AP Connectivity to Cisco WLC

AP Connectivity to Cisco WLC

AP Connectivity to Cisco WLC

CAPWAP, page 1

Discovering and Joining Cisco WLC, page 12

Authorizing Access Points, page 25

AP 802.1X Supplicant, page 30

Infrastructure MFP, page 34

Troubleshooting the Access Point Join Process, page 37

CAPWAP

Information About Access Point Communication Protocols

Cisco lightweight access points use the IETF standard Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points

Protocol (CAPWAP) to communicate with the controller and other lightweight access points on the network.

CAPWAP, which is based on LWAPP, is a standard, interoperable protocol that enables a controller to manage a collection of wireless access points. CAPWAP is implemented in controller for these reasons:

• To provide an upgrade path from Cisco products that use LWAPP to next-generation Cisco products that use CAPWAP

• To manage RFID readers and similar devices

• To enable controllers to interoperate with third-party access points in the future

LWAPP-enabled access points can discover and join a CAPWAP controller, and conversion to a CAPWAP controller is seamless. For example, the controller discovery process and the firmware downloading process when using CAPWAP are the same as when using LWAPP. The one exception is for Layer 2 deployments, which are not supported by CAPWAP.

You can deploy CAPWAP controllers and LWAPP controllers on the same network. The CAPWAP-enabled software allows access points to join either a controller running CAPWAP or LWAPP. The only exceptions are that the Cisco Aironet 1040, 1140, 1260, 3500, and 3600 Series Access Points, which support only

CAPWAP and join only controllers that run CAPWAP. For example, an 1130 series access point can join a

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Restrictions for Access Point Communication Protocols

controller running either CAPWAP or LWAPP where an1140 series access point can join only a controller that runs CAPWAP.

The following are some guidelines that you must follow for access point communication protocols:

• If your firewall is currently configured to allow traffic only from access points using LWAPP, you must change the rules of the firewall to allow traffic from access points using CAPWAP.

• Ensure that the CAPWAP UDP ports 5246 and 5247 (similar to the LWAPP UDP ports 12222 and

12223) are enabled and are not blocked by an intermediate device that could prevent an access point from joining the controller.

• If access control lists (ACLs) are in the control path between the controller and its access points, you need to open new protocol ports to prevent access points from being stranded.

Restrictions for Access Point Communication Protocols

• On virtual controller platforms, per-client downstream rate limiting is not supported in FlexConnect central switching.

• Rate-limiting is applicable to all traffic destined to the CPU from either direction (wireless or wired).

We recommend that you always run the controller with the default config advanced rate enable command in effect to rate limit traffic to the controller and protect against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. You can use the config advanced rate disable command to stop rate-limiting of Internet Control Message

Protocol (ICMP) echo responses for testing purposes. However, we recommend that you reapply the

config advanced rate enable command after testing is complete.

• Ensure that the controllers are configured with the correct date and time. If the date and time configured on the controller precedes the creation and installation date of certificates on the access points, the access point fails to join the controller.

Viewing CAPWAP Maximum Transmission Unit Information

See the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for the CAPWAP path on the controller by entering this command:

show ap config general Cisco_AP

The MTU specifies the maximum size of any packet (in bytes) in a transmission.

Information similar to the following appears:

Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 9

Cisco AP Name.................................... Maria-1250

Country code..................................... US - United States

Regulatory Domain allowed by Country............. 802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A

AP Country code.................................. US - United States

AP Regulatory Domain............................. 802.11bg:-A

Switch Port Number .............................. 1

802.11a:-A

MAC Address...................................... 00:1f:ca:bd:bc:7c

IP Address Configuration......................... DHCP

IP Address....................................... 1.100.163.193

IP NetMask....................................... 255.255.255.0

CAPWAP Path MTU.................................. 1485

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Debugging CAPWAP

Debugging CAPWAP

Use these commands to obtain CAPWAP debug information:

debug capwap events {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP events.

debug capwap errors {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP errors.

debug capwap detail {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP details.

debug capwap info {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP information.

debug capwap packet {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP packets.

debug capwap payload {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP payloads.

debug capwap hexdump {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of the CAPWAP hexadecimal dump.

debug capwap dtls-keepalive {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of CAPWAP DTLS data keepalive packets.

Preferred Mode

Information About Prefer Mode

Prefer-mode allows an administrator to configure CAPWAP L3 transport (IPv4 and IPv6) through which access points join the WLC (based on its primary/secondary/tertiary configuration).

There are two levels of prefer-mode

• AP Group specific

• Global Configuration

Guidelines for Configuring Preferred Mode

The following preferred mode configurations are available:

• AP-Group specific prefer-mode is pushed to an AP only when the prefer-mode of AP-Group is configured and the AP belongs to that group.

• Global prefer-mode is pushed to default-group APs and to those AP-Groups on which the prefer-mode is not configured.

• By-default, values of prefer-mode for AP-Group and Global is set to un-configured and IPv4 respectively.

• If an AP, with an configured prefer-mode, tries to join the controller and fails, then it will fall back to choose AP-manager of the other transport and joins the same controller. When both transports fail, AP will move to next discovery response.

• In such a scenario, Static IP configuration will take precedence over prefer mode. For example:

◦On the controller, the preferred mode is configured with an IPv4 address.

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Preferred Mode

◦On the AP, Static IPv6 is configured using CLI or GUI.

◦The AP will join the controller using IPv6 transport mode.

• The controllers CLI provides an XML support of prefer-mode.

Configuring CAPWAP Preferred Mode (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Choose Controller > General to open the Global Configuration page. Select the CAPWAP Preferred Mode list box and select either IPv4 or IPv6 as the global CAPWAP Preferred mode.

Note

By default, the controller is configured with an CAPWAP Prefer Mode IPv4 address.

Choose WLAN > Advanced > APGroup > General Tab and select the CAPWAP Preferred Mode checkbox to configure an AP-Group with an IPv4 or IPv6 CAPWAP Preferred Mode.

Choose Wireless > ALL APs > General Tab to check the APs CAPWAP setting. Refer to the IP Config section to view if the AP's CAPWAP Preferred Mode is applied globally or for an AP-Group.

Choose Monitor > Statistics > Preferred Mode to help users to check if the prefer mode command is pushed successfully to an AP.

• Prefer Mode of Global/AP Groups— The name of the AP that is configured with either IPv4, IPv6 or global.

• Total— The total count of APs configured with preferred mode.

• Success— Counts the number of times the AP was successfully configured with the preferred mode.

• Unsupported— AP's that are not capable of joining in with IPv6 CAPWAP.

• Already Configured— Counts the attempts made to configure an already configured AP.

• Per AP Group Configured— Preferred mode configured on per AP-Group.

• Failure— Counts the number of times the AP was failed to get configured with the preferred mode.

Configuring CAPWAP Preferred Mode (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Use this command to configure prefer-mode of AP-Group and all APs. Global prefer-mode will not be applied on APs whose AP-Group prefer-mode is already configured. On successful configuration, the AP will restart CAPWAP and join with the configured prefer-mode after choosing a controller based on its primary/secondary/tertiary configuration.

config ap preferred-mode {IPv4|IPv6}{ <apgroup>|<all>}

Use this command to disable (un-configure) the prefer-mode on the AP.

config ap preferred-mode disable <apgroup>

Note

APs that belong to <apgroup> will restart CAPWAP and join back the controller with global prefer-mode.

Use this command to view the statistics for prefer-mode configuration. The statistics are not cumulative but will be updated for last executed configuration CLI of prefer-mode.

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Step 4

Step 5

Step 6 show ap prefer-mode stats

Use this command to view the prefer-mode configured for all AP-Groups.

show wlan apgroups

Use this command to view the global prefer-mode configured.

show network summary

Use this command to view to check if the prefer mode command is pushed to an AP from global configuration or from an AP-Group specific configuration.

show ap config general <Cisco AP>

(Cisco Controller) >show ap config general AP-3702E

Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 2

Cisco AP Name.................................... AP-3702E

Country code..................................... US - United States

Regulatory Domain allowed by Country............. 802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A

AP Country code.................................. US - United States

AP Regulatory Domain............................. 802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A

Switch Port Number .............................. 1

MAC Address...................................... bc:16:65:09:4e:fc

IPv6 Address Configuration....................... SLAAC

IPv6 Address..................................... 2001:9:2:35:be16:65ff:fe09:4efc

IPv6 Prefix Length............................... 64

Gateway IPv6 Addr................................ fe80::a2cf:5bff:fe51:c4ce

NAT External IP Address.......................... None

CAPWAP Path MTU.................................. 1473

Telnet State..................................... Globally Enabled

Ssh State........................................ Globally Enabled

Cisco AP Location................................ default location

Cisco AP Floor Label............................. 0

Cisco AP Group Name.............................. default-group

Primary Cisco Switch Name........................ amb

Primary Cisco Switch IP Address.................. 9.2.35.25

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

Ethernet Port Speed.............................. Auto

AP Link Latency.................................. Disabled

Rogue Detection.................................. Enabled

AP TCP MSS Adjust................................ Disabled

IPv6 Capwap UDP Lite............................. Enabled

Capwap Prefer Mode............................... Ipv6 (Global Config)

Hotspot Venue Group.............................. Unspecified

Hotspot Venue Type............................... Unspecified

DNS server IP ............................. Not Available

Note

Check for Capwap Prefer Mode in the command output.

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UDP Lite

UDP Lite

Information About UDP Lite

The CAPWAP functionality, in Release 8.0, spans both IPv4 and IPv6. CAPWAP changes span the Controller and the AP. An AP running older image, that is not IPv6 capable, can join an IPv6 capable controller provided it has an IPv4 address and download image and vice-versa.

