Willtek 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer

Willtek 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
User’s Guide
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
User’s guide
Version 4.50
boosting wireless efficiency
Notice
Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this document was
accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject to change
without notice, and Willtek reserves the right to provide an addendum to this
document with information not available at the time this document was created.
Copyright
© Copyright 2006 Willtek Communications GmbH. All rights reserved. Willtek and
its logo are trademarks of Willtek Communications. All other trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. No part of this
guide may be reproduced or transmitted electronically or otherwise without
written permission of the publisher.
Trademarks
Willtek is a trademark of Willtek Communications GmbH in Germany and other
countries.
Specifications, terms and conditions are subject to change without notice. All
trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective
companies.
Ordering information
This guide is issued as part of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. The order
number for a published guide is 290 204.
The following table shows the order numbers for the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer Product Packages. For details on the scope of delivery for the individual
editions please refer to your getting started manual.
Table 1
Editions of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Order number
Description
M 100 412
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Bench Edition
M 248 806
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Field Edition
M 248 801
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Tracking Edition
M 248 802
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
VSWR/DTF Edition
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Table of Contents
About This Guide
xv
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Related information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Technical assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Safety Notes
Chapter 1
xix
Safety warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Overview
About the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 4.50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 4.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 4.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New in version 3.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New in version 3.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features and capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintaining your unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
General Operation
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
9
9
Connecting the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC IN connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF IN connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF OUT connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
12
12
12
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Table of Contents
EXT. TRIG. connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Headphone jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERIAL (RS-232) connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAN connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powering up the unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery status LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace finder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Softkey descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Function keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cursor keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numeric keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enter keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Escape key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backspace key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Softkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering numbers and text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filling in a numerical input field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filling in a text input field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with the markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and moving a marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disabling a marker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling a delta marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disabling a delta marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a marker on a frequency relative to marker 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the center frequency with a marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the reference level with the marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning the marker frequency to FStep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using limit lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using simple limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching simple limits on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining upper and lower limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using limit templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting limit lines within the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating and deactivating limit templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting limit files in the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Counting limit failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling a beep upon failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing a failed measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the 9102 from a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Returning from remote control to local mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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13
13
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
16
16
19
19
19
19
20
20
21
22
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
32
32
32
33
33
33
34
34
34
34
34
35
35
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Table of Contents
Chapter 3
Checking general settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading the serial number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading the software version number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing the calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking installed options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a new option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the display brightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and disabling beeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a device name to the instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting date and time in the instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the baud rate on the RS-232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the IP address of the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the IP address of the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the IP port used by the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting user interface colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with stored settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing settings on the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using previously stored settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring factory settings for all modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
35
36
36
37
38
38
39
39
39
40
41
42
43
44
44
46
46
47
47
Spectrum Analysis Operation
49
50
50
51
51
51
52
52
52
53
53
54
54
54
55
55
55
55
56
56
57
57
58
59
60
60
62
62
63
64
64
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the frequency settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting start and stop frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting center frequency and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the main menu for different frequency parameters . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the complete frequency band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing measurements in the time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the step size for the frequency input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the level parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the reference level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the hardware attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the vertical scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the level unit for input and output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compensating gains and losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling external device compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning external device compensation off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting files for external device compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the input impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying special functions on the signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a limited number of measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demodulating an AM or FM signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the trace mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning the second trace on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtracting trace B from trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding trace B to trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the number of measurements for averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the detection method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4
Copying traces inside the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reusing a trace name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reloading a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting all traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading instrument settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special measurement functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Occupied bandwidth (OBW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching special measurement functions off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the channel width. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the channel spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading the channel power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the occupied bandwidth percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing general analyzer parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the spectrum analysis mode parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
66
66
67
67
67
67
68
68
68
69
69
70
70
71
71
71
71
72
72
Channel Power Operation
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
79
79
79
79
80
81
81
81
81
82
82
82
82
83
83
84
84
84
84
85
85
85
86
86
About the channel power mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Occupied bandwidth (OBW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating in channel power mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading the channel power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the occupied bandwidth percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with communication systems and frequency settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a communication system on the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up a new communication system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a communication system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting all communication systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undeleting default communication systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the 9100 Data Exchange Software with communication systems . .
Defining the frequency span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the sweep time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the level parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the reference level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the hardware attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the vertical scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the level unit for input and output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compensating gains and losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling external device compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning external device compensation off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting files for external device compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the input impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the trace mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Table of Contents
Chapter 5
Turning the second trace on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtracting trace B from trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding trace B to trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the number of measurements for averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the detection method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying traces inside the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reusing a trace name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reloading a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting all traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading instrument settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the channel power mode parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
88
89
89
89
90
91
91
92
92
92
92
93
93
Signal Generator Operation
95
96
96
96
96
96
97
98
98
99
99
99
About the signal generator mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching the signal generator on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the frequency mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the center frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting start and stop frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the step size for the frequency input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying special functions on the signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a limited number of measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6
Transmission Operation
About the transmission mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching the tracking generator on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normalizing the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the tracking output power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the frequency settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting start and stop frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting center frequency and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the main menu for different frequency parameters . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the complete frequency band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing measurements in the time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the step size for the frequency input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the level parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the reference level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the hardware attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the vertical scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compensating gains and losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling external device compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning external device compensation off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting files for external device compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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version 4.50
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102
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104
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108
108
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111
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Applying special functions on the signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a limited number of measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the trace mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning the second trace on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtracting trace B from trace A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding trace B to trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the number of measurements for averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the detection method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying traces inside the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reusing a trace name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reloading a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting all traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading instrument settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the transmission mode parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
The 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option
123
About the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Measurement modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Hardware requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Reflection Operation
About the reflection mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparative steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the frequency settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting start and stop frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting center frequency and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the main menu for different frequency parameters . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the complete frequency band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing measurements in the time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the step size for the frequency input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflection calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the units settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the level parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the reference level for return loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the vertical scale for return loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the maximum for VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the scale for VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the maximum for reflection factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the scale for reflection factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the maximum for reflection power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the scale for reflection power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
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111
113
113
114
115
115
116
116
116
117
117
118
119
119
119
119
120
120
121
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version 4.50
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131
132
132
133
133
134
134
134
135
136
137
137
137
137
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138
138
Table of Contents
Chapter 9
Performing a limited number of measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the trace mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning the second trace on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtracting trace B from trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding trace B to trace A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the number of measurements for averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying traces inside the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reusing a trace name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reloading a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting all traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and loading instrument settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the reflection mode parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
139
139
139
140
141
141
141
141
142
142
142
143
143
143
143
144
144
145
Distance to Fault Operation
147
148
149
149
149
150
150
150
150
150
151
151
152
153
153
153
154
154
154
154
155
About the distance to fault mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparative steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the cable length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the distance unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying cable settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using predefined parameter files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying parameters step by step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting center frequency and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distance to fault calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the level parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the reference level for dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the vertical scale for dB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the maximum for reflection factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the scale for reflection factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the distance to fault parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 10
Cable Loss Operation
About the cable loss mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparative steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the frequency settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting start and stop frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting center frequency and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the main menu for different frequency parameters . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the complete frequency band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing measurements in the time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Selecting the step size for the frequency input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable loss calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up the level parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the reference level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the vertical scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a limited number of measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the cable loss parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMF (EMI) Operation
161
162
163
163
163
163
164
164
Chapter 11
165
About the EMF (EMI) mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
EMF measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Radiation emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Measurement setup for emission measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Radiation immission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Measurement setup for immission measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Measurement methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Stirring method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Multipoint method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Measurement antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
9170 Biconical Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
9171 Isotropic Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Directional antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
EMF measurements with the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Connecting the antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Connecting the 9170 Biconical Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Connecting the 9171 Isotropic Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Connecting a directional antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Using a tripod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Selecting the measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Selecting the unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Selecting the frequency range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Setting start and stop frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Setting center frequency and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Changing the main menu for different frequency parameters . . . . . . . . . . 182
Viewing the complete frequency band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Performing measurements in the time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Selecting the step size for the frequency input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Specifying the display calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Specifying level settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Setting the reference level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Setting the hardware attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Performing automatic measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Activating the antenna factor settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Specifying cable factor settings for extension cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Auto measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Quick measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Performing manual measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Specifying antenna factor settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Specifying cable factor settings for extension cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Performing the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
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Setting up the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the EMF (EMI) mode parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Troubleshooting
193
Handling system errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Updating the Instrument Software
Entering the Setup Application Software menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a serial update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a LAN update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Host IP address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 14
191
191
191
192
195
196
196
197
199
200
9100 Data Exchange Software
201
About the 9100 Data Exchange Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Installation requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Understanding the license conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Installing the software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Starting the software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Connecting the PC to the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Using a predefined configuration for the connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Serial interface connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
LAN (TCP/IP) connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Saving the configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Loading measurement results from the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Viewing the actual trace on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Toggling the view mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Showing and hiding parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Showing and hiding markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Continually loading live traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Transferring a saved trace to the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Saving, loading and printing results on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Storing results on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Loading a trace file on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Printing measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Saving results to a graphics file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Saving results to a text file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Creating screen shots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Working with measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Adding markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Change the reference level and scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Using a grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Entering text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Defining and loading limit templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Defining limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Changing limit lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Displaying an example trace in the Limits Editing menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
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Storing a template on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading a template from the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transferring a template to the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining and loading external coupling parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the external coupling factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading an external coupling loss file to the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing communication systems for channel power measurements . . . . . .
Editing communication system parameters on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing cable types for distance-to-fault measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uploading predefined cable types to the instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining cable types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transferring cable types from the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing antenna factors for EMF measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining an antenna factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading antenna factor files to the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing cable factors for EMF measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining a cable factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading cable factor files to the 9102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exchanging a settings file between 9102 and PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing 9102 settings on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing files on the PC and on the 9102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File types and directory structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying configuration files from the 9102 to the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
216
216
218
218
219
219
219
220
221
221
222
222
223
223
224
224
225
225
225
225
226
226
227
228
228
SCPI Command Reference
229
230
230
232
233
236
242
263
265
276
281
285
294
295
298
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands affecting the event status register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands affecting the service register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sense commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMemory commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
fDisplay commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Format commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SCPI errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 16
Programming Examples
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over serial interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over LAN interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Center frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolution bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweep time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Max Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Next Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
302
302
303
303
303
304
304
304
304
305
305
305
306
306
306
307
307
307
307
308
308
308
308
308
309
310
310
311
Index of SCPI Commands
313
Predefined settings
Predefined measurement settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predefined channel power communication systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preinstalled systems on the 9102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predefined systems in the 9100 Data Exchange Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predefined cable types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
319
320
321
321
322
324
Menu Structure
329
Mode function key menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Application menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Appendix D
Warranty and Repair
335
Warranty information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Equipment return instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
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Table of Contents
Appendix E
Software License
339
End-user license agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Index
341
Publication History
353
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9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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About This Guide
– “Purpose and scope” on page xvi
– “Assumptions” on page xvi
– “Related information” on page xvi
– “Technical assistance” on page xvi
– “Conventions” on page xvii
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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About This Guide
Purpose and scope
Purpose and scope
The purpose of this guide is to help you successfully use the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer features and capabilities. This guide includes task-based instructions that describe how to install, configure, use, and troubleshoot the 9102
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. Additionally, this guide provides a description of
Willtek’s warranty, services, license, and repair information as well as the software license agreement.
Assumptions
This guide is intended for novice and intermediate users who want to use the
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer effectively and efficiently. We are assuming
that you are familiar with basic telecommunication concepts and terminology.
Related information
Use this guide in conjunction with the following information:
Willtek 9100 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer Series: getting started manual, order
number M 295 204
Willtek 9100 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer Series: applications guide, M 290 504
Willtek also offers a glossary on “Spectrum and network analysis” terms. The
order number is SPEC/CT812/0105/EN.
Technical assistance
If you need assistance or have questions related to the use of this product, call
one of Willtek’s technical assistance centers. You can also contact Willtek by
e-mail at [email protected]
Table 1
xvi
Technical assistance centers
Region
Phone number
Fax number
Europe, Middle East,
Asia, Africa
+49 (0) 89 996 41 386
+49 (0) 89 996 41 440
Americas
+1 973 386 9696
+1 973 386 9191
China
+86 21 5836 6669
+86 21 5835 5238
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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About This Guide
Conventions
Conventions
This guide uses naming conventions and symbols, as described in the following
tables.
Table 2
Typographical conventions
Description
Example
User interface actions appear in this
typeface.
On the Status bar, click Start.
Buttons or switches that you press
on a unit appear in this TYPEFACE.
Press the ON switch.
Code and output messages appear
in this typeface.
All results okay
Text you must type exactly as
shown appears in this typeface.
Type: a:\set.exe in the dialog
box.
Variables appear in this <typeface>.
Type the new <hostname>.
Book references appear in this typeface.
Refer to Newton’s Telecom Dictionary
A vertical bar | means “or”: only one
option can appear in a single command.
platform [a|b|e]
Square brackets [ ] indicate an
optional argument.
login [platform name]
Slanted brackets < > group required
arguments.
<password>
Table 3
Keyboard and menu conventions
Description
Example
A plus sign + indicates simultaneous
keystrokes.
Press Ctrl+s
A comma indicates consecutive keystrokes.
Press Alt+f,s
A slanted bracket indicates choosing a submenu from menu.
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
On the menu bar, click
Start > Program Files.
version 4.50
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About This Guide
Conventions
Table 4
Symbol conventions
This symbol represents a general hazard.
This symbol represents a risk of electrical shock.
NOTE
This symbol represents a note indicating related information or tip.
xviii
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Safety Notes
This chapter provides the safety notes for the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
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Safety Notes
Safety warnings
Safety warnings
This product is designed for indoor use. As exposure to water can damage the
instrument it has to be protected against moisture when used outdoors.
WARNING
This is a safety class A equipment in accordance with EN 61326. It may produce radio interference affecting household equipment; the user may be
forced to execute appropriate measures against radiation.
WARNING
Only use a 50 Ω N-type connector to connect to the RF IN port of the 9102.
Use of any other connector may result in damage of the instrument.
WARNING
Do not cover the ventilation slits (at the bottom left-hand corner and on the
top). Covering them may result in serious damage and fire.
WARNING
The maximum input power level at the RF IN connector is 30 dBm (1 W).
Higher input levels may result in serious damage of the instrument.
WARNING
Operate the instrument within the temperature range from 5°C (40°F) to
45°C (110°F) only. Operation outside this range will lead to invalid results.
Safety advice for the battery
Do not crush. Do not heat or incinerate. Do not short-circuit. Do not dismantle. Do not immerse in any liquid, it may vent or rupture! Do not charge below
0°C (32°F) nor above 45°C (110°F).
Battery usage
The battery is for use with the 9102 only. Willtek does not accept any liability
for damage of the battery or other equipment if the battery is used with other
electric or electronic equipment.
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9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 1
Overview
1
This chapter provides a general description of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
– “About the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer” on page 2
– “What’s new” on page 2
– “Features and capabilities” on page 4
– “Options and accessories” on page 4
– “Physical description” on page 9
– “Maintaining your unit” on page 9
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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1
Chapter 1 Overview
About the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
About the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
The 9102 is a lightweight, full-featured spectrum analyzer for many applications:
– Installation troubleshooting, repair and maintenance.
– Acceptance and installation troubleshooting of antenna and cable
installations.
– Assessment and verification of electromagnetic radiation to verify against
EMI.
– Production test and alignment of the output of RF modules.
– Field measurements and verification of base station emissions.
– Used to detect and locate faulty mobile phone parts and components.
Typical measurements with the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer include transmitter testing, alignment of modulators and measuring switch breakthrough.
Additional options such as a tracking generator option, the 9160 VSWR/DTF
Bridge and the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option expand the
capabilities of the 9102 towards a scalar network analyzer. The analyzer is fully
controllable via front panel or by remote control from a PC.
For base station installation or maintenance engineers the 9102 offers the full
scope of common performance measurements of the BTS antenna systems:
Return Loss (Reflection), Tower-Mounted Amplifier (Transmission) and Distance
to Fault measurement with a standard resolution of 500 points (min. 0.05 m) in
one lightweight device.
Measurement results and instrument settings can easily be transferred to a PC
for presentation or post-processing. This rugged instrument is suitable for
stationary and mobile usage and meets many application needs.
What’s new
Version 4.50
In DTF mode, the calibration cable dielectric and length can be entered.
Minor corrections.
Version 4.11
Improvements:
– Trace average function corrected.
– Too low sweep time at 200 kHz RBW now gets an UNCAL warning.
Version 4.10
2
New features:
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 1 Overview
What’s new
– Supports 100 Hz and 300 Hz RBW filters, 10 kHz span and 250 s sweep time
in 9101B and 9102B models. Those features are not available for older
instruments.
Improvements:
– SCPI remote control bugfix for marker value.
Version 4.01
New features:
– New EMF (EMI) Measurement Option.
For an extensive description of the new EMF (EMI) measurement mode
available with this option refer to Chapter 11 “EMF (EMI) Operation”.
– New features within the 9100 Data Exchange Software supporting the new
EMF (EMI) Measurement Option.
For further details refer to Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”.
– New trace finder functionality.
For further details refer to “Trace finder” on page 19 in
Chapter 1 “Overview”.
New in version 3.10
New features:
– New VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option including the measurement
modes reflection, distance to fault and cable loss
– Marker functionality: six markers for all measurement modes, markers can
be set on trace A and trace B.
– New look and feel of the parameter windows
– Direct printing
– New Printer Config menu
– RMS Option with RMS detector
– Absolute and relative display within Transmission mode
– Trace offset by division within Transmission mode
– Trace Memory menu: functions Store Trace and Recall Trace act on both
traces.
– Channel Power mode: Measure menu moved to main menu.
– Specific backlight display settings for operation on battery to save energy.
Improvements:
– Full support of external device in the Mode window
– Improved frequency counter
– Improved Level StepDown functionality of MinValue
– Improved Color Scheme menu: eight input fields available for all screen
components
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Chapter 1 Overview
Features and capabilities
New in version 3.01
New feature:
New function in the Trace Function menu: Add A + B → A. For a description of
these functions refer to the “Setting up the trace” sections of in
Chapter 3 “Spectrum Analysis Operation” and Chapter 4 “Channel Power Operation”.
Improvement:
Measure menu improved. Access to Measure menu from Spectrum Analysis main
menu.
Features and capabilities
– VSWR and DTF measurements supporting antenna installation and verification (option)
– Tracking generator option enables cable measurements in the field
– Radiation measurements of base stations and broadcast stations (EMF
option)
– Scalar network analysis (amplifier gain over frequency or filter characteristics) and antenna measurements
– Prequalification for EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) tests
– Displayed average noise level at –117 dBm
– Dynamic range of 70 dB
Options and accessories
The following options and acessories are available:
Table 5
Order number
Description
M 897 261
9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option
M 897 274
9131 EMF Measurement Option
M 897 275
9132 RMS Detector Option
M 248 966
9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge
M 248 804
9102 Tracking Generator Upgrade
Table 6
4
Options for the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Accessories for the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Order number
Description
M 205 012
Battery module (rechargeable, 7.2 Ah)
M 241 015
9100 outdoor backpack
M 241 013
9100 soft carrying bag
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 1 Overview
Options and accessories
Table 6
Accessories for the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Order number
Description
M 204 097
1500 battery charger
M 248 328
9100 power supply
M 860 389
9100 12 V car adapter
M 867 037
9100 safety lock
M 897 137
9100 Data Exchange Software
M 860 388
9100 serial communication cable
M 248 640
1205 RF Probe 20 dB (includes N to BNC adapter)
frequency range 100 kHz to 4 GHz
RF attenuation (nominal at 50 Ω) 20 dB
including adapter N (male), BNC (female)
M 248 971
1207 Inductive Probe
frequency range 4 MHz to 6 GHz
30 dB amplifier
M 860 368
9170 Biconical Antenna
M 248 809
9171 Isotropic Antenna
M 860 158
9172 Directional Antenna, 80 to 1000 MHz
M 860 159
9172 Directional Antenna, 300 to 3000 MHz
M 860 264
Antenna, 400 MHz band (TNC)
M 860 261
Antenna, 900 MHz band (TNC)
M 860 262
Antenna, 1800 MHz band (TNC)
M 860 260
Antenna, 1880 MHz band (BNC)
M 860 146
Antenna, 2400 MHz band (TNC)
M 886 098
Adapter N (male) to TNC (female)
M 886 097
Adapter N (male) to BNC (female)
M 886 205
Matching pad N 50 Ω to N 75 Ω
M 886 204
Matching pad N 50 Ω to F 75 Ω
M 874 061
Attenuator 18 GHz, 6 dB
M 860 548
Calibration set Open/Short/Load,
type DIN 7/16 inch male
M 860 549
Calibration set Open/Short/Load,
type N male
M 860 396
Composite cable 10 m for 9171
M 860 256
Antenna tripod
M 860 395
Bag for antenna tripod
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Chapter 1 Overview
Options and accessories
9100 battery module
1500 battery charger
9100 soft carrying bag
9100 outdoor backpack
9100 12 V car adapter
9100 safety lock
6
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 1 Overview
Options and accessories
9100 serial communication cable
1205 RF Probe 20 dB
1207 Inductive Probe
9170 Biconical Antenna
9171 Isotropic Antenna
9172 and 9173 Directional
Antennas
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Chapter 1 Overview
Options and accessories
Antenna 900 MHz band (TNC)
Antenna 1800 MHz band (TNC)
Antenna 1880 MHz band (BNC)
Antenna 2400 MHz band (TNC)
Adapter N - TNC
Adapter N - BNC
Matching pad N 50 Ohm to
N 75 Ohm
Matching pad N 50 Ohm to
F75 Ohm
Attenuator 18 GHz, 6 dB
Calibration Set Open/Short/Load,
type DIN 7/16 inch male
Calibration Set Open/Short/Load,
type N male
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9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 1 Overview
Physical description
Physical description
The 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer is delivered with the 9100 Data Exchange
Software which can also be ordered separately.
The user-accessible parts of the 9102 can be broken down into several sections:
– Front panel with large screen, softkeys, numeric, cursor and function keys.
– Connectors accessible from the top and the left-hand side of the 9102.
– On/off switch, power supply connector and battery shelf.
– Handle which can be turned in steps to serve as a stand, allowing the 9102
to be operated at an angle.
Maintaining your unit
Willtek seeks to permanently improve its products. Software updates are available on the Internet at www.willtek.com. For a detailed description of updating
the Application Software please refer to Chapter 13 “Updating the Instrument
Software”.
The 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer is a measurement device. As with all such
instruments, the 9102 should be calibrated on a regular basis to ensure accuracy.
Willtek recommends calibration of the 9102 at yearly intervals.
Please take also advantage of our Frequently Asked Questions and our electronic
newsletter, both available on the Internet.
Further questions regarding the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer can be
directed to [email protected]
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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9
Chapter 1 Overview
Maintaining your unit
10
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Chapter 2
General Operation
2
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are independent of the
selected mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “Connecting the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer” on page 12
– “Powering up the unit” on page 14
– “Starting measurements” on page 15
– “Using the front panel” on page 15
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 26
– “Working with the markers” on page 28
– “Using limit lines” on page 31
– “Printing” on page 35
– “Controlling the 9102 from a PC” on page 35
– “Returning from remote control to local mode” on page 35
– “Checking general settings” on page 35
– “Working with stored settings” on page 46
– “Restoring factory settings for all modes” on page 47
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 2 General Operation
Connecting the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Connecting the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
RF in
Multi Port
Figure 1
DC
IN
connector
Ext. Trigger
IN
connector
DC in
Headphone jack
9102 connectors on the top of the instrument
The 9102 can be operated either from the internal battery or from an external DC
source such as the power supply which is delivered with the 9102. In addition,
the battery is loaded when an external DC source is connected. See the specifications in your getting started manual for details of the required DC source. Here
you will also find detailed information on installing and maintaining the battery.
Apply the source to the DC
RF
RF out
IN
connector at the top of the 9102.
RF in is a 50 Ω N-type connector (female).
If you have a 50 Ω shielded RF cable with an N-type connector (male) to connect
to the device under test, simply screw the connector tightly to the 9102.
If you have a 50 Ω shielded RF cable with a BNC connector (male), use an N to
BNC adapter to connect the cable to the 9102. Willtek offers an appropriate
adapter; see section “Options and accessories” on page 4.
WARNING
The maximum allowable input power level at the RF IN connector is 30 dBm
(1 W). Higher levels at this port can damage the instrument!
CAUTION
Only use a 50 Ω N-type connector to connect to the RF IN port of the 9102.
Use of any other connector may result in damage of the instrument.
Take care of proper termination
Use of cables and sources with an impedance other than 50 Ω results in inaccurate measurements.
12
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 2 General Operation
Connecting the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
If you want to test a device with an impedance of 75 Ω, refer to section
“Changing the input impedance” on page 56 to adapt the 9102 settings.
RF
OUT
connector
RF
OUT
is a 50 Ω N-type connector (male).
The link between the device under test and the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer may be attenuated, for example because the link is an antenna or
includes a power splitter, or a long cable. The effect of the attenuation on the
measurement results can be compensated by entering the attenuation value in
the 9102, see section “Compensating gains and losses” on page 55.
EXT. TRIG. connector
Mainly used in spectrum analysis measurements. Using this connector the unit
can be provided with an external trigger signal. Here, an external device that
triggers the measurement by sending an impulse can be connected.
WARNING
The EXT. TRIG. input is designed for TTL input levels only. Higher levels at
this port can damage the instrument!
Multi Port
In order to provide for external adapters, amplifiers and accessories the instrument offers a multifunction connector. The Multi Port enables the instrument to
trigger a measurement onto an external signal. Furthermore it can be used to
read data stored in external devices (e.g. calibration data).
Headphone jack
In addition to the build-in loudspeaker the instrument also offers a standard
3.5 mm headphone jack. When you connect the headphones to the instrument
the loudspeaker will be disabled automatically.
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13
Chapter 2 General Operation
Powering up the unit
LAN
Serial
Figure 2
SERIAL (RS-232)
connector
9102 connectors on the left-hand side of the instrument
This 9-pin sub-D connector on the left-hand side of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer can be used to control the instrument remotely via serial interface
(RS-232). The command set and responses are explained in section “SCPI
Command Reference” on page 229.
Use a null modem (PC to PC) cable to connect the 9102 to a controlling PC.
LAN connector
The 9102 can also be controlled via local area network (LAN) using a TCP/IP
connection. The LAN connector is located on the left side of the instrument. The
IP address can be set up in the System Configuration menu or via RS-232. The
9102 can be operated in networks operating at 100 Mbps, but is capable of
transmitting and receiving at 10 Mbps only.
The command set to control the 9102 and the responses from the 9102 are
explained in section “SCPI Command Reference” on page 229.
Connect the 9102 to the LAN with a standard LAN cable with RJ-45 connectors.
Powering up the unit
The 9102 is switched on and off using the power switch located at the top of the
instrument. It takes about 55 seconds for the 9102 to load and start its software.
14
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Chapter 2 General Operation
Starting measurements
Starting measurements
The 9102 starts measuring and displaying results automatically after powering
the instrument. It starts in the measurement mode last active.
Using the front panel
Overview
The front panel is divided into different sections as follows:
cursor keys
display
horizontal (menu) softkeys
Figure 3
Battery status LED
vertical (function) softkeys
function keys
numeric keys
enter keys
Front panel elements
This LED has different states:
– The LED lights green when the 9102 is being operated from its battery and
no external power is supplied.
– The LED lights yellow when the battery is connected to an external power
supply and being loaded.
– The LED is off when the loading procedure is completed, the battery is fully
loaded or when there is no battery in the 9100’s battery compartment.
– When the LED is flashing yellow quickly and permanently, there is a problem
with the battery or the charger. Please report this problem to a Willtek
service center.
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Chapter 2 General Operation
Using the front panel
NOTE
Signal level measurement results may be impaired when the battery is low,
that means when the battery has less than 10% of its nominal capacity. See
Table 7 on page 17 for an indication when the battery is low. For a detailed
description on installing and charging the battery please refer to your getting
started manual.
Display
The 6.5 inch display is divided into the following sections (see Figure 4):
– Results area
– Marker field
– Input field
– Softkey descriptions
Figure 4
Results area
Display sections
Results area (graph)
The results area utilizes most of the screen and provides you with the measurement results. A grid of ten vertical and eight horizontal rows eases readability of
results from the axes. There may be one or two graphs, depending on the number
of traces selected.
16
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Chapter 2 General Operation
Using the front panel
Horizontal axis
The horizontal axis is the frequency axis for the spectral components. The zero
span mode is an exception, as the horizontal axis is the time axis in this case.
Another exception is the Distance to Fault mode, as in this mode this axis
displays the distance in metres or feet depending on the unit you select. The
values of the frequencies at both ends of the scale are indicated (start and stop
frequencies).
Vertical axis
The vertical axis reflects the RF power. Depending on your choice of the level
unit, the RF power is indicated in dBm, dBV, dBmV, or dBμV. The top end of the
power scale is called the reference level.
Symbols (icons)
Apart from the results graph itself, several icons are available to indicate the
status of the 9102 as follows:
Table 7
Symbol
Icons on the display
Meaning
The 9102 is taking its operating current from the battery. The
colored area marks how much of the capacity is still available.
For 30% or more, the area is indicated in yellow; from 10% to
30%, the area is shown in red, and in white for less than 10%.
The 9102 sounds a double beep when the capacity goes below
30% of its nominal value and two double beeps below 10%.
The 9102 is connected to an external DC supply.
The 9102 cannot determine the battery charge although the
battery can still be used and recharged.
Please contact Willtek service to have your battery checked.
The 9102 cannot determine the battery charge; typically
appears during the last third of operating time of battery
operation. Please contact Willtek service to have your battery
checked.
The battery is not installed and the 9102 is operated from the
external power supply.
The 9102 is connected to a local area network (LAN).
A video trigger has been set at the power level indicated. The
icon also displays the slope of the trigger.
Demodulation is switched on so that the 9102 emits the
demodulated signal at the loudspeaker.
Other screen elements
The bar to the left of the vertical axis carries some or all of the elements shown
below:
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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17
Chapter 2 General Operation
Using the front panel
Table 8
18
Texts on the left-hand side
Text
Meaning
Ref. Level
Indicates the top-most level on the vertical (power) axis. Can
be modified with the REF function key.
dBm
dBμV
dBmV
dBV
V
mV
μV
mW
μW
dBμV/m
dBmV/m
dBV/m
V/m
mW/m2
Shows the unit in which power, is displayed. Can be changed
in the Level > Units menu. Units can be switched between
logarithmic and linear by pressing the Units softkey.
Logarithmic units are: dBm, dBμV, dBmV, dBV, dBμV/m,
dBmV/m, dBVm.
Linear units are: V, mV, μV, mW μW, V/m, mW/m2.
HOLD
Indicates when measurements have been halted with a press
of the HOLD/RUN function key.
Count
The number following shows the progress of the measurements, that means it indicates how many measurements with
the present configuration have already been taken. The
counter continues while the trace hold mode is enabled. It is
reset whenever a parameter affecting the measurements is
changed, that means frequencies, filters or attenuation.
Ext. Dev.
Indicates that the external device compensation is turned on,
that means the attenuation of any coupling device is taken
into account. The external device compensation can be set up
as shown in section “Compensating gains and losses” on
page 55.
UNCAL
When displayed, the filter and sweep time setting do not permit proper measurements.
Pos./Neg.
Pos. Peak
Neg. Peak
Sample
RMS
Shows the current detector setting. The detector can be
changed as explained in section “Selecting the detection
method” on page 64. The RMS detector is available if the
9132 RMS Detector Option is installed and activated on your
9102.
A/B (ACT)
A/B (HLD)
A/B (MAX)
A/B (MIN)
A/B (AVG)
Shows the currently selected trace mode for the respective
trace. The background color of the text coincides with the
color of the graph. For more information on trace modes, see
section “Selecting the trace mode” on page 60.
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Trace finder
If more than 90 percent of a results trace is not shown onscreen because it is
above or below screen boundaries, a trace finder icon consisting of an up or
down arrow and the word “Trace“ shows where the trace can be found. The trace
finder icon is positioned in the middle of the results display. By modifying the
reference level accordingly you can bring the trace back into view.
Marker field
If any of the markers is active, the marker field is displayed, showing the
measurement values at the marker positions. Up to four markers are displayed
with their level and frequency values. If you use four markers and activate a fifth
(up to six markers are available) one marker value will be hidden and the new
one will be displayed instead. By pressing the relevant marker softkey you can
display the hidden marker value again. A marker can be switched from absolute
to relative values. The values are then shown relative to those of marker 1 (e.g.
A1).
Input field
The input field allows you to enter a number or a text, depending on the selected
function. The meaning of the input value is expressed by the header line. Some
input fields have an additional explanation of the step size beneath. The step size
applies when the value is changed using the up/down cursor keys instead of the
numeric keys.
Softkey descriptions
The softkey descriptions indicate the assignment of a function to a softkey. They
are aligned to the lower side with the horizontal softkeys and to the right-hand
side with the vertical softkeys. See “Softkeys” on page 23 for more information.
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Using the front panel
Keypad
The front panel carries a large number of keys, giving you direct access to functions and menus and allowing you to enter test parameters such as the center
frequency. The keypad is divided into the following sections:
Function keys
The function keys have specific functions which do not change. Therefore they
are sometimes also referred to as “hardkeys“ in contrast to the softkeys, whose
functions change with the description given on the screen.
The function keys are:
Table 9
20
Function keys
Key
Function
Mode
Measurement mode selection. This function key allows
you to select between different predefined types of
measurements for specific applications. It also provides
access to system settings.
Preset
Presets all the entry fields of the selected mode to the
factory default settings. It does not affect the settings
of other modes.
To prevent accidental resets, the preset function does
not execute after a short keypress. Press this function
key for at least half a second to return to the defaults. In
addition to this function key the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer offers the Factory Settings function for
resetting all modes. See “Restoring factory settings for
all modes” on page 47 for more information.
Hold/Run
Stops and starts sweeps.
Param
This function key calls up the parameter pages summarizing the current settings. Press Exit to close the
parameter window.
Note that the parameter windows differ between the
measurement modes.
Parameters that lead to an UNCAL warning are marked
with a diamond.
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Table 9
Function keys
Key
Function
Rcl/Store
Provides access to the Memory menus.
Clr Trc
This function key resets previous results (including averages), the sweep counter and the failure counter, and
starts a new sweep.
Cent
Direct access to the center frequency input field within
the Frequency menu.
Span
Direct access to the frequency span input field within
the Frequency menu.
Ref
Direct access to the reference level input field.
Mkr
Access to the Marker menu.
Cursor keys
In an input field, the up and down cursor keys are used to increase or decrease
the current value. The left and right cursor keys move the cursor position by one
digit.
If a marker field is active, the up and down cursors move the marker by half a
division up or down, respectively. The left and right cursor keys move the marker
pixelwise.
Immediate reaction
Any change of an input parameter with the cursor keys has immediate effect.
With the straight feedback on the screen, you can easily adjust parameters to
the optimum values with a trial-and-error approach.
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Numeric keys
The numeric keys allow you to enter a value in a way similar to a pocket calculator. On some input fields, you can enter text instead, as on a mobile phone.
Invalid entries
If you enter an invalid number or string, the 9102 beeps and corrects the entry
to the closest valid value.
The ± key offers an additional feature. After connecting a PCL printer to the 9102
you can print screens directly by pressing this key. For details on configuring
printers and printing refer to “Configuring a printer” on page 44 and “Printing”
on page 35.
Enter keys
Any input of numerical or alphanumerical entries must be closed or can be
affected by one of the enter keys. The meaning of the individual enter keys is as
follows:
Table 10 Enter keys
Escape key
22
Key
Function
GHz/dBm
In frequency input fields, closes the entry by applying
the unit GHz (gigahertz). In power input fields, assigns
the unit dBm to the entered value.
MHz/dB/μs
In frequency input fields, closes the entry by applying
the unit MHz (megahertz). In power input fields, assigns
the unit dB to the entered value. In time parameter
input fields, assigns the unit μs to the value.
kHz/dBμV/ms
In frequency input fields, closes the entry by applying
the unit kHz (kilohertz). In power input fields, assigns
the unit dBμV to the entered value. In time parameter
input fields, assigns the unit ms to the value.
Enter
Confirms an entry without a unit and with the units
hertz and seconds.
If pressed while an input field is open, the ESCAPE key closes
this input field without changing the previous value.
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Backspace key
Deletes the last entered alphanumerical (backspace).
When an input field is entered, all digits are marked. By pressing
the backspace key, the entire entry is deleted.
Softkeys
The functions of the softkeys change with the description on the screen given
next to the respective key.
Horizontal (menu) softkeys
The horizontal softkeys provide access to the various menus. The name of the
active menu is highlighted; the functions of a menu are offered on the vertical
softkeys. Submenus are indicated with three dots (“...”); the menu softkey
without the dots leads you one level up in the menu hierarchy.
Vertical (function) softkeys
The vertical softkeys allow you to change the settings of the 9102.
The vertical softkeys in the 9102 carry out one of the following functions:
– Normal settings – by pushing the softkey, an entry field appears on the top
of the display, allowing you to enter numerical or alphanumerical data. The
data become valid after pushing one of the enter keys. Some of the softkeys
for normal settings also describe the currently set value.
Example: The Channel softkey in channel power mode.
– Combined entry and selection – this type of softkey allows you to change a
value and also to change a related setting, for example changing between
automatic and manual parameter setting. The first push on the softkey
opens the entry field like the normal settings softkey. Pushing it several
times results in the 9102 toggling between the available options. The option
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Using the front panel
currently selected is indicated in blue while the inactive options are shown
in white.
Example: The RBW softkey.
– Execution – by pushing the softkey, the function described is performed. An
execution softkey is indicated by an exclamation mark.
Example: Max Peak softkey in the Marker menu.
– Selection – several selection softkeys allow you to choose between different
options. The selection softkeys for one function are indicated by a vertical
bar connecting the softkeys, and a text describing the function. The option
currently active is highlighted, i.e. indicated by inverted colors.
Example: The TrigMode softkeys in the Sweep menu.
Entering numbers and text
Whenever an input field is open, it expects you to enter either numbers or characters (where characters may also include numerical digits). You will notice
immediately what the 9102 expects as the numeric keys have the appropriate
function.
Filling in a numerical input
field
When the 9102 software expects a numerical entry, pressing a numeric key
results in the appropriate digit to appear in the input field. The 9102 may or may
not allow you to enter a decimal number or a signed value, so the keys for the
decimal point and for changing the sign of the number are either active or not.
When all digits, the sign and the decimal point have been entered as required,
one of the enter keys must be pressed. Numbers often carry a unit with them;
the enter keys provide the appropriate units.
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Acoustical reaction on inputs
After entering a new parameter value, one of two acoustical alarms may appear:
– Short beep (hint): The parameter is out of limits, or the input affects an
associated parameter; the respective parameter has been corrected by the
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
Example 1: An invalid stop frequency of 5 GHz has been entered, resulting in
a short beep and the maximum stop frequency of 4 GHz being set.
Example 2: The start frequency is set to 2 GHz, the stop frequency is set to
4 GHz and the user enters a new span of 3 GHz. This results in the start
frequency being changed to 1 GHz and a short beep to sound.
– Long beep (error): A parameter is set to an invalid value and the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer resumes the old value, sounding an error beep.
Example: After entering a new (invalid) attenuation value of 60 dB, the 9102
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer sounds a long beep and sets the attenuation
back to the previous value.
Filling in a text input field
Some input fields can be filled with alphanumerical text instead. The numeric
keys can then be used to enter characters. The keys may have several letters or
numbers assigned. The assignment of the keys in this case is as follows:
Table 11 Keys for alphanumerical text entry
Key
Assignment
0
0
1
1
2
A, B, C, 2
3
D, E, F, 3
4
G, H, I, 4
5
J, K, L, 5
6
M, N, O, 6
7
P, Q, R, S, 7
8
T, U, V, 8
9
W, X, Y, Z, 9
.
not assigned
±
not assigned
To enter a character, push the key rapidly and repeatedly until the desired character appears in the input field.
Changing the input
Once an input field is open, you can move the cursor with the LEFT/RIGHT
cursor keys to place it within the number or text. Additional digits or characters
can be entered, or you can delete the digit or character in front of the cursor
using the BACKSPACE key.
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Selecting the measurement mode
Selecting the measurement mode
The 9102 provides different measurement modes:
– The spectrum analysis mode is most versatile. It provides most of the options
included in all other modes. For more information on this mode, refer to
page 49.
– The channel power mode allows you to measure the radiated power within a
certain frequency band. Read more about the channel power mode on
page 73.
– The transmission mode, which is available in the (VSWR/)Tracking ...
submenu accessible from the Mode menu, allows you to determine the
frequency characteristics of active and passive devices. Read more about
this mode on page 101.
– The signal generator mode, which is also available in the (VSWR/)Tracking ...
submenu, can be used to generate a signal for stimulating an electronic
circuit. Read more about this mode on page 95.
If the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and activated
on your 9102, three additional modes are available in the VSWR/Tracking ...
submenu. If the option is not installed, this submenu has the menu name
Tracking ... and the additional modes are not available. For details on the 9130
VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option please refer to Chapter 7: “The 9130
VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option”. For details on checking installed
options and installing new ones refer to “Checking installed options” on page 37
and “Installing a new option” on page 38.
All three modes can be selected in the VSWR/Tracking ... submenu accessible
from the Mode menu:
– The reflection mode provides high-precision measurements of the reflection
of antenna systems via vector measurements on the reflected wave. Read
more about this mode on page 129.
– The distance to fault mode offers a detailed analysis of antenna feeder
cables in order to identify causes for faults like weak connectors, cable kinks
etc. Read more about this mode on page 147.
– The cable loss mode allows you to determine the average cable loss. Read
more about this mode on page 157.
If the 9131 EMF Measurement Option is installed and activated on your 9102, an
additional measurement mode is available for selection:
The EMF (EMI) mode allows you to measure radiation from transmitters, e.g. base
stations and broadcast stations, easily and efficently. In this mode the 9102
measures the electromagnetic field over a user-definable frequency range and
displays field strength or power density. Read more about this mode on
page 165.
In addition, the Mode menu provides access to the system settings, e.g. the I/O
configuration, and to version information. See section “Checking general
settings” on page 35 for more details.
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Selecting the measurement mode
Figure 5
Selecting a measurement mode
Figure 6
Selecting a measurement mode
To select the measurement mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears (see Figure 6).
2 Select a new mode or return to the mode last active by pressing the respective softkey. To select the modes signal generator, transmission, reflection,
distance to fault and cable loss select the (VSWR/)Tracking... softkey
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Working with the markers
followed by the relevant mode softkey.
NOTE
The modes reflection, distance to fault and cable loss are available if the 9130
VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and activated on your
9102. The EMF (EMI) mode is available, if the 9131 EMF Measurement Option
is installed and activated. For details on checking installed options and
installing new ones refer to “Checking installed options” on page 37 and
“Installing a new option” on page 38.
The main menu of the selected mode appears. If you select a new mode, all
parameters are set to the values which were used when the mode was last
active. If, however, you resume the last active mode, measurements are
continued.
Working with the markers
Figure 7
Example of markers
The 9102 includes powerful and easy-to-use marker functions. Up to six markers
can be used; up to five of them can be delta markers. Markers are easy to place
and you can easily affect the center frequency and the reference level upon a
keypress. If you use two traces you can also use markers on trace A and trace B.
The markers are named accordingly (e.g. A1, B1). Delta markers are identified by
D (e.g. DA1).
It is important to note that if you place the cursor on a signal peak and then
reduce the span, the marker position may be offset a little from the peak. This is
due to the limited resolution of the displayed frequencies when using a high
span. After reducing the span, the marker should be readjusted to the new peak.
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Working with the markers
Enabling and moving a
marker
1 From the main menu, select Marker. Or push the MKR function key in any
menu.
If you select Marker from the main menu when no marker is active, the
softkey for marker 1 is highlighted.
To enable marker 1, toggle the softkey until “ON“ is highlighted.
The input field for marker 1 appears.
If you use the MKR function key when no marker is active, marker 1 (A1 or
B1) will be enabled at the maximum peak. The input field for marker 1
appears.
2 If you want to enable another marker, push the appropriate softkey (A1
through A4 or B1 trough B4). If you want to use more than four markers,
press the Mkr More softkey to display the marker softkeys for marker 5 and
marker 6 and proceed as described for markers 1 to 4.
The marker is enabled and the input field opens; the selected marker appears
in the marker field in the top bar of the display.
3 If required, move the marker to another position using the cursor keys, one
of the softkeys Max Peak and Next Peak, or by entering the frequency with
the numeric keys and the appropriate enter key.
Disabling a marker
1 From the main menu, select Marker. Or push the MKR function key in any
menu.
The Marker menu appears and the input field for marker 1 appears.
2 Push the softkey (one of A1 through A6 or B1 through B6) for the marker
which you want to disable. If you use more than four markers you can
display the softkeys for marker 5 and 6 by pressing the Mkr More softkey.
Toggle the softkey until “OFF“ is highlighted. The marker is disabled and the
respective marker values disappear in the marker field at the top. By
toggling to “ON“ again the marker will be enabled again.
Enabling a delta marker
For delta markers, the power level and frequency relative to marker 1 is displayed
in the marker field. Marker 1 cannot be a delta marker. If marker 1 is not yet
enabled when you enable another marker as a delta marker, marker 1 will be
enabled automatically.
1 From the main menu, select Marker, or push the MKR function key in any
menu.
2 Select the softkey for the marker which you want to turn into a delta marker
(A2 through A6 or B2 through B6). If you use more than four markers you
can display the softkeys for marker 5 and 6 by pressing the Mkr More
softkey.
If not already enabled, the marker is turned on.
3 Push the softkey until “REL“ is highlighted. The respective marker in the
marker field is indicated as a delta marker, e.g. DA2 instead of A2.
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Working with the markers
Disabling a delta marker
1 From the main menu, select Marker, or push the MKR function key in any
menu.
The Marker menu and the marker 1 input field appear.
2 Select the softkey for the delta marker that you want to disable (e.g. DA2). If
you use more than four markers you can display the softkeys for marker 5
and 6 by pressing the Mkr More softkey.
3 To disable the marker completely, push the softkey until “OFF“ is highlighted.
To turn the delta marker into a normal marker displaying absolute values
again toggle the softkey to “ON“.
Setting a marker on a
frequency relative to
marker 1
1 Enable a delta marker as described in “Enabling a delta marker”.
For the selected delta marker, the input field shows the frequency relative to
marker 1.
2 Enter a (signed) frequency relative to the frequency at marker 1, either using
the numeric keys and the respective enter key, or moving the cursor to that
frequency with the help of the cursor keys.
The marker field indicates the desired frequency offset for that marker, along
with the power level relative to the power at marker 1.
Changing the center
frequency with a marker
This function modifies the center frequency, adapting the frequency of a selectable marker.
1 From the main menu, select Marker, or push the MKR function key in any
menu.
The Marker menu and the input field for marker 1 appear.
2 If you want to use the frequency at a marker position other than marker 1,
push the appropriate softkey (A2 through A6 or B2 through B6). If you use
more than four markers you can display the softkeys for marker 5 and 6 by
pressing the Mkr More softkey.
3 Push the Marker to Center softkey.
The center frequency changes to the frequency at which the selected marker
is located. The frequency span only changes if the change in center
frequency would lead to an invalid start or stop frequency.
Changing the reference
level with the marker
The reference level can be changed to the level at a marker position as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Marker, or push the MKR function key in any
menu.
2 Select the Mkr Transfer menu.
3 If you want to use the power level at a marker position other than marker 1,
push the appropriate softkey (A2 through A6 or B2 through B6). If you use
more than four markers you can display the softkeys for marker 5 and 6 by
pressing the Mkr More softkey.
4 Push the Marker to Ref. Lvl softkey.
The reference level changes to the level of the selected marker.
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Assigning the marker
frequency to FStep
For measurements of harmonics or intermodulation products, it can be useful to
easily change between frequencies in user-defined steps. The “Marker to FStep”
function assigns the active marker (or delta marker) frequency to FStep, the step
width for the selection of center frequency and marker frequency.
Assumption: One of the markers A1 through A6 or B1 to B6 is active.
1 From the main menu, select Marker > Mkr Transfer to access the Marker
Transfer menu.
2 Push Marker to FStep.
The FStep parameter assumes manual mode. If the currently active marker is
an absolute marker, the frequency at the marker position becomes the new
FStep value.
Alternatively, if the currently active marker is a relative (delta) marker, the
difference between the frequencies at the active marker and marker 1
becomes the new FStep value.
If the new FStep value is higher than 1 GHz, the old FStep value is maintained and the 9102 sounds a hint beep.
Using limit lines
Figure 8
Overview
Example of limit lines in spectrum analysis
A very useful feature of the 9102 is the possibility to set limits for the trace A
results. These are displayed on the screen and the 9102 can show if the results
exceed the limits.
Two different limit modes exist in the 9102. In the first case, the limits exist of
horizontal lines for the upper and lower limit. This method is called “simple
limits”; the limits can be entered directly in the Limits menus of the 9102.
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In the second case, there are more complex limits as shown in the example in
Figure 8. These limits can be entered with a comfortable tool on a PC and loaded
to the 9102 via RS-232 or LAN interface. A set of limit lines can be used to define
a measurement template. There are versatile tools around these limits available
on the 9102, such as a fail counter, a beep when a failure occurs, or a measurement hold function upon failure. The limits can be used both in the frequency
and in the time domain.
