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for Windows
Version 5.0xx
User manual
Rev. 5.1
User manual CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB V5.1
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Sixth edition
January 2014
User manual CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB V5.1
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This manual was compiled with utmost care. Errors can, however, not be
excluded. The editor and author both cannot accept any responsibility or
liability for errors and consequences thereof.
Unauthorized copying and sales of this product are considered as plagiarism
and will be subject to prosecution.
All rights reserved.
All programs and names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the
respective companies.
Copyright ©2014 FRANKONIA EMC Test-Systems GmbH, Forchheim. All
rights reserved.
Copyright ©2014 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved.
Explanations of signs:
Important information or examples
General danger
Danger to health of person
Danger of equipment
User manual CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB V5.1
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Table of Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Important information..................................................................................................... 7
Foreword ....................................................................................................................... 8
Conformity with standards ............................................................................................. 9
Hardware and software requirements............................................................................ 9
Installation of CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB..................................................................... 10
Uninstall of CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB .................................................................... 11
How to get well skilled and learn about CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB ............................. 11
Start of CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB .............................................................................. 12
The first steps .............................................................................................................. 13
9.1. Device specification .............................................................................................. 13
9.2. Input of correction values ...................................................................................... 13
9.3. Reference measurement ....................................................................................... 13
9.4. Testing .................................................................................................................. 13
10. File............................................................................................................................... 14
10.1. Display / Print ........................................................................................................ 14
10.2. Export data ............................................................................................................ 15
10.3. Test report header................................................................................................. 15
10.4. Preferences ........................................................................................................... 16
10.5. Exit ........................................................................................................................ 17
11. Devices ........................................................................................................................ 18
11.1. Devices specification ............................................................................................. 18
11.1.1. Display/Edit ................................................................................................... 18
11.1.2. Define new devices ....................................................................................... 23
11.2. Sensor correction (RF-LAB) .................................................................................. 24
11.3. PMS108x correction .............................................................................................. 26
11.4. DC and current clamp correction........................................................................... 27
11.5. Test ....................................................................................................................... 28
12. Reference measurement ............................................................................................. 29
12.1. Reference measurement ....................................................................................... 29
12.2. Calculate reference file (RF-LAB) ......................................................................... 37
13. Testing......................................................................................................................... 38
13.1. Common settings in autom. test and test with optical EUT-monitoring ................. 39
13.2. With optical EUT-monitoring.................................................................................. 42
13.3. With autom. EUT-monitoring ................................................................................. 45
13.4. Settings for BCI-method ........................................................................................ 48
13.4.1. Test with calibrated clamp ............................................................................ 48
13.4.2. Test with current clamp ................................................................................. 49
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14. Options ........................................................................................................................ 51
14.1. Uniformity .............................................................................................................. 51
14.1.1. Measuring ..................................................................................................... 51
14.1.2. Evaluation ..................................................................................................... 57
14.1.3. Saturation test............................................................................................... 59
14.2. Attenuation measurement (CD-LB) ....................................................................... 59
15. Evaluation of graphics ................................................................................................. 62
16. Help ............................................................................................................................. 65
17. Support ........................................................................................................................ 65
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List of figures
Figure 1 : Installation of CD-LAB / RF-LAB /BCI-LAB ........................................................ 10
Figure 2 : Online help in CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB ...................................................... 11
Figure 3 : Start window of CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB.................................................... 12
Figure 4 : Main menu with icon bar .................................................................................... 13
Figure 5 : Settings in the option window ............................................................................ 16
Figure 6 : Display and change devices configuration ......................................................... 18
Figure 7 : Devices specification in RF-LAB ........................................................................ 19
Figure 8 : Maximum input level .......................................................................................... 19
Figure 9 : DC selection and attenuation ............................................................................. 20
Figure 10 : Selection of relay switch .................................................................................. 21
Figure 11 : Device specification in CD-LAB ....................................................................... 22
Figure 12 : Edit passive devices ........................................................................................ 24
Figure 13 : Correction values for field strength sensor ...................................................... 25
Figure 14 : PMSxxxx correction ......................................................................................... 26
Figure 15 : Directional coupler and current clamp correction ............................................. 27
Figure 16 : Settings for reference measurement ................................................................ 30
Figure 17 : Input of absolute step size ............................................................................... 33
Figure 18 : Reference measurement in CD-LAB .............................................................. 34
Figure 19 : Reference measurement ................................................................................. 35
Figure 20 : Calculate Reference files ................................................................................. 37
Figure 21 : Settings for testing with optical EUT-monitoring .............................................. 39
Figure 22 : Settings for testing with optical EUT-monitoring .............................................. 42
Figure 23 : Test with optical EUT-monitoring ..................................................................... 43
Figure 24 : Settings for testing with autom. EUT-Control ................................................... 45
Figure 25 : Tolerance settings for each value .................................................................... 46
Figure 26 : Graphics of test with autom. EUT-monitoring .................................................. 47
Figure 27 : Choice of testing via menu bar ........................................................................ 48
Figure 28 : Settings for test with optical EUT-monitoring with current clamp ..................... 49
Figure 29 : Settings for uniformity test ............................................................................... 52
Figure 30 : Selection of reference point in uniformity test .................................................. 54
Figure 31 : Selection of next point to be measured ............................................................ 55
Figure 32 : Uniformity measurement above 1 GHZ (Window method) ............................. 56
Figure 33 : Uniformity......................................................................................................... 57
Figure 34 : Evaluation of worst-case 6dB and 10 dB deviations ........................................ 58
Figure 35 : Setting of parameter for attenuation measurement .......................................... 60
Figure 36 : Evaluation of graphics ..................................................................................... 62
Figure 37 : Zooming of graphic details ............................................................................... 64
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1. Important information
Operation of this system or single units for measuring immunity against
interference causes high frequency signals with strong electromagnetic fields.
