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Joseph D. Cornwall, CTS-D, CTS-I
Technology Evangelist
Our Agenda
USB History
USB
Operational
Theory
Eye Pattern,
Power &
Pyramids
Welcome The
AV Unicorn
Alternate
Mode
Connecting
USB To The
World
Universal Serial Bus
USB Was Designed To Standardize The
Connection Of Computer Peripherals
–Replaced Serial And Parallel Ports
–Eliminated The Need For Separate Power Supplies For
Devices
–Allows For “Hot Swapping”
–Connect Up To 127 “Devices”
–Allows The Flow Of Information Into AND Out Of A
Computer (Host)
USB 1.1, 2.0 And 3.0
USB 1.1
USB 2.0
USB 3.0
1.5 Mbit/s “Low Speed”
480 Mbit/s “Hi Speed”
Devices
5 Gbit/s “Superspeed”
 “Human Interface Devices”
12 Mbit/s “Full Speed”
 Mass Storage Device
 Imaging Device
 Sufficient For Sound
Playback
 Supports Compressed
Video Capability
 625 MB/s, More Than 10 Times
Faster Than USB 2.0
 USB 3.0 Is “Green” And Uses
About One-third The Power Of
USB 2.0
Universal Serial Bus
Super
Speed
Version
Year
Low Speed
Full Speed
1.1
1998
■
■
2.0
2000
■
■
■
3.0
2007
■
■
■
■
3.1
2013
■
■
■
■
High Speed
Super
Speed +
Power Limit
500mA
900mA*
*during data transfer
900mA*
■
You Won’t
Believe Me!
Examination Of USB Bus Speeds
USB Topology
USB leverages an asymmetrical
star topology
Host, downstream ports, peripheral
devices
Each host controller may provide
one or more USB ports
Up to 127 downstream ports may
be supported by a single host
controller
Comparison of USB 2.0 and 3.0 Connectors
USB 2.0 “A” and “B”
USB Type A and Micro B
USB 3.0 “A” and “B”
Types of USB Connectors
USB 3.0
USB Connectivity
Pin 1 Vbus
Pin 2 DPin 3 D+
Pin 4 Ground
USB “A“ Connector
Pin 1 Ground
Pin 2 USB OTG Address Bus
Pin 3 D+
Pin 4 DPin 5 Vbus
USB “Micro B“ Connector
Round Robin Device Enumeration
USB communicates in
“round robin” fashion
Device assigned unique 7-bit
address
Device drivers loaded
Transaction translators convert
between high-speed, full-speed and
low-speed buses
USB Logical Channels
USB communication is based
on logical channels (pipes)
2 types of pipes
–Stream pipe (unidirectional)
for isochronous, interrupt or
bulk
–Message pipe (bi-directional)
for control data flow
USB Transfer Types
Isochronous transfers at some
guaranteed data but with possible
data loss
Interrupt transfers guarantee quick
responses (bounded latency)
Bulk transfers are for large
sporadic transfers using all
remaining available bandwidth, but
with no guarantees on bandwidth
or latency
Control transfers are used for
short, simple commands or device
status response
USB Functions
Any device that can transmit or
receive data is known as a “function”
–A mug warmer, for example, doesn’t transmit
data and is, therefore, not a function
Devices may be composite or
compound
–Composite = 2 functions with a “virtual” hub
–Compound = 2 functions with an actual hub
Compound and Composite
A USB compound device
appears to the host as A hub
with one or more non-removable
USB devices embedded
–Each Function Appears As A Discrete
Device Attached To A Hub
–To The USB System, A Compound
Device Occupies Two Tiers
Understanding Hubs
Hubs consist of 3 components
–Repeater - connects and releases
functions
–Controller - communicates with the
host
–Transaction translator – controls
speeds
Hubs are self-powered or bus
powered
Example Of 7-Port USB Hub
In
Port 1
Tier Occupied
Port 2
Tier Occupied
Port 3
Port 4
In
Port 4
Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
Understanding Extender Systems
USB’s inherent time
limitations allow for cable
length of no more than 5
meters
Hubs regenerate the signal
and are repeaters
Almost all USB extenders are
seen by the host as a hub
USB SuperBooster
Converts USB signal to a
proprietary signal
USB superbooster systems do not
have to occupy a tier
 Superbooster systems may use NAK (not
acknowledged) communication protocol to
“get around” system latency
 Data packet not accepted; please
retransmit
The Universal Battery
Existing USB technology
specifies a 5V (+/-5%) power
supply
–In USB, power is delivered in quanta of
unit loads
–Single unit load in USB 1.1 & 2.0 is
defined as 100mA
–High-power devices draw up to the
maximum number of unit loads
permitted (5 unit loads)
USB 1.1, 2.0 and 3.1(gen 1) all
treat power similarly
Practical USB System Analysis
“The height of cleverness is to
be able to conceal it.” Francois de La Rochefoucauld
PRODUCT LINE, RANGE NAME or DIVSION
USB On One End, HDMI On The Other
Established in 2010
• Current installed base of more than 1.4
billion devices
USB’s Relationship With Time
USB 2.0 is a half-duplex
system that operates within
rigid time constraints where
hubs and functions must
respond to the host within a
tightly defined time frame
5 Meter USB length limitation
is derived from this time
constraint
Velocity of propagation is a measure of how
fast a signal travels over time. In computer
technology, the velocity of propagation of a
signal is the speed of transmission through a
physical medium such as a cable or fiber.
