Rules - Compass Games

Rules - Compass Games
Rules of Play
Compass Games
New Directions in Gaming
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End of Empire Rules of Play
CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Game Scale
2.0 Game Components
2.1 Maps
2.2 Counters (Playing Pieces)
2.3 Sample Combat Unit
2.4 Nationality
2.5 Unit Entry
2.6 Unit Withdrawals
2.7 Unit Size
2.8 Unit Type
2.9 Historical Identifications
2.10 Linear Combat Factor
2.11 Ambush Combat Factor
2.12 Movement Factor
2.13 Steps
3.0 Set Up
4.0 Turn Sequence of Play
5.0 Hexes, Towns, Outposts and Stacking
5.1 Hexes, Towns and Outposts
5.2 Stacking
5.2.1 Army Substitute Counters
5.2.2 No Fog of War
6.0 Winter Attrition
6.1 Tracing Supply
6.2 North American Supply
6.3 Overseas Supply
6.4 Town and Outpost Supply
6.5 Exempt Units
6.6 Garrisons and Supply Lines
7.0 Reinforcements, Withdrawals, & Replacements
7.1 On-Map Reinforcements
7.2 Overseas Reinforcements
7.3 West Indies Reinforcements
7.4 Withdrawals
7.5 Special Reinforcements and Withdrawals
7.6 West Indies Withdrawal
7.7 Replacements in General
7.8 Scheduled Replacements
7.9 Recruit Replacements
7.10 Draft Replacements
8.0 Command Control and Leaders
8.1 Leader Units
8.2 Default Leaders
8.3 Initiative Procedure
8.4 Winter Turn Initiative Modification
8.5 One Initiative Failure Per Operations Phase
8.6 Leader Redeployment
8.7 Cavalry Scouts
8.8 Screening Terrain
8.9 Picking Up Units
9.0 Operational Movement
9.1 Movement Limits
9.2 Minimum Movement Ability
9.3 Enemy Units
9.4 Stack Movement
9.5 Splitting Stacks
9.6 Differing MFs in a Stack
9.7 Civilized Terrain and Hex Control
9.8 Terrain and Operational Movement
9.9 Lake and River Movement
9.10 Weather effects
9.11 Ferrying
10.0 Reaction Movement
10.1 Reaction Restrictions
10.2 Reaction Procedure
11.0 Combat
11.1 Combat Procedure Summary
11.2 Indivisibility of Stacks
11.3 Ambush Combat Procedure
11.4 Ambush Results
11.5 Linear Combat Procedure
11.6 Linear Combat Results
11.7 Calculating Odds
11.8 Odds Limits
11.9 Die Roll Modifiers (DRM)
11.10 Combat Results
11.11 Step Losses
11.12 Leader Prisoners of War (POW)
11.13 Fortifications
12.0 Militia
12.1 Political Divisions
12.2 Militia Entry
12.3 Militia Withdrawal
12.4 US Militia Inactivation Due to Restoration of British Colonial Rule
12.5 Other Militia Inactivation
13.0 Indians
13.1 Indian Recruitment in American
Revolutionary War Scenarios
13.2 Indian Recruitment in the French and Indian War Scenarios & King George’s War Scenario
13.3 Indian Withdrawal
14.0 Naval Rules
14.1 Fleet Placement
14.2 Naval Combat
14.3 Fleet Withdrawal
14.4 Amphibious Invasion
14.5 Naval Infantry
14.6 Evacuation by Sea
14.7 Louisbourg
14.8 Blockade
14.9 American Amphibious Capability
14.10 Continental Marines and Raids
15.0 American Revolution Political Rules
15.1 Leader Restrictions
15.1.1 Nationality Restrictions
15.1.2 British Pride
15.2 French Entry
15.3 French Restrictions
15.4 New France Revisited
15.5 Spanish Entry
15.6 Spanish Restrictions
15.7 American Economic Collapse
15.8 The Fall of Lord North
15.9 Restoration of British Colonial Administration
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1.0 Introduction
End of Empire: 1744-1782 is a two player wargame
with 13 scenarios covering the three great conflicts
fought on the North American continent between
1744 and 1783: King George’s War (sometimes known
as the Old French War, part of the War of the Austrian Succession), the French and Indian War (actually
the last of 4 such wars, part of the Seven Years War,
and known in England as the Great War for Empire)
and the American Revolutionary War. The French and
Indian War ended the French Empire in Canada; the
American Revolution ended the British Empire in the
13 American colonies.
1.1 Game Scale
Each game turn represents two months time. Each
year consists of one spring turn, two summer turns,
one fall turn, and two winter turns (see the Turn Record Chart). Each hex is approximately 20 miles
across. Units are mostly regiments but a few represent other sizes, each step represents approximately
250 men.
2.0 Game Components
A complete game of End of Empire include this rules
book, a scenario book, two map sheets, five sets of
die cut counters, four charts and tables cards, and a
six-sided die.
2.1 Maps
The two maps represent eastern North America where
these three conflicts took place. A hexagonal grid is
printed over the map to regulate the placement and
movement of units. A unit or stack is considered to be
in one hex or town at a time. Each hex or town contains natural and/or man-made features that can af-
fect the movement of units and the combat between
units. The terrain on the map has been altered slightly
from its exact real world conformation to fit on the
hex grid, but the relationships between the terrain
from hex to hex are accurate to the degree necessary
to present players with the same space/ time dilemmas faced by their historical counterparts.
Each hex has a four digit identification number. They
are used to find places more quickly. For instance, the
town of Boston is in hex 3120. Locations on the southern mapsheet are preceded by an S; New Orleans is
in S1610. The southern hex row of the northern map
overlaps with the northern hex row of the southern
map when playing a scenario with both maps. The
charts, tables and tracks are used for recording and
resolving various game events. Details on their use
are explained in the following sections.
2.2 Counters (Playing Pieces)
Each combat unit counter displays multiple pieces of
information: nationality, historical identification, unit
size, unit type, step strength, linear and ambush combat strengths, movement allowance, and turn of entry
or initial placement.
Boxed Linear Combat factors are halved on attack.
Circled Linear Combat factors indicate a unit cannot
attack at all. Ambush Factors are only useful defensively unless preceded by a +. Units with Movement
Factors followed by a + automatically have initiative
when stacked alone; boxed ones cannot be moved by
the default leader (see section 8.0).
2.3 Sample Combat Unit
The unit illustrated here is John Stark’s (“Live Free or
Withdrawal Code (7.6)
Entry Code (2.5)
Turn - Hex Location
If turn is boxed, unit arrives
even if their entry hex is enemy occupied. (See 7.2) Units
with unboxed entry numbers
must be delayed if their entry hex
is enemy occupied.
15
If turn is underlined, the
unit is used in the introductory Invasion of Canada scenario (16.0)
Unit Size
Unit Type
Unit ID(s)
Steps
Units with a starting
hex preceded by an
“S” start on the southern map.
A dot indicates that the unit is
a substitute unit.
Linear
Combat
Factor
Ambush
Combat
Factor
Movement
Factor
Boxed
Com8 bat factors are
halved on attack.
mbush
+2 A
Factors
are only used in
defense unless
preceded by a +
Units
with
20 a b o x e d
movement factor
cannot be moved
by the default
leader (see 8.0).
Units
with
20+ M o v e m e n t
Factors followed
by a + automatically have initiative
when alone.
Com8 Circled
bat factors indicate a unit cannot attack.
For Unit Size Symbols see 2.7
For Unit Type Symbols see 2.8
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Turn unit is removed
Units redeployed to the
West Indies after French
Entry; withdrawn from AR scenarios 3 turns after French entry.
Sub17
15-3219
S3219
17
F+3
withdrawal is conditional on special reinforcements. (see 7.6)
Units withdrawn each year
on the second winter turn returning in spring in their setup or
entry hex
E
Units returning in spring to
their home state rather than
their original setup hex; (see 7.6)
E
Units withdrawn if the US
economy enters a state of
full economic collapse or near
economic collapse (15.7)
NEC
A
Provisional Units returned to
their parent units in Fall
*
follow special rules for withdrawal, (see 7.6)
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Die”) New Hampshire state brigade. It is used in the
American Revolution scenario and enters on turn 15
in hex 3219. It is withdrawn on turn 17. When at full
strength it contains two “strength steps” (each side
of the counter represents one step). At full (two step)
strength it has a linear combat factor of 8 which is
halved when attacking (see section 11.0). It has an
ambush combat strength of 2 only useful defensively
(see section 11.3). It has a movement allowance of 20
and automatically has initiative when stacked alone
(see section 8.0).
2.4 Nationality
A unit’s nationality (the side it is on) is indicated by
its color scheme. Refer to the sample unit explanation
(above).
British/Provincials
• British Regulars: yellow on burgundy.
• Irish establishment have a harp in the upper right
corner while the English establishment do not.
Both are identical for game play.
• American establishment and provincial regulars:
beige on brown.
• Tory and Provincial troops: beige on brown with
dark brown stripe.
• British Allied Indians: burgundy with Indian unit
symbol.
German Mercenaries
• Hesse Cassel: light blue on navy blue.
• Brunswick: beige on medium blue.
• Others (Hesse Hanau, Anhalt-Zerbst, AnsbachBayreuth, and Waldeck): light green on medium
grey.
French/American/Spanish
• Metropolitan French Regulars: dark blue on light
blue.
• French Suisse (Swiss) have a red cross.
• French Provincials: dark blue on light blue with
a blue stripe.
• American Continental Army: white on darker
blue.
• State troops: white on medium blue. Militia have
a stripe.
• Spanish: brown on yellow.
• US Allied Indians: green on yellow.
• French Allied Indians: light grey with Indian symbol.
Native American
Iroquois tribes have a pine tree on the left side of
their counters, other Indians do not. The non-Iroquois Indians on the southern map are Appalachian
Indians and those on the northern map without pine
trees are Algonquin Indians. Appalachian Indians
and Algonquin Indians are identical for game purposes. (Note: Mingos and Caughnawagas are Iroquois Indians that had moved away from the area
controlled by the Iroquois Confederacy.)
2.5 Unit Entry
Units used in the French and Indian War scenarios
have a black triangle in the upper left corner. Units
used in King George’s War (including the Jenkin’s Ear
scenario) have a triangle in the upper right corner.
Units used in the introductory Invasion of Canada scenario (16.0) have underlines. A dot indicates a substitute unit. Specific scenario set up details are provided
in the scenario book.
•
A four digit number printed in their upper left
hand corner indicates a unit’s initial placement
hex. Four digit numbers preceded by an S are
placed on the southern map sheet.
•
Some units only have a 1 or 2 digit number in their
upper left corner. This represents their turn of entry; these enter as overseas reinforcements (7.2).
•
Three units have an NS for an entry code; they set
up in 5122, 4923, 4924, or 4926 (Nova Scotia).
•
Some units have a turn of entry followed by the
letters “WI” for “West Indies”; these units do not
enter if France has entered the war. (They have
instead been shipped to the West Indies.)
•
Some units have a turn of entry followed by a hex
number; those with a box around the turn of entry
arrive even if their entry hex is enemy occupied.
(See 7.2) Those with unboxed entry numbers
must be delayed if their entry hex is enemy occupied.
•
Some units have an “Av” (for “Available”) in this
location; these are available for recruitment from
the beginning of play. Others have a game turn
followed by “Av”; these are available for recruitment beginning on the indicated turn. Most Indians have their entry hex as well for ease of play.
•
Finally, some have a game turn followed by “Sp”
(for “Special”) or “Sp” followed by a hex number;
these enter by special rules collected in section
7.5.