Up to 99 sets of limits can be stored on the 9102.
The actual limit values must be defined on a PC and loaded to the 9102 using the
9100 Data Exchange Software. Several limit files can be stored on the 9102. The
name of the current limit file is indicated in the upper left-hand corner.
Note that the limits are defined within a grid, no matter what the units on the
vertical and horizontal axes are. This way, you can apply the limits to different
frequency ranges and power levels. It is your responsibility, however, to select a
useful frequency range, reference level and level scale.
Note that a FAIL indication may occur if the start frequency is 0 Hz and an upper
limit is set at this frequency.
Using simple limits
Switching simple limits on and
off
Simple limits consist of constant upper and lower limits. They must be activated
to take effect. Once activated, each measurement is accompanied by a Pass/Fail
verdict indicating whether or not the measurement result was within the limits.
By switching limit lines on, any previously active limit template is disabled.
1 Press Level > Limits Memory.
2 Press the Simple Limits softkey so that the new choice (on or off) is highlighted.
When switching limits on, red horizontal lines indicating the upper and
lower limits appear. A Pass/Fail verdict is displayed with every new measurement in the upper left corner of the screen. The text above the verdict
(“Simple Limits”) indicates that the verdict applies to simple limits.
When switching limits off, the limit lines and the verdict disappear.
Defining upper and lower limits
The limits can be changed only when simple limits are activated. The range of
valid entries depends on the power scale displayed (vertical axis) as follows:
Table 12 Valid entries for upper/lower simple limits (relative to
reference level)
Scale
32
Valid range
1 dB/division
–8 … 0 dB
3 dB/division
–24 … 0 dB
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Table 12 Valid entries for upper/lower simple limits (relative to
reference level)
Scale
Valid range
5 dB/division
–40 … 0 dB
10 dB/division
–80 … 0 dB
15 dB/division
–120 … 0 dB
20 dB/division
–160 … 0 dB
Follow the steps below to define simple upper and lower limits.
1 Press Level > Limits Memory.
2 Press the Upper softkey, enter a new value for the upper limit (in dB, relative to the reference level) (or move the upper limit with the UP/DOWN
cursor keys) and confirm with MHZ/DB/µS or ENTER.
The upper limit line is moved to the new value.
3 Press the LOWER softkey, enter a new value for the lower limit (in dB) (or
move the lower limit with the UP/DOWN cursor keys) and confirm with
MHZ/DB/µS or ENTER.
The lower limit line is moved to the new value.
Using limit templates
Selecting limit lines within
the 9102
Limits can be comfortably defined with a PC-based tool and loaded to the 9102.
This is described in full detail in chapter “9100 Data Exchange Software” on
page 201. The sections below describe how to recall, delete, activate and deactivate limit templates.
1 From the main menu, select Level > Limits Memory.
The Limits Memory menu appears.
2 Push the Recall Limit Template softkey.
An entry field appears, together with a file selection box.
3 Select a file either by moving the selection to its file name using the UP/
DOWN cursor keys, or by entering the file name in the entry field and
closing the input field by pressing ENTER.
The file with the limits is loaded and the upper/lower limits are activated
immediately.
Activating and deactivating
limit templates
1 Select a limits file (see section “Selecting limit lines within the 9102”).
2 Select Level > Limits Evaluation
The Limits Evaluation menu appears.
3 Select the limits option you want by pushing the appropriate softkey from
the following choice: Off, Upper/Lower, Upper Limit, Lower Limit.
If you selected Off, no limits are displayed. Otherwise, the selected limits
curve (upper and/or lower limits) appears on the screen. A Pass/Fail indication is given for each measurement trace in the upper left-hand corner.
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Using limit lines
Deleting limit files in the 9102
1 From the main menu, select Level > Limits Memory.
2 a. To delete an individual file, push Delete Limit Template, select a limits
file with the UP/DOWN cursor keys and push ENTER to delete an individual
file (pressing ESC aborts the process before the file is deleted).
b. To delete all limit files stored in the 9102, push Delete All Templates.
Confirm by pressing ENTER, if you really want to delete all limit files.
Counting limit failures
When limit checking is enabled, a failure counter can be activated. The number
of failures appears below the Pass/Fail verdict. The counter makes particular
sense for statistical evaluations. For this application, it is important to define the
number of measurements. The following sequence can be useful to obtain a
failure count in conjunction with a defined number of measurement traces.
1 Select a limited number of traces (Freq > Sweep, see “Performing a limited
number of measurements” on page 58).
2 From the main menu, select Level > Limits Evaluation > Fail Count to
turn the failure counter on; if it was on already it should be switched off and
on again.
The failure counter is reset to 0.
3 Push the HOLD/RUN softkey to start the measurement.
Both the measurement counter and the failure counter start from 0. When
the selected number of traces has been reached, the measurements are
stopped and you can read the failure count.
Resetting the counter
The failure counter for the limits check can be reset by turning it off and then on
again (in the Level > Limits Evaluation menu).
Enabling a beep upon
failures
1 From the main menu, select Level > Limits Evaluation.
The Limits Evaluation menu appears.
2 Push the Fail Beep softkey to activate or deactivate the beep counter:
If activated, a beep sounds each time the measured signal exceeds the
limits.
Viewing a failed
measurement
This feature can be useful if you want to stop the measurement and view the
measured signal when it fails the limits. Note that the 9102 should be set to
continuous measurements.
1 From the main menu, select Level > Limits Evaluation.
2 Push the Fail Hold softkey once or twice to enable or disable the hold-onfail function.
The measurements are halted when a failure occurs. The trace of the failed
signal remains on screen.
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Printing
Measurements can also be stored and recalled in the 9102 for later analysis or
comparison. This is shown in “Storing and loading traces” on page 66.
With the 9100 Data Exchange Software, traces can also be transferred to and
viewed and stored on a PC. For more details, please refer to chapter “9100 Data
Exchange Software” on page 201.
Printing
The 9102 offers the possibility of printing measurement results, for example
traces, directly from the instrument. In order to print results screens on a
connected printer simply press the ± key on the numeric keypad of the 9102’s
front panel.
NOTE
If an input field is active while you press the ± key, it has the ± functionality
assigned to it. In this case printing is not possible. In order to be able to print
deactivate the input field first by deselecting the respective softkey.
For details on supported printers and configuring a printer refer to “Configuring
a printer” on page 44.
Controlling the 9102 from a PC
The 9102 can be used under remote control from a PC. The interfaces supported
for this are the serial interface (RS-232) and the LAN (TCP/IP). Please refer to
section “SCPI Command Reference” on page 229 for more information on remote
control.
Returning from remote control to local mode
To gain manual control after using the 9102 under remote control, press
ESCAPE.
Checking general settings
This section covers information about the unit, setting display brightness, time
and date, and configuring the remote control interfaces of the 9102.
Reading the serial number
You can find the serial number of your 9102 as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
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2 Select System.
The System Information display appears (see Figure 9), showing the serial
number, the installed software version and the installed option.
Figure 9
Reading the software
version number
System Information menu
Before loading a new software version or reporting problems, you may want to
check the currently installed version.
1 Press the MODE function key followed by the System softkey.
The System Information menu appears.
2 Read and note the software version number in the field entitled Application.
Reviewing the calibration
As for all test instruments, the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer’s accuracy
should be checked against its specifications. This process is called calibration. If
the 9102 accuracy falls outside the specified tolerance, it may be necessary to
correct the instrument.
Willtek recommends a calibration interval of one year. The 9102 stores the date
of the last calibration by a Willtek-certified lab and the date when the next calibration is due. In addition, you can document when the calibration date has been
reviewed last.
To check if the 9102 is due for calibration, proceed as follows:
Press the MODE function key followed by the Calibration Information softkey.
The Calibration Information menu appears.
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Figure 10 Calibration Information menu
1 Here the calibration details for the instrument are displayed.
The Calibration Number area shows the calibration number.
The first line of the Calibration area indicates the date of the last calibration
and the organization calibrating the 9102.
The second line indicates when and by whom the calibration has been
checked last.
The third line indicates when the next calibration is due. This date is typically one year after the last calibration.
2 Push the Date Last Check softkey to change the last check date. It will be
set to the actual date as set by the built-in real-time clock.
3 Push the Name Last Check softkey to enter the name of the person that
carried out the last calibration date review.
Checking installed options
Willtek provides different application programs and options for the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. These may or may not be active on your instrument. To
check which options are actually installed on your 9102, take the following steps:
1 Press the MODE function key followed by the System softkey.
The System Information menu appears.
2 Select Options.
The Options menu appears, indicating the installed options in bold print with
a tick in front; the options not installed are shown in grey.
Installing a new option
Software options can be installed by entering an activation key which you can
purchase from Willtek or one of its representatives. To install a new option:
1 Press the MODE function key followed by the System softkey.
The System Information menu appears.
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2 Select Options and press Activate Options.
3 Enter the activation key and press ENTER.
If the code is valid, the appropriate option is shown in bold print with a tick
in front, indicating that the option is accessible now.
Changing the display
brightness
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > Settings.
The general settings display appears (see Figure 11), showing the current
display backlight setting as a percentage.
3 Press the Display Extern softkey to change the backlight setting for usage
while the 9102 is connected to an external power supply
Press the Display Battery softkey to change the backlight setting for
running the 9102 on battery. Here, you can specify a reduced backlight
setting for battery usage in order to save energy.
In both cases the backlight input field is highlighted.
4 Enter a new value in the field for the backlight setting you intend to change
and confirm with ENTER, or change the current value with the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
The 9102 display uses the new brightness values.
Figure 11 General Settings menu
NOTE
The display setting for adjusting the brightness is not affected by a press on
the PRESET function key but by a push on the Back to Defaults softkey.
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Enabling and disabling
beeps
Warning and error beeps can be turned off and on in the General Settings menu:
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > Settings.
The general settings display appears, showing the current setting for beeps
(on or off).
3 Press the Beep softkey several times until the desired setting is highlighted
(on or off).
The beep input field shows the current setting.
NOTE
This parameter is not affected by a press on the PRESET function key but by
a push on the Back to Defaults softkey.
Assigning a device name
to the instrument
A device name for the 9102 can be useful if you have several units of the 9102
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. They can be identified if you choose different
names for them. The name also appears on traces transferred to the PC with the
9100 Data Exchange Software.
You can enter a new name as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > General Settings.
The general settings display appears, showing the current device name.
3 Press the Device Name softkey.
The device name input field is active so you can overwrite the current name.
4 Enter a new name (max. 11 characters; see section “Filling in a text input
field” on page 25 to learn how to do this) and close the entry field by
pressing ENTER.
The new name is displayed in the device name field.
NOTE
This parameter is not affected by a press on the PRESET function key but by
a push on the Back to Defaults softkey.
Adjusting date and time in
the instrument
The 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer includes a real-time clock. It can be used
to show the actual date and time or to compare it with the date when the next
calibration is due.
In order to change the date and time, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > Settings > Time/Date.
The time/date display appears showing the current date and time.
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Figure 12 Time/Date menu
3 Press the Time softkey.
The time input field is active so you can move the cursor with the LEFT/
RIGHT cursor keys behind a digit that needs to be changed, push the BACKSPACE key to erase it and enter a new digit.
4 Press the Date softkey.
The date input field is active so you can overwrite the old date with a new
one or move the cursor with the LEFT/RIGHT cursor keys behind a digit
that needs to be changed, push the BACKSPACE key to erase it and enter a
new digit.
5 Press ENTER or another function key to confirm the entry.
The new date and time are shown on the Time/Date menu.
NOTE
These parameters are affected neither by a press on the PRESET function key
nor by a push on the Back to Defaults softkey.
Changing the baud rate on
the RS-232 port
1 Push the MODE function key.
2
Select System > I/O Config > RS 232 Config.
The RS 232 Config menu is displayed (see Figure 13), showing the current
RS-232 bit rate (or baud rate) and interface settings.
3 To change the data rate, push the Baudrate softkey and select a new rate
with the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
The change takes effect immediately.
NOTE
This parameter is not affected by a press on the PRESET function key but by
a push on the Back to Defaults softkey.
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Figure 13 RS 232 Configuration
NOTE
The described procedure for changing the baud rate applies to serial numbers
5004001 and higher.
Changing the IP address of
the 9102
The IP address should be adapted to the address space in use in your environment
and should be unique for each device on that network.
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > I/O Config
The TCP/IP Config menu is displayed, showing the current TCP/IP settings.
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Figure 14 TCP/IP Configuration
3 Select System > I/O Config.
The port configuration display appears, showing the current TCP/IP settings.
4 To change the IP address of the 9102, press the Target IP softkey.
The address field is highlighted.
5 Overwrite the entire IP address or select a field with the LEFT/RIGHT cursor
keys, enter a new IP address and press ENTER.
6 To change the subnet mask press the Subnet Mask softkey. The Subnet
Mask field is highlighted.
7 Overwrite the entire subnet mask or select a field with the LEFT/RIGHT
cursor keys, enter a new one and press ENTER.
8 To change the gateway press the Gateway softkey. The Gateway field is
highlighted.
9 Overwrite the entire gateway or select a field with the LEFT/RIGHT cursor
keys, enter a new one and press ENTER.
10 For the change to take effect, switch the 9102 off and then on again.
11 Ensure that your application on the PC addresses the 9102 using this IP
address so that the two units can communicate with each other.
Changing the IP address of
the PC
For remote control of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer from a PC, the IP
address of that PC can be entered on the instrument.
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > I/O Config
The TCP/IP Config menu is displayed (see Figure 14), showing the current
TCP/IP settings.
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3 Select System > I/O Config.
The port configuration display appears, showing the current TCP/IP settings.
4 To change the IP address of the 9102, press the Host IP softkey.
The address field is highlighted.
5 Overwrite the entire IP address or select a field with the LEFT/RIGHT cursor
keys, enter a new IP address and press ENTER.
6 Reboot the 9102 (that means, switch it off and on again) for the new
settings to work.
Changing the IP port used
by the 9102
When the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer is to be controlled remotely from a
PC, the PC must address the remote control application within the 9102 with an
IP port number. The 9102 uses a default of 49200 which can be changed easily
as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > I/O Config
The TCP/IP Config menu is displayed, showing the current TCP/IP settings.
3 To change the IP port of the 9102, push the Port softkey.
The address field is highlighted.
4 Overwrite the entire IP address or select a field with the LEFT/RIGHT cursor
keys, enter a new IP address and press ENTER.
5 Reboot the 9102 (that means, switch it off and on again) for the new
settings to work.
The Back to Default softkey resets the parameter to its default value.
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Configuring a printer
You can connect a printer for direct printing via the ± key on the 9102’s front
panel.
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > I/O Config > Printer Config
The printer settings are displayed.
Figure 15 Printer Configuration menu
3 In order to configure a connected PCL 5 printer for direct printing press the
softkey Printer Type and toggle it to PCL by pressing it until this option is
highlighted.
4 In order to specify the baud rate of the printer press the Printer Baudrate
softkey. The Printer Rate input field is highlighted. The default is 19200.
NOTE
Direct printing works with PCL 5 printers with integrated drivers. Pure GDI
printers are not supported.
Selecting user interface
colors
You can change the colors of some of the user interface elements in the Color
Scheme menu. The available colors are shown in the color palette at the top of
the display and in Table 13.
Table 13 Color palette in the 9102 user interface
Color number
44
Color
1
black
2
grey
3
blue
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Table 13 Color palette in the 9102 user interface
Color number
Color
4
green
5
violet
6
yellow
7
red
8
brown
The colors of the traces, the grid and the limit lines can be modified as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select System > Color Scheme.
The color scheme display appears (see Figure 16), showing the current color
settings.
Figure 16 Color scheme menu
3 To change the color of a user interface element, push the appropriate
softkey (Trace A, Trace B, Grid, Limits or Trace Offset Color).
The input field on the left is activated.
4 To select a new color, enter a number corresponding to the colors in the
color palette and press ENTER, or use the UP/DOWN cursor keys to change
the color.
The color field to the left of the input field changes according to the selection made.
5 Press the Last Mode softkey to return to the measurement screen.
The new color scheme takes effect immediately.
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Working with stored settings
Working with stored settings
The 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer provides the capability of storing all the
parameters for a particular measurement, allowing to recall these parameters
whenever the measurement shall be repeated under the same conditions, and
this includes the measurement mode. A large number of parameter sets can be
stored under different names that allow fast and easy identification; each
parameter set name may consist of up to 11 characters.
In addition to using these files of parameter sets on the same 9102, you can also
transfer them to a PC for backup, easy modification and amendment using a
standard text editor, or for using the same parameters on multiple 9102 instruments. This is described in more detail in sections “Working with settings” on
page 225 and “Managing files on the PC and on the 9102” on page 226.
Storing settings on the
9102
To store the current settings on the 9102, take the following steps:
1 Press the RCL/STORE function key.
The Trace Memory menu appears.
2 Select the Settings softkey.
The Settings Memory menu is displayed.
3 Press Store Settings.
An input field appears (see Figure 17).
Figure 17 Recall Settings menu
4 Enter a new file name of up to 11 characters, and confirm with ENTER.
The current parameter settings are stored in this settings file and can be
recalled at any time.
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Restoring factory settings for all modes
Using previously stored
settings
You can use settings previously stored in the memory of the 9102 by recalling the
settings file.
1 Press the RCL/STORE function key.
The Trace Memory menu appears.
2 Select the Settings softkey.
The Settings Memory menu is displayed.
3 Press Recall Settings.
An input field and a file selection box appear.
4 Select the desired settings file using the UP/DOWN cursor keys or enter an
existing file name, and confirm with ENTER. The current parameter settings
are overwritten by those in the settings file and the measurement mode
with the parameters stored in the file are assumed.
Restoring factory settings for all modes
In addition to the PRESET function key (see “Using the front panel” on page 15),
which resets the mode currently selected to its factory default settings, the
9102’s Mode menu offers the Factory Settings function. This function resets all
modes to their factory default settings and returns you to the spectrum analysis
mode. In order to restore the factory settings for all modes proceed as follows:
1 Press the MODE function key.
The Mode menu is displayed.
2 Press the Factory Settings softkey. The Factory Settings menu appears.
3 Press the Preset All softkey. A message will be displayed asking you to
confirm that all modes should be reset.
4 Press ENTER to confirm the process. All modes will now be reset to their
factory settings.
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Spectrum Analysis Operation
3
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the spectrum analysis mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 50
– “Changing the frequency settings” on page 50
– “Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT” on page 53
– “Setting up the level parameters” on page 53
– “Changing the input impedance” on page 56
– “Applying special functions on the signal” on page 57
– “Setting up the trace” on page 60
– “Storing and loading traces” on page 66
– “Special measurement functions” on page 68
– “Viewing the spectrum analysis mode parameters” on page 72
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Selecting the measurement mode
Selecting the measurement mode
The 9102 provides different measurement modes. To select spectrum analysis
mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select Spectrum Analysis.
The Spectrum Analysis main menu appears.
Changing the frequency settings
Figure 18 Frequency menu
There are different methods to set the frequency range to be measured; the range
can be expressed by either the start and stop frequencies (i.e. first and last
frequencies on the display), or by center frequency and span (i.e. the center and
the frequency range), or by other combinations of center frequency, span, start
and stop frequencies.
All four parameters are accessible in the Freq menu. On the main menu,
however, only one of the combinations mentioned above is shown, depending on
the parameter last entered.
NOTE
Changing a frequency parameter may affect an associated parameter.
Example: If you change the span to the maximum of 4 GHz, the start and stop
frequencies are changed to 0 and 4 GHz, respectively.
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Setting start and stop
frequency
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the main menu).
The vertical softkeys include Start and Stop softkeys.
2 Push the Start softkey.
An entry field appears, indicating the start frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
4 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ or MHZ).
If the start frequency entered is lower than the stop frequency, the horizontal axis will display the range from the new start to the stop frequency.
If the new start frequency is higher than or equal to the stop frequency, the
start frequency is used as the center frequency with zero span, i.e. the signal
at the selected frequency will be shown in the time domain.
5 Push the Stop softkey and enter the frequency for the right end of the
display.
You can also place softkeys for the start and stop frequencies available on the
main menu by changing the frequency mode, see page 51.
Setting center frequency
and span
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the main menu).
The vertical softkeys include Center and Span. An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the step size for the UP/
DOWN cursor keys.
2 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
3 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ or MHZ).
4 Push the Span softkey and enter the frequency for the range from the left
to the right end of the display.
You can also place softkeys for the center frequency and the span available on
the main menu by changing the frequency mode, see section “Changing the main
menu for different frequency parameters” below.
Changing the main menu
for different frequency
parameters
The main menu shows two softkeys for the definition of the frequency range on
the display. Different methods exist to define the range as depicted above; you
can configure these softkeys to one of the two allowable combinations as
follows:
1 From the main menu, select Freq > Freq Mode.
2 Select the combination of softkeys that you want to see in the main menu
(Start/Stop or Center/Span).
3 Return to the main menu by pushing the Main ... softkey.
The main menu appears and displays the selected combination of keys.
Note that the description of the horizontal frequency axis changes with the
selected parameter set.
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Changing the frequency settings
Viewing the complete
frequency band
To change the frequency range to the full bandwidth supported by the 9102,
proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Full Span softkey.
The leftmost frequency changes to 0 Hz and the rightmost frequency to
4 GHz.
Performing measurements
in the time domain
Measurements on a selected center frequency can also be displayed in the time
domain.
1 From the main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Center softkey and enter the desired center frequency; close the
input field by selecting the appropriate unit with one of the enter keys.
3 Push the Zero Span softkey.
The horizontal axis becomes the time axis. The scale width is identical to the
sweep time. See Figure 19 on page 58 for an example.
Selecting the step size for
the frequency input
The center, start and stop frequencies can be set by either entering a new value
with the numeric keys, or by using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) to increase or
decrease the current setting. The step size for an arrow keypress can be either
automatically selected by the 9102, or manually adjusted.
Manually setting the frequency step size
1 From the main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep key.
The Freq Step entry field opens.
3 Enter a new frequency step value and close the entry field by pressing the
appropriate enter key determining the unit (GHZ/DBM for gigahertz, MHZ/
DB/µS for megahertz, KHZ/DBµV/MS for kilohertz, or ENTER for hertz).
The auto/manual selection switches to manual and the selected frequency
step size is displayed on the softkey.
Setting the frequency step size selection to automatic
1 From the main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey several times until the “auto” selection is highlighted.
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Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT
Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT
The resolution bandwidth (RBW) is the 3 dB bandwidth of the IF filter for
selecting the signal to be measured. The resolution bandwidth describes the
ability of the spectrum analyzer to discriminate between adjacent signals of
similar amplitude. Only signals spaced at a frequency of more than the RBW can
be discriminated from one another.
The 9102 can be set to automatically select the resolution bandwidth, depending
on the frequency span.
The video bandwidth (VBW) is the lowpass bandwidth over which several results
for one frequency point are smoothened. The lower the video bandwidth, the
smoother the signal curve and the less variations there are.
The 9102 can be set to select the video bandwidth automatically as a function
of the resolution bandwidth.
The sweep time (SWT) determines how long it takes for a complete sweep over
the measured frequency range (span).
The 9102 can be set to automatically select the sweep time, depending on RBW
and VBW. If manually set, the sweep time should be selected long enough for the
filtered signal to reach steady state. The 9102 will output an “UNCALibrated”
warning if the sweep time is too low.
To set the resolution bandwidth, the video bandwidth or the sweep time, proceed
as follows:
1 In the main menu, select the appropriate softkey (RBW, VBW, or SWT).
2 Enter the value and complete the entry with the appropriate enter key for
the unit, select a new value with the help of the UP/DOWN cursor keys, or
switch to auto to leave the setting to the 9102.
Changing between automatic and manual mode
Push the appropriate softkey (RBW, VBW, or SWT) several times until the
desired selection (auto or manual) is highlighted.
Setting up the level parameters
The accuracy and the dynamic range between the measured signal and the noise
floor depend on the proper setting of the level settings. These consist of the
reference level and the attenuation.
The reference level basically determines the level at the top of the display. The
vertical axis is divided into eight horizontal lines; you can adjust the scale (which
defaults to 10 dB per line) to your preferences.
The attenuation setting can be coupled to automatically follow the reference
level setting. For reference levels of –20 dBm and lower, the attenuation is set to
10 dB; the maximum attenuation is 50 dB.
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Setting up the level parameters
Attenuation or gain due to external coupling can be compensated by frequencydependent coupling factors, so that the displayed measurement values reflect
the power at the device under test.
WARNING
The maximum input power level at the RF IN connector is 30 dBm (1 W).
Higher input levels may result in serious damage of the instrument.
Setting the reference level
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. softkey or select Level followed by Ref.
Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The reference level input field opens.
2 Enter the new reference level either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actually set output power.
Setting the hardware
attenuation
1 In the main menu, push the Attenuation softkey.
The Attenuation input field opens.
2 Enter a new attenuation value in the range from 0 to 50 dB (in 10 dB steps)
and close the input field with one of the enter keys, or use the UP/DOWN
arrow keys to select the attenuation value in the range 10 to 50 dB.
If the attenuation value is changed, the attenuation option will change to
“manual”.
NOTE
The attenuation value of 0 dB can be set only with the numeric keys to avoid
accidental deactivation. The 0 dB setting should be selected carefully because
too high input levels at the input may damage the instrument.
NOTE
For precision measurements, the input level subtracted by the attenuation
should not exceed –23 dBm.
Changing the vertical
scale
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
20 dB per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) in 1-3-5 steps as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Scale softkey.
The Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number of dB per division numerically
and pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
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Setting up the level parameters
Selecting the level unit for
input and output
1 In the main menu, select Level > Units.
2 You can use logarthmic or linear units. In order to toggle the display
between logarithmic and linear units press the Unit softkey in the lower
right corner of the display and select log or lin.
3 You can now choose between the following units via the Unit softkey in the
upper right corner of the display.
Logarithmic units: dBM, dBμV, dBmV and dBV
Linear units: V, mV, μV, mW, μW.
Compensating gains and
losses
If the device under test is connected to the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
via an amplifier or a device attenuating the signal, such as an antenna or a long
cable, the measurement results are wrong by the gain or loss factor. This factor
may be a constant or even frequency-dependent.
To view the correct measurement results, the gain or loss can be compensated.
The 9102 can even compensate a frequency-dependent factor; a correction curve
or table can be entered on an external PC using the 9100 Data Exchange Software and loaded to the 9102. The section “Defining and loading external
coupling parameters” on page 218 explains this part in more detail.
Enabling external device
compensation
Once correction values are stored in the 9102, they can be selected and activated
as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Level > Ext. Dev. Memory.
2 Push Recall Ext. Dev. Comp.
A pull-down menu appears with a list of names for the compensation tables
available in the 9102.
3 Select a compensation table using the UP/DOWN cursor keys and confirm
your choice by pressing ENTER.
Compensation is still off, but the 9102 changes automatically to the Level
menu.
4 Push the Ext. Dev. Comp. softkey until “on” is highlighted.
The text “Ext. Dev.”, together with the name of the file loaded, appears on
the upper left-hand corner of the results display.
NOTE
If a file was selected previously, steps 1 thru 3 can be omitted. In this case,
select Level and continue with step 4.
Turning external device
compensation off
1 From the main menu, select Level.
2 Press Ext. Dev. Comp. until “off” is highlighted.
The text “Ext. Dev.” to the left of the results display disappears.
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Changing the input impedance
Deleting files for external
device compensation
You can delete files containing compensation parameters as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Level > Ext. Dev. Memory.
2 a. To delete an individual compensation file from the 9102 memory, push
Delete Ext. Dev. Comp. Select a file name and press ENTER.
The compensation file is deleted from the list. Note that there will be no
warning; once you have selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will
occur immediately.
b. To delete all the compensation files from the 9102, push Delete All and
confirm with ENTER.
All compensation files are deleted.
Changing the input impedance
Most RF applications are using an impedance of 50 Ω; other applications such
as cable TV apply 75 Ω. The 9102 is designed with an input impedance of 50 Ω;
it can, however, be used for testing a device with an impedance of 75 Ω by using
the software impedance switch. The measurement results from the 50 Ω input
are recalculated to fit the different impedance.
On the 9102, simply select the correct impedance value so that the 9102 can
translate the internal measurement values to the power before the coupler.
1 Connect the device under test to the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
2 From the main menu, select Level.
3 In the vertical menu, select the impedance of the device, that means select
Impedance: 50 Ω or Impedance: 75 Ω, respectively.
New measurement results are presented with the new impedance value
taken into account. In addition, if the impedance is changed to 75 Ω and the
power had been displayed in dBm, the new measurements are shown in
dBμV. If the impedance is changed to 50 Ω and the power had been
displayed in dBμV, the new measurements are shown in dBm.
NOTE
Signal reflections on the cable between the 50 Ω and the 75 Ω device affect
the measurement accuracy of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. For
more accurate results, Willtek recommends using an impedance converter;
such a converter will cause attenuation affecting the results. This attenuation
can be compensated as explained in section “Compensating gains and losses”
on page 55.
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Applying special functions on the signal
Applying special functions on the signal
This section shows how the measurement can be triggered, how the number of
measurements can be limited and how you can listen to the sound of the demodulated signal.
Using a trigger
The 9102 can either start signal analysis at a random point in time, or start the
measurement when a given signal threshold is passed. Starting measurements
depending on the actual signal level is only supported in zero span mode.
Selecting untriggered signal analysis
1 From the main menu push Freq > Trigger.
The Trigger menu appears.
2 Push the Free Run softkey.
The softkey is highlighted and the 9102 is ready for measurements at
random times.
Selecting a trigger threshold in the RF signal
1 From the main menu push Freq > Trigger.
The Trigger menu appears.
2 Push the Video softkey.
The Video softkey is highlighted and an input field for the trigger level
appears.
NOTE
The Video trigger is available in zero span mode only, otherwise the softkey
description is grayed out.
3 Enter the trigger level (in dBm) and complete the entry by pushing either the
GHZ/DBM or the ENTER key.
The trigger threshold is displayed at the power axis; the symbol also indicates the slope (direction in which the signal passes the threshold to start
the measurement).
4 If necessary, change the slope between positive and negative direction by
pushing the Slope softkey.
The active slope is indicated at the power axis by the following symbol (see
also Figure 19):
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Applying special functions on the signal
.
Figure 19 Triggered measurement (in the time domain)
Using an external trigger
In order to use a TTL trigger signal generated by an external device, proceed as
follows:
1 Connect the external device to the EXT. TRIG. connector on the top of the
instrument.
2 In the the main menu, enter the Sweep menu by pushing Freq > Trigger.
The Trigger menu appears.
3 Push the Extern softkey.
The softkey is highlighted.
After activating the external trigger the instrument waits to receive an
impulse. When an impulse is detected on the external trigger entrance one
sweep is performed. Afterwards the instrument waits for the next trigger
event.
Performing a limited
number of measurements
The 9102 can run measurements continuously or a defined number of times.
Limiting the number of measurements can be useful for statistical analyses.
1 From the main menu, select Freq > Sweep.
The Sweep menu appears.
2 Select the trigger mode: Push Cont. for continuous measurements or Single
for a limited number of measurements.
The selected trigger mode is highlighted.
3 To enter the number of measurements, push the Single Count softkey,
enter a number in the range from 1 to 1000 and press ENTER.
If Trigger Mode is set to Single, the 9102 performs the defined number of
measurements and enters Hold mode.
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Applying special functions on the signal
– To restart single-mode measurements, push the HOLD/RUN function key or
the Single softkey.
– To stop a continuous measurement, push the HOLD/RUN function key. Push
it again to resume measurements.
Demodulating an AM or
FM signal
The 9102 has the ability to demodulate an AM (amplitude modulation) or FM
(frequency modulation) signal and to output the signal at the built-in loudspeaker. The signal should have a signal strength of at least –50 dBm; the
demodulation bandwidth is about 10 kHz.
The 9102 can be set to either demodulate one signal permanently, or to toggle
between the different frequencies. When set to permanently demodulate one
signal, the 9102 demodulates the signal at the center position.
When the 9102 is set to toggle between frequencies, it uses the marker frequencies (marker M1 is enabled if not already active). After performing and displaying
a new measurement, the 9102 demodulates and outputs the received signal for
a short duration. This duration is selectable in the range from 1 to 10 seconds.
The 9102 demodulates the carrier at the marker position; the demodulated signal
is output for the selected duration. If more than one marker is active, demodulation is resumed at the next marker frequency and so on until a piece of the
signal at all active markers has been demodulated. The process starts anew with
a new measurement.
The speaker volume can be selected as a percentage of the speaker’s maximum
capacity.
1 Set a marker to the center frequency of the signal to be demodulated (see
section “Setting up the trace” on page 60).
2 From the main menu, select Freq > Demod.
The Demodulation menu appears.
3 Select the demodulation method (AM, FM, or Off).
The selected method is highlighted.
4 Choose between permanent demodulation and intermittent demodulation at
multiple markers by pressing the respective Demod softkey.
5 If demodulation at marker is selected, you can change the duration of the
output of the demodulated signal:
– Push the Duration softkey.
The Demod Duration input field opens.
– Enter the new duration using the numeric keys. Conclude the entry with
a push on one of the enter keys with the appropriate unit: push KHZ/
DBµV/MS for milliseconds or ENTER for seconds.
6 To adjust the speaker volume, push the Volume softkey, enter a new volume
level from 0 to 100% and press ENTER.
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Setting up the trace
Setting up the trace
Figure 20 Example of two traces
The trace functions provide different views of the measurements, for example
the actual measurement or an average over the last couple of measurements.
You can even select two different views of the measurement. Another possibility
is to compare the actual measurement with an older measurement which has
been stored in the 9102 and loaded to one of the trace views (see section
“Storing and loading traces” on page 66).
The 9102 samples many measurements for each frequency point. With the
detector functions, you can define the method to select which of the samples is
displayed.
Selecting the trace mode
The 9102 has five different modes to display a trace:
– In actual mode, the 9102 shows a complete new measurement in each trace.
Subsequent traces are independent of each other.
– In hold mode, the last measurement is kept on the display; measurements
continue but are not displayed.
– In max hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and, for each
frequency point, compares the new measurement with the previous result. If
the new measurement value is higher than the previous result, the new
measurement value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result
value is kept. This way, the highest result since the start of the Max hold
measurement (or a parameter change) is kept and displayed.
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Setting up the trace
– Similarly, in min hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and
compares the new measurement with the previous result. If the new
measurement value is lower than the previous result, the new measurement
value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result value is kept.
This way, the lowest result since the start of the Min hold measurement (or a
parameter change) is kept and displayed.
– In average mode, the new measurement and previous ones are averaged for
each frequency point displayed. The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm for
averaging.
To select whether you want to view an actual measurement, stop and hold the
last measurement, see the lowest or highest data for each frequency or an
average value, proceed as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Trace.
2 Select the trace you want to modify (Trace A or Trace B) using the horizontal softkeys.
3 Select the trace mode with the vertical softkeys (Actual, Hold, Max hold,
Min hold, Average).
The trace mode is shown at the left-hand side of the vertical axis, e.g.
A (ACT).
NOTE
For fastest valid results it is advisable to briefly activate the actual mode
before selecting any other mode.
NOTE
When the trace is on hold, the measurement and failure counters continue
counting. A second trace, if active, continues updating.
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Setting up the trace
Turning the second trace
on and off
You can define two different trace views, e.g. one with the actual values and one
with the maximum values. While the first view (Trace A) is always active, the
second can be switched off. The functions of turning Trace B on or off and
selecting the trace mode are combined as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace B.
2 To turn trace B on, select the trace mode (Actual, Hold, Max hold, Min
hold, or Average). To turn trace B off, select Off.
If activated, the trace mode is displayed left to the vertical axis, e.g.
B (MAX).
Subtracting trace B from
trace A
If you have used two different trace views as described above, you can show the
difference between trace A and trace B by subtracting trace B from trace A as
follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Subtract A – B → A.
2 Select on to subtract trace B from trace A. On the left-hand side of the
result area the term “Subtract“ will now be displayed to indicate that a
mathematical function is being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
NOTE
If trace A is on Hold, this function is not available and thus the
Subtract A – B → A softkey is greyed out.
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Setting up the trace
Figure 21 Subtract A – B → A on
Adding trace B to trace A
If you have used two different trace views, you can also show the sum of
trace A and trace B by adding the two traces as follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Add A + B → A.
2 Select on to add B to trace A. On the left-hand side of the result area the
term “Add“ will now be displayed to indicate that a mathematical function is
being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
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Setting up the trace
Defining the number of
measurements for
averaging
When the trace mode is set to averaging, it may be useful to adjust the number
of measurements over which the 9102 averages the results. The average count
value that can be defined in the Trace menus applies to both traces alike.
The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm in which a new result is added to the older
averages with a weighting factor; the description below indicates how to change
this weighting factor.
1 Enter the Trace menu (select Trace > Trace A or Trace B from the main
menu).
2 Push the Average Count softkey.
The Average input field opens.
3 Enter the number of measurements over which to average the results, in the
range from 2 to 128.
4 Press ENTER.
Selecting the detection
method
For each new measurement, the 9102 selects one or two values from a number
of measurements for each frequency value. The method is user-definable; the
following methods are available (see also Figure 22):
– Positive/negative peak: Both the largest and smallest values are taken and
displayed as a vertical bar.
– Positive peak: Only the largest value is displayed.
– Negative peak: The smallest value is shown.
– Sample: A sample measurement value is picked.
– If the 9132 RMS Detector Option is installed and activated on your 9102, the
root mean square detector showing the RMS-effective level of the measured
signal is also available. If the 9132 RMS Detector Option is not installed on
your instrument, the RMS detector will be greyed out.
Figure 22 Trace detectors
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Setting up the trace
The detection method applies to both traces. Select the detection method as
follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Detect.
2 Select the trace method from the Detector section of the vertical softkeys.
The selected detection method is indicated at the left-hand side of the
display.
Copying traces inside the
9102
You can copy an actual measurement from trace A to trace B or vice versa; this
way you can keep the last measurement results on the screen and at the same
time continue measuring or change the settings of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer. The previous results in the target trace will be erased; the target trace
will assume hold mode.
To copy the measurement data from one trace to another, proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Function.
2 To copy the measurement results in trace A to trace B, press
Copy A → B.
To copy results from trace B to trace A, press Copy B → A.
Figure 23 Trace Function menu
NOTE
If you first press Copy A → B, then Copy B → A (or vice versa), both traces
will display the same results and will be in hold mode.
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Storing and loading traces
Storing and loading traces
Figure 24 Trace A menu
The 9102 provides the capability to store up to 99 traces in the 9102 and load
them again at random. The stored trace can then be examined or compared to a
recent measurement. In addition, stored traces can also be transferred to a PC
using the 9100 Data Exchange Software which is delivered with the 9102. For
details on the software refer to Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”.
Storing a trace
You can store either trace A and trace B. Any trace can be stored under a name
with up to 11 characters. The procedure to enter text in alphanumerical input
fields is explained in section “Entering numbers and text” on page 24. Note that
along with the trace, the instrument settings such as frequency range, level
range and markers are stored.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push either Store Trace.
An input field opens, allowing you to enter a name for the trace. Below the
input field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter a name for the trace. To use a modified trace name, you can move the
cursor to a suitable trace name with the UP/DOWN cursor keys. The
selected trace name also appears in the input field; use the LEFT/RIGHT
cursor keys to move the cursor to the appropriate position within the trace
name to enter additional characters or delete existing ones.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is stored under the selected name.
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Storing and loading traces
Reusing a trace name
Reloading a trace
You cannot overwrite an existing trace using the same trace name. If you want
to reuse a trace name, you will have to delete the old trace first.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push Recall Trace.
An input field opens, allowing you to enter the trace name. Below the input
field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter the name of the trace to load, or choose one with the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is displayed.
NOTE
Along with the trace, the 9102 also loads the settings that were used when
the trace was saved. These will overwrite the current settings such as frequency range, reference level and markers.
Deleting a trace
Stored traces can be deleted. Note that there will be no warning; once you have
selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will occur immediately.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push Delete Trace.
An input field for the name of the trace to be deleted appears, together with
a trace selection box.
3 Select the trace to be deleted using the UP/DOWN cursor keys. Alternatively, enter the trace name with the numeric keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The trace is deleted from the trace list.
5 Select another trace for deletion, or press ESCAPE to leave the entry field
and the trace selection box.
Deleting all traces
Instead of deleting traces individually, all traces can be deleted in one step. You
will be asked to confirm this step.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press Delete All.
A query appears, asking you to confirm your selection.
3 Press ENTER to have all traces deleted.
The query disappears. All traces are deleted.
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Special measurement functions
Storing and loading
instrument settings
To store or load the instrument settings including frequency range, level setting
and markers, proceed as described in sections “Storing a trace” and “Reloading a
trace”.
Special measurement functions
Within spectrum analysis mode, three different frequency-selective types of
power measurements are supported:
– Channel power
– Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR)
– Occupied bandwidth (OBW)
These are similar to the measurement types in channel power mode (see chapter
“Channel Power Operation” on page 73), without the restrictions that the
channel power mode poses with predefined parameters such as span and resolution bandwidth.
Channel power
This measurement includes the power of the selected channel. A channel is
defined by center frequency and channel width (not the span in this case); see
“Changing the channel width” on page 71.
The 9102 displays the numerical result of the channel power measurement on the
top-left. The measured bandwidth is indicated graphically with bandwidth
boundaries shown in red.
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Adjacent channel power
ratio (ACPR)
ACPR is the relation between the power transmitted in a neighboring (upper and/
or lower) channel and that in the communication channel used. The measurement can be used to assess the quality of the modulator and the transmitter. The
higher the result, the worse the transmitter because transmission in other channels may interfere with another ongoing communication.
The 9102 determines the adjacent channels by the channel width and channel
spacing input parameters (see sections “Changing the channel spacing” and
“Changing the channel width” on page 71). It displays the numerical results of
the adjacent channel power ratio measurements for the left (lower) and right
(upper) channels on the top-left. The measured bands are indicated graphically
with bandwidth boundaries shown in red.
Occupied bandwidth
(OBW)
The occupied bandwidth identifies the frequency range into which a given
percentage of the signal power falls. The frequency range is not necessarily
symmetric around the center frequency but is selected so that the bandwidth to
hold a certain user-defined OBW percentage is minimized. See section
“Changing the occupied bandwidth percentage” on page 71.
OBW is indicated as an absolute value in the upper left-hand corner of the
display, together with the OBW percentage; marker A1 and delta marker DA2 are
assigned the lower and upper frequencies characterizing the frequency range.
The power is measured over three times the normal channel bandwidth. The red
boundary indicators mark the normal channel bandwidth as selected in the
Channel System menu.
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Special measurement functions
NOTE
If the selected resolution bandwidth is high and the occupied bandwidth very
low, there may be rare cases in which all the power for the occupied bandwidth is mapped to one point in the spectrum display. In such a case, the 9102
displays “N/A” (not available) instead of the bandwidth, and the markers usually indicating the bandwidth boundaries are invisible.
Increase the occupied bandwidth or decrease the resolution bandwidth to
receive results.
Selecting the
measurement type
To select the type of measurement within spectrum analysis mode, proceed as
follows:
1 From the Spectrum Analysis main menu, select Measure.
2 Select a measurement type using the vertically aligned softkeys in the
Measure section.
The numerical result for the selected measurement appears in the upper
left-hand corner of the display.
Switching special
measurement functions
off
70
To return to normal spectrum analysis measurements without special measurement functions, simply press the softkey of the selected measurement type
again. This will deactivate the special measurements.
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Special measurement functions
Changing the channel
width
The channel width is the bandwidth which the transmission is expected to
occupy. It can be set for channel power and ACPR measurements as follows:
1 From the Spectrum Analysis main menu, select Measure.
2 Press Channel Width, enter a new value and press the respective enter key
for the unit.
The new measurement bandwidth for channel power and ACPR is displayed
with the softkey.
Changing the channel
spacing
The channel spacing is distance in frequency between two adjacent channels. It
can be set for the ACPR measurements as follows:
1 From the Spectrum Analysis main menu, select Measure.
2 Press Channel Spacing, enter a new value and press the respective enter
key for the unit.
The new channel spacing for ACPR is displayed with the softkey.
Reading the channel
power
In addition to the display elements explained on page 15, the channel power
mode also includes a large display of the channel power, along with the channel,
resolution bandwidth and sweep time. Please see the graphs on page 68 and the
following for typical measurements.
Changing the occupied
bandwidth percentage
OBW measurements identify the frequency range in which a certain percentage
of the transmit power falls. The percentage value can be changed as follows:
1 From the Spectrum Analysis main menu, select Measure.
2 Press % OBW and enter a new percentage value in the range from 5 to 99.
3 Push ENTER to close the input field.
If the OBW measurement type is selected, the new OBW percentage value is
indicated in the upper left-hand corner of the display.
The 9102 recalculates the frequency range based on the new percentage
value.
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Viewing the spectrum analysis mode parameters
Changing general analyzer
parameters
For the channel power, ACPR and OBW measurements within the spectrum
analysis mode, the general settings such as center frequency, span, resolution
bandwidth, can be changed as usual. A single-button approach to adjusting
span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and trace mode is
described below.
1 From the Spectrum Analysis main menu, select Measure.
2 Press Adjust Settings.
Resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth are automatically set to
optimum values (automatic mode). The trace detector is set to sample and
the trace mode is set to actual.
If channel power measurements are selected, the span is set to 120% of the
selected channel width. For ACPR measurements, the span is adjusted to
1.2 × channel width + 2 × channel spacing. The OBW span is three times the
channel width.
Viewing the spectrum analysis mode parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey.
Figure 25 Spectrum analysis mode parameters
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4
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions in channel power measurement
mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the channel power mode” on page 74
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 77
– “Operating in channel power mode” on page 78
– “Reading the channel power” on page 79
– “Changing the occupied bandwidth percentage” on page 79
– “Working with communication systems and frequency settings” on page 79
– “Setting up the level parameters” on page 82
– “Changing the input impedance” on page 85
– “Setting up the trace” on page 86
– “Storing and loading traces” on page 91
– “Viewing the channel power mode parameters” on page 93
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About the channel power mode
About the channel power mode
The 9102 offers different measurement modes, e.g. spectrum analysis and
channel power measurements. The channel power mode allows you to measure
the radiated power within a certain frequency band with a single button press.
This mode reduces the complexity of all the setup possibilities for defined
communication systems. Several communication systems are predefined in the
9102 or can be downloaded from a PC using the 9100 Data Exchange Software;
see section “Managing communication systems for channel power measurements” on page 219 for more details.
Within channel power mode, three different frequency-selective types of power
measurements are supported, for details on selecting the measurement type
refer to “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 77:
– Channel power
– Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR)
– Occupied bandwidth (OBW)
These measurement types are available both in channel power and in spectrum
analysis mode. However, in contrast to the spectrum analysis mode, which looks
at the power level at a certain frequency, the channel power mode uses a system
approach. A system consists of several channels, each channel has a unique
channel number assigned to it. Within a system the channels have the same
bandwidth and channel spacing. Depending on the system the channels may
overlap, follow each other directly or be separated by spaces.
In order to distinctly specify a system the following parameters have to be set on
the 9102:
– First channel
– Last channel
– Channel width
– Channel spacing
– First frequency
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About the channel power mode
You can define systems and store them on the 9102. However, you can also make
use of predefined systems available on the instrument. For a complete listing of
the communication systems preinstalled on the instrument refer to “Preinstalled
systems on the 9102” on page 321.
Channel power
This measurement includes the power of the selected channel. The channel can
be selected in the main menu whereas parameters like channel width (the
measurement bandwidth) and channel spacing can be viewed and changed in
the Channel System menu.
The 9102 displays the numerical result of the channel power measurement on the
top-left. The measured bandwidth is indicated graphically with bandwidth
boundaries shown in red.
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About the channel power mode
Adjacent channel power
ratio (ACPR)
ACPR is the relation between the power transmitted in a neighboring (upper or
lower) channel and that in the channel used for communication. The measurement can be used to assess the quality of the modulator and the transmitter; the
higher the result, the worse the transmitter because transmission in other channels may interfere with another ongoing communication.
The 9102 displays the numerical results of the adjacent channel power ratio
measurements for the left (lower) and right (upper) channels on the top-left. The
measured bands are indicated graphically with bandwidth boundaries shown in
red.
For further details on the selection and availability of the ACPR measurement
type refer to “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 77.
Occupied bandwidth
(OBW)
The occupied bandwidth identifies the frequency range into which a given
percentage of the signal power falls. The frequency range is not necessarily
symmetric around the center frequency but is selected so that the bandwidth to
hold a certain user-defined OBW percentage is minimized. See section
“Changing the occupied bandwidth percentage” on page 79.
OBW is indicated as an absolute value in the upper left-hand corner of the
display, together with the OBW percentage; marker A1 and delta marker DA2 are
assigned the lower and upper frequencies characterizing the frequency range.
The power is measured over three times the normal channel bandwidth. The red
boundary indicators mark the normal channel bandwidth as selected in the
Channel System menu.
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Selecting the measurement mode
NOTE
If the selected resolution bandwidth is high and the occupied bandwidth very
low, there may be rare cases in which all the power for the occupied bandwidth is mapped to one point in the spectrum display. In such a case, the 9102
displays “N/A” (not available) instead of the bandwidth, and the markers usually indicating the bandwidth boundaries are invisible.
Increase the occupied bandwidth to receive results.
Selecting the measurement mode
To select the channel power mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
2 Select the Channel Power softkey.
The main menu of the channel power mode appears. If you select a new
mode, all parameters are set to the values used when the mode was last
active. If, however, you resume the last active mode, the measurements
continue without any changes to the parameters.
To select the type of measurement within the channel power mode, proceed as
follows:
1 Push the Measure softkey.
2 Select a measurement type using the vertically aligned function softkeys
(Channel Power, ACPR, or OBW).
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Operating in channel power mode
NOTE
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) measurements are available only in
those communication systems where the channel bandwidth does not exceed
the channel spacing; otherwise, the measurement range of the adjacent
channel would overlap with that in the selected channel.
