Audio magazine January 1958
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EO UA l II f R
AU
RIAA
• VOL U ME -C 0 N TO U R
0
SELECTOR
OBASS- TRE8lE.
TUN
I
N G
CO L~ l.p
It took Bogen creative engineering to develop the tuner that automatically "fine" tunes
itself. Just turn the tuning knob until you reach the fringe of the station you want (as indicated by the meter) -then let go. A light goes on to tell you that Bogen is taking over.
Walk away. The exclusive Auto-Lock tuning "zeros in" like a homing pigeon. Then it locks
out all unwanted s"ignals - however strong - and locks your station in for keeps. No
drift. Pin-point-perfect reception, even in areas where others fail. All this plus special
"squelch" circuit which eliminates interstation noise. Complete chassis: $249.50. Blonde
or mahogany-finished enclosure: $8.00.
David Bogen Company, Paramus, N. 1. •
A Division 01 The Siegler Corporation
Control s: Volume ; tuning; separate
bass and treble ; 7·position record equalizer; loudness 1 contour
selector; separate high and low frequency filters; funct ion selec·
tor. Colored dots ind icate avera ge listening settings . Aud io
response 10 cps to 100,000 cps ±0.5 db. Extreme sensitivity (2
microvolts for 30 db quieting on FM). Extremely low distortion
(0.4 % at rated output). Adjustable hum·eliminator. Tape recorder
output. Inputs for magnetic, ceramiC, and crystal cartridges.
Write for complete ca talog and / or send 25¢ for 56·page book
" Understanding High Fidelity" to Dept. G·l .
SPECIFICATIONS:
~
... because it sounds bette?'
MANUFACTURERS
OF
HIGH-FIDELITY
COMPONENTS.
PU8LIC
ADDRESS
EOUIPMENT
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AND
INTERCOMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS
VOL. 42 No.1
f ANtIARt', 1958
Successor to RADIO, Est. 1917.
E~ GINEERING
MUSIC
SOUND REPRODUCTION
t:. G. MeProud, Editor and Publisher
Henry A. Schober, Business Manager
Harrie K. Richardson, Associate Editor
Marie Caspe, Assist!lnt Editor
Janet M. Durgin, Production Manager
Edgar E. Newman, Circulatign Direetor
.'
•
_
, •
.;."
.'
• •' .
'
.
.I,
Sanford L. Cahn, Advertising Director
Special Representative-
-MEMIER·
""'lnUff
_
CH
ULTRA-LINEAR 11*
Ii. Thorpe Covington,
814 Lincoln St., Evanston, Ill.,
DAvis 8·8874
Mid West RepresentativeSanford R. Cowan, 300 W. 43rd St.,
New York 36, N. Y.
West Coast RepresentativeJam es C. Galloway
6535 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 48, Calif.
CONTENTS
Audioclinic-J oseph Giovanelli
Letters ....
Audio ETC-Edwa1"d Tatnall Canby
Editor's Review
The 88-50-A Low-Distortion 50-Watt Am plifiel'-W. I. H eath anil
G. R. Woodville
.......................... ............. ..
Amateur Sound Film Equipment-H. Thiele
Multichannel Audio Mixer-Preamplifier-Ha1'old R eecl
An Improved Loudness Control- J. P. Wentwo1·th
Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement and Calculation, Par t III-Ha1'vey
Fletch er and W. A. ll!hmson .
. . ..................................................... .
Equipment Review-PickeTing " I sophase" elect1'ostatic louclspeake1'-Heathkit W-6M 70-watt amplifie1'-Shw'e Model 330 "Unit1'on" and Model
430 "Commando" mic1'ophones
.... ................
Record Revue-Edwa1'd Tatnall Canby
About Music-Ha1'old Law1'ence
Jazz and All That-Chades A . Robe1·tson
Coming Events
New Products
New Literature
Advertising Index
2
6
12
16
19
24
27
30
32
42
48
56
58
63
64
67
78
COVER PHOTO-The device responsible for much of the current talk about
stereo phonograph records- the W esh'ex 3A Stereophonic Disc Recorder. Advance ball assembly and vacuum horn have been r emoved to show details of construction. CO~t1·t esy West1'ex C01·po1·ation .
AUDIO (title regIstered U. S. Pat. OIT.) Is published monthly by Radio Magazines. Inc., Henry A. Schober, PresIdent;
C. G. McProud, Secretary. ExecutIve and Editorial Omces, 204 Front St., MIneola, N. Y. Subscription rates-U. S.
Possessions, Canada and Mexico, $4.00 ror one year, $1.00 ror two years, all other countries, $5.00 per year. Single
copies 50¢. Printed in U. S. A. at Lancaster, Pa. All rights reserved. Entire contents copyright 1958 by Radio MagazInes,
Inc. Entered as Second Class MaUer February 9, 1950 at the Post OIDce, Lancaa\er, Pa. under the Act or March 3, 1819.
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC., P. O. Box 629, MINEOLA, N. Y.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Significantly better-of course-because it
features a new feedback system in the proven
Acro-Developed , Ultra-Linear circuit that
sets a new standard of stability in amplifier
performance.
Significantly better-the heart of the 60 watt
Ultra- Linear II amplifier is the Acrosound
TO·600 output transformer which provides a
degree of feedback una ffected by the impedance of the speaker system.
Significantly better- the Ultra- Linear II amplifier is supplied in kit form with all critical
wiring preassembled on a rugged printed
circuit board. . simple construction requires
only 2 hours' assembly time.
Significantly better in every way:
RATED POWER OUTPUT -60 walts
I M DISTORTION-less than 1% a t 60 walts
HARMON IC DISTORTION-Less than
1% between 20CPS and 20 KC at power
output within 1 DB of 60 walts
SENSITIVITY-1.8 volts RMS for 60 walts
output
OUTPUT IMPEDANCE-4, 8, 16 ohms
TUBES-2- EL34,1-GZ34,1-12AX7, 1-.12AU7
DAMPING FACTOR-Vari ab le . from 0.5
to 10.
HUM-90 DB. below rated output
SIZE-7" x 15" X 8" high
WEIGHT -30 Ibs.
Price $79.50 complete with all components.
$109.50 wired and assembled (slightly
higher in West)
• Patent Pending
: Pleasesend literatureonillu st rat ed Ultra-Linear II Amplifier:
Name ................ .... ...... ............... ......... .... ...... ... ...... .
Address
..... ... ................... .. ..... .. .. .... .... ..... ... .. .... .... ,.
City ..................................... ... Stote .................... ..
ACRO PRODUCTS COMPANY
369 SHURS LANE , PHILADELPHIA 28, PA .
AUDIOCLINIC ??
JOSEPH GIOVANELLI 1"
Matching Transfo rmer Impedances
What's the difference
between"stereophonic"
and ''binaural" sound?
Both of these words, of course, refer to
the " new dimension" in record ed so und .
A two-channel tape is recorded wi th two
separate microphones and played back
through two separate reproducing systems, giving sound that is startlingly
alive.
The two terms-stereo and binaural
- are often used interchan geably. But.
t()chnically speaking, th ere is a difference. In true binaural sound, the mi crophones must be spaced t he same distance apart as the human ears, an d
playback is through binaural earphones
- one sound u'ack going to each ear. In
stereophonic so und , there are no set
r ules about microphone placement and
playback is through loudspeaker s, where
the sound tracks are mixed acousti cally.
Of the two methods, stel"eO is by far
the more popular. Hi-Fi enthusiasts
everywher e are jumpin g on the stereo
bandwagon . For example, one leading
tape r ecorder manufacturer i s now selling 3 ster eo machines to every 2 monaural uni ts. A year ago the rati o was
r eversed. And 2 years ago, they di dn't
even have a ster eo machine.
Why all thi s enthusiasm for ster eo?
Because today listeners ar e demanding
richer, more life-like sound r eproduction. That's also the r eason why more
and more people ar e using Audiotape.
T hey have found that no tape r ecording
can be any better than the tape it is
made on.
An d they know, too, that n o other
tape can match th e consistent, uniform
quality found in all seven types of
Audiotape. F or complete inform ation on
t he Audi otape line, write for Bulletin
No. 250. Audio Devices, Inc., Dep t. AA,
444 Madison Ave., New York 22, N. Y.
,;, one of a series
Q. The ianpedance of my phonogl'aph cal'tridge is vel'y low, l'esulting in outP1~t vo lt age insufficient to dr'ive 'my pl·eamplifiel·.
I t hel'e fore l·esol·ted t o the use of a matching tmnsf01·m er. How ever, I noticed that
when the secondm'y is t erminated in a l'esist ance of the pl'oper value, less output is
obtained t han is had when t he tmnsfol''f)wr
is terminated in a l'esistance several times
lm'ger than t hat of its nominal secondary
impedance. W hat is the significance of
t hese findings ? S. Kalm er, New YOTk Oity
A. We match transformel! impedan ces
mainly wit h t he idea of t ransferrin g as
much power f l'Om one circuit t o another as
possible. 'Phis can be done only when t he
transformer is terminated in a r esist ance
equal to t he nominal impedance of t he
transformer. H owever, a vacuum tube is
not a power sensitive device but is, r at her,
voltage actuated. A transformer will, when
terminated in a resist ance higher t han its
pr opel' terminating resistor deliver a higher
voltage into t hat resistance t han it would
int o its correct value. Altho ugh this hap pens, m aximu m power is no longer t r ansf erred. While m ~'{imum voltage will occm
when t he t r ansformer is termiuated in a
r esistance at least five times its nominal
rating, t he low-frequency r esponse is optimum only when th e t r an sfo rmer is pr operly
terminat ed, since t he low fr equency r esponse is det ermined in part by t he current
flowing in the windings of the t ransfo rmer.
Exactly what will happen to t he response
var ies from uuit to unit and so, no figure
can be given. If t he additi onal gain is no t
required, terminat e t he t r ansformer in its
propel' load. If it is needed, adj ust ment
of the b ass controls should be carried out
by means of trial and errol'.
Fiel d Coil Spea ke rs
Q. Field coil spea7ceTs never seem to be
used fOI' high fi delity sound l·epI·oduction.
W hy ? C_ E . Gm'ry, Caruthersville, Missou!'i .
A. Field coil sp eakers r equir e bulky extem al circuitry to apply t he necessary ripple-free power to actuate t he magnet. It
is, of course, p ossible to substitute t he
field coil for the choke in an existing amplifier, b nt t his would mean that long leads
would b e needed to carry t he high-voltage
d.c. to the speaker field, which arrangement
might prove danger ous. Although these
speakers ar e very efficient , alloys have b een
developed wh ich allow p.m. speakers to ap proach the high efficiency of their predecessors.
Amplifier Powe r
Q. I've hem'd a great deal lately abou t
ampli fier powel', to t he efJ ect t hat m01'e is
always bette!', pI'ovided th at 'the power 'is
clean at highel' levels. W 01tld t his be tnte
f OI' a spea7ce?' sys"tem of high efficienoy, such
as a Klipschol'n? I'm using a 3D-watt amplifier to f eed s1wh a syst em bItt, if 50
watts of compamble quality would give nte
bettel' perfonnance, I would lilee to make
t il e change. J . H . Moor e, Tulsa, Oklahoma
A. So long as t he p ower amplifi er i s of
goo d quality and i s operat ed well b elow
its maximum capabilities and is f ed into a
* 3420 N ew7cil'7e Ave., Brooklyn 3, N. Y .
2
speaker of r easonably good efficiency, ther e
is no need to substit ute one of higher p ower
output cap abiliti es for that which you a re
now using . H owever, if your listening environment i s such that t his amplifier mnst
be run too close to its cap acity, then I
should certainly suggest t hat a mor e powerful nnit b e subst it uted. Be sur e t hat the
speaker syst em is capable of continuons
op er ation at t he highest program level to
be used, and in f a ct , some tolerance should
be left to account fo r transient ' peaks. If
your speaker system cannot cope with the
demands t o be placed upon it, additional
sp eakers should be used which can take up
t he p ower and which can pl'ovi de bet ter
sound dispersion, t oo.
Matching Impedances
Q. H ow oan I go ab01d matching i?nIJedano e of a tune!' and the output 01' input imp edance of an ampli fier or preamplifiel' ? H. T. Sutoliffer, R edwood Ci ty, Cal.
A. In audio work, it is rarely necessary
to know the exact input or out put impedance of a piece of equipment, t hough
t hat of t he out put st age of a power amplifier an d of some low-impedance input
stages is somewhat m or e crit ical. With
straight RC circuit ry, all t hat is necessary
is fo r the impedance of a stage being sup- -,
plied wit h signal t o be a t least t wice th at
of t he driver . I usually establish this mtio
a t between fi ve and t en to one. Cathode
followers a re of low impedance usually, and
can b e easily f ed into amplifiers of many
times t heir impedance without the u se of
mat ching equipment. The actual impedan ce
of a cathode follower depends upon t he
t ube employed and upon the cathode r esistor. The input impedance to a p articular
amplifier or amplifier stage i s r oughly t hat
of t he load int o which t he coupling capacitor works. F or example,' the output
imp edance of a discriminator of an F M
t uner is approximat ely t hat of t he r esistance between cathode and gr ound of the
di ode f r om which audio is derived "(abou t
100,000 ohms, usually ) _ The coupling capacitor should be 0~0 2 :/-tf. 0 1' lar ger . The
output of t he capacitor should be terminated in a stage wh ose input impedance is
approximately 0.5 megohm.
The outp ut of a conventional grounded
cathode a.c. amplifier is r oughly that of, t he
p late load resistor, and again, the value of
t he cap acitor used to couple th e sig nal to
t he next stage can be neglect ed.
Capa citive Reactance
Q. I have a motol' and a medium-qjtali'ty
pickup ann. R ecen tly I exchanged 'f)ty cryst al fo!' a magnet ic pickup. This wi ll give
'f)te a wider f l'equency mnge, but at a lowel'
voltage. On this basis, the chances al'e
gl'eater fOI' distol·tion t o occur in th e fonn
of 7mm fields pToduced by t he motol·. I n
11101'e powel-[ul amp lifien, some leads al'e
shieldecZ, 'the shield being gl'ounded . However, if the shield do es not have a fail'Zy
Zal'ge dia?net e!' compal'ed to t hat of t he
cent er conductor, some capacit'ive I'eactanco
will be pl-esent. This 't ends to aUenuate t he
higher frequencies. I t seemed to me t hat I
shou ld use shielcZed coaxial wil'e as lead-in
f or the magnetic ca!'tridge t o protect it
fr om t he magnetio fie ld of t he motol·. W ill
t he capaoitive reactance t end t o cancel t he
advantages of the shield?
AUD IO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
He who is fortunate enough to oWn the Garrard 301 Transcription Turntable
and the Garrard TPA/l0 Tone Arm can enjoy the unique pleasure of
knowing that his is the finest •.. the handsomest ... record.playing
combination in the entire high fidelity galaxy.
.
A pair of great products .•• grel,lt
because they reflect 35 years
of skill and the standards
of leadership. No gadgets ...
no compromises . .. only
the time-proven features
which guarantee
continuing, undeviating
excellence.
WORLD"S FINEST
RECORD PLAYING
EQUIPMENT
~Mode1301
,
' .
PROFESSIONAL
Model TPA/IO
TRANSCRIPTION
TONE ARM
~
',,",, . ""'.,
TRANSCRIPTION TURNTABLE
• Features continuously variable control of each speed ...
the record can be "tuned" to match a musical instrument
• Heavy·duty 4·pole shaded motor is entirely Garrard·built
• Cast aluminum turntable is a full 6lI~ lb. • . .
dynamic~lly·balanced
• Motor and connected levers are · completely isolated
from unit by an exclusive damping system of tension.
compression springs
• Exclusive built·in pressure lubrication system
• Pe,formance of each 301 is certift~ with a "rllten
individual test Card
$89.00
Model RC9S
.J -!{)leed ~uner
Auto-.Manual
......._~~;Oj
Chungcr
$67.50
For information. write: Dept. GA.1S
Model RCB8
4-~pcccl
ncluxC
~ ."lIto-~lal1l1al
"""'~-.~~ Ch.n~cr
$54.50
• Built to insure professional quality performance, with
traversing and vertical friction reduced to absolute
minimum by special cone· type ball· bearing pivots,
as in the ftnest chronometers
• Takes any cartridge
• fits into more installations than any other profes·
sional tone arm, since it is adjustable in length and
tracking angle • . • plays up to a full 16" record
• Simple to install. with specially designed templafes
$24.50
Model RC121
A~---'~"- 4-Speed Mixer
Auto.Manu\l1
Chltnger
$42.50
~
Model T MklI
.~
•
4¥Specd
,'; .
Manual Player
:::: ,
.~--,
$32.50
GARRARD SALES CORPORATION, PORT WASHINGTON, N. y~
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COM ING
To Your (ity ...
SH OWS
HIGH FIDELITY
SEE and HEAR the latest in HIGH FIDELITY from
leading high fidelity manufacturers .. .
Don't miss these public showings
of Hi-Fi Equipment . . . from
the most economical units for the
budget-minded t o spectacular
home music theatres . . . compare and enjoy them all.
*Complete H i-Fi Systems and
Components.
*Amplifiers - Pre-Amplifiers FM-AM Tuners - Turntables
and Record Changers - Phono
Cartridges - Microphones
Music Control Centers
Speakers.
*Speaker Enclosures and Equipment Cabinets - Finished and
Assembled or Do-It-Yourself
Kits.
A. Your statements about capacitive reo
actance of shielded cables are, of coure,
true. However, if the length of such cables
is kept as . short as possible, the reactance
at audio frequencies as compared to the
impedance of the cartridge used is high.
Therefore, the wide frequency range of
such cartridges is not shunted, and can be
passed on to your preamplifier. I caunot
specify the exact length of cable which
can be used without losses because so much
depends upon the type of cable and upon
the impedance of the cartridge used. Mag·
netic cartridges used in modern home
music systems range in impedance from an
ohm or two to around fifty thousand ohms.
The higher the impedance, the shorter th e
length of cable which can be tolerated.
RMS
Q. What is EMS? Name withheld.
A. Measurements on the a.c. supply voltage used for home illumination shows it
to be 115 volts, approximately. But this
voltage is constantly varying from zero to
a maximum value, back to zero, to an
equal maximum of opposite sign, then back
to zero, to begin the cycle over again_ Since
the maximum values of a.c_ voltage are
instantaneous, the ejf ective voltage is less
than this maximum. While the maximum
voltage appearing across your house wiring
system may be 150 volts, it is no more
effective in doing work than an equivalent
d.c. voltage of 115 volts. Most a.c. voltmeters are calibrated to indicate this effective value. It can be shown that this effective value is 0.707 of the maximum value
(with a sine wave), while the maximum
value is 1.414 times the effective value.
This is arrived at in the following manner:
As many instantaneous voltages along a
cycle as practical are first squared, then
added up, divided by the number of points
involved, and the square root is extracted.
It is from this process that we get the
term RMS, root mean square. All we are
doing is taking an aver age but, because of
the sinusoidal nature of the alternating
voltages, we must use squares and square
roots as well as the standard means of
t aking an average.
Cable Lengths
THREE FULL DAYS OF CONTINUOUS DEMONSTRAT IONS
FROM 1 P.M. TO 10 P.M. FOR EACH SHOW
Rigo Spring Shows 1958
Jan. 10, 11, 12
Jan. 17, 18, 19
Jan. 24,25,26
Feb. 7,8,9
March 7, 8, 9
March 21, 22, 23
March 28, 29, 30
M inneapolis
Indianapolis
Buffalo
Denver
Pittsburgh
Newark
Baltimore
Hotel Dyckman
Hotel Antlers
Hotel Statler
Hotel Cosmopolitan
Hotel Penn-Sheraton
Hotel Robert Treat
Hotel Lord Baltimore
ADMISSION 50¢
RICiO Enterprises Inc. soo N. Dea rborn , Chicago 10, III .
4
Q. What are the maximum lengths of
cable which may be attached to a loudspeake?' of a given impedance without a
loss of more than 0.1 db? J. Kass, .tI.sbul'Y
Park, New Jersey
A. There are two variables which must
be taken into account in order to answer
this question. One is the impedance of the
speaker and the other is the resistance of
the connecting cable. For a given length
of cable, it must be kept in mind that a
cable is composed of two separate conductors, each of which contains a specific
resistance per writ length. The resistance
is inversely pI'oportional to wire diameter.
The following table shows the length of a
cable used for connecting speakers to amTABLE I
Lin e Imped a nce i n Ohms
W ire
Cuage
4
8
16
150
600
22
20
18
16
20'
30'
50'
80'
40'
60'
100'
160'
80'
120'
200'
320'
800'
1000'
1600'
2400'
3200'
4000'
plifiers with impedances ranging from 4
ohms to 500 ohms. The table represents th e
actual physical length of line, rather tll an
the lengths of the two conductors laid
end to end.
1£
AU DIO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
Not until Integrand could you buy
SERVO FIDELITY
... the first application of servo principles
. to high fidelity. Without it, your system
cannot correct for distortions inherent in
every loudspeaker. With it, distortion
coming from magnetic nonlinearities,
room acoustics, cabinet resonances and
speaker suspension design is completely
eliminated ... automatically.
The Integrand servo mechanism instantaneously feeds data from speakers to amplifiers to correct this distortion before it
begins ... just as the automatic pilot in a
plane compensates for wind and magnetic
variation. Audio engineers have recognized the servo principle for years, but
now, for the first time, Integrand makes it
available to you in a complete amplifierspeaker system.
Servo-Fidelity systems actually produce
less distortion in the overall sound than
many good amplifiers under laboratory
test conditions. As an example, take the
new stereo unit illustrated below. It
employs six matched speakers, each one
powered by a transformerless, direct
coupled amplifier. Information from each
speaker is fed back to its own servo amplifier. Distortion is guaranteed to be less
than 1 per cent Over the entire audio range
when operated at 20 electrical watts. Crossovers and amplifiers are fully transistored.
Every Integrand Servo Speaker-Amplifier
System is unconditionally guaranteed for
2000 hours of operation (approximately
5 years).
are you sure you have the best?
Model 372 Stereo Servo Speaker-Amplifier System is housed in a handsome contemporary cabinet ... 44" wide x 30" high
x 20" deep. Available in a selection of fine
hand-rubbed Walnut, Teakwood or Limba.
Walnut . .. $595.00 Monaural and other
Integrand Servo Systems from $395.00
(slightly higher in the West). All prices
and specifications subject to change without notice.
Listen to the Integrand with Servo-Fidelity
and decide for yourself whether or not you
do have the best. Write for the name of the
Integrand Franchised Dealer nearest you.
We'll also send you complete specifications, test data and a summary of comments by experts in the field of high
fidelity. Write today to :
BRAND PRODUCTS, INC.
Department A-I Westbury, N. Y.
INTEGRANQ
SERVO
AUDIO
•
SPEAKER
AMPLIFIER
SYSTEM
5
JANUARY, 1958
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LETTERS
Comments abou t Eta oin Shrdl u
the
miracle
cartridge
that
o
[]
D
o
M IRATWIN
MIRATWIN is as smooth and sensitive a
cartridge as man can make . It faithfully
transmits the comp l ete recorded so und.
And it is the most perfectly-shielded cartridge made .. . to entirely eliminate hum!
So, if you have a hi- fi system, bri ng out
its fi nest tonal va lues with MI RA TWI N.
Fits all standard ton e arms, has instant
stylus rep lacement.
MIRATWIN
zxcv bn?n,.
?nst -l single
with diamond s ty lus fo r LP
o r standa rd d iamo n d s ty lu s
F 01'1ne?'ly $34 .50
M IRATWIN
NOW $26.50
?nst-2 tU?'nove?'
with sapph ire sty lus fo r stand a rd and
diam o n d stylus fo r m ic rogroove
F O?'?ne?-ly $'45.00
THANSIENT
RESPONSE
NOW $31.50
U NSu nPAS SE D
-
w it h in 2 db from 30 to over 20.000 cycles
at 33 ¥., rpm. OUTPUT - at 1,000 cycles,
55 mv for 33 11.3 l'ptn; 45 mv for 78 rpm at
a r ecorded veloc ity of 10 em/sec. , a great
improvement in signa l- to- no ise ra t io. DISTORTION - one of the low est ever achieved
in a cartridge. HUM-high outp ut actuall y
produces a 6 to 8 db improvement in hum
ratio of associated amp li fi e l"s. MAGNE TIC
PULL - too small to m easure with either
magnetic or non-magnetic turntables .
TRACK IN G perfect even a t very high
MIRATWIN CARTR I DGES
MST- I D 8-ingle D iamond _ __ $ 26.50
MST-I S Single Sa1'1Jhire _ _ _ 10.00
MST-2DDual- l SaplJh.,1 Diam. _31.50
MST-2A Dllal Sa1'1Jhi1"e
15.00
a mpli tude p eaks with a ll speeds. NEEDLE
CHATTER - completely negat ive: probably
the lowest ever achieved. MOUNTING u nu sua ll y simpl e. TROPICALI ZED : MIRATWI N cartridges a re especially treated to
remain unaffected by temperature and
humidity changes: mainta in t heir .excelle nceof pel'fO}'IlHlllCe anywhere.PL us . .. the
easi es t stulus Teplace'HIcnt 1Jou'v e eve?' seC'1/
. .. good reason why an inde pendent testing
laboratory stated t hat t he new MIRA TWIN
exceeds its own specifications"! Comp lete with holder for quick installation.
U
REPLACEMENT S TYLI
DM-2 Micro-Diamond
$16 .5 0
DN-2 Standard Dia1l/olld _ _ _ 16.5 0
SM-2 Micro-Sa1Jphire
5.0 0
SN-2 Stallda1'd Sa.pjJhire _ __ _ 3.0 0
F AR AHEAD> TilE FINEST ay FAR
AUDIOGERSH CO RP.
Last month we headed the letter tellin g
us of some errors in the previous issue ,vith
the words above, and queried readers to
fin d out if anyone was interested in know ing the source of this particular grouping
of letters. Actually, those who have little
to do with the graphic arts couldn't be
expect ed to know wher e these words come
from. One reader suggested that it might
be the order of frequency of appearance
of the letters of the alpha bet in norm al
Ellglish words, and he is partly right, since
the frequ ency undoubtedly governs thei!'
placement on the linotype keyboard.
This keyboard is greatly different from
that of a typewriter. It consists of fifteen
colllmns of six letters each. The left third
consists of lower case letters, the !Ilidd]!'
third with small capitals, and the righ t
wit h large capitals-number s, punctuation
marks, combination letters, and specia]
characters taking up the number above 2(;
in each third.
Starting at the top, the first column
contains the letters e, t, a, 0, i, and n,
while the second column contains tbe s, h,
r, d, l, and u. When a linotype operator
makes a mistake in a line, for example,
he must fill it out with some letters in
order to clear the machine so he can r eset
the line correctly. Rather than run in
many of the same characters, as one woulel
do on a typewriter, he drops in one or two
matrices (the matrix is the brass "pattern"
ill which the l etter is cast in lead ) of a
nllmber of differ ent letters to avoid 1't1l1 niug _the magazine out of .matrices (commonly called "mats" ) for anyon e lette!'"
The easiest way to do this is to run :1
finger down one of th e colunms and th en
another until the line is filled out, and t he
two left columns seem to be easier to I'en,ch
-aside from having a somewh at larger
number of mats than some of the oth er
columns. On a typewriter, for instance,
one would rlln a finger along a row, if t he
same procedure were necessary, and wou ld
therefore get qwertyuiop, asdfghj7cl;, and
51 4 Broadway, New York 12, N. Y.
W O R TH 6 - 0800
6
While this may seem a lengthly explanation, enollgh readers co mmented on the
words to warrant a thorough coverage.
We cannot recall ever having seen an)'
description of the why and wherefore of
these words anywhere in print, and we
hope readers will find this one illuminating.
Better someone should have finished out
a line on either typewriter or linotype and
starteel over, (or the proofreader should
have caught them), for we have the follo,ving comment from one reader:
Sm:
As a whole, Mr. George F. Coopel"s
l'll'ticle "Which Tube Shall I Use~ " in the
Tovember issue is excellent and well written.
However, t he printing of the matbematics leaves a bit of ro om for improvement. On p age 30, the lower case Greek
letter alpha is used both as a coefficien t
of eg in form ulas ( 1 ) and (2) and also in
formula (2) an d in the integr al for l. to
indicate the deriva t ives or differentials.
While t his is not confusing if ' very ca1-efu Uy ?'ead, it could have been avoided
easily_
Again a t the top of page 66 the gain
formula should have read:
p..Rd [.R,. + rp + ( ~t+1) .R,,].
Omission of the one plus sign wollld lead
to a very erroneous r esult.
AUD IO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY , 1958
chairside enclosure kit
NEW
This beautifu l equipment enclosure will
make your hi -fi system as attractive as any
factory -built professionally-finished unit. Smartl y designed for maximum fle xibility and com pactness co nsistent wi th attracti ve appearance, this enclos ure is intended to house the AM and FM tuners
(BC-1A and FM-3A) and the WA- P2 preamplifier, along wi th the
majority of record cha ng ers, whic h will fit in the space provided.
Adequate space is also provided for any of the Heathkit amp lifi ers
designed to operate with the WA- P2. Durin g co nstructio n the ti lt-out
shelf and lift-top lid can be in stall ed on either right or left side as de:
sired. Cabinet is constru cted of sturdy, ve nee r-surfaced fu rnituregrad e plywood y," and X" thick. All parts are precut and predrilled
fo r easy assembly. Contemporary ava ilable in birch or mahogany,
traditional in mahogany only. Beautiful hardware suppli ed to match
each style. Dimensi ons are 18" W x 24" H x 35Y," D. Shpg. Wt. 46 1bs.
CONTEMPORARY
CE-1T Mahog any
Be sure to specify
model you prefer
TRADITIONAL
HEATHKIT
HEATHKIT
high fidelity FM tuner kit
broadband AM tuner kit
For noise and static free sound reception, this FM tuner is your least
expensive sou rc e of high fi de lity mate ri al. Efficient circuit design
features stablized oscillator circu it to eli minate drift after wa rm-up
and broadband IF ci rcuits assu re full fidelity with high sensiti vity. A ll
tunabl e co mponents are prealigned so it is ready for ope rati on as soon
as constru ction is co mpl eted. The edge -illuminated slid e rul e dial is
clearly numbered for easy tunin g. Covers co mplete FM band from
88 to 108 mc. Shp g. Wt. 8lbs.
Thi s tuner differs from an ordina ry AM rad io in that it has been designed especially for high fidelity. A specia l detector is incorpora ted
and the IF ci rcu its are "broadbanded" fo r low sig nal distortion. Sen siti vity and se lectivity are exce ll ent and Quiet performance is assured
by a hi gh signa l-to-noise ratio . All tunable compone nts are prea li gned
before shi pment. Incorpo rates automatic volu me control , two outputs,
and two antenna inputs. An edge- li ghted glass slide ru le dial all ows
easy tunin g. You r "best buy" i n an AM tun er. Shpg . Wt. 9 Ibs.
MODEL FM-3A $25_95 (with cabinet)
MODEL BC-1A $25.95 (with cabinet)
HEATHKIT
:m.aster control prea:m.plifier kit
pioneer in
" do-it-yourself"
electronics
;
HEATH
AUDIO
•
Designed as t he "maste r co ntrol " for use w ith any of th e Heath kit
Williamson-type amplifiers, the WA-P2 provides the necessary compen satio n, ton e, and vo lume cont rols to prop erl y amplify and condition a
signal before send ing it to the amp lif ier. Extend ed frequency response of
± 1y, db from 15 to 35,000 CPS w ill do full ju stice to the fin est program
material. Features eq uali zation for LP, RIAA, A ES, and earl y 78 records.
Fi ve switch-selected in puts with separate level controls. Separate bass
and treble controls, and vo lume control on front panel. Very attractively
styled, and an exceptio nal dollar va lu e. Shpg . Wt. 7 Ibs.
D~bSidiary of Daystrom, Inc_
COMPANY
.
MODEL WA-P2 $19.75 (with cabinet)
BENTON HARBOR 25, MICHIGAN
9
JANUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
MODEL W-5M
high fidelity aIllplifier kits
To provide you w ith an ampl ifier of top -f li ght performa nce,
yet at th e lowest possible cost, Heath has combine d t he
latest des ign t ech ni ques wi t h t he hi ghest qualit y mate ri als
to bring you the W-5M. As a criti ca l listene r yo u wi ll t hrill
to the near-d istortionless repro du ct ion f rom one of t he
most ou tstanding high fide lity amplifie rs avai lable today.
The high peak-power handling ca pabilities of the W-5M
guarantee you faithfu l reproduct ion w ith any high f idelity
syst em. The W-.5M is a mu st if yo u des ire qu alit y plu s
economy ! Not e: Heathkit WA -P2 preamplifi er recommended. Shpg . Wt. 31 lbs.
HEATHKIT DUAL-CHASSIS
MODEL W3-AM
MODEL W-6M
For an ampl if ier of increased power to keep pace with the
growin g ca pacities of yo ur hi gh f idelity syste m, Heath
provid es yo u with the Heathkit W-6M . Recog ni zin g t hat as
loud speake r systems imp rove and versat ility in recordin gs
approach a dynam ic range close to the concert hall itself,
Heath brings to you an ampl ifier capable of supplying
plenty of rese rve power without distortion. If you are looking for a high powered amp lif ier of outstandin g quality,
yet at a pri ce we ll within you r reac h, t he W-6M is for yo u !
Note: Heat hkit mode l WA -P2 preamplifier recom mended .
Shpg. Wt. 52 Ibs.
HEATHKIT SINGLE-CHASSIS
MODEL W 4- AM
high fidelity aIllplifier kits
One of the greatest deve lopments in modern hi-fi reproduction was
the advent of the Wi ll iamson amp lifier ci rcuit. Now Heath offe rs
you a 20-watt ampl ifier incorporat ing all of the advantages of
Williamson circuit simplicity with a Qua lity of performance considered by many to surpass the origina l Wi ll iamson . Affording you
flexibility i n custom installations, the W3 -AM power supp ly and
amp li f ier stages a re on separate c hassis all owi ng them to be
mounted side by side or one above the other as you des ire. Here
is a low cost amp lifier of ideal versatility. Shpg . Wt. 29 Ibs ..
HEATHKIT
high fidelity
am.plifier kit
In hi s search fo r t he " pe rfect" amp lifier. W il liamson brough t to
the wo rl d a now-famous circuit whic h. after eig ht yea rs. sti ll ac counts for by fa r the largest percentage of power amp lifiers in use
today. Heath brings to you in the W4 -AM a 20 -watt ampli fier incorporating a ll the improvements resulting from this unequa ll ed
background. Th ousands of sat i sf i ed use rs of t he Heath kit W illi amson- type amp li fiers a re amazed by its outstandi ng pe rfo rmance. Fo r many pleasure -fi ll ed hou rs of li sten i ng enjoyment
th is Heathkit is hard to beat. Shpg. Wt. 28 Ibs.
HEATHKIT
electronic
crossover kit
MODEL XO-1
MODEL A-9C
For maximum performance and ve rsatility at th e lowest
possib le cost the Heathkit mode l A -9C 20-watt aud io
amplifier offers you a tremendo us hi-f i value. Whether fo r
you r home install atio n or public address requi reme nts
t his powe r-packe d ki t answe rs eve ry nee d and co ntain s
many features un us ual in in strume nts of t his pri ce ra nge.
Th e preamplifier, main amp lifie r and power supp ly are all
on one chassis providing a ve ry compact and economical
package. A very inexpens ive way to start you on the road
to true hi-f i enjoyment. Shpg . Wt. 23 Ibs.
One of the most exc it ing imp rovements yo u ca n make in
yo ur hi-fi system is the add itio n of this Heathkit Crossove r
model XO -1. This un ique kit separates hig h and low f requencies and feeds t hem thro ugh two amplifiers into
se parat e speake rs. Because of its locati on ahea d of th e
main ampl ifi ers, 1M distorti on and match in g prob lems are
vi rt ually elim inated. Crossover freque ncies for each chan nel are 100, 200, 400, 700, 1200,2000 and 3500 CPS. Amazing ve rsatility at a mode rate cost. Note: Not fo r use with
Heat hkit Legato Speaker System. Shpg. Wt. 6 Ibs .
AUDIO
10
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
"LEGATO"
high fidelity speak er systeIn kit
Wrap yo urse lf in a bla nket of hi gh f idelity music in its t rue fo rm. Thrill to
sparkling treb le to nes,.rich, reso nant bass cho rds or t he sp ine-t in gling
clash of percussio n instru me nts in thi s masterpi ece of sound reprod uct ion. In the creat ion of the Legato no stone has bee n left unturned to bri ng
yo u near-perfection in performa nce and shee r bea uty of style. Th e secret
of the Legato's phenomenal success is its un ique balance of soun d. The
carefu l phasing of high and low f requency dri ve rs takes you on a me lodic
toboggan ri de from the heights of 20,000 CPS into the low 20's without t he
sli ght est bump or fade along the way. T he elegant simp li city of style will
comp leme nt you r fu rni shi ngs in any part of th e home. No elect ro ni c kn owhow, no woodwork ing experience required fo r construction . Just follow
clea rly illustrated step-by-step instructions . We are proud to present the
Legato- we know you will be proud to own it ! Shpg. Wt. 195 Ibs.
MODEL HH-1-C
(imported white birch)
MODEL HH-1-CM
(African mahogany)
.. .. . .. . ................ ..
HEATHKIT
HEATHKIT
BASIC RANGE
RANGE EXTENDING
high fidelity speaker system. kits
MODEL
SS-1
$39 95
A truly outstand ing performer fo r its
size , th e Heat hkit mode l SS- 1 provides
you with an exce ll ent basic high fid elity speake r syst em. Th e
use of an 8" mid-range woofer and a high f reque ncy speaker
with f lared horn enclosed in an especially designed cab in et
allows yo u to enjoy a qua lity instrument at a very low cost.
Ca n be used with the Heathkit " range exte nding" (SS-1B)
speaker system. Easi ly assembled cabinet is made of ve neersurfaced furniture-g rade y,;" plywood. Impedance 16 ohms.
Shpg. Wt. 25 Ibs.
FrfJfJ
Catalog!
HEATH
Don't dep rive yourself of
the thri ll of hig h fi del ity or
the pleasure of bu il ding
you r own equ i pment any
longer. Our free catalog
lists ou r entire li ne of kits
with comp lete schematics
and specifications.
I
Send fo r it today !
I
•••••••••••••••••••••••••• • ••• •• • • •••••••• ,
NEW ! "DOWN-TO-EARTH"
HIGH FIDELI-:ry BOOK
THE HOW AND WHY OF HIGH FIDELITY, by Milton Sl eeper, ex plains what high
fidelity is, and how you can select and plan
your own system. This lib era lly-i llu st rated ,
48-page book tells you the H I-F I
story without fancy tech nical
iargon or high-sounding terminology.
2 5c
AUDIO
•
II
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
pioneer in
" do-it-yourself "
electronics
Designed to supply ve ry hig h and
ve ry low f requ encies to fill out t he
r es po n se of th e b as i c ( SS -1)
speaker, t his speaker system ex95
tends t he ra nge of you r li ste ning
~~~~L
pleasure to practica ll y the enti re
ra nge of t he aud io sca le. Givin g th e appearance of a sin gle
pi ece of f urniture the t wo speakers toget he r prov ide a su perb ly integ rat ed fou r speake r system. Impedance 16 oh ms.
Shpg. Wt. 80 Ibs.
$99
COMPANY. BENTON HARBOR 25, MICH IGAN
D~bsidiary of Daystrom, Inc.
o Please send t he Free HEAT HK IT catalog .
o Enclosed is 25c for the New HI-FI book.
name
add ress
_______________________________________________________
ALSO SEND THE FOLLOWING KITS '
~ci~ty~
&~
s~ta~t~e
~~~~~~~~~~~~~IT~EM~---------------r---O--L-N~O--r-~P~RI~C~E--QUANTITY
M DE
.
IL_____ ____________________________________________
Enclosed find S.
Please enclose postag e for parcel post- ex press orde rs are shipped delivery
charges co ll ect. All pr ices F.O,S. Benton Harbor, Mich . NOTE: Pric es subject to change without notice.
~
11
JA NUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
erc.
Edward latnall Canby
For The Record
1. JUNIOR
It was a long while back that I first
heard of the excellent Components professional turntable, the one with the linen
belt drive. When a Junior home model
turned up last year, I was immediately interested and asked for one; at about $40
it see'm ed like a very good bet. It is.
Several reasons can be hauled out for
the delay in this report, the main one being
that in this too, too complex world I just
didn't get around to it. Ah, what a familial'
excuse. But I might mention a minor detail that did add, unintentionally, to my
trying-out time. The table, very simply,
came unmounted and unwired. That, in the
face of a million other things to do, was
enough to keep me from getting around to
it for awhile.
There are, you see, a good many home
tables that now come ready-wired, with
power and audio cables attached. For home
hi-fi, this helps no end. It seems to me wise
(before I get to Junior) to remind that
people who aren't professionals or aren't
engineers often object to hooking up wires
(I'm repeating myself; I first said that in
print around 1946 when nobody wired up
anything, ahead of time.) Yes-I know it
costs more; but in the end both dealers and
purchasers are happy for it. After all, a
wire is a wire and there isn't much choice
in the installation unless, maybe, Aunt
Mamie wants a baby-pink cord instead of
regulation brown ....
But back to the Components Juuior. This
table is basically a one-speeder, a uew and
very useful category for those who deal
primarily in one kind of record (usually
LP) . Saves in every way but mostly in
simplicity of design and absence of speedcbange complications. (There is a newer
model, for another $10 or so, that offers
two speeds, another good point of compromise that allows maximum quality under the circumstances.) The table itself is
a compound unit, the outside a pressed
aluminum pie-plate shell, the inside a thick
ceramic disc, for weight and non-magnetic
stability. The belt drive, from motor to
table, is hidden 1lllderneath and, my experts
tell me, is a bit hard to install when you
are setting up. Like a fan belt on an automobile, perhaps.
But, once the belt is on and the table is
running, you will find this Junior about the
most silent turntable you have ever not
heard. It is so quiet that I keep leaving it
on by mistake. Generally speaking, you
will bear no s01llld at all from it in a
quiet room until you come within a foot or
two, and then only a very faint rustling.
Nice.
Performance, so far, has been excellent
-without qualification as to price category.
(I.e., not "excellent, considering its low
price.") I detect no waver, no flutter, in
the most demanding music, and I am not
aware of rumble. My oldest table, which
cost four times as much when new, produces a definitely audible rumble component with new records and new speaker
equipment of the better sort. Standards
have changed over five or six years.
By "so far," above, I merely mean that
I intend to keep the Component Junior
running until something goes wrong, which
might not be for years. It's a useful little
table, small enough to fit iuto many closehauled changer spaces where the usual
manual table won't possibly fit. (I'm installing it in a changer box, deliberately,
to see how well it will do as a changer
replacemen t.)
The only thing I've noticed so far is a
slight crinkling noise from the belt and,
naturally, I am curious to know just how
long that belt will last. But rather than
turn on the machine and cruelly let it run
for a couple of weeks without stopping, I
prefer simply to use it, in the normal intermittent way. A much fairer test, if timeconsuming. I gather that a good deal of
research went into the belt, as the crucial
element in the system, and I remember
vaguely that a cbange was made back in
the very earliest production-which pretty
much guarantees that present belts will
be satisfactory.
I have only two possible cautions in respect to this pleasing little table. One is
minor-the torque is not tremendous and
you won't be able to use tbe table for
broadcast record "slipping"-holding tbe
disc back while the table turns underneath.
It slows down. But one in a million people
is bothered by this. Torque is plenty for
all intended uses. Second is that the aluminum top plate is pressed, . not cast (which
would cost far too much) and is therefore
rather easily bent or dented. If you plan
to drop your table from a height of more
tban one foot, better take tbis into account! More important-check yours (by
turning it at speed) to be sure it is in
round. Even though the sound is unafected, a wobble-edged table is not aesthetically pleasing This one could b e dented
in shipping or assembling.
2. PLUC-IN POINTS
I'll have to separ ate the Pickering Fluxvalve cartridge from the special Pickering
Unipoise arm wbich makes use of a built-in
Fluxvalve taking the standard stylus inserts.
You'll remember tbat the traditional
Pickering design for many years stuck
doggedly and honestly to the permanent,
non-removable stylus as the way to produce
the best sound from the factors involved in
that famous older sedes of cartridges. 1\.t
one time there was, to be sure, a shady
sort of second-best model for changers,
12
that had a removeable stylus; but it
wasn't considered proper for real hi-fi bugs
to use as I recall. Definitely, it was intended' as a compromise for practical reasons. Tbe regular Pickerings brooked no
compromise and you sent your cartridge to
the factory when the stylus wore out.
The Fluxvalve, then, is a major step in
a new direction for this company and I
must compliment the designer on the ingenuity and convenience of the new Fluxvalve series of removable styli, each one
built into a T-shaped plastic unit that is big
enough so that it can be handled easily by
people with ten or more thumbs, which is
more than can be said for any other removable stylus assembly I can think of,
even including the GE slip-in. (Well, you
can get hold of the GE even if you have
four thumbs, I guess . ... ) Quite seriously,
the Fluxvalve stylus change is the simplest
and easiest to manage I have ever tried,
simple enough so that, for once, you may
really buy one cartridge and several styli
and interchange them as you change from
one type of record to another.
Incidentally, the answer to a lot of problems in miniature parts, like the stylus, is
to break up the larger working units into
big sections. Instead of a big pickup and
a tiny little "needle," you build the stylus
into a hunk of the cartridge itself that is
big enough to get hold of; slide the larger
parts together and you have your cartridge.
The Fluxvalve stylus assemblies come in
five types now, the 1 mil diamond (red),
and sapphire (gray), 2.7 mil for 78 rpm
(yellow, white) and the special Y2 mil
stylus (green). Single and double cartridges, too.
It would be nice if, somehow, these color
codes agreed from one maker to another these aren't the same as the GE code, for
instance; but put that aside- Pickering's
colors are big and bright all over and you
don't need a magnifying glass to tell whi~h
is which. You keep your styli in a plastIc
box which it is wise to glue down to something near to the pickup itself. Just reach
in for the color you need and slide it
horizontally into the cartridge body, and
you're in biz.
I am doubtful, at this juncture, as to the
practical value of the liz-mil point. Under
ideal conditions and extremely light weight
it can help a lot. But the simple fact that
when you halve the radius you increase
the point pressure four times, for the same
stylus force (weight), means that there
is a very great practical risk in using a
liz-mil stylUS for most situations. Slip your
green (liz-mil) point into an arm weighted
at 4 grams and you get the equivalent
pressure on the groove of 16 grams with the
standard red I-mil stylus. Put a nickel on
top of the cartridge (as people will do)
and the stylus tunnels downwards toward
China.
I'd like to see a O.7-mil stylus in this
hanely Pickering form. That size is an excellent compromise, it seems to me, between
t he I-mil point and the ideally better but
elangerous liz-mil, since the 0.7 figure
merely doubles the pressure at the point.
Double is risky enough, for tbe present.
If your arm is playing at six grams and
you plug in a 0.7-mil for your LPs in place
'of the I-mil, your effective stylus force (in
conventional terms) is increased to the
equivalent of 12 grams, too much but not
enough. to do major damage. Replace the
I-mil with the Yz-mil, however, and the
force all in an instant, is equal to 24
gram~ with tbe standard point. Ouch!
Too many people are going to think that
the force can be just tbe same, or can be
merely halveel for the half-size tip. And,
more,' too many miscalculations in weight,
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
Fig . 1. External view of amplifier and pre amplifi e r d e scribe d by th e author. This installment cove rs only the 50-watt power am plifi e r.
The 88-50-a Low-Distortion
50-Watt Amplifier
With harmonic distortion of less than 0.5 per cent throughout
most of the audio spectrum , this 50-watt amplifier is comparatively
simple in construction and requires only ord inary care in wiring.
W. I. HEATH';' an d C. R. WOODV ILLP
F
AUDIO AMPLIFIERS of medium
power, the KT66 output tube became well known with the Williamson
amplifier, and its reputation for reliability has made it much sought after in
"off-the-shelf" high-fidelity amplifiers, as
well as in home-built kits.
From the same stable there now fo llows a new tube, the KT88, a pentode
with a higher plate-plus-screen dissipation of 40 watts, and a higher mutual
conductance of 11 rnA per volt (11,000
microhms.
The KT88 makes it possible to use
familiar circuit techniques to build audio
amplifiers giving the higher power output needed to handle the "peaks" in
high-fidelity reproduction at home, or
for public address equipment. This
higher output is obtainable without using
a plate voltage higher than that available from standard components. The
KT88 achieves this by virtue of its
lower plate impedance. For example
with cathode bias, 30 watts of output
power is obtainable with a plate supply
of only 375 volts, compared with 425
volts required by the K rr66. The maximum power obtainable with cathode-bias
* The General Elect1'ic Company Ltd.,
OR
Wembley, lJliddx, England.
AUDIO
from a pail' of KT88's is slightly over
50 watts with a supp ly voltage of 500
volts. This article describes the design
and construction of such an amplifier;
a second article will give similar details
of a matching preamplifier. They are
shown together in Pig. 1.
The complete amplifier, the "88-50,"
has been designed to give a high performance and a complete range of input
and control facilities without complicated networks 01' unusual components.
It is therefore reasonably economical to
construct. W ith its preamplifier it will
reproduce from any programme source
such as radio tuner, magnetic or crystal
phonograph pick-up, microphone, or
direct from a magnetic tape replay-head.
A rotary switch selects the required input
circuit and at the same time adj usts
sensitivity and frequency correction to
the required p layback characteristic. The
prean;tplifier is separate from the power
amplifier and is connected to it by a
flexible cable. Its controls include a loudness control, a presence control, and a
treble-slope control, all these being continuously variable with a flat position
around half-way. A wafer switch preselects the frequency at which the trebleslope control operates. To avoid one of
• . JANUARY, 1958
the biggest gremlins of high-fi apparatus
a rumble filter using an attractively
simple circuit is incorporated in the pre.amplifier.
The Power A mplifier
The circuit of the power amplifier is
shown in Fig. 2. A pair of KT88's is
connected in an ultralinear output stage.
They are driven by a push-pull double
triode (B329/12AU7) having a low plate
impedance. A high-gain double triode
(B339/12AX7) acts as the first stage
and phase splitter. Over-all feedback of
22 db gives low distortion and good
damping factor. The input sensitivity of
the power amplifier is about 0.5 volt nns
for 50 watts output. A U52/5U4G rectifier provides the 500-volt plate supply,
and a thermistor 1 protects the electrolytic smooth ing capacitors against excessive voltage during the warming-up
period. The fact that all the p late cir1 A "thermistor" is a resistor having a
large negative temperature coefficient of
resistance. The type used here is about
3000 ohms when cold at switch-on, ancl
gradually reduces to about 30 ohms in a
minute or two when it has reached its
running temperature under the influence of
the combined plate and ripple current s.
19
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\.
BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES
DEVELOPS NEW COMPACT
COMPUTER FOR
U. S. AIR FORCE
J. A. Githens, B.S. in E.E., Drexel Institute of Technology, and J. A. Baird, Ph .D. in E.E.,
Texas A. & M., check the control panel of Leprechaun, a new high-speed computer which
solves extremely complex problems in one-tenth of a second. Small size and low power are
made possible by new design principles and Bell Laboratories' invention of the transistor.
The United States Air Force assigned Bell Labs
an interesting assignment: develop a new kind of
electronic computer. The major requirement was
greater simplicity. Of course, no computer is simple, but this one (known as "Leprechaun" to its
designers) is much smaller and simpler than most
of the computers currently in use.
It has only some 9000 electrical components;
5000 of them are transistors. As a result, Lepre-
BELL TELEPHONE
WORLD
CENTER
OF
chaun has less than one-third the components of
conventional computers. This facilitates testing,
experimentation, assembly and service.
Even in its experimental state, Leprechaun is
a stimulating example of great strides in the simplification and miniaturization of circuitry . . . a
problem of profound interest to all Bell Laboratories researchers as they develop radically new
equipment for your future telephone service.
LABORATORIES
COMMUNICATIONS
RESEARCH
AND
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DEVELOPMENT
cuits are in push-pull pairs enables the
plate supply smoothing to be reduced
to a minimum, with consequent economy
of components.
The ultra-lineal' connection for o utput
tetrodes and pentodes has beco me well
known in recent year s for its a bility to
provide the output POWel' of pentodes
at a distortion level as low as, or even
less than triodes. As will be seen from
F'ig. 2, the scr een grids are tapped down
the primary winding of the output transformer so that the audio signal voltage
on each screen is a fraction of the
signal voltage at the correspon ding plate.
The scr een-to-plate turns ratio may be
anything from 20 per cent to slightly
over 40 p er cent for satisfactory results
to be obtained. However, to avoid instability at very high frequencies when
feedback is applied, the output transformer must have tight coupling between
the various sections, and this is easier to
achieve with a screen-to-pla te tUI'ns ratio
around 40 p er cent, that is, each h alf
primary is tapped 40 per cent (turns
ratio) from the Bt. end. The ultralinear circuit provides a low output impedance, roughly equal to the load, and
a good damping factor is, therefore,
easily obtainable with feedback.
The push-pull double-triode driver
stage gives symmetrical ch'ive to the out-
put stage and prevents unbalanced operation even when grid current flows
during overload. The B329/12AU7 was
selected foi· the driver stage because of
its low plate im p edance, about 10,000
ohms. This makes sure that phase shift
due to the input cap acitance of the output stage is moved to f r equencies above
50,000 cps. Combined with the symmetry
of the circuit, this greatly assists in enslll'ing freedom from high-frequency instability when fee dback is applied overall.
A high-gain double triode in the first
stage (B339/12AX7) provides self-balancing in the phase-inverter ciJ:cuit and
adequate over-all sensitivity after feedback is applied.
Bal·anCing Circuits
The push-pull signal at the plates of
the phase inverter stage is balanced to
about 2 pel' cen t provided that the 1megohm resistors Ra and Ry are equal.
Mor e perfect bala nce may be obtained
i i' R9 is about 2 per cent higher in value
than R a, the actual value being unimportant. If a comparison meter is available, a good comprom ise is to use 5
per cent tolel'ance resistors, making R ,9
the one having the higher value. Stabilizing capacitors 0 5 a nd 0 6 should also be
of similar tolerance.
Th e balance is improved somewhat by
the use of an unbyp assed cathode l'esistoI', R 18, in the drivel' stage. The
power stage uses close-tolerance inclividlI al cathode bias r esistors, R2 7 and R 2 B,
and this tends to equalize any slight
inequalities in the output tube characteristics.
The over-all push-pull balance achieved
by the above precautions in circuit design will give a performance which is
absolutely satisfactory for most purposes. However, where an audio gener ator and 'scope are available, adjustment
can be made which will give a minimum
distortion figure. For this a preset wirewound potentiometer, R a9 , must be incorporated in the p late circuit of the
driver stage as shown inset in F'ig. 2.
The audio gener ator should be set to a
frequency between 200 and 2000 cps and
should be r easonably free f rom second
harmonic distortion. It should be adjusted to give a signal which drives the
K T88's up to f ull power output into a
dummy load resistance; this will be indicated by a sligh t flattening of one or
both peaks of the output waveform, due
to the onset of grid current. The balance
control, R a,9' should then be adjusted so
th at both KT88's reach the onset of grid
current simultaneously as the signal
voltage is increase.d. It has been found
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AUDIO
•
21
JAN UARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
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stabilization is that the r esponse of the
p ower amplifier is devoid of p eaks, and
falls sharply at very low fr equencies
with the r esult that ther e is no tendency
f or motorboating to occur when the preamplifier is connected on the same plate
supply. This enables economy to be exercised in the smoothing fo r the preamplifier supply, to the extent that it is
mer ely r equired to give adequate r educt ion of ripple.
High-Frequency Stabilizing
Fig. 3. Underside of chassis, showing placement of parts a nd wiring ar rangem e nt.
that this adjustment gives minimum distor tion with a pair of output tubes that
have not been sp ecially mat ched.
Stabilizing
The feedback applied to an amplifier
must be negative over the whole frequency range fed to the amplifier. Outside this range, the feedback must be
either negative or inoperative. If this is
not so, the fin al frequency r esponse will
show peaks, and a slight variation in
feedback or load conditions may cause
oscillation at these "peak" frequencies.
This tendency for f eedback amplifiers to
oscillate is due to phase shifts in the
coupling circuits, and in the output
transformer itself . These peak f requencies are usually just above and below
the audio band, and the technique for
dealing with them is to r emove them to
as high or as Iow a f requency as possible.,
and then reduce the over -all f eedback at
very high and very low frequencies.
quency response, the r eduction in gain
required is approximately equal to the
feedback that is to be applied.
In practice, this is achieved by inserting a "step -circuit" in an early coupling
circuit . This consists of a small series
cap acitor shunted by a high r esistor,
before the grid leak. Thus, the gain is
r educed as the signal frequency is lower ed and at the very low fr equencies is
r educed by a substantially r esistive potential divider with very little phase
~
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50
i
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The low-frequency peak occurs only
when f eedback is applied. It r esults
f rom the combined phase shifts of (1 )
the coupling capacitors and associated
grid leaks and (2) the primary inductance of the output transformer combined
with the load and tube impedances. The
peak occurs below 20 cps and often results in motorboating when a preamplifier is connected to the same plate supply. The peak is minimized by making
the time constants of all the coupling
circuits different, by suitable choice of
capacitors, and the shortest time constant
is consequently that of the output transformer itself. For complete elimin ation
of the p eak, the amplifier gain before
feedback is connected should be reduced
at the peak f r equency without introducing additional phase shift. For a flat fre-
" .............
r-
f - HECONDARY LOAD - OHMS
f-7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15
T
3000
Low-Frequency Stabilizing
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4000
5000 6000 7000
PLATE-TO-PL ATE LOAD -
8000
O HMS
Fig. 4 . Curve showing ma xi mum power
ou t put of KTSS ou t pu t stage de live red t o
load on se condary of t ransforme r at f requen cy of 500 cps.
shift. For a 20-db (10 : 1) gain reduction, the shunt r esistor should be ten
times the grid leak. The capacitor should
be sufficiently small to have, at very low
frequencies, an impedance equal to or
higher than that of the shunt.
As the "88-50" is push-pull throughout, such a circuit has to be incorporated
on each side. In F ig. 2, this consists of
0 7 shunted by R1 4 and followed by grid
leak R I 6 on the one side, with 0 8 ) R I 5
and R J7 on the other . The values chosen
will give low-frequen cy stability with
any output transformer capable of delivering the full power output down t o
40 cps. An advantage of this type of
22
Before f eedback is applied, p eaks
may be detected in the resp onse of most
amplifiers at fr equencies up to 100 or
200 kc owing to r esonances in the output transf ormer. With the output t ransformers used in designing the prototyp e 88-50, leakage inductan ces between
the various windings were low and the
first high-frequency p eak was detect ed
about 100,000 cps. Such a peak is always exaggerated when f eedback is applied, and may cause instability under
certain conditions. Accordingly, a stabilizing step circuit, comparable to that
used at the low frequencies, is incorporated. This circuit (Fig . 2) consists of
a5 with R 12 in series, and to maintain
symmetry 0 6 and R 18 on the other side.
Location of Stabilizing Circuits
The early stages of the amplifier have
been chosen so that the high-frequency
phase shifts due to Miller effect are
slight, and with the component values
given the stabilization is substantially
indep endent of output transfor mer and
load. The stabilizing circuit h as been
inserted in an ear ly stage in the amplifier to r emove the risk of over loading
the preceding tube. With such a circuit
it is undesir able to use additional cap acitors across the output transf orm er ,
or across the feedback r esistor, and in
any case the use of such capacitors is
critically indep endent on the particular
type of transformer and load used.
The component values were chosen to
give the best results with transformer s
of the characteristics described below,
but it was found that a simple transformer with slightly higher leakage inductances was quite stable in oper ation .
With a transformer of the preferred
specification, the overshoot on a 10,000cps square wave was about 10 per cent
with a r esistive load, and there was reduction of 6 db in the effective feedback
at 40 and 10,000 cps.
Output Transf ormer
Desirable r equirements for an ultralinear transformer for use with negative f eedback are adequate primary inductan ce and low leakage inductances.
Primary inductance should be adequate
for full power performan ce down to at
least 40 cps. Leakages between primary
AUDIO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
and secondary, between each half primary, and between each plate tapping
of the half primaries and its associated
screen tapping should not exceed 6 millienries each.
The output transformer used for the
prototype amplifier was the W0866
made by R. F. Gilson Ltd ., St. Georges
Road, London, S.W.19 using grain oriented silicon iron. Although designed
for operation at lower power ou tputs
than those obtainable from the KT88,
it gave very good results, as the curves
show, over the frequency range from
40 to 20,000 cps. Excellent r esults have
also been obtained with a P artridge
Type 5353, and a Savage 4N1, the latter
giving full power output down to about
20 cps. All these transformel's had the
necessary low leakages, and a resonant
frequency around or above 100,000 cps.
Construction
Figu?'e 3 shows the underside of the
power amplifier chassis. The prototype
was constructed on a chassis measuring
14 in x 9 in . x 3 in. The assembly plan
follows an "in-line" strip layout with
one ground terminal near the input
socket and first tube, (B339/12AX7).
If larger transformers are used the
chassis may need to be increased in size
but the layout is important and must
be followed. It was thought advisable
to mount the transformers with terminals down for safety.
The power transformer is as far as
possible from the input to prevent hum
and its orientation should be noted.
(Fig. 1).
A mounting board is used for all
smaller components. The larger coupling capacitors and the later cathode
bypass capacitors are clipped direct to
- the side of the chassis, and this provides
I
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Fig . 6. Maximum
output power, relative to 50 watts,
over entire freq uency spectrum,
together with distortion curves at
rated output.
O UTPUT POWER RELATIVE TO 50 WATTS
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screening, with the exception of C 14)
which must be insulated. For ease of
servicing almost no wiring IS beneath
the tagboard.
The heater wires should be laid in
first, with twisted twin wires along the
bend of the chassis and the tube sockets
oriented to avoid heater wiring crossing grid wiring. The heater supply for
the preamplifier should also be laid in
to the octal socket connection. Both
supplies must have a center-tap
grounded to chassis, or an artificial center-tap using two equal resistances, as
shown. The ground point mentioned
above should be placed near the first
tube and a 'star' lug bolted down with
a lock washer for good contact. All
"o'!"id, plate, and intertube coupling cir.
cuits must be returned by insulated WIring to this one chassis point.
The signal input (pin 8 on the octal
socket) should be wired as directly as
possible to the grid of the 12AX7. The
groul1d connection (pin 1 on the octal)
and the grid leak should be connected
to the 'star' lug. The cathode bypass capacitor C 1 with the series feedback re-
s
°v
s
sistoI' R ;, should be wired between the
cathode pin and the 'star' lug, as close
to the grid input lead as possible. The
cathode bypass capacitor of the second
half of the 12AX7 should be wired in
an equally compact manner. The grid,
fed from the phase-splitting network,
should also be wired as compactly as
good mechanical location of the components will permit.
Throughout, grid and plate leads
should be short and separate as far as _
possible. 'Dead' wiring, such as platesupply leads r eturning to a smoothing
capacitor or cathode bias resistors which
are bypassed, may be longer, if necessary. Grid stoppers R 1 9 ) R fO ) R 25 ) R 26 )
R 29 and Rso must be wired direct to the
tube socket with very short leads.
The ground point of each tube should
be insulated, connected back to the corresponding point on its predecessor and
so on to the star lug. Similarly, the
grounded end of the output transformer
secondary should be returned to this
point, as this circuit is part of the
feedback. The grounded side of the
plate supply and heater center tap may,
however, be wired to 'the chassis. The
output transformer is, of necessity, neal'
the input cil'cuits, and the live plate
and screen wil'ing should be bound together and positioned well away from
the mounting strip.
Connecting the Feedback
~
3-10
::I
10
1000
100
10.000
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
Fig . 5. Frequency response of amplifier at l-watt outpu t.
_AUDIO
-
•
100 .000
When completed and checked, a
dummy resistance load should be connected, and the amplifiel' fil'st switched
on with the feedback disconnected by
an open circuit at R 11 • If the voltages
measured across the Ilathode bias resistors approximate to those shown in
Fig . 1 (some voltmeters will give a lower reading) a test signal may then
be connected to the input of about 100
mv, and a loudspeaker tapped across
the dummy load. If an audio oscillator is
not available, a phonograph pickup
having a high output, such as a crystal
type, can be connected to the input via
a temporal'Y volume control. An extra
(Continued on page 73)
23
JANUARY, 1958
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Amateur Sound Film Equipment
H. THIELF
Most amateur movie makers will welcome the availability of a thoroughly workable 8-mm
sound film equipment of exceptional picture and sound quality. This new Zeiss-Ikon system from Western Germany can be compared favorably with most 16-mm equipments.
as the film technique itself
are the endeavors to give more life to
the pictures on the scr een by adding
sound. With the earliest film s, a person
had to explain the action while a piano
player took care of the background music.
Later, several decades of developments
had p assed, the implements of the sound
film technique became established. This
made possible, on the one h and, the r eproduction of the sound which belonged to
the pictUl'e. and was r ecorded together
with it. FUl'thermore, a "silent" film could
be produced much more eff ectively by
means of exp lana tory texts, music, and
corresponding noises.
The advantages of the sound :film in
comparison with the silent film ar e so
outstanding tha t, af ter over coming t he
initial difficulties, all motion picture
theaters a cquir ed the equipment r equired
f or the reproduction of sound films. Film
ama teurs, too, endeavored right f r om the
beginning to enhance their films by
means of sound. Most ama teurs ar e, due
to financial con sider a tions, limited to
film sizes which ar e smaller, and thf'l'efore less exp ellsive, than th e sta ndard
35-mm film s. In consider a tion of th j s,
the introduction of sound fi lms to amateurs was hamper ed chiefly by technical
difficulties. Today, however , we have a
number of processes p ermitting the
J
U S'f "\ S OLD
* Zeiss Ileon A G., J,{eclelenbm'gm' S"tmsse
32-36, K iel-wile, West ern Gennany.
a ma teur to a ug ment his small film s of a
width of 16 01' 8 mm with music and explanatory talks. It is true, of course,
tha t only in th e r arest occasions ther e
will be a desire 01' a possibility to r ecord
sound on a film in the same manner as it
is done in a studio producing professional
films. There, with some exceptions, the associated sound is r ecorded a t the time the
picture is taken. The film delivered to a
moving picture th eater always contains
the picture and the sound on the p erf ormance copy . As a sound r ecording
p r ocess, the optical method technique
pro ved itself to be adequate right f rom
the beginning. The advantage of this
process lies in the simple production of
the r elease prints, with th e picture and
the sound both being r ecorded at the
same time in the p rinting machine.
The introduction of multichannel
sound r eproduction in the moving picture theaters r equired the placing of
several sound tracks on the 35-mm film,
without takin g up any r oom in the sp ace
which, until now, had been r eser ved for
the picture. Th e r educed dimensions of
the r esulting sound track area prohibited
th e use of the optical technique for r easons of quality. H owever, end eavors t o
place the f oUl' channels (which wer e consider ed to be necessar y to obta in snfficiently the ster eophonic effect) on f oUl'
magnetic sound tracks were cl'owneu
with success. W e shall, however , not dis-
---
TO PROJECTO R CAPSTAN
Fig . 1. Diagram
af a synchronizing
Device .
24
cuss here an y details concerning th e
technique of optical and magnetic sound.
Synchronizing Problems
The machiner y r equired for the production of films with syn chronized sound
is extensive. In addition, there are difficulties of production in producing a
good job of shooting the picture and
r ecording the sound. Thus only ver y
few ama teurs will have the opportunity
of using this technique. However , this
should not be considel'ed as an absolute
disadvantage. If we take into consideration that culture films, weekly news reviews, and even f eature film s often have
sound added subsequent to shooting, an
amateur, too, can enliven his p erforman ces gr eatly in comparison with purely
silent fi lms by the same method. For this
purpose, there are now a number of
r ecording processes, differing f ro m eacll
other in price as well as in their operational char a cteristics.
It is desirable to r eproduce the sound
immediately after the r ecording without
any fur ther treatment so th a t f aulty
sound eff ects can be easily cOl'l'ected.
Neither the optical technique nor acetat e
disc recording fu lfill both of these r equirements and should, therefore, not be
considered. But these r equirernents ar e
p erfectl)7 f ulfilled by the magnet ic sound
process. Among others, the raw fi lms
used by the amateur make a diff er ence.
A pr er equisite f or the r eproduction of
r ecorded amateur film s is that the film
proj ector is suita ble for sound fi lm p erf orm ances with r egard to its opera tional
noises. It is usually p la ced in the same
room in which the recording is done as
well as in the same room in which the
r eproduction takes p lace when projecting
the films.
Projector Problems
I n this connection, we wish to stress
a few points. An amateur film proj ector
is expected to r eprodu ce bright pictures
which are well-fo cused. The brightness
of the screen pictm'e dep ends on a number of f ac tors, among other on the r eflection cap acity of the scr ee.n, on the
efficient opening of the proj ection objective, and on the capacity of the source
of light. Disr egarding the char acteristics
AUDIO
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
of the screen, it depends on the beam of
light delivered by the projector to obtain
a certain brightness on the screen. A frequently chosen auang'ement for obtaining the desired beam has the following
appearance: Use is made of a projection
lamp of high electric capacity, for instance of 500 or 750 watts, which can
be connected directly without any int.erposition of transformers or resistors to
a 117 -volt line. Filaments in such lamps
are r ather thin and thus the resu lting
temperature is low, with the result tbat
pel' watt of lamp capacity only a proportionally small light flux or beam is
produced. In order to make the light
flux, which is radiated to all sides by the
large-surfaced helix of the lamp, usefu l
for projection, the helix is reflected by
means of a concave mirror and the diminished helical picture is concentrated
in the image aperture by means of condenser lenses. However, a high lamp
capacity requires, in cons ideration of the
life span of the lamp and of the temperatures created in the projectOl', a
large quantity of air to cool the lamp
and the projector. Thus a ventilator with
a high air-conveying capacity must be
present. Unfortunately, it is a fact that
although this device produces quite an
tUlTent, at the sante time, it a lso pro<.1uces a great deal of lloise. This explains
the fact that a great number of commercial proj ectors give forth noises whil e
operating which do not differ much from
the noises made by a vacuum cleaner.
However, especially for 8-mm projectors, there exists a possibility to obta in,
with a greatly reduced electric capacity,
a comparatively good light flux. A prerequisite for this is a so-called "low-voltage lamp" which, for all practical purposes, can only be connected to the line
by interposing a transformer. E sp ecially advantageous conditions are created when the lamp, with a power con sumption of approximately 50 watts,
is designed for an 8-volt supply. The
thick filament, heated by a current of
some six amperes, provides good efficiency and an advantageous light color
-much as does an automobile headlamp
- and it also has the long life of this
more common light source. The narrow
coiling permits the optical reproduction
of the filament, forming a luminescent
triangle, simply by using a concave mirror, that is, without a condenser, directly
in the image aperture. In order to simplify matters, this mirror has been affixed di.J:ectly to the lamp . As a r esult,
the greatly reduced power input heats
the "proj ector and the lamp much less
than high voltage lamps; thus the quantity of cooling ail' can be reduced and
the operating noise of the projector is
greatly lessened. An 8-mm projector,
equipped with such an optical system,
will be described further.
AUDIO
•
Fig. 2 . Zei ss Ikon Movilux 8B and Moviphon B sound film equipment in operating position.
Rec ording Applications
Let us consider now th e various possibilities of sound tracking, in order to
learn how they differ fr'orn each other.
Th e most primitive application of adding
sound to an existing silent film is, without doubt, the adding of commentary to
the action in the film . If it is a question
of repealed performances of the £lm,
this can be done by speaking the text
into a sound recorder, using a tape which
can be run off accompanying any repeated p erformance of the film. In addition to recording speech on the sound
tap e, some music adapted to the mood
of the picture can be used as a background; thus in the performance a mixtme of music and text will be available.
Actually many amateur films are recorded in just this way, and it improves
operation if the proj ectors are equipped
with devices which automatically r egulate the syncronized starting of film and
sound. Thus the film and the sound tape
will always start together, and it will dep end on the characteristics of both devices
whether, during the run, the synchronization of the film and the sound will be
maintained as in starting. E sp ecially
suitable for such synchronization are
projectors and tape r ecorders equipped
with "Ansynchron!!1 motors. The latter
depend r elatively little on fluctu ations
of the line voltage. While it would be a
p erfect solution to equip both devices
with synchronous motors, the expense
is so great that such equipments could
not be introduced into the commercial
market for amateur use. But in many
cases it becomes necessary to assure
much better synchronization between the
action of the pictme and the sound reproduction than it is possible in using
the p r ocess just described. For this pmpose, synchronizing devices are being
developed in Europe, which use an especially prepared small film projector and
a standard sound tape device. As it is
a known fact that the speed of a sOlmd
carrier-tape 01' disc-cannot be changed
without impeding the quality of r eproduction, care has to be taken that the
sound tape, running at a constant speed,
is used in controlling the speed of film.
In order to do this, the device holding
synchronization is connected, according
to Fig. 1, by means of a flexible shaft W
with the projector, so that the roller R,
contained in the synchronizing device,
turns at a speed corresponding to the
1
Not synchronous.
Fig. 3. Transistor Amplfiier of "Moviphon B" .
25
JANUARY, 1958
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.
oper ational spe.ed of the film . Wound
around this roller is a loop of the sound
tape which is taken from the recorder.
The tape is also guided over a roller HR,
arranged on a level' H, so that, in case
the speed of film deviates, said lever is
effecting a rotary motion. This lever is
connected to a slider on resistor W
which is included in the motor circuit of
the projector, and thus regulates the
speed of the film so that it· always maintains a constant relationship to that of
the tape, and thus the pictme and sound
always remain synchronized. There are
also projectors permitting a direct assembly of the synchronizing device, so
that the flexible shaft can be eliminated.
Other types of construction provide
in the projector a commutator rotating
with the speed of the film . In the synchronizing device there is also a commutator rotating with the speed of a
tape-driver roller. The two commutators
are electrically connected. If the speeds
differ, CUlTent flows through a relay,
which in turn varies the cmrent through
the projector motor, thus synchronizing
the speed of film to that of the tape.
With these processes, a device additional to the projector and the r ecorder
must therefore be available. The sound
tape must be guided in the form of a
rl-' -~-'--'- ' - ' - -- '~
~ :!/!q
5
~I~ .
5 ::I~ .
~ =I~ . ••••
~ o-I~
••••
••
• ••
5 ~IQ)
~ - Ir--
•
~ - 1-0
~
•
- Ion
-1 M
•
•
loop from the recorder to the synchronizer, and the synchronizer and the proj ector must be coupled mechanically or
electrically.
Improved Method
These disadvantages are eliminated
in another construction of the machine.
If the projector is equipped with an efficient "Asynchron" motor, the latter can
drive a special tape recorder, which has
no motor of its own, directly. Thereby,
not taking into consideration the negligibly small slip of the tape, there are
no relative speed differences between the
film and the tape. Thus good synchronization between the picture and sound
can be obtained, in this manner, without
any additional attachments. The Zeiss
Ikon S-mm film equipment Movilux SB
and Moviphon B have been constructed
on this principle. Figu1'e 2 shows the details of this equipment.
The projector had been p laced in a
handy case, containing all individual
parts required for the projection of pictmes. A driving motor, whose speed cannot be regulated, drives the projector
mechanism over a belt transmission with
the secur ely adjustable picture frequencies of 16, IS and 24 pictmes per second.
A precision gripping device and a secure
guiding of the film in the aperture guarantee a good position. The projector accommodates 400-ft. reels. As a lighting
system, a 50-watt, S-volt special lamp
with a concave mirror has been provided.
Condensers or auxiliary mirrors are not
required. The light flux or beam, when
the three-blade apertme is in operation,
is approximately 60 lumens.
The "Cetar" projection objective has
an aperture of f / 1.5 and renders very
bright pictmes with sharp edges. In order to make it possible to connect the
machine to all standard a.c. line voltages,
it is equipped with tapped power transformer. The total power input is approximately 100 watts so that the Movilux
SB can also be connected to direct-current sources by means of a vibrator.
Moreover, the power transformer supplies also an a.c. output of 30 volts,
which is required for the operation of
the Moviphon B. This sound mechanism
is driven by the projector motor over a
flexible coupling. It can be seen in Fig.
2 that the Moviphon B has the same case
form as the Movilux SB. Dming operation, it is p laced behind the projector.
It contains all parts required for transporting of a standard sound tape at a
speed of 3%, ips. (with 16 frames per
second of the projector), and a lp.rge
flywheel mass regulates the necessary
synchronization. The tape can be played
in one direction on two tracks, one after
the others. E ither track 1 or track 2 can
be reproduced selectively, or both tracks
can be reproduced together. This ar-
Fig . 4. Schemat ic of amplifier and associate d electrical circuits of Moyiphon B.
26
AU DIO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
Multichannel Audio
Mixer-Prea mpi ifi er
HAROLD REED';'
Circuitry for mixing a number of low-impedance inputs can becom e complicated when attention is
paid to correct impedance matching, and losses are likely to become excessive. T he use of a tra nsformer between t he network and the succeeding amplifier will elimi nate the effec t of th e losses.
A
comprising
till:ee or four inputs or channels
.
are quite common and present no
serious problems in design and construction. With an increasing number of inliuts, gl'eater difficulties are encountered.
Loss of signal voltage between the input
-D nd output of the mixer increases as the
number of channels is increased. This
.alone may not be considered too serious.
But when we give our attention to hum
.and noise figures we realize the importance of large losses in mixer circuits
which may result in a signal-to-noise
Tatio figure so low as to make the over.all operation of the mixer unacceptable,
·even f or ordinary non-critical use.
Using individual, low-impedance-to.grid input transformers and a single:stage preamplifier for each input channel
can overcome all problems except one.
That is, the cost of the unit. With this
arrangement, however, several advantages are immediately observed. The low
UDIO FREQUENCY MIXERS
* 3917 Madison St., Hyattsville, Md.
output voltage from each source, say a
microphone, is at once given a step up
by the input transformers. If we use a
50-ohm-primary to 50,000-ohm-secondar y transformer, a type frequently used
for this purpose, the voltage step-up~ is
eqlial to the turns ratio or the square
root of the impedance ratio of the transforme r. In the example under discussion
this amounts to y 50,000 / 50, or approxima tely 33 .
N ow if we connect a low-impedance
lIlicr ophone with a rating of - 55 db,
(reference, 0 db=1 mw/l0 dynes/cm 2 ),
which gives 0.4 millivolts across the 50ohm input, then 0.4 mv multiplied by 33
r es ults in about 13 mv across the transformer secondary and available at the
g l'id of the preamplifier input. So, we
get off to a good start. However, the use
of cheap, poorly constructed transformers can offset, and in some instances
to a considerable extent, the advantage
of the voltag,e gain just cited due to
greater a.c. hum voltage on the grid
which may be picked up by the trans-
I
I
I
I
I
: FROM 6 OTHER INPUTS
I WIRED SAME AS ABOVE
•
Fig . 2. One type of mixing networ.kse ries-parallel-which is often use d for
several inputs.
Fig . 1. Th e au t hor's
complete te n-channe l mix er and its
associa ted preamplifi er can be bu ilt
in a s mall slop ing f ron t meta l cab i-
net.
AUDIO
•
former from nearby a.c. fields. Goodquality, well shielded transformers
should be employed. Evidently, then,
this is a large item, from the cost standpoint, when we are considering say, a
ten-channel mixer which would require
ten transformers and ten preamplifiers.
Of the many circuit configurations for
input mixers one that offers least loss is
the series-par allel arrangement. A circuit for a ten-channel mixer using this
type of circuitry is shown in Fig. 2. This
is for ten, 50-ohm sources. For a total
number of inputs other than ten and for
different values of input impedance R,
the value of R ., the series resistor and
RO! the output impedance, may be found
by two simple equations. Rs = R (N 3 )/N and R o =4R(2N-3)/N2. It will
be seen in Fig. 2 that the mixer output
27
JANUARY, 1958
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12AX7 TUBE
51
47
.01
51
51
51
51
.
---
51
+240
v.
I
..,".,"'l".f'll",,"
-
INPUTS 1 6 to 1 10 WIRED
SAME AS ABOVE
fig. 3. Inexpensive te n-channel mixing network, using simple potentiometers instead
of T-pads.
the mixer input. With a mixer loss of 2D'
db the signal is reduced to .04 millivolts·
at the 50-ohm transformer primar y. The
transformer voltage gain ,of 33 provides·
a 1.3-mv signal to the grid of the preamplifier which is one half of a 12AX7
tube.
The 12AX7 input stage has a voltage
gain of 47 which boosts the signal to 61
millivolts at the 12AX7 plate. The other
half of the 12AX7 serves as a cathode
fo llower stage which, theoretically provides no voltage gain. However, the signal measured at the cathode follower
output was 66 millivolts, which, of
course, is a negligible differ ence over the
input signal.
The cathode follower has the advantage
of low-impedance output and therefore,
the mixer and preamplifier can be operated at a reasonable distance from the
main amplifier 01' recorder. The 66-mv
signal is more than sufficient to work
into the high-impedance microphone input of an amplifier or tape recorder.
Interaction between the channels
amounted to a maximmn of just 3 db
variation in output for any setting Of
the controls. This is for the worst condition, that is when feeding a signal to
one input and varying the other nine
potentiometer s from minimum to maximum positions .
For applications where it is preferable
to maintai.n a more constant load impedance on the microphone 01' other
sound source, the circuit of Fig. 4 lllay
be used instead of a simple potenti'ometel'. With this arrangement, the input
impedance ranges from about 0.7 to 1.1
times the nominal value. W hen the arlll
of the potentiometer is at the top, the
input impedance is equal to the nominal
value shunted by 2.5 times the nominal
value. When the arm is at the bottom,
R 2 replaces the load and consequently
the input impedance is the same as at
the top. In the center, the impedance is
equal to twice the load impedance
shunted by 2.5 times the load, which is
about 1.1 times. This will improve the
loading on certain types of microphones.
Any power supply with an output
from 200 to 250 volts can be used for
(Oontinued on page 76)
works into a 50-ohm-to-50,000-ohm trans- but, of course, other ohmic values may
.former. The aO-ohm_prima:ry ' is ' a ' clese be substltuteil. For 10 .inputs the mixer
match for -the -mixer, output. The trans- , loss is about '20 abo Using the same type
former provides a voltage step-up of 33
as mentioned previously. The loss in the
mixer circuit is a little over 13 db.
Suppose we round the mixer loss figure
off to 14 db and use a microphone with
a rating as given previously. A 0.4-milliZI
Z2
R1 ·5>.....----'
volt signal to the mixer input will then
~
be down 14 db or reduced to 80 microvolts, since db = 20 times the log of the
Zo c NOMINAL IMPE DANCE
voltage ratio.) This voltage is applied to
Rl = 2, 5 x Zo
the transformer primary. The signal at
R2 = Zo
the secondary will be 2.6 millivolts which
ZI ~ 0.7 to 1.1 x Zo
Z2 ~ 0.7 x Zo to 0
may be fed directly to the input grid of
an amplifier.
The attenuators, R, of the foregoing
cireuit must be of the constant-imped- Fig. 4. Alternate a rrangement used to
ance, zero-insertion-loss variety. Good maintain input impedances at a more
attenuatol'S of this type do not come
constant val ue.
cheap. Ordinary potentiometers are not
suitable. Wirewound T-pad attenuators of microphone as discussed in the forecan be used but will be noisy when going circuit, 0.4 millivolts is applied to
varied. However, if the controls are preset for certain levels and not used for
r-----------.---~~~~--~~Ar--~~AN~~----_a+2~~
ext ensive "gain riding" they may prove
(WITH LOAD
satisfactory and they are relatively inexpensive. One type is the Mallory T
series available in fourteen different impedances.
Practical Circuit
A very inexpensive method of cons,tructing a ten-channel mixer will now
be consi9-ered. The circuit arrangement
i" given in Fig. 3. In this circuit potentiometers are used. They should be of
g'ood quality such as the Ohmite <lAB"
type. The circuit shows 50-ohm controls
S!:!+---r--+---++27v.
Fig. 5. Power supply used for the amplifier in the mixer.
28
AUDIO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
AUDIO
•
IANUARY, 1958
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An Improved Loudness Control
J.
P. WENTWORTH
While many music lovers and hi-fi enthusiasts would not be caught dead with
a loudness control, there are at least as many more who wouldn't do without
one, For them as likes 'em, here is a new arrangement with several advantages.
T
sor/ expander operation. Various other
MUOH discussion of
applications might be devised by using
the relative merits of the loudness
fixe d resistors in conjunction with other
control, in which the signal level is
types of variable resistance elements,
varied in accordance with the Fletcher5uch as varistors or thermistors. Care
l\l[unson subjective loudness curves, as
should be taken in such applications,
·compared with the simple gain control,
1.:owever, not to introduce large amounts
which raises or lowers the signal level
of phase shift or distortion in the con.an equal amount at all frequencies. It is
trol circuit, as the shape of the over-all
not the author's intention to reopen the
response curves depends greatly on the
-controversy at this time. The purpose of
INPUT
phase relationships within the circuit.
this paper is to present, for those who
favor the use of a loudness control, an
Principle of Operation
improved circuit that gives a good apThe principles of operation of the
proximation to the Fletcher-Munson
control
can be more easily understood
(Jurves, while using less expensive or
if the circuit is considered in three parts.
·complicated components than any other
The frequency response of the twosuch circuit the author has seen.
stage integrating (low-pass) network
Continuously-variable loudness control _ ' -_______________
made up of E l , E z , E s, E., and the two
circuits published to date usually depend Fig . 1. Schematic diagram of the author's capacitors is shown
in Fig. 3. The outimpro ve d loudn ess control.
on the use of either a tapped potentiomput of this circuit is added to the output
eter 01' a special control made up of
which compare favorably with conven- of the potentiometer via the summing
several potentiometer elements on a
tional circuits are: (1) it introduces no network consisting of Eo and Ea. How'Single shaftI· 2. 3 As a result, such coninsertion loss, and (2) the impedance it ever, since the two summed outputs are
trols tend to be expensive and of limited
presents to the previous stage does not not in phase with each other, the volt:flexibility, and to present other serious
ages do not add directly, but in such
vary with the setting of the control.
.disadvantages, such as an appreciable
Because the variable element in the manner as to produce the response
insertion loss, a variation in the iropedcontrol is a simple potentiometer, thi.s curves given in Fig. 2.
:ance presented to the previous stage, a
Another feature of the circuit is that
configurati.on lends itself to a flexibility
lack of mechanical strength, or the like.
of opemtion tha t is not possible to other it can easily be converted to a convenFurthermore, becaus
they include
circuits. For example, the potentiometer tional gain control, merely by breaking
several moving parts, or, in the case of
can be replaced by the combination of a the circuit at point "A" (Fig. 1). It
the multitapped control, a rather comfixed resistor and a vacuum-tube resist- might well be argued that such a feature
plicated mechanical arrangement, mainance element. Then, since the setting of is of doubtful utility, since this circuit,
tenance troubles are multiplied.
the control can be varied by adjusting a like all loudness controls should be opThe circuit shown in Fig. 1 includes direct voltage, the loudness-control effect erated with an auxiliary level control,
~nly one moving part- an ordinary
can be obtained with remote control, which is used to set the over-all signal
single-section potentiometer, with no [wtomatic volume control, or compres(Continued on page 71)
taps. All of the other components are
standard low-cost resistors and capacitors. The frequency-response curves of
this cll.'cuit are shown in Fig . 2 (solid
(Jurves) . As may be seen by comparison
o
'with the dashed F letcher-Munson curves,
t)le output is very well matched to the
!response of the average human ear over
-10
'a 40-db variation in sound level.
~
Fig , 2 . Frequency
I
Other features of this type of circuit respon se curve for
~
HERE HAS BEE
~
w
* Ame1'ican Consulate, Medellin, Colombia
E . E . Johnson, "A continuously variable loudness control." AUDIO ENGINEERING,
December, 1950.
2 Ray C. Williams, "A feedback loudness
·control." Radio g' T elevision News, March,
1954.
3 J. W. Turner, "Construction details of
.a continuously variable loudness control."
.AUDIO ENGINEERING, October, 1949.
1
the circuit shown
in Fig', 1.
Z
-20
~
g
~
~~
~
-30
20
,
..
100
~
..
1(IOCI
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES
30
AUDIO
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10000
20000
PER SECON D
•
JANUARY, 1958
..
HIGH
FIDELITY
COMPONENTS
paired for perfection
tvfl!J; FA-550 Tuner and AA-410A Amplifier
Here are two brilliantly engineered high
fldelity components, truly meant for each
other. Perfectly matched, each brings out
the best in the other.
One is a superb FM-AM tuner with complete audio control facilities, and the other,
a basic, 20-watt amplifier of extraordinary
performance. All the controls are on the
tuner panel, and the amplifler may be kept
in any out-of-the-way location. Both are
operated with the switch on the tuner.
The FA-550 and AA-410A have been
fully field-tested, individually and together.
They have proved so successful in custom
installations, they are now used as standard
component equipment in the Ensemble
1055, Pilot's top Component-Console System, priced at $625, in mahogany.
If you have been looking for the ideal tuner-amplifler
pair around which to plan your component system,
audition the FA-550 and AA-410A at your Pilot dealer.
If you prefer a pre-built component system, hear these
same components perform in the Ensemble 1055.
FA-550, a super-sensitive FM -AM
Tuner with tuned RF and dual limiterdiscriminator circuit. Has Beacon tuning
and AFC i phono and tape preamp, and
audio control section with DC on tube
heaters i bass and treble controls i cathode
follower outputs - plus other advanced
features. Enclosure finished in brushed brass
and burgundy. $159.50 complete.
AA-410A, a Basic Amplifier rated
at 20 watts (40 watts peak) at less than
1% distortion. Frequency response is flat:
20 to 20,000, ± 0.1 db. Chassis and cover
cage brushed brass finish. $59.50 complete.
Prices sligthly higher west of Rockies.
For complete details, plus free 16-page
booklet - "High Fidelity in the Home" write to Pilot Radio Corporation,
37-06 36th St., L. I. C. 1, N. Y., Dept. AH-l.
www.americanradiohistory.com
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loudness, Its Definition,
Measurement and Calculation
HARVEY FLETCHER and W. A. MUNSON
Part III
FROM T HE ARCHIVES OF BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORI ES
The values of ble can be computed
from this equation from the observed
values of L and Lie by using the values
of G given in Table III. Because of the
difficulty in obtaining accurate values of
Land Lk such computed values of ble
will be rather inaccurate. Consequently,
considerable freedom is left in choosing
a simple formula which will represent
the results. When the values of ble derived in this way were plotted with ble
as ordinates and D.f as abscissae and Lie
a1; a variable parameter then the resulting graphs were a series of straight lines
going through the common point (- 250,
0) but having slopes depending upon Lie'
Consequently the following formula
. ble =[ (250 + D.f) /1000J Q (Lie)
ordinates as in Fig. 10, a value of Q was
obtained which gives just as good a fit
for the data of Fig. 10 and also gives a
better fit for the data of Figs . 8 and 9.
Other .much more complicated factors
were tried to make the observed and
calculated results shown in these two
figures come into better agreement but
none were more satisfactory than the
simple procedure outlined above. For
purpose of calculation the values of Q
are tabulated in Table VI.
There are reasons based upon the
mechanics of hearing for treating components which are very close together by
a separate method. When they are close
together the combination must act as
though the energy were all in a single
component, since the components act
upon approximately the same set of
nerve terminals. For this reason it seems
logical to combine them by the energy
law and treat the combination as a
single frequency. That some such procedure is necessary is shown from the
absurdities into which one is led when
one tries to make Eq. (17) applicable
to all cases. For example, if 100 components were crowded into a 1000-cps
space about a 1000-cps tone, then it is
120
(17)
will represent the results. The quantity
D.f is the common difference in frequency
between the components, Lie the loudness
level of each component, and Q a function depending upon Lie' The results indicated that Q could be represented by
the curve in Fig. 11.
Also the condition must be imposed
upon this equation that b is always
taken as unity whenever the calculation
gives values greater than unity. The
solid curves shown in Fig . 10 are actually calculated curves using these equations, so the comp arison of these curves
with the observed points gives an indication of how well this equation fits the
data. For this series of tones Q could be
made to depend upon ~Ie rather than Lk
and approximately the same results
would be obtained since ~k and Lie are
nearly equal in this range of frequencies.
However, for tones having low intensities and low frequen cies, ~k will be much
larger than Lk and consequently Q will
be smaller and hence the calculated loudness smaller. The results in Figs. 8 and
9 are just contrary to this. To make the
calculated and observed results agree
with these two sets of data, Q was made
to depend upon
x = ~ + 30 log f - 95
instead of Lie'
It was found when using this function
of ~ and f as an abscissa and the same
110
/
O -FU NDAM ENTAL =100 ;'"
= 1000,,-
e-
100 ' - - -
"
6-
"
= 3 0 00"-'
III 90
oI
III
~ 80
l,I
'"oZ
~
o
70
~V
o
:;: 60
o
..J
/
'"~ 50
~/
..J
III
III
Ii~/oi
~ 40
/;1 [/
o
:l
o
..J 30
- 10
- 20
- 20
l{~V
V
IV
A
20
o
V
/~fi
U
10
~
rcr
~~
v~
V
~t
/ 11
I
-10
o
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
LOUDNESS LEVEL OF E AC H COM PO N ENT 'DB
80
90
100
Fig. 8. Loud ness levels of complex tones ha v ing te n e qua lly loud compone nts 50
cps apart.
32
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•
JANUARY, 1958
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1958
,
www.americanradiohistory.com
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31
120
110
0- fUNOAMENTAL = 50'"
e=1400"-
,
100
A-
"
1/
VA /'
= 3400"-
CD 90
hV
a
I
III
~ 80
~V
'"oZ
~ 70
V
b 1/-
o
<J
2 60
...o
)
..J
'">
50
'"
f/
o~ ~
..J
.;,
~ 40
Z
a
:l
o
~
..J 30
e/
20
~r
rt
/!
6~ r
10
e
o
.
-1 0
- 20
-20
//
I
- 10
o
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
LOUDNESS LEVEL OF EACH COMPONENT-DB
90
'00
Fig. 9. Loudness levels of complex tones having ten equally loud components 100
cps apa rt.
o
100
~
90
III
0
.;,
x.,4
~~
eo
~~
t-
Z
....
Z
70
0
Q.
~
0
U
60
g
~
II..
0
....-I
>
....
-I
."
50
~ ~/
/
~V
V
Only a small error will be introduced if
the midfrequency of such bands be taken
as the frequency of an equivalent component except for the band of lowest
frequency. Below 125 cps it is important
that the frequency and intensity of each
component be known, since in this region the loudness level L k changes very
rapidly with both changes in intensity
and frequency. However, if the intensity
for this band is lower than that for other
bands, it will contribute little to the total
loudness so that only a small error will
be introduced by a wrong choice of frequency for the band .
This then gives a method of calculating
b k when the adjacent components are
equal in loudness. When they are not
equal let us define the difference !'J.L by
V
V·
~
~/
/; ./
40
."
....
Z
0
:> 30
0
-I
e!I
20
V
/
10
o FREQUENCY DIFFERENCE- 340
I>
x
e
"
1/
"
1/
= 230
"
= 112
"
-
!'J.L = Lk - L m.
:: 50
.,1
<2'0
0
o
10
70
40
50
60
20
30
LOUDNESS LEVEL OF SINGLE COMPONENT · DB
obvious that the combination should
sound about 20 db louder. But according
to Eq. (10) to make this true for values·
of Lie greater than 45, ble must be chosen
as 0.036. Similarly, for 10 tones thus
crowded together L - Lie must be about
10 db and therefore ble = 0.13 and then
for two such tones L - Lie must be 3 db
and the corresponding value of ble = 0.26.
These three values must belong to the
same condition !'J.f = 10. It is evident then
that the formulae for b given by Eq.
(17) will lead to very erroneous results
for such components.
In order to cover such cases it was
necessary to group together all components within a certain frequency band
and treat them as a single component.
Since there was no definite criterion for
determining accurately what these limiting bands should be, several were tried
and ones selected which gave the best
agreement between computed and observed results. The following band
widths were finally chosen:
For frequencies below 2000 cps, the
band width is 100 cps; for frequencies
between 2000 and 4000 cps, the band
width is 200 cps; for frequencies between 4000 and 8000 cps, the band width
is 400 cps; and for frequencies between
8000 and 16,000 cps, the band width is
800 cps. If there are k components
within one of these limiting bands, the
intensity I taken for the equivalent
single frequency component is given by
I =~Ik =~10{3k/J0
(18)
A frequency must be assigned to the
combination. It seems reasonable to assign a weighted value of f given by the
equation
f = ~flelk/I = ~fkl0{3k/ 10 /~10{3/ 10
(19)
80
90
Fig. 10. Loudness levels of complex tones having ten eq ually loud components with
a fundamental frequency of 1000 cps.
b" = [(250 +!'J.f) /1000] Q
bh.=O
when !'J.L =-T.
AUDIO
34
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
(20)
Also let this difference be T when Lm is
adj usted so that the masking component
just masks the component Ie. Then the
function for calculating b must satisfy
the following conditions :
•
JANUARY, 1958
the
experts say. ••
in High Fidelity the best buys
are
':ml'r.;
BETTER ENGINEERING Since 1945 EICO has pioneered the
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t Thousands of unsolicited testimonials on file.
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with "eye·tronic" tuning
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clean useful range 30-40,000 cps . Impedance 16
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HFT9D FM Tuner equals or surpasses wired tuners
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..
.
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AUDIOCRAFT. HF61A Kit $24.9S, Wired $37.9S, HF61
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-AUDIOCRAFT Kit Report. Kit $72.9S. Wired $99.9S.
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$87.9S. Matching Cover E-2 $4.S0_
HF30 30-Watt Power Amplifier employs 4-EL84
high power se nsitivity output tubes in push-pull
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AUDIO
•
13
JANUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
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NEW STANDARD
Of PERfORMANCE
to many accidental jabs, are going to be
quadrupled in effect-and so in danger.
Even in a special arm such as Pickering's
own Unipoise the lh-mil tip is pretty risky.
The 0.7 tip is OK, with caution, and will
do a good job.
3. UNIPOISE
P
H
0
N
0
REP ROD U C E R
REVOI.,VTlPNARY OeS/GN MAK£S Iii
IMPOSS/fJl.1i TO SCRATCH R£COROS!
IT TRACKS AT ONE GRAM!
ITS FREQUENCY RESPONSE IS
20 TO 20,000 CPS ( ± 2db)!
ONL V WITH THE STUDIO DVNETIC
• Record and need le wear are drastically
reduced!
• You never have to level your t urn table !
• You don't have to worry about groovejumping!
.
• You ca n get superb fide li ty, even from
warped records !
You get t he excellent response, low distortion
and high compliance of dynamic cartridge
construction, plus high outpu t, minimum
hum pick-up and the elimina tion of t one arm
resonance and needle talk. There are also
t he addi t ional benefits of the elimination of
the pickup of low freq uency rumbl e and
motor noise. This su perb unit sells for $79.50
net. Your hi-fi dealer will be happy to arrange a demonstration.
Write to Sales Department for
reprints of informative,
published articles.
.='IJ
7'.
~oIt~o/~~ I
The special Pickering Unipoise arm is
designed, as the name implies, around a
single point of support-and is it a point!
A sharp upward-thrusting needle holds the
entire arm· and-cartridge, like a circus
athlete holding his lady friend in mid air
by one upraised arm. It just balances, as
does she.
I've tried this aI'm, on and off, for a
number of months. Given the basic premise,
one-point support from a needle bearing,
the design, IS a logically flowing development. But, if this is the way it must be, I
personally am not too happy about the
principle, however fine it may be in the
theoretical aspects. I am frankly afraid of
that needle point, which is dreadfully sharp
and easily el!.1losed to flesh if the arm is
moved off it. (The arm just sits on it, is
not fastened down, comes off easily.) Moreover, my point soon bent double just at the
extreme sharp tip-too fine a pointthough in view of the leverage exerted I
don't think this did any drastic harm, I
was just as glad to have it slightly blunted,
to tell the truth.
Like all high-quality light-weight arms,
the Unipoise is delicate to use and must be
handled carefully and in this respect I
found its overhead finger lift easier to use
accurately than the pushbutton on the
Shure Dynetic arm, as already mentioned
some time back. Delicacy in the using is all
unavoidable part of fine performance now,
and will be until we get an automatic arm
or a satisfactory mechanical-lift system to
put the arm in the groove without using
clumsy fingers.
I also found, however, that the Unipoise
is sensitive to the Canby Track Test, which
is not be be confused in any way with the
McProud tracking test. The McProud sys·
tem subjects the arm to a 45-rpm record
held against a standard spindle at the
edge of its center-hole, so it weaves eccenirically and makes you cross eyed as
you look at it. It also throws many a stylus
-but not all-straight out of the grooves,
'I.'he Canby test is more down to earth;
it is better known, informally, as t he Loose
Floorboard Test. You just walk around. I
have lovely creaking floorboards in both
my listening places and, necessarily, all
my equipment gets exposed to them at one
time or another. Under the clomp·clomp
test, an outrageous one to perpetI'ate on
fine equipment I admit, the Unipoise
jumped happily and kipped reams of
music, doing no harm at all to the grooves
thanks to its small mass. It obviously
doesn't approve of loose floorboards and
perhaps it is right; or its designers are.
Such equipment is not intended for crass,
gross; roughneck use. Even so. , . . Some
people are going to have floorboard trouble
until they build a new house or install a
concrete pickup platform; it is a factor
that has to be considered, and so must be
r eported on.
The semi-permanent head of the Unipoise is a built-in Fluxvalve though its
shape is somewhat different fI'om the regular unattached cartridge. It takes the
standard Fluxvalve stylus inserts, easily
and quickly. Again-an excellent idea.
4. PLUGS AND GRIPES
'I.'he LP record is such a quality product
now, compared to its state si., or seven
IN ELECTRONICS SINCE 1925
SHURE BROTHERS. I NC .• 216 HARTREY AVE NU E. EVANSTON . ILl.
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
years ago, that by sheer contrast a number
of minor items stand out rather annoyingly, as somewhat less than perfect com·
pared to the record itself. I've got a couple
of minor LP gripes on this score that I've
been saving up, but before them I must
first put in a plug for one feature that used
to gripe me, until I was persuaded of its
value- the inner bag or envelope that protects the record in its cardboard sleeve.
It seems to me clear now that the intro·
duction of inner containers has done more
for the quality of our records in actual use
than any improvement in the record itself.
Even unsealed containers, paper containers,
wax paper. Better any container than no
container, just the bare cardboard sleeve.
In order of choice, I find the thin paper
protectors worst. They tear upon opening
and are almost impossible to use again, so
the record goes back into its container
naked. The heavier paper slip-in envelopes
are easy to use and offer moderate protection, though not enough. At least they are
sturdy enough to go back into the cardboard sleeve without ripping-if you are
careful.
Best, without a doubt is the polyethylene
plastic bag, I have reluctantly decided.
l'?el uctantly because for a long while I
was so annoyed by t he clumsiness of these
stretchy things with the curved bottoms
that I took to tearing them furiously off
my new records. I also dislil(ed the ragged
frieze of plastic that sticks out of the record sleeve, and still do.
But gradually I have come to realize that
records which stay in the plastic remain
fresh and clean 'IVhile those in plain cardboard usually come out sCTatched and
gritty next time I use them. Cardb0arc1
containers are deadly grit'collectors, '1'he
plastic somehow manages to cushion whatever small amount of grit and dust manages to get by- it isn't much because of the
peculiar "sticky," rubbery feel of the stuff,
and its ability to cling to itself for a tight
seal.
I finally got so I could put records into
these plastic bags without losing my temper
at the silly things. In inexperienced hands
they tend to bind and grab, refusing to go
over the record, until you rip them apart
in sheer fury.
The Canby method of getting records
into plastic bags:
.Take the bag by one extreme upper
corner with a thumb and forefinger, the
finger just inside the opening .
2. Stretch the opening out with the other
hand, then dangle the bag diagonally with
the opening towards you.
3. Take the rellord up in the other hand
and slide it a couple of inches, then pull
down on it, against the lower end of the
opening to draw it tight.
4. "Roll" the record in, along the lower
side of the bag, slipping it past the thumb
and forefinger, untiJ it hits the curved
,,~;.
bottom.
5. Pull the bal 'u p tight by shaking it
from the two top corners, one in eacl;1
thumb-and-forefinger.
-All of which takes only a couple of
seconds to do in spite of the long description.
Ideally, the bag should go into the card·
boa sleeve with the opening down, to seal
out dirt, but I defy you to get most of
them in that way 1vithout pushing the
plastic back in a tangle-like pyjamas in
insomnia-leaving a hump a half-inch thick
inside. Better to put them in the other
way and get them flat.
So-now I not only keep all my plastic
bags but I have finally opened up a couple
of packages of extra ones sent to be a
1:
(Continued on page 54)
THESE ARE THE REASONS WHY
Exclusive self-stabilized woofer cone structure
and dual
Indisputi1b~
tbe
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Continuously variable dual control network integrates and blends mid-range and tweeter for
concert realis"m regardless of room acoustics.
H.""-.
, '_"_
Response: 25 cps to in au dib i lity; Power capacity: 50 wa tt s, integrated program; Total
magnet wt.: 6 1/ 2 Ibs. A lni co 5; Impedance : 8·16 ohms; Depth : 12"; User net: $156.00.
UNI V ERSIT Y LOUDS PEAKER S,
I
AUDIO
•
LISTEN
I NC . ,
80 SO. KE N S ICO AVENUE,
I~~"~ WIa.
JANUARY, 1958
WH ITE P L AINS, N. Y.
--I
15
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
EDITOR'S REVIEW
STEREO BOXSCORE
D
1957, will probably be remembered as
the month of stereo announcements, since both
Fairchild and Pickering held demonstrations of
pickups and one record manufacturer announced the
first commercially available stereo record.
Viewed with mixed reaction throughout the record
and hi-fi industries, the Audio Fidelity announcement
of this record came as, a complete surprlse. Within a
week practically everyone in the industry who has any
stake in phonograph equipment had his copy of this
disc-though relatively few could play it, at least
publicly. Unofficially, most pickup manufacturers are
and have been working on new pickups, and undoubtedly most have arrived at a design which may need
only some final polishing to be ready to put into production. However, with no decision from the record
industry as to what system will be adopted, no one
would be inclined to go into full-scale production.
At the studios of WQXR in New York, a demonstration of the potentialities of stereo-as a whole, not
only disc records-was staged on December 13 by
Anton Schmitt and Jimmy Carroll of Harvey Radio
Company and Chester Santon of WQXR 's staff. A.ftel'
discussion of equipment necessary and the playing of
several new tape releases, the Fairchild Stereo Cartridge was shown and demonstrated. Fairchild had
announced the $250 cartridge a week previous. It is a
moving-coil unit designed for the West rex system, and
performance would be judged as commercially satisfactory.
On December 16, Pickering and Company released
an announcement which stated that the company had
completed tests of the new "Stanton 45 x 45" stereo
cartridge and was ready to put the new picKup into
production as soon as the industry announced its
intention to produce stereo discs. On ,-December 19,
Pickering and Company held a press conference and
demonstrated the new cartridge. Walter Stanton,
Pickering president and inventor of the Fluxvalve
pickup, stated that the recent activity in stereo discs
could be construed by the public as an indication that
stereo discs are here and can be purchased in the near
future, but that "in this age of rapid communication
such activity is always widely publicized and is not a
definite indication that stereo discs are soon to be on
the shelves in record shops." Basically, therefore,
although Pickering & Company has a stereo-pickup
design completed, it does not intend to make the units
commercially available until the records are r eady for
the purchaser.
For the greatest benefit to all in the industry-both
record and hi-fi-it would have been far better if this
entire development had been kept under wraps until
it was a fait accompli. But, to mix metaphors, the cat
has got out of the bag and is now among the pigeons,
ECEMBER,
so we have to make the best of it. Automobile manufacturers learned-biggest lesson was in 1928 when
the Model A Ford was introduced-that you do not
show a new model until your distributors have warehouses full of them so they can take advantage of the
immediacy of customer reaction. Better we should
have kept quiet until we were ready to go.
However, we can't help but thank Boy Genius
Sidney Frey, president of Audio Fidelity, for making
, it possible for the experimenter to have a record to
play with, even though this same experimenter may
not be able to play it. Maybe he '11 figure out a method.
We did.
WELCOME TO THE ARENA
To the best of our knowledge AUDIO was the first
magazine in the high-fidelity industry to take open
issue with the findings of some of the so-called consumer service organizations. And so, it is with understandable gratification that we acknowledge the efforts
of another publication to erase the halo of infallibility
which some of these groups claim for themselves.
At a recent press conference in New York attended
by the editors of leading electronic periodicals and by
representatives of trade org'anizations, Albert J. Forman, editor of Electronic Technician, announced the
conclusion of a project which should capture the
interest of every audio engineer and hobbyist.
Mr. Forman and his co-editors set out to doublecheck the finding's of one of the aforementioned groups.
In selecting equipment for test they chose items which
ran the gamut from unacceptability to highest approval, according to you guess who.
Conducted in one of the country's best-equipped
laboratories by a group of engineers with no commercial interest in the gear being analyzed, the tests
reflect ed substantial disagreement with certain data
published recently.
The entire r eport on the tests is far too lengthy for
inclusion here. Suffice to say they were conducted with
meticulous attention to sound engineering practice.
'l'he resultant conclusions indicate either a lack of
technical competence, practical judgment, or both, on
the part of the self-styled consumer service group.
In his report on the Electronic Technician tests,
Mr. Forman states: "It is of interest to note that we
asked (this organization) to show us their original lab
report and testing facilities, since we wanted to duplicate their procedures and equipment. Our request was
refused."
At the risk of being' repetitious we are going to fall
back on our original statement on this matter which
appeared in the April issue of AUDIO: "We feel that
the lack of responsibility shown by some of the socalled consumer service organizations should merit
nothing but contempt for their findings."
16
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
FLEXIBILI
•
GUA
INTERCONNECTING CABLE
AUXILIARY A . C. OUTLETS
TEED
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SPEciAL HUM SHIELDING
VARIABLE PHONO lOAD
The Mcintosh C-8 Professional Audio Compensator is the only pre-amplifier built today with sufficient flexibility to properly compensate for all
records. In addition it has the facilities for serving your every high fidelity
need. The only pre-amplifier regardless of price to offer professional quality, superior craftsmanship, and complete flexibility. Hear it today at your
favorite Mcintosh dealer. Make your own comparison of simple operation
and complete facility. Mcintosh designed quality and flexibility satisfies
the keenest listener.
INPUT lEVEL CONTROLS
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cabinet $8 .00
In Canada manufa ctured under license by McCurdy Radio Industries, Ltd.
22 Front Street W., Toronto, Canada
AE·l·58
AUDIO
•
35
JANUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
5.0
\
4.0
\
r\
o
\
3.0
l..
o
w
::>
\
\
-'
~ ?O
\
"- -
1.0
20
/'
V
V
./
120
40
60
80
100
LOUDNESS LEVEL Of COMPONENT - DB
Fig . 11 . Loud ness fa ctor " Q ."
TABLE VI
VAL UES OF
x
0
1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
3.82
2.64
1.60
1.09
0.90
0.88
0.90
1.04
1.27
1.51
3.70
2.52
1.53
1.06
0.90
0.88
0.91
1.06
1.29
1.53
-- - -0 5.00 4.88
Not e : X = fh
Q(X )
2
3
4
5
6
7
4.76
3.58
2.40
1.47
1.03
0.89
0.88
0.92
1.08
1.31
1.55
4.64
3.46
2.28
1.40
1.01
0.89
0.88
0.93
1.10
1.34
1.58
4.53
3.35
2.16
1.35
0.99
0.88
0.88
0.94
1.13
1.36
1.60
4.41
3.33
2.05
1.30
0.97
0.88
0.88
0.96
1.15
1.39
1.62
4.29
3. 11
1.95
1.25
0.95
0.88
0.88
0.97
4.17
2.99
1.85
1.20
0.94
0.88
0.89
0.99
1.19
1.44
1,6]
- - --- ------ --- --- -
+ 30 log f" -
l.i 7
It1. 4
9
4.05
2.87
1.76
1.1 6
0.92
0.88
0.89
1.00
1.22
1.46
1.69
3.94
2.76
1.68
1.13
0.91
0.88
0.90
1.02
1.24
1.48
1.71
95.
80
60
/"
/
,."
8
-- - --
,/""
...-
----
r-
:..--'
V
fm=MASKING TONE,
=
f MASKED TONE,
FOR CASE WHEN O f m
20
-300
- 100
0
100
300
500
100
o
110
900
VALUES OF 6f-fm =f - 2fm
b k = [( 250 + h fm) / 1000] lOr L,,-L m) I TQ (~k +
30 log fk - 95)
(21)
Fig . 12. Values of t he masking "T.','
COM PUTA TION S
It
1
2
3
4
5
f.
60
180 '
300
540
1200
fI"
L"
G"
b"
50
3
25
30
27
25
3
197
360
252
197
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
.{S
40
30
25
Also the following condition when Lk is
larger than Lm must be satisfied, namely,
bk = 1 when />"L = some value somewhat
smaller than + T. The value of T can be
obtained from masking curves. .An examination of these data indicates that to
a good approximation the value of T
is dependent upon the single variable
f /(. - 2fm ' A curve showing the relation
between T and this variable is shown in
Fig. 12. It will be seen that for most
practical cases the value of T is 25. It
cannot be claimed that the curve of
Fig . 12 is an accurate representation of
the masking', data, but it is sufficiently
accurate for ' the purpose of loudness
calculation since rather large changes in
l ' will produce a very slight change in
the final calculated loudness level.
Data were taken in an effort to determine how this function depended upon
/>"L but it was not possible to obtain
sufficient accuracy in the experimental
r esults. The difference between the resultant loudness level when half the
tones are down so as not to contribute
to loudness and when these are equal is
not more than 4 or 5 db, which is not
much more than the observational errors
in such r esults.
A series of tests were made with tones
similar to those used to obtain the results shown in Figs . 8 and 9 except that
every other component was down in
loudness level 5 db. Also a second series
was made in which every other component was down 10 db. Although these
data were not used in determining the
function described above, it was useful
as a check on the final equations derived
for calculating the loudness of tones of
this sort.
The factor finally chosen for representing the dependence of bk upon />"L is
10· L I T • This factor is unity for />"L = 0,
fulfilling the first condition mentioned
above. It is 0.10 instead of zero for
/>"L = - 25, the most probable value of T .
For />"f = 100 and Q = 0.88 we will obtain
the smallest value of bk without applying the />"L factor, namely, 0.31. Then
when using this factor as given above,
all values of bk will be unity for values
of />"L greater than 12 db.
Several more complicated functions of
/>"L were tried but none of them gave
results showing a better agreement with
the experimental values than the function chosen above.
The formula for calculation of bk then
becomes
'1:.b"G" = 1009
L=
40
where
fk is the frequency of the component
expressed in cycles per second,
f m is the frequency of the masking
component expressed in cycles per
second,
L is the loudness level of the 7cth com"
.36
AUDIO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
.,.
"
It's pra<;;tica! and ecdnomi¢al
with Ampex Multi·Chan~n.e1 Recorqers, and as eas
do a$ this. Us~ your normal
~et·tl ps to get tecnnical'ly ood recordings, but feed mi re groupings to separate c
nels. Later, after studio hours,
ose tne exa ~t settings for'.~ach cf1annel that suit you 'dr your clieAt, before you recol'd
rehearse at your leisure.
I your momaural master.
.
equan~ation, echo and special effects, too, duri'hg the editing session, and nave all the time you
need to experiment and get just the results you want.
You can ada
852
~E DWOQD
.
ID
,
I!
NEW YORK , C ;:m:AGO, LOS ANGELES, DALLAS, WASH lr::-I G:rON
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COMPUTA TIONS
1/
!k
P.
4:
G.
I ..
1
60
180
300
540
200
80
75
70
60
55
69
72
69
60
55
7440
9130
7440
4350
3080
60
180
300
540
- --- ------- - 2
3
4
5
L,.
(30 log/. - 95)
-
-
69
72
69
60
Q
-
-28
-21
-13
- 3
0.91
0.91
0.94
0.89
b
bXG
1.00
0.41
0.27
0.23
0.61
7440
3740
2010
1000
1880
-----
--
loudness G = 16070
loudness Jevel L = 79 db
TABLE VII
Two COMPONENT TON E S
l1/
Frequency Range
(tiL
=
0)
Loudnes. Levels (d b)
L.
1000-1100
100
Lob • .
Lr:alc.
1000-2000
tOOO
LobS.
Lealc.
125- 1090
875
Lobs.
Leal< .
Lk
Lk
83
87
87
83
89
91
84
92
92
63
43
23
2
68
47
28
2
47
68
28
4
- - - - - - - -- - - 63
43
23
- 1
71
49
28
2
74
52
28
1
- -- - - - - -- - - -
ponent when sounding alone,
Lm is the lo udness level of t he masking
tone,
Q is a f unction depending upon the
intensity level ~Ie and the fTequency f7, of each component and
is given in Table VI as a f unction
of x=~1e+30 log fle-95,
T is the masking and is given by the
curve of Fig. 12.
It is important to remember that bl,;
can neve?' be g?'eate?' than unity so that
all calc~tlated values g?'eate?' than this
must be ?'eplaced with val~tes equal to
unity. Also all components within the
limiting f?' equency bands must be
grouped togethe?' as indicated above. It
is very helpful to remember that any
component for which the loudness level
is 12 db below the kth component, that
is, the one for which b is being calculated, need not be considered as possibly
being the masking component. If all the
components preceding the kth are in this
dass then biG is unity.
RECAPITULATION
TABLE VIII
'fEN COMPONENT TONES
Frequency Range
t;j
(tiL =
With these limitations the formula for
calculating the loudness level L of a
steady complex tone having n components is
0)
Loudness Levels (db)
k =n
50-500
50'
50-500
50
1400-1895
55
1400-1895
55
100-1000
100
100-1000
100
100-1000
100
3100-3900
100
1100-3170
230
260-2600
260
530-5300
530
54 33
21 11 -1
68 47
38 20
2
Lobs.
72 53
39 24
8
Lealc.
--- -- ---- ------ -- -- -- -7R 61 41
23 13 -1
Lk
92 73 53
42 25
2
Lobs.
91 77 60
42 27
8
Lealc.
- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - 78 69 50
16
6 -1
Lk
94 82 62
32 22
2
Lob•.
93 83 65
31 17
0
Lealc.
--- -- -- ---- ---- -- ---- -57 37 20
3
Lk
68 50 34
2
Lobs.
73 . 52 36
5
Lealc.
--- -- - - ---- -- ------ - - -2
2 84 64 43
24
84 64 43
24
L.
2
2 94 80 63
44
95 83 59
41
Lobs.
100 83 68
47 12 100 83 68 47 12
Leal c.
--- ----------- ---- -81 64 43
23 13 -4
L.
2
93 82 65
49 33
Lobs.
3
98 83 68
45 27
Lealc.
--- ------ ------ ------ -0
83 63 43
23
Lk
2
95 79 59
43
Lobs.
99 82 68 45
9
Lealc.
--- -- -- ---- ---- -- -- -- -83 63 43
23 78 59 48 27 -7
L.
2
100 82 59 32 99 81 62 38
LobS.
0
100 80 60 38 95 77 65 42
Lealc.
--- -------------- - - -- -79 60 41
7 -4
Lk
17
100 81 65
2
33 22
Lobs.
100 83 64 34 18
3
Lealc.
--- ------ -- ------ -- -- -79 62 42
Lk
23 13 -2
97 82 65
2
44 28
Lobs.
100 85 68 45 27
5
Lealc.
--- ------------ -- -- -- -75 53 43 25 82 61 43 17 - 2
Lk
52 105 90 73 40
2
Lobs. 100 83 73
101 82 72
48 108 89 72 34
5
Lealc.
---- ------ -- -- - - - - -61 41 21 -3
Lk
89 69 45
2
Lobi.
89 70 42
4
Leolc.
Lk
67
83
81
-
--
--
530-5300
530
G(L) = }:.b"G(LI,;),
where b", is given by Eq. (21). If the
values of h and ~Ie are measured directly
then corresponding values of Lie can be
fo und from Fig. 5. Having these values,
the masking component can be foun d
either by inspection 01' better by trial in
Eq. (2.1). That component whose values
of L m } f m and T introduced into this
equation gives the smallest value of ble
is the masking component.
The values of G and Q can be found
from Tables III and VI from the COI'responding values of Lie) ~Ie) and f,c' If
all these values are now introduced illto
Eq. (10), the resulting value of the
summation is the loudness of the comp lex tone. The loudness level L COl'l'esponding to it is foun d f r om Table III.
If it is desired to know the loudness
obtained if t he typical listener used only
one ear, the result will be obtained if
the summation indicated in Eq . . (10) is
divided by 2. Practically the same result
will be obtained in most instances if the
loudness level Lie for each component
when listened to with one ear instead of
both ears is inserted in Eq. (10).
[G (L k ) for one ear listening is equal to
one half G(LIe ) for listening with both
ears for the same value of the intensity
lt vel of the component.] If two complex
tones are listened to, one in one ear and
one in the other, it would be expected
that the combined loudness would be the
sum of the two loudness values calculated for each ear as though no sound
AUDiO
38
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•
JANUARY, 1958
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39
JAN.UARY, 1958
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TABLE IX
ELEVEN COMPONENT TONES (t.L = 0)
Frequency Range
4/
1000-2000
100
1000-2000
1150-2270
1120-4520
100
112
340
Loudness Levels (db)
. Leal•.
84
97
103
Lt
Lob•.
Leal•.
84
99
103
Lt
Lobi.
Leala.
79
99
98
Lt
Lob•.
Leal••
77
102
101
L"
Lob ••
AI
1725-2220
55
55
-1
2
7
1
2
11
64
82
84
64
24
42
45
60
78
81
40
62
61
20
41
40
10
25
23
-5
2
1
62
86
88
42
66
69
22
46
44
7
20
19
-7
2
-1
17
30
30
-6
2
- 1
43
65
- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -- -- -
5 db)
=
Loudness Levels (db)
LJ:
Lob •.
Lealc.
1725-2220
64
24
43
45
- - - -- -- - - -
TABLE X
TEN COMPONENT TONES (t.L
Frequency Range
43
65
64
83
84
Lk
Lob •.
Lea1c.
82
101
95
80
94
93
62
73
76
43
54
56
27
38
40
-62- -42- -22- --12
66
76
50
54
33
35'
22
22
~-
- 2
2
"4
TABLE XI
ELEVEN COMPONENT TONES (t.L = 5 db).
Frequency Range
57-627
3420-4020
AI
57
60
79
91
90
Lt
76
95
89
Lobi.
Leal•.
61
73
76
41
56
59
26
41
43
16
28
28
1
2
8
61
77
75
42
55
54
25
33
36
15
25
26
-9
2
-4
- -- -- -- -- -
TABLE XII
TEN COMPONENT TONES (t.L
Frequency Range
AI
1725-2220
55
LJ:
Lob•.
Leal •.
79
95
91
55
LJ: .
Lob..
Leal •.
79
89
92
1725-2220
=
10 db)
Loudness Levels (db)
59
71
73
40
54
51
19
33
31
9
22
17
-5
61
67
75
41
48
53
27
37
39
17
27
28
-1
2
4
III
2
-.1
----------
TABLE XIII
ELEVEN COMPONENT TONES (t.L
Frequency Range
COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND
CALCULATED RESULTS ON THE
LOUDNESS LEVELS OF COMPLEX TONES
Loudness Levels (db)
LJ:
Lob•.
L""le.
=
10 db)
Loudness Levels (db)
57-627
57
L1
Lob•.
Lea1c.
80
88
90
3420--4020
60
LJ:
Lob•.
Leolc.
81
100
94
were in the opposite ear, although this
has not been confirmed by experimental
trial. In fact, the loudness reduction
factor b", has been derived from data
taken with both ears only, so strictly
speaking, its use is limited to this type
of listening.
To illustrate the method of using the
formula the loudness of two complex
tones will be calculated. The first may
represent the hum from a dynamo. Its
components are given in the table of
computations.
The first step is to find from Fig. 5
the values of L", from iT.: and ~k' Then
the loudness values Gk are found from
Table III. Since the values of L are low
and the frequency separation fairly
large, one familiar with these functions
would readily see that the values of b
would be unity and a computation would
verify it so that the sum of the G values
gives the total loudness 1009. This corresponds to a loudness level of 400.
The second tone calculated is this same
hum amplified 30 db . It better illustrates
the use of the formula.
The loudness level of the combined
tones is only 7 db above the loudness
level of the second component. If only
one ear is used in listening, the loudness
of this tone is one half, corresponding
to a loudness level of 70 db.
62
70
76
42
53
59
27
40
45
17
27
30
2
2
8
62
70
75
42
27
50
33
53 . 37
17
26
27
-4
2
- -- -- -- -- 0
40
In order to show the agreement between observed loudness levels and levels
calculated by means of the formula developed in the preceding sections, the
l'esults of a large number of tests are
given here, including those from which
-the formula was derived. In Tables VII
to XIII, the first column shows the frequency range over which the components of the tones were distributed, the
figures being the frequencies of the
first and last components. Several tones
having two components were tested, but
as the tables indicate, the majority of
the tones had ten components. Because
of a misunderstanding in the design
of the apparatus for generating the
latter tones, a number of them contained
eleven components, so for purposes of
identification, these are placed in a
separate group . In the second column
of the tables, next to the frequency
range of the tones, the frequency difference (t1.f) between adjacent components is given. The remainder of the
data pertains to the loudness levels of
the tones. Opposite Lk are given the
common loudness levels to which all the
components of the tone were adj usted
for a particular test, and in the next
line the results of the test, that is, the
observed loudness levels (Lobs.) , are
given. Directly beneath each observed
(Continued on page 68)
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•
JANUARY, 1958
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Equipment Review
SUPPORTING FRAME
Pickering "Isophase" electrostatic loudspeaker-Heathkit Model W-6M 70-watt amplifier-Shure Model 330
"Unitron" and Model 430 "Commando" microphones.
PICKERI NG ISOPHASE
LOUDSPEAK~R
T
he first time we heard this model-at
the 1955 audio show-we were considerably impressed with the quality
of reproduction, which we described in the
succeeding editorial as being like "a window on the studio." Like any new item,
this speaker had both proponents and opponents, and during the past two years it
has undergone several improvements, as
would be e:~:pected, so that today it is a
superb device. We have had the pleasure
of living with the newest model for over a
month, and we still believe that the quality
of reproduction is about all that could be
desired. In short, we are most enthusiastic
about it.
Basically, of course, the electrostatic
speaker is not a new device-one was on
the market co=ercially in a console radio
as far back as 1932 under the name "Peerless 'Kylectron'" and was, for its time, a
fairly good loudspeaker. We had a friend
who owned one, and upon its . periodic
puncturing of the diaphragm he would go
to the corner drug store and buy a small
device manufactured by Klienerts and some
chocolate bars manufactured by Hersheythose that were wrapped " with very thin
tinfoil. He would then cement the foil onto
the rubber, replace the assembly into the
speaker unit, and everything was fine again
until another puncture.
As we recall it, this speaker was singleended- that is, it did not employ an electrode on each side of the diaphragm.
Modern electrostatics are push-pull, and the
diaphragm is spaced between the two outside electrodes, as seen in Fig. 2. Advances
in plastics make it possible to utilize a very
thin diaphragm on which a metallic coating has been evaporated, resulting in
greatly reduced mass, so that the spacing
between the outer electrodes and the diaphragm is maintained by myriads of tiny
"stand -off insulators," the electrodes being
not unlike a flocked screen. The over-all
"area · of the speaker diaphragm is 730
square inches, and the complete assembly is
36 inches wide, 28 inches high, and 8%
inches deep.
Because of the large area-even at a
pl'actical spacing-the speaker has a capacitance of approximately .0025 f.l.f, which
is reflected at the input terminals of the
dividel' as appl'oximately 12.25 ~f. This
type of load can be troublesome with
poorly designed amplifiers, but we have
tried it with the 70-watt Heathkit described on the following page, with both
Dynakit II and Dynakit III, with the
Marantz power amplifier, and with a 65watt Fairchild amplifier and performance
has been satisfactory with all of these.
Earlier models of the Pickering Isophase
were thought to be inefficient, and they
were often coupled with inefficient woofers
because of this. Present production has
overcome this difficulty, and we are currently using the unit with the woofer of a
United Speaker Systems' "Premiere"which is an Altec 803, and or recognized
high efficiency. The Pickering 401E divider,
which also furnishes the polarizing voltage
for the electrostatic unit, is equipped with
an attenuator in the woofer circuit, but
it is properly balanced with the attenuator
at its maximum position, so the Isophase
is essentially of the same efficiency as the
Altec woofer.
The Isophase has a frequency range from
200 to 35,000 cps, and will accept the full
power output of a 50-watt amplifier at 8
ohms without damaging the diaphragm,
but we have never found it necessary to
turn the volume up to that extent -and we
like fairly high listening levels.
One feature we consider excellent is the
provision of a phasing switch on the divider
which permits reversing the relative phase
of woofer and' tweeter. This is ·much simpler than having to reverse the woofer leads
Fig . 1. The Pickering
" Isophase "
electrostatic loud speaker.
INERT THIN
CONDUCTIVE
OIAPHRAGM
INNER
ELECTRODE
Fig . 2 . Diagram of internal const ruct ion
of the Isophase.
physically at the terminal strip, and permits making rapid checks to determine the
correct phasing position. Once set, of
course, there is no need for change. The
Isophase speaker and its associated 401E
divider are designed to work from an 8ohm amplifier tap. The crossovel' frequency
is 500 cps, which is fixed in the divider.
The divider utilizes a 1V2 rectifier tube to
furnish the 1500-volt d.c. for polarizing,
and the power requirement for the divider
is only 10 watts so we find it simpler to
leave the unit plugged into the a.c. line all
the time, since the speaker is some distance
from the amplifier and running an additional a.c. line is not convenient.
Performance
From the subjective standpoint, we
have noted things on records which we had
never heard before. With no claim for any
stereophonic effect from the Isophase, it
does appear to have a spacial quality which
is hard to describe. As one moves around
within the 55-degree pattern of the speaker,
the sound seems to originate at varying
parts of the diaphragm. Moving up close
tu the unit, with the ear practically against
the grill cloth, one notes that the actual
level does not appear to be very great. This
is logical since the ear hears only a small
portion of the diaphragm, and the small
excursion of the diaphragm moves only a
small amount of air at any given point.
Because of the large surface, however, the
o.er-all sound ou tput is comparable with
any other type of loudspeaker. We would
not say that good performance is not attainable from conventional types of tweeters-we have been quite content with them
for years. But if enough space is available
for an I sophase, it is quite probable that
the quality of reproduction may bring a
new pleasure to listening.
A-21
HEATHKIT W-6M AMPLIFIER
There was a time when the "home-built"
amplifier was the only type available to
the hi-fi enthusiast, because there were no
factory -built models for this market. These
amplifiers were also, in most instances,
home-designed, and they did not always
perform as their designer s hoped. Now, of
course, there are all sizes, types, and colors
of amplifiers available as finished products,
and all may be presumed to work satisfactorily from the first moment they are
AUDIO
42
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•
JANUARY, 1958
EDWARD TATNALL CANBY'"
1. ODDITIES
Around the Horn. Joseph Eger, French
RCA Victor LM 2146
Horn, with others .
This is a one·man expos it ion of the French
horn's a bilities th at is a lso, quite unsuspectingly, a fine portrait of a typical "classical"
orchestra man, complete with super dexterity
upon t he ch osen instrnmen t, a batch of very
hot'lly pieces and a hornish bias that h as the
entire musical world spinning abou t that instrnment as though the rest of music were
se much window dressing! A pardonable attitude, if one is to .be a specialist and professional in t hese t imes; we ha ,' e the same
in other fields, if I may suggest it.
There's one complete and authentic 01'cltestral work for horn here (tltough n ot for
t he modern valved instrument-), a 'Concerto
by Mozart, in which the horn playing, natIll'all y, is highly competent, though the orchestra is perfullctory-it was p robably
s ight-readi ng. There a re a couple of short
chamber worl{s with horn a nd then the inevitable series of "arrangemen ts," showing
off t he horn at the expense of oth er people's
music, so to speak. Let the other people, the
composers, t ur n in their graves or be amused;
this is tbe h orn 's own h eyday, f rom Schubert
songs to Bartok piano pieces a nd a Gershwin
Prelude! Also something called t he Harmonica Player, if you can believe it.
Mr. Eger fills one ba nd with his own commentary on mu s ic from the horn's-eye view,
a nd does it well, with nice illustrations (using double record ing, too ) though w it h a
typical professional sla nt in the argument.
T here is much, thus, a bout the insuffi ciencies
of t he old, non-valve horn a nd t h e versatility (illu strated) of the modern inst rnment
but li t tle about t he qualities that led so many
big composers to write for t he "insufficient"
h orn, with its technically limited resources.
Is versatility a lways desirable, I kept
thinking? That is the convention and it is
the force behind the Electronic Music Synthesizer; but old Herr Brahms, who knew his
music very well, persisted in writing for the
valveless h orn, in spite of the improved
model, because he liked its limitations . . .
Well, such paradoxes aren't the sort of t hing
you'd expert to find explored in this type of
record and so I can't complain_
It's interesting that, though many classical
instruments have found a new voice in jazz
or pops--even the tuba-Mr. Eger's horn
music doesn't offer a nything more radical
than the Ger shwin Prelude, which isn't ex. actly modern jazz. Jazz, I guess, is for a
"dlfferent sort of horn .
Four First Recordings-Sonatas for Two
Violins and Piano. (Telemann, Handel,
Honegger, Milhaud.) Gerald and Wilfred
Beal; Harriet Wingreen, pf.,
Monitor MC 2008
This pail' of identical twins is perh a ps the
first in musical history to play twin fiddles
and since they are both highly musical the
resu lts are unusual, in unexpected wli.Ys.
* 780 Greenwich St., New York, N . Y.
Identical twinism is a lways a bit strange;
there is inevi tably that odd feeling that in a
sense we have only one person before us, not
two. It is no coincidence that they look
a like, dress a like, act alike, and even play
fidd le a like. These two make a team so perfectly coordinated that we seem to be hearing one poly-violin, a single in strument played
by a Single person.
Now this is interesting-for in general the
music that has been composed for two v iol ins
has been intended fo r two dif/81'ent fiddl ers,
to a considerable extent pitted against each
other though worki ng together; the assumption of two different personalities is taken
for granted and is bu il t into t he music itself. Music of th is sort, as in the Tel emann
a nd Handel works here, is rather surprisingly
weakened by the lack of per sonality contrast.
The more perfectly do the Beal tw ins play,
the more deadening is the wet blanket effect ! There just isn't that opposition , that
challen ge of difference, within t he one style
a nd the same p iece, that brin gs life a nd
v ividness to the expression.
It suddenly struck me that we have experienced this same effect before--in the
electroni c duplication of parts by re-recording that is now so often accompli shed, one
player playing two or more parts. Heifetz
did it 'way back with the Bach Two-Violin
Concerto and the r esult was remarkably like
t hat exper ienced h ere, a perfect but somehow
colorless rendition, devoid of the req uired
cont rast. The Beal twins, with the best will
in the world and plenty of mUSicianship, are
the li ving embodiment of re-recorded duplication.
An extra filli p is given to this idea, however, by t he two modern pieces on the Beal
record. T hey were both composed for two
v iolins opemting in effect as one ; fo ur hands
and eight strings applied to a single piece of
musical fab ric. In t hese th e twins are no
less than superb. For t he li fe of you, you will
not be able to tell them a part, nor feel t hat
t here are two peQple playing. There is only
t he one compound twin-v iolin, perfectly
played. A very interest ing reco rd .
A Lincoln
Sandburg.
Album-Readings by Carl
Caedmon TC 20 15 (2).
One of t he Signifi cant things t hat LP is
doing today is to bring h ome to our very
ears t he ways in whi ch s tyl es change with
the times-for though we ourselves march
on as a people, the LP reco rd pins u. down,
here a nd there, fo r po terity. Oddly enough,
we a re a lready to some extent that posterity .
Sandburg, for instance. He is a very old
man now but as young in heart-and in voice
-as he was twenty or thirty years ago. He's
been telling t hese sa me sto ries. si n~ing t he
same songs, to aud iences far and wide, for
dozens of years and they're as good now as
they ever were. He bas a fine mike pel'sonality, a resonant delivery, and a sheer foll<siness that makes hi s discourse faSc inating to
h ear. Especially when he settles down for
a long pull-and does Sanclblll'g love to go
on and on, whether in an endless after-dinner speech or on a pair of LP reco rd s!
You'll be delighted by th is rambling col'Iection of sentimental tales a bou t Lincoln ;
but you~ Il " see what I mean about posterity.
This is a style of the past, about the past,
ou t of a past America. I don't mean Lincoln's own time; I mean that great period,
now in effect ended, when L incoln was the
overwhelming figure of a recent Ameri can
hi story, wh en hi s war was 'l'HE great war
a nd no other American war was imaginable,
unless the earlier 'War of Independence.
Sandburg spea ks out of a time when Lincoln
had no Jater rivals of importance except a
Teddy Roosevelt, a t ime when America was
really unconcerned with t he rest of the world
and Lincoln was the great, modern, towering American figure of hope, faith a nd ambition, as Walt Whitman was a tower of American poetry in the same vein . . .
I cou ld go on and on, like Sandburg; but
better to put on these two rambling records
and li sten in on the gloriou s, sentimental
pas t for you rsel f !
Listen and Learn German . Dr. - A. von
Gronicka, Dr. Paul Holtzman, et al.
Dover Publications (2 10")
(920 Broadway N. Y. 10)
Language records have come a long way
since t hose $50 monster 78-l'pm sets put uut
before the war, and the teaching of elementary "practical" material has moved u tterly
out of the where-is-the-table-of-my-cous in era.
This set, fo r a mere five bucks, gives you
foul' ten-inch hi-fi LP sides of Engli sh phrases
a nd German equivalents, with pauses for you
to say the stuff yourself, plu s a thick booklet
with every thi ng in it, including a quick and
useful index, a list of public notices (the first
thing you see in any foreign language)-th e
whole set of t hem with a reasonable intelligible phonetic system for pronunciation rem inders. A lot for a li ttle.
The cou rse boasts that you 'll learn essential German in fifteen h ourS-I'm sorry
I didn 't have t h at much time at hand, but as
one who has travelled in Germil.ll-spealdng
lands with a very few words on the end of
my tongue and no cou rage at all, I frankly
qua il at the t hou ght of rolling out some of
the mouthfillers here presented-with my
little book helpfully in one hand. Thi s record
does give you ul t ra-practical stuff, I'll admit, all t he way ft'om whm'e 'is t he ",.en's
room to 1 W,e yon very "wch '//tay I call
again r or is Flight 23 on time and lJa'rtender,
I 1vo1tld Uke a el,·ink.
But these professo rs h ave fall en into t he
old trap of perfectionism-they give you the
co rrect, perfect, jumbo-size German phrase
(or everythi ng. dow11 to t hat last tmiling
verb. How many of us will ever get to the
verb at all , in t he sort of di re emergency
that occurs 100 t im es a day when you t ravel?
My own sma ll store of German in cludes
few verbS, because I have no use for them.
Somehow, I a lways lose my aud ience before
I get to t h e verb-end of a German sentence
---<lspec ially when I stop in mid-stream to
look it up in my li t tle book. ' So I resort to
the single-word system a nd I find it very
effective.
When I dr1\'e up to a German gas station
(as I did couple of summers back) I don't
mutter Wieviel costet ein LVtm' B enz'in. They
AUDIO
48
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
which employs an acoustic phase-shift network to cancel out sounds originating from
its r ear. Wh en used for P.A. pick-up, the
cardioid p attern permits its being placed
somewhat further from th e sound source
t han is possible with a non-directional
model-our experience being th at it will
f unction satisf actorily at almost twice the
distance. Thus the gain may be incr eased
by 10 t o 15 db without danger of acoustic
fee dback. Furthermore, the smooth r esponse
- claimed by th e m anuf acturer to b e within
± 2.5 db f rom 30 to 15,000 cps- r educes
still mor e the tendency to "howl" anywher e
in the audio sp ectrum.
The Unitron is a professional microphone, and is available only as a l ow-impedance unit, with a scr ewdriver -op er ated
switch on the front to select one of its
t hree impedances-50, 150, or 250 ohms.
This is an advantage when t he micr ophone
is to be used with differ ent equipments, as
is occa sionally t he case in br.oadcast or
r ecording st udi os. Its sensitivity i s rated at
••
••••••••••
• • ••• ••• • ••
THE MODEL FOUR
A complete-range loudspeaker system of distinctly superior performance
The superiority of the KlH Model Four stems from an ex·
haustive effort to bring as close to perfection as possible
every factor affecting loudspeaker performance .
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
The KLH Model Four is a two-way i oudspeaker system housed in a 13 V2 H x 25W x 12" 0
cabinet. The low-frequency section is the same acoustic suspension mechan ism used in
the KLH Models Two and Three. Its very low distortion and smooth extended lowfrequency response re sult in a quality of reproduction which is unique among loudspeaker systems
The high-frequency section uses a small diameter direc t radiator designed to operate
as a piston throughout most of its range. Its wide d is p ~ r s i o n and exceptionally smooth
extended frequency response immediately di stinguish it as one of the very few available
high-fre.Cluency reproduc ers whi ch fill every part of the room with sound free from
any harshness.
Unequaled smoothness throughout the mid range is achie ved by use of specially
developed loudspeaker cones and by exceedingly careful attention to the design of a
cross-over network which integrates the low- and high-frequency speakers into a
complete-range system of such smoothness that th e presence of two different speakers
is undetectable.
Fig. 6 . The Shure " Commando" , designed
for efficient non-directional pick-up.
- 152 db under the RETMA system, or f or comp arison wit h m or e commonly understoo d r atings- at - 59 db below 1 milliwatt
f or a 10-microbar signal. It is designed to
work into a b alanced line mat ching any of
its three impedances, which makes it possible to use the microphone at a consider able
distance from the amplifier without loss of
eith er level or f r equ ency response, and with
a minimum of hum pick-up or crosstalk .
One of the ad \' antages we fo und with
this microphone was that with the r educt ion of pick-up from the b ack, good recordings could be made in a small r oom without
()bj ectionable r everber ation or r eflection.
F or most applications we pref er low-impedance microphon es, even though most
home equipment is designed t o accept highimpedance models. The addition of a small
transformer, either in t he li:~e using one '
designed for thi s purpose, or permanently
in t he amplifier will usn ally elimin ate hum
problems, and in most inst ances will improve over -all freqnency r esponse.
The unit, shown in F i g. 5, measures 7/:r
inches in height from th e bcttom of th e
(Continued on page 57 )
AUDIO'
•
A new standard of quality control in the manufacture of loudspeakers
was introduced into the industry by KLH with the production of its
Models One, Two, and Three. The same scrupulous care is applied
to the production of the Model Four, thus assuring the uniformly
high quality of every Model Four that leaves the KlH . factory.
'"'-
.Although the development of the Model Four involved extensive engineering
measurements, a truly fine loudspeaker system cannot be adequately described
in terms of numbers, graphs, or other technical data. An appreciation of the
magnificent performance of the Model Four can really be developed only by
careful listening. When you do listen to the Model Four, you will notice that its
sUBeriority as an instrument for reproducing music become.s especially evident
when it is compared, at the same volume level, with any oth~r
loudspeaker·system.
."",",
At selected dealers. $209.00 to $231 ~
Slightly higher in WeSt and Far South.
·".~ ... ,-~t f
30
CROSS
STREET
•
)
CAMBRIDGE
.
•
MASSACHUSETTS
47
JANUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
damping-factor control is t urned, but as
the quality of t he speaker and enclosure is
lowered, the effect becomes more and more
noticeable. The higher values of damping
factor minimize cabinet resonance and thus
r educe any boominess tha t might r esult
fro m poor enclosure balance. When used to
drive a number of speakers at the same
time, t he damping factor should best be
operated at its maximum position.
Const ruction
As with other Heathkits t hat we have
had personal experience with, the W-6M
"builds" nicely. The instructions are well
written, and give the impression that once
being completed, they were possibly given
to a completely inexperienced constructor
to find out if they wer e sufficiently clear
and complete. After completing and testing the amplifier, we "unbuilt" it f ar
enough to add a 25-volt transformer , a
full-wave selenium re"ctifier, and filter capacitors so as to have a 24-volt d.c. supply
for a new preamplifier. The space between
the power and output transformers is wide
enough to accommodate the r ectifier and
the capacitors, and the extra transformer
will just go into th e space uuder the output transformer.
Aud theu-aft er the manner of silent
pict ur e subtitles-came stereo. The probh>m uow is to find space enough ( and
strength euough) in a cabinet to hold two
of these units-1I8 pounds-completely
aside from the need for physical strength
enough to lift them. We shall r emain quite
content with a smaller amplifier for th e
SE:coud speaker, using this model for the
principal speaker and the five others that
ar e distributed around our home at strategic
locations. By which we mean to imply that
we consider this one of the better amplifiers
available and will continue to use it.
That is, we suppose until somebody introduces a practical 100-watt amplifier for
home use.
A -22
SHURE MODEL 330
" UNITRON " AND
MODEL 430 " COMMANDO"
MICROPHONES
With practically no exceptions, the
original source of electrical signal for
ultimate r eproduction over our home systems is th e microphone, and we may r ewrite
the old adage to r ead that "a sound system
can b e no better than its poorest component_" A high degree of p erfection has
already b een attained in amplifiers, for
they deal in only one fi eld and can be made
to do what the designer wishes. But both
loudspeakers and microphones are transducers, and both have to work in two fields
- one acoustic, and the other electrical.
Both are dependent on acoustic design
more than on electrical design, fo r the
latter is relatively simple. But making a
good microphone and a good loudspeaker
are difficult problems. Almost anything can
be used to change an acoustic signal into
an electrical signal, but to get a high
degree of faithfulness the microphone has
"It's th e man from downstairs. He says it would sound
better if we had Tung-Sol Hi-Fi Tubes':
Fig. 5 . Shure "Unitron " microphone-a
ribbon type with a cardioid characterist ic.
What we;re driving at is the sim-
pI
ct that.J ung-Sol Audio
T
s are pr~ferred by makers
of the finest Hi-Fi equipment.
TUNG -SOL ELECTRIC INC.
Newark 4. N.).
@TUNG-SOr
AUDIO TUBES
to be much better t han just "good."
Of the m any types of microphones available, the proper choice must be made for
a given pick-up problem. The inexpensive
unit that comes with the usual home-type
tape r ecorder will pick up all types of
sound to be sure, but its quality leaves
much'to be desired. The first step in obtaining better quality may well be to
r eplace the microphone.
The p attern of the pick-up for ~ny
microphone depends on the constructIOn.
Units may be had which are essentially nondirectional ; others h ave a Figure 8 pattern,
being equally sensitive on both faces-or
practically so-while others h ave a heartshaped pattern, with somewhat less sensitivity at the back than at the front. E ach type
has its optimum applications. However, for
pick-up from a sma~l (or even large). ~rou'p
of musician s or smgers, the cardIOId IS
especially useful in th at it is r elatively insensitive at the b ack, and thus reduces
reverberation as well as direct sounds
originating at its rear. Such a unit is the
Shure "Unitron," Model 330, which we have
given a workout under various conditions.
T he Unitron is a ribbon microphone
AUDIO
46
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
Did Someone Say "Switch?"
When the art of recording was just taking shape
And it seemed to the experts that tape was just tape,
It made sense to try switching from this·brand to thatUntil irish pulled
Now the
FERRO~SHEEN
FERRO-SHEEN
out of the hat!
process, the experts agree,
Has made irish tape different in kind, not degree,
So there's no earthly reason for switching your brand,
Save from Long Play to Double, or Brown to Green Band!
... switch to
... if you are using
irish BROWN BAND
(an inexpensive general·purpose
tape of excellent characteristics)
• •• and want all the advantages of
FERRO·SHEEN •.•
••• switch to
irish
FERRO-SHEEN GREEN BAND
(i t costs no more than old·
fashioned coated tape)
... if you then want the ulti·
mate in professional tape •• •
•.• switch to
irish
lERRO-SHEEN SHAMROCK
(spec ially made with premium
oxides and film)
••. if you then want 50 % more play·
ing time on the same size reel. • •
irish
FERRO-SHEEN LONG PLAY
(on I·mil Mylar or acetate base)
... if you then want twice the
normal playing time on the
same size reel •••
••• switch to
irish
FERRO-SHEEN DOUBLE PLAY
(made on th·mil Mylar base and
available on 5" and 7" reels)
There's an irish tape
for every recording purpose!
Available wherever qualify tape is sold,
ORRadio Industries, Inc., Opelika, Alabama
'.'
Export: Morhon Exporting Corp., 458 Broadway, New York 13, N. Y., U.S.A.
Canada: Atlas Radio Corp., ltd., 50 Wingold Ave., Toronto 10, Ontario
\
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1958
45
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Performance
Fig. 3. External
appearance
of
Heathkit W-6M-70watt amplifier.
plugged in. There are still plenty of people
-this observer is one-who enjoy building
something, particularly when in doing so
we can save quite a bit of money- basically
that representing factory labor and Its
associated overhead and profit. Heath
equipment has long been noted for its
reliability, and in the new W-6M 70-watt
amplifier the results are all that could be
desired, and at a price that betokens a
considerable saving.
This amplifier, shown in Fig . 3, measures
1414 inches wide, 12% inches deep, and
9% inches in height, and has a shipping
weight of 59 pounds. Most of this weight
is, as would be expected, in the two transformers, so it is obvious that there is no
skimping on quality. The circuit, which is
shown in Fig. 4, offers some innovations
which result in a high degree of performance. The first two stages consist of the
two halves of a 12AU7, direct coupled.
The second half is the usual split-load
(cathodyne) phase splitter, and it feeds a
12AX7 voltage amplifier, which in turn
feeds a 12BH7 which is a cathode-follower
driver for the two 6550 output tubes in an
ultra-linear circuit.
The power supply uses a voltage doubler
circuit with four silicon rectifiers and more
than adequate filtering. An extra winding
on the power transformer provides 130
volts to a selenium rectifier for bias supply. Plate currents in the output stage
tubes are metered, and provision is made
for balancing the two tubes by varying
the bias on the driver tubes. Conventional
output impedances of 4, 8, and 16 ohms
are available for loudspeaker loads, and an
additional 70-volt output tap is provided
for feeding large speaker distribution systems. When driving loudspeaker loads, the
damping is adj ustable over a range from
0.5 to 10 by means of a continuously
variable control.
Frequency response is within ± 0.5 db
from 6 to 70,000 cps, with smooth rolloff
beyond these limits to ensure transient
stability. Power output is down 3 db at
about 13 cps, while harmonic distortion
remains below 0.25 per cent over the important ranges, and only reaches 1 per cent
at 70 watts at frequencies of 20 and 10,000
cps. Intermodulation distortion reaches 1
per cent at about 73 watts, and at our
rating point- 2 per cent 1M- the output
was measured at 81 watts. Full output is
reached with an input of 1.1 volts, and
hum and noise measures lower than 70 db
below 1 watt.
One of the problems encountered with
the Williamson-type circuit-comprising
the direct-coupled input pair of stageswas its poor performance as regards overload recovery. This was shown by oscillograph traces of signal output when the
level was changed quickly from a high
value to a very low value- a condition that
is common in musical program material.
No such instability was observed with the
W-6M, however, and only the slightest
amount of ringing was noticed on 10,000cps square waves when driving a loudspeaker load, and none at all on frequencies
below 2000 cps.
Variable Damping
The schematic of Fig. 4 shows an unusual arr angement of the output wiring.
Note that the variable-damping-factor control is a dual potentiometer, with the 10ohm section in the return side of the output winding. In order to maintain constant
gain as the damping f actor control is
rotated, three different resistors are used
for the three low-impedance output taps.
Thus the control- which changes the ratio
of voltage f eedback to current feedbackcan be calibrated directly in damping factor, and gain and distortion remain constant for any setting of the control.
With a high-quality speaker system there
is little difference in performance as the
IZAU1
,
..
"-
'"
@l:::::
"-
-- "--~
' - - ---'@
I ~··
.~.
·"'''''(1-1[ 0 PAIR
Fig. 4. Ove r-all schematic of the 70-watt Heathk it amplifier.
AUDIO
44
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
New Transcription-Type Tone ·Arm Makes Collaro
World's First True-"High Fidelfty'- Changer- - -' . .--~ Selecting your own hi gh fidelity reco rd playing system can be
an exciting and rewarding experience. You look for an amplifier
with low distortion and low noise level. You want a speaker
capable of reproducin g the entire audible range. And you want
to make certain you pick the right reco rd player to go with your
system-because tha t's where the music begins.
The right record player for today's fin e hi gh fidelity systems is
the all new Collaro-the turntable that changes records-featuring the revolutionary transcription-type tone arm.
The new arm is one-piece, co unter-balanced and will take any
standa rd cartridge. Resonances are below the a udibl e level.
Between the top a nd bottom of a stack of records th er e's a
difference of less th a n 1 gram in th e tracking weight as compared with 4 to 8 grams on conventiona l chan gers. This insures
better performan ce for your precious records and longe r life
for your expensive styli.
It's worth noting tha t Collaro quality is so well recognized that
leadin g American ma nufacturers of fin e co nsol e units incorpora te Collaro into their instrume nts in ord er to achieve the best
possible performance in a record player.
In addition to the tra nscription· typ e a r m, the Collaro Contine ntal features :
Four speeds, manual switch tha t permits playing single record
or portion of a record; jam proof mechanism, hold th e arm in
AUDIO
mid-cycle and it won't jam; automatic intermix, plays 7", 10"
or 12" reco rds in a ny order; automatic shut-off after last record
has been played ; wow and flutter specifications, % (0.25%)
RMS at 33% RPM, superior to any changer in the world;
muting switch and pop filter to eliminate extraneous noises;
ex tra hea vy duty 4-pole inducti on motor ; heavy rim-weighted,
balanced turntable for fl y wheel action ; removable heavy rubber
turnta bl e mat ; pre-wiring for easy installation; attractive two
ton e color scheme to fit any decor ; factory custom-testing for
wow, flutter, stylu s pressure and currect set-down position.
Reflectin g their c ustom English craftsma nship Collaro changers
a re tropicalized to operate und er ad ver se weather and humidity
co nditions. The base, in blond or maho ga ny, is optional at
slightl y extra cos t a nd the Collaro mounts easily and quickly
on a pre-cut mountin g board or base.
When yo u buy yo ur Collaro, you' re buying professional quality
equipment at a reco rd cha nge r price. Collaro prices star t at
$37.50. The Continental, fea tured a bove, is $46.50. (Prices a re
slightl y hi gher wes t of th e Mississippi.)
ROCKBAR
~
FREE: Colorful new catalog. containing guide on
building record library plus complete Collaro line.
WRITE TO DEPT A-013
ROCKBAR CORPORATION
MAMARONECK, N. Y.
Rockbar is tne American sales representative for Coffaro lid. and other fine companies.
• . JANUARY, 1958
43
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For over thirty years Bakers have
been making quality speakers for
the discriminating British audio·
phile. These speakers are so out·
standingly superior that they have
long been known as "the best of
the British speakers."
Mister,
you're
lucky.
for the new
Bakers Ultra
12, full·fr e ·
quency range,
12" speaker i~,
now available
in America for
the first time.
A loudtlpeaker cannot be any better than
what i. put into it. The Bakers Ultra 12 i.
the beat, not because of claims, but becau ••
de.i ..n, parttl, materi ..ltl, ..nd care in con8truction make it tlO. So look at the "spec• ." Frequency ran ..e .. . 20 to 25,000 cycles. Flu"
dentlity .. . 18,000 ....U88; 190,000 m ..xwelltl.
Hi ..h compliant, platltic foa m, cone sutlpens lon. Non-resonant, cast, open, aluminum
frame. LiCht, tlen.itive ..luminum voice coil
.. nd former. Fully tropicallzed. H ..nd ....embled. Ext ..... powerful Alcornax III encaaed in
red celluloiJe. Duat, rutlt, ..nd damp proofed.
E xponential, bakelized ape;>:, cone. Power .. •
20 w ..tttl plutl. Voice coil Impedance ... 111
ohmtl. A . full 8pread of 20' to ' 25,000 cyal...
without di8t,ortion~1 cro8tlovllr , network •. In.. enioutl de.l~ ,!lnd 'th~ use of. ne;';;' ·materlal.,
proceS8es, aDd 'techniques DOW make ero •• -
overs unnecetl$ai-y. · Acou8tic, impedance . and
efficiency . m ltll!u>tch; "dl8embodled ;ihl",h .;"
and oth,!r undesirable charaeteri,8tlctl ' . o,t
cr08S0Vertl, are thu8 eliminated.
parent concern is French but, via some sort
of criss-cross arrangement, a large number of
English-made record ings have appea red on the
label, as in these cases.
Dart is an excell en t harpsichord and organ
schola r and both his own p laying and the
ensembles h e d irects a re well informed, serious
a nd highly m usica l, as well as very B ritish.
I n the fi rst record we have two great Engli sh
harps ichordists, Farnaby a m iniaturist with a
gentle, folksy touch and m uch h umo ,', Gibbons
one of the g reat keyboard composers of all
time a nd ~'ell1ar kably close to h is successor,
Henry P u rcell. The second record, with s t r ings,
sma ll organ (a lovely one!), and h arpsichord,
explores some interesting music from a time
not nearly well enough known in English
mu s ical h istory, t h e early 1600's, after Queen
E lizabeth I. Giovann i Copera ri o, before he
wen t to Italy to study music, was bo l'll plain
J oh n Cooper-bu t his Engli sh m us ic does have
a rather Italia nate flavor, whi ch no don bt
helped it in that part icu lar time.
Better ask you l' dealer for news on L'O iseauLyres from London; t hey mi ght be going ou t
of ci rc ul a ti on, whi ch would be a sha me.
Debussy: La Mer.
Ravel: Daphnis et Chloe, Suite # 2. los
Angeles Philharmonic, leinsdorf.
Capitol P 8395
T his is t he debu t offering, if I am r igh t, in
a new "combo," featurin g t hese varied collaborator s and it is a good one, well matured,
t h ough on t he surface it m igh t seem an improbable mixtu re--French mus ic, a Viennese
cond uctor a nd a 'Vest Coast recording compan y.
The L.A. symph ony buckles down to a n intense a nd disciplined sort of play ing under
Leinsdorf, and this well known a nd earnest
condu ctor bet rays his Viennese ori gin not a t
a ll in t he playing, which is, as they say,
highly idiomatic. Th at is, t he F rench music
says what it must say in its own terms, with
understanding a nd expressiveness a nd not a
bit of alien styl izing.
In fact, t he main quali ty of t hi s performance is on e t h at t ies in well with Capitol's
Steinberg record ings of t he P ittsbu rgh or chestra- a keen , no-nonsense modernism, taut,
economi cal,
disciplined,
expressive
more
t h rough t he musical notes t h a n t h rough dis·
plays of orchestral temperament. Good, a nd
we can look forward to other Leinsd orf offerings.
Of t h e two I prefer "La Mer." T he early
Ravel mu sic is of snch a fier cely pass iona t e
natu re t ha t Leinsdorf's relatively cool approach
does not quite give it t he f ull in candescen ce
- t hough n o Ravel play ing should ever be less
t han wh olly di scipl ined.
Franck: Chorales # 1, #2, #3. Albert
Schweitzer, organ .
Columbia ML 5128
and become sound happy.
Alber t Schweitzer was on ce well known
mu sicall y as a Bach pl ayer, a nd his early
or gan r eco rds were la rgely Ba ch. Now, w it h
t ime's passing, Schweitzer's Ba ch has t urned
"old-fashi oned"-it pre-dates t he wh ole new
re" ival of "class ic" or Bar oq ue organ style and
lacks t h e crispness and color we expect t hese
days.
• B ut Scll-weitzer him self is as close to Fran ce
as to Ger man y; his earl y study was in Paris,
hE' was brough t up in t he F r ench school-he
a rrived in Paris only a few years after
Franck's deat h .
T hese a re in the right style, t hen ; t hey a re ,
Schweitzer 's ow n mu sic. as much as Bach
ever was. T hey do not sci.nt illate as per fo rma nces-be isn 't that sort of organ ist (and
many p rofess ionals, va luing finger dexterity,
de. pise hi s playi ng). There is th e usual grave,
meth od ical yet myst ical a pproach on the edge
of being clum sy but saved by the power of
the m ind behind the fingers. And t he organ
sou nd a nd color are sui ted· to Fran cl\: 's Dlu sic,
as Schweitzer 's Bach sound is no longer. A
good reco rd.
BRADFORD AUDIO CORP.
Chopin and Liszt. louis Kentner, piano.
Capitol P 8400
Thi8 com!>ination of feature8, which cannol
be found':,in any other speaker, makes th..
Bakertl~ UHra 12, unquestionably, the f1netlj
reproducer today. And the price . . . a mer..
$85.00 : • • for the b est.
n you want a tlpeaker that is tar superior to
anything now av..ilable, in8ist on a dealer
demonstration. You will be amazed at its
8moothne.., definition, cleanness, n a turaIneso
. . . a certain " s omething" tha t you hBVf'
never
heard
before.
Lucky owners say.
"Mister, this is it." The " specs" tell you
why.
Write for literature . . .
Sole distributors for the United States
27 East 38th Street
New York City 16, N. Y. OX 7-0523
Louis Kentner 's new record can be described
s im ply enough . (1 ) He is, indeed, an " imaginative" pi n nist, as cri t ic Howard T aubm a n
called h im , and his Chopin is of the poetic,
sweet kind rather than the powerhouse, p ianobreaking sor t; even hi s L iszt is a lot less t han
ear-craCking. (2) The sound of his recorded
piano is soft and well bred and very British,
qu ite unlike most American p iano reco rd ing,
including Capitol's own.
All of wh ich is expl ainable by (a ) t he fact
that th ough Kentner was bo rn in Hu ngar y, h e
is now a naturalized B rit ish m us ician a nd (b )
the recordi ng just must have been made in
England, by E.M.I. It has that "His Master's
Voice sound! " And t h e piano p robably isn't
a Ste inway .
(The L iszt includes t hree of the Annees de
Pelerinage p ieces, plus the waltz from "Fau st,"
transcribed; the Chopin is t he Nocturne in D
F lat, the C Shar p Mino r Fantais ie-Impromptu
and t he Improm ptu No.1 in A F lat.)
Spohr: Octet in E Major.
Poot: Octet. The Vienna Octet.
London LL 1610
T he octet of mixed str ings and w inds is a
ma rvelous combination for recording a nd t he
h i-fi cognoscenti a re likely to hop w henever
the wo rd appears On a record label-classical
or popula r. H ere we have two odd names; one
is ou t of Beeth oven 's ti me a nd famous in t hat
day, the ot he,." is out of now, a nd well known
in Belgiu m if not h ereabouts. Spoh r was one
of the best of Beethoven's contemporaries;
Poot (born 1901) is head of t he Brussels Conser \7atoI'Y.
If you like ea rlyish Beeth oven, if you h ave
enj oyed Beethoven's early Septet a nd t he m ore
pr of ound Schuber t Octet, both w it h double
bass, if you like t he "T rout" Quintet, a lso
with double bass, t hen t his Spoh r work w ill
please you no end , and you'll be su r pri sed at
h ow good the fell ow was. Not qu ite u p to
Beeth oven , but well a head of plen ty of others.
Very melod ious a nd "themati c" a nd one nlOvement is a set of variations on t he familia r
"Harmonious Blacksm it h " t une by Handel. As
to Poot, he exploi ts a sim ilar array of instruments, in a conservative modern style that is
light, a iry a nd beautifully w r itten. You'll
h ardl y not ice t he dissonance . ..
Beethoven: Symphony
Symphony, Ste inberg.
Beethoven: Symphony
Cleveland arch ., Szell.
These are my nominat ions for tops in t he
new, modern, streamli ned approach t o ol d
Beethoven , a nd they a re qui te rema rkably
alike in many ways. Ou twardly, both a re f rom
" lesser " Ameri can orchestras, per formi ng with
top effi ciency, both a re f rom med ium-s ized
companies in t he classical fi eld ou t to develop
home com petition f or th e bi g orchestras like
t he New York P hilha rmonic a nd the P hiladelphia, both com pa nies are in dead earnest a nd
trying very ha rd to do a good j ob and w in a
h igher rating.
Inwardly. Steinberg's Seventh and Szell 's
E ro ica sh are a characteristi c new li ghtness of
textu re, a n over-a ll sha pe t ha t is alm ost easygo ing in th eir large, a r chi tectural viewpoint,
li ke suspen s ion bridges (rather t h an massive,
Napoleoni c monuments ); the t empi in both
a re on t h e fas t side, t here a re few exaggerat ion s a nd heroi cs, even in t he Erolca. All in
a ll, t hese big symphonies n ever sounded so
s inewy, so casual , so clean-limbed, so effortlessly athletic. A nd in both the recording is
excellent, in conser vative hi-fi minus exaggera t ed close-u p effects.
3. OPERA AND BALLET
Offenbach: La Perichole {In English}.
Patrice Munsel, Cyril Richard, etc., Metropolitan Opera arch. and Chorus, Morel.
RCA Victor LOC 1029
Perh aps thi s will make good entertainmen t
fo r t h ose w h o come to it "cold," not kn owing
t he na ture of t he F rench original bu t I have
my doubts, what w it h a printed li bretto t hat
t h rows a ny listen er off t he tracl; every few
lines, E nglish or no E nglish . If you kllOW
Offenbach- a ny Offen bach-as th e F rench
know him, you can expect to gasp at the
extent to which a fine style is lost in t he
AUDIO
5Z
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
#7. Pittsburgh
Capitol P 8398
#3 {"Eroica"}.
Epic LC-3385
•
JANUARY, 1958
,
Gilber t a nd Sulli van . (No offense intended ; the
Italians a re j nst more emotional and their
la nguage sings itself !) Marenzio writ es
"classic" madrigals of t he perfected fo rm,
Gesualdo's a re eccentric, of the revolutionary
early 17th Cent u ry, f ull of stra nge, Wagnerlike ha rm onies a nd preoccupied woiJ h dea t h .
(Not surpris ing; he wa.s a m u rderer on the
side.) The German mad.rigal g roup ...is .beauti fully disciplined and sings with the sense of
the music very much in mi nd (texts and
translat ions p rovided) , though their pitch
could be better.
Exce rpts from PRESS COMMENT on the
The High Renaissance-Palestrina: Mass
"Papae Marcelli"; Stab at Mater; Improperia . Aachener Domsingknaben, Domchor, Rehmann .
Archive ARC 3074.
Throw in one m ore in this pa rticular series,
("Research P eriod IV ") , t he famous Palestrina. What a glorious s urprise here in t he
singing of t he Aix Cathedra l Singing Boys
- litera l translation- who provide the first
side, the well known Mass of Pope Marcellus_
Such h eight s of childish pitch , withou t strain,
with perfect musical sen se a nd a mazing brea th
cont rol ! Th ough I don' t m uch like the " haha-ha " sort of technique the choil'mas ter h as
evol ved to pu nch through the echo of his
cathed ra l (it shows up unpleasantly at the
mike's range ), I can 't help admiring t he
beau t y of the singing h e invokes from his kids.
Th e grown-up ch oir (the Domchor or
Cathedral Choil' ) s ings a double-ch orus work
. and the m iking for this effect is t he best I've
ever h eard-a r eal sense of t he t wo, separate
choirs. yet each i s a li ve and not overly "offmike. " Very hard t o a chieve, this effect ;
usually the two s imply merge on records a nd
sound like one.
If a ny of t his appea ls to yonI' interest, be
s nre t o check on t h e ma ny dozens of other
Archh-e relea ses. Almost all are of un usua l
in teres t.
Haydn: Symphony # 45 ("Farewell");
Symphony # 82 ("The Bear"). Southwest
German Radio Orch ., Reinhardt.
Vox PL 10340
Haydn: Symphony # 55 ("Schoolmaster");
Symphony # 45 ("Farewell)_ Aldeburgh
Festival Orch ., Britten_
London LL 1640
A sense of st yle a nd interpretation is what
a .con d uctor mu st have--but a composer, in
the last a na lysis, need know his own .style
only. Most composers a re by their very trade
narrow-minded 'as' to t h e rest of t h e m us ical ·
world:
So it is wit h Benj amiu Brit ten . I can only
say t hat these two Haydn Symphonies, pla yed
at the Aldebu rgh F estival in Engla nd and
recorded a t the concert , a re un believably bad .
Part of it is in the orchest ra, which is n o
great sha kes- bu t far f rom a ll of it , I j ust
don' t thinl; M r_ B ritten ha s mu ch idea of
wha t Haydn was abou t , a nd I don ' t r eally
see a ny reason why b e should (except, of
course, when he under takes to cond u ct
Haydn ).
The young Rolf Reinha rdt's H aydn shows
the ower side of the picture, in case you
want to compare. H e is just t hirty, bu t he
has a bsorbed tb e Haydn t rad ition and the
inner sense of t hese symphonies t o such a
degree tha t tbese might well be t b e matured
work of a conductor in his la ter years.
Especially in th e "Farewell," which is a sym pbony t hat depends on the very drama of
understatement for its profound effectiveness.
In the wrong h ands , it is jus t s illy sounding. _.
Masters of E·a rly English Keyboard Music
IV. Gibbons and Farnaby. Thurston Dart,
harpsichord.
L'Oiseau-Lyre OL 50131
Jacobean Consort Music (Coperario,
Ward, Lupo, Hume, Gibbons). Jacobean
Ensemble, Dart. L'Oiseau-Lyre OL 50133
London seems to have la psed on Us
L 'Oiseau-Lyre imports t be last few monthstbese a re f rom a batch I got hack in J u ne a nd
are typica l of a lot of excellent- and_ indeed,
unique items on this la bel. not very b andsomely promoted by London which probably
in con sequ en ce didn' t sell very many . The
AUDIO
•
Hillk lideliflJ
(f.,:st,:dintlICHouu:)
" . _ . With the (twee t er) control set to suit my taste (best described as row-M-orie nted ),
oscillator tests ind icated that bass wa s smooth and very clean to below 40 cycles, wa s audibly
enfeebled but still there at 35 , and dropped out som ewhere around 30 cycles. No doubling
was audibl e at any f requ ency .
From 1,000 to 4,000 cycles there wa s a slight, broad dip in th e response (averag ing perhap s
2 db down), a gradua l rise to orig inal level at 8,000 cycl es, and some minor discontinuities
f rom th ere out to 12,000 cycles. Then there wa s a slow droop to 14,000 cycles, with rapid
cutoff above tha t.
Becau se of its slightly depressed ' presence' range, the AR-2 has what is to me a refreshingly
sweet, smooth, and highly listenable sound . Musi c is reproduced transparently, and with very
good detail. Its hi gh end is unobtrusive , but its ability to reproduce th e guttiness of string
tone and the tea ri ng transients of a trumpet indicate that it is. ind eed, contribut ing highs when
needed. Th is, I fe el , is as it should be.
Its low end is remarkably clean and , l ike. the AR-1, prompts disbeli ef that such deep bass could
emanat e f rom such a small box.
" . . . Like the AR -1, th e AR-2 should be jud ged purely on its soni c merit s .. . not on the theoreti cal basis of its ' re str'ict ive' cabine t size . Wh en so jud ged, it can stand comparison with
many spea kers of consid erabl y greater dimension and pri ce. -LG .H."
.
AUDIO ETC.
"'r..... c..,
I ..
" .. . I find tire AR -2 remarkably like the AR-1 in over-all sound color.ation . Its cone tweeter
Is not the same, but there -isn' t much tliff.erence in sound . (It costs less, but that doesn 't
prove much.) On di rect comparison, given a signal with plenty of bass component in the very
bottom, you can tell the difference between the two in bass response . Most of the time , in
ordinary .listening , I am not aware of it at all.
. - . I find AR-2 , as
ears for long-period
has a way of si mply
and disembodied in
with AR -1, remarkably clean and unobtrusive in its sound , easy on the
li st ening, easy also to ignore in favor of the mu sic itself. Either speaker
fad ing into the surroundings (the size helps) leaving th e mu sic unattached
the room . Excellent i llusion! .. . "
Prices for Acoustic Research speaker systen1's , c~mpfete with cabinets, (AR-l and AR-2} are
$89.00 to $194_00. Size is "bookshelf. " Literat ure is avail able from your local sound equipment
dealer, or on reques t from :
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, INC.
JANUARY, 1958
24 Thorndike St, Cambridge 41, Mass.
51
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
tell you how much a liter is, right on the
pump', same like at home. So I just point to
the tank and say V 'iel'zig, and in goes the gas,
gurgle-g urgle. (In Denmark I couldn 't even
count, so I just w rote the number ou a piece
of paper.) It's the one-word system for me.
I should bate to have to omte pompously
IF YOU ARE MOVINC
Please notify our Circulation Department
at least 5 weeks in advance. The Post Office
does not forward magazines sent to wrong
destinations unless you pay additional postage, and we can NOT duplicate copies sent
to you once. To save yourself, us, and the
Post Office a headache, won't you please
cooperate? When notifying us, please give
your old address and your new addretls. ,.
Ji"imen Sie bUte d 'i,e Battel'ie mit TVasse,' aft!!
to get my battery filled-I'd never make it.
Instead, I open tbe h ood, point to the darned
th ing and say TV ASSER! It works.
iV[ost people lose their nerve at tbe end of
two or three words of an unfamiliar language, even if t here are a few chrome-plated
souls who speak carefully, slowly and loudly
enough to rou s'e all the natives w ithin a h a lf
mile. When ): hear them I want to go and
h ide. My idea of a strange language is to
use as little of it as I can, as quickly and
as unobtrusively as possible! No fancy
phmses for me.
If these professors could just bring themselves to underline in bright red the one, vital
key word in each sen tence, t he one that will
do the trick in a pinch-any pin ch-they'd
make us timid soul s fee l a lot happier. Why,
we'd be able to maste r the course, one-word
sty le, in the t ime it's taken me to write this.
The series covers ten languages already,
in case you want one wOI'd in a few other
languages. At $5, these are bn rgai ns, timid
soul or no ..
Circulation Department
RADIO MACAZINES, INC.
p, O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
Music by Alan
artists}
Hovhannes. (Assorted
M-G-M E3517
The exotic, super-hi-fi mus ic of Hovhannes
Illust be selling well and a good thing too;
this is the fourth M-G-M all-Hovhannes disc
and it is evidently made up of numerou s leftovers-not ' less interes ting than other pieces
but perhaps the wrong length for the inconvenient strictures of t he LP record , It happens
at all recording sess ions a nd , mostly, the extra
stuff never has a chance to appear.
Tbls record includes mus ic for brass, for
solo piano and piano quartet, for v iolin and
piano, for, string orchestra and for m ixed
orchestra-a bit of everything (since percuss ion comes naturally into almost all
vhannes that allows it). No room for details,
but tbis is "more of the same," in varietythe same strange, dynamic. motionless music
that is at its most effective on M-G-M's earlier
d i. c of the Saint Val' tan Symphony (E3453) "
a symphony like no other ever composed, The
usua l and excellent M-G-M artists are ' here-t he Aj~mtans for v iolin and p ia no, Marga
Richter on piano solo, various M-G-M instrumental ensembles, a nd the Manhattan· Viano
Quar tet. F ine music, fine bi-fi.
Ho-
3
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~
~
DS.TrippAvenue
Chicago 24 , Illinois
I'
I D brochure ' on tape components
I D
I
I
,
I
I
literature on portable recorders
I
Name
I
I
I
I
Address
L~~n~~
,
I'
I,
____ .________ ,_ ,..J~
tbing,or-other (for tbe Public's memory wasn't
very gOOd)-WE CAN SEE IT FOR OURSELVES.
But off in a corner was a little knot of
s keptics among whom there existed a soul
named Can-bee. And he said , in a not-inaudible whisper, BUT our dear, gullible E mperor,
none other than You nmee himself, is NAKED.
He doesn't have any clo~he8 on at (til.
That's just stuff, said his nearest neighbor,
and so it was, and everyone was happy.
(N.B . The reco rd contain s t h e RussIa n a n d
Ludmilla Overtu re, Volga Boatman, Meadowland, Melodie (Tchaikowsky), etc. a nd it's
very nicel y played if you like cool music,
real chilly. As for t he "tidal wave" of the
Mongol invasion th at " left its undeniable
mark" on Russian music, I don't hear a trace.
Sounds to me like the HoJlywood Bowl, and
playing indoors, too. Ah, publicity!
Clarabelle Clowns with Jazz. (With the
Norman Paris Trio).
Golden Crest CR 3030
It seems that Clarabelle, t he clown in
Howdy Doody, is a jazz fiend on tbe side and
plays jazz clarinet. On TV his only voice is
a small oink oink from a species of squeeze
horn, bu t it says a lmost anything needed,
depending on the inflection.
In these rather suave jazz bits, the oink
oi nk appears regularly, sometimes as an opener,
at other times neatly blended into the music
itself. A trade mark, of course, and intended
to complete tbe sales tie-in between the music
and the T V show; but the tblng is done so
casually and so expertly t hat I couldn't help
admiring it. Very mUSical, jazz or no. And
hi-fi, of course--chamber jazz is a wonderful
medium for quiet hi-fi, of a sophi sticated sort.
(In case I have intimidated you by . that
dreadful word, "chamber," I'll hastlly add
that the proper term in jazz seems to be
"intimate." The Norman Paris group plays in
"intimate" night clubs. Maybe we should talk
a bout " int imate" music by Beeth oven and
Mozart! The same idea.)
2. CLASSICALIA
The High Renaissance-9 Chansons; 16
Danserye, Pro Musica Antiqua, Cape.
Archive ARC 3071
The High Renaissance-Marenzio; 6
Madrigals; Gesualdo: 6 Madrigals. Singemeinschaft Rudolf Lamy.
Archive ARC 3073
The Archive series, promoted throu gb Decca,
continues to pour out an aston ish ingly wide
mnge of earlier m u s ic in wide-open, liesurely.
Russkaya! Hollywood Bowl Symphony
non· excerpt fashion, and I get to writing
Orchestra, Dragon .
Capitol P 8.3 84
about the r ecords only too seldom, This is
t he first series in phonograph history that is
Once upon a time there was a n Emper.o r
both comprehensive and unlimi ted in its
(oddly enough. hi s name was You lllnee) who
coverage--all
the other histories and surveys
was frequently served up a dish of goods by
resort to the inevitable boiling-down, excerpthis high placed advisers. Gullible old soul, he
ing, sampling. The reason , evidently, is that
fe ll for it all , including the magic of the
this series has no end. It just goes on and on.
Tar tars, th e spell of "Russkaya" (though , he
and there is thus always theoretical and prac·
wasn't quite sure what t he word meant) , and
t ical room for as much of anything as the
he also, loved mUSic-which, he was told, "in
producers can produce! (Imagine, similarly, a
th e splendor of an outdoor setting, gains a
" hi-fi demonstration" d isc, 01' a n "audio test
'peelal beauty ' that inspires musicians and
record" that coul d just go on indefinitely, del,audiences alike," not to ment ion emperors.
ing into every aspect of the subject as exEven canned outdoor mus ic.
hausti vely as you pleased. Say, fi v.e or six recYep, tlUs Einper or liked to sbow off his
ords devoted to harmonic distortion, perbaps
n ewly acqu ired goods, . too, just like you and I .
a dozen LP's on every form of 1M · . ' . that's
The high placed ones, one day , really got
the size of this Archive series.)
themselveR worked up. Was it a new piece of
Anyhow . . . the Safford Cape Musica
music they were selling him, or a su it of
An t iqua discs in this series are a lways a
Russian clothes"-I can't remember. Anyhow,
pleasure, the old m usic done u p in , a vital,
they told' him that this stuff (from etoffe,
a live, vwnderfully sensuous form , full of
French for cloth,). had "an underlying melanrhythm and of real vocal appeal, as well as
choly and ba rllari'c splendor t hat can, be traced
with an exqu is ite feeling for dynamic pitch.
back to the Mongol conquests of the ThirT his one, with the "danserye" on i t , bas some
teenth and Fourteenth Centuries, when, the
lovel y songs, as· collected by a highly musical
Golden Hord'e s'wafl1n;ed into a\l Russia ..· ·a,nd,
fairly -;,jnmping fO'~; 'jOY, he pu t on hi s new , nob le lady, Margaret of Austria, in the early
1500's,
plus a batnh of: popular dances, among
Ru ssin;n ," •. clothes , ~el all Cboly and all, and
mshed forth to b ' ;'adinir-ed by , ~ ll the Popu- , t he first to be published in notation after the
lace,
''.,'
''C.
' development of su itable printing facilities.
Very sprightly.
Now All the Populace (which in thos counThe madrigals, ou t of Italy and a later t ime,
try was , known as t h e P ublic) had been duly
neatly contrast the earlier and latest madrigal
a"sembled in . long rows, expressly to admire
period. Neither composer will remind you of
their Emperor, .who was at One with , his
the English madrigalists-no cuteness and
people, And t he l?ublic said y.es, this stuff
..
fuill
s in the Itall'an madrigal , whIch was to
truly has. an,. und~rlyi:ng·melimcholy-andcbar.­
,the English, madrigal as Italian opera is to
baric-splend'Or-that'-can-be-traced-back-to some·
AUDIO , . ' JANUARY, 1958
50
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DOOR. Real Dixie! Volume 4 AFLP 1860
Original Minstrel Time! Banjo, trombones, trumpets and Um-pah-pah! Foottapping music! Volume 5. AFLP 1861
Unusually fine recording of the flamen·
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AFLP 1848
Scintillating Latin Tempos for your sunfilled days ... your moonbeam nights.
Pedro Garcia.
AFLP 1841
Mohal)1med EI-Bakkar, his Oriental En·
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Music of Middle East. Vol. 2. AFLP 1834
A potpourri of Latin rhythms for dancing, for romancing under star-studded
tropical nights. Pedro Garcia. AFLP 1842
AUDIO " • . JANUARY, 1958
49
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
s lmflle in t his sh a peless composite produ cti on ,
th at will n ot settle down in a ny style.
Patri ce Munsel is t he her oine of t he f a r ce
a nd s ings at one m oment like Carm en a nd t he
next l ike B roadway- wh at is it tha t w e do to
fine Ameri can voices to give t hem so quickly
t he edge a nd s tra in of an ins trumen t half
WOl'll ou t? Munsel sound s about f or ty five a t
times, though she rallies to a plea s ing youthfulness h er e a nd t here.
The big cheese--a n elderly Spanish vi ceroy
- is Cyril Richa rd , w h o a cts- a nd sings- as
of a n amateur Gilbert and Sullivan sh ow.
Funny, yes, hut French-no. In the end, t he
Gilber t and Sulliva n a tmosphere takes a shaky
lead over both Carmeu a nd Broa dwa y, whi ch
is un fort una te because t he plot is VeI'Y
French, even in transla tion. With G & S peeping over your shou lder , you will be shocked
a t some of the goings-on in this a ffa ir!
Some da y, let's hope, t he a ugu s t Metropol itan Opera will leal'll that opera is two thirds
s tyle to begin with , whatever the language;
everybody else f ound it out cen t uries a go.
With all the superb opera on r ecords coming
over here from Eu rope, t he Met ma kes a s orry
showi ng in th e big-league field with this sort
of t hing-however a mu s ing the a ctua l st age
produ ct ion may ha ve been .
The recording is of excerpts , the continu it y
a rra nged via spoken narration , plus extra
printed comments in the libretto. (You get
lost wh ile you t ry t o rea d t hem as the opera
pla ys .)
Tchaikowsky: The Swan Lake Ballet
(complete). Philadelphia Orch ., Ormandy.
Columbia ML 5201
Th is is t h e stuff! I am enthus iast ic about
the spate of new complete recordings n ow coming out of worl,s wh ich for m a ny long yea r s
have been known only in brief suites, intended
f or' concert use. How mu ch mus ic w e have
missed- and how much of the real sense a nd
:flavor of the whole score.
The complete " Nutcracker " was a case in
point a few seasons back ; now h ere is a n
earry Tchaikowsky in the same t radition,
another hour-long score with the fa mil iar b its
and pieces filled ou t by qua ntities of new
mu sic t bat few of u s h ave heard before. It
ma kes wonderful l istening for a long, liesurely
dinnec.
What? I mean exa ctly tha t. The signi fican ce
of such scores as this is tha t they w ere n ever
intended, in t h eir wholeness, for d irect, concert a ttention, of t he sort where one sits
motionless a nd a ll ears, where t he minutes
quickly add up to hou rs and the seats get
stiffer and stiffer , t he eyes wea ry, the mind
over-crammed . This type of mus ic is the essence of enlightened backg round m usic--for
a n occasion where you , t he li s tener, a re
wrapped u p in some ot her , complementa ry
deligh t to such an exten t tha t you don't even
bother to count the minutes and supress tha t
inevitable concer t yawn!
I am qu it e serious, though I don't m ean to
run down the concer t; a Beethoven symphony
is concer t mus ic and best trea t ed with concert
respect, fo r its inner con cent r a tion a nd intensity. This other kind of mus ic, t h ough, has all
enormou sly varied and honora ble history,
longer and wider than con cert m usic it self.
And so positive a re t he virtues of enlightened
background music t hat we can very r eadily
substitute one foreground for a no ther, w it h
t he same mus ica l resul t s .
P ut on ""Swa n La ke" with your sou p a nd
g ive it half a chan ce t o be h eard; you w ill be
as happy with it, when t h e g rand climax
comes just in t ime f or dessert and coffee, as
t hou gh you h ad absorbed th e mu sic a t t he
ballet theatre. Too long? You w on ' t e ven
n otice how t he time fl ies . T hat's t h e bi g poin t
a nd it is a genuine one, t hat a ccounts f or the
very shape a nd t ex t ure of t h e mus ic itseU.
Too lon g, much t oo long for con cer t use; t oo
padded, too repetit ive, too loosely organized.
B ut perfect for ballet , a nd fo r casual h ome
list ening, t oo .
Ormandy a nd t he P hiladelphia a re a lways
in t heir best form in s uch ventnres a s t hi s; i t
could n ot be bet ter t urned out for the casua l
pu rpose. Big, r ather dist ant r ecording with a
fi ne clumpy bass a nd lots of cYJ1)bal , that
s ounds like cymbal , n ot breaking glass.
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AUDIO ;ETC
(from page 14)
Arnp~re»
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• 5.7 watts output at 10% harmonic
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Low·noi.e high' jL pe ntode
Low·noi.e mod ium .jL duol triodo
Low· noi. e low.jL duo I triode
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ELECTRONIC CORP.
230 Duffy Ave ., Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y.
long time ago by the Walco Company for
trial-the trade name is D'isGovers and
they sell at $1.50 a dozen, or did when. I
got these. My apologies to Walco for not
disCovering their usefulness before.
P lastic bags are best, -but Angel's neat
plastic-lined p ap er envelopes are almost as
good and f ar more convenient to use. The
trick is plastic bonded to p aper and Angel,
if I am right, will give the know-how to
any manufacturer who is interested (if he
hasn't found it somewhere else). I don't
remember seeing anybody else's discs with
plastic-paper containers. I think they
should be investigated by all. Home·type
plastic-paper bags would b e highly nseful
and convenient, especially if there were
some sort of simple fold-over seal arrangement.
A sidelight on this. Decca's imported
German Deutche GJ'ammophol1 Archive LP's
are monumentally sealed 1vith German
thoroughness; the slick-paper envelope is
surrounded with plastic and inside it is a
second plastic container around the record
itself. In the earlier releases some chemical
miscalculation unsealed the glue on the
paper envelopes and they f ell apart in a
most undignified way, like some of the very
earliest American LP's.
But the newest b atch of Archive records
has been fixed up. There is some sort of
strong plastic glue now and the paper
envelopes are bonnd for good with cloth
edges.
And the Factory Seal, which nsed to be
glued on, is now an American-type seal,
rubberized so it peels off neatly. But un·
like our "sealed" records, these are really
t amper-proof ; the Factory Seal is inside
the outer plastic cover, which is sealed
tight.
The Germans mean what they say by
Original 17e?'paclmng-original packing.
A persistent minor trouble I've been
noticing lately with the new lightweight
arms is that when their points are placed
on the lead-in grooves of th e new raisededge LP's they t end to; skip suddenly towards the record's center with a squawkbecause of the sharp inward slant at the
raised hump around the rim. It happens
with manual arms and it also happens with
some new changer arms of the feather weight sort. Quite annoying. But there's
not a thing we can do about it except,
p erh aps, to cut deeper lead grooves- or
give up the raised hump altogether.
This may be one good reason wiry some
brands, n otably London, still use the old
fl at surface right out to the record edge.
A less excusable fault that has been
making me frown of late is the noisy
lead-in and even noiser lead· out grooves
now often heard on otherwise impeccable
hi-fi records. WIlY '
Do we have to listen to t hose very audible
groans and swishes and swoops, before the
music starts ' And are the much more unpleasant sounds at the lead-out grooves
necel1sary:, the. ones that get repeated over
an d oVlilr, U; a changer isn't used ~
Some of the noise, I guess, is unavoidable
but I am sure that most of it is just lack
of interest on th e part of the cutting engineers. Many a really fine record ends up
with a series of whines and cat's maoiows
and staccato yelps. Some of these effects
sound suspiciously like unedited after-noise
at the end of the t ape. If sounds like that
54
are unforgivable in the hody of a record,
why should we have to hear them at the
end ~ Some records-a Golden Crest disc
I just played, for instance-are perfectly
tailored at b.e ginning and end, with scarcely
a whisper of extraneous noise. But many
discs from the very large companies are
particularly offensive.
What we need, now, is a hi-fi lead-in and
lead-out.
5_ DOUBLE-DAMPED
Fairchild has been issuing a series of
"X" model experimental cartridges, sold
to the public on a limited-production basis
and at a considerably higher price than the
regular model. This seems to me an excellent idea . The "X" model, of this sort, represeuts f aithf ully and quite honestly that
stage in a new development where it is
approaching reg ular production, but is not
yet settled down and fixed into that final
and rigid category. Such experiments are
fascinating for many layman and professionals and t here are many people who will
snap them up as there are volunteers for
the first moon trip-by which I mean, a lot
of people. And also, we all like to have a
"special" model, exclusive and advanced.
Ordinarily, two things happen in the
const ant forew ard surge of progress towards new models. (1) The new developments are held off the market and off the
final production stage as long as the maker
can conscientiously bul'll up capital-then
they are frozen and put out for profit_ (Or
he thinks they are frozen . Usually, as we
all know, unexpected things happen in
droves and all sorts of costly unfreezings
are required b efore the model settles down
to steady, reliable production. By that
time, it's high time fo r a new model. )
(2) And/ or samples of the new, almostfrozen production are passed around, far
and wide, for pre-production opinions
while it's still not too la te. I n the soap
industry this sort of thing is -highly organized, with ' "research institutes" and
what-not, sprea ding samples all over the
land and, collecting ho usewifely opinion.
The products, there, are usually anonymous
- which dishwashing powder do you like
better, sample A or sample B ~
But Fairchild's idea, you see, cuts across
these methods and puts a legitimate profit
factor into the limited production, both
selling and sampling. Good experience for
the maker, all around, and interesting for
the buyer- who doesn't have to buy if he's
not int erested, after all. The idea, perhaps,
came from auto makers- yo u may have
seen the Chrysler 300 zooming around the
roads, but you don't often see it in the ads,
though"'you 'can have one, I gather, if you
will ante up. P roduce a special model, put
it through a sort of test-run production
set- up- and actually sell it, on that very
basis. I think we could have mOI'e of this
sort of thing, with · pl'Ofit and knowledge
gained.
Maybe it's an a nti- climax to say I
haven't tried t he current Fairchild XP-3
model, the one t hat looks outwardly like the
standard 225 but has inner advances. The
idea is--yo'U try it. If you're scared of the
price, around $60, then you can always get
the 225 which, I might say, is my present
high-quality work-horse and has proved a
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
sweet-sounding and extremely reliable cartridge during the last months_
Double damping~ The title refers to
what follows though, it occurs to me, it
fits in a vague sort of way into the idea
of damping out those spurious bugs, those
unfortunately unforeseen "oscillations,"
that plague early-model production. The
"X" cartridges a r e thus double-damped,
internally for the usual literal reasons and,
in a figurative sense, they are acting as
advance damping factors to smooth the
way for future production.
What I had in mind originally was this,
and let it be a warning. I now own the
only existing model of the Fairchild 225 112
Double Dmnped Magnetic. It was origi; ,
nally my 225, and I had it mounted in my
neat little J apanese viscous-damped arm,
which suited it to a T.
But recently (as you'll learn in a forth·
coming issue, I hope) I have been Industrial Designed. All my pickups are now
mounted in beauteous white masonite inserts, which slip into pre-fabricated motor
boards, which in turn slip into mahoganyfinished boxes, which in turn fit over (op tional ) platforms on fancy tapered legs.
And the pickups not in use are hung up on
a long black-finished wooden rack fastened
to the wall, adorned with big, golden hooks.
They dangle there like graceful Calder
mobiles and, incidentally, are accessible
and out of the way as well as out of danger.
The arms are kept from swinging loose by
a neat tensile member of brigbt red vinyl
plastic that loops arouJl(1 them and fasten s
them down to their white boards . . . but
this is ahead of my story.
By the sheerest and most natural sort of
absent·mindedness, the Japanese arm was
industrialized right into this fine system
along with all my other arms-quite a
batch by now. And thus, with never a
thought, I hung it up on the wall, one
day, so I could tryout something else.
A couple of hours would have been OK.
But it stayed for a week or so. And by
then I had my Fairchild 225lj2 automatically. The thick silicone damping fluid had
poured down the arm at a snail's pace and,
given the time, had methodically proceeded
to coat itself onto every surface available,
with the persistence of a very viscous fluid.
It even squeezed into the tight crack between the cartridge back and the mounting
slider.
Did the cartridge play' Of course-I
didn't even notice the goo at first, until I
got my fingers into it. Then I hastily removed the 225 112 and tried to wipe the
half off. Got most of it. But I decided not
to tamper with the stylus. It was gooed up
too, of course, but I was afraid that to do
more than slurp up the extra goop from
around it might be dangerous. The original
damping might come along too.
After all, how did I know what damping
material Fairchild already had around the
stylus base' Looked vaguely rubbery, but
then it might be any old thing and, horrid
thought, it could be soluble in carbon tet
or alcohol (says I to myself)-in which
case a cleaning bath would throw out the
baby with it. (The bath.) So, I figured,
maybe 1'(1 just better let nature's laws of
viscosity take their course. I just dabbed
a bit, no more.
Whatever the damping stuff that was
there in the first place, then, it is now
gently reinforced by a delicate infusion of
silicone, especially designed for damping
purposes.
And, I'll have you know, my 225 112
sounds as sweet as cream. Cream-and-silicone, that is.
( P.S. If I can get the green light from
Fairchild maybe I'll be able to re·convert
it to a 225, yet.)
.IE
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JANUARY, 1958
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"
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RECORDING IN MILAN (CONCLUDED)
HAROLD LAWRENCE :;'
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I
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360 0 omnl-directlonal tweeter
PT-Ol
Natural phenomenal sound source is
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sound
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of its environment_ However, in the
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speaker there is a great difference
between listening while positioned in
front of the speaker on its axis and
while listening from other positions.
The Pioneer PT-Ol has increased this
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Voice Coil Impedance:
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Flux Density :
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16 ohms
1,500 cps
1,700-16,000 cps
20 watls
105 db/ w
1 3,500 ga usses
Over 2,800 cps
Write for catalog t o : - -
of August 16, 1943, the
heart of Milan was razed by a massive Allied air attack. Among the
many old historic buildings bombed, the
Teatro Alla Scala received a direct hit. Its
enormous chandelier was sent Cl'ashing to
the floor of a devastated auditorium. At
the war's end the Milanese r econstructed
their f amous theatI'e within a year's time.
Since then, wrecks and conflagrations of
another kind take place r egularly beneath
the giant proscenium of La Scala . Funeral
pyres are ignited by Briinnhilde in Wagner's Die G6tterdam1nBl'ung, and by the Roman conquel'ors of ancient Britain in Bellini's N O1'ma j Enzo sets fire to his ship in
Ponchielli's La Gioconda j and Samson
brings down the 'l'e mple of Dagon in SaintSaens' Sa'Tnson and Delilah. One of the
most exciting events in La Scala 's postwar
history was the r evival of Cherubini's Me dea, an opera with a generous share of
havoc, all of it concentrated in the last
moments of the final scene. Spurued by her
deserter -husband, th e legendary Greek
sorceress satisfies her lust for vengeance by
mn~dering t~e children she bore him, poisonmg her l'lval and putting a torch to the
temple.
Last -September the complete opera was
recorded on the stage of L a Scala with Maria , Callas in the leading role and Tullio
Ser afin directing the chorus and -orchestra.
The artists were dressed in ever yday attire,
and Me de~ (lid not show up in ~'er fl amecolor~d Wlg. Yet t he perfOl'mance caught
fire Just as surely as if real smoke were
pouring from the burning Grecian temple.
The absence of sets and costumes, however, did not lighten the tasks of the r ecording st aff sent to Italy from Mercury
Records in collaboration with G. Ricordi.
Elaborate preparations had to be made for
the sessions. First, the entire parquet was
stripped of its velvet-upholster ed seats
which were transported to the main lobby.
In order to take f ull advantage of the L a
Scala's acoustical properties, the orchestra
was mo ved onto a platform extending into
the hall to a point further than usual. The
high-domed theatre may not suffer from
the excessive reverberation of such a hall
as the Baptistry of Pis a where an arpeggio
sung beneath the Gothic vaulting is transformed into a sustained chord, but a r ing
of keys dropped in the empty theatre will
be heard many times over. To cope with
this r esonance problem, a crew of stagehands was dispatched to the uppermost
O
N T-HE NIGHT
*26 W. Ninth St ., New York 11, N. Y.
tier of boxes (now converted into galleries ) ; half were posted on one side of the
auditorium, half on the othe)". A huge curtain was stretched out under the dome_
The effect of this damping was carefully
noted by C. R. Fine (the engineer and
technical supervisor) in the mobile recording truck located near the backstage entrance, and in the monitor room manned
by Wilma Cozart (Mercury's vice-president in charge of classical discs) , and
Carlo Ricordi, of the publishing firm, and
tlte writer. The curtain was raised, lowered
and moved b ack and forth several times
before we finally arrived at the desired reverberation period.
Balance is, of course, an all-important
factor in every musical recording, and nowhel'e is more painstaking care requil'ed
than at the taping of an operatic work.
Cherubini's M edea is no exception. At one
point, the score calls for an offstage chorus,
a band of wind players, and soloists. Our
objective was to achieve an effect of distance while at the same time maintaining
correct aural r elationships with the onstage
musical forces. The musicians were sent to the real' of the stage and a test was made.
Everyone agreed that the sound was not remote enough. The performers were then told
to turn left and sing in the direction of La
Piccola Scala (the new 'little Scala' Theatre
located off the wing of the larger theatre) .Still too close. The proper results were obtained only a fter the musicians had explored
virtually every foot of backstage territory,
including st anding with backs tUl'lled on the
conductor.
A 60-cps generator powered the r ecording
truck, which contained Fairchild tape machines for monaural pickup and Ampex
half-inch machines for the 3-channel stereophonic pickup. Bob Fine shuttled between
truck, auditorium and monitor room supervising the curtain brigade, directing the
stagehands in improvised Italian, and dashing upstairs to listen to playbacks. A single
Telefunken microphone was used for the
monaUl'al r ecording, three for stereo.
To say that Maria Callas has a repntation
for being even-temp ered, cooperative, and
f riendly would not be quite aCCUl'ate. Controversy surrounds her name like the veil
a round the head of Medea stealing into
Creon's palace. Yet the famous singer exhibited all of these a dmirable qualities at
the present r ecording session, reserving her
emotional outbUl'sts for the exciting role.
Off the stage, she was charming and unaffected. Musically speaking, she was as solid
as the Rock of Gibraltar. Whether singing
a simple recitative or n egotiating a difficult
AUDIO
56
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•
JANUARY, 1958
passage, she infused every note and word
with the precise inflection and intensity it
reqnired.
In one particular scene, Medea pleads
with Creon to allow her to spend a day with
hel' children before being banished from
the city. I n the fir st take, Callas sang meltingly. Everyone was thrilled- except Callas
herself. 'rhe interpret ation, she maintained,
was not in keeping with the character of
Medea; a p roud and fiery woman, her plea
should be cooler and somehow menacing in
quality . On t he secoud take, the voice was
still ravishing, but the effect was spinechilling.
In the last moments of the final session,
Serafin summed up the feelings of all who
were associated with the r ecording proj ect.
He had just finished conducting the Over ture to Act III with its pathetic, subdued
conclusion, when he said, partly to himself,
"Ah, what beautiful music!"
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AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1958
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www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
-57
othel' cities, and gained Evans his first
wide recognition. He returned to Minneapolis in 1952, where he completed his fifth
season of ontdoor concerts and lectures at
the Walker Art Center last summer.
His most I'ecent tour was a stint with the
Turk Murphy band, one of the more prominent revivalist groups. Of this experience,
Evans related, "Personally, I like Turk a
lot and admire his integrity. I think some
of the originals he wrote with Lu Watters
were very good-as good as many of the
'good old ones'." We could all use more
original material, but I guess there i.s u't
the economic incentive to write real Jazz
tunes any more. I did find that I have been
a leader too long, and have too many definite ideas of how a band should sound, to
be happy in a secondary role in such surI·oundings."
The Evans' household includes a son JefCHARLES A. ROBERTSON '"
frey, nearing his seco]~d birthday, and. an
extensive record collectlOn of both rare Jazz
items and the more substantial classical
composers. His dream is to expand the conplay just like Dodds, or Ory! or B.unk, 01'
Doc Evans: Classics Of The '20s.
Louis. The result may be medlOcre, It probcert-lecture idea to a yearly six-month tour
Audiophile APSO
ably will be, because the original man was
of large colleges and universities. On preso HEAR IN A LIVE PERFORMANCE the finexpressing himself, where the imitator is
ent bands, he commented, "I like Kid Ory,
est traditional cornetist no~v playing,
usiug all his hero's cliches and not creating
though he needs a better trumpet. The De
it would be necessary to Journey to
much. The same goes for bands that try to
Paris band has a great beat, but is someMinnesota at a time when Paul Wesley Evplay "just like" some one else. A jazz band
times too precious. In 'many-ways I have enans was leading his band at the Hotel Duis made up of so many individuals, each
joyed the ba.nds of Paul Barabrin .and
luth, or presenting a combined concert and
creating his own part, and is at its best
George Lewis. I think Yank Lawson IS a
lecture on jazz at the Walker Art Center
when they play from their own inspiration,
great unsung hero of the cornet. I love
in Minneapolis. Better known as Doc, he is
not memory and another's ideas. However,
Louis in spite of his awful band and the
~s much a phenomenon of the Midwest as
this emulation serves a useful purpose in
bad things he has done to jazz.
Bix Beiderbecke or Muggsy Spanier and
the development of a jazzman, though not
"The bands playing today that are, in my
has never strayed for long from his home
when mistakes are religiously copied from
opinion, the best, do not copy. But you do,
base. Due to another phenomenon of this
a r ecord. One should listen and learn-not perhaps, use older numbers, even ~he genregion, the unsurpassed recording techphrases or tricks-but the approach."
eral approach of someone else 111 some
niques of Ewing Nunn, he is making an exAs to critics and their concern with incases. A Morton number is almost inseparceptional series of albums while at the
fluences, Evans was not kind, "The whole
able from the arrangement-he composed
height of his powers. In his latest, the
jazz picture has been confused no end by
with a band treatment in mind. So when we
young cornetist Bob Gruenenfelder joins
jazz writers who are riding a theory. The
do a Morton number, we use Morton's skelehim to recapture the spirit and instrumenanthropologists with t heir "Afro-Amedcan"
tal idea, but don't play note for note. A
tation of the King Oliver band.
theories; the French critics with their
clarinet part, as I write it ou one of these
It is the culmination of twenty-five years
theories about jazz biJing a return to the numbers will be only chord symbols at least
of growth as a professional musician and
primitive. Most of their effusions strike me
half of the way. Everyone is given much
shows his increasing b ent toward early New
as sheer balderdash. They have all sorts of
freedom, and some of the men may never
Orleans style. As Evans 110ted, when asl,ed
knowledge of tl"ivia, but lack two all-imporhave heard the original r ecord a t all. Some
about some of his theories on his music, "I
ta n t things: an open mind and an ear for
tunes I arrange using the old piano sheet
suppose I was influenced by a lot of musi·
music. These are the fellows that encourage
mnsic as a guide. ·Such was our arrange·
cians. At first it was Red Nichols, because
Turk Murphy to sound like a Cro-Magnon, ment of London Blues.
that was all we knew. Then I discovered
who cheer all the wrong things and never
The circumstances which permitted the
Armstrong and Bix. It wasn't until many
hear the subtleties.
adoption of the Oliver instrumentation were
years later thnt I had an opportunity to
"Maybe I sound a little bm-ned upr evealed by Evans, as he told how the date
hear real New Orleans jazz-or Mortonmaybe I am. But we need a return to perwas planned, "I conceived the idea of ~he
or Oliver. I think my progress has been a
spective. Morton didn't try to soun d crude
second cornet when Bob and I were rnnnlllg
tendency away from Dixieland and Chicago
and uucouth, neither did Keppard, or
over some of the Oliver numbers I had
styles in the direction of New Orleans. This
Oliver, or James P. Johnson. I played with
II"ritten for my concert series. We had never
I have tried to do withont the common error
Bunl, Johnson and knew him pretty well.
played together before except at informa.l
of the revivalists-the error of sounding arHe made it pretty clear that jazz to him
parties at my home. But I felt that Bob had
chaic, if not actually "ricky-ticky". Put me
lYas musical aud pretty, not raucous and as
the tone to make a good addition, and he
down as a tradition alist, if you will. But
]'ough as possible. Why can't the people who
fell into the phrasing naturally. Luckily,
not a r evivalist-I never stopped playing
affect to admire the mllsters listen to them ,
Ewing Nunn could see the value of the idea
jazz since I first heard it in the twenties."
not just talk ~"
at once. He has helped me no end- in critA new generation of players, who turned
Before Evans learned about jazz, mainly
icism, in my search for material, in sugto the older men for inspiration, injected
from phonograph records, he had taught
gestions. Most important, you can be refresh life into this mnsic as an aftermath
himself to play the violin, clarinet, saxolaxed when you work with him. In order to
of the last war. It flourished with growing
phone, drums, and cornet. It was this last
get ten tunes ready, I was writing up to the
vigor, especially in Britain, and gained an
instrument that he played while earning a
last minute. The men had neither played
impetus which will never let it die out,
B.A. degree in English at Carleton College,
nor heard some of the numbers until rethough its popularity may shift with the
and at the University of Minnesota while
public fancy. In reference to this renaistaking post graduate work in the subJect. hearsals."
sance, Evans commented, "I'm rather wary
For those who become misty·eyed about
After teaching in high school for two
of labels, because they seem to mean differthe Armstrong-Oliver teamwork in tbe Creyears, he decided in 1932 that he preferred
ent things to different people. How true
ole Jazz Band of 1923, this is a record to
t he freer , if less certain, life of a profes·
this is of even the word jazz. Let's call the
tr easure. For other perceptive ears, it is a
sional musician. This centered mainly
younger groups who are attempting to rerewarding and enlightening experience.
nround St. Paul and Minneapolis, where
create the music of the "classic" jazz peSome of the numbers have not been refor sL" years he owned and operated Lane's
riod revivalists. I don't always go along
End Kennels which bred or owned some
corded since the twenties, and the others
with the result, but for the effort, I'm with
have seldom been done so well. The second
eleven champion cocker spaniels.
them.
cornet is used in superb ensembles on FrogIn 1947, following a couple of appear"I guess we all went through a period of
I·More, Snake Rag, Sweet Lovin' Man and
ances at jazz concerts for the Chicago Hot
emula tion of some idol. It's natural for a
New 01'leans Stomp. Not since 1950, when
Club, the Rhinehardt's invited him to head
youngster, or the novice jazzman, to try to
the band at their new club, JAZZ, LTD., in
Bob Scobey and Lu Watters p arted comChicago. It stretched into an engagement of
pany after working ten years as a team in
* 732 Tile. Parkway, Mmnaroneck, N . Y. sh years, with time out for short tonrs to, the Yerba Buena band, has snch crea tive
T
AUDIO
58
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
unity been attempted, but Evans comes
closer to the Oliver ideal in the compressed
power of his silvery tone and his ability to
contribute more than is expected.
It is remarked fr.equently that Evans out·
shines the men around him and the wish has
been expressed to hear him in a group bet·
ter matched to his talents. Though he stands
head and shoulders above the others on this
record, it would be difficult for him to form
a t r aditional unit today where this would
not be the case. There is certainly no fault
in trombonist Hal Runyan's chorus on Wi ld
Man Blues, or clarinetist Dick Pendle·
ton's solo ill low I'egister 011 New Orleans
Stomp, or the way Tubby Main on tuba
backs the lilting piano of Mel Grant on
Frog-i-More. But it is Evans who has the
fervor to lift the performances to greatness,
and t he skill to walk the tightrope of a stoptime chorus 01' plunge into a brilliant break.
Gruenenfelder is an excellent partner; may
their relationship continue. Warren Thewis
on drum s and Edd.i e Lynch on banjo hav~
a firm beat. Other numbers are Perdido '
St?'eet Bl~t es, Sidewalk Blues, Buffalo Bl~tes
and Chicago B?·eakdown. A single microphone was used and the result is a model of
the cla ri ty and balance possible by this
method.
Vic's Boston Story
Storyville STLP 920
'1'h 3 t se r ene s in ger on the trombone, Vic
D icken son. finally h as a c han ce to put hi s solo
stn ndards to. ,.t h e test as h e w e nd s hi s wn y
t hrough a dozen numher s, a nd hi s every note
Is sh ot with 'gold. Long valu ed fo r the firm
str en gth he brings to an~r gro up , h e has shown
his worth as a sideman and lea der on m a n y
occasions, but' m a inly in r elation to other
horns. In a solo role, he enjoys a r el ease from
such considerations and plays for himself, fitting chorus to choru s with I~' ri c ima g in atio n
in a variety of r eg ister s and intonation s. B e
Crea tes a priva te world of p rofonnd exprcss i on in to which h e invites his listeners and a
trio of George We in on piano, Buzzy Droot in
on drums, and Jimmy Woode, o r Arvell Shaw
on bass.
W hat h e p la~' s i s hardl.,· Important as the
t lln es a ll becom e pure Dickenson. Ouce his
lingering treatm ent of Yeste" days is h eard, it
will be r ecalled wh en eve r the song is played.
H e s ings a ll too bri efly on Willie Mae in a
manner to r ecall J e rry Mengo with the Quintet of the Hot Club of Fra n ce. He is r emark I1.hle in two blu es, including t h e t itle tune.
and E llin gton ' s In a Sentimental Mo od and
.1.11 7'0 0 S oon . As an acco m panist, Wein is in
accord \yi th Dickenson 's ever y whim and
g ives exact dynami~ s hading to help bu!ld a
clim ax . As the most compl ete r epresentation
of one of t h e great tromboni sts, it m ust be
r ecommended hig hl y.
Bob Brookmeyer: Traditionalism Revisited
World Pacific PJ1233
1;Ili s quintet is essentially 'J'h e Jimm y Giuffre Three. with t h e a ddition of drummer Dave
Ea i1 e), and Boh Brookm eye r o n trombone an d
pia no, on a fertil e expedition with some pre1940 t un e" . Halph Pena of the Giuffre trio and
J oe Benja min divide the bass ch ores . But the
idea for t he a lbum comes fro m Brookmeyer
and mu ch of the cr edit for its success belongs
to him . fo r he brings to it a f und of emotion
a nd a n intuiti" e sense of what is righ t , H e is
able to return to f uudamentals and a fresh approa ch on e ither iu strum ent. Th at Giuffre js
still fe elin g his way in t hi s idiom serves to
stimul a te him, adding greatly to t h e in terest
of his pla~· in g . All of the n umbers a r e not in a
:;tri ct sense trad ition a l , but t h e blues-based
g ui tar of Jim Hall gives e ,'en the oldest morc
or a fo lk -flavor than it enjo yed in earlier ve r s ion s. Though th e usual cli c hes are avoided ,
they come up with a few of t h eir own , in cl uding a winning "Good ev('ning, fr iend s"
ending w hi ch desel'\'es som e pe rm ane n ce, to
So m e Sweet Da.y.
Giuffre's
cla ri.n et
introduction
to
voice. Brookme),er wo r ks like a Trojan. contributin g so rel ~' n eeded dynamics and switch-
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www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
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NOW HEAR THIS!
ing from trombone to pian o. The dual track
,·eco rding of Honeysuckle Rose is well managed, Other numbers are Louisiana, Tntckin',
JadCL, and Don't Be That Way. Now all this
unit requires is a co rnetist like Doc Evans.
Both traditiona lists and modernists may find
it controvers ial to the point of displeasure
but, as it is lik ely to be the most d iscussed
jllZZ record of the year, they ca n scar cely afford to ignore it.
Bob Scobey: Direct From Sa n Francisco
Good Ti me J a zz L12 023
P. O. Box 21
Pearl Beach, Mich.
August 15. 1956
Racon Electric Co., Inc.
1261 Broadway
New York, N. Y.
Gentlemen:
Immediately upon arrival of the Racon 15HW woofer speaker, I mounted it In my
sand-filled reflex enclosure which
just
completed. I am using the 15-HoW with
an 800 cps X-over, in conjunction with a
Lorenz 8" midrange and a Lorenz 21f," H.F.
cone speaker, X-over at 5000 cps, and which
are mounted on a separate small baffle on
top of the L. F . enclosure.
As a test recording for my new system, I
purposely secured· a Richard Purvis Organ
recital, 7 1,4 ips tape which I found to be very
outstanding. I am happy to say the repro duction is superb. The lowest organ notes are
clearly defined, without the lightest sign of
distortion or overhang. I have listened to
scores of manufactured speaker systems and
have yet to hear one wWch would satisfy me
like the one I now have, regardless of price.
I will certainly recommend your speAker.
whenever the occasion arises.
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• • • • • • • •
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One of t he tangible aftermaths of a lectureconcert tour of th e Midwest by Bob Scobey
Fri co Band and the noted sema ntiCi st Professor S. r. Hayakawa, who tells the story of
the trip on the lin er, is this program of a
dozen musical illu strations used to demonstrate the Di xieland tradition. The Intangibles
li e in the impact of the spi rited octet on a
numher of young and receptive college audiences, fOT t his is not the expanded unit now
hacking ·the Scobey, trumpet. The strong front
lin e inoludes' tro)l1bonlst Jack Buck and Bill
Napier on clarin'et, backed by Clancy Hayes,
banjo; J esse ·CI,u'mp, piano; Boh Short, tuba;
Hal McCormack, bass; and Fred Higuera,
drums. Any weakness in. t he album arises from
the necessity ",6·f choosing t un es which may
well be alrea1'lJ" iepresented several times in
some collect ions, though possibly in not as
good a recording.. as Roy DuNann affords Satt,
SensC£tion , Sobbin' Blues, and Ostt'ich Walk.
On e rarity is .Michigan Watet· Blues, with a
sensitive solo by Crump and an appealing vocal by Hayes, wh ich is alone worth the price
of a dmission. When he limits himself to a
choms at a time, Hayes is the most pleasant
si nger around.
f '·
Joh n Coltr·a ne: Coltra ne
Prestige .,
LP71 05
Recognition as a new star on th e te, or sax
was gained by John Coltrane during Ws period
with Miles Davis, and he is add ing lustre to
that design ation as a member of Tllelonious
Monk's quartet. His first LP as a leader finds
him in the co mpany of John Splawn, an
earthy young trumpeter from Harrisburg, Pa.,
influenced by Clifford Brown, an d Sahib Shihab on ba riton e sax. Mal Waldron and Red
Garland alternate at the plano in a rh ythm
section of bassist Paul Chambers and drummer AI Heath . Coltrane has a tart, mu scular
sound which he tempers on ly slightly fo r the
ballads Violets Fot· Yom' Fltt·S, Tim.e Was and
Whi l e Jfy Lady Sleeps. On these he is accompanied only by the rhythm sect ion , and II good
opportunity is offered to compare hi s style to
that of less pungent modernists. He plays like
a man on his w'ny. and his ,'cstless drive colors
the work of the rest of the group. Carl Massey's Bakai is an expedition to the Far East,
and Coltrane contributes St,·a.ight Street and
C1,,-onic B I'll es. It is tbe first time he has been
a hle to express himself at length on his own,
and a good recording presents him as he now
sou nds in person.
Paul Cham bers: Bass On Top
Blue Note 1569
Since arriv ing in New York two yea r s ago,
Paul Chambers hilS won much s pace on discs,
mainly as bassist in the Miles Davis rh yth m
section, and now meets the searching exposu re
of an entire LP. That he sustain s interest
through more extended solo space than anyone
on his instrum ent has attempted before is due
in no small measure to the presence of Kenny
Burrell on guitar, Hank Jon es on plano and
drummer Art Taylor. Also the balance places
. him on top on a fu ll-blown , bowed Yesterdays
and in his melodic solos on Oonfessin' a nd Th~
Them.e, a number used by Davis to close a set.
By way of variety on Dear Old Stookholm,
OhCLs;.,,' the Bi,·d, and You'd Be So Nice, he
moves back to his usual position in the section to proyide a solid bottom for the rest of
the quartet. It is a useful example of how an
engineer can aid In tbe creative s ide of a date.
Cham.bers is as remarkable In his timing as in
his solo capacity, and never hesitates to pluck
the deepest ton es from his in strument. With
so ulful work by Burrell and the fine conception of Jones, tbe group satisfies more than
some highly-toned quartets. It should be encou raged to achieve some permanence.
60
Son ny Rollins, Vo L 2
Sonny Rollins: The Sound Of Sonny
Riverside RLP12·24 1
At his previous r eco rding dates, Sonny Rollins has been asked to exhibit as many facets
of his personality as possible, usually alternating the complex ities of a long ad-lib number with t h e lighter treatment of a popular
tune. This last side comes to the fo re, as he
fronts a quartet of pianist Sonny Clarke and
drummer Roy Haynes, with Percy Heath and
Paul Chambers sharing duti es on bass, on
eight standards and Oll.tie, an original ballad.
In this capacity, he is unexcelled among to·
day's crop of tenor saxo phonists. With a sense
of time as accurate as a bass play er, h e has
the control to give direction to his instrument
in im aginative and singular lines . His sound
has matnred to a f ullness of warmth and lyricism th at cn n only be compared to a Coleman
Hawkins or a Ben Webster, had th ey bren
born twenty years later. RollIns .plays It
OOltld Happen to Yon unaccompanied, and
g ives new form to The Last T i m e I Saw PariS,
Mangoes. and the AI Jolson favorite , Toot,
Toot, Tootsie, in a program of songs not too
often hea rd .
Th.e lonious Monk: Monk' s Mu sic
Riverside RLP12·242
M;aintainln~ his reputation for: the unexpected by a brief preface of an arrangement
of A bide with life for four horns, Th elon ions
Monk devotes most of the rest of this disc to
revised versions of four of his own classics of
the '40s. In this revitalization they are expanded and enriched by the add ition of t he
horns of Roy Copeland, trumpet; Gigi Gryce,
alto snx : and th e tenor saxes of .Jobn Coltrane
and Coleman Hawkins, who makes Ru.by, My
Dear, with the encouragemen t of Monk from
the piano, a viv id exercise for his ballad style.
In cloth ing t he bare bones of hi s Ideas in aD
Mino,·, Epistrophy, and Well, Yo !/. Needn't
with a loose-knit seven-piece score, Monk
makes them not only more understanclable but
more palatable. They becom e less a formu la
and more of a part of the main str ea m of jazz.
In hi s piano solo on a ,·epescII.le w ith Nellie, he
examines the hour of surrealism- twilight.
Drummer Art Blakey controls his explosive
style to fit a mood and Wilbur Ware is on hass.
With the minor complaint that the opening
19th Century hymn , by William H. Monk,
lasted less than a minute, this r ecorcl is a
vnluable expl'ession of the growtl1 of a mt\l1
and his mu s ic.
Ron nell Bright: Bright Flight
Vanguard VRS8512
Brought to New York from Chicago to h elp
hack Rolf Kuhn In hi s quartet, Ronn ell Bright
later ettl ed clown wi t h his trio for a long engagement at Cafe Bohemia and has an assnrecl
futu re In the smalle r jazz rooms. Not on ly
does he acquit himself well on the ballads,
show tunes and older favorites expected of
such pian ists, but he is amas.ing a goodly arra~' of original material. Sallye, For Pete'.~
Sake, and Bohemia, U.S.A . are r esplen dent exnmples of his writing, and have tbe properties
needed to show his technical faclllty without
AUDIO
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Blue Note 1558
Having left the sheltering wing of Max
Roach, Sonny Rollins is appear.lng in the
studios with a number of increasingly varied
musicians. Not only is their caliber hi.gh i.n
this instance, but they could well have been
selected with an eye to challenging his i ngenuity. There is Thelonions Monk to alternate
with Horace Sliver at the piano on his slow
blues MiBterioso, and to solo on his balla d Reflections. Th ere is J. J. Johnson , the leading
modern trombonist, to help set the pace as
drummer Art Blakey flexes his snares on Why
Don' t I and Wail March, the two Rollin s originals. And Paul Chambers on bass for a bowed
solo on You Stepped Out ot a. D 'r eatn. After
meeting the demands of two such exacting
taskmasters as Monk and S ih' er, Rollins relaxes and nurses his tenor sax throug h some
unex pected twists in a pensive solo on Poor
Butterfly. It is as complete a picture of Rollins, both from his most difficul t and his more
easily accessible angles, as is likely to be encom passed on one r ecord.
•
JANUARY, 1958
undue emph nsis on hi s class ical tra ining. Ba ssist Joe Benj a min 's Toast ed ' A mmond Is n
clever piece fo r th e g roup a nd is not dedi cated
to John Ham.mond, t h e produ cer of th e date,
but t o th e electronic organ of th e sam e n a m e.
I t js s t a rtlin .~ in its r eali s ti c limnin g, w ith
t h e a id of Bill Clark on drum s, of som e characteri s ti c so mds of th e instrument. Among
th e ele ven tun es on th e finely-ma de r ecordin g
are P e01Jl e Will Say, U za, a nd I t co n/.a H app en T o Y on.
Barney Kessel: The Poll Winners
Contemporary C3535
'. rhis a lbum t itle is not in itseH a ny r ecommendati on of i ts contents f or th e r e have been
m any g u th e r i ngs of poll winn er s where ev e ryone becam e hop e l e s sl~' bogged down in t h e studio, on e r ea son be in g a de termina t ion by t h e
produ cer t o cram as man y m e n on to th e da te
as poss ib le, rega rdless of th eir co mpa tability
with ea ch oth e r Or th e ma te ria I. In th is case
th e invita tion s wer e limit;ed to Bamey K essel
on g u ita r, Hay Brown on bass and Sh ell y
Mann e on drum s, a ll o f w hom have e nj oyed
r ecognition u s being a t t he top on t h eir in stru m ent for so long th a t t h ey tak e a clean s w ee p
of mos t poll s in th e ir s tride. Th e r esul t i s a n
in telli gen t conver sation a m on g equ a ls at repa rtee and challengin g satement a s they mull
o ver s u ch tunes as It ConZd HaP1Jen 1
' '0 Yon,
s pa rkli ng pia n o a nd t wo orig in a ls on b e l' second LP. Sh e is j o in ed by Osca r Pe ttiford, bass,
and Roy I-Jnyn es, d l'llm ~ , on fi ve t un es, i ncl ud ing he r crisp Soll / te t o . Sh o,·ty. On N o
Moon At A ll, 7' h on Swe ll, a n d h er Pea, Bee
an,l L ee, Boots Mu ss ulli a dd s hi s a lto sax to
t h e s u ppor t of Wyatt R eu t he r , bass, a n d Ed
,]~ hi g p e n on d rll ms. Th ou g h h e r style is based
on Bu(l Powel1 , sh e is u sin g h e r cl ose r vi ew of
t h e jazz scen e to find h er own voice. H e r n ew
pe r s pect ive may en a bl e h er to r ega l'd h er own
heri tage i n m OI'e favo rabl e li .!! b t . F or a g l'eat
deal or t he chn I'm fo und h er e comes f r om a
piquan t Ori en ta I to u ch 'l' osh iko 'Aki yosh i giv es
t o a phrase o r he r so undin g of a chord . Sh e
m ay want to di scla im it, bu t it co uld be employed to h e r a d " nn tnge.
hi s rol e m o r e closel y t o t h e g uita r o f Don
Overbeg for di s tin ctive voicing and rapid int er play be tween th e two in s trumen ts. H e
n ever u ses a bow a nd th e t wo plu cked lines,
especia lly w hen combin ed wi t h t h e s moothflow i ng vibes of B ob Harring ton , do much to
account for t h e uniqu e sound of t h e n ewly
fo rm ed uni t . It is gentler and more s ub tle
t h a n mo st intimate combinati on s nnd th e
li gh t, a iry t one of Buddy Collette on nu te cnrri es ou t t h e th em e. A bake r 's d ozen of t un es
range f rom ba llads to t h e complex Y at'(ll>inl
Suit e a nd th e swingy Clap Ho,nds, H e,'e COlnes
Cha.,·Ue. FOU L" orig inal s are by Babnsin a nd
t wo by H a rrin g ton , who alterna tes with Bill
Douglas on dmm s. It is j nzz chambe r mu s ic
or rare vir t uosi ty.
The Jazzpickers
The Mastersounds: Jazz Showcase
World Pacific PJM403
EmArcy MG36111
C redi ted a s be in g t h e f ounding f a t h er 01' th e
cello in j azz, H urry Ba bas ill b as w o rl{ed
Ina inl y on bass in ltll'ge g roups wh er e hi s pa r t
d em a nded th at h e s u p plemen t t he dmmm er.
By r etul"lling t o th e cello in h is quintet arter
a d eca d e of prepara tion , h ~ is a bl e t o r ela te
Formed into a cooper a tive unit wi th the sam e
inst r um en tation a s t h at of t h e Mo(]ern .Ta zz
Quarte t , th e Mas te rsound s t r y fo r a differ en t
sound a n d m a ke th eir a pproa ch from a less
r a r efied atmos ph e re. Th e F end er electronic
D on't lVorry About Me, G" een Dolphi n S k eet ,
You Go 7'0 My H ead, a nd Nagasaki. Or s tim -
ulate ea ch oth er to imaginative flights on a
blues by Kessel, Jordu, a nd e xtended treatm ents of M ea.n To M e and Satin D oll. What
t h ey h a ve t o say is as inte r esting on the t enth
h ea rin g a s on th e firs t, a nd w ill be fresh ten
yea r s from n ow.
Mundell Lowe: A Grand Night For Swinging.
Riverside RLP12-238
Like many mu sic ian s employ ed in s tudio
work, t he guita rist Mundell Lowe is a swi t chhitter equnlly at hom e with a sco re, or i n th e
fluent cOlJl pany of piani st B illy Taylor, engaging in 11 f r ee exchnnge of jazz ideas . With th e
t itle tun e by Taylor t o se t th e a lbum 's them e,
t h ey explore EU8Y to Love a nd C"a4liY Rhythm.
Altol s t Gen e Quill adds his buoyant voice on
Love M e ')1" L ea.ve ],f e, Yon 7'nnwd th e Table8
on M e, llud a n un clinica l Blues B efor e F,·elUl.
L owe sell-c t s It Conld Ha1Jp en to Yon to d em-
onstrate his di s tin c tive solo s t yle. Bassist L es
G rinage and drumm er Ed Thigpen do nothing
to impair th e atm osph e re of r ela x ed a nd listen able chnmber mu sic.
Russ Freeman and Chet Baker: Quartet
Pacific Jazz PJ1232
By virtu e of flve originals, pian ist Ru ss
l!' reeman spl its honors with hi s former bo ss
Chet Bulte r on the billing of this a l bum, and
h e seem s to have d esigned them with the moody
and re r-Iec ti ve side of the trumpe ter in mind .
Not that t h e ligh t er, s wingin g fac ets of his
persona li ty are n eglected, bu t i t is the quiet
benuties of S1tInlll er Sketch, th e smoky qu nlity
of Fan Tan, a nd the musings on A mbUn' that
nre mo ~t pe r s ua s iv e a s Baker coaxes rounded ,
Bixinn tOil es from his horn. Say Whcn allows
drumme r S helly Manne an I Got Rhythm sol o,
a nd h e mllulges in som e by-pIny with bass ist
L e roy Vinll cgar on the uptempo Hugo l:l.w,v h ey . On l" o ve N est, Bake r bites off hi s choruses in Ro y Eldridge f a s hion and again
changes pa ~e on Lush Life, th e oth er s t unda rd . As u cOlllpo~ e r und p ianis t Freeman deals
in essential s, an att ribute which will s tnnd
him in good s t ead wh en h e ch ooses to wri te
fo r a 1nl',!~e r g roup _
Toshhiko Akiyoshi: Her Trio Her Quarte t
5to ryv ill e STLP91 8
When thi s ro un g J a pa n ese g irl a rri ved jn
th e U nit~ d States n ea rly two years a go to
st ud y at th e Berk lee School of Mu s ic, s h e garn e r ed th e so r t o f publicity th e publi C press r ese H es fo r nn oddity. R ath e r th a n capitnlize on
i t, s he maintain ed a qui et d evotion to }l er
studi es [I nd n ow num he l's a J azz Su i t e f or O'J'Cl1 CS t1'(L am o u .~
h e r compos iti on s. Th e r es pec t
sh e has g ain ed by h er compl et e in vol vemen t in
a mu s ic lea.rued in h e r native land f r om t h e
phonog raph , is lik el y to he enh a n ced by h er
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wow und e r 0.25 % rms' at 7Y2 ips; Precision
timing a cc ura cy affords perfection of pitch
held to tolerances of less th an 'fa of a half
tone at hi ghest frequencies.
Amplifier-Speakers - Electronically
and acoustica lly matched for optimum rep roduction of stereo and mona ural sound.
These units de li ve r more undistorted so und
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distortion. Tilt-o ut push-button control pane l for selecting input (Tape/ TV, Tune r, or
Phonoh boss, treble and vol ume controls.
Here is a sterea system you 'lI be a s proud to show
as you will to opera te. The Ampex A121-SC Modular
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the needs of the audio perfectionist, but also the
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the eyes as it is to the ears.
The A121-SC is an integrated system, and though any
of the individual units can be incorporated smoothly
in to your own system, the combination of the three
provides a level of performance not possi ble to
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in free new full-color brochure .
JANUARY, 1958
61
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FROM TRIAD
mu s ic not found elsewhe re on records. Seembass played b~' Monk Montgomery is the most
ingly primitive, a s Hsio Wen Shi h points out in
noticeable source of their distinctive sound .
t h e no tes , it is " n either artless nor lack ing in
Ju st as in the case of the electric guitar before the a rtist ry of Charlie Christian broke
its own brand of mu sical sophistication ,"
down the bn rrier s, it is an instrumen t strugThe original Trinida d Steel B an d h as per gling to ga in acceptance. In ~ome passages its ',forllled togeth er a s a concert uni t in the
U nited States for several years. Its fifteen
tone bears a strik ing resemblence, t hough with
a little more resonan ce, to the Cook ):!hromatic
numbers are a fusion of such . d isparate InScale Test Record. ' After five years of study,
fl u ences as rhythms f rom Africa by w a y of the
Monk cl aim s h e is a long way f rom masterin g
West Indies and melodies from Spain , or the
l atest popular tune. As a final SOCiological
it, but be extracts a s t r ong, puls ing line and
shows its inherent advantages a t fast te mpos.
note, all three g r ou ps make tbeir beadquarter s
in New York City.
Whether h e will be its Charlie Christian is
still to be determined, but h e g ives it a fly ing
sta r t which olfsets an ~' eventua l exploitation
Pedro Garcia: Cha Cha Cha, Vol. 3
in roel, and roll.
Their ten numbers a r e arranged for maxiTango
mum swing Irnd Buddy Montgomer y, a yo un g
Audio Fidelity AFLP 18 37·38
brother, is on vibes a n d contribntes
The H otel del Prado orchestra of Mexico
'i'un e, while Wes, a thi rd brother, wrote Wes'
City , nnde r the leadership of Peuro Garcia ,
'i'tme. They a ll h a il f r om Indi a n apoli s as does
continnes Its exploration of the eha cha cha in
Benn~' Barth on drum s. Pianist Richard C r abt he tbird volum e of a s uccessfu l se ries and
tree is the composer of Tile Queen and J, and
begins a display of its tango r epe r to ire on an his Wa.ter' s Edge "ecall s I f I Ha.d Yo u. Part of
other dozen t unes. Though i t specializes in t h e
t h e cover d esign is a photograph of What is
s uave a n d danceable r b ythms of a society band,
sa id to be t h e world 's largest louds pell,ker, a
it has the advantage of an ·au t h enti c styling
16-footer from Sausalito·, California.
a n d a natnra l t a lent for the material whi ch
ma kes it a lways listenabl e. Besides meet in g
Ted Heath: Spotlig ht On Sidem~n
th e essential requirement of good percu ssion
London LL 1721
men, it has excellent s trings and a wellFor sheer technical brilliance on e\'C r~'
school ed brass section. Dan cer s who have maschait' t h e ~'ed Heath per sonnel can match
te r ed the cha cba cba m ay well w a n t to atmost big .bands of the past an d pr esent. but
tempt the more difficu l t tango a s rep resell ted
the commercia l success' whi ch ma kes this arby s uch fa miliar number s as In spirati on, A
ray of talent possible a lso limi t s' the purely
Mellia Lwz, LlI Cum.pm·sita, and oth ers not as
jazz role of t h e players for mu ch of th e t im e.
well known. Both a l bums have flne sound and
Here el even of th e s id emen lire permitted to
in clude d an ce in st ru ction s and ch a rts of the
s t e ps.
put their pe rsonal im pt'int on ' a ,t un!\ of the ir
choice, a nd the remaining" fi\' e a r e feat ured on
Jobnn y K eating's Witch Doctm', a s h owpiece
Glenn Yarbrough : Here We Go, Baby
fo r the drum s of R onni e Ve~rell a nd the eng iElektra 135
neering of A rthur Lilly . It wou ld be h ard to
pick out a favo ri te sol oist, but t h ey a ll ha yc
Chicago Mob Scene Riverside RLP12-64 1
t h e leader 's polish a nd' he is am ply r epaid for
Herb Straus: Folk Music For Peo ple Who
pu tting them on their mettle b~' tbe hest work
Hate Folk Music
Ju d so n L3003
th e band ha< tUl'lled o u t yet. It will aid im ~
m en sely. in wide r appreciation of tIle band and
Since its introduc tion to dis cs by a few
Heath sh ould make a s imil nt' date an an nu a l
hardy troubadou'r s, fo il' mu s ic h as expanded In
even t .
nIl d il'ections, n ot always i n the same bealthy
In a Tri bu te T o The Fl1hulou Dorseys, l tra di tion , at it pace accel erated by the d eLL1743, respects are paid to the t wo brothers ' mands of LP. Three varied exampl es of this
who served a s m od els for Heath s in ce h e !' evolution mu st be b eaded by t h e s ong s or
played w i t h them in London }n the '30s. H e ; Gl enn Yarbrou,gb, who is ttt e m ost wel come ndconsolidates t h eit' two persona l ities, better ' clition to t h e ' r lmk s of balladeers' to come along
than the), were able to t hemsef" es at time",,- in ome t im e, as h e is backed by a chorus and
on a dozen of their fa,"orites, jnst a s h e a horch estr a nncler tb e direction of Fred H ellerso rbed mu ch of t h eir st~' l e in to his organizaman of Th e Weavers. His acompaniment on
t ion. Les li e Gilbert pluys Jimm)"s alto-sax
the fifteen songs m ay range fro m t h e g uitar
solo on Oodles OJ Nood.l e8 with con s ider able
of Josh White, to a s kifll e group, to the full
apl omb a nd the band is fa ul tl ess i n Green
compl em en t with Fren ch horn a nd flute, th en
Eyes, Song OJ InlHa, Marie, a nd so on. Bill to his own g uita r. The arrangements n ever
board's compilation of the sta n (l:1t'ds most
descend to Mitch Mill e r banalities and Yarplayed on Americnn rail io station , i s r eprebrou gh is m y nominat ion to d ispl ace Belasented on t he A'll Ti me Top Twel v(', LLl716.
fonte , or E lvi s 1'01' t h at matter . Th e sound Is
.'
~. "
..
excellen t.
Art Blakey: Orgy In Rhythm, Vol. 2
Subtitled a folk-song jam seSSion, the album
by Th e S outh Six , a group cent-ered at tbe
Blue Note 1555
Uni"
e rsity of Chicago wheresome of Its m em Sabu: Palo Congo
Blue Note 1561
bers study, is j n st that. A sol o ist ' may comThe O riginal Trinidad Steel Band
plete on e of the s ixteen n u mbe r s or everyone
Elektra 139
m ay join in fo r alternate choru ses. An orig
in a l verse may turn up at a ny time and even
Along with vi T" hlO SO dl'umming and nn a m azth e p roducer , Dean Gitter, becomes en w rapped
ing numbe r of co ncepts in a seemingl), limi ted
in Mob Blu.es.lIlt is nn ' impromptu song fest
f Ol'm a l esson .in f ollnva;vs i s con t a in ed jn the
that migh t b e h ea rd at a g-ath e ri ng i n New
per cu ssion sttidies on these three discs. On
York's W ashington Square, a st·u di o In Sa n
t h e second part' of h is essa)' in co mmnni cat ion
F
r a n Cisco or a ny nn mber of colleges.
between jazz an d Latin drummers. Art Blake~'
A more sop hi s t icated app t'oach is tnken b.,lea ds t h e same ten r h ythm s ection men, with
Herb Strau s. whose ar r a n ger, Mund ell L ow e,
Herbie Mann on flute, who were r esponsihl e
may draft an English horn , flu te or bass ist
for the dram atic first volul1lP. ,4.""IC/' a nd E lrEddie Safranski to aid his g ui t Hl' in t he n clJhal1t Wall' are stories told in primitive JUIlcom
p a nim en t. On tb eir dozen numbe t'_. t h ev
gle sonnds . C011l.e Out A"d M eet M e Tonight
may r enew n familiar son g ,vith origina l l y r ics:
is a calypso unde rlin ed b~' t )'mpani , a nd Abintrodu ce a. t ran sl ation of n H eb r ew son g, or
dul/ali 's D el'igllt is a hlu es s tated in sever a l
s h ow t ha t they ca n be autlw n ti c on Aura L ee . .
unusual ways. Tbough led fa r afield, the jaz,men n ev er falte r , hut th e con t r astin g rh yth ms
a r e as mu cb a chall enge to th e listen er as to
Genaro Nunez: Bullring!
t h e drumm e r s.
Audi o Fid e lity AFLP 1835,
Leading t h e Lati n fo r ces opposite Rlal'e), is
Sabll w ho. wh en h eading his ow n unit. selpcts
In t h e fourth vol ume of La Fiesta Brava ,
five Afro -Cub nn per cu ssionis t s and two vocalGenaro Nunez condu cts t h e Banda TaUt'ina of
ist . H e conducts th em in t un es rich in fo il,
P l aza Mexico on a doze n nu m bers w h ich in t h c
el emen ts apd strang-e r elig-iou s ri t ual s, rather
main are u sed to entertain the crowd between
tban th e Afro-Cuban bent adapted by clan ce
t h e various episod es of th e bu ll flght, Thou g-h
bands. Along with t h e cu stomnr.\' con ga and
th ey cou l d be just as well programm ed at n
bongo timbres, ther e are qu into. golpe, t nmband concert in any Mexica n town . in this con badore, and llama clor drum s. Arsenio Rodritext th ey tnke on th e dramll a n d col or of th e
guez al te r nates on g uitar for s everal s ol os ,
arena and are given the same open , ont-ofLike th e r es t of th e prog r am , t h ey presen t a
doors r ecording ch ara cter istiC of the r est of
fI,-u",
High Fidelity
Output
TransformerS
For th e new
EL·84 and EL· 34 Tubes
Triad
Type
No.
FOR PP EL·84 (SB Q5)
HSM·181
S- 142A
SOOO/ 2000 CT
Sp li t Primary
SOOO/ 2000 CT.
Split Primary
SOOO CT.
HSM·1 86
HSM-1 87
6600 CT .
6600 CT.
HSM-182
16/ S/ 4
15
500/ 2 50/
125
16i s / 4
15
15
t
FOR PP EL-34 (6CA7)
S-14SA
6600 CT.
16/ S/ 4
500/2 50/
125
16/ S/ 4
25
25
25
FOR PP Par EL-34 (6CA7)
HS M-192
HSM-193
S-152A
4000 CT.
4000 CT .
4000 CT.
16/ S/ 4
500/ 250/
125
16/ S/ 4
65
65
65
' Prope r taps on Primary for
tap ped s creen ope ration .
• ~ 4055 RED W OO D A V ENUE. V~ NI CE. C A LIF.
. . . . . . 81 2 E. ST A TE STREET. HUNTINGTON . IN D .
A SU B SI DIAR Y
OF
LITTON
IN D U STRIES
62
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
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•
JANUARY, 1958
the se ries. The respl elldent t rum pet of l!'ilipe
Leon comes through with a brightly cha rging
sound or with distant mo urnfu lness, depen ding
upon the emotion it is called upon to convey .
A sketch of one of his coun try 's heros is con·
tained in Nunez's composition Thi. I . Oantin·
flas, a warm tribu te to the comed ian. There is
a strong folk-flavor to the other nu mbers an d
it seems likely they a l'e maidng their fi rst appearance on LP.
Mammoth Fair Organ
London LL 1644
Bill Thompson: Plays the Baldwin "45"
Pacific·a P2004
Harry Farmer: Capers On The Console
London LL 1726
The mec hanical organ of the Carrousel Bec·
quart, buil t in Belgium about fifty years ago
by Louis Hooghuys and said to be the last of
its kind, is still being transported a bout t he
Continent to sp read its mammo th store of
good chee r among adults and chinldren gath ered at fa irs. Its brazen charms are about
equally du e to its num erous effects and the delightf ully a rchaic arrangem euts on the perfo rated rolls of A. Schollaert. Set to the tempos of a gayly-painted wooden horse, they let
the bells ring and the percuss ion sound in, a
dozen ma rches, waltzes and th e o"ertu re to
7'he Be(w.ti/u/ Gal athea, and fo llows a slow
Pontuine LII,'I n'ineu.se with th,e courageous Jl
L ' Attacq'ne. Skillful microphone placement
iJic,," up it~ "oice in fu ll cry, but not t he
rustling of its inner work s .
BiI! Thompson introd uces the new Baldwin
Model 45-H d ectro nic organ , with its n in e·
teen independent voices and fo ur co uplers, 011
a dozen ballads and swing favo rites, including
Kitt en On t he Ke!Js, Song ot I ndia, Jlfad A /Wit t
the Boy and his own B,-own-Eyed Girl. Also
hea rd is th e new pe rcussion ensemble of vibra
hurp, organ harp and string percuss ion. The
lin er notes contain fu ll technjcal detail s.
Ha rry Farmer is coedited as being the first
to introduce the Hammond organ to Britain
in 1937, anLl he st il! plays it with charactel'is tic spit and polish on a dozen light class ics.
An excellent comparison of the organs js of-
fered by the two albums.
AN IMPORTANT MESSAGETo audio engineers, music enthusiasts, and students interested in the science of
Acoustics and Musical Instruments.
From the distinguished Acoustical Instrumental Studio in Gravesano, Switzerland comes
th&-
HI-FI SHOWS
GRAVESANER BLATTER IGRAVESANO REVIEW
(English/Gerr:nan Edition) Edited by Hermann Scherchen
J a nua ry 10-12- Minneapolis : Hotel Dyckman (Rigo) .
January 17-19-Indianapolis: Hotel Ant lers (Rigo ) .
January
24-26- Buffalo :
Hotel
... dedicated to the contribution toward the more perfect reproduction..o/music through the
science 0/ 'acJ';;stics and musical instruments. -The GRAV ESANO REVIEW is edited by
Professor Hermann Scherchen, noted European conductor and musicologist. It begins
its third year with Volume IX, reporting the meetings of the Acoustical Experimental
1?~udio in Gravesano, Switzerland. Issued quarterly, subscription is now available in tbe
United States by special arrangement with Radio Magazines, Inc., publishers of Audio.
Sta tle)'
(Rig o).
Feb)'uary 7-9- Denver : Hotel Cosmopolitan
(Rigo ) .
Xou may begin your subscription with Volume IX of the GRAVESANO REVIEW
~hich is combined with the GRAVESANO SCIENTIFIC RECORD, a 33Y3 rpm LP
demonstration record.
February 14-16-Sall Francisco : Whitcomb
Hotel (IHPM-NCAS).
Feb. 26- Mar. 2-Los Angeles: Biltmore
Hotel (IHFM ).
March 14-16- Washington, D.C. : Shoreham
Hotel (I ndepencZent ) .
March 21-23-Newark: Hotel Robert Trea t
March 28- 30- B altimore : Lord Baltimore
Hotel (Rigo).
Sept. 30-0ct. 4-NEW YORK High Fidelity Show, New York Trade Show B uilding ( IHPM ) .
,
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Partial list of centents in Volume IX:
I
I
(all articles appear in both English and Germ an)
I
The Modulor, Concentration inst~ad of Expansion, Acoustics and Large Orchestral "
R AD'
Studios and Concert Halls, Psych6acoustical Phenomena accompanying natural and
I
MAGAZINE
synthetic sounds. The Ear-a time measuring instrument,Experience with a new high "
quality loudspeaker for control booths. Tuning the Oboe. Accompanying Volume "
INC., SUBSCRI
IX: THE GRAVESANO SCIENTIFIC RECORD contains a demonstration of ,
TlON DEPT. GB
P. O . BOX 62
the Frequency Regulator of Anton Springer of Telefon-Und Apparatebau AG., "
Frankfurt/Main_
"
MINEOLA, N .
March 7-9-Pittsburgh: Hotel Penn-Sheraton (Riga ) .
( Rigo ) .
,
II
Issued quarterly, THE GRAVESANO REVIEW is accompanied with a ; "
PI ease en ter my sub
scn'
GRAVESANO SCIENTIFIC DEMONSTRATION RECORD.
tion to GRAVESAN
",, REVIEW and accompan
, , -'
. Single. ~~,pill$ nol for solei by subscription only, $6.00 per year, postpaid.
ing SCIENTIFIC DEMO
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Exclusive United States Subscription r\gency:
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RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.
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$6.00.
Namee----__________________
Address._ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I
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,"
City- -- -- -Zone- _State _ _ _
N 'E W PRODUCTS
Fisher gold -cascode r-f amplifier. The
MicroRay tuning indicator provides ease
of t u ning a nd exceptional acc uracy on
weak s ignals , A push-b u tton FM mutingAM bandwidth control elim i nates the effects of station il1terference, Further
e limination of interference, as well as
limiting of undesirable radiation, i s provided by silver-plated sh ie lding of the
entire fro n t end. The a udio c011trol portion of the 90 -T includes a n ew presence
control which lends emphasis and real ism to solo passages. A 3-positier\ sharpc utoff rumb le filter r e duces low-frequency
noise with minimum loss of frequency
response , A simila r filter is supplied to
suppress noise in the hi gh-freque n cy
range , Fisher Radio Corporation, 21-21
44th Drive, Long I s land City 1, N. y,
A-5
• Tandberg 3-Speed stereo
Recorder.
Compact and portable, this new Tandberg
unit can be used for both recording and
reproduction of live performances and
stereo AM-FM broadcasts. Despite its
small size, the Model 3-Stereo is equipped
with two power playback amplifiers, Frequency response at 7'h ips is 30 to 17,000
c p s, Upper f requen cy limit at 3* a nd
1 % ips is 10,000 and 5000 cps, respectivel y.
The
stacked - head
assembly
permits u se of the instrument for twintrack monaural r ecordi n g and reprodu c-
Tape Magazine Repeater. Introduced by
the Special Produ cts Division of Th e
Pentron Corporation, the Model A - 4 recorder-playback unit makes possible the
recording an d continuous or intermittent
tion when d esired, in which case a ll c h aracteristics are sim ila r to those of the
standard Tandberg Model 3 recorder. A
b uilt-in Goodmans speaker provides monitoring facilities while recording. To meet
the needs of those who want a complete
stereo tape system, Tandberg h as available a speaker system, Model 266, which is
matched to the stereo p layback amplifiers.
Two of these systems, used in conjunction with the recorder, afford complete
stereo playback facilities. Weight of the
Model 3-S tereo is only 32 lbs. in i ts h andsome luggage- type carrying case. Tandberg, 10 E, 52nd St., New York 22, N. y,
A-I
G-E 20-Watt Amplifier. Althou gh priced
modestly, the new General Electric Model
PA-20 leaves little to be desired as an
ampli fier for custom hi-fi systems, Frequency r esponse is 20 to 20,000 cps and
harmonic distortion is below 1.0 per cent.
Phono-inpu t h u m level is - 60 db at full
output. Incorporated in the PA-20 i s a
20 kc. Th e sweep frequency i s covered by
20 signal pulses per second. The signal is
fiat over the specified r ange with 1.0 db.
Frequency markers occur at 2, 5, 10, 14,'
18, and 20 kc. A base line is provided for
determining relative amplitud es. Output
is 4 volts, open circuit, with internal
impedance of 290 ohms, For production
testing, the sweep signal can be piped to
produ ction line test p oints where an instantaneous check can be made by using
"go" and uno go" markers on the 'scope
screen. The generator can also be used
in t h e de sign and testing of microphones
and l oudspeakers, as well as for making
periodic checks of the over-all perform ance of the a udio circuits and transmission lin es of radio and television stations.
Designated Model 125-C, the Pandux a udio
sweep frequency gener ator i s manufactured by Pacific Transducer Corp., 11836
W, Pico B lvd., Los Angeles 64, Calif. A-3
"Irish" Tape Splicer. Fast, precise tape
editing and repairing is afforded by the
new "Irish" Tape Splicer, recently announced as a n ad dition to the Irish brand
playback of sa les messages or personalized announcements ranging in length
from one to 55 min u tes. Lower- priced
playback-only mode l s a re a lso avru lab le.
The uni t meets many communication requirements in stores, rail road stations,
au-ports, schools, etc. For further d etail s
and specifications, write Morhan Exporting Corporation, 458 Broadway, New York
13, N. Y.
A-6
• An1e-rican - Concertone
Portable
Recorde'!". The n ew "Glob ematic 60" tape r e corder, affording half-tracl', f ull- t r ack or
stereophonic r ecord and playback, weighs
less than 35 pounds in its magnesium carrying case, Easily transportable for onthe-s p ot recordin g , it may be ope rated in
either horizontal or vertical position. Control of a ll f un ctions is provid ed by fiv e
pushb u ttons on the front panel. Th e r e corder accommodates reel sizes up to an d
newly-designed rumble filter which has
a sharp l ow-frequency cutoff of 12 db /octave below 40 cps, thus effectively filtering ou t s ub-au dio frequencies without appreciable effect on bass response. Interstage feedback phono compensati on allows the u se of practically a ll l ow- a nd
high-input cartridges on the market,
Ph ono input sensitivity is 5 to 7 mv for
f ull o utpu t. The amplifier has five separ ate i nputs a nd three separate outputs
for a wide choice of applications. The
lo udn ess control, one of seven control s,
is compensated for the physiological hearing c ur ve to assure musical balance at
all intensity levels. Further information
may be obtained from: Specialty E lectronic Components Dept., General E lectric Co ., A u burn, N. y,
A-2
Sweep Generator. Th e Pandux Audio
Sweep Freq u e ncy Generator i s a n instrument for d etermining quickl y th e beh av ior of a udio eq ui pment with respect
to freq uen cy and associated ph e nomena.
It is d esigned for use with any standard
osci ll oscope , The complex Signa l is produce d by scanning photo-electrically a
synchronous ly rotating disc. The modulation on t h e disc is th e photographic reprodu ction of a precision patte rn , the
accuracy of which assures a positive
signal which e liminates anomalou s distortion, frequency and other discrimina tions which co ul d be introduced by nonstable reactive components of
more
comp lex circuits, The signal, as it comes
from the generator, scans from 80 cps to
line of tape products manufactured by
ORRadio Industries, In c., S h amrock Circle, Opelika, A la, Th e uni t is designed to
cut two rounded indentations in the tape,
giving the splice a narrow waist, and
leaving the edges of the tape which contact p a rts of the recorder entirely free of
adhesive. As little as one-q u arte r inch of
tape need be removed for m a king the
splice.
A -4
Fisher Ultra-Sensitive, FM-AM Tune,r s.
a dded to the Fisher lin e of highfidelIty components are two new Anniversary series t un e r s-the Model 90 -R
Tuner, and the Model 90-T Tun er and
A udio Control Ce nte r. Remarkab l e sensitivity is afforded by both instruments
due to incorporation of the exclusive
Rec~ntly
I -l
64
including 10'h in. an d is designed for
operatin g speeds of 7'h and 15 ips. A
torque control switch is provided for
change from 1 0'h in. to sma ll er reels,
Phone jacks p e rmit monitoring inpu t to
the r ecord h ead 01' p layback o u tput while
recording, The m ach in e is eq uippe d with
th r ee motors~a direct hyste resis-synchronou s capstan -d,-ive motor with timing
accuracy of 99,8 pel' cent, a nd two h ig hspeed take-up and rewind motors with
self-compensating braldng systems. Manufactured by American Electronics, Inc.,
655 . W , '\Vashington B l vd " Los A n ge les 15,
Calif,
A-7
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
HARVEY'S
Hi - Fi !
••• the place to go - if you want
Why HARVEY'S? That's elementary. The name has been synonymous
with thoroughly dependable hi-fi shopping since the dawn of separate-component home music systems. With every high-fidelity
component worthy of name in stack for immediate delivery •.. with
a staff of audio consultants famed far beyond the confines of New
York ... with demonstration facilities second to none •. . and with
a most attractive time-payment and trade-in policy - HARVEY'S is in
a position to cater to every desire and whim of the beginning or
advanced hi-fi enthusiast.
Right now, HARVEY'S is celebrating its 30th anniversary in the electronics business. Why not drop in soon and see all of the latest hi-fi
gear, such as those described below, during our 30th Anniversary
Sell-A-Bration.
dANS ZEN
iaHdbeJ'tI
for the finest in
STEREO
Here's the answer to your tape recorder requirements-a 3-speed
stereo playback system that gives you the finest in stereo sound
reproduction, plus the complete facilities of a monaural recorder
reproducer. The price of the Model-3 Stereo unit complete with
two built-in, well-balanced amplifiers. Goodman Speaker, furniture
cabinet, ..................... .................................................................
50
$369
(complete with microphone and carry case)
THORENS
Record Changer
Here's a precision, Swiss-built record changer whose performance
is highly rated by audio enthusiasts. The simplicity of the CD-43
operation results from exacting design of the direct-drive motor
that is governor-controlled. 'rhere is a 3-speed adjustment for
control of exact pitch, plus intermix of 12", 10",>and 7" records.
Reject, repeat, adjustable pause controls, and automatic final
record shut-off, plus tone arm tracking force adjustment, m al{e
this a real buy.............................................. .. ............................
95
$79
DIaranlz
Amplifier
It would be futile to try to enumerate
in t\lis space' all of the features of
this,amplifier of amplifiers-you name
it, it's got it! The fan,t astic care that goes into the selection of
components and into the construction of the Marantz units has its
parallel only in speCial types of military communic~.tions and
telephone equipment-it is certainly well beyond the ·highest hi-fi
standard. The resulting quality of a mplification. freedom from
noise and all other bugs, plus long-term reliability and ease of
servicing (if that should ever become necessary!) make the initial
investment an eminently worth-while one:....... ..............
00
$198
WEATHERS
ML-l Turntable
Announcing the new ML-l HSynchromatic Drive" turntable designed especially for modern phonograph pickups
having extremely wide range response and low tracking force. The
turntable uses. a synchronous motor with a newly developed drive
system which featu'res an extremely accurate speed of 33 ~ rpm.
The turntable and motor are assembled on a metal motor board
which is 14%" x 15%".
K730-turntable, Base & FM Pickup with Diamond Stylus $15900
ML-1 (on basel Price................................ ................................ $5995
AUDIO
You May Finance
Your Purchases
With A Low Cost
Monthly Payment Plan
•
When you hear this electrostatic loudspeaker system reproduce
music that ranges from 500-30,000 cps anywhere in the rooIl'l, you
will really want to own one right away. Its four electrostatic radIators transform electrical energy directly into sound without breakup or aud ible resonances. The J anszen design provides for a
performance response which brings the music to you without, exaggerated and distorted highs. Sensitive listeners could do well to
have a Janszen demonstrated. Model 130-M .......: ............
00
$184
KLH
fConcert'
•
•
Electrostatic Loudspeakers
Loudspeaker
System
The utilization of sP,ecial cones and
susp:en's ions enables KLH speakers to
offer': Unprec endented smoothness
th'r oughout the low and mid-frequency ranges. Typical of this
superb line of loudspeakers is the Model Four speaker system
housed in a 13 V:!" H x 25" W x 12" D Cabinet. The system covers
the complete range of musical interest with unusually low harmonic
distortion, smooth response at low frequencies and an unparalleled
freedom from irregularities in the mid-range. In mahogany
$22400
1II§HERMODEL
90-R
I
FM-AM Tune1r
Combining engineering, excellence a nd
dazzling performance the Fisher 90-R is truly representative of the renowned FISHER tradition for quality. Providing both maximum sensitivity and maximum signal-to-noise ration,
without compromise, the 90-R may even bring in FM stations
before you have connected th.e FM antenna! Incorporating the
celebrated FISHER Gold Cascode RF a mplifier, and companion
circuitry, the 90-R has a rated sensitivity as low as 1 microvoltwith AM sensitivity better than 3 microvolts at full output.
Price: ....................................................
50
....................................$199
FAIRCHILD
XP-3 Cartridge
The XP-3 cartridge features an exceptional
number of "firsts" that make it the most advanced phono transducer ever developed. A
number of important theoretical as wen as
practical engineering problems have been solved in this product
with the result that the XP-3 has unusually high compliance and
virtually n o detectible 1M distortion.
A sub-miniature coil of unusual construction is damped by a
completely new method of coil suspension, clarity and definition of
sound becomes evident by a life-like separation of ' musical instruments and complex passages.
The XP-3 has a 0.7 mil. diamond and tracks any commercial
record at two to four grams stylus pressure............
$6000 net
------..------------------4
HARVEVRADIO CO., INC.
1123 Avenue of the Americas (6th Ave. at 43rd St.) dUdson
New York 36, N. Y.
JANUARY, 1958
2-1500
65
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Versatile
Audio
Mixer.
Featuring
plug-in tra nsform ers, preamplifie rs a nd
line amplifiers, t his instrument is suited
e qua lly well for use with recordin g e quipment or public-address systems. The
plug-in-units may be a rra n ge d t o provide
up to seven individually controIJe d input
channels. Outputs of + 20 dbm into 50,
250, or 600 ohms, or up to 30 volts into
s wee p i s a uni que feature of the new
Mode l 207A a udi o sweep oscillator recentl y an n ounce d by the Hewlett-Packard
Company, 395 P age Mill Road, Palo Alto,
Calif . Th e instrument emp loys an advan ced version of the RC oscillator circ uit, an d achieves its unu s u a l f r e quen cy
ra nge without ban dswitching·. Accuracy
of t h e 207A is ± 4 per cent in c lud in g
warm up drift a nd ag ing of tubes and
components. The uni t is designed essent ia lly for motor drive and fo r testing
a udio c i rc uits a nd components. Further
inform a tion is ava ila ble.
A-ID
Miniature V&locity Microphone. An improved meth od of ribbon assembly which
prevents sagi n g a nd spurious vib r ation al
nodes, a nd a m agnet system which greatly
e nhances e ffi ciency, are incorpora ted in
t h e n ew "Trix Sixty Special" bi- direct io n a l ribbon mic rophon e. Th e unit com-
high impe d ance may be obtained from
the lin e amp lifi ers. The inp u ts may b e
m icroph ones, tape o r di sc players, or tuners. The rack-m ounted Model 17 i s pict u red. Sloping p ane l model s for t able u se
a r e a lso availa bl e. A ll mode l s a r e a pproxima tely 3 ~ inches iligh. Literature is
availab le f r om Miami Instr u ment Co. ,
Box 384, Tamiam i Station, Miami 44, Fla.
A-8
the n ew import ed
NORELCO®
'CONTINENTAL'
world's
most
advatlced
all-in-ime
portable
• BeU PM-AM Tuner. Style d to m atch the
"new look" of the Bell a mplifier lin e, the
Mo d e l 2520 t uner is onl y 4 inches high and
fini s h ed with saddl e -tan vinyl leather.
Tec hni cal featur es in clude completely
shi e ld e d construc tion with t h e u se of a
gro unde d-grid r.f. stage which conforms
'. to FCC radiation requirement s, a l so Arm -
TAPE RECORDER
stron g FM circ uit with Foster-S eel ey dis crim inator. Selec tor switch p ermits disa bling AFC when desired. A logging scale
is prov ide d in a ddition to regular fre quency-ca librated tuning sca l es. A built-in
line cord an tenna and an AM l oop stick
are incorporated for lo cal reception, with
extern a l antenna connection s provided for
r ecepti on of di stant station s. FM sensitivity i s 2 m i crovolts f.or 20 -db qui eting.
FM frequency r esponse is 20 to 20,000 cps
within ± 1 db. Output connection s include
dua l jacks for f ee din g t a p e r ecorder a nd
amplifier s imulta neously. Noise level on
FM is 65 db b e low 30 p er cent modula tion.
Bell Sound- Syste m s, 555 Marion Road,
Columbu s 7, Ohio.
A-9
prises a relatively long corruga ted limp
a luminum ribbon which is e n circl e d with
fo ur brea th shields. A ltho ugh d esigned
primarily as a studi o mi c r ophon e, the
T rix Sixty Sp ecial can b e used with equ al
e ffec tiven ess for public a ddress work becau se of its ability to d e liver high reinfo r cement level s with free d om from fee dback. F requency respons e is 50 t o 12,000
c p s within ± 2 db and output i s - 58 db.
Size is 4 x l o/s in s. For c omple te d etails
w rite to the F e n-T on e Corporation, 10 6
Fift h Ave., New York 11, N . Y.
A-ll
• Hewlett-Pa.ckard Sweep Oscilla.tor. A
r ang e of 20 to 20,000 c p s on a s ing le dia l
•
E-V Log-a.r itlunic 'l'ranslator. Inte nded
essentia lly for m eas u ring w ide r a nges of
level s with maximum l ow-level accuracy
a nd i n plotting freq u e n cy response c h a r acteris tics of various components, th e
new Model 6700 Loga rithmi c Transla t or
w ill fin d numero u s applications in audio
a nd acou stic research a nd d evel opment.
T h e ou tput voltage varies in averag e
valu e proportionately to the loga rithm of
the input a mplitude, and can b e fed di rectl y to a n y aver aging- ty p e indicator or
NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS -CO., INC•
High Fidelity Products Division
230 DUFFY AVE., HICKSVILLE, lol.,N.V.
AUDIO
66
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
osc ill oscope. Th e o utput can easily be resolv e d into a corresponding d.c. value
with t h e a id of a s imple r-c network.
Operation with fast sweep plotte rs, s u c h
as oscillos copes, is therefore r eadily
availa ble. In a ddition, the 6700 is eq uipped
with a large meter which displays a linear
decibel sca le and a logarithmic vo l tage
scale. Decibel r ange is 0-40 db; vo ltage
range is 1 mv t o 100 volts. Frequency
r a nge is 25 cps to 40 k c ± 1 db. The 6700
is availa ble in e ithe r a portable a luminum
case or w ith a 7-inch standa rd r ack panel.
Manufactured by EV Instruments, division of E lectro-Voice, In c., Buchanan,
Mich ,
A-12
N
--:
t,
NEW LITERATURE
Argonne Electronics Mfg. Corp., 165-11
South Road, Jamaica 33, N. Y ., is now di s t ribu t in g a n ew 12 -pa g e cat a log of imported a nd American-made miniaturized
components, in c ludin g a nu mber of s p ecialty a nd a udio items. Catalog ARC- 7
lists a la r ge selection of transistor tra n s formers, s ubminiature volum e control s,
phono cartridge s a nd styli, minia ture earphones, musical in strum ent pickups, plus
a numb er of additional accessory item s.
A-13
E
United Audio Products, 20 2 E. 19th St.,
New York 3, N. Y ., h as recently p ublis h ed
an 'attractive, colorful catalog describin g
the com plete lin e of Wigo lo uds p eak er
sys t ems. Covered in the catalog are ten
models, in cludin g sing le - and dual- cone
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AUDIO
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EDGAR M. VILLCHUR'S
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For over two years. this material ran in consecutive issues of AUDIO and was followed
avidly by every reader. Now available in
book form, with corrections and minor revisions, this material will be recognized as the basis of a thorough course in sound reproduction. Covers the
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Cu.tvmary dhceunta tv deelen ... d dhtributvn
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Please SGnd me ......... .. copies of Vlllchur's HANDBOOK OF SOUND
REPRODUCTION. I enclCl6e check 0 money order 0 fur
$6.50 each.
Name
.. ...... .. ... ............................... . .................... .
A . ....,. .•.•... . .. . .. . • ...••••.•.••.•••••••••••.•••.....•••.••••..•••••••
Clty ......... ........ .. .. .......... . Z _ ... . .. State ..... ............ ..
67
JANUARY, 1958
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SAVE
LOUDNESS, ITS DEFINITION
AUDIO_
...
,.". ,, ..
250/0
This is our
CROUP SUBSCRIPTION PLAN
(from page 40)
value, the. calculated loudness levels
(Leaze.) are shown. The three associated
values of L,,, L obs.J and L eale in each
column represent the data for one complete test. For example, in Table. VIII,
the fhst tone is described a having ten
components, and for the fust test shown
each component was adjusted to have
a loudness le.vel (L,J of 67 db. The
Now you, your friends and co-workers
can save $1.00 on each subsc ription
to AUDIO. If you send 6 or more subscriptions for the U.S., Possessions and
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subscriptions may be renewed or ex tended as part of a group. Remittance
to accompany orders.
TABLE XIV
VOLTAGE LEVEL SPECTRUM OF
Frequency
Audio
Broadcasting equipment
Acoustics
Home music systems
Recording
PA systems
Record Revues
(Please print )
Name
Address . ...... .... .. . ..•.• . ...•..• .•
o New
. .. .. . . . .. . 0 Renewal . . .... . .
No.
Voltaee Level
-
152
304
456
608
760
912
1064
1216
1368
1520
1672
1824
1976
AUDIO is still the only publication
devoted entirely to
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
components had a difference in loudness
level of 5 db, that is, the first, third,
fifth, etc., components had the loudness
level give.n opposite LkJ and the even
numbered components were 5 db lower.
(Tables X and XI.)
In the following set of tests (Tables
XII and XIII) the difference in loud-
2.1
5.4
4.7
- 5.9
- 4.6
- 6.8
- 6.0
- 8.1
- 7.6
- 9.1
-10.0
- 9.9
-14.1
-
l'esults of the test gave an observed loudness level (LObS.) of 83 db for the ten
components acting together, and the
calculated loudness le.vel (L ea.l e,) of the
same tone was 81 db. The probable
error of the obsel'ved results in the
tables is approximately ± 2 db.
In the next series of data, adjace.nt
3A AUDIOMETER TONE
Frequency
Voltaee Level
2128
2280
2432
2584
2736
2880
3040
3192
3344
3496
3648
3800
3952
-11 .4
-16.9
-14.1
-16.2
-17 .4
-17.5
-20.0
-19.4
-22 .7
- 23.7
-25 .6
-24.6
-26.8
ness le.vel of adjacent components was
10 db.
The next data are the results of tests
made on the complex tone generated by
the Western Electric No. 3A audiome.ter. When analyzed, this tone was
found to have the voltage level spectrum
shown in Table X I V . When the r.m.s.
Nam e .... . .... . ............. .. •...•
Address ..•..... . .. ... .•... . ...•. ...•
o New
... ... .... .
105
0 Renewal . . . ... . .
Name ...... . ....... . ..... . ....•. ...
Address ......... . . . . . ... . • .. ... . .• •.
o New
....... .. ..
0 Renewal ....... .
115
Name ... . ...... . .. .. ..........•... .
Address ...•. . . .. • .•...•.... ... .... . .
o
o New
...'" 110
....J
.. .. .......
0 Renewal .. ....••
Name ... . .... . ... . . . . . . . ...•.......
Address .. .• •. . ........ . •......•.. .. .
o New
/
lao
~
>
II.
~ 85
.J
V
/
-
I\.
/
V
f',
~
i' . . .
\
\
....>u;
. .. ........
0 Renewal ....... .
.......280
;l;
Name ....... . . .. ..... . .....• ... . ...
Address ...• .. ..... . ... • .... ... . . .. ..
o New
. . . ... . . . ..
\../
V\
\
1\
75
0 Renewal .... ... .
70
U. S .• Possessions. and Canada only
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
\
500
1000
~ooo
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
Fig . 13 . Calibra t ion of re ce ivers for te sts on th e No . 3A audiometer tone.
68
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 19S5
"
. - HIGH PASS
OUDNESS LE VEL
o
m
a
!>
Z
§
U
is...
- -
= 42
10
I~
\
\
= 71
LOUDNESS LE VEL
/' •
K. -
T
.J
\
B
.J
LOUDNESS LEVEL
::l
0
g
~
z
. . . "r-.,
.J
10
- .
- . -;"t--
DB
' .Jo/
2 00
400
1000
= 9~ DB
LOUDNESS LEVEL
I~
Y'
........
~
1'-.--
"
1/
I!>
100
= 87
V-
'0
II
[\
A
Cf)
DB
- v.: /v.
""11 t--. ~
a:
...>
...
at
last.
clean.
record
grooves
no sta ·
' - LOW PASS
DB
2000
4000
100
200
400
'"
1000
fiLTER CUTOFF FREQUENC Y
o
2000
4000
Fig. 14. (A to D)-Loudness level redl:Jction tests on the No. 3A audiometer ton e .
recent data at low levels and in the previous data at high levels indicates that
the observed results are not as accurate
as could be desired. Because of the labol'
involved these tests have. not been repeated.
At the time the tests were made several years ago on the No. 3A Audiomete.r tone, the reduction in loudness
leve.! which takes place when certain
components are. eliminated was also determined . As this can be readily calcuInted with the formu la developed here,
a comparison of observed and calculated
results will be shown. In Fig. 14A, the
ordinate. is the reduction in loudness
level resulting when a No. 3A Audiometer tone. having a loudness level of
42 db was changed by the insertion of
a filter which eliminates all of the components above or below the frequency
indicated on the abscissa. The observed
data are the plotted points and the
smooth CUl'ves are calculated results. A
similar comparison is shown in Figs .
14B, C and D for other levels.
This completes the data which arc
available. on steady complex tones. It is
to be hoped that others will find the
field of sufficient importance to warrant
obtaining additional data for improving
and testing the method of measuring and
calculating loudness levels.
voltage across the receivers used was
unity, that is, zero voltag·e. level, then
the separate components had the voltage
levels given in this table. Adding to the
voltage levels the calibration constant
for the. l'eceivers used in making the
loudness tests gives the values of ~ for
zero voltage level across the l·eceivers.
The values of ~ for any other voltage
leve.! are obtained by addition of the
level desired.
Tests were made on the audiometer
tone with the same receivers 11 that were
used with the other complex tones, but
ill addition, data were available on tests
made about six years ago using a different type of receiver. This latter type of
receiver was recalibrated (Fig. 13) and
computations made for both the old and
new tests. In the older set of data, levels
above threshold were given inste.ad of
voltage levels, so in utilizing it here,
it was necessary to assume that the
threshold levels of the ne.w and old tests
were the same.
Compu tations were made at the levels
tested experime.ntally and a comparison
of observed and calculated results is
shown in Table XV.
The agreement of observed and calculated results is poor for some of the.
tests, but the close agreement III the
11
See Calibration shown in Fig .
1.
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TABLE X V
A.
R ECENT T ESTS ON N o. 3A AUDIOMETER TONE
a nti~ s t at ic
deterge nt
R .m .•. Volt. Level. .. .
L obo .. ... .. . .....
L calc .....•.. .. .. .
B.
R .m .•. Volt . Level. ...
Lobo . . . • . . . . . . . . .
T· calc .•• ... . . . . . . .
AUDIO
•
- 38
-5 5
-59
-70
-75
-78
- 80
-87
- 89
56
49
41
44
42
40
28
28
22
25
-- ------ -----------95
89
85
74
79
71
61
57
gr oove - c l eani ng
a p plicat or
pl ast ic
po uc h
-100 -102
2
2
7
At your dealer or write :
4
PREVI OUS T ESTS ON No. 3A AUDIOMETER TONE
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119
103
103
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JANUARY, 1958
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By
Harold D. Weiler
Author of
"High Fidelity Simplified"
The first complete book for the home recordist. Tells why, how,
and what in easily undefStood language--not too technical, yet
technically accurate. Covers sound, room acoustics, microphones, microphone techniques, editing and splicing, sound
effects and how to make them, maintenance, and adding sound
to slides and home movies.
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC .. Book Divilion
P.
o.
Box 62', Mineola. N. Y.
Please send me ..... .. ... copies of Weiler's TAPE RECORDERS AND TAPE RECORDI NC. I enclose check 0 money order O. Paper cover, $2.95.
In view of the complex nature of the
problem this computation method cannot be considered fully developed in all
its details and as more accurate data accumulates it may be necessary to change
the formula for b. Also at the higher
levels some attention must be given to
phase differences between the components. However, we feel that the form
of the equation is fundamentally correct
and the loudness function, GJ corresponds to something real in the mechanism of hearing. The presen_t values
given for G may be modified slightly,
but we think that they will not be radically changed.
A study of the loudness of complex
sounds which are not steady, such as
sp eech and sounds of varying duration,
is in progress at the present time and
the results will be reported in a second
paper on this subject.
APPENDIX · A. eXPERIMENTAL METHOD
OF MEASURING THE lOUDNESS lEVEL
OF A STEADY SOUND
A me.a surement of the loudness level
of a sound consists of listening alternately to the sound and to the lOOO-cps
reference tone and adj usting the latter
until the two are equally loud. If the
intensity level of the reference tone is
L decibels when this condition is reached,
the sound is said to have a loudness level
of L decibels. When the character of
the sound being measured differs only
slightly from that of the reference tone,
the comparison is easily and quickly
made, but for other sounds the numerous
factors which enter into a judgment of
equality of loudness be.come important,
and an experimental method should be
used which will yield results typi cal of
the average normal ear and normal
physiological and psychological condiditions.
A variety of methods have been propose.d to accomplish this, differing not
only in general classification, that is,
the method of average error, constant
stimuli, etc., but also in important experimental details such as the. control
of noise conditions and fatigue effects.
In some instances unique devices have
been used to facilitate a ready comparison of sounds. One. of these, the alternation phonometer/2 introduces into the
comparison important factors such as
the duration time of the sounds and thl'
effect of transient conditions. The merits
of a particular method will depend upon
the circumstances under which it is to
br, used. The one to be described here
was developed for an extensive series of
laboratory tests.
12 D. Mackenzie, " Relative sensitivity
of the ear at different levels of loudness,"
Ad .......
Phys . Rev. 20, 331 (1922).
Cfty • . •• ...• .. .. ..•.. . .... .•.. .. .... Zone ...... Stete
70
TO BE CONCLUDED
AUDIO
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•
JANUARY, 1958
IMPROVED LOUDNESS CONTROL
Equip for stereo
(f?'om page 30)
amplitude. The superiority of the proposed circuit is that the change to gaincontrol operation can be. made in this
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It is noted that the response of this
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range of 40 db. No apology will be
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cuits. In general, it is good practice,.· tqplace neal' the output those circuits that
emphasize low frequencies (01' reduce
highs) , while high-frequency boost (or
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distortion components developed in an
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at
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m,adison
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THE MADISON FIELDING
SERIES 320
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AMPLIFIER
..
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10
Fig . 3. Frequency
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do no better. More serious, perhaps, is
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fl·equencies. However, since this range
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noise of a quiet residence;' the limitation
is probably of minor significance. If a
further range of variation is desired, the
(;Ontrol can be supplemented with the
stepped attenuator shown in Fig. 4,
which will provide a 0-20--40 db variation in loudness level. The attenuator
should be separated from the master
loudness control by an isolating amplifier.
No treble compensation is included, as
the Fletcher-Munson curves have all very
nearly the same shape at the high-frequency end, and the author prefers to
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As ·a matter of geneml note,
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will serve in monaural use as a com plete electronic crossover system to
feed separate woofer and tweeter combinations.
will accentuate all distortion fed into it.
However, extreme bass cut should not be
incorporated so early in the circuit that
hum becomes appreciable.
The loudness control, which is essentially a bass-boost circuit, should therefore be placed . as neal' the amplifier
output as other circuit considel'ation1'
will permit. Unfortunately, the control
must usually be located near the input,
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JANUARY, 1958
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
No. 110
HANDBOOK OF SOUND REPRODUCTION
by Edgar M. Villchur
Right up to date, a complete course on sound reproduction.
Covers everything from the basic elements to individual
chapters of each of the important components of a high fidelity
system. $6. 50 Postpaid.
the
'bookshelf
No. 111
A convenient service to AUDIO
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Revised Edition
ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
by Richard H. Dorf
In one large volume, here are all of the intricacies of the electronic organ and smaller instruments. Construction drawings
and details of the author's own Electronorgan plus commercial
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No.113
Revised Edition
WHAT TO LISTEN FOR IN MUSIC
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No. 114
Revised Edition
THE NEW HIGH FIDELITY HANDBOOK
by Irving Greene and James R. Radcliffe
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THE 3rd AUDIO ANTHOLOGY
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P.O. Box 629, Mineola, New York
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if it is p laced within a fced-back loop.
If it is desired, the impedance level of
It should be remembered that the the circuit can be raised or lowered,
published, F letcher-Munson contours rep- . without affecting the response of the
resent the response of the "average" ear, control, by multiplying all r esistors by a
and can be expected to deviate widely common factor, and dividing all capacifrom the response of any individual ear. tor values by the same factor. The limits
Therefore, any painstaking attempt to of variation are set, of course, by cu:match the curves with mathematical ex- cuit consid erations~the amount of loadactness would be a bit ridiculous. For ing of the previous stage that can be
tlJis reason, it is suggested that compo- tolerated, the impedance to be presented
nents of plus or minus 5 p er cent toler- to the succeeding stage, the susceptibility
.IE
ance would be quite satisfactory.
to hum pickup and so on.
RECORD REVUE
(f1'om page 53)
Rimsky-Korsakoff: Le Coq d'Or (The
Golden Cockerel) (complete). Ballets
RCJsse s arch. , Horvath .
Concert Hall XH 151 2
T he revived Concert Hall label, under
Crowell·Collier management (C-C Clubs ), has
s nared t his orchestra for ballet record ings in
cooperation with someth ing called t he International Ballet Guild . dedicated to the preservation of ballet and in par ticu lar the famous
Diaghilev tradition. Here is the complete score
of a ballet t hat we ordinarily hear only in
the usual concert excerpts; and once more,
the pleasure In the discovery of the whole
music, familial' and unfamiliar, is great for
home l istening. Indeed, this particular bit of
Rimsky goes up a lot in the estimation as one
finds out how it originally was supposed to
sound.
In t his performance the Ball et Ru sses
orchestra, wherever it may be, plays most
danceably and with fine mu s iciansh ip ; the
music would seem to be fam iliar enough to
the players, as well as the dancing that goes
with it. Or perhaps it is merely a well-known
sty1e, for an experienced ballet orchestra. Nice
recording in the sou nd, big and rath er close,
though t here is some distortion in louder
parts as I h ear it.
Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet (complete
ballet). Ballets Russes arch ., Bashich .
Concert Hall 2XH 1513 (2)
Here is another in the new Ballets Russes
series-but, a las, it is a different kettle of
fish. Prokofieff (it can be ff or v), to be sure,
is in the li ne of great Russian ballets and out
of the D iagb ilev tradition; but eviden tly he
isn't too well known by this orchestra-or
maybe t he music is just too ha rd.
Admitted ly, the string parts in one of the
main themes go dreaclfully high ; but other
orchestras manage without trouble. The string
playing in this performance is j ust plain
excruciating a nd there are other bloopers and
falterings that mar the reco rd ing to lL point
where I can only wonder h ow it came to be
issu ed. Sounds like a first-time run-through
by a very inexperienced orchestra-which this
one s urely is not.
It's a lovely, sweet, wa rm ball et as well as
a stark one in ma ny places and, aside from
the above, it gets a sympathetic t reatment
here. The tempi a re n otably d ifferent from
some of t he earlier concert recordings, nota bly
by the Bos ton Symphony; maybe these dance
players a re r ight.
Gluck: Alceste (Italian version). Flagstad ,
Jobin, etc. Ge raint Jon e s arch. and SingLondon XLLA 49 (4 )
e rs, Jones.
Monster albums of t hi s sort are enough to
floor a ny critic bu t I played every bit of this
one-eight s ides- and fo llowed the Italian
and English text from beginn ing to end . It
was worth it.
Flags tad isn't exactly the id eal vo ice for
the 18th century Glu ck from a mus icological
viewpoint ; but if you let that bother you, you
will m iss one more great appearance of the
grand lady and, moreover, you' ll miss a presentation that gets to the heart of Gluck's
music a nd drama, whether its style is perfect 01' no .
As a lways, much that F lagstad s ings is
IDENTIFY ..
TAPE RECORDI
a
uneven, the coarse sou nds inev itnbly mixed
with the lovely ones. She has trouble "getting
started" ; her old upward sli de is as prevalent
as evet·. But in t he grand second act, where
she has the stage almost to herself and most
of the music, she is utterly moving-a very
great performance of music requ iring to the
last degree a noble musical m ind and a tre'mendou s spiritual dign ity.
T his is the original Italian vers ion, composed (in that paradox ical age) fo r Vienna
before Gluck moved to Paris; its operatic reforms, real enough at the time, seem mos t ly
insignificant to us today in the face of its
far clea re r adherence to the older traditions
of static, noble opera tragedy. (The French
version is considerably rearranged , even to
the plot a nd sequence of scenes.)
With the mu sical knOW-how that is so lacking in our own mixed performances, this production combines Flagstad with a French
leading tenor (the t enor was used in the
French version, though t he original call s for
male cas trato) and an Engli sh chorus and
orchestra for a suave and beautifully 'unified
perform a nce. Th e choral s inging, so extens ive
in Gluck opera, is superb of its sort. Recording
is as good as a lways in London operas.
IE
with Soundcraft Mylar* Base
Colored Leader Tape
Splice to both ends of your
tapes ... profess ionals do! Prev ent disastrous torn or creased
end's .. . m ak e the entire length
of y our tape usable for record~
ing . .. a bsorb s tress a nd strain
on the leader, at the start and
fini sh of reels . . . m ak e threading eas ier! Spli c e be tw een
r ecorded 'sections t o indicat e
wher.e an y s election st a rts and
finish es . In 4 colors .. . gold,
blue, r ed, w h it e ... c olor code
y our r ecordings ! Use one color
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"Myla r " b ase COLORED LEADER
T A P ES; •• w rit e for Fold e r
SO-WATT AMPLIFIER
(from page 23)
•
resistance of about 47,000 ohms should
be conneeted in series with R l l .
With the test signal audible, the feedback should be connected, and a note
made of whether the output is increased
or decreased. If the feedback increases
the output, the connections to the output transformer must be reversed. If
the feedback decreases the output, then
the connections are correct, and the
feedback may be permanently connected
with the extra resistance removed. This
AUDIO
•
method removes the risk of oscillation
and possible damage to the output tubes
and transformer.
Perfo rmance
The maximum power output of an
R-C coupled amplifier may be defined
as the maximum powel" obtainable without driving' the output tubes to grid
current, and this is easily observable
on a 'scope. Under these conditions, the
output measured across various dummy
resistance loads on the secondary of the
RS57-2.
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SOUNDCRAFT
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W . Coast : 3 4 2 N. LaBrea, L.A . 36, Cal.
R24
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73
JANUARY, 1958
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for the KISS
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Transformer Type 4 N1
Capable of
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PRIMARY
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and
SECONDARY
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22Q and 30Q to hand le 50 watts.
Ope n Type: 4N 1
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A 100 w. model is availab le.
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ADDRESS.. ..................................... .. ....................
less than 0.1 p er cent at 500 cps. The
increases at 100 and 5000 cps are the
results of the stabilizing circuits reducing effective feedback at high Rnd low
frequencies. This,_ how-ever, is a small
price to pay for the clean performance
I'esulting from good stability. The harmonic distortion was measured up to
15,000 cps, and listening tests confirmed
the. merits of the results shown. It
should also be noted that these figures
for distortion are measured at full
power over the whole frequency range.
Maximum power output is obtained
with an input drive of 0.5 volt rms, and
the. hum level is -73 db with the input
open-circuited, or better than -90 db
with the input short circuited. The feedback is 22 db at 500 cps with a 10.7-ohm
secondary (24-volt output) . For use
with load impedances other than this,
the feedback resistor Rll (4700 ohms)
should be. altered in proportion to the
resulting output voltage.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to record their
thanks to their colleague D. M. Leakey
for his considerable help and advice during the design of' this amplilier. The
article. presented here is a slightly
shorter version of one published in
Wi~'eZess W O1'Zd, April 1957, whose editor we wish to thank for allowing us
to republisb .
IE
REll'EREN CES
Thomas Roddam , "Stabilizing feedback am·
plifiers. Wi" eless W01'ld , Vol. 57, March 1951,
p . 112- 115 .
D. M. Leakey and R. B. Gilson" "U.L. out·
put transformers." Wi"eless WO"ld, Vol. 62,
January 1956, p. 29-32.
AMATEUR FILM EQUIPMENT
Accura te Pha si ng and 'Full
Integra ti on of All Signal s
NAME.......... ........................................................
W0866 transfOl'mer, is shown in Fig. 4.
An output of 50 watts is obtained with
an equivalent plate-to-plate load of
5000 ohms, and this corresponds with
this transf-ormer to a secondary load
resistance of 10.7 ohms. For a 15-ohm
secondary load, the W0866 transformer
ratio gives a primary load of 7000 ohms,
and into this load 40 watts can be obtained. With two 15-ohm speakers in
parallel an output of about 60 watts
would be obtained, with somewhat
greater distortion. Plate-to-plate loads
below 4000 ohms give increased distortion and are not recommended. At frequencies above and below 500 cps the
speaker impedance is usually greater
than the nominal value, and the effective. load is, therefore, higher.
Figu~'e 5 shows the frequency response at a power output of about 1
watt into a load of 10.7 ohms. The level
I'esponse with the absence of peaks
over the whole. frequency range from
10 to 100,000 cps indicates that the stabilizing circuits are very satisfactory
with an output transformer having the
characteristics described earlier. In consequence the amplifier is comple.tely
free of any tendency to parasitic oscillation under drive. The tendency for the
response to fall below 10 cps is typical
of a stabilize.d amplifier with feedback,
and greatly assists low-frequency stability when a preamplifier is connected
to the same plate supply.
Maximum power is obtainable over
the audio band from 30 cps to over
20,000 cps, (Fig. 6). The same figure
shows that at maximum power, second
and third harmonic distortion are each
I
------- -Circle
-- ~-----__ J
748
(f"om page 26)
rangement makes it possible, in recording for the film, to record, for instance,
the background music without interruption on track 1, while the spoken text
and the noises are recorded later on track
2. Recording faults on track 2 do not influence the recordings on track 1. This
arrangement greatly facilitates a subsequent sound recording. In order to fulfill the functions described, Moviphon B
is equipped with an amplifier, which
can be switched to record and to p layback. This amplifier, shown on F·ig. 3, em p loys three ·transistors. A r ectifier-type
level indicating meter ser ves for controlling of the modulation, since, because
the. maximum direct-current voltage is approximately 30 volts, a magic-eye tube
cannot be used. The bias and erase highfrequency is supplied by an oscillator
which employs two transistors. The d.c.
voltage for the operation of the amplifier and of the oscillator is taken from a
rectifier supply which, as previously men-
74
tioned, obtains its "a.c. voltage from the
Movilux 8B. To permit double-track
operation, one record-play head each
and one erase head has been provided for
each track.
The A mplifier
The input of the amplifier is at low impedance and arranged in such a manner
that the dynamic Zeiss Ikon Mikrophon
ZDM II can be connected di.rectly. Full
modulation is obtained witb 0.2 mv at
the input. At the output, the amplifier
supplies approxitnately 2 volts at an impedance of 2000 ohms, which is sufficient
to feed a separate power amplifier or a
radio receiver. The details of switching
can be seen in the schematic, Fig. 4.
For sound recording the picture film
is placed in the projector and the tape
is placed in the recorder. Starting marks
guarantee finding the proper beginning.
Then the Moviphon B is switched to p lay
the desired track and the level is adjusted, as a trial, to the desired modula-
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, 1958
tion. Now the Movilux B is started, and
Moviphon B runs at the same time. Now
the sound recording can start. After one
track is finished, the other track is r ecorded in the same manner.
For r eproduction, the film and the tap e
ar e r eplaced in the machines, aligned at
the starting marks, so that they will be
reproduced .in :synchroni sm.
Finally,.machines have been developed
in which the film proper carries a magnetic sound track. Ther e is no doubt that
these machines are esp ecially simple in
their oper ation, because t4e film contains
both picture and sound. Thus a differ ent
running-off sp eed is out of question,
because the device is a unit of pictur e
and sound. H owever, at the present state
of the art, the r ep roduction quality does
not yet compare with the quality of a
tape machine with a speed of 3% ips.
The reasons ar e these : With 8-mm film s,
the film speed, in case a projection of 16
pictur es p er second is chosen, is approximately 2% ips. This speed is so
slow and the width of the sound track is
so limited that, in comparison with the
separately running tap e, certain losses
of frequency r esponse and dynamic
range cannot be avoided. The film meas. urements ar e shown on Fig. 5. In addition, it is d.isadvantageous to be forced to
p lace the magnetic sound strip on the
comparatively stiff film, in comparison
with the use of a flexible magnetic t ape.
.It is a known f act that for the recor ding
and r eproduction of high frequencies,
intimate contact between the sound car . Tier and the magnetic head p lays a decisive part.
The quali ty obtainable at p r esent will,
LOUDSPEAKERS
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Response: 30·14,000 cps.
Bass Resonance : 35 cps.
Power Rating: 10 W.
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1" Universal Voice Coil for 4, 8, or
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Die·cast chassis
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Same specifications as Model HF 1012U except 8" speaker with 50-12,000 cps. response
an,d bass resonance of 65 cps. List: $25.00 . • •• $14.95
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Input and output impedances: 16 ohms, Crossove r at 3,000 cps. List: $16.60 .•• ••• •••••• $ 9.95
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For complete details on these and other superior Stentorian
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REVISED. EDITION AVAILABLE ABOUT
Ja n ua ry 15, 1958 '
ELECTRONIC
MUS:I'CAL
INSTRUMENTS
By Richa,rd H. Dorf
(AUDIO Library -
Vol. I)
Up-ta-dat e information about :
• SCHOBER
$7.50
• CONN
PClstpaid
• MINSHALL
• THOMAS
• KINSMAN
• ORCAN TUNINC
Customary d iscounts to dealers and dist ributors
Fig . 5. Standard' dime'nsions of an 8-mm '
sound' fil ·m .
AUDIO'
•
If you missed the first edition,. you're sure to want this new and revised second
edition. And even if you have the first edition you are sure to want the latest
information about the newest instruments. Order direct, Dept. E2, Radio Magazines,
Inc., Mineola, N. Y. .
75
JANUARY, 1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
we are ashamed
to mention the price!
New
=
e
Coaxial 700 Series Mark III
Some manufacturers are ashamed to mentjon the
~:is'~e l~~s/IW:t:O~' th~e ~::~t~~d~~:
phllea feol they have to make a big investment
to &et a 'l.uality speaker. They spend hours
reading clalDlS that look impressive on paper
but fall down .everely when translated into
actual performance. All we ask is that you close
)'Our eyes and listen to the maje.ty of sound
that floats out of the R & A coaxial phenomeDOD. Compare it with others .. . or your pres.... t apeaker. Your eyes will pop when your
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8" , 10" and 12" Models-alI with
Alcomax III Aniso-tropic Magnet systems of 12,000 Gauss Flux Dewities.
]Ju" il . . . Ir" il . . . WI b.,k claims wilh
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In Canada : Astral Elsetric Co., Ltd.
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5. Industrial (5 sizes to I")
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ROBINS PHONO AND TAPE ACCESSORIES
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$ .39
7. Jockey Cloth for T~pes
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without any doubt, be improved for technological reasons as the year s go on.
Even today, it has reached the point
which is entirely satisfactory for most
amateurs.
In conclusion, it should be pointed out
that, with picture-sound combination
films, the relative locations of the picture
and the associated sound track are arranged on the film a t a specific distance
from each other. This arises out of the
necessity that, during ' the film performances, the film must be moved intermittently, while the sound track must,
of course, run continuously. ~'hus, with
8-mm films, the sound spot belonging to
a certain picture, is located 54 frames
ahead of the picture. This leads to difficulties when it becomes necessary to cut
a film which, for instance, may have become damaged at the· perforations. The
system described eliminates this disadvantage completely.
.lE
AUDIO MIXER
(f1'om page 28)
the preamp . A. simple half-wave, voltagedoubler, selenium-rectifier type that
proved satisfactory in one case was used.
A full-wave circuit which will result in
a lower ripple component is given in
Fig. 5. This is highly recommended over
the half-wave type.
To reduce hum to a minimum a 50ohm hum-bucking potentiometer and 27
volts of bias were used in the heater
circuit as shown in Fig. 5. The power
supply was constructed on a small separ ate chassis and located as far as possible from the preamplifier chassis.
Hum was quite a problem when an
open frame power transformer was used
and the completed unit was housed in a
steel cabinet. Under these conditions
critical orientation of the power transformer with respect to t he mixer transformer was required to reduce magnetic
coupling. It was necessary to use a completely shielded power transformel', a
well shielded mixer transformer and to
house the unit in an aluminum cabinet
with aluminu m panel. All leads should
be as short and direct as possible.
The mixer shown in Fig. 1 was
housed in a very small cabinet. Although
it. resulted in an extremely compact unit,
considerable care was required in locating and orienting the transformers. The
builder may minimize these problems
with the use of a wider cabinet to allow
greater spacing between hum-critical
eomponent parts.
Although this is probably the most
inexpensive, pradical circuit for a ten
ehannel mixer it gi~es satisf actory performance and is suitable for many ap.lE
plications.
76
,.--CLASSIFIED---.
Rates : lO¢ per word per insertion for noncommercial
advertisements; 25¢ per word for commercial adver·
tlsements. Rates are net, and no discounts ...iII be
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t he month preceding th e date of issue.
THE AUDIO EXCHANGE has t h e la rgest
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equipm ent. Catalog of usel! eqnipm ent on request. Audio Exchange, Dept. AE, 159-19
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FOR SALE: AMPEX 350, 350-2, 600, 601,
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\Vrite to u s before yo u buy any hi-fl, you 'll
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RECORD CUTTING SERVICE
Tape to disc. Wri te for literature and prices.
E lectronic Assoc iates, Dept. C, Box 91,
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EARPHONE Binaural recorded tapes. Unu s u a l 15·minute demonstration, $3.50. Stacked
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AMPEX model 401, s ingle case portable reo
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Attention: Mr. L. R. Rex.
AUDIO · '.
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JANUARY, 1958
PROFESSIONAL
DIREcrORY
A&
LETTERS
([TO'ln
Circle 77C
CANADA
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Circle 770
SOUND
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Phone: RYan 1-8171
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Circle 77F
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Tapee made, copied, masters cut, procesled,
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Circle 77H
Representatives Wanted
HARTLEY PRODUCTS COMPANY, manufacturers of High F idelity speakers and
baIDles is seeking represen tatlon in the following areas: New England, Southern Califo rnia,
No rth Carolin a, South CaroUn a, Georgia,
Tennessee, Michigan, I ndia na, Kentucky, Colorado . Washington, Oregon. and MissourI.
WRITE to Hartley P roducts Co mpany, 521
Eas t 162nd St ., N~w York 51, N. Y.
AUDIO
•
pag e 7)
various manufacturer s' pl'oducts can not
be answered. In many instances, choice is
purely a matter of personal preference; in
others it would obviously be unfair to give
relative ratings to any equipment. To ques tions of choice, the reply must always be
"no answer".
(a) There will al ways be new developments, and this applies to high fidelity
equipment, automobiles, cosmetics, toot hpaste, and pastry flours . By buying components you can usually integrate new developments with a minimum of cost, since
certain units will always be represented
and are a lmost certain to be a part of any
new development. This applies to amplifiers,
r ecord changers or turntables, tuners, preamps, and speakers.
(b) For absolute top quality we should
choose tape for stereo; for convenience and
low or cost, we should plan to accommodate
stereo discs (when th ey arrive).
(0) We don't think so-for t he mass
market- until a thoroughly workable tape
magazine becomes available. T hose who
want the best will use high -quality tape
machines ; those who want convenience will
use discs. However, don't sell t he disc shor t
- some of those we have heard are approaching pl'esent mona ural LP's in}luality.
(el) We have only a few on the market
so far, but there is no reason wh y t hey
shouldn't be equally as good in time as
p r esent vacuum-tube equipment.
( e) For many applications, yes. But t hey
are not likely to be so much better that
t he vacuum t ube will become obsolete.
(f) Yes, in time.
(g) P r obably, although ma ny manufact u rer s make stereo conversions available at
not too great a cost, Principal loss would
be in having to scrap one head when you
convert.
(h) Unless ' you are able to design and
build all of t he equipment, yon sh ould get
the conversion kit offered by t he manufacturer and follow his instructions.
(i) Few regular preamps have position
for tape head iuput. Presumably t here is
not sufficient demand at present. F urthermore, it wo ulcl seem that differences in
heads might make it preferable to use a
tape playback preamp designed especially
for the machine.
(j) Not necessa ry if you can get a suitable preamp with t he facilities you require.
However, if you want to dub from a phonograph r ecor d, you might find a combination
preamp limiting.
(Ie) Could, but demand is probably not
sufficien t. Read (j) again.
(I) Two channels-from source to loudspea ker-will probably always be necessary
for stereo reproduction, an d naturally th ey
take up considerable room. Furthermore,
sin ce a stereo system uses almost everything
in duplicate, it can't help b u t be more
expensive t han a single system.
('In) No answer.
(n) One could make out a good case for
biamplification, though ther e are some disadvantages too. T heory is good, however .
(0)
W ould depend on crossover frequency, b ut t he ratio for b ass/t reble amplifiers would be somewhere around 2 or 3
t o 1; for "three-way systems, we would
suggest a bass-midr ange-treble rat io of
about 3: 2 : 2. In every case it would depend on efficiency of t he woofer_
(p) Four, two for each channel, assuming a two-way speaker system. For a t hreeway system, six amplifiers would be required-three for the left channel and
t hree for t he right. (ED.)
J£
JANUARY, -1958
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
I QUOTATION
from
rite Audio £ellflue Report *
"We 3renow using the AR-l Was our reference
s peak ~r;J.
.,
"As a r:esul t of extens ive li stening and labora:
tory t~sts,
we are of the
opinion
that the AR·IY'W
1
.
\
._:'
'i
is o ~e o'f the outstanding low-fr equency repro·
ducers availabl e to·day .•lt",;ra-y well be the most
outstanCl ing. ~At any rate~edo not srec ificall~
kno~ of any other s pe~ ker sy~tem which is trul Y,
co~ parabl'e t&it fr6m-the standpoint of extended
lof frequer.c res
e, flatne~s of response,
arid most of
Istortlon.
",(il.,.
*Au ' ho rized q uo' o' ion # 55 . For 'h e com·
pl e ,e techn icol ond sub je cf iv e report on
th e AR · l con sul, Vol. 1, No . 7 J of 'he
in d e pendent consum e r p e riodic a l THE
A UDIO LEAGUE REPORT, Mount Vernon,
N. Y.
Prices for Acoustic Research speaker systems.
complete with cabinets. (AR·l and AR·2) are
$89.00 to $194.00. Size is "bookshelf." litera·
ture is available from your local sound equipment dealer. or on request from :
ACOUSTIC
RESEARCH,
INC.
24 Thorndike St., Cambridge 41, Mass.
Circle 77A
SAVE Y2 - PAY PART·BY·PART - HAVE FUN
Assembling the SCHOBER
ELECTRONIC
ORGAN in KIT form
Now you can afford a ~ e al, full con ce rt organ , just
l ike tho se made by th e foremo st organ manufac·
tur ers Beca use ove r '/2 th e cost is saved when you
assembl e it yourse lf. And, it's REALL Y, EA SY, onl y
24 se parat e units, all With , print ed CIrCUits, and
detailed -to-th e-small est-s t ep in stru ction s. In additi on, you purchase eac h of the 24 kit s when you are
ready for it - and can afford It.
You ' ll get a real kick out of putting the, Schober
El ec troni c Organ ' to ge ther - and th en sitting down
and pulling th e stop s for Strin gs, Trump et s, Clarinet s, Di apaso ns, Flutes, et c. El ec tronic Percuss ion
optional; chimes available _
Compact CONSOLE
One of th e many exc lu sive f eature s of thi s exception al organ i s th e handsom e con so le , in a wid e
vari ety of fini shes. It i s equ ally at home In a trad l'
ti onal or mod ern se ttin g, and t akes littl e more space
Mi~i:ficent
ke"IJ~,aph
Mode1 3A/N
(por table)
with built in
speaker.
3%'-7% ips
$379.50
The world's linest
hi-Ii tape recorder
The ultimate in high-fidelity tape
recorders fo r home and professional use.
Dual-speed, dual-track FERROGRAPH
recorders are also available in custom
models (tape decks available,
from $195.) and with 7 %
and 15 ips speeds. Independent field
performance tests rate Frequency
Response at ± 2 db between 50 and
10000 cycles with wow and flutter
, less than 0.2% at 7 % ips.
Quality ~ tandards have restricted our
production and unforseen deman.d may delay
delivery, write TODAY for ltteratul·e.
ERCONA CORPORATION
(Electronic Division)
~
55 1 Fifth Ave., D ept. 28, New York 17, N. Y.
111 Canada: Astral Electric Co., Ltd.
44 Danforth R oad, T oronto 13
Circle 78A
ADVERTISING
BOUND VOLUMES
IN D EX
•
1957 Issues
Acoustic Research Inc. . .
5 1. 77
1
Acro Products Com pany ... . . . .
Allied Rad io Corporat ion .... . ........ 78
Altec La ns ing Co rporat ion ... . Cov. III , 7
Ampe rex Electron ic Corpo rat ion . .. . ... 54
Am pex Aud io, Inc ............. . . 37. 6 1
Apparatus Development Co rporatio n '" 78
Audio Devices. Inc . . .. .... . . . .. . .... 2
Aud io Fide lity, Inc . ......... ... . • . .. 49
Aud iogersh Corpo ra tion ....... . . . .... 6
Barker Sal es Company .. . .. ..........
Be ll Te lephone Labo rat ories . ... . . . ....
Bogen , David Co., Inc. '" .. . . ... Cov.
Bradford and Com pa ny .. . . . ... . .. . . .
Brand Products. Inc. . .. . . ..... .. .. . .
British Industries Corporat ion
facing p. 1, 3.
75
20
"
52
5
70
Classified ... . . . .... . .... . . . . . . .... 76
Co mponents Corporat ion .. . ... . . . .. '. 77
Order Now*
LIMITED NUMBeR
AVAILABLE
$10.00 EACH POSTPAID
. U. S. DELIVERY ONLY
Send Order
and Remittance Today
Dexter Che m ical Corp . . ...... . ... . ... 69
EICO . . ... .. ............... . ......
Electro- son ic Laborato ries Inc
El ectro-Vo ice Inc . . . . . . ' . . .. ..... ... C'o~:
Electro- Vo ice Sound Syst ems .... .. ... .
Ercona Co rporation '" ........ .. 76,
13
57
IV
77
78
Fe rrogra ph . ... . . . . ....... .. ... . .. . . 78
Fisher Rad io Co rpo ration . .•. . .... . .. 59
Fukuin EI,\ctric (Pioneer ) . .. .. ....... 56
Book Division
Radio Magazines, Inc_
P. O. Box 629
Mineola, N. Y.
"Immediate Delivery
Gene ra l Electric ..... ...... . ••..... 39
Grado Labo ratories ... . . . ... • •.. . .... 63
Harvey Rad io Co .• Inc. . . ... . ........ 65
Heath Com pan y . .. ........ . •. ... . 8 - I I
High Fide lity House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Ho llywood Electronics . . ...... . .... . .. 77
JansZen Speakers ( Neshaminy Electron ic
Corp.) ..... . .............. . . . .. 55
J ensen Manufactur ing Company ..... . . 29
Karlson Assoc iates, Inc. ...... . . ... . . 74
Kie rulff Sound Corporation ........ . .. 77
KLH Resea rch and Developme nt Corp.
47
Lansing, J ames B., Sound, Inc . . . . .... . 33
Leonard Rad io, Inc. . . . ........•..... 7 1
Ma ra ntz Compa ny .......... . ...... 67
Mcintosh Laborat ory. Inc . .. . ......... 35
No rth American Philips Co., Inc . . . . ... 66
Orradio Ind ustries, Inc . . . .. .. . ...... 45
H e re's y o ur comple te m oney-saving guide
t o Hi-Fi. Own a fine cus tom quality Hi-Fi'
mus ic s ys tem a t no m ore tha n the cos t of
an ordinary phonogra ph. See dozens of
ALLIED-Recommende d complete Hi-Fi syste m s, plus the world's la rgest selection of
compone nts (amp lifiers, tuners, cha ngers .
speakers , enclos ures a nd accesso ries).
Wa nt to build-your-own?- see our exclus ive Hi-Fi KNIGHT-KITS . For e ve ry t hing in
Hi-Fi-for euer yth ing in E lectronics. get
the FREE 1958 ALLI E D Cata log.
Audio Maga%ine
Pe ntron . . .. . .... . .......... .• ... . .
Pickering and Cc m;Jany ..... . . .. 17 ,
Pilot Rad io Corp. .... . . . ....... . ....
Professi cna l Directo ry ... . ....... .. ..
50
18
3I
77
R and A . . . .. .. . ... . ......... . .. . ..
Raco n Electr ic Co., Inc. .. . . . ...... . .
Reeves Soundc raft Corp. . . ...........
Rigo En ter~r i ses ... . ... . .... . . . ... .
Robins Ind ustries Corp. ... . ... . . •...
Rockbar Corp. .............. . . .. ....
76
60
73
4
76
43
Savage Tra nsforme r Lt d. ... . . . . . •...
Sch cber Organ Corporation . . .. . .. .. ..
Scott, H. H., Inc. ... . . .. ........... .
Shure Bros ., Inc . . . . . . . ........ .. ..
74
77
53
14
Tandberg ............ .. ..... .. ..... 41
Triad Tra nsform e r Co rp . .. . ... . . ... . .. 62
Tung-So l Electric , Inc . .. . . . ....... . . . 46
Univers ity Loudspeakers, Inc. ... . .. .. 15
do you know
THE
FACTS
OF
LIFE
about cancer?
It's time you did! Last year
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AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
•
JANUARY, T958
I~
l
~!ec7t;.~c&.®
DYNAMIC MICROPHONES
I
OUT-PERFORM
ALL OTHERS r .
P.A. and RECOKDI
te.
. new acoustic principle - VARIABLE D acclail,.ed the
. most significant microphone development in 2~ years!
".
Because of their durability and uniformity of response, dynamic microphones are almost universally used by recording studios. Electro-Voice
dynamic microphones are a triumph of electro-acoustics In the l recording,
P.A. and general purpose fields. One of the many reasons for this is the
Variable D principle which employs three . distinct sound entrances, with
acoustical filters; achieves flat response and excellent back cancellation
while eliminating boominess caused by close talking-and susceptibility to
shock. That's why those who want true fidelity, life-like recorded tape
choose Electro-Voice dynamic microphones.
Utilizing the revolutionary Variable D, this high-fidelity cardioid dynamic brings broadcast quality to tape
recording and the P .A. and general purpose field.
Proper placement of microphone stops unwanted
sounds, gives accurate, natural pick-up of voice and
music. Unprecedented ruggedness largely eliminates
possibility of accidental damage.
Indestructible Acoustalloy diaphragm and preci.s ion
manufacture assure long-life and dependable 'performance. Frequency response: 40 to 15,000 cps. Pressure
cast case. Chrome finish . 18' cable. Size: 7-3/16" long,
1 ¥a" diameter. Net weight: 1 lb. 10 oz. List price:
$85.00 (less stand).
@ E':'V MODEL 636
This model brings style and qUlility to the recording
and public address fields. Slim and trim-only I lls" in
diameter x 10 v,t" long - it greatly reduces recording
staging problems. Frequency response: 60 to 15\000
cps, essentially flat. Adjustable impedance. Gold or
satin chrome finish. On-off switch standard equipment.
Net weight: 15 oz. List price Chrome Finish: $72.50
(less stand).
€) E-V MODEL 623
Excellent for both speech and music, its small, slim
size makes it inconspicuous and easy to h andle. Swivel
mounting ' permits tilting microphone through a 57·
arc toward the sound source. Acoustalloy diaphragm.
Frequency response : 60 to 12,000 cps. Satin chrome
finish . Net weight: lib. List price: $57.00 (less stand).
e
E-V MODEL 630
This is similar to . Model 623 in performance characteristics but is traditionally styled. Frequency response: 60 to 11,000 cps. Satin chrome finish. Net
weight: 1 lb. List price : $52.50.
ELECTRO.VOICE, INC.
BUCHANAN, MICHIGAN
See your E·V hi-fi dealer today. WriL,~ for
"The ABC's of Microphones," Booklet ASl
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
41SA
Guaranteed
Frequency Range :
30-14,000 cps
Price : $63.00
412B
Guaranteed
Frequency Range :
40-15,000 cps
Price: $51.00
ALTEC
408A
Billex
Guaranteed
Frequency Range :
60-16,000 cps
Price : $29.00
Greatest A vailable Value in Hig h Fidelity Loudspeakers
Biflex loud speake r s ar e th e r es ult of th e pr ac tic a l
application of a new principle in loudspeaker design
developed by ALTEe. The speakers have an efficient
frequency range fa r greater th an a ny other typ e o f
single voice-coil speaker and equal to or exceeding the
majority of two or three-way units. This truly amazing
frequency range which is guaranteed when the speaker
is properly baffled , is the result of the ALTEe developed viscous damped concentric mid-cone compliance.
This unusu al compli ance serves as a mech anical
crossover, pro viding the single voice-coil with th e
entire cone area for the propagation of the lower frequencies and reducing the area and mass for the more
efficient reproduction of the higher ranges. Below 1,000
cycles per second the inherent stiffness of the Biflex
compliance is such that it effectively couples the inner
and outer sections of the cone into a single integral
unit. The stiffness of the compliance is balanced to the
mechanical resistance and inertia of the peripheral
cone section so that the mass of this outer section effectively prevents the transmission of sounds above 1,000
cycles beyond the mid-compliance and the cone uncouples at this point permitting the inner section to
operate independently for the reproduction of tones
above 1,000 cycles. P roper phasi ng between the two
sections is ass ured by the controlled mechanical resistance prov ided by the viscous dampin g applied to the
mid-co mpli ance.
In each of th e three Biflex speakers this outstandi ng
cone development is drive n by an edge-wound alum inum ribbon voice-coi l operating in an ext remely deep
gap of regular flu x de nsity provided by an Alnico V
mag netic circuit shaped fo r max imum efficienc y.
Biflex speake rs are perh aps the onl y true high fidelity
single voice-coil speakers made , and can be considered
to fill the complete speaker necessity fo r any system or
as the bass speaker component for more comprehens ive sys te ms intend ed to cov e r th e e ntir e a udio
spectrum . Ask to hear these outstanding speakers at
your dealer's.
Write for free catalogue
~
,
ALTEC LANSING CORPORATION, Dept. l A
1515 So. Manchester Avenue, Anaheim, Calif.
161 Sixth Avenue, New York 13, N. Y.
TUNERS, PREAMPLIFIERS, AMPLIFIERS, SPEAKERS, SPEAKER SYSTEMS, ENCLOSURES
12 .....
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