Authoring Tool Guide Sep
software
Learning Management System R1
Authoring Tool Guide
September 2003
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ii IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Contents
Chapter 1 About the Authoring Tool.........................................................................................................1
What does the authoring tool do?........................................................................................................................................... 1
What about standards?............................................................................................................................................................. 1
Installing the authoring tool .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Installing the sample courses that accompany this guide ................................................................................................... 3
Opening sample courses in the authoring tool ..................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 2 Architecture Overview ..............................................................................................................7
System overview ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7
The course delivery process................................................................................................................................................... 11
Authoring Tool files and directories..................................................................................................................................... 12
What's next? ............................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Chapter 3 Creating a Course ...................................................................................................................17
Using the sample course with this chapter.......................................................................................................................... 17
About Planner mode and Authoring mode ........................................................................................................................ 17
Steps for creating the sample course .................................................................................................................................... 22
Step 1. Plan the course materials........................................................................................................................................... 22
Step 2. Use the authoring tool to create a course ................................................................................................................ 23
Step 3. Add course items to the course outline ................................................................................................................... 25
Step 4. Add meta-data to describe the course ..................................................................................................................... 29
Step 5. Create a link that launches a Welcome page .......................................................................................................... 31
Step 6. Change the master layout for content pages .......................................................................................................... 34
Step 7. Add content pages...................................................................................................................................................... 35
Step 8. Build the content pages.............................................................................................................................................. 37
Step 9. Publish the content pages.......................................................................................................................................... 46
Step 10. Preview the course the way students will see it................................................................................................... 48
Chapter 4 Creating an Assessment ........................................................................................................49
Steps for creating an assessment ........................................................................................................................................... 49
Step 1. Plan the assessment.................................................................................................................................................... 49
Step 2. Add an assessment to the course outline ................................................................................................................ 49
Step 3. Change the master layout.......................................................................................................................................... 51
iii
Step 4. Add question pages to the assessment .................................................................................................................... 54
Step 5. Build the question and Quiz Score pages................................................................................................................ 55
Step 6. Publish the assessment .............................................................................................................................................. 61
Step 7. Roll up results to the course...................................................................................................................................... 62
Step 8. Preview the course ..................................................................................................................................................... 64
Chapter 5 Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog....................................................................................65
Steps for adding the sample course to the LMS catalog .................................................................................................... 65
Step 1. Verify the contents of the course .............................................................................................................................. 65
Step 2. Package the course ..................................................................................................................................................... 66
Step 3. Set up server options for the first time .................................................................................................................... 67
Step 4. Send the course package............................................................................................................................................ 68
Step 5. Import the package to the LMS Server .................................................................................................................... 69
Step 6. Register the course as a course master .................................................................................................................... 70
Step 7. Create a course offering from the master ................................................................................................................ 72
Step 8. Enroll yourself in the course to test it ...................................................................................................................... 74
Chapter 6 Updating a Course in the Learning Management System...................................................77
Steps for updating a course ................................................................................................................................................... 77
Step 1. Verify the contents of the course .............................................................................................................................. 77
Step 2. Package the course ..................................................................................................................................................... 77
Step 3. Send the course package to the FTP Server ............................................................................................................ 78
Step 4. Accept or refuse the update for existing course offerings .................................................................................... 79
Chapter 7 Creating Your Own Styles ......................................................................................................81
Viewing the sample course for this chapter ........................................................................................................................ 81
Steps for creating a new style ................................................................................................................................................ 81
Step 1: Plan the new style....................................................................................................................................................... 81
Step 2. Create a course............................................................................................................................................................ 82
Step 3. Make changes to the master layout.......................................................................................................................... 82
Step 4. Make changes to individual content pages............................................................................................................. 83
Step 5. Save the course as a new style .................................................................................................................................. 86
Step 6. Make changes to buttons, icons, and the background........................................................................................... 86
Step 7. Test the custom style .................................................................................................................................................. 87
iv IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Chapter 8 Working with External Content..............................................................................................89
Why should you use the authoring tool to work with external content?........................................................................ 89
Bringing external content into the authoring tool .............................................................................................................. 89
What can you change in an imported course? .................................................................................................................... 92
Importing Microsoft PowerPoint files.................................................................................................................................. 94
Importing Macromedia files .................................................................................................................................................. 96
Migrating courses from LearningSpace ............................................................................................................................... 98
Chapter 9 Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course ...............................................................101
Sample courses for this chapter........................................................................................................................................... 101
Displaying sequencing properties ...................................................................................................................................... 101
Choice and Flow: Your two sequencing tools ................................................................................................................... 101
Choice and Flow combinations ........................................................................................................................................... 102
Objectives: The sequencing messengers ............................................................................................................................ 107
SCORM sequencing examples............................................................................................................................................. 124
Appendix A Learning Management System Glossary ........................................................................127
Index ........................................................................................................................................................137
v
Chapter 1
About the Authoring Tool
The authoring tool is a course authoring and packaging utility that comes with the Learning Management System
(LMS). This chapter introduces you to the ways the authoring tool helps you prepare courses for the LMS system
quickly, whether you're creating courses from scratch or are using courses created by someone else. It also describes
how to install the authoring tool and the sample courses provided with this guide.
What does the authoring tool do?
The authoring tool creates course packages that can be imported into the LMS. The tool collects all the text, media,
HTML, and XML for a course and packages the files into a single .zip file. The LMS Server imports the package, then
extracts the course files in the correct directories and on the right servers. The imported course becomes part of the
LMS Masters Catalog, to be used as a template for course offerings.
The authoring tool is very flexible about the kinds of course content it can package. A course bought from a training
vendor, a Macromedia Flash or Dreamweaver course, a course created from scratch in the authoring tool -- all of
these sources, and many more, are valid content. You can even merge course content from several different sources
into a single course.
You can add LMS features to any course
When you use the authoring tool to create courses or to work with existing courses, you can add LMS features that
would otherwise not be available in your course. Such features include the use of the Lotus Virtual Classroom
(live, instructor-led training), the offline learning client, student preview, and automatic distribution of course
updates.
You can create assessments and other course content
In addition to its packaging facility, the authoring tool provides a comprehensive user interface for building new
course content pages by yourself. You create pages by manipulating objects in the graphical layout window and
setting properties for the objects and the pages. The authoring tool provides some ready-made designs that don't
need much customizing, but you can also design your own content pages. After you design the pages, the authoring
tool automatically generates HTML pages, with the appropriate JavaScript code to make the pages interactive. These
pages are included in the course package that is sent to the LMS.
You can add sequencing to your course
The authoring tool also gives you the ability to add sequencing instructions to the items in your course. Sequencing
is an instructional design technique that allows you to present or hide learning material when certain conditions are
met. You can use sequencing to provide remediation or challenge work or to mark sections that can be skipped
entirely, based on students' work in other sections.
What about standards?
The Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative (www.adlnet.org) issued a standard a few years ago, known as
the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), to guide the development of online learning material. The
authoring tool creates SCORM-based course packages. Content you develop in the authoring tool automatically
adheres to the SCORM 1.2 runtime standard and is packaged appropriately for importing into the Learning
Management System. The authoring tool also lets you add meta-data elements to describe and catalog a course and
its course items. The authoring tool has all the meta-data elements required by the SCORM 1.2 standard to make
Chapter 1: About the Authoring Tool 1
your course SCORM-compliant. The sequencing features mentioned in the previous section are based on the
emerging SCORM 1.3 Simple Sequencing specification.
Courses that aren't supplied as SCORM 1.2 packages must be imported into the authoring tool to convert them to
correctly formatted packages. This requirement applies to courses you've purchased from vendors or created with
course development software. The authoring tool allows you to import courses that are contained in AICC files or
SCORM 1.1 packages.
Courses that are already packaged as SCORM 1.2 course packages can be imported directly into the LMS with the
LMS Command Line Import Utility (CLIMP). See Chapter 3 of the Learning Management System Content Guide for
more information. You also have the option of bringing a SCORM 1.2 course package into the authoring tool to
change settings, add authoring tool content, or add LMS-specific information.
Installing the authoring tool
The authoring tool is designed to be used by a course developer working at his or her own workstation. The
authoring tool works on Windows workstations.
Workstation system requirements
Operating systems:
•
Windows 2000 (Service Pack 1 or higher recommended)
•
Windows XP
Browsers:
•
Netscape Communicator 4.71 or higher versions, excluding Netscape 6.0
•
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01 or higher versions
Hardware requirements:
•
Pentium 300 Mhz (minimum)
•
128 MB RAM
•
1024x768 or greater resolution
•
SoundBlaster compatible sound card
Step 1. Make the installable authoring tool available on the LMS Server
Installation involves two steps — the first step happens during the initial installation of the LMS at your site. LMS
provides an installable version of the authoring tool (a .zip file) that is designed to be distributed to course
developers and installed on individual machines. The LMS Server installation provides the option to copy an
installable version of the authoring tool during the LMS Server installation. After you select the Learning
Management System Server during installation, you're prompted to choose which features you want to install.
Include the authoring tool in your selection to copy an installable version of the authoring tool to the authoringtool
directory of the destination folder.
2 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Step 2. Install the authoring tool on individual workstations
The second step occurs when a course developer is ready to install the authoring tool locally. To install the
authoring tool on a Windows workstation, use the following procedure:
1.
Download Authoring_Tool.zip from the LMS Server to your workstation.
(If you prefer you can also copy it directly from the LMS CD.)
2.
In your compression utility, open the zip file, select the option to maintain the zip file's folder names during
the unzipping process, and unzip the contents of the zip file to your root directory.
3.
Go to the Disk1 folder created during the unzipping process and run setup.exe.
4.
Follow the instructions on screen to complete the installation process.
The language you choose during installation is the language in which the user interface appears. You will
need an operating system that corresponds to the language. The LanguagePaks directory installed with the
product contains directories for all language versions of the authoring tool.
5.
To start the tool, choose Start - Programs - IBM Lotus LMS Authoring Tool - IBM Lotus LMS Authoring Tool.
Uninstalling the authoring tool
You can use the Add/Remove Programs function in the Windows Control Panel to remove the authoring tool from
your system. Course directories and course packages are not removed when the authoring tool is uninstalled, but
you can delete them manually.
The authoring tool's uninstall program is contained in a Setup Maintenance program that also allows you to reinstall
the authoring tool.
Installing the sample courses that accompany this guide
This guide explains several sample courses that were created in the authoring tool and uses them to illustrate
concepts and procedures:
•
Authoring - New Course Sample (ex_newcoursesample.zip; used in Chapters 3 and 4)
•
Authoring - New Style Sample (ex_newstylesample.zip; used in Chapter 7)
•
Sequencing - ChoiceAll Sample (ex_choice_all.zip; described in Chapter 9)
•
Sequencing - FlowAll Sample (ex_flow_all.zip; described in Chapter 9)
•
Sequencing - ChoiceFlow Sample (ex_choice_flow.zip; described in Chapter 9)
•
Sequencing - PrimaryObjective Sample (ex_primary_objective.zip; described in Chapter 9)
•
Sequencing - MultipleObjectives Sample (ex_multiple_objectives.zip; described in Chapter 9)
Chapter 1: About the Authoring Tool 3
•
Sequencing - GlobalObjective Sample (ex_global_objective.zip; described in Chapter 9)
Follow these steps to import each sample from the guide's zip file into the authoring tool on your machine. You can
only import one course at a time.
1.
Download the zip file for the course you want to see to a temporary directory on your local machine.
