nl i ug serial l digital facilities

nl i ug serial l digital facilities
BRODCST
en
An INTERTEC' Publication
August 1994/$5.00
Digital audio
workstations
Audio processing
DAT recorders
Intercom systems
fea
..
u nl iug seriall digital facilities
.
DID YOU SAY
ODETICS DISK
SYSTEMS?
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You've heard lots of promises about play -to -air
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The CacheMachine overcomes the barriers to
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without
forcing you to go backward in station
automation. It allows you to play programs as
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You don't have to abandon your
present technology or change
your format. And you don't
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which data compression format
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-
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Bill Keegan
(714) 774-2200
Northeast
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Ray Baldock
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(201) 305-0549
How is this possible? Because the Odetics
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-
Experts agree the CacheMachine is today's
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Broadcast
O Otleucs 1994
BD7654
Circle (1) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
West
Chuck Martin
(818) 999-9796
North Central
Bill Boyd
South Central
David Scally
(612) 894-2121
(404) 917-9506
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B
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Circle (4) on Reply Card
CT
06820. Tel: (203) 656 3100, Fax: (203) 656 3459
Contents
August 1994
Volume 36
Number 8
BRoaDcasT
enGineeRinG
.
,J
-Iiu
Page .7'
AUDIO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS:
THIS MONTH...
Today's digital editing systems make razor
blade editing as obsolete as 78rpm records.
Audio technology also is more affordable
and feature laden than ever before. This
issue looks at some of the exciting developments in audio systems.
20
Ilia .
MOW
aftillata
Page 20
--
-
Poke 49
Selecting a DAW
By Dave Hams
Searching for the perfect DAW requires a special discipline.
DEPARTMENTS:
8 FCC Update
Regulatory Fee Update
10 Strictly TV
A Look at 8-VSB (Part 1)
12
Management
Equipment Acquisition (Part 2)
14
16
Audio Processing for Broadcast Production
By Curtis Chan
Audio processing in the production studio has come
34
a
long way lately.
Advances in DAT Recorders
Production
By Curtis Chan
Production Test Equipment
(Part 1)
New DAT features make the format even more attractive to broadcasters.
Troubleshooting
Industrial Computers (Par' 2)
18 Technology News
Real-Time Image Retrieval,
Analysis and Backup
60 Re: Radio
Tubes in Review
61
26
42
By Bob Cohen
Today's high -tech systems are computer -based.
49
Transmission Technology
Tower Maintenance
64 SBE Update
SBE Industry Relations
65 New Products
Intercoms
Building Serial Digital Facilities
By John Luff
The question is, how much trouble are we about to be in?
60
"Radio in Transition:" Audio Distribution
By David Bytheway
COLUMNS:
Digital audio distribution is far more complex than its analog equivalent.
4 News
6 Editorial
73 Classifieds
76 Advertisers' Index
ON THE COVER:
Cover design by Christopher Irwin, Dolby Laboratories.
2
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
.tt
Get Ready
Digital video is here. Now!
Are you ready to take
advantage of the technical
benefits digital has to offer?
More important, are you
prepared to take advantage
of the financial benefits?
Digital technology is not
just a good engineering
choice, it's a good business
decision. You know digital
video gives you the highest
GO
signal quality, but did you
know it provides you with
new avenues to be more
competitive, to make more
you money. But who can
you trust to put you on the
right path? Harris Allied's
experience allows us to
money?
be the leader in this
But pathways abound.
developing technology.
Parallel or Serial;
And with over 70 years of
Component or composite;
broadcast experience, we
Imbedded or Discrete;
know what it takes to get
Compressed or Non the job done.
compressed. Take the
Harris has a proven
wrong path, and it can cost track record in digital
systems design and
installation. All over the
world. In all formats. So, if
you have any questions on
how digital technology
can help, technically or
financially, call us.
And get ready.
7920 Kentucky Drive
Florence, KY 41042 USA
606- 282 -4800
Fax: 606 -283 -2818
HARRIS
ALLIED©1994 Harns Corp.
Circle (5) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
News
By Dawn Hightower,
senior associate editor
Broadcasters warn that
delays could doom
infopike legislation
Broadcasters have urged lawmakers to
pass Senate legislation that would set
the rules of the road for the nation's
information superhighway. Congressional inaction could hurt consumers and
stymie development of a competitive na-
tional information infrastructure.
Edward O. Fritts, NAB president and
CEO, pledged broadcasters will work with
lawmakers to pass legislation and set a
framework for future information services.
Fritts praised the Hollings -Danforth legislation for recognizing the role broadcasting must play in the future informa-
tion marketplace. He singled out for
praise provisions calling for a review of
broadcast structural rules and for authorizing flexible use of broadcast spectrum
that will allow broadcasters to provide
competitive digital services.
On the issue of telephone company/
cable cross -ownership, Fritts said broadcasters support the bill's safeguards, including those designed to prevent telcos
from using their large rate payer base to
subsidize unregulated video and other
infopike services.
Fritts stressed the only way to prevent
the substitution of one monopoly with
an even larger monopoly is a flat prohibition preventing phone companies from
buying up cable systems in their phone
service area. Allowing such mergers
would mean less competition, not more.
Broadcasters believe the bill could be
improved by requiring telcos that transport video to offer non-discriminatory
access to that capacity under common
carrier principles.
Alliance forms to
develop advanced
wireless cable delivery
Six companies in the wireless cable in-
dustry have announced a research and
development alliance to develop digital
technologies for the over -the-air delivery of hundreds of channels of digital
video programming and other services.
The alliance plans to develop wireless
digital technologies that will enable consumers to receive from 150 to 300 channels, including near video-on-demand
pay -per-view movie offerings. Efforts will
also be directed toward wireless tele4
Broadcast Engineering
phone services and interactive-based
services.
The Wireless Cable Digital Alliance is
expected to make wireless cable systems
more competitive with traditional wired
cable and telephone systems launching
digital video networks. Members of the
alliance are American Telecasting Inc.,
Colorado Springs, CO; Andrew Corporation, Orland Park, IL; California Amplifier,
Carmel, CA; EMCEE Broadcast Products,
White Haven, PA; Microwave Filter Company, Syracuse, NY; and Zenith Electronics Corporation, Glenview, IL. The alliance may be expanded depending on the
needs of the group.
Hundt to speak at
NAB Radio Show
FCC Chairman Reed Hundt will be a
featured speaker during the NAB Radio
Show, Oct. 12 -15 in Los Angeles.
Hundt will address the radio broadcasters Thursday, Oct. 13 at 2 p.m. at the
Los Angeles Convention Center.
Also during the show on Oct. 14, national radio talk show hosts G. Gordon Liddy
and Jim Hightower will debate some of
the most topical national and broadcast
issues during a NAB Radio Show session
called "The Right and Left of Talk Radio:
Liddy vs. Hightower,"
For complete details about the NAB
Radio Show, use NAB's free fax-on-demand service at 301 -216 -1847.
SCIE issues call for papers
The Society of Cable Television Engineers (SCTE) is seeking abstracts for technical papers to be presented at its 1995
Conference on Emerging Technologies,
to be held Jan. 4-6, in Orlando, FL.
Those wanting to present papers should
send submissions by Sept. 1 to Bill Riker
c/o SCIE, 669 Exton Commons, Exton, PA
19341. For more information call SCIE at
610-363-6888 or fax to 610-363-5898.
Should energy -saving
standards apply to TV sets?
The NAB has urged the Department of
Energy (DOE) not to impose energy conservation standards on TV sets, because
televisions only require as much energy
as a
lightbulb.
The energy conservation standard also
might deter TV manufacturers from introducing features preferred by consumers, and could deter introduction of HDTV
and interactive television.
August 1994
BROaDcaslnG
T
enGleeR
EDITORIAL
Brad Dick, Editor
Skip Pizzi. Technical Editor
Steve Epstein, Technical Editor
Dawn Hightower, Senior Associate Editor
Deanna Rood, Associate Editor
Tom Cook, Senior Managing Editor
Carl Bentz, Directory Editor
Jamie Gooch, Intern
ART
Ruth Knotts, Associate Art Director
BUSINESS
Raymond E. Maloney, President
Cameron Bishop, Group Vice President
Dennis Triola, Publisher
Tom Brick Marketing Director
Stephanie Hanaway, Group Director, Special Projects
Kathryn Buckley, Promotions Manager
Sandra Tomczak, Promotions Coordinator
Dee Unger. Director Advertising Services
Nancy Hupp, Advertising Production Manager
Susan Jones, Advertising Coordinator
Chris Coughlin, List Rental Sales Representative
Doug Coonrod, Corporate Art Director
Julie Neely, Circulation Director
Customer Service: 913-967-1711 or 800441-0294
TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
Jerry Whitaker, Contributing Editor
Eric Neil Angevin, Broadcast Acoustics
John H. Battison. Antennas/Radiation
Dennis Clapura, Radio Technology
Dane E. Ericksen, P.E., Systems Design
John Kean, Subcarrier Technology
Donald L Markley, Transmission Facilities
Harry C. Martin. Legal
Curtis Chan. Audio /Video Technology
MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS
Sustaining Members of:
Acoustical Society of America
Society of Broadcast Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and TV Engineers
Member, American Business
Member. BPA International
Pressin
VBPA
BROADCAST ENGINEERING Is edited for
corporate management. engineers /technicians and
other station management personnel at
commercial and educational radio and TV stations.
teleproduction studios, recording studios. CATV
and CCTV facilities and government agencies.
Qualified persons include consulting engineers and
dealer/distributors of broadcast equipment.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING (ISSN 0007 -1994) is
published monthly (plus three special issues) and
mailed free to qualified persons within the United
States and Canada in occupations described above.
Second-class postage paid at Shawnee Mission, KS,
and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send
address changes to Broadcast Engineering, P.O.
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SUBSCRIPTIONS: Non-qualified persons may
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Authorization to photocopy Items for internal or
personal use, or the internal or personal use of
specific clients. is granted by Intertec Publishing,
provided that the base fee of U.S. $2.00 per copy,
plus U.S. $00.00 per page Is paid directly to
Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive.
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Transactional Reporting Service is ISSN 0361-0942/
1994 52.00.00.00. For those organizations that have
been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a
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CORRESPONDENCE
Editorial and Advertising: 9800 Metcalf, Overland
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e 1994 by Intertec Publishing
All rights reserved.
O/NrINaiEt:
PUBLISHING
Constant
Constant.
Change.
-
ADC's New LightSwitch* " The "future- proof" Digital Hooter.
As digital formats come and go, so does a lot of expensive equipment. But while changing
formats often requires upgrading cameras, decks and other source equipment, it doesn't have
to affect your switching system.
Introducing the new LightSwitch digital router from ADC. A switching system that literally
doesn't care what format you use. By avoiding internal reclocking, the LightSwitch router is
able to switch any true digital signal, regardless of format -even ones that don't exist yet! It can
interface with either coax or fiber and features on -site matrix mapping, group takes, chop mode
and RS232/RS485 control panel interfaces.
So, regardless of what digital format the future holds -from D1 to HDTV-turn on the
LightSwitch router from ADC. For more information
about LightSwitch or our digital video and audio fiber
optic links and DAs, call us at 1- 800 -726 -4266
l D PTelecomminications
or circle the reader service card below.
Circle (15) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Editorial
The one -product
dilemma
Imagine the dilemma of yesterday's milkman. Here was a guy (an entire industry)
who built a successful business delivering milk products to the consumer. He didn't
generate the product, he simply delivered it. The milkman was the pipeline that
connected the product's producer (cows) to product consumers (milk drinkers). It
was a successful venture. Then came the supermarkets.
Now consumers, who had to shop anyway, could just as
easily get their milk at the grocery store. And the grocery
store offered thousands of other products. Why should
consumers continue using the milkman who offered only
one product, when the supermarket had a variety of products on their shelves.
It was the result of marketplace changes that forced the
milkman out of business. It simply became unprofitable to
be the pipeline for a single product.
TV broadcasters are facing a similar paradox. Like the
milkman, they deliver one product, one channel of programming, to the consumer. Although they do a great job,
they are limited to only one product (channel).
On the other hand, cable has become the equivalent of a
video supermarket, with 20 to 100 times more products
(programs) available for the clicking. It's not hard to see
why more than 63% of TV households are connected to
cable. Viewers want options.
Will it be possible for the local TV station to effectively
compete for the TV viewer? Or are broadcasters doomed
to go the way of the milkman?
Regulators could learn a lesson from real world industries. Henry Ford once said you could have any color car
you wanted as long as it was black. He was wrong and if
Ford hadn't changed to meet the consumer's demand, the company wouldn't be
around today. Would a TV station that refused to convert to color be around today?
I think not.
The hallmark of TV broadcasting has always been free, over-the-air transmission of
programming. That will remain the case. But stations also need the flexibility to offer
more than one product. This means the ability to produce and transmit additional
channels of programs, not just HDTV.
Forcing broadcasters to only transmit HDTV places them in the same dilemma as
the milkman, being the pipeline for a single product. In today's world, a one-product
company cannot succeed in a market that demands many options. We don't need the
video equivalent of the now obsolete milkman. This is why future regulations must
allow TV stations enough flexibility to meet the needs of their own viewers, whether
that means multicasting and /or HDTV.
'&4-<A
By Brad Dick,
6
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
editor
See spot.
See spot run.
See spot run without
aggravating the entire audience because it's
too damn loud.
Who needs the aggravation?
With the new OPTIMOD -'l'V
DIGITAL you never have to
worry about poorly mixed
programs, complaints from irate
viewers, or advertisers devising
diabolical new ways to "punch"
their sound. The 8282 handles
it all quietly, digitally, and
automatically. The OP'I'I1MODTV is fully progammable to
optimize audio processing of
your programs. And with built -in
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other broadcasts will always
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or bon
H
0
1525 Alvarado
1994
AKG Acoustics. Inc. Urban and
A Harman International Company
tit.. San Leandro, CA 94577
I
\ Phone I510351.35(M1 pas 1.5101510500.
kC
usrü.. Inc \Il other trademarks are praperty of their respective companies.
01'II \ IUI).trc rc6.rcrcd tr.idrm.oL' -'t
;
Circle (16) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
FCC Update
Regulatory fee update
By Harry C. Martin and
Andrew
S.
Kersting
The
FCC recently issued an order regarding the assessment and collection of
annual regulatory fees. See the table for
FCC's established regulatory fee payment
due dates.
FEE
CATEGORY
PAYMENT
DUE DATE
TV stations
(VHF: $5,000- $18,000)
(UHF: $4,000- $14,400)
2nd installment due Aug. 26
if fee exceeds $12,000
July 26-29
Low -power TV, TV
translators and boosters
($135)
July 26 -29
Commercial FM stations
($600 -$900)
Aug. 8-10
Commercial AM stations
($250 -$900)
Aug. 29
Sept. 2
International (HF)
broadcast stations ($200)
Aug. 29
Sept. 2
Public fixed radio stations
($55 per call sign)
Aug.
Cable TV devices
($220 per license)
($0.37 per subscriber)
2nd installment due Sept. 9
if fee exceeds $18,500
Aug. 10 -12
Space stations
($65,000- $90,000)
2nd installment due date
Sept. 16
Aug. 17 -19
Earth stations
($0.06 per antenna per
call sign ($6.00 minimum))
Aug. 17 -19
Cellular and public
mobile licensees
($0.06 per subscriber)
Aug. 22 -26
1
-
-
-5
If an entity is paying for more than one
category of regulatory fees with a single
payment instrument, the latter due date
applies.
Martin and Kersting are attorneys with Reddy. Begley & Martin.
Washington, DC.
8
Broadcast Engineering
FCC modifies freeze on ITFS
and wireless cable applications
The FCC modified the freeze on the
filing of major change applications in the
Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS).
Accordingly, the commission will begin
accepting applications for major changes to existing facilities and applications
that are mutually exclusive with propos-
als on file.
The FCC also announced its intention
to adopt a window filing system to increase the efficiency of processing ITFS
applications, and is seeking comment on
the following proposals intended to increase the efficiency and curtail potential
abuse of the window filing application
process by:
requiring educators and wireless cable
lessees to demonstrate their financial ability to construct the proposed facilities;
limiting the number of applications that
an ITFS or wireless cable entity can file or
be associated with during a window;
clearly defining an "area of operation"
for the purpose of the 4- channel rule;
making the protected service area for
wireless cable lessees effective only with
regard to applications filed after the protection request;
expanding the definition of major changes to include certain changes, classified
as minor, that would significantly impact
existing or proposed facilities; and
further ensuring that receive sites are
accredited.
Forfeiture guidelines
established for EEO violations
The FCC has adopted guidelines for
assessing forfeitures for violations of the
broadcast EEO rules. The agency has reestablished the base fine amount for EEO
violations at $12,500. A base fine will be
assessed where a licensee fails to attract
an "adequate pool" of minority/female
applicants or hires (i.e., at least one minority in each applicant pool) for at least
66% of all hiring opportunities during the
license term. The FCC stated that evidence of a violation will include inadequate record- keeping and /or self-assessment throughout the license term.
Upward and downward adjustments. The
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
new guidelines also contain criteria for
upward and downward adjustments to
the base fine based on factors such as (i)
the actual number of minority/female applicants or hires during the license term;
(ii) the number of hiring opportunities;
(iii) the number of minorities /females in
the local labor force; (iv) the licensee's
employment profile; (v) the licensee's
use and productivity of general and minority recruitment sources; and (vi) the licensee's self-assessment of its EEO program.
Other sanctions. Short-term renewals
will be issued under a variety of circumstances. Moreover, where a licensee has
been found to have a deficient EEO program, it may receive remedies or sanctions ranging from: (a) reporting conditions, a base fine plus a 90% upward
adjustment (in addition to any other upward adjustments that may be imposed),
and a short -term renewal; to (b) ' wing
its renewal application designai d for
hearing and being subject to a possible
fine of $250,000 if the licensee previously
received a short -term renewal.
Retroactive application. The FCC applied its new guidelines retroactively in
several renewal proceedings and imposed fines ranging from $18,750 to
$37,500. In the $37,500 case, the licensee
failed to recruit for 51 of its 67 full -time
hires, and did not contact any minority
recruitment sources. As a result, the licensee attracted only one minority applicant for 67 overall and 61 upper-level
vacancies.
Flexible approach. The FCC emphasized,
however, that its new forfeiture criteria
are not intended to limit its flexibility in
assessing fines for EEO violations.
Date line
On Oct. 1, commercial radio and TV stations in the following states and territories must file their annual ownership re-
ports or ownership report certifications:
Alaska, Florida, Guam, Hawaii, Iowa, Missouri, Oregon, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Virgin
Islands and Washington. On or before Oct.
10, all radio and TV stations must place In
their public files listings of issues and re-
sponsive programming for the quarter
ending Sept. 30.
You
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Amsterdam. Sept. 16- 20.1994
Hall 14.2. Stand
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Stand 4 302
Working with Sachtler equipment means shooting from
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the best position. With the new Sachtler off ground
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Dirt and mud won't bother you anymore. Weighing only
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20 oz / 756 gr the Sachtler off ground spreader is lighter
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New York office:
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Phone 516,867.4900
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Fax (03)3413 -0888
Eastern Europe:
Sachtler
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Segelfliegerdamm 67
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Telephone 10 30)6 36 4311
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Telephone 10 89)32158 200
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Circle (17) on Reply Card
sachtler
Support
&
Lighting
Strictly TV
A
look at 8-VSB
Transmission
By Curtis Chan
Last
February, the Technical Subgroup
of the Special Panel approved Zenith's 8VSB (8-vestigial sideband) transmission
system recommended by the Grand Alliance. It was the last unapproved subsystem. The selection of the 8 -VSB transmission system was the result of testing
the proposed 32-QAM and 8 -VSB system
for terrestrial broadcast and the 256-QAM
and 16-VSB for cable applications. Although the test results were close in many
categories, VSB was the decisive winner
in channel allotment issues, such as the
ability to accommodate all stations while
minimizing co- channel and adjacent
channel interference.
interleaver; 4) a trellis encoder; 5) a multiplexer; 6) a pilot inserter; 7) a VSB modulator and 8) an RF upconverter.
First, the randomizer is used to randomize the input data. This is done to
ensure that the data being transmitted
Interleaving is used to
improve a signal's
robustness by taking
related data and
spreading it out in a
defined sequence.
8-VSB
The VSB transmission system architecture is designed around a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) scheme for
both terrestrial and cable applications.
The PAM -based format uses eight (8VSB) discrete levels for broadcast and
16 (16-VSB) for cable. The PAM stream
remains at a constant level for a 92.9ns
interval called the symbol period. This
translates to roughly 10.76 million symbols per second. This symbol rate was
chosen to have a 684xf11 relationship to
the NTSC line rate, which allows for
receiver processing to reduce NTSC
co-channel interference. Because eight
is 2' and 16 is 21, each symbol is represented by three bits in 8-VSB and four
data throughput of the final 8-VSB
The net
system is roughly
19.3Mb /s.
bits in 16 -VSB. This translates to a raw
data rate of 32.28Mb/s for the 8 -VSB system and 43.05Mb/s for the 16-VSB.
The VSB transmitter is composed of
eight sequential subblocks: 1) a data randomizer; 2) an R -S encoder; 3) a data
Chan is president of Chan and Associates. a marketing consulting
service for audio. broadcast and post-production, Fullerton. CA.
10
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
appears random even when the input to
the system is constant. Random data is
important for signal reception. After being randomized, the data is sent to the
Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder.
Data format structure
The datastream sent to the modulator is divided into segments of 832
symbols each. Four symbols with a
fixed sequence are added to each segment for synchronization. Each segment is 77.7µs. A group of 313 segments becomes a field, with one segment devoted to field sync. Each field
is 24.3ms with two fields per frame. In
the newer proposals, alternate field
sync signals are inverted to avoid a DC
imbalance from the fixed sequence.
For terrestrial broadcast, the 832 symbol segments break down as follows.
The MPEG -2 transport stream packet
length is 188 bytes. Another 20 bytes
of ECC (error correction coding) using
an R-S technique are added for a total
of 208 bytes. These 208 bytes consist
of eight bits each for a total of 1,664
bits. Then, another level of ECC is applied through a 2 /:t rate trellis coding.
These extra error correction codes are
the forward error correction (FEC).
This coding scheme reduces the number of payload databits but improves
the signal's robustness tremendously.
The trellis coding increases the number of bits to 2,496. These bits are inter-
leaved and then broken down into 832
symbols of three bits each. Interleaving
is used to improve a signal's robustness
by taking related data and spreading it
out in a defined sequence. The result is a
reduction in adjacent symbol errors,
which would impact the effectiveness of
the error correction process.
Sync signals are multiplexed with the
data after it has been forward error correction encoded. Because of this, the sync
signals are transmitted without FEC. Because the symbols used for sync are the
only symbols that repeat at regular intervals, it is relatively easy for the receiver
to lock onto them. The net data throughput of the final 8 -VSB system is roughly
19.3Mb/s after accounting for the sync
signals plus the Reed -Solomon and trellis
encoding overhead.
After the sync pulses are multiplexed
into the datastream, the pilot is inserted.
To be relatively rugged, the receiver system must be able to acquire the signal
and maintain a lock in the presence of
System architecture is
designed around a
pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) scheme.
noise and interference. A small pilot added to the suppressed carrier RF data
signal allows robust carrier recovery in
the receiver during these conditions. A
small DC level is added to every symbol
of the digital baseband data signal. This
has the effect of adding a small in -phase
pilot to the data signal, which provides a
highly stable and accurate pilot.
After the pilot is inserted, the data stream goes through a pre-equalizer
filter and then to the VSB modulator.
Next month we'll continue our discussion of the VSB transmission system and
will wrap up with a discussion on the
inner workings of the receiver end.
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Management
Equipment acquisition
Equipment acquisition and
employee productivity
By Rick Moms
As the chief
engineer began to review
her 5-year equipment acquisition plan,
she noticed some important trends. Most
of the equipment had been purchased
many years ago and although the station had made emergency replacements
during the last few years, the economy
did not permit any equipment initiatives.
This had been bad news, but now there
were opportunities to achieve a more
efficient engineering department and
station. By carefully planning equipment purchases, the CE realized that
she could maximize the use of her staff
and reduce costs.
Productivity
Productivity, simply defined, is the output per worker. Productivity can be measured in many ways, but we'll consider
productivity as output per hour worked,
or an aggregate of the total labor costs
that reflects the labor input.
There are two ways to produce more
profit. The first is by increasing revenue
(principally done by sales) and second
by decreasing expenses. The engineer-
Research and
development in
broadcast equipment
has led to increases in
labor efficiencies.
ing department can usually make the
greatest contribution to the station's profitability by controlling expenses. One of
the largest cost centers for engineering is
labor. In order to decrease labor costs,
you can decrease the total number of
tasks performed, or increase the efficiency with which each task is performed.
Broadcast and production tasks are dependent on technology and machines, so
equipment is one key to increased proMorris is an assistant professor of radio/TV/tilm at Northwestern
University He Is a former chief engineer and a former manager of
engineering and maintenance for a major TV network.
12
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
ductivity. The second area of productivity increases comes from R&D. Combine
the concept of improving processes with
the third area of improvement of the quality of the work force and you have reached
the keys to productivity improvement: A
productive work force is one where the
workers are well trained and using good
equipment. This is a simple statement,
but how often do engineering managers
forget to implement it when they deploy
departmental resources?
Equipment replacement
to increase productivity
Research and development in broadcast equipment has led to increases in
labor efficiencies. Not long ago, it was all
one operator could do to monitor a few
VTRs. Now, with automation assist, reliable equipment, and automatic failure
switching, one operator can be in charge
of all on -air tape equipment, master con-
trol switching, transmitter remote monitoring and satellite recordings.
In television, post-production is undergoing such a metamorphosis with one
operator able to control all video, audio,
effects, tapes and text generation. The
next wave of post -production efficiency
is also visible with non -linear editing.
Many broadcast equipment manufacturers are sensitive to the issue of productivity of the end -users. They will usually provide information and informal
assistance if the potential purchaser
needs to know what it takes to operate
the equipment.
Projections of savings
First, begin with the acquisition cost of
equipment including interest expense if
the money is borrowed. The acquisition
of some equipment is purchased through
cash-on-hand or current revenues, other equipment purchases may require
borrowing. Equipment costs will enter
the corporate balance sheet at a number of places (depreciation, ordinary
expense, interest expense) and affect
the bottom line.
Planning for equipment purchases that
are premised on labor efficiencies will
require the cooperation of the accounting department and engineering. You will
be calculating a rate of return and time to
pay back. Your accounting department
will be able to do the bulk of the calculations, but will depend on you for crucial
input on man hours saved, changes in
the use of your staff, and saved and increased expenses. Manufacturers of major pieces of broadcast equipment can
be helpful in assisting with projections
on such things as maintenance costs.
When
purchasing new
equipment, buy
necessary spares.
As facilities move to higher levels of
efficiency, personnel and training become
important. First, in order to operate complex equipment, you will need to enhance
your commitment to training. Second,
when purchasing new equipment, buy
necessary spares, because you will be
dependent on equipment up time. Also,
make sure your manufacturers have substantial service support. Finally, plan on
additional training for maintenance engineers. Although the savings of operational effort should outweigh possible additional maintenance costs, do not fail to
account and budget for them.
What to do with the labor savings
Anything that affects manpower is
fraught with controversy because of the
specter of layoffs, but it need not be so.
Planning for major operational changes
can take years and staff attrition can be
used to minimize direct impact on job
positions. Opportunities arise to start
new programs or newscasts with the same
number of staff, raising the possibility of
having more local time to sell. Technology can also allow you to release people
from repetitive tasks for more creative
work. Finally, you may reduce overtime,
saving costs and helping your staff to
achieve a better quality of life.
studios and labs, on benches and factory floors,
stations and networks, thousands of System One Audio
test systems around the world attest to the fact that this
is the System that works. Hardware and software refined
to match the application produce both superior performance and superior reliability as demonstrated by our
three year warranty on parts and labor.