As an alternative, use the ACPR measurements within the spectrum analysis
mode (page 69).
Operating in channel power mode
Figure 26 Example of a channel power measurement
This mode provides a measurement of the integral power within a given bandwidth. The measurement mode can be selected as described on page 77.
In channel power mode, the frequency parameters, filters and sweep time cannot
be selected individually. Instead, a communication system can be selected or
defined in which the 9102 shall measure the channel power; the frequency
parameters are stored with the communication system settings.
A few communication systems such as GSM are predefined in the 9102. More
predefined system settings are available in the 9100 Data Exchange Software
and can be downloaded to the 9102. In addition, the settings for an alternative
communication system can be defined by the user, stored in the 9102 and
recalled for channel power measurements.
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Reading the channel power
Reading the channel power
In addition to the display elements explained on page 16, the channel power
mode also includes a large display of the channel power, along with the channel,
resolution bandwidth and sweep time. In the example in Figure 26 on page 78,
the 9102 indicates the frequency range over which the channel power is
measured between red vertical bars.
Changing the occupied bandwidth percentage
OBW measurements identify the frequency range in which a certain percentage
of the transmit power falls. The percentage value can be changed as follows:
1 From the Channel Power main menu, select Channel System.
2 Press % OBW and enter a new percentage value in the range from 5 to 99.
3 Press ENTER to close the input field.
If the OBW measurement type is selected, the new OBW percentage value is
indicated in the upper left-hand corner of the display.
The 9102 recalculates the frequency range based on the new percentage
value.
NOTE
The occupied bandwidth can also be changed via the Measure menu.
Working with communication systems and frequency settings
Selecting a
communication system on
the 9102
You can activate communication system settings stored on the 9102 as follows:
1 In the main menu of the channel power mode, select Ch. System > System
Memory.
The System Memory menu appears.
2 Press Recall System.
A scroll box appears, showing the available communication systems. Enter
the system name as stored in the 9102, or move the UP/DOWN cursor keys
to move the cursor to the system to be measured.
3 Press ENTER to confirm.
The input field and the scroll box disappear and the spectrum of the selected
band is measured. The channel power of the first channel is displayed in the
upper left-hand corner.
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Working with communication systems and frequency settings
The 9102 comes with preinstalled communication systems. For a listing of all the
channel systems preinstalled on the 9102 refer to “Preinstalled systems on the
9102” on page 321.
NOTE
Apart from the channel width the parameters for preinstalled configuration
systems cannot be modified.
Setting up a new
communication system
A new communication system can be defined in terms of frequency range,
channel bandwidth and spacing, and channel numbering; channels can then be
addressed easily by their channel number rather than the carrier or center
frequency. You can set up a new communication system as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Ch. System.
The Channel System menu appears.
2 Press First Channel and enter the first channel number in use by the
system, then close the input field by pressing ENTER.
3 Press Last Channel to enter the number of the last channel in use by the
system; close the input field by pressing ENTER.
4 Press Channel Width to change the measurement bandwidth; ensure to
select the right unit (e.g. kHz).
5 Select the Channel Spacing softkey, enter the spacing between channel
numbers and close the input field by pressing the enter key for the appropriate frequency unit.
6 Press the 1st Ch. Center softkey and enter the carrier frequency for the
first channel in use (channel number defined with the first softkey). Close
the input field using the enter key for the appropriate unit (e.g. MHZ).
7 For occupied bandwidth (OBW) measurements, select % OBW and enter the
percentage value. Confirm the value by pressing ENTER.
8 Select System Memory > Store System, enter a new name for the system
and press ENTER.
NOTE
Existing systems cannot be overwritten; you must delete the old system first.
If you delete a predefined system that is delivered with the 9102, it can be
restored as depicted in section “Undeleting default communication systems”
on page 81.
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Deleting a communication
system
To delete a the communication system settings stored on the 9102, take the
following steps.
1 From the main menu, select Ch. System > System Memory.
The System Memory menu appears.
2 Push the Delete System softkey.
A scroll box with the list of available communication systems appears.
3 Select the system settings to be deleted by moving the UP/DOWN cursor
keys to the respective system settings name, and confirm by pressing
ENTER.
The system settings are deleted from the list.
4 Press ESCAPE to close the input field and the scroll box.
Deleting all
communication systems
You can clean up previously stored communication systems and easily delete all
of them, including those that were originally delivered with the 9102.
1 From the main menu, select Ch. System > System Memory.
The System Memory menu appears.
2 Push the Delete All softkey.
A box appears, asking you to confirm that you want to delete all communication system settings.
3 Press ENTER to confirm deletion or ESCAPE to prevent the 9102 from
deleting all the communication systems.
If confirmed, all the communication systems are deleted, that means the list
of communication systems will be empty.
Undeleting default
communication systems
If you have deleted communication systems that were delivered with the 9102,
you can restore these system settings.
1 From the main menu, select Ch. System > System Memory.
The System Memory menu appears.
2 Push the Restore Default Systems softkey.
The 9102 creates all the communication systems that were originally delivered with the 9102.
Using the 9100 Data
Exchange Software with
communication systems
With the 9100 Data Exchange Software, more communication systems can be
defined, loaded to the 9102 and selected for use. See section “Managing communication systems for channel power measurements” on page 219 for more information. Furthermore, within the 9100 Data Exchange Software fruther
predefined communication systems are available for transfer to your 9102. For a
listing of the communication systems available refer to “Predefined systems in
the 9100 Data Exchange Software” on page 322.
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Changing the sweep time
Defining the frequency
span
The 9102 can display either the full spectrum used by the system, or the channel
to be measured. Select the frequency span as desired:
In the main menu, select either Full System or Single Channel.
If you select Full System, the full frequency band as defined for the communication system will be displayed. If you select Single Channel, only the
frequency range of the currently selected channel will be shown.
Changing the channel
1 In the main menu, push the Channel softkey.
The Channel input field opens.
2 Enter the desired channel number within the communication system at
hand, or select the channel number with the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Press ENTER to confirm.
The channel power for the selected channel is indicated in the upper lefthand corner.
Changing the sweep time
The sweep time (SWT) determines how long it takes for a complete sweep over
the measured frequency range (span).
By default, the 9102 automatically selects the sweep time depending on other
measurement parameters such as the span. In some cases it may be an advantage
to manually select a different sweep time. This is the case with pulsed signals
where a longer sweep time may increase the measurement accuracy. If manually
set, the sweep time should be selected long enough for the filtered signal to
reach steady state. The 9102 will output an “UNCALibrated” warning if the sweep
time is too low.
To change the sweep time in channel power mode, proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Measure.
2 Push the SWT softkey.
3 Enter the new sweep time and confirm with the appropriate enter key for
the unit.
Setting up the level parameters
The accuracy and the dynamic range between the measured signal and the noise
floor depend on the proper setting of the level settings. These consist of the
reference level and the attenuation.
The reference level basically determines the level at the top of the display. The
vertical axis is divided into eight horizontal rows; you can adjust the scale (which
defaults to 10 dB per line) to your preferences.
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Setting up the level parameters
The attenuation setting can be coupled to automatically follow the reference
level setting. For reference levels of –20 dBm and lower, the attenuation is set to
10 dB; the maximum attenuation is 50 dB.
Attenuation or gain due to external coupling can be compensated by frequencydependent coupling factors, so that the displayed measurement values reflect
the power at the device under test.
WARNING
The maximum allowable input power level at the RF IN connector is 30 dBm
(1 W). Higher input levels may result in serious damage of the instrument.
Setting the reference level
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. softkey or select Level followed by Ref.
Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new reference level either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actually set output power.
Setting the hardware
attenuation
1 In the main menu, push the Attenuation softkey.
The Attenuation input field opens.
2 Enter a new attenuation value in the range from 0 to 50 dB (in 10 dB steps)
and close the input field with one of the enter keys, or use the UP/DOWN
arrow keys to select the attenuation value in the range from 10 to 50 dB.
If the attenuation value is changed, the attenuation option will change to
“auto”.
NOTE
The attenuation value of 0 dB can be set only with the numeric keys to avoid
accidental deactivation. The 0 dB setting should be selected carefully because
input levels that are too high at the input may damage the instrument.
NOTE
For precision measurements, the input level subtracted by the attenuation
should not exceed –23 dBm.
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Setting up the level parameters
Changing the vertical
scale
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
20 dB per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) in 1-3-5 steps as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Scale softkey.
The Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number of dB per division numerically
and pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Selecting the level unit for
input and output
1 In the main menu, select Level > Units.
2 You can use logarthmic or linear units. In order to toggle the display
between logarithmic and linear units press the Unit softkey in the lower
right corner of the display and select log or lin.
3 You can now choose between the following units via the Unit softkey in the
upper right corner of the display.
Logarithmic units: dBm, dBμV, dBmV and dBV
Linear units: V, mV, μV, mW, μW.
Compensating gains and
losses
If the device under test is connected to the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
via an amplifier or a device atttenuating the signal, such as an antenna or a long
cable, the measurement results are wrong by the gain or loss factor. This factor
may be a constant or even frequency-dependent.
To view the correct measurement results, the gain or loss can be compensated.
The 9102 can even compensate a frequency-dependent factor; a correction curve
or table can be entered on an external PC using the 9100 Data Exchange Software and loaded to the 9102. Section “Defining and loading external coupling
parameters” on page 218 explains this part in more detail.
Enabling external device
compensation
Once correction values are stored in the 9102, these can be selected and activated as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level > Ext. Dev. Memory.
2 Press Recall Ext. Dev. Comp.
A pull-down menu appears with a list of names for the compensation tables
available in the 9102.
3 Select a compensation table using the UP/DOWN cursor keys and confirm
your choice by pressing ENTER.
4 Select the Level menu and push the Ext. Dev. Comp. softkey until “On” is
highlighted.
The text “Ext. Dev.” appears to the left of the results display.
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Changing the input impedance
Turning external device
compensation off
Deleting files for external
device compensation
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push Ext. Dev. Comp. until “Off” is highlighted.
The text “Ext. Dev.” to the left of the results display disappears.
You can delete files containing compensation parameters as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level > Ext. Dev. Memory.
2 a. To delete an individual compensation file from the 9102 memory, press
Delete Ext. Dev. Comp. Select a file name and press ENTER.
The compensation file is deleted from the list. Note that there will be no
warning; once you have selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will
occur immediately.
b. To delete all the compensation files from the 9102, push Delete All and
confirm by pressing ENTER.
All compensation files are deleted.
Changing the input impedance
Most RF applications are using an impedance of 50 Ω; other applications such
as cable TV apply 75 Ω. The 9102 is designed with an input impedance of 50 Ω;
it can, however, be used for testing a device with an impedance of 75 Ω by using
the software impedance switch. The measurement results from the 50 Ω input
are recalculated to fit the different impedance.
On the 9102, simply select the correct impedance value so that the 9102 can
translate the internal measurement values to the power before the coupler.
1 To connect a 75 Ω device, connect the device under test to the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
2 In the main menu, select Level.
3 In the vertical menu, select the impedance of the device, that means select
Impedance: 50 Ω or Impedance: 75 Ω, respectively.
New measurement results are presented with the new impedance value
taken into account. In addition, if the impedance is changed to 75 Ω and the
power had been displayed in dBm, the new measurements are shown in
dBμV. If the impedance is changed to 50 Ω and the power had been
displayed in dBμV, the new measurements are shown in dBm.
NOTE
Signal reflections on the cable between the 50 Ω and the 75 Ω device affect
the measurement accuracy of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. For
more accurate results, Willtek recommends using an impedance converter;
such a converter will cause attenuation affecting the results. This attenuation
can be compensated as explained in section “Compensating gains and losses”
on page 84.
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Setting up the trace
Setting up the trace
Figure 27 Example of two traces in channel power mode
The trace functions provide different views of the measurements, for example
the actual measurement or an average over the last couple of measurements.
You can even select two different views of the measurement. Another possibility
is to compare the actual measurement with an older measurement which has
been stored in the 9102 and loaded to one of the trace views (see section
“Storing and loading traces” on page 91).
The 9102 samples many measurements for each frequency point. With the
detector functions, you can define the method to select which of the samples is
displayed.
Selecting the trace mode
The 9102 has five different modes to display a trace:
– In Actual mode, the 9102 shows a complete new measurement in each trace.
Subsequent traces are independent of each other.
– In hold mode, the last measurement is kept on the display; measurements
continue but are not displayed.
– In max hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and, for each
frequency point, compares the new measurement with the previous result. If
the new measurement value is higher than the previous result, the new
measurement value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result
value is kept. This way, the highest result since the start of the max hold
measurement (or a parameter change) is kept and displayed.
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Setting up the trace
– Similarly, in min hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and
compares the new measurement with the previous result. If the new
measurement value is lower than the previous result, the new measurement
value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result value is kept.
This way, the lowest result since the start of the min hold measurement (or a
parameter change) is kept and displayed.
– In average mode, the new measurement and previous ones are averaged for
each frequency point displayed. The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm for
averaging.
To select whether you want to view an actual measurement, stop and hold the
last measurement, see the lowest or highest data for each frequency or an
average value, proceed as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Trace.
2 Select the trace you want to modify (Trace A or Trace B) using the horizontal softkeys.
3 Select the trace mode with the vertical softkeys (Actual, Hold, Max hold,
Min hold, Average).
The trace mode is shown at the left-hand side of the vertical axis, e.g.
A (ACT).
NOTE
For fastest valid results it is advisable to briefly activate the actual mode
before selecting any other mode.
NOTE
When the trace is on hold, the measurement and failure counters continue
counting. A second trace, if active, continues updating.
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Setting up the trace
Turning the second trace
on and off
You can define two different trace views, e.g. one with the actual values and one
with the maximum values. While the first view (Trace A) is always active, the
second can be switched off. The functions of turning Trace B on or off and
selecting the trace mode are combined as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace B.
2 To turn trace B on, select the trace mode (Actual, Hold, Max hold, Min
hold, or Average). To turn trace B off, select Off.
If activated, the trace mode is displayed left to the vertical axis, e.g.
B (MAX).
Subtracting trace B from
trace A
If you have used two different trace views as described above, you can show the
difference between trace A and trace B by subtracting trace B from trace A as
follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Subtract A – B → A.
2 Select on to subtract trace B from trace A. On the left-hand side of the
result area the Term “Subtract“ will now be displayed to indicate that a
mathematical function is being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
NOTE
If trace A is on Hold, this function is not available and thus the
Subtract A – B → A softkey is greyed out.
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Setting up the trace
Adding trace B to trace A
If you have used two different trace views, you can also show the sum of trace A
and trace B by adding the two traces as follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Add A + B → A.
2 Select on to add B to trace A. On the left-hand side of the result area the
term “Add“ will now be displayed to indicate that a mathematical function is
being performed. The result is displayed in trace A.
Defining the number of
measurements for
averaging
When the trace mode is set to averaging, it may be useful to adjust the number
of measurements over which the 9102 averages the results. The average count
value that can be defined in the Trace menus applies to both traces alike.
The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm in which a new result is added to the older
averages with a weighting factor; the description below indicates how to change
this weighting factor.
1 Enter the Trace menu (select Trace > Trace A or Trace B from the main
menu).
2 Push the Average Count softkey.
The Average input field opens.
3 Enter the number of measurements over which to average the results, in the
range from 2 to 128.
4 Press ENTER.
Selecting the detection
method
In channel power mode, the detection method is set to Sample by default. If the
9132 RMS Detector Option is installed and activated on your 9102, the root mean
square detector showing the RMS-effective level of the measured signal is also
available. In order to set the detection method to RMS proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Detect.
2 Select the RMS from the Detector section of the vertical softkeys.
The selected detection method is indicated at the left-hand side of the
display.
NOTE
If the 9132 RMS Detector Option is not installed on your 9102, the RMS
detector is greyed out.
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Setting up the trace
Figure 28 Detect menu with activated 9132 RMS Detector Option
Copying traces inside the
9102
You can copy an actual measurement from trace A to trace B or vice versa; this
way you can keep the last measurement results on the screen and at the same
time continue measuring or change the settings of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer. The previous results in the target trace will be erased; the target trace
will assume hold mode.
To copy the measurement data from one trace to another, proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Function.
2 To copy the measurement results from trace A to trace B, press
Copy A → B.
To copy results from trace B to trace A, press Copy B → A.
NOTE
If you first press Copy A → B, then Copy B → A (or vice versa), both traces
will display the same results and will be in hold mode.
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Storing and loading traces
Storing and loading traces
Figure 29 Trace A menu
The 9102 provides the capability to store up to 99 traces in the 9102 and load
them again at random. The stored trace can then be examined or compared to a
recent measurement. In addition, stored traces can also be transferred to a PC
using the 9100 Data Exchange Software which is delivered with the 9102. For
details on the software refer to Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”.
Storing a trace
You can store either trace A and B. Any trace can be stored under a name with
up to 11 characters. The procedure to enter text in alphanumerical input fields is
explained in section “Entering numbers and text” on page 24. Note that along
with the trace, the instrument settings such as frequency range, level range and
markers are stored.
1 Activate the trace you want to store by pushing Trace > Trace A or
Trace B.
2 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
3 Push Store Trace.
An input field opens, allowing you to enter a name for the trace. Below the
input field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
4 Enter a name for the trace. To use a modified trace name, you can move the
cursor to a suitable trace name with the UP/DOWN cursor keys. The
selected trace name also appears in the input field; use the LEFT/RIGHT
cursor keys to move the cursor to the appropriate position within the trace
name to enter additional characters or delete existing ones.
5 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is stored under the selected name.
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Storing and loading traces
Reusing a trace name
Reloading a trace
You cannot overwrite an existing trace using the same trace name. If you want
to reuse a trace name, you will have to delete the old trace first.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push Recall Trace.
An input field opens, allowing you to enter the trace name. Below the input
field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter the name of the trace to load, or choose one with the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is displayed.
NOTE
Along with the trace, the 9102 also loads the settings that were used when
the trace was saved. These will overwrite the current settings such as frequency range, reference level and markers.
Deleting a trace
Stored traces can be deleted. Note that there will be no warning; once you have
selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will occur immediately.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push Delete Trace.
An input field for the name of the trace to be deleted appears, together with
a trace selection box.
3 Select the trace to be deleted using the UP/DOWN cursor keys. Alternatively, enter the trace name with the numeric keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The trace is deleted from the trace list.
5 Select another trace for deletion, or press ESCAPE to leave the entry field
and the trace selection box.
Deleting all traces
Instead of deleting traces individually, all traces can be deleted in one step. You
will be asked to confirm this step.
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press Delete All.
A query appears, asking you to confirm your selection.
3 Press ENTER to have all traces deleted.
The query disappears. All traces are deleted.
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Viewing the channel power mode parameters
Storing and loading
instrument settings
To store or load the instrument settings including frequency range, level setting
and markers, proceed as described in sections “Storing a trace” and “Reloading a
trace” on page 92.
Viewing the channel power mode parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey.
Figure 30 Channel power mode parameters
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Viewing the channel power mode parameters
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Chapter 5
Signal Generator Operation
5
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the signal
generator mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the signal generator mode” on page 96
– “Switching the signal generator on and off” on page 96
– “Changing the frequency” on page 96
– “Setting the level” on page 99
– “Applying special functions on the signal” on page 99
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About the signal generator mode
About the signal generator mode
In this mode the instrument can be used to generate a signal in order to stimulate an electronic circuit with a set frequency and a set level. As this mode is only
used for sending out a signal and no actual measurement takes place on the
instrument there is no trace display. Depending on the application of the signal
the result of the process could be for example the booting of a processor.
Selecting the measurement mode
To select signal generator mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select (VSWR/)Tracking ... > Signal Generator.
The Signal Generator main menu appears (see Figure 32 and Figure 31).
Switching the signal generator on and off
When you select the signal generator mode as described above, the signal generator is switched on by default. To switch it off press the Output softkey until off
is highlighted. If you switch the signal generator off and select another mode, it
will be automatically switched on again as soon as you return to signal generator
mode.
Changing the frequency
The main menu shows softkeys for the definition of the frequency range on the
display. The softkeys available for setting frequency parameters depend on the
frequency mode you select. The modes available are: CW (Continuous Wave) and
SWP (Sweep).
Selecting the frequency
mode
96
To configure the softkeys available for setting the frequency you can choose
between the two frequency modes CW and SWP. The CW mode is active by
default. To change between CW and SWP, press the Mode softkey until the
required option is highlighted. The main menu display will change accordingly.
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Changing the frequency
Setting the center
frequency
Figure 31 Signal Generator main menu in CW mode
1 In the main menu, select the CW mode by pressing the Mode softkey until
CW is highlighted. The CW main menu as shown above appears.
2 Push the CENT function key (or the Frequency softkey in the main menu).
An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
Conclude the entry by pressing the appropriate enter key determining the unit
(GHZ/DBM for gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz).
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Changing the frequency
Setting start and stop
frequency
Figure 32 Signal Generator main menu in SWP mode
1 In the main menu select the SWP mode by pressing the Mode softkey until
SWP is highlighted. The SWP main menu as shown above appears.
2 In the main menu, push the Start softkey.
An entry field appears, indicating the start frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
4 Push the Stop softkey and enter the frequency.
Selecting the step size for
the frequency input
The center, start and stop frequencies can either be set by entering a new value
with the numeric keys, or by using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) to increase or
decrease the current setting. The step size for an arrow keypress can be either
automatically selected by the 9102, or manually adjusted.
Manually setting the frequency step size
1 In the Signal Generator main menu select the frequency mode (CW or SWP)
for which you want to set the frequency step size as described in “Selecting
the frequency mode” on page 96.
2 Push the FStep key.
The Freq Step entry field opens.
3 Enter a new frequency step value and close the entry field by pressing Enter.
The auto/manual selection switches to manual and the selected frequency
step size is displayed on the softkey.
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Setting the level
Setting the frequency step size selection to automatic
1 In the Transmission main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey several times until the “auto” selection is highlighted.
Setting the level
1 In the main menu, push the Level softkey.
The level input field opens.
2 Enter the new level either using the numeric keys, closing the input field
with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow keys. The level
can be entered in the range of –10 dBm and –30 dBm in 1 dB steps.
Applying special functions on the signal
This section shows how the number of measurements can be limited.
Performing a limited
number of measurements
The 9102 can run measurements continuously or a defined number of times.
Limiting the number of measurements can be useful for statistical analyses.
1 In the main menu, select Sweep.
The Sweep menu appears.
2 Select the sweep mode: Push Cont. for continuous signal generation or
Single for a single sweep.
The selected sweep mode is highlighted.
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Applying special functions on the signal
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Chapter 6
Transmission Operation
6
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the transmission mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the transmission mode” on page 102
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 102
– “Switching the tracking generator on and off” on page 103
– “Normalizing the trace” on page 103
– “Setting the tracking output power” on page 104
– “Changing the frequency settings” on page 105
– “Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT” on page 108
– “Setting up the level parameters” on page 108
– “Applying special functions on the signal” on page 111
– “Viewing the transmission mode parameters” on page 121
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About the transmission mode
About the transmission mode
The transmission mode allows you to determine the frequency characteristics of
passive (e.g. bandpass filters) or active devices under test (e.g. amplifiers). In this
mode the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer uses a tracking generator – a signal
generator which is synchronous with the receive frequency of the spectrum
analyzer – to measure e.g. reflection and the transmission characteristics of
devices under test. The tracking generator has an output frequency from 1 MHz
to 4 GHz. Its level is adjustable from –10 to –30 dBm which allows adaptation of
the output signal to the demands of devices under test. In the 9100 applications
guide contained on the documentation CD delivered with your instrument you
will find an application example for this mode.
Figure 33 Example of a transmission measurement
Selecting the measurement mode
To select transmission mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select (VSWR/)Tracking ... > Transmission.
The Transmission main menu appears.
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Switching the tracking generator on and off
Switching the tracking generator on and off
When you select the transmission mode as described in “Selecting the measurement mode”, the tracking generator is switched on by default. To switch it off,
proceed as follows:
1 In the Transmission main menu, press the Tracking Generator softkey.
2 Press the Tracking softkey until “off“ is highlighted.
If you switch the tracking generator off and select the spectrum analysis or
channel power mode, it will be automatically switched on again as soon as you
return to transmission mode.
Normalizing the trace
In order to eliminate slight ripples in the trace display the Normalize function
should be used before taking measurements. There are two softkeys available for
normalizing the display for trace A and trace B. The following figure shows trace
A with normalization deactivated (off).
Figure 34 Normalize A off
In order to achieve a normalized trace proceed as follows:
1 Establish a cable connection between the RF
connector.
IN
and the RF
OUT
2 In the Transmission main menu, press the Tracking Generator softkey.
3 Press the Normalize A or B softkey until “on“ is highlighted.
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Setting the tracking output power
NOTE
If trace B is not active, the Normalize B softkey will be greyed out.
The message “Normal.’d“ on the left-hand side of the results area indicates that
the display is normalized. If you change measurement parameters, e.g. tracking
output, frequency settings or attenuation, it may be necessary to repeat the
normalizing procedure. If this is the case, the message “Normalize“ will be
displayed against a red background on the left-hand side of the results area.
The following figure shows trace A after normalization has been activated.
Figure 35 Normalize A on
Setting the tracking output power
The tracking generator’s output power can be set in a range from –10 to
–30 dBm. In order to change the output power proceed as follows:
1 In the Transmission main menu, press the Tracking Generator softkey.
2 Press the Tracking Output Power softkey. The Tracking Output Power input
field appears.
3 Use the UP/DOWN cursor keys to enter a new output power value in 1 dBm
steps or enter the new value using the numeric keypad.
4 Press ENTER.
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Changing the frequency settings
Changing the frequency settings
Figure 36 Frequency menu
There are different methods to set the frequency range to be measured; the range
can be expressed by either the start and stop frequencies (i.e. first and last
frequencies on the display), or by center frequency and span (i.e. the center and
the frequency range), or by other combinations of center frequency, span, start
and stop frequencies.
All four parameters are accessible in the Freq menu. On the main menu, however,
only one of the combinations mentioned above is shown, depending on the
parameter last entered.
NOTE
Changing a frequency parameter may affect an associated parameter.
Example: If you change the span to the maximum of 4 GHz, the start and stop
frequencies are changed to 0 and 4 GHz, respectively.
Setting start and stop
frequency
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Transmission mainmenu).
The vertical softkeys include Start and Stop softkeys.
2 Push the Start softkey.
An entry field appears, indicating the start frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
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4 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz).
If the start frequency entered is lower than the stop frequency, the horizontal axis will display the range from the new start to the stop frequency.
If the new start frequency is higher than or equal to the stop frequency, the
start frequency is used as the center frequency with zero span, i.e. the signal
at the selected frequency will be shown in the time domain.
5 Push the Stop softkey and enter the frequency for the right end of the
display.
You can also place softkeys for the start and stop frequencies available on the
main menu by changing the frequency mode, see “Changing the main menu for
different frequency parameters”.
Setting center frequency
and span
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Transmission main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Center and Span. An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the step size for the up/down
cursor keys.
2 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
3 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz, KHZ/DBµV/MS for kilohertz, or
ENTER for hertz).
4 Push the Span softkey and enter the frequency for the range from the left
to the right end of the display.
You can also place softkeys for the center frequency and the span available on
the main menu by changing the frequency mode, see section “Changing the main
menu for different frequency parameters” below.
Changing the main menu
for different frequency
parameters
The Transmission main menu shows two softkeys for the definition of the
frequency range on the display. Different methods exist to define the range as
depicted above; you can configure these softkeys to one of the two allowable
combinations as follows:
1 From the Transmission main menu, select Freq > Freq Mode.
2 Select the combination of softkeys that you want to see in the main menu
(Start/Stop or Center/Span).
3 Return to the main menu by pushing the Main ... softkey.
The main menu appears and displays the selected combination of keys.
Note that the description of the horizontal frequency axis changes with the
selected parameter set.
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Changing the frequency settings
Viewing the complete
frequency band
To change the frequency range to the full bandwidth supported by the 9102,
proceed as follows:
1 From the Transmission main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Full Span softkey.
The leftmost frequency changes to 0 Hz and the rightmost frequency to
4 GHz.
Performing measurements
in the time domain
Measurements on a selected center frequency can also be displayed in the time
domain.
1 From the Transmission main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Center softkey and enter the desired center frequency; close the
input field by selecting the appropriate unit with one of the enter keys.
3 Push the Zero Span softkey.
The horizontal axis becomes the time axis. The scale width is identical to the
sweep time. See Figure 37 on page 112 for an example.
Selecting the step size for
the frequency input
The center, start and stop frequencies can be set either by entering a new value
with the numeric keys, or by using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) to increase or
decrease the current setting. The step size for an arrow keypress can either be
selected automatically by the 9102, or manually adjusted.
Manually setting the frequency step size
1 From the Transmission main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey.
The Freq Step entry field opens.
3 Enter a new frequency step value and close the entry field by pressing Enter.
Setting the frequency step size selection to automatic
1 From the Transmission main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey several times until the “auto” selection is highlighted.
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Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT
Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT
The resolution bandwidth (RBW) is the 3 dB bandwidth of the IF filter for
selecting the signal to be measured. The resolution bandwidth describes the
ability of the spectrum analyzer to discriminate between adjacent signals of
similar amplitude. Only signals spaced at a frequency of more than the RBW can
be discriminated from one another.
The 9102 can be set to automatically select the resolution bandwidth, depending
on the frequency span.
The video bandwidth (VBW) is the lowpass filter over which several results for
one frequency point are smoothened. The lower the video bandwidth, the
smoother the signal curve and the less variations there are.
The 9102 can be set to select the video bandwidth automatically as a function
of the resolution bandwidth. A typical value for the video bandwidth should be
equal or 10 times lower than the radio bandwidth value.
The sweep time (SWT) determines how long it takes for a complete sweep over
the measured frequency range (span).
The 9102 can be set to automatically select the sweep time, depending on RBW
and VBW. If manually set, the sweep time should be selected long enough for the
filtered signal to reach steady state. The 9102 will output an “UNCALibrated”
warning if the sweep time is too low.
To set the resolution bandwidth, the video bandwidth or the sweep time, proceed
as follows:
1 In the main menu, select the appropriate softkey (RBW, VBW, or SWT).
2 Enter the value and complete the entry with the appropriate enter key for
the unit, select a new value with the help of the UP/DOWN cursor keys, or
switch to auto to leave the setting to the 9102.
Changing between automatic and manual mode
Push the appropriate softkey (RBW, VBW, or SWT) until the desired selection
(auto or manual) is highlighted.
Setting up the level parameters
The dynamic range between the measured signal and the noise floor depend on
the proper setting of the level settings. These consist of the reference level and
the attenuation.
The reference level basically determines the level at the top of the display. The
vertical axis is divided into eight horizontal rows. You can adjust the scale (which
defaults to 10 dB per line) to your preferences.
The attenuation setting can be coupled to automatically follow the reference
level setting. For reference levels of –20 dBm and lower, the attenuation is set to
10 dB; the maximum attenuation is 50 dB.
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Setting up the level parameters
Attenuation or gain due to external coupling can be compensated by frequencydependent coupling factors, so that the displayed measurement values reflect
the power at the device under test.
WARNING
The maximum input power level at the RF IN connector is 30 dBm (1 W).
Higher input levels may result in serious damage of the instrument.
Switching the display
You can switch the display between absolute and relative as follows:
1 In the main menu select Level. The Level menu is displayed.
2 Toggle the display to absolute or relative by pressing the Display softkey
until the required display option is highlighted. If you select abs, reference
level and the unit dBm will be shown in the results display. If you select rel,
reference and the unit dB will be shown.
Setting the reference level
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. softkey or select Level followed by Ref.
Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new reference level either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actual set output power.
Setting the hardware
attenuation
1 In the main menu, push the ATTN. softkey.
The Attenuation input field opens.
2 Enter a new attenuation value in the range from 0 to 50 dB (in 10 dB steps)
and close the input field with one of the enter keys, or use the UP/DOWN
arrow keys to select the attenuation value in the range from 10 to 50 dB.
NOTE
The attenuation value of 0 dB can be set only with the numeric keys to avoid
accidental deactivation. The 0 dB setting should be selected carefully because
too high input levels may damage the instrument.
NOTE
For precision measurements, the input power level subtracted by the attenuation should not exceed –23 dBm.
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Setting up the level parameters
Changing the vertical
scale
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
20 dB per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) in 1-3-5 steps as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Scale softkey.
The Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number of dB per division numerically
and pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Compensating gains and
losses
If the device under test is connected to the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
via an amplifier or a device attenuating the signal, such as an antenna or a long
cable, the measurement results are wrong by the gain or loss factor. This factor
may be a constant or even frequency-dependent.
To view the correct measurement results, the gain or loss can be compensated.
The 9102 can even compensate a frequency-dependent factor; a correction curve
or table can be entered on an external PC using the 9100 Data Exchange Software and loaded to the 9102. The section “Defining and loading external
coupling parameters” on page 218 explains this part in more detail.
Enabling external device
compensation
Once correction values are stored in the 9102, these can be selected and activated as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level > Ext. Dev. Memory.
2 Press Recall Ext. Dev. Comp.
A pull-down menu appears with a list of names for the compensation tables
available in the 9102.
3 Select a compensation table using the UP/DOWN cursor keys and confirm
your choice by pressing ENTER.
Compensation is still off, but the 9102 changes automatically to the Level
menu.
4 Push the Ext. Dev. Comp. softkey until “on” is highlighted.
The text “Ext. Dev.”, together with the name of the file loaded, appears on
the upper left-hand corner of the results display.
NOTE
Steps 1 thru 3 may be omitted if a file had been previously selected. In this
case, select the Level menu and continue with step 4.
Turning external device
compensation off
110
1 In the main menu, select the Level menu.
2 Press Ext. Dev. Comp. until “off” is highlighted.
The text “Ext. Dev.” to the left of the results display disappears.
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Applying special functions on the signal
Deleting files for external
device compensation
You can delete files containing compensation parameters as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Level > Ext. Dev. Memory.
2 a. To delete an individual compensation file from the 9102 memory, push
Delete Ext. Dev. Comp. Select a file name and press ENTER.
The compensation file is deleted from the list. Note that there will be no
warning; once you have selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will
occur immediately.
b. To delete all the compensation files from the 9102, push Delete All and
confirm by pressing ENTER.
All compensation files are deleted.
Applying special functions on the signal
This section shows how the measurement can be triggered and how the number
of measurements can be limited.
Using a trigger
The 9102 can either start signal analysis at a random point in time, or start the
measurement when a given signal threshold is passed. Starting measurements
depending on the actual signal level is only supported in zero span mode.
Selecting untriggered signal analysis
1 In the the main menu push Freq > Trigger.
The Trigger menu appears.
2 Push the Free Run softkey.
The softkey is highlighted and the 9102 is ready for measurements at
random times.
Selecting a trigger threshold in the RF signal
1 In the main menu push Freq > Trigger.
The Trigger menu appears.
2 Push the Video softkey.
The Video softkey is highlighted and an input field for the trigger level
appears.
NOTE
The Video trigger is available in zero span mode only, otherwise the softkey
description is grayed out.
3 Enter the trigger level (in dBm) and complete the entry by pushing either the
GHZ/DBM or the ENTER key.
The trigger threshold is displayed at the power axis; the symbol also indicates the slope (direction in which the signal passes the threshold to start
the measurement).
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4 If necessary, change the slope between positive and negative direction by
pushing the Slope softkey.
The active slope is indicated at the power axis by the following symbol (see
also Figure 37):
Figure 37 Triggered measurement (in the time domain)
Using an external trigger
In order to use a trigger signal generated by an external device, proceed as
follows:
1 Connect the external device to the EXT. TRIG. connector on the top of the
instrument.
2 In the the main menu, enter the Sweep menu by pushing Freq > Trigger.
The Trigger menu appears.
3 Push the Extern softkey.
The softkey is highlighted.
After activating the external trigger the instrument waits to receive an
impulse. When an impulse is detected on the external trigger entrance one
sweep is performed. Afterwards the instrument waits for the next trigger
event.
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Setting up the trace
Performing a limited
number of measurements
The 9102 can run measurements continuously or a defined number of times.
Limiting the number of measurements can be useful for statistical analyses.
1 In the main menu, select Freq > Sweep.
The Sweep menu appears.
2 Select the trigger mode: Push Cont. for continuous measurements or Single
for a limited number of measurements.
The selected trigger mode is highlighted.
3 To enter the number of measurements, push the Single Count softkey,
enter a number in the range from 1 to 1000 and press ENTER.
If Trigger Mode is set to Single, the 9102 performs the defined number of
measurements and enters hold mode.
– To restart single-mode measurements, push the HOLD/RUN function key or
the Single softkey.
– To stop a continuous measurement, push the HOLD/RUN function key. Push
it again to resume measurements.
Setting up the trace
Figure 38 Example of two traces
The trace functions provide different views of the measurements, for example
the actual measurement or an average over the last couple of measurements.
You can even select two different views of the measurement. Another possibility
is to compare the actual measurement with an older measurement which has
been stored in the 9102 and loaded to one of the trace views (see section
“Storing and loading traces” on page 118).
The 9102 samples many measurements for each frequency point. With the
detector functions, you can define the method to select which of the samples is
displayed.
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Setting up the trace
Selecting the trace mode
The 9102 has five different modes to display a trace:
– In actual mode, the 9102 shows a complete new measurement in each trace.
Subsequent traces are independent of each other.
– In hold mode, the last measurement is kept on the display; measurements
continue but are not displayed.
– In max hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and, for each
frequency point, compares the new measurement with the previous result. If
the new measurement value is higher than the previous result, the new
measurement value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result
value is kept. This way, the highest result since the start of the Max hold
measurement (or a parameter change) is kept and displayed.
– Similarly, in min hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and
compares the new measurement with the previous result. If the new
measurement value is lower than the previous result, the new measurement
value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result value is kept.
This way, the lowest result since the start of the Min hold measurement (or a
parameter change) is kept and displayed.
– In average mode, the new measurement and previous ones are averaged for
each frequency point displayed. The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm for
averaging.
To select whether you want to view an actual measurement, stop and hold the
last measurement, see the lowest or highest data for each frequency or an
average value, proceed as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Trace.
2 Select the trace you want to modify (Trace A or Trace B) using the horizontal softkeys.
3 Select the trace mode with the vertical softkeys (Actual, Hold, Max hold,
Min hold, Average).
The trace mode is shown at the left-hand side of the vertical axis, e.g.
A (ACT).
NOTE
For fastest valid results it is advisable to briefly activate the actual mode
before selecting any other mode.
NOTE
When the trace is on hold, the measurement and failure counters continue
counting. A second trace, if active, continues updating.
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Setting up the trace
Turning the second trace
on and off
You can define two different trace views, e.g. one with the actual values and one
with the maximum values. While the first view (Trace A) is always active, the
second can be switched off. The functions of turning Trace B on or off and
selecting the trace mode are combined as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace B.
2 To turn trace B on, select the trace mode (Actual, Hold, Max hold, Min
hold, or Average). To turn trace B off, select Off.
If activated, the trace mode is displayed left to the vertical axis, e.g.
B (MAX).
Subtracting trace B from
trace A
If you have used two different trace views as described above, you can show the
difference between trace A and trace B by subtracting trace B from trace A as
follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Subtract A – B –> A.
2 Select on to subtract trace B from trace A. On the left-hand side of the
result area the Term “Subtract“ will now be displayed to indicate that a
mathematical function is being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
NOTE
If trace A is on Hold, this function is not available and thus the
Subtract A – B –> A softkey is greyed out.
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Setting up the trace
Adding trace B to trace A
If you have used two different trace views, you can also show the sum of
trace A and trace B by adding the two traces as follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Add A + B –> A.
2 Select on to add B to trace A. On the left-hand side of the result area the
term “Add“ will now be displayed to indicate that a mathematical function is
being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
Trace Offset
As soon as you use one of the two mathematical functions, Subtract A + B → A
or Add A + B → A, the Trace Offset function is activated. You can use this function to adjust the trace display, if the mathematical calculation performed
causes the resulting trace to move outside the display area. In order to bring the
trace back into view, use the Trace Offset softkey to modify the offset value until
the trace moves back into the display area.
Defining the number of
measurements for
averaging
When the trace mode is set to averaging, it may be useful to adjust the number
of measurements over which the 9102 averages the results. The average count
value that can be defined in the Trace menus applies to both traces alike.
The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm in which a new result is added to the older
averages with a weighting factor; the description below indicates how to change
this weighting factor.
1 Select the Trace menu (select Trace > Trace A or Trace B from the main
menu).
2 Push the Average Count softkey.
The Average input field opens.
3 Enter the number of measurements over which to average the results, in the
range from 2 to 128.
4 Press ENTER.
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Setting up the trace
Selecting the detection
method
For each new measurement, the 9102 selects one or two values from a number
of measurements for each frequency value. The method is user-definable; the
following methods are available (see also Figure 39):
– Positive/negative peak: Both the largest and smallest values are taken and
displayed as a vertical bar.
– Positive peak: Only the largest value is displayed.
– Negative peak: The smallest value is shown.
– Sample: A sample measurement value is picked.
– If the 9132 RMS Detector Option is installed and activated on your 9102, the
root mean square detector showing the RMS-effective level of the measured
signal is also available. If the 9132 RMS Detector Option is not installed on
your instrument the RMS detector will be greyed out.
Figure 39 Trace detectors
The detection method applies to both traces. Select the detection method as
follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Detect.
2 Select the trace method from the Detector section of the vertical softkeys.
The selected detection method is indicated at the left-hand side of the
display.
Copying traces inside the
9102
You can copy an actual measurement from trace A to trace B or vice versa; this
way you can keep the last measurement results on the screen and at the same
time continue measuring or change the settings of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer. The previous results in the target trace will be erased; the target trace
will assume hold mode.
To copy the measurement data from one trace to another, proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Function.
2 To copy the measurement results from trace A to trace B, press
Copy A → B.
To copy results from trace B to trace A, press Copy B → A.
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Storing and loading traces
Figure 40 Trace function menu
NOTE
If you first press Copy A → B, then Copy B → A (or vice versa), both traces
will display the same results and will be in hold mode.
Storing and loading traces
Figure 41 Trace A menu
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Storing and loading traces
The 9102 provides the capability to store up to 99 traces in the 9102 and load
them again at random. The stored trace can then be examined or compared to a
recent measurement. In addition, stored traces can also be transferred to a PC
using the 9100 Data Exchange Software which is being delivered with the 9102.
For details on the software refer to Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”.
Storing a trace
You can store either trace A or B. Any trace can be stored under a name with up
to 11 characters. The procedure to enter text in alphanumerical input fields is
explained in section “Entering numbers and text” on page 24. Note that along
with the trace, the instrument settings such as frequency range, level range and
markers are stored.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press either Store Trace
An input field opens, allowing you to enter a name for the trace. Below the
input field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter a name for the trace. To use a modified trace name, you can move the
cursor to a suitable trace name with the UP/DOWN cursor keys. The
selected trace name also appears in the input field; use the LEFT/RIGHT
cursor keys to move the cursor to the appropriate position within the trace
name to enter additional characters or delete existing ones.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is stored under the selected name.
Reusing a trace name
Reloading a trace
You cannot overwrite an existing trace using the same trace name. If you want
to reuse a trace name, you will have to delete the old trace first.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push either Recall Trace.
An input field opens, allowing you to enter the trace name. Below the input
field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter the name of the trace to load, or choose one with the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is displayed.
NOTE
Along with the trace, the 9102 also loads the settings that were used when
the trace was saved. These will overwrite the current settings such as frequency range, reference level and markers.
Deleting a trace
Stored traces can be deleted. Note that there will be no warning; once you have
selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will occur immediately.
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Storing and loading traces
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press Delete Trace.
An input field for the name of the trace to be deleted appears, together with
a trace selection box.
3 Select the trace to be deleted using the UP/DOWN cursor keys. Alternatively, enter the trace name with the numeric keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The trace is deleted from the trace list.
5 Select another trace for deletion, or press ESCAPE to leave the input field
and the trace selection box.
Deleting all traces
Instead of deleting traces individually, all traces can be deleted in one step. You
will be asked to confirm this step.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press Delete All.
A query appears, asking you to confirm your selection.
3 Press ENTER to have all traces deleted.
The query disappears. All traces are deleted.
Storing and loading
instrument settings
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To store or load the instrument settings including frequency range, level setting
and markers, proceed as described in sections “Storing a trace” and “Reloading a
trace”.
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Viewing the transmission mode parameters
Viewing the transmission mode parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey
Figure 42 Transmission mode parameters
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Chapter 7
The 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection
Measurement Option
7
This chapter gives a general overview on the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection
Measurement Option. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option” on page 124
– “Specifications” on page 124
– “Measurement modes” on page 125
– “Hardware requirements” on page 126
– “Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge” on page 126
– “Calibration” on page 127
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About the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option
About the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option
The 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option, in conjunction with the
9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge, turns the 9102 into a full-featured reflection test set.
The functionality of the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is
tailored to the testing requirements involved in the acceptance and maintenance
of professional antenna systems, e.g. cellular base stations. This measurement
option is especially suitable for field applications. However, it also offers lab and
service applications, e.g. reflection measurements at passive RF devices (such as
attenuators, matching pads and filters) are possible.
During reflection measurements the 9102’s tracking generator works as a test
signal generator while the sprectrum analyzer measures the level of the reflected
signal. In the 9100 applications guide contained on the documentation CD delivered in your instrument you will find detailed application examples for the 9130
VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option.
Specifications
Table 14 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option
specifications
Measurement range
≥ 70 dB
Measurement units
dB, VSWR, mRho
Measurement sample points
501
Cable parameter edit
Auto or manual
Measurement method
Vector or scalar
Table 15 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge specifications
124
Frequency range
1 MHz to 4 GHz
Directivity (10 MHz to 3 GHz)
Typ. 30 dB
Insertion Loss
≤ 2 x 10 dB
Impedance
50 Ohm
DUT port return loss
≥ 18 dB
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Measurement modes
Measurement modes
The 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option offers three additional
measurement modes: reflection, distance to fault and cable loss. If the 9130
VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and activated on your
9102, three additional submenus besides signal generator and transmission are
available in the VSWR/Tracking... submenu:
– Reflection
This mode enables you to test performance and match of antenna systems
over the desired frequency range in one view.
For a description of measurements using the reflection mode refer to
“Reflection Operation” on page 129.
– Distance to Fault
This mode puts the attention on the cable and offers a detailed analysis of
feeder cables. Cable-related problems can be easily detected and located.
For a description of measurements using the distance to fault mode refer to
“Distance to Fault Operation” on page 147.
– Cable Loss
The cable loss mode allows you to determine the average cable loss.
For a description of measurements using the distance to fault mode refer to
“Cable Loss Operation” on page 157.
Figure 43 VSWR/Tracking menu
For details on selecting a measurement mode refer to “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 26.
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Hardware requirements
Hardware requirements
Following are the hardware requirements and recommendations for performing
measurements using the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option:
– 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge
– 9150 Tracking Generator
– Calibration set for N or 7/16“
– Test port extension cable N or 7/16“.
NOTE
The test port extenstion cable is especially recommended for reflection measurements. A direct connection to antenna feeder cables is in this case often
not practicable as these cables are usually very rigid. The test port extension
cable can have a minimal influence on measurement results. However, test
results are not influenced in a decisive way, so this effect can be disregarded.
For details on options and accessories for the 9102 please refer to “Options and
accessories” on page 4
Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge
For reflection measurements a measurement bridge is necessary. The 9160
VSWR/DTF Bridge is used to measure the load impedance of an antenna or
another device very precisely. It covers the full operational frequency range of
the 9102.
In order to set up the 9102 for VSWR/DTF reflection measurements simply
connect the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge to the RF in and RF out connectors as well
as to the Multi Port connector on the top of the instrument.
For details on the 9102’s connectors refer to “Connecting the 9102 Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer” on page 12.
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Calibration
Calibration
Before starting VSWR/DTF measurement the instrument needs to be calibrated.
For reference calibration a calibration standard with an open, short and load
reference connector has to be connected. Willtek offers calibration sets Open/
Short/Load Type 7/16“ male and Type N male as well as test port extension cables
with different connector standards (N and 7/16“ DIN). For ordering information
refer to “Options and accessories” on page 4. For a description of the calibration
procedure within the measurement modes reflection, distance to fault and cable
loss refer to Chapter 8, Chapter 9 and Chapter 10.
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Calibration
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Reflection Operation
8
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the
reflection mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the reflection mode” on page 130
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 131
– “Preparative steps” on page 131
– “Changing the frequency settings” on page 132
– “Reflection calibration” on page 135
– “Changing the units settings” on page 136
– “Setting up the level parameters” on page 137
– “Performing a limited number of measurements” on page 139
– “Setting up the trace” on page 139
– “Storing and loading traces” on page 142
– “Using limits” on page 144
– “Viewing the reflection mode parameters” on page 145
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About the reflection mode
About the reflection mode
Modern antenna systems for professional applications are characterised by a low
reflection and a good match. All components of the antenna system should be
matched to 50 Ohm, the standard impedance for professional wireless equipment. If all components are matched, the system’s efficiency is at its maximum
level. The better the match the better the ratio between radiated and lost RF
energy.
The reflection mode enables you to test performance and match of antenna
systems over the desired frequency range in one view and to validate performance for acceptance and maintenance.
During reflection measurements the 9102’s tracking generator generates a test
signal. The 9102 measures the signal level reflected by the antenna. For
measuring the load impedance of an antenna very precisely with a linear behaviour over the full operational frequency of the 9102, the 9160 VSWR DTF bridge
is used. The reflection measurement modes offers scalar and vector reflection
measurements and dipslays all common reflection measurement units such as
return loss, rho, VSWR and the reflected power ratio.
Figure 44 shows an example for a return loss measurement results display.
Figure 44 Example of a return loss measurement
On the measurement results screen markers are usually set on the limits of the
uplink and downlink band. These are the ranges which are the interesting parts
of the spectrum displayed. Two further markers are set on the maximum reflection within those bands to indicate whether the antenna system under test
performs within the usual reflection limits of 17 to 20 dB return loss. For a
detailed application example for the reflection measurement mode refer to the
applications guide contained on the documentation CD delivered with your
instrument.
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Selecting the measurement mode
Selecting the measurement mode
To select the reflection mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select VSWR/Tracking ... > Reflection.
The reflection main menu appears.
NOTE
This mode is available for selection, if the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and acitivated on your instrument.
Preparative steps
Before starting the measurement the following preparative steps are necessary:
– Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge
For details on this procedure refer to “Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF
Bridge” on page 126.
– Selecting the desired frequency band
– Calibration
The next section section shows how to change the frequency settings on the
9102. This section is followed by a description of the calibration process.
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Changing the frequency settings
Changing the frequency settings
Figure 45 Frequency menu
There are different methods to set the frequency range to be measured; the range
can be expressed by either the start and stop frequencies (i.e. first and last
frequencies on the display), or by center frequency and span (i.e. the center and
the frequency range), or by other combinations of center frequency, span, start
and stop frequencies.
All four parameters are accessible in the Freq menu. On the main menu, however,
only one of the combinations mentioned above is shown, depending on the
parameter last entered.
NOTE
Changing a frequency parameter may affect an associated parameter.
Example: If you change the span to the maximum of 4 GHz, the start and stop
frequencies are changed to 0 and 4 GHz, respectively.
Setting start and stop
frequency
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Reflection main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Start and Stop softkeys.
2 Push the Start softkey.
An entry field appears, indicating the start frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
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4 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz).
If the start frequency entered is lower than the stop frequency, the horizontal axis will display the range from the new start to the stop frequency.
If the new start frequency is higher than or equal to the stop frequency, the
start frequency is used as the center frequency with zero span, i.e. the signal
at the selected frequency will be shown in the time domain.
5 Push the Stop softkey and enter the frequency for the right end of the
display.
You can also place softkeys for the start and stop frequencies available on the
main menu by changing the frequency mode, see “Changing the main menu for
different frequency parameters”.
Setting center frequency
and span
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Reflection main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Center and Span. An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the step size for the up/down
cursor keys.
2 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
3 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz, KHZ/DBµV/MS for kilohertz, or
ENTER for hertz).
4 Push the Span softkey and enter the frequency for the range from the left
to the right end of the display.
You can also place softkeys for the center frequency and the span available on
the main menu by changing the frequency mode, see section “Changing the main
menu for different frequency parameters” below.
Changing the main menu
for different frequency
parameters
The Reflection main menu shows two softkeys for the definition of the frequency
range on the display. Different methods exist to define the range as depicted
above; you can configure these softkeys to one of the two allowable combinations as follows:
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq > Freq Mode.
2 Select the combination of softkeys that you want to see in the main menu
(Start/Stop or Center/Span).
3 Return to the main menu by pushing the Main ... softkey.
The main menu appears and displays the selected combination of keys.
Note that the description of the horizontal frequency axis changes with the
selected parameter set.
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Changing the frequency settings
Viewing the complete
frequency band
To change the frequency range to the full bandwidth supported by the 9102,
proceed as follows:
1 From the Reflection main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Full Span softkey.
The leftmost frequency changes to 0 Hz and the rightmost frequency to
4 GHz.
Performing measurements
in the time domain
Measurements on a selected center frequency can also be displayed in the time
domain.
1 From the Reflection main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Center softkey and enter the desired center frequency; close the
input field by selecting the appropriate unit with one of the enter keys.
3 Push the Zero Span softkey.
The horizontal axis becomes the time axis. The scale width is identical to the
sweep time.
Selecting the step size for
the frequency input
The center, start and stop frequencies can be set either by entering a new value
with the numeric keys, or by using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) to increase or
decrease the current setting. The step size for an arrow keypress can either be
selected automatically by the 9102, or manually adjusted.
Manually setting the frequency step size
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey.
The Freq Step entry field opens.
3 Enter a new frequency step value and close the entry field by pressing Enter.
The auto/manual selection switches to manual and the selected frequency
step size is displayed on the softkey.
Setting the frequency step size selection to automatic
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey several times until the “auto” selection is highlighted.
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Reflection calibration
Reflection calibration
Before starting the measurement the instrument needs to be calibrated with a
reference match resistor. For details on available calibration sets refer to
“Options and accessories” on page 4 and “Calibration” on page 127. On the left
handside of the results display a red icon reading “Calibrate“ informs you that a
calibration needs to be performed. You can perform a vector or scalar calibration
for your measurement. In order to calibrate the instrument for your reflection
measurement proceed as follows:
1 Connect the test port extension cable to the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge.
2 In the Reflection main menu press Reflection Cal. softkey. the Reflection
Calibration menu is displayed.
Figure 46 Reflection Calibration menu
3 In this menu you can select the mode to be used for your measurement by
pressing the Scalar or Vector softkey. The scalar measurement measures
the level of the reflected signal. The vector measurement is even more
precise and also measures the phase of the reflected signal. It increases
measurement accuracy as well as the return loss measurement range.
The 9102 will guide you through the calibration process by onscreen
messages as shown in Figure 46. When prompted as shown connect the calibration set to the test port extension cable and press Continue. You can
abort the calibration process by pressing the Cancel ! softkey.
4 When calibration is completed the Reflection main menu will be displayed
again. On the left handside of the results display the calibration icon will
now be displayed in green and read “Calib’d“ (Calibrated).
The measurement graph shows full reflection (0 dB return loss) as soon as the
calibration set is removed. The instrument is now ready for starting the reflection
measurement.
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Changing the units settings
NOTE
When performing a number of measurements it can be necessary to repeat
the calibration process due to temperature changes etc. This is regular behaviour. Furthermore if you change the frequency band, calibration has to be
repeated. As soon as calibration is necessary the 9102 will inform you by displaying the red “Calibrate“ icon.
Changing the units settings
The reflection mode supports all common reflection measurement units:
– Return loss
The most common reflection measurement unit. Using this unit the attenuation of the reflected signal against the test signal power is measured. Due to
the fact that the return loss is linked to the signal power this measurement
unit is very easy to handle. A return loss of 20 dB for example, means that
1/100 of the transmitted power is reflected back to the radio. Usually a
return loss of around 17 dB is required to accept an antenna as functional.
– VSWR
This unit is based on the RF signal voltage. It represents a ratio of transmitted and received voltage. Using special alignment charts all units can be
easily compared to each other. A return loss of 20 dB for example is equivalent to a VSWR of 1.22.
– Reflection factor
This unit is also based on the RF signal voltage and shows the reflection in
mRho.
– Reflection power
This unit shows the reflected power ratio as a percentage.
In order to select the measurement unit for your reflection measurement proceed
as follows:
1 In the Reflection main menu select Level > Units. The Unit menu is
displayed on the right-hand side of the screen.
2 Select Return Loss, VSWR, Refl. Factor or Refl. Power by pressing the respective softkey followed by ENTER. The selected unit will be displayed on the
left-hand side of the results display.
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Setting up the level parameters
Setting up the level parameters
After specifying the unit for your reflection measurement you can adjust the
level parameters. Depending on the unit you specified via the Units menu the
display of the Level menu changes to enable you to set the level parameters for
the individual units as follows:
Setting the reference level
for return loss
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. softkey or select Level followed by Ref.
Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new reference level either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actual set output power.
Changing the vertical
scale for return loss
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
20 dB per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) in 1-3-5 steps as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Scale softkey.
The Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number of dB per division numerically
and pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Setting the maximum for
VSWR
1 In the main menu, push the Max VSWR softkey or select Level followed by
Ref. Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new maximum VSWR either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new maximum level appears at the top of the vertical axis.
Changing the scale for
VSWR
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to 1000
per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the VSWR Scale softkey.
The VSWR Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number per division numerically and
pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
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Setting up the level parameters
Setting the maximum for
reflection factor
1 In the main menu, push the Max Refl Factor softkey or select Level
followed by Max Refl Factor. Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new maximum reflection factor either using the numeric keys,
closing the input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN
arrow keys.
The new maximum reflection factor appears at the top of the vertical axis.
Changing the scale for
reflection factor
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 0 to
2000 mRho per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Refl. Factor Scale softkey.
The Refl. Factor Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number per division numerically and
pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Setting the maximum for
reflection power
1 In the main menu, push the Max Refl Power softkey or select Level
followed by Max Refl Power. Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new maximum reflection factor either using the numeric keys,
closing the input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN
arrow keys.
The new maximum reflection factor appears at the top of the vertical axis.
Changing the scale for
reflection power
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
200 % per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Refl. Power Scale softkey.
The Refl. Power Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number per division numerically and
pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
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Performing a limited number of measurements
Performing a limited number of measurements
The 9102 can run measurements continuously or a defined number of times.
Limiting the number of measurements can be useful for statistical analyses.
1 In the main menu, select Freq > Sweep.
The Sweep menu appears.
2 Select the trigger mode: Push Cont. for continuous measurements or Single
for a limited number of measurements.
The selected trigger mode is highlighted.
3 To enter the number of measurements, push the Single Count softkey,
enter a number in the range from 1 to 1000 and press ENTER.
If Trigger Mode is set to Single, the 9102 performs the defined number of
measurements and enters hold mode.
– To restart single-mode measurements, push the HOLD/RUN function key or
the Single softkey.
– To stop a continuous measurement, push the HOLD/RUN function key. Push
it again to resume measurements.
Setting up the trace
The trace functions provide different views of the measurements, for example
the actual measurement or an average over the last couple of measurements.
You can even select two different views of the measurement. Another possibility
is to compare the actual measurement with an older measurement which has
been stored in the 9102 and loaded to one of the trace views (see section
“Storing and loading traces” on page 142).
Selecting the trace mode
The 9102 has five different modes to display a trace:
– In actual mode, the 9102 shows a complete new measurement in each trace.
Subsequent traces are independent of each other.
– In hold mode, the last measurement is kept on the display; measurements
continue but are not displayed.
– In max hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and, for each
frequency point, compares the new measurement with the previous result. If
the new measurement value is higher than the previous result, the new
measurement value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result
value is kept. This way, the highest result since the start of the Max hold
measurement (or a parameter change) is kept and displayed.
– Similarly, in min hold mode, the 9102 takes new measurements and
compares the new measurement with the previous result. If the new
measurement value is lower than the previous result, the new measurement
value becomes the new result value; otherwise the old result value is kept.
This way, the lowest result since the start of the Min hold measurement (or a
parameter change) is kept and displayed.
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Setting up the trace
– In average mode, the new measurement and previous ones are averaged for
each frequency point displayed. The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm for
averaging.
To select whether you want to view an actual measurement, stop and hold the
last measurement, see the lowest or highest data for each frequency or an
average value, proceed as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Trace.
2 Select the trace you want to modify (Trace A or Trace B) using the horizontal softkeys.
3 Select the trace mode with the vertical softkeys (Actual, Hold, Max hold,
Min hold, Average).
The trace mode is shown at the left-hand side of the vertical axis, e.g.
A (ACT).
NOTE
For fastest valid results it is advisable to briefly activate the actual mode
before selecting any other mode.
NOTE
When the trace is on hold, the measurement and failure counters continue
counting. A second trace, if active, continues updating.
Turning the second trace
on and off
You can define two different trace views, e.g. one with the actual values and one
with the maximum values. While the first view (Trace A) is always active, the
second can be switched off. The functions of turning Trace B on or off and
selecting the trace mode are combined as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace B.
2 To turn trace B on, select the trace mode (Actual, Hold, Max hold, Min
hold, or Average). To turn trace B off, select Off.
If activated, the trace mode is displayed left to the vertical axis, e.g.
B (MAX).
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Setting up the trace
Subtracting trace B from
trace A
If you have used two different trace views as described above, you can show the
difference between trace A and trace B by subtracting trace B from trace A as
follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Subtract A – B –> A.
2 Select on to subtract trace B from trace A. On the left-hand side of the
result area the Term “Subtract“ will now be displayed to indicate that a
mathematical function is being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
NOTE
If trace A is on Hold, this function is not available and thus the
Subtract A – B –> A softkey is greyed out.
Adding trace B to trace A
If you have used two different trace views, you can also show the sum of
trace A and trace B by adding the two traces as follows:
1 In the Trace menu select the softkey Trace Function followed by the
softkey Add A + B –> A.
2 Select on to add B to trace A. On the left-hand side of the result area the
term “Add“ will now be displayed to indicate that a mathematical function is
being performed.
3 The result is displayed in trace A.
Trace Offset
As soon as you use one of the two mathematical functions, Subtract A + B → A
or Add A + B → A, the Trace Offset function is activated. You can use this function to adjust the trace display, if the mathematical calculation performed
causes the resulting trace to move outside the display area. In order to bring the
trace back into view, use the Trace Offset softkey to modify the offset value until
the trace moves back into the display area.
Defining the number of
measurements for
averaging
When the trace mode is set to averaging, it may be useful to adjust the number
of measurements over which the 9102 averages the results. The average count
value that can be defined in the Trace menus applies to both traces alike.
The 9102 uses a recursive algorithm in which a new result is added to the older
averages with a weighting factor; the description below indicates how to change
this weighting factor.
1 Select the Trace menu (select Trace > Trace A or Trace B from the main
menu).
2 Push the Average Count softkey.
The Average input field opens.
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3 Enter the number of measurements over which to average the results, in the
range from 2 to 128.
4 Press ENTER.
Copying traces inside the
9102
You can copy an actual measurement from trace A to trace B or vice versa; this
way you can keep the last measurement results on the screen and at the same
time continue measuring or change the settings of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum
Analyzer. The previous results in the target trace will be erased; the target trace
will assume hold mode.
To copy the measurement data from one trace to another, proceed as follows:
1 From the main menu, select Trace > Trace Function.
2 To copy the measurement results from trace A to trace B, press
Copy A → B.
To copy results from trace B to trace A, press Copy B → A.
NOTE
If you first press Copy A → B, then Copy B → A (or vice versa), both traces
will display the same results and will be in hold mode.
Storing and loading traces
The 9102 provides the capability to store up to 99 traces in the 9102 and load
them again at random. The stored trace can then be examined or compared to a
recent measurement. In addition, stored traces can also be transferred to a PC
using the 9100 Data Exchange Software which is being delivered with the 9102.
For details on the software refer to Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”.
Storing a trace
You can store trace A and trace B. Any trace can be stored under a name with up
to 11 characters. The procedure to enter text in alphanumerical input fields is
explained in section “Entering numbers and text” on page 24. Note that along
with the trace, the instrument settings such as frequency range, level range and
markers are stored.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press either Store Trace..
An input field opens, allowing you to enter a name for the trace. Below the
input field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter a name for the trace. To use a modified trace name, you can move the
cursor to a suitable trace name with the UP/DOWN cursor keys. The
selected trace name also appears in the input field; use the LEFT/RIGHT
cursor keys to move the cursor to the appropriate position within the trace
name to enter additional characters or delete existing ones.
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4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is stored under the selected name.
Reusing a trace name
Reloading a trace
You cannot overwrite an existing trace using the same trace name. If you want
to reuse a trace name, you will have to delete the old trace first.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Push either Recall Trace.
An input field opens, allowing you to enter the trace name. Below the input
field, a list of existing traces is indicated.
3 Enter the name of the trace to load, or choose one with the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The input field closes and the trace is displayed.
NOTE
Along with the trace, the 9102 also loads the settings that were used when
the trace was saved. These will overwrite the current settings such as frequency range, reference level and markers.
Deleting a trace
Stored traces can be deleted. Note that there will be no warning; once you have
selected and requested a file to be deleted, this will occur immediately.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press Delete Trace.
An input field for the name of the trace to be deleted appears, together with
a trace selection box.
3 Select the trace to be deleted using the UP/DOWN cursor keys. Alternatively, enter the trace name with the numeric keys.
4 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The trace is deleted from the trace list.
5 Select another trace for deletion, or press ESCAPE to leave the input field
and the trace selection box.
Deleting all traces
Instead of deleting traces individually, all traces can be deleted in one step. You
will be asked to confirm this step.
1 In the main menu, select Trace > Trace Memory.
2 Press Delete All.
A query appears, asking you to confirm your selection.
3 Press ENTER to have all traces deleted.
The query disappears. All traces are deleted.
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Using limits
Storing and loading
instrument settings
To store or load the instrument settings including frequency range, level setting
and markers, proceed as described in sections “Storing a trace” and “Reloading a
trace”.
Using limits
When activating limit lines prepared for the band to be measured, the band’s
ends as well as the reflection limit can be identified in on view: the 9102 provides
a simple Pass/Fail verdict and displays the limit lines on screen:
Figure 47 Example of a results display
If the reflection is higher than the limit, the test result is displayed as “Fail“. For
details on defining and using limit lines refer to “Using limit lines” on page 31.
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Viewing the reflection mode parameters
Viewing the reflection mode parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey
Figure 48 Reflection mode parameters
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Viewing the reflection mode parameters
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Distance to Fault Operation
9
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the reflection mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the distance to fault mode” on page 148
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 149
– “Preparative steps” on page 149
– “Selecting the measurement unit” on page 149
– “Specifying the cable length” on page 150
– “Specifying cable settings” on page 150
– “Setting center frequency and span” on page 151
– “Distance to fault calibration” on page 152
– “Specifying the level parameters” on page 153
– “Setting up the trace” on page 154
– “Using limits” on page 154
– “Viewing the distance to fault parameters” on page 155
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About the distance to fault mode
About the distance to fault mode
The distance-to-fault measurement is essential for antenna installations. It
focuses on the cable measuring the reflection arising along it in order to detect
and locate weak connectors, cable kinks, water ingress and other cable-related
problems. This measurement is also called structural return loss and it displays
reflection arising at a certain cable position precisely in the location domain.
Thereby cable problems can be easily identified. The 9102 supports a detailed
analysis of the antenna feeder cable with a total length of up to 2000 m. The
high 501 points measurement resolution ensures quick and efficient troubleshooting by detecting even small reflections which result in a displayed distance
to fault.
Figure 49 Example of a distance-to-fault measurement
Figure 49 shows an example of a distance-to-fault results display. As in the other
measurement modes you can use markers to label all peaks. In the distance to
fault mode the markers appear in line style. For a detailed application example
for the distance to fault measurement mode refer to the applications guide
contained on the documentation CD delivered with your instrument.
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Selecting the measurement mode
Selecting the measurement mode
To select distance to fault mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select VSWR/Tracking ... > Distance to Fault.
The Distance to Fault main menu appears.
NOTE
This mode is available for selection, if the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and acitivated on your instrument.
Preparative steps
Before starting the measurement the following preparative steps are necessary:
– Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge
For details on this procedure refer to “Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF
Bridge” on page 126.
– Selecting the unit for reflection
– Specifying the cable settings, e.g. cable length
– Setting center frequency and span
– Calibration
The following sections describe unit selection, cable setting specification,
frequency selection and calibration.
Selecting the measurement unit
The first preparative step for your distance-to-fault measurement is selecting
the unit. The distance to fault mode offers the units dB and mRho. For DTF
measurements a linear scale unit like the reflection factor Rho is of advantage.
Therefore the unit mRho is the default setting.
In order to select the measurement unit for your distance-to-fault measurement
proceed as follows:
1 In the Distance to Fault main menu select Level > Units. The Unit menu is
displayed on the right handside of the screen.
2 Select dB or mRho by pressing the respective softkey followed by ENTER.
The selected unit will be displayed on the left handside of the results display:
“Ref.“ and “dB“, if you select dB. “Refl. factor“ and “mRho“, if you select Rho.
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Specifying the cable length
Specifying the cable length
One of the most important DTF measurement parameters is the cable length. In
order to achieve a practical results display it is recommended to set the cable
length to a value approximately 10 % higher than the actual cable length. The
cable length can be specified in metres or feet.
Selecting the distance unit
To select the distance unit proceed as follows:
1 In the Distance to Fault main menu press the Distance Unit Softkey.
2 Toggle the softkey to the required unit, metre or feet, and press ENTER. The
unit will be displayed in the cable length field of the results display as well
as on the Cable Length input field.
Setting the length
In order to set the cable length proceed as follows:
1 In the Distance to Fault main menu press the Cable Length softkey. The
Cable Length input field is displayed.
2 Enter the cable length in the unit specified and press ENTER.
Specifying cable settings
Willtek provides predefined cable parameter files for most known coaxial cables
used for antenna installations whithin the 9100 Data Exchange Software. These
parameter files can easily be uploaded to the 9102. However, the parameters for
rare cable types can be set step by step on the instrument.
Using predefined
parameter files
You can upload files containing predefined cable types via the 9100 Data
Exchange Software. For details on the upload procedure refer to “9100 Data
Exchange Software” on page 201. For a complete listing of the predefined cable
types available in the 9100 Data Exchange Software refer to “Predefined cable
types” on page 324. After uploading the files the cable types are stored on your
9102 and available for selection.
To select a cable type for a DTF measurement proceed as follows:
1 In the Distance to Fault main menu select Cable > Cable Memory. The
Cable Memory menu is displayed
2 Press the Recall Cable Type softkey. A dropdown list containing all cable
types stored on the system is displayed.
3 Select the required cable type using the UP/DOWN arrow keys and press
ENTER. The settings of the selected cable type are now automatically used
for the DTF measurement.
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Setting center frequency and span
Specifying parameters
step by step
For measurements on rare cable types the parameters can be set up via the Cable
Setting menu. For the values to be entered refer to the manufactuer’s information for the cable to be measured. In order to manually specify the cable parameters proceed as follows:
1 In the Distance to Fault main menu select Cable > Cable Setting. The
Cable Setting menu is displayed.
2 To specify the dielectric of the cable to be measured, which is linked to the
velocity factor, press the Cable Dielec. softkey. The Cable Dielectric input
field is displayed. Enter the cable dielectric and press ENTER.
3 To specify the propagation velocity of the cable to be measured, which is in
turn linked to the dielectric, press the Cable Velocity Factor softkey. The
Cable Velocity Factor input field is displayed. Enter the velocity factor and
press ENTER.
4 To specify the cable’s cut off frequency in GHz, which is the maximum
frequency up to which the cable transmitts, press the Cut Off Freq. softkey.
The Cut Off Frequency input field is displayed. Enter the frequency and press
ENTER.
5 To specify the cable attenuation in dBm per 100m or dBm per 100 ft at
1 GHz of the cable to be measured press the Cable Attn. softkey. This
softkey can be toggled between dB/100m and dB/100 ft. After pressing the
softkey the Cable Attenuation input field will be displayed accordingly. Enter
the attenuation and press Enter.
Setting center frequency and span
1 Push the CENT function key or the Center softkey in the Distance to Fault
main menu.
The vertical softkeys include Center and Span. An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the step size for the up/down
cursor keys.
2 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
3 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz, KHZ/DBµV/MS for kilohertz, or
ENTER for hertz).
4 Push the Span softkey. If you intend to set the span manually, enter the
frequency for the range from the left to the right end of the display. If you
want the span to be set automatically, toggle the Span softkey to auto.
NOTE
If you specify the same value for the center frequency as for the cable cutoff
frequency, your measurement becomes invalid as the cutoff frequency is the
maximum frequency up to which the cable transmitts signals. In this case the
measurement would not make any sense. For details on specifying the cable
cutoff frequency refer to “Specifying cable settings” on page 150.
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Distance to fault calibration
Distance to fault calibration
Before starting the measurement the instrument needs to be calibrated with a
reference match resistor. For details on available calibration sets refer to
“Options and accessories” on page 4 and “Calibration” on page 127. On the lefthand side of the results display a red icon reading “Calibrate“ informs you that a
calibration needs to be performed.
NOTE
To ensure that the calibration results in better rather than worse measurement accuracy, it is important that you know and enter the correct cable
parameters for the cable between the instrument and the calibration set. See
Table 16 for the parameters of cables delivered by Willtek for this purpose.
In order to calibrate the instrument for your distance-to-fault measurement
proceed as follows:
1 Connect the test port extension cable to the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge.
2 In the Distance to Fault main menu press DTF Cal. softkey. The distance to
fault Calibration menu is displayed.
Figure 50 Distance to fault Calibration menu
3 Push the Cal. Cab. Dielec. key to enter the dielectric constant, εr. See
Table 16 for the dielectric of cables delivered by Willtek for this purpose.
4 Push the Cal. Cab. Length key to enter the length of the calibration cable.
See Table 16 for the length of cables delivered by Willtek for this purpose.
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Specifying the level parameters
5 The 9102 will guide you through the calibration process by onscreen
messages as shown in Figure 50. When prompted as shown connect the calibration set to the test port extension cable and press Continue. You can
abort the calibration process by pressing the Cancel ! softkey.
6 When calibration is completed the Distance to Fault main menu will be
displayed again. On the left handside of the results display the calibration
icon will now be displayed in green and read “Calib’d“ (Calibrated).
NOTE
When performing a number of measurements it can be necessary to repeat
the calibration process due to temperature changes etc. This is a regular
behaviour. Furthermore, if you change the frequency band, calibration has to
be repeated. As soon as calibration is necessary the 9102 will inform you by
displaying the red “Calibrate“ icon.
Table 16 Parameters for Willtek-supplied cables
Cable description
Dielectric
constant εr
Length
Test port extension cable
2.3
1.0 m (3.3 ft)
SilverLine-TGTM TuffGripTM cable
2.04
1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Specifying the level parameters
After specifying the unit for your reflection meausrement you can adjust the
level parameters. Depending on the unit you specified via the Units menu the
display of the Level menu changes to enable you to set the level parameters for
the individual units as follows:
Setting the reference level
for dB
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. softkey or select Level followed by Ref.
Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new reference level either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actual set output power.
Changing the vertical
scale for dB
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
20 dB per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) in 1-3-5 steps as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Scale softkey.
The Scale input field opens.
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Setting up the trace
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number of dB per division numerically
and pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Setting the maximum for
reflection factor
1 In the main menu, push the Max Refl Factor softkey or select Level
followed by Max Refl Factor. Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new maximum reflection factor either using the numeric keys,
closing the input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN
arrow keys.
The new maximum reflection factor appears at the top of the vertical axis.
Changing the scale for
reflection factor
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 0 to
2000 mRho per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Refl. Factor Scale softkey.
The Refl. Factor Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number per division numerically and
pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Setting up the trace
The trace functions provide different views of the measurements, for example
the actual measurement or an average over the last couple of measurements.
You can even select two different views of the measurement. Another possibility
is to compare the actual measurement with an older measurement which has
been stored in the 9102 and loaded to one of the trace views. For details on
setting up traces refer to “Setting up the trace” on page 139 in
Chapter 8 “Reflection Operation”.
Using limits
As in the reflection mode you can also use limit lines for distance to fault
measurements. For details on the usage of limits refer to “Using limit lines” on
page 31 in Chapter 2 “General Operation”.
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Viewing the distance to fault parameters
Viewing the distance to fault parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey
Figure 51 Distance to fault parameters
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Chapter 10
Cable Loss Operation
10
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the reflection mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the cable loss mode” on page 158
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 158
– “Preparative steps” on page 159
– “Changing the frequency settings” on page 159
– “Cable loss calibration” on page 162
– “Setting up the level parameters” on page 163
– “Performing a limited number of measurements” on page 163
– “Using limits” on page 164
– “Viewing the cable loss parameters” on page 164
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About the cable loss mode
About the cable loss mode
The cable loss mode is an additional measurement mode for determining the
transmission quality of cables. It displays the average cable loss in dB. For
measurement similar parameters and procedures as for the other VSWR/DTF
measurement modes as well as cable calibration are necessary.
Figure 52 Cable loss measurement screen
Selecting the measurement mode
To select the cable loss mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select VSWR/Tracking ... > Cable Loss.
The Cable Loss main menu appears.
NOTE
This mode is available for selection, if the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and acitivated on your instrument.
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Preparative steps
Preparative steps
Before starting the measurement the following preparative steps are
necessary:
– Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge
For details on this procedure refer to “Connecting the 9160 VSWR/DTF
Bridge” on page 126.
– Selecting the desired frequency band
– Calibration
The next section section shows how to change the frequency settings on the
9102. It is followed by a description of the calibration process.
Changing the frequency settings
Figure 53 Frequency menu
There are different methods to set the frequency range to be measured; the range
can be expressed by either the start and stop frequencies (i.e. first and last
frequency on the display), or by center frequency and span (i.e. the center and
the frequency range), or by other combinations of center frequency, span, start
and stop frequencies.
All four parameters are accessible in the Freq menu. On the main menu, however,
only one of the combinations mentioned above is shown, depending on the
previously entered parameter.
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Changing the frequency settings
NOTE
Changing a frequency parameter may affect an associated parameter.
Example: If you change the span to the maximum of 4 GHz, the start and stop
frequencies are changed to 0 and 4 GHz, respectively.
Setting start and stop
frequency
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Reflection main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Start and Stop softkeys.
2 Push the Start softkey.
An entry field appears, indicating the start frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
4 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz).
If the start frequency entered is lower than the stop frequency, the horizontal axis will display the range from the new start to the stop frequency.
If the new start frequency is higher than or equal to the stop frequency, the
start frequency is used as the center frequency with zero span, i.e. the signal
at the selected frequency will be shown in the time domain.
5 Push the Stop softkey and enter the frequency for the right end of the
display.
You can also place softkeys for the start and stop frequencies available on the
main menu by changing the frequency mode, see “Changing the main menu for
different frequency parameters”.
Setting center frequency
and span
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Reflection main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Center and Span. An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the step size for the up/down
cursor keys.
2 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
3 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for Giga
Hertz, MHZ/DB/µS for Mega Hertz, KHZ/DBµV/MS for Kilo Hertz, or
ENTER for Hertz).
4 Push the Span softkey and enter the frequency for the range from the left
to the right end of the display.
You can also place softkeys for the center frequency and the span available on
the main menu by changing the frequency mode, see section “Changing the main
menu for different frequency parameters” below.
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Changing the frequency settings
Changing the main menu
for different frequency
parameters
The Reflection main menu shows two softkeys for the definition of the frequency
range on the display. Different methods exist to define the range as depicted
above; you can configure these softkeys to one of the two allowable combinations as follows:
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq > Freq Mode.
2 Select the combination of softkeys that you want to see in the main menu
(Start/Stop or Center/Span).
3 Return to the main menu by pushing the Main ... softkey.
The main menu appears and displays the selected combination of keys.
Note that the description of the horizontal frequency axis changes with the
selected parameter set.
Viewing the complete
frequency band
To change the frequency range to the full bandwidth supported by the 9102,
proceed as follows:
1 From the Reflection main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Full Span softkey.
The leftmost frequency changes to 0 Hz and the rightmost frequency to
4 GHz.
Performing measurements
in the time domain
Measurements on a selected center frequency can also be displayed in the time
domain.
1 From the Reflection main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Center softkey and enter the desired center frequency; close the
input field by selecting the appropriate unit with one of the enter keys.
3 Push the Zero Span softkey.
The horizontal axis becomes the time axis. The scale width is identical to the
sweep time.
Selecting the step size for
the frequency input
The center, start and stop frequencies can be set either by entering a new value
with the numeric keys, or by using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) to increase or
decrease the current setting. The step size for an arrow keypress can either be
selected automatically by the 9102, or manually adjusted.
Manually setting the frequency step size
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey.
The Freq Step entry field opens.
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Cable loss calibration
3 Enter a new frequency step value and close the entry field by pressing Enter.
The auto/manual selection switches to manual and the selected frequency
step size is displayed on the softkey.
Setting the frequency step size selection to automatic
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey several times until the “auto” selection is highlighted.
Cable loss calibration
Before starting the measurement the instrument needs to be calibrated with a
reference match resistor. For details on available calibration sets refer to
“Options and accessories” on page 4 and “Calibration” on page 127. On the lefthand side of the results display a red icon reading “Calibrate“ informs you that a
calibration needs to be performed. In order to calibrate the instrument for your
cable loss measurement proceed as follows:
1 Connect the test port extension cable to the 9160 VSWR/DTF Bridge.
2 In the reflection main menu press Cable Loss Cal. softkey. The cable loss
Calibration menu is displayed.
Figure 54 Cable Loss Calibration menu
3 The 9102 will guide you through the calibration process by onscreen
messages as shown in Figure 54. When prompted as shown connect the calibration set to the test port extension cable and press Continue. You can
abort the calibration process by pressing the Cancel ! softkey.
4 When calibration is completed the Reflection main menu will be displayed
again. On the lefthand side of the results display the calibration icon will
now be displayed in green and read “Calib’d“ (Calibrated).
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Setting up the level parameters
The measurement graph shows full reflection (0 dB cable loss) as soon as the
calibration set is removed. The instrument is now ready for starting the cable loss
measurement.
NOTE
When performing a number of measurements it can be necessary to repeat
the calibration process due to temperature changes etc. This is a regular
behaviour. Furthermore, if you change the frequency band, calibration has to
be repeated. As soon as calibration is necessary the 9102 will inform you by
displaying the red “Calibrate“ icon.
Setting up the level parameters
Setting the reference level
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. softkey or select Level followed by Ref.
Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The Reference Level input field opens.
2 Enter the new reference level either using the numeric keys, closing the
input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN arrow
keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actual set output power.
Changing the vertical
scale
The scale for the vertical axis (power) can be changed in the range from 1 to
20 dB per division (vertical line in the displayed grid) in 1-3-5 steps as follows:
1 In the main menu, select Level.
2 Push the Scale softkey.
The Scale input field opens.
3 Select a new scale by entering a new number of dB per division numerically
and pressing the ENTER or MHZ/DB/µS key, or by pushing the UP/DOWN
cursor keys.
Performing a limited number of measurements
The 9102 can run measurements continuously or a defined number of times.
Limiting the number of measurements can be useful for statistical analyses. For
details on limiting the number of measurements refer to “Performing a limited
number of measurements” on page 139 in Chapter 8 “Reflection Operation”.
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Using limits
Using limits
As in the reflection mode you can also use limit lines for distance to fault
measurements. For details on the usage of limits refer to “Using limit lines” on
page 31 in Chapter 2 “General Operation”.
Viewing the cable loss parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey
Figure 55 Cable loss parameters
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Chapter 11
EMF (EMI) Operation
11
This chapter describes the instrument’s functions that are specific to the EMF
(EMI) mode. Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “EMF measurements” on page 167
– “Measurement methods” on page 169
– “Measurement antennas” on page 171
– “EMF measurements with the 9102” on page 177
– “Connecting the antenna” on page 178
– “Selecting the measurement mode” on page 179
– “Selecting the unit” on page 179
– “Selecting the frequency range” on page 180
– “Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT” on page 183
– “Specifying the display calculation” on page 184
– “Specifying level settings” on page 184
– “Performing automatic measurements” on page 185
– “Performing manual measurements” on page 188
– “Using limits” on page 191
– “Using Markers” on page 191
– “Viewing the EMF (EMI) mode parameters” on page 192
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About the EMF (EMI) mode
About the EMF (EMI) mode
More and more sources of electromagnetic fields, mostly transmitters for mobile
radio, broadcasting and other radio services, are being created and installed.
Equipment for home and office communication and other technical devices also
contribute to the exposure to electromagnetic fields in the working environment
and at home. For health protection regulatory bodies have implemented limit
recommendations which were turned into national laws. Network operators,
companies installing transmitters for broadcasting and regulatory bodies are
faced by the challenge of verifying that limits specified for electromagnetic
fields are observed by the sources at hand.
The 9102 in conjunction with the 9131 EMF Measurement Option offers the EMF
(EMI) measurement mode allowing you to perform radiation measurements
easily and efficiently. All you need to effectively record electromagnetic fields is
the 9102 with the 9131 EMF Measurement Option installed and the appropriate
antenna for your measurement method. Willtek offers a range of antennas for
different purposes. For further details on different measurement antenna types
refer to “Measurement antennas” on page 171. The following picture shows a
typical application example, an EMF measurement performed using the 9102 in
conjunction with an isotropic antenna, the Willtek 9171 Isotropic Antenna,
mounted on a tripod.
The EMF (EMI) measurement mode enables you to perform automatic EMF
measurements upon the press of a button. In this mode, the 9102 measures the
electromagnetic field over a user-definable frequency range and displays the
field strength in V/m or the power density in W/m2. All necessary functions, e.g.
detecting the peak value over a given time period or integrating the broadband
signal power over a given frequency range, are available. You can compare the
recorded measurement values with the relevant threshold values.
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EMF measurements
Results can be displayed in logarithmic or linear format, the displayed range
quickly and easily being adapted to the measured signal. The measured signals
can be displayed both graphically and numerically in logarithmic or linear terms
as shown in the following example.
Figure 56 EMF (EMI) measurement
EMF measurements
Electromagnetic fields are usually measured over a defined frequency range to
determine the amount of radiation emitted by certain sources, such as broadcast
stations or mobile phone base stations. Thus, measurements should be performed
on a frequency where radiation is expected, e.g. on a broadcast or cellular radio
frequency. For precise measurements a frequency-selective receiver with high
sensitivity, a large dynamic range and precise measurements of the field strength
is required. These are the prerequisites for accurate and reproducible measurement results.
Basically, there are two different measurement approaches in EMF verification:
– Radiation emission and
– radiation immission
The equipment and the methods used vary according to measurement type. With
the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer in conjunction with the 9131 EMF
Measurement Option and the appropriate accessories, i.e. antennas, Willtek
offers a measurement solution covering the different approaches and requirements.
In the following two sections the radiation emission and immission concepts are
explained. Furthermore these sections provide you with an overview on the
equipment needed in order to perform EMF measurements depending on the
measurement approach.
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Radiation emission
Using this measurement type operators of cellular networks and broadcast
stations verify that the radiation of a particular transmitter installed is within
the limits specified by law and regulatory bodies. In many countries worldwide
regulatory bodies stipulate a proof of regulation adherence. The radiation emission measurement is a directional measurement determining the electromagnetic field emitted by a transmitter. Within the measurement setup a directional
antenna helps to measure the emitted radiation.
Measurement setup for
emission measurements
For performing emission measurements according to ICNIRP (International
Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) standard with the 9102 you
just need the following two pieces of equipment:
– 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer equipped with the
9131 EMF Measurement Option and the 9132 RMS Detector Option
– A directional antenna
Willtek offers two different directional antennas for performing radiation emission measurements. For a detailed description of these two antennas refer to
“Directional antennas” on page 176.
This measurement setup consisting of the 9102 and the directional antenna
provides a handheld solution for performing radiation emission measurements
easily and efficiently.
Radiation immission
For engineering offices and regulatory bodies the specific radiation exposure
caused by all radiation sources in a particular place is of special interest. During
an immission measurement the electromagnetic field exposure is measured at
different locations within a designated area to identify minimum and/or
maximum radiation. Typical applications for this kind of measurement are for
example:
– Measurements for defining security zones in close proximity of transmitter
sites
– Measurements for determining radiation exposure of representative and
especially sensitive facilities, e.g. schools, nursery schools and hospitals
situated in proximity of transmitter sites
– Long-term measurements for determining immission fluctuations
Measurement setup for
immission measurements
As for emission measurements you just need two pieces of equipment for
performing immission measurements with the 9102:
– 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer equipped with the
9131 EMF Measurement Option and the 9132 RMS Detector Option
– 9170 Biconical Antenna (for a detailed description refer to “9170 Biconical
Antenna” on page 172)
or
– 9171 Isotropic Antenna (for a detailed description refer to “9171 Isotropic
Antenna” on page 174)
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Measurement methods
The type of antenna you use depends on your measurement requirements. The
detailed descriptions of the two different antenna types in “Measurement
antennas” on page 171 provide you with useful information for selecting the
appropriate measurement antenna for your EMF measurement.
In this measurement setup the 9102 captures the electromagnetic waves from
all directions and displays the overall field strength in the desired frequency
range.
Measurement methods
The location for performing EMF measurements is usually predefined. A main
goal of performing EMF measurements is determining the radiation people are
exposed to in their everyday life, so the measurements are usually done at locations where people stay for a while, e.g. their work place, home, but also restaurants or sidewalks etc. At the measurement locations a search for the maximum
field strength has to be performed in order to determine the radiation exposure
caused for example by mobile network base stations. For longterm EMF measurements first the maximum field strength is determined and then the antenna is
placed on the location of maximum exposure. Basically there are two methods
for determining the maximum field strength within a designated measurement
area:
– The stirring method or
– the multipoint method
Using each of the two methods the user will move with the antenna within the
area to be measured as shown in the following graphic depicting a user determining the maximum field strength using a measurement setup involving an
isotropic antenna.
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Measurement methods
Stirring method
Using the stirring method the user sets the measurement instrument to
maximum hold and moves the antenna within the designated measurement area.
Depending on the antenna used the user has to be very thorough in covering the
designated measurement area in order to capture the different locations, directions of incidence, and polarisations equally. Using an isotropic antenna directions of incidence and polarisations can be neglected, thus an isotropic antenna
provides a more comfortable solution for using the stirring method. For further
details on the characteristics of different antennas refer to “Measurement
antennas” on page 171. After completing the coverage of the designated
measurement area the measurement instrument provides the maximum field
strength value.
Multipoint method
The multipoint approach involves a predefined multipoint matrix providing the
user with designated measurement points. For this purpose the dimensions of the
measurement area first have to be determined and the measurement points have
to be specified. At each measurement point a measurement has to be taken. As
three measurements are required at each point (one for each direction, x y, z), it
is recommended to use an isotropic antenna for performing measurements using
the multipoint method. For further details on the characteristics of different
antennas refer to “Measurement antennas” on page 171. The user performs the
measurement at each of the measurement points and documents the individual
measurement results.
Another possibility is to use a simplified approach to the multipoint method. As
for the stirring method the user sets the measurement instrument to maximum
hold and moves within the designated measurement area covering all predefined
measurement points using an isotropic antenna.
Compared to the stirring method the multipoint method, whether in its pure or
in its simplified form, has the advantage of offering a guideline to the user
performing the measurements and thus constitutes a more structured approach.
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Measurement antennas
The antenna is one of the most important factors in EMF measurements. There
are different types of antennas which can be used for measuring field strength
depending on your measurement requirements. Willtek offers a range of
antennas for different measurement requirements:
– The 9170 Biconical Antenna with a frequency range from 60 to 2500 MHz
for immission measurements
– The 9171 Isotropic Antenna with a frequency range from 50 to 3000 MHz
for immission measurements
– The 9172 and 9173 Directional Antennas, two antennas with a frequency
range of 80 to 1000 MHz and 300 to 3000 MHz respectively for emission
measurements
For ordering details for Willtek antennas and antenna accessories refer to
“Options and accessories” on page 4.
During measurements the antenna converts the free progressive wave into a line
wave. For antenna calibration a correction table containing k factors is required.
These factors are proportionality factors which correct the antenna’s frequency
response and help to convert the measured power or voltage to field strength or
power density. Using the k factor table the measured level is converted into the
relevant quantities, the field strength measured in V/m and the power density
measured in W/m2.
Willtek delivers its measurement antennas in conjunction with the appropriate
correction factor tables. Using the 9100 Data Exchange Software you can
transfer the k factor tables delivered to your instrument. With the 9171 Isotropic
antenna this step is not neccessary as the factors are stored in a memory inside
the antenna interface. You can also use the 9100 Data Exchange Software to
collect the correction data for antennas from other vendors and transfer them to
your 9102. For further details on using the 9100 Data Exchange Software refer
to Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”. After transferring the correction
tables to the instrument they will be available for selection for EMF measurements.
Willtek also offers antenna accessories like a tripod as well as calibrated cables.
Thus you will be able to master any situation in the field using the 9102 and its
accessories. If you use a tripod and cable setup for your measurements, cable
attenuation is taken into account by activating the appropriate cable factor on
the instrument.
Following is a general technical description of the different measurement
antenna types providing information on the relevant measurement purpose as
well as technical details. For a detailed description of all individual steps to be
taken during EMF measurements using the different measurement antenna types
refer to “Performing automatic measurements” on page 185 and “Performing
manual measurements” on page 188.
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9170 Biconical Antenna
Biconical antennas are characterised by their dipole-like structure. The two
reception lobes are highly symmetrical and provide the biconical antenna with
two main reception directions with an opening angle of 120° each.
When manually turning the biconical antenna during measurements into three
main panes (x, y, z) the same antenna element is used for the measurements in
each of the different directions. This leads to an unmatched isotropy and thus
makes biconical antennas most suitable for high-precision measurements.
Mounting the antenna on a turning device you can easily turn the antenna in the
directions indicated on the device and perform the measurements for each pane.
Thereby a globe-like coverage for the measurement, comparable to the one using
an isotropic antenna, is achieved as shown in the following graphic.
The 9102 supports consecutive measurements in three axes and automatically
calculates the resulting field strength.
Willtek offers the 9170 Biconical Antenna for EMF immission measurements
with the 9102 and the 9131 EMF Measurement Option.
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The delivery includes:
– Antenna
– Clip with a 1/4 inch thread for an optional tripod and stops in 120° steps
– 10 m calibrated ferrite beaded coaxial cable
– Calibration certificate and k factor table
Following are the 9170 Biconical Antenna’s technical specifications:
Antenna type
Biconical (linear passive device)
Frequency range
60 MHz to 2.5 GHz
Sensitivity
> 0.5 mV/m
Maximum applicable field strength
> 300 V/m
Dipole balun symmetry
60 to 80 MHz
80 MHz to 3 GHz
±0.6 dB
±0.2 dB
Isotropy error
up to 1.5 GHz
1.5 to 2.2 GHz
2.2 to 3 GHz
< 0.5 dB
< 0.9 dB
< 1.2 dB
Dimensions
Width
Length
Weight
200 mm
250 mm
2.4 kg
RF connector
N type
Operational temperature range
-30°C to +55°C
Environmental protection class
IP44
RoHS-compliant
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9171 Isotropic Antenna
The most comfortable and fastest solution for performing EMF immission
measurements comprises using an isotropic antenna. In an isotropic antenna
three antennas or dipole elements, one for each direction (x, y and z), are
arranged orthonogally and combined by interconnection as shown in the
following graphic.
Willtek offers the 9171 Isotropic Antenna for EMF immission measurements with
the 9102 equipped with the 9131 EMF Measurement Option. The 9171 Isotropic
Antenna is controlled by the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer, rendering
manual rotation of the antenna during measurements unnecessary. This antenna
enables you to perform fast automatic measurements. Remote control is
achieved by way of a circuit integrated into the antenna. The circuit is connected
to the 9102’s Multi Port connector via an additional shielded cable with a highprecision connector. Via this connection the 9102 also reads the calibration data,
i.e. the k factor correction information, automatically from the EPROM within
the circuit.
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As soon as you connect the cable to the 9102’s Multiport the instrument automatically detects the antenna and loads a set of individual calibration values
from the antenna. On starting the measurement the instrument automatically
controls the antenna’s receiving direction, performs the measurements in each
direction and calculates the isotropic total value from the three individual
measurement values.
The delivery includes:
– Antenna
– Clip with 1/4 inch thead for an optional tripod
– 6 m combined remote control cable and a calibrated ferrite-beaded coaxial
cable
– N to N adapter supporting direct antenna mounting on the instrument
– Antenna interface (control and calibration data)
– Calibration certificate and k factor table
NOTE
The 9171 Isotropic Antenna comes in a wooden crate. Please retain this crate
for proper packing in case you want to dispatch the antenna to Willtek for
calibration.
Following are the 9171 Isotropic Antenna’s technical specifications:
Antenna type
Isotropic transducer with 3
orthogonal dipole antennas
Frequency range
30 MHz to 3 GHz
Sensitivity
< 5 mV/m
Maximum applicable field strength
< 300 V/m
Dipole balun symmetry
50 to 80 MHz
80 MHz to 3 GHz
±0.6 dB
±0.2 dB
Isotropy error vertical polarization
up to 1.7 GHz
1.7 to 2.1 GHz
2.1 to 3 GHz
±0.5 dB
±1.0 dB
±0.5 dB
Isotropy error horizontal
polarization
up to 1.2 GHz
1.2 to 1.7 GHz
1.7 to 2.1 GHz
2.1 to 3 GHz
±0.5 dB
±1.0 dB
±0.5 dB
±1.0 dB
Dimensions
Radome diameter
Length
Weight
200 mm
520 mm
0.5 kg
RF connector
N type
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Operational temperature range
-20°C to +60°C
Environmental protection class
IP 54
RoHS-compliant
Directional antennas
Directional antennas are log-periodic broadband antennas covering a wide spectrum of applications. They are typically used for measuring the emission from a
specific antenna site.
Willtek offers two different directional antennas of 1 m length each accommodating different frequency ranges:
– 9172 Directional Antenna - 80 to 100 MHz
– 9173 Directional Antenna - 300 to 3000 MHz
Thanks to their small angle of beam and their excellent frequency response, these
two directional antennas can also be used for EMF prequalification and for
finding interferers. With these two antenna types and their overlapping
frequency ranges, the whole range of commercial range of radio services is
covered.
The delivery includes:
– Antenna
– Clip with 5/8 thread for an optional tripod
Following are the 9172 and 9173 Directional Antenna’s technical specifications:
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Frequency range
80 to 100 MHz and
300 MHz to 3000 MHz
Maximum transmission power (CW)
> 0.5 mV/m
Maximum applicable field strengh
> 300 V/m
Nominal impedance
50 Ω
VSWR (typically)
< 2.0
RF connector
N female
Polarisation
Linear (vertical/horizontal)
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EMF measurements with the 9102
Calibration
CISPR
Pole clamp
5/8“ UNC thread 37 mm round
flange
Size (length x width)
1 m x 0.55 m
Weight
2.4 kg
EMF measurements with the 9102
As explained the 9102 in conjunction with the 9131 EMF Measurement Option
and it’s antenna acessory range provides you with a measurement solution suitable for performing EMF measurements according to your specific measurement
requirements.
In EMF (EMI) mode the 9102 measures the electrical field strength (E) as well as
the power density (S) to enable you to compare the measured EMF with the
binding limits specified by the responsible regulatory bodies. You can specify
which result should be displayed. For further details on specifying the value to
be displayed in your EMF measurement refer to “Specifying the display calculation” on page 184.