2.6 Unit Withdrawals
Some units must be withdrawn from play at certain
times. They are identified by having a withdrawal turn
number in the upper right corner and must be withdrawn on that turn.
•
Units redeployed to the West Indies after French
Entry have “F+3” printed in the upper right corner;
they are withdrawn from the American Revolution
scenarios 3 turns after French entry into the war.
General Howe has an FE as he is withdrawn immediately upon French entry.
•
Some units have their withdrawal turn preceded
by “sub”. These are replaced by substitute units –
see 7.5 for details.
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•
Some units have an E for a withdrawal code; they
have annual enlistments and are withdrawn each
year on the second winter turn and return each
spring in their setup or entry hex. If enemy occupied, they may enter anywhere in their home
state. Certain regiments return annually in their
home state rather than their original setup hex;
these have a boxed E. see 7.5.
•
Many US units have NEC for a withdrawal code.
They are withdrawn if the US economy enters a
state of near economic collapse or full economic
collapse (15.7).
•
Continental Light Infantry units were provisional; the troops returned to their parent units over
the winter. They are marked with an “A” (for “Autumn”) to remind you to withdraw them each fall.
They may be recruited again per 7.5 just prior to
the following spring.
•
Four units have a Sp withdrawal code and follow
special rules for withdrawal, see 7.6.
2.7 Unit Size
The size of the unit in steps is the only information
that is significant in game terms. The historical organizational size designation for all units except militia
and Indians is found above the unit type. A bracket
around the size symbol means the unit is an irregular
or ad hoc unit.
X


brigade
regiment
battalion
2.8 Unit Type
The symbols in the center of the counters indicate
unit type. A black dot in the center of an infantry unit
indicates organic artillery.
Infantry with
Artillery
Infantry
Artillery
Cavalry
Legion
Iroquois
Indian
Militia
Ranger
Garrison
Marine
Non Iroquois
Indian
2.9 Historical Identifications
The historical identifications that appear on the counters are listed on page 3 of the Scenario book.
2.10 Linear Combat Factor
This number is a measure of a unit’s ability to conduct linear (European-style) combat. Circled combat
factors indicate a unit may not attack, only defend.
Boxed combat factors are halved when attacking.
When halving multiple units, add their factors and
then make just one division, rounding fractions up.
2.11 Ambush Combat Factor
This number is a measure of a unit’s ability to conduct
wilderness-style (or “Indian-style”) ambush combat.
Only units with a + before their ambush factor may
actually conduct an ambush. Other units with an ambush combat factor greater than zero may be used on
the defense in an ambush combat but are doctrinally
unsuited to attack in an ambush combat.
Design Note: Certain American units (particularly
Daniel Morgan’s riflemen) were early adopters of
the long rifle as opposed to the musket used in
most military units of this era. Their slow rate of fire
was problematic in linear (European style) combat but their accuracy and range were particularly
suited to wilderness ambushes – such units have
very high ambush factors and were historically employed in this role.
2.12 Movement Factor
This number is a measure of a unit’s ability to move
across the hex grid of the map every game turn. Units
pay different movement costs to enter certain hexes
depending on the terrain in the hex and the hexside
moved across.
All units must pass an initiative check to be able to
move. Units with their movement factor followed by a
+ always have initiative.
Design Note: This simulates certain important
leaders whose rank did not justify a leader counter
including Benedict Arnold in 1775 (Arnold), Daniel
Morgan (11Va), Robert Rogers (Rrng and QR1A),
Francis Tarleton (BL5A), and Francis Marion (SC
militia).
Units with a boxed movement factor can only move
with the initiative of a leader.
Design Note: This is to simulate particularly poor
leadership and/or morale.
An anchor printed in the movement factor area indicates a marine unit.
2.13 Steps
Only units with a step size printed to the left of their
unit type box can be used to satisfy combat losses. All
militia and most Indians have no step value and cannot be used to satisfy combat losses.
Most units are one-step, two-step, three-step or four-
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step units. Those with combat and movement factors
printed on only one side are one step units or substitute counters for three step units; those with factors
on both sides are two-step or four step units.
Three and four step units are represented by two
counters. Only one of these counters may be in play
at any one time. The lower valued counter (with the
dot in its upper left hand corner) is substituted for the
higher valued counter when the unit takes step losses;
the higher valued counter may be substituted for the
lower valued one if the unit receives replacements.
The steps contained in a unit are a measure of its ability to absorb losses before being eliminated. When a
unit is eliminated in game play, it means enough casualties and equipment losses have been suffered by the
unit to render it useless for further combat operations.
If a unit with 2 or more steps takes a step loss, it is
flipped over or replaced so that its reduced side (the
one with the next lower step value) shows. If a one
step (or reduced to one-step) unit takes a step loss, it
is removed from the map (eliminated) and placed in
the deadpile.
3.0 Set Up
Choose which scenario to play and which side each
player will command. Then sort each side’s units into
four piles. Units in play at the start have a hex setup number of the appropriate color for the scenario
printed in their upper left hand corner; place them
in those exact hexes. Reinforcements have a turn of
entry in the upper left corner; stack them in their associated turn box on the turn record track. Militia and
Indians which are available for recruitment have “Av”
printed in the upper left hand corner; set them aside
near their state or the Indian recruitment table. Substitute units have a dot in the upper left hand corner;
set them aside near the combat results table.
Specific instructions for each scenario, as well as
victory conditions for each scenario, are found in
the scenarios. Scenarios starting in the midst of the
American Revolution require players to follow those
set up instructions rather than the setup hexes on the
counters.
4.0 Turn Sequence of Play
Each turn of End of Empire is divided into six phases each of which is divided into several steps. During some game turns certain phases may be skipped
as noted below. Every action must take place in the
sequence as given in the Sequence of Play. Once a
player finishes his activity for a given phase, he may
not go back to perform some forgotten action or redo
a poorly executed one unless his opponent permits it.
5.0 Hexes, Towns, Outposts and Stacking
A stack may be in a space, which is defined as being
either a hex or a town or outpost in a hex.
4.1 Sequence of Play
1. Naval Phase
A. Spring Fleet Withdrawal: Withdraw all fleets at start of Spring turn
B. Fleet Operations (in order: French, British, Spanish)
1) Roll for fleet availability, place fleet, do
naval combat if placed with enemy fleet:
2) Combat: Each side rolls, higher die wins, defender wins ties, losing fleet put on the TRT.
2. Reinforcement Phase
A. Reinforcements
B. Indian Recruitment
C. Regular Replacement
D. Amphibious Invasion Embarkation
E. Reinforcement Militia Placement
3. British/Provincial Operations Phase
A. British Stack Initiative Determination & Movement (Recursive)
1) French/American/Spanish Reaction
a) Reaction Militia Placement (if
enemy entered a Friendly civilized hex).
b) Reaction Marker Placement (on
Anti-British stacks adjacent or in hex entered)
c) Reaction Initiative & Movement: first check stack in entered hex
d) Reaction Combat - Hex Defender is British stack that is not moving
2) Operation Combat
a) Pay 5 MPs or all remaining MPs if
remaining MPs < 5 & combat due to reaction.
b) Ambush Combat? Only in
wilderness hex (not outpost); only if def. or att. has ambush factors with +.
c) Linear Combat
d) Hex Defender may roll for initiative to voluntarily retreat after combat.
e) Attacker may roll for initiative; pass: do linear combat again, fail:
attacker retreats.
f) Winning attacker may roll for
initiative to continue moving.
B. British Leader Redeployment: any leaders that did not roll for initiative
C. Movement Done Markers Removal (if used)
4. French/American/Spanish Operations Phase (same as British Operations phase, except switch sides)
5. Withdrawal Phase
A. Scheduled Withdrawal
B. Special Reinforcement
C. Militia Withdrawal - each Spring and Fall turn
6. Winter Attrition Phase
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5.1 Hexes, Towns and Outposts
A hex is 20 miles across and represents up to 300
square miles of territory while a town in a hex represents a much smaller amount of territory. A stack of
units is usually in a hex, but it may also be in the town
in a civilized hex or an outpost in a wilderness hex;
when the latter is the case, place a TOWN marker on
top of the stack to indicate this. A force in a town or
outpost may fortify the town or outpost by passing
an initiative check, flip the TOWN marker to its FORT
side to show this; the FORT marker remains as long as
there are friendly units in the town or outpost. Three
towns have permanent fortifications, they are Quebec City (4111), Louisbourg (5927), and St. Augustine
(S3228); units entering one of these 3 towns automatically get a FORT marker placed on them, the TOWN
marker is not used. A FORT marker gives a favorable
Die Roll Modifier in combat when defending.
Units in a hex control any river and wilderness road in
that hex, any Indian village, and any town or outpost
in the hex that is not occupied by an opposing stack.
Units in a town or outpost control the town or outpost (and the inherent supply of the town or outpost)
and any supply/entry point, any port, and (also) any
river and wilderness road. Units in a hex may choose
to retreat because of combat into a town or outpost
in that hex instead of retreating to another hex, they
may also do a reaction move into a town or outpost
in a hex.
If a stack in a town or outpost is attacked, and is forced
to retreat, in general it may do so normally. However,
as a special case, units underneath a TOWN or FORT
marker in a hex containing a port are assumed to be
fortified around the port. In most cases, if forced to
retreat, they may retreat as units do in other circumstances, including retreat using sea evacuation to a
friendly fleet offshore. However, if an enemy fleet is
offshore, the force is considered blockaded in the
port, and if forced to retreat then the force required
to retreat surrenders.
When setting up a scenario, units that set up in a hex
with an outpost or a fortress may choose to set up
with a FORT marker or not. Units that set up in a hex
with a town may choose to set up with a TOWN marker or not. Exception: In 1775, the British forces in Boston must set up under a FORT marker.
Towns have an effect; the unit in a town owns the town
but does not block the movement through the hex.
When a unit exits a town, it can trigger militia in the
hex around the town (see 12.2); this is how the battles
of Lexington and Concord are simulated in the game.
A town or outpost can always supply 1 unit (see 6.4).
Units must be in a town or outpost in order to go into
a fort and receive that benefit. A unit in a town controls the port in its hex for supply purposes (see 6.3).
Forts have exactly the same effects as towns, plus a
DRM for combat.
Example: In 1775 a large British force is under a FORT
marker in BOSTON (hex 3120). An American force is
also in hex 1320. The British control the port and can
enter reinforcements in Boston. They cannot trace
supply through the hex. The Americans cannot enter reinforcements in Boston but can trace supply
through the hex.
5.2 Stacking
Stacking is the term used to describe the piling of
more than one unit in the same hex or town at the
same time. Unlike most wargames, there is no stacking limit in End of Empire. Players are allowed to stack
their entire army in a single hex if they choose to do
so. (This is essentially what Howe did in the 1776 invasion of New York.)
Historical Note: Examples of forces surrendering
in surrounded ports include Louisburg (1745 and
1758) — hex 5927, Quebec (1759) — hex 4111, Savannah (1778) — hex S3825, Charleston (1779) —
hex S4225, Pensacola (1781) — hex 2315, and the
war-ending Yorktown (1781) — hex S5922. Savannah (1779) was a failed attempt to force such a surrender.
5.2.1 Army Substitute Counters
Huge stacks may be created in a game without stacking limits. Army substitute counters are provided to
serve as place holders for these giant stacks. Simply
put the units in the substitute’s box on the mapsheet
and use the substitute unit to represent the entire
stack.
Examples of evacuations of ports in order to avoid
such a potential trap include Manhattan (1776) —
hex 2220, Newport (1776) — hex 2922, Philadelphia
(1777) — hex 1719, and Newport (1779).
