired users can use ToggleKeys, SoundSentry, High Contrast,
and Magnifier to enhance their experiences with Windows XP.
; Windows XP’s Accessibility options are intended to help users with
various kinds if impairments on a temporary or infrequent basis.
Specialized equipment and software is much better suited to address
special needs for the long term.
Changing Mouse and Keyboard Settings
; Speed and pointer options can make using the mouse more comfortable
on the eyes, especially on large monitors with high graphics resolution
and the displays on laptop computers.
; Keyboard speed settings are for adapting keyboard input to the speed,
style, and ability of the typist.
; Mouse and Keyboard settings are saved to individual user profiles.
Configuring Regional and Language Settings
; Regional settings affect only the format for the display of dates and
times, numbers, and currencies.The actual language is configured in the
Text Services and Input Languages window.
; Multiple input languages with multiple input device layouts can facilitate
operations in multilingual environments.
; Non-Unicode applications can display properly in Windows XP if you
have installed the proper non-Unicode character sets.The application
vendor should have this information.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
527
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 528
www.IrPDF.com
528
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
Working with System Properties
; You should configure multiuser workstations by using local user profiles
with users created as Limited Users.With this configuration, users can
personalize their individual environments without overwriting the
settings of others.
; The Network Identification Wizard simplifies the process of adding a
system to a domain or a workgroup.The username and password of an
account with rights to perform this operation is required.
; Many of the applets in System Properties require administrative rights
because the changes that can be made can have a significant impact.
; The System Restore settings enable the system to be rolled back to a
saved Restore Point in the event that things go horribly wrong. Make
sure to allocate an appropriate amount of disk space to accommodate all
of the created Restore Points.
; You should avoid changing environment variables unless absolutely
necessary.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 529
www.IrPDF.com
Using the Control Panel • Chapter 10
Frequently Asked Questions
The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book,
are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in
this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To
have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to
www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.
Q: My machine is ACPI-compliant.When I look at Power Management
Options, I do not see an APM tab. Is this OK? How do I configure Advance
Power Management?
A: On ACPI-compliant machines, APM is not installed because it is not
required. ACPI improves upon APM as a power management standard, and it
provides greater control over devices that are subject to power saving measures.You can configure power management by using the remaining tabs.The
actual power management that goes on behind the scenes is executed using
the ACPI standard, not the APM standard.
Q: I get an error as soon as my computer boots that says that the “Suspend to
disk partition is missing.” Can I still use the Hibernate feature?
A: Yes.The Hibernate feature is a process that is completely controlled by
Windows XP. Older operating systems that did not have a Hibernate feature
were subject to Suspend-to-Disk utilities that were built into the firmware of
the machine.These utilities are no longer needed with Windows XP.
Q: I have a SerialKeys device that I can’t get to work.Where do I start troubleshooting the problem?
A: The process for troubleshooting SerialKeys devices is much like the process
for any device. First, test the device on another workstation to ensure that the
device is functional, and then connect it to the desired workstation. Second,
make sure that the Support for SerialKeys check box has a check mark in
it.Third, verify that you have securely connected the device to the workstation’s serial port that is indicated in the Settings for SerialKeys window. In
addition, verify that no other serial devices, such as a modem, are conflicting
with the serial port in question. Finally, once you have ruled out a faulty
device, a bad connection, hardware conflicts, and ill-configured operating
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
529
189_XP_10.qxd
11/12/01
10:34 AM
Page 530
www.IrPDF.com
530
Chapter 10 • Using the Control Panel
system, reduce the baud rate in the Settings for SerialKeys window to 300,
the lowest possible setting and increase from there until the device finds a
speed it is comfortable with.
Q: All of my users are using local profiles now, but we will be installing a server
and Active Directory in the near future. How can I change all of these local
profiles into roaming profiles?
A: In the User Profiles applet, click Copy to and browse to the appropriate
directory on the server, and enter a unique filename for every user, ending
with the .dat file extension. If your organization decides that the user cannot
change profiles, it would be appropriate to use the sysvol share. If users are
free to make changes to their profiles, any share where the user has read and
write permissions will suffice.You might want to take steps to ensure that the
profile cannot be deleted. Either way, in Active Directory you can enter the
name of the profile filenames in the Profile field of the User object.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 531
www.IrPDF.com
Chapter 11
Understanding
Windows XP
Security
Solutions in this chapter:
■
File System Security
■
Account Security
■
Network Security
; Summary
; Solutions Fast Track
; Frequently Asked Questions
531
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 532
www.IrPDF.com
532
Chapter 11 • Understanding Windows XP Security
Introduction
Several years ago security was often an afterthought, and when it was implemented security was usually lax. However, with the increasing importance that
businesses place upon the data that is their business, and with the increasing
number of hackers, crackers, exploits, viruses, worms, and Trojans, security has
become an industry, and it is all of your responsibilities.