The display unit for the electrical field strength is V/m.
The electrical field strength is calculated as the square root taken from S × R0,
with R0 being the air wave resistance of 377 Ω.
The 9102 displays the total electrical field strength by adding all measurement
values measured for the three directions x, y, z.
Eresult is calculated as the square root taken from Exresult2+ Eyresult2+ Ezresult2.
The display unit for the power density is W/m2.
It is calculated as S = Er2 ÷ R0. R0 again being the air wave resistance of 377 Ω.
The following sections explain how to perform EMF measurements with the 9102
differentiating between auto and quick mode used for automatic measurements
involving the 9171 Isotropic Antenna and manual mode used for manual
measurements involving the 9170 Biconical Antenna. The preparative steps
which have to be performed before starting the actual measurement, e.g.
selecting the EMF (EMI) measurement mode, setting the required frequency
range, selecting the measurement unit and specifying the measurement result to
be displayed (power density or field strength) are identical for both measurements with the exception of connecting the antennas to the 9102. The steps
involved in this procedure depend on the antenna used.
NOTE
Due to the physical nature of EMF measurements the following has to be
taken into account.
When performing measurements on broadband signals the electrical field
strength or the power density displayed may show deviations. In this case the
measurement has to be performed via a channel power measurement.
Furthermore a very big or very small relation between span and RBW may lead
to false measurements or invalid measurement results.
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Connecting the antenna
Connecting the antenna
As a first step you establish the appropriate hardware setup for the EMF
measurement according to measurement type. As explained before the type of
antenna you use depends on measurement type and measurement method. For
further details on which antenna to use refer to “EMF measurements” on
page 167 and “Measurement antennas” on page 171.
Connecting the 9170
Biconical Antenna
To establish a connection between the 9102 and the 9170 Biconical Antenna
simply connect the antenna via an RF cable to the 9102’s RF in connector.
Connecting the 9171
Isotropic Antenna
To establish a connection between the 9102 and the 9171 Isotropic Antenna
connect the antenna directly to the 9102’s RF in connector and connect the
controller cable to the 9102’s Multi Port connector. As soon as you have
connected the antenna to both connectors the 9102 automatically detects the
antenna and loads the correction data.
NOTE
If you connect the antenna controller to the instrument with the EMF (EMI)
mode already running, it takes about 10 seconds for the 9102 to detect the
antenna. In order to avoid any disturbance of the process do not press any
buttons on the instrument during this time.
After the antenna is detected and the correction data are loaded the 9102
switches to the Level menu and the Antenna Factor softkey is highlighted. To
activate the antenna factor press the Antenna Factor softkey until on is highlighted.
Connecting a directional
antenna
To establish a connection between the 9102 and one of the two directional
antennas, the 9172 or 9173 Directional Antenna, simply connect the antenna via
an RF cable to the RF 9102’s RF in connector.
Using a tripod
As a measurement antenna accessory Willtek offers a wooden tripod. For
ordering details refer to “Options and accessories” on page 4. Using this tripod
you can for example set the 9170 Biconical Antenna up for turning. For setting
up the appropriate antenna on the tripod, first fix the appropriate adapter on the
tripod and then fix the antenna to the adapter. Then you can use the appropriate
extension cable to connect the antenna to the 9102. In case of the 9171 Isotropic
Antenna you also have to connect the controller cable to the 9102’s Multi Port
as described in “Connecting the 9171 Isotropic Antenna” on page 178.
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Selecting the measurement mode
Selecting the measurement mode
To select the EMF (EMI) mode, proceed as follows:
1 Push the MODE function key.
The Mode menu appears.
2 Select EMF (EMI).
The EMF (EMI) main menu appears.
NOTE
This mode is available for selection, if the 9130 EMF Measurement Option is
installed and activated on your instrument.
Selecting the unit
After selecting the EMF (EMI) measurement mode the next step is to select the
unit.
1 In the main menu, select Level > Units.
2 You can use logarithmic or linear units. In order to toggle the display
between logarithmic and linear units press the Unit softkey in the lower
right corner of the display and select log or lin.
3 You can now choose between the following units via the Unit softkey in the
upper right corner of the display.
Logarithmic units: dBμV/m, dBmV/m and dBV/m
Linear units: V/m, mW/m2
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Selecting the frequency range
Selecting the frequency range
Figure 57 Frequency menu
There are different methods to set the frequency range to be measured; the range
can be expressed by either the start and stop frequencies (i.e. first and last
frequencies on the display), or by center frequency and span (i.e. the center and
the frequency range), or by other combinations of center frequency, span, start
and stop frequencies.
All four parameters are accessible in the Freq menu. On the main menu, however,
only one of the combinations mentioned above is shown, depending on the
parameter last entered.
NOTE
Changing a frequency parameter may affect an associated parameter.
Example: If you change the span to the maximum of 4 GHz, the start and stop
frequencies are changed to 0 and 4 GHz, respectively.
The following section concentrate on the different methods of setting the
frequency, which is one of the preparative steps for EMF measurements. For
descriptions of further Frequency menu functions (e.g. Trigger) refer to
Chapter 3 “Spectrum Analysis Operation”.
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Selecting the frequency range
Setting start and stop
frequency
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Reflection main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Start and Stop softkeys.
2 Push the Start softkey.
An entry field appears, indicating the start frequency currently set and the
step size for the UP/DOWN cursor keys.
3 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
4 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz).
If the start frequency entered is lower than the stop frequency, the horizontal axis will display the range from the new start to the stop frequency.
If the new start frequency is higher than or equal to the stop frequency, the
start frequency is used as the center frequency with zero span, i.e. the signal
at the selected frequency will be shown in the time domain.
5 Push the Stop softkey and enter the frequency for the right end of the
display.
You can also place softkeys for the start and stop frequencies available on the
main menu by changing the frequency mode, see “Changing the main menu for
different frequency parameters”.
Setting center frequency
and span
1 Push the CENT function key (or the Freq softkey in the Reflection main
menu).
The vertical softkeys include Center and Span. An entry field appears, indicating the center frequency currently set and the step size for the up/down
cursor keys.
2 Enter a new frequency using the numeric keys, the cursor keys and the
BACKSPACE key.
3 Conclude the entry by pushing an enter key for the unit (GHZ/DBM for
gigahertz, MHZ/DB/µS for megahertz, KHZ/DBµV/MS for kilohertz, or
ENTER for hertz).
4 Push the Span softkey and enter the frequency for the range from the left
to the right end of the display.
You can also place softkeys for the center frequency and the span available on
the main menu by changing the frequency mode, see section “Changing the main
menu for different frequency parameters” below.
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Selecting the frequency range
Changing the main menu
for different frequency
parameters
The Reflection main menu shows two softkeys for the definition of the frequency
range on the display. Different methods exist to define the range as depicted
above; you can configure these softkeys to one of the two allowable combinations as follows:
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq > Freq Mode.
2 Select the combination of softkeys that you want to see in the main menu
(Start/Stop or Center/Span).
3 Return to the main menu by pushing the Main ... softkey.
The main menu appears and displays the selected combination of keys.
Note that the description of the horizontal frequency axis changes with the
selected parameter set.
Viewing the complete
frequency band
To change the frequency range to the full bandwidth supported by the 9102,
proceed as follows:
1 From the Reflection main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Full Span softkey.
The leftmost frequency changes to 0 Hz and the rightmost frequency to
4 GHz.
Performing measurements
in the time domain
Measurements on a selected center frequency can also be displayed in the time
domain.
1 From the Reflection main menu, push the Freq softkey.
The Frequency menu is displayed.
2 Push the Center softkey and enter the desired center frequency; close the
input field by selecting the appropriate unit with one of the enter keys.
3 Push the Zero Span softkey.
The horizontal axis becomes the time axis. The scale width is identical to the
sweep time.
Selecting the step size for
the frequency input
The center, start and stop frequencies can be set either by entering a new value
with the numeric keys, or by using the arrow keys (UP, DOWN) to increase or
decrease the current setting. The step size for an arrow keypress can either be
selected automatically by the 9102, or manually adjusted.
Manually setting the frequency step size
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey.
The Freq Step entry field opens.
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Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT
3 Enter a new frequency step value and close the entry field by pressing Enter.
The auto/manual selection switches to manual and the selected frequency
step size is displayed on the softkey.
Setting the frequency step size selection to automatic
1 From the Reflection main menu, select Freq.
2 Push the FStep softkey several times until the “auto” selection is highlighted.
Selecting RBW, VBW and SWT
The resolution bandwidth (RBW) is the 3 dB bandwidth of the IF filter for
selecting the signal to be measured. The resolution bandwidth describes the
ability of the spectrum analyzer to discriminate between adjacent signals of
similar amplitude. Only signals spaced at a frequency of more than the RBW can
be discriminated from one another.
The 9102 can be set to automatically select the resolution bandwidth, depending
on the frequency span. The EMF (EMI) measurement mode offers two special
RBW filters requried for EMC prequalification tests: 120 kHz and 9 kHz at 6 dB.
The video bandwidth (VBW) is the lowpass bandwidth over which several results
for one frequency point are smoothened. The lower the video bandwidth, the
smoother the signal curve and the less variations there are.
The 9102 can be set to select the video bandwidth automatically as a function
of the resolution bandwidth.
The sweep time (SWT) determines how long it takes for a complete sweep over
the measured frequency range (span).
The 9102 can be set to automatically select the sweep time, depending on RBW
and VBW. If manually set, the sweep time should be selected long enough for the
filtered signal to reach steady state. The 9102 will output an “UNCALibrated”
warning if the sweep time is too low.
To set the resolution bandwidth, the video bandwidth or the sweep time, proceed
as follows:
1 In the main menu, select the appropriate softkey (RBW, VBW, or SWT).
2 Enter the value and complete the entry with the appropriate enter key for
the unit, select a new value with the help of the UP/DOWN cursor keys, or
switch to auto to leave the setting to the 9102.
Changing between automatic and manual mode
Push the appropriate softkey (RBW, VBW, or SWT) several times until the
desired selection (auto or manual) is highlighted.
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Specifying the display calculation
Specifying the display calculation
The 9102 measures electrical field strength (E) in V/m as well as the power
density (S) in W/m2. For further information about these two values and their
interdependence refer to “EMF measurements with the 9102” on page 177. You
can switch the display between these two results values.
NOTE
This step is preparative and has to be taken before you start your actual
measurement in automatic or manual mode.
To switch the display between electrical field strength and power density
proceed as follows:
1 In the EMF (EMI) main menu select Measure > Display Calculation.
2 Toggle the Display softkey until the required option, E for electrical field
strength and S for power density, is highlighted. In the upper left corner of
the display the appropriate value will be displayed during your measurement
in the relevant unit: electrical field strength in V/m and power density in
W/m2.
Specifying level settings
The accuracy and the dynamic range between the measured signal and the noise
floor depend on the proper setting of the level settings. These consist of the
reference level and the attenuation.
The reference level basically determines the level at the top of the display. The
vertical axis is divided into eight horizontal lines; you can adjust the scale (which
defaults to 10 dB per line) to your preferences.
Attenuation or gain due to external coupling can be compensated by frequencydependent coupling factors, so that the displayed measurement values reflect
the power at the device under test.
Setting the reference level
1 In the main menu, push the Ref. Level softkey. You can also select Level
followed by Ref. Level Alternatively, push the REF function key.
The reference level input field opens.
NOTE
Depending on the unit you use and the specified display calculation the Ref.
Level softkey changes to Ref. Power or Ref. Voltage. Furthermore the input
field name and the display on the left-hand side of the screen changes
accordingly.
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Performing automatic measurements
2 Enter the new reference power or voltage either using the numeric keys,
closing the input field with the appropriate enter key, or with the UP/DOWN
arrow keys.
The new reference level appears at the top of the vertical axis. The reference
is based on the actually set output power.
Setting the hardware
attenuation
1 In the main menu, push the Attenuation softkey.
The Attenuation input field opens.
2 Enter a new attenuation value in the range from 0 to 50 dB (in 10 dB steps)
and close the input field with one of the enter keys, or use the UP/DOWN
arrow keys to select the attenuation value in the range 10 to 50 dB.
If the attenuation value is changed, the attenuation option will change to
“manual”.
Performing automatic measurements
When using the 9171 Isotropic Antenna you can perform measurements in automatic mode. A prerequisite for performing automatic measurements is that the
9171 Isotropic Antenna’s controller cable is connected to the 9102’s multiport.
Via this connection the 9102 reads the relevant correction data from the antenna
and controls the measurement. However, if you use a tripod measurement setup
in conjunction with an extension cable, the cable attenuation also has to be
taken into account by using cable correction data.
There are two different options selectable from the Measure menu for
performing automatic measurements: Auto and Quick. The two different modes
are described in “Auto measurements” on page 187 and “Quick measurements”
on page 188.
NOTE
If the 9171 Isotropic Antenna is not connected via its controller cable to the
9102’s Multi Port, the two softkeys Auto and Quick will be greyed out in the
EMF (EMI) Measure menu.
Activating the antenna
factor settings
As soon as you have connected the antenna to the RF In connector and the
antenna controller to the Multi Port connector of the 9102, the instrument automatically detects the antenna and loads the correction data.
NOTE
If you connect the antenna controller to the instrument with the EMF (EMI)
mode already running, it takes about 10 seconds for the 9102 to detect the
antenna. In order to avoid any disturbance of the process do not press any
buttons on the instrument during this time.
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After the antenna is detected and the correction data are loaded the 9102
switches to the Level menu and the Antenna Factor softkey is highlighted. To
activate the antenna factor press the Antenna Factor softkey until on is highlighted.
Specifying cable factor
settings for extension
cables
If you are using an extension cable to connect the 9171 Isotropic Antenna to your
9102, for example for mounting it on a tripod, cable attenuation has to be taken
into account by activating the appropriate cable correction factor. Cable factors
are maintained and edited within the 9100 Data Exchange Software. You can
transfer them to your 9102 for usage within EMF measurements. For further
details refer to “Managing cable factors for EMF measurements” on page 224 in
Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”.
In order to employ cable correction data for your measurement proceed as
follows:
1 In the EMF (EMI) main menu select Level > Ant. Factor Memory. The
Antenna Factor Memory is displayed.
Figure 58 Antenna Factor menu
2 Press the Recall Cable Factor softkey. A dropdown list showing all cable
factors stored on the system is displayed.
3 Select the cable factor you intend to use and press ENTER. Now the Level
menu is displayed again with the Cable Factor softkey highlighted.
4 To activate the cable factor selected toggle the Cable Factor softkey until
on is highlighted.
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Auto measurements
Auto measurements provide you with the comfort of the 9102 controlling the
measurement process for all three measurement panes. Once you start your Auto
measurement the 9102 will run automatically through all measurements and
calculate and display the overall measurement result from the individual results
for x, y and z. However, you can specify the measurement time.
To start an Auto measurement proceed as follows:
1 In the EMF (EMI) main menu select Measure. The EMF (EMI) Measure menu
is displayed.
Figure 59 Measure menu
2 In the Measure menu select Meas. Time. An input field for the measurement time will be displayed.
3 Enter the time intervall to be used for measuring on each of the measurement panes. The default is 360 seconds, the maximum value is 600 seconds.
Press ENTER to set the measurement time.
4 Now select the Auto softkey and press Continue ! to start the Auto
measurement.
5 On the right-hand side of the display the red Measure indicator shows that a
measurement is in progress:
.
Above this indicator the direction measured is shown (x as the first one):
.
You can abort the measurement by pressing the Cancel ! softkey.
6 On completing the measurement for the x measurement pane the Measure
indicator disappears and the 9102 automatically switches to y followed by z.
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7 On completion of the measurement the measurement result is displayed
with the graph automatically put on hold and the overall calculated electrical field strength or power density, depending on the selection you have
made via Measure > Display Calculation (see “Specifying the display
calculation” on page 184) is displayed. You can now save your results trace
on the instrument.
To clear the trace and start a new measurement press the HOLD/RUN function
key or the Auto softkey. You can also press the Quick or Manual softkey, if you
intend to perform a measurement of one of these types.
Quick measurements
Quick measurements are a convenient way of quickly determining the maximum
field strength by fast measurements with a predefined measurement duration of
one single sweep per measurement pane (x, y, z). Apart from the predefined
measurement duration the measurement process is identical.
To start a quick measurement proceed as follows:
1 In the EMF (EMI) main menu select Measure. Now, the EMF (EMI) Measure
menu is displayed.
2 Select the Quick softkey and press Continue ! to start the quick measurement. You can abort the measurement by pressing Cancel !. From now on
the measurement process is identical with the process described for Auto
measurements.
Performing manual measurements
The manual measurement mode provides you with a comfortable way of
performing EMF measurements using the 9170 Biconical Antenna. For this type
of EMF measurement the 9170 Biconical Antenna is turned manually in each of
the measurement directions (x, y and z), usually mounted on a turning device.
For each direction the 9102 performs the measurement of electrical field
strength or power density depending on the selection you have made via
Measure > Display Calculation (see “Specifying the display calculation” on
page 184). You start the individual measurements manually after turning the
antenna in the relevant direction. As for automatic measurements you can also
specify the measurement time for each direction. On completing all three
measurements the 9102 calculates the total result value.
As the k factor correction data are not automatically loaded and activated when
using a biconical antenna you have to activate the appropriate correction table
manually on your instrument. Also, as the biconical antenna will often be
mounted on a tripod and connected to the 9102 via an extension cable, the cable
factor has to be activated manually.
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The following sections describe all steps which are specific to manual measurements. The preparative steps which have to be performed before starting the
actual measurement, e.g. selecting the EMF (EMI) measurement mode, setting
the required frequency range, selecting the measurement unit and specifying the
measurement result to be displayed (power density or field strength) are identical for both manual and automatic measurements.
Specifying antenna factor
settings
The scope of delivery of the 9170 Biconical Antenna includes the appropriate
k factor correction table. The data are available within the 9100 Data Exchange
Software. For details on downloading the data to the 9102 and managing
antenna factors within the 9100 Data Exchange Software refer to “Managing
antenna factors for EMF measurements” on page 222 in Chapter 14 “9100 Data
Exchange Software”.
To activate the appropriate antenna factor for your EMF measurement proceed
as follows:
1 In the EMF (EMI) main menu select Level > Ant. Factor Memory. The
Antenna Factor Memory is displayed (see Figure 58 on page 186).
2 Press the Recall Antenna Factor softkey. A dropdown list showing all
antenna factors stored on the system is displayed.
3 Select the appropriate antenna factor and press ENTER. Now the Level
menu is displayed again.
To activate the antenna factor selected toggle the Antenna Factor softkey until
on is highlighted.
Specifying cable factor
settings for extension
cables
Performing the
measurement
If you are using an extension cable to connect the 9172 Biconic Antenna to your
9102, for example for mounting it on a tripod, cable attenuation has to be taken
into account by activating the appropriate cable correction factor. Cable factors
are maintained and edited within the 9100 Data Exchange Software. You can
transfer them to your 9102 for usage within EMF measurements. For further
details refer to “Managing cable factors for EMF measurements” on page 224 in
Chapter 14 “9100 Data Exchange Software”. The procedure of specifying cable
factor settings for manual measurements is identical to the one described for
automatic measurements. For details refer to “Performing manual measurements” on page 188.
To perform a manual measurement proceed as follows:
1 In the Measure menu select Meas. Time. An input field for the measurement time will be displayed.
2 Enter the time interval to be used for measuring on each of the measurement panes. The default is 360 seconds, the maximum value is 600 seconds.
Press ENTER to set the measurement time.
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3 Now select the Manual softkey. The softkeys for the three different
measurement directions (x, y and z) are available on the right-hand side
with x highlighted as the first measurement direction and the x direction
indicator displayed on the left-hand side as shown in the following picture.
Figure 60 Softkeys for manual measurements
4 Press Continue ! to start the first measurement. On the right-hand side of
the display the red Measure indicator shows that a measurement is in
progress:
.
You can abort the measurement by pressing the Cancel ! softkey. After
completion of the measurement the Measure indicator disappears.
5 Now press the Y softkey followed by Continue ! to start the measurement
for the y direction. The procedure is identical to the one described for the x
direction above.
6 After completion of the y measurement press the Z softkey followed by
Continue !. The procedure is identical to the one described for the x direction above.
7 On completion of the measurement the measurement result is displayed
with the graph automatically put on hold and the overall calculated electrical field strength or power density, depending on the selection you have
made via Measure > Display Calculation (see “Specifying the display
calculation” on page 184) is displayed. You can now save your results trace
on the instrument.
To clear the trace and start a new measurement press the HOLD/RUN function
key or the Manual softkey.
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Setting up the trace
Setting up the trace
The trace functions provide different views of the measurements, for example
the actual measurement or an average over the last couple of measurements.
You can even select two different views of the measurement. Another possibility
is to compare the actual measurement with an older measurement which has
been stored in the 9102 and loaded to one of the trace views. For details on
setting up traces refer to “Setting up the trace” on page 60 in
Chapter 3 “Spectrum Analysis Operation”.
Using limits
As in the reflection mode you can also use limit lines for distance to fault
measurements. For details on the usage of limits refer to “Using limit lines” on
page 31 in Chapter 2 “General Operation”.
Using Markers
The 9102 includes powerful and easy-to-use marker functions. To further analyze
your measurement result display you can employ up to six markers. For a detailed
description of the usage of markers refer to “Working with the markers” on
page 28.
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Viewing the EMF (EMI) mode parameters
Viewing the EMF (EMI) mode parameters
You can get an overview of all parameters set for this mode in the Parameter
Window. To view the parameters, press the PARAM function key. To close the
Parameter Window and return to the menu you opened it from, press the
ESCAPE function key, the Exit softkey or the PARAM function key. To close the
parameter page and change to the relevant main menu press the Main softkey
Figure 61 EMF (EMI) parameters
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Troubleshooting
12
This chapter provides information on handling errors and problems related to the
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
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Handling system errors
Handling system errors
Should an error or problem occur that prevents you from controlling the instrument and thus requires the instrument software to be set up again, the 9102
offers the Setup Application Software menu. This menu provides you with access
to the instrument without starting the instrument software and enables you to
perform a software update.
Chapter 13 “Updating the Instrument Software” contains a detailed description
of the processes involved in updating the instrument’s software via the Setup
Application Software menu.
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13
This chapter describes how to perform an update of the instrument’s software
via the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer’s Setup Application Software menu.
Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
– “Entering the Setup Application Software menu” on page 196
– “Setting a password” on page 196
– “Performing a serial update” on page 197
– “Performing a LAN update” on page 199
– “Determining the Host IP address” on page 200
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Entering the Setup Application Software menu
Entering the Setup Application Software menu
The 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer’s Setup Application Software menu can
be entered instead of automatically loading the instrument software. This menu
provides you with access to the instrument in case an error or problem should
occur that prevents you from controlling it and requires the instrument software
to be set up again. The menu offers two options for the update process: Serial
update and LAN update. To enter the Setup Application Software menu, proceed
as follows:
1 Turn on the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
The boot-up screen appears.
2 When the message “Press 0 to enter Setup” appears, press the numeric
key 0.
The Setup Application Software menu appears.
Setting a password
In order to ensure that software updates are only performed by authorized users
you can set a password to protect the software update option. If a password is
set, the user performing the software update via the Setup Application Software
menu will be asked to enter it before data are loaded.
NOTE
This password only affects the software update options available on the Setup
Application Software menu. It does not affect the usage of the instrument’s
application software.
In order to set a password proceed as follows:
1 Switch on the 9102. In order to enter the Setup Application Software menu
press the numeric key 0 when the input request message is displayed on the
boot-up screen. Now the Setup Application Software menu is displayed.
2 Press the numeric key 3 to open a password input field.
3 Enter a 6-digit numeric string as your password. For each digit you enter an
asterisk (*) will be displayed in the input field.
4 Press ENTER to submit your input. You will now be asked to reenter your
passwort for confirmation.
5 Press ENTER to submit your input. If your input is not identical to the password entered in the first input field, an error message will be displayed and
you can enter the password again. Otherwise your new password will be
saved.
You can also change a previously defined password. In order to do so proceed as
described above. If a password has already been defined, you will be asked automatically to enter the old password before you can enter a new one.
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Performing a serial update
NOTE
If you have forgotten your password, please contact one of Willtek’s Technical
Assistance Centers. For contact information please refer to section “Technical
assistance” on page xvi.
Performing a serial update
The software update requires a 9100 software update file, which is an executable
file running on a Windows PC that also includes the software update for your
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. Such a file can be downloaded from Willtek’s
website, e.g. the file Willtek_9100Setup_4_50.exe.
Take the following steps to perform a serial update of the instrument software
via the Setup Application Software menu:
1 Connect the 9102 to an external power supply.
2 Connect the 9102 to the PC. See section “Connecting the 9102 Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer” on page 12 for further details.
3 Switch on the 9102.
The boot-up screen is displayed.
Willtek 9100 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
© Copyright 2005 Willtek Communications GmbH
All rights reserved.
U.S. patent pending
Press “0” to enter Setup…
4 In order to enter the Setup Application Software menu press the numeric
key 0 when the input request message is displayed on the boot-up screen.
Now the Setup Application Software menu is displayed.
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Performing a serial update
5 Press numeric key 1 to open the Serial Update menu.
6 In order to upload the application files from the PC to the instrument start
the installation program on your PC. This will open the Update window as
shown below.
7 In the Connection section, select Serial.
8 To start the serial update press the numeric key 1 on the instrument.
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Performing a LAN update
NOTE
You do not have to click on Start in the Update window on your PC. The
update process will be started without any further input on the PC.
Performing a LAN update
The software update requires a 9100 software update file, which is an executable
file running on a Windows PC that also includes the software update for your
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. Such a file can be downloaded from Willtek’s
website, e.g. the file Willtek_9100Setup_4_50.exe.
Take the following steps to perform a LAN update of the instrument’s software
via the Setup Application Software menu:
1 Connect the 9102 to an external power supply.
2 Connect the 9102 to the PC. See section “Connecting the 9102 Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer” on page 12 for further details.
3 Switch on the 9102. In order to enter the Setup Application Software menu
press the numeric key 0 when the input request message is displayed on the
boot-up screen. Now the Setup Application Software menu is displayed.
4 Press the numeric key 2 to open the LAN Update menu.
5 Here the IP adresses of the instrument (Target IP) and the PC (Host IP) are
displayed. Press the numeric key 1 to change or enter the Host IP and 2 to
change the Target IP. See section “Determining the Host IP address” on
page 200 for information on determining the Host PC’s IP address.
6 In order to upload the application files from the PC to the instrument start
the installation program on your PC. This will open the Update window (see
“Performing a serial update” on page 197).
NOTE
You do not have to click on Start in the Update window on your PC. The
update process will be started without any further input on the PC.
7 In the Connection section, select LAN.
8 In order to start the update press the numeric key 6 on the instrument.
A message prompts you to press any key to start the update or to hit the ESC
key to abort the update.
9 Press the ENTER key to start the update.
Both the instrument and the installation program on the PC display the
progress of the software update.
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Determining the Host IP address
Determining the Host IP address
In order to determine your host PC’s IP address proceed as follows:
1 On the status bar, click Start and select Run to open an input window.
2 On the input line, type cmd to open a command prompt.
3 Type IPconfig -all to display the network settings for the PC. In this
list you will find its IP address. To close the command prompt type exit.
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9100 Data Exchange Software
14
This chapter describes how to install and use the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
– “About the 9100 Data Exchange Software” on page 202
– “Installation requirements” on page 202
– “Understanding the license conditions” on page 202
– “Installing the software” on page 202
– “Starting the software” on page 203
– “Connecting the PC to the 9102” on page 204
– “Loading measurement results from the 9102” on page 205
– “Saving, loading and printing results on the PC” on page 209
– “Creating screen shots” on page 211
– “Working with measurement results” on page 212
– “Defining and loading limit templates” on page 214
– “Defining and loading external coupling parameters” on page 218
– “Managing communication systems for channel power measurements” on
page 219
– “Managing cable types for distance-to-fault measurements” on page 220
– “Managing antenna factors for EMF measurements” on page 222
– “Managing cable factors for EMF measurements” on page 224
– “Working with settings” on page 225
– “Managing files on the PC and on the 9102” on page 226
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About the 9100 Data Exchange Software
About the 9100 Data Exchange Software
The 9102 is delivered with a software product, the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
This is a tool to load and display measurements from the 9102 to the PC and to
install software updates on the 9102.
Installation requirements
To install the 9100 Data Exchange Software, you need
– a PC with Pentium processor or equivalent
– Windows 98SE, Windows NT or later versions
– a minimum of 32 megabytes of RAM
– 50 megabytes of free space on the hard disk
– a free serial interface or a LAN connection
Understanding the license conditions
Before installing the 9100 Data Exchange Software, ensure that you understand
the license terms which can be found in the appendix “Software License” on
page 339. The software may only be installed on one computer at any one time!
Installing the software
If you received the software on a CD, just insert the CD in the CD drive of your PC.
Run 9100DataExchange.exe.
This will start the install wizard which will copy the required files onto your PC.
Follow the instructions given by the install wizard.
By default, the install wizard will store the program files in the following directory (assuming an English Windows installation):
C:\Program files\Willtek\9100 Data Exchange.
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Starting the software
Starting the software
Click Start > Programs > Willtek > 9100 Data Exchange to run the 9100 Data
Exchange Software.
The following box appears:
To connect to the 9102 via serial connection (RS-232 interface on a COM port of
the PC), select Serial Connection.
To connect to the 9102 via a local area network (LAN) over TCP/IP, select LAN
Connection.
If you do not want to connect to the 9102 but rather open a measurement trace
file that has been previously stored on the PC, select Open existing Trace or
Cancel.
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Connecting the PC to the 9102
Connecting the PC to the 9102
In order to connect the PC to the 9102, you need to configure the 9100 Data
Exchange Software first.
From the menu bar, select Connection Settings > Serial / LAN for 9100...
This will open the Connect pull-up menu as shown below:
Using a predefined
configuration for the
connection
If you have previously stored configuration data for a successful connection with
the 9102, you can proceed as follows:
1 Connect the 9102 with the PC using a serial interface cable or the LAN,
depending on the configuration you want to use.
2 In the Connect dialog box of the 9100 Data Exchange Software (see above),
load the configuration by selecting a name from the drop-down list box or in
the upper left-hand corner of the Connect menu. Click on OK to load this
configuration.
The PC will now attempt to exchange messages with the 9102 over the
interface defined in the configuration file. The Connect dialog box will
disappear and if a connection has been set up successfully, the status bar of
the PC software will indicate CONNECTED.
Serial interface
connection
1 Select the Serial radio button.
2 Select the baudrate (bit rate) that is set up in the 9102 as well.
3 Select a serial port (e.g. COM1).
4 Switch on the 9102 and connect it to the PC using a null modem cable as
specified in “Connecting the PC to the 9102” on page 204.
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5 Click on Check Connection to verify that the connection is working over
the selected COM port.
The PC will now attempt to exchange messages with the 9102 over the cable
attached to the selected serial port. The Connect dialog box will disappear
and if a connection has been set up successfully, the status bar of the PC
software will indicate CONNECTED.
LAN (TCP/IP) connection
1 In the Connect pull-up menu, select the LAN radio button.
2 Enter the IP address of the 9102. The IP address of the 9102 can be read and
modified over an RS-232 link using the SCPI command; see “Changing the IP
address of the 9102” on page 41 for information on changing the IP address
of the 9102.
3 Enter the IP port number in the Port input field. Valid entries are in the range
from 1024 to 65535; the default is 49200.
4 Switch on the 9102 and connect both 9102 and PC to the computer network
with a normal patch cable, or connect them directly with each other using a
cross patch cable.
5 Click on Check Connection to verify that the connection is working over
the selected LAN connection.
The PC will now attempt to exchange messages with the 9102 over the
network. The Connect dialog box will disappear and if a connection has been
set up successfully, the status bar of the PC software will indicate
CONNECTED.
Saving the configuration
You can save the configuration in a file for later use so that you do not have to
reenter the configuration each time you are using 9100 Data Exchange Software.
1 In the entry field at the upper left-hand corner, enter a configuration name
that allows you to identify the configuration that you have made. Several
configurations can be stored under individual names.
2 Press Store to save the current configuration.
Loading measurement results from the 9102
The 9100 Data Exchange Software can load and display a measurement (trace)
from the 9102 in two different ways. The software can load either the trace
currently displayed or a trace that is saved in the 9102 memory. Using the Live
Trace command available in the Instrument menu you can also display a live
trace in real mode with updates continuously performed. Note that the 9100
Data Exchange Software can hold multiple windows, each with a trace.
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Loading measurement results from the 9102
Viewing the actual trace
on the PC
1 Connect the PC to the 9102 as described on page 204.
2 In the 9100 Data Exchange Software, select Instrument > Display Trace,
or press Ctrl+T, or click on the icon:
The trace is displayed in the program window (see example below). You can
resize or maximize the trace within the program window.
3 To store the results on a local PC drive, select File > Save or File > Save as
and choose a directory and file name.
The trace file is stored on your PC.
NOTE
The trace will also display any active limits. When working in channel power
mode, the trace will include the communication system name.
NOTE
In signal generator mode you cannot load a trace via Display Trace as there
are no suitable data available. If you select Display Trace in the signal
generator mode a dialog will be displayed informing you that no data are
available and asking you to select a different mode.
Toggling the view mode
You can switch the trace display from landscape to portrait and vice versa. In
order to toggle the view mode proceed as follows:
1 Select View > View Mode. You can also right-click on the screen to open a
right-click menu and select View Mode.
2 Select the view mode Landscape or Portrait. The display changes accordingly.
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Showing and hiding
parameters
You can display and hide trace parameters by selecting View > Show All
Parameters or View > Hide All Parameters.
Showing and hiding
markers
You can display and hide markers by selecting and deselecting View > Markers
Trace A or View > Markers Trace B. On selecting to show the markers a tick is
displayed next to Markers Trace A or Markers Trace B.
Continually loading live
traces
You can also continually load live traces from the instrument in real-time mode
which is particulary useful for monitoring ongoing measurements on your PC. To
continuosly download traces displayed on the 9102’s screen proceed as follows:
1 Select Instrument > Live Trace, press Ctrl+L, or click on the icon in the
menu bar:
. The Live Trace Screen is displayed. On this screen you can
specify several settings for the live trace process.
2 In the Updates frame select Continuous mode, if you want the live trace to
be updated continuously until you stop the process manually. If you want to
specify a fixed number of update cycles after which the process will be
stopped automatically, select the second control box and enter the number
of updates to be performed. In the Time between updates field, enter the
number of seconds between each update cycle.
3 In the View frame select Open new trace window, if you want to display
the live trace in a separate new window. If you want to overwrite the active
trace, select Overwrite active trace window.
4 If you intend to save the live trace in a file on completion of the live trace
update process, select Save as in the Save frame. Now the Save fields are
activated enabling you to select a directory, a file name and the file type for
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saving your trace on your PC. You can save the traces as *.9tm or graphic
files (e.g. *.bmp, *.jpg etc.). For further details on saving traces on your PC
refer to “Saving, loading and printing results on the PC” on page 209.
Transferring a saved trace
to the PC
To load the data saved in the 9102 proceed as follows:
1 On the 9102, save the desired measurements in trace files.
2 Connect the PC to the 9102 as described on page 204.
3 In the 9100 Data Exchange Software, select Instrument > Get Trace, or
press Ctrl+G, or click on the icon:
This will load and display a list of trace files that reside on the 9102 (see
example below).
4 Select the desired trace file(s) and click View.
The trace is displayed in the program window. You can resize or maximize
the trace within the program window.
5 To store the results on a local PC drive, select the window with the trace to
be stored, select File > Save or File > Save as and choose a directory and
file name. The default directory is Traces inside your 9100 Data Exchange
installation directory.
The trace file is stored on your PC with the extension *.9tm differentiating it
from the original trace saved on the 9102 and obtained by the Get Trace
procedure. These trace files have the extension *.9tr.
NOTE
*9tr trace files can also be transferred in both directions using the Traces tab
in the Instrument > Data Transfer... menu.
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Saving, loading and printing results on the PC
Once a measurement trace has been transferred to the PC, it can be stored on
the hard disk, printed or exported to a graphics or text file.
Storing results on the PC
The trace, along with the 9102 settings and markers, can be saved in a file and
loaded again in a trace file. This way, information about settings and individual
result values will not be lost.
1 Select File > Save or File > Save As ....
A window with a file selection box appears.
2 Select a directory and a file name to save the trace data, and confirm by
pressing ENTER.
The trace data are saved in a file.
Loading a trace file on the
PC
Results previously stored on the PC can be retrieved and displayed in the
9100 Data Exchange Software.
1 Select File > Open.
A window with a file selection box appears.
2 Select the directory and the file name containing the trace data, and
confirm by pressing ENTER.
The trace data are loaded to the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
Printing measurement
results
1 Select File > Print Setup... and set up the correct printer, the paper orientation and printer-dependent settings. Confirm the changes made by
pressing ENTER.
2 You can check the layout before printing by selecting File > Print Preview.
3 Go to the File > Print menu to select the pages to print and start printing by
pressing ENTER. If you have opened several documents and you intend to
print them in one go, select File > Print Open Documents....
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Saving results to a
graphics file
If you save the results in a graphics file, you can load them in other applications
such as a word processor and include them in your documentation in graphical
format. File formats supported are:
– Windows Bitmap (BMP)
– JPEG (JPG/JPEG)
– JPEG2000 (J2K/JP2)
– Tagged Image File Format (TIF/TIFF)
– Zsoft Paintbrush (PCX)
– Portable Network Graphics (PNG)
– Sun Raster (RAS)
– Truevision Targa (TGA)
– Portable Bitmaps (PPM/PGM)
1 Select File > Export > Image.
A file selection box appears (“Save image file”).
2 Select a directory, a file name to save the measurement trace and a file
format, and confirm by pressing ENTER.
The trace data are stored as a graphics file in the selected location.
Saving results to a text
file
You can use the numerical results and include them in other applications for
postprocessing, e.g. in Microsoft Excel.
1 Select File > Export > ASCII file.
A file selection box appears (“Save Trace as ASCII File...”).
2 Select a directory and a file name to save the measurement data, and
confirm by pressing ENTER.
The data are stored in a text file (*.TXT) in the selected location.
Each line in the resulting text file contains a parameter from the settings; the
parameter name is separated from its value by a semicolon.
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Creating screen shots
Creating screen shots
The 9100 Data Exchange Software also offers a Tool for directly producing screen
shots of the software screen displayed on the 9102. Using the Screen Dump tool
you can easily create screen shots, save them as image files, copy them to the
clipboard as well as print them directly.
In order to create screen shots proceed as follows:
1 Select Instrument > Screen Dump, or press Ctrl+N, or click on the icon in
the menu bar:
. The Screen Dump window is displayed.
2 In order to display the screen currently shown on the 9102 in the Screen
Dump window click on Read Screen. The screen originating from the 9102
will be displayed in the Screen Dump window as follows.
3 In order to save the screen shot as an image file click on Save as Image. A
file selection box appears (“Save image file”).
4 Select a directory, a file name to save the measurement trace and a file
format, and confirm by pressing ENTER.
The trace data are stored as a graphics file in the selected location.
5 In order to copy the screen shot for further usage in other applications click
on Copy to Clipboard.
6 In order to print the screen shot directly from the Screen Dump tool click on
Print.
NOTE
For best results it is recommended to use a local printer as opposed to a
printer connected to a network.
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7 If you intend to create another screen shot, click on Clear Display and
proceed as described.
8 To close the Screen Dump tool click on Exit.
Working with measurement results
To open a measurement trace that has been previously loaded from the PC, select
File > Open.
This will open a file selector box from which you can select a directory and a
trace file.
Adding markers
The 9102 already provides up to six markers; the marker positions are stored and
transferred together with the trace. You can use markers on trace A and trace B.
In addition to these static markers, you can use additional dynamic markers on
the PC to read out the level values at any displayed frequency. Up to ten markers
per trace are possible.
In order to enable or disable markers on the PC proceed as follows:
– Select View > Select Trace Markers. You can also right-click on the screen
to open a right-click menu and choose Select Trace Markers.
The Select Trace Marker window is displayed.
– To enable a marker select the required marker by checking the relevant
control box in the Marker area (A1 to A10 or B1 to B10). To enable a delta
marker check the relevant control box in the Delta Marker area (DA2 to
DA10 or DB2 to DB10).
– To put a marker on the maximum peak click on Max Peak.
– To put a marker on the next peak click on Next Peak.
– To put a marker on all peaks (up to the 10 supported markers) click on Label
All Peaks.
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– To set a threshold for the Label All Peaks function click on Set Threshold.
The button label changes to Clear Threshold. Specify your threshold in the
field below by clicking on the up and down arrows. the threshold will be
displayed as a read line. If you want to remove the limit, click on Clear
Threshold. After specifying the threshold only peaks above the threshold
will be labeled.
– To enter descriptions for the markers set click on Marker description. A
Marker Description window is displayed. Enter the descriptions for the
markers set and click on OK. The descriptions will be displayed behind the
markers in portrait format display.
– To move the marker to another frequency, drag it with the mouse. Alternatively, use the LEFT/RIGHT (slow movement) or UP/DOWN (larger steps)
cursor keys on the keyboard.
Change the reference level
and scale
In order to change the reference level and scale proceed as follows:
1 Select View > Level. The Level window is displayed.
2 Use the up and down arrows of the Ref. field to specify the reference level.
3 Specify the scale in the Scale field
4 In the Level Unit field you can select a unit from the dropdown list.
Using a grid
The grid of vertical and horizontal lines can be switched on and off with
View > Grid. You can also right-click on the screen to open a right-click menu
and select Grid. The grid is the same as on the 9102, i.e. it consists of eight horizontal and ten vertical rows.
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Entering text
You can add text to the trace and store it with the measurement. This way, you
can add valuable information about the conditions of the measurement. The
comment text will be printed and saved with the graph but not exported to a
graphics or text file.
1 Select View > Comment.
A “Comment” window opens, allowing you to enter text.
2 Enter your text (three lines maximum), then click on Save to have the
9100 Data Exchange Software store the text along with the measurements.
Defining and loading limit templates
One of the powerful features of the 9102 is its capability to compare the
measurements with predefined limits. The limits are set in the form of a template
that the actual measurement passes or fails. The template can be defined on the
PC using the 9100 Data Exchange Software and then loaded to the 9102; the
9102 can hold up to 99 templates.
Editing a template may be easier when an example of a typical result trace is
available. The Limits Editing menu of the 9100 Data Exchange Software cannot
only show the actual limit curve (template) but also an example trace that is
stored on the PC.
Templates can be applied to measurements in both the spectrum and the time
domain. An example of a limit template in the time domain is the power/time
template for GSM phones.
The limits are expressed relative to the grid on the 9102 display, not as absolute
values in terms of frequency (or time) and power. This way, you can apply the
same template to different power levels and frequencies provided that the scales
are as intended.
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Defining limits
Limits can be defined as a template with an upper and and a lower limit curve.
Each curve consists of a number of straight lines between points. The Limits
menu of the 9100 Data Exchange Software allows you to enter and display such
lines.
The limits are expressed relative to the grid on the screen, with eight horizontal
and ten vertical lines. The coordinates of each point (in x/y coordinates) correspond to these lines.
To define a new template, proceed as follows:
1 In the 9100 Data Exchange Software, select Tools > Limit Editor... or click
on the icon in the menu bar:
.
The Limit Lines window is displayed, with a limits coordinates table on the
left and the limit lines on the right-hand side.
2 To enter a new limit line, press Insert.
A window appears, allowing you to enter the x/y coordinates for two points.
3 Select whether you wish to define an upper or lower limit by selecting one
of the Upper Level and Lower Level radio buttons.
4 Enter the coordinates for the first point of the limit line (x1, y1).
5 Enter the coordinates for the second point determining the limit line (x2,
y2). You can also move the limit lines afterwards by dragging them with
your mouse.
6 Confirm your choice and close the window by selecting OK.
The window disappears. The values are entered in the limits table on the left
and the limit line is shown in the limit lines graph on the right.
7 Enter more limit lines as described above to complete the template
according to your requirements.
Changing limit lines
You can change the template by modifying or deleting individual limit lines:
1 In the table within the Limit Lines window, click on the line that you want to
modify or delete.
The line within the table is highlighted and the corresponding limit line in
the graph is shown in red.
2 To modify the limits, click on Edit or double-click on the row. A dialog box
appears, allowing you to change the limits.
To delete a limit line, click on Delete.
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Alternatively, to change the starting or ending point for an existing limit line,
proceed as follows:
1 In the graph within the Limit Lines window, click on the starting point of a
limit line that you want to modify.
2 Point the mouse to the starting or ending point of the limit line, keep the
left mouse button pressed and drag the point to its new position and release
it there.
Displaying an example
trace in the Limits Editing
menu
Storing a template on the
PC
1 In the Limit Lines window, select Overlay Trace.
A file selection box appears.
2 Select a trace file from the default or any other directory, and click on Open.
The file selection box disappears and the trace data is displayed in the limit
lines box on the right-hand side of the Limit Lines window.
A template can be stored on the PC, e.g. to allow modifications later or to download it to different 9102 analyzers at any time.
1 In the Limit Lines window, select Save.
A window opens (“Save Limit Lines”).
2 Choose a directory and enter a file name to save your limits template.
3 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The limits are saved in a file.
Loading a template from
the PC
To modify or to load a template to a 9102 that has previously been stored on the
PC, proceed as follows:
1 In the Limit Lines window, select Open.
A file selection window appears (“Open Limits File...”).
2 Select the directory and the file containing a template file previously stored
with the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
3 Confirm your choice by pressing ENTER.
The limits are loaded to the limits table and the graph. You can now modify
the limits (see section “Changing limit lines” above), or download the limits
to the 9102.
Transferring a template to
the 9102
1 Define a template or load it from the PC’s hard disk as described above.
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3 Select Data Transfer.
If the template (characterized by its limit lines) is not yet stored you will be
asked if you want to save it on the PC harddisk. If you choose not to store
the template, your changes will be lost.
The Data Transfer window is displayed with the Limits tab active.
4 Choose a limits file (or multiple files) on the PC side (right-hand side) of the
Data Transfer window, and click on < copy.
The 9102 will, if not done so previously, ask whether to connect to the 9102.
In that case, follow the instructions in section “Connecting the PC to the
9102” on page 204.
The file name on the 9102 will only carry the first 11 characters of the file
name that was used on the PC.
If a limits file on the PC has been selected for transfer and a limits file with
the same name already exists on the 9102, the 9100 Data Exchange
Software will display a pop-up box with the file name in question in the
header bar, and offer several possibilities:
– Click on Yes if you want to overwrite the file in question.
– Click on No to cancel transmission of the file in question.
– Click on Yes to All to copy all files to the 9102, irrespective of duplicate
file names.
– Click on No to All to prevent overwriting of all files with duplicate file
names.
– Click on Rename to enter a new file name applying to that file when
downloaded to the 9102.
– Click on Cancel to cancel transmission of all files, no matter whether file
names already exist on the 9102 or not.
The 9100 Data Exchange Software will indicate when the download has
been completed successfully.
5 On the 9102, press ESCAPE to return to local mode. You can then start
using the limits template.
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Defining and loading external coupling parameters
Defining and loading external coupling parameters
The 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer can compensate a defined gain or
attenuation introduced by external equipment between the device under test
and the 9102. The coupling can be specified in the 9100 Data Exchange Software;
several files for different devices can be defined, stored and downloaded to the
9102. Furthermore, on installing the 9100 Data Exchange Software two files with
external coupling parameters are automatically saved to the Extdev directory of
your 9100 Data Exchange directory on the PC. Once downloaded, the
compensation of effects from external devices can be switched on and off at any
time. The 9102 takes the coupling factor into account before presenting the
measurement result.
Gain and attenuation are frequency-dependent in most cases; therefore the
9100 Data Exchange Software allows you to enter interpolation points to cover
the frequency-dependent coupling factor over the whole frequency range of
interest.
Defining the external
coupling factor
1 Open the External Device Compensation menu by selecting Tools >
External Device Editor... or by pressing Alt+E or by clicking on the icon:
2 To enter an interpolation point, select Insert.
A dialog box appears, allowing you to enter frequency and level.
3 Enter the frequency, select a unit (from hertz to gigahertz) and enter the
coupling factor (in dB). Positive factors indicate signal attenuation, negative factors indicate gain in the signal line.
4 Close the box by pressing OK and repeat the last two steps with as many
interpolation points as available.
The frequency-dependent compensation curve appears on the right-hand
side as values are entered.
5 If you want to change a factor, either select a line from the table on the lefthand side and click on Edit to change the values numerically, or point with
the mouse to an interpolation point in the graph on the right and drag it to
a new position.
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6 To move the whole interpolation curve up or down in steps of 1 dB, click on
the Level Offset arrow buttons.
7 When completed, save the device compensation values in a file on the PC:
Click on Save, enter a file name and confirm by clicking on Save.
8 Press Cancel to close the External Device Compensation window.
Loading an external
coupling loss file to the
9102
One or more files with external coupling loss data can be transferred to the 9102
and reside in the internal memory of the 9102. They will not be taken into
account until they are activated (see “Compensating gains and losses”).
1 Select Instrument > Data Transfer (Ctrl-D), or in the External Device
Compensation menu, select Data Transfer.
The Data Transfer menu opens.
2 In the External Devices tab, select a directory and file(s) on the right-hand
side and press < copy.
The selected files are transferred to the 9102.
Managing communication systems for channel power measurements
Measurements in channel power mode imply that a communication system with
predefined channel numbers and associated frequencies has been defined. The
9102 comes with a few systems preinstalled; more systems are available for
download to the 9102 in the 9100 Data Exchange Software, for example Wireless
LAN, Bluetooth and TETRA. For a complete listing of the communication systems
available in the 9100 Data Exchange Software refer to “Predefined channel
power communication systems” on page 321. Here you will also find a listing of
the communication systems preinstalled on the 9102. Other systems’ data can be
easily entered on the PC using the 9100 Data Exchange Software. Each set of
system data can be stored in a separate file; one or multiple files can be downloaded to the 9102. For downloading and copying system files between the PC
and the 9102, see section “Managing files on the PC and on the 9102” below.