5.2.2 No Fog of War
Due to the considerable and successful spying that
occurred on both sides in these wars, both players
may examine their opponent’s stacks and holding
boxes at any time.
Examples of retreating from forts are: Washington’s
withdrawal after Forts Montgomery/Washington
(1776) — hex 2319, Putnam/Clinton’s withdrawal after Forts Clinton/Montgomery (1777) — hex 2319,
St. Clair’s withdrawal from Fort Ticonderoga (1777)
— hex 3014, and the British retreat from Fort William Henry (1757) — hex 2914 — to Fort Edward.
Supply has no direct or immediate effect on movement or combat, it only affects the survival of units
when checked on winter turns.
6.0 Winter Attrition
6.1 Tracing Supply
Units are “in supply” if they can trace a supply line
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from their location hex to a supply source. The permissible length of the supply path and the method
for tracing it varies depending on the type of supply
being traced. Supply lines may only be traced through
hexes free of enemy units. When counting the length
of a supply line, do not count the hex the unit itself is
in but do count the hex the supply source is in.
Tracing of supply lines is done in the mind’s eye; there
are no counters representing the supplies consumed.
It is permissible for either player to move their units to
hexes where they will be out of supply.
Units which are out of supply during the Winter Attrition phase lose one step and are also prohibited
from transferring steps in drafts and from receiving
replacements or reinforcements.
Design Note: A consequence of this rule is most
units will be eliminated completely if left unsupplied over the 2 winter turns. The supply rules when
combined with the initiative rules make inland operations somewhat risky.
6.2 North American Supply
Units are in supply if they can trace a supply line to a
friendly supply hex. If the unit is in a civilized hex, the
supply line may be traced through up to 2 friendly
civilized hexes to a river, navigable river or road hex.
If the unit is in a wilderness hex, it must actually be in
a river, navigable river or road hex. Thence the supply
line may be traced through any number of contiguous
river, navigable river and/or road hexes to a friendly
supply hex.
In the French and Indian War and King George’s War
Scenarios, the British player may trace to either American or British entry hexes. The French player may
only trace to one of the French Supply hexes.
In the American Revolution scenarios, the British player may trace North American supply to French or British supply hexes, while the American player may trace
North American supply to American supply hexes.
Large waterfalls exist in hexes N1907 and S4605 – in
design terms portages exist and supply is not blocked.
Also, portages are considered to exist in hexes N1608,
N2613 and N2914.
Historical Note: The rivers were the highways of
this era, while they froze and became impassible
in winter, supply could only be stockpiled via these
transportation lines.
6.3 Overseas Supply
Overseas supply is traced just like North American
supply. However, instead of tracing to a friendly supply hex, overseas supply is traced to a port or a navigable river hex. If the hex traced to is inland (that is,
not also a coastal hex), the navigable river hexes between that hex and the coast must not be occupied
by enemy artillery units or units with organic artillery.
Note: This means Overseas supply cannot be
traced to Philadelphia if the Delaware River (hex
1620) is occupied by a unit with artillery.
Overseas supply is also available in all coastal hexes
without ports in them, but may not be traced to such
hexes from units not in coastal hexes.
Overseas supply may not be used if it is traced to
coastal hex that borders on a sea area occupied by an
enemy fleet in the fall turn. Leave the blockading fleet
marker in the sea zone over the winter to remind you
that overseas supply is blocked. Exception -- British
overseas supply to hexes north of the 3400 hex row
is not blocked by a Spanish fleet in the South Atlantic
zone.
Overseas supply is not available to any American units
in any American Revolution scenario before French
entry.
Overseas supply ceases to be available to the British player in all scenarios if Halifax (in hex 4926) is
not controlled by the British; if the British take it back,
then they regain overseas supply.
If American Full Economic Collapse has occurred, then
overseas supply is only available to US units if they are
stacked with French units. French and Spanish units
may continue to trace overseas supply normally
Historical Note: The British feat of maintaining an
army on foreign shores for years with transoceanic supply was quite remarkable in this era. It had
never been accomplished before, and would not be
again until the 20th century. Their supply convoys
depended on Halifax and the entire system would
have fallen apart without that depot.
6.4 Town and Outpost Supply
One unit (which may contain more than 1 step) may
be in supply at each town or outpost, even if other
supply sources are blocked. It does not have to be the
same unit on consecutive turns.
In the French and Indian War scenarios and King
George’s War scenario, both players may also draw
outpost supply in any of the 9 civilized hexes in Nova
Scotia (4523, 4725, 4923, 4924, 4926, 5323, 6025,
5926, 5927).
6.5 Exempt Units
Militia, Rangers, Indians, and the British Natchez and
Fort Gage garrison units are always in supply.
6.6 Garrisons and Supply Lines
The Definitions of friendly, unfriendly, and neutral hexes are found in section 9.7.
Supply lines may only be traced through unfriendly
civilized hexes if the hex is garrisoned by at least one
friendly combat unit. In general, that includes supply
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lines traced along river, navigable river, and road hexes; however, the British player is not required to garrison navigable river and lake hexes, unless an enemy
artillery unit or unit with organic artillery occupies the
hex in question or one of the navigable river hexes
connecting that hex to the coast. Neutral and friendly
civilized hexes do not require garrisons to trace supply through them. See section 9.7 on hex control.
7.0 Reinforcements, Withdrawals, & Replacements
Reinforcements are units that enter play for the first
time after a game has begun. Any unit with a one or
two digit turn of entry number in its upper left hand
corner is a reinforcement. Reinforcement units are
placed on the map in the mutual reinforcement Phase.
Exception: Certain special reinforcements enter in the
withdrawal phase to replace withdrawn units.
Replacements are levies of new personnel, as opposed to new units, that enter play as strength steps
at specified times. Replacements are not themselves
represented by unit counters in the game. Replacements include scheduled replacements, recruits, and
drafts. Replacements are used to reclaim eliminated
units from the deadpile and to replenish reduced
units. They must be used the turn they are received or
they are lost.
Withdrawals occur on specified numbered or seasonal turns and on specified turns following French entry
into the American Revolution scenarios. They are conducted during the Withdrawal Phase.
7.1 On-Map Reinforcements
On-map reinforcements are marked with a turn of entry and a hex number in their upper left corner. They
must be placed in the entry hex on the specified turn.
If an on-map reinforcement unit’s specified entry hex
is enemy controlled during the turn the unit is to enter, then that unit’s entry is delayed, turn by turn, until
such a time as the entry hex is friendly controlled.
However, certain on-map reinforcements have a box
around their turn of entry. These units enter even
when their entry hex is occupied by enemy units, but
this only applies on initial entry, not if reentering as
replacements. In this case they are placed on top of
the enemy units and must initiate combat during their
Operations phase against the enemy units in their
placement hex. Such arriving units are considered
to automatically have initiative until their entry hex
is cleared of units of one side or the other and they
enter even if out of supply.
On-map reinforcements may enter, or be replaced in
their entry hex, even if the owning player cannot trace
supply to their entry hex at the instant of entry..
The control rules mean that British provincial reinforcements without a boxed entry code will not enter
in American civilized hexes unless that hex is occupied by a British unit.
7.2 Overseas Reinforcements
Overseas reinforcements simply have a turn of entry
in their upper left corners without a hex number. They
enter by being placed in any friendly port hex (as defined in section 9.7). The port hex must not be adjacent to a sea zone occupied by an enemy fleet. If no
such hex exists, the reinforcements are delayed until
the first turn the first suitable hex becomes available
(and cannot be held back).
If multiple possible entry hexes exist, all units entered
on the same turn need not enter in the same hex.
Overseas reinforcements may not be voluntarily delayed. Overseas reinforcements may not be entered
at Quebec in winter turns due to ice on the St. Lawrence River.
Alternately, if the player receiving overseas reinforcements has a fleet unit on the map, he may choose to
place them directly on the fleet. They must then be
used in an amphibious invasion during that player’s
Operations phase. See 14.4.
7.3 West Indies Reinforcements
These newly raised troops historically were sent to the
West Indies but presumably would have reinforced
the British effort in America, if the French had not
entered the war. Thus, if French Entry has occurred
these troops do not enter. Any such troops previously entered must be withdrawn with the West Indies Withdrawal. If the French have not entered, these
units enter exactly as overseas reinforcements.
7.4 Withdrawals
Many units have to be withdrawn on a specified game
turn during the Withdrawal Phase. These units have
a turn of withdrawal number in the upper right hand
corner. During the Withdrawal Phase simply pick them
up and set them aside. They do not need to trace any
supply line and no substitute needs to be taken if they
are already eliminated.
Units with annual enlistments (identified by an E withdrawal code in the upper right corner) are removed
annually (if not in the dead pile) in the second winter
turn, and replaced (even if previously eliminated) at
full strength on their entry hex (if friendly controlled)
in the immediately following spring turn. Units with
boxed E codes are instead replaced in any entry hex
in their home state.
All militia units are automatically withdrawn each
spring and fall turn. They are available for reentry
the same turn. (The militia went home for the spring
planting and the fall harvest.) Exception: Once the SC
Militia is replaced by the Marion Militia unit, it is no
longer required to be withdrawn, but may be if the
American player chooses to do so during the Withdrawal Phase.
Units with a NEC withdrawal code are withdrawn from
ARW scenarios if the US economy enters a state of
Near Economic Collapse or Full Economic Collapse.
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Historically, they were withdrawn on turn 35. No replacements are necessary for eliminated units.
7.5 Special Reinforcements and Withdrawals
Continental Light Infantry units are placed on the map
during the Withdrawal Phase on any hex occupied by
a continental army unit. One continental army unit
is reduced for each light infantry step entered. Only
reductions, not eliminations, are allowed for this. If
a light infantry unit has been previously eliminated,
it may be replaced during the Withdrawal phase using this same procedure. The Continental Army unit
reduced may be subsequently replaced back to full
strength even in the immediately following replacement phase.
All Continental Light Infantry (A withdrawal code) are
automatically removed each fall turn. They may be replaced in the Withdrawal phase of the second winter
turn.
Gage replaces Abercrombie immediately when Abercrombie is killed or withdrawn. Similarly, Murray replaces Wolfe if Wolfe is killed, and Stanwix replaces
Forbes.
Elmore’s Connecticut regiment is entered on turn 5 in
any hex where at least 2 steps of Connecticut troops
were withdrawn on turn 5. If it has been eliminated, it
is eligible for replacement in any Connecticut entry
hex on turn 7.
The Watauga Brigade (the “over the mountain men”)
enters one of two ways. (1) The American player may
put it in hex S4516 at the beginning of any American/
French movement phase that a British controlled unit
is within 3 hexes of S4516. (2) It may enter in reaction
anytime a British unit moves adjacent to S4516. It may
only enter once per year, but is not required to enter
the first time its entry condition is satisfied. It is automatically removed in that turn’s Withdrawal phase
and placed on the TRT on the next Dec/Jan turn.
Whitcomb’s Rangers replace Bedel’s NH regiment in
the same hex when that unit is withdrawn.
The Fort Gage garrison unit is removed the first instant, after French Entry, when a Continental or State
unit enters its hex.
The Brunswick Pr Ludwig infantry unit may attempt
to become mounted each turn it enters an American
civilized hex not occupied on the previous turn by a
unit friendly to the British player. Each time it does
this the British player rolls a die. On a roll of 1, replace
it with its mounted cavalry substitute.
If Arnold is killed while serving as a US leader, he does
not enter as a British leader; if the Arnold Brigade is
eliminated, Arnold is assumed to escape in order to
enter as a US leader normally.