In
THE RECOGNIZED STANDARD
System One is known the world over as the recognized
standard in audio test and measurement. Component
suppliers, manufacturers, equipment reviewers, and
end -users all rely on Audio Precision for measurement
quality they can trust.
COMPREHENSIVE & FAST
System One is a completely integrated digital and analog audio test system. By combining all the necessary
instruments into one package System One provides
higher performance at lower cost than conventional
instruments. In addition, System One can grow with your
needs. lbur initial purchase of a basic System One allows
you to add any option later.
Optional FASTTEST & FASTTRIG DSP capabilities test any
audio channel, producing 160 measurements from a
stimulus signal less than one second in duration. Options
such as input and output switchers and the DSP-based
FFT and digital domain modules make "one- stop" audio
testing easy.
EASY TO USE
Straightforward features and stored sample audio tests
make System One easy to use. Color graphic test results
also may be copied to printers and plotters.
GO/NO -GO testing against limits and test sequencing with
automated procedures save time and repetitive
motions.
HIGH PERFORMANCE
New digital and analog technologies leave yesterdays
"good enough" performance far behind. System One
easily handles high performance challenges such as
state of the art analog preamps or digital recording
systems.
The integrated System One offers premium specifica-
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compared to lesser test sets or equivalent separate
instruments.
Our worldwide force of Audio Precision representatives
will be pleased to provide further information and an
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M: 1udi,a
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Box 2209
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P.O.
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FAX: 503/641 -8906
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INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS Amtrella: IRT Electronics Pty.. Tel: (61) 2 439 3744 Austria: ELSINCO GmoH. TMI. (43) 222 815 04 00. Belgium: Trans European Mum NV. Tel. (32) 2.466 5010 Bulgarlc
ELSINCO. h.e. Strolb4hte. Tel (359) 92 581 698 Confide: GERRAUDIO Distribution. Tel (416) 696.2779 China. Hong Kong: A C E (Inl'l) Co Ltd Tel (852) 4240387 Czech Republic: ELSINCO Praha spol s r o..
Tel (42) (2) 4702 I. 451. 452 Denmark: npn Elokbonik ape. Tel (45) 86 57 15 11 Flnlend: Genelec OY. Tel (358) 77 13311 France: ETS Mesureur. Tel (33) (I) 45 83 66 41 Germany: RTW GmbH. Tel (49) 221 70 91 30
Hungary: ELSINCO KFT. Tel (36) 112 4854 India: HINDITRON Services PVY. Tel (91) 22 836-4560 Israel: Dan -El Technologies. Ltd_ Tel (972) 3.544.1466 holy: Audio Link s n c Tel (39) 521598723 Japan: TOPO
Corporation. Tel (81) 3 (5688) 6800 Korea: 86P International Co. Ltd. Tel (82) 2 5461457 Malayele: Test Measurement 6 Engineering Sdn Bhd. Tel (60) 3 734 1017 Netherlands: TM Audio B.V.
Tel (31) 034 0870717 New Zeeland: Audio & Video Wholesalers. Tel (64) 7 847.3414 Norway: Lydoonsult. Tel (47) 919 0381 Poland: ELSINCO Polska sp z o.. Tel 148)122)396979 Portugal: Acutron Electroacushca
LDA. Tel. (351) 9414087 / 9420862 Singapore: THE Systems Pte Ltd., Tel (65) 298.2608 Slovakia: ELSINCO Bratislaka spol s r o Tel (42) 171 784 165 South Africa: SOUNDFUSION. Tel (27) ' 477 -1315 Spain:
Talco Electronics. S. A_ Tel (34) 1 531 7101 Sweden: Tal & Ton Eleklronik AB. Tel (46) 31 80 36 20 Switzerland: Or W A Gunther AG. Tel (41) 1 910 41 41 Taiwan: ACESONIC Intl Co_ Ltd Tel (886 2 719 2388 United
Kingdom: SSE Marketing Ltd Tel (44) 71 387.1262
1
1
.
.
Production
Production test
equipment
Hand-held solutions
By Jeff Noah
If you've
ever had a problem at the end
of a long string of video and audio cables that are strung out across a golf
course, race track or stadium, you can
appreciate the value of portable test
equipment. Without it, cameras and microphones end up as the signal sources
during setup, which makes for a marginal installation arrangement at best, but
often, it's the only option.
Remote trucks are often booked so
tightly there's hardly time to shut the
engine off before the feed begins. This
leaves little, if any, time for troubleshooting the inevitable problems. Even in the
best of circumstances, the only video
quality checks that production gear can
provide are subjective: you eyeball the
picture and try to spot any anomalies.
viewed as a luxury rather than a necessity. This perception stemmed from the
expense of the equipment and a lack of
understanding of the benefits the equipment could deliver (although production crews fortunate enough to have a
good set of portable TV test tools will
tell you they can't live without them).
However, the perception is changing
with the latest generation of test equipment designed for field use.
With portable test gear, crews can install and easily identify and label wiring
well in advance. Signals can be sent
through cables to verify performance. If
problems surface, the tools are on hand
to identify them, hopefully with adequate
time to make repairs.
The list of necessary gear is fairly short.
A signal generator with text ID at one end
of a cable, and a portable picture monitor at the other, simplifies the process of
identifying cables. Add some standard
video test signals and audio tones to the
generator, pair it with a combination
waveform /vector /picture monitor, and
that's all that is needed to troubleshoot
wiring problems.
Hand -held solutions
Quick - which connector is bad? The perfect
time to have hand-held test equipment. (Photo
courtesy of Ken Hunold.)
have supplied products addressing the
needs of remote production. The latest
generation of test gear goes beyond yes-
There's no substitute for the assurance provided by a test signal displayed
on a waveform or vector monitor. Once
the site is wired and the production
equipment is in place, questions of
equipment performance are answered
only by punching up standard video test
signals, routing them through the suspected device or link and looking at the
other end with a waveform monitor and
vectorscope.
terday's solution of a 20 -pound half-rack
combination waveform /vector monitor
with a 10 -pound battery brick attached
to its underside. Many of today's solutions redefine the term portable. They
run on generic -sized disposable batteries or their NiCad equivalents and fit in
the palm of your hand. Signal generators offer capabilities ranging from bars only to feature sets with many of the
same features as full -sized studio equipment, including text ID, a large signal
complement and several audio tones and
A better way
In the past, having portable test gear
on hand for remote productions was
Noah is a technical writer for Tektronix Television Division,
Beaverton. OR.
14
In recent years, several manufacturers
Broadcast Engineering
levels.
Although the miniaturization of signal
generators is impressive, the greatest
advances have occurred in the signal
monitoring arena. A recently introduced
monitor combines the functionality of
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
four monitoring devices, a color picture
monitor, waveform monitor, vectorscope
and audio monitor in a hand -held, battery-operated package.
The technological advances required
to manufacture tools small enough to fit
in your hand include the reduction of
complete instruments to a single chip.
This high degree of circuit integration
can result in lower manufacturing costs
and higher reliability through reduced
parts counts.
Inside connections
typically more
stable than field productions, with fewer
variables and, hopefully, no unknowns.
However, problems still arise in studios
with tried and true setups. Finding and
fixing them as quickly as possible is essential. Having talent and crew standing
around while you locate a bad BNC or
In -house productions are
cable can get expensive quickly.
The technological
advances required
to manufacture tools
small enough to fit in
your hand include the
reduction of complete
instruments to a
single chip.
The latest technology in portable test
gear permits engineers to simply open a
tool box, grab a compact generator and/
or monitor and head straight for the suspected problem source. There are no
extra audio or video cables to run, no
power and /or extension cords to locate
and no heavy, bulky gear to maneuver
behind a rack.
So whether you're working in the studio or lugging gear from the parking lot to
the 13th green, today's hand-held equipment, combined with experience, ingenuity and planning, can make any production go more smoothly.
Media Pool
is
the video server system from BTS that
idea of what tapeless recording should be.
BTS
is
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shattering features such as:
Expandable Time
from 10 minutes to hundreds of hours of video on-line!
Expandable Channels
from one user to
a
dozen or more can have
simultaneous real-time access to the entire pool of storage.
Variable Data Compression
from full bandwidth 10-bit CCIR 656 video
to any level of compression, you choose the quality of each video clip.
Unparalleled Reliability.
RAID error correction perfectly corrects all
errors and disk failures. Redundant hot swappable drives, electronics, power
supplies and fans guarantee that you stay operational when your revenue
stream depends on it.
Media Pool provides the first professional video alternative to tape.
Circle (7) on Reply Card
Call toll-free (800) 962.4BTS
Outside the U.S. and Canada,
call (805) 584-4700
Troubleshooting
.
*
Industrial computers
Selection and configuration
,i
ll,;,
--III
i
VI1'_.Il.t
aw,r
By Steve Newbegin
selecting and configuring an industrial
system doesn't have to be a daunting
task. Despite all the possible configurations and vendors out there, you can
minimize confusion and save money simply by being informed and organized. As
described last month, the modular design of the industrial PC provides high
adaptability to a variety of applications.
Conversely, no single PC configuration
will fit all needs perfectly.
Both motherboard CPUs and plug-in
CPU cards are available for a variety of
popular bus architectures, including Industry Standard Architecture (ISA), Extended ISA (EISA), Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA), Peripheral
Components Interconnect (PCI) local bus
and others. Onboard features of these
CPUs usually include floppy disk and IDE
or SCSI device controllers, cache RAM
and other options. The motherboard is
less expensive, but if your application is
critical and a quick response to downtime is necessary, you may opt for the
passive backplane unit with its 5- minute
MTTR of all major system components
including the CPU, drives and feature
cards.
The most popular and space -efficient
industrial PC is the 19-inch rack chassis,
which provides from four to 20 full -length
card slots, depending on the model. With
onboard power supplies, passive backplane options supporting popular buses,
and mounts for up to 11 disk drives of
various types, these units provide a high
degree of off -the-shelf system customizing for high -density I/O or memory- intensive applications. In order to increase
operator access to the system chassis,
18 -inch, 24 -inch or 30-inch deep slide rails
are also available for quick and easy removal and repair of hot -swappable or
other components.
Drive options include floppies, flopticals, IDE hard disks, SCSI fixed disk drives,
CD -ROMs and rewritable optical drives.
All of these are available in full-height or
half-height formats. IDE drives are reliable and cost less, but don't offer the
CPU: passive backplane plug -in card
PC
Environmental: power supply, cooling fan(s), vents and air filters
Display: video /graphics adapters, monitor and rack-mounting slides
Data entry: keyboard, mouse, touchscreen or custom user -interface
Data integrity: RAID or tape backup
Maintenance: extender (diagnostic) boards
Signal processing: analog/digital I/O, DSP and application- specific cards
Network hardware: LAN adapters, concentrators, hubs
Communications boards: real -time clock, communications co-processors, etc.
interfacing: serial /parallel ports, termination boards, remote 1/O
Modem: high -speed POTS, Switched -56, ISDN or dedicated line
Software: operating system /environment, networking, applications
Printer dot -matrix, ink-jet or laser; monochrome or color
Protection: watchdog timer, security panels, locks, surge protector
Table
1. A
list of features and options for an industrial
speed, interface Flexibility to different media and built-in expandability that SCSI
controllers do. Most IDE controllers will
handle only two drives per system vs.
seven for each SCSI controller. At two
controllers per PC, that's four IDE drives
or 14 SCSI drives. Let the application
determine the best solution.
Table 1 provides a list of the most important features and options that your
system may require.
Off-the -shelf vs. off-the-wall
Many so- called custom computer designs are simply variations on existing
themes. They range from custom logos
or color schemes on the metalwork, to
added redundancy of key components,
to special fabrication of a non -standard
housing. For example, in many communication applications, deep cabinets won't
fit, so specially made short -depth chassis are the answer.
Some manufacturers have their own
quick- turnaround design engineering
departments and metal- bending shops,
so an unusual or difficult request may be
within their capabilities.
Technical support and stability
Approximately 75% of PC sales in the
broadcast market are made by value-added resellers (VARs) and system's integra-
Newbegin is sales engineer at Industrial Computer Source. San
Diego. Respond via the BE FAXback line at 913 -967 -1905.
1
6
or motherboard
Chassis: 19-inch rack -mount with slide rails and enough expansion slots
Memory: ROM BIOS, RAM (standard, expanded and extended), virtual drive(s)
Disk drives and controllers: IDE or SCSI HDD, FDD(s), CD-ROM
tors who supply their customers with
fully integrated systems and a high de-
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
PC.
gree of service and applications support.
The other 25% of sales go to do-it -your-
selfers who buy their system components
from a variety of sources and configure
the systems themselves.
If the latter describes you, remember
that many vendors exhibit limited responsibility to the products they resell. When
one of their products comes back under
warranty, they often refer the customer
to the original manufacturer. This can
extend to virtually every major component in your computer. Generally, the closer to the source that the end -user is on
the chain, the more responsive service
and support is likely to be. Make sure you
have a vendor's support before you make
a commitment. As any veteran PC user
knows, the need for technical support is
not so much a question of if, but of when.
Note also that the board layout or BIOS
may change without notice at any time in
typical offshore designs, whereas American -made PC products tend to have greater longevity and consistency. For this
reason, it's a good idea to specify that key
components
such as the CPU, critical
feature cards and chassis
are made
domestically. The long-term advantages
of this approach may outweigh the cheaper initial prices of offshore components.
Next month this column will consider
how to maximize PC system performance.
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U.S.A.:
Headquarters
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ll terschlelsshel1Y
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Support 8 Lighting
Technology News
Real -time image retrieval,
analysis and backup
By Curtis Chan
As
computers have become faster and
more powerful, there has been considerable movement toward the convergence
of computer and post -production technologies. It seems everyone is scrambling for on-line broadcast -quality random access. Although this goal has been
approached by numerous manufacturers, many of the current solutions are still
limited. In another area. HDTV developers typically run software simulations of
new algorithms and proposed hardware.
Until recently, the ability to interactively
analyze high-resolution imagery to the
smallest detail was usually an expensive
proposition. Finally, there's the detail of
finding a way to retrieve and backup these
huge amounts of data in or near real time.
To many, an ideal solution would have a
transparent interface, high compute
speeds and high- volume, and random
access while also being cost -effective. It
also would have the ability to view full motion imagery, interactively, at progressive and scalable scan resolutions and
input and output real -time digital video
(including translated computer data) at
D-1
or better resolution. Viewgraphics
Inc., located in Silicon Valley, has solutions focusing on two of the major roadblocks: 1) the ability to quickly access
and analyze image media, and 2) the ability to off-load massive amounts of image
data in real time. The two products, the
Viewstore 6000 Image Media Manager and
the Dataview D-1 serial digital adapter,
will be a boon to multiple markets.
Who will benefit?
Both products will directly impact the
broadcasting, film and video post-production markets. With Viewstore, broadcasters, cable companies and HDTV developers testing new compression algorithms, can store and interactively analyze (stop to real -time full-motion playback with 8x zoom and pan of up to
10Kx10K images) any resolution RGB or
4:2:2 format digital imagery. Video output is programmable to any resolution
up to a 360MHz pixel rate (which includes
Chan is president of Chan and Associates. a marketing consulting
service for audio. broadcast and post- production. Fullerton, CA.
18
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
2Kx2K, 60Hz, non -interlace).
The unit also acts as a recorder/player
with frame -accurate timing in response
to commands from a V -LAN controller.
The graphical interface provides icons
emulating a VTR, such as looping, forward and reverse jog, field /frame still
and variable speed playback modes.
Stored sequence duration is increased
by keeping the data in compact YUV
(4:2:2) format and converting to RGB on
the fly. The resulting sequences of images can then be stored directly to a D-1
DVTR or SMPTE 260M compliant recorder. Similarly, the resolution-independent
Dataview adapter will add another layer
of ECC to the CCIR 601 compliant output
signal and turn D-1 recorders into pseudo real -time data backup units. The result is a removable medium (tape) at a
fraction of the cost of present disk storage, with 100GB storage capacity per tape.
Combined with computer graphic servers and on -line storage facilities, the integration of this type of media manager
allows high- resolution electronic screening of work in progress, which reduces
the production cycle. Because the scene
or image information is stored in RAM,
users can zoom, scroll, perform windowing and analyze images for artifacts and
flaws that might otherwise be overlooked.
A Dataview can be connected to the computer's output, resulting in an additional
layer of data integrity for real -time backups of image or visual data.
Image media management
made simple
Digital imaging techniques also bring
with them issues of data management
and real -time visualization. These products are designed to accelerate access
to image media and addressing the critical time element of backups. Viewstore
comprises either a stand -alone system
or a multiboard set that can be operated
via a stand -alone processor option or
connected to a workstation via a VME
bus adapter. It consists of a data transfer
controller board, up to six memory
boards, an analog output board and an
optional digital I/O board.
Each memory board can have four mem-
ory banks of 128MB or 512MB for a total
of 512MB or 2GB of storage. The data
transfer controller card controls all memory access from the host via the VME bus
as well as the data transfers between
memory and the video I/O board via a
500MB /s generic digital interface. Optional modules provide up to 360MHz video
output at 8-bits/component or 250MHz
at 10- bits /component. Also, a programmable, real -time color space conversion
matrix is included to enable users to
store 4:2:2 formatted YUV (or YCrCb) in
the frame buffer and to convert this data
to RGB upon output.
Aside from the normal interactive menu
and display functions, an overlay option
integrates advanced display functionality with on- screen control and annotation features. The gen- lockable digital I/O
provides specialized data interfaces and
compliant D-1 (SMPTE 125M) and SMPTE
260M digital video interfaces.
Taking the byte out of backup
The soon-to-be- released Dataview serial digital adapter will address the issues
of computer data backup /archival, highresolution image archival and real -time
D-1 video I /O, all from one box. The 6U
device uses a VME host interface on the
front end, a sophisticated memory and
controller system, an ECC codec, serial
digital I/O, timing and gen-lock circuits
and an RS -422 controller.
The user gets an interface product that
allows existing D-1 (version D-2 is on the
drawing boards) recorders to double as a
true data peripheral, connecting directly
to high-end graphics computers for real time image retrievals and transfers. The
secondary ECC circuitry plus read- afterwrite option ensures high data integrity
for backup and restore operations. The Drecorder offers 120GB of storage at a
1
fraction of the time and cost. The bottom
line is new opportunities for D-1 manufacturers along with productivity benefits and
cost savings for the end user.
NO
For more information on
Viewgraphics, circle (300)
on Reply Card.
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Selecting a
DAW
Searching for the perfect DAW
requires a special discipline.
There
The Bottom Line
The world of digital audio
workstations (DAWs)
continues to develop at a
rapid pace. New systems are
increasing ease of use,
lowering the cost of entry
and expanding capabilities.
Naturally, these everwidening horizons make a
prospective purchaser's work
even harder. It is therefore
an appropriate time to
review the criteria of choice
for digital audio workstations
in the broadcast
environment.
was a time when the mere fact
that there were digital audio workstations was a wonder. This ability to capture and manipulate sound in a computer was at once exciting and intimidating
to people in the audio community. The
systems that existed were all integrated
hardware/software packages. Prices were
high and operation often quirky. As the
technology improved, users began to
understand that there were trade-offs
when choosing one system over another.
Many of these issues concern the user
interface, which translates all instructions for the computer and displays status and control functions to the user.
A good interface should be intuitive,
which means it should actually do what it
looks like it does. A well- designed interface should present information in a clear
and uncluttered manner. A digital audio
workstation interface also should require
the minimum of mouse clicks or keystrokes to accomplish its various tasks.
Although feature sets are important,
your exploration of a system's operation
must proceed further. Certainly, the lack
of some features will rule out some systems for use in a broadcast production
environment. Yet, when two or more systems under consideration each cover the
basic functions required, make your final
choice based on ease of use.
audio can be manipulated without them.
With the addition of approximately $400
worth of software, these machines can
provide the same or greater level of performance out of the box as did the previous generation of computers requiring
up to $3,000 of additional DSP hardware.
Some of the newer systems may still require a few hundred dollars worth of
additional hardware if digital I/O is required, however.
The need for a digital input and output
is actually a lower priority than you might
at first think. In the digital world there is
less need to plan ahead for the inevitable
noise and distortion because of the generational losses and console circuitry in
analog production. The mixing and track bouncing process is so clean in DAWs
that an analog transfer at the beginning
and end of the process still provides an
acceptable broadcast -quality product.
Lower entry-level costs
The prices for computer capability and
storage space have fallen quickly in the
last two years. Computers are now using
CPUs that either contain DSP chips on
the motherboard or are so powerful that
Harris is a consultant based in Woodacre. CA. Respond via the
BEFA %back line at 913- 967 -1905.
20
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
DSF. 711011 workstation is DOS-busrd und
designed primarily for radio production.
AK(is
CC
'`he thing is just impossible to
CC
1
screw up! The DM -80's nondestructive editing is the only way to
go, and revisions are extremely easy
and very quick!"
a
Wy
looked at DAWs for
could even come close to the
DM -80's price/performance ratio."
-Bill
-David
a
ear -no other product
Director of
Commercial Production
WPNT Chicago
Esch,
love this machine! It's
and user friendly. I
can edit in 1/3 the time, and I wasn't
familiar with disk recorders --the
DM -80 is easy to learn and use."
GG
I reliable,
Robinson,
-Michael Cook,
Program Director
Production Director
WQCD N.Y.. NY
KSJJ /KPRB Redmond. OR
Broadcast professionals
speak out about the DM -80
Digital Audio Workstation!
I've been editing on tape half
my life, and was hesitant to give
up "rocking the reels" -but I found
this machine is incredibly easy to
edit with. And its expandable storage
put it way ahead of the competitors
we compared."
CC
DAWs costing twice as much.
It's very rugged -you can set it up and
forget about it. And it's easy to use."
-Tony Diggs,
Chic) Engineer
//
GG`
Te
originally chose the
DM -80 because of its user
friendliness. Then we discovered the
real magic of this device: a promo announcement that normally would take
4 hours can be done in 30 minutes."
WKHK Richmond, VA
Broadcasting
GG
he DM -80 is a great producTtion tool -it really changed our
sound! I like its fast and easy editing
capabilities."
-Mike
l'he DM -80 does more than
-Toni Collins, Director
International College of
-George Zahn,
Operations Director
tt'VXl' Cincinnati
GG
CC
&
Recording. Darien
is like a digital studio in your
I lap! The DM -80
is a very afford-
able, portable, high quality digital
editing system."
-Howard Silberberg,
Sound Engineer
United Nations Radio
N.Y., NY
cc -The DM -80 is easy to learn,
1
and once learned...it's fast,
very fast! We also like its clean
digital sound."
Br 111011,
Production Director
KODYIKXNP, North Platte, NE
We couldn't say
r_v Witherspoon,
Program Director
WSTO -FM, Evansville. IN
-Bar
it any better.
Call (213) 685 -5141, Ext. 337, or FAX (213) 722 -0911 for more information about the DM -80 Digital
Audio Workstation for the magic of hard disk recording and random access editing at your fingertips.
Roland
PróAudioVideo
Circle (19) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Roland DM-80 is a cost-effective DAW using
a proprietary platform for 8-track operation.
Optional Mac -based control software allows up
to 32-track operations.
Application -specific designs
As more DAW systems are introduced,
another recent trend has focused on a
particular usage area, such as video post or radio news production.
This allows a narrowing of functionality, which provides the advantage of easier (and perhaps
faster) use and a shorter learning
curve. In some cases, this has also
led to the development of specific
hardware or interfaces, such as
random access video linked to
audio files, which is now available
on a number of DAW systems.
If your intended use of a DAW is
limited to a particular type or style
of production, remember this
when considering which systems
may be appropriate.
buyer's guide
to DAWs
By Dave
Harris and
Skip Pizzi, technical editor
preparation for a DAW demo or an exhibit
visit, ask yourself the following questions:
In
How many signals do I need to record onto
the hard disk or play out of the system
at one time?
How many tracks do I need to mix together
at any one time? (Remember that nearly infinite track bouncing is possible.)
Do
I
need digital audio I /O?
Will I need to play back tracks at the same
time I am recording?
Will
I
need to sync the audio to time code?
I need a system that requires an add -on
DSP card? DSP-card systems usually have
several I/O options (S /PDIF, AES /EBU, *4dBm
balanced analog), while systems without a
Do
card are limited to -IOdBV unbalanced analog stereo In and out.
SADiE from Studio Audio and Video is a Windows-based system featuring fast, user-friendly
editing and mixing of up to eight tracks.
Expanding system capabilities
ploring DAWs involves how many channels the system can record or playback
simultaneously. The answer is not always
obvious even after inspecting the hardware and the software manual.
Consider one popular system where
the hardware that comes with the system
has four input and output connectors. An
observation might lead you to conclude
that four audio signals can be recorded
or played out at once. After reading the
software manual, however, you will find
that only two of the inputs or outputs can
be used at one time.
Now you may feel that you have discovered that this is a 2- channel system, yet
you may need to look further. The unused capacity of this system's DSP board
has been activated by a third -party software developer whose inexpensive product converts the original 2-channel system to a 4- channel system. In addition to
the channel expansion, other high-value
features, such as mixing and track slipping are added by this optional piece of
software. This illustrates the need for
thoroughness in your evaluation of today's DAW marketplace.
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
A
What plug -in functions will1 need? Do thirdparty applications exist for this system?
A frequently asked question when ex-
22
Another area where additional
functionality has been added involves multimedia and interactive
information presentation/retrieval. Some broadcasters may be able
to reuse their archives and develop new products for the interactive market.
For productions that will require
the synchronization of audio to
Quicktime or other video formats,
it is paramount that the selected
DAW have that ability. Adding such
capability to an existing system
can be as painless as buying and
installing additional software, or
it can be impossible, depending
on the DAW. Often, a system originally purchased with audio-only
applications in mind falls into the
latter category. In such cases, add-
Will I be networking this DAW with other
computer-based systems?
Do require any integrated machine-control
1
ing synchronization capabilities
requires that a new system be
purchased.
Audio processing is another area
of DAW functionality that is developing nicely in numerous manufacturers' systems. One new idea
bears some notice. It borrows
from a software concept that has
been used in computer graphics
applications for some time the
plug -in. A plug -in is a specialized
piece of software that provides
limited but high -quality functions.
Until now, this approach has not
become popular in audio production software. Where they have
existed, plug-ins have been restricted to use with a single company's system. Such functions
have included noise reduction,
multiband parametric equalization, dynamics processing (limiting, compression, expansion), effects (echo, reverb, flanging) and
-
resolution conversion (16-bit to
8-bit, for example).
Now, however, a standard has
been proposed to allow one plugin to work with any number of
DAW systems. This could allow a
user to put together a minimal
functions for external devices (VTRs, ATRs,
external processors)?
What backup format options are available,
and exactly what data is stored? How long
does the backup procedure take?
Once you have a clear picture of your requirements, ask the person selling the system
if it has what you're looking for. If so, you have
covered the specifications and it's time to try
out the system. You may be able to arrange for
a system to be loaned to you or your facility so
you can get the feel of the interface for an
extended period under real working conditions.
If you can't get an extended demo with the
product, you will have to rely on your first
impressions of the interface. Note the number
of times you must click or keystroke to accomplish common production tasks. Does the program require you to move your mouse hand
from the mouse to the keyboard and back or
can you leave one hand on the mouse and the
other on the keys? Is it possible to move a
piece of audio forward or backward in time?
Ask for a list of users in your area that you
could contact. This list will probably be selected by the vendor to give the best impression of
the product, but get in touch with them anyway. Ask them how the product performs when
the going gets tough.
To help with your search, Table I (right) notes
each DAW's primary application area. Keep in
mind that many systems may be configured
for equally useful application in other areas.