Once data are stored in the 9102, they can be used as described in section “Operating in channel power mode” on page 78.
Editing communication
system parameters on the
PC
1 Select Tools > Channel System Editor... or by pressing Alt+C or by
clicking on the icon in the menu bar:
.
The Channel System menu appears.
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2 If you want to edit a communication system that is already stored on the PC,
press Open, select the appropriate directory and file, and press ENTER or
click on Save.
3 Enter the first and the last valid channel number of the system.
4 In the Channel Width line, enter the measurement bandwidth (separate
input fields for value and unit).
5 In the Channel Spacing line, enter the frequency spacing (including the unit)
between consecutive channel numbers.
6 Enter the carrier frequency (including the unit) corresponding to the first
channel number in the 1st Ch. Center line.
7 Click on Save.
A dialog box appears, allowing you to enter a name for the file in which the
channel system parameters of the communication system shall be stored.
8 Enter a file name and press ENTER or click on Save.
The data are stored and the dialog box disappears.
9 To transfer the data to the 9102, press Data Transfer. To close the Channel
System window, press Cancel.
Managing cable types for distance-to-fault measurements
If the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option is installed and activated
on your 9102 the VSWR/Tracking... menu offers the additional measurement
modes reflection, distance to fault and cable loss. Distance-to-fault measurements focus on the cables whithin an antenna system, measuring the reflection
arising along it in order to detect and locate weak connectors, cable kins, water
ingress and other cable-related problems.
For these measurements Willtek provides predefined cable parameter files for
most known coaxial cables used für antenna installations. These parameter files
come with the 9100 Data Exchange Software and can easily be uploaded to the
9102. For rare cable types you can also define the cable settings manually and
transfer them to the 9102.
For further details on distance-to-fault measurements refer to
Chapter 9 “Distance to Fault Operation”.
NOTE
The functionality described in the following sections is specifically dedicated
to the usage of the 9130 VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option. If this
option is not installed and activated on your 9102 this functionality is of no
practical use as cable types cannot be transferred to the instrument in this
case.
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Uploading predefined
cable types to the
instrument
In order to upload the predefined paramter files delivered with your 9100 Data
Exchange Software to the 9102 proceed as follows:
1 Select Instrument > Data Transfer and select the Cable Type register.
You can also select Tools > DTF Cable Type Editor... and click on the Data
Transfer button. A selection window for the cable type transfer is displayed.
2 In the PC area on the righthand side the cable types stored on the PC are
displayed. Select the cable types you intend to upload to the instrument and
click on < copy. The selected cable types will be transferred to your 9102.
NOTE
It is recommended to transfer only the cable types needed for measurements
to the 9102 for practical reasons. If you have too many cable types stored on
your 9102 finding the one requrired for your distance-to-fault measurement
could be time-consuming.
Defining cable types
In order to define a new cable type not available in the predefined parameter
files proceed as follows:
1 Select Tools > DTF Cable Type Editor ... or Alt+C or click on the icon in
. The Cable Type window is displayed.
the menu bar:
2 Enter the cable characteristics: cable dielectric, cable velocity factor, cable
attenuation and cable cutoff frequency. For details on the values to be
entered here refer to the manufacturer’s information. For general information on cable parameters refer to “Specifying cable settings” on page 150.
3 Click on Save to save the cable type on your PC. A file selection window is
displayed. The file will be saved with the file extension *.ct.
You can now transfer the defined cable type to your 9102 using the same procedure as described in “Uploading predefined cable types to the instrument” on
page 221.
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Transferring cable types
from the 9102
You can also transfer cable types defined on the 9102 to your PC. The procedure
is virtually identical to the one described in “Uploading predefined cable types to
the instrument” on page 221. The cable types stored on the 9102 are displayed
in the Instrument area on the lefthand side of the data transfer screen. Simply
select the required cable types and click on copy >.
Managing antenna factors for EMF measurements
The antenna is one of the most important factors for EMF measurements. For
antenna calibration a correction table containing k factors is required. These
factors are proportionality factors which correct the antenna’s frequency
response and help to convert the measured power or voltage to field strength or
power density. Using the k factor table the measured level is converted into the
relevant quantities.
Willtek delivers its measurement antennas in conjunction with the appropriate
correction factor tables. Using the 9100 Data Exchange Software you can
transfer the k factor tables delivered to your instrument. You can also use the
9100 Data Exchange Software to collect the correction data for antennas from
other vendors and transfer them to your 9102.
For a detailed description of EMF measurements and the relevant antenna types
refer to Chapter 11 “EMF (EMI) Operation”.
NOTE
The functionality described in the following sections is specifically dedicated
to the usage of the 9131 EMF Measurement Option. If this option is not
installed and activated on your 9102 this functionality is of no practical use.
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Defining an antenna
factor
1 Open the EMF Antenna Factor menu by selecting Tools > EMF Antenna
Factor Editor... or by pressing Alt+A or by clicking on the icon in the menu
bar:
.
2 To enter an interpolation point, select Insert.
A dialog box appears, allowing you to enter frequency and level.
3 Enter the frequency, select a unit (from hertz to gigahertz) and enter the
coupling factor (in dB). Positive factors indicate signal attenuation, negative factors indicate gain in the signal line.
4 Close the box by pressing OK and repeat the last two steps with as many
interpolation points as available.
The frequency-dependent compensation curve appears on the right-hand
side as values are entered.
5 If you want to change a factor, either select a line from the table on the lefthand side and click on Edit to change the values numerically, or point with
the mouse to an interpolation point in the graph on the right and drag it to
a new position.
6 To move the whole interpolation curve up or down in steps of 1 dB, click on
the Level Offset arrow buttons.
7 When completed, save the antenna factor values in a file on the PC: Click on
Save, enter a file name and confirm by clicking on Save.
8 Press Cancel to close the EMF Antenna Factor Editor window.
Loading antenna factor
files to the 9102
One or more antenna factor files can be transferred to the 9102 and reside in the
internal memory of the 9102. They will not be taken into account until they are
activated.
1 Select Instrument > Data Transfer (Ctrl-D), or in the EMF Antenna Factor
Editor menu, select Data Transfer.
The Data Transfer menu opens.
2 In the EMF Antenna Factors tab, select a directory and file(s) on the righthand side and press < copy.
The selected files are transferred to the 9102.
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Managing cable factors for EMF measurements
If you are using an extension cable for your EMF measurement setup, for example
in order to mount an antenna on a tripod and turning device, cable attenuation
has to be taken into account by using the appropriate cable correction factors
on the 9102. You maintain and edit these cable factors within the 9100 Data
Exchange software. In order to employ them during EMF measurements on the
9102 you can then transfer them to your instrument.
For further details on the usage of cable factors during EMF measurements refer
to Chapter 11 “EMF (EMI) Operation”.
NOTE
The functionality described in the following sections is specifically dedicated
to the usage of the 9131 EMF Measurement Option. If this option is not
installed and activated on your 9102 this functionality is of no practical use.
Defining a cable factor
1 Open the EMF Cable Factor menu by selecting Tools > EMF Cable Factor
Editor... or by pressing Alt+F or by clicking on the icon in the menu bar:
.
2 To enter an interpolation point, select Insert.
A dialog box appears, allowing you to enter frequency and level.
3 Enter the frequency, select a unit (from hertz to gigahertz) and enter the
coupling factor (in dB). Positive factors indicate signal attenuation, negative factors indicate gain in the signal line.
4 Close the box by pressing OK and repeat the last two steps with as many
interpolation points as available.
The frequency-dependent compensation curve appears on the right-hand
side as values are entered.
5 If you want to change a factor, either select a line from the table on the lefthand side and click on Edit to change the values numerically, or point with
the mouse to an interpolation point in the graph on the right and drag it to
a new position.
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6 To move the whole interpolation curve up or down in steps of 1 dB, click on
the Level Offset arrow buttons.
7 When completed, save the antenna factor values in a file on the PC: Click on
Save, enter a file name and confirm by clicking on Save.
8 Press Cancel to close the EMF Cable Factor Editor window.
Loading cable factor files
to the 9102
One or more cable factor files can be transferred to the 9102 and reside in the
internal memory of the 9102. They will not be taken into account until they are
activated.
1 Select Instrument > Data Transfer (Ctrl-D), or in the EMF Cable Editor
menu, select Data Transfer.
The Data Transfer menu opens.
2 In the EMF Cable Factors tab, select a directory and file(s) on the right-hand
side and press < copy.
The selected files are transferred to the 9102.
Working with settings
The 9102 allows to store and recall settings (see section “Working with stored
settings” on page 46). This can be useful when you want to perform measurements under exactly the same conditions as at an earlier time. With the 9100
Data Exchange Software, you can transfer the settings from a 9102 to the PC for
backup purposes or to replicate the settings to another 9102. Another useful
application is to manipulate settings on the PC; this is easily done because the
settings file is editable and the format consists of SCPI commands. Changing or
adding a setting is equivalent to changing or adding a line in the settings file.
Exchanging a settings file
between 9102 and PC
The settings stored on the 9102 can be copied to the PC with the 9100 Data
Exchange Software. Use the Settings tab within the Data Transfer utility to copy
files between the PC and the 9102. See section “Managing files on the PC and on
the 9102” on page 226 for more details.
Changing 9102 settings on
the PC
Take the following steps to change and amend a settings file for later transfer
and usage on the 9102.
1 In the 9100 Data Exchange Software, select Tools > Setting Editor or press
Alt+S.
The 9100 Settings box appears.
2 Click on Open to open an existing settings file on the PC. The Open Settings
File... dialog box appears.
3 Select the directory and settings file that you want to modify, and click on
Open. An additional program window with the Microsoft Windows text
editor Notepad opens, and the selected file is displayed.
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4 Modify or add lines with SCPI commands for the desired settings. Refer to
chapter “SCPI Command Reference” on page 229 for correct syntax and
value range of the parameters.
5 Save and close the file within Notepad, and return to 9100 Data Exchange
Software to transfer the file to the 9102.
Managing files on the PC and on the 9102
There are various types of settings which can be maintained from the PC using
the 9100 Data Exchange Software. This section explains how data can be transferred between the 9102 and the PC, maintained and deleted.
File types and directory
structure
Each type of setting stored on the PC has a preferred file name extension and
directory for different sets of parameters. The table below summarizes this file
structure.
Table 17 Configuration file types
226
Type
File names
Directory
Traces
*.9tr
9100 Data Exchange\Traces
Modified traces
saved on the PC
*.9tm
9100 Data Exchange\Traces
Settings
*.9st
9100 Data Exchange\Settings
Limits
*.9lm
9100 Data Exchange\Limits
Systems
*.9sy
9100 Data Exchange\Systems
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Managing files on the PC and on the 9102
Table 17 Configuration file types
Starting the File Manager
Type
File names
Directory
External device
*.9ed
9100 Data Exchange\Extdev
DTF cable type
*.9ct
9100 Data Exchange\Cable Types
EMF antenna factor
*.9af
9100 Data Exchange\Antenna Factor
EMF cable factor
*.9cf
9100 Data Exchange\Cable Factor
The files on the PC and on the 9102 can easily be selected, copied and deleted
via the Data Transfer window.
1 In the 9100 Data Exchange Software, select Instrument > Data Transfer
(or Ctrl-D).
The Data Transfer window is displayed.
2 Select the appropriate tab (Traces, Settings, Limits, Systems, Ext. Device)
either by clicking on it with the mouse, or by moving the tab selection with
the << and >> buttons.
The window displays the appropriate files available on the 9102 on the lefthand side, and the appropriate files available on the PC on the right-hand
side. Files on the PC have a file extension and can be stored on any drive and
in any directory; there are no directories available on the 9102.
NOTE
File names on the 9102 only carry 11 characters. When copying a file from the
PC to the 9102 that has more than 11 characters, the file name will be truncated. Only trace files with the extension *.9tr can be transferred to the 9102.
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Managing files on the PC and on the 9102
Copying configuration
files from the 9102 to the
PC
Files can be copied in both directions.
1 Select a PC directory where the file shall be stored or from which it shall be
copied.
2 Select one or several files for copying, either on the PC or on the 9102.
3 Press < copy to transfer the files from the PC to the 9102.
or
Press copy > to transfer files to the PC.
If a file on one side has been selected for transfer and a file with the same
name already exists on the other, the 9100 Data Exchange Software will
display a pop-up box with the file name in question in the header bar, and
offer several possibilities:
– Click on Yes if you want to overwrite the file in question.
– Click on No to cancel transmission of the file in question.
– Click on Yes to All to copy all files, irrespective of duplicate file names.
– Click on No to All to prevent overwriting of all files with duplicate file
names.
– Click on Rename to enter a new file name applying to that file when
transferred.
4 Click on Cancel to cancel transmission of all files, no matter whether file
names already exist on the receiving side or not.
Deleting files
1 To delete a file either on the 9102 or on the PC, select (highlight) the file
name first. Several files may be selected concurrently by holding the Shift or
Ctrl key pressed while selecting individual files.
2 Click on the Delete button
above the files marked for deletion.
A box appears asking, “Are you sure to delete the selected items?”
3 Click on Yes to confirm deletion.
The selected files are removed.
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15
This chapter provides a reference list of commands for remote control of the
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer. Topics discussed in this chapter are as
follows:
– “Overview” on page 230
– “General commands” on page 230
– “System commands” on page 236
– “Sense commands” on page 242
– “Input commands” on page 263
– “MMemory commands” on page 265
– “Instrument commands” on page 276
– “fDisplay commands” on page 281
– “Calculate commands” on page 285
– “Format commands” on page 294
– “Service commands” on page 295
– “SCPI errors” on page 298
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Overview
Overview
The command set of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer follows the SCPI
standard and is broken down into the following subsystems:
– General commands
– System commands
– Sense commands
– Input commands
– Memory commands
– Display commands
– Calculate commands
– Format commands
Each keyword in the command can be used either in its long or its short form.
Uppercase letters are used to indicate the short-form command syntax. Within
one keyword, either the short form or the full version can be used, but not a mix.
The syntax can be used to form either a command or a query (with a question
mark behind the command form). Many SCPI commands have either a command
form or a query form, but not both.
Please refer to the “Index of SCPI Commands” on page 313 for an alphabetical
list of commands.
General commands
:REBoot
Syntax
:REBoot
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Reboots the 9102. The current settings are not affected by this command.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:REBoot
:HCOPy[:IMMediate]
230
Syntax
:HCOPy[:IMMediate]
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Starts a printout over the serial port. For further informations see command
:SYSTem:PRINter:TYPe.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:HCOPy
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General commands
*CAL
Syntax
*CAL?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
The command form is not available.
Query
Returns the date of the last calibration by Willtek in the format yyyy, mm,dd.
Example
*CAL?
Returns 2004,04,01.
*OPT
Syntax
*OPT?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Description
The command form is not available.
Query
Example
*OPT?
*CLS
Syntax
*CLS
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Resets the entire status reporting system:
– The service register will be cleared (all bits will be set to 0).
– The event status register will be cleared (all bits will be set to 0).
– The error message queue will be emptied.
– All event-type registers will be cleared.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
*IDN
Syntax
*IDN?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string, containing the following information:
– manufacturer's name
– name of the device
– serial number
– software revision number
All parameters are separated by commas.
Note: In times of company mergers and acquisitions, it is a good idea to check the
name of the device, not the manufacturer's name which may change between software updates. This does not preclude any name changes at Willtek but rather applies
to instrumentation in general.
Example
*IDN?
returns: "WILLTEK, 9102, 0104012, 1.00"
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*RST
Syntax
*RST
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Resets the entire test set. All parameters, limits etc. will be set to the internally predefined default values.
Query
There is no query form available.
*WAI
Syntax
*WAI
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Description
Postpones the execution of a command until all commands issued previously have
been completed
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
*OPC
Syntax
*OPC?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Only the query form is available.
Query
Waits until the previous command is completed. In addition, the query returns the
Operation Complete flag which is 1 in the successful case.
Commands affecting the
event status register
232
The event status register contains eight bits. The meaning of these bits is
outlined in the table below.
The commands working on the event status register are described below the
table.
Bit
Decimal
Meaning
7
128
Power on – this bit is always set.
6
64
User Request – a 1 on this position indicates that the
9102 is no longer controlled by remote commands
but by user interaction.
5
32
Command error – this bit indicates that a SCPI command error occurred (SCPI error codes 100 to 199).
4
16
Execution error – is set after a SCPI execution error
did occur (SCPI error codes 200 to 299).
3
8
Device-dependent error – this bit indicates that a
device-specific SCPI error did occur (SCPI error codes
300 to 399).
2
4
Query error – is set after a SCPI query error occurred
(SCPI error codes 400 to 499).
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1
2
Request control – this bit is reserved for future use.
0
1
Operation complete flag – is set as soon as the execution of a command has been completed.
*ESE
Syntax
*ESE <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer.
The valid range is from 0 to 255 (8 bits).
Command
Sets the enable filter (mask) of the event status register.
int1 is the decimal representation of the binary mask.
The mask and the current contents of the event status register will be ANDed. If the
result is not zero, then bit 5 of the Service register will be set.
Query
The query form reads out the enable filter (mask) currently set and returns its binary
representation in a string.
Example
*ESE 128
As soon as power has been switched on, bit 7 (Power on) will be set. ANDed with the
mask 128, a binary 1 will occur and thus bit 5 of the service register will be set.
*ESR
Syntax
*ESR?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the decimal representation of the current contents of the event status register in a string.
Note: This register is self-destructive, i.e. its contents will be cleared after reading.
Example
After power-on, the *ESR? query will return "128". This means that bit 7 is set
and all the other bits of the event status register are 0.
The command will clear the event status register and a subsequent *ESR? query will
return "0".
Commands affecting the
service register
The service register represents the highest level within the report structure of the
9102.
The service register contains eight bits.
If any of the bits 0 to 5 or 7 is set, the summary status bit (bit 6) of the service
register will be set as well.
NOTE
The service register is self-destructive. This means that its contents will be
cleared after reading.
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Bit
Decimal
Meaning
7
128
OPERational status summary. When this bit is set, an
event within the general operation register group
(e.g. the 9102 is waiting for a trigger) passed all filters.
6
64
Summary status bit. This bit will always be set as
soon as any other bit of the service register has been
set.
5
32
Event status summary. When this bit is set, an event
within the event status register group (e.g. an error
occurred) passed all filters.
4
16
Message available. This bit will be set to 1 as soon as
a query has been completed and measurement
results are available.
3
8
QUESTionable status summary. If this bit is set, an
event within the general questionable status register
group (e.g. 'value out of range') passed all filters.
2
4
Error queue status. When this bit is set, the error
queue contains error messages. Up to 10 error messages can be logged in the error queue. The error
queue can be read out, using the :SYSTem:ERRor?
query.
1
2
Remote command completed. This bit will be set to
1 after a remote (SCPI) command has been completed.
Note: When the 9102 receives a SCPI command, it
will block any further input readings until the command has been completed.
*SRE
Syntax
*SRE <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer.
The valid range is from 0 to 255 (8 bits).
Command
Sets the enable filter (mask) for the service register.
int1 is the decimal representation of this binary mask.
The mask and the current contents of the service register will be ANDed.
Query
The query form reads out the mask currently set and returns its binary representation
in a string.
Example
*SRE 68
As soon as an error occurs, bits 2 and 6 of the service register will be set. ANDed with
the mask (68), a binary 1 will be the result.
*STB
234
Syntax
*STB?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
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Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the decimal representation of the current contents of the service register in a
string.
Note: This register is self-destructive, i.e. its contents will be cleared after reading.
Example
A *STB? command returns "68".
The return value of 68 (= 64 + 4) means that an error occurred (4).
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System commands
With the system commands, the internal settings of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer can be changed.
:SYSTem:DATE
Syntax
:SYSTem:DATE <int1>,<int2>,<int3>
Parameters
intx are three integers.
The minimum value for int1 is 1998, the maximum is 2100. The default value is
1998.
The minimum value for int2 is 1, the maximum is 12. The default value is 1.
The minimum value for int3 is 1, the maximum is 31. The default value is 1.
Command
Sets the system date. This command uses the following format: yyyy,mm,dd
where
yyyy stands for the four digits of the year (int1),
mm gives the current month (int2),
dd represents the day of the current month (int3).
Query
Reads and returns the current system date in a string, using the format explained
above.
Example
:SYST:DATE 2001,7,6
Sets the system date to the July 6, 2001.
:SYSTem:TIME
Syntax
:SYSTem:TIME <int1>,<int2>,<int3>
Parameters
intx are three integers.
The minimum value for int1 is 0, the maximum is 23. The default value is 0.
The minimum value for int2 is 0, the maximum is 59. The default value is 0.
The minimum value for int3 is 0, the maximum is 59. The default value is 0.
Command
Sets the system time. This command uses the following format: hh,mm,ss where
hh stands for the two digits of the current hour, using a 24 hour time format (int1),
mm gives the current minute (int2) and,
ss represents the seconds of the system time (int3).
Query
Reads and returns the current system time in a string, using the format explained
above.
Example
:SYST:TIME?
String returned in this example: "14,56,05" meaning roughly four minutes to
3 pm.
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:LOCal
236
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:LOCal
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Sets up the 9102 to allow manual operation on the front panel during SCPI operation.
Notes:
– This command may be used e.g. to allow interactive alignment procedures in a
production flow.
– The instrument can also be set to local mode by pressing the Escape function key
on the front panel.
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System commands
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:SYSTem:COMM:LOC
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ECHO
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ECHo <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
This command determines how the Willtek 9102 acts after executing a SCPI command.
If echo is set to ON, there will be a response. Either "ok", if the execution was successful or "ERR" if an error occured. The echo-on mode is preferred for entering
interactive commands.
If echo is set to OFF, there will be no response to a SCPI command. In this case it is
possible to check with the *OPC? query, when the SCPI command is finished and the
Willtek 9102 is ready to receive the next command.
Query
Reads and returns the current echo setting.
Example
:SYST:COMM:ECH ON
Returns the following string: "ok"
All subsequent commands returns "ok" or "ERR".
:SYST:COMM:ECH?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:SYST:COMM:ECH OFF
Returns nothing, all subsequent commands return nothing.
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet?
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns ON, if the Willtek 9100 is connected to a local area network (LAN) via TCP/IP
connector, otherwise returns OFF.
Example
:SYSTem:COMM:ETH?
String returned in this example: "OFF"
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:IPADdress
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:IPADdress
<int1>,<int2>,<int3>,<int4>
Parameters
intx are four integers.
The minimum value for all integers is 0, the maximum is 255. The default value is 0.
Command
This command sets the IP address of the Willtek 9102 to the parameter values.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting of the IP address as explained above.
Example
SYST:COMM:ETH:IPAD 192,16,16,114 sets the IP address to a defined
value.
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:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:TNAMe
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:TNAMe <string>
Parameters
string is a string only containing the device name of the Willtek 9102.
Command
This command sets the device name of the Willtek 9102. It can be used to announce a
symbolic device name for the 9102, if the network supports DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting of the device name as explained above.
Example
SYST:COMM:ETHernet:TNAMe "TARGET9104" sets the device name to a
defined value.
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:SUBNetmask
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:SUBNetmask
<int1>,<int2>,<int3>,<int4>
Parameters
intx are four integers.
The minimum value for all integers is 0, the maximum is 255. The default value is 0.
Command
This command sets the subnet mask of the Willtek 9102 to the parameter values.
Setting a subnet mask may speed up the traffic on the Ethernet.
Note: This command is supported from software version 2.00 on.
Query
Returns the current setting of the subnet mask as explained above.
Example
SYST:COMM:ETH:SUBN 255,255,255,255 sets the subnet mask to a
defined value.
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:PORT
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:PORT <int>
Parameters
int defines the TCP/IP port address of the Willtek 9102. The address must be in the
range from 1024 to 65535. Default value is 49200.
Command
This command sets the port address on which the Willtek 9102 can be controlled via
LAN to a new value.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting of the port used by TCPIP as explained above.
Example
SYST:COMM:ETHernet:PORT 49200 sets the TCP/IP port address to its
default.
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:TERMinator
238
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:TERMinator <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: CRLF|LF|CR.
Default is CRLF.
Command
Sets the terminator characters, which are appended to every SCPI respond from the
Willtek 9102 LAN interface.
Query
Reads and returns the current terminator setting for the LAN interface.
Example
:SYST:COMM:ETH:TERM CR
:SYST:COMM:ETH:TERM?
Returns the following string: "CR"
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:SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:BAUDrate
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:BAUDrate <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer.
The minimum value for int1 is 300, the maximum value is 57600. The default
value for int1 is 57600. Valid values are
300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400 and 57600.
Command
Sets the data rate for the serial port. Only the data rate can be changed; all other
parameters are fixed. The number of bits per character is set to 8, the number of stop
bits is set to 1 and parity is set to NO.
Query
Reads and returns the serial interface data rate currently set.
Example
:SYST:COMM:SER:BAUD 9600
:SYST:COMM:SER:BAUD?
String returned in this example: "9600".
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:TERMinator
Syntax
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:TERMinator <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: CRLF|LF|CR.
Default is CRLF.
Command
Sets the terminator characters, which are appended to every SCPI response from the
Willtek 9102 serial interface.
Query
Reads and returns the current terminator setting for the serial interface.
Example
:SYST:COMM:SER:TERM LF
:SYST:COMM:SER:TERM?
Returns the following string: "LF"
:SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
Syntax
:SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the oldest unread error message from the internal error queue of the Willtek
9102. The queue entry returned will be a string (text). The maximum length of the
text is 255 characters.
Note: A list of error messages can be found in section “SCPI errors” on page 298.
Example
*RESET
:SYSTem:ERRor:NEXT?
String returned in this example: -113,"Undefined header"
:SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?
Syntax
:SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
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Query
Returns the number of unread error messages in the internal error queue of the
Willtek 9102. The string returned will contain one integer. The maximum number of
errors stored internally is 10.
Example
:SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?
String returned in this example: "0"
This means that there are no unread error messages in the error queue.
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]?
Syntax
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the code of the oldest unread error message in the internal error queue of the
Willtek 9102. The string returned will contain one integer (and no text).
Note: A list of error messages can be found in section “SCPI errors” on page 298.
Example
*RESET
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE?
String returned in this example: "-113"
This means that an undefined header (*RESET) was received.
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?
Syntax
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the error codes of all unread error messages in the internal error queue of the
Willtek 9102. The string returned will contain a maximum of 100 integers, separated
by commas.
Note: A list of error messages can be found in section “SCPI errors” on page 298.
Example
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?
String returned in this example: "-113,-112,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0"
This means that there were two unread error messages in the error queue.
:SYSTem:DNAMe
240
Syntax
:SYSTem:DNAMe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Sets a user-definable device name for the 9102 to use this unique name on protocols.
Query
Reads and returns the device name set on this 9102.
Example
:SYSTem:DNAMe "Develop5"
:SYST:DNAM?
String returned in this example: "Develop5"
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System commands
:SYSTem:OPTions
Syntax
:SYSTem:OPTions <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 25 characters.
Command
Enables or disables a software option on the Willtek 9102 with the appropriate option
key string1.
Query
There is no query form available.
Example
:SYSTem:OPTions "00172663845433"
Enables the option corresponding to the key.
:SYSTem:SCReendump:COLor?
Syntax
:SYSTem:SCReendump:COLor? <int1>
Parameters
int1 is a integer in the range of 0 to 255.
Command
There is only the query form available.
Query
Returns the RGB color value (in hexadecimal) of the given color palette entry. Max.
256 palette entries are available.
Example
:SYST:SCR:COL? 5
String returned in this example:
"a800a8"
:SYSTem:SCReendump:LINe?
Syntax
:SYSTem:SCReendump:LINe? <int1>
Parameters
int1 is a integer in the range of 0 to 479.
Command
There is only the query form available.
Query
Returns one pixel line (of 480) of the screen as pairs of hexadecimal values.
Example
:SYST:SCR:LIN? 345
String returned in this example:
"0201420fff00f600010f0201080b1e0f1e0b"
:SYSTem:SCReendump:REMote
Syntax
:SYSTem:SCReendump:REMote <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
This command removes the Remote display when it is set to OFF. This is useful for
screen dumps.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SYST:SCR:REM OFF
:SYST:SCR:REM?
Returns the following string: "OFF"
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Sense commands
:SYSTem:PRINter:TYPe
Syntax
:SYSTem:PRINter:TYPe <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: OFF|PCL.
Default is OFF.
Command
This command set the printer type for a hardcopy of the display. At the moment, only
PCL capable printer like HP Laserjet are supported. The printer has to be connected to
the serial port (normaly with a RS232/Centronics converter), therefore remote control
of printer output is only possible via TCP/IP. The serial interface has to be set to the
maximum possible baudrate of the printer/converter with command SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:BAUDrate. The output to the printer is started with command
HCOPy[:IMMediate].
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SYSTem:PRINter:TYPe PCL
:SYSTem:PRINter:TYPe?
Returns the following string: "PCL"
:SYSTem:PRINter:BAUDrate
Syntax
:SYSTem:PRINter:BAUDrate <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer.
The minimum value for int1 is 300, the maximum value is 57600. The default
value for int1 is 19200. Valid values are
300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400 and 57600.
Command
Sets the data rate for the serial port if a printer is connected. The print output can be
started with HCOPy. Only the data rate can be changed; all other parameters are
fixed. The number of bits per character is set to 8, the number of stop bits is set to 1
and parity is set to NO.
Query
Reads and returns the serial interface data rate currently set.
Example
:SYST:PRINter:BAUD 9600
:SYST:PRINter:BAUD?
String returned in this example:
9600.
Sense commands
These commands affect the spectrum analyzer settings, start measurements and
return results.
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution
242
Syntax
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 100, the maximum value 1000000. real1 can
be set as 1∗10n or 3∗10n. The default value for real1 is 1000000.
Command
This command sets the resolution bandwidth of the 9102, in Hertz.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
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Sense commands
Example
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution 300000
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution?
The value returned in this example is: "300000".
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution:AUTo
Syntax
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution:AUTo <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Switches the automatic selection of the bandwidth resolution on or off. If switched
on, the 9102 selects the resolution bandwidth depending on the current span, video
bandwidth, and sweep time.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution:AUTo ON
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution:AUTo?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo
Syntax
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 10, the maximum value 1000000.
Possible values are:
10,100,300,1000,3000,10000,30000,100000,300000,1000000.
The default value for real1 is 1000000.
Command
Sets the video bandwidth of the 9102. The unit of real1 is Hertz.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo 300000
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo?
The value returned in this example is: "300000".
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo:AUTo
Syntax
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo:AUTo <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF|.
Default is ON.
Command
Switches the automatic selection of the video bandwidth on or off. If switched on,
the 9102 selects the video bandwidth depending on the current span, resolution
bandwidth, and sweep time.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo:AUTo OFF
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo:AUTo?
Returns the following string: "OFF"
:SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer <real1>
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Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. real1
can be set in multiples of 1000. The default value for real1 is 1800000000.
Command
Sets the center frequency of the 9102, in Hertz. When a new center frequency is
selected, this affects the start and stop frequencies, leaving the span unchanged so
long as the new start and stop frequencies do not exceed the limits of the 9102.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer 1500000000
:SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer?
The value returned in this example is: "1500000000".
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 1000. The default value for real1 is
3600000000.
Command
Sets the frequency span, i.e. the measured bandwidth, in Hertz. A new frequency span
setting will leave the center frequency unchanged but affect start and stop frequencies; only if the new start or stop frequency exceeds a limit of the 9102, the center
frequency will be changed accordingly.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN 1500000000
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN?
The value returned in this example is: "1500000000".
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN:FULL
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN:FULL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Sets the 9102 to the maximum supported frequency span. This command affects
start, stop and corresponding center frequency.
Note: If you set the span to 0, the 9102 will perform measurements in the time rather
than the frequency domain.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:SENS:FREQ:SPAN:FULL
Sets the start frequency of the 9102 to 0 and the stop frequency to 4 GHz.
:SENSe:FREQuency:STARt
Syntax
244
:SENSe:FREQuency:STARt <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 1000. The default value for real1 is 0.
Command
Sets the start frequency of the 9102, in Hertz. This command leaves the span as is but
affects the center frequency and the stop frequency.
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Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1500000000
:SENSe:FREQuency:STARt?
The value returned in this example is: "1500000000".
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 100000, the maximum value 4000000000. The
minimum resolution possible for real1 is 1000. The default value for real1 is
3600000000.
Command
Sets the stop frequency of the measured bandwidth, in Hertz. This command leaves
the span unchanged but affects the center frequency and the start frequency.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 2500000000
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP?
The value returned in this example is: "2500000000".
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP:MAX
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:MAX?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only the query form available.
Query
Returns the maximum stop frequency supported by the 9102 at hand.
Example
:SENS:FREQ:STOP:MAX?
:SENSe:FREQuency:MODE
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:MODE <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
CSPan|SSTop|SSPAN. Default is CSPan.
Command
Defines which frequency mode is active.
Three modes are available: Center-Span, Start-Stop, Start-Span.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:MODe CSPan
:SENSe:FREQuency:MODe?
Returns the following string: "CSPan"
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 1000000000. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 1000.
The default value for real1 is 360000000.
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Command
Sets the step size for the center frequency setting using the cursor keys in manual
mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep 2.5E6
:SENSe:FREQuency:FST?
Value returned in this example: 2500000
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep:AUTo
Syntax
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep:AUTo <PredefExp>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF. Default is
ON.
Command
Enables or disables the automatic selection of the step size for the center frequency
setting using the cursor keys in manual mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep:AUTo ON
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep:AUTo?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:SENSe:CPOWer:SPAN
Syntax
:SENSe:CPOWer:SPAN <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: FULL|SINGle.
Default is FULL.
Command
Sets the channel power display mode of the 9102.
FULL selects the whole system spectrum. SINGle displays the spectrum of the
selected channel.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CPOWer:SPAN SINGle
:SENSe:CPOWer:SPAN?
Returns the following string: "SINGle"
:SENSe:CPOWer:CHANnel
246
Syntax
:SENSe:CPOWer:CHANnel <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for int1 is 0, the maximum is 1000000.
The default value is 0.
Command
Sets the actual channel number which is displayed in SINGle and FULL mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:CPOWer:CHANnel 50
:SENSe:CPOWer:CHANnel?
The value returned in this example is: "50".
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:SENSe:CPOWer:OBW
Syntax
:SENSe:CPOWer:OBW <int1>
Parameters
int1 is a integer. The minimum value for int1 is 5, the maximum is 99. The
default value for int1 is 90.
Command
Sets the percentage value for which the 9102 shall determine the occupied bandwidth (channnel power mode).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:CPOWer:OBW 20
:SENSe:CPOWer:OBW?
The value returned in this example is: "20"
:SENSe:CPOWer:MEASure
Syntax
:SENSe:CPOWer:MEASure <PredefExp>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
CPOWer|ACPR|OBW. Default is CPOWer.
Command
Starts measurements of the type described by PredefExpr.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:CPOWer:MEASure ACPR
:SENSe:CPOWer:MEASure?
Returns the following string: "ACPR".
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME
Syntax
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.0, the maximum value 250.0. The minimum
resolution possible for real1 is 0.0001. The default value for real1 is 0.0432.
Command
Sets the sweep time, i.e. the measurement time to cover the full frequency span.
real1 is the time in seconds.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME 0.3
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME?
The value returned in this example is: "0.3".
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME:AUTO
Syntax
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME:AUTO <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Switches the automatic selection of the sweep time on or off. If turned on, the 9102
will decide on the best sweep time depending on the current settings of span, resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
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Example
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME:AUTO ON
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME:AUTO?
Returns the following string: "ON".
:SENSe:SWEep:STATe
Syntax
:SENSe:SWEep:STATe <PredefExpr>[,<int1>]
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
CONTinuous|SINGle|HOLD. Default is CONTinuous.
int1 is an optional integer. It is only valid for SINGle sweeps. The minimum value
for int1 is 1, the maximum is 999. The default value is 1.
Command
Sets the measurement display mode of the 9102.
CONTinuous selects repetitive measurements.
SINGle lets the 9102 perform and display one (or a limited number of) measurement(s). The optional second parameter indicates how often a sweep will be performed.
HOLD immediately stops any ongoing measurement.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:SWEep:STATe SINGle
:SENSe:SWEep:STATe?
Returns the following string: "SINGle".
:SENSe:TRIGger
Syntax
:SENSe:TRIGger <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: OFF|VIDeo. Default
is OFF.
Command
Sets the trigger mode of the 9100.
OFF means no trigger is active. VIDeo activates the trigger at choosen level.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
SENSe:TRIGger VIDeo
:SENSe:TRIGger?
Returns the following string: "VIDeo".
:SENSe:TRIGger:LEVel
248
Syntax
:SENSe:TRIGger:LEVel <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is -100, the maximum value 30.0. The minimum
resolution possible for real1 is 0.1. The default value is -40.
Command
Sets the trigger level which is active, if SENSe:TRIGger is set to VIDeo.
real1 is the level in dBm.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:TRIGger:LEVel -10
:SENSe:TRIGger:LEVel?
The value returned in this example is: "-10".
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:SENSe:TRIGger:EDGE
Syntax
:SENSe:TRIGger:EDGE <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
POSitive|NEGative. Default is POSitive.
Command
Sets either the positive or the negative slope for the trigger.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
SENSe:TRIGger:EDGe NEGative
:SENSe:TRIGger?
Returns the following string: "NEGative".
:SENSe:DEMod[:MODulation]
Syntax
:SENSe:DEMod[:MODulation] <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: OFF|AM|FM.
Default is OFF.
Command
Sets the demodulation mode, which can be off, AM (amplitude modulation) or FM
(frequency modulation). FM demodulation is performed in a 30 kHz bandwidth.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DEMod FM
:SENSe:DEMod:MODulation?
Returns the following string: "FM"
:SENSe:DEMod:DEMod
Syntax
:SENSe:DEMod:DEMod <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
PERManent|ATMarker.
Default is PERManent.
Command
Sets the demodulation permanent to center frequency or at marker.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DEMod:DEMod PERManent
:SENSe:DEMod:DEMod?
Returns the following string: "PERManent"
:SENSe:DEMod:VOLume
Syntax
:SENSe:DEMod:VOLume <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for int1 is 0, the maximum is 100. The
default value for int1 is 50.
Command
Sets the volume of the demodulated signal in percent.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DEMod:VOLume 20
:SENSe:DEMod:VOLume?
The value returned in this example is: "20".
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:SENSe:DEMod:DURation
Syntax
:SENSe:DEMod:DURation <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 10. The minimum resolution is 0.001. The default value is 2.
Command
Sets the duration of the demodulated signal in seconds.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DEMod:DURation 10
:SENSe:DEMod:DURation?
The value returned in this example is: "10".
:SENSe:DETector:FUNCtion
Syntax
:SENSe:DETector:FUNCtion <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
POSNeg|SAMPle|POSitive|NEGative|.
Default is POSNeg.
Command
Defines which measurement values shall be displayed.
The 9102 takes far more measurements than can be displayed on the screen, so several results are summarized into one.
POSNeg indicates both the maximum and minimum values for each frequency point
in the form of a straight vertical line between these values.
SAMPle lets the 9102 randomly select one of the measurement values for each frequency point.
POSitive lets the 9102 pick the highest value.
NEGative lets the 9102 select the lowest value.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DETector:FUNCtion SAMPle
:SENSe:DETector:FUNCtion?
Returns the following string: "SAMPle".
:SENSe:TRACe:A[:STATe]
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Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:A[:STATe] <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ACTual|MAXHold|MINHold|HOLD|AVG|OFF. Default is ACTual.
Command
Sets the display mode for Trace A.
ACTual shows measurement by measurement.
MAXHold displays the maximum value for each frequency point over all the measurements.
MINHold shows the minimum value for each frequency point over all the measurements.
HOLD stops the measurement immediately.
AVG displays, for each frequency point, an average value over all the measurements.
OFF switches the trace off.
Query
Reads and returns the current settings.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:A MAXHold
:SENSe:TRACe:A:STATe?
Returns the following string: "MAXHold".
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:SENSe:TRACe:A:FETCh?
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:A:FETCh? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
ALL|MINimum|MAXimum|FREQuency|FMINimum|FMAXimum.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the data of trace A depending on the parameter:
Param ALL returns: <min>,<max>,<freq>,<min>,<max>,<freq>, ... .
Param MIN returns: <min>,<min>, ... .
Param MAX returns: <max>,<max>, ... .
Param FREQ returns: <freq>,<freq>, ... .
Param FMIN returns: <min>,<freq>,<min>,<freq>, ... .
Param FMAX returns: <max>,<freq>,<max>,<freq>, ... .
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:A:FETCh? ALL
Returns the following string:
"1000000.0,-50.3,-45.5,1001000.0,-53.4,-48.2,...".
:SENSe:TRACe:B[:STATe]
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:B[:STATe] <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
ACTual|MAXHold|MINHold|HOLD|AVG|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Sets the display mode for Trace B.
ACTual shows measurement by measurement.
MAXHold displays the maximum value for each frequency point over all the measurements.
MINHold shows the minimum value for each frequency point over all the measurements.
HOLD stops the measurement immediately.
AVG displays, for each frequency point, an average value over all the measurements.
OFF switches Trace B off.
Query
Reads and returns the current settings.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:B MAXHold
:SENSe:TRACe:B?
Returns the following string: "MAXHold".
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:SENSe:TRACe:B:FETCh?
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:B:FETCh? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
ALL|MINimum|MAXimum|FREQuency|FMINimum|FMAXimum.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the data of trace B depending on the parameter:
Param ALL returns: <min>,<max>,<freq>,<min>,<max>,<freq>, ... .
Param MIN returns: <min>,<min>, ... .
Param MAX returns: <max>,<max>, ... .
Param FREQ returns: <freq>,<freq>, ... .
Param FMIN returns: <min>,<freq>,<min>,<freq>, ... .
Param FMAX returns: <max>,<freq>,<max>,<freq>, ... .
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:B:FETCh? ALL
Returns the following string:
"1000000.0,-50.3,-45.5,1001000.0,-53.4,-48.2,..."
:SENSe:TRACe:AVGFactor
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:AVGFactor <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for int1 is 1, the maximum is 125. The
default value for int1 is 5.
Command
Sets the trace averaging factor.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:AVGFactor 10
:SENSe:TRACe:AVGFactor?
Value returned in this example: "10".
:SENSe:TRACe:CLEar
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:CLEar
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Clears the current trace.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:CLEar
:SENSe:TRACe:COPY
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Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:COPY <PredefExpr>[,<int>]
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ATOB|BTOA.
Command
Copies trace A to B or vice versa.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:COPY ATOB
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:SENSe:TRACe:DATa?
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa? <PredefExpr>[,<int>]
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: A|B which returns
Trace A or Trace B.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
First return string: "ALL" or "MINM". "ALL" returns, if minimum and maximum
values are identical, e.g. "Max hold" or "Min hold". 501 values returned, no
redundant data is sent. "MINM" returns, if minimum and maximum Values are NOT
identical, e.g. "ACTUAL" or "Average". 1002 Values returned, the first 501 values
are the minimum values and after them follow the maximum values. Second return
string: the trace data. Every level value is represented by 3 bytes. The following formula is used to calculate the level value in dBm: Level = Hexvalue / 10 - 200.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa? A
The values returned in this example are:
"ALL","38D36F37238B38D3A63A73BC4103A63E33A13CB..."
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa:LIMit
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa:LIMit?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the Pass/Fail criteria for the recently received trace with
SENSe:TRACe:DATa?. There will be returned one of the predefined expressions:
PASS|FAIL
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa:LIMit?
Returns the following string: "PASS"
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the normalized criteria for the current trace. There will be returned
one of the predefined expressions: NA|UNNormalized|NORMalized
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH?
Returns the following string: "NORM"
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:[A|B]
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:[A|B] <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: OFF|SUBtract|NORMalize.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches math. function for traces A and B off or to Subtraction or to Normalize.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
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Example
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:A SUB
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:A?
Returns the following string: "SUB"
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:OFFSet
Syntax
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:OFFSet <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
Command
This command sets the trace offset for the subtracted trace (A-B->A trace).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:OFFSet -20
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:OFFSet?
The value returned in this example is: "-20".
:SENSe:REFLevel
Syntax
:SENSe:REFLevel <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum and maximum value for real1 depend on the unit set by
SENS:REFLevel:UNIT. When the unit is set to dBm, the minimum value is
-100, the maximum value is 30. When the unit is set to dBuV, the minimum value
is 7, the maximum value is 137. When the unit is set to dBmV, the minimum value is
-53, the maximum value is 77. When the unit is set to dBV, the minimum value is
-113, the maximum value is 17. The default value for real1 is 0 dBm.
Command
This command sets the reference level of the 9102 (0 dB line), in the unit selected
with the :SENS:REFLevel:UNIT command.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:REFLevel -50
:SENSe:REFLevel?
The value returned in this example is: "-50".
:SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT
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Syntax
:SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
DBM|DBUV|DBMV|DBV|V|MV|UV|MW|UW|.
Default is DBM.
Command
Defines the unit for the reference level to logarithmic units (dBm, dBμV, dBmV or
dBV) or linear units (V, mV, μV, mW, μW). It also affects the unit in which results (on
the vertical axis) are displayed.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT DBMV
:SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "DBMV"
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:SENSe:STATe
Syntax
:SENSe:STATe?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the Uncal state.
Example
:SENSe:STATe?
Returns the following string: "ON".
:SENSe:MEASure
Syntax
:SENSe:MEASure <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
NONe|CPOWer|ACPR|OBW. Default is NONe.
Command
Starts measurements of the type described by PredefExp.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:MEASure ACPR
:SENSe:MEASure?
Returns the following string: "ACPR"
:SENSe:MEASure:OBW
Syntax
:SENSe:MEASure:OBW <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for int1 is 5, the maximum is 99. The
default value for int1 is 90.
Command
Sets the percentage value for which the 9102 shall determine the occupied bandwidth (spectrum analyzer mode).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:MEASure:OBW 20
:SENSe:MEASure:OBW?
The value returned in this example is: "20".
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:WIDTh
Syntax
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:WIDTh <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real1 is 100000,
the maximum value 2000000000. real1 can be set in multiples of 1000. The
default value for real1 is 5000000.
Command
Sets the actual channel width in spectrum analyzer mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:WIDTh 150000000
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:WIDTh?
The value returned in this example is: "150000000".
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Sense commands
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:SPACing
Syntax
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:SPACing <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 100000, the maximum value 2000000000.
real1 can be set in multiples of 1000. The default value for real1 is
10000000.
Command
Sets the actual channel spacing in spectrum analyzer mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:SPACing 1500000000
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:SPACing?
The value returned in this example is: "1500000000".
:SENSe:MEASure:ADJSettings
Syntax
:SENSe:MEASure:ADJSettings
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Adjusts settings in display made with ...CHAN:WIDTh and ...SPACing in the corresponding measure mode CPOWer, ACPR or OBW.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:MEASure:ADJSettings
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum- and maximum value for real1 depends on the unit set by
SENS:DTF:CLENgth:UNIT. When unit is set to m, the minimum value is 1, the
maximum value is 2000. When unit is set to ft, the minimum value is 3, the maximum value is 6660. The default value for real1 is 1 m.
Command
This command defines the cable length to be tested, in the unit selected with the
:SENS:DTF:CLEN:UNIT command.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth 50
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth?
The value returned in this example is: "50".
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth:UNIT
256
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: METer|FEET.
Default is METer.
Command
Defines the unit for the cable length (m, ft). It also affects the unit for the cable
attenuation.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
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Example
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth:UNIT FEET
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "FEET"
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is -100.0 dB. The maximum value for real1 is
0.0 dB. The default value for real1 is 0.0 dB
Command
This command sets the reference level of the 9100 (0 dB line), in DTF mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence -50
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence?
The value returned in this example is: "-50".
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:UNIT
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: DB|MRHO|.
Default is DB.
Command
Defines the unit in which results (on the vertical axis) are displayed (dB, mRho). It not
affects the unit for the DTF reference level.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:UNIT DB
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "DB"
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:RFACtor
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:RFACtor <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0 mRho. The maximum value for real1 is 2000
mRho. The default value for real1 is 1000 mRho.
Command
This command sets the maximum factor value for DTF display when the unit is set to
mRho.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:RFACtor 1000
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:RFACtor?
The value returned in this example is: "1000.0".
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Starts DTF calibration. Before executing this command, a SHORT has to be connected
to measurement port.
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Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration?
Returns the following string: "YES"
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration:ENABled
Syntax
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration:ENABled <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Switches the DTF calibration correction on or off.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration:ENABled OFF
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration:ENABled?
Returns the following string: "OFF"
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence
Syntax
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is -60.0 dB. The maximum value for real1 is
60.0 dB. The default value for real1 is 0.0 dB.
Command
This command sets the reference of the 9102 (0 dB line), in Transmission mode. The
reference refers to the current set output power level of the tracking generator.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence -10
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence?
The value returned in this example is: "-10".
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence:UNIT
258
Syntax
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: DB|DBM|.
Default is DB.
Command
Switches the display absolute or relative to the tracking generator output power. This
command is linked to INSTrument:GENerator:DISPlay.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence:UNIT DBM
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "DBM"
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Sense commands
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence[:RETurnloss]
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence[:RETurnloss] <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is -60.0 dB. The maximum value for real1 is
60.0 dB. The default value for real1 is 0.0 dB.
Command
This command sets the reference of the 9102 (0 dB line), in Reflection mode, when
unit is set to Return Loss. The reference refers to the current set output power level of
the tracking generator.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence -10
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence?
The value returned in this example is: "-10".
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:UNIT
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: RETurnloss|VSWR|RFACtor|RPOWer.
Default is RETurnloss.
Command
Switches the display to following units: return loss (dB), VSWR (-), reflection factor
(mRho) or reflected power (%).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:UNIT DBM
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "DBM"
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:VSWR
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:VSWR <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1.0. The maximum value for real1 is 1000.0.