Improper use may endanger persons, especially persons with a pace
maker implant, cause damage to property, and/ or disturb the
operation of other systems and units (especially those for reception)
In particular owner of electronic medical devices are not allowed to stay near
emission test stand in cause of a malfunction of these devices there are
possible influences of health.
The author and supplier herewith exclude any liability for damages of any kind
caused by working with CD-LAB, RF-LAB or BCI-LAB.
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2. Foreword
CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB consists of three program parts, CD-LAB, RF-LAB and BCILAB.
Software CD-LAB enables automatic and manual control of testing immunity against
conducted disturbances by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (IEC 61000-4-6).
RF-LAB enables automatic and manual control of testing immunity against radiated
electromagnetic fields (IEC 61000-4-3).
With BCI-LAB control of testing according to the ISO 11452-4 “Road vehicles –
Electrical disturbances by narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy – Component
test methods – Part 4: Bulk current injection (BCI)” is possible.
Representing, processing and giving out the results is possible anywhere.
This task includes reporting and processing of results.
One reference run must be performed for each testing device configuration to ensure
the required constant test voltage/field strength over the entire frequency range.
The program takes over control as well as measured value acquisition of the reference
run, too.
Proof of homogeneity of the test system (absorber cells, TEM cells) according to
standards is another feature offered in RF-LAB.
Basic knowledge of Windows-handling is assumed.
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3. Conformity with standards
This software version and testing configuration are in conformity with the following
standards:
CD-LAB
RF-LAB
BCI-LAB
IEC 61000-4-6
IEC 801-6
EN 61000-4-6
IEC 61000-4-3
IEC 801-3
EN 61000-4-3
ISO 11452-4
4. Hardware and software requirements
-
IBM or compatible PC
Min. Pentium IV processor with 2 GB RAM
Hard disc with more than 400 MB available
Win 7/Vista/XP
Graphical resolution: min. 1024 x 768
One of the following IEEE-488 (GPIB) National Instruments controller cards.
x
x
x
x
x
x
PCI-GPIB
PCIe-GPIB
AT-GPIB/TNT
PCMCIA-GPIB
ExpressCard-GPIB
USB-GPIB
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5. Installation of CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB
If you want to use devices with GPIB-Interface, you first have to install your GPIB-card
and the software driver for this card.
These actions are described in the user manual of the GPIB-card.
Follow the steps below to install the CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB software.
x
x
x
x
x
Start Windows
Insert the CD-ROM
Start the explorer and select the CD-ROM drive
Start SETUP.EXE on the CD-ROM
During installation you can change the installation directory (see figure 1)
Figure 1 : Installation of CD-LAB / RF-LAB /BCI-LAB
After installation CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB creates a program folder with the symbol
CD-LAB_RF-LAB.
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6. Uninstall of CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB
In case you need to uninstall CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB from your system use the
uninstaller supplied with the software. The uninstaller ‘Uninstall CD-LAB/RF-LAB’ can
be activated in the Windows ‘Start’- menu or by double-click on the icon Uninstall CDLAB/RF-LAB.
7. How to get well skilled and learn about CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB
The structure and handling of the program is very easy to understand.
Working with the program is the best method to learn the way to use it. In
case any additional explanation is necessary there are several possibilities:
x
x
x
x
This manual, which is supplied together with the software
For the single menu items you found help in the online help (Help in the
menu bar).
Context sensitive help is available by activating the respective field and
pressing the ‘F1’-button on the keyboard or by clicking the right-hand
mouse button (see figure 2).
If problems cannot be solved by using the previous methods, contact our
local distributor.
Figure 2 : Online help in CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB
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8. Start of CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB
Start CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB from the windows ‘Start’ menu or double-click the icon.
A start screen will occur during start phase.
You can choose the software module CD-LAB for conducted disturbance according to
IEC 61000-4-6, RF-LAB for radiated fields according to IEC 61000-4-3 (see figure 3) or
BCI-LAB to start testing with the bulk current injection method according to ISO 114524.
