CCTV - Saidsa

CCTV - Saidsa
SOUTH AFRICAN INTRUDER DETECTION SERVICES ASSOCIATION
BY-LAW NO. 9
Requirements for the installation of a CCTV System
September 2015
PREAMBLE
The purpose of this By-Law is to determine a minimum technical requirement for CCTV
surveillance systems that will ensure the appropriate/sufficient quality images under different
physical and environmental circumstances around residential and commercial sites for
monitoring, detection, recognition and identification with the purpose of deterrence of potential
perpetrators and the generation of video footage that will support investigations and successful
prosecutions.
The compilation of this By-Law involved consultation between members of SAIDSA; experts in
the field of CCTV, including amongst other accredited installers, retailers and manufacturers of
CCTV equipment and other relevant sectors where required. Many local and world standards
were referenced and included to assist in the compilation and application of this By-Law.
These minimum requirements for CCTV surveillance can be categorised as follows, and are dealt
with separately under each heading:
1.
Operational Requirement Analysis (OR)
2.
Functional requirements
3.
System management
4.
Installation guidelines
Definitions
For the purpose of this By-Law, the following definitions apply:
CCTV System: System consisting of camera equipment, storage, monitoring and associated
equipment for transmission and controlling purposes.
Surveillance: Observation or inspection of persons or premises for security purposes.
Operation Requirement (OR): A statement of needs based on a thorough and systematic
assessment of the problems to be solved and the hoped for solutions.
1. Operational Requirement Analysis (OR)
The Operational Requirement analysis is a critical requirement when designing, testing and
the operational effectiveness of the CCTV system.
The OR document clearly states:
1.1. What problems need to be solved – the user needs to assist in selection of
observation purposes for each camera. These categories are to suggest appropriate
image size to aim towards, so as to fulfill the specific observation requirement. The
speed of target movement in the observation frame must be considered, as this
affects frame rate of the events being observed. If the imagery is to be recorded,
playback observation may be affected by compression technologies.
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1.1.1
1.2
These observation categories are defined as follows:
1.1.1.1 Monitoring and Control – to oversee a large area or wide field
of view;
1.1.1.2 Detection – to be alerted to the presence of activity in the field of
view;
1.1.1.3 Observation – to be able to observe characteristics within a
moderately sized field of view;
1.1.1.4 Recognition – to be able to identify a known person or object
within the field of view;
1.1.1.5 Identification – to be able to clearly identify an unfamiliar
individual or object within the field of view.
Operational issues – will suggest:
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
who will monitor the CCTV system;
when and where the CCTV system shall be monitored from;
how the events observed or generated will be handled.
The selections taken here will impact heavily on many of the system and management
requirements of the CCTV system. A robust operating procedure is imperative for
establishing integrity of evidence and dealing with legal challenges in court.
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1.3
System requirements
1.3.1
What alert function must the system produce on event detected/triggered,
i.e. audible, display, record, log, etc
1.3.2
Display of images, i.e. screen sizes, number of images per display, remote
viewing, etc
1.3.3
Recording, i.e. storage media, retention periods, image quality, frame
rates, compression technologies, metadata embedded into image, etc
1.3.4
Archiving & Exporting of data for permanent record, i.e. export/archive
procedure, media & software needed to view images.
1.4
Management issues.
1.4.1
Constraints, i.e. licensing, regulations, public consultations, etc;
1.4.2
Legal issues, i.e. laws pertaining to Data Protection, Privacy, handling of
data for evidentiary proceedings, etc;
1.4.3 Maintenance, i.e. of system equipment, warranties, upgrades, etc;
1.4.4 Resources, i.e. personnel to run system, service contracts, consumables,
training costs, etc.
Functional requirements
2.1
Image Capture
All images that are captured shall have sufficient detail and accuracy to enable the
user to extract sufficient information as defined in the operational requirement.
This may include but is not limited to resolution, colour, size of displayed image
and frame rate.
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2.2
Image Handling
2.2.1
Presentation
The displayed image shall be the same as in the original image source. Any
object masks, timestamps, camera names or camera numbers produced by
the system shall not obscure the required image. This does not include
privacy masks.
The following information shall be stated in the manufacturer’s
documentation with regard to presentation of images:
2.2.1.1 Monitoring device (e.g. Monitors, TV monitor, mobile devices, projector)
2.2.1.2 Maximum number of images displayed
2.2.1.3 Resolution
2.2.1.4 Frame rate
2.2.1.5 Response time
2.2.2
Storage
Where recording functions or storage are available in the system the
following shall apply and must be stated in the manufacturer’s
documentation:
2.2.2.1 Any live display shall not influence the storing of video images
2.2.2.2 The system shall be able to be configured in such a way that the maximum
storage time can be set.
2.2.2.3 The CCTV system shall be capable of automatically deleting images once
they have been stored for the set period of time.