The default value for real1 is 10.0.
Command
This command sets the maximum VSWR value for reflection display when the unit is
set to VSWR.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:VSWR 500
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:VSWR?
The value returned in this example is: "500.0".
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RFACtor
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RFACtor <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0 mRho. The maximum value for real1 is 2000
mRho. The default value for real1 is 2000 mRho.
Command
This command sets the maximum factor value for reflection display when the unit is
set to reflection factor.
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Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RFACtor 1000
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RFACtor?
The value returned in this example is: "1000.0".
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RPOWer
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RPOWer <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.0 %. The maximum value for real1 is
200.0 %. The default value for real1 is 200.0 %.
Command
This command sets the maximum power value for reflection display when the unit is
set to reflected power.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RPOWer 120
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RPOWer?
The value returned in this example is: "120.0".
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1000, the maximum value 1000000. real1
can be set as 1*10^n or 3*10^n. The default value for real1 is 1000000.
Command
This command sets the resolution bandwidth filter of the 9100, in Hertz.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer 300000
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer?
The value returned in this example is: "300000".
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer:AUTo
260
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer:AUTo <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Switches the automatic selection of the bandwidth resolution filter on or off. If
switched on, the 9102 selects the resolution bandwidth depending on the current
span, video bandwidth, and sweep time.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer:AUTo ON
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer:AUTo?
Returns the following string: "ON"
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:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
OPEN|SHORt|LOAD.
Command
Starts reflection calibration. The following sequence is necessary:
1. Scalar mode:
Connect an OPEN to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration OPEN.
Connect a SHORT to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration SHORt.
2. Vector mode:
Connect an OPEN to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration OPEN.
Connect a SHORT to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration SHORt.
Connect a LOAD to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration LOAD.
The mode has to be set before with
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:MODe SCALar|VECTor.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration?
Returns the following string: "YES"
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:MODe
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:MODe <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: SCALar|VECTor.
Default is SCALar.
Command
Sets reflection calibration mode to scalar or vector.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:MODe VECTor
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:MODe?
Returns the following string: "VECT"
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:ENABled
Syntax
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:ENABled <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches reflection calibration correction on or off.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:ENABled OFF
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:ENABled?
Returns the following string: "OFF"
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Sense commands
:SENSe:CLOSs:REFerence
Syntax
:SENSe:CLOSs:REFerence <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is -60.0 dB. The maximum value for real1 is
60.0 dB. The default value for real1 is 0.0 dB.
Command
This command sets the reference of the 9102 (0 dB line), in Cable Loss mode. The reference refers to the current set output power level of the tracking generator.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:CLOSs:REFerence -10
:SENSe:CLOSs:REFerence?
The value returned in this example is: "-10".
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer
Syntax
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1000, the maximum value 1000000. real1
can be set as 1*10^n or 3*10^n. The default value for real1 is 1000000.
Command
This command sets the resolution bandwidth filter of the 9102, in Hertz.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer 300000
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer?
The value returned in this example is: "300000".
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer:AUTo
Syntax
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer:AUTo <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Switches the automatic selection of the bandwidth resolution filter on or off. If
switched on, the 9102 selects the resolution bandwidth depending on the current
span, video bandwidth, and sweep time.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer:AUTo ON
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer:AUTo?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration
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Syntax
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|OPEN.
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Input commands
Command
Starts Cable Loss calibration. The following sequence is necessary:
Connect a SHORT to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration SHORt.
Connect an OPEN to measurement port. Then execute
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration OPEN.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration?
Returns the following string: "YES"
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration:ENABled
Syntax
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration:ENABled <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches the cable loss calibration correction on or off.
Query
Reads and returns the current calibration state. This is one of the following predefined expressions: NO|YES.
Example
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration:ENABled OFF
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration:ENABled?
Returns the following string: "OFF"
Input commands
With these commands, the input stage of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
is affected.
WARNING
The maximum input power level at the RF IN connector is 30 dBm (1 W).
Higher input levels may result in serious damage of the instrument.
:INPut:ATTenuation
Syntax
:INPut:ATTenuation <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 50. real1 can be set in
steps of 10. The default value for real1 is 30.
Command
This command sets the RF preattenuation of the Willtek 9102. The physical dimension
of real1 is dB.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INP:ATT 20
:INPut:ATTenuation?
The value returned is in this example: "20".
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Input commands
:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTo
Syntax
:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTo <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Lets the 9102 select the preattenuation depending on the reference level.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INP:ATT:AUTO ON
:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:INPut:IMPedance
Syntax
:INPut:IMPedance <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: IMP50|IMP75.
Default is IMP50.
Command
Lets the 9102 select between 50 Ω and 75 Ω impedance.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INP:IMP IMP75
:INPut:IMPedance?
Returns the following string: "IMP75"
:INPut:EDEVice
Syntax
:INPut:EDEVice <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches the external device compensation on or off. A corresponding file has to be
loaded first with command MMEMory:LOAD:EDEVice.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INP:EDEVice ON
:INPut:EDEVice?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:INPut:AFACtor
264
Syntax
:INPut:AFACtor <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: OFF|ON.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches the antenna factor compensation on or off. A corresponding file has to be
loaded first with command MMEMory:LOAD:AFACtor.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INPut:AFACtor ON
:INPut:AFACtor?
Returns the following string: "ON"
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:INPut:CFACtor
Syntax
:INPut:CFACtor <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: OFF|ON.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches the cable factor compensation on or off. A corresponding file has to be
loaded first with command MMEMory:LOAD:CFACtor.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INPut:CFACtor ON
:INPut:CFACtor?
Returns the following string: "ON"
MMemory commands
With the MMemory commands, you can fully exploit the capabilities of the
instrument to store and reload measurement results in its nonvolatile memory.
:MMEMory:STORe:STATe
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:STATe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Stores the actual parameter settings of the 9102 in the SETTINGS directory on the
flash disk in a file named <string1>.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last stored with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:STATe "sett3"
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe <string1>[,<PredefExp>]
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: A|B. Default is A.
Command
Stores the current trace A or B and the parameter settings on the flash disk in the
TRACE directory in a file named <string1>.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last stored with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe "GSM900",A
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:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit
<string1>{,<PredefExpr>,<x1>,<y1>,<x2>,<y2>...}
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit? <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
MINimium|MAXimum.
x1 y1 x2 y2 are floating point real numbers.
The minimum value for all these reals is 0, the maximum value for the x values is 10,
the maximum value for the y values is 8, the resolution for all real values is 0.1 and
the default is 0.
Command
Stores the limits defined as lines in the LIMIT directory on the flash disk in a file
named <string1>. A line is defined by a parameter set
PredefExpr,x1,y1,x2,y2. Up to 30 parameter sets can follow the string
parameter.
Query
Reads and returns the parameter sets of the limit file which is given as parameter.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit
"lim2",UPP,2.3,4.5,6.9,7,2,LOW,2.3,1.5,6.9,3,2
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit? "lim2"
String returned: UPP,2.3,4.5,6.9,7,2,LOW,2.3,1.5,6.9,3,2
:MMEMory:STORe:CHANnel
266
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:CHANnel <string1>, <int1>, <int2>,
<real1>, <real2>, <real3>, <real4>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is
11 characters.
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for int1 is 1, the maximum is 1000000.
The default value is 100.
int2 is an integer. The minimum value for int2 is 0, the maximum is 1000000.
The default value is 0.
real1 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution is 1000. The default value is
1000000.
real2 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real2 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution is 1000. The default value is
1000000.
real3 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real3 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution is 1000. The default value is
1000000000.
real4 is a floating point real number. The minimum value for real4 is -100, the
maximum value 30. The minimum resolution is 1. The default value is 0.
Command
This command stores the present communication system settings within the 9102
(e.g. for the channel power mode).
string1 is the name of system settings file in which the parameters are stored.
int1 sets the number of channels. int2 sets the start channel number. real1
sets the channel bandwidth over which to measure, in Hertz. real2 sets the frequency spacing of the channels, in Hertz. real3 sets the frequency of the first
channel, in Hertz. real4 sets the system reference level (0 dB line).
Query
Reads and returns the parameter set from the limit file given as a parameter.
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Example
:MMEMory:STORe:CHANnel "PGSM9DO",125,0,400000,200000,935000000,0.0
:MMEMory:STORe:EDEVice
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:EDEVice <string1>, <real1freq>,
<real1lev>, <real2freq>, <real2lev>, ... <real100freq>,
<real100lev>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
real1freq to real100freq are floating point real numbers. The minimum
value is 0, the maximum value 4e9. The minimum resolution is 1.
real1lev to real100lev are floating point real numbers. The minimum value is
-100, the maximum value 30. The minimum resolution is 0.01.
Command
This command stores settings for external device compensation. string1 is the
name of the external device compensation file in which the parameters are stored.
realxfreq and realxlev are pairs of frequency and level values to set the
attenuation on the respective frequency. The instrument applies linear interpolation
for the level between frequency points.
Query
Reads and returns the parameter sets of the external device compensation file which
is given as a parameter.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:EDEVice "EXT_DEV2",1000000, -5.1,
2000000,-3.2,5000000,-4.1,10000000,-3.8,20000000,-2.6
:MMEM:STOR:EDEV? "EXT_DEV2"
String returned: 1000000, -5.1,2000000,-3.2,5000000,-4.1,
10000000,-3.8,20000000,-2.6
:MMEMory:STORe:CTYPe
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:CTYPe <string1>,<real1>,<real2>,
<PredefExpr>,<real3>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
real1 is a floating point real number. The minimum value is 1.0, the maximum
value 20.0. The minimum resolution is 0.1. The default value is 1.0.
real2 is a floating point real number. The minimum value is 0.0, the maximum
value 2000.0. The minimum resolution is 0.01. The default value is 0.0.
PredefExpr is optional and one of the following predefined expressions:
M100|FT100. Default is M100.
real3 is a floating point real number and also optional. The minimum value is
500000, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution is 0.1. The
default value is 4000000000.
Command
This command stores settings for cable types. string1 is the name of the cable
type file in which the parameters are stored. real1 is the cable dielectric of the
cable. real2 is the attenuation of the cable per meter or feet. PredefExpr sets
the attenuation to meter or feet. real3 is the cable cutoff frequency.
Query
Reads and returns the parameter sets of the cable type file which is given as parameter.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:CTYPe
"EXT_DEV2",2.4,9.3,"MET",2000000000
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:MMEMory:STORe:AFACtor
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:AFACtor
<string1>,<real1freq>,<real1lev>,<real2freq>,
<real2lev>,...,<real100freq>,<real100lev>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
real1freq to real100freq are floating point real numbers. The minimum
value is 0, the maximum value 4e9. The minimum resolution is 1.
real1lev to real100lev are floating point real numbers. The minimum value is
-100, the maximum value 30. The minimum resolution is 0.01.
Command
This command stores settings for cable types. string1 is the name of the cable
type file in which the parameters are stored. real1 is the cable dielectric of the
cable. real2 is the attenuation of the cable per meter or feet. PredefExpr sets
the attenuation to meter or feet. real3 is the cable cutoff frequency.
Query
Reads and returns the parameter sets of the external device compensation file which
is given as parameter.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:AFACtor "AFAC2",1000000,-5.1,2000000,
-3.2,5000000,-4.1,10000000,-3.8,20000000,-2.6
:MMEMory:STORe:CFACtor
Syntax
:MMEMory:STORe:CFACtor
<string1>,<real1freq>,<real1lev>,<real2freq>,
<real2lev>,...,<real100freq>,<real100lev>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is
11 characters.
real1freq to real100freq are floating point real numbers. The minimum
value is 0, the maximum value 4e9. The minimum resolution is 1. real1lev to
real100lev are floating point real numbers. The minimum value is -100, the
maximum value 30. The minimum resolution is 0.01.
Command
This command stores settings for cable factor compensation. string1 is the name
of cable factor compensation file in which the parameters are stored. realxfreq
and realxlev are pairs of frequency and level values to set the attenuation on this
frequency. Between frequency values there is a linear interpolation for the level.
Query
Reads and returns the parameter sets of the cable factor compensation file which is
given as parameter.
Example
:MMEMory:STORe:CFACtor "CFAC7",1000000,-5.1,2000000,
-3.2,5000000,-4.1,10000000,-3.8,20000000,-2.6
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist[:TRACe]?
268
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist[:TRACe]? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent. Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the list of files stored in the TRACE directory. The file names are
separated by commas.
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Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:TRACe?
String returned in this example:
"TRACE1","TRACE2","TRACE3"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:STATe?
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:STATe? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent. Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the list of files stored in the SETTINGS directory. The file names are
separated by commas.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:STATe?
String returned in this example:
"SETT1","SETT2","SETT3"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:LIMit?
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:LIMit? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent. Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns a comma-separated list of file names. Each file contains spectrum
limit values stored on the 9102.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:LIMit?
String returned in this example:
"LIM1","LIM2"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CHANnel?
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CHANnel? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent. Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns a comma-separated list of file names. Each file contains channel
values stored on the 9102.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:CHANnel?
String returned: "GSM900","GSM1800"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:EDEVice?
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:EDEVice? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent. Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
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Query
Reads and returns a comma-separated list of file names. Each file contains external
device compensation values stored on the 9102.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:EDEVice?
String returned in this example: "EXT_DEV2","EXT_DEV5"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CTYPe?
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CTYPe? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent.
Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns a comma-separated list of file names. Each file contains a cable
type stored on the 9102.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:CTYPe?
String returned in this example:
"CABLE2","CABLE5"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:AFACtor?
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:AFACtor? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent.
Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns a comma-separated list of file names. Each file contains antenna
factor compensation stored on the 9102.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:AFACtor?
String returned in this example:
"AFAC2","AFAC5"
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CFACtor?
270
Syntax
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CFACtor? <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: SHORt|EXTent.
Default is SHORt.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns a comma-separated list of file names. Each file contains cable factor compensation stored on the 9102.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:FILelist:CFACtor?
String returned in this example:
"CFAC7","CFAC8"
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:MMEMory:LOAD:STATe
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:STATe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Loads 9102 parameter settings from file string1 located in the SETTINGS directory
on the flash disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:STATe "sett3"
:MMEMory:LOAD:TRACe
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:TRACe <string1>,<PredefExpr>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
PredefExpr is an optional parameter and one of the following predefined expressions: A|B. Default is A.
Command
Loads 9102 traces from file string1 located in the TRACE directory on the flash
disk to trace A or B.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:TRACe "TESTTRACE2"
:MMEMory:LOAD:LIMit
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:LIMit <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Loads 9102 limit settings from file string1 located in the LIMIT directory on the
flash disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:LIMit "sett3"
:MMEMory:LOAD:CHANnel
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:CHANnel <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11
characters.
Command
Load saved channel data from file <string1> in the CHANNEL directory on the flash
disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:CHANnel "GSM900"
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:MMEMory:LOAD:EDEVice
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:EDEVice <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11
characters.
Command
Loads saved channel data from file <string1> in the external device directory on the
flash disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:EDEVice "EXT_DEV2"
:MMEMory:LOAD:CTYPe
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:CTYPe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is
11 characters.
Command
Loads saved cable type from file in the cable type directory on the flash disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:CTYPe "RG58"
:MMEMory:LOAD:AFACtor
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:AFACtor <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is
11 characters.
Command
Load saved cable factor data from file in the cable factor directory on the flash disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:CFACtor "CFAC7"
:MMEMory:LOAD:CFACtor
Syntax
:MMEMory:LOAD:CFACtor <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is
11 characters.
Command
Load saved antenna factor data from file in the antenna factor directory on the flash
disk.
Query
Reads and returns the file name last loaded with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:LOAD:AFACtor "AFAC2
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe
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Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
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Command
Deletes file <string1> in the SETTINGS directory on the flash disk. Files in this
directory usually contain parameter settings of the device.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file last deleted with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe "sett3"
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the SETTINGS directory on the flash disk. These files usually
contain parameter settings of the 9102.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 (saved trace data and parameter settings) from the TRACE
directory on the flash disk.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file last deleted with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe "GSM900"
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the TRACE directory on the flash disk.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 in the LIMIT directory. Files in this directory contain limit settings of the device.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file last deleted with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit "lim3"
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:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the LIMIT directory on the flash disk. These files contain spectrum limit settings of the 9102.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 from the CHANNEL directory. Files in this directory contain
channel settings of the device.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file last deleted with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:CHAN "P-GSM"
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the CHANNEL directory on the flash disk.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice
274
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 in the external device directory on the flash disk. Files in this
directory contain external device compensation settings on the 9102.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file last deleted with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice "EXT_DEV3
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:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the external device directory on the flash disk.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 in the cable type directory on the flash disk. Files in this directory contain cable type settings on the 9102.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file deleted last with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe "cable3"
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the cable type directory on the flash disk.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 in the antenna factor directory on the flash disk. Files in this
directory contain antenna factor compensation settings on the 9102.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file deleted last with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor "AFAC2"
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:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the antenna factor directory on the flash disk.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor:ALL
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor <string1>
Parameters
string1 is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is
11 characters.
Command
Deletes file string1 in the cable factor directory on the flash disk. Files in this
directory contain cable factor compensation settings on the 9102.
Query
Reads and returns the name of the file deleted last with this command.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor "CFAC7"
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor:ALL
Syntax
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor:ALL
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Deletes all the files in the cable factor directory on the flash disk.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor:ALL
Instrument commands
:INSTrument:SELect
276
Syntax
:INSTrument:SELect <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following expressions:
SANalyzer|CPOWer|TRANsmission|DTF|SGENerator|
RFLection|CLOSs|EMF.
Default is SANalyzer.
Command
Selects the measurement mode. Available modes are spectrum analysis channel
power, transmission, distance to fault, signal generator, reflection, cable loss and
EMF.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INSTrument:SELect CPOWer
:INSTrument:SELect?
Returns the following string: "CPOWer"
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:INSTrument:GENerator
Syntax
:INSTrument:GENerator <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Switches the tracking generator on and off.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INSTrument:GENerator ON
:INSTrument:GENerator?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:INSTrument:GENerator:LEVel
Syntax
:INSTrument:GENerator:LEVel <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum- and maximum value for real1 depend on the unit set by
SENS:REFL:UNIT. When the unit is set to dBm, the minimum value is -100, the
maximum value is 30. When the unit is set to dBuV, the minimum value is 7, the
maximum value is 137. When the unit is set to dBmV, the minimum value is -53,
the maximum value is 77. When the unit is set to dBV, the minimum value is -113,
the maximum value is 17. The default value for real1 is 0 dBm.
Command
This command sets output power of the 9100 tracking generator in the unit selected
with the :SENS:REFL:UNIT command.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INSTrument:GENerator:LEVel -50
:INSTrument:GENerator:LEVel?
The value returned in this example is: "-50".
:INSTrument:GENerator:MODe
Syntax
:INSTrument:GENerator:MODe <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: CW|SWP.
Default is CW.
Command
Switches the generator between continuous wave signal (CW) at a certain frequency
and sweeping signal which sweeps from start to stop frequency. This command works
only in SIGNAL GENERATOR mode.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INSTrument:GENerator:MODe CW
:INSTrument:GENerator:MODe?
Returns the following string: "CW"
:INSTrument:GENerator:DISPlay
Syntax
:INSTrument:GENerator:DISPlay <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ABSolute|RELative.
Default is ABSolute.
Command
Switches the display absolute or relative to the tracking generator output power. This
command is linked to SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence:UNIT.
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Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INSTrument:GENerator:DISPlay RELative
:INSTrument:GENerator:DISPlay?
Returns the following string: "REL"
:INSTrument:GPS:QUALity
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:QUALity?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one enum value representing the quality of the received
GPS signal: FAIL means, no data is received; WARNing means, data is received, but
will be inaccurate; OK means, data is valid.
Example
INSTrument:GPS:QUALity?
The value returned in this example is: "OK".
:INSTrument:GPS:LATitude
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:LATitude?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the latitude of the received
GPS data. The value is in degree an in a range between -90 deg (South) and +90 deg
(North).
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:LATitude?
The value returned in this example is: -7.8323.
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the longitude of the received
GPS data. The value is in degree an in a range between -180 deg (East) and +180 deg
(West).
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude?
The value returned in this example is: -137.2475.
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude
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Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
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Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the longitude of the received
GPS data. The value is in degree an in a range between -180 deg (East) and +180 deg
(West).
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude?
The value returned in this example is: -137.2475.
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed?
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ABSolute|RELative.
Default is ABSolute.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the speed of the received GPS
data. The value returned is converted to the unit selected by the
INSTrument:GPS:SPEed:UNIT command.
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed?
The value returned in this example is: 54.4.
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed:UNIT
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: KPH|KTS|MPH.
Default is KPH.
Command
Selects the unit for GPS speed result in km/h, knots or mile per hour.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INST:GPS:SPE:UNIT FEET
:INST:GPS:SPE:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "FEET"
:INSTrument:GPS:TRACk
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:TRACk?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the track (direction) of the
received GPS data. The value is in degree an in a range between 0.0 deg (North) and
+359.9 deg.
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:TRACk?
The value returned in this example is: 272.7.
:INSTrument:GPS:DATE
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:DATE?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
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Query
Returns a string containing three integer values representing the date
(year,month,day) of the received GPS data.
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:DATe?
The value returned in this example is: 2006,01,31.
:INSTrument:GPS:TIMe
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:TIMe?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing three integer values representing the time (hour, minute,
second) of the received GPS data.
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:DATe?
The value returned in this example is: 2006,01,31.
:INSTrument:GPS:SATellites
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:SATellites?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one integer value representing the number of satellites of
the received GPS data.
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:SATellites?
The value returned in this example is: 7.
:INSTrument:GPS:HDOP
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:HDOP?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the HDOP value of the
received GPS data. This is a quality characteristic of the signal, values below 2.0 representing a good signal.
Example
:INSTrument:GPS:HDOP?
The value returned in this example is: 1.8.
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude
280
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing one real value representing the altitude of the received
GPS data. The value returned is converted to unit selected by
INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude:UNIT.
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Example
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude?
The value returned in this example is: 574.3.
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude:UNIT
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: METer|FEET.
Default is METer.
Command
Selects the unit for GPS altitude result in meter or feet.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INST:GPS:ALT:UNIT FEET
:INST:GPS:ALT:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "FEET".
:INSTrument:GPS:COORdinate:UNIT
Syntax
:INSTrument:GPS:COORdinate:UNIT <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: MINutes|DEGree.
Default is MINutes.
Command
Selects the unit for GPS latitude and longitude results. This setting only affects the
manual mode; in remote mode, the results are always returned in degrees.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:INST:GPS:COORdinate:UNIT DEG
:INST:GPS:COORdinate:UNIT?
Returns the following string: "DEGR".
fDisplay commands
The display command subsystem affects the screen of the instrument.
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe][:LOGarithmic]
Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe][:LOGarithmic] <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 1, the maximum is 20. Valid
values are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20. The default value is 10.
Command
Holds the upper limit of the power scale but changes the resolution (and the lower
limit) of the scale when int1 defines how many dB per scale unit are shown on the
display.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe][:LOGarithmic] 20
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe][:LOGarithmic]?
The value returned in this example is: "20".
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:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:VOLT
Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:VOLT <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.00001. The maximum value for real1 is
1.0. The default value for real1 is 0.001.
Command
This command is only in effect when 9102 is set to voltage unit. It holds the upper
limit of the scale but changes the resolution (and the lower limit) of the voltage scale.
real1 defines how many volts per scale unit are shown on the display. The resolution depends on which unit is set with SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT. If it set to V the
command and query is in Volts. If it set to MV the command and query is in Milli
Volts. If it set to UV the command and query is in Micro Volts.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:VOLT 0.0005
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y:[SCALe]:LINear:VOLT?
The value returned in this example is: "0.0005".
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:WATT
Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:WATT <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.00000000001. The maximum value for
real1 is 0.1. The default value for real1 is 0.000001.
Command
This command is only in effect when 9102 is set to Watt unit. It holds the upper limit
of the scale but changes the resolution (and the lower limit) of the Watt scale. real1
defines how many Watts per scale unit are shown on the display. The resolution
depends on which unit is set with SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT. If it set to MW the
command and query is in Milli Watts. If it set to UW the command and query is in
Micro Watts.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:WATT 0.0002
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y:[SCALe]:LINear:WATT?
The value returned in this example is: "0.0002".
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:VSWR
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Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:VSWR <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1.0. The maximum value for real1 is 1000.0.
The default value for real1 is 100.0.
Command
This command is only in effect when 9102 is set to reflection mode and the unit is set
to VSWR. It holds the upper limit of the VSWR scale but changes the resolution (and
the lower limit) of the scale. real1 defines how many VSWR units per scale unit are
shown on the display.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:VSWR 0.5
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y:[SCALe]:RFLection:VSWR?
The value returned in this example is: "0.5".
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:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RFACtor
Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RFACtor <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1 mRho. The maximum value for real1 is
2000 mRho. The default value for real1 is 200 mRho.
Command
This command is only in effect when 9102 is set to reflection mode and unit is set to
reflection factor. It holds the upper limit of the reflection factor scale but changes the
resolution (and the lower limit) of the scale. real1 defines how many mRho per
scale unit are shown on the display.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RFACtor 100
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y:[SCALe]:RFLection:RFACtor?
The value returned in this example is: "100".
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RPOWer
Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RPOWer <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1.0 %. The maximum value for real1 is
200.0 %. The default value for real1 is 20.0 %.
Command
This command is only in effect when 9102 is set to reflection mode and unit is set to
reflection power. It holds the upper limit of the reflection power scale but changes
the resolution (and the lower limit) of the scale. real1 defines how many % per
scale unit are shown on the display.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RPOWer 10
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y:[SCALe]:RFLection:RPOWer?
The value returned in this example is: "10".
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:DTF:RFACtor
Syntax
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:DTF:RFACtor <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 1 mRho. The maximum value for real1 is
1000 mRho. The default value for real1 is 100 mRho.
Command
This command is only in effect when 9102 is set to Reflection Mode and unit is set to
Reflection Factor. It holds the upper limit of the Reflection Factor scale but changes
the resolution (and the lower limit) of the scale. real1 defines how many mRho per
scale unit are shown on the display.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:DTF:RFACtor 100
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y:[SCALe]:DTF:RFACtor?
The value returned in this example is: "100".
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:DISPlay:BACKlight[:BATTery]
Syntax
:DISPlay:BACKlight[:BATTery] <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 0, the maximum is 100. The
default value is 50.
Command
Sets the brightness of the screen in battery mode. A setting of 100 leads to the maximum brightness.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:BACKlight 30
:DISPlay:BACKlight?
The value returned in this example is: "30".
:DISPlay:BACKlight:EXTern
Syntax
:DISPlay:BACKlight:EXTern <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 0, the maximum is 100. The
default value is 100.
Command
Sets the brightness of the screen when external power supply is connected. A setting
of 100 leads to the maximum brightness.
Query
Returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:BACKlight:EXTern 50
:DISPlay:BACKlight:EXTern?
The value returned in this example is: "50".
:DISPlay:BEEP
Syntax
:DISPlay:BEEP <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is ON.
Command
Sets the beep tone on and off.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:BEEP ON
:DISPlay:BEEP?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:[A|B]
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Syntax
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:[A|B] <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 1, the maximum is 8. The
default value is 1 for trace A and 3 for trace B.
Command
Sets the color from the color palette for trace A or B.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:A 5
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:A?
The value returned in this example is: "5".
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:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:OFFSet
Syntax
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:OFFSet <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 1, the maximum is 8. The
default value is 7.
Command
Sets the color from the color palette for the trace offset for the subtracted trace
(A-B->A trace).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:OFFSet 5
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:OFFSet?
The value returned in this example is: "5".
:DISPlay:COLor:GRATicule
Syntax
:DISPlay:COLor:GRATicule <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 1, the maximum is 8. The
default value is 2.
Command
Sets the color from the color palette for the graticule.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:COLor:GRATicule 5
:DISPlay:COLor:GRATicule?
The value returned in this example is: "5".
:DISPlay:COLor:LIMits
Syntax
:DISPlay:COLor:LIMits <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 1, the maximum is 8. The
default value is 7.
Command
Sets the color from the color palette for the limit lines.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:DISPlay:COLor:LIM 5
:DISP:COL:LIMits?
The value returned in this example is: "5".
Calculate commands
The markers of the 9102 can be set using the calculate commands.
:CALCulate:MARKer:AOFF
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:AOFF
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
All markers are switched off.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
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Example
:CALC:MARK:A:STAT NORM
:CALC:MARK:B:STAT DELT
:CALC:MARK:C:STAT DELT
:CALC:MARK:AOFF
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}[:STATe]
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}[:STATe]
<PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
OFF|NORMal|DELTa.
Default is OFF.
Command
Selects an active marker and sets it to one of three different modes:
OFF|NORMal|COUNter or OFF|NORMal|DELTa.
OFF is used to switch off the selected marker.
NORMal switches the selected marker on.
DELTa changes the marker B, C or D to a delta marker; the REF marker is always A.
Marker A cannot be set to DELTa. Only Marker A can be set to COUNter which
switches on the frequency counter.
Query
The query form of this command will return the current setting. The string delivered
back will contain the short-form version of one of the predefined expressions
explained above.
Example
:CALC:MARK:A:STAT NORM
:CALC:MARK:A:STAT?
Value returned in this example: "NORM".
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:DTF[:STATe]
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:DTF[:STATe]
<PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
OFF|NORMal|DELTa.
Default is OFF.
Command
Selects an active marker and sets it to one of three different modes:
OFF|NORMal|COUNter or OFF|NORMal|DELTa.
OFF is used to switch off the selected marker.
NORMal switches the selected marker on.
DELTa changes the marker B, C or D to a delta marker; the REF marker is always A.
Marker A cannot be set to DELTa. Only Marker A can be set to COUNter which
switches on the frequency counter.
Query
The query form of this command will return the current setting. The string delivered
back will contain the short-form version of one of the predefined expressions
explained above.
Example
:CALC:MARK:A:DTF NORM
:CALC:MARK:A:DTF?
Value returned in this example: "NORM".
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:Y?
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Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:Y?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
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Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
The query form of this command returns the level value at the current marker position set by CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X. The string delivered will
contain one floating point real number with the physical dimension that has been
selected for the reference level (:SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT).
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:B:X 2200000000
:CALCulate:MARKer:B:Y?
The value returned is: "-22.4".
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X[:FREQuency]
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X[:FREQuency] <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0, the maximum value 4000000000. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 1. The default value for real1 is
1800000000.
Command
This command sets the marker frequency for one of the six markers of the Willtek
9102 when in spectrum analysis mode. The physical dimension of real1 is Hertz.
Query
The query form of this command will return the current marker frequency setting of
the respective marker of the Willtek 9102 (A, B, C , D, E or F). The string delivered back
will contain one real number.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:C:X 1500000000
:CALCulate:MARKer:C:X?
The value returned in this example is: "1500000000".
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X:TIMe
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X:TIMe <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.001, the maximum value 250.0. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 1. The default value for real1 is 0.0432.
Command
This command sets the marker time for zero-span measurements for one of the six
markers of the Willtek 9102. The physical dimension of real1 is seconds.
Query
The query form of this command will return the current marker time setting of the
respective marker of the Willtek 9102 (A, B, C, D, E or F). The string delivered back will
contain one real number.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:C:X:TIME 0.5
:CALCulate:MARKer:C:X:TIME?
The value returned in this example is: "0.5".
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X:DISTance
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X:DISTance <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.0, the maximum value 2000.0. The minimum
resolution possible for real1 is 1. The default value for real1 is 0.0432.
Command
This command sets the marker time for distance to fault measurements for one of the
six markers of the Willtek 9100. The physical dimension of real1 is meter or feet,
respectively.
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Query
The query form of this command will return the current DTF marker length setting of
the respective marker of the Willtek 9102 (A, B, C, D, E or F). The string delivered back
will contain one real number.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:C:X:DISTance 10.5
:CALCulate:MARKer:C:X:DISTance?
The value returned in this example is: "10.5".
:CALCulate:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:MARKer:FSTep
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:FSTep
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Sets Marker A, B, C, D, E or F to current frequency step (FSTep).
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:A:FSTep
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:TSELect
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:TSELect <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: A|B.
Default is A.
Command
Selects an active marker and sets it either to trace A or trace B. Note: Set to trace B is
only possible when trace B is active.
Query
The query form of this command will return the current setting. The string delivered
back will contain the short-form version of one of the predefined expressions
explained above.
Example
:CALC:MARK:A:TSELect B
:CALC:MARK:A:TSELect?
Value returned in this example: "B".
:CALCulate:MARKer:MAXPeak
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:MAXPeak
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Sets the currently selected marker to the maximum measured level. A marker is
"selected" by way of the :CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}[:STATe]
command.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:MAXPeak.
:CALCulate:MARKer:NPEak
288
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:NPEak
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
Sets the currently selected marker to the next highest level value.
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Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:NPEak.
:CALCulate:MARKer:MCENter
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:MCENter
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
The center frequency is changed to the current marker frequency.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:MCENter.
:CALCulate:MARKer:MREFlevel
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:MREFlevel
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
The REFerence level is changed to the level at the marker position.
Query
There is no query form of this command available.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:MREFlevel.
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt?
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string with the floating point value for the current result of the frequency
counter, in Hz. Marker M1 (CALC:MARK:A COUNter) has to be set before to get
a valid result.
Example
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt?
The value returned in this example is: "2694365000.0".
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt:RESolution
Syntax
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt:RESolution <real1>
Parameters
real1 is an integer. The minimum value for <real1> is 1, the maximum is 1000.
Valid values are 1, 10, 100, 1000. The default value is 1000.
Command
Sets the counter resolution of the frequency counter in Hz.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALC:MARK:FCO:RES 10
:CALC:MARK:FCO:RES?
The value returned in this example is: "10".
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:CALCulate:LIMit[:STATe]
Syntax
:CALCulate::LIMit[:STATe] <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions:
OFF|UPPer|LOWer|UPPLow.
Default is OFF.
Command
Selects the limit lines to one of four different modes:
OFF|UPPer|LOWer|UPPLow.
OFF is used to switch off the limit lines.
UPPer switches only the upper limit line on.
LOWer switches only the lower limit line on.
UPPLow switches both upper and lower limit lines on.
Query
The query form of this command will return the current setting. The string delivered
back will contain the short-form version of one of the predefined expressions
explained above.
Example
CALC:LIM:STAT UPPLOW
:CALC:LIM?
Value returned in this example: "UPPL".
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Enables (and resets) or disables the failure counter. When enabled, requires that limit
checking is also active (see CALC:LIM:STAT).
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt ON
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt?
Returns the following string: "ON"
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt:COUNt?
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt:COUNt?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Gets the current count of fails in the limit check.
Example
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt:COUNt?
The value returned in this example is: "5".
:CALCulate:LIMit:FBEep
290
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:FBEep <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Enables or disables a sound that can be output each time a measurement fails the
limits.
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Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALC:LIMit:FBEep ON
:CALCulate:LIMit:FBEep?
Returns the following string: "ON".
:CALCulate:LIMit:FHOLd
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:FHOLd <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Enables or disables hold, if measurement fails the limits.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALCulate:LIMit:FHOLd ON
:CALCulate:LIMit:FHOLd?
Returns the following string: "ON".
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle <PredefExpr>
Parameters
PredefExpr is one of the following predefined expressions: ON|OFF.
Default is OFF.
Command
Enables or disables the simple limit lines.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle ON
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle?
Returns the following string: "ON".
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:UPPer
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:UPPer <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.0, the maximum value 8.0. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 0.1. The default value for real1 is 7.0.
Command
Sets the simple upper limit line. The unit is one grid. 0.0 means the lower border of
the visible display and 8.0 means the upper border.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:UPPer 6
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:UPPer?
The value returned in this example is: "6.0".
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:LOWer
Syntax
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:LOWer <real1>
Parameters
real1 is a floating point real number.
The minimum value for real1 is 0.0, the maximum value 8.0. The minimum resolution possible for real1 is 0.1. The default value for real1 is 1.0.
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Command
Sets the simple lower limit line. The unit is one grid. 0.0 means the lower border of
the visible display and 8.0 means the upper border.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:LOWer 2
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:LOWer?
The value returned in this example is: "2.0".
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACPR
Syntax
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACPR?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string containing three floating point values; these represent the relative
power in the lower adjacent channel (in dB), the in-channel power (in dBm) and the
relative power in the upper adjacent channel (in dB).
Example
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACPR?
The value returned in this example is: "-14.9,-31.5,-14.1".
:CALCulate:MEASure:OBW
Syntax
:CALCulate:MEASure:OBW?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns a string with the floating point value for the occupied bandwidth, in Hz.
Example
:CALCulate:MEASure:OBW?
The value returned in this example is: "2694000.0".
:CALCulate:MEASure:CPOWer
Syntax
:CALCulate:MEASure:CPOWer?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the measured in-channel power, in dBm.
Example
:CALCulate:MEASure:CPOW?
Returns the following string: "-32.2".
NOTE
The :CALCulate:MEASure:CPOWer? command only returns a valid measurement result after a complete sweep has been made. Should the channel
power be determined before the sweep is complete, the value -9999 will be
returned. This value will also be returned, if the channel system settings
defined cause an invalid measurement result. The value -9999 always indicates an invalid measurement value.
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACLoss
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Syntax
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACLoss?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns the average cable loss, in dB. This query returns valid results only in Cable
Loss mode.
Example
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACLoss?
The value returned in this example is: "-22.5".
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:CALCulate:MEASure:EMF
Syntax
:CALCulate:MEASure:EMF?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is solely a query form of this command available
Query
Returns the EMF measurement value. The result depends on the setting of the
:SENSe:EMF:MEASure:DISPlay command. If it is set to EFSTrength
(electric field strength) the unit for the result is Volt/meter. If it is set to PDENsity
(power density) the unit for the result is Watt/squaremeter. This query only returns
valid results in EMF mode.
Example
:CALCulate:MEASure:EMF?
The value returned in this example is: "0.103352".
Format commands
These commands are used for formatting the SCPI output of the 9102 Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer.
:FORMat:ADELimiter
Syntax
:FORMat:ADELimiter <PredefExp>
Parameters
PredefExp is one of the following predefined expressions:
COMMa|COLOn|SEMIcolon.
Default is COMMa.
Command
Selects the delimiter to be used to separate parameters in SCPI commands, and also
to separate the individual measurement result values in a result return string.
COMMa stands for commas (default),
COLOn sets the delimiter to be a colon (:), while
SEMIcolon will use and expect a semicolon (;) to be used.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:FORM:ADEL
Defines the comma to be used as delimiter for both commands and measurement
results.
:FORMat:RESolution
294
Syntax
:FORMat:RESolution <int1>
Parameters
int1 is an integer. The minimum value for <int1> is 0, the maximum is 20. The
default value is 6.
Command
Defines the number of digits after the decimal point to be used for floating point real
figures.
Query
Reads and returns the current setting.
Example
:FORM:RES 0
Defines that there will be no digits after the decimal point.
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Service commands
These commands are used for information regarding the status of the 9102.
:SERVice:BOOTversion?
Syntax
:SERVice:BOOTversion?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the version of the boot software of your Willtek 9102. The command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:BOOTversion?
String returned in this example: "2.00".
:SERVice:BOOTversion:DATe?
Syntax
:SERVice:BOOTversion:DATe?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the date of the Boot Software of your Willtek 9102. The command
will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:BOOTversion:DATe?
String returned in this example: "2004/10/22".
:SERVice:BATTery
Syntax
:SERVice:BATTery?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the the current loading state of the battery in %. The command
will return an integer.
Example
:SERVice:BATTery?
String returned in this example: "40".
:SERVice:BATTery:SERialnumber?
Syntax
:SERVice:BATTery:SERialnumber?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the serial number of the battery of your Willtek 9102. The command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:BATTery:SERialnumber?
String returned in this example: "00300402".
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Service commands
:SERVice:POWerline?
Syntax
:SERVice:POWerline?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Returns ON, if the Willtek 9102 is connected to the 12 V power line, otherwise returns
OFF.
Example
:SERV:POW?
String returned in this example: "OFF".
:SERVice:CHECk:LAST
Syntax
:SERVice:CHECk:LAST <int1>,<int2>,<int3>,<string>
Parameters
intx are three integers.
The minimum value for int1 is 1998, the maximum is 2100. The default value is
1998.
The minimum value for int2 is 1, the maximum is 12. The default value is 1.
The minimum value for int3 is 1, the maximum is 31. The default value is 1.
string is a string (text) parameter. The maximum length of string1 is 16 characters.
Command
Sets date and name of the last check of this device.
Query
Reads and returns current settings. The command will return 3 integers and a string.
Example
:SERVice:CHECk:LAST?
String returned in this example: 2004,04,01,"John Williams".
:SERVice:CHECk:NEXT
Syntax
:SERVice:CHECk:NEXT?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the date of the next check to be performed on this device. The
command will return 3 integers.
Example
:SERVice:CHECk:NEXT?
String returned in this example: 2005,04,01.
:SERVice:DEVice:TYPe?
296
Syntax
:SERVice:DEVice:TYPe?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the type of your Willtek 9102. The command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:DEVice:TYPe?
String returned in this example: "9102".
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Service commands
:SERVice:DEVice:TEXT?
Syntax
:SERVice:DEVice:TEXT?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the description text of your Willtek 9102. The command will return
a string.
Example
:SERVice:DEVice:TEXT?
String returned in this example:
"Willtek 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer".
:SERVice:DEVice:CALibration:NUMBer?
Syntax
:SERVice:DEVice:CALibration:NUMBer?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the calibration number of your Willtek 9102. The command will
return a string.
Example
:SERVice:DEVice:CALibration:NUMBer?
String returned in this example: "1234".
:SERVice:EDEVice:SERialnumber?
Syntax
:SERVice:EDEVice:SERialnumber?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the serial number of the external device connected to your Willtek
9102. The command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:EDEVice:SERialnumber?
String returned in this example: "00100202".
:SERVice:EDEVice:TYPe?
Syntax
:SERVice:EDEVice:TYPe?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the type of the external device connected to your Willtek 9102. The
command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:EDEVice:TYPe?
String returned in this example: "1234".
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:SERVice:EDEVice:TEXT?
Syntax
:SERVice:EDEVice:TEXT?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the description text of the external device connected to your
Willtek 9102. The command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:EDEVice:TEXT?
String returned in this example: "VSWR Bridge".
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:DATe?
Syntax
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:DATe?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
The command form is not available.
Query
Returns date of last calibration by Willtek of the external device connected in the
form yyyy,mm,dd.
Example
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:DATe?
String returned in this example: "2004/12/31".
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:NUMBer?
Syntax
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:NUMBer?
Parameters
There are no parameters.
Command
There is only a query form of this command available.
Query
Reads and returns the calibration number of the external device connected to your
Willtek 9102. The command will return a string.
Example
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:NUMBer?
String returned in this example: "1234".
SCPI errors
The following table lists the error numbers which the 9102 may return in case of
a problem.
Error
number
Error description
Command errors
298
-100
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (Command error)
-101
Invalid character in command string
-102
SCPI syntax error: Command is not available as a query, or vice
versa
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-103
Invalid separator between parameters
-104
Data type error (mismatch between parameters and allowable
data formats)
-108
Parameter not allowed (too many parameters)
-109
Missing parameter (too few parameters)
-111
Header separator error (probably colon missing between command keywords)
-112
Program mnemonic too long (i.e. longer than 12 characters)
-113
Keyword not found in command list
-114
Header suffix out of range (invalid character in command keyword)
-121
Invalid character in number (not a digit, or exponent value
missing)
-123
Exponent out of range
-128
Numerical data not allowed
-131
Invalid suffix (appended unit not found)
-134
Suffix too long (appended unit is longer than 12 characters)
-138
Suffix not allowed (parameter type is not real)
-141
Invalid character data (parameter expression is not in predefined list)
-144
Character data too long (string data longer than allowed)
-158
String data not allowed for this parameter type
-160
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (block data error)
-168
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (block data not
allowed)
Execution errors
-201
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (SCPI execution
function not defined)
-202
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (SCPI query function
not defined)
-210
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (out of memory)
-222
Data out of range
-230
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (invalid token
received by EXEC)
-231
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (invalid index for
parameter)
-232
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (invalid parameter)
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SCPI errors
-233
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (parameter has
wrong type)
-234
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (parameter missing)
-235
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (index error)
-236
Parameter out of range
-260
File name not found in defined directory
-261
File creation failed in defined directory
-262
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (label not found,
config file)
-264
Error while saving or recalling trace file
Device-dependent errors
-300
SYSTEM_ERROR
-310
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (error no. not found)
-311
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (function not yet
supported)
-319
Error queue overflow (more than 10 entries)
-320
Wrong password
-321
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (serial number error)
-322
Wrong option key
-323
Option not available
-330
Download command error
-331
Upload command error
Query errors
300
-400
Checkrule conflict, parameters outside limits
-401
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (EPROM write error)
-402
Internal error only, for debugging purposes (EPROM read error)
-410
Result not valid
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Programming Examples
16
This chapter provides examples how to use the SCPI commands to set up and
control the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer.
– “Overview” on page 302
– “Command examples” on page 302
– “Application examples” on page 310
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Overview
Overview
This chapter describes how to control the 9102 from a personal computer via a
serial or LAN connection. It explains the basic commands for the 9102 Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer and describes a few typical applications together with the
SCPI command sequence.
This documents does not show every command possible. It is assumed that the
user has some basic knowledge about remote control and also some experience
in the use of a spectrum analyzer.
Command examples
Introduction
The whole command set can be divided into three categories: settings, measurements and others. Each category is descriped in a separate section.
The word <val> stands for a numerical value.
The word <enum> is a placeholder for a string.
Prerequisites
Over serial interface
The 9102 must be powered on. A serial cable (null modem cable with crossed
lines) must connect the 9102 with the PC. The interface settings should be set to
57600 bps, 8 bits per character, no parity, 1 stop bit.
Over LAN interface
The 9102 must be powered on. A crosspatch LAN cable must connect the 9102
with the PC, or a normal LAN cable must connect the 9102 to a local area
network. The 9102 must be programmed with its own IP address.
Settings
Center frequency
Please note that the 9102 always tries to execute the commands. However, under
some circumstances, the 9102 must adjust or change other settings. If this
happens, please check all previous settings and try to resolve this conflict.
SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer <val>
Sets the center frequency in Hz.
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Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:FREQUENCY:CENTER 96500000
Center frequency set to 96.5 MHz
Short format:
SENS:FREQ:CENT 96.5E06
Span
Center programmed to 96.5 MHz
Sets the span (dimension Hz)
SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN <val>
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:FREQUENCY:SPAN 20000000
Span programmed to 20 MHz
Short format:
SENS:FREQ:SPAN 20E06
Span programmed to 20 MHz
Full span programmed
SENS:FREQ:SPAN:FULL
Zero span activated
SENS:FREQ:SPAN 0
Resolution bandwidth
SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution <val>
Sets the resolution bandwidth (dim. Hz)
Valid values for <val>: 10 kHz, 30 kHz, 100 kHz, 300 kHz or 1 MHz.
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:BANDWIDTH:RESOLUTION 30000
Resolution set to 30 kHz
Short format:
SENS:BAND:RES 30E03
Resolution set to 30 kHz
Automatic selection active
SENS:BAND:RES:AUTO ON
Video bandwidth
SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo <val>
Sets the video bandwidth (dim. Hz)
Valid values for <val>: 100, 300 Hz. 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 kHz or 1 MHz.
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:BANDWIDTH:VIDEO 300000
Short format:
SENS:BAND:VID 10E03
Video set to 10 kHz
Automatic selection active
SENS:BAND:VID:AUTO ON
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Sweep time
SENSe:SWEep:TIME <val>
Sets the sweep time (dimension ms)
Valid values for <val>: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 or 500 ms; 1, 2, 5, 10 or 20 s.
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:SWEEP:TIME 200
Sweep time set to 200 ms
Short format:
SENS:SWE:TIME 10
Sweep time set to 10 ms
Automatic selection active
SENS:SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Reference level
Defines the reference level (in dBm)
SENSe:RFLevel <val>
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:RFLEVEL -30.0
Reference level set to -30.0 dBm
Short format
SENS:RFL 10
Scale
Reference level set to +10 dBm
Defines scale per div. (in dB)
DISPlay:TRACe:Y <val>
Examples:
Long format:
DISPLAY:TRACE:Y 10
Scale set to 10 dB per division
Short format:
DISPL:TRAC:Y 20
Input attenuation
Scale set to 20 dB per div.
INPut:ATTenuation <val>
Sets the input attenuation (in dB)
Valid input attenuation values: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 dB.
WARNING
Be careful with 0 dB. This value may damage the unit if the actual power is
too high.
Examples:
304
Long format:
INPUT:ATTENUATION 10
10 dB attenuation
Short format:
INP:ATT 20
20 dB attenuation
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Detector
SENSe:DETector:FUNCtion <enum>
Sets the behavior of the detector
Valid entries for <val>: POSNeg, SAMPle, POSitive or NEGative.
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:DETECTOR:FUNCTION POSITIVE
Positive sampling
Short format:
SENS:DET:FUNC NEG
Trace
SENSe:TRACe:<x> <enum>
Negative sampling
Sets the trace behavior for trace A or B
<x> is the trace (A or B)
Valid entries for <enum> are: ACTual, MAXHold, MINHold, HOLD, AVG or OFF.
Examples:
Marker
Long format:
SENSE:TRACE:A ACTUAL
Normal trace for A
Short format:
SENS:TRAC:B AVG
Average trace for B
CALCulate:MARKer:<x>:X <val>
Sets the marker frequency (in Hz)
<x> is the trace (A to D)
Examples:
Long format:
CALCULATE:MARKER:B:X 98500000
Short format:
CALC:MARK:A:X 1.2E09
Marker B set to 98.5 MHz
Marker A set to 1.2 GHz
All markers disabled
CALC:MARK:AOFF
Only marker C disabled
CALC:MARK:C:OFF
CALC:MARK:MAXP
Selected marker set to MaxPeak
CALC:MARK:NPE
Selected marker set to NextPeak
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Measurements
Trace
SENSe:TRACe:<x>:FETCh? <enum>
Reads the trace data in a definable format
<x> is the trace (A or B)
Valid entries for <enum>: ALL, MIN, MAX, FREQ, FMIN or FMAX.
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:TRACE:A:FETCH? ALL
Short format:
SENS:TRAC:B:FETC? MAX
All measured data requested
Trace B (only MAX) requested
Format examples:
ALL:
<min level>, <max level>, <freq>, <min level>, …
MAX:
<max level>, <max level>, ….
MIN:
<min level>, <min level>, ….
FREQ:
<freq>, <freq>, ….
FMAX:
<max level>, <freq>, <max level>, <freq>, <max level>, ….
FMIN:
<min level>, <freq>, <min level>, <freq>, <min level>, ….
NOTE
One trace contains 500 samples.
Sweep
Controls the sweep
SENSe:SWEep:STATe <enum>
Valid entries for <enum>: CONTinuous, SINGle or HOLD
Examples:
Long format:
SENSE:SWEEP:STATE SINGLE
Short format:
SENS:SWE:STAT CONT
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Max Peak
CALCulate:MARKer:MAXPeak
Sets the marker to the maximum peak
Examples:
Long format:
CALCULATE:MARKER:MAXPEAK
Marker set to max. peak
Short format:
CALC:MARK:MAXP
Marker set to max. peak
NOTE
A marker must be activated first using the following command:
CALC:MARKer:<x>[:STATE] {NORMal|DELTa|NOISe}.
Next Peak
CALCulate:MARKer:NPEak
Sets the marker to the next highest peak
Examples:
Long format:
CALCULATE:MARKER:NPEAK
Marker set to the next peak
Short format:
CALC:MARK:NPE
Marker set to the next peak
NOTE
A marker must be activated first using the following command:
CALC:MARKer:<x>[:STATE] {NORMal|DELTa|NOISe}.
Marker level
CALCulate:MARKer:<x>:Y?Reads the level at the actual marker position
<x> selects the trace (A to D)
Examples:
Marker frequency
Long format:
CALCULATE:MARKER:B:Y?
Marker B level requested
Short format:
CALC:MARK:A:Y?
Marker A level requested
CALCulate:MARKer:<x>:X?
Reads the actual marker frequency
<x> selects the trace (A to D)
Examples:
Long format:
CALCULATE:MARKER:B:X?
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Short format:
CALC:MARK:A:X?
Marker A frequency requested
Others
Identity
Reads serial number of the instrument
*IDN?
Format returned: "<Manufacturer>, <Model>, <Serial number>,
<Software version>"
Reset
Manufacturer:
Willtek
Model:
9102
Serial number:
(seven digits)
Software version:
2.00 (for example)
Resets the unit
*RST
Example:
Unit set to idle state
*RST
Error queue
Queries the error queue
SYST:ERR?
Format returned: <Error number>, "<Error description>"
If no error is present, 0,"No Error" is returned.
NOTE
The error queue can hold up to 10 error messages. Read always until the NO
ERROR is given back.
Echo
Enables/disables echo function
SYST:COMM:ECHO <enum>
Range: ON or OFF.
Example:
Echo feature activated
SYST:COMM:ECHO ON
NOTE
We recommend to always activate the echo. It gives back "OK" after a command was successfully executed or in case of errors "ERR".
The additional advantage of this is to create a kind of handshake mechanism.
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Local mode
Switches unit back to local mode
SYST:COMM:LOCAL
Example:
Remote session finished
SYST:COMM:LOCAL
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Application examples
Application examples
The application examples below use three subroutines which transmit a
command (Output9100), read a result (Input9100) or send a command and read
the acknowledgement (OutAck9100). These subroutines are not printed here but
available from Willtek on request. The program examples are written in BASIC.
Signal monitoring
Task: Permanently monitor a signal and check, if it is still present. The signal
frequency is 97.3 MHz and the signal strength is around -40 dBm.
OutAck9100 ("SENS:FREQ:CENT 97300000") ' set the center to the frequency
OutAck9100 ("SENS:FREQ:SPAN 2E06")
' set span to 2 MHz
OutAck9100 ("SENS:REFL -30")
OutAck9100 ("INP:ATT 10")
OutAck9100 ("SENS:TRAC:A ACT")
OutAck9100 ("SENS:DET:FUNC POS")
' set a sensitive ref level
' set a low attenuation
' activate an normal trace
' use only positive samples
OutAck9100 ("CALC:MARK:AOFF")
OutAck9100 ("CALC:MARK:A NORM")
SIG_FLAG = True
' switch all markers off
' activate marker A
While SIG_FLAG = True
OutAck9100 ("SENS:SWE:STAT SING")
OutAck9100 ("CALC:MARK:A:X 97.3E06")
' set marker to the signal
Output9100 ("CALC:MARK:A:Y?")
Lvl = Val(Input9100())
' read the signal level
If Lvl < -45 Then SIG_FLAG = False
Wend
Print "Signal disappeared!!!"
310
' do one measurement
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Application examples
Signal search
Task: Search for transmitters within a frequency band. If a signal is present and
higher than a level of -80 dBm, the frequency is printed.
OutAck9100 ("SENS:FREQ:SPAN 2000000") ' set span to 2 MHz
OutAck9100 ("SENS:FREQ:CENT 936000000")' start with channel 0
OutAck9100 ("SENS:REFL -40")
OutAck9100 ("INP:ATT 0")
OutAck9100 ("SENS:TRAC:A MAXH")
OutAck9100 ("SENS:DET:FUNC POS")
' set a sensitive ref-level
' remove any attenuation !!
' activate a max hold trace
' use only positive samples
OutAck9100 ("CALC:MARK:AOFF")
' switch all markers off
channel = 1
For I = 9360 To 9594 Step 18
' scan the gsm band in small portions
Msg$ = "SENS:FREQ:CENT" & Str$(I) & "00000"
OutAck9100 (Msg$)
' set frequeny
For J = 0 To 4
OutAck9100 ("SENS:SWE:STAT SING")
Next J
' do the measurements 5 times
Output9100 ("SENS:TRAC:A:FETC? MAX")
MXdata$ = Input9100()
' read trace data
For J = 0 To 499
' isolate the data into an array
P = InStr(MXdata$, ",") ' search for the COMMA between two values
Yfeld(J) = Val(Mid$(MXdata$, 1, P))
MXdata$ = Right$(MXdata$, Len(MXdata$) - P)
' remove the actual value
Next J
For J = 45 To 445 Step 50
P = -120
For K = 0 To 8
If Yfeld(J + K) > P Then
P = Yfeld(J + K)
End If
Next K
' do a maximum search
' store the new maximum
If P > -80 And channel < 125 Then
' blocked channel found
Print "Channel " & Str$(channel) & " = " & Str$(P) & " dBm."
End If
channel = channel + 1
Next J
Next I
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Appendix A
Index of SCPI Commands
A
*CAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
*CLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
*ESE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
*ESR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
*IDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
*OPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
*OPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
*RST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
*SRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
*STB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
*WAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
:CALCulate:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:MARKer:FSTep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
:CALCulate:LIMit:FBEep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
:CALCulate:LIMit:FCOunt:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
:CALCulate:LIMit:FHOLd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:LOWer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
:CALCulate:LIMit:SIMPle:UPPer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
:CALCulate:LIMit[:STATe] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:DTF[:STATe] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:TSELect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X:DISTance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X:TIMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:X[:FREQuency] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}:Y? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
:CALCulate:MARKer:{A|B|C|D|E|F}[:STATe] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
:CALCulate:MARKer:AOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt:RESolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
:CALCulate:MARKer:FCOunt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
:CALCulate:MARKer:MAXPeak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
:CALCulate:MARKer:MCENter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
:CALCulate:MARKer:MREFlevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
:CALCulate:MARKer:NPEak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
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:CALCulate:MEASure:ACLoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:CALCulate:MEASure:ACPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:CALCulate:MEASure:CPOWer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:CALCulate:MEASure:EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:CALCulate:MEASure:OBW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:BACKlight:EXTern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:BACKlight[:BATTery] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:BEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:COLor:GRATicule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:COLor:LIMits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:[A|B] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:COLor:TRACe:OFFSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:DTF:RFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:VOLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:LINear:WATT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:RPOWer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RFLection:VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:DISPlay:TRACe:Y[:SCALe][:LOGarithmic] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:FORMat:ADELimiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:FORMat:RESolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:HCOPy[:IMMediate] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INPut:AFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INPut:ATTenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INPut:CFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INPut:EDEVice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INPut:IMPedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GENerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GENerator:DISPlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GENerator:LEVel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GENerator:MODe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:ALTitude:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:COORdinate:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:HDOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:LATitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:LONGitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:QUALity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:SATellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:SPEed:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:TIMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:GPS:TRACk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:INSTrument:SELect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:AFACtor:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:CFACtor:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:CHANnel:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
314
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292
292
294
292
284
284
284
285
285
284
285
283
282
282
283
283
282
281
294
294
230
264
263
264
265
264
264
277
277
277
277
280
281
281
279
280
278
278
278
278
280
279
279
280
279
276
275
276
276
276
274
274
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:MMEMory:DELete:CTYPe:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
:MMEMory:DELete:EDEVice:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
:MMEMory:DELete:LIMit:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
:MMEMory:DELete:STATe:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
:MMEMory:DELete:TRACe:ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
:MMEMory:LOAD:AFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
:MMEMory:LOAD:CFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
:MMEMory:LOAD:CHANnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
:MMEMory:LOAD:CTYPe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
:MMEMory:LOAD:EDEVice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
:MMEMory:LOAD:LIMit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
:MMEMory:LOAD:STATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
:MMEMory:LOAD:TRACe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
:MMEMory:STORe:AFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
:MMEMory:STORe:CFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
:MMEMory:STORe:CHANnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
:MMEMory:STORe:CTYPe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
:MMEMory:STORe:EDEVice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
:MMEMory:STORe:STATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:AFACtor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CFACtor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CHANnel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:CTYPe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:EDEVice? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:LIMit? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist:STATe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
:MMEMory[:LOAD]:FILelist[:TRACe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
:REBoot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
:SENSe:BANDwidth:RESolution:AUTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:SENSe:BANDwidth:VIDeo:AUTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
:SENSe:CLOSs:CALibration:ENABled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
:SENSe:CLOSs:FILTer:AUTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
:SENSe:CLOSs:REFerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
:SENSe:CPOWer:CHANnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
:SENSe:CPOWer:MEASure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
:SENSe:CPOWer:OBW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
:SENSe:CPOWer:SPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
:SENSe:DEMod:DEMod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
:SENSe:DEMod:DURation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
:SENSe:DEMod:VOLume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
:SENSe:DEMod[:MODulation] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
:SENSe:DETector:FUNCtion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
:SENSe:DTF:CALibration:ENABled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
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:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:DTF:CLENgth:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:RFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:DTF:REFerence:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:FSTep:AUTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN:FULL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:STARt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP:MAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:MEASure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:MEASure:ADJSettings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:SPACing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:MEASure:CHANnel:WIDTh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:MEASure:OBW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:REFLevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:REFLevel:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:ENABled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:CALibration:MODe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:FILTer:AUTo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RFACtor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:RPOWer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence:VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:RFLection:REFerence[:RETurnloss] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:STATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:SWEep:STATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:SWEep:TIME:AUTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:A:FETCh? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:A[:STATe] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:AVGFactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:B:FETCh? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:B[:STATe] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:CLEar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:COPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa:LIMit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:DATa? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:[A|B] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRACe:MATH:OFFSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRANsmission:REFerence:UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRIGger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRIGger:EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SENSe:TRIGger:LEVel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SERVice:BATTery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:SERVice:BATTery:SERialnumber? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
316
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
256
256
257
257
257
243
245
246
245
244
244
244
245
245
255
256
256
255
255
254
254
261
261
261
260
260
259
260
259
259
259
255
248
247
247
251
250
252
252
251
252
252
253
253
253
253
254
258
258
248
249
248
295
295
Appendix A Index of SCPI Commands
:SERVice:BOOTversion:DATe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
:SERVice:BOOTversion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
:SERVice:CHECk:LAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
:SERVice:CHECk:NEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
:SERVice:DEVice:CALibration:NUMBer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
:SERVice:DEVice:TEXT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
:SERVice:DEVice:TYPe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
:SERVice:EDEVice:CALibration:DATe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
:SERVice:EDEVice:SERialnumber? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
:SERVice:EDEVice:TEXT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
:SERVice:EDEVice:TYPe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
:SERVice:POWerline? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ECHO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:IPADdress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:SUBNetmask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:TERMinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet:TNAMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:ETHernet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:LOCal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:BAUDrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:SER:TERMinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:SYSTem:DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
:SYSTem:DNAMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
:SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:SYSTem:OPTions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
:SYSTem:PRINter:BAUDrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
:SYSTem:PRINter:TYPe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
:SYSTem:SCReendump:COLor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
:SYSTem:SCReendump:LINe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
:SYSTem:SCReendump:REMote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
:SYSTem:TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
317
Appendix A Index of SCPI Commands
318
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix B
Predefined settings
B
This appendix provides an overview on settings and parameters predefined on the
9102 as well as in the 9100 Data Exchange Software for your convenience. The
topics discussed in this appendix are as follows:
– “Predefined measurement settings” on page 320
– “Predefined channel power communication systems” on page 321
– “Predefined cable types” on page 324
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
319
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined measurement settings
Predefined measurement settings
The 9102 provides the capability of storing all parameters for a particular
measurement for reuse when repeating the measurement under the same conditions. In the 9100 Data Exchange Software delivered with your instrument a
number of predefined settings for common measurements are available. For
details on working with these settings refer to “Working with settings” on
page 225.
The following table provides an overview on the settings available within the
9100 Data Exchange Software. The names for the predefined settings files have
prefixes assigned to them indicating the measurement modes used for
performing the individual measurements:
– SP for spectrum analysis mode
– CH for channel power mode
– SG for signal generator mode
– TR for transmission mode
– RFL for reflection mode
– DTF for distance to fault mode
– CL for cable loss mode
– EMF for EMF (EMI) mode
Table 1
320
Predefined measurement settings
Name
Meaning
Frequency range
SP-UKW
Ultra short wave
87.5 to 108 MHz
SP-DAB I
Digital audio broadcast band I
223 to 230 MHz
SP-DAB II
Digital audio broadcast band II
1452 to 1479.5 MHz
SP-VHF I
Very high frequency TV band I
47 to 68 MHz
SP-VHF III
Very high frequency TV band III
174 to 230 MHz
SP-UHF IV
Ultra high frequency TV
band IV
470 to 606 MHz
SP-UHF V
Ultra high frequency TV band V
606 to 862 MHz
SP-LNB
SAT-ZF
950 to 2050 MHz
RFL-GSM900
GSM 900 frequency range
875 to 965 MHz
RFL-GSM1800
GSM 1800 frequency range
1700 to 1890 MHz
RFL-UMTS
UMTS band I frequency range
1890 to 2200 MHz
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined channel power communication systems
Predefined channel power communication systems
Measurements in channel power mode imply that a communication system with
predefined channel numbers and associated frequencies has been defined. The
9102 comes with a few systems preinstalled. More systems are available for
download to the 9102 in the 9100 Data Exchange Software. The following two
sections provide you with an overview on the communication systems preinstalled on your 9102 as well as on the systems available in the 9100 Data
Exchange Software.
Preinstalled systems on
the 9102
Table 2
The following table lists all communication systems preinstalled as a default on
your 9102. For details on working with the preinstalled systems refer to “Working
with communication systems and frequency settings” on page 79.
Default preinstalled channel power systems
System name
Meaning
DECT
Frequency range
Channel
numbers
(n)
Center frequencies (fc)
Channel
width
1880 to 1900 MHz
0 to 9
fc = 1897.344 - n*1.728
1728 kHz
PGSM900-DL
Primary GSM
Downlink
935 to 960 MHz
1 to 124
fc = 935 + 0.2*n
200 kHz
RGSM900-DL
Railways GSM
Downlink
921 to 960 MHz
955 to
1023
fc = 935 + 0.2*(n-1024)
200 kHz
PCN1800-DL
GSM 1800
Downlink
1805 to 1880 MHz
512 to 885
fc = 1805.2 + 0.2*(n-512)
200 kHz
PCS1900-DL
GSM 1900
Downlink
1930 to 1990 MHz
512 to 810
fc = 1930.2 + 0.2*(n-512)
200 kHz
WCDMA-DL
UTRA-FDD
Downlink
2110 to 2170 MHz
10562 to
10838
fc = n / 5
5 MHz
WCDMA-UL
UTRA-FDD
Uplink
1920 to 1980 MHz
9612 to
9888
fc = n / 5
5 MHz
WLAN
IEEE
802.11b,g
2400 to 2484 MHz
1 to 13
fc = 2412 + (n-1)*5
22 MHz
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
321
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined channel power communication systems
Predefined systems in the
9100 Data Exchange
Software
Table 3
The following table lists all further communication systems available in the 9100
Data Exchange Software for download to the 9102. For details on using these
systems refer to “Managing communication systems for channel power measurements” on page 219.
9100 Data Exchange Software channel power systems
System name
Meaning
Frequency range
Channel
numbers
(n)
Center frequencies (fc)
Channel
width
GSM450-UL
GSM 450
Uplink
450.4 to
457.6 MHz
259 to 293
fc = 450.6 + 0.2*(n - 259)
200 kHz
GSM450-DL
GSM 450
Downlink
460.4 to
467.6 MHz
259 to 293
fc = 460.6 + 0.2*(n - 259)
200 kHz
GSM480-UL
GSM 480
Uplink
478.8 to 468 MHz
306 to 340
fc = 479 + 0.2*(n - 306)
200 kHz
GSM480-DL
GSM 480
Downlink
488.8 to 496 MHz
306 to 340
fc = 489 + 0.2*(n - 306)
200 kHz
GSM850-UL
GSM 850
Uplink
824 to 849 MHz
128 to 251
fc = 824.2 + 0.2*(n - 128)
200 kHz
GSM850-DL
GSM 850
Downlink
869 to 894 MHz
128 to 251
fc = 869.2 + 0.2*(n - 128)
200 kHz
EGSM900-UL
Extended
GSM Uplink
880 to 915 MHz
975 to
1023
fc = 890 + 0.2*(n - 1024)
200 kHz
EGSM900-DL
Extended
GSM Downlink
925 to 960 MHz
975 to
1023
fc = 935 + 0.2*(n - 1024)
200 kHz
PGSM900-UL
Primary
GSM Uplink
890 to 915 MHz
1 to 124
fc = 890 + 0.2*n
200 kHz
RGSM900-UL
Railways
GSM Uplink
876 to 915 MHz
955 to
1023
fc = 890 + 0.2*(n - 1024)
200 kHz
PCN1800-UL
GSM 1800
Uplink
1710 to 1785 MHz
512 to 885
fc = 1710.2 + 0.2*
(n -512)
200 kHz
PCS1900-UL
GSM 1900
Uplink
1850 to 1910 MHz
512 to 810
fc = 1850.2 + 0.2*
(n - 512)
200 kHz
BLUETOOTH
USA/Europe
2402 to 2480 MHz
0 to 78
fc = 2402 + n
1 MHz
USCELL-UL
U.S. cellular
Uplink
824 to 849 MHz
1 to 799
fc = 825 + 0.03*n
1.25 MHz
USCELL-DL
U.S. cellular
Downlink
869 to 894 MHz
1 to 799
fc = 870 + 0.03*n
1.25 MHz
USPCS-UL
North
America PCS
Uplink
1850 to 1910 MHz
0 to 1199
fc = 1850 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
322
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined channel power communication systems
Table 3
9100 Data Exchange Software channel power systems (Continued)
System name
Channel
numbers
(n)
Frequency range
USPCS-DL
North
America PCS
Downlink
1930 to 1990 MHz
0 to 1199
fc = 1930 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
TACS-UL
TACS Uplink
872 to 915 MHz
0 to 1000
fc = 889.9875 + 0.025*n
1.25 MHz
TACS-DL
TACS
Downlink
917 to 960 MHz
0 to 1000
fc = 934.9875 + 0.025*n
1.25 MHz
JTACS-UL
JTACS Uplink
887 to 925 MHz
1 to 799
fc = 915 + 0.0125*n
1.25 MHz
JTAGS-DL
JTACS
Downlink
832 to 870 MHz
1 to 799
fc = 860 + 0.0125*n
1.25 MHz
KORPCS-UL
Korean PCS
Uplink
1850 to 1780 MHz
0 to 599
fc = 1750 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
KORPCS-DL
Korean PCS
Downlink
1840 to 1870 MHz
0 to 599
fc = 1840 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
NMT450-UL
NMT-450
Uplink
411 to 484 MHz
1 to 300
fc = 450 + 0.025*(n - 1)
1.25 MHz
NMT450-DL
NMT-450
Downlink
421 to 494 MHz
1 to 300
fc = 460 + 0.025*(n - 1)
1.25 MHz
IMT2000-UL
IMT-2000
Uplink
1920 to 1980 MHz
0 to 1199
fc = 1920 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
IMT2000-DL
IMT-2000
Downlink
2110 to 2170 MHz
0 to 1199
fc = 2110 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
CDMA700-UL
CDMA
700 MHz
Uplink
776 to 794 MHz
0 to 359
fc = 776 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
CDMA700-DL
CDMA
700 MHz
Downlink
746 to 764 MHz
0 to 359
fc = 746 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
CDMA1800-UL
CDMA
1800 MHz
Uplink
1710 to 1785 MHz
0 to 1499
fc = 1710 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
CDMA1800-DL
CDMA
1800 MHz
Downlink
1805 to 1880 MHz
0 to 1499
fc = 1805 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
CDMA900-UL
CDMA
900 MHz
Uplink
880 to 915 MHz
0 to 699
fc = 880 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
CDMA900-DL
CDMA
900 MHz
Downlink
925 to 960 MHz
0 to 699
fc = 925 + 0.05*n
1.25 MHz
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Center frequencies (fc)
Channel
width
Meaning
version 4.50
323
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined cable types
Predefined cable types
For DTF measurements in the distance to fault measurement mode Willtek
provides predefined cable types for most known coaxial cables. These cable types
are available in the 9100 Data Exchange Software. You can upload the cable
types you use frequently to the 9102. For further details on the usage of cable
types in distance to fault measurements refer to “Specifying cable settings” on
page 150. For information on managing cable types within the 9100 Data
Exchange Software refer to “Managing cable types for distance-to-fault
measurements” on page 220.
The following table provides an overview on all predefined cable types implemented in the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
Table 4
324
9100 Data Exchange Software cable types
Cable type
Description
Velocity
(Vf %)
Attn.
(dB/100m)
Dielec.
ANAVA5-50
AVA5-50 7/8"
91.00
5.530
1.21
ANAVA7-50
AVA7-50 1 5/8"
92.00
3.360
1.18
ANEFX2-50
EFX2-50
85.00
17.800
1.38
ANFSJ1-50A
FSJ1-50A
84.00
28.500
1.42
ANFSJ2-50
FSJ2-50
83.00
19.600
1.45
ANFSJ4-50B
FSJ4-50B
81.00
17.600
1.52
ANHJ12-50
HJ12-50
93.10
2.890
1.15
ANHJ45-50
HJ4.5-50
92.00
7.860
1.18
ANHJ4-50
HJ4-50
91.40
13.700
1.20
ANHJ5-50
HJ5-50
91.60
6.260
1.19
ANHJ7-50A
HJ7-50A
92.10
3.420
1.18
ANHL4RP-50
HL4RP-50
88.00
12.200
1.29
ANLDF12-50
LDF12-50
88.00
3.260
1.29
ANLDF1-50
LDF1-50
86.00
20.000
1.35
ANLDF2-50
LDF2-50
88.00
17.000
1.29
ANLDF45-50A
LDF4.5-50A
89.00
8.020
1.26
ANLDF4-50A
LDF4-50A
88.00
10.700
1.29
ANLDF5-50A
LDF5-50A
89.00
6.110
1.26
ANLDF5-50B
LDF5-50B
91.00
6.100
1.21
ANLDF6-50
LDF6-50
89.00
4.430
1.26
ANLDF7-50A
LDF7-50A
88.00
3.710
1.29
ANVXL5-50
VXL5-50
88.00
6.590
1.29
ANVXL5-5078
VXL5-50 7/8"
88.00
6.590
1.29
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined cable types
Table 4
9100 Data Exchange Software cable types (Continued)
Cable type
Description
Velocity
(Vf %)
Attn.
(dB/100m)
Dielec.
ANVXL6-50
VXL6-50
88.00
4.830
1.29
ANVXL6-50
VXL6-50 1 1/4"
88.00
4.830
1.29
ANVXL7-50
VXL7-50
88.00
3.710
1.29
BERG10
RG10
65.90
26.201
2.30
BERG10A
RG10A
65.90
26.201
2.30
BERG142
RG142
65.90
44.300
2.30
BERG17
RG17
65.90
18.000
2.30
BERG174
RG174
65.90
98.400
2.30
BERG178B
RG178B
65.90
150.900
2.30
BERG17A
RG17A
65.90
18.000
2.30
BERG188
RG188
65.90
101.700
2.30
BERG213
RG213
65.90
29.200
2.30
BERG214
RG214
65.90
29.200
2.30
BERG223
RG223
65.90
53.500
2.30
BERG55
RG55
65.90
54.100
2.30
BERG55A
RG55A
65.90
54.100
2.30
BERG55B
RG55B
65.90
54.100
2.30
BERG58
RG58
65.90
55.800
2.30
BERG58A
RG58A
66.00
55.900
2.30
BERG58B
RG58B
65.90
78.700
2.30
BERG58C
RG58C
65.90
78.700
2.30
BERG8
RG8
65.90
26.201
2.30
BERG8A
RG8A
65.90
26.201
2.30
BERG9
RG9
65.90
28.900
2.30
BERG9A
RG9A
65.90
28.900
2.30
CSCR501070
CR50 1070PE
88.00
5.510
1.29
CSCR501873
CR50 1873PE
88.00
3.440
1.29
CSCR50540
CR50 540PE
88.00
10.300
1.29
EUEC12-50
EC12-50 2-1/4
88.00
3.370
1.29
EUEC1-50
EC1-50 1/4
82.00
20.980
1.49
EUEC1-50-HF
EC1-50-HF 1/4
83.00
26.890
1.45
EUEC2-50
EC2-50 3/8
88.00
15.100
1.29
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined cable types
Table 4
326
9100 Data Exchange Software cable types (Continued)
Cable type
Description
Velocity
(Vf %)
Attn.
(dB/100m)
Dielec.
EUEC45-50
EC4.5-50 5/8
88.00
8.150
1.29
EUEC4-50
EC4-50 1/2
88.00
10.880
1.29
EUEC4-50-HF
EC4-50-HF 1/2
82.00
16.080
1.49
EUEC5-50
EC5-50 7/8
88.00
6.100
1.29
EUEC6-50
EC6-50 1-1/4
88.00
4.510
1.29
EUEC7-50
EC7-50 1-5/8
88.00
3.810
1.29
NKRF114-50
RF 1 1/4"-50
88.00
4.290
1.29
NKRF158-50
RF 1 5/8"-50
88.00
3.630
1.29
NKRF12-50
RF 1/2"-50
88.00
10.700
1.29
NKRF214-50
RF 2 1/4"-50
88.00
3.220
1.29
NKRF38-50
RF 3/8"-50
86.00
16.200
1.35
NKRF58-50
RF 5/8"-50
88.00
7.460
1.29
NKRF78-50
RF 7/8"-50
88.00
5.850
1.29
NKRFE114-50
RFE 1 1/4"-50
88.00
4.440
1.29
NKRFE158-50
RFE 1 5/8"-50
88.00
3.680
1.29
NKRFE78-50
RFE 7/8"-50
84.00
6.290
1.42
NKRFF12-50
RFF 1/2"-50
82.00
15.700
1.49
NKRFF14-50
RFF 1/4"-50
83.00
27.200
1.45
NKRFF38-50
RFF 3/8"-50
81.00
20.900
1.52
RFHCA118-50
HCA118-50
92.00
4.550
1.18
RFHCA12-50
HCA12-50
93.00
11.100
1.16
RFHCA158-50
HCA158-50
95.00
2.890
1.11
RFHCA214-50
HCA214-50
95.00
2.880
1.11
RFHCA300-50
HCA300-50
96.00
1.483
1.09
RFHCA318-50
HCA318-50
96.00
1.260
1.09
RFHCA38-50
HCA38-50
89.00
13.200
1.26
RFHCA418-50
HCA418-50
97.00
0.957
1.06
RFHCA58-50
HCA58-50
92.00
8.180
1.18
RFHCA78-50
HCA78-50
93.00
5.750
1.16
RFHF4-18
HF 4-1/8" Cu2Y
97.00
1.000
1.06
RFHF5
HF 5" Cu2Y
96.00
0.700
1.09
RFHF6-18
HF 6-1/8" Cu2Y
97.00
0.600
1.06
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined cable types
Table 4
9100 Data Exchange Software cable types (Continued)
Cable type
Description
Velocity
(Vf %)
Attn.
(dB/100m)
Dielec.
RFLCF12-50
LCF12-50
88.00
10.500
1.29
RFLCF14-50
LCF14-50
83.00
20.200
1.45
RFLCF158-50
LCF158-50A
89.00
3.640
1.26
RFLCF214-50
LCF214-50A
88.00
3.260
1.29
RFLCF38-50
LCF38-50
88.00
16.500
1.29
RFLCF58-50
LCF58-50
88.00
8.260
1.29
RFLCF78-50A
LCF78-50A
89.00
5.820
1.26
RFLCFS114
LCFS114-50A
89.00
4.420
1.26
RFSCF114-50
SCF114-50A
89.00
4.720
1.26
RFSCF12-50
SCF12-50
82.00
16.400
1.49
RFSCF14-50
SCF14-50
82.00
28.500
1.49
RFSCF38-50
SCF38-50
82.00
20.600
1.49
RFSCF78-50A
SCF78-50A
88.00
6.160
1.29
TMLMR100A
LMR100A
66.00
115.463
2.30
TMLMR1200
LMR1200
88.00
6.532
1.29
TMLMR1700
LMR1700
89.00
4.931
1.26
TMLMR195
LMR195
80.00
55.443
1.56
TMLMR200
LMR200
83.00
49.249
1.45
TMLMR240
LMR240
84.00
37.684
1.42
TMLMR300
LMR300
85.00
30.325
1.38
TMLMR400
LMR400
85.00
19.646
1.38
TMLMR500
LMR500
86.00
15.876
1.35
TMLMR600
LMR600
87.00
12.789
1.32
TMLMR900
LMR900
87.00
8.645
1.32
310801
310801
82.10
11.500
1.48
311201
311201
82.00
18.000
1.49
311501
311501
80.00
23,000
1.56
311601
311601
80,00
26.200
1.56
311901
311901
80.00
37.700
1.56
352001
352001
80.00
37.700
1.56
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Appendix B Predefined settings
Predefined cable types
328
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix C
Menu Structure
C
This appendix provides an overview of the menu structure of the 9102 Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer.
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
329
Appendix C Menu Structure
Mode function key menus
Mode function key menus
330
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix C Menu Structure
Application menus
Application menus
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version 4.50
331
Appendix C Menu Structure
Application menus
332
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Appendix C Menu Structure
Application menus
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
333
Appendix C Menu Structure
Application menus
334
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix D
Warranty and Repair
D
This chapter describes the customer services available through Willtek. Topics
discussed in this chapter include the following:
– “Warranty information” on page 336
– “Equipment return instructions” on page 337
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Appendix D Warranty and Repair
Warranty information
Warranty information
Willtek warrants that all of its products conform to Willtek's published specifications and are free from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of
one year from the date of delivery to the original buyer, when used under normal
operating conditions and within the service conditions for which they were
designed. This warranty is not transferable and does not apply to used or demonstration products.
In case of a warranty claim, Willtek's obligation shall be limited to repairing, or
at its option, replacing without charge, any assembly or component (except
batteries) which in Willtek’s sole opinion proves to be defective within the scope
of the warranty. In the event Willtek is not able to modify, repair or replace
nonconforming defective parts or components to a condition as warranted
within a reasonable time after receipt thereof, the buyer shall receive credit in
the amount of the original invoiced price of the product.
It is the buyer's responsibility to notify Willtek in writing of the defect or nonconformity within the warranty period and to return the affected product to
Willtek’s factory, designated service provider, or authorized service center within
thirty (30) days after discovery of such defect or nonconformity. The buyer shall
prepay shipping charges and insurance for products returned to Willtek or its
designated service provider for warranty service. Willtek or its designated service
provider shall pay costs for return of products to the buyer.
Willtek’s obligation and the customer’s sole remedy under this hardware
warranty is limited to the repair or replacement, at Willtek’s option, of the defective product. Willtek shall have no obligation to remedy any such defect if it can
be shown: (a) that the product was altered, repaired, or reworked by any party
other than Willtek without Willtek’s written consent; (b) that such defects were
the result of customer’s improper storage, mishandling, abuse, or misuse of the
product; (c) that such defects were the result of customer’s use of the product in
conjunction with equipment electronically or mechanically incompatible or of an
inferior quality; or (d) that the defect was the result of damage by fire, explosion,
power failure, or any act of nature.
The warranty described above is the buyer’s sole and exclusive remedy and no
other warranty, whether written or oral, expressed or implied by statute or course
of dealing shall apply. Willtek specifically disclaims the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. No statement, representation, agreement, or understanding, oral or written, made by an agent, distributor,
or employee of Willtek, which is not contained in the foregoing warranty will be
binding upon Willtek, unless made in writing and executed by an authorized
representative of Willtek. Under no circumstances shall Willtek be liable for any
direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, expenses, or
losses, including loss of profits, based on contract, tort, or any other legal theory.
336
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix D Warranty and Repair
Equipment return instructions
Equipment return instructions
Please contact your local service center for Willtek products via telephone or web
site for return or reference authorization to accompany your equipment. For each
piece of equipment returned for repair, attach a tag that includes the following
information:
– Owner’s name, address, and telephone number.
– Serial number, product type, and model.
– Warranty status. (If you are unsure of the warranty status of your instrument, include a copy of the invoice or delivery note.)
– Detailed description of the problem or service requested.
– Name and telephone number of the person to contact regarding questions
about the repair.
– Return authorization (RA) number or reference number.
If possible, return the equipment using the original shipping container and material. Additional Willtek shipping containers are available from Willtek on request.
If the original container is not available, the unit should be carefully packed so
that it will not be damaged in transit. Willtek is not liable for any damage that
may occur during shipping. The customer should clearly mark the Willtek-issued
RA or reference number on the outside of the package and ship it prepaid and
insured to Willtek.
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Appendix D Warranty and Repair
Equipment return instructions
338
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Appendix E
Software License
E
This chapter contains the license conditions for use of the 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer and the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
339
Appendix E Software License
End-user license agreement
End-user license agreement
All copyrights in and to the software product are owned by Willtek Communications or its licensors. The software is protected by copyright laws and international copyright treaties, as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties.
This end-user license agreement grants you the right to use the software
contained in this product subject to the following restrictions. You may not:
(i) use the software and/or any copy of the software in different computers
concurrently, unless the software is an update that has been downloaded
from the Internet at www.willtek.com;
(ii) copy the software, except for archive purposes consistent with your standard archive procedures;
(iii) transfer the software to a third party apart from the entire product;
(iv) modify, decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer or otherwise attempt
to derive the source code of the software;
(v) export the software in contravention of applicable export laws and regulations of the country of purchase;
(vi) use the software other than in connection with operation of the product.
The licensor's suppliers do not make or pass on to end users or any other third
party, any express, implied or statutory warranty or representation on behalf of
such suppliers, including but not limited to the implied warranties of noninfringement, title, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Willtek Communications shall not be held liable for any damages suffered or
incurred by you or any other third party (including, but not limited to, general,
special, consequential or incidental damages including damages for loss of business profits, business interruption, loss of business information and the like),
arising out of or in connection with the delivery, use or performance of the software.
340
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Index
Numerics
9100 Data Exchange Software 201 - 228
connecting PC and the instrument 204
copying configuration files 228
creating screen shots 211
defining antenna factor files 223
defining cable factor files 224
defining cable types for DTF measurements 221
directory structure 226
external coupling factor definition 218
external device compensation 218
file management 226
File Manager 227
file types 226
license information 339
limit templates 214
loading a trace file on the PC 209
loading antenna factor files 223
loading cable factor files 225
loading external coupling loss files 219
loading measurement results from the instrument 205
managin cable factors for EMF measurements 224
managing antenna factors for EMF measurements 222
managing cable types for DTF measurements 220
managing communication systems 219
predefined cable types 324
predefined channel power communication systems 322
printing results 209
saving results on the PC 209
transferring cable types from the 9102 222
uploading predefined cable types for DTF measurements 221
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
341
Index
working with measurement results 212
working with settings 225
A
Accessories 4
ACPR see also Adjacent channel power ratio
Actual trace mode 60, 86, 114, 139
Adjacent channel power ratio 68
Application examples 319
Attenuation 54, 83, 109, 185
Average trace mode 60, 86, 114, 139
B
Backspace key 23
Battery status 15
Biconical antennas 172
C
Cable loss mode 157 - 164
changing the vertical scale 163
full span 161
level settings 163
reference level 163
selecting step size for frequency input 161
viewing parameters 164
Cable settings 150
Cable types 150
Calibration for VSWR/DTF measurements 127
Calibration information 36
Calibration Information menu 37
Calibration sets 127
Cent function key 21
Center frequency 51, 97, 106, 133, 151, 160, 181, 184
Channel power 68
level settings 82
Channel power measurements
managing communication systems 219
Channel power mode 73 - 93
adding trace B to trace A 89
changing the occupied bandwidth 79
changing the sweep time 82
compensating gains and losses 84
copying traces 90
deleting traces 92
external device compensation 84
reading the channel power 79
reference level 83
selecting the trace mode 86
setting up the trace 86
storing and loading traces 91
342
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Index
subtracting trace B from trace A 88
trace detectors 89
traces 86
turning the second trace on and off 88
viewing parameters 93
working with communication systems 79
Clr Trc function key 21
Communication systems 79 - 82
usage in channel power mode 79
Connecting the VSWR/DTF Bridge 126
Connectors 12
Copying traces 65, 90, 117, 142
Cursor keys 21
D
Date and time settings
adjustment 39
DC in connector 12
Deleting traces 67, 92, 119, 143
Device name
assigning a device name to the instrument 39
Direct printing 35
Directional antennas 176
Display
changing the brightness 38
horizontal axis 17
icons 17
input field 19
Marker field 19
sections 16
selecting the user interface colors 44
softkey descriptions 19
trace finder 19
vertical axis 17
Display brightness 38
Distance to fault mode 147 - 155
calibration 152
changing the vertical scale 153
preparational steps 149
reference level 153
selecting the unit 149
setting up the trace 154
specifying cable settings 150
specifying the cable length 150
traces 154
using predefined cable types 150
viewing parameters 155, 155
E
EMF (EMI) mode 165 - 192
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
343
Index
antenna factor settings 185, 189
Auto measurements 187
automatic measurements 185
cable factor settings 186, 189
display calculation 184
full span 182
manual measurements 188
Quick measurements 188
reference level 184
selecting step size for frequency input 182
setting the attenuation 185
setting up the trace 191
traces 191
EMF measurement antennas 171
EMF measurement methods 169
multipoint method 170
stirring method 170
Emission measurements 168
Enter keys
Enter 22
GHz/dBM 22
kHz/dBμV/m 22
MHz/dB/μs 22
Entering numbers and text 24
Errors see also Troubleshooting
Escape key 22
External device compensation 55, 84, 110
defining and saving parameter files 218
external coupling factor definition 218
F
Factory settings
restoring defaults for all modes 47
File Manager 227
Frequency
center frequency 51, 97, 106, 133, 151, 160, 181, 184
span 51, 106, 133, 151, 160, 181, 184
Start and stop 51, 98, 105, 132, 160, 181
Frequency menu
cable loss 159
distance to fault 152
EMF (EMI) 180, 186, 187
reflection 132, 135
spectrum analysis 50
transmission 105
Frequency range 50
Frequency settings 50, 96
Frequency step size 52, 98, 107, 134, 161, 182
Front panel 15 - 25
entering numbers and text 24
344
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Index
function keys 20
keypad 20
usage 15
Full span 52, 107, 134, 161, 182
Function keys
Cent 21
Clr Trc 21
Hold/Run 20
Mkr 21
Mode 20
Param 20
Preset 20
RCL/Store 21, 46
Ref 21
Span 21
Function softkeys 23
G
Gains and losses
compensation 55, 84, 110
General settings 35 - 45
calibration information 36
date and time 39
device name 39
display brightness 38
instrument IP address 41
instrument IP port 43
options 37
PC IP address 42
RS-232 port baud rate 40
serial number 35
software version number 36
user interface colors 44
warning and error beeps 39
General Settings menu 40
GHz/dBM enter key 22
H
Handling errors and problems see also Troubleshooting
Hardware attenuation 54, 83, 109, 185
Hold trace mode 60, 86, 114, 139
Hold/Run function key 20
I
Icons 17
Immission measurements 168
In 154
Input
acoustical reaction 25
numbers and text 24
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
345
Index
Input field 16, 19
Installing options 38
IP address configuration 41, 42
IP port 43
Isotropic antennas 174
K
Keypad 20
Keys
Backspace key 23
cursor keys 21
enter keys 22
Escape key 22
function keys 20
numeric keys 22
Print key 22
softkeys 23
kHz/dBμV/m enter key 22
L
LAN connector 14
Level 99
selecting unit for input and output 55, 84
Level settings 53, 82, 108, 137, 163
Limit lines
usage 31
Limit templates 33, 214
changing limit lines 215
defining limits 215
loading a template 216
storing a template 216
transfer 216
M
Marker field 16, 19
Markers 28 - 31
disabling a marker 29
enabling a delta marker 29
enabling and moving a marker 29
working with 28 - 31
Max hold trace mode 60, 86, 114, 139
Measurement mode selection 26, 77, 96, 102, 131, 149, 158, 179
Measurement type 70
Menu softkeys 23
Menu structure 329
application menus 331
Mode function key menus 330
Menus
Cable loss Frequency Menu 159
Calibration Information 37
346
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Index
Distance to fault Frequency Menu 152
EMF (EMI) Frequency Menu 180, 186, 187
General Settings 40
Mode 27
Recall settings 46
Reflection Frequency Menu 132, 135
Settings Memory 46
Setup Application Software Menu 196
Spectrum Analysis Frequency menu 50
System Information 36
TCP/IP Configuration 44
Trace Function menu 65, 66, 72, 118
Trace Memory 46
Transmission Frequency Menu 105
Trigger menu 57, 58, 111, 112
VSWR/Tracking menu 125
MHz/dB/μs enter key 22
Min hold trace mode 60, 86, 114, 139
Mkr function key 21
Mode function key 20
Mode menu 27
Mode selection 26, 77, 96, 102, 131, 149, 158, 179
Modes
cable loss 125, 157
channel power 73
distance to fault 125, 147
EMF (EMI) 165
reflection 125, 129
restoring factory settings for all modes 47
signal generator 95
spectrum analysis 49, 49
transmission 101
N
Normalizing 103
Numeric keys 22
O
OBW see also Occupied bandwidth
Occupied bandwidth 68
Options 4, 37
installing a new option 38
P
Param function key 20
Power switch 14
Predefined settings
cable types 324
channel power communcation systems 321
measurement settings 320
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
347
Index
Preset function key 20
Print key 22
Printer configuration 44
Printing screens 35
R
Radiation emission 167
Radiation immission 167
RBW see also Resolution bandwidth
RCL/Store function key 21, 46
Recall settings menu 46
Ref function key 21
Reference level 54, 83, 109, 137, 137, 138, 138, 153, 163, 184
Reflection mode 129 - 145
changing the vertical scale 137, 137, 138, 138
copying traces 142
deleting traces 143
full span 134
level settings 137
reference level 137, 137, 138, 138
selecting step size for frequency input 134
selecting the trace mode 139
setting up the trace 139
storing and loading traces 142
subtracting trace B from trace A 141
traces 139
turning the second trace on and off 140
viewing parameters 145
Resolution bandwidth 53, 183
Restoring factory settings 47
Results area 16
RF in connector 12
RF out connector 13
RS-232 configuration 40
S
Safety warnings xx
Scale 54, 84, 110, 137, 137, 138, 138, 153, 163
SCPI commands 229 - 300
application examples 310
Calculate 285
Display 281
Format 294
general 230
Input 263
Instrument 276
MMemory 265
programming examples 301
Sense 242
Service 295
348
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Index
System 236
SCPI error messages 298
Selecting modes
cable loss 158
channel power 77
distance to fault 149
EMF (EMI) 179
reflection 131
signal generator 96
transmission 102
Selecting the measurement type 70
Serial (RS-232) connector 14
Serial number 35
Settings
storing 46
working with stored settings 46
Settings Memory menu 46
Setup Application Software Menu 196
Signal generator 96
Signal generator mode 95 - 99
frequency settings 96
level 99
selecting step size for frequency input 98
selecting the frequency mode 96
special functions 99
switching the signal generator on and off 96
Softkey descriptions 16, 19
Softkeys
horizontal (menu) softkeys 23
vertical (function) softkeys 23
Software license 339 - 340
Software update 195 - 200
LAN 199
serial 197
setting a password for updates 196
Software version number 36
Span 51, 106, 133, 151, 160, 181, 184
Span function key 21
Special functions
demodulating AM or FM signals 59
limiting the number of measurements 58, 99, 113, 139, 163
Special spectrum analysis measurement functions 68 - 70
adjacent channel power ratio 68
channel power 68
occupied bandwidth 68
switching special measurement functions off 70
Spectrum analysis 49
Spectrum analysis mode 49 - 72
adding trace B to trace A 63
changing the vertical scale 54, 84
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
349
Index
compensating gains and losses 55
copying traces 65
defining the number of measurements for averaging 64, 89, 89, 116, 141
deleting traces 67
external device compensation 55
frequency range 50
frequency settings 50
full span 52
level settings 53
reference level 54, 109
selecting step size for frequency input 52
selecting the trace mode 60
setting the attenuation 54, 83
setting up the trace 60
special functions 57
storing and loading traces 66
subtracting trace B from trace A 62
trace detector 64
traces 60
turning the second trace on and off 62
viewing parameters 72
Storing and loading traces 66, 91, 118, 142
Storing settings 46
Sweep time 53, 183
Switching special measurement functions off 70
Switching the instrument on 14
SWT see also Sweep time
Symbols 17
System Information Menu 36
T
TCP/IP configuration 41, 42, 43
TCP/IP Configuration menu 44
The 154
Trace finder 19
Trace Function Menu 65, 66, 72, 118
Trace Memory menu 46
Trace modes
Actual 60, 86, 114, 139
Average 60, 86, 114, 139
Hold 60, 86, 114, 139
Max hold 60, 86, 114, 139
Min hold 60, 86, 114, 139
Traces
adding trace B to trace A 63, 89
copying traces 65, 90, 117, 142
defining the number of measurements for averaging 64, 89, 89, 116, 141
deleting traces 67, 92, 119, 143
selecting the detection method 64, 89, 89, 117
storing and loading traces 66, 91, 118, 142
350
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
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Index
subtracting trace B from trace A 62, 88, 115, 141
trace detectors 64, 89, 89, 117
turning the second trace on and off 62, 88, 115, 140
Tracking generator 103
setting the output power 104
Transmission mode 101 - 121
changing the vertical scale 110
compensating gains and losses 110
copying traces 117
deleting traces 119
external device compensation 110
full span 107
level settings 108
normalizing 103
selecting step size for frequency input 107
selecting the trace mode 114
setting the attenuation 109
setting the tracking output power 104
setting up the trace 113
special functions 111
storing and loading traces 118
subtracting trace B from trace A 115
switching the tracking generator on and off 103
trace detector 117
traces 113
turning the second trace on and off 115
viewing parameters 121
Trigger menu 57, 58, 111, 112
Triggering
external trigger 58, 112
video trigger 57, 111
Troubleshooting 193 - 194
V
VBW see also Video bandwidth
Vertical scale 54, 84, 110, 137, 137, 138, 138, 153, 163
Video bandwidth 53, 183
Video Trigger 57, 111
Viewing parameters 72, 93, 121, 145, 155, 164
VSWR/DTF Bridge 126
VSWR/DTF Reflection Measurement Option 123 - 127
W
Warranty information 335
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
351
Index
352
9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
version 4.50
Publication History
Revision
Comment
0411-300-A
First version.
0412-300-A
Ext. Trig. connector designation and description corrected.
0503-301-A
New Trace Functions added. New Measure menu position
within Spectrum Analysis mode.
0507-310-A
New reflection measurement functionality and several
enhancements. For details refer to “What’s new” on page 3.
Enhancements within the 9100 Data Exchange Software.
0512-400-A
New EMF (EMI) mode chapter added. Description of new
trace finder added. 9100 Data Exchange Software description
updated with new EMF functionality and live trace functionality. Channel power mode description enhanced.
New appendix containing predefined measurement settings.
0608-450-A
Minor corrections. In DTF mode, the calibration cable parameters can be specified.
Willtek and its logo are trademarks of Willtek Communications GmbH. All other
trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Specifications, terms and conditions are subject to change without notice.
© Copyright 2006 Willtek Communications GmbH. All rights reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means (printing, photocopying or any other method) without the express written
permission of Willtek Communications GmbH.
Manual ident no. M 290 204
Manual version
0608-450-A
English
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© Copyright 2006 Willtek
Communications GmbH. All rights
reserved.
Willtek Communications, Willtek
and its logo are trademarks of
Willtek Communications GmbH. All
other trademarks and registered
trademarks are the property of their
respective owners.
Note: Specifications, terms and conditions are subject to change without prior notice.
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