Selection of the language within the program is possible here.
Figure 3 : Start window of CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB
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9. The first steps
After the first installation of CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB you need to do some
adjustments before you can start testing.
9.1. Device specification
First you have to select your hardware device you are using for the tests.
This is done in Devices – Device specification - Display/Edit
(See chapter 11).
9.2. Input of correction values
In RF-LAB field strength is measured by a sensor that also has no linear
characteristics and thus requires the input of correction factors to prevent deviation
of values.
(See chapter 11.2)
If you are using a PMS1081 power meter or a PMS1080 HF millivolt meter you have
to give in the calibration file.
(See Chapter 11.3)
Also the correction values of directional couplers (CD-LAB/RF-LAB) and current
clamps (BCI-LAB) should be defined
(See Chapter 11.4)
9.3. Reference measurement
Define the test level for your test configuration via Reference measurement
(See chapter 12).
9.4. Testing
After this preparation you can start with testing.
(See chapter 13)
Figure 4 : Main menu with icon bar
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10.
File
10.1.
Display / Print
With this menu item you have the possibility to evaluate test results of every
measurement (reference measurement, uniformity (RF-LAB) or attenuation
measurement (CD-LAB).
Auto. Measurement (Graphic)
Graphic of test with automatic EUT-Checking is displayed.
You have all possibilities, display info panel, set markers, zooming or changing the
representation.
With the button Print you can print directly from the graphic display.
Auto. Measurement (Table)
Within this procedure you can choose an editor (notepad.exe, write.exe from
Windows, or any other) to load the test results with all test parameters and the
message header.
The results are displayed in a table.
Test with optical EUT-check
Within this procedure you can choose an editor (notepad.exe, write.exe from
Windows, or any other) to load the test results with all test parameters and the
message header.
Reference measurement
Graphic of reference measurement is displayed.
You have all possibilities, display info panel, set markers, zooming or changing the
representation.
With the button Print you can print directly from the graphic display.
Display test level diagram
You can display the test level diagram (*.bmp) from the Test with optical EUTmonitoring.
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Uniformity (RF-LAB only)
Graphic of uniformity measurement is displayed.
You have all possibilities, display info panel, set markers, zooming or changing the
representation.
With the button Print you can print directly from the graphic display.
Attenuation measurement (CD-LAB only)
Graphic of attenuation measurement is displayed.
You have all possibilities, display Info-Panel, set markers, zooming or changing
representation.
With the button Print you can print this graphic directly.
10.2.
Export data
With export Data you get the chance to transfer the test results to other programs
without a formatting effort.
Now you can do your own evaluation of the results.
This is useful to translate the files from the binary format of the test with automatic
EUT-Checking to ASCII-format.
Beneath the ASCII-format also MS Excel format can be created.
This format is also an ASCII-format, but with semicolon separator between the
columns, so you can import it easily to MS Excel.
10.3.
Test report header
Here you can edit and save two lines for the message header.
This message header is loaded when printing and displaying/editing test results.
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10.4.
Preferences
General settings, like units select, editor program selection, can be done in this
window.
Figure 5 : Settings in the option window
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VSWR-Test
With activated forward and reverse power meter the VSWR ratio is checked
at the first frequency of the test run.
vswr =
௙௢௥௪௔௥ௗ̴௣௢௪௘௥ା௥௘௩௘௥௦௘̴௣௢௪௘௥
௙௢௥௪௔௥ௗ̴௣௢௪௘௥ି௥௘௩௘௥௦௘̴௣௢௪௘௥
If the calculated vswr is higher than the defined ration in the preference
settings a warning will appear and you can choose to continue or to cancel.
Power regulation during tests
With activated power regulation either the forward power or the net power
(forward_power – reverse_power) is controlled according to the measured
power during reference measurement.
A relative plus tolerance is necessary to provide endless up and down
regulation at one frequency.
Repeating autom. Test
Here it is possible to repeat the automatic test a several times (enter
number) or endlessly (Cancel of test is possible any time).
One file is stored per run or if requested only one result file for all runs
(activation Only one result file)
Inversion of direction
If Inversion of direction is active the test is continued after the achievement
of the last frequency with descending frequency steps until the start
frequency is reached.
10.5.
Exit
Exits the program and returns to the operating system.
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11.
Devices
In this part the hardware of your test equipment is defined.
11.1.
Devices specification
11.1.1.
Display/Edit
A graphic with the devices specification appears (figure 6).
Figure 6 : Display and change devices configuration
The current devices specification is shown.
With a mouse click on the devices you can choose other devices from the list and
define their settings.
Attention: The selected GPIB-Address in the software must match with
the address of the device.
The selected serial interface must exist in the PC and must be free and
not allocate from other devices (for example the serial mouse).
With USB devices you were requested to give in the serial number of these devices.