2.2.3
Image data backup / archiving
If storage or recording functions are available in the CCTV system, the
following requirements apply:
2.2.3.1 It shall be possible to extract and preserve the image data for evidential or
other purpose. A means of playing back the extracted image data shall be
available without compromising the ability of the system to continue to
function as designed.
2.2.3.2 If digital data is transferred to a secondary storage medium, then it shall
be an identical copy of the original data and shall be called ´exact copy´.
2.2.3.3 A documented procedure should be written and followed, specific to each
operational need requirement.
3. System management
3.1
Operation
User instructions shall be self-explanatory. Alarm situations shall be identifiable and
accessible immediately with consistent documentation of the event.
3.2
Activity and information management
3.2.1.1 The system must be capable of distinguishing between user requested and eventdriven data. Alarm data shall always be given priority over events.
3.2.1.2 The CCTV system shall be capable of indicating an alarm visually and audibly.
3.2.1.3 The CCTV system shall offer a means of alarm acknowledgement.
3.2.2
For systems of security grades 3 and 4, on an alarm the CCTV system shall be able
to display alarm information which should include:
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3.2.2.1 alarm origin;
3.2.2.2 alarm type;
3.2.2.3 alarm time and date.
3.3
System Logs
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
Maintaining accurate and complete system logs for a period of time defined in the
Operational Requirement;
Presenting log data in a chronological order;
Preventing unauthorized editing or deletion of system logs;
Maintaining a log, that should contain each individual operator’s activity.
3.4
System security
3.4.1
System integrity includes physical security of all system components and control of
unauthorised access to the CCTV system. CCTV systems of security grades 2, 3 and
4 shall be capable of backup and restoral of all system data.
Data integrity refers to the prevention of unintentional changes to the CCTV system
data.
3.4.2
The system must be capable of,
CCTV system security consists of system integrity and data integrity.
3.5
System Integrity
3.5.1
Detection of failures
CCTV systems with a user interface, which is normally manned by an operator
(either remote or local), alarm conditions from the specified components shall
cause an alert. The failure shall be notified at any time that a new user logs in or
the system restarts.
The information to be presented shall include:
4.5.1.1 Time and date;
4.5.1.2 Origin and type of failure.
Where the system provides for the facility to prioritize messages, then the priority
level shall also be indicated.
3.5.2
Monitoring of power supply
The CCTV system shall be capable of,
3.5.2.1 Shutdown without loss of stored data;
3.5.2.2 Resuming normal operation after a power loss.
3.5.3
Monitoring of system functions and components
For security grades 3 and 4, the CCTV system shall manage device failure by
indicating any failure of the essential functions.
3.5.4
Tamper protection and detection
3.5.4.1 The CCTV system shall be protected against tampering.
3.5.4.2 Where a tamper condition is detected, a tamper alarm must be generated and
logged separately to an alarm condition or failure.
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3.5.5
Protection against unauthorized access
3.5.5.1 Access levels
For each security grade of a CCTV system, there shall be several user authority
access levels. These access levels govern privileges to the functions of the CCTV
system.
3.5.5.1.1
3.5.5.1.2
3.5.5.1.3
3.5.5.1.4
3.5.6
Level 1 - Any person - This level has no restriction on access.
Level 2 - Any user - This level affects system operation, without
configuration changes. Access may include password, key or code.
Level 3 - System administrators -This level affects system configuration.
Access may include password, key or code.
Level 4 - Service personnel or manufacturer - Access to system design
changes and maintenance. Access may include password, key or code
Authorisation
A CCTV system that implements user level authorisation shall be capable of,
3.5.6.1 Passwords of users shall be hidden, never be stored or displayed in an alpha or
numerical format.
3.5.6.2 A password change by the user shall always require a valid user login.
3.5.6.3 Providing a method for data access to system logs and system setup according to
the valid authorisation level granted to the user.
3.6
Image and data integrity
3.6.1
Data identification
3.6.1.1 The CCTV system shall provide methods to identify data in accordance with the
applicable security grades.
3.6.1.2 The CCTV system shall always maintain the original data labels when data is
exported.
3.6.2
Data authentication
In order to verify the integrity of images and data, grades 3 and 4 systems shall
provide a method (e.g. watermarking, checksums, fingerprinting) to validate image
and Metadata.
The validation method shall be applied to the recording and shall advise the user of
the following:
3.6.2.1
3.6.2.2
3.6.2.3
3.6.2.4
Changes or alterations to images.
Images removed from a sequence;
Images added to a sequence;
Changes or alterations to data labels.
3.6.3
Data protection
CCTV systems of security grade 4, shall provide a method to,
3.6.3.1 prevent unauthorized viewing of the images and data;
3.6.3.2 Protect the confidentiality of copied and exported data.
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3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.7.5
4.
Documentation
Documentation relating to a CCTV system shall be sufficient to,
Install;
Commission into operation;
Operate and maintain;
Procedures that need to be followed.
System specifications and block diagrams, including specification of configuration,
shall be documented.
Installation Guidelines
4.1
Scene and illumination
4.1.1
The existing lighting should be evaluated for the level, direction and spectral
content. Optimal light sources are those which have a spectrum that best matches
the camera imaging device response. If additional lighting is required, the number,
type, siting and power of the light sources should be determined taking the
following parameters into consideration:
The new or additional light source selected should give acceptable pictures under
all likely working conditions.
Illumination over the scene being surveyed should be as even as possible avoiding
any area of very low light illumination. The ratio of maximum to minimum
illumination within the covered area of any scene should ideally be 4: 1 or better.
Where possible lights should be mounted so that they do not impair the camera
picture quality. The preferred position for the light is above the camera. The
camera should not view the scene through intense beams of light.
Particular attention should be paid to the direction of illumination. The aim is to
produce a maximum of contrast for intruder detection. An object can only be
detected it its brightness is different to that of its background.
Prior to commencing work all relevant Safety Requirements should be considered.
These will vary with the nature of the premises and may involve special installation
equipment when working in hazardous areas.
Electric installation methods should comply with current national and site
regulations and the installation should be carried out by technicians who are
qualified to the appropriate level.
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.2
Cable installation
4.2.1
All cables to be of a type and size appropriate to the application and should take
account of transmission rate, electrical interference and voltage drop.
Cable routes should be planned to provide the shortest practical distance between
the equipment locations. Consideration should be given to the possibilities of future
expansion of the system and any likely changes to the site.
When selecting cables consideration should be given to possible voltage drop and
signal loss. Environmental, safety and security aspects should be taken into
consideration and cables should be marked with the appropriate ratings.
When fiber optic cables are used, loss figures should allow for a minimum of three
cable repairs during the life of the system. Bending radius should be within the
manufacturer’s specification.
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
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4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9
4.3
Overhead cable runs should be avoided wherever possible. If this is not possible,
the clearance height should allow for stretching of the support wire and fixings
should comply to the current standard.
Where cables are installed in underground ducts, a draw wire should be left in the
duct for maintenance purposes.
Protection should be provided for cables which are subject to mechanical damage
or deliberate interference.
Cable wiring to camera equipment with pan and tilt units should remain sufficiently
flexible over the full environmental temperature range.
Precautions should be taken during cable installation to ensure that moisture
cannot penetrate; this is especially important, when using air spaced coax cables.
Hardware mounting
4.3.1
Fixings should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Environmental conditions may influence the choice of fixings.
4.3.2 Earthing should take into consideration the possibility of lightning strikes and
electrical interference. On winch down and pivot types of masts, earth continuity
must allow for the mechanical joints.
4.3.3 Camera and lens mounting arrangement should allow for the separation of video
signal earth and housing and local safety earth.
4.3.4 All fixing positions should allow for mechanical stability, future access and safe
working.
4.3.5 Planning considerations and architectural requirements should be taken into
account.
4.3.6 Brackets and towers should be selected to support the maximum weight of the
equipment and to provide sufficient rigidity for the camera equipment and other
devices. As a general rule, the narrower the angle of view, the more rigid are the
mounting requirements.
4.3.7 The rigidity of camera equipment fixings and the possibility of shock and vibration
should also be taken into account.
4.3.8 Camera towers should preferably be of the winch down or pivot type and be
positioned to provide safe access for service.
4.3.9 No equipment should be mounted near overhead high voltage cables.
4.3.10 All anti tamper devices should be employed where it is required.
4.3.11 Mounting equipment sighting should not compromise the overall security of the
site.
4.3.12 Moving cameras should have sufficient clearance from adjacent objects.
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The Following referenced standards and documents will assist in the application of this Bylaw:
EN 50132-1
BSIA
SABS-0222-5-2:1999
SANS 10222-5-12:2007
SANS 10222-5-11:2007
SANS 10222-5-13:2007
SANS 10222-5-14:2003
SANS 10222-5-15:2003
European Standard: Alarm systems
CCTV surveillance systems for use in security application
March 2010
Planning, design, installation and operation of CCTV Surveillance
Systems
Code of Practice & associated Guidance
Feb 2014, Issue 3
CCTV Installation Guidelines
Electrical security installations
CCTV installations – CCTV surveillance systems for use in security
applications: System design requirements
Electrical security installations
CCTV installations – CCTV surveillance systems for use in security
applications: Operational requirements
Electrical security installations
CCTV installations – CCTV surveillance systems for use in security
applications: Installation, planning and implementation requirements
Electrical security installations
CCTV installations – CCTV surveillance systems for use in security
applications: Testing, commissioning and hand-over requirements
Electrical security installations
CCTV installations – CCTV surveillance systems for use in security
applications: Maintenance requirements
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of information at the time of going to print.
However, the authors and publishers cannot be held responsible for errors or omissions for any
reason whatsoever.
Copyright - South African Intruder Detection Services Association (SAIDSA) – All rights reserved
1994-2015
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