The Blommart unit (which simulates the Natchez Rebellion of April 1781) may be entered by the British
player in hex S1905 during any Reinforcement Phase
when Galvez is not in New Orleans (S1610) and Pensacola (S2315) is under British control. It may enter
whether or not there is British supply in hex S1905. It
is removed the instant both New Orleans (S1610) and
Pensacola (S2315) are controlled by either the Spanish or the Americans.
6 US Units (1PA, 13 PA/PSM, 3 SC, 5 SC, 6 SC, and
11 VA) have substitute units used when these units
were reequipped with muskets. These units must be
exchanged in place on the specified turn where ever
they might be, on the map or in the deadpile.
3 US units (MVR, 2 Cont Art and 4 Cont Art) have
precursor units which are withdrawn when the larger
units enter. These units are not exchanged in place. If
their entry hex is enemy occupied, so that their entry
is delayed, then the precursor units may remain on the
map until they can enter.
If the Gridley artillery unit and the Knox unit occupy
the same hex during this phase, withdraw both units
and replace them with the 3rd Continental Artillery
regiment.
7.6 West Indies Withdrawal
French entry occurs in American Revolution scenarios
according to rule 15.1. Historically, after the French entered the war, the British shifted their primary effort to
defending the West Indies. To remind players of this,
place the West Indies Withdrawal marker on the turn
record three turns after French Entry. On that turn, the
British player must withdraw the 4 leaders and all the
units with withdrawal code F+3. General Howe withdraws immediately upon French entry.
If any of the F+3 marine units are found to be reduced
or eliminated, and not replaced back to strength prior
to this turn, the US/French player may make up the
deficit by choosing to eliminate any British regular
steps on the map.
The 16th Light Dragoons, also marked F+3, must also
be withdrawn along with at least 10 additional British
regular regiments, totaling at least 18 steps. Historically, the regiments withdrawn were the 4th, 5th, 15th,
27th, 28th, 35th, 40th, 46th, 49th, and 55th.
Except for the marines, substitutes are not required if
the units marked F+3 had been previously eliminated.
Withdrawn units are not considered eliminated.
If the British player cannot fulfill these conditions,
Lord North’s government falls (15.8) resulting in an
American victory.
7.7 Replacements in General
Replacements are received as steps; one replacement
factor is able to replenish on the map or recreate from
the dead pile one step of an eligible unit. Replacements may not be accumulated. All replacements are
nationality specific and may not be switched to another nationality. All replacements enter in the “Replacement Phase.
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7.8 Scheduled Replacements
Only the French player receives scheduled replacements and only in the French and Indian War scenario. They receive 2 steps on turn 8 and 1 step on
turn 25. Units must be able to trace overseas supply
on the turn they receive replacements. Replacements
not used on the scheduled turn are lost.
7.9 Recruit Replacements
The French player may recruit replacements in the
French and Indian War scenarios and the King George’s
War scenario. One step may be recruited each spring
turn the following hexes are French controlled: 3411,
3710, 4111, and 4923. Only French Provincial units may
be recruited. Only Mar IR units may be recruited in
4923, and only Mar Q units in the other three hexes.
Simply return to play a previously eliminated one step
unit in each eligible hex. French regular units may only
be replaced by scheduled replacements or drafts.
In the Revolutionary War scenarios, the American
Player may recruit every Continental Army unit back
to full strength (except Light Infantry, see 7.5) each
spring turn, provided the entry hex of the unit in question is friendly controlled. If the unit is depleted, rather
than eliminated, it must be able to trace a line of continuous friendly civilized, road, or river hexes back to
its entry hex. If a unit cannot do this, it cannot receive
recruits.
Additionally, each spring turn, the Continental Army
may recruit one step for exactly one depleted unit
whose entry hex is British controlled or who cannot
trace to its entry hex if they conducted a raid in the
previous year (14.10).
The Continental Army cannot receive any recruits of
either type if Full Economic Collapse occurs.
All eliminated Spanish units may be recruit replaced
every turn. They are placed in the Havana Box. They
may move to the main map using naval movement.
In American Revolution scenarios, the British player
may recruit three steps in hex 2220 (New York City)
each spring turn it is friendly controlled. They can be
used in that hex to replenish or recreate Provincial
Regular units. (beige on brown with no stripe) (Only
units entered in 2220 may be brought back from the
dead pile in this way.)
In American Revolution scenarios, the British player
may recruit one step in each of 3411 (Montreal), 4926
(Halifax), S4619, S5023, and five steps in 2220 (New
York) each spring turn that each hex is friendly controlled. These steps may only be used in their specific
hexes to replenish or replace units of the “Tory or Provincial” category. (beige on brown with stripe) (Only
units that entered at each specific replacement hex
may be brought back from the dead pile.)
Each spring turn, the British player may also recruit
one step for his Hesse Cassel (HC) and one step for his
Brunswick (Br) German units. The units replenished
must be able to trace overseas supply at the time of
replenishment. Recreated eliminated units may reenter at one step strength as overseas reinforcements.
British Regulars do not receive recruits.
7.10 Draft Replacements
The British army relied on drafts from disbanded units
to provide most of its replacements in this era. On any
turn, the British player may voluntarily eliminate (not
reduce) any number of British regular infantry regiments in a hex and may then use that many steps to
replenish the remaining units in that hex.
Historical Note: The following British regiments
were used for drafts before Yorktown: 6th, 10th,
14th, 18th, 26th, 45th, 52nd, 59th, and 65th.
In the French and Indian War, the French player may
draft his provincial units into his regular units. He may
eliminate any number of provincial units in a hex and
may then use that many steps to replenish the regular
units in that hex. Eliminated provincial units may be
returned via recruit replacements, even in the same
turn.
8.0 Command Control and Leaders
Each unit must have command control in order to initiate movement and/or combat. Command control
requires a die roll that is less than or equal to the ranking leader’s initiative rating.
8.1 Leader Units
The unit shown here is Major General
James Peter Wolfe. He has a Combat
Rating of 2, a rank of 6, and an Initiative rating of 5.
Combat
Initiative Initial Placement Hex, Turn of Entry,
Rank
and Withdrawal codes are identical for
leaders as for combat units. Leaders with boxed turns
of entry may appear stacked with the nearest friendly
combat unit if their entry hex is occupied.
Combat Rating indicates a leader’s ability to favorably modify his troop’s performance in combat. see
11.9.
Rank indicates a leader’s relative rank, a lower number is a higher rank.
“F” indicates that Rochambeau is outranked by all
American Leaders (including the “default leader
(8.2)).
“Sp” indicates that Galvez and Montiano only command Spanish units. However, Galvez outranks all other leaders he may be stacked with in Louisiana and
Florida and cannot be moved into American civilized
hexes.
“IO” indicates Brant only commands British-controlled Indian units.
Initiative Rating is a measure of a leader’s ability to
conduct active strategic operations at this scale.
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8.2 Default Leaders
Stacks without a leader counter present are assumed
to have a default leader with a combat rating of 0 and
an initiative of 2.
Units with a movement factor followed by a + moving
alone, or in a stack with similar units, instead have a
default leader with a combat rating of 0 and an initiative of 8. This means they always have initiative.
Units with a boxed movement factor, and any stacks
containing such units, are assumed to have a default
leader with a combat rating of 0 and an initiative of
0. This means they can never move without a leader
counter. Stacks may detach (and not move) all such
units, with the remaining units using the ordinary default initiative of 2.
Stacks containing a leader counter (exception – mixed
American/French stacks with Rochambeau as the
only leader counter) may not use the default leader to
try to gain initiative.
The default leader of a unit with a movement factor
followed by a + may not move a stack containing units
with normal or boxed movement factors. Default leaders may not move units with boxed movement factors.
8.3 Initiative Procedure
Each time a unit or stack wishes to initiate movement
(see 9.0), or to continue moving after splitting off a
substack (9.5), or to resume movement following a
combat (ambush and/or linear) (see 11.1), or to react
to the movement of an enemy force into an adjacent
hex (see 10.0), a die is rolled and compared to the
initiative of the ranking leader present in the hex. The
ranking leader’s rating is used even if he is not moving with the units in question. If the die roll is equal to
or less than the ranking leader’s initiative rating, the
desired movement can take place. The unit or stack
may then continue to move until it either uses up all
its movement factors (and must stop) or an ambush
combat and/or a linear combat occurs (following
which it may check for initiative again to try to move
further).
Once a named leader (not a default leader) successfully passes its first initiative check in its Operations
Phase, the player may add one to the Leader’s initiative for all subsequent initiative checks for that named
leader in that same Operations Phase; this does not
apply to Reaction movement
8.4 Winter Turn Initiative Modification
In winter turns, on the north map (only) every leader’s initiative rating is decreased by two. The practical consequence of this is it is only possible to move
stacks with leaders with initiative greater than 2 and
of units with movement factors followed by a +. For
the purposes of this rule, units on the overlapping hex
row are considered on the north map.
8.5 One Initiative Failure Per Operations Phase
A given unit or stack may only fail one initiative roll
per Operations Phase, after which it may no longer
move that Operations Phase. Players may either place
“Movement Done” markers on stacks which are done
moving, or all friendly stacks should be setup in their
hex facing one hexside and rotated 60 degrees (one
hexside) when they are done moving. At the end of
the Operations Phase, all the player’s stacks should
be facing in the same direction or all Movement Done
markers removed.
8.6 Leader Redeployment
Usually, leaders move along with any stack (or substack) of units that begin the Operations Phase in
their hex and pass the initiative check. Any leaders
which did not move with units (even if they were used
for the first initiative check for moving forces) may be
moved during their Leader Redeployment segment
an unlimited number of contiguous friendly or neutral hexes or by sea movement to a hex containing
friendly units.
8.7 Cavalry Scouts
Cavalry and Legion units are considered to have cavalry scouts. Stacks with no cavalry scouts with them
must subtract 1 from their initiative roll for reaction
movement only. For example, Montcalm has no cavalry. If the French player rolls a six when checking initiative for reaction movement, he fails his reaction roll.
Units with movement factors followed by a + (only –
not stacks containing such a unit) can evade combat
automatically (except infantry in winter on the north
map; then a reaction check will fail on a roll of 6.)
8.8 Screening Terrain
In American Revolution scenarios, Continental Army
leaders only may add 1 to their initiative die roll for
reaction movement if they are in a civilized rough hex.
(George Washington and his subordinates made very
effective use of the terrain around New York to avoid
conflict, except on their own terms. This was especially true early in 1777 and was one of the reasons Howe
took the naval route to Philadelphia.)
8.9 Picking Up Units
A player moving a stack with initiative into a hex containing friendly units that have not yet been checked
for initiative that Operations Phase may choose to
(but is not required to) stop to roll for initiative again.
If the new roll is successful, the forces are joined and
may continue moving together. No unit, however, is
permitted by this rule to exceed its movement allowance or move twice in one turn. A unit with a + with
its movement factor can only pick up units that also
have a + with their movement factor.
9.0 Operational Movement
Every combat unit in the game has a Movement Factor printed in its bottom right hand corner. That factor
is the number of movement points (MPs also called
movement factors, MFs) available to the unit to use to
move across the hex grid during its Operations Phase.
Units move from hex to adjacent hex, paying varied
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costs to do so, depending on the terrain in the hex
being entered. Movement of each player’s units only
occurs during his Operations phase, except for reactions and retreats.
9.1 Movement Limits
MPs may not be accumulated from turn to turn, nor
may they be loaned or given from one unit to another.