PRIMARY APPLICATIONS
Audio
SYSTEM
PLATFORM
MODELS
(Min. level)
video
DD1000
Prop
X
DR4d
Prop
DSE 7000
386
AMS Neve
AudioFile
Prop
Audion
Labs
VoxPro
Mac
Augan
408 OMX
Prop
MFR
for
Radio
Prod.
News
Prod.
Music
Prod.
Gen'I
Reply
Audio
Carda
X
312
X
313
BEFORE
Akai
AKG
Avid
Technology
Basys
CEDAR
Audio
Audiovision
D -CART
CEDAR Prod.
System
Audiomedia II
Digidesign
Pro
Tools 2.0
Session 8
Sound
Tools II
Digital
Audio Labs
Digital Audio
Research
X
II
X
386
SoundStation
Prop
X
Prop
Fostex
Foundation
2000
Prop
Innovative
Quality
Software
Software
Audio
Workshop
386 w /sound
Card
Korg
SoundLink
Prop
Opus
Prop
Otani
Pacific
Recorders &
Engineering
DECK
II
326
X
328
X
329
X
330
X
X
X
386
X
Mac Ilx'
Mac AV or
PowerPC
II
ADX
Mac
II
331
WAITING.
Finally,
a
Broadcast Quality
Picture that keeps pace with
332
your Digital Audio Workstation,
X
333
frame for frame.
X
334
Whether you
Sonic
Quattro
Sonic
Station
X
X
II
Audio
Engine
two hour feature, the
Virtual Recorder
X
335
X
336
X
X
337
that will make you
displays
Virtual Recorder'
486
X
X
339
play
340
every major brand of DAW.
II
X
Mac
11
X
X
X
X
341
X
342
X
343
Prop
X
Scenaria
Prop
X
344
OmniMix
Prop
X
345
Mac Ilci
Amiga
2000
Synclavier
Company
Synclavier
Tapeless Studio
Mac
56k Digital
Rec. System
286/12
X
X
346
347
X
X
II
X
X
348
X
349
On Mac II platforms, DECK II requires System 7.1 or higher plus DAW hardware and software from
DigiDesign, RasterOps or Spectral Synthesis.
compatible
price
believer. The
338
486/33
II
a
a
X
Mac
a
crystal clear picture locked to
X
ScreeenSound
Dyaxis
a
Prop
Studio 16/
AD516
Note:
THERE.
your workstation. And at
Sunrize
Industries
Turtle Beach
Systems
X
X
Mac
SADiE
Studer
Editech
X
X
ProDisk
PD -464
SADiE Disk
Editor
SSL
325
searching
DM -80
Spectral
Synthesis
X
IS ALREADY
are slowly scrubbing audio or
MicroSound
Roland
Sonic
Solutions
324
327
Mac II
w /Sys 7
Fairlight
MFX 2
OSC Media
Products
X
X
Fairlight
ESP
RECORDER'
322
323
II
DAWN
Micro
Technology
Unlimited
X
386SX
or Mac
Prop
THE VIRTUAL
321
X
Mac
Doremi
Labs
Lexicon
"GO TO" BUTTON,
320
Sabre
II
319
X
FROM THE
317
318
X
386
Mac
The CardD
316
X
Prop
Mac
YOUR FINGER
315
X
Mac
Q adra
YOU CAN LIFT
314
X
is plug
with
and
nearly
Virtual Recorder
ASC Audio Video Corporation
3816 Burbank Blvd. Burbank, CA 91505
Tele: (818) 843-7004
Fax: (818) 842 -8945
Virtual Recorder and VR arc trademarks ul ASC Audio Video C. Of
Circle (20) on Reply Card
August 1994
Broadcast Engineering 23
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system and later add or upgrade as needed, and as software becomes available.
A final technology to watch is that of
data compression and data reduction as
applied to finished audio files in a DAW.
This promises to have a profound influence on the way digital audio production
is done in the future. It is well -known that
uncompressed digital audio files can become quite large. The general rule of 5MB
per track-minute typically produces raw
original files that can range into multiple
gigabytes.
DAW
users must deal
with memory management during
production and while
planning distribution
of the final product.
Therefore, DAW users must deal with
memory management during production
and while planning distribution of the
final product. It is a rare production that
has access to all of the storage capacity
it could ever need.
Although data reduction via perceptual coding has been possible for some
time, available systems generally have
relied on dedicated hardware to code
and decode the audio. Now, a growing
trend has emerged for manipulating file
size with these algorithms through software. This has become another software
plug -in possibility, allowing the means to
decode reduced audio files to be contained in inexpensive playback software
or even stored along with the audio file
itself. This technology is in its infancy
and bears watching.
Digital audio workstations are maturing. If you can't budget for a world-class
production system now, take advantage
of the many useful and less-expensive
systems that are available. They will provide you with some real digital production experience and improve your facility's audio programming.
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PRODUCTS GROUP
Audio processing
for broadcast
production
Audio processing in the production
studio has come a long way lately.
By Curtis Chan
The Bottom Line
Broadcasters are always
looking for a competitive
edge to sell their services
and airtime. On the hardware side, that edge may
come in the form of devices
that give a station a unique
aural presence. Gaining such
capability continues to
become more affordable as
the systems themselves
become more powerful.
Digital signal processing
(DSP) and a resurgence in
analog processing are the
keys to this synergy.
Not only are today's audio processing
systems cheaper than their predecessors, but they offer higher sonic quality
and more powerful features, as well.
Broadcasters should examine analog and
digital processors for their production
suites within three major categories: 1)
compressors, limiters and gates; 2) equalizers and spectral enhancers; and 3) effects devices.
These production processing systems
are generally in a separate class from the
on -air audio processor used by broadcast stations to control and tailor their
signal as it goes to the transmitter. (See
the related article, "Dynamic Range Processing and Intelligibility," p. 32). Production systems require a wider palette of
capabilities coupled with significant ease
of operation, so they can be properly
used in the heat of a session or a live
broadcast. Cost is also an issue because
in many cases, multiple units of a particular production processor will be required by a facility.
Compressors, limiters and gates:
Current trends
Compressor /limiters and noise gates
are critical in controlling the dynamic
range of audio program material, for live
on-air and recorded programs. They are
especially helpful on voice (vocalists and
announcers), percussion and bass instruments. Because there may be multiple
channels in need of individually controlled compression, these types of units
can be obtained in single, dual or multiChan is president of Chan and Associates. a marketing consulting
service for audio. broadcast and post-production, Fullerton. CA.
Respond via the BEFAXback line at 913 -967 -1905
.
26
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
channel configurations, which in many
cases can be linked.
Some newer units use FET technology
to emulate the sound of tubes. Tube or
synthesized tube designs favor even-order harmonics over odd-order harmonics, resulting in a subjectively smoother
sound (to some ears) across a heavy
compression curve.
Production processing
systems are in a
separate class from
the on-air audio
processor.
Because noise gates and compressor/
limiters usually work hand -in-hand, many
companies combine such functions in
one box for more integrated control over
the signal. When properly adjusted, this
combination allows significant dynamic
range reduction to take place without a
concurrent rise in the noise floor during
passages where the instrument or voice
is silent.
The term "properly adjusted" is critical. It is possible for a misadjusted audio
processor to do more harm than good.
Therefore, the designers' primary goal
should be to allow the user to produce
the desired effect with a minimum of
adjustment. Interaction of controls, while
impossible to fully eliminate, should also
be minimized. Last, virtually any competent compressor can sound natural if it
doesn't work hard. The trick is getting a
unit to process heavily and naturally.
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Circle (23) on Reply Card
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Another design attribute that
affects sonic quality is the use
of either discrete, hybrid or
VLSI circuitry. Many compressor /limiters use a voltage-controlled amplifier (VCA) for their
central gain block. The distortion that can be caused by
VCAs is well- known. The distortion generally manifests itself as additional unwanted
spectral components, such as
harmonic or IM distortion. In
addition, deficiencies in traditional control circuitry often
produce unnatural modulations of the signal. often referred to as "pumping." "hole punching" and "shivering.Controlling a compressor/
limiter and noise gate is relatively easy, and manufacturers
have had a long time to fine
tune this technology. Specifically, control usually centers
on five major functions (with
occasional enhancements to
each section): threshold. compression, attack, release and
gain. By combining added functionality to these primary functions, frequency -selective gating or compression and other
variations are possible.
More advanced compressor/
limiter designs allow two separate threshold and ratio settings, one for compression and
one for limiting. This allows
mild compression (low ratio,
low threshold) to be combined
-
Production
processors
require a wide
palette of
capabilities
coupled with
significant ease
of operation.
with protective peak limiting
(high ratio, high threshold), for
example, offering cost- effectiveness by combining two necessary functions in a single device. On higher- priced units,
the release shape is selectable
and may have normal, linear
and exponential release time
characteristics. The resulting
output can therefore have either a "soft -knee" or "cliff-effect"
28
Broadcast Engineering
Advantages
(and disadvantages)
of digital I/O
By Robert Orbau
Since dinosaurs ruled the earth, audio professionals have used analog connections between
their gear. The advantage of an analog connection is that it is universal. Other than level
differences and balanced vs. unbalanced, there
is little that can prevent some sort of signal
transfer between the originating and receiving
devices.
Analog connections have their well -known
weaknesses, however. They are prone to hum
and noise pickup, and long connections can
easily cause unacceptable high- frequency loss.
Furthermore, in a complex facility with active
devices in the signal path, levels must be carefully aligned to prevent amplifiers in the signal
path from clipping.
In a stereo or multichannel facility, cable
lengths and types must be matched to prevent
relative polarity shifts from appearing between
channels. It is all too easy to accidentally swap
left and right channels, mirroring the stereo
image. Worse yet, reversing polarity of one channel causes cancellation of the monophonic sum
signal. And for those who worry about absolute
polarity, it is even easier to invert absolute
polarity so that speakers pull when they should
be pushing.
Digital I/O solves most of these problems. In
the common AES/EBU and S/PDIF standards,
one cable carries two channels of audio. There
can be no problems with relative polarity shift
between channels, channel imbalances, absolute polarity inversion or gain shifts to cause
clipping. If you use AES/EBU properly, status
bits tell you whether the signal is stereo or
mono, whether it is pre -emphasized and what
its sample rate is. If you choose your cable
carefully (11011 balanced cable is required),
you can run AES/EBU several hundred feet with
no signal loss. Using a balanced -to-unbalanced
adapter with 7511 coax and BNC connectors can
extend that distance to several thousand feet. If
you go too far, you'll know it
the receiver will
simply fail to decode the signal. Subtle problems are quite unlikely.
-
Jitter
One subtle problem that can arise in AES/EBU
transmission is jitter in the clock recovered by
the receiver. Jitter means that the period of
each recovered clock cycle is not quite identical to the period of the cycle preceding and
following it. If such an unstable clock is used to
synchronize a digital-to-analog converter (DAC),
the resulting frequency or phase-modulation
-
sidebands around the clock frequency and its
harmonics result in what amounts to modulation noise in the recovered audio. One-bit DACs
(like the MASH converter and its cousins) tend
to be more sensitive to this than the more
traditional multibit designs.
To a modest extent, the AES /EBU standard
itself tends to cause jitter because it is a sellsynchronizing system
the receiver must re-
-
Orban is chief engineer for Orban, a Hannan International Company.
San Leandro. CA. Respond via the BE FAXback line al 913.967.
1905.
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
cover the clock from the bitstream, which is not
entirely uniform when it is modulated by a digital
audio signal. However, if a low -pass filter is interposed between the AES/EBU transmitter and receiver, this can cause the position of the bit
transitions to become much more uncertain.
greatly increasing the probability that the receiver will recover a jittered clock. The TOSLINK
optical connections provided on consumer CD
players are particularly prone to this behavior,
but any long cable will roll off the higher frequencies (the AES/EBU signal has significant energy
up to 5MHz) and cause similar problems.
Mixing digital signals
Another important issue regarding digital signals in the studio environment is how to mix
them. With analog, there was no problem
couple of resistors would do quite nicely. However, digital audio is not nearly as forgiving because
mixing must be synchronous. (This also implies
that the signals to be mixed must have identical
sampling frequencies.) The situation is similar to
video, where mixing two video signals requires
that they be timed identically. In digital audio,
requirements are not quite as stringent because
a DSP mixer will accumulate the serial input
bitstreams in a buffer memory until all of the bits
in a given digital word are available. Only then
are they added, so the video requirement of
exact phase matching between Inputs does not
exist in the world of digital interconnect.
Nevertheless, if the digital words are appearing
at the inputs at different rates, then the buffer
memory will quickly overflow as it tries to line up
the words from the different inputs. So identical
-a
sample rates are a must.
New technology to the rescue
Fortunately, the last year has provided solutions to the jitter and sample -rate problems with
the advent of low-cost, integrated asynchronous
sample-rate-converter (SRC) chips from Analog
Devices and Philips. Within a wide range, these
chips will emit a bitstream that is synchronous to
the system clock that drives the chips regardless
of the sample rate at their inputs. Fortuitously,
they simultaneously remove jitter at their inputs, and the jitter at their outputs is essentially
as low as the jitter of the system clock driving the
chips. By placing an SRC at each input of a digital
mixer (or any other device where jitter removal is
required), interconnecting a digital studio becomes a plus-and-play operation. No house sync
is required to ensure that various digital sources
emit identical sample rates. An input can accommodate any digital signal meeting the standard
for which the receiver is designed (such as AES/
EBU).
Experience with the Analog Devices chip shows
that there is only one serious potential problem.
Internally, asynchronous SRCs require large FIR
filters to do their job. At a 32kHz output sample
rate, the filter used in the Analog Devices chip is
down approximately 0.5dB at 15kHz. (It's essentially flat to about 14.5kHz.) So multiple passes
through SRCs outputting 32kHz may result in
significant loss of frequency response at 15kHz.
However, because 32kHz is generally only used in
STLs, this should not be a significant problem.
For the common studio sample rates of 48kHz
and 44.1kHz, the new SRC chips are essentially
transparent and will usher in a new generation of
high -performance, easy-to- connect digital studio
equipment.
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and noise reduction to provide
user -selectable low- and high -freMOD
EQ
quency detailing of audio sourcSELE
OUT
es. (See Figure 1.)
VARIABLE
MULTIBAND
The end result is a quieter yet
CROSSOVER
PROCESSOR
INPUT
brighter signal
two attributes
PROCESS
that are often mutually exclusive
ONLY
METER
when using a standard equalizer.
Such technologies from the proTHRESHOLD
ADJUST
fessional audio recording commuNOISE
OF- REDUCTION
nity are making their way into
OUTPUT
broadcast production equipment.
The end result of this migration is
a new breed of highly cost- effecFigure 1. Block diagram of the Dolby 740 spectral processor an example of the finest directions in
tive, fully featured and sonically
equalization, using u combination of fixed and adaptive processing.
pure peripheral devices that will
enhance today's and tomorrow's broadcharacteristic, providing a single unit with connection capability will grow more use- casts.
enough flexibility to operate as a single
ful as the equipment surrounding an auchannel vocal compressor or an overall
dio processor iu the production studio
program hard -limiter
becomes increasingly digitized.
Most of the gain reduction devices that
For more information on
perform these tasks are analog systems.
Spectral enhancers
audio processing for
but a growing number of recent designs
Another signal processing device that
broadcast production,
has become popular recently in broadcircle (309) on Reply Card.
use digital technology. at least for control, if not for actual audio processing. cast circles is the spectral enhancer.
r. These
See also "Dynamics Processors,"
Among the latter digital inputs and outdevices fall somewhere between equalii
"Effects Processors" and
puts are sometimes offered. (See the re- ers. multi -effects units and noise reduc"Equalizers," p. 54 of the
BE Buyers Guide.
lated article, "Advantages land disadvaners. Spectral enhancers typically use a
tages] of Digital I /0 p 28). Digital inter- combination id static and dynamic EQ
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30
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Dynamic range
processing and
intelligibility
ployed by many radio stations to create and
maintain maximum loudness at all times. Aesthetic considerations aside, this aggressive
type of processing is inappropriate for TV
audio because it reduces intelligibility.
Intelligibility can suffer
By Marvin Caesar
The arguments for dynamic range con-
trol are strong, obvious and well -known to
broadcasters. If a program has too wide a
dynamic range, listeners /viewers will have
to ride gain in order to bring up low -level
dialog and turn down high -level effects.
When commercials
often compressed
to high average levels
come on too loud
relative to the program material, the disparity is magnified. Often, when the viewer /listener reaches to make such an adjustment, the channel gets muted or
switched, and a negative image may be
formed about the advertiser. The dramatic difference in levels between program
and commercials is the number one complaint about TV audio. Another major cause
of complaints, especially on channel -populous cable systems, is the difference in
audio levels between channels.
If too wide a dynamic range creates problems for TV audio, dynamic range that is
too constricted is equally undesirable. It is
clearly inappropriate for TV facilities to
use the kind of aggressive processing em-
--
Caesar is president of Aphex Systems Sun Valley. CA.
Respond via the BEFAxback meal 913 967-1905
Speech intelligibility, especially for the English language, depends on consonant recog-
nition. Consonants are typically characterized by transients with fast rise times that are
rich in harmonics and high frequencies. If the
integrity of consonant waveforms is diminished, either by dynamic or frequency -response changes, the intelligibility of those
words will be reduced.
An extreme example of this type of loss of
intelligibility is the soundtracks for movies
played on airplanes. It seems that no matter
what level you set, or how far you push the ear
buds into your ears, you still lose a great
amount of the dialog. The dynamic range is
certainly controlled (footsteps can be as loud
as gunfire) but at an unacceptable cost. Thankfully, the problem is rarely so extreme with TV
audio. However, the 75µs pre-emphasis curve
employed in TV (and FM) transmission can
exacerbate intelligibility problems because it
often results in the attenuation or distortion
of high frequencies.
In
Advice to broadcasters
controlling dynamic range and audio
modulation levels, the tasks of a broadcaster
are to define the parameters of acceptable
dynamic range, choose the appropriate equip-
ment for each function, and operate it
properly. Power or loudness is a function
of average levels and these should be monitored using a VU meter rather than a peak reading unit. The average levels should
not vary more than 6dB to 8dB from low
program material levels (other than quiet
ambience) to highest level effects. This
range will allow dramatic impact and syllabic emphasis without letting the low levels fall too far down. Compressors and
levelers should be used to control average
levels in this manner. It's important to
select devices that are designed to recognize the relative densities of different signals (unprocessed, "open" audio such as
live broadcasts vs. heavily processed audio such as commercials.)
Modulation is defined by peak levels,
which are best measured by a modulation
monitor. In order to maintain the highest
possible peak levels without overmodulation, a peak limiter should be used. For
point -to -point links with flat response (no
pre -emphasis) a flat limiter should be used.
For TV broadcast transmission, the pre emphasis curve must be taken into account. This means the peak limiter should
be multiband with the pre-emphasis curve
at the input. The peak output ceiling should
be set to generate 100% modulation in the
transmitter. The total amount of peak limiting should not be greater than 8dB to
10dB. More than that amount can result in
unnatural, overprocessed audio.
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Circle (13) on Reply Card
32
Broadcast Engineering
Circle (14) on Reply Card
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Advances in
DAT oeconlers
New DAT features make the format
even more attractive to broadcasters.
By Curtis Chan
The
The Bottom Line
Digital audiotape (DAT)
recorders have come a long
way since their introduction
in the mid- I980s. Today,
DAT recorders' portability,
long recording time and
digital nature make them
ideal for on-location recording and post-production
work. The more recent
advent of time- code-equipped
DAT machines have further
reinforced the format's
usefulness as a replacement
technology and extended its
livelihood as a viable
acquisition and production
format.
usefulness of the DAT format has
been greatly enhanced for broadcasters
with the recent addition of a standardized, non -longitudinal SMPTE time-code
format and a number of other useful features. To begin an examination of this
new DAT generation, a review of the format's basics is in order.
With the exception of one DAT deck
-
that allows recording of each track individually, the basic DAT format is stereo
both tracks are recorded simultaneously. Three types of signals are necessary
for the correct operation of a DAT system: 1) PCM audio, 2) subcode data, and
3) the Automatic Track Ending (ATF) signal.
The PCM audio is usually a 16-bit linear,
44.1kHz- or 48kHz- sampled signal with
substantial error correction. Subcode
data can include Absolute Time (or ATime, which counts real time in hours,
minutes and seconds from the head of
the tape), several forms of ID markers,
and SMPTE/EBU time code (sometimes
referred to as R- time). The ATF signal
ensures accurate tracking during playback on any DAT unit, similar to those
used by various video formats.
Although DAT is a tightly specified standard format, some broadcasters have
learned the hard way that
not all DAT recorders are
created equal. Particularly vexing are the differences between consumer and professional DAT
units. Consumer models
are generally limited to a
Chan is president of Chan and Associates, a marketing consulting servce for
audio, broadcast and post- production.
Fullerton, CA. Respond via the BE
FAXback line at 913- 967 -1905.
34
48kHz sampling rate when recording from
the analog inputs. This becomes problematic if the material is to be used for CD
production later at 44.1kHz.
Also confronting the consumer -DAT
user is the Serial Copy Management System (SCMS). Designed to inhibit digital
copying of copyrighted material, SCMS
will not allow users to make a digital dub
of a DAT that is itself a digital copy of
"protected" audio. In other words, when
using consumer DAT equipment, it is possible to make a digital DAT dub from a
published CD, but a second -generation
digital DAT dub cannot be made of the
first DAT. (SCMS is sometimes described
as "allowing digital children but not grandchildren.") Although SCMS has no effect
on recordings made via analog inputs,
the best solution for broadcasters is
avoidance of SCMS-equipped devices.
This implies the exclusive use of professional DAT equipment.
Another potential flaw among consumer DATs (or even low- priced pro-DATs) is
the poor quality of the mic pre-amps and/
or the lack of phantom power for condenser mics.
The Panasonic SV4100 is designed for on-air use, with a 5-point
autolocator and instant-start RAM buffer. It can also be externally
synchronized to a variety of sources.
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
U°
?ERCp
r,rr,,,PU
g 1
l SIGNAL
PAOCFSSING/.
The true test of a format
is that it keeps getting better.
Supercam is yet another milestone
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Portable DATs
Portable DAT recorders are nothing new, but the latest models offer
a number of features that may be
welcomed by broadcasters. Several of these new units offer transport-control and other buttons that
each have unique tactile characteristics, allowing the experienced
operator to manipulate the controls without visual inspection.
To minimize dust and moisture in
the cassette well, a tight gasket is
often found surrounding the com-
partment. High -end units
sport four motors that
Otani DTR -90 has detachable front panel/remote control and offers
time code, instant-start memory buffer and edit -preview RAM buffer/
interface.
eliminate the need forcomplex linkage and belts, resulting in a longer life expectancy and smoother
tape operation.
Some units also have a
built -in head warmer that
allows operation through
wide temperature and humidity variations. Not surprisingly, most portable
DATs designed for professional use are built with a
rugged, road -worthy chassis. Some consumer -type portables are
even smaller and lighter, but are far less
robust and reliable.
Most professional portable DATs offer
(consumer) digital
audio I/O, allowing signals to remain in
the digital domain from acquisition to
mastering. Emulating the analog Nagra
recorders that they aim to replace, highend portable DATs offer a variety of micpowering, filtering and attenuation features along with limiting and polarity reversal. On some machines, the settings of
these controls can be stored in memory
for easy recall.
Most portable DATs offer multiple monitoring modes that allow the broadcaster
to listen via headphone in stereo, monosum or one-channel-only modes. A built in speaker is also provided in most cases.
Some models offer a stereo MS decoder
in the monitor section, while others offer
a predefined shuttle speed for fast listening or cuing.
Some DAT field recorders use 4-head
drums, allowing off-tape confidence monitoring and punch in /out capability. Timecode display may also be offered for
monitoring in the field. Because a portable DAT may be used in conjunction with
film or video production equipment, newer units allow multiple power options,
including Betacam power adapters, NP1B-type cells, GEL cells, power straps or,
of course, AC power supplies.
In addition to slate mic and tone- generating functions, most portable DATs also
come with full subcode address capability, such as start IDs, end IDs, program
numbers, blank search and error IDs that
are useful for marking and cataloging
sections of a tape. Because a few subcoding details were left unspecified in the
DAT standard, however, some subcode
data recorded on one DAT machine will
not be recognized upon playback on another model or brand. Some units also
carry a unique ID system that monitors
all operating areas. The user determines
the setup parameters and if any discrepancy occurs, the deck will send a mark to
the tape for review later. Alerts can come
in the form of blinking LEDs, screen icons
AES /EBU and IEC958
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36
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
Assaufmn, awry, MA
Weirdo on line one. Bitter psycho on two. Irritated
mom on three. Religious zealot on four. Talk shows
seem so simple. At least your phone system is, if
it's the new TS612 from Gentner.
(expandable to 12)
It
features
Gentner's
Telephone System.
Direct Connect TechnologyTM, which
allows you to hook it into a regular
phone line. Plus, its built -in handset and
keypad eliminate the need for another
screening phone. With the TS612, you
can talk to callers (even the Pizza Guy)
off -air, while other callers are on -air.
The TS612
is a six -line
Technologically, the TS612 features built -in mix minus, to compliment Gentner's digital audio enhancement. It has two DCT
Superhybrids, automatic level control, dual air control surfaces,
optional screener control surface, and dual audio bus operation.
You also have DCT connection to your hard disk or studio PC, for
the
screening and controlling calls. But what would you expect
TS612 was designed specifically for talk shows.
-
See
your Gentner.rep today, or call
1
-800- 945 -7730 and make your life
easier with the TS612. After all,
that psycho's still on line two.
Gentner
CON WWI
Arr.[
I
-800-945-7730
Circle (28) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
or audible alert tones in the headphone output.
priced, however. Most DAT
manufacturers try to accommodate users by offering a
modular design, allowing
decks to be configured for
audio mastering, post-production editing, broadcast
playback or sound library
Production DAT recorders
With the new breed of cost-effective modular digital multitrack recorders using S -VHS and 8mm tape,
DAT manufacturers are in a creative
The Foster D-30 features a super twist display like those h,und on some
frenzy to integrate more bang for laptop computers. It includes many advanced features, such as time
applications.
the buck. New models of profes- code, oB-tape monitoring, scrubbing, edit previewing, auto-cuing to
These high -end decks are
sional production DAT recorders are
rack -mountable and rugged.
first audio, instant start and RS-422 control
a testament to this. Many of these
Designed for heavy studio
decks are more expensive than their pre- featured units ranging to $12,000 and beand edit suite use, the units are surrounddecessors, with prices for the most fully yond. Other models are quite reasonably ed by a thick sheet metal outer layer with
shock mounting on the transport. In many
cases, high -quality stamped metal parts
are used instead of the plastic items used
on lower-priced models.
Other new features include varispeed
controls (usually around ±12.5%), enhanced autolocation and improved editing. In the latter area, implementation of
jog/shuttle knobs, memory buffers and
EDL-type editing control have made intensive editing on DAT a practical reality.
This allows a production to use the same
recording format from acquisition to air,
and stay within the digital domain as
much as possible. Editing on these systems gives the user precise control based
on SMPTE/EBU time -code or film/video
frame rates. Cross(ades are available
across a wide range (up to three seconds
duration, definable in 1ms increments),
and crossfade curves are selectable for
log or linear ramps, with separate time
settings for fade-in and fade-out.
Because the DAT subcode can be accessed independently from the audio
data, SMPTE time code can be pre-striped,
post-striped or recorded simultaneously
with audio. One time-code rate or type
can even translate to another during playback. Like VTR editors, auto-edit, rehearse and review modes provide automatic punch -in/out and review of the edit
at preselected points. Cue -point storage
The good news for you, our customer, is
and edit -history recall are also offered.
Jog -wheel manipulation of audio stored
we are now a part of COMSAT RSI, a
in a RAM buffer makes precise cuing a
worldwide telecommunications leader.
simple and "analog-like" process.