2.
Create a directory called Courses and then create a Samples directory under it.
3.
In the authoring tool, choose File - New and click the Import tab.
4.
Select "Import SCORM Package" and click OK.
5.
For the Course Folder name, enter a name that represents the sample you're installing; for example:
•
NewCourseSample
•
NewStyleSample
•
ChoiceAllSample
•
FlowAllSample
•
ChoiceFlowSample
•
PrimaryObjectiveSample
•
MultipleObjectivesSample
•
GlobalObjectiveSample
The authoring tool creates a folder with the name and location you choose in the File - New dialog and stores
all course files that it generates in this directory.
6.
For the new course's Location, select the Samples directory you created under the Courses directory.
Leave other selections as is and click OK.
4 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
7.
Browse to the directory where you extracted the sample course's zip file and select the .zip file for the course
you want to import. Then click Import.
The authoring tool imports the course into the new course folder and displays it in Planner mode, which is
described in Chapter 3.
Installing source and image files for the New Course Sample
The Authoring Tool Guide includes HTML and image files that accompany the instructions in Chapter 3 for creating
your own course and in Chapter 7 for creating a new style. The files are in ATGFiles.zip.
1.
Copy ATGFiles.zip to a temporary directory on your local workstation.
2.
In your compression utility, open the .zip file and select the option that maintains the original folder
information.
3.
Extract the files to the Courses\Samples\NewCourseSample directory.
The files are stored in two directories: Source Files and Image Files. These locations match the instructions in
Chapter 3 and Chapter 7.
Opening sample courses in the authoring tool
To open a course that you imported into the authoring tool earlier, follow these steps:
1.
From the Welcome or File - Open screen, click the Existing tab.
Chapter 1: About the Authoring Tool 5
2.
Navigate upward in the directory tree by double-clicking drive or directory names until you see the course
folder for the course you want to open.
(If you followed the directions above for installing the courses, the sample courses are in the
Courses\Samples directory.)
3.
Double-click the Course Folder name to open it.
The OK button becomes active.
4.
Click OK to open the course.
The course opens in Planner mode, which is described in Chapter 3.
6 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Chapter 2
Architecture Overview
This chapter describes how the authoring tool fits into the larger LMS system and explains the files and directories
you'll encounter as you use the tool to create and package courses.
System overview
The LMS includes several required components, and can also include several optional components. For more
information about these components, see the Learning Management System Administrator's Guide.
Learning Management System Server
The Learning Management System Server (called either the LMS Server or the Learning Management Module
(LMM) server) is the central functional component of the LMS. The LMS Server contains the functions and
capabilities for configuring and coordinating the other components of the system. You can deploy one LMS Server,
or you can create a cluster of LMS Servers to improve performance and availability. Each server in the cluster
contains the same LMS files and data so if one server is unavailable, others provide identical information.
Chapter 2: Architecture Overview 7
Administrators, instructors, and students all have access to portions of the LMS Server functionality. For
administrators, the LMS Server provides the ability to manage courses, course catalogs, students, and resources, to
create reports, and to manage the LMS settings and the LMS components. For instructors, the LMS Server provides
the ability to select courses to run, schedule activities and resources, and track student progress. For students, the
LMS Server provides the ability to browse the course catalog, enroll in courses, display and complete course
activities, and observe records of their own progress. Students can also use the LMS Server to download the Offline
Learning Client (a workstation-based version of the LMS) so that they can work on courses on their own computers
without having a network connection.
The LMS Server is required.
Delivery Server
The Delivery Server launches course content, provides course navigation features, tracks student progress, and
sends tracking information to the LMS Server. Delivery Servers are connected to one or more content servers, the
servers that store course content files.
You can have multiple Delivery Servers in the LMS, with different data on each Delivery Server. This lets you divide
the load and take into consideration the location of the students. For example, it would be more cost-effective to
have a student in Japan access a Delivery Server in Japan rather than a Delivery Server in Argentina. You can also
use WebSphere to create one or more clusters of Delivery Servers.
The Delivery Server is required, except for courses that take place entirely in a classroom or for file-based content
that is stored on a network server, on client machines, or on CDs.
Relational database management system (RDBMS)
The RDBMS software can reside on the same machine as the LMS software for a small installation and be shared by
both the LMS Server and Delivery Server. Larger sites use multiple LMS Servers and Delivery Servers to improve
performance. At those sites, the RDBMS resides on each server.
The LMS Server and the Delivery Server use relational databases to store information about users, courses, the
catalog, tracking data, and other settings needed to run the LMS. The LMS Server and the Delivery Server store
information in separate databases. In addition, the Audit database tracks events that occur in the LMS, such as a
course being removed from the course catalog or a student being registered for a course. These databases frequently
reside on the same database server, but they don’t have to.
You use RDBMS utilities to create these databases. Then, when you install the LMS, these databases are customized
for your system. When users use the LMS, the LMS Server and the Delivery Server initiate database transactions to
retrieve and update information.
The RDBMS is required.
Authoring tool
The LMS includes an authoring tool that you can use to create course content pages and assessments and import
them into the LMS. Content you develop in the authoring tool automatically adheres to the SCORM 1.2 runtime
standard and is packaged appropriately for importing into the Learning Management System.
In addition, you can use the authoring tool or the Command Line Import Utility to import courses from other
sources into the LMS. If the course uses a version of SCORM prior to version 1.2 or a version of AICC, you must use
the authoring tool to import the course into the LMS. The authoring tool converts the course to the SCORM 1.2
standard. If the course is already packaged as a SCORM 1.2 course, you can use the Command Line Import Utility to
import the course into the LMS.
8 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
You have the option of installing the authoring tool when you install the LMS. If you install the authoring tool, put it
on a server that content creators can access, preferably an FTP server or an HTTP server. Content creators download
a copy of the tool from the server and use it locally.
The authoring tool is required for importing courses that are not in the SCORM 1.2 format. It is optional for creating
courses and for importing courses that are in the SCORM 1.2 format.
Command Line Import Utility
You can use the Command Line Import Utility to import courses from other sources into the LMS. These courses
must use the SCORM 1.2 standard. For importing multiple courses into the LMS, it is best to use the Command Line
Import Utility. If you are importing a lot of courses, you can schedule the Command Line Import Utility to run
overnight or on a weekend so that it does not use resources during the busiest times of the week.
As with the authoring tool, you have the option of installing the Command Line Import Utility when you install the
LMS. If you install the Command Line Import Utility, put it on a server that content creators can access, preferably
an FTP server or an HTTP server. Content creators download a copy of the tool from the server and use it locally.
The Command Line Utility is optional.
LDAP Server
The LMS uses your version 3-compliant LDAP directory as a repository for user information and is used for
authentication by the LMS, the authoring tool, and CLIMP. The LMS communicates with the LDAP directory to
verify that users are part of your organization and for other user and organizational information needed by the
LMS. All potential LMS users must have entries in the LDAP directory before they can be added to the LMS
(“rostered”).
LDAP is an industry standard for enterprise directories. Compatibility with LDAP lets LMS users employ the same
user names and passwords that they employ for other applications in the enterprise.
If you do not already have an LDAP server set up, you can create one using IBM Directory Server, which is
included with the LMS software.
An LDAP server is required.
FTP Server
You can use an FTP Sserver as an intermediary server between the authoring tool or the Command Line Import
Utility and the LMS Server. Use the authoring tool or the Command Line Import Utility to place the courses onto the
FTP Server. The LMS Server imports the courses from there.
Content Server
The Content Server maintains a copy of Web-based course content after a course is imported into the LMS. In most
cases, the Content Server is an HTTP server. You can have multiple Content Servers in the LMS and you can cluster
them. In smaller organizations, you can use the same server for the Content Server that you use for the Delivery
Server.
The Content server is required.
SMTP Server
You need an SMTP Server if you want to send notifications to users and give users access to the Help desk.
The SMTP Server is optional.
Chapter 2: Architecture Overview 9
IBM Lotus Virtual Classroom (LVC) server
If your organization has both IBM Lotus Virtual Classroom V1.1 and IBM Lotus LVC-LMS Connector, you can
schedule live online sessions as part of a course. These sessions let the instructor present material to everyone in a
collaborative online session and then lead a discussion about the material. During these live sessions, you can have
students break out into small groups to work on different tasks, and then have the students get back together to
discuss what they did during the breakout session.
You can include live sessions as part of the course content when you create a course. If you create a course that
contains the course structure but no course content, you can use the LMS Server later to create live sessions for that
course.
The LVC Server is optional.
Discussion Server
If your organization has an IBM Lotus Domino server (5.0.10 or later), you can enable that server as a Discussion
Server in the LMS so that students and instructors can access course-specific discussion databases to communicate
with each other. The LVC server, which is a Domino-based server, can provide this feature.
A Discussion Server is optional.
Discovery Server
If your organization has IBM Lotus Discovery Server 2.0 or later and students are using Microsoft Internet
Explorer as their browser, you can use a Discovery Server with the LMS. The Discovery Server lets users search your
organization’s data repositories for information that is relevant to the subject matter of a particular course.
A Discovery Server is optional.
Chat Server
If your organization has an IBM Lotus Sametime 3.0 Server, you can enable that server as a Chat Server in the LMS
so that students and instructors in a course can send instant messages to each other. The LVC Server, which is a
Domino-based server, can provide this feature.
A Chat Server is optional.
Offline Learning Client
The Offline Learning Client lets students download courses and work on them while they are disconnected from the
server. Any course that is enabled for the offline learning client can be downloaded. The course package should
contain all the files the course material needed to run locally. Tracking information is stored on the student's
workstation until he or she reconnects to the LMS.
Using the Offline Learning Client is optional.
10 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The course delivery process
This section describes the process by which courses are delivered to the LMS. Explanations of the numbers and
arrows on the illustration are included below the picture.
LVC
Server
Authoring
Tool
1
2
FTP
Server
Command
Line
Import
Utility
LDAP
Server
10
3
Content
Server
LMS
Server
6
9
1
4
2
5
Database
Server
7
8
Delivery
Server
Discussion
Server
Discovery
Server
SMTP
Server
Chat
Server
1.
The content developer uses the authoring tool or a different authoring product to create the course, or
purchases a course from a third-party vendor. If the content developer uses the authoring tool to work with
course content, he or she packages the course into a .zip file to prepare it for importing into the LMS.
2.
The course developer or administrator uses the authoring tool or the Command Line Import Utility to
import the course to an FTP server and to notify the LMS Server of the existence of the course.
3.
Based on settings set by the administrator, the LMS Server imports the course package from the FTP server.
Note If this course package contains only an update to the structure of an existing course, then only the
structure is imported to the LMS Server.
4.
The LMS Server creates a course master and enters information about the master into the database. This is an
unregistered master.
5.
The course administrator uses the LMS user interface to locate the course master in the Masters Catalog and
then registers the master.
6.
The course administrator or an instructor uses the LMS user interface to create offerings in the course
catalog. As part of this process, the administrator specifies a Delivery Server to use.
7.
The LMS Server sends the structure of the course to the Delivery Server.
Chapter 2: Architecture Overview 11
Note If the offering is a scheduled offering –- that is, it contains a Lotus Virtual Classroom session, for
example –- the LVC session is transferred to the LVC Server, and a link to the session and schedule
information are transferred to the Delivery Server. If there are multiple scheduled offerings, each offering
could use a different LVC Server and a different Delivery Server, although that is optional.
8.
The Delivery Server enters information about the course structure into the relational database that the
database manager created for the Delivery Server.