A player may move some, all, or none of his units in
each of his Operations Phases, provided they have not
used naval Movement that same turn, and provided
each unit so moved has gained the initiative needed
to move. The movement of each unit or stack must be
completed before that of another is begun. A player
may only change the position of an already moved
unit or stack if his opponent allows it.
9.2 Minimum Movement Ability
Any unit with a printed movement factor greater than
0 is guaranteed the ability to move at least one hex
during its Operations Phase. This guarantee does not
allow units to enter a hex or cross a hexside that is
otherwise impassible, nor does it give units that have
failed their initiative check or that have boxed MFs
and no leader, the ability to move a hex.
9.3 Enemy Units
Moving into hexes containing enemy units is allowed
in this game, but will initiate ambush combat and/ or
linear combat unless the enemy units use reaction
movement to leave the hex. Moving into a hex adjacent to enemy units capable of reacting (that is, they
have an initiative greater than 0) may result in ambush
combat and/or linear combat if the enemy units use
reaction movement to move into the same adjacent
hex. Units may only move into a hex where combat
may ensue (including hexes adjacent to units capable
of reacting) if they have the five MPs remaining necessary to execute the ensuing combat.
Moving into a hex where the enemy force is under a
TOWN or FORT marker in this case follows a slightly
different procedure. Combat is only initiated under
the following circumstances:
A. The force under the TOWN or FORT marker successfully rolls for reaction. In this case, the reacting force could either move out from under the
marker, forcing combat, or move to an adjacent
hex.
B. The moving force chooses to engage the force
under the TOWN or FORT marker, proceed to
combat resolution.
9.4 Stack Movement
During the Operations Phase, the Operations player takes any subset of a stack (including the whole
stack) and forms a force which meets the Nationality
restrictions and which will try to gain initiative.
A. If there are both leaders and units in the force,
then the force has an initiative value of the leader with the lowest number (highest rank).
B. If there are only units in the force then:
1. If all MF of the units have a +, the force has a
default initiative value of 8.
2. If all MF of the units are not boxed (including a force with some (but not all) have a MF
with a +), then the force has a default initiative value of 2.
3. If any unit in the force has a boxed MF, the
force has a default initiative value of 0
For the very first initiative check, the force may choose
to use either the force’s initiative value or the originating stack’s initiative value for the overall leader of
the whole stack. Subsequent initiative checks use the
force’s initiative value and the force’s leader has +1 initiative for subsequent initiative checks.
Note: If you use the ranking leader of a stack to
move a force with units with a boxed MF but without a leader moving with them, they will always fail
a second initiative check.
9.5 Splitting Stacks
When moving a stack, you may halt it temporarily to
allow a unit or sub-stack to split off and move away
on a separate course. After the unit or sub-stack has
completed its movement, the units left behind in the
original “parent” stack may resume movement after
making a successful roll for initiative. The process may
be repeated any number of times until an initiative
check fails. But once you begin moving a different
parent stack (or an individual unit that began the Operations Phase in a different hex), you may no longer
resume the movement of an earlier stack without your
opponent’s consent. A moving parent stack may drop
off units as it moves without requiring additional initiative die rolls provided none of the dropped off units
moves further.
9.6 Differing MFs in a Stack
If units with different movement factors are traveling
together in a stack, the stack must use the movement
factor of the slowest unit. Of course, as the slower
units exhaust their MFs, you may leave them behind
and continue on with the faster units. Leaders assume
the MF of the fastest unit in their stack.
9.7 Civilized Terrain and Hex Control
There are 3 types of Civilized hexes: American, Tory
(pro-British), and French/Spanish. In all American
Revolution scenarios, American hexes are friendly to
the American Player; Tory hexes are friendly to the
British player; and French/Spanish hexes are neutral.
French and Indian War and King George’s War scenarios, French/Spanish hexes are friendly to the French
player; and American and Tory hexes are friendly to
the British player. This rule affects MP costs, the entry
of reinforcements and replacements, and tracing supply.
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Note: Hex control does not change simply by passing one of your units through a hex. Unfriendly
hexes must be garrisoned to maintain your control
there.
9.8 Terrain and Operational Movement
Most hexes on the map require more than one MP to
enter. Most of the Map consists of Wilderness hexes; a
Wilderness hex costs 5 MPs to enter.
Civilized hexes require 1 MP to enter if they are friendly or neutral and 2 MPs if they are unfriendly.
Civilized rough hexes require 2 MP to enter if they are
friendly and 4 MP to enter if they are unfriendly.
Rivers affect movement (see 9.9).
Roads do not affect movement, only supply tracing.
Units may not enter mountain hexes.
Units may only enter sea areas or cross all sea hexes
using sea movement (14.4) or by ferrying (9.11).
Design Note: One of the main problems the British
had in the American Revolution was the absence of
good maps and friendly guides. This is why movement rates vary as above.
9.9 Lake and River Movement
In this era rivers were the highways used for movement. They are not the barriers to movement that
they are in most wargames. Rivers in both types of
Civilized hexes cost 1 MP to move into from a contiguous river hex, even if unfriendly. Rivers in Wilderness
hexes cost 2 MPs to move into from a contiguous river
hex.
Lakes are treated exactly as rivers, including the Great
Lakes; however, units may not end movement in all
lake hexes.
Units may not use river/lake movement on the north
map in winter turns.
In the various hexes with portages (1608, 1907, 2613,
2914, and S4605) units may enter the hex along one
waterway and exit along another without penalty.
9.10 Weather Effects
In winter, all MP costs on the north map are doubled.
Additionally, units on the north map may not use river/lake movement. Treat all-water Great Lakes hexes
as wilderness hexes during winter; units may end the
first winter turn on such hexes.
9.11 Ferrying
Any stack containing a British infantry, a French regular or provincial infantry, or an American marine unit
may, after successfully passing an initiative check to
do so, move across a single all sea hexside by expending 5 MPs. This additional initiative check means
a unit which wants to start its move by ferrying must
roll twice for initiative. (The boats did not always show
up). Ferrying on the north map may be conducted in
winter at a cost of 10 MP. A stack, may move across an
on-map ferry hexside at a cost of 5MP, provided there
is not an enemy force in either hex of the ferry. Units
using an on-map ferry do not require an additional
initiative check. No stack may ferry across more than
one hexside per Operations Phase.
10.0 Reaction Movement
Every time the Operations player moves a unit or units
into a hex adjacent to an enemy unit or into a hex occupied by an enemy unit, he must pause to ask his
opponent if he intends to react. If the opposing player
chooses not to react, the moving player should simply
proceed with his own movement or combat, as appropriate. If the opposing player declares a reaction,
all his attempts to do so must be resolved before the
moving player resumes his operational movement. An
enemy stack must actually move a hex, not just pass
its own initiative check, in order to trigger reaction
attempts.
10.1 Reaction Restrictions
Units in a hex being moved into by an enemy force
must attempt reaction first if they wish to do so before any adjacent units may attempt to react; furthermore, if those units fail to react, then no other friendly
stacks may react into that hex. The reacting player
should decide whether he wants to try to escape the
combat or to try to reinforce the combat, he cannot
try to do both.
Units may not attempt to react to an enemy move
into an adjacent hex if they could not cross the hexside into that hex using operational movement (which
includes ferrying). A theoretical maximum of six reaction attempts may be triggered each time a force
moves one hex: one for the hex moved into and five
for the adjacent hexes. This rule intentionally allows
high initiative leaders to avoid combat.
10.2 Reaction Procedure
Whenever a unit or stack becomes eligible for reaction because of enemy movement, the player whose
Operations Phase it is must temporarily halt his activities to allow for the reaction attempt(s).
A unit or stack attempting reaction movement most
roll for initiative. If the initiative check fails, that reaction attempt has failed. If the reacting stack passes
its initiative check it may move one hex (not one MP,
one hex) in any direction it would ordinarily be able to
move, including ferrying. That completes its reaction
move.
The reacting player should sequentially resolve each
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reaction attempt for which he is eligible before the
player whose Operations Phase it is resumes his side’s
operational movement. When more than one reaction
is possible, the reacting player may resolve them in
any order he chooses except that reaction from the
units in a hex moved into must be resolved before
those of forces in adjacent hexes. A player must declare all his attempted reactions in a given situation
before he begins to resolve any.
If opposing units remain stacked together in the same
hex after all reactions have been resolved, then combat will occur before the triggering enemy stack may
resume its operational movement.
A successfully reacting unit in a hex adjacent to the
one entered by the enemy unit that triggered the
reaction attempt may use its reaction to go into the
hex of that triggering enemy unit, thereby generating
combat.
Design Note: Combat in End of Empire resembles
the Mobile Assault rules of many wargames.
11.0 Combat
Combat takes place between opposing forces in the
same hex during each player’s Operations Phase. All
combat takes place within a single hex or town; there
is no assaulting from one to another across hexsides.
Combat is mandatory; the commitment to fight is assumed to have been made as soon as you move into
an enemy occupied hex. The player whose Operations
Phase it is is considered the attacker, and the other is
the defender, no matter what the overall situation on
the map. (For an exception to that see 10.4 above.)
Each battle may consist of a single ambush combat provided the combat occurs in a wilderness hex - followed by one or more rounds of linear combat. A battle is not considered finished until the hex is cleared
of all units of one side or the other. No matter how
many rounds of linear combat may occur, the entire
procedure costs the units moving in their Operations
Phase five MP. Remember, too, that such a moving
force must, after battle, pass another initiative check
in order to resume its movement. If a moving force
with less than five MP remaining becomes involved
in combat due to reaction movement (per 9.3 this
should not happen), all its remaining MP are considered expended and it can move no farther that Phase.
11.1 Combat Procedure Summary
Use the following procedure for each individual combat:
1. Determine if an ambush is possible and which side
will conduct it. An ambush may only occur in a
wilderness hex (not outpost) when at least one
side has offensive ambush combat factors; otherwise skip to step 5.
2. Calculate the odds for the ambush.
3. Roll one six-sided die and cross index that result
with the appropriate odds column on the Ambush
Combat Results Table (ACRT) to obtain the ambush result.
4. Apply the result to the ambushed force. If the hex
then no longer contains units of both sides, no linear combat will occur; this battle is over.
5. Otherwise, calculate the combat odds for the linear combat portion of the battle.
6. Determine which die roll modifiers (DRMs) apply.
7. Roll a six-sided die and apply the final, combined
DRM to that result. Cross index the final result
with the appropriate odds column on the Linear
Combat Results Table (LCRT) printed on the map
sheet to get the combat result. (For example, a die
roll of six with +1 DRM at 3:1 odds yields a result
of “1/4DR.”)
8. Apply the result to the defender, then the attacker.
9. Allow the defender to attempt to retreat from
combat. If the defending player wishes to retreat
his force, he must make an initiative check for it.
If the check is successful, the defending force may
move into any non-enemy-occupied adjacent hex
into which it could normally move.
10. If opposing units still remain in the hex, the attacker must roll for initiative again. If he passes that
check, go back to step five and resolve another
round of linear combat. If the initiative check fails,
move the attacking force back into the hex it was
located in just before entering the battle hex.
11. If the moving force has movement points remaining after expending the 5MP cost of combat, it
may continue moving after passing initiative. This
is true even if the moving force lost the combat.
11.2 Indivisibility of Stacks
If there are two or more enemy units in a hex being
attacked by your units, you may only attack that stack
as if it were a single large, combined, defending unit.
Similarly, each attacking stack must be treated as a
single large, combined attacking unit. Units may attack and be attacked any number of times in a single
Operations Phase.