Implementation of IPv6 mandates complete payload checksum for User Datagram Protocol (UDP) which slows down the performance of the AP and the Controller. To minimize the performance impact, Controller and AP supports UDP Lite that mandates only a header checksum of the datagram, thereby avoiding checksum on the entire packet. Enabling UDP Lite enhances the packet processing time.

UDP Lite protocol uses the IP Protocol ID 136 and uses the same CAPWAP port as used by UDP. Enabling

UDP Lite would require the network firewall to allow protocol 136. Switching between UDP and UDP Lite causes the AP to disjoin and rejoin. UDP Lite is used for data traffic and UDP for control traffic.

A controller with UDP Lite enabled on it can exchange messages with IPv6 enabled APs along with the existing APs that support only IPv4.

Note

A dual stack controller responds to a discovery request with both the IPv4 and IPv6 AP Managers.

AP Discovery mechanism uses both, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses assigned to an AP. An AP will use the source address selection to determine the address to use to reach an IPv6 controller.

Configuring UDP Lite Globally (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.

Under the Global UDP Lite section, select the UDP Lite checkbox to enable UDP Lite globally.

Note

IPv6 UDP Lite is not applicable for APs connected with CAPWAPv4 tunnel. They are applicable only for APs joining the controller using CAPWAPv6 tunnel.

Click Apply to set the global UDP Lite configuration.

If desired, you can choose to override the global UDP Lite configuration by unselecting the Global IPv6 UDP Lite mentioned in Step 2.

Note

Switching between UDP and UDP Lite causes the AP to disjoin and rejoin.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

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UDP Lite

Configuring UDP Lite on AP (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.

Select an AP Name with an IPv6 address and click on it to open the Details page of the selected AP.

Under the Advanced tab, select the UDP Lite checkbox to enable UDP Lite for the selected AP.

Note

This field is displayed only for APs that have joined the controller over CAPWAPv6 tunnel. The Web UI page does not display this field for APs joining the controller over the CAPWAPv4 tunnel .

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Configuring the UDP Lite (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Use this command to enable UDP Lite globally.

config ipv6 capwap udplite enable all

Use this command to enable UDP Lite on a selected AP.

config ipv6 capwap udplite enable <Cisco AP>

Use this command to disable UDP Lite globally.

config ipv6 capwap udplite disable all

Use this command to disable UDP Lite on a selected AP.

config ipv6 capwap udplite disable <Cisco AP>

Use this command to view the status of UDP Lite on a controller.

show ipv6 summary

(Cisco Controller) >show ipv6 summary

Global Config............................... Disabled

Reachable-lifetime value.................... 300

Stale-lifetime value........................ 86400

Down-lifetime value......................... 30

RA Throttling............................... Disabled

RA Throttling allow at-least................ 1

RA Throttling allow at-most................. 1

RA Throttling max-through................... 10

RA Throttling throttle-period............... 600

RA Throttling interval-option............... passthrough

NS Mulitcast CacheMiss Forwarding........... Disabled

NA Mulitcast Forwarding..................... Enabled

IPv6 Capwap UDP Lite........................ Enabled

Operating System IPv6 state ................ Disabled

(Cisco Controller) >

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Data DTLS

Data DTLS

Configuring Data Encryption

Cisco 5500 Series Controllers enable you to encrypt CAPWAP control packets (and optionally, CAPWAP data packets) that are sent between the access point and the controller using Datagram Transport Layer Security

(DTLS). DTLS is a standards-track Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocol based on TLS. CAPWAP control packets are management packets exchanged between a controller and an access point while CAPWAP data packets encapsulate forwarded wireless frames. CAPWAP control and data packets are sent over separate

UDP ports: 5246 (control) and 5247 (data). If an access point does not support DTLS data encryption, DTLS is enabled only for the control plane, and a DTLS session for the data plane is not established.

Note

With Release 8.2, DTLSv1.2 for CAPWAP is not supported. The following are supported for web authentication and WebAdmin based on the configuration:

• TLSv1.2

• TLSv1.0

• SSLv3

• SSLv2

Note

Cisco WLC supports only static configuration of gateway. Therefore, the ICMP redirect to change IP address of the gateway is not considered.

Guidelines for Data Encryption

• Cisco 1130 and 1240 series access points support DTLS data encryption with software-based encryption.

• Cisco 1040, 1140, 1250, 1260, 1530, 1550, 1600, 1700, 2600, 2700, 3500, 3600, and 3700 series access points support DTLS data encryption with hardware-based encryption

• Cisco Aironet 1552 and 1522 outdoor access points support data DTLS.

• DTLS data encryption is not supported on Cisco Aironet 700 Series Access Points.

• DTLS data encryption is enabled automatically for OfficeExtend access points but disabled by default for all other access points. Most access points are deployed in a secure network within a company building, so data encryption is not necessary. In contrast, the traffic between an OfficeExtend access point and the controller travels through an unsecure public network, so data encryption is more important for these access points. When data encryption is enabled, traffic is encrypted at the access point before it is sent to the controller and at the controller before it is sent to the client.

• Encryption limits throughput at both the controller and the access point, and maximum throughput is desired for most enterprise networks.

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• In a Cisco unified local wireless network environment, do not enable DTLS on the Cisco 1130 and 1240 access points, as it may result in severe throughput degradation and may render the APs unusable.

See the OfficeExtend Access Points section for more information on OfficeExtend access points.

• You can use the controller to enable or disable DTLS data encryption for a specific access point or for all access points.

• The availability of data DTLS is as follows:

◦The Cisco 5500 Series Controller will be available with two licenses options: One that allows data

DTLS without any license requirements and another image that requires a license to use data DTLS.

See the

Upgrading or Downgrading DTLS Images for Cisco 5508 WLC

section. The images for the DTLS and licensed DTLS images are as follows:

Licensed DTLS—AS_5500_LDPE_x_x_x_x.aes

Non licensed DTLS—AS_5500_x_x_x_x.aes

◦Cisco 2500, Cisco WiSM2, Cisco Virtual Wireless Controller—By default, these platforms do not contain DTLS. To turn on data DTLS, you must install a license. These platforms have a single image with data DTLS turned off. To use data DTLS you must have a license.

For Cisco Virtual Wireless Controllers without Data DTLS, the average controller throughput is about 200 Mbps. With all APs using Data DTLS, the average controller throughput is about 100

Mbps.

• If your controller does not have a data DTLS license and if the access point associated with the controller has DTLS enabled, the data path will be unencrypted.

• Non-Russian customers using Cisco 5508 Series Controller do not need data DTLS license. However all customers using Cisco 2500 Series Controllers, Cisco 8500 Series Controllers, WISM2, and Cisco

Virtual Wireless Controllers need a data DTLS license to turn on the Data DTLS feature.

Upgrading or Downgrading DTLS Images for Cisco 5508 WLC

Step 1

Step 2

The upgrade operation fails on the first attempt with a warning indicating that the upgrade to a licensed DTLS image is irreversible.

Note

Do not reboot the controller after Step

1.

On a subsequent attempt, the license is applied and the image is successfully updated.

Guidelines When Upgrading to or from a DTLS Image

• You cannot install a regular image (nonlicensed data DTLS) once a licensed data DTLS image is installed.

• You can upgrade from one licensed DTLS image to another licensed DTLS image.

• You can upgrade from a regular image (DTLS) to a licensed DTLS image in a two step process.

• You can use the show sysinfo command to verify the LDPE image, before and after the image upgrade.

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Data DTLS

Configuring Data Encryption (GUI)

Ensure that the base license is installed on the Cisco 5500 Series Controller. Once the license is installed, you can enable data encryption for the access points.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.

Click the name of the access point for which you want to enable data encryption.

Choose the Advanced tab to open the All APs > Details for (Advanced) page.

Select the Data Encryption check box to enable data encryption for this access point or unselect it to disable this feature.

The default value is unselected.

Note

Changing the data encryption mode requires the access points to rejoin the controller.

Click Apply.

Click Save Configuration.

Configuring Data Encryption (CLI)

Note

In images without a DTLS license, the config or show commands are not available.

To enable DTLS data encryption for access points on the controller using the controller CLI, follow these steps:

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Enable or disable data encryption for all access points or a specific access point by entering this command:

config ap link-encryption {enable | disable} {all | Cisco_AP}

The default value is disabled.

Note

Changing the data encryption mode requires the access points to rejoin the controller.

When prompted to confirm that you want to disconnect the access point(s) and attached client(s), enter Y.

Enter the save config command to save your configuration.

See the encryption state of all access points or a specific access point by entering this command:

show ap link-encryption {all | Cisco_AP}

This command also shows authentication errors, which tracks the number of integrity check failures, and replay errors, which tracks the number of times that the access point receives the same packet.

See a summary of all active DTLS connections by entering this command:

show dtls connections

Note

If you experience any problems with DTLS data encryption, enter the debug dtls {all | event | trace | packet}

{enable | disable} command to debug all DTLS messages, events, traces, or packets.

Enable new cipher suites for DTLS connection between AP and controller by entering this command:

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Step 7

config ap dtls-cipher-suite {RSA-AES256-SHA256 | RSA-AES256-SHA | RSA-AES128-SHA}

See the summary of DTLS cipher suite by entering this command:

show ap dtls-cipher-suite

Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points

Information About VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points

You can configure VLAN tagging on the Ethernet interface either directly on the AP console or through the controller. The configuration is saved in the flash memory and all CAPWAP frames use the VLAN tag as configured, along with all the locally switched traffic, which is not mapped to a VLAN.

This feature is not supported on mesh access points that are in bridge mode.

Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Step 8

Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.

Click the AP name from the list of AP names to open the Details page for the AP.

Click the Advanced tab.

In the VLAN Tagging area, select the VLAN Tagging check box.

In the Trunk VLAN ID text box, enter an ID.

If the access point is unable to route traffic through the specified trunk VLAN after about 10 minutes, the access point performs a recovery procedure by rebooting and sending CAPWAP frames in untagged mode to try and reassociate with the controller. The controller sends a trap to a trap server such as the Cisco Prime Infrastructure, which indicates the failure of the trunk VLAN.

If the access point is unable to route traffic through the specified trunk VLAN, it untags the packets and reassociates with the controller. The controller sends a trap to a trap server such as the Cisco Prime Infrastructure, which indicates the failure of the trunk VLAN.

If the trunk VLAN ID is 0, the access point untags the CAPWAP frames.

The VLAN Tag status is displayed showing whether the AP tags or untags the CAPWAP frames.

Click Apply.

You are prompted with a warning message saying that the configuration will result in a reboot of the access point. Click

OK to continue.

Click Save Configuration.

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What to Do Next

After the configuration, the switch or other equipment connected to the Ethernet interface of the AP must also be configured to support tagged Ethernet frames.

Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Configure VLAN tagging for CAPWAP frames from access points by entering this command:

config ap ethernet tag {disable | id vlan-id} {ap-name | all}

You can see VLAN tagging information for an AP or all APs by entering this command:

show ap ethernet tag {summary | ap-name}

Discovering and Joining Cisco WLC

Controller Discovery Process

In a CAPWAP environment, a lightweight access point discovers a controller by using CAPWAP discovery mechanisms and then sends the controller a CAPWAP join request. The controller sends the access point a

CAPWAP join response allowing the access point to join the controller. When the access point joins the controller, the controller manages its configuration, firmware, control transactions, and data transactions.

The following are some guidelines for the controller discovery process:

• Upgrade and downgrade paths from LWAPP to CAPWAP or from CAPWAP to LWAPP are supported.

An access point with an LWAPP image starts the discovery process in LWAPP. If it finds an LWAPP controller, it starts the LWAPP discovery process to join the controller. If it does not find a LWAPP controller, it starts the discovery in CAPWAP. If the number of times that the discovery process starts with one discovery type (CAPWAP or LWAPP) exceeds the maximum discovery count and the access point does not receive a discovery response, the discovery type changes to the other type. For example, if the access point does not discover the controller in LWAPP, it starts the discovery process in CAPWAP.

• If an access point is in the UP state and its IP address changes, the access point tears down the existing

CAPWAP tunnel and rejoins the controller.

• To configure the IP addresses that the controller sends in its CAPWAP discovery responses, use the

config network ap-discovery nat-ip-only {enable | disable} command.

• Access points must be discovered by a controller before they can become an active part of the network.

The lightweight access points support the following controller discovery processes:

• Layer 3 CAPWAP or LWAPP discovery—This feature can be enabled on different subnets from the access point and uses either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and UDP packets rather the MAC addresses used by Layer 2 discovery.

• CAPWAP Multicast Discovery—Broadcast does not exist in IPv6 address. Access point sends

CAPWAP discovery message to all the controllers multicast address (FF01::18C). The controller

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Using DHCP Option 43 and DHCP Option 60

receives the IPv6 discovery request from the AP only if it is in the same L2 segment and sends back the IPv6 discovery response.

• Locally stored controller IPv4 or IPv6 address discovery—If the access point was previously associated to a controller, the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of the primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers are stored in the access point’s nonvolatile memory. This process of storing controller

IPv4 or IPv6 addresses on an access point for later deployment is called priming the access point.

• DHCP server discovery using option 43—This feature uses DHCP option 43 to provide controller

IPv4 addresses to the access points. Cisco switches support a DHCP server option that is typically used for this capability. For more information about DHCP option 43, see the

Using DHCP Option

43 and DHCP Option 60

section.

• DHCP server discovery using option 52 —This feature uses DHCP option 52 to allow the AP to discover the IPv6 address of the controller to which it connects. As part of the DHCPv6 messages, the DHCP server provides the controllers management with an IPv6 address.

• DNS discovery—The access point can discover controllers through your domain name server

(DNS). You must configure your DNS to return controller IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in response to

CISCO-LWAPP-CONTROLLER.localdomain or CISCO-CAPWAP-CONTROLLER.localdomain, where localdomain is the access point domain name.

When an access point receives an IPv4/IPv6 address and DNSv4/DNSv6 information from a

DHCPv4/DHCPv6 server, it contacts the DNS to resolve

CISCO-LWAPP-CONTROLLER.localdomain or CISCO-CAPWAP-CONTROLLER.localdomain.

When the DNS sends a list of controller IP addresses, which may include either IPv4 addresses or

IPv6 addresses or both the addresses, the access point sends discovery requests to the controllers.

Restrictions for Controller Discovery Process

• During the discovery process, the 1040, 1140, 1260, 3500, and 3600 series access points will only query for Cisco CAPWAP Controllers. It will not query for LWAPP controllers. If you want these access points to query for both LWAPP and CAPWAP controllers then you need to update the DNS.

• Ensure that the controller is set to the current time. If the controller is set to a time that has already occurred, the access point might not join the controller because its certificate may not be valid for that time.

• To avoid downtime restart CAPWAP on AP while configuring Global HA , so that AP goes back and joins the backup primary controller. This starts a discovery with the primary controller in the back ground. If the discovery with primary is successful, it goes back and joins the primary again.

Using DHCP Option 43 and DHCP Option 60

Cisco Aironet access points use the type-length-value (TLV) format for DHCP option 43. DHCP servers must be programmed to return the option based on the access point’s DHCP Vendor Class Identifier (VCI) string

(DHCP option 60).

This table lists the VCI strings for Cisco access points capable of operating in lightweight mode.

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Table 1: VCI Strings For Lightweight Access Points

Access Point

Cisco Aironet 1040 Series

Cisco Aironet 1130 Series

Cisco Aironet 1140 Series

Cisco Aironet 1240 Series

Cisco Aironet 1250 Series

Cisco Aironet 1260 Series

Cisco Aironet 1520 Series

Cisco Aironet 1550 Series

Cisco Aironet 1700 Series

Cisco Aironet 2700 Series

Cisco Aironet 3600 Series

Cisco Aironet 3700 Series

Cisco Aironet 3500 Series

Cisco Aironet 700 Series

Cisco AP801 Embedded Access Point

Cisco AP802 Embedded Access Point

VCI String

Cisco AP c1040

Cisco AP c1130

Cisco AP c1140

Cisco AP c1240

Cisco AP c1250

Cisco AP c1260

Cisco AP c1520

Cisco AP c1550

Cisco AP c1700

Cisco AP c2700

Cisco AP c3600

Cisco AP c3700

Cisco AP c3500

Cisco AP c700

Cisco AP801

Cisco AP802

The format of the TLV block is as follows:

• Type: 0xf1 (decimal 241)

• Length: Number of controller IP addresses * 4

• Value: List of the IP addresses of controller management interfaces

See the product documentation for your DHCP server for instructions on configuring DHCP option 43. The

Upgrading Autonomous Cisco Aironet Access Points to Lightweight Mode document contains example steps for configuring option 43 on a DHCP server.

If the access point is ordered with the Service Provider Option - AIR-OPT60-DHCP selected, the VCI string for that access point will be different than those listed above. The VCI string will have the “ServiceProvider”.

For example, a 1260 with this option will return this VCI string: "Cisco AP c1260-ServiceProvider".

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Note

The controller IP address that you obtain from the DHCP server should be a unicast IP address. Do not configure the controller IP address as a multicast address when configuring DHCP Option 43.

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller

When replacing a controller, ensure that access points join the new controller.

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Configure the new controller as a master controller as follows: a) Choose Controller > Advanced > Master Controller Mode to open the Master Controller Configuration page.

b) Select the Master Controller Mode check box.

c) Click Apply to commit your changes.

d) Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

(Optional) Flush the ARP and MAC address tables within the network infrastructure.

Restart the access points.

Once all the access points have joined the new controller, configure the controller not to be a master controller by unselecting the Master Controller Mode check box on the Master Controller Configuration page.

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Configure the new controller as a master controller by entering this command:

config network master-base enable

(Optional) Flush the ARP and MAC address tables within the network infrastructure.

Restart the access points.

Configure the controller not to be a master controller after all the access points have joined the new controller by entering this command:

config network master-base disable

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Backup Cisco WLCs

Information About Configuring Backup Controllers

A single controller at a centralized location can act as a backup for access points when they lose connectivity with the primary controller in the local region. Centralized and regional controllers do not need to be in the same mobility group. You can specify a primary, secondary, and tertiary controller for specific access points in your network. Using the controller GUI or CLI, you can specify the IP addresses of the backup controllers, which allows the access points to fail over to controllers outside of the mobility group.

The following are some guidelines for configuring backup controllers:

• You can configure primary and secondary backup controllers (which are used if primary, secondary, or tertiary controllers are not specified or are not responsive) for all access points connected to the controller as well as various timers, including heartbeat timers and discovery request timers. To reduce the controller failure detection time, you can configure the fast heartbeat interval (between the controller and the access point) with a smaller timeout value. When the fast heartbeat timer expires (at every heartbeat interval), the access point determines if any data packets have been received from the controller within the last interval. If no packets have been received, the access point sends a fast echo request to the controller.

• The access point maintains a list of backup controllers and periodically sends primary discovery requests to each entry on the list. When the access point receives a new discovery response from a controller, the backup controller list is updated. Any controller that fails to respond to two consecutive primary discovery requests is removed from the list. If the access point’s local controller fails, it chooses an available controller from the backup controller list in this order: primary, secondary, tertiary, primary backup, and secondary backup. The access point waits for a discovery response from the first available controller in the backup list and joins the controller if it receives a response within the time configured for the primary discovery request timer. If the time limit is reached, the access point assumes that the controller cannot be joined and waits for a discovery response from the next available controller in the list.

• When an access point's primary controller comes back online, the access point disassociates from the backup controller and reconnects to its primary controller. The access point falls back only to its primary controller and not to any available secondary controller for which it is configured. For example, if an access point is configured with primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers, it fails over to the tertiary controller when the primary and secondary controllers become unresponsive. If the secondary controller comes back online while the primary controller is down, the access point does not fall back to the secondary controller and stays connected to the tertiary controller. The access point waits until the primary controller comes back online to fall back from the tertiary controller to the primary controller.

If the tertiary controller fails and the primary controller is still down, the access point then falls back to the available secondary controller.

Restrictions for Configuring Backup Controllers

• You can configure the fast heartbeat timer only for access points in local and FlexConnect modes.

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Configuring Backup Controllers (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Step 8

Step 9

Step 10

Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.

From the Local Mode AP Fast Heartbeat Timer State drop-down list, choose Enable to enable the fast heartbeat timer for access points in local mode or choose Disable to disable this timer. The default value is Disable.

If you chose Enable in

Step 2

, enter the Local Mode AP Fast Heartbeat Timeout text box to configure the fast heartbeat timer for access points in local mode. Specifying a small heartbeat interval reduces the amount of time it takes to detect a controller failure.

The range for the AP Fast Heartbeat Timeout value for Cisco Flex 7500/8510/8540 Controllers is 10–15 (inclusive) and is 1–10 (inclusive) for other controllers. The default value for the heartbeat timeout for Cisco Flex 7500/8510/8540

Controllers is 10. The default value for other controllers is 1 second.

From the FlexConnect Mode AP Fast Heartbeat Timer State drop-down list, choose Enable to enable the fast heartbeat timer for FlexConnect access points or choose Disable to disable this timer. The default value is Disable.

If you enable FlexConnect fast heartbeat, enter the FlexConnect Mode AP Fast Heartbeat Timeout value in the FlexConnect

Mode AP Fast Heartbeat Timeout text box. Specifying a small heartbeat interval reduces the amount of time it takes to detect a controller failure.

The range for the FlexConnect Mode AP Fast Heartbeat Timeout value for Cisco Flex 7500/8510/8540 Controllers is

10–15 (inclusive) and is 1–10 for other controllers. The default value for the heartbeat timeout for Cisco Flex

7500/8510/8540 Controllers is 10. The default value for other controllers is 1 second.

In the AP Primary Discovery Timeout text box, a value between 30 and 3600 seconds (inclusive) to configure the access point primary discovery request timer. The default value is 120 seconds.

If you want to specify a primary backup controller for all access points, enter the IPv4/IPv6 address of the primary backup controller in the Back-up Primary Controller IP Address (IPv4/IPv6) text box and the name of the controller in the

Back-up Primary Controller Name text box.

Note

The default value for the IP address is 0.0.0.0, which disables the primary backup controller.

If you want to specify a secondary backup controller for all access points, enter the IPv4/IPv6 address of the secondary backup controller in the Back-up Secondary Controller IP Address (IPv4/IPv6) text box and the name of the controller in the Back-up Secondary Controller Name text box.

Note

The default value for the IP address is 0.0.0.0, which disables the secondary backup controller.

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Configure primary, secondary, and tertiary backup controllers for a specific access point as follows: a) Choose Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.

b) Click the name of the access point for which you want to configure primary, secondary, and tertiary backup controllers.

c) Choose the High Availability tab to open the All APs > Details for (High Availability) page.

d) If desired, enter the name and IP address of the primary controller for this access point in the Primary Controller text boxes.

Note

Entering an IP address for the backup controller is optional in this step and the next two steps. If the backup controller is outside the mobility group to which the access point is connected (the primary controller), then you need to provide the IP address of the primary, secondary, or tertiary controller, respectively. The controller name and IP address must belong to the same primary, secondary, or tertiary controller. Otherwise, the access point cannot join the backup controller.

e) If desired, enter the name and IP address of the secondary controller for this access point in the Secondary Controller text boxes.

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f) If desired, enter the name and IP address of the tertiary controller for this access point in the Tertiary Controller text boxes.

g) Click Apply to commit your changes.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Configuring Backup Controllers (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Configure a primary controller for a specific access point by entering this command:

config ap primary-base controller_name Cisco_AP [controller_ip_address]

Note

The controller_ip_address parameter in this command and the next two commands is optional. If the backup controller is outside the mobility group to which the access point is connected (the primary controller), then you need to provide the IP address of the primary, secondary, or tertiary controller, respectively. In each command, the controller_name and controller_ip_address must belong to the same primary, secondary, or tertiary controller. Otherwise, the access point cannot join the backup controller.

Configure a secondary controller for a specific access point by entering this command:

config ap secondary-base controller_name Cisco_AP [controller_ip_address]

Configure a tertiary controller for a specific access point by entering this command:

config ap tertiary-base controller_name Cisco_AP [controller_ip_address]

Configure a primary backup controller for all access points by entering this command:

config advanced backup-controller primary system name ip_addr

Note

This command is valid for both IPv4 and

IPv6

Configure a secondary backup controller for all access points by entering this command:

config advanced backup-controller secondary system name ip_addr

Note

To delete a primary or secondary backup controller entry, enter 0.0.0.0 for the controller IPv4/IPv6 address.

Note

This command is valid for both IPv4 and

IPv6

Enable or disable the fast heartbeat timer for local or FlexConnect access points by entering this command:

config advanced timers ap-fast-heartbeat {local | flexconnect | all} {enable | disable} interval where all is both local and FlexConnect access points, and interval is a value between 10 and 15 seconds for Cisco

7500/8510/8540 controllers, and 1 and 10 seconds for other controllers. Specifying a small heartbeat interval reduces the amount of time that it takes to detect a controller failure. The default value is disabled.Configure the access point heartbeat timer by entering this command:

config advanced timers ap-heartbeat-timeout interval where interval is a value between 1 and 30 seconds (inclusive). This value should be at least three times larger than the fast heartbeat timer. The default value is 30 seconds.

Caution

Do not enable the fast heartbeat timer with the high latency link. If you have to enable the fast heartbeat timer, the timer value must be greater than the latency.

Configure the access point primary discovery request timer by entering this command:

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Step 8

Step 9

Step 10

Step 11

config advanced timers ap-primary-discovery-timeout interval where interval is a value between 30 and 3600 seconds. The default value is 120 seconds.

Configure the access point discovery timer by entering this command:

config advanced timers ap-discovery-timeout interval where interval is a value between 1 and 10 seconds (inclusive). The default value is 10 seconds.

Configure the 802.11 authentication response timer by entering this command:

config advanced timers auth-timeout interval where interval is a value between 5 and 600 seconds (inclusive). The default value is 10 seconds.

Save your changes by entering this command:

save config

See an access point’s configuration by entering these commands:

show ap config general Cisco_AP

show advanced backup-controller

show advanced timers

Information similar to the following appears for the show ap config general Cisco_AP command for Primary Cisco

Switch IP Address using IPv4:

Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 1

Cisco AP Name.................................... AP5

Country code..................................... US - United States

Regulatory Domain allowed by Country............. 802.11bg:-AB 802.11a:-AB

AP Country code.................................. US - United States

AP Regulatory Domain............................. 802.11bg:-A

Switch Port Number .............................. 1

802.11a:-N

MAC Address...................................... 00:13:80:60:48:3e

IP Address Configuration......................... DHCP

IP Address....................................... 1.100.163.133

...

Primary Cisco Switch Name........................ 1-5508

Primary Cisco Switch IP Address.................. 2.2.2.2

Secondary Cisco Switch Name...................... 1-4404

Secondary Cisco Switch IP Address................ 2.2.2.2

Tertiary Cisco Switch Name....................... 2-4404

Tertiary Cisco Switch IP Address................. 1.1.1.4

...

Information similar to the following appears for the show ap config general Cisco_AP command for Primary Cisco

Switch IP Address using IPv6:

Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 1

Cisco AP Name.................................... AP6

Country code..................................... US - United States

Regulatory Domain allowed by Country............. 802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A

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AP Country code.................................. US - United States

AP Regulatory Domain............................. 802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A

Switch Port Number .............................. 13

MAC Address...................................... 44:2b:03:9a:9d:30

IPv6 Address Configuration....................... DHCPv6

IPv6 Address..................................... 2001:9:5:96:295d:3b2:2db2:9b47

IPv6 Prefix Length............................... 128

Gateway IPv6 Addr................................ fe80::6abd:abff:fe8c:764a

NAT External IP Address.......................... None

CAPWAP Path MTU.................................. 1473

Telnet State..................................... Globally Disabled

Ssh State........................................ Globally Disabled

Cisco AP Location................................ _5500

Cisco AP Floor Label............................. 0

Cisco AP Group Name.............................. IPv6-Same_VLAN

Primary Cisco Switch Name........................ Maulik_WLC_5500-HA

Primary Cisco Switch IP Address.................. 2001:9:5:95::11

Information similar to the following appears for the show advanced backup-controller command when configured using IPv4:

AP primary Backup Controller .................... controller1 10.10.10.10

AP secondary Backup Controller ............... 0.0.0.0

Information similar to the following appears for the show advanced backup-controller command when configured using IPv6:

AP primary Backup Controller .................... WLC_5500-2 fd09:9:5:94::11

AP secondary Backup Controller .................. vWLC 9.5.92.11

Information similar to the following appears for the show advanced timers command:

Authentication Response Timeout (seconds)........ 10

Rogue Entry Timeout (seconds).................... 1300

AP Heart Beat Timeout (seconds).................. 30

AP Discovery Timeout (seconds)................... 10

AP Local mode Fast Heartbeat (seconds)........... 10 (enable)

AP flexconnect mode Fast Heartbeat (seconds)........... disable

AP Primary Discovery Timeout (seconds)........... 120

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Failover Priority for APs

Information About Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points

Each controller has a defined number of communication ports for access points. When multiple controllers with unused access point ports are deployed on the same network and one controller fails, the dropped access points automatically poll for unused controller ports and associate with them.

The following are some guidelines for configuring failover priority for access points:

• You can configure your wireless network so that the backup controller recognizes a join request from a higher-priority access point and if necessary disassociates a lower-priority access point as a means to provide an available port.

• Failover priority is not in effect during the regular operation of your wireless network. It takes effect only if there are more association requests after a controller failure than there are available backup controller ports.

• To configure this feature, you must enable failover priority on your network and assign priorities to the individual access points.

• By default, all access points are set to priority level 1, which is the lowest priority level. Therefore, you need to assign a priority level only to those access points that warrant a higher priority.

Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Step 8

Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.

From the Global AP Failover Priority drop-down list, choose Enable to enable access point failover priority or choose

Disable to disable this feature and turn off any access point priority assignments. The default value is Disable.

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.

Click the name of the access point for which you want to configure failover priority.

Choose the High Availability tab. The All APs > Details for (High Availability) page appears.

From the AP Failover Priority drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the priority of the access point:

Low—Assigns the access point to the level 1 priority, which is the lowest priority level. This is the default value.

Medium—Assigns the access point to the level 2 priority.

High—Assigns the access point to the level 3 priority.

Critical—Assigns the access point to the level 4 priority, which is the highest priority level.

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Step 9

Step 10

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Enable or disable access point failover priority by entering this command:

config network ap-priority {enable | disable}

Specify the priority of an access point by entering this command:

config ap priority {1 | 2 | 3 | 4} Cisco_AP where 1 is the lowest priority level and 4 is the highest priority level. The default value is 1.

Enter the save config command to save your changes.

Viewing Failover Priority Settings (CLI)

• Confirm whether access point failover priority is enabled on your network by entering this command:

show network summary

Information similar to the following appears:

RF-Network Name............................. mrf

Web Mode.................................... Enable

Secure Web Mode............................. Enable

Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option High.......... Disable

Secure Shell (ssh).......................... Enable

Telnet...................................... Enable

Ethernet Multicast Mode..................... Disable

Ethernet Broadcast Mode..................... Disable

IGMP snooping............................... Disabled

IGMP timeout................................ 60 seconds

User Idle Timeout........................... 300 seconds

ARP Idle Timeout............................ 300 seconds

Cisco AP Default Master..................... Disable

AP Join Priority......................... Enabled

...

• See the failover priority for each access point by entering this command:

show ap summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of APs.................................... 2

Global AP User Name.............................. user

Global AP Dot1x User Name........................ Not Configured

AP Name Slots AP Model Ethernet MAC Location Port Country Priority

---------------------------- ---------------------------- ------- -------

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ap:1252 2 ap:1121 1

AIR-LAP1252AG-A-K9 00:1b:d5:13:39:74 hallway 6 1

AIR-LAP1121G-A-K9 00:1b:d5:a9:ad:08 reception 1

US

US

1

3

To see the summary of a specific access point, you can specify the access point name. You can also use wildcard searches when filtering for access points.

AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count

Information About Configuring the AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count

The controller and the APs exchange packets using the CAPWAP reliable transport protocol. For each request, a response is defined. This response is used to acknowledge the receipt of the request message. Response messages are not explicitly acknowledged; therefore, if a response message is not received, the original request message is retransmitted after the retransmit interval. If the request is not acknowledged after a maximum number of retransmissions, the session is closed and the APs reassociate with another controller.

Restrictions for Access Point Retransmission Interval and Retry Count

• You can configure the retransmission intervals and retry count both at a global as well as a specific access point level. A global configuration applies these configuration parameters to all the access points.

That is, the retransmission interval and the retry count are uniform for all access points. Alternatively, when you configure the retransmission level and retry count at a specific access point level, the values are applied to that particular access point. The access point specific configuration has a higher precedence than the global configuration.

• Retransmission intervals and the retry count do not apply for mesh access points.

Configuring the AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count (GUI)

You can configure the retransmission interval and retry count for all APs globally or a specific AP.

Step 1

Step 2

To configure the controller to set the retransmission interval and retry count globally using the controller GUI, follow these steps: a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration.

b) Choose one of the following options under the AP Transmit Config Parameters section:

AP Retransmit Count—Enter the number of times you want the access point to retransmit the request to the controller. This parameter can take values between 3 and 8.

AP Retransmit Interval—Enter the time duration between the retransmission of requests. This parameter can take values between 2 and 5.

c) Click Apply.

To configure the controller to set the retransmission interval and retry count for a specific access point, follow these steps: a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs.

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b) Click on the AP Name link for the access point on which you want to set the values.

The All APs > Details page appears.

c) Click the Advanced Tab to open the advanced parameters page.

d) Choose one of the following parameters under the AP Transmit Config Parameters section:

AP Retransmit Count—Enter the number of times that you want the access point to retransmit the request to the controller. This parameter can take values between 3 and 8.

AP Retransmit Interval—Enter the time duration between the retransmission of requests. This parameter can take values between 2 and 5.

e) Click Apply.

Configuring the Access Point Retransmission Interval and Retry Count (CLI)

You can configure the retransmission interval and retry count for all access points globally or a specific access point.

• Configure the retransmission interval and retry count for all access points globally by entering the this command:

config ap retransmit {interval | count} seconds all

The valid range for the interval parameter is between 3 and 8. The valid range for the count parameter is between 2 and 5.

• Configure the retransmission interval and retry count for a specific access point, by entering this command:

config ap retransmit {interval | count} seconds Cisco_AP

The valid range for the interval parameter is between 3 and 8. The valid range for the count parameter is between 2 and 5.

• See the status of the configured retransmit parameters on all or specific APs by entering this command:

show ap retransmit all

Note

Because retransmit and retry values cannot be set for access points in mesh mode, these values are displayed as N/A (not applicable).

• See the status of the configured retransmit parameters on a specific access point by entering this command:

show ap retransmit Cisco_AP

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Authorizing Access Points

Authorizing Access Points

Authorizing Access Points Using SSCs

The Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points protocol (CAPWAP) secures the control communication between the access point and controller by a secure key distribution requiring X.509 certificates on both the access point and controller. CAPWAP relies on provisioning of the X.509 certificates. Cisco

Aironet access points shipped before July 18, 2005 do not have a MIC, so these access points create an SSC when upgraded to operate in lightweight mode. Controllers are programmed to accept local SSCs for authentication of specific access points and do not forward those authentication requests to a RADIUS server.

This behavior is acceptable and secure.

Authorizing Access Points for Virtual Controllers Using SSC

Virtual controllers use SSC certificates instead of Manufacturing Installed Certificates (MIC) used by physical controllers. You can configure the controller to allow an AP to validate the SSC of the virtual controller.

When an AP validates the SSC, the AP checks if the hash key of the virtual controller matches the hash key stored in its flash. If a match is found, the AP associates with the controller. If a match is not found, the validation fails and the AP disconnects from the controller and restarts the discovery process. By default, hash validation is enabled. An AP must have the virtual controller hash key in its flash before associating with the virtual controller. If you disable hash validation of the SSC, the AP bypasses the hash validation and directly moves to the Run state. APs can associate with a physical controller, download the hash keys and then associate with a virtual controller. If the AP is associated with a physical controller and hash validation is disabled, the

AP associates with any virtual controller without hash validation. The hash key of the virtual controller can be configured for a mobility group member. This hash key gets pushed to the APs, so that the APs can validate the hash key of the controller.

Configuring SSC (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Choose Security > Certificate > SSC to open the Self Significant Certificates (SSC) page.

The SSC device certification details are displayed.

Select the Enable SSC Hash Validation check box to enable the validation of the hash key.

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Configuring SSC (CLI)

Step 1

To configure hash validation of SSC, enter this command:

config certificate ssc hash validation {enable | disable}

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Step 2

To see the hash key details, enter this command:

show certificate ssc

Authorizing Access Points Using MICs

You can configure controllers to use RADIUS servers to authorize access points using MICs. The controller uses an access point’s MAC address as both the username and password when sending the information to a

RADIUS server. For example, if the MAC address of the access point is 000b85229a70, both the username and password used by the controller to authorize the access point are 000b85229a70.

Note

The lack of a strong password by the use of the access point’s MAC address should not be an issue because the controller uses MIC to authenticate the access point prior to authorizing the access point through the

RADIUS server. Using MIC provides strong authentication.

Note

If you use the MAC address as the username and password for access point authentication on a RADIUS

AAA server, do not use the same AAA server for client authentication.

Authorizing Access Points Using LSCs

You can use an LSC if you want your own public key infrastructure (PKI) to provide better security, to have control of your certificate authority (CA), and to define policies, restrictions, and usages on the generated certificates.

The LSC CA certificate is installed on access points and controllers. You need to provision the device certificate on the access point. The access point gets a signed X.509 certificate by sending a certRequest to the controller.

The controller acts as a CA proxy and receives the certRequest signed by the CA for the access point.

Note

When the CA server is in manual mode and if there is an AP entry in the LSC SCEP table that is pending enrollment, the controller waits for the CA server to send a pending response. If there is no response from the CA server, the controller retries a total of three times to get a response, after which the fallback mode comes into effect where the AP provisioning times out and the AP reboots and comes up with MIC.

Note

LSC on controller does not take password challenge. Therefore, for LSC to work, you must disable password challenge on the CA server.

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Configuring Locally Significant Certificates (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Step 8

Step 9

Step 10

Step 11

Step 12

Step 13

Choose Security > Certificate > LSC to open the Local Significant Certificates (LSC) - General page.

Select the Enable LSC on Controller check box to enable the LSC on the system.

In the CA Server URL text box, enter the URL to the CA server. You can enter either a domain name or an IP address.

In the Params text boxes, enter the parameters for the device certificate. The key size is a value from 384 to 2048 (in bits), and the default value is 2048.

Click Apply to commit your changes.

To add the CA certificate into the controller’s CA certificate database, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the certificate type and choose Add.

Choose the AP Provisioning tab to open the Local Significant Certificates (LSC) - AP Provisioning page.

Select the Enable check box and click Update to provision the LSC on the access point.

When a message appears indicating that the access points will be rebooted, click OK.

In the Number of Attempts to LSC text box, enter the number of times that the access point attempts to join the controller using an LSC before the access point reverts to the default certificate (MIC or SSC). The range is 0 to 255 (inclusive), and the default value is 3.

Note

If you set the number of retries to a nonzero value and the access point fails to join the controller using an LSC after the configured number of retries, the access point reverts to the default certificate. If you set the number of retries to 0 and the access point fails to join the controller using an LSC, the access point does not attempt to join the controller using the default certificate.

Note

If you are configuring LSC for the first time, we recommend that you configure a nonzero value.

Enter the access point MAC address in the AP Ethernet MAC Addresses text box and click Add to add access points to the provision list.

Note

To remove an access point from the provision list, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the access point and choose Remove.

Note

If you configure an access point provision list, only the access points in the provision list are provisioned when you enable AP provisioning. If you do not configure an access point provision list, all access points with a MIC or SSC certificate that join the controller are LSC provisioned.

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Configuring Locally Significant Certificates (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Enable LSC on the system by entering this command:

config certificate lsc {enable | disable}

Configure the URL to the CA server by entering this command:

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Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Step 8

Step 9

config certificate lsc ca-server http://url:port/path where url can be either a domain name or IP address.

Note

You can configure only one CA server. To configure a different CA server, delete the configured CA server using the config certificate lsc ca-server delete command, and then configure a different CA server.

Add the LSC CA certificate into the controller’s CA certificate database by entering this command:

config certificate lsc ca-cert {add | delete}

Configure the parameters for the device certificate by entering this command:

config certificate lsc subject-params country state city orgn dept e-mail

Note

The common name (CN) is generated automatically on the access point using the current MIC/SSC format

Cxxxx-MacAddr, where xxxx is the product number.

Configure a key size by entering this command:

config certificate lsc other-params keysize

The keysize is a value from 384 to 2048 (in bits), and the default value is 2048.

Add access points to the provision list by entering this command:

config certificate lsc ap-provision auth-list add AP_mac_addr

Note

Note

To remove access points from the provision list, enter the config certificate lsc ap-provision auth-list delete

AP_mac_addr command.

If you configure an access point provision list, only the access points in the provision list are provisioned when you enable AP provisioning (in Step 8). If you do not configure an access point provision list, all access points with a MIC or SSC certificate that join the controller are LSC provisioned.

Configure the number of times that the access point attempts to join the controller using an LSC before the access point reverts to the default certificate (MIC or SSC) by entering this command:

config certificate lsc ap-provision revert-cert retries where retries is a value from 0 to 255, and the default value is 3.

Note

Note

If you set the number of retries to a nonzero value and the access point fails to join the controller using an LSC after the configured number of retries, the access point reverts to the default certificate. If you set the number of retries to 0 and the access point fails to join the controller using an LSC, the access point does not attempt to join the controller using the default certificate.

If you are configuring LSC for the first time, Cisco recommends that you configure a nonzero value.

Provision the LSC on the access point by entering this command:

config certificate lsc ap-provision {enable | disable}

See the LSC summary by entering this command:

show certificate lsc summary

Information similar to the following appears:

LSC Enabled.......................................... Yes

LSC CA-Server........................................ http://10.0.0.1:8080/caserver

LSC AP-Provisioning.................................. Yes

Provision-List................................... Not Configured

LSC Revert Count in AP reboots................... 3

LSC Params:

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Step 10

Country.......................................... 4

State............................................ ca

City............................................. ss

Orgn............................................. org

Dept............................................. dep

Email............................................ [email protected]

KeySize.......................................... 390

LSC Certs:

CA Cert.......................................... Not Configured

RA Cert....................................... Not Configured

See details about the access points that are provisioned using LSC by entering this command:

show certificate lsc ap-provision

Information similar to the following appears:

LSC AP-Provisioning........................... Yes

Provision-List................................ Present

Idx Mac Address

--------------

1 00:18:74:c7:c0:90

Authorizing Access Points (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Choose Security > AAA > AP Policies to open the AP Policies page.

If you want the access point to accept self-signed certificates (SSCs), manufactured-installed certificates (MICs), or local significant certificates (LSCs), select the appropriate check box.

If you want the access points to be authorized using a AAA RADIUS server, select the Authorize MIC APs against

auth-list or AAA check box.

If you want the access points to be authorized using an LSC, select the Authorize LSC APs against auth-list check box.

Enter the Ethernet MAC address for all APs except when in bridge mode (where you need to enter the radio Mac address).

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Follow these steps to add an access point to the controller’s authorization list: a) Click Add to access the Add AP to Authorization List area.

b) In the MAC Address text box, enter the MAC address of the access point.

c) From the Certificate Type drop-down list, choose MIC, SSC, or LSC.

d) Click Add. The access point appears in the access point authorization list.

Note

To remove an access point from the authorization list, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the access point and choose Remove.

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Authorizing Access Points (CLI)

Note

To search for a specific access point in the authorization list, enter the MAC address of the access point in the Search by MAC text box and click Search.

Authorizing Access Points (CLI)

• Configure an access point authorization policy by entering this command:

config auth-list ap-policy {authorize-ap {enable | disable} | authorize-lsc-ap {enable | disable}}

• Configure an access point to accept manufactured-installed certificates (MICs), self-signed certificates

(SSCs), or local significant certificates (LSCs) by entering this command:

config auth-list ap-policy {mic | ssc | lsc {enable | disable}}

• Configure the user name to be used in access point authorization requests.

config auth-list ap-policy {authorize-ap username {ap_name | ap_mac | both}}

• Add an access point to the authorization list by entering this command:

config auth-list add {mic | ssc | lsc} ap_mac [ap_key] where ap_key is an optional key hash value equal to 20 bytes or 40 digits.

Note

To delete an access point from the authorization list, enter this command: config auth-list delete ap_mac.

• See the access point authorization list by entering this command:

show auth-list

AP 802.1X Supplicant

Information About Configuring Authentication for Access Points

You can configure 802.1X authentication between a lightweight access point and a Cisco switch. The access point acts as an 802.1X supplicant and is authenticated by the switch using EAP-FAST with anonymous PAC provisioning.

You can configure global authentication settings that all access points that are currently associated with the controller and any that associate in the future. You can also override the global authentication settings and assign unique authentication settings for a specific access point.

Prerequisites for Configuring Authentication for Access Points

Step 1

If the access point is new, do the following:

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Restrictions for Authenticating Access Points

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

a) Boot the access point with the installed recovery image.

b) If you choose not to follow this suggested flow and instead enable 802.1X authentication on the switch port connected to the access point prior to the access point joining the controller, enter this command:

lwapp ap dot1x username username password password

Note

Note

If you choose to follow this suggested flow and enable 802.1X authentication on the switch port after the access point has joined the controller and received the configured 802.1X credentials, you do not need to enter this command.

This command is available only for access points that are running the 5.1, 5.2, 6.0, or 7.0 recovery image.

Connect the access point to the switch port.

Install the 5.1, 5.2, 6.0, or 7.0 image on the controller and reboot the controller.

Allow all access points to join the controller.

Configure authentication on the controller. See the

Configuring Authentication for Access Points (GUI)

section or the

Configuring Authentication for Access Points (CLI)

section for information about configuring authentication on the controller.

Configure the switch to allow authentication. See the

Configuring the Switch for Authentication

section for information about configuring the switch for authentication.

Restrictions for Authenticating Access Points

• The OEAP 600 Series access points do not support LEAP.

• The Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) guard should always be disabled on the switch port connected to the AP. Enabling of BPDU guard is allowed only when the switch puts the port in port fast mode.

Configuring Authentication for Access Points (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.

Under 802.1x Supplicant Credentials, select the 802.1x Authentication check box.

In the Username text box, enter the username that is to be inherited by all access points that join the controller.

In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter the password that is to be inherited by all access points that join the controller.

Note

You must enter a strong password in these text boxes. Strong passwords have the following characteristics:

• They are at least eight characters long

• They contain a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols

• They are not a word in any language

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Configuring Authentication for Access Points (CLI)

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Click Apply to send the global authentication username and password to all access points that are currently joined to the controller and to any that join the controller in the future.

Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

If desired, you can choose to override the global authentication settings and assign a unique username and password to a specific access point as follows: a) Choose Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.

b) Click the name of the access point for which you want to override the authentication settings.

c) Click the Credentials tab to open the All APs > Details for (Credentials) page.

d) Under 802.1x Supplicant Credentials, select the Over-ride Global Credentials check box to prevent this access point from inheriting the global authentication username and password from the controller. The default value is unselected.

e) In the Username, Password, and Confirm Password text boxes, enter the unique username and password that you want to assign to this access point.

Note

The information that you enter is retained across controller and access point reboots and whenever the access point joins a new controller.

f) Click Apply to commit your changes.

g) Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Note

If you want to force this access point to use the controller’s global authentication settings, unselect the

Over-ride Global Credentials check box.

Configuring Authentication for Access Points (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Configure the global authentication username and password for all access points currently joined to the controller as well as any access points that join the controller in the future by entering this command:

config ap 802.1Xuser add username ap-username password ap-password all

Note

You must enter a strong password for the ap-password parameter. Strong passwords have the following characteristics:

• They are at least eight characters long.

• They contain a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols.

• They are not a word in any language.

(Optional) Override the global authentication settings and assign a unique username and password to a specific access point. To do so, enter this command:

config ap 802.1Xuser add username ap-username password ap-password Cisco_AP

Note

You must enter a strong password for the ap-password parameter. See the note in

Step 1

for the characteristics of strong passwords.

The authentication settings that you enter in this command are retained across controller and access point reboots and whenever the access point joins a new controller.

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Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Note

If you want to force this access point to use the controller’s global authentication settings, enter the config ap

802.1Xuser delete Cisco_AP command. The following message appears after you execute this command: “AP reverted to global username configuration.

Enter the save config command to save your changes.

(Optional) Disable 802.1X authentication for all access points or for a specific access point by entering this command:

config ap 802.1Xuser disable {all | Cisco_AP}

Note

You can disable 802.1X authentication for a specific access point only if global 802.1X authentication is not enabled. If global 802.1X authentication is enabled, you can disable 802.1X for all access points only.

See the authentication settings for all access points that join the controller by entering this command:

show ap summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of APs.................................... 1

Global AP User Name.............................. globalap

Global AP Dot1x User Name........................ globalDot1x

See the authentication settings for a specific access point by entering this command:

show ap config general Cisco_AP

Note

Note

The name of the access point is case sensitive.

If this access point is configured for global authentication, the AP Dot1x User Mode text boxes shows “Automatic.”

If the global authentication settings have been overwritten for this access point, the AP Dot1x User Mode text box shows “Customized.”

Configuring the Switch for Authentication

To enable 802.1X authentication on a switch port, on the switch CLI, enter these commands:

• Switch# configure terminal

• Switch(config)# dot1x system-auth-control

• Switch(config)# aaa new-model

• Switch(config)# aaa authentication dot1x default group radius

• Switch(config)# radius-server host ip_addr auth-port port acct-port port key key

• Switch(config)# interface fastethernet2/1

• Switch(config-if)# switchport mode access

• Switch(config-if)# dot1x pae authenticator

• Switch(config-if)# dot1x port-control auto

• Switch(config-if)# end

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Infrastructure MFP

Infrastructure MFP

Information About Management Frame Protection

Management frame protection (MFP) provides security for the otherwise unprotected and unencrypted 802.11

management messages passed between access points and clients. MFP provides both infrastructure and client support.

• Infrastructure MFP—Protects management frames by detecting adversaries that are invoking denial-of-service attacks, flooding the network with associations and probes, interjecting as rogue access points, and affecting network performance by attacking the QoS and radio measurement frames.

Infrastructure MFP is a global setting that provides a quick and effective means to detect and report phishing incidents.

Specifically, infrastructure MFP protects 802.11 session management functions by adding message integrity check information elements (MIC IEs) to the management frames emitted by access points

(and not those emitted by clients), which are then validated by other access points in the network.

Infrastructure MFP is passive. It can detect and report intrusions but has no means to stop them.

• Client MFP—Shields authenticated clients from spoofed frames, preventing many of the common attacks against wireless LANs from becoming effective. Most attacks, such as deauthentication attacks, revert to simply degrading performance by contending with valid clients.

Specifically, client MFP encrypts management frames are sent between access points and CCXv5 clients so that both the access points and clients can take preventative action by dropping spoofed class 3 management frames (that is, management frames passed between an access point and a client that is authenticated and associated). Client MFP leverages the security mechanisms defined by IEEE 802.11i

to protect the following types of class 3 unicast management frames: disassociation, deauthentication, and QoS (WMM) action. Client MFP protects a client-access point session from the most common type of denial-of-service attack. It protects class 3 management frames by using the same encryption method used for the session’s data frames. If a frame received by the access point or client fails decryption, it is dropped, and the event is reported to the controller.

To use client MFP, clients must support CCXv5 MFP and must negotiate WPA2 using either TKIP or

AES-CCMP. EAP or PSK may be used to obtain the PMK. CCKM and controller mobility management are used to distribute session keys between access points for Layer 2 and Layer 3 fast roaming.

Note

To prevent attacks using broadcast frames, access points supporting CCXv5 will not emit any broadcast class 3 management frames (such as disassociation, deauthentication, or action). CCXv5 clients and access points must discard broadcast class 3 management frames.

Client MFP supplements infrastructure MFP rather than replaces it because infrastructure

MFP continues to detect and report invalid unicast frames sent to clients that are not client-MFP capable as well as invalid class 1 and 2 management frames. Infrastructure

MFP is applied only to management frames that are not protected by client MFP.

Infrastructure MFP consists of three main components:

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Restrictions for Management Frame Protection

• Management frame protection—The access point protects the management frames it transmits by adding a MIC IE to each frame. Any attempt to copy, alter, or replay the frame invalidates the MIC, causing any receiving access point configured to detect MFP frames to report the discrepancy. MFP is supported for use with Cisco Aironet lightweight access points.

• Management frame validation—In infrastructure MFP, the access point validates every management frame that it receives from other access points in the network. It ensures that the MIC IE is present (when the originator is configured to transmit MFP frames) and matches the content of the management frame.

If it receives any frame that does not contain a valid MIC IE from a BSSID belonging to an access point that is configured to transmit MFP frames, it reports the discrepancy to the network management system.

In order for the timestamps to operate properly, all controllers must be Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronized.

• Event reporting—The access point notifies the controller when it detects an anomaly, and the controller aggregates the received anomaly events and can report the results through SNMP traps to the network management system.

Note

Client MFP uses the same event reporting mechanisms as infrastructure MFP.

Infrastructure MFP is disabled by default and can be enabled globally. When you upgrade from a previous software release, infrastructure MFP is disabled globally if access point authentication is enabled because the two features are mutually exclusive. Once infrastructure MFP is enabled globally, signature generation (adding

MICs to outbound frames) can be disabled for selected WLANs, and validation can be disabled for selected access points.

Client MFP is enabled by default on WLANs that are configured for WPA2. It can be disabled, or it can be made mandatory (in which case, only clients that negotiate MFP are allowed to associate) on selected WLANs.

Restrictions for Management Frame Protection

• Lightweight access points support infrastructure MFP in local and monitor modes and in FlexConnect mode when the access point is connected to a controller. They support client MFP in local, FlexConnect, and bridge modes.

• OEAP 600 Series Access points do not support MFP.

• Client MFP is supported for use only with CCXv5 clients using WPA2 with TKIP or AES-CCMP.

• Non-CCXv5 clients may associate to a WLAN if client MFP is disabled or optional.

• Error reports generated on a FlexConnect access point in standalone mode cannot be forwarded to the controller and are dropped.

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Configuring Management Frame Protection (GUI)

Configuring Management Frame Protection (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Choose Security> Wireless Protection Policies > AP Authentication/MFP to open the AP Authentication Policy page.

Enable infrastructure MFP globally for the controller by choosing Management Frame Protection from the Protection

Type drop-down list.

Click Apply to commit your changes.

Note

If more than one controller is included in the mobility group, you must configure an NTP/SNTP server on all controllers in the mobility group that are configured for infrastructure MFP.

Configure client MFP for a particular WLAN after infrastructure MFP has been enabled globally for the controller as follows: a) Choose WLANs.

b) Click the profile name of the desired WLAN. The WLANs > Edit page appears.

c) Choose Advanced. The WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page appears.

d) Choose Disabled, Optional, or Required from the MFP Client Protection drop-down list. The default value is

Optional. If you choose Required, clients are allowed to associate only if MFP is negotiated (that is, if WPA2 is configured on the controller and the client supports CCXv5 MFP and is also configured for WPA2).

Note

For Cisco OEAP 600, MFP is not supported. It should either be Disabled or Optional.

e) Click Apply to commit your changes.

Click Save Configuration to save your settings.

Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (GUI)

To see the controller’s current global MFP settings, choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies >

Management Frame Protection. The Management Frame Protection Settings page appears.

On this page, you can see the following MFP settings:

• The Management Frame Protection field shows if infrastructure MFP is enabled globally for the controller.

• The Controller Time Source Valid field indicates whether the controller time is set locally (by manually entering the time) or through an external source (such as the NTP/SNTP server). If the time is set by an external source, the value of this field is “True.” If the time is set locally, the value is “False.” The time source is used for validating the timestamp on management frames between access points of different controllers within a mobility group.

• The Client Protection field shows if client MFP is enabled for individual WLANs and whether it is optional or required.

Configuring Management Frame Protection (CLI)

• Enable or disable infrastructure MFP globally for the controller by entering this command:

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config wps mfp infrastructure {enable | disable}

• Enable or disable client MFP on a specific WLAN by entering this command:

config wlan mfp client {enable | disable} wlan_id [required ]

If you enable client MFP and use the optional required parameter, clients are allowed to associate only if MFP is negotiated.

Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (CLI)

• See the controller’s current MFP settings by entering this command:

show wps mfp summary

• See the current MFP configuration for a particular WLAN by entering this command:

show wlan wlan_id

• See whether client MFP is enabled for a specific client by entering this command:

show client detail client_mac

• See MFP statistics for the controller by entering this command:

show wps mfp statistics

Note

This report contains no data unless an active attack is in progress. This table is cleared every 5 minutes when the data is forwarded to any network management stations.

Debugging Management Frame Protection Issues (CLI)

• Use this command if you experience any problems with MFP:

debug wps mfp ? {enable | disable} where ? is one of the following:

client—Configures debugging for client MFP messages.

capwap—Configures debugging for MFP messages between the controller and access points.

detail—Configures detailed debugging for MFP messages.

report—Configures debugging for MFP reporting.

mm—Configures debugging for MFP mobility (inter-controller) messages.

Troubleshooting the Access Point Join Process

Access points can fail to join a controller for many reasons such as a RADIUS authorization is pending, self-signed certificates are not enabled on the controller, the access point and controller’s regulatory domains do not match, and so on.

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Troubleshooting the Access Point Join Process

Controller software release 5.2 or later releases enable you to configure the access points to send all

CAPWAP-related errors to a syslog server. You do not need to enable any debug commands on the controller because all of the CAPWAP error messages can be viewed from the syslog server itself.

The state of the access point is not maintained on the controller until it receives a CAPWAP join request from the access point, so it can be difficult to determine why the CAPWAP discovery request from a certain access point was rejected. In order to troubleshoot such joining issues without enabling CAPWAP debug commands on the controller, the controller collects information for all access points that send a discovery message to this controller and maintains information for any access points that have successfully joined this controller.

The controller collects all join-related information for each access point that sends a CAPWAP discovery request to the controller. Collection begins with the first discovery message received from the access point and ends with the last configuration payload sent from the controller to the access point.

You can view join-related information for the following numbers of access points:

When the controller is maintaining join-related information for the maximum number of access points, it does not collect information for any more access points.

If any of these conditions are met and the access point has not yet joined a controller, you can also configure a DHCP server to return a syslog server IP address to the access point using option 7 on the server. The access point then starts sending all syslog messages to this IP address.

Note

The access point joins the controller with a DHCP address from an internal DHCP pool configured on

WLC. When the DHCP lease address is deleted in WLC, the access point reloads with the following message:

AP Rebooting: Reset Reason - Admin Reload. This is a common behavior in Cisco IOS and Wave 2 APs.

You can also configure the syslog server IP address through the access point CLI, provided the access point is currently not connected to the controller by entering the capwap ap log-server syslog_server_IP_address

command.

When the access point joins a controller for the first time, the controller pushes the global syslog server IP address (the default is 255.255.255.255) to the access point. After that, the access point sends all syslog messages to this IP address, until it is overridden by one of the following scenarios:

• The access point is still connected to the same controller, and the global syslog server IP address configuration on the controller has been changed using the config ap syslog host global

syslog_server_IP_address command. In this case, the controller pushes the new global syslog server IP address to the access point.

• The access point is still connected to the same controller, and a specific syslog server IP address has been configured for the access point on the controller using the config ap syslog host specific Cisco_AP

syslog_server_IP_address command. In this case, the controller pushes the new specific syslog server

IP address to the access point.

• The access point gets disconnected from the controller, and the syslog server IP address has been configured from the access point CLI using the lwapp ap log-server syslog_server_IP_address command.

This command works only if the access point is not connected to any controller.

• The access point gets disconnected from the controller and joins another controller. In this case, the new controller pushes its global syslog server IP address to the access point.

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Configuring the Syslog Server for Access Points (CLI)

Whenever a new syslog server IP address overrides the existing syslog server IP address, the old address is erased from persistent storage, and the new address is stored in its place. The access point also starts sending all syslog messages to the new IP address, provided the access point can reach the syslog server IP address.

You can configure the syslog server for access points using the controller GUI and view the access point join information using the controller GUI or CLI.

When the name of the access point is modified using the config ap name new_name old_name command, then the new AP name is updated. You can view the new AP name updated in both the show ap join stats

summary all as well as the show ap summary commands.

Note

When an AP in a Release 8.0 image tries to join Cisco WLC, Release 8.3 (having Release 8.2 as the primary image and Release 8.2.1 as the secondary image on Flash), the AP goes into a perpetual loop.

(Note that the release numbers are used only as an example to illustrate the scenario of three different images and does not apply to the releases mentioned.) This loop occurs due to version mismatch. After the download, when the AP compares its image with the Cisco WLC image, there will be a version mismatch. The AP will start the entire process again, resulting in a loop.

Configuring the Syslog Server for Access Points (CLI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Perform one of the following:

• To configure a global syslog server for all access points that join this controller, enter this command:

config ap syslog host global syslog_server_IP_address

Note

Note

By default, the global syslog server IPv4/IPv6 address for all access points is 255.255.255.255. Make sure that the access points can reach the subnet on which the syslog server resides before configuring the syslog server on the controller. If the access points cannot reach this subnet, the access points are unable to send out syslog messages.

Only one Syslog Server is used for both IPv4 and

IPv6.

• To configure a syslog server for a specific access point, enter this command:

config ap syslog host specific Cisco_AP syslog_server_IP_address

Note

By default, the syslog server IPv4/IPv6 address for each access point is 0.0.0.0, which indicates that the access point is not yet set. When the default value is used, the global access point syslog server IP address is pushed to the access point.

Enter the save config command to save your changes.

See the global syslog server settings for all access points that join the controller by entering this command:

show ap config global

Information similar to the following appears:

AP global system logging host.................... 255.255.255.255

See the syslog server settings for a specific access point by entering this command:

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Viewing Access Point Join Information

show ap config general Cisco_AP

Viewing Access Point Join Information

Join statistics for an access point that sends a CAPWAP discovery request to the controller at least once are maintained on the controller even if the access point is rebooted or disconnected. These statistics are removed only when the controller is rebooted or when you choose to clear the statistics.

Viewing Access Point Join Information (GUI)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Choose Monitor > Statistics > AP Join to open the AP Join Stats page.

This page lists all of the access points that are joined to the controller or that have tried to join. It shows the radio MAC address, access point name, current join status, Ethernet MAC address, IP address, and last join time for each access point.

The total number of access points appears in the upper right-hand corner of the page. If the list of access points spans multiple pages, you can view these pages by clicking the page number links. Each page shows the join statistics for up to 25 access points.

Note

Note

If you want to remove an access point from the list, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that access point and click Remove.

If you want to clear the statistics for all access points and start over, click Clear Stats on All

APs.

If you want to search for specific access points in the list of access points on the AP Join Stats page, follow these steps to create a filter to display only access points that meet certain criteria (such as MAC address or access point name).

Note

This feature is especially useful if your list of access points spans multiple pages, preventing you from viewing them all at once.

a) Click Change Filter to open the Search AP dialog box.

b) Select one of the following check boxes to specify the criteria used when displaying access points:

MAC Address—Enter the base radio MAC address of an access point.

AP Name—Enter the name of an access point.

Note

When you enable one of these filters, the other filter is disabled automatically.

c) Click Find to commit your changes. Only the access points that match your search criteria appear on the AP Join

Stats page, and the Current Filter parameter at the top of the page specifies the filter used to generate the list (for example, MAC Address:00:1e:f7:75:0a:a0 or AP Name:pmsk-ap).

Note

If you want to remove the filter and display the entire access point list, click Clear

Filter.

To see detailed join statistics for a specific access point, click the radio MAC address of the access point. The AP Join

Stats Detail page appears.

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Viewing Access Point Join Information

This page provides information from the controller’s perspective on each phase of the join process and shows any errors that have occurred.

Viewing Access Point Join Information (CLI)

Use these CLI commands to see access point join information:

• See the MAC addresses of all the access points that are joined to the controller or that have tried to join by entering this command:

show ap join stats summary all

• See the last join error detail for a specific access point by entering this command:

show ap join stats summary ap_mac where ap_mac is the MAC address of the 802.11 radio interface.

Note

To obtain the MAC address of the 802.11 radio interface, enter the show interfaces

Dot11Radio 0 command on the access point.

Information similar to the following appears:

Is the AP currently connected to controller................ Yes

Time at which the AP joined this controller last time...... Aug 21

12:50:36.061

Type of error that occurred last........................... AP got or has been disconnected

Reason for error that occurred last........................ The AP has been reset by the controller

Time at which the last join error occurred.............. Aug 21

12:50:34.374

• See all join-related statistics collected for a specific access point by entering this command:

show ap join stats detailed ap_mac

Information similar to the following appears:

Discovery phase statistics

- Discovery requests received.............................. 2

- Successful discovery responses sent...................... 2

- Unsuccessful discovery request processing................ 0

- Reason for last unsuccessful discovery attempt........... Not applicable

- Time at last successful discovery attempt................ Aug 21 12:50:23.335

- Time at last unsuccessful discovery attempt.............. Not applicable

Join phase statistics

- Join requests received................................... 1

- Successful join responses sent........................... 1

- Unsuccessful join request processing..................... 1

- Reason for last unsuccessful join attempt................ RADIUS authorization is pending for the AP

- Time at last successful join attempt..................... Aug 21 12:50:34.481

- Time at last unsuccessful join attempt................... Aug 21 12:50:34.374

Configuration phase statistics

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AP Connectivity to Cisco WLC

Viewing Access Point Join Information

- Configuration requests received.......................... 1

- Successful configuration responses sent.................. 1

- Unsuccessful configuration request processing............ 0

- Reason for last unsuccessful configuration attempt....... Not applicable

- Time at last successful configuration attempt............ Aug 21 12:50:34.374

- Time at last unsuccessful configuration attempt.......... Not applicable

Last AP message decryption failure details

- Reason for last message decryption failure............... Not applicable

Last AP disconnect details

- Reason for last AP connection failure.................... The AP has been reset by the controller

Last join error summary

- Type of error that occurred last......................... AP got or has been disconnected

- Reason for error that occurred last...................... The AP has been reset by the controller

- Time at which the last join error occurred............... Aug 21 12:50:34.374

• Clear the join statistics for all access points or for a specific access point by entering this command:

clear ap join stats {all | ap_mac}

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Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.0

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