COMSAT RSI's resources will
Memory buffers are also finding use for
instant
-start DAT playback, making the
strengthen our ability to manufacture new
format more suitable for on-air use. A
microwave and wireless products for the
similar RAM feature can be applied to
pull-up and pull -down functions for film/
industry. Access to new technical
video transfers.
capabilities will boost our R &D efforts,
Taking a page from the VTR manufacbringing you newer products faster.
turer's book, some newer DAT decks incorporate control panels that can be deAnd thanks to COMSAT RSI's global
tached for use as a remote -control and
distribution networks, our growth potential
status -indicator. A variety of more traditional wired and wireless remote conis virtually limitless.
trols are also available on many models.
So we invite you to get reacquainted
Regarding converters, current DAT rewith us under our new name:
1757 S. Winthrop Drive
corders typically offer either 16-bit linear
or 64x oversampling ADCs with 18-bit 8x
Des Plaines, IL 60018
COMSAT RSI, Mark Antennas.
oversampling DACs. Sampling rates dif708-298-9420
We think you'll like what you see
fer among models, but expect to find at
Fax: 708. 635.7946
If You Liked
Mark Antennas
Before,
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Circle (30) on Reply Card
38
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Advanced wireless intercom system
Vega Q600
Rugged, reliable, metal
beltpack remotes
Hybrid UHFNHF operation to
conserve scarce VHF
frequencies
bilities required for these demanding
applications.
The Q600 system provides continuous. full -duplex, hands -off communi-
cations between up to six people plus
an
Inexpensive VHF monitor
receivers to lower system
costs
High -quality, low- noise,
low- distortion audio
Up to six beltpacks per
master station
Designed specifically for
broadcast and production
Directly compatible with all
standard wired intercoms
Many advanced circuit and
system design features
In the studio or on the set. Vega's
ireless intercom systems are the
choice of professionals who demand
ruggedness, reliability, broadcast -qual-
ity audio, and a full set of professional
features. Designed from the ground up
for broadcast and production work.
the Q600 UHF/VHF system provides
all the functions and technical capa-
unlimited number of "listen- only"
users.
The QTR -600 beltpack remotes are
extremely easy to use and provide operation similar to that of hard -wired
intercom beltpacks. They are compatible with popular dynamic or electret
headsets, such as Beyer, Clear -Com,
and Telex. The cases are welded aircraft
aluminum alloy with a high- impact.
molded Cycolac (ABS) control panel
that will withstand the roughest use.
One QX -600 master station supports up to six QTR -600 remotes with
"hands- free" two -way communications. and an unlimited number of
PL -2 receivers for listen -only users.
Circuitry is provided to interface external line audio with the system or to
link two QX -600s into a I2 -user system. The master station is directly
compatible with all standard wired intercom systems such as Clear-Corn.
RTS. ROH. Telex, and many others
via internal programming switches. A
local headset position and extensive
Circle (29) on Reply Card
control, adjustment, and monitoring
provisions are also included.
The PL -2 VHF mini- receiver provides a high -performance, low -cost
solution to providing one -way "listen only" communications. Very often, individuals need to receive instructions
but are not required to speak. Using
PL -2 receivers for this application
avoids the expense of additional full
two -way remotes and can significantly lower the cost of a typical system. The PL -2 is fully compatible
with the Q600 system and is designed
to provide reliable communications in
the most demanding RF environments.
When the job demands hands -free,
full- duplex operations in the most demanding environment, go with the
Vega Q600, the system recommended
by professionals worldwide.
a
MARK IV company
9900 East Baldwin Place
California 91731 -2294
Telephone: (818) 442-0782
Toll -Free Telephone: 800- 877.1771
Fax: (818) 444 -1342
FaxBack: (818) 444 -2017
Toll -Free FaxBack: 800-274-2017
El Monte,
ronment without post-striping the tape.
The latest generation of DAT hardware has helped establish a solid niche
for the format among the professional
community. The price of a DAT cassette
is about one -third of equivalent- length
reel-to-reel tape, with the additional
benefit of space savings for hardware
least 48kHz, 44.1kHz and 32kHz. Some
units also offer a -0.1% mode for
47.952kHz and 44.056kHz. AES /EBU and
S /PDIF (electrical or optical) digital I /0s
are standard. For control, many decks
provide (as either standard or optional
equipment) RS -422, RS-232C and TTLcompatible parallel I /0s. This can allow
DAT decks to be integrated into broadcast automation systems as a cost-ef fective and high -quality long-form storage medium. External word sync and
video sync are also offered on many
decks, which allow synchronization with
incoming digital audio or analog video
signals.
SMPTE time-code generator /readers
are available for an increasing number
of DAT machines, either as standard or
optional features. This not only gives
the deck a capability to stripe tapes
with time code, but also to chase-lock
and synchronize to incoming code. Sync
offset time is adjustable, and the offset
time can be captured instantly for later
recall. Available frame rates typically are
24, 25, 29.97 (DF /NDF) and 30fps. Jam
synching is commonly available, and
some DAT decks offer the ability to record
and display time-code user -bit information. Time-code generators can usually
The Sony PCM-E7700 is a portable, 2-deck DAT
editor that offers time-code-based EDL and autoassemble operations, a graphical editing display,
off-tape monitoring, a real-time jog/scrub wheel
and double -speed edit assembly or dubbing.
and storage of tape. Recent enhancements, such as RAM buffers and time
code add significant utility for broadcast applications. Combining these advantages with DAT's inherently high audio quality should keep the format popular among broadcasters for years to
come.
run either continuously or in a time-ofday mode.
A few non-time-code decks can provide
a time and date stamp with every start ID,
which can be handy for cataloging. Additionally, some decks can read A-time from
a non-time-code recorder and translate it
into a SMPTE/EBU time-code emulation,
allowing the audio to be easily integrated
into a time-code-based production envi-
ty
For more information on professional DAT recorders, circle the
following numbers on Reply Card.
Fostex
HIM
Otani
Panasonic
Sonosax/Stelladat
Sony
Studer Editech
Tascam
(301)
(302)
(303)
(304)
(305)
(306)
(307)
(308)
Finally... Affordable 20 -bit technology from
Lightwave Systems
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70 dB Mic Preamp built-in
Now, sonic purity can be yours without interference.
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Phone (214) 741 -5142 0 Fax (214) 741 -5145
Circle (32) on Reply Card
40
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
The Only Thing
It Can't Do Is Open
A Bottle Of Wine.
Telex V -Series headsets do it all. Their unique modular design make them the most
versatile headsets you can buy, with interchangeable mic and cable assemblies that let
you use one headset for most any application.
Comfort and sound quality are second to none, with
revolutionary floating earcups that automatically adjust to
any head size. And, like our other Telex headsets used by
pilots and NFL coaches, the durability is built in. Of course,
parts and accessories are easy to get and always available.
See and hear for yourself. For the Telex pro audio dealer
nearest you, call 1 -800- 392 -3497 (416- 431 -4975 in Canada).
The VSerie& Maybe we should b we called tt the swiss army headset
,\lade
all Inuit-
nu
tine
I
19»,
lak'\ t
1MIU11URxathMp
/7»r
Itx
Circle (31) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
-Series
beads" mod" V-220 and V-210
TELEX
Intercoms
Today's high -tech systems are
computer-based.
By Bob Cohen
Talented engineers can equip facilities
with the latest stateof-theart equipment
The Bottom Line
Modern technology has
caught up with broadcast
intercoms, and the results
are powerful, flexible and
easy-to-use communications
systems. Many times, facility
intercom systems are taken
for granted or thrown together at the last minute.
Either of these situations can
spell disaster when the
system goes down. Having a
functional intercom system
that complements a facility's
communications needs can
mean the difference between
getting a hot story on the air
or losing it completely.
and make it all work. However, wise engineers remember that high-tech boxes
aren't worth anything if the people operating them can't communicate with each
other. It's the staff's skill, creativity and
teamwork that keeps viewers interested
and keeps shows on the air. The intercom
system ties those people together and
allows them to work in a harmonious,
coordinated way.
Today's intercoms give facilities reliable, easy-to-use communications systems that surpass anything available.
Most facilities use the latest in party-line
(PL) systems, which usually do the job.
Many facilities, however, are turning to
the latest computer -based systems for
the ultimate in flexibility and communications power.
Let's party
For decades, party-line intercom systems were the standard in North America. The party-line concept has grown by
quantum leaps since early poor-quality,
low- level, carbon microphone -based systems were built into camera CCUs in the
1950s. Those systems have evolved into
sophisticated multichannel systems based
on distributed amplifier, line-bridging
architecture capable of interfacing to external communication systems and devices.
Modern PL systems provide low- noise,
high -level, full- bandwidth audio quality
that reduces listening fatigue over long
listening periods. The distributed amplifier, line- bridging concept makes it possible to add and subtract users (stations)
from a channel without affecting audio
level or quality. Additionally, advanced
Cohen is president of Clear -Corn. Berkeley, CA.
42
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
headset construction has resulted in a
wide range of units that fill many headset
needs, from ultralightweight to high -noise
environment to general purpose, all with
great audio and exceptional comfort.
Those who have used Telco 52BW -type
headsets understand how important
comfortable headsets are.
Single-channel PL systems serve well
when key personnel must relay instructions to numerous support staff. For example, directors must be able to talk to
people who run cameras, graphics,
prompters, CGs, engineering and others
all at the same time.
As long as the director is the only person talking, this system works fine. But
when other communications need to
happen, a single party-line soon turns to
confusion as people's voices step on each
other. The problem can be solved with
multiple party-line channels, each used
by groups of individuals who need to
speak to each other. Each group is put on
their own party-line. lndividuals who need
to can break into any group using master
multichannel intercom stations.
But even with the advances, party-line
systems alone often don't serve the needs
of a modern radio or TV facility. As production capabilities become more sophisticated, so do intercom system requirements. More equipment is being controlled by more operators, which requires
more communication capability to coordinate activities. Intercom installations
can require 25 -pair cable wired throughout, and once installed, it is difficult to
change.
Then there is the problem of interfacing, cameras, IFBs, 2-way radios and telephone circuits often sounding like mush,
thanks to conversions from their 4-wire
audio circuitry to the standard 2-wire
Meet the hottest...
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Red hot performance
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The UCR190 narrow -band UHF receiver utilizes the
proven UNICHANNEL© design with helical resonator front-end filtering and narrow band crystal IF
filtering. An all new dual -band compandor provides
low distortion and a high signal to noise ratio. Aimed
at broadcast ENG applications, the UCR19O receiver
provides unmatched interference and IM rejection.
Belt-pack and plug-on transmitters are available in
both narrow -band and wide -band UHF versions. Audio
outputs are balanced XLR types with separate monitor
outputs. All housings and panels are made of machined
aluminum for a precise fit and lasting ruggedness.
Shock mounted crystals and surface mount components
withstand the toughest field use.
The 195 Series wide -band UHF system utilizes
±75KHz deviation for outstanding dynamic range and
signal to noise ratio. An exclusive dual -band
compandor and pulse counting detector proviae audio
quality well suited to the most demanding digital
recording techniques. The balanced audio output is
adjustable from mic level up to +8dBm studio levels.
Inside Lectrosonics
UHF products you
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RF engineering,
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This is the present
state of the art in
wireless systems.
More transmitter output power, plus higher receiver
sensitivity than any other brand we've tested, all adds
up to more operating range than you will probably
ever need.
We invite you to compare these systems with
any other wireless system, at any price.
Call for more information
800-821 -1121
and a free copy of the 50 page -Wireless Guide^
Distributed in Canada by MILLER CANADA
LECTROSONICS
581 Laser Rd., Rio Rancho, NM 87124 USA
Ph: (505) 892 -4501 FAX: (505) 892 -6243
Circle (25) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
intercom system. But because there was
no better solution, broadcasters put up
with these systems for decades.
Modern miracles
The advent of computer -controlled
switching matrices allowed broadcast
facilities to replace huge audio and video
patch panels with routing switchers.
These modern miracles permit any
source to be sent to any destination with
the push of a button or two.
It didn't take the intercom business long
to catch on, applying switching matrix
technology to broadcast communications systems. Matrix -based intercom
networks provide flexible, powerful voice
communications throughout facilities
and interface to the outside world. In
these systems individual intercom stations, telephone lines, talent IFBs and 2way radios, are connected to a computer-controlled central switching network
or matrix. Then, through software assignments, any one person can be connected
to any other person or group of people
with no patching or wiring required. (See
Figure 1.) Advanced systems seamlessly
integrate the matrix with party-line technology for the best of both worlds: pointto-point communications, as well as plugin party -line technology.
Manufacturers are making matrix intercom systems as small as 2x2 and as large
as 450x450. The needs of most facilities
can be met with a system less than
100x100. KABC -TV in Los Angeles, has
gone on-line with a new matrix -based
system after outgrowing its 15-year-old
party-line system. The system will allow
up to 100 ports, however, current needs
require only 72, leaving plenty of room
for expansion. Future plans call for inter-
facing the intercom with the station's
computerized automation system.
RI
Click
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Broadcast Engineering
Flexibility to bend over backward
Whether it's large or small, a matrix based system can be configured for almost any intercom application imaginable, and can be reconfigured instantly.
Stations can be programmed to communicate with each other as party-line or
point -to-point consoles. Different individuals can be grouped together for singlebutton communications, and clear LCD
or LED electronic labels over every key
let users know exactly who they can speak
with at any time.
For example, newscasts might come
from Studio A, except for the 5 p.m. show,
which is live from the newsroom. In the
afternoons, a studio talk show in Studio B
is taped, and on Saturday afternoons it's
a kiddy show. On Sunday mornings, the
public affairs show has different requirements, and don't forget annual elections,
parades and marathons. With a computer-controlled matrix intercom, system
configuration files are created with a PC,
stored to hard disk, and then loaded into
the intercom system as needed.
August 1994
Of course, not every situation is scheduled. Breaking news, sports and other
live events tax any intercom system, and
personnel who don't normally communicate may find a need to during a crisis.
With a matrix system, panels can be reprogrammed in seconds without interrupting ongoing operation, which is a
feature important to many news operations. With numerous crews in the field,
sometimes the director needs to cue one
group while the assistant director is
readying another.
With the intercom control panel at the
user's fingertips, the change to computer-based communications becomes immediately apparent. Electronic LCD or
LED labels located over each key are easy
to read and change instantly when the
panel is reconfigured. This simplifies operation because the intercom station
needs to be configured with only the
communications capabilities that the op-
The V4228 Digital Varicomb
Vistek Electronics is proud to announce the launch of the
V4228 Digital Varicomb Decoder.
COMPONENT
Designed to be the ultimate composite decoder
(OUT)
for the analogue and digital world the industry
standard Varicomb technology has been refined
and implemented digitally providing performance
that actually exceeds that of the existing Varicomb
product!
The propriety Varicomb algorithm
long been acknowledged as the mos
transparent process for transferring
from the composite to component
domain for real pictures, eliminating
the artifacts of cross colour and cross
luminance without sacrificing
resolution. Add to this the accuracy and stabili
of digital technology and the optional adaption to
a
frame comb for perfect decoding of still pictures,
whilst maintaining all the conventional Varicomb
benefits when there
is
motion and you have the
best decoder available.
Digital
Vancomb Decoder V4228
The
SERIAL DIGITAL
1
flexibility of configuration allows the
tailoring of analogue and digital interfaces
to suit the requirements of any installation
with the easy addition of interfaces
ANALOGUE
as needs
change. PAL or NTSC, analogue or digital,
two dimensional or three dimensional
PARALLEL DIGITAL
COMPOSITE
adaption the V4228
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contact: Preferred Video Products, 4405 Riverside Drive, Burbank,
(
+44) 0628 530980
CA 91505 Tel. (818) 562 6544 Fax. (818) 562 3342
DIRECTOR
CHANNEL
erator needs. Extra or confusing key labels are a thing
of the past.
Some systems offer master panels that allow sophis-
I
r!1
GRAPHICS
ticated users to make a myriad of routing changes
through a keypad and an extended display screen.
With these powerful panels an operator can instantly
route different 1FB sources to talent receivers or connect the director to a camera operator on the roof
shooting an incoming storm.
Telephone interfaces are built into many matrix based intercom systems. For outward access, a builtin speed dialer can automatically dial and connect
users to remote locations. And with direct inward
access, outside crews can dial in and use their touch tone keypad to connect to any station, group or IFB
circuit in the system.
CG
STILL STORE
CHANNEL 2
ENG.
RADIOS
cool
l
l
aoo
GRAPHICS
CHANNEL
r
s
3
coo
Iaael am I ace
Q
CAMERA INTERFACE
VIDEO
-
FLOOR
DIRECTOR
CHANNEL 4
MASTER
CONTROL
AUDIO
t
A tangled web we no longer weave
The extensive wiring and thick cables necessary for
multichannel party -line intercoms are a thing of the
past with modern matrix systems. Stations are wired
back to the central computer frame with three pair of
wires
two pair for audio and one for RS-422 data.
Some systems make it even easier, whereby digitizing
the audio and the data stations can be wired back to
the central matrix using only a single twisted pair or
piece of coax. This is especially useful for long runs.
Some digital station interfaces have been successfully
tested with runs of up to four miles. For example, in
Atlanta last January, a system was used to coordinate
PROMPTER
1. Simplified block diagram of a matrix-based system
and possible interface requirements.
Figure
Now you can get this kind of storag(
For years, VDR capacity has been more
akin to a broom closet. But that's about
to change. In a big way.
Introducing the HP 4:2:2 Video Disk
Recorder. It holds up to 12 minutes of
video. Now you can transfer an entire
46
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
1000 -foot roll of 35mm film. Or render
longer animations to disk. Without running short on capacity.
With the HP 4:2:2, you can cache larger
amounts of video when editing, layering or creating special effects. So you
the Super Bowl half time show. The
system hooked together a team of 76
technical specialists including lighting, sound and floor personnel.
Sometimes, direct wiring isn't possible, but with the latest matrix-based
systems, a full-function intercom station can be placed anywhere in the
world that has access to a standard
4-wire audio path and 4-wire RS-422
data path. Links to intercom stations
from a facility can be made via standard microwave, satellite, fiber optic
or over a T -1 multiplex circuit, giving
anyone anywhere full access to the
entire intercom matrix.
turer. Full-function intercom panels (and the required interfaces)
are less than $3,000 each. Compare that to 12-channel party-line
The main production control room at KING-TV, Seattle, with
newly installed intercom panels in the foreground.
Future shock
Many matrix systems incorporate GPI
relays to trigger external devices. There
are installations where intercom keys are
used to unlock the door to the control
room or light up an "Applause" sign. If
GPI -style control isn't enough, many matrix-type intercom systems are equipped
with serial ports so they are ready to join
the automation revolution. Currently, few
if any automation companies include
"hooks" to intercom systems, but it is
possible and markets and applications
are being investigated.
How would you automate an intercom
system? Weekend intercom setups could
load automatically after the Friday late
news. Loading the Emergency Broadcast
cart could open all relevant mikes for
instant communications or automatically dial up the transmitter site. Disabling
camera robotics could add paths from
the director to the camera operators
the possibilities are endless.
Talk is cheap
One of the most surprising things people encounter when learning about matrix -based systems is that they are affordable, especially when compared to multichannel party -line systems requiring several full- function master stations. The upfront expenditure of the matrix system's
central equipment can run from $4,000 to
$15,000 depending on size and manufac-
-
stations costing from $3,500 to
$7,000 each. With that in mind,
and remembering that wiring for
a matrix system is much cheaper
and less time consuming than
multichannel party-lines, it can
be seen that matrix becomes cost
effective once you go beyond an
8-station system.
Conclusion
Party-line-style intercoms have served
broadcasters for generations. But like
art cards. 3/4-inch videotape, and the BBC
Color Girl, engineers need to take a long,
hard look at their party-line systems to
see if they are doing what's needed. In
today's rapidly evolving world of broadcasting, the more comprehensive and
flexible the communications system, the
faster and easier the job can be accomplished. This, in turn, increases productivity and provides for better looking and
more profitable programming.
4
For more information on intercom
systems, circle (310) on Reply Card.
See also " Intercoms" on p. 55 of the
BE Buyers Guide.
space in a video disk recorder.
I1,
don't have to use VTRs as your source.
Which will save them a lot of wear and
tear. And save you a lot of money. Not
to mention hassles.
The HP 4:2:2 is compatible with standard videotape and disk recorder
protocols. And it's backed by HP's
proven customer support network.
Prices start as low as $38,500 for a
fully -loaded model with three minutes
of capacity. For a free brochure, call
1 -800- 452 -4844,
i
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1to.lrt i-l':trk:Lol
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The HP 4:2:2 Video Disk Recorder.
It's the next big thing in video.
(Forklift not included.)
There is a better way.
Ext. 8526.
HEWLETT'
PACKARD
Circle (34) on Reply Card
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
47
Knox
LiKE FORT
Wry AN ATM.
-a
Imagine a towering stack of cartridges, open reels and DAT tapes
vast
wealth of audio cuts-representing hours of costly, painstaking production.
Now imagine that treasury of sounds (like commercials, IDs, SFX,
and stingers) securely stored, intelligently organized and instantaneously
accessible. And all within the confines of one very impressive machine.
The digital audio hard disk recorder, DigiCart/ii.
Smart operating controls and
an easy -to -read display makes
scanning through DigiCart/li's
massive vault of storage a snap.
1.3431
BRK
With a simple spin of a knob or In the bank.
SHOW OPEN
03.27
DigiCarUds
internal hard
keystroke on a remote control,
can't be
for speed
you can call up any single cut, or beat
and convenChoose
even an entire playlist-instantly. ience.
between 2.4
hours of
While DigiCart/u plays a pre- or8
High-performance vehicle. D, iCarUnbolds 10.000
20kH: sterco
cut:.
recisebts or
4C-2
rand
selected Cu , its production-oriented storage.
praise
offers digrk¡l or analog U0. andjrrrtures
features
removable media for archiving. backups and transfers.
software allows you to program the next series
of cuts at the same time. All performed with reassuring reliability.
No dead air, no missed cues, no scrambling around.
CO101L
1
&Mee
rrllon;c
crltic.
It's easy to see why DigiCart/u
becoming the industry
standard for hard disk recording.
If you're searching for the best
place to bank your audio valuables, take a look -and listen
is fast
From
a
distance.
Ont remote
controls expand
and
`g;Cart/uwith
programmable
ts'
ore.
and loLc more.
-
to DigiCart/ii.
Call 360 Systems for a hands-
on demonstration in your studio.
818-991 -0360.
PROFESSIONAL DIGITAL AUDIO
360 Systems
1331 Slci
inlrr Ihht. \\e,tlakc \illa,;c.
t.
91361
1
"'.\
Circle (35) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
l'hnne (818) 991- 11361) Fax 1818) 991 -1360
Building serial
digital facilities
The question is, how much trouble
are we about to be in?
By John Luff
The emergence of sufficient
The Bottom Line
As analog facilities and
equipment age, the need to
upgrade increases. Remaining analog may not be wise
or even possible. Upgrading
to digital, however, means
an entirely new set of
problems to deal with. The
integration of digital into
analog facilities and the
continued use of analog
equipment in a digital facility
can be accomplished without
major problems as long as
careful planning is part of
the process.
serial digital equipment to credibly build facilities
has made many questions surrounding
the technology much more urgent. The
transition is much the same as the conversion from black-and -white television
to color; many techniques will be the
same conceptually, but the specifics will
be entirely new and considerably more
complex. The net result remains unchanged
an analog display of 525/625 line video
but the technology is new.
Old monitoring techniques will not work
and home -grown experience about what
works with analog signals must be replaced
by new knowledge that
will be as hard to learn
as we once thought
--
signs and installations of often untried
combinations of equipment.
The most robust part of the technology
is the SMPTE 259 standard. It defines a
flexible and reliable interconnection that
can carry four channels of audio with
component or composite video on one
coaxial interconnection using familiar
cable. It has built -in error detection capabilities and error detection and handling
(EDH) that allows each piece in the transmission chain to test the signal and pass
information on to the next link. SMPTE
259 is based on known digital transmis-
NTSC was.
Transitioning from
analog to digital
Most troublesome to
many is the route from
analog to serial digital.
Wholesale system replacement is expensive and, in many cases, not practical. Can
the best and most useful digital techniques
be implemented while
avoiding pitfalls? The
answer is yes and no.
No transition this profound can be as simple
as we would like. We
must re-train ourselves
while executing deLuff is president and owner of Syn-
ergistic Technologies. Pittsburgh,
PA.
of the newest facilities using serial digital technology is DirecTv,
located in Castle Rock, CO. Several interconnected routing matrices
provide serial digital signals throughout the facility. (Photo courtesy of
Sony System Integration.)
One
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering 49
The advantages of component digital technology are emend tu high-end suites. This technology
is shown here in a new suite at Horizons Video and Film, Columbus, OH.
hromatec
Monitor audio levels,
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SYSTEMS
P.O. Box 250334
West Bloomfield
MI 48325
Phone: (810) 524 -2100
FAX: (810) 932 -1991
sion techniques and benefits from significant knowledge about automatic equalization, signal reclocking and error propagation.
Some claims about conversion to serial
digital may be myths, but they can have
a big effect on decisions about implementing serial digital equipment.
Myth 1: All manufacturers' equipment is
entirely compatible because it conforms
to SMPTE 259. The truth is the standard
is more completely defined for composite digital than for component digital.
For instance, the techniques for inserting audio into component serial digital
are not fully approved by the SMPTE
standardization process, and any implementation runs the risk of incompatibilities. Also, there are still surprises about
the interweaving of AES /EBU audio into
the video due to fuzzy definitions in how
the differing data and framing rates correlate.
Myth 2: You can safely plan to use existing 7552 cabling and patching when converting an existing facility to a serial digital
environment. Few facilities have new
equipment that uses the same number of
connections in the same places in the
racks as a previous incarnation. Long
runs can be pulled back, but cable stretchers have not been invented. Patching can
be used provided it is truly 7552 impedance. Anything else may work for short
distances, but can be questionable.
Myth 3: Component digital is simpler;
timing is not critical. When all signals are
Circle (41) on Reply Card
50
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
component serial digital, the world
seems right. But when any composite
digital or composite analog is used, timing complexity increases. For instance,
some digital decoders have internal delays that effectively move the active video relative to vertical sync. Keep a couple of sync generators with line advance
and delay when cleaning up those last
few missed details.
Myth 4: Serial digital facilities cost less
than expected because only one level of
routing is needed. If you will never make a
switch without splitting audio and video,
you can buy this one without fear. But it's
seldom that simple. Techniques exist for
integrating "audio drop and add," which
allows audio from one video bitstream to
be shifted to another video bitstream.
Because it appears there could be negative factors along with the benefits, why
bother? One simple answer: economics.
It may be unfortunate, or just a natural
process, but consider the amount of new
equipment being designed for analog.
Only three professional videotape formats (Betacam SP, M -Il, 1 -inch type C)
using analog technology are in production. However, six videotape formats (D1, D-2, D-3, DCT, Digital Betacam, and D-5)
are in production that use digital recording and interfacing. Many other equipment categories are comparable.
If faced with a decision today, you may
choose analog equipment to replace older analog equipment. But equipment purchased this year will certainly still be on
the books when major manufacturers
VTRS
ANALOG
ROUTING
-
lANALOG
MASTER
CONTROL
SWR
r-
Figure I. Most facilities will have to transition by
sections into the all-digital world. Shown in A is a
typical facility with an analog master control
STL
ANALOG
XMITTER
NETWORK
SOURCES
GRAPHICS
switcher. A first step in the conversion process
would be to create a digital island by replacing the
analog switcher with a digital switcher, as in B.
cease production of analog equipment for
01
broadcast and high -end production.
Looked at another way, will you be able to
purchase additional equipment three years
from now to interface with this year's analog purchase? It's hard to say yes, given the
current rate of change.
It has been stated that digital is just too
expensive. Analyses performed for production clients have
yielded only a 10%
to 15% premium for
comparable digital
DIGITAL
systems. At the high
DIGITAL
STL
MASTER
end, digital equipCONTROL
ment has taken over
SWR
XMITTER
and provides benefits simply not available in analog sysDIGITAL ISLAND
tems at any price.
ANALOG
PROD
SWR
CAMERAS
N
ANALOG
ROUTING
NETWORK
SOURCES
p
I
I
GRAPHICS
ANALOG
PROD
SWR
1
Sedal benefits
Some benefits of
fully serial digital
system are worth
enumerating:
a
CAMERAS
=
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Send for
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Circle (42)on Reply Card -Send Information
Circle (60) on Reply Card Please Call
-
August 1994
Broadcast Engineering
51
VTRS
DIGITAL
ROUTING
-
AN
DIGITAL
XMITTER
DIGITAL
MASTER
CONTROL
SWR
AN
ENCODER
NETWORK
SOURCES
Getting from
here to there
The crux of the
matter is the transition from a familiar analog facility to an unfamiliar serial digital facility. Two
approaches seem
evident: evolution and revolu-
GRAPHICS
DIGITAL
PROD
SWR
tion. By replacing
portions of a sysCAMERAS
tem in blocks, a
facility can evolve
into a largely digFigure 2. The na transition process in converting the roaster control area to digital operation requires the replacement of
ital facility withDigital
Distribution
Amplifier.)
the muting and production switchers with digital equivalents. (DDA=
out wholesale replacement at huge economic and operational cost. You might
1. Simplified interconnections may be possible if embedded
revamp an edit suite and choose to make it internally serial
audio fits your needs.
digital, or replace a master control switcher and the link to the
2. Lower total power consumption (though higher power contransmitter site with a new digital design. (See Figure 1.) These
sumption per cubic foot of space).
islands internally have all the benefits of the new technology,
3. Less drift because digital equipment requires far fewer adjustbut come with a cost to interface to the existing analog world
ments.
on the outside. As the islands grow and become more numer4. In many cases, upgrades can be done with software.
ous, these same interfaces can be moved from the I/O of one
5. Most digital equipment has built -in diagnostics that simplify
island to a later conversion target, saving some capital cost.
maintenance. However, many boards can no longer be repaired
Personnel can get familiar with the new technology in isolated
without sophisticated instruments and training. The construcislands without the risk to the total operation that a wholesale
tion of some units makes field repairs nearly impossible.
conversion would pose. Maintenance schooling is a must, and
6. Timing is greatly simplified with most serial digital systems.
new test equipment will be necessary. SMPTE, NAB, and SBE
Cable lengths can almost be ignored. The through delays of
conferences are a good place to get a firm grounding in the
individual processing units, however, must he carefully conissues the staff must cope with. The increased emphasis on
sidered in the system design process.
professional training at the combined SMPTE /SBE/RTNDA
conferences will also be helpful.
Revolution is far more difficult, and today will have a higher
price than analog systems. Recorders and monitoring systems are more expensive and training must be aggressively
looked at before total conversion is considered. In an existing
facility, the transition to a new system means space must be
made available for the chess game of moving and replacing
systems. In this technique, a piece of the new system is
constructed on vacant floor space. When it is ready, it is cut
over into the existing system, leaving an orphan that can be
removed to make room for the next piece. Although this
approach is not simple, it is a proven technique. Making the
subsystems digital means that for the duration of the transition much interface equipment is needed. And for a time,
some of the flexibility of the old analog facility must be given
up in favor of purchasing fewer A/D and D/A interfaces. In the
end, the completed serial digital system can be more functionTars exactly what
al than the old NTSC facility, but the transition period will
you can do because our Audio DA
require patience and cooperation from all concerned.
systems work - day in and day out.
If the luxury, or fortunate mistake, of a new facility is availthey work so well we guarantee them for five years.
able, the transition is much easier. In the purest example, you
simply build the new facility across the street, and when
CH -20C Rack frame with dual power supply and
finished, go to work in a shiny new world. But it is highly
auto change over holds six transformer DA's.
unlikely that you can abandon the analog world completely.
After all, the commercials and promos you get from the
CH -27 Rack frame with redundant power holds 10
outside world and existing library material are still likely to be
=
DIGITAL
ELEMENTS
f
stereo DA's, each DA can be strapped as a 2 X 6 or
a
X 12, a 13th summed output available for IFB feeds.
FREE
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1033 N Sycamore Ay LOS ANGELES CA. 90038
Circle (44) on Reply Card
Circle (43) on Reply Card
52
44pg Catalog
g
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
on analog tape. The accountant will push
to have as much of the old equipment
incorporated as possible. In the end, the
day will dawn when the entire staff carries equipment across the street and bolts
it into the racks. Hopefully, the equipment that moves will be a small portion
of the final facility, but be prepared for
the lingering footprint of NTSC for a long
time.
Component or composite?
A serious concern is whether to choose
component or composite digital. Although the answer may become clear
quickly, it has cost implications and
changes the complexity of interfacing
issues when combining serial digital into
an existing facility.
Serial composite digital is cheaper than
serial component digital. But it is fundamentally NTSC- (or PAL-) coded for more
robust transmission. All the old concerns
for keeping SC /H phase consistent
through multiple generations of reduced
resolution composite systems still exist.
It is easy to convert from composite digital to NTSC and back with little loss and
at affordable costs. Finally, composite
coding yields data rates only half that of
component coding (143Mb /s for NTSC
and 177Mb/s for PAL vs. 270Mb /s for 10bit component digital and 360Mb/s,
18MHz sampling needed to keep resolution constant with 16:9 aspect ratio).
Serial component digital has all the
benefits of analog component technology. It has immunity to the cross color,'
cross luminance artifacts of NTSC/PAL.
better apparent chroma signal to noise
performance when converted to analog.
higher intrinsic resolution of color and
luminance channels, and better multi generational performance. Component
analog edit suites are popular because
they have fewer ways for most operational misadjustments to leave a picture unacceptable. Component serial digital has
the same benefits with superior performance.
Another huge change lies ahead making component techniques far more important. The interplay between conventional video and computers and the looming transition to ATV must also be considered. ATV formats are inherently component with no composite techniques at
any point in the transmission chain. Production techniques should, as my university physics professors used to say.
"follow by symmetry arguments." Computers are also inherently component.
Workstations and PC -based systems all
are available with component digital and
analog interfaces. They all require external devices to interface to composite systems of any type.
You can argue the likelihood of ATV
being implemented in anything like the
form under consideration. But all of the
closed -loop compressed video systems
under trial or in design use component
techniques as well. It seems highly probable that all future systems will converge
toward component digital. The CCIR -601based serial digital systems have coding
specifically for 525/625 -line inputs, but it
seems possible to create extensions to
the current standards to include variants
not yet planned, at bit rates perhaps far
lower. If such extensions can be created,
there will be few portions of the media
world whose equipment cannot be con-
nected using a single ubiquitous interface. Take this as either a plea to the
manufacturers, or at least a fervent wish
of one system designer for action by the
industry to satisfy a growing need.
Serial is here. It works. It is complex,
and its concepts are challenging. It will
be critical for all video and broadcast
technical personnel to understand techniques for implementation, testing, and
use of serial digital signals. It is a fundamental shift away from our knowledge
base, but one which holds great promise
for our collective futures.
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Circle (45) on Reply Card
August 1994
Broadcast Engineering
53
Audio distribution
Digital audio distribution is far more complex
than its analog equivalent.
By David Bytheway
It is often said that digital audio solves a
The Bottom Line
An all -digital signal
distribution system may not
improve a facility's overall
audio quality. In fact, if done
incorrectly, it can actually
degrade performance. Better
signal-to-noise ratios, headroom, bandwidth, and even
lower distortion may still be
achieved with analog
distribution methods.
Because digital audio is
clearly advantageous for
storage and long-distance
transmission, however, it
makes sense to include
proper digital pathways
among a facility's interconnection systems. The key to
success lies in careful
implementation.
lot of problems. Although this may be
true in theory, when it comes to a teleproduction or broadcast facility, a lot of baggage comes along with digital audio,
making operations significantly more
complex than with analog techniques.
Because AES/EBU digital audio is a sampled and quantized signal with a serialized bitstream, frames and subframes, it
must be handled like video. Devices, such
as sync generators, auto-framers, sample rate converters, and methods like
impedance matching, cable equalization
and reclocking are required. Much of this
is foreign to many audio engineers, even
those that have been working with digital
recording for years. The following are
some observations on the transition from
analog to digital audio distribution.
A -to-D and D-to-A conversions
Make as few analog -to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions as possible. Significant degradations can occur in the
conversion process. Select the best A-toD converters possible because they will
ultimately control signal quality. Monitoring stations and other non -critical locations can use inexpensive D-to-A converters, but for the main program signal
path, only top -quality converters should
be used. Look for such features as AES
cable equalization, secondary phaselock-loops (PLLs) to reduce jitter, and full
compatibility with all AES /EBU modes
(sample rates, pre-emphasis, etc.).
The AES /EBU standard supports up to
20 bits of resolution in standard mode,
Bytheway is a principal engineer at Broadcast Television Systems (BTS) in Salt Lake City. Respond via the BE FAXback line
at913- 967 -1905.
54
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
and up to 24 bits in extended mode. True
20 -bit resolution is necessary to equal
the performance of analog distribution
equipment. Converters with real 20-bit
performance (in terms of actual measured
distortion and noise specs) are not yet
widely available, but they will be soon.
Digital audio synchronization
fullysynchronous digital audio distribution
system. Eliminating the small disturbance
caused by a damaged sample due to a
switch is not always worth the effort required to synchronize and time all sources or the switch point. Even when all
sources are synchronized, and switches
made on frame boundaries, there may
still be audible effects. For example, if the
outgoing sample is positive and the incoming sample is negative, a large signal
transient will be generated that will sound
like a click or pop.
It is not always necessary to run a
It is not always
necessary to run a
fully synchronous
digital audio
distribution system.
In analog switchers, the turn-on and
turn-off times are relatively slow and produce a sort of fade -down, fade-up effect
that is "soft" sounding. Experience shows
that synchronized and timed digital audio switches sound quiet only when the
switch is done during silence or soft portions of the signal between programs.
There is no simple way to avoid this
Take the same talented
roup
of engineers who crea
he
r
T
H
E
G
R
O
P
U
very origins of digital audio
The operating platform
rt.....
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switching noise. Some systems use a crossfade via
digital signal processing
(DSP) to achieve a quiet
switch.
Broadcast systems have
also incorporated sample
rate converters (SRCs) so
that sources with widely
different sample rates can
still be delivered on-air.
Sample rate conversion
Sample-rate conversion
is not always a cure-all.
Some advocate the use of
sample-rate converters to
solve certain synchronization problems. In fact,
sample-rate conversion of
asynchronous sources is
quite likely to cause signal- degrading artifacts.
Sampling rate conversion
should be minimized.
Sample rate converters
ANALOG
ANALOG
SWITCHER
DIGITAL
DIGITAL
DESTINATIONS
C IGITAL
SWITCHER
SOURCES
DESTINATIONS
Figure 1. Block diagram of a path-finding system allowing user-transparent
interfacing of digital and analog sources and destinations.
work best when the incoming and outgoing
sample rates are
locked together by
some integer ratio.
Higher distortion results when the two
rates are close to the
same frequency but
not locked. This is what
happens when sample
rate converters are
used for synchronization.
Even though it seems
heretical, the use of
high-quality D-to-A and
A -to-D converters connected back -to -back
may be the simplest
way to solve some sample -rate or sync problems. This method has
proven equal to the
performance of digital
sample rate converters
Make as few analog-to- digital and digital-to- analog conversions as possible.
Universal Audio/Video Sync Generation
r
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RS -422 Control Data R Dador
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DEFINING THE CREATIVE EDGE
OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
Circle (47) on Reply Card
56
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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An advantage of newer switcher control systems is the
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Some control systems can automatically route signals
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Equalization and AES/EBU digital audio signals
Experience has proven that distributing AES/EBU signals
on twisted pair cable without some form of equalization
may be impractical in many facilities. The signal losses in
standard audio cable are simply too high. Newer, low-loss
cables are now available that help with the problem, but
for long runs, equalization is still required. (A new 75f1 coax
standard for AES /EBU audio is under development in a
joint subcommittee of SMPTE and AES. The lower loss of
coax will allow much longer lengths before equalization is
needed.)
Standard twisted pair cable can be used for only 150 feet
or so for AES /EBU audio. With low -loss, data-type cable,
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Standard twisted pair cable can
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58
Broadcast Engineering
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Re: Radio
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Tubes in review
ppppp
By
John Battison, P.E.
Few modern radio transmitters have
more than one tube stage (if any) in their
design. If there is a tube, it is always in the
final output stage, and therefore, is part
of the critical last link between a station
and its listeners. Just as some older engineers had difficulty coping with transistors, so do many younger ones find tubes
a little daunting.
For example, on a recent station visit I
encountered a contract engineer who had
the final tube running half a volt higher
than specified because he was "burning
it in." Although opinions differ concerning the proper treatment of tubes, I'd
never heard anyone recommend running
0.5V above the rating when new for burnin purposes. Perhaps a brief recap of
tube theory and operation is in order.
Although tubes rely on
heat for their
operation, too much
heat will shorten tube
life.
Tube theory
Tubes require a source of electrons to
operate. This source is a heated element.
The element can be a direct part of the
electron stream (as in a final power tube),
or an indirectly heated part (as in a tube
used in a receiver). Transmitting tubes
are always of the directly heated cathode
or filament type.
The size of the filament is determined
by the power that the tube has to handle.
For example, a popular type 811 tube
requires 6.3V at 4A. A 4X500A, the type
often used in the finals of small AM transmitters requires 10V at 10.2A. A type 5681
requires 12V at 220A! In order to provide
the necessary volume of electrons to carry the power required, the filament has
to be large and mechanically strong.
-
-
Batt son. BE'sconsultant on antennas and radiation. owns J ohn H.
Balhson and Associates. a consulting engineering company in
Loudonville. near Columbus. OH. Respond via the BEFAXback
line at 913 -967 -1905.
i
60
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
Such high filament currents immediate-
possible trouble sources, and an obvious one is filament contacts. In the case of larger transmitting
tubes, connection is often by means of
heavy, braided leads clamped to the power source. For tubes like the 4X250 and
the 4X500A, pins on the base are used for
plug-in connection. With many amps flowing, a dirty or poor filament connection
can easily burn up a socket.
Paradoxically, heat is also one of the
tube's greatest enemies. Although tubes
rely on heat for their operation, too much
heat will shorten tube life.
ly bring to mind
Filament design
A tube's filament design varies depending on the age of the tube, the power and
the tube designer's own influence. Many
tubes today use a hairpin style of filament. In this design, a ring of parallel
filament wires in the shape of hairpins is
built into a cylindrical shape. Springs
compensate for heat expansion, and filament warm -up is not essential, although
tuning can drift slightly during warm -up.
Older tubes usually have spiral -wound
filaments, which can sag as they age and
short out adjacent turns. There are also
even older filaments using parallel wires
running vertically.
Mesh filaments, like their name, consist
of a cylinder of fine wire mesh with a
center support that carries current to a
top plate to which the mesh is welded.
Current then flows down through the
mesh and heats it as it flows. As the
filament heats up, it tends to expand and
change shape. In fact, filament -to -grid
shorts can often occur, which occasionally clear themselves on cooling and
prove hard to locate when the transmitter is off.
As we all know, vacuum tube principles
were first discovered when early lightbulbs experienced a darkening of their
glass envelopes. This led to the discovery that the hot filament emitted something. From this came the diode tube
with a filament and a plate that allowed
current to flow between the filament and
plate when hot.
Simple hot wires proved to have inadequate electron emission, and as tubes
developed, the rare metal thorium was
added to the tungsten filaments. Today, a
specific amount of carbon is burned into
the thoriated filament as it is manufactured. This is called carburizing.
During operation, carbon level in the
filament decreases and emission becomes too low to maintain power output.
This is known as decarburizing and is
directly connected with the filament temperature the higher the operating temperature, the shorter the tube life.
-
Gassing
tube operates, a second problem
arises. The residual gases also react with
the heated filament and speed up the
decarburizing process. Most tubes consmall metal plate that is
tain a getter
heated during manufacture to absorb or
burn out any excess residual gases. In
earlier days, tubes tended to become
gassy over time, even when not in use.
(This was indicated by a blue glow that
danced with modulation.)
Most modern tubes made with ceramic
and metallic envelopes can be stored
without encountering such gas problems.
Otherwise, it would be hard to maintain
an adequately fresh spare tube stock.
Veteran engineers will remember the need
to rotate tubes to prevent "shelf gassing."
The constant in and out maneuvers that
this process required often damaged the
sockets, fingers or pins of the tubes, thereby defeating the purpose of extending
tube usefulness.
If you have a transmitter that uses older-style tubes with glass envelopes, it is
best to store them in air /moisture-tight
bags to prevent rusting of the Kovar met al-to-glass seal. This Kovar also has a
tendency to introduce gas into the tube.
Notwithstanding the problems just mentioned, such tubes should be placed in
service every year or so.
Be careful not to overvolt a tube
unless it is old and worn out and the only
way to maintain licensed power is by
burning up its filament while waiting for
a replacement to arrive!
As a
-a
-
Transmission Technology
Tower maintenance
By J. Cabot Goudy
Protecting structural steel from environmentally induced corrosion is a controversial topic, complicated by numerous products and treatments as well as
their application. Most broadcast towers
are protected using one of the following
systems: painting, hot dip galvanizing,
zinc spraying or some combination of
these. Paint as the sole means of protection is considered the least effective. It
relies upon the paint forming a protective barrier and sealing the steel from
moisture and other corrosive agents.
When the paint is chipped or scratched,
the steel begins to corrode. Some paints
contain zinc, which affords some additional cathodic protection, however, few
structures built after 1960 use paint only.
Virtually all contemporary broadcast
structures employ hot dip galvanizing,
zinc spraying or a combination of one of
these plus paint to protect the steel. Hot
dip galvanizing is the most widely used
method. It is the process of thoroughly
cleaning the steel and then dipping it
into an 850 °F molten zinc bath. Upon
removal, the remaining zinc forms a thick,
tough, abrasion -resistant coating. This
coating covers the entire unit and is metallurgically bonded to it.
The galvanized coating protects the
base metal in three ways. First, it acts as
an effective barrier against the penetration of water, salts and other corrosive
agents. Second, the zinc sacrificially dissolves to provide cathodic protection to
any exposed steel. Third, over a period of
time, the zinc layer forms a film of zinc
carbonate that seals over any voids or
small damaged areas in the zinc coating.
It is the cathodic protection that primarily differentiates this coating system from
the paintonlysystem. When painted steel
is exposed, rust forms at the steel/paint
interface. The rust occupies a volume
several times that of the base steel and
the resulting expansion leads to failure of
Goudy is a professional engineer in Great Falls, VA.
the paint /steel bond. In addition, the rust
is porous and attracts moisture and other reactants, which in turn create additional rust and lead to further failure of
the paint system. (See Figure la.) Figure
1(b) illustrates a break in a hot dip galvaDAMAGE
'151)(A
rf/IVA
PAINT COATING
ZINC COATING
(a)
(b)
The steel rusts
where the paint film
has been damaged.
Rust creeps under
the paint film which
is lifted up from the
steel surface.
Corrosion
continues until the
damage has been
repaired.
A galvanic cell is
formed. The zinc
around the point of
damage corrodes.
Corrosion products
precipitate on the
steel surface and
protect it. The steel
is also protected
because it is
cathodic in realation
to the zinc coating.
Figure
1. Cross - section showing the effect of
surface damage on different rust-preventive
coatings.
nized coating. Here the zinc provides
cathodic protection to the steel because
the zinc is more anodic than the steel.
Small scratches and cut edges do not
rust because of the sacrificial nature of
the zinc. An important feature of the hot
dip galvanized coating is the bond to the
base metal that ensures corrosion will
not occur between the zinc and the base
metal. Zinc is deposited on the base steel
and forms several layers, ranging from
100% zinc at the surface, changing through
various layers of iron /zinc alloy, to 100%
steel at the base.
A third method of protection is a process called zinc thermal spraying or llame
spraying. The zinc is applied by spraying
a stream of molten zinc onto the base
metal. The coating is mechanically bonded to the steel, but no iron/zinc alloy
layers are formed. The adhesion is quite
good if the base metal is properly prepared. The resultant coating is slightly
porous compared to the hot dip galvanized coating. The zinc, however, affords
the same "cathodic" protection and over
time zinc corrosion products will form
and act to seal the porous surface. The
surface is also slightly rough and makes
an excellent base for a top coat of paint.
The final method of protection is sometimes called a "duplex system," or the
application of paint over hot dip galvanized or flame- sprayed steel. Applying
paint over hot dip galvanized steel can be
troublesome and frequently results in
failure. Although, with proper surface
preparations, hot dip galvanized steel
can be successfully painted.
The zinc coating applied to hot dip
galvanized steel undergoes certain evolutionary transformations that begin immediately upon removal from the molten
zinc bath. First, the outer layer (100%
zinc) begins to oxidize. The early stages
of this oxidation will not lead to adhesion
problems for some paints if applied within 48 hours. Beyond 48 hours, however,
zinc oxides, zinc hydroxides and other
various contaminants on the surface prevent proper paint adhesion. This condition can be present between 48 hours
and two years after galvanizing.
The final stage of evolution in the galvanized coating occurs between eight
months to two years after galvanizing,
when the final film of zinc carbonates
form on the surface. They are essentially
inert and tightly adhered to the surface.
Painting after the stable zinc carbonates
are present can be done with little or no
surface preparation.
Unfortunately, most hot dip galvanized
August 1994 Broadcast Engineering 61
It's Basic
When it's air time, and you
have to worry about; a fast paced camera sequence,
unpredictable sequence timing,
audience reaction, VTR cuts and
commercial breaks clean,
COME AGAIN!"-
Say?"
-
clear, efficient communication
shouldn't be among your concerns.
steel towers if they are going to be shop
painted, are painted when the films of
zinc oxides and hydroxides are present.
Proper surface preparation is critical and
can be achieved by lightly sandblasting
the material to roughen the surface and
remove the contaminated films. Sandblasting is costly and requires a skilled operator being careful not to remove too much
zinc. Another alternative is a high-
pressure washing followed by a
metal conditioner or "wash primer."
80
70
60
Life expectancy
of galvanized coatings
The ASTM A123 standard covers
hot dip galvanizing of structural
50
40
30
servative value.
Many non -painted hot dipped galvanized broadcast towers have been reported to be rusting after only a few years
paint.
in service. In most cases the so-called
The most significant advantage of the
rust is a yellow to orange-red discoloraeffect
of
synergistic
duplex system is the
paint over a galvanized coating. The com- tion and is not rusting of the base metal.
This phenomenon is called alloy layer
bined effect adds a 50% life span extenstaining. In some cases the outer layer of
of
the
protecsion to the simple addition
pure zinc is expended quickly, thereby exposing the iron /zinc alloy layer.
RURAL
As the iron in the alloy layer is liberated and forms rust, the characteristic
TROPICAL
MARINE
discoloration is evidenced. It should
TEMP
MARINE
be noted that a significant amount of
SUBURBAN
galvanic protection remains after the
MOD.
first appearance of this discoloration.
INDUSTRIAL
For this reason, and because the surface
is considered porous, most zinc spraying
applications also receive a top coat of
.,.,N.
-..,,W.,,
Ad
"
111011%iiiSE
INI/iiíNIBILS
.M!'
Remedial treatments for
steels and requires an average min- 20
INDUSTRIAL.
in-service structures
durimum thickness of zinc applied
10
Corrosion protection for an in -sering the process. The average minivice structure relies upon the quality
mum is between 2 and 2.3 oz. /sq.
2 5 2.75
3 0
1.75
2
0
2.25
1.0
1.25
1.50
and integrity of the originally applied
.25
.50
.75
feet of zinc or approximately 3.4 to
OZ.OF ZINC/SO.FT OF SURFACE
system. Once it begins to fail it must
has
Research
mils
thickness.
3.9
2.8 3.0
3.4 3.8 4.2 4.7 5.1
.4
.8 1.3 1.7 2
be corrected or enhanced by a field shown the life expectancy of the
THICKNESS OF ZINC IN MILS
installed paint application, which falls
coating is a function of the thickinto three basic categories.
vs.
the
zinc
coatings
life
of
protective
2.
Service
structure's
Figure
ness applied and the
The first protection system disenvironmental exposure. (See Fig- thickness and type of atmosphere.
was that of paint applied dicussed
ure 2.) Similar results would be exAlthough rarely used on
steel.
rectly
to
sepzinc
and
paint
by
the
provided
tion
a
therpected from zinc applied through
contemporary structures, many older
arately. In other words, if a coating has a
mal spraying process if the two applicastructures still exist with paint alone prolife expectancy of 20 years and paint has
tions were compared on an equal thickviding corrosion protection. The most
can
be
system
duplex
then
the
is
10
years,
ness basis. In practice, zinc spraying
important maintenance factor is routine
research
45
years.
Some
to
last
expected
and
similar
in
corners
to
apply
difficult
indicates that the 50% increase is a con- inspection and correction of paint failure
areas, making the thickness non -uniform.
1
62
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
HEAVY
and rusting. Rusted areas should be
towers are located in urban enviscraped clean to bare metal, painted
ronments, requiring complete rewith an organic zinc-rich primer and
covery of the abrasive particles.
top coated.
Power tool scraping or waterblastThe second category is the non ing may be required as alternates.
painted hot dip galvanized struc2. There is limited control of the enviture. Because of alloy layer staining,
ronment, inparticular, humidity. Many
many towers have been painted prepaints are not recommended to
maturely. Once painting is decided
be applied in high humidity. This
upon, the weathered galvanized
can become a serious considersteel provides an excellent, stable
ation in locations such as Jackbase for the paint. The surface
sonville, Florida.
should be thoroughly rinsed with a
3. Two-part epoxy paints or "hot"
high-pressure water blast, primed
paints have a limited pot life.These
and top coated. Some paint manupaints perform well in laboratory
facturers recommend the applicatests and when properly applied
tion of an inorganic zinc primer to Removing rust to bare metal on a broadcast tower requires an under controlled shop conditions.
severely weathered galvanized steel. application ota zinc-rich primer. (Photo courtesy of Broadcast However, their use in the field is
However, many experts feel most Communications, New Glarus, WI.)
complicated by their limited pot
quality paint, properly applied, will
life and temperature sensitivity.
adhere well and provide the necessary this nature requires extensive surface 4. The quality of water-based acrylic paints
protection assuming there is still some preparation to remove all loose paint has improved. They are durable, easy to
zinc remaining to provide cathodic pro- using either water or sandblasting. Se- handle and easy to apply.
tection to the base steel. Severely rusted verely rusted areas require heavy scrapareas must be cleaned to bare metal and ing to bare metal and priming with zinc Conclusion
primed with a zinc -rich paint.
rich paint.
This is a guide to some of the problems
Maintenance of the third category, paint
and solutions associated with controlover galvanizing, can range from minimal
The real world
ling corrosion on broadcast towers. If the
to extensive. As a minimum, touch -up
Finally, corrosion protection mainte- problems are ignored, the consequences
paint will be required after erection. If the nance for in-service structures needs to can be extremely costly. If the solutions
tower is not strobe lighted, a color coat- be discussed. Recommendations must are misdirected or misapplied, the coning must be applied on a routine basis to consider the realities and difficulties of sequences can be even more costly. Caremeet FAA requirements. The most com- working on a 2,000-foot tower. Following ful consideration of these issues will help
mon failure of the paint over galvanizing are some considerations:
ensure a long tower life.
system is a lack of adhesion. A failure of I .Sandblasting may not be an option. Many
t`
t shot!
"Nice move.
Quality Production
Quality Intercom...
No Coincidence!
Anyone who's been on the working side of a hectic control
room knows that the relationship between communication and
a successful production is basic. So, as production demands
increase, make sure your most basic piece of equipment, the
intercom, is the one that broadcasters the world over rank best
an RTS Intercom System!
-
Check out the new modular series, it has all the quality and
reliability that RTS is famous for, with system costs that fit just
about any budget. And as always, you'll benefit from the same
knowledgeable customer support on which the industry has
come to rely. In New York, call (201) 891 -6002; in the Midwest:
(313) 360 -0430; in Burbank, CA: (818) 566 -6700.
When
Shown here, the MCE 325 User Station with MCS 325
Speaker Station in various modular combinations.
Shown above, Model 802 Master Station.
it comes to communication, let's get down to basics.
Circle (40) on Reply Card
August 1994 Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
63
SBE Update
industry relations
SBE
By Terry Baun
"!n the terminal years of this century, broadcasting will face a host of
dramatic changes; ourability to meet
and manage them will largely determine broadcasting's character and
may mark its survival."
-
Joseph Flaherty,
Senior VP/technology
CBS/Broadcast Group
Preparing our membership to meet the
challenges of emerging communications
technologies is the SBE's most vital goal.
It's a challenge that's renewed with every
announcement of progress on construction of the information superhighway.
If broadcast engineers are to survive as
vital and active contributors to the technology stream of the 21st century, it is
important that the SBE grow.
Because of the efforts of past president
Richard Farquhar and the International
Committee, SBE boasts active relationships with parallel broadcast organizations on several continents.
But just as the society reaches out to
fellow broadcast engineers around the
world, the SBE must also begin to relate
in a fraternal way to organizations in this
country who operate on parallel technical tracks. Visitors to a major technical
gathering, such as the NAB or World Media Expo quickly see distinctions blurring among audio, video, broadcast, cable and satellite. It seems evident that we
are all moving down the highway toward
a PC- integrated digital universe. The idea
of an integrated exposition such as this
fall's World Media Expo, which involves
SBE, NAB, RTNDA and SMPTE, would have
been unthinkable 10 years ago; the fact
that it is a reality in 1994 is a tribute to the
vision of all four organizations.
The bottom line is this: SBE is committed to maintaining the art and science of
broadcast engineering as a vital contributor to the forthcoming information age.
As the first step in that effort, the SBE is
inviting the leaders of allied technical
societies to be special guests at the annuBaun is vice president of the SBE, and chairman of the SBE
Industry RelationsCommidee.
64
al convention at World Media Expo each
year. The SBE wants our technical brethren to see what it is that makes the SBE
distinctive and vital to the communications industry, and to have the opportunity to meet with our officers and board
in an informal and relaxed setting. The
-
knows how much its membership
and it isn't shy about it.
The first group of industry associations
to receive formal invitations to the fall
convention will include a senior representative from the Audio Engineering
Society, Society of Cable Television Engineers, The Association of FCC Consulting
Engineers, and the Society of Satellite
Professionals. It is the SBE's hope to develop a program to introduce these seSBE
has to offer
SBE
monweal of broadcasting.
In addition to working with other technical societies, the SBE seeks to develop
training and educational programs involving technologies that are vital to the future of our industry.
High on that list is the development of a
certification endorsement emphasizing
PC networks, local and wide -area. Just as
broadcast management currently expects
our membership to be comfortable with
managing voice telephone systems, PC
network management is a certain next
step. A program that certifies that our
members are comfortable with this new
technology will be vital for continued
professional growth in not only today's
job market, but tomorrow's opportunities.
Engineering WORLD
Conference MEDIA
EXPO
nior representatives to the SBE officers
and board in Los Angeles and let them
see what SBE is all about.
The SBE must expand its thinking about
how we relate to our fellow engineers
and technicians in telecommunications.
It must begin to form strategic alliances
to ensure the continuation of our identity
broadcast engineering professionals
while acknowledging the expanding role
of media engineering and our rightful
place within it.
Those of you who attended the 1994
NAB Convention may have noticed a rather subtle, but significant, change in the
badges this year. Instead of badges
marked Radio Management, TV Management or Engineering, 1994 NAB conventioneers all wore badges that were the
same color and bore the same marking:
NAB '94. This allowed admission to any
of the three convention programs, but
more importantly, reflected a new and
more realistic view of radio/TV managers and engineers as partners in the comas
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Digital data communications and satellite systems are other specialized skills
that will be investigated for possible certification endorsements. Undoubtedly
other areas of interest will be forthcoming. We know it is vital that SBE members
have access to the latest in telecommunications training, but we depend upon the
membership to let the society know what
new skills are required.
Just as SBE challenges members to expand their thinking of what their job description is, the SBE too must examine its
relationship to other engineering and
technical societies.
As Joseph Flaherty points out, our survival as an industry is at stake. We can
stand by and watch the information superhighway being built, or we can grab
the tools and help make it happen. What
is absolutely certain is that we will be
working alongside fellow engineers who
can benefit from the expertise our broadcast training can provide.
New Products
Real-time disk array
control panel; supplied with an internal
power supply; second backup power supply can be connected to external, rearmounted connector.
By Ciprico
Circle (352) on Reply Card
Hand-held multimeters
Ceramic sleeve
By Hewlett Packard
6r 01
10x10mm for the surrounding black bezel; color choices are blue, green, yellow, amber and red with bi- colors available as specials; light intensity varies
depending on color.
Circle (355) on Reply Card
By AMP Services
MEN
r:
6800: provides sustained transfer rates
of more than 19MB /s with Data-on-Demand performance features; compatible
with the 6700/10 series of RAID disk arrays
with the use of a 6800 controller; offered in
4GB, 8GB, 16GB and 40GB configurations;
offered in Spectra or Rimfire packages.
Circle (350) on Reply Card
Cable telecommunications
dictionary
By Jones International Ltd.
OM--Wow
HP 971A, 972A, 973A and 974A:
feature manual- and auto-ranging modes
as well as a safety shutter; 971A, 972A
and 973 feature a 31/2-digit display with
accuracy ranging from 0.3% to 0.1 %; the
974 features a 41/2-digit display with basic accuracy of 0.05%
Circle (385) on Reply Card
-
L
in,77;;,,,;
scratching or chipping.
Circle (358) on Reply Card
Field -strength meter
By Z Technology
Test accessories catalog
}n
Solid ceramic capstan sleeve: for Ampex VPR 6 and VPR 80 capstan motors;
existing shaft is turned down and ceramic sleeve is mounted and ground in place
to be concentric and flutter free; precisely finished surface texture optimizes tape
contact; guaranteed for life against wear,
By ITT Pomona Electronics
1994 New Product Test Accessories
Catalog: introduces more than 100 new
products in 36 full-color pages; high-
lights Pomona's
logic scope probe,
Jones Cable Television and Information Infrastructure Dictionary: 4th edition includes 2,900 information superhighway definitions; 6x9 hardbound, 216
pages; available on 3.5 diskettes for
Macintosh or IBM Windows platforms,
and on CD -ROM; both formats feature
850 "Hot Links" highlighted terms to
help seek out related entries; easy-touse navigation and search tools.
Circle (351) on Reply Card
Video routing switcher
By Pe.ca
insulated scope
probes, oscilloscope probes and
DMM test lead kits,
IEC1010
probe
leads, fused probe
kits, grabbers, cable assemblies and
adapters; also features test clips and adapters for
vices.
R-501 P RF field-strength meter. handheld, battery operated and fully synthesized; covers 3.0 to 1000MHz with
frequency steps as fine as 2kHz; can
measure input power levels from 0.32
uV to 320mV; input impedance is 5052;
power measurement accuracy is guaranteed to within + / -2dB.
Circle (353) on Reply Card
IC de-
Software
Circle (357) on Reply Card
By ImMix
VideoCube
LED indicators
By Lumex Opto/Components
1.2:
provides
new functions
for PAL and
NTSC; PAL ver-
sion
provides
feature set and
functionality
available
in
NTSC version of
Lynx 200 RM2416V: compact, wideband, high -performance video routing
switching; supports 24 inputs and 16
outputs in one -rack unit; can also be configured as an 8x5 RGB 200MHz router;
internal controller supports operation
from a pushbutton or touchpad type
the VideoCube
workstation; offers variable speed play-
SSI-LXH55 series: fit into standard "/32inch round holes, outside dimensions
are 5x5mm for the lighted area and
back of clips, selectable slow-motion and
fast-motion, freeze frame in and out for
clips, multiclip move for blocks of clips,
support for Sony UVW-series Betacam SP
VTRs and build to disk capabilities.
Circle (358) on Reply Card
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
65
Your Video
System.
New Products
Universal VTR controller
console or standard rack; composite and
component signals are standard features
with Y /C; operable with optional D-2 and
D-3digital signals; in- linedot CRT of 0.31mm
dot pitch; horizontal resolution is 650 lines.
By DNF Industries
Circle (361) on Reply Card
Audio/video routing switchers
MOP
ST200: universal VTR controller featuring numeric keypad for easy entry of
"search to" locations, a 2-cue point memory, search to cue, preroll, and standby
on/oft functions; operator can control
D-1, D-2, D-3, D-5, DCT, Betacam, MII, finch, 3 /i-inch, S -VHS and Hi-8 formats from
Sony, Ampex, BTS, Panasonic, Hitachi and
JVC via serial RS -422 using one controller; functions can he customized.
Your Video
System With
Super Glue.
Circle (359) on Reply Card
Audio/video cable catalog
Belden Wire & Cable
Audio/video catalog: 76 -page. illustrated publication
featuring line of
Introducing Super Glue digital converters
designed by Alpha Image. Now there's
a
solution for every digital need. From
simple monitoring
SUPER GLUE
D
By Knox Video
RS16x16 and RS8x8: these audio and
video routers operate at 66052 and handle the full range of balanced audio up to
+4dBm; also feature professional quick connect, self -locking, bare -wire connec-
to As, to high
Brilliance audio
and video cabling products
in addition to
comprehensive
application and
technical information.
tors; balanced audio switchers route the
full matrix from either front -panel control or RS -232 interface; also available are
RS remote controllers, single rack -space
units configured to control full matrix
eae NSW .es.
including breakaway audio or a single
output and a Windows driver to control
the router from a Windows format featur-
Circle (360) on Reply Card
High -resolution monitor
ing a graphics interface; front -panel LED
By Asaca/Shibasoku
CM14A: 14-inch color monitor designed
for monitoring NTSC or PAL color video
signals; easily rack mountable in a VTR
indicators display current routing pattern;
remote video readout is also available.
Circle (362) on Reply Card
Continued on page 70
quality encoders, Super Glue is the bond
that keeps your signal path robust and
maintenance free. Call 1 -800 -453 -8782, ext.
201 for a nearby Dynatech Video dealer.
4S -101
utah scientific
II
Y
,,,
N
o.
A
o
T
E
OO
C
V
Audio Switcher
N
10 Stereo In
P
1
Alpha Image
OigiStore
Cable Products
EMC
Newttar
Colorgraphics
Quanta
Utah
da
Vinci
Scientilic
P.O.
Box 1342 Bellingham, WA 98227
1- 800 -645 -1061
Broadcast Engineering
FAX (206) 676 -4822
Conex Electro- Systems, Inc.
Circle (49) on Reply Card
Circle (48) on Reply Card
66
-
Stereo Out
Illuminated and legendable control buttons
Instant or overlap switching
Front panel accessible level controls
Options include: RS-232 interface, remote
control, relay -follow- switch outputs
Network proven quality and reliability
August 1994
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE"
For Fax (24 Hours)
For Orders & Info Call
800 -947 -9928
800 -947 -9003
212- 444 -5001
212- 444 -5028
119 WEST
1
7TH STREET
NEW YORK, N.Y. 10011
-
Come see us at VIDEO EXPO/IMAGE WORLD at the Javlts Convention Center In New York
on September 11, 12, and 13 at Booth 4412
423
SAMSON
Panasonic
MR -1 Wireless System
WJ -MX50
ECM -144 or Audio Technica 831
419.95
51.2(1) AT 831 Transmitter with Audio Technics
419.95
unidirectional mic 8 MR-1 Receiver
Hand -Held Systems
SH -2 /PR4 Audio Technica Dynamic mic element 8
367.50
SH -2/58 Shure SM58 Dynamic mic element 8
SH -2/85 Shure SM-85 condenser mic element 8
MR-1 Receiver..
592.50
S -VHS
SUPER TO SERIES TRANSMITTERS
For the serious professional who wants true step-up quality
features Leveller (clip mini systems each includes
507.95
653.50
Sy,
1CM-44
Sony ECM -77
544.50
724 95
747 95
AG
(Short shotgun)
Short interference tube RF condenser. lightweight metal alloy.
Iranslormerless, low ease symmetrical capsule design. smooth
ohaws Ireq ency response, swtclable low cut Yet (-5 dB at
100 HE), high frequency boost (.5 dB at 10 KHZ and 10 dB
attenuation Handles extremely high SPL (135 dOl. ideal for
)
broadcasting. film, video. sports recording, interviewing in
Excellent for studio voiceovers
MKH 70 P48U3
Supercardioid/Lobe
(shotgun)
Expemely ligmweignt RF condenser rugged. long shotgun.
low distOniOn push-pull element. Iranslormerless, low noise.
switchable presence (.5 dB at 10 KHz). low tut filer -5 dB al
50 Hz). and 10 dB preattenuahon Handles 133 dB/SPL with
excellent sensnevty and high output level Ideal for video/11m
studios. theater. sporting events. and nature recordings
MKH 416 P48U3
Supercardiold/Lobe
Waveform Monitor
A two -input wavelorm monitor. the 58600 features 1H. IV.
2H, 2V, I ps/div and 2V MAG time bases as well as vertical
ampMier response choices of fat IRE Row pass) chroma
and DIF-STEP The latter facilitates easy checks of luminance linearity using the staircase signal A PI %MON output
to a
nd the und accepts an external syrncsrefe
reference Bunt- inncalibrator and omoff control of the DC restorer is also provided
jack
Slow- Motion Editing System
-D6640 8
AG -03650
(Shotgun)
Translormerless. RF condenser designed as a combination of
pressure gradient and Interference tube microphones Very
good feedback refection low proximity effect 128 dB /SPL.
Rugged and resistant Io changing climate conditions Ideal for
boom. hshpole, and camera mountings A long -distance micro
recording Excellent for intervenngfor
reporters, podium
viewing
orlecture
816 P48U3
Ultra -directional Lobe (shotgun)
-
Perfect for crowded news conference, movie sets. TV stages.
sporting events and nature recording
MKH 816 TU3
Same as MKH 816 P48U3 but designed to use 12 volt audio
wire IA- B) powering.
Omnidirectional
Low distortion push-pull element, Iranslormerless RF con denser. flat frequency response, diffuse /near -held response
switch (6 dB boost at 10 KHz) sytchabie 10 dB pad to Prevent overmodulateon. Handles 142 dB SPL High output level
Ideal for concert. Mid -Side 1M-S1 acoustic strings brass and
wind instrument ecordino
MKH 40 P48U3
Cardioid
Highly versatile. low distortion push -pull element transformerless RF condenser. high output level. transparent response.
swilchable proximity equalization (-4 dB at 50 Hz) and pre
anemial. of 10 dB to prevent overmodulateon In vocal askcations excellent results have been achieved with the use of a
pop screen. Recommended for most situations, including digital recording, overdubbing vocals. percussive sound. acoustic
gutters. piano. brass and string instruments. Mid -Side (M -5(
stereo. and conventional X -Y stereo
-
Model 5854
Vectorscope
2-channel portable vectorscope is meal for field use and
features A and B phase Inherence, fixed and variable
with optional battery holder and
gain Both units
bandwidth
ther digital Signal processing IDSP) circuits include
Oa
Digital Noise Reduction IDNRI Processes Y and C signals separately to boost S/N Ratio by minimizing noise during playback
Digital Comb Fitter Uses an advanced 3-dimensional system for complete V/C separation The result is reduced color and
luminance blurring
Switching Noise Mask Circuit Effectively eliminates noise caused by head switching during slow motion playback
Employs amorphous video heads that have a higher magnetic coercevety than conventional ternie heads Expanded color spool
frequency response from he amorphous heads enhances picture quality by minimizing color blurring.
They have Duilton LTCNITC ILongitudinaVVertical Interval) time code reader/generators (Or absolute frame accurate editing
Equipped
outputs
easy connection to other component video equipment This allows high quality
of h co source
an t
all&acg or
Equipped with RS-422 19 -Pint serial interface The standard control system for professional broadcast machines
10 (Intenegent Ouest) mechanism delivers precise. high -speed operation. plus the reliability needed. The dual -loading system
achieves high -speed response while protecting tapes and heads from damage The tape transport mechanism uses five direct
drive motors. including two reel drive motors Automatic head cleaning is also provided
Capstan Control System with large capstan spindle allows high-speed search at 32x normal speed
Four channel audio including two hill stereo channels with a dynamic range of 90dB as well as two linear channels with Dolby
NR. Each audio channel has its own input (AG -DS850 only) and output with individual channel -level setting capability All aadeo
channels use XLR connectors
Provides 169 wide aspect compatibility. so they are fully equipped for the next generation of televisions
3 rack units high. they are unbelievably compact for easy space saving installation 19- rack-mountable with optional AG-M730
g
i
MAGNI
i
Series"
MII "W
AU- W32H/W33H/W35H
for years. Panasonic
MKH 20 P48U3
Waveform Monitor
fully portable waveform mon,tor for field use. the
Model 5864A is a Iwo -channel un t that provides 2H and
2V sweeps with MAG. FLAT and IRE response, and normal and X4 gain
A
Features:
-
Narrow-beam pattern. Iranslormerless RF condenser micro
phone. Handles 124 dB/SPL and has high Output voltage
Model 5864A
They provide clear. noise -free. high quality Slow playback. Payback
speed. including Digital Still Is selectable in 10 steps 1-1/4 -I/O -1/16
1/25, D. -1/25..1/16 .1/8..1,4 .1/21
Built-in enhanced performance. 3-dimensional digital TOC with a correction
range of one field With the VCRs continuously retaining one field in memory. the data
is used for 3-D type processing thereby providing excellent dropout compensation
Digital Signal Processing for improved picture quality. and for maintaining uniform picture quality
during editing A Chrome Aperture Compensation (CAC) circuit eliminates color blurring and expands cnro-
RECORDING MICROPHONES
MKH 60 P48U3
crowded or noisy environments
Model 5860C
The AG-05840 player and AG -DS8S0 Editing VCR are state-of-the -art SVHS editing machines that provide the quality required for professional
video production and even broadcast systems Equipped with
Panasonic's advanced digital technology they offer features such as
Digital VHS Circuitry. Digital 3-D Time Base Correctors. Digital Slow
Motion, and Digital Noise Reduction They also have burn -en Time Code
Generator/Readers for frame accurate editing. and component video output
for connection to MII and Beacom machines
Z'SENNHEISER
Supercardioid/Lobe
from relatively long viewing distances. Provision is made
for selecting the phase reference from either (A or B)
inputs or a separate external timing reference
Editing machines truly designed for professionals
MR -1 Micro Receiver
TX -3 Body -Pack Transmitter
livelier Mic with Multi Pin Plug
Sony ECM-144
Sony ECM-55
Senheiser MKF-2
centering adlustments and eases phase adjustments
AG-DS840/AG-DS850
434.95
MR -1 Receiver
Digital A/V Mixer
Digital effects including strobe still, mosaic. negative /positive. paint.
monochrome. strobe. ball. and AV synchro
Fade -In and fade -out video. audio. titles Individually or synchronously faded
Real -Time compression . the entire source image is compressed inside a wipe patter
,Scene Grabber makes it possible to move a pattern. upholding the indially trimmed -in
picture integrity
Non Additive Mix (NAM) selects between A and B sources. passing only the signal with the
highest luminance value
Down stream keyer with selectable sources from character generator or external camera.
Incorporates 8 separate memories that enable virtually instant recall of frequently used effects
8 preset erects include Mosaic Mix. Position Stream, Corkscrew. Bounce Flip Shutt!- ViS-ate ono Satellite
Audio mixing capability of 5 sources with 5 audio level adlustments.
367.50
MR -1 Receiver
Vectorscope
An ideal companion for the 5E60C Waveform Monitor,
the 5850C adds simultaneous side-by -side wavelorm
and vector monitoring. Featurec is an electronically-gencrated vector scale that precludes the need for fussy
Four Input switcher and any two sources can be routed to the program busses
2- channel digital frame synchronization permits special effects in each of the AIB busses
Combination of 7 basic patterns and other effects creates 287 wipe patterns.
External edit control input for RS-232 or RS -422 serial controls
Also has GPI Input
Wipe boundary effects sotVborder (bold, 8 back colors available)
Lavalier (clip mic) Systems
n
ST- 2(1á6M -144 Transmitter with
MR -1 Receiver.
ST -2111 ECM-44 transmitter with Son, mic a
MR-I Receiver
Model 5850C
Broadcast & Television Systems
MR-I micro receiver is a professional VHF wireless
receiver measuring less than 4' long and 2' wide
FCC licensed in 14 channels from 174 MHz to 213 MHz
Truly swtcbable balanced mic level (600 ohms) to
unbalanced 10 dBm) output
dbx noise reduction to srmunaneously increase dynamic
range and eliminate noise
Receiver squelch, level 8 headphone level output controls
Can be powered by a 9V battery for 10 hours
SH2 hand-held transmitter can be used with me elements
like Shure SM 58 dynamic mic or Audio Technics Pro 4
ST-2 (LI body pack Transmitter can be used with leading
The
Waller mico like Sony
LEADER
Mi
to
-
animation and editing
Uses true component recording technology with separate tracks tor the
luminance IVI and chrominance ICI signals Delivers vivid cobs and super
sharp details- thanks to the full 4 5 MHz luminance bandwidth Because
the signais never mu during recording the quality remains exceptionally
high, even during repeated editing and dubbing
You don I have to worry which kind of tape to select because there is only
one tape MII uses metal lape to achieve high picture and sound quality
You can record and playback 90 minutes on a VHS size cassette
Each
type
correction
one
(pro H gneu
continuously
y rretains an entire video field of in
slope
atron in memory an is used for 3 D processing
rocessina providing e.cri
dropout
Dropout
om oriels
and r high -quand vertical
models haveD lour high-quality audio channels There are two Ili-Fr channels. with a dynamic range 0185 aB and two linear
channels
Dolby
-WiSehe Amoils offer kph pcodeeredmecodertorinh wanr3Namerdy
accuracy Both players
prately n SMPTE time code tically
swtcIreAU-W3hehdsr
has time conek. accogengrtu
Theeed.for cresoles Vreli and
eime separately and
User automatically
switch
LTC oem during payback according ili tape sakes, for er
an lime code identification User
are rtt0'dM In uto
either uckngt
wit an internally
a
board. with the n the AU- 01 making either
Wone
one Ise both)
dit
generated ere
day
300
Co (Amp 7
is standard
prerd sentis! an the AUlorem player Wec -md with edit cwall
or toe
the AG-A300 Slow Mot On
Controller
It
soc llo
line provides noiseless still eed -rhig lyl and quecf situai playback with a range of
to 2i normal
speed It also allows line control eover payba<h speed for dent knob where Tana ntr
als udlfor
ty
required
They allow
c come
On etu VCRs synth nd subcandy phase
minai lao ws
all TBC COnIrBC. including
el
chroma level. Chromd Dhdie setup level sync and subcarner phase A 15
15-pin
-Den terminal
lermenal allows external TBC remote control
i
-t
A
C
I
producer. A low -cost alternative to CRT -based wavelorm monitoring the MM -400 produces a video picture
of the input signal's waveform and displays it on any
video monitor It provides a simple, affordable and
accurate way to set camera levels before a shoot or to
check time base correctors and color fidelity in editing
Problems like hue shift, smearing. muddy contrast and
loss of detail are easily Identified for correction.
FEATURES
JCRs nave consistently b /Ought pnolessonals rho
superior broadcast quality of component recording Now the "W-Serins'
brings the power of quality component recording to an ever wider range of
users. The "W- Series delivers the familiar MII quality that professionals
around the world have come to depend on al a substantially reduced cost
And with the "W-Series". there are no compromises to the format, or to
bandwidth required ton hue component recording They are equipped with
3-D type TBC for exceptional playback stability and excellent dropout compensahon All models have built-in SMPTE time code readers and generators (AU- W35H) and they each feature color framing
so essential for
S
MM -400
a combination wavelorm and rector
monitor especially configured ter the cost- conscious
The MM-400 is
Converts waveform or vector dispay information Into a
standard video signal which can be displayed on a
video monitor or routed ammo a video facility no
need for additional expensive monitors. Switch
between pictures and waveforms at the push of a but Ion
Incorporates an advanced SC/H phase and color frame
mdicatol that is a must for editing and post production.
At a glance It tells you if a signal's subcarrier -to- horizontal phase is properly adjusted and it the signal's
color frame matches the house black burst connected
to the MM-400 external reference reput.
Works anywhere and with any analog video format
NTSC. PAL. Component or S-Video. It has automatic
detection between NTSC and PAL ormats.
Three loop-through inputs can accept three composite
signals or one component. or RGO signal
No complex displays or special lest signals are
required for component video monionny
interchaunel timing and amplitude display make component analog monitoring easy has color bar hmit
markings for Betacam, M -II and SMPTE formats.
Waveform and veclorscope controls. including channel. sweep speed, position control phase rotation are
on easy -to -see dedicated pushbuttons
Besides instant toggling between picture and waveform, a mix mode combines woven rm and picture displays for simultaneous viewing.
The MM -400 can be readily used by even novice operators It has easy -to- understand set -up menus for display color. Interchannel timing, SC/I1 phase alarm.
Usable in any video facility of any size for displaying
signals its low cost makes it affordable by the smallest
studio while its features and performance make it ideal
for monitoring in high-end facilities as well
WE ARE AUTHORIZED PANASONIC INDUSTRIAL VIDEO DEALERS. ALL PANASONIC VIDEO INCLUDE ONE YEAR USA WARRANTY ON PARTS AND LABOR.
Circle (50) on Reply Card
-
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE
FOR ORDERS CALL:
oR
800 -947 -9003
212 -444 -5028
212 - 444 -5001
Nova Blox
PBC 2600 Player
H471S S-VHS Double Coated
7.69
0.49
9.09
4.99
7.19
9.69
8.79
11.89
15.79
AMPEX
-
187 ACA 3/C11-matte Broadcast IIn Bop
6.79
7.99
KCAOS
KCA20
197 BCA 3/4'
A'-
BC' l'
297 SPA
-
0-matic
3 4
SP
$Py
10.19
SPA:^
10.89
9.59
14.39
-
(sr
HG10AI sine h
16.79
20.49
15.99
20.49
31.79
13C-20A Ism,e'
BC-5LA
BC-20LA
BC-60LA
18.49
22.39
18.49
22.39
49.59
BC-30Alsmalb
BC-IOLA
BC-3010
BC -VOL A
maxell.
BO
Certified
Certified
BO
6.69
.
Metal Cassettes
7.89
P6-60 HM BC
PO PLUS
T -30
Plus
T -90 Plus
Espitaoial
VHS
2.09
Erpitaual
T
'
-
a
NOVAMATE TBC /Frame Synchronizer
-IHu
using the white balance to provide natural tones
Scene File Four is the User Mode for flexible data setting twenty
different digital adlustments can be set including gamma kneepoint chroma detail detail matrix and shading Individual settings
18dB
available lot tt of the 20 items at gams of OdB..940
and 24dB Illese digital adjustments also alloy the WV -0700 to be
matched to other color cameras in a studio environment le quick
design and microprocessor C..mo plus ils superior quality
a to standalone and
make NovaMate the ideal an,
computer based TBCs
t
WE CARRY ALL OTHER NOVACAR05:
ENCODERS. DECODERS. TRANSCODERS.
DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIERS ANO ROUTING SWITCHERS
setups
INC KY-27UB HRITA
3 -CCD Color Video Camera
VHS (Box/
4.99
T-120130
-
n,:lsdtu.
range of VCR signal correction and video interments from desktop video 10 satellite systems
:Mate plugs directly Into a computer or one of several
chassis conogurations Control is performed either by software or NovaTrol control units the flexibility of its module
I..
spectrum Wrth Scene File Three these hues are adjusted while
total of lour
easy to use Scene File modes are available
Scene File One is the Standard Mode Much sels the WV-F700 to
adiust to studio lighting
Scene File Two is the Illum'nance Mode which provides tin dinerem Shades 01 black to be reproduced nearly in dark locations without requiring lighting alterations
Scene File Three is the Fluorescent Mode Undet fluorescent lightreproduced slightly in the blue
ing certain color roes tetra to
2.99
'
4.39
-30 B0
íias generator and reader
-
a sensm.,ty of I8 0 at 2000 lux and m.mmurn 00ied nl.mhwti0n rs
at 11 8 with 2400 gain 14 lux at I1 41
Emmy Award -winning Digital Signal Processing OSP technology
Dark Detail Circuit enhances contours under varying lighting conditions Uses luminance sensitive aigordhms to determine the optimum degree o1 enhancement in dark areas of
the picture without alteng me brightness of other areas in me picture Enhances contours of
objects as fine as strands of human hair even under challenging lighting conditions
Chroma Detail compensates for poor resolution in nigh chroma areas of the picture
Provides a wide dynamic range image with clear reproduction in he chroma area
2- Dimensional Low Pass Filter reduces cross-color caused by high level arrant..
Reproduces fine stripes and Janice patterns with a
r Coals mixing into the sob-Carrier
um of cVlOt blur
plight compression circuit expands the dynamic range of highlighted areas and
vents halation Produces detailed images when viewed against a bright backlight
Switchable R-Y B-V or
system allows direct docking to S-VHS M -D. or Betacam SP docking VCRs
VHS (Box/
90 Broadcast Quality E(pilaual
2.69
HGXT-60 Po.
I
sion slot including Amiga Most of the NovaCards utiete
RS232 serial date for operational control and include DOS.
Windows. and Amiga software. For desktop and portable
applications. the C-20 chassis hold two Cards There is also
the C-4 single rackm0Unt Chassis that accommodates up to
lour NavaCards and the three rack C -15 Novaframe. which
features 15 slots To provide operational control when
using one of the Novaehassis there are Iwo Novairol Serial
Control Units to choose hone They provide LCD status [Used,. with Our button operation or the NovaTrol'2 which has
vrearsit npe-,dmn ynth dedicated function controls and
Digital Processing Camera
1.99
2.19
1.69
14G11-PLUS
Player/Recorder
Y
-
Hi -8
PBC 2800
Same as PBC-2600p1usBunt -in comprehensive editing lacrhtres
Dynamic Motion Control me memory provides slow motion
editing capabilitty when used with a player VTR equipped
In DT function,
90 minutes of recording playback using L -site Metal or Oxide
-
to further enhance operational speed and flexibility
Worn High-Grade
509
P6 -60 HG BI;
'.'s
- tin
398 Betacam SP Master Broadcast (In Bap
BC-5A
'/100
Achieves
10.19
10.89
16.29
12.49
SPA.
3 -CCD
Three 213
Master Broadcast (In Bop
-
me Nn.aB, ^vide^ Pracessnry hi stern is currr01.500 01
Indwrdual lunction modules called NovaCards. The range of
NovaCard modules includes time base correctors. frame
synchronizers sync generators. encoders. decoders
transcorders. distribution amplifiers and routing switches
Novacards have the Ilexibihty of plugging into either a computer or one of lour NovaChassis Thal hold from one to 15
modules Novaeards fit into an IBM or compatible expan-
with
WV-F700
7.69
12.19
8.59 /1520
10.29 51560
v
sarn, ys('01
'
Master Broadcast (In Bop
U -malte
8.59
9.59
BSC
7.29 PCA15
8.69 rCA60
KCArS
PBC 2650 Player
Dynamic Tracking (DT)
More than 90 minutes c' :
:site Mete
or Oxide cassettes
mihmle Color picHigh -speed picture sears,
tures at up to 10 times nonnai speed in forcar0 and reverse
(24 times normal speed In monochrome)
Two longitudinal audio channels with Dolby Glype NR
Equipped with RS-422 9-pin serial interlace
Built-in Time Base Corrector with advanced high quality
digital dropout compensator
Optional BOR-50 provides remote control of the TBC
Built -in LTCNITC'User Bits reader, and character generator
V9-1' component signal outputs via BNC or 17-pin
VIR
Betacam DUB connectors A.
Optional BKW-7020 per.
Double Coated
Metal Evaporated
Metal Particles
P630HIAc
P660HMP
P6120HMP
AVAILABLE
VIDEO PROCESSING SYSTEM
ST -120
8
RUSH SERVICE
nONI
Betacam SP -2000 PRO Series
M221 Hi
OVERNIGHT AND
BTS
1
.
(24 HOURS):
800 -947 -9928
PROFESSIONAL VIDEO TAPE J
ST -30..
FAX
BSG -50
Blackburst/Sync/Tone Generator
5.89
Ja
BO
Certified Professional S-VHS
Ilan
LOLUX erode dllovn shouting menus lout were previous., in,pussibre due to
Box)
6.69
13.59
6.09
7.39
ST -31 BO
ST-126
BO
SONY
HI-8 Professional Metal Video Cassettes
P6-30 HMI',
P6-60 HMPX
P6-120HMPy
;
7.99
11.49
15.49
5.79
8.19
11.09
PR
T301
Series Professional Grade
2.39
VHS
2.59
.
2.79
PM Series Premier Grade Pralesoonal VHS
3.49
3.99
11201'M
BA Series Premier Hi -Grade Broadcast VHS (In
1
159
-300A
4.09
h
-'
KCA -10 BRS
KCA -30 BP
a
8.29
8.19
9.69
'
KCS -20 BITS
B.99
9.69
13.49
KCA -20 BPS
A
-6c. 05S
NBA 3/4" U-matis Broadcast Master On Box)
huh,
"'
KCA-10 XBR
KCA -30 XBR
8.79
9.29
11.99
-
BOP
311 U-matic
SP
KCS-
KSP -S10 (mini)
KSP -10.
KSP -30
OCT
9.59
10.09
12.99
Metal Betacam
BCT-5M (small
BCT-20M Ismalb
BCT-60ML
SP
16.39
21.29
3119
-
1019
10.69
15.69
Broadcast (In Box)
GSnS20
sachtler
-nmm
'SP-20
RAP 60
11.09
11.59
16.99
Broadcast Master (Bop
HCT-10M Ismalb
SCT-30M Ismadl
BCT-90ML
17.39
23.29
51.99
269
CSG -50
color bars lu color black aller 30 yr 60 seconds Easy and
nt for producing tape leaders and striping tapes
convenient
corelor bars and black
Front panel selection of full-held or SMPTE color bar patterns or colorblack (blackbursu video output
Includes crystabcontralled. KH7. Odo audio tone output
0010.15 video. sync ref frame. I KHz 008
Audio lone switches to silence and color bars change to
black whom using 3000 second limer
VIDEO 14/100 FLUID HEAD
mom
. eauiomem niees
Color Bar/Sync/ Tone Generator
4,89
8.39
orda
dly
Bop
7.99
.
co.tlollls generators iBLs.
operate
edit controllers
cameras and
VCRs Cameras
Now a video pulse outputs
6
4 ync
op Now available
composite nc.
Each sync output indwIdually
composite blanking.
ue. or V-drive
ui
Separate buffer for each output-maximum krgnd
IKHt.OUB nieawayh audio lane output locker I
nse to meet
Oatnuts can easily he
toped
Bop
3/4 Umatic Broadcast Standard (In Box)
KCS10 BRS
light
ce vrro equivalent
aen
an
u
Mir
provides
an addh
electronic
of 4dB pus
o
plus a JVC pierltreadout system
Y
Donal 6dB together
theys provide 3 0dB vnlhout the noise and picture degradation normally associated with IhiS much gain
g
Excellent color balance is maintained even down to t S lux illumination
Shooting Mode metre you cnty
only nave to zoom. locus and
Equipped win, Vanable Scan afunction inns allows makes ace
antic¢ scan it
a
screens
are controlled ode
conly
pr cisesofter computer scretos
record
cord An other
in 256 acre
nom .
eats
of a sec
(Automatic Level Contrail tinuouse coelee
shootingrAall (ghtomels
sate
meats to fir
be see
a -print
snootrng mall light inters This brloht continuous automatic
dramatic 4 -porn) liar elects
effects Users can also
Star later creates
id Dramatic
shoottng tram dark
to bright outdoors
gives pf
select Iron, amory Segeof90451stIreers
Lowe sportios 01
to
Advanced
The es in
cInsranid
Weighting
Advanced Memory System IAM5151ore5 customizable settings
the desire The
Automa
the center and Dole portions of roe
lust 1shooting condemns
Automatic nusual
IAPB) provides mtelhpente
and
Mtge lights
Uses lose 12o watts of power with camera
to iolkne
ignore ucircuitr dxten
objects sues
such
to eel operation
ugh
viewfinder
time can
allocated m
t to dark dynamic
Auto knee circuitry extends
by
a scene's
detail enhancement through me
adjustable
cote) and Detail
without overexposure
enu
Camera Setup
Has large 15umch viewfinder
der with 500 lies of esolu%n and
Docks directly lo JVC BR -54220 BR- S411UB and BR- S42000
SMPTE color bars Status system provides audio levels. accuprotessional S-VHS recorders Model KY -27 UPCH docks
mulated or remaining recordng lime and VTR operation Also
h' wB and Betacam
battery voltage and caner., .emit 'tide pattern end an ^^ rind
lighting
4.79
120HÁ
1
MO Master Quality S-VIHS (In
BRS
.
Vibrationless remcal and horizontal brakes
Built n bubble for horizontal leveling
ato
n, de range of tripods series 100
Sadder Touch and
Go System
Integrated Sliding battery plate
Strengthened dynamic counter,
Frictionless leak proof fluid r.
levels of drag
r,..
_
1
HOT POD TRIPOD SERIES
f
Especially developed for use in ERG the Mot Pod tripod y tnu'astest ill vie vmdA The central locking
system is activated on all three legs at the same time while the pneumatic center column easily makes it
possible to have the lens a' naat ul n.er 7 lee: The elevahlr tort "'the center rnlumn Is factory
.' d
...,I by its handle
...;
set and doesn tregmr.,
a
ang' ilu :..1 ;i.ittarr nit i.uner top position) so they are more universal Legs can
Sachller Iwo-stage tripods
be locked in seconds won Sachller's quick clamping There ale also heavy duty versions for extra stabrtiey The heavy duty aluminum
has a 20mm diameter tube vs 16mm and the heaw, duty carbon fiber has a 24mm diameter tube vs 22mm Also all heavy duty twostage tripods have a folding Irrpod hannlr
-
SACHTLER SYSTEM 14 PACKAGES
Economic standard
we two -stage aluminum tripod video
includes I4n00 Fluid Head ENG 20 Two.
stage Aluminum Tripod SP100 spread,SYSTEM 14 PRO
fNG2 Padded
I
Bag
345000
-
siur t Drama,
SYSTEM 14 PRO II
lem Willi vo-stage carbon libel tripod
video includes 14'100 fluid Head ENG 2
50100
CI T:rn Stage Carbon I tier lnp0d
1
ur
r.
.LL :10l0 COMES ARn
w
.f'!ri
Id.:
t
ig
3995.00
:rd m,t mvo,r idle -'
s349
1a 100 Fluid Head
Bag 100 It
S!V!N-DAY 3A1131ACION MONS" BACH OYARANTlE
Hot
HORITA PRODUCTS INCLUDING:
WG-50 - Window Dub Inserter
TO -6o - Generatorinsener
TRO -SO - Generator/Inserter/Search Speed Reader
TRG -50PC - Has all of the above plus RS-232 control,
VG -SO -VITC Generator, LTC-VITC Translator
VLT -50 - VITC-To-LTC Translator
VLT -50PC - VITC -TO-LTC Translator ' AS.232 Control
RLT -50 - Hi8 (EVO-980098501TC to LTC Translator
TOG -SO - NTSC Test Signal Generator
SCT -50 - Serial Control tiller' Industrial- CO,
-
SYSTEM 14 PRO Ill
Ovickr
system extremely nigh cold
by the pneumatic center cols n
Prided
1
WE STOCK THE FULL LINE OF
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ENG TWO -STAGE TRIPOD SERIES
-on Sr
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SAG -50
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Time -Date Stamp. Time Code Captioning
Sale Area. Convergence Pattern and
Oscilloscope Line Trigger and Generator
..
TO INQUIRE ABOUT YOUR ORDER.
-5743
800 221
212
119 WEST 17TH STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10011
807 -7479
Store & Mail Order Hours:
Sun
OR
e ®
FOR PHOTO & VIDEO"
FAX
24 HOURS:
212
366 -3738
10-4:45
Mon & Tues 9-6
Wed & Thurs 9 -7:30
Sat Closed
Fri 9 -2
PHOTO -VIDEO
RUSH OR OVERNIGHT SERVICE AVAILABLE (extra charge)
SONY
EVW -300
TASCAM
DA-88 Multi -Track Recorder
or
race
Hi -8 3 -CCD CAMCORDER
Quick -Draw Professional
Features:
enI sensdivn, ui l
y n
at 1
0. lu
ape
S N
or 6u dB and
delivers over
FOR CAMCORDERS OR STAND ALONE CAMERAS
700 lines of horizontal resolution
The
hrA('
Provides nigh quality PCM digital stereo and single channel AIM Hi-Fi recording Has %LR balanced audio connectors
Quick start 15' viewfinder with 550 lines of resolution plus Zebra pattern video level indicator and color bar generator
Built-in 8mm Time Code generator Iron -drop frame or drop frame mode may be selected) Also incorporates a variety of
time code features such as Time Code PRESET/RESET. REC RUN'FREE RUN and User Bits
variety of automatic adjustment functions for different lighting conditions are incorporated into the EVW-300
- ATW (Auto Trace White Balance) - when ADM rs fumed on optimum while balance is always ensured during recording
even for changes in color temperature Conventional while balance adjustment is still provided with the Auto White Balance
AGC (Automatic Gain Control, - in addition to manual Gain Up AGC provides linear gain up in the range of 0 CB to 18 dB
Intelligent Auto Ins - tor situations where the lighting between Sublecl and background is different Isublect is
underexposed) the Inlelligeril Auto Iris automatically examines the scene and adlusts the lens iris for proper exposure
Selectable Garn-up from t dB to 18 dB in I dB steps for Mid A Rion positions
Clear Scan 'unction - provides a variety of selection of shutter speeds ranging from 60-200 Hz allowing recording of
almost any computer display without dicker
Compact. lightweight (12 lbs with NP18) ergonomic design provides well balanced and extremely comfortable operation
-about the eight Channel DA -88 is the
s a small HI 8mm video cassette You II
size of the cassette iI
also notice the recording time up to 120 minutes These are
lust two of the advantages of the DA-88's innovative use of
8mm technology
Intrinsic to the 8mm video format is the Automatic track
Finding IATFI control system This approach records the
tracking control information. along wtth the program material.
sing the helical scan (video) head Competing S -VHS based
system record the tracking data with a linear recording head.
independent of the program data The SVHS tape must be
n at a higher speed (thereby delivering shorter recording
hmel to deliver control track reliability and requires some
form of automatic or manual tracking adlustment Synch
nrzation and tracking must be adlusted either automatically
or manually (lust like on your home vcrl as the machine ages
or it the tape R played back on another machine
On the Other hand. the ATF system ensures that there will be
no tracking errors or loss of synchronization. The DA -88
dorm t even have Or need) a tracking adlustmenl All eight
tracks of audio are pertectly synchronized What s more this
system guarantees pert ect tracking and synchronization
between all audio tracks on all cascaded decks - whether you
have one deck or sixteen ¡up to 128 tracks')
Incoming audio is digitized by the on -board 1641 D. at
either 44 or 48KHz (user selectable) The frequency
response is flat from 20Hz to 20KHZ while the dynamic range
exceeds 92d6 As you would expect from a CD- quality
recorder the wow and nutter is immeasurable
One 01 the best features of the DA88 is the ability to execute
seamless Punch-ins and Punch- outs This feature otters programmable digital crosslades as well as the ability to inseo
new material accurately into tight spots You can even delay
individual tracks whether you want to generate special effects
or compensate for poor toning All of this can be performed
easily on a deck that is simple and intuitive to use
a
A
-
JVC GY X2
3 -CCD S -VHS CAMCORDER
in I.2 CCD image sensor delivers 650 lines of horizontal resolution
rios micro -lens technology provides exceptional sensitivity of F70 al
)00 lux and new LOLU%
lets you shoot with almost no light, Shoot
superb footage with excellent color balanced at a mere 31ux illumination
computer monitor
1
1
OPTIONS
RC-BM - Single Unit Remote Control
RC-MI - System Remote Control
MU-1124 - 24-Channel Meter Unit
SV-A Complete SMPTF [OU Chase Synchronizing and
FOSCC'X
RD-8 Multi -Track Recorder
Variable Scan View allows flicker-tree shooting of a
(Muck Record Mode oxen turned on the camera is sel to the auto Ins even II lens is set at manual Also activated is (AEG)
Automatic Level Control and EEI Extended Electronic Ins which provides both variable gam and variable shutter Now you can
shoot continuously from dark room to bright outdoors without having to adlust gain ins or ND Inver
Full Time Auto White circuit lets you move from incandescent to fluorescent to outdoor lighting without changing white balance
or the filter wheel
Genlock input allow synchronization with other cameras
Dual output system allows camera output to be connected directly to an external recorder
TOSHIBA
'
from within your idbir i'.IDI Machine Controq compatible
sequencer
Full transport control Is available via the unit 's industry-stardard RS422 troy providing lull control right from your video
bay. The RD-8 records at either 44
or 48KHz and will perform Pull-Up and Pull-Down hanchions for film /video transfers
The Track Slip feature helps maintain perlent sound-ho- picture
sync and the 8-Channel Optical Digital Interlace keeps you in
the digital domain
All of this contributes to the superb sound quality of the RD -8
The audio itself is processed by 16-bit digital-lo-analog
ID/As) converters at either 44 I or 48KHz (user selectable)
sampling rates wilt 64% oversampling Playback is accomplished with 18 bit analog-to-digital (AT sI and 64% oversa,
riling thus delivering CD-quality audio
The S-VHS transpon in the RD-8 was selected because of its
proven reliability.
gged construction and superb tape ha m
ding capabilities Eight (racks on S-VHS tape allow much
wider track widths than is possible on otter digital tape
recording tormats
With its LCD and 10-digit display panel. the RD -8 is remarkably easy to Control You can readily access 100 locate points
and cross -fade time is fully controllable in machine to
machine editing Table of Contents data can be recorded on
tape When the next session begins whether on your RDS or
another, you lust load the set up information from your tape
and begin working Since the RDS is lully ADAT compliant.
¡our machine can play tapes made on other compatible
machines. and can be controlled by other manufacturers
ADAT controllers Your tapes will also be playable on any
other ADAT deck.
In addition to familiar transpon controls there are a number
of logical user friendly features This is the only unit in its
class with an on -board back-III variable contrast LCD display
It provides all of the mtotmaton you'll need to keep track of
:,used more points generator functions and other pertinent
on keys. combined with HOME. NEXT and
1
MIM?iaaer
3 -CCD Hi -8 Camcorder
CCD d rps mounted ,ith spalla, inset lechnoagy debiur
resolution of 700 horizontal lines
Low noise design provides extreme sensitivity of F80
at 2030 lux Min illumination 7 5 lux with excellent color reproduction
New LNA Dow noise amplified delivers a SM Isignabtonnisel
ratio of 62dB the hignest achieved roi this type of camera
26prn connector outputs VG or component video signal allowing
up to a portable S -VMS MII or Betacarn recorder and
simultaneously record rwln Hi-8
missk shot)
lime
you
pera m tonever
Zebraepanern in thesvrlevA nder alle rs operator
excessive video levels
3
.dit other cameras
Full calibration fur chi
for bar generator
Variable high speed shutter Imam
60 to t 2000 second
Bmlhin 8mm rime code generator records an absolute address
to every frame
Highpertormance back electret condenser mic records to all
three audio backs Low cut liner eliminates wind noise
Very low power consumption Draws only 16 watts per hour
allowing 100 minutes of recording time with
NP-1B battery
Body made of magnesium alloy previously only on broadcast
cameras Still only 13 lbs in standard configuration
Genlock capability
_
'
1
1
The Logic Serres DIGITAL batteries are acknowledged to be
the most advanced in the rechargeable battery industry In
addition to the comprehensive sensors integral to all Logic
Sends batteries each DIGITAL battery Fas a built -in micro-
Panasonic.
AG-DP800
,°'D úa ERcAm
Digital Signal Processing Camcorder
S-VHS 3 -CCD
processor that communicates directly with Anion /Bauer
InterACtive chargers creating significant new benchmarks
for reliability. pert ormance. and life They also complete the
communications network between battery charger and
camera With the network in place. DIGITAL batteries deliver
the feature most requested by cameramen a reliable and
accurate indication of remaining battery power
DIGITAL PRO PACS
Three high-density 380.000 pixel
CCDs with hall -pitch
pixel offset
horizontal resolution
S/N calm exceeding 60dB and remarkable sensitivity
of Ili at 2000 lux result In simply extraordinaryry
age quality Additionally lire Frame Interline Transfer (EIl CCDs
minimize vertical smear so you maintain impressive picIre quality even in very bright domination
Mortal signal processing circuitry provides
araced
..aluable benefits
onsisteotly reliable up-to -spec performance
I we adlustment of a wide range of
parameters
r.lemony storage and instant recall of specific settings
:. More flexible and higher quality image processing,
as well as easier maintenance
I
The Digital Pro Pac is the ultimate professional video battery
and is recommended tor all applications The premium
heavy duty Pro Pac cell is designed to deliver long life and
high performance even under high cutre'il loads and
Pacecreates
prrtect shoulder balance witr all camcorderss
DIGITAL PRO PAC 14 LOGIC SERIES ROAD BATTERY
14 4v 60 Watt Hours 5I 8 lbs
Run time 2 hours id 27 watts 3 hrS iv 18 walls
DIGITAL PRO PAC 13 LOGIC SERIES RICAS BATTERY
3 2v 55 Wan Hours 4 3 4 5 5
Run time 2 hours W 25 wads, 3 hours á 17 watts
1
-Mons
ninpensates for poor resolution in the nigh chroma areas of the picture
DARK DETAIL Detem ides optmwn degree of contour eohancemenl in dark areas to deliver cusp natural-looking images
- HIGHLIGHT COMPRESSION Expands the dynamic range of the highlighted areas and prevents halation The highlight compression circuit allows a wide dynamic range producing detailed images even against bright backlight or daylight
FLARE CORRECTION CIRCUIT
Compensates tor unsteady black caused by light or by a sublects movements
Six Scene File modes There are two user modes for custom digital parameter settings including Horizontal Detail Vertical Detail
Chroma and Dark Detail and Color Correction The lour preset modes are normal fluorescent. special and sparkling
In addition to regular AGG (Automatic Gain Control), Supercam has a Super High Gain mode At II d this enables shooting under
Ilummdlron as low as 2 lux while retaining detail and color balance
Synchro Scan function allows Ilicker-tree shooting of computer monitors Electronic shutter increments can be sel variably from
1761 seconds to 1'253 of a second
Built-or internal time code generator lets you record with SMPTE LTCNITC (LongiludinalNMical Internal) time code
26 -pin connector tor don' signal output from camera section for easy backups using 2nd VCR equipped with 26 -pin connector
Two hi-fi stereo audio channels with a dynamic range of 80 dB. as well as two linear audio channels with Dolby NR Normal/HiFr
rig is selectable Uses %LR ronnectors to Fortner ensure high-quality sound
Precord
romo, pc
n
m
on be sup plm
p h n
our.- P, -iPr can be Switched Ott to prevent battery drain when notcn use
Some of the DSP orra.
- CHROMA DETAIL
i
.
i
i
is enable you to navigate the edit menus
. need to have access to the front panel con
model 8312 remote control gives you
remote wmniarid of the most common functions
or all-purpose pocket
Logic Series DIGITAL Gold
Mount Batteries
TSC -200
-
This digital multitrack recorder is designed specifically tor the
audio professional Foslex has long been a leader in synchronization and the RD -8 redefines that commitment With its
timlhin SMPTE I EBU reader /generator. the RD-8 can stripe.
read and lam sync time code even convert to MIDI time code
I,- RD -8 can be either Master or Slave
In a sync environment
In a MIDI environs
'l integrate seamlessly into the most
iamplex protect iti.
:n g you complete transport control
Designed for working from the bats of a van or the trunk
or your car The fop loading case has a wide open told
back top tsat stays neatly out of the way Its lighter and
more compact than shipping cases thus saving valuable
storage space With other equipment crowded around it
the sturdy burn -in frame provides a fled protection
Heavy duty shoulder strap A comloeable leather hand grip
Carry it in crowds - crush proof air mmum guard protects
viewfinder
f its into back seal and fastens securely with seal belt
Holds camera with on -board battery attached
Lid closes with Velcro for quick -opening or secure with
full-length zippers
Two Trim exterior pockets and clip board pocket
Dual purpose rear pouch is an expar'dable battery chamber
WE BUY SELL AND TRADE USED VIDEO EQUIPMENT
All
TOED COMES IMTN A SEVER -DAY SATISFACTION MONEY -SACK GUARANTEE
Circle (51) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
1
DIGITAL COMPAC MAGNUM
Extremely small and light weight (almost hall the size and
weight of a Digital Pro Pacl the powerful Digital Compac
Magnum still has more effective energy thon two NP style
slide-in batteries The high voltage design and Logic Series
technology eliminate all the problems that cripple convent
tonal 12 void slide -in type batteries. The Cigital Compac
Magnum
professional
for aprlications drawing
less
is wallsrofesssiona hoice eel when usmq an
Oltrahght
rc
DIGITAL COMPAC MAGNUM 14 LOGIC SERIES
144vd3W.P
Run time
2
MUD
BATTERY
-
hours .i 20 ::arts
DMITAL COMPAC MAGNUM 13 LOGIC SERIES MICAD BATTERY
13 2v 40 Walt Hours 2 1/2 lbs
Rim time
2
hours
218 watts
3
hours
a
1::.
New Products
tion, dialog and sound effects editing
and sound for picture work; it supports four channels of digital I/O and
can be expanded to 24 tracks.
Expanded Quattro: permits direct serial control over a variety of -inch, 3/4-inch,
and /2-inch decks as well as time-code
DATs; also features TimeTwist and optional converters.
Continued from page 66
Poster/Satellite guide
By Keystone Communications
1
variable rate strobe;
Circle (363) on Reply Card
I
Circle (366) on Reply Card
provides
transcoding of composite and component inputs to all outputs; accepts synchronous or non -synchronous inputs;
provides composite and Y/C in and out
and offers full proc amp controls.
Multiformat TBC/
TBC synchronizers
By Prime Image
Visual effects
By Discreet Logic
North American Satellite Guide Poster. 22 inch by 28 inch full color poster
featuring the North American communications satellite arc, C -Band and Ku-band
frequency tables, Ku -band half transponder formulas as well as a Greenwich/
military time conversion chart.
Asia Pacific Satellite Guide: features
up-to -date transponder loading informaiton and coverage maps of Asia Pacific
satellites that carry video traffic; spiral
bound; published quarterly.
Circle (384) on Reply Card
Power platforms
By Sonic Solutions
Sonic Quattro: a power platform for
4 -track
and larger configurations; can
handle music editing. radio produc-
4:4:4 digital video signal I/O for
Flame: enables Flame special visual
effects system to support full 4:4:4
component digital video signal input
and output; doubles the quality of
chrominance data available; Flame can
capture the 4:4:4 signal in real time to its
disk system direct from any 4:4:4 source.
Circle (354) on Reply Card
Time base corrector
By Prime Image
features include true component processing and composite, S -VHS, Y688, Y/
R -Y/B-Y in/out.
Circle (368) on Reply Card
5011 TBC/Freeze 11: expanded version
available for NTSC, PAL or PAL-M standards; features AGC on /off, H- position,
vertical color advance, horizontal chroma-to-luma adjust, three levels of detail
enhancement; frame or field freeze, and
bvs
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t
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bioodcost v,deo systems
OPAQUE TO TRANSPARENT INSERTS AT YOUR FINGERTIPS
SIX MODELS WITH FEATURES AND CONTROL
SYSTEMS FOR EVERY APPLICATION
Composite and Component versions
Downstream or stand alone
Frame accurate mix to key, fade to black
Serial remote control
GPI interface
Key source input switcher
Key set memory
Preview output
Processed black
Key area masking
MASTERKEY 4
CONTROL PANEL
40 West Wilmot Street. Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1H8
Fax: (905) 764 -7438
Telephone: (905) 764 -1584
Circle (52) on Reply Card
Broadcast Engineering
Digital video fiber optics
By ipitek
Imtran system: digitally encodes video and audio, transmits via fiber -optic
cable; capable of digitizing multichannel analog video, audio, RS-232 unidirectional data and two 25Mb/s overhead channels over a single fiber covering more than 40 miles.
Circle (369) on Reply Card
Database
broadcast video systems ltd
70
HR60011 series: line of high -resolution
TBCs featuring wide bandwidth signal
handling at 7.5MHz and multiformat
transcoding; provides for 3-way wideband (8MHz) digital adaptive comb filter and RGB 3- and 4-wire input/output;
August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
By Soft Wright
TAP database: high-resolution database
for use in the Terrain Analysis Package;
based on the 71/2-inch quadrangles; uses
a grid interval of 30 meters that provides
an increase in grid density about nine
times the data in a given area.
Circle (367) on Reply Card
Continued on page 75
The one audio tester you can
use in mixed company
AA1700A11diuNhre.unnncu1
DIgltal
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Limits
Interrate
APPLICATIONS
Analyzer
Monitor
Digdal
SYSTEM CONTROLS
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Display
Storage
Select
Channel Statusu
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UTILITIES
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AM700. THE HIGH PERFORMANCE MIXED SIGNAL AUDIO
TESTER THAT'S VERSATILE AND EASY TO USE.
Meet a real crowd pleaser.
The AM700. It's designed for virtually any audio test application -analog
or digital. Making it the perfect choice for testing car radios, recording
equipment, radio and television audio broadcast systems, and more.
For
starters, it's fast and easy to use. There are no complex commands to learn.
Just a simple interface that guides you to any function you need. And a high
performance processor that gets the job done pronto.
Plus, the AM700 lets
you work any way you want. Automatically,
semi -automatically, or manually. It's ideal
for design engineers working at the bench
Input and output ports allow you to generate test
signals for both analog and digital domains.
level, test engineers on the production line,
and everywhere in between.
And it's
completely portable, too. Everything's included in one compact instrument.
No wonder it knows exactly what to do in mixed company.
Make an
appointment for a demonstration by calling your local Tektronix sales office
or cal 1- 800 -TEK -WIDE ext.TV
I
Circle (70) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Tektronix
Mark your
calendars
"
For the World
Media Expo
Oct. 12 -15
The conference
will include the:
NAB Radio Show
RTNDA Annual
Conference
SBE
44)et
show
preview
By Dawn Hightower,
senior associate editor
Conference
SMPTE Conference
\I1
_
4¡+t +à
WARRANTY
VIDEO D A's
ES-207A
Amsterdam
is the place to be this fall if
you are involved in radio, television, satellite, cable or film. The IBC 94 International Broadcasting Convention and Exhibition will be held Sept. 16-20 at the RAI
Convention Centre.
This year's technical program has been
expanded to incorporate more traditional high -quality papers in addition to its
workshops. This year's convention also
will feature a new addition - panel sessions. These sessions will provide attendees the opportunity to question leading
figures in the industry on a wide range of
topics.
Something for everyone
Broadcast Quality
Ix4or1x5
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8 ro 1.5 Volts
Equalization-Compensates
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Response 5dB at 10MHz
-
Propagation Delay5Nsec
$175
MANY OTHER AUDIO AND
VIDEO DA's AVAILABLE!!
Including Rockmount Configurations
142 SIERRA ST.
EL
SEGUNDO
90245
(310) 322 -2136
CALIFORNIA
Whether you are involved in station
management, technical operations, equipment selection, system planning, equipment design or advanced research and
development, the technical program has
something for you.
Two parallel streams of papers sessions
will cover the latest state-of-the-art technology, as well as a wide range of reviews
of current developments. Sessions also
will address future technology and the
decisions that need to be made. Session
presentations will include widescreen,
audio for radio and TV, microwave video
distribution, cable, direct -to-home satellite broadcasting, digital terrestrial TV,
digital audio broadcasting, transmission
coverage, digital coding of video signals,
random access media and digital film
processing and enhancements.
IBC workshops, which were introduced
in 1992, have been extended to a full
stream of tutorials for those new to the
Circle (53) on Reply Card
72
This year's show reflects the
changing industry.
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Panel sessions
Friday, Sept. 16
A.M.: Cable/Satellite/Terrestrial and VOD
P.M.: The Battle for World Standards
Saturday, Sept. 17
A.M.: Tapeless Recording
P.M.: Is MPEG -2 Future Proof?
Sunday, Sept. 18
A.M.: DAB -- Technology Looking for a
Market?
P.M.: The Broadcast Engineer -- an
Endangered Species?
Monday, Sept. 19
A.M.: Using Tomorrow's Channel Capacity
P.M.: Standards in Film and TV
Tuesday, Sept. 20
A.M.: Do We Need an FCC in Europe?
P.M.: Has Enhanced Analog TV Missed
the Boat?
business, as well as old hands. The workshop sessions are free to convention registrants. However, attendance is limited
and tickets will be available on a first
come, first served basis.
The workshop sessions will include digital compression, film production, sound
for pictures, non -linear editing, special
effects for beginners, automation, multimedia and electronic effects.
For more information on the IBC event
this fall, contact the IBC Secretariat at PO
Box 193, Savoy Place, London WC2R OBL;
telephone +44(0)71 240 3839 or fax:
+44(0)71 497 3633.
Professional
Services
JOHN H. BATTISON PL
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DUBNER 20-K Character Generator with 10MB
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GVG 100-N Switcher w/ Serial Interface. $5,500
RANK MK-III Digiscan IV Telecine System with
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International Brokers and Appraisers Serving the Audio / Video Industry
-
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LA, CA 90069
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Circle (65) on Reply Card
'
BE913CLASSIFIEDS
-967 -1732 Ask for Renée.
www.americanradiohistory.com
August1994 Broadcast Engineering 73
Classified
t
FOR SALE
CS
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and see how
your money
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Call Renée
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TODAY! at
Itec.at1
Recorders.Switcher.s Cameras Tri
od.s
Audio
Sony BVP -7 3 -CCD Camera -10,500
Panasonic AG -7750 S -VHS Editor -4,250
Ikegami HC -340 3 -CCD Camera -7,500
Sony VO -9850 3/4" SP Editor -6,500
Sony PVW -2800 Betacam Editor -14,000
Sensational
Sony BVH - 2000 -22,000
ALL NEW
Grass Valley 200 -2ME- 52,000
SUMMER
BUY CONSIGN SELL SERVICE TRADE CATALOGUE
RCS- LA:818- 551 -5858
BCS- NY:212- 268 -8800
(913) 967 -1732
or fax
(913) 967 -1735
Sony Interface for your
VPR -2 or BVH -1100
Convert Sony serial to parallel conhol.
Complete editing capability.
R5 -422 Interface for editors and automation.
COMrols ATM's and VCR's.
Phantom
II VTR
Emulator
FOR INFORMATION:
Call
1- 800 -331
(D cipher digital
-9066
30 W. PATRICK ST. SUITE 310
FREDERICK. MD 21701
,
Circle (66) on Reply Card
Make One Call
Broadcast Engineering &
Maintenance Supplies
\ Cable/Connectors
Tools/Tool Kits
4 Test Equipment
4 Cases/Shipping Containers
I/ Wire Distribution Products
4 Fiber Optics, and more
Top quality products, free
shipping, and dependable,
experienced technical support.
FREE CATALOG
Jensen Tools Inc
7815 S. 46th St., Phoenix, AZ 85044
Ph: 800-426-1194 Fax: 800-366-9662
FOR SALE: PANASONIC - RAMSA - SANYO - SHARP TASCAM - TECHNICS - BOGEN - MAXELL: Professional/
PIG- E -BAKT"
New
microphone
placement
system
Industrial /Security Video & Audio Equipment. Wholesale Prices! Factory New Warranty! Sales 800 -233 -2430,
Support = 607-687 -0545.
=
(2) YAMAHA M406 RACK MIXERS, 6 x 2, .4, -10 sub in/
out, stereo aux., phantom power. mint, massive headroom. zero noise floor. Call Dan - (216) 923-9856. $575
each.
Mounts to top, sides, or bottom of another
FOR SALE: One inch Hitachi HR 200B machine. Operating hours 2581. Head only 700 hours!! Parallel interface
to controllers. Jog/Shuttle feature. Best Offer. Call (408)
997 -7679.
microphone and locks
EMC PRIME-TIME, DIGITAL NON -LINEAR EDITOR: OflLine, 486 complete turn -key system. Generales an EDL
Adjusts for height, angle and position
Clamp pads made of shock absorption material
to reduce shock & vibration
Weighs approx. 4 oz.
Virtually unbreakable
Ac-cetera
Ak'set or
Ac- cetera, Inc.
3120 Banksville Rd.
PA 15216
RADIO BROADCAST FACILITIES available November
I. Atlanta, Georgia. Broadcast equipment and office
furniture. Reply to Broadcast Engineering. Dept. 747,
P.O. Box 12901, Overland Park, KS 66282 -2901.
Pittsburgh,
1. 800. 537.3491, 412-344-8609,
FAX
for On -Line final editing. Includes all hardware and
software. Like new demo unit. S10,000. Call 407 -696-4086
for specific details.
412-344-0818
EQUIPMENT WANTED
WANTED: USED VIDEO EQUIPMENT. Systems or
components. PRO VIDEO & FILM EQUIPMENT GROUP:
the largest USED equipment dealer in the U.S.A. (214)
Circle (67) on Reply Card
869-0011.
HELP WANTED
ESPN HAS IMMEDIATE OPENING
for an individual
with 3 -5 years in broadcast equipment maintenance.
Digital experience and the ability to diagnose and
troubleshoot to the component level Is required. Computer literacy, FCC General License and satellite uplink
experience are preferred. Send resume to Human Resources Department, ESPN. Inc., ESPN Plaza, Bristol.
CT 06010. ESPN is an Equal Opportunity /Affirmative
Action Employer.
ENJOY LIVING AND WORKING IN TULSA. Chief Engi-
neer /Maintenance Engineer combination. UHF
experience a must. KDOR TV 17, 2120
Broken Arrow, OK 74012. EOE.
N.
Yellowood.
CHIEF ENGINEER needed for West Central Nebraska NBC
Affiliate, with maintenance skills, VHF transmitter, satellite facilities. Good with people. Good benefits and good
salary. EEO employer. Send resume to General Manager.
KNOP TV, PO Box 749. North Platte, Nebraska 69103.
CHIEF ENGINEER/BENCH TECHNICIAN: for Chicago
post- production house. Minimum 5 years experience in
general video and system maintenance with emphasis on
Beta-Cam, I" & D2. Operation knowledge of editing system desirable. Sony factory training desired. Must exhibit
ability to teach and motivate. Send resume with salary
history and requirements to P.O. Box 1045, 734 N. LaSalle
St., Chicago. IL 60610. Attn: Mr. Gongorki.
For Classified Advertising or
Professional Services
information Call Renée Hambleton at (913)
967 -1732 FAX (913) 967 -1735
d
74
PLACE
-
chnical Engineers
-
Editors
-
Colorists)
-
All Levels, Locations & Disciplines
ployer Paid Fees
Guaranteed
nfidential. Fifteen Years Service
Employer & Employee. Contact
ke Kelly, KEYSTONE INT'L., Inc.,
Laflin Road, Pittston, PA 18640
Fax - (717) 654 -5765
Phone - (717) 655 -7143.
SONY PRODUCT SUPPORT ENGINEER. You'll provide
national level technical support for assigned products.
Must be knowledgeable in engineering and servicing of
professional video recorder formats including 8mm,
VHS and Betacam formats. BS in a technical field and
5. years' related experience strongly preferred. Send
resume to: Sony, Human Resources. Attn: Catherine
Boarders, 3300 Zanker Road, San Jose. CA 95134-1940.
We are proud to be an EEO /AA employer M/F/D/V.
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Also,
we maintain a drug free workplace and perform preemployment substance ahuse testing. SONY.
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
LANDMARK COMMUNICATIONS has an immediate
opening for a broadcast maintenance engineer. Must
have a minimum of two years electronics training or
equivalent broadcast engineering experience. Candidates knowledgeable with P /C's. Betacam, Odetics,
Quanlel. Ampex. and Grass Valley equipment desired.
Shift work required. Competitive salary and benefits
package offered. Send resume to Landmark Communications, Engineering Department, 2600 Cumberland
Pkwy., Atlanta. GA 30339. EOE.
TECHNICIAN: Experienced and entry level positions
available. AA in electronics required. Work on broadcast MII video tape machines and cameras. Some
transmitter work. Drug screen required. WHAG -TV is
a small market NBC affiliate. We offer a comprehensive benefit package. including 401(k) and Section 125
plans. Send resume and salary requirements to Personnel, WHAG -TV. Dept. Z, 13 East Washington Street,
Hagerstown. MD 21740. No Phone Calls. EOE.
PROMOTION MANAGER. Single station market, ABC
Affiliate with FOX football, beautiful Shenandoah
Valley of Virginia awaits the experienced promotion
person. Must be able to write, edit and produce on air
promos. Media planning and implementation credentials important. Send resume to Bob Ganzer, General
Manager. WHSV -TV, P.O. Box TV 3. Harrisonburg. VA
22801. EOE.
CHIEF ENGINEER: Southeast Boston area combo
seeks aggressive studio and R.F. engineer. Experience
in networked digital hard drive audio a plus. Send
resume to: Broadcast Engineering. Dept. 746. P.O.
Box 12901, Overland Park. KS 66282 -2901.
New Products
Classified
HELP WANTED
TAFT BROADCASTING COMPANY
Taft Broadcasting
Company is growing.
We are seeking Engineers, Techni-
cians, Operating and Production personnel with all levels of experience in
the broadcast industry. Taft Broadcasting is an Audio/Visual Systems
integrator involved in government
Digital video disk recorders
By Ramko Research
Circle (371) on Reply Card
education and salary requirements to:
Video processing amplifier
Debbie Burks
By Link Electronics
Taft Broadcasting Company
Space Center Blvd., Bldg. A
Houston, Texas 77508
EOE/AA
WRDW.TV has an opening for Maintenance Enginee
with specific knowledge and formal training at leve
equivalent to two years college in Electronics Engineer
ing Technology and two years experience repairin
electronic broadcast equipment at component level
Must have working knowledge of computers. Transmit
ter experience or SBE certification a plus. Resumes to
Jim Myers, CE; WRDW -TV, P.O. Box 1212, Augusta. GA
30903-1212. EOE.
ENGINEERING SUPERVISOR: Technical Maintenance
and operation of satellite truck Involving travel and
maintenance of broadcast tape and studio equipment.
Also, ENG equipment and UHF translators. High school
diploma and experience necessary. Send resumes to:
Barry Erick, Chief Engineer, 62 South Franklin Street.
Wilkes- Barre. PA 18773. Equal Opportunity Employer.
SERVICES
1
ÿxeela.ul Praducdi,
re.td evirG guatsYy
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FREE INFORMATION PACKET
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PRC -960: designed for any application
where new processed sync and burst is
required; the front panel has video level,
chroma gain, pedestal, white clip, video
AGC, threshold, horizontal phase and
burst phase controls; the video AGC is
incorporated into the brightness, contrast and chroma level circuitry and can
be defeated; an auxiliary input is provided; the PRC -960 will output blackburst
with the absence of an input signal.
Circle (372) on Reply Card
BIG DOG COMMUNICATIONS
System Design and Integration
Installation Troubleshooting
DIGITAL VIDEO RF AUDIO
(209) 962 -6254
P.O. Box 39, Groveland, CA 95321
TRAINING
recorded
lessons for home study. Our 30th year preparing
radio technicians for the license. Bob Johnson Telecommunications. Phone (310) 379 -4461.
Amplifiers
By R.L. Drake
DDA -1218 and DDA-1236 distribution
amplifiers: designed for applications in
TV distribution systems; DDA -1218 offers 18dB of gain while DDA-1236 offers
36dB of gain; one -piece construction with
built -in power supply and continuous
frequency coverage from 40MHz to
1,000MHz.
Circle (376) on Reply Card
Playback card
Consoles
By Digidesign
By Otani
Status RP: the first in a line of digitally
controlled analog consoles with onboard
automation and a complete set of computer- controlled features; each input
module has two independent signal paths
and a 4 -band equalizer; the 12-track buses and 8-aux buses can be sourced from
either signal path, while the stereo program bus may be sourced from all paths
simultaneously.
Circle (373) on Reply Card
I-CC Gi.NERA1. CLASS LICENSE. Cassette
P-R5 ProMod module rack system:1.7519 -inch rack tray houses up to five
of the 42 available ProMod ultraminiature audio modules in a "face up" position; each rack comes with a UL approved,
AC wall adapter; optional rear panel connector plates available for XLR, barrier
strip, I/ -inch jacks. DIN, etc.
inch x
Circle (375) on Reply Card
No Phone Calls
Principals Only Please
t
Rack system
By Recognition Concepts, Inc.
VDR 4000 and VDR 5000 series: VDR
4000 component supports CCIR 601/
SMPTE 125M with standard rate capacities of four minutes and seven minutes;
VDR 5000 component/composite supports CCIR601 /SMPTE 125M and SMPTE
244M and offers from four to seven minutes of rate partitioned component storage and 8.2 to 13.7 minutes of composite
storage depending on the model.
contracting and business to business
broadcasting providing sound systems, closed circuit cable microwave
TV systems, multimedia, video and
photographic image management
systems. If you are interested in a
progressive, growing company please
send your resume with qualifications,
16441
Continued from page 70
Digital video editor
By Touch Vision Systems
D/Vision - Pro version 2.2: offers com-
positioning, motion control effects, autobatch digitizing with machine control, film
cutting lists, importing and editing of AVI
files, improved on-line EDLs and graphics
quality; features professional on -line EDLs,
3-D text, graphics and animation, six channels of CD -rate digital audio, up to 100
hours of instantly accessible video and
SupeRTV video compression quality.
SampleCell 11:16 -bit stereo, 32-voice, 32
megabyte sample playback card available for Windows /PC platform; features
dynamic digital filtering and eight polyphonic analog outputs; includes two CDROM sound library discs.
Circle (377) on Reply Card
Safe area generator
By Broadcast Video Systems
SA104 single board safe area generator capable of being plugged into a Grass
Valley or Leitch distribution amplifier
frame; locks to incoming video; digitally generated patterns are inserted by
an onboard keyer and remote con-
trolled; safe action and title area, center cross and blanking markers can be
selected individually or simultaneously, or a positionable full- screen cross
hair can be displayed; stand -alone version also available.
Circle (378) on Reply Card
Circle (374) on Reply Card
August 1994
Broadcast Engineering
75
Ad Index
Page
Number
Abekas Video Systems
19
ADC Telecommunications
ADM Systems, Inc.
Reader
Service
Number
9
Advertiser
Hotline
Number
415- 369 -5111
Matrox Electronic Systems
21
800 -361 -4903
73
65
708- 251 -0001
5,53
15,45
..
800 -726 -4266
Midwest Audio /Video Exchange
50,52
41,43
..
313- 932 -1993
Miller Fluid Heads
44
26
201 -473 -9592
503- 241 -7113
NEC Corp.
33
24
800 -323 -6656
47
916 -265 -1000
1
800 -243 -2001
52
44
213 -934 -3566
7
16
510 -351 -3500
..
24
ASC Audio Video Corporation
23
20
818- 843 -7004
NVision, Inc.
56
Audio Precision
13
6
800 -231 -7350
Odetics, Inc.
IFC
Belar Electronics Laboratory
32
14
215- 687 -5550
Opamp Labs, Inc.
Belden Wire & Cable
36
27
800 -235 -3364
Orban, Div. of AKG Acoustics
800 -221 -5662
Panasonic Broadcast & TV
905 -764 -1584
Quantel
-
Video
Advertiser
Hotline
25
Anthro Co.
B &H Photo
Reader
Service
Number
Page
67,68 -69
50,51
..
800 -524 -0864
35
Broadcast Video Systems Ltd..... 70
52
BTS Broadcast TV Systems
15
7
Canare Cable, Inc.
30
12
818- 365 -2446
Sachtler AG
Cipher Digital, Inc.
74
66
800- 331 -9066
Sierra Video Systems
57
36
916- 478 -1000
Ciprico
31
11
612 -551 -4037
Storeel
32
13
404 -458 -3280
Clear -Corn Intercom Systems
27
23
510 -527 -6666
Studio Audio & Video Limited
11
18
353 -648 -888
COMSAT RSI, Mark Antennas .... 38
30
708 -298 -9420
Tascam/TEAC America, Inc.
59
39
213 -726 -0303
Conex Electro Systems
66
49
206 -734 -4323
Tektronix, Inc.
71
70
800 -TEK -WIDE
Dynatech Video Group
66
48
801- 575 -8801
Telex Communications,
ESE
72
53
310- 322 -2136
31,40
..
Fostex Corp. of America
55
46
310- 921 -1112
Thomson Broadcast
Gentner Communications
37
28
801 -975 -7200
Trompeter Electronics
51
42,60
5
800 -622 -0022
Vega, A Mark IV Company
39
29
818- 442 -0782
34
800- 452 -4844
Vistek Electronics Limited
45
33
628 -531 -221
800 -458 -0479
The Winsted Corporation
58
38
612 -944 -8556
Harris Allied
Hewlett Packard
3
46 -47
1
Roland Corp. US
800 -962 -4BTS
4
203 -656 -3100
19
213- 685 -5141
21
41,62 -63
Inc.
IBC
32- 909 -150
17,8
9,17
800 -554 -0716
800 -882 -1824
2
..
818- 707 -2020
Intertec /HDTV Conference
71
Jensen Tools Inc. /AXIA Ent.
74
67
602 -968 -6231
Wohler Technologies, Inc.
58
37
415 -589 -5676
Lectrosonics
43
25
800 -821 -1121
3M Pro Audio /Video Products
29
10
612 -733 -1959
Leitch Incorporated
BC
3
800 -231 -9673
360 Systems
48
35
818- 991 -0360
Lightwave Systems, Inc.
40
32
214 -741 -5142
Advertising sales offices
NEW YORK, NEW YORK
AGOURA HILLS, CALIFORNIA
TOKYO, JAPAN
Gordon & Associate
Josh Gordon
210 President Street
Brooklyn. NY 11231
Telephone: (718) 802 -0488
FAX: (718) 522 -4751
Joanne Melton
888 7th Avenue. 38th Floor
New York, NY 10106
Telephone: (212) 332 -0628
FAX: (212) 332 -0663
Dunne Hefiter
Orient Echo, Inc.
Mashv Yoshikawa
1101 Grand Maison
Shimomiyabi -Cho 2- I8
OXFORD, ENGLAND
Richard Woolley
Intertec Publishing Corp.
Unit 3, Farm Business Centre,
Clifton Road, Deddington,
Oxford OX 15 4TP England
Telephone: +44(0)1869 338794
FAX: +44 (0) 1869 338040
Telex: 837 -469 BES G
76
Broadcast Engineering August 1994
5236 Colodny Ave., Suite 108
Agoura Hills. CA 91301
Telephone: (818) 707 -6476
FAX: (818) 707 -2313
SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA
MC' Magazine Communications Marketing Corp.
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162. Japan
Telephone: (3) 3235 -5961
Jason Perlman
FAX: (3) 3235 -5852
Telex: J -33376 MYORIENT
Telephone: (310) 458 -9987
FAX: (310) 393 -2381
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
OVERLAND PARK, KANSAS
Deborah Kern
Renée Hamhleton
P.O. Box 12901
Phone: 310-458-8080
FAX: 310 -393 -2381
501 Santa Monica Blvd., Suite 401
Santa Monica. CA 90401
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
Vytas Crbonas
55 East Jackson, Suite
1
100
Chicago, IL 60604
Telephone: (312) 435 -2361
FAX: (312) 922 -1408
Overland Park, KS 66282
(913) 967 -1732 FAX: (913) 967 -1735
As the manufacturer which performed the world's first installation of a full
digital studio back iñ 1985, THOMSON BROADCAST
is
proud to
introduce the 9200, the newest member of its digital switcher family. This
unit
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the crowning achievement of
a
design team that boasts almost
a
decade of experience in conceiving, manufacturing and delivering only
component digital switchers. The 9200
is a
compact
IM/E
+ DSK
with
functional innovations that blow away the standard limitations of switchers
of this size
:
M/E or multilayer, video or key freeze, fluorescent display,
double transition, input level correction, source memory Mem Box with
keyframes and sequences, timeline control, 6 auxiliary busses, and more.
Besides being feature-rich, the 9200 switcher is ergonomically designed
and interfaces easily with existing equipment. THOMSON has funneled its
years of experience to produce
a
powerful, innovative component digital
switcher within an affordable package. We used our expertise to do the
hard work, so you won't have to.
1
THOMSON BROADCAST
9200
Component Digital Switcher
Circle (2) on Reply Card
THOMSON BROADCAST - 17, rue du Petit -Albi - B.P. 8244 - 95801 Cergy- Pontoise Cedex FRANCE - ^^ (1) 34.20.70.00 - Fax : (1) 34.20.70.47. - Telex 616 780 F
USA - THOMSON BROADCAST, Inc - 49, Smith Street - P.O. Box 5266 - ENGLEWOOD NJ 07631 - USA (1 - 201) 569 1650 - Fax : (1 - 201) 569 1511
UNITED KINGDOM - THOMSON BROADCAST, Ltd -18, Horton Road - DATCHET - BERKSHIRE SL3 9ES - ENGLAND (44 - 753) 581 122 - Fax (44 - 753) 581 196
:
:
Nein
Di-ital flhw
Leitch makes
POWER.
of errors in serial signals, as
Digital Glue "', the
well as being
broadcast industry's leading
future -proofed for
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prospective 360Mb /s standards.
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Combine these enhanced
synchronizing and test
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So, when you are considering
Input presence detectors, bit
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Additionally, Leitch provides
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Call us today for our new
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CLOCK
PRESENT
LEITCH®
Leitch Incorporated, 920 Corporate Lane, Chesapeake, Virginia 23320 -3641
-
Tel: 1- 800 -231 -9673 or
Leitch Technology International Inc., 25 Dyas Road, North York, Ontario, Canada M3B 1V7
-
Circle (3) on Reply Card
-804 -548 -2300 Fax: 1- 804 - 548 -4088
Tel: 1- 800-387 -0233 or 1- 416- 445 -9640 Fax: 1- 416-445 -0595
Leitch Europe Limited, 24 Campbell Court, Bramley, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG26 5EG, UK
www.americanradiohistory.com
1
-
Tel: +44 (0) 256 880088 Fax: +44 (0) 256 880428
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