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Figure 7 : Devices specification in RF-LAB
Beneath the choices of the devices and their interface and address you have to
select the maximum input level for the amplifier(s). (See figure 8).
Figure 8 : Maximum input level
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With the selection of the directional coupler and the field strength sensor you also
have to select the attenuation of the coupler and the sensor with a click on the
button beneath. The file select box opens and you can chose the correction file
(*.rkk or *.kor) you created before. (See figure 9).
Figure 9 : DC selection and attenuation
With a mouse click on the relay-symbol another window appears (see figure 10).
For each relay you have to choose the switching frequency. If it’s a one to three
relay switch you have to define both switching frequencies.
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Figure 10 : Selection of relay switch
With the selection No device, No amplifier, ... the device is taken out of your
device specification.
All adjustments that you make are stored (Save), so you have to do this only once
or since your device specification changes.
You also can save several configurations.
With Devices – Devices specification - Load you can load predefined
configurations.
This procedure is corresponding to CD-LAB (see figure 11).
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Figure 11 : Device specification in CD-LAB
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11.1.2.
Define new devices
If a passively device (devices without an interface, such as antenna, directional
coupler, coupling/decoupling networks, amplifiers) are not in the list you have the
possibility to expand the lists on your own.
With Devices – Device specification – Define new devices you can add
additional devices to the standard list (see figure 12).
Apply:
Applies the input to the list
Delete:
Deletes the marked index from the list.
Save:
Stores the items. They are now displayed in the device specification.
Cancel:
All changes are ignored.
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Figure 12 : Edit passive devices
11.2.
Sensor correction (RF-LAB)
To measure field strength a field strength meter with a sensor is used. This sensor
has a nonlinear characteristic over its frequency range. Therefore you have to give
in the correction values for each type of sensor.
With Device – Sensor correction you create a file with the correction factors over
the frequency range of the sensor.
The factor is the ratio between the true field strength En and the displayed filed
strength EAnz.
These values are documented in the calibration protocol of the manufacturer or the
calibration laboratory.
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Figure 13 : Correction values for field strength sensor
Apply:
Applies the frequencies with its correction value.
Delete:
Deletes the marked index from the list.
Save:
Stores inputs in a file with the extension *.kor.
Cancel:
All changes are ignored.
dB:
Correction factor in dB (logarithmic ratio between true and
displayed value).
E(ist) / E(anz): Linear ratio between true and displayed value.
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11.3.
PMS108x correction
If you are using a PMS1081 power meter you have to give in the filename with the
calibration values (*.cal). This file comes with the power meter on disk or CD.
Figure 14 : PMSxxxx correction
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11.4.
DC and current clamp correction
If you are using a directional coupler or in BCI-LAB current clamps you have to give
in the correction values within the program.
Correction curves can be edited under Devices – Correction DC or Correction
current clamp.
Figure 15 : Directional coupler and current clamp correction
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11.5.
Test
To verify the communication between PC and the connected devices there are
three test routines.
1. Test of testing configuration
The following devices are tested:
- Signal generator
- Power meter, if exits and selected
2. Test of reference configuration
The following devices are tested:
- Signal generator
- Reference measurement device (Field strength sensor in RF-LAB,
HF-millivoltmeter in CD-LAB/BCI-LAB)
- Power meter, if exits and selected
Test of uniformity configuration (RF-LAB)
The following devices are tested:
- Signal generator
- Field strength sensor
- Power meter, if exits and selected
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12.
Reference measurement
RF-LAB offers two methods to create reference files: Reference measurement and
reference calculation based on the homogeneity measurements. In CD-LAB and BCILAB measurement is used to create reference files.
12.1.
Reference measurement
Reference measurement is used to get the test level for your devices configuration.
Over the whole frequency range the components (amplifier, antenna /
coupling/decoupling devices, measurement area, cabling) are not linear. Therefore
you need a reference measurement for each device configuration and test level to
regulate it.
Only with this method you get reproducible results and tests.
Each reference measurement has to be done only once or if any change in your
device specification occurs (new amplifier, recalibration of devices).
Start reference measurement with Reference measurement.
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Figure 16 : Settings for reference measurement
Start- / Stop frequency:
Give in the Start- and Stop frequency.
Range 1 kHz – 18 GHz
Test level
Field strength: (RF-LAB)
1 – 200 V/m
Voltage: (CD-LAB)
1 – 200 V
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Current: (BCI-LAB)
1 – 500 mA
Tolerance:
0.1 – 10 V/m, V or mA
Regulation: With activated regulation the field strength, voltage or current is
controlled.
Const. level:
With a constant signal generator level you can monitor the field curve
of your equipment.
Maximum field strength is measured.
Max. level stop:
If this check box is marked reference measurement is stopped at max.
amplifier input level. Otherwise test level is stored and the program
steps to the next frequency and tries to reach the desired test level.
Approach from lower level:
With this button and its value beneath in reference measuring the field
strength or test voltage is regulated from below (negative value) or
from above (positive value).
In active mode and with a value of -3 dB, the signal generator level is
reduced 3 dB, before the next frequency is adjusted.
This method has some advantages, but be aware that reference
measurement takes longer with this option.
Step size:
Step size can be given in as percent or absolute (in the standards 1%
professed; in older standards you can test with 4% step size).
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Absolute:
If you activate absolute another windows opens (see figure 17).
Now you can give in frequency ranges or single frequencies.
These frequencies are regulated in the reference measurement.
Example:
You should test in the range of 20 - 200 MHz with 1 MHz
step size, in the range 200 - 1000 MHz with 5 MHz and
in the range 1000 – 3000 MHz with 10 MHz step size.
Therefore you have to give in the following values:
(See figure 17)
Frequency range [MHz]
20
200
200
1000
1000
3000
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Step size [MHz]
1
1
5
5
10
10
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Figure 17 : Input of absolute step size
Frequency range:
Frequency range with constant step size in MHz.
Single Frequencies:
Only user defined frequencies are adjusted.
Apply:
Applies the input to the list
Delete:
Deletes the marked index from the list.
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Save:
Stores the items.
Cancel:
All changes are ignored.
Correction factor (only CD-LAB and BCI-LAB):
Give in the correction factor.
According to IEC 1000-4-6, EN 61000-4-6 or ENV 50141 the ratio
between measured voltage (Umr) to open circuit voltage of the
amplifier (Uo) is 1/6 linear or 15,6 dB logarithm.
You can see this best with the following figure.
Figure 18 : Reference measurement in CD-LAB
In CD-LAB only linear correction factor is supported.
Minimum value is 0. Maximum 600.
Reference file:
Give in the reference file for saving the values of reference
measurement.
A file select box is opened when you double click or hit the return key.
The extension is limited to *.R6F (CD-LAB and BCI-LAB) or *.R3F
(RF-LAB).
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Cancel:
Stores the parameters and returns to the main menu.
OK:
Starts reference measurement.
The following graphic appears (see figure 19).
Figure 19 : Reference measurement
Cancel:
Asks to cancel the measurement and save the results
Pause:
Stops Reference measurement. With OK measurement continues.
INFO:
on/off
Click on this button to see the info box with all information
to the current measurement.
A second click closes the info box.
EVA:
on/off
During reference measurement this button is automatically active.
The window with the current values (Frequency, level and field
strength resp. Test voltage) is shown.
If power meters are selected in the device specification also forward- /
backward power is displayed.
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MODE:
on/off
This button activates the window for changing representation of the
graphic (see Evaluation of graphics).
The blinking POWER-LED gives information about the HF-power (Green
means ‚Power OFF‘, red means ‚Power ON‘).
After finishing the reference measurement the graphic is displayed again.
Reference files are stored in two files (*.r3f resp. *.r6f and *.r3k resp.
*.r6k).
If you want to copy or move the files you have to copy or move both files.
Explanations to graphic evaluation see Evaluation of graphics in chapter 15.
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12.2.
Calculate reference file (RF-LAB)
Based on the uniformity measurement reference files can be calculated.
You can change field strength and the start- / stop frequency (see figure 20).
Figure 20 : Calculate Reference files
For calculating it is assumed that the whole system behaves linear.
That's not true!!!
So don't alter the new filed strength too much from the field
strength in uniformity.
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If you increase field strength be aware that you need a lot more of power.
During calculation the max input level of your amplifier is checked.
Increasing amplifier input level above the limits causes an error message.
13.
Testing
You have the choice between full automatically testing (Testing with autom. EUTmonitoring) and Testing with optical EUT-monitoring.
Automatic testing is designed to measure up to four EUT-values for monitoring
during EMC test.
Data acquisition is done by up to four measurement devices selected out of a list of
available devices.
Vales are recorded, displayed and checked for allowed tolerances.
At the end of the test the program outputs the conformity statement for each
channel.
Your benefit: No need to monitor test piece during testing.
Test with optical EUT-monitoring is necessary if you have to check your EUT during
test.
Enter (status) comments for every frequency in place of measurement values.
Comments of previous frequencies are taken over unless you make other inputs.
Let you recover all comments stored using ring boxes via mouse or keyboard.
Your benefit: No need to retype recurring comments.
The results of testing with automatic EUT-monitoring are stored in a binary file
format (*.m6s, *.m6k in CD-LAB/BCI-LAB and *m3s, *.m3k in RF-LAB) and in
testing with optical EUT-monitoring in ASCII-format (*.cdl in CD-LAB/BCI-LAB and
*.rfl in RF-LAB).
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13.1.
Common settings in autom. test and test with optical EUT-monitoring
There are a lot common settings in automatic test and test with optical monitoring
as well.
Figure 21 : Settings for testing with optical EUT-monitoring
Start- / Stop frequency:
Enter the start- and stop frequency.
Range 1 kHz – 18 GHz
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Dwell time:
1 – 100 s (600 s in automatic test)
Modulation:
Setting of modulation mode
AM = Amplitude modulation
OFF = without modulation
PM = Pulse modulation
CW/AM = Continuous Wave / Amplitude modulation
Beneath there are the settings for Modulation amplitude a
modulation frequency.
Standard:
Set default values with one mouse click.
Frequency range 80 – 1000 MHz, Modulation AM 80 % 1 kHz,
Dwell time 3 s.
Peak conservation:
For peak test level conservation, the peak amplitudes of the
unmodulated and amplitude-modulated signals are defined to
be identical:
ECWpeak = EAMpeak
With this option the power before applying the modulation is
calculated in line with the following condition:
Power is controlled to this value and afterwards modulation is
applied to the signal.
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Reduction [dB]:
Before every frequency step the signal generator level is
reduced by the given level, in dB. Therefore power control
always starts from a lower level than expected.
Measurement file: Double click opens a file select box for choosing or creating a
measurement file.
Reference file:
Double click opens a file select box for choosing the reference
file.
Cancel:
Stores the parameters and returns to the main menu.
OK:
Starts testing with optical EUT-monitoring.
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13.2.
With optical EUT-monitoring
Additional settings for testing with optical EUT-monitoring.
Figure 22 : Settings for testing with optical EUT-monitoring
EUT-status without disturbance:
Documentation of EUT-status without disturbance
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Ext. program:
If this option is activated with the button ON at each frequency
the selected program is executed and only after the program
has finished the next frequency will be switched.
RTS/CTS Handshake over COM:
If a COM interface is selected the next frequency is only set
after the status bit on the RTS pin is active.
After starting test with OK the following window appears.
Figure 23 : Test with optical EUT-monitoring
Pause on/off:
Stops testing and switch off power.
Continue:
Steps to the next frequency after dwell time is over.
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Back:
Steps back to the last frequency.
Auto continue:
Steps forward to the next frequency automatically after dell time is over.
Cancel:
Cancel testing. You can save or ignore all data.
Level up:
Here you can increase test level.
The signal generator level is increased.
Level down:
Here you can decrease test level.
The signal generator level is decreased.
Standard:
With one mouse click the values of the reference measurement are
restored.
Attention:
If you increase or decrease the test level an interpolation is done.
The displayed value is calculated and not measured.
For calculating it is assumed that the whole system behaves linear.
All calculated values are marked in the test report.
Modulation: Turn on/off the modulation.
To reduce input and testing time, you can display and recall every existing status
line by operating arrow keys next to field.
Follow these steps:
Simply click on arrow key with mouse and existing list with status lines is output.
Acquire selected line with mouse click. With next frequency, new status is acquired.
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13.3.
With autom. EUT-monitoring
Additional settings for automatic testing.
Figure 24 : Settings for testing with autom. EUT-Control
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Meas. point 1-4:
Documentation of measuring points.
Tolerance check
on/off
If tolerance check for the values should be active you have to
click on this button.
A window appears with the tolerance settings for each value.
Figure 25 : Tolerance settings for each value
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After the start of the test the graphic with the values and their tolerance lines
appears.
Test runs automatically and shows you the test results when finished.
Figure 26 : Graphics of test with autom. EUT-monitoring
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13.4.
Settings for BCI-method
There are additional settings for the bulk current injection method which are only
available after the start of BCI-LAB.
The start windows for testing are only available via menu bar, not within the icon
bar as in CD-LAB and RF-LAB.
Figure 27 : Choice of testing via menu bar
Two fundamental methods have to be considered.
-
13.4.1.
Test with calibrated clamp
Test with current clamp
Test with calibrated clamp
Test with calibrated clamp is almost the same as in CD-LAB and RF-LAB.
You have to make a reference measurement in a defined calibration set.
With this data from the reference measurement you can start an automatic test or
the test with optical EUT-checking.
In BCI method the test current is also controlled during the test.
For parameter settings see chapter 13.1, 13.2 or 13.3.
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13.4.2.
Test with current clamp
With this method the test level is controlled during the test. There is no need to
have a reference file.
Therefore additional parameters have to be defined.
After reaching the selected test level modulation is applied and dwell time starts to
count down and then the next frequency is applied.
Figure 28 : Settings for test with optical EUT-monitoring with current clamp
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Test level
Current: 1 – 500 mA
Tolerance:
0.1 – 10 mA
Reduction [dB]:
With this button and its value beneath the test current for the next
frequency step is regulated from below.
In active mode and with a value of 3 dB, the signal generator level is
reduced 3 dB, before the next frequency is adjusted.
This method has some advantages, but be aware that reference
measurement takes longer with this option.
Step size:
Step size can be give in as percent or absolute (in the standards 1%
professed; in older standards you can test with 4% step size).
Absolute:
If you activate absolute another windows opens (see figure 17).
Now you can give in frequency ranges or single frequencies.
Limit test level:
If this check box is marked you can enter the maximum forward power
where the regulation to the test level stops. Program will then step to
the next frequency.
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14.
Options
14.1.
Uniformity
Immunity against high-frequency fields requires relative stability of the field strength
within a defined physical range (uniform area, vertical plane with typ. 1.5 m x 1.5 m)
to ensure the validity of test results.
Conditions should possibly be identical at each point within this plane and falling
below the required test level should be excluded (for this reason tolerance -0dB up
to +6dB according to IEC 1000-4-3 from 2006 and EN 61000-4-3 form 2006).
This proof that is specified in standards “Calibration of field” can be realized by
means of measuring technology only and is fully supported by RF-LAB.
Menu item Options - Uniformity enables the proof of uniformity as required by
standards.
14.1.1.
Measuring
At first you have to define the measured values for all points in this level.
You are prompted to input the file name under which the measured values and
parameters are to be stored. The extension of the homogeneity file must be
*.hom.
The window for setting the parameters for measuring the reference point
appears (de-tails about individual parameters can be found by actuating the
right-hand mouse key or F1 in the respective field) (see figure 19).
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Figure 29 : Settings for uniformity test
Start- / Stop frequency:
Enter the start- and stop frequency in the range of 1 kHz – 18
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GHz
Field strength: 1 – 200 V/m
Tolerance:
0.1 – 10 V/m
Step size:
Step size can be entered as percent (in the standards 1%
professed; in older standards you can test with 4% step size).
Tolerance range:
Range within this limits uniformity is checked.
Approach from lower level:
With this button and its value beneath in reference measuring
the field strength is regulated from below (negative value) or
from above (positive value).
In active mode and with a value of -3 dB, the signal generator
level is reduced 3 dB, before the next frequency is adjusted.
This method has some advantages, but be aware that
reference measurement takes longer with this option.
Sensor positioning:
Select an automatic sensor positing system for positioning the
field strength sensor automatically for all 16 points.
OK continues operation after input of all parameters.
The 16 (20) points to be measured are displayed.
At first you select the required reference point by clicking the left mouse button
on this point.
At this point the desired field strength is controlled over the frequency range.
Depending on the calibration method you have chosen the other points are
controlled to the same forward power or field strength as in the first point.
Constant forward power method has the advantage that all other points can be
measured.
With the constant field strength method it could happen that the desired field
strength is not able to reach because of missing power.
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Figure 30 : Selection of reference point in uniformity test
After completion of this run with control of field strength and graphical display
you select menu item Measure again and select the previously defined file
name.
The program immediately goes to graphical selection of the measuring points
and displays the ones already and those to be measured.
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Figure 31 : Selection of next point to be measured
You can now select a point by mouse-click, install the field strength sensor in
this point and start measurement.
The same values as with the reference point are used for control.
The defined field strengths are graphically displayed.
Repeat this procedure until all points are measured.
You may return to evaluation of achieved measuring results also at an earlier
time.
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Figure 32 : Uniformity measurement above 1 GHZ (Window method)
Figure 32 shows the selection of points in the independent windows method
used above 1 GHz. With a mouse click on one of the nine windows you can
define the window you want to measure. Only the four points of this selected
window could be measured.
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14.1.2.
Evaluation
Evaluation of measuring results is based upon IEC 1000-4-3 from 2006 (EN
61000-4-3 from 2006) and is used to state whether at least 75% of all
measuring points are within defined tolerance limits at relative frequency.
The procedure is described under item 6.2 of the standards and has been
realized in RF-LAB.
Evaluation is started by Options – Uniformity - Evaluation.
Select the file name (*.hom) to call the graphics containing all measured field
strength curves after the start of evaluation.
Figure 33 : Uniformity
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Figure 34 : Evaluation of worst-case 6dB and 10 dB deviations
Evaluation is performed in the background and may last for some minutes
depending on the number of measuring points, frequency range and
performance of your computer.
A file *.dok in ASCII format and a reference file (*.r3f) are created after
completion of the algorithm.
The *.dok-file contains the result of uniformity checking as well as the
parameters set and the units applied.
If more than 75% of all points are outside the tolerance range, these will be
listed in a table.
The second file, *.dat-file (ASCII-Format) contains all values of each point in a
table. It is opened directly afterward in the editor of your choice.
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Also the 0dB to +10 dB for maximum of 3% of the frequencies is checked (see
picture 30).
14.1.3.
Saturation test
Saturation test must be done according to the standard to show that the amplifier
system is not in saturation during the tests.
If you select this menu item you have to choose a *.hom file via file select box.
RF-LAB then calculates the homogeneity and the necessary forward power Pc for
the specified field strength.
Afterwards the measurement starts immediately.
The calculated power PC is adjusted and then the signal generator level is
decreased with 5.1 dB. The new forward power is now measured and the
difference between Pc and the new power is calculated.
This difference has to be between 3.1 and 5.1 dB to fulfill the standard.
The result is shown during the measurement in a graphical way and also stored in
a file with the extension *.saa.
14.2.
Attenuation measurement (CD-LB)
With this option you get the possibility to measure insertion loss of single elements
(inductors, capacitors, resistors ...), filters and filter circuits.
Now the existing hardware (signal generator, HF-millivoltmeter / Receiver) could
better be utilized, because with this software option you can take measurements as
a spectrum analyzer with tracking generator.
Another great advantage is the representation, documentation, analysis and
printing.
Measurement of insertion loss is according to CISPR 17 in the frequency range of
10 Hz up to 1000 MHz.
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Figure 35 : Setting of parameter for attenuation measurement
Start- / Stop frequency:
Enter start- and stop frequency in the range of 10 kHz – 18
GHz
Step size:
1 –100 % of the frequency before.
Dwell time:
1 – 100 s
Amplitude:
Signal generator level during standardization and attenuation
measurement.
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Max. resolution of measurement device:
The reachable dynamic range depends on the used measurement
device.
Therefore the maximum resolution of the measurement device has to
be fixed as a parameter in the software.
Using millivoltmeter from R&S with URV5-Z2 the maximum resolution
is nearly 40 dB (with Zero-Correction), so you get a dynamic range of
80 dB if your generator level is 120 dBμV.
With this dynamic range you can measure most of the filters.
Using millivoltmeter from R&S with URV5-Z4 the dynamic range is
about 60 dB (resolution of URV5-Z4 nearly 60 dBμV).
With PMS-Millivoltmeter max. resolution is -40 dB (67 dBμV), so
dynamic range is max. 53 dB.
Hardware-requirements:
Signal generator, HF-Millivoltmeter (or receiver / spectrum analyzer
could be used).
Use of an amplifier can increase dynamic but reduces reproducibility.
With the use of an amplifier you could damage your voltage
probe.
Standard:
Enter standard values with one mouse click.
Frequency range 0.10 – 100 MHz, dwell time 1 s, Amplitude
110 dBμV, max. resolution of measurement device 60 dBμV.
Standardization file:
Double click opens the file select box.
Enter file name to store the results in.
Attenuation file:
Double click opens the file select box.
Enter file name to store the results in.
Cancel:
Saves all parameters and returns to main menu.
OK:
Starts attenuation or standardization measurement.
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15.
Evaluation of graphics
All graphics from CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB could be evaluated afterwards.
You have several possibilities to do so.
Figure 36 : Evaluation of graphics
Modus
XMode:
Representation between linear and logarithm.
XGrid:
On and off X-grid
YGrid:
On and off Y-grid
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Manual:
Automatic:
Input fixes Y-Axe limits.
Software calculates best representation in Y-Axe automatically.
Name:
Activates the curve you want to change.
Plot Form:
Changes curve styles (thin line, points connected, single points,
vertical bars, thick lines, thin steps, thick steps)
Point Form: Changes point styles (empty square, solid square, diameter form,
simple point, no point)
Line Form:
Changes line styles (solid, dash, dot, dash dot, dash dot dot)
Color:
Setting of color to the selected curve.
Visible /
invisible:
You can hide or show curves
Evaluation
The button EVA on/off gives the opportunity to zoom an arbitrary range of the
graphics (ZOOM) or with (RESTORE) to reconstruct the original size.
With the help of the two green vertical lines you can choose the range that you want
to zoom.
Just click on the line near the marker on the lines a hold the mouse button.
Scaling in logarithm mode is limited to one decade.
For better zooming you should use linear mode (Button: MODE on – Xmode - lin).
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Figure 37 : Zooming of graphic details
In the evaluation mode it is possible to analyze the results point for point.
Just click on the red cursor on the graphics, hold the mouse button and
put him to the point of interest. If you release the mouse button the cursor
snaps the next point and the values are shown in the evaluation windows.
You also can move the cursor on the screen with the keyboard cursors.
Info
With the button Info on you can display every relevant information for the
measurement.
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16.
Help
CD-LAB / RF-LAB / BCI-LAB use two online-help systems.
x
x
17.
For each point of the menu there is a description in Help in the menu bar.
For the parameters in the parameter windows you can select the online help via
right mouse click of F1-key on the active field. (See picture 2).
Support
Even today’s software programs are not faultless by 100 % and therefore you might
detect errors in CD-LAB/RF-LAB/BCI-LAB.
Maybe you have ideas for improvements, have specific requirements or would
prefer use of a device that is not mentioned in the list?
In all of these cases please do not hesitate to contact
Frankonia EMC Test-Systems GmbH
directly.
Any comments and proposals from your side will be welcome.
Frankonia EMC Test-Systems GmbH
Daimlerstraße 17
91301 Forchheim
Tel. +49(0)9191/73666-0
Fax +49(0)9191/73666-20
Email: [email protected]
Internet: http://www.frankonia-emv.com
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