Windows XP has many security features built into the operating system that
fall into three major categories: file system security, account security, and network
security. File system security includes file and folder permissions and the
Encrypting File System (EFS). Account security includes Security Groups and
Security Policies. Network security includes the Internet Connection Firewall
(ICF),TCP/IP Filtering, smart cards, Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP),
and 802.1x security.Throughout this chapter, we examine each category in more
depth and review some suggestions for making your systems secure.
Determining an appropriate security policy for your particular environment is
a complex process and is, of course, dependent upon your resources and requirements. Some environments may require a lower level of security than others, and
some may require a very high level of security. In this chapter, we take a look at
some of the available security options and how to use them.
File System Security
Our first look at security begins with file system security, because it is the most
basic way to protect your confidential files and prevent unauthorized users from
tampering with your systems.The NTFS file system provides the capability to set
file and folder permissions and auditing in very granular ways, for both users and
groups. In addition to permission-based security, NTFS also allows for encrypting
files via the EFS. Encrypted files are not only protected by NTFS permissions,
but also by encryption, which ensures that they are accessible only by the user
who encrypted them and any designated recovery agents.
NTFS
If you are at all concerned about security within your Windows XP installations,
you should always implement systems utilizing NTFS instead of FAT or FAT32 file
systems. NTFS provides you with a more robust file system and also allows you to
assign permissions to files and directories and audit access to those files. Although
you may restrict access to FAT and FAT32 files systems via share permissions for
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 533
www.IrPDF.com
Understanding Windows XP Security • Chapter 11
users who are attempting to access files via the network, a local user who has
logged in to Windows XP has full access to all of your files. Additionally, without
NTFS, anyone may access your drives by booting into another operating system to
access the files. Let’s take a look at how directory and file permissions work in
Windows XP.
NTFS permissions allow you to specify which users or groups may gain
access to folders and files by either permitting or denying types of access.You use
NTFS folder permissions to secure access to individual folders and their contents,
whereas you use NTFS file permissions to secure access to individual files. Both
network users accessing files via a share and local users are restricted by the permissions that you establish for your files and folders.
Windows XP has a set of standard file and folder permissions. Read,Write,
List Folder Contents, Read and Execute, and Full Control are the standard permissions.These permissions are pretty self-explanatory, but we briefly explore
them here:
■
Read is the capability to read a file or folder.
■
Write is the capability to create a new file or folder.
■
List Folder Contents is the capability to list the contents of a folder,
even if you do not have read access to the files or folders.
■
Read and Execute is a combination of Read and List Folder Contents.
■
Modify is the same as Read and Execute with Write (and delete)
access added.
■
Full Control is a combination of all of these permissions along with
the capability to take ownership and change permissions.
NOTE
Although the focus of this book is Windows XP in a domain environment, we need to point out that in workgroup mode the Security tab is
not present, because the default mode of Windows XP in a workgroup is
to use simple file sharing. With simple file sharing, when you right-click a
file or folder and click Properties, no Security tab appears, and you have
no control over who can access files and folders in the shared folders. To
enable the Security tab, in Windows Explorer, click Tools | Folder
Options. Select the View tab. Scroll down to the very bottom and
uncheck the last item: Use simple file sharing.
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
533
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 534
www.IrPDF.com
534
Chapter 11 • Understanding Windows XP Security
Modifying or Adding Standard
File and Folder Permissions
Perform the following actions to modify or add standard file or folder permissions:
1. In Windows Explorer, navigate to the folder or file on which you wish
to change the permissions.
2. Right-click the file or folder and select Properties.
3. In the Properties window, click the Security tab (see Figure 11.1).
Figure 11.1 Standard NTFS Permissions
4. For basic permissions, you may select the user or group to be changed
and select the permissions you want to allow or permit.
5. To add a new user or group, click Add.
6. As shown in Figure 11.2, you may type in the user or group name or
click Advanced to search the directory. After selecting the user or group
you want to add, click OK.
7. Set the desired permissions for the user or group and then click OK.
Figure 11.2 Adding a User or Group
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 535
www.IrPDF.com
Understanding Windows XP Security • Chapter 11
The standard file and folder permissions are a predetermined combination of
advanced permission that has been precreated for easy use. Many times you may
only use the standard permissions, however, you are able to set the advanced permissions if needed.Table 11.1 lists the advanced permissions and gives a brief
description of each.
Table 11.1 List of Advanced Permissions
Permission
Description
Full Control
Full Control allows or denies all other
permissions.
Traverse Folder allows or denies navigating
through folders to get to another folder or
file, regardless of the permissions for the
folders being traversed. The Traverse Folder
permission is needed only when the group
or user does not have the Bypass Traverse
Checking user right in the local security
policy. (By default, the Everyone group has
the Bypass Traverse Checking user right.)
Execute File allows or denies executing
program files.
List Folder allows or denies viewing the subfolder names and filenames inside of a folder.
This permission affects only the child items in
the folder; it does not affect whether the
actual folder will be listed. This would have
to be set on the parent.
Read Data allows or denies viewing the data
contained in files.