11.3 Ambush Combat Procedure
An Ambush combat only occurs in a Wilderness hex,
not an outpost. If Combat occurs in a civilized hex or
in an outpost in a Wilderness hex, skip the ambush
steps during the resolution of that battle.
If both side’s forces have offensive ambush combat
factors (those preceded with a +), then the defending
force in the hex, possibly just moved there via reac-
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tion movement, gets to decide first whether to conduct the ambush. The Operation player’s force can
only conduct an ambush if the hex defender declines
to conduct an ambush or is unable to conduct an ambush.
Note: It is almost always to your advantage to conduct an ambush if you have forces that can do so.
The ambusher totals his involved units’ ambush factors preceded by a +. The player owning the force
being ambushed totals all his involved units’ ambush
factors. Calculate the odds according to rule 11.7, then
roll a six sided die. Cross reference that result on the
Ambush Table. If the ambushed force has zero ambush factors, resolve that ambush on the 1+/0 column
of the Ambush Table; there is no additional die roll
modifier.
11.4 Ambush Results
The ambushed player applies step losses to his units
according to rule 11.10. He may then also be required
to retreat (again, see 11.10). If any result other than
“No Effect” was obtained, all Algonquin and Appalachian Indians on both sides are immediately removed
and put in the Available Units Holding Box. If the ambushed force suffered any step losses, also roll a die
for each leader present in the hex. Each rolled-for
leader is eliminated on a result of one or two. If Indians are eliminated in an ambush they are put in the
available box and they are eligible for reactivation the
next turn.
11.5 Linear Combat Procedure
A stack with zero ambush factors may not engage Indian units in a wilderness hex in linear combat unless
the Indian units chose to do an ambush combat first.
The units may coexist in the hex -- think of this as the
Indians vanishing into the trees. Of course the Indians
may choose to ambush the stack, but if they choose
not to do so, that stack may keep moving as if the
Indians were not there.
The attacker totals the boxed combat factors of his
involved units, then halves that number, rounding up.
He then adds that number to the total of all his involved units’ unboxed combat factors. Calculate the
odds according to rule 11.7. Roll a six-sided die and
apply all applicable DRMs. Cross reference that final
result on the CRT.
Note: If Linear combat is initiated by a reacting
force entering a moving force’s hex, the reacting
force is considered the attacker.
11.6 Linear Combat Results
The defender applies step losses to his units according to rule 11.10; then the attacker applies step losses
to his units.
Either player may be required to retreat after combat,
see 11.10. If a player suffered a combat result (either a
step loss or a retreat), all his participating Militia and
Iroquois Indians are removed and put into the Available Units Holding Box. If any result other than “No
Effect” was obtained, then all Algonquin and Appalachian Indians on both sides are removed and put into
the Available Units Holding Box. Indians that are eliminated in linear combat are put in the available box and
are eligible for reactivation the next turn.
If a player’s force suffered any step losses and there
is at least one leader present, the player must select
one leader in the force to possibly suffer a loss. Roll a
die. On a result of one roll again. On the second roll, a
result of 1-2 means the leader is killed; 3-4 means the
leader is wounded (roll the die a third time and enter
the leader that many turns later as a reinforcement);
and 5-6 means he is a Prisoner of War (give him to the
other player – see 11.12).
11.7 Calculating Odds
Odds are calculated using similar procedures for both
ambush combat and linear combat. In an ambush
combat the attacking player uses his participating
units’ ambush factors preceded by a + as attack factors and the defender uses all his units’ ambush factors as defense factors. In linear combat the attacker
uses his units’ linear combat factors - including one
half of boxed combat factors, but excluding circled
combat factors - as attack factors, and the defender
uses all his units’ combat factors as defense factors.
The attacking player should strive to have more attack
factors involved in a given ambush or linear combat
than the defender has defense factors. Such battles
are called “high odds attacks.” To calculate their odds,
add up the attack factors of all the involved attacking
units, then add up the defense factors of the enemy
units defending in the battle. Divide the defender total into the attacker total and round down any remainders. (See 11.8 for battles with zero factors on a side.)
High Odds Example. 26 attack factors versus 7 defense
factors yields an odds ratio of 3:1. That is: 26/7=3.71,
which rounds down to 3. To turn that “3” into an odds
ratio you must set a ‘1’’ next to it on the right. Thus “3”
becomes “3:1” which is read “three to one’ and which
corresponds to a column heading on the CRT.
Battles in which the attacking force has fewer combat factors than the defender are called “poor odds
attacks.” Procedures are modified in that now you divide the defender’s total by the attacker’s, round up
remainders, and set the “1” on the left side.
Poor Odds Example. A force with 5 attack factors is
attacking a force with 11 defense factors. Divide 11 by
5 (11/5=2.2) and round up (2.2 becomes 3), then set
the ‘’1’’ on the left of the “3” yielding an odds ratio of
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“1:3,” which is read “one to three.” When both sides
have precisely the same amount of combat factors involved, the odds are 1:1.
This reflects their extreme shortage of powder
and the difficulty it would have caused when assaulting fortifications.
11.8 Odds Limits
The odds column headings on the Linear CRT and
Ambush CRT range from 1:3 to 4:1.
3. 3) Von Steuben’s Reforms: in all American Revolution scenarios, every linear combat involving Continental Army and/or State Troops in turns during the years 1775 and 1776 suffer a -1 DRM when
attacking and a +1 DRM when defending. In 1777,
such forces suffer a -1 DRM when attacking but no
longer suffer the penalty when defending. In 1778
and later years this rule is no longer in effect for
attack or defense.
Ambushes conducted at odds of less than 1:3 automatically have a “No Effect” result. Ambushes conducted at odds of more than 4:1 are resolved on the
4:1+ column without any die roll modifiers. As an
exception, though, if the defender’s total ambush
strength is zero, use the 1+/0 odds column.
Linear Combat at odds less than 1:3 automatically
have a combat result of 2/0 AR. Linear combat odds
greater than 4:1 are resolved on the 4:1+ column without any additional die roll modifier, except that, if the
defender has 0 combat factors and the attacker has 1
or more combat factors, the defending force is eliminated without any loss to the attacker (this latter can
only occur when Indians are stacked alone). There is
no DRM for very high odds.
11.9 Die Roll Modifiers (DRM)
DRM only apply to linear combat, never to ambush
combat. After the odds for a round of linear combat
have been calculated, total the applicable DRM for
that fight. All terrain DRM are generated by the terrain in the battle hex; there are no terrain DRM generated by the terrain in the hex from which the attacker
moved into the battle.
Positive DRM favor the attacker; negative DRM favor
the defender. All DRM that apply in a given battle are
cumulative in their effect. After determining all the
DRM that apply, combine them to come up with one
total, either zero or a positive or negative number. For
example, in a battle in which the defender had -3 DRM
and the attacker had +2, the final DRM would be to
modify the resolution die roll by -1 That’s (-3)+ (+2)=-1.
That final DRM of -1 is then applied to the die roll for
that combat. Die rolls may not be modified below -2
or above 8.
1. Units under a FORT marker get a -1 DRM in linear
combat. There are no other terrain, man-made or
natural, DRMs.
2. Artillery DRM & Boston: Rule 2.8 states which units
have artillery.
Any force involved in linear combat in any nonwilderness hex suffers a one DRM penalty if it has
no artillery in it. (There is no artillery DRM in a wilderness hex or an outpost.) Therefore an attacker
without any artillery would suffer a -1 DRM, and a
defending force without any artillery would suffer a +1 DRM. In American Revolution scenarios,
American units attacking Boston with a FORT
marker before turn 7 suffer an additional -1 DRM.
4. Leader DRM:Only the ranking leader in the battle
hex may affect the combat for his side. Leaders
generate a DRM equal to their combat rating. That
number is positive for attackers and negative for
the defenders.
11.10 Combat Results
Ambush CRT results only apply against the ambushed
force; the numbers represent step losses. In some instances that number is followed by an “R” That means
the affected player’s units must retreat. If the ambushed force was the attacker, follow the procedure
described below for AR. If the ambushed force was
the defender, follow the procedure described below
for DR.
CRT results can apply to both players’ involved forces.
The number to the left of the slash applies to the attacking force; the number to the right applies to the
defenders. The numbers are step losses and cannot
be absorbed any other way. Following those step loss
numbers there may be one of the following: AR, DR.
AR means the attacker must retreat. Place all of those
units back into the hex from which they entered the
battle hex. If the involved units have MP remaining,
they may roll for initiative to resume moving and may
even attack again.
DR means the defender must retreat. That force is immediately moved into any adjacent hex, automatically
excluding the one from which the attacker advanced
into the battle hex. Further, such a DR force may not
be moved into any enemy occupied hex, nor into any
prohibited terrain (such as all-sea or mountains), nor
across an all-sea hexside. Ferry movement is allowed
if the force would otherwise be capable of it (see
9.12). If no useable retreat hex is available, the retreating force is eliminated in place instead. If more than
one useable hex is available, the owning player may
choose into which one his force will retreat.
DE means all defending units are eliminated. Such
units may only reenter play through the replacement
process (see section 7.0).
11.11 Step Losses
Every strength step given up from combat units, other
than Militia and Indians, satisfies one increment of a
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combat result. For example, flipping a two-step unit
so its reverse side shows satisfies one increment of
a combat result; eliminating it entirely would satisfy
two increments.
Step losses may be apportioned by each player among
his involved units as he sees fit. Additionally, all nonIroquois Indians are eliminated after battle, even if
their side suffered no step losses. Also, all involved
Militia and Iroquois Indians are eliminated if their side
suffered any step losses (and their elimination cannot
in anyway be used to satisfy a CRT mandatory step
loss).
If the CRT calls for the loss of more steps than are actually present at a battle, ignore the extra losses.
Design Note: Step loss results do not vary in proportion to the size of the forces involved in a fight.
In both wars simulated here, combat usually resulted in remarkably similar (small) numbers of casualties no matter how large or small the overall forces
involved.
11.12 Leader Prisoners of War (POW)
If all steps in a stack are eliminated through combat,
any surviving leaders are considered POWs of the
winner. During a subsequent Reinforcement phase,
either player may choose to exchange a leader that
is a POW for a leader captured by the other player
and reenter by stacking it with any supplied stack.
Leaders are exchanged on a one-for-one basis starting with the lowest ranked (highest numbered) leader
captured by each side.
If all steps in a stack are eliminated through supply attrition, any surviving leaders are moved to the nearest
friendly unit.
11.13 Fortifications
Units under a FORT marker receive an additional -1
DRM on defense but do not occupy the hex, they only
occupy the town or outpost in the hex and enemy
units may move into the hex without being required
to have combat with units in forts, although they may
choose to have combat. If the hex is also a port and
an enemy fleet is in the adjacent sea zone, the units in
the FORT or TOWN may not retreat after combat and
instead surrender.
Units moving from under a TOWN or FORT marker
trigger a reaction opportunity for enemy forces in the
hex with the TOWN or FORT and also adjacent hexes.
If there are no units under a TOWN or FORT marker,
it is removed.
12.0 Militia
Unlike European wars of this era, wars in North America were not strictly professional affairs. These rules
put those amateur soldiers, the militia, in their proper
historic context. They were ubiquitous, fragile, but
also occasionally decisive when used properly.
12.1 Political Divisions
For the purposes of this rule section and section 15.0,
the civilized areas of the map are divided into 19 political areas. They are the original 13 colonies, plus
Maine, Vermont, Canada (actually Quebec Province),
Nova Scotia, Florida, and Louisiana.
12.2 Militia Entry
Militia units may be put into play at two different times
during each turn. They may be placed on the map
during the Reinforcement Phase on any civilized hex
within their political area. Alternatively, they may be
withheld in the Units Available Box then placed in any
civilized hex within their political area that the enemy
player is attempting to move into during his Operations Phase as a kind of reaction move. Militia placement must be announced and carried out prior to any
regular reaction move attempts. Their hex of placement must be in supply at the time of placement.
The placement of a militia unit upon enemy movement into a friendly civilized hex does not require a
reaction die roll.
Tory militia is restricted in that such units cannot be
placed in any American civilized hex unless that hex
contains at least one other unit friendly to the British
player at the instant of placement.
Eliminated militia units may not be placed on the map
again until the following turn, when eliminated, place
militia on the next turn of their side’s TRT.
Militia units may only appear in hexes within the political area corresponding to their unit ID. Once on the
map, however, they may be moved into other political
areas.
Militia may not enter in response to reaction moves.
Players may enter militia anticipating future events.
For instance, it is allowed and historic to call out the
Virginia militia in S5924 on turn 2 anticipating the arrival of Lord Dunmore’s 2 units there on turn 3, and
forcing them to attack the militia upon entry.
12.3 Militia Withdrawal
Militia units are automatically withdrawn during the
Withdrawal Phase of each spring and fall turn. They
are also withdrawn if involved in combat and their side
suffers any step losses (and their withdrawal does not
satisfy those combat step loss requirements). Militia
units may not be voluntarily withdrawn at any other
times. Once the SC Militia is on its Marion side, withdrawal is voluntary each spring and fall turn.
12.4 US Militia Inactivation Due to Restoration of
British Colonial Rule
If the British control all US supply hexes in a colony
(or Vermont or Maine) then the US militia unit for that
colony is withdrawn. Invert the militia unit so that the
British flag shows and place it at a convenient spot in
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the colony. Inverted militia are ineligible for reentry
while inverted and if all are inverted, the 15.9 Restoration of Colonial Rule victory condition is triggered.
Should the British lose control of any one of these
supply hexes, remove the British flag. The militia is
immediately available for placement by the US player. Should the British restore British Colonial Rule in
South Carolina, the Marion unit immediately and permanently replaces the SC militia unit. Unlike other
states, Marion may still enter while British Colonial
rule is in place.
On turn 35 the Vermont militia is withdrawn and the
Vermont Republic flag is placed in 2817 due to Ethan
Allan negotiating a separate peace (The Haldimand
Affair). Hex 2817 is no longer considered a US supply
hex.
12.5 Other Militia Inactivation
If the US controls all 3 British supply hexes in Canada
then the British militia unit for that colony is withdrawn. Invert the unit so that the US flag shows, and
place it at a convenient spot in the colony. If the US
controls 4923 and 4926 then the British NS militia unit
is withdrawn. Invert the unit so that the US flag shows,
and place it at a convenient spot in the colony. If the
British Player controls New Orleans, then the Spanish
militia unit is withdrawn. Invert the unit so that the
British flag shows, and place it at a convenient spot in
the colony. Should the occupying player lose control
of any one of these supply hexes, the militia is immediately available for placement.
13.0 Indians
Though adept at ambushing and raids, the Indians of
eastern North America never really mastered the European notion of sustained linear warfare. The Iroquois
did better than most tribes in that they formed a confederacy that dominated their Algonquin neighbors
through the 1600s. They also played off the French
against the English through three earlier colonial
wars, beginning with their raid on Montreal in 1689.
For those reasons, the Iroquois Indians are treated
differently from the other tribes represented in play.
Except as noted in these rules, Indian units perform
movement and combat exactly like the other units in
the game.
The Iroquois Confederacy and its clients were still trying to play off the French against the English in the
French and Indian War Scenario, and rule 13.2 reflects
that fact. But that strategy was no longer viable after
the British victory in 1763, so the Indians made a final
attempt to maintain their independence in Pontiac’s
Rebellion in 1763-1766. In the American Revolution,
they simply continued as best they could to resist the
expanding colonies, most siding with the British.
13.1 Indian Recruitment in American Revolutionary
War Scenarios
Nearly all Indian units are available for the British player to recruit. The Catawba, Oneida and Tuscarora In-
dians may be recruited by the American player (and
only by him). The Mingo, Micmac and Delaware Indians are not used in these scenarios. Indians cannot be
recruited in an enemy occupied hex.
Certain Indians require an “Indian Agent” before they
can be recruited. Indian agents can only be recruited
in certain hexes. Each turn the player controls one or
more of the required hexes, roll one die for each “Indian Agent” in the Units Available holding box. On a
roll of one or two, place the agent in one of the designated hexes and put the relevant Indians in the Available Box. On subsequent turns, the agent may recruit
Indians. The Indian Agent chit remains there until/unless the hex comes under enemy control – if it does,
then put the agent back in the available box.
• British Indian Agents: (Mobile) or S2315 (Pensacola): Alabama, Choctaw, Chicksaw .
• S2823 (St. Marks) or S3228 (St. Augustine): Creek
• 1102 (Detroit): Miami, Shawnee
• 3411 (Montreal): Cayuga, Huron, Mohawk, Onondaga, Ottawa, Seneca
• 4111 (Quebec): Abenaki
• US Indian Agent: 2716 (Albany): Oneida, Tuscarora
Each turn roll one die for each Indian unit in the Units
Available Holding Box. On a roll of one that unit is
placed in its settlement hex. The above listed tribes
require Indian Agents to be entered before they can
be recruited. The Caughnawaga, Cherokee and Catawba do not require an Indian Agent. However, the
Caughnawaga require the British player to control
Montreal (3411) or they will not enter even if a one is
rolled for them.
Brant (the British Indian leader) can always successfully recruit the Mohawk Indians when in hex 2514.
13.2 Indian Recruitment in the French and Indian War
Scenarios and King George’s War Scenario
The recruitment of all Indian units in these scenarios is governed by the Iroquois Loyalty Chart. Each
turn determine the current Iroquois loyalty by totaling the points for Iroquois Loyalty Hexes controlled
by the British player. Fort Frontenac and Albany are
each worth 2 points; Niagara and Oswego are each
worth 1 point. If Albany is unoccupied by British units
it is still considered controlled by the English player,
but the the other three hexes must be occupied to
count. For example, if the British control Albany and
the French control the other three hexes, the current
Iroquois Loyalty Point Total is two. After Iroquois Loyalty is determined for the turn, make any mandated
withdrawals. The British must withdraw units of the
indicated tribes if BR appears in the recruitment box
of that tribe at the current Iroquois Loyalty total. The
French must do the same when FR appears in a box.
For example, with an Iroquois Loyalty Total of one, the
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British player would have to withdraw any Mohawk,
Mingo and Delaware units he currently had deployed
on the map.
Each turn roll a die for each Indian unit with a number
in the recruitment box that is not already deployed on
the map. The British player may roll for units with a
B#; the French player may roll for units with an F#. On
a roll equal to or less than the number shown in the
recruitment box, that unit is placed in its settlement
hex. The Shawanoes and Miamis are placed in hex 1111,
since their settlements are actually off the map.
The Delaware and Mingo also require the recruiting
player to control 1111 (Fort Duquesne, AKA Fort Pitt)
or they will not enter. Additionally, certain other Indians require the French player to control particular
hexes or they will not enter.
• 3411: Caughnawaga
• 4111: Abenaki
• 1102,1111, 1907 and 2709: Miami, Shawanoes
• 3411 & 2709: Huron, Ottawa
• 5927 and one of 5022, 5122, 4924 and 4926: Micmac
In King George’s War, the same table is used, except
no points are scored for Oswego, and the British get 2
points automatically because they were more closely
allied with the Iroquois at that time.
13.3 Indian Withdrawal
Indian units must be withdrawn immediately if any
enemy combat unit enters their settlement hex. Such
units are not available for recruitment again until the
following spring turn. Additionally, they can withdraw
depending on the results of ambush combat and linear combat.
Design Note: These rules are crafted to reflect the
influence of ocean-going sailing fleets on land combat in an era when decisive naval victories were unknown. The British had not yet discovered the two
factors that achieved the decisive naval superiority
they held in the Napoleonic era. That is, not until
after the Battle of the Saints would the Royal Navy
cease following the Fighting Instructions and the
discovery of a cure for scurvy would later allow the
“Limies” to keep fleets on station longer.
14.0 Naval Rules
The ocean area of the map is divided into 6 sea areas. All coastal hexes bordering on a sea area are also
considered part of that sea area. With the exception
of hex 5927 (Louisbourg), each coastal hex borders
on only one sea area. Louisbourg borders on both the
Gulf of Maine and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. This makes
Louisbourg difficult to isolate from overseas supply.
14.1 Fleet Placement
Each turn players may attempt to place their available fleets according to the following procedure. First
a die is rolled and the result compared to the number
on the Fleet Availability Chart for that turn. If the die
roll result is equal to or less than the fleet availability
number, that player may place that fleet counter in
any of the 6 sea zones (exception: see 14.3). If any
enemy fleet is already present in the chosen sea zone,
naval combat is immediately resolved according to
rule 14.2. At the end of the Mutual Naval Phase, only
the fleets of one player may be in any given sea zone.
Always place the French fleet first, then the British
fleet, and last the Spanish fleet.
Fleets on the map that fail their availability check for
the subsequent turn are immediately removed.
In winter turns fleets are only available for use on the
southern map and only if they are not already employed blockading on the north map per the first
paragraph of 14.8.
14.2 Naval Combat
Naval combat is resolved simply. Each player rolls a
die and the higher number wins. Ties are won by the
player whose fleet occupied that sea zone on the prior turn or was first to place it there this turn. The loser must remove his fleet from the map; it is available
again on later turns according to rule 14.1; fleets are
never destroyed. A second round of combat in the
same sea zone is possible if the loser in a battle there
had not already placed his fleet that turn and then
attempts to put it back into the just-fought-for zone.
14.3 Fleet Withdrawal
All fleets are automatically considered withdrawn
from the northern map during winter turns; however,
their counters are actually left in the sea zones they
occupied at the end of the fall turn to remind players
into which zones they can and cannot trace overseas
supply. Remove the counters at the beginning of the
Naval Phase of the spring turn.
On all other turns leave fleet counters in place until
the time comes to roll for availability. For example,
say the British fleet was in the sea zone off New York
on turn 15. The French player rolls a one for fleet availability and he attempts to place his fleet in the same
zone. Both players roll a die. The British player gets a
five, and the French player gets a three. The French
fleet’s placement is aborted for that turn.
During winter turns, fleet counters left in place per
this case in sea zones on the northern map are automatically not available for use on the southern map
that same turn.
14.4 Amphibious Invasion
Once per turn a player with a fleet on the map may
declare an amphibious invasion of any coastal hex
bordering the sea zone it occupies. The units consti-
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tuting the force attempting the invasion must all begin the turn already in a port hex, and there may not
be an enemy fleet in the sea zone adjacent to it. The
invading force must then also pass an initiative check.
If initiative is obtained, the invading force expends its
entire movement allowance to move to the selected
coastal hex and resolve any combat that may occur
there.
The invading force may also be joined by units stacked
with the fleet until then. Such units might be reinforcements entering that turn (see 7.2), or units evacuated
by sea (see 14.6). Such units might also conduct an
invasion by themselves. If they do so, they must roll
for initiative as if they had been stacked in a port. If
they fail their initiative check, they must immediately
debark into any friendly port on the map. If there is no
such place, they are eliminated.
The invading player must declare the hex he is invading. Then, before placing his invading force in that
hex, he must allow the other player the opportunity
to place any available Militia (see 12.2), and any defending units in or adjacent to the invading hex may
attempt a reaction. After the invading force is placed,
resolve combat normally.
The port from which an invasion begins does not have
to be in the same sea zone as the invasion. The only
requirement is that there must not be an enemy fleet
offshore the port of embarkation. Only the invaded
hex must have the fleet immediately offshore.
Invasions can be declared against already friendly
hexes as a way of rapidly moving units from a port to
a coastal hex.
14.5 Naval Infantry
Fleets with text on their fronts are considered to have
naval infantry attached. They may be used in any single coastal hex adjacent to the sea area their fleet occupies. Flip over the fleet counter and use the combat
factors of the naval infantry unit in any combat that
occurs in the coastal hex. Like Militia, Naval Infantry
is immediately and completely removed if their force
suffers any combat step losses, but they are again
available for use on subsequent turns. In ARW scenarios, the Spanish Naval Infantry is only available if
a Spanish infantry unit occupied at least one of the 3
West Florida ports (Mobile, Pensacola, St. Marks) at
the beginning of the turn.
availability check, the force on that fleet must be
placed in a friendly port hex. If no such place exists,
the force is considered eliminated.
In American Revolution scenarios, on non-winter
turns prior to the entry of the British fleet (turn 7), the
British player may use evacuation by sea according to
the provisions of the above rule just as if there were a
British fleet in the sea zone offshore of Boston (3120).
14.7 Louisbourg
If Louisbourg is occupied by an enemy unit then a
fleet may not be placed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
14.8 Blockade
A “DR” result against a force in a fort in a port hex
with an opposing fleet in the sea zone offshore means
that force surrenders, as it cannot retreat, see 5.1 and
11.10.
14.9 American Amphibious Capability
During ARW scenarios, except in winter turns, the US
player may also amphibiously transport a single unit
per turn from a port to a destination within a single
sea zone not occupied by the British fleet. The unit
must acquire initiative normally. The move consumes
all its movement factors. It may attack in the landing
hex.
14.10 Continental Marines and Raids
The US player may use the above capacity to transport any of its 3 Marine units (14 Cont, Lee MA, Cont
Marine) units from any port not in a sea zone occupied by the British fleet to raid New Providence Island (Bahamas) or Nova Scotia. Place the unit with
the captured supply side showing on the turn record
track the following spring. The US player gets 1 extra
step of replacements, and the continental marine unit
may be replaced normally.
Unit Note: 14 Cont is a 2 step unit and therefore
does not say “captured supply” on its reverse. It
still may be used in this way.
Historical Note: Glover’s 14 Continental regiment
raided Nova Scotia in 1775 and the Continental Marines raided New Providence in 1776 and 1778.
15.0 American Revolution Political Rules
14.6 Evacuation by Sea
Any force that suffers a retreat result in a coastal hex
adjacent to a sea zone occupied by a friendly fleet
may be evacuated by sea instead of retreating normally. Simply place the evacuated force on the fleet.
The force may subsequently be landed according to
the provisions of rule 14.4.
This section only applies to the American Revolutionary War scenarios.
At the end of any fall turn or during any Naval Phase
that a fleet holds an evacuated force but fails its fleet
American leaders can lead Continental, State and Indian units. As a special case, Lafayette may also com-
15.1 Leader Restrictions
15.1.1 Nationality Restrictions
British, Provincial, and German leaders may lead any
British, Provincial, German or Indian unit.
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mand French units. The highest ranked US leader on
the map (usually Washington) can lead a stack containing both American and French units provided Rochambeau or Lafayette is in the stack. Other American leaders cannot lead French units.
In the American Revolution scenarios, a French leader
can only lead French units. In French and Indian War
scenarios, a French unit may also lead French Provincial units and Indians. A Spanish leader can lead
Spanish units, French units, and Indians. A French unit
may stack with a Spanish unit or an American unit but
not simultaneously. A Spanish unit may not stack with
an American unit nor enter American civilized hexes.
Spanish units may enter civilized hexes in Canada.
(Galvez had a plan to land at Halifax after retaking
Florida.)
A unit with a black box MF needs a leader (not necessarily of the same nationality) to give initiative in
order to move.
15.1.2 British Pride
If at any time, the British commander in chief (the
highest ranking British leader) in a civilized hex in
America (the original 13 colonies plus Maine and Vermont) is not an Englishman - that is, he is a Provincial
or Hessian - that non-English leader is permanently
withdrawn from the game. The process is repeated
until an Englishman is the highest ranking leader in
the specified area. Exception: If that leader is the only
British leader on the entire map, he is not withdrawn
until another British leader enters; once another British leader is on a land hex on the map, then the British
Pride check is done.
Note: It behooves the British player to always know
which leader is the CinC in America and which
leader will become CinC in America when something changes.
Historical Note: Both Carleton and Haldimand outranked Howe and Clinton but they were relegated
to Canada and Florida (respectively) by Lord North
so that an Englishman would be Commander in
Chief in America.
15.2 French Entry
The French enter on the turn that begins with at least
20 steps of eliminated British units. Do not count steps
lost from depleted British units still on the map. Do not
count eliminated German or Provincial units. Place the
French Entry marker on the turn record track on this
turn and place the West Indies Withdrawal marker on
the third turn following. The French Fleet may now
become available per the fleet availability table and
the American player may now receive overseas supply. If French entry has not occurred by turn 33, delay the entry of Rochambeau and the accompanying
units until the turn of French Entry.
15.3 French Restrictions
The following restrictions are based on Rochambeau’s
orders: French units may not enter Canada or Nova
Scotia and the French fleet may not transport American units to these areas. The five French units must
remain stacked together with Rochambeau unless he
is killed or captured, then Lafayette may command
them.
15.4 New France Revisited
If on any turn after turn 13 France has not yet entered
and the British player fails to control at least two ports
anywhere in the 13 colonies, the American player may
attempt to entice France into the war by offering
them the return of New France. At the beginning of
the Reinforcement Phase of such turns, the American
player rolls a die. If the result is a one, place the French
Entry and West Indies Withdrawal Markers according
to rule 15.2. If the French enter the war under the provisions of this rule, rule 15.3 French Restrictions does
not apply. Victory is still determined according to the
normal conditions with but one additional provision:
the American player must control one of the following
hexes or he cannot win: Montreal (3411), Quebec City
(4111), Louisbourg (5927), or Halifax (4926).
15.5 Spanish Entry
Place the Spanish entry marker on the 9th turn following French entry but not before turn 20. The Spanish
enter the war on the American side on the turn indicated and the Spanish fleet then becomes available
for use according to the Fleet Availability Table. Prior
to Spanish entry into the war, only Spanish units may
be in Louisiana and the Havana Holding Box.
15.6 Spanish Restrictions
The Spanish fleet may always be placed in the Gulf
of Mexico. The Spanish fleet may only be placed in
the South Atlantic if the British control no ports adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. Spanish Naval Infantry may
not be used north of the S3500 hexrow, inclusive. No
Spanish units may enter any hex occupied by American units and vice versa. Only Spanish and French
units may ever enter the Havana Holding Box. In the
event that the British no longer control any ports in
the Gulf of Mexico and no longer control St. Augustine, then the Spanish fleet may be placed in the Gulf
of Maine and Spanish units may invade hexes next to
the Gulf of Maine but may not enter American civilized hexes.
15.7 American Economic Collapse
The Continental Congress financed the Revolution
through deficit spending, simply printing whatever
amount of money was needed. The economic chaos
that ensued nearly destroyed the republic, even after
independence: see Shay’s Rebellion and the Whiskey
Rebellion. Rochambeau used the gold in his war chest
to hold together the American Army just prior to
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Yorktown, but even so it was a near thing.
The American Economy can be in one of 3 possible
states: Normal, Near Economic Collapse, and Full Economic Collapse. Normal has no effect on game play.
Should the economy revert to Normal from a state of
Near Economic Collapse or Full Economic Collapse,
all of the units withdrawn due to collapse become eligible for replacement the next spring turn.
If the economy enters Near Economic Collapse, then
the US player must withdraw all the units with “NEC”
withdrawal codes. Effectively, this reduces the size of
the Continental Army by about 50%, and historically
occurred on turn 35.
If the economy enters Full Economic Collapse, then
in addition to withdrawing these units, the American
player may no longer trace North American supply or
receive Continental Army replacements. If American
Full Economic Collapse has occurred, then Overseas
Supply is only available to US units if they are stacked
with French units. French and Spanish units may continue to trace Overseas Supply normally.
At the end of each December Turn starting in 1777,
check for Economic Collapse as follows:
Calculate the British shift for economic disruption by
counting 2 points for each US port (in the civilized
areas of the 13 colonies plus Maine) occupied by the
British, and 1 point for each one “raided” (defined by
passing through on that turn or the previous 5 turns).
Divide the number by 5 rounding to nearest whole
number. This is British shift for economic disruption.
US Economic Collapse Table
Turn 17
Turn 23
Turn 29
Turn 35
Turn 41
NEAR
8
6
4
2
1
FULL
11
9
7
5
4
MODIFIERS TO US Economic Collapse Table
• Add the British shift for economic disruption.
• Subtract 2 if the French entry has occurred.
• Subtract 1 if Spanish entry has occurred and
Natchez (S1905) is owned by the Spanish.
Roll 1 die: if the die roll equals or exceeds the number
in the table below, then US economic collapse occurs.
Full Economic Collapse is also considered to have occurred at the start of any turn the British occupy all 21
port hexes in the 13 colonies plus Maine.
15.8 The Fall of Lord North
If the British player fails to make required West Indies Withdrawals or if any turn ends with at least 35
steps of eliminated British Regular units, Lord North’s
government has fallen. When counting the steps, do
not count steps lost from depleted British units on
the map, do not count Hessian or Provincial units, and
do not count the Fort Gage or Natchez units. If Lord
North’s government falls, the American player is declared the victor. It is suggested when a British regular unit is eliminated for any reason, that it be given
to the US player to keep off map to aid in tracking
the cumulative losses of British regular units, since it
never returns to the game.
15.9 Restoration of British Colonial Administration
If all 14 British flags and the Vermont republic flag
have been placed per 12.4 on the map at the end of
any turn, the rebellion is considered to have been suppressed and Royal Colonial Administration fully restored; the British player is declared the victor.
Credits
Original Command Magazine Edition
Designer: William M. Marsh
Developer: Paul Blankenship
Playtesters: Stephen D. Marsh, Michael Nagel
Post Publication
Developer of Original Edition: Richard Berg
Compass Games Edition
Designer: William M. Marsh
Developer: Donald B. Johnson
Playtesters: Samuel A. Marsh, John Martino, Tom
Martz, Ed Pundyk, Martin Svennson, Mark Van Roekel.
Graphics & Layout: Brien J Miller
Production: Ken Dingley
Cover Image
Junius Brutus Stearns (American, 1810-1885)
Washington as a Captain in the French and Indian War
(Detail), ca. 1851
Oil on canvas
37” H x 54” W
95.25 cm x 137.16 cm
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Gift of Edgar and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch
Photo: Katherine Wetzel ©Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
Compass Games
Copyright © 2014 Compass Games LLC. All Rights Reserved. No
portion of this game may be reproduced without explicit permission
of Compass Games LLC.
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The Virginia Navy cruiser Capt. Barron (right) taking the British navy brig HMS Oxford. Between 1775 and 1779 the Virginia Navy captured 15 prizes,
but also lost several ships the same way. The British finally raided the shipyard at Gosport in 1779, destroying stores and several unfinished vessels.
Compass Games
New Directions in Gaming
End of Empire Rules r0.1.indd 24
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