The Need for Speed, USB 3.0
Increases conductor count from
4 to 9
4.8Gbps versus 480Mbps
Asynchronous full duplex
operation
Better power efficiency, powers
more devices from a hub
The Importance of Eye Pattern
Due to eye pattern constraints, USB 3.0 is limited to about 3 meters link-length in practice
USB System Analysis
Bus
Powered
-100mA
If passive,
-100mA
How much power
does this device
require?
•
•
How confident are we that this simple
classroom system will work?
Did we specify a USB power budget?
Hidden Passive Hub
-100mA
What other devices are
connected to the IWB and
how much power to they
require?
USBDeview Screen Cap
www.nirsoft.net/utils/usb_devices_view.html
Engineering The Future In C
“The cloning of humans is on most of
the lists of things to worry about from
science, along with behavior control,
genetic engineering, transplanted
heads, computer poetry and the
unrestrained growth of plastic flowers.”
─ Lewis Thomas
Symmetrical, Compact, Powerful…
“This next generation of USB
technology opens the door for the
invention of an entirely new, super
thin class of devices that consumers
haven’t even seen yet”
USB Type-C is the physical “form factor”
• Designed for 10,000 plug/unplug
cycles
• Robust enough for laptops and
tablets; slim enough for mobile
phones
USB Type C Adapter Cables
Type-C to
Type-B
Type-C to
DisplayPort
Type-C to
Micro-B
Type-C to
Type-A
Apple, Google, Microsoft…
Type C Pin Out
USB Type-C and Power
“Power corrupts. Absolute
power is kind of neat.” ─
John Lehman
USB Battery Charging
Is Now USB Power Delivery
This Will Redefine Docking
A desktop monitor will charge and communicate with smartphones, tablets or
laptops via a single port that provides power, video, audio, data and control.
USB Power Delivery Profiles
Marker and Billboard Chips
Interconnects and devices
will use embedded marker
and billboard chips to ensure
all devices can handle
proposed power levels.
Alternate Realities…
Pop up menu shows potential USB
Type-C connection choices and modes
 Includes support for external MIDI
devices like keyboards.
 Builds on some of the audio features Google
introduced in Lollipop, including a reduction in
latency, multichannel audio stream mixing,
and support for USB microphones, amplifiers,
speakers, and other accessories.
 It is even possible for USB Type C to support
analog ear buds and a microphone for hands-free
operation. It will do this through the Alternate
Mode channel.
Alternate Mode
“Any sufficiently advanced
technology is
indistinguishable from
magic.”
─ Arthur C. Clarke
USB Type C Alternate Mode
Type C Pin Out
Lane 1
Lane 3
Config
HPD
+3.3V
Lane 0
Lane 2
Aux
VR
Let’s Review DisplayPort Pin Out
HEAC
CEC
DDC
DDC
DDC
+5V
HP
Let’s Review HDMI Pin-Out
B B
S S
R R
G G
DisplayPort Dual Mode
The difference
between DP1.1
and DP++ is the
ability of the later
to “speak” to an
HDMI display
without the need
for active
circuitry
USB Type-C Leverages DP 1.1
Active Conversion
USB Type-C To DisplayPort
Cable is reversible with 4 full lanes of DisplayPort
This technology supports legacy DP devices
When connected to DP devices, there is no support for USB or
other alternate modes
The Conclusion Is The Place Where You Get Tired Of
Thinking.
“The best ideas come as
jokes. Make your thinking as
funny as possible.”
David M. Ogilvy
 USB Type C has the ability to unify desktop
connectivity, making data, video, audio and control
available thru a single link
 USB Type C defines a new connector
 USB 3.1 defines a new performance level
 USB PD defines a new association with power supply
and flow
 USB Type C, USB 3.1 and USB PD may be
implemented as discrete elements in new product
design
 USB Type C supports DisplayPort, HDMI and even
analog 3.5mm audio/microphone capabilities in
Alternate Mode
 Major device manufacturers are investing heavily in
USB Type C technology
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