Allows or denies viewing file or folder
attributes. For example, hidden or read-only.
Allows or denies viewing file or folder
extended attributes. Extended attributes are
program-specific and may vary. An example
of extended attributes would be the fields
that are available on the Summary tab when
you right-click a file and select Properties.
Create Files allows or denies creating files
within a folder.
Write Data allows or denies modifying or
overwriting existing files.
Traverse Folder/Execute File
List Folder/Read Data
Read Attributes
Read Extended Attributes
Create Files/Write Data
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
535
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 536
www.IrPDF.com
536
Chapter 11 • Understanding Windows XP Security
Table 11.1 Continued
Permission
Description
Create Folders/Append Data
Create Folders allows or denies creating
folders within the folder.
Append Data allows or denies adding
changes to the end of the file but not
changing, deleting, or overwriting existing
data.
Write Attributes allows or denies changing
the attributes of a file or folder, such as readonly or hidden. Attributes are defined by
NTFS.
The Write Attributes permission includes only
the permission to change, add, or delete the
attributes of a file or folder
Allows or denies changing the extended
attributes of a file or folder. An example of
extended attributes would be the fields that
are available on the Summary tab when you
right-click a file and select Properties.
Allows or denies deleting subfolders and files
of a folder. This applies even if the Delete
permission has not been expressly granted on
the subfolder or file.
Allows or denies deleting the file or folder. If
you do not have Delete permission on a file
or folder, you may still delete it if you have
been granted the Delete Subfolders And Files
permission on the parent folder.
Allows or denies reading permissions of the
file or folder.
Allows or denies changing permissions of
the file or folder.
Allows or denies taking ownership of the file
or folder. Owners of files or folders always
are allowed to change permissions on it,
regardless of any permissions protecting the
file or folder.
Write Attributes
Write Extended Attributes
Delete Subfolders And Files
Delete
Read Permissions
Change Permissions
Take Ownership
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 537
www.IrPDF.com
Understanding Windows XP Security • Chapter 11
Modifying or Adding Advanced
File or Folder Permissions
To modify or add advanced file or folder permissions, perform the following
steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, navigate to the folder or file on which you wish
to change the permissions.
2. Right-click the file or folder and select Properties.
3. In the Properties window, click the Security tab (see previous
Figure 11.1).
4. Click Advanced.There may be multiple entries for a user based upon
the entries for Type (allow or deny), Inherited From (not inherited or
inherited from parent), and Applied To (combinations of folders, files,
and subfolders).
5. As shown in Figure 11.3, you may select an entry to change and
click Edit.
Figure 11.3 Advanced NTFS Permissions
6. Select the permissions to assign to the user or group (see Figure 11.4)
and then click OK.
7. You may click Add to add an additional user or group.
8. You may either type in the user or group name, or click Advanced to
search the directory. After selecting the user or group to add, click OK
(see previous Figure 11.2).
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
537
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 538
www.IrPDF.com
538
Chapter 11 • Understanding Windows XP Security
9. Select the permissions to assign to the user or group, as shown in
Figure 11.4, and then click OK.
10. Click OK in the Properties window.
Figure 11.4 Advanced NTFS Permissions
Designing & Planning…
Share Permissions versus NTFS
Directory and File Permissions
Permissions may be set on both the NTFS file system and on network
shares. Share permissions affect only users connecting over the network.
NTFS directory and file permissions, of course, are only available on NTFS
volumes and affect both local users and network users. Let’s take a look
at how these permissions work together.
Share permissions can be thought of as a gatekeeper; when a user
tries to connect through a share, he is evaluated at that time and either
granted or denied Full Control, Change, or Read access. Once they are
let through the gate, they have that level of access to the entire set of
files and subfolders within the share. This is the maximum level of permissions that your users or groups will have when accessing through
this share, and any NTFS permissions will further limit them.
Generally, the easiest way to coordinate the share and NTFS permissions is to allow in via share permissions the Users group with
Change permissions and the Administrators group with full control.
Continued
www.syngress.com
www.IrPDF.com
189_XP_11.qxd
11/12/01
10:40 AM
Page 539
www.IrPDF.com
Understanding Windows XP Security • Chapter 11
Then assign NTFS file and directory permissions with Full Control for the
Administrators Group, and the most restrictive levels of access that will
allow your users to perform their tasks to the groups as required. This
limits access to local users and domain users (but not the Guest account
or anonymous access) via the share; any more restrictive levels of access
granted via NTFS permissions will override those of the share, and the
Administrators group will have full control. In this situation you never
have to worry about changing the share permissions any time that you
need to allow or deny access to a new user because the NTFS permissions define who has access. Also, because you have used groups to
assign NTFS file and folder permissions, you have to add or remove only
the user from the pertinent groups.
Although the focus of this book is Windows XP in a domain environment, it is important to point out that in workgroup mode, share
permissions are more restrictive; by default, you can’t specify which
users or groups have access: All users connecting over the