9.
The Delivery Server sends a request to the LMS Server to send the course content to the Content server that
the Delivery Server specifies. (The Delivery Server can specify multiple Content servers to receive the course
content.)
10. The LMS sends the course content to the Content server.
At this point, the Content server contains the course content, the Delivery Server contains the course
structure, and the LMS Server contains the course catalog and the course description.
Authoring Tool files and directories
The authoring tool installs a number of files and directories initially and then creates new directories and files as
you develop and package courses. It's helpful to understand the authoring tool's directory structure, so you know
where to look for files during different stages of the course development process.
Files created during installation
The installation process sets up the following file and directory structure. IBMLSAAT.exe runs the authoring tool
program.
Data directory
The Data directory includes the following directories.
12 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
•
Course
Contains KP.mdb, the database that holds layout information about the current course, such as the location
of layout objects on the page.
•
CoursePreview
Provides html and graphics files used for previewing a course in the authoring tool so that it simulates a
course running in the LMS.
•
Icons
Stores graphics used in toolbars and to depict course items and content pages.
•
Logs
Logs created during the course packaging process are placed in this directory.
•
Manifest Templates
Provides templates used by the tool to create properly formed xml pages when it creates course packages.
•
Planner
Contains PlannerView.mdb, the database that contains the Planner mode property identifiers, user interface
labels, and default values. A copy of this database is created in each new course's folder.
•
SampleCourses
This is a placeholder for sample courses, if they are distributed in the future.
•
Styles
Shows directories for the graphics, text, and multimedia files that correspond to each of the three default
designs you can choose for a new course. Style_1 is the Corporate style, Style_2 is the Digital style, and
Style_3 is the Accessibility style.
FrameworkPaks directory
FrameworkPaks contains the exa and templates directories with the following templates for the default content
pages provided with the authoring tool. The include directory contains JavaScript code called from the template
files.
LanguagePaks directory
The LanguagePaks directory contains directories for each of the language versions of the authoring tool.
Chapter 2: Architecture Overview 13
Each language directory contains its own set of translated user interface files.
Files created for a new course
When you create a new course, the authoring tool copies files from the original Data, FrameworkPaks, and
LanguagePaks directories. Each course needs a complete set of files in its folder to render pages in the language you
chose during installation and to resolve references to links and JavaScript code.
Files created for a course package
Packaging collects all the files in the course's items, resources, styles, and templates directories and puts them in a
.zip file, maintaining the files' original directory structure. The .zip file also contains xml and xsd files that are
created during the packaging process.
This is the structure of the package files in a .zip file:
14 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The resources directory contains a content directory with all the content files that are flagged for inclusion in the .zip
file.
The source directory provides all the course design and structure information. This is the same information that is in
the original course's directory.
What's next?
To give you some hands-on experience with the authoring tool, the next two chapters show you how to create a very
simple course. Chapters 5 and 6 describe how to distribute your course to the LMS and update it later.. In the latter
part of this guide, you'll find information about creating your own styles, customizing sequencing in your course,
and importing course materials that were developed elsewhere.
Chapter 2: Architecture Overview 15
Chapter 3
Creating a Course
In this chapter, we take you through the steps of creating a basic course in the authoring tool. The sample course
described in this chapter contains a Welcome page and two activities. You work in Planner mode first while you're
setting up the course outline and then you switch to Authoring mode to build the content pages for the two
activities.
Using the sample course with this chapter
A sample course called NewCourseSample provided with this guide illustrates the finished course you'll create in
this chapter and Chapter 4. See Chapter 1 for information about installing and opening the course in the authoring
tool if you wish to see it before proceeding with the tutorial that follows.
This chapter also assumes you have extracted the HTML and image files needed for this chapter, as described in
Chapter 1 in the section called "Installing source and image files for the New Course Sample."
About Planner mode and Authoring mode
The authoring tool has two modes for doing different types of work. Before you begin creating a new course, it will
be helpful to understand these two modes. You use Planner mode for planning, creating, and packaging a course.
You use Authoring mode for designing content pages and assessments — but only those that you create from
scratch in the authoring tool.
Planner mode
The authoring tool always opens in Planner mode. You use this mode to add items to a course and set properties for
each of the items. You also use Planner mode to package a course for the LMS. You know you're in Planner mode
because the "Go to Planner" button is disabled:
Just as you outline a research paper before writing it, the authoring tool makes you create a course outline before
you create any content for the course. If you import a course that was developed elsewhere, you see an outline with
course items already in place. If you create a new course, however, you must build the outline yourself.
Saving and undoing your work
The authoring tool automatically saves your work as you make changes. You don't need to remember to save the
course as you're working. However, this behavior also means that there is no automatic Undo feature as there
would be in a word processor or drawing program.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 17
Setting Planner options
The Tools - Options box has two sections that are appropriate for your work in Planner mode. The Toolbox tab
allows you to move the Planner Item toolbox to a location on your screen that is comfortable. The Planner Options
tab has selections for viewing or hiding tools and properties.
Adding new items
To create an outline, you use the Planner Item toolbox (circled in the picture below) to select the type of item to add.
Drag it to the outline in the order and at the indent level you need.
Placing items at the same level in the outline
To place an item at the same level, drag the new item's icon to the icon of the item that will precede it:
18 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The item is placed as the next item at the same level in the outline. If you need to move it, you can click the new
item's name or icon and drag it to another place in the list.
Indenting items in the outline
Only three types of authoring tool course items allow you to add other items beneath them: Course Plans, Topics,
and Lotus Virtual Classrooms.
To indent an item, drag the new item's icon to the name of the item under which it will be indented:
The item is placed as the first item in the indented list. If you need to move it, you can click the new item's name or
icon and drag it to another place in the list, either at the same level or a different level.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 19
You'll know you're on an item that allows indented items because you have the choice of placing the new item on a
name or an icon. If you aren't allowed to indent under an item, you'll see a red circle with a line through it when you
try to place the icon on the item's name:
This reminds you to move over to the item's icon to finish placing the new item in the outline:
Changing properties
When you click a component name in the outline, its properties appear on the right side of the screen. To make a
change, click the field to the right of the property name. An ellipsis (...) appears in the field if there is a dialog box
20 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
that will help you fill out information for the field. Otherwise, you make changes by entering text or selecting from
drop-down list boxes.
Authoring mode
Authoring mode is only applicable to Content Pages and Assessment items created in the authoring tool. The
content and design for imported course items can't be edited in the authoring tool. You must return to the original
development tool to make changes.
When you click a Content Pages or Assessment item in a course outline in Planner mode, the "Go to Authoring"
button is enabled. You can click the button to switch to Authoring mode. At all other times, it is disabled.
Authoring mode opens with layout tools and design objects that you need for creating content pages or question
pages. You'll learn more about working with these tools later in this chapter. You know you're in Authoring mode
because the "Go to Planner" button is active. Click the button to return to Planner mode.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 21
Steps for creating the sample course
1.
Plan the course materials.
2.
Use the authoring tool to create a course.
3.
Add course items to the course outline.
4.
Add meta-data to describe the course.
5.
Create a link that launches a Welcome page. (This is an HTML page you already have.)
6.
Change the master layout for content pages.
7.
Add content pages.
8.
Build the content pages.
9.
Publish the content pages.
10. Preview the course as it will appear to students.
In Chapter 5, you'll learn how to bring the course you create into the Learning Management System course catalog.
Step 1. Plan the course materials
Designing an effective online course requires some advance planning. Questions to answer before you start include:
•
What will students learn in this course?
•
How will I organize these objectives into discrete learning activities?
•
What material do I need to present the lessons?
Your course plan
The course you're going to create teaches students how to find up-to-date information about the Learning
Management System. There will be two learning activities:
1.
Learn how to find the latest published documentation on the Lotus Developer Domain (LDD) Web site.
2.
Learn more about what the LDD Web site offers.
22 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The materials you will use are a Welcome page and a menu page that contains links to the two learning activities.
Step 2. Use the authoring tool to create a course
1.
Before you begin, create a directory named Courses if you didn't do so in Chapter 1.
Each new course you create will be stored in a subdirectory of the Courses directory. This isn't required, but
it's good practice for keeping courses organized on your local workstation.
2.
To begin creating a course in the authoring tool, use the File - New dialog and click OK.
3.
In the Create a Course dialog box, specify a location for the new course files and the style that new content
pages should have, then click OK:
•
For the Course Folder name, enter LMSWebInfo.
•
For the style, leave the default style of Corporate.
•
For the new course's Location, select the Courses directory you created.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 23
The authoring tool creates a new directory called LMSWebInfo in the Courses directory. Notice that the authoring
tool populates the LMSWebInfo course directory with a lot of files, even though you haven't actually created any
course pages yet. These are files that the authoring tool needs to have on hand when you create course pages later.
24 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
If you want a different style for a new course...
The authoring tool comes with three default designs for content pages you create in the tool: Corporate, Digital, and
Accessible (compatible with screen readers). Each of these designs represents a collection of images, page designs,
and code that allow you to create pages with a consistent style. Custom styles may also be available if they have
been created by someone at your site.
To change the style in the Create a Course dialog box, click Select to open the Select Style dialog box, from which
you can choose a different Default or Custom style:
Step 3. Add course items to the course outline
The authoring tool uses an outline structure for creating and organizing the parts of a course. The outline is not only
a visual representation of the parts of the course — it also affects which properties are inherited from other
components in the outline and how statistics for scoring and completion are calculated. That's why it's important to
map out the parts of the course in advance to ensure that you create a structure that make sense.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 25
When you create a course, the authoring tool automatically opens in Planner mode, where you create the course
outline and assign properties to each of the items in the outline. Use the Planner Item Toolbox to drag course items
to the outline at the appropriate place and level, as described earlier in this chapter.
Drop course items onto the outline
When you first create a course, the course plan is the only item in your outline. You are going to add two course
items to the outline.
1.
Select the Content Link icon from the toolbox and drag and drop it over the Course Plan item's name.
By dragging the icon over the Course Plan name, you indicate that it should be placed as the next item in the
outline, under the Course Plan. Content Link is indented under the Course Plan item, indicating that it is a
child of the Course Plan.
This hierarchy becomes important for courses with multiple topics and levels where an item's scoring and
navigation results are determined by the item's location in the course outline.
2.
Select the Content Pages icon from the tool box and drag and drop it over the Content Link icon in the
outline.
The Content Link isn't a parent item, so the Content Pages item becomes the next item in the outline at the
same level as the Content Link.
Edit the properties for the course
Now you'll change the default properties for the course. This information is transferred to the Learning
Management System course catalog eventually, so it should match whatever naming conventions you use at your
site. The course plan is at the top level of the outline; it is a parent item to course items that are indented at the next
level. Settings invoked for the parent are inherited by its children unless you explicitly override the parent's setting
for an individual item.
26 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
1.
Click the Course Plan item in the course outline to make it active.
The Properties page shows the default settings.
2.
Click the field next to the Title label to select it and replace "Course Plan" with "LMS Web Info."
(You can start typing without removing the words "Course Plan." With the field highlighted, what you type
replaces the text that's already there.)
3.
Click the field next to the Course Number label and replace "Course ID goes here" with "LMSWeb1."
4.
Click the field next to Description and replace the default text with "Explains how to get LMS information
online."
The fields now look like this:
5.
Click the field next to Announcement Page, then click the ellipsis (...).
6.
In the Launch and Add Content to Course dialog box, click the Modify button to enable editing mode.
7.
Fill in the Web Address field with the URL "http://www.lotus.com/lotus/offering6.nsf/wdocs/homepage"
You must use a fully qualified URL to specify a complete Web address for the page, which students will be
able to access from their browsers. You can click Preview to make sure the URL is correct.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 27
8.
Click OK.
9.
Click the field next to Time Estimate and click the ellipsis (...).
10. Use the Time Picker to specify 12 minutes and close the box to return to the Properties page.
11. Click the field next to the Allow Preview field and change the setting from False to True.
This setting allows students to preview the course before they enroll in it. You can turn previewing off for
individual parts of the course outline later if you wish.
12. Click the field next to the Allow Offline Use field and change the setting from False to True.
This setting allows students to download the course to their local machine and take the course without being
connected to the Internet. You will still need to select these settings for each of the individual course items
that should allow Preview and Offline Use.
The settings now look like this:
Edit the properties for the Content Link item
Now change the settings for the Content Link item.
1.
In the course outline, click the Content Link item to make it active.
2.
Change the Title, Description, and Time Estimate to the values shown below.
3.
Remove the values for Announcement Page and Remote Tracking API Address by following these steps for
each field:
a. Click the field to the right of the name of the setting.
b. Click the ellipsis (...) that appears when the field is ready for editing.
c. Click Delete.
d. Click Yes to confirm.
e. Close the Launch and Add Content box.
Removing these fields avoids the spurious errors you would get when you validate the course materials
before packaging them.
28 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
4.
Under Delivery Settings, change Allow Preview to True.
5.
Change Allow Offline Use to True.
6.
Change Launch in New Window to False.
With this set to False, the content pages launch within the LMS window in the student's browser.
Edit the properties for the Content Pages item
Now you'll change the general settings for the Content Pages item.
1.
In the course outline, click the Content Pages item.
2.
Change the Title, Description, and Time Estimate to the values shown below.
3.
Delete the values for Announcement Page and Remote Tracking API Address as you did for the Content
Link item.
4.
Under Delivery Settings, change Allow Preview to True.
5.
Change Allow Offline Use to True.
6.
Change Launch in New Window to False.
Step 4. Add meta-data to describe the course
Meta-data is additional information about a course or a part of a course that is useful for categorizing and
organizing learning material. To make a course SCORM 1.2 compliant, you must add certain required elements to
the course, such as search keywords, the course's location, and a description. These mandatory elements are listed in
section 2.2.4.4 of the SCORM Content Aggregation Model spec, which can be downloaded from www.adlnet.org.
Each item in the course outline can have its own meta-data, but for this sample course, you're going to assign metadata that applies to the whole course.
1.
Click the LMS Web Info icon in the course outline and choose "Selected - Add Meta Data" from the authoring
tool menu.
The dialog box opens with collapsed lists of meta-data elements, organized by category.
2.
Click each plus (+) sign to expand the elements.
As you click each element that can have a value, editable fields appear on the right side of the window.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 29
3.
Expand the Title list, then click the langstring 1 element.
4.
Choose English from the drop-down list beneath langstring 1 Attributes and fill in the value as LMS Web
Info.
5.
Expand Catalog Entry 1 and fill in the Catalog value as LMS.
6.
For Entry, select English as the language and use LMSWeb1 (the course's number) as the value.
7.
For Language 1, enter en to indicate that this course is going to be presented in English.
The value for this field is a two-letter code, defined by the ISO 639 standard for most of the world's
languages. The codes are listed on the Library of Congress site (www.loc.gov). Examples include:
da
de
es
fi
fr
it
ja
ko
nl
no
pt
sv
zh
Danish
German
Spanish
Finnish
French
Italian
Japanese
Korean
Dutch
Norwegian
Portuguese
Swedish
Chinese
8.
For Description 1, select English as the language and enter "Introduces the LMS Documentation Library and
Lotus Developer Domain Web site." as the description.
9.
For Keyword 1, select English as the language and enter "documentation" as the value.
30 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
This field holds up to 1000 characters, entered as single words or phrases.
10. Now, to add another keyword, select the Keyword 1 element from the meta-data list and click Add.
The Add button allows you to create additional instances of the highlighted element.
11. Expand the new Keyword 2, then click langstring1 and select English as the language. Enter "Lotus
Developer Domain" as the keyword.
12. Click Close when you are done.
Step 5. Create a link that launches a Welcome page
The Welcome Page is a Content Link item, a general item that represents any kind of content page that wasn't
created in the authoring tool. The critical settings for this item are the Content Type and the location of the content
files. For Web-based content links, you specify the location by changing the value in the Address field for the item,
located on the right side of the screen in the Properties page when the course item is active.
1.
Select Welcome Page in the course outline to make it active.
2.
Click the field next to the Address label, then click the ellipsis (...) that appears.
3.
When the Launch Content dialog box opens, click the Modify button to reveal the content selection fields.
4.
Click Files to Add.
Use this option when you want to include in the course package a specific file selected from your local
machine or a mapped network drive. Keep in mind that students need the appropriate viewers or players on
their machines to view files created with programs that aren't installed on their local machines (such as
Microsoft PowerPoint files or Adobe Acrobat PDF files.)
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 31
5.
Click Select.
6.
Browse to the Courses\Sample Courses\NewCourseSample\Source Files directory.
7.
Select the Welcome.html file and click OK.
8.
Click "Select a Content Directory."
Use this option to create a directory for content files you want included in the course package. When you
import the course to the LMS, the content files accompany the course. If you have installed content files on a
separate content server or if you have specified a Web address for the content, this selection isn't necessary.
9.
Click the Select button below the checkbox.
10. Browse to the Courses\Samples\NewCourseSample\Source Files directory and click OK.
11. Return to the Launch File Path field and select Source Files/Welcome.html" from the drop-down list.
You should include the content directory with the file name when you use a content directory; otherwise the
authoring tool makes duplicate copies of the launch file, one in the content directory and one in the resources
directory.
The dialog box now looks like this:
32 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The authoring tool creates a new resource directory for the Content Link course item, creates a content
directory called "Source Files" under the resource directory, and copies Welcome.html and its colorstrip.gif
file to the new Source Files directory.
12. Click Preview to make sure that the page launches correctly.
13. Click OK to close the Launch Content dialog box and return to the course outline.
14. Notice that "SourceFiles\Welcome.html" now appears in the Address field.
15. With the Welcome Page still highlighted in the outline, click the ellipsis (...) next to the Address field again.
Because you chose "Select a Content Directory," the authoring tool made a copy of Welcome.html in the
Source Files directory under the course item's resources directory. The Location field shows the name of the
resource directory.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 33
Step 6. Change the master layout for content pages
The authoring tool allows you to create your own HTML content pages with graphics, text, links, and buttons. You
design the pages in Authoring mode, which is only available for Content Pages and Assessment items that you have
dragged to the course outline.
1.
From Planner mode, select the Course Activities item on the outline and click Go to Authoring.
The authoring tool prompts you to add the first activities page. Notice that the style selected is "Corporate,"
which is the design style you chose when you created the course.
2.
Choose Cancel to dismiss the Add Page dialog box.
You are going to change the master layout before adding pages. The master layout for this group of content
pages appears in the layout editor on the right side of the screen. The master layout affects every page that
you add to this item and dictates the text for headings on each page, the types of buttons that are available,
and other style choices. You should change the master layout before adding content pages; changes made
later don't always flow down to existing pages.
Change the main heading and subheading
You are now going to tailor the heading and subheading in the master layout of the Course Activities pages. These
changes will affect the Menu page and the two activity pages.
1.
Click the text block called (Heading goes here) and replace that text with "LMS Documentation."
2.
Replace (Subheading goes here) with "Getting the latest updates."
You could also change the color and style of the text or delete text blocks entirely. The layout editor works like a
drawing program, in which things can be edited, dragged, deleted, and resized as needed.
34 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Remove the buttons and text blocks you don't need
While you're still in the Master Layout (the Course Activities top-level item is still active), you're going to remove
the buttons that aren't needed for these content pages and adjust the design accordingly. Then you'll remove the
prompt text block, which isn't needed either.
1.
Select the FAQ, Glossary, Index, Menu, and Replay buttons, as shown below, then right-click and choose
"Delete Layout Object." Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
2.
Select the Exit button next and drag it close to the Previous and Next buttons so there are no gaps between
buttons.
3.
Scroll farther down the master layout page until you see the text block for "Prompt goes here." Select the
block, then right-click and choose "Delete Layout Object" and click Yes to confirm the deletion.
A prompt is used to give additional information or hints to students and you won't need it for this course.
Step 7. Add content pages
Authoring mode offers several kinds of content pages. The type you choose determines what students see and do on
the page. For regular (non-assessment) pages, you have these choices: Menu, Text, Text with Image, Text with
Video, Reveal Text, Reveal Text with Image, Hotspot Discovery, and Classification. You may also add a Glossary or
Frequently Asked Questions page to any group of content pages.
Use the Page Layout toolbox to drop a content page into the course tree. Use your mouse to hover over an icon to
see its name.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 35
The Course Activities item in your course outline will have three pages — a Menu page that links to a Text with
Image page and a Classification page. The LMS considers this one learning object, but students navigate through
three separate pages when they launch the item called Course Activities.
1.
With the Course Activities item selected in the course tree, drag and drop the Menu item over the Course
Activities item.
The authoring tool adds two icons - a Menu page and the first Menu Item.
2.
Now add another menu item under the Menu icon. Select the Menu icon in the tree to make it active and
choose Insert - New Navigation from the Authoring mode menu. Select Menu Item 2 and click OK.
Now you'll add pages for the two activities you're going to present to students.
3.
Click Menu Item 1 to make it active, then drag and drop a Text with Image page over the Menu Item 1 entry
in the course tree.
This adds the new page as a link from Menu Item 1.
4.
Click the Text with Image item and choose Edit - Rename from the authoring tool menu. Rename the item
"Documentation Library."
5.
Click Menu Item 2 and drag and drop a Classification page onto the item. Rename the item "LDD Site."
36 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
You now have the components of the Course Activities pages in place and can start tailoring them to your
course.
Preview what you have so far
Let's run the Preview function to see what these content pages look like so far.
1.
Select the Course Activities item (the top-level item in the tree).
2.
Choose Selected - Preview from the Authoring mode menu.
3.
Click OK when you get the default warning about course-level tracking not being enabled.
4.
The first page in the group appears in your browser. You can use the Next and Previous buttons to navigate
between pages.
(If you see missing graphics images, try refreshing the browser window a f ew times.)
Step 8. Build the content pages
Now you'll edit the design and properties for each of the content pages you added to the Course Activities item.
Build the Menu page
Each type of page that you add has its own properties and objects, as well as the ones it inherits from the master
layout. Your plan calls for only two menu items on the Menu page, so you'll need to remove the objects for
additional menu items.
1.
Click the Menu icon from the course tree.
You'll see its layout in the layout editor. Objects outlined in red are part of the master layout; other objects
are specific to this page.
2.
Select the image and the text for the third menu item, then right-click and choose "Delete Layout Object."
Click Yes to confirm.
3.
Repeat Step 2 for Menu Items 4 and 5.
4.
Now modify the text for the first two menu item links to make them relevant to your course.
•
Click the text block that says "Menu Item 1 " and replace the default text with "The latest
documentation." Reduce the size of the text box so there's no extra space after the last letter (otherwise,
you'll see an extra space in the final HTML page).
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 37
•
Click the text block that says "Menu Item 2" and replace the text with "The Lotus Developer Domain
Web Site." Stretch the text box to make the words fit on one line.
The links to your menu items now look like this:
Build the Text with Image page
A Text with Image page is useful for presenting general information, such as summaries, overviews, or
introductions. In this example, the page will be used to highlight the steps for finding the latest documentation on
the Lotus Developer Domain Web site.
Preview the default page
To see how the page works with its default text and images, you can use the Authoring mode Preview feature.
1.
Select the entry called "Documentation Library" in the course tree.
2.
Choose Selected - Preview to preview this page on its own.
3.
Click OK when you get the prompt about course tracking. You get that message because you aren't hooked
up to the LMS Server.
(Refresh the browser page if you previewed something previously and don't get the prompt.)
Change the text
You're now going to replace the default text on the Text with Image page.
1.
Select the Documentation Library entry, if it isn't already selected in the course tree, to see the layout for this
page.
Objects outlined in red are part of the master layout; other objects are unique to this page.
2.
Click the text block (Paragraph 1 goes here) to select it.
3.
Highlight the default text and delete it. Then type in the following text, with a paragraph return after each
sentence.
4.
Change the formatting of the first line.
a. Highlight the first line.
38 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
b. Choose Layout - Text Properties. In the Font Style tab, leave Arial as the font and select 12 as the text size.
c. Select Bold.
d. Select Peach as the text color, if it isn't already selected.
e. Close the properties box.
5.
Now change the formatting of the five steps to make them a numbered list:
a. Highlight every line except the first line. (Important: Highlight the extra blank space after the last
character in the last line; otherwise the last number may not change to the correct style.)
b. Choose Layout - Text Properties. In the Font Style tab, leave Arial as the font and select 12 as the text size.
c. Make sure Bold is not selected.
d. Select Peach as the text color, if it isn't already selected.
e. Click the Bullet/Number tab. Click the 1 button to activate the numbered list.
f. Close the properties box.
6.
The text block now looks like this:
You can use the Preview function again, if you wish, to see how these changes have affected the content page.
Refresh the browser window if you don't see the prompt about Course Tracking not being enabled.
Change the graphic
The photograph associated with the Text with Image page is a .jpg file that is provided with the design style you
chose. You're going to replace it with another image file. We're assuming you have a file called textimagenew.gif on
your local machine that is the same size as the sample picture (386 x 386 pixels).
1.
In the layout window, click the photograph to select it.
2.
Choose Layout - Layout Properties to see the properties.
3.
Select the Graphic Filename field value "photo_1.jpg."
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 39
4.
Click the ellipsis (...) next to the file name.
5.
Browse to the Image Files directory in the NewCourseSample directory.
6.
Select textimagenew.gif and click OK.
7.
When you are prompted to copy the file to the media path for the authoring tool, click Yes.
8.
Close the Layout Properties box.
40 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The layout window reflects the change to the graphic file associated with the page.
You can use the Preview function again, if you wish, to see how these changes have affected the content
page. (Refresh the page if you don't see the latest changes.)
Note The authoring tool copies your file to a graphics directory under an items directory in the LMSWebInfo course
folder. If you make changes to this file in the future, repeat the process of selecting and copying the file from its
original location. This ensures that the authoring tool overwrites the older version in its items directory with your
most recent changes.
Build the Classification Page
A Classification page gives students links on the page that cycle through different text and images. It's a useful page
for teaching a group of related concepts and will be used in this example to introduce students to what the Lotus
Developer Domain Web site offers.
Preview the default page
1.
Select the entry called "LDD Site" in the course tree.
2.
Choose Selected - Preview to preview this page on its own.
3.
Click OK when you get the prompt about course tracking.
(Refresh the browser page if necessary.)
4.
Click the "Classification Button" lines to see how the page changes with each click.
Change the text on the Classification page
To customize the page, you're going to add your own text.
1.
Select the LDD Site entry in the course tree, if it isn't already selected, to see the layout for this page.
2.
Change the default text blocks as follows:
a.
Click the text block called (Definition Box Title goes here) and replace that text with "The Lotus
Developer Domain."
b. Replace (Definition goes here) with "What does it offer?"
c.
Replace (Initial Description goes here) with "Click each item below before returning to the Menu page."
The text blocks now look like this:
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 41
Change the Classification button text
Next you'll modify the text blocks for the three Classification buttons to summarize the concepts you're presenting
on this page.
Click each button's text block and replace the text as follows:
(Classification Button 1 goes here) - Product information
(Classification Button 2 goes here) - LDD Today: A technical journal
(Classification Button 3 goes here) - Lotus Documentation Library
The button text blocks now look like this:
Change the button response text
Feedback text is special text that changes as the student clicks on parts of a content page. The Initial Description text
block has feedback text associated with the three numbered items on the page.
1.
To see the different text states, select the text block that reads "Click each item below before returning to the
Menu page," and choose Layout - Add/Edit Feedback Text from the menu.
42 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
2.
To change the first button's feedback text, choose ItemParagraph1.text from the Add/Edit Feedback Text
menu.
The layout editor now reveals the text "(Button Response 1 goes here)"
3.
Change the feedback text to read "Product descriptions, articles, and free trial software."
4.
Select ItemParagraph2.text from the Add/Edit Feedback Text menu and change the text to "In-depth
technical articles written for developers and administrators."
5.
Select ItemParagraph3.text from the Add/Edit Feedback Text menu and change the text to "Documentation,
white papers, and Redbooks for all Lotus products."
You can use the Preview function again, if you wish, to see how these changes have affected the content page.
Tip To add another feedback text item to the Classification page, use Edit - Copy Layout Object to copy the three
objects associated with feedback (the checkmark, the number button, and the button text). Use Edit - Paste Layout
Object to paste the objects on the page. ItemParagraph4.text now appears on the Add/Edit Feedback Text menu.
Change the feedback text for the new entry, as well as its number graphic and button text, to complete the layout
change.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 43
Change the images associated with the page
The photographs associated with the Classification-type page are .jpg files included with the design style you chose.
The first photo you see when the page opens is a special image called Initial Graphic. The other photographs you see
when you click links on the page are called Feedback Image Files and they are associated with the numbered
buttons on the page. You're going to change the image associated with each of these files by modifying the layout
properties for the initial graphic and each of the numbered buttons.
About the Layout Object bar
Design objects in the layout editor are called layout objects. You can view a list of them or select them by using the
object bar that appears above the layout window. Each drop-down list shows a category of layout objects that are
appropriate for the page: Text, Graphics, Audio/Video, Button, and Miscellaneous. The words "On Canvas" next to
a name indicate that the layout object is already on the page. If you select the object's name in the list, you select it
automatically in the layout editor below. Names of objects below the horizontal line in the drop-down box show
objects that you may add to the page. Do so by selecting the object type from the list and then moving and resizing
the new object that appears on the page.
Change the initial graphic
You're going to change the graphic students see when they launch this content page. For this example, we're
assuming you have a file called lotusdevsite.gif on your local machine that is the same size as the sample picture
(386 x 386 pixels).
1.
From the object bar, select the Graphics list and select "Initial Graphic " from the list.
44 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
This action selects the Initial Graphic object on the layout editor and makes its layout properties available.
2.
Choose Layout - Layout Properties from the authoring tool menu to see the properties.
3.
Select the Graphic Filename field value "photo_4.jpg."
4.
Click the ellipsis (...).
5.
Browse to the Image Files directory in the NewCourseSample directory.
6.
Select lotusdevsite.gif and click OK.
7.
When you are prompted to copy the file to the media path for the authoring tool, click Yes.
The authoring tool copies your file to a graphics directory under an items directory in the LMSWebInfo
course folder and the layout changes to reflect the new initial graphic.
8.
Close the Layout Properties box.
Change the feedback images
The three photographs that change as you click links on the page are not standalone layout objects like the initial
graphic. Instead, they are feedback images associated with each of the numbered button objects. To change these,
you'll need to edit the layout properties for each numbered button. For this example, we're assuming you have files
called feedback1.gif, feedback2.gif, and feedback3.gif on your local machine that will replace the default feedback
images.
1.
From the object bar, select the Miscellaneous list and select "Button 1" from the list.
2.
Choose Layout - Layout Properties from the authoring tool menu to see the properties.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 45
3.
Select the Feedback Image Filename field value "photo_1.jpg."
4.
Click the ellipsis (...).
5.
Browse to the Image Files directory in the NewCourseSample directory.
6.
Select feedback1.gif and click OK.
7.
When you are prompted to copy the file to the media path for the authoring tool, click Yes.
If you change feedback1.gif in the future, select and copy the file again to make sure the authoring tool has
the latest version.
8.
Change the feedback images for Buttons 2 and 3 in the same way, using feedback2.gif and feedback3.gif as
the file names, then close the Layout Properties box.
If you preview this page again, you'll see that the original images have been replaced with your new ones.
Step 9. Publish the content pages
Publishing generates HTML pages for the content pages you've designed. Previewing in Authoring mode also
generates a publishing operation, but when your work in Authoring mode is complete, you should do a full publish
operation to validate all the content included in your Course Activities pages.
1.
Select the top-level item in the course tree, the Course Activities item.
2.
Choose Selected - Publish from the authoring tool menu to open the Publish dialog box.
46 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
3.
Click Run Media Check.
This verifies that all the files needed for the HTML pages are present and in the correct directories. Fix any
problems with missing media before continuing, then close the message box.
4.
When you're ready to publish, leave Smart Copy Media selected and click Publish.
This option copies any new or updated media files to the published directory, but doesn't remove any that
haven't changed. The published directory is shown in the Publish Path message above the radio button
choices.
5.
When you are prompted about launching the course, click Yes.
6.
Click OK when you get the warning about course tracking not being enabled and then click through the set
of content pages to ensure that it runs the way you intended.
If there are missing images, try refreshing the browser window one or more times.
Locate published HTML files
The authoring tool created the file Index.htm when it published the files. This is the first page of the content page
set.
1.
To locate the directory where the published files were created, go to the content directory shown in the
Publish Path (in the example above that was LMSWebInfo\resources\resource_1).
In this example, Index.htm is the Menu page, which contains links to the other content pages.
Chapter 3: Creating a Course 47
2.
Return to the Authoring tool and click the Go to Planner button to return to Planner mode. The act of
publishing the content pages has filled in the Web address field for this set of content pages with the location
of the index file.
3.
Clicking the ellipsis (...) allows you to verify the file's location and launch it if you wish.
Step 10. Preview the course the way students will see it
You can use the Course Preview function in Planner mode to make sure that the course looks and runs the way you
expect. This builds a complete course for all items in the course outline, unlike the Preview feature in Authoring
mode, which only builds HTML files for the content pages you designed in Authoring mode.
1.
In Planner mode, choose Tools - Course Preview from the authoring tool menu.
The course outline launches in a new browser window and contains links to the course items.
The files used by the Preview function have been created in the CoursePreview directory under the
resources directory of the LMS Web Info course. This directory contains the ancillary files the authoring tool
needs to display the course in preview mode. The file named main.htm is the launch page for the course.
2.
Click the Welcome page link to open the first course item.
Proceed through the course pages as a student would. Click OK if you receive messages about tracking not
being enabled.
Chapter 4 explains how to add an assessment to this course and Chapter 5 describes how to bring the course you've
built into the Learning Management System.
48 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Chapter 4
Creating an Assessment
In this chapter, you'll learn how to create an assessment in the authoring tool that sends student results back to the
Learning Management System. The assessment will be added to the sample course you created in Chapter 3.
Steps for creating an assessment
1.
Plan the assessment.
2.
Add an assessment to the course outline.
3.
Change the master layout for the assessment.
4.
Add pages to the assessment.
5.
Build the question and Quiz Score pages.
6.
Publish the assessment.
7.
Roll up assessment score to course.
8.
Preview the course.
Step 1. Plan the assessment
Designing an effective assessment requires some advance planning. Questions to answer before you start include:
•
What questions will reveal if students have learned the material?
•
Will the assessment be scored and results tracked?
•
Will there be objectives linked to the assessment?
The assessment plan for the sample course
The assessment for this sample course will test if students know:
•
the URL for the LDD site
•
which part of the site has the latest LMS documentation
•
what kind of information is stored in the Product Information and LDD Today areas
The assessment will be scored and results will be tracked and sent to the LMS for progress reporting. The
assessment will also be tied to an objective, which will be considered met if the student passes the assessment.
Step 2. Add an assessment to the course outline
1.
Open the LMS Web Info course in the authoring tool.
Make sure you're in Planner mode (which makes the course outline available).
9.
Select the Assessment Pages icon from the toolbox and drag and drop it over the Course Activities icon.
The Assessment item becomes the next item in the outline at the same level as Course Activities.
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 49
Edit the Planner properties for the assessment
Now you'll change the default properties for the assessment course item. This information is transferred to the
Learning Management System course catalog eventually, so it should match whatever naming conventions you use
at your site.
1.
In the course outline, click the Assessment page item to make it active.
2.
Under General Settings, change the values for Description and Time Estimate as shown below.
(You can start typing the description without removing the default field value. With the field highlighted,
what you type replaces the text that's already there.)
3.
Delete the values for Announcement Page and Remote Tracking API Address:
Click each field, click the ellipsis (...), and click Delete. Click Yes to confirm, then close the Launch and Add
Content dialog box.
4.
Change Launch in New Window to False to have the assessment launch in the LMS window.
5.
Under Delivery Settings, change the values for Allow Offline Use (lets students take the assessment without
being online) and Mastery Score (the passing score) as shown below.
Leave "Allow Preview" set to False. You don't want students to be able to preview the assessment in their
browsers before taking it.
6.
In the course outline, click the top-level item called LMS Web Info.
7.
Update the Time Estimate to 22 minutes, to accommodate the time needed for taking the assessment.
50 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Step 3. Change the master layout
1.
From Planner mode, select the Assessment item on the outline again and click Go to Authoring.
The authoring tool prompts you to add the first activities page. Notice that the style selected is "Corporate,"
which is the design style you chose when you created the course.
2.
Choose Cancel to dismiss the Add Page dialog box.
You are going to change the master layout before adding pages. When you select the Assessment item in the
tree, the master layout appears in the layout editor on the right side of the screen. You should change the
master layout before adding question pages; changes made later don't always flow down to existing pages.
Change the main heading and subheading
First you will change the heading text and remove the subheading from the assessment's master layout. These
changes will affect all pages in the assessment.
1.
Click the text block called (Heading goes here) and replace that text with "Assessment."
2.
Click the text block called (Subheading goes here) and choose Layout - Delete Layout Object.
3.
Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
You can also change the color and style of the text. The layout editor works like a drawing program, in which things
can be edited, dragged, deleted, and resized as needed.
Remove the buttons and text blocks you don't need
While you're still in the master layout (the Assessment top-level item is still active), you're going to remove the
buttons and text block that aren't needed for your assessment.
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 51
1.
Select the FAQ, Glossary, Index, Menu, and Replay buttons, as shown below, then right-click and choose
"Delete Layout Object." Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
2.
Select the Exit button next and drag it close to the Previous and Next buttons so there are no gaps between
buttons.
4.
Scroll down until you see the text block for "Prompt goes here." Select the block, then right-click and choose
"Delete Layout Object" and click Yes to confirm the deletion.
5.
Right-click and choose Delete Layout Object, then click Yes to confirm.
Change the feedback text
Feedback text is special text that changes as the student answers questions. While you're still in the master layout,
you're going to add feedback text that lets students know how they're doing as they progress through the
assessment. This feedback appears on all question pages. The quiz score has its own feedback, which you'll
customize later in this chapter.
1.
With the Assessment item still selected in the course tree, click the Correct Feedback text block in the layout
window on the right.
2.
Replace the default text with "Yes, that's correct."
52 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
3.
With the text block still selected, right-click and choose Add/Edit Feedback Text - Incorrect Feedback Text.
4.
Replace the default Incorrect Feedback Text with "No, that's not correct."
You don't need to change the other three feedback text options:
•
Partial and Incomplete Feedback text are relevant when there are multiple correct answers on question
pages. The assessment you're creating has one correct answer per question page.
•
Final Feedback text is relevant when you allow students to attempt a question more than once. In this
assessment, you'll only allow a single attempt for each question.
Edit the properties for all question and Quiz Score pages
Each group of pages has a set of properties that affects its behavior. You are going to change some of the default
settings and add some information to help with scores and results tracking.
1.
With the Assessment still selected in the tree, choose Selected - Page Properties.
2.
Click the field next to the Course Title Text and enter "LMS Web Info."
Leave the other General Default settings as is. If a property contains no value, it defaults to False or Null.
The properties now look like this:
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 53
3.
In the Learning Management System Settings section, set the value of "Allow exams to be suspended" to
True. This lets students take a test over several sessions. Leave the other settings as is.
4.
In the Bookmark Settings section, set the value of both fields to True.
"Course Uses Bookmarks" causes the LMS to remember where a student left the course, so he or she can
return to the same spot later.
"Course Uses Completion Status" forces the LMS to evaluate if a student's progress in a course is complete or
incomplete.
5.
In the Page properties box, choose Tools - Check Page Properties to verify the changes.
6.
Close the dialog box and the Page Properties box.
Step 4. Add question pages to the assessment
The authoring tool offers these question types: Multiple-Choice with a single answer, Multiple-Choice with multiple
answers, Matching, Fill-in-the-Blank, and Short Answer. Assessments built into the authoring tool have one
question per page. There is no way to place multiple questions on one page.
The sample assessment will contain three question pages:
1.
What is the URL for the LDD site? (Fill-in-the-blank question)
2.
Where on the site is the most recent LMS documentation stored? (Multiple-choice, single-answer question)
3.
Match each piece of information with its location on the LDD site. (Matching question)
It will then present students with a Quiz Score summary page that summarizes their results.
Important You must create a Quiz Score page in order for students' results to be sent to the Learning Management
System.
Add question pages to the course tree
To create the question pages for this assessment, you will continue in Authoring mode.
1.
With the Assessment item still selected in the course tree, select the Fill In The Blank icon from the Page
Layout toolbox and drop it over the Assessment item.
A placeholder for the fill-in-the-blank question page appears in the course tree.
2.
Select the Multiple-choice, single-answer item from the Page Layout toolbox, then drag and drop it over the
Fill In the Blank item.
3.
Select the Matching item from the toolbox, then drag and drop it over the Multiple Choice item.
54 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
4.
Select the Quiz Score (By Questions) item from the toolbox, then drag and drop it over the Matching item.
The course tree now looks like this:
Step 5. Build the question and Quiz Score pages
Now you'll edit the design and properties for each of the question pages and for the Quiz Score results page.
Build the Fill-in-the-Blank Question page
1.
Click "Fill In The Blank" from the course tree to make it active.
You'll see its layout in the layout editor. Objects outlined in red are part of the master layout; other objects
are specific to this page.
2.
Click the text block that says "Question Goes Here" and replace the default text with "What is the URL for the
LDD site?"
3.
Click the text block that says "Answer" and replace the input field text with www.lotus.com/ldd.
Tip To see what properties are set for the answer input field, right-click and choose Layout Properties.
Maximum Number of Characters and Case Sensitive are settings you may want to change for your own
question pages.
The layout now looks like this:
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 55
Edit the question's page properties
Each question type has a set of properties that affects its behavior. You are going to change some of the default
settings and add some information to help with scores and results tracking.
1.
With the Fill In the Blank question still selected in the tree, choose Selected - Page Properties.
2.
For the Exam ID value, enter "LMSWeb1Test."
All questions that are part of this assessment must have the same Exam ID.
3.
For the Objective ID value, enter "ObjPassFail."
This associates the student's answer on this question with the objective called ObjPassFail. You will create an
objective by this name in Planner mode, after you complete the assessment's question pages.
4.
For the Question ID value, enter the value "URL."
Each question has its own ID that makes it unique in the system.
5.
For the Question Behavior value, select "Results at End."
This specifies that the student's answers won't be stored until the assessment is complete.
6.
For the Tries Allowed value, enter 1.
This setting allows the student to attempt the question only once.
7.
For the Forward Only value, select True.
This prevents the student from moving back and forth between question pages.
The Page Properties sheet now looks like this:
8.
On the Page Properties sheet, choose the menu command Tools - Check Page Properties to verify the
changes you've made.
56 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
9.
Close the dialog box and the Page Properties box.
Build the Multiple-Choice Question page
1.
Click "Multiple Choice with Single Answer" from the course tree to make it active.
2.
Click the text block that says "Question Goes Here" and replace the default text with "Where on the LDD site
is the most recent LMS documentation?"
3.
Click the text block that says (Answer 1 goes here) and replace the text with an incorrect answer (a
distracter): Product Information.
4.
Click the text block that says (Answer 2 goes here) and replace the text with the answer that you will set up
as the correct answer: Documentation Library.
5.
Click the text block that says (Answer 3 goes here) and replace the text with another distracter: Downloads.
6.
Click the text block that says (Answer 4 goes here) and replace the text with another distracter: LDD Today.
The layout now looks like this:
Mark the correct answer
Each text block on a multiple-choice question page contains a property that allows you to mark the answer as
correct or incorrect. By default, the first question in the set is marked as the correct answer and the others as
incorrect. However, in this example, we're going to mark the second answer as the correct one.
1.
Click the second text block called "Documentation Library."
2.
Choose Layout - Layout Properties.
3.
Change the value of "Is Correct Answer" from False to True.
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 57
Because this is a Multiple-Choice with Single Answer question page, there can only be one correct answer.
Therefore the authoring tool automatically changes "Product Information" to an incorrect answer and the
value of Is Correct Answer is now False. You don't need to change the Is Correct Answer values for any of
the other text blocks; they are already set to False.
Edit the question's page properties
Now change some of the default settings for the Multiple-Choice Question page.
1.
With the Multiple-Choice question still selected in the tree, choose Selected - Page Properties.
2.
For the Exam ID value, enter "LMSWeb1Test."
3.
For the Objective ID value, enter "ObjPassFail."
This associates the student's answer on this question with the objective called ObjPassFail.
4.
For the Question ID value, enter the value "Doc."
5.
For the Question Behavior value, select "Results at End."
6.
For the Tries Allowed value, enter 1.
7.
For the Forward Only value, select True.
8.
On the Page Properties sheet, choose the menu command Tools - Check Page Properties to verify the
changes you've made.
9.
Close the dialog box and the Page Properties box.
Build the Matching Question page
1.
Click "Matching" from the course tree to make it active.
2.
Click the text block that says "Question Goes Here" and replace the default text with "Match each piece of
information with its location on the LDD site."
3.
Edit the Answer Text blocks to show three pieces of information that can be found on the LDD site.
4.
5.
•
Replace "Answer Text 1" with Redbooks.
•
Replace "Answer Text 2" with Articles.
•
Replace "Answer Text 3" with Trial Software.
Edit the Match Option blocks to show three different locations.
•
Replace "Match Option A" with A. Product Info.
•
Replace "Match Option B" with B. LDD Today.
•
Replace "Match Option C" with C. Doc Library.
Click the A input field and change the value to C; then click the C input field and change the value to A.
58 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The default is to have the correct answers match the options in A, B, C order. By changing the letters in the
input fields, you've changed the correct answers to be C, B, A to reflect the following matches:
•
Redbooks goes with C. Doc Library
•
Articles goes with B. LDD Library
•
Trial Software goes with A. Product Info
You could also substitute numbers for letters. The effect is the same.
The layout now looks like this:
Edit the question's page properties
Now change some of the default settings for the Matching Question page.
1.
With the Matching question still selected in the tree, choose Selected - Page Properties.
2.
For the Exam ID value, enter "LMSWeb1Test."
3.
For the Objective ID value, enter "ObjPassFail."
This associates the student's answer on this question with the objective called ObjPassFail.
4.
For the Question ID value, enter the value "LDD."
5.
For the Question Behavior value, select "Results at End."
6.
For the Tries Allowed value, enter 1.
7.
For the Forward Only value, select True.
8.
On the Page Properties sheet, choose the menu command Tools - Check Page Properties to verify the
changes you've made.
9.
Close the dialog box and the Page Properties box.
Preview all the question pages
Now run the Preview function to see what these question pages look like.
1.
Select the Assessment item in the course tree.
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 59
2.
Choose Selected - Preview from the Authoring mode menu.
3.
Click OK when you get the default warning about course-level tracking not being enabled.
(View your browser window if you don't see the latest updates.)
4.
The first page in the group appears in your browser. You can use the Next and Previous buttons to navigate
between pages and provide answers.
You may notice that the Done button, shown in the master layout for the Assessment, doesn't appear on the
pages you created. This is because you selected "Results at End" in each question's page properties. To show
the Done button, you would use "Never Resets" or "Resets on Revisit" as the value of Question Behavior.
Students would then click Done to see their results on the current question.
Build the Quiz Score page
The Quiz Score provides feedback that is different from the feedback on question pages. The text isn't inherited from
the master layout, so you'll need to modify it on the Quiz Score layout.
1.
Click "Quiz Score (By Questions)" from the course tree to make it active.
2.
Click the Pass Feedback text block in the layout window on the right.
3.
Replace the default text with "Congratulations. You passed the test. "
4.
With the text block still selected, right-click and choose Add/Edit Feedback Text - Fail Text.
5.
Replace the default Failed Feedback Text with "You have not passed the test this time."
6.
Widen the text block so the message fits on one line.
We aren't going to change the Final Score Pre-Message and Final Score Post-Message feedback for this example.
Edit the Quiz Score page properties
1.
With the Quiz Score (By Questions) item selected in the course tree, choose Selected - Page Properties.
2.
Set the value of "Is Master Exam? to True.
Important You must set this option to True to have assessment results sent to the Learning Management
System.
60 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
3.
Set the value of "Report Objectives" to True.
This ensures that the status of the objective tied to this assessment will be reported to the Learning
Management System.
4.
Set the value of Exam ID to LMSWeb1Test.
This matches the Exam ID you specified for each of the question pages.
The properties now look like this:
5.
On the Page Properties sheet, choose the menu command Tools - Check Page Properties to verify the
changes you've made.
6.
Close the dialog box and the Page Properties box.
Step 6. Publish the assessment
Publishing generates HTML pages for the question pages you've designed. Previewing in Authoring mode also
generates a publishing operation, but when your work in Authoring mode is complete, you should do a full publish
operation to validate all the content included in your Assessment course item.
1.
Select the top-level item in the course tree, the Assessment item.
2.
Choose Selected - Publish from the authoring tool menu to open the Publish dialog box.
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 61
3.
Click Run Media Check.
This verifies that all the files that are needed for the HTML pages are present and in the correct directories.
Fix any problems with missing media before continuing, then close the message box.
4.
When you're ready to publish, leave Smart Copy Media selected and click Publish.
This option copies any new or updated media files to the published directory, but doesn't remove any that
haven't changed. The published directory is shown in the Publish Path message above the radio button
choices.
7.
When you are prompted about launching the course, click Yes.
8.
Click OK when you get the warning about course tracking not being enabled and then click through the
assessment to ensure that it runs the way you intended.
Step 7. Roll up results to the course
Rollup is the process of sending results up to the next level in the outline so that results from each part of the course
can contribute to the entire course's results. This simple course has only one scored item (the assessment), but you'll
make sure all three items in the outline roll up their progress by setting rollup controls for each course item and then
creating a rollup rule for the course.
Display sequencing properties
For this step, you'll use the Sequencing Properties tab. The tab is hidden by default. To see it, follow these steps:
1.
In Planner mode, select Tools - Options.
62 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
2.
In the Planner Options tab, select "Show Advanced Sequencing Properties" and click OK.
The Sequencing tab now appears behind the Properties tab on the right side of the screen.
Verify that items' progress completion will roll up to course
1.
In Planner mode, select the Welcome Page item.
2.
Click the Sequencing tab.
3.
Verify that Rollup Progress Completion is set to True (the default).
4.
Select the Course Activities and the Assessment items, in turn, and verify that Rollup Progress Completion is
set to True for them too.
Set the objective measure weight for the assessment
Set the objective measure weight for the assessment, which is the only item whose scoring results are rolled up to
the course. You'll set the weight to 1 to make sure its weight is taken into account for the results.
1.
Select the Assessment in the outline and open the Sequencing tab, if it isn't already open.
2.
Change the Objective Measure weight from 0.00000 to 1.00000.
Create a rollup rule for the course
Now you'll create a rollup rule that will set the course status to Completed when students complete each of the
course items.
1.
In Planner mode, select the course item LMS Web Info and open the Sequencing tab, if it isn't already open.
2.
Select "Rollup Rule" from the New Rule drop-down list.
3.
In the Rollup Rule Definition box, leave Child Set as "All."
This defines the group of items that contribute to this rollup rule. In this case, you want all child items to
contribute to the results.
4.
For Rule Conditions Evaluate to, leave "All True" selected.
5.
From the condition drop-down box, select "Completed."
6.
Click "Add" to add the rule to the list.
The condition is now set to "when all child items report their status as completed, this condition will be met."
Chapter 4: Creating an Assessment 63
7.
Leave Perform Action as Completed, which is the default action.
The authoring tool completes the rule by including the condition you set, so the completed rule definition
looks like this:
8.
Click OK to add the rollup rule to the course item.
Step 8. Preview the course
You've finished the LMS Web Info course. Before you package the course and send it to the Learning Management
System, use the Course Preview function in Planner mode to make sure that the course looks and runs the way you
expect. This builds a complete course for all items in the course outline, unlike the Preview feature in Authoring
mode, which only builds HTML files for the pages you designed in Authoring mode.
1.
In Planner mode, choose Tools - Course Preview from the authoring tool menu.
The course outline launches in a new browser window and contains links to the course items.
2.
Click the Welcome page link to open the first course item.
Proceed through the course pages as a student would. Click OK if you receive messages about tracking not
being enabled.
The next chapter explains how to send your course to the Learning Management System.
64 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Chapter 5
Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog
This chapter describes the process of bringing a course from the authoring tool to the Learning Management System
catalog where it can be delivered to students. We will continue to use the sample course that was introduced in the
previous chapter.
Steps for adding the sample course to the LMS catalog
The process for adding a course to the course catalog involves performing tasks in the authoring tool and the
Learning Management System.
In the authoring tool, you
1.
Verify the contents of the course.
2.
Package the course.
3.
Specify server options for the first time.
4.
Send the course package to the FTP Server.
5.
Import the course to the LMS Server.
In the Learning Management System, you
6.
Register the course as a course master.
7.
Create a course offering from the course master.
8.
Enroll yourself in the course to test it.
Step 1. Verify the contents of the course
The Verify Course operation checks links and file references to be sure all files are available for packaging and
produces a report that lists any problems.
1.
In the authoring tool, open the LMS Web Info course.
2.
Choose File - Verify Course.
3.
The report shows any problems encountered.
Chapter 5: Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog 65
If you see messages about missing Announcement pages, it's because you didn't delete the Announcement
Pages value in the course item's property sheet. You can ignore the messages though, since Announcement
pages aren't a required item.
4.
Fix any other problems and re-verify the course before continuing, then close the dialog box.
Step 2. Package the course
After you verify the course, you're ready to package it. This operation creates a .zip file that includes the course
structure, manifest file, and other items needed by the Learning Management System.
1.
On your workstation, create a directory named Packages.
This will be the default location for all course packages you create in the authoring tool.
2.
In the authoring tool, with the LMS Web Info course open, choose File - Package Course.
The top half of the dialog box shows you all packaging options.
3.
Click the ellipsis (...) next to the Packaging Directory field.
4.
Browse to the Packages directory you created and click OK.
Tip If you plan to use the same directory for all packages, you can specify it in Tools - Options on the
Packaging tab.
5.
Select "Include Source Files."
This option is only needed for courses that will be used with the Offline Learning Client or for courses that
you plan to distribute to other course developers to edit. In this procedure, you're packaging the course from
Chapter 3, where you selected the "Allow Offline Use" property. In all other situations, do not select this
option because it produces a much larger file.
The dialog box now looks something like this (the package identifier will be different for your course):
6.
Click Package.
Status information appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
7.
After you receive a message that the package was created successfully, click Close.
8.
A file named LMSWebInfo.zip is now in the Packages directory you created.
You can open it with a compression utility to see its contents.
66 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Step 3. Set up server options for the first time
Since this is the first time you've uploaded a course, you'll need to provide some information about the servers to
which you'll connect. There are two servers involved:
•
The FTP Server
This server receives the .zip file from your machine using FTP. It also allows the LMS Server to pick up the
.zip file from the same location.
•
The LMS Server
This server extracts the contents of the .zip file and adds the course to the system as a course master.
You'll set up information about these servers in the Options box. These settings will be used for all courses that you
create.
1.
In the authoring tool, choose Tools - Options.
2.
Click FTP Parameters.
3.
Fill in the information needed to send the package via FTP:
•
FTP Server name
This is the FTP site at your organization where course packages created in the authoring tool are to be
placed.
•
The FTP User ID and Password
This is the user name and password needed to log on to the FTP site. Specify the password again in the
Verify field.
•
To have the authoring tool fill in the password automatically next time, click Remember Password.
4.
Click Server Import.
5.
Fill in the information needed to connect to the LMS Server.
•
URL for the Learning Management Server
This is a fully qualified address of the Learning Management System Server at your site where the
import process will run. This server may be different from the FTP server.
•
Your LMS User ID and Password
This is the login name and password of the person who will be starting the import process. The person
must be assigned the necessary permissions in the Learning Management System to import a package.
Specify the password again in the Verify field.
Chapter 5: Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog 67
To have the authoring tool fill in the password automatically next time, click Remember Password.
•
E-mail Addresses for anyone who needs to know the status of the import process.
You should put your own e-mail address in this field, as well as any course or server administrators who
need to know when new courses are delivered to the LMS Server.
6.
Click OK.
Step 4. Send the course package
This step involves communicating with the LMS server to deliver the course package.
1.
With the LMS Web Info course open in the authoring tool, choose File - Send Package.
The top half of the dialog box shows you all options for sending the package.
2.
Next to the Package Location field, click the ellipsis (...).
3.
Browse for and select the package you created (LMSWebInfo.zip), then click OK.
4.
Leave the FTP Server, user name, and password as is.
68 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
5.
Click Send.
Status information appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
6.
After you receive a message that the package was sent successfully, click Close.
Step 5. Import the package to the LMS Server
The final step in the authoring tool is to initiate the importing process from the FTP Server to the LMS Server.
1.
With the LMS Web Info course open in the authoring tool, choose File - Server Import.
2.
Next to the Package Location field, click the ellipsis (...).
3.
Browse for and select the package you created (LMSWebInfo.zip), then click OK.
Chapter 5: Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog 69
Leave the rest of the dialog box selections as is. You specified these when you set up the Server Import
options for the authoring tool.
4.
Click Server Import.
People listed in the e-mail addresses are notified whether the import process is successful or not.
Step 6. Register the course as a course master
Courses imported into the Learning Management System are called course masters. They contain the course content
(or links to content), course structure, and properties that were in the original course you created in the authoring
tool. The courses that appear in the Offerings and Student Catalogs are called course offerings. They are created
from and based on a course master. Offerings are copies of the course master, but have a limited set of options that
you can use to override properties in the course master. They also have properties that apply only to specific
offerings, such as the name of the Delivery Server that will host the course offering.
The rest of your work in this chapter will be done in the Learning Management System. To proceed with the steps
below, your LMS user name needs to be associated with a role that includes the Course Catalog - Manage Masters
Catalog permission. This permission comes automatically with the Administrator role, but not with any other
default roles.
1.
In your browser, enter the URL for the Learning Management System.
2.
Log in with your user name and password.
70 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
3.
Click Course Catalog.
4.
Click Register Master.
5.
Leave Course Master selected and click Continue.
6.
Select LMS Web Info from the Unregistered Master list and click Continue.
At the Course Details page, you can review the settings. You don't need to make any changes, so click
Continue when you are ready.
7.
At the Prerequisites page, click Continue.
There are no prerequisites for this course.
8.
Select a folder for this course master, then click Save.
(If you were going to make other changes later, you would click Save as Draft instead.)
Chapter 5: Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog 71
9.
At the Confirmation page, click Done.
Step 7. Create a course offering from the master
1.
In the Course Catalog, select "Register Course Entry."
2.
Leave Course selected and click Continue.
3.
Click to open the folder where you stored the course master.
4.
Select the master and click Continue.
5.
In the Course Details page, add specifics for this course offering. Your changes affect this course offering
only and not the original course master.
72 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
For this sample course, do the following:
•
Next to Delivery Server, click Select. Choose a Delivery Server, then click OK.
Every course offering needs to be associated with a Delivery Server.
•
Select "Allow self-enrollment" and Allow unenrollment."
This lets anyone sign up for the course or unenroll.
•
Next to Instructors, click Find Instructor. Search for the name of an instructor (probably yourself for this
sample course), then click OK.
•
Select "Allows use with Offline Client" and "Allows offline users to force course online."
In the authoring tool, you enabled offline students, so you need to set these options for them.
Note It takes some time for course materials to be distributed throughout the LMS system. Deployment
status must show as Complete in the Course Details before you'll be able to enroll in the course.
6.
Click Continue.
7.
Select a folder for this course offering, then click Save.
Chapter 5: Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog 73
8.
At the Confirmation page, click Done.
Step 8. Enroll yourself in the course to test it
You allowed self-enrollment for this course, which means you can sign up for the course from the Student Catalog
after the course deployment status is complete.
1.
Click Student Catalog.
2.
Open the folder where you stored the course offering.
3.
Click View Details.
4.
In the Details page, click Enroll.
74 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
5.
After you receive enrollment confirmation, click the Home tab.
6.
Under My Courses, click Enrolled Courses.
7.
In the Enrolled Courses list, click Launch to launch the LMS Web Info course.
8.
Expand the Course Outline and click each of the course items to navigate through the course.
When you complete the Course Activities or Assessment, click X to close the set of pages, then Close to close
the window. This ensures that the results are sent to the LMS.
Chapter 5: Adding a Course to the LMS Catalog 75
Chapter 6
Updating a Course in the Learning Management System
In this chapter, we take you through the steps of sending course updates to the Learning Management System.
Steps for updating a course
The process for updating a course that is already in the course catalog involves performing tasks in the authoring
tool and the Learning Management System.
In the authoring tool, you
1.
Verify the contents of the course.
2.
Re-package the course.
3.
Send the revised course package to the LMS server.
Then in the Learning Management System, you either accept or reject the update for offerings created from the
original course master.
Step 1. Verify the contents of the course
The Verify Course operation checks links and file references to be sure all files are available for packaging and
produces a report that lists any problems.
1.
In the authoring tool, open the LMS Web Info course.
2.
Choose File - Verify Course.
3.
Fix any problems and re-verify the course before continuing.
For more information about this process, see Chapter 5.
Step 2. Package the course
After you verify the course, you're ready to package it. This operation overwrites the previous package with the
latest course structure, content, manifest file, and other items needed by the Learning Management System.
1.
In the authoring tool, with the LMS Web Info course open, choose File - Package.
The top half of the dialog box shows you all packaging options.
2.
Click the ellipsis (...) next to the Packaging Directory field.
3.
Browse to the Packages directory you created in Chapter 5 and click OK.
For more information about the version numbers and the package identifier, see "About version numbers" in
the next section.
The dialog box now looks like this:
Chapter 6: Updating a Course in the Learning Management System 77
4.
Click Package.
Status information appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
5.
After you receive a message that the package was created successfully, click Close.
6.
A newer version of LMSWebInfo.zip is now in the Packages directory.
About version numbers
Every package has three possible version numbers. In the Send Package dialog, the version numbers are shown
from left to right for:
•
Package Version
The package version represents the number of times the course has been packaged. The value is set to 1 the
first time you package a course and it increments by one each time you repackage the course. Notice that the
package identifier never changes because it is the only way the Learning Management System can recognize
a previously uploaded course package. The package version and identifier are set automatically by the
authoring tool and can't be changed.
•
Content Version
The content version represents the number of times the course content has changed. The version increments
by one automatically each time you repackage the course, but you can roll back the content version number
if the content hasn't changed.
•
Structure Version
The structure version represents the number of times the course structure — the course outline shown in
Planner mode — has changed. The version increments by one each time you repackage the course, but you
can roll back the structure version number if the structure hasn't changed.
Step 3. Send the course package to the FTP Server
This step involves communicating with the LMS Server to deliver the course package. The FTP Server and LMS
Server that you set up in Chapter 5 in the Options box will be used for this operation unless you change them.
1.
With the LMS Web info course still open in the authoring tool, choose File - Send Package.
2.
Browse for and select the package you created (LMSWebInfo.zip).
3.
Leave the FTP server, user name, and password as is.
78 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
4.
Click Send.
Status information appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
5.
After you receive a message that the package was sent successfully, click Close.
The LMS Server takes care of importing the package from the FTP server automatically and sends a
notification to the e-mail addresses listed in the Server Import tab of the authoring tool options. In the case of
an updated course, the notification states:
The course package was imported successfully, and contains an update to a
previously-deployed course. The update has been submitted for approval by the
catalog manager.
Step 4. Accept or refuse the update for existing course offerings
The rest of your work in this chapter will be done in the Learning Management System. To proceed with the steps
below, your LMS user name needs to be associated with a role that includes the Course Catalog - Manage Masters
Catalog permission. This permission comes automatically with the Administrator role, but not with any other
default roles.
1.
In your browser, enter the URL for the Learning Management System.
2.
Log in with your user name and password.
3.
Click Course Catalog.
4.
Click Update Master.
5.
Select the repackaged master, then click Continue.
Chapter 6: Updating a Course in the Learning Management System 79
6.
In the Update Option page, select "Update all offerings," then click Continue.
This option applies the changes to all existing offerings that were created from the original course master.
Other options for this page are:
"Update future offerings only" to apply the new master content to any future offerings for this content.
"Discard update" rejects the update and it is not applied to any offerings.
7.
Click Continue when you receive confirmation that the master was updated.
80 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Chapter 7
Creating Your Own Styles
The authoring tool comes with three default styles (Corporate, Digital, and Accessible), but it's likely that you'll
want to change graphics, colors, and layouts to suit your own organization's designs. This chapter teaches you how
to create a custom style that you can use for your courses.
Viewing the sample course for this chapter
A sample course called NewStyleSample provided with this guide was designed to illustrate the style you'll create
in this chapter. See Chapter 1 for information about installing and opening the course in the authoring tool if you
wish to see it before proceeding with the tutorial that follows.
Steps for creating a new style
This chapter shows you how to create a new style by following these steps:
1.
Plan the new style.
2.
Create a course with a style that's close to the one you want.
3.
Make changes to the master layout.
4.
Make changes to individual content pages.
5.
Save the course as a new style.
6.
Make changes to graphics.
When you're done, you can test your design by creating another new course and basing its design on your custom
style.
This chapter also covers updating styles, distributing styles to other developers, and changing styles for content
pages that you've already created.
Step 1: Plan the new style
The new style we'll create in this chapter will be based on the Corporate Style (shown in the background Menu page
below), but will have a different color scheme (shown in front with the title "Learning at Work"), a new graphic, and
some different default settings.
Chapter 7: Creating Your Own Styles 81
Step 2. Create a course
1.
Use the File - New command to create a new course.
Name the course folder "NewStyle," select Corporate as the Style, and save the course in your Courses
folder.
2.
In Planner mode, add a Content Pages item to the course outline.
3.
Click the Content Pages item and click Go to Authoring.
4.
Choose Cancel to dismiss the Add Page dialog box.
Step 3. Make changes to the master layout
Make changes to the master layout before you add any content pages to the course tree. If you make changes to the
master layout after you've added content pages, they won't be reflected in existing content pages.
1.
Verify that the Content Pages item is active and that the master layout appears on the right side of the
screen.
2.
Make the following changes to the headings:
•
Select all the text of the (Heading Goes Here) text object and choose Layout - Text Properties. Change the
Font Style to Times New Roman, 24 point, Bold, Italic. Change the text color to black.
•
Replace the default heading text with "Learning at Work."
•
Select all the text of (Subheading goes here), choose Layout - Text Properties and change the Font Style to
Times New Roman, 14 point, Bold, Italic. Change the text color to black.
•
Select all the text of the Page: number in the top right corner. Choose Layout - Text Properties and
change the text color to black.
The top of the master layout now looks like this:
82 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
3.
Select the text in the Correct Feedback text object and replace the default text with "Yes, that's correct."
4.
Click the Prompt box and choose Layout - Delete Layout Object.
A prompt can give users extra hints or tips for content pages, but your style won't include any prompts.
5.
Choose Selected - Page Properties to open the properties for the main Content Pages item.
6.
Make the following changes to the default Searchable Index.
A Searchable Index is a search page within a group of content pages that helps students find a specific
content page based on predefined search keywords.
In the Searchable Index settings, click the Background Color field. Click the ellipsis (...), select the color
Antique White, and click OK.
In the Searchable Index Term Not Found Message setting, click the field next to the label named Text. Enter
the following text: "The entry was not found."
7.
In the Page properties box, choose Tools - Check Page Properties to verify the changes.
8.
Close the dialog box.
Step 4. Make changes to individual content pages
To modify the style of individual content pages, first add one of every type of content page under the Content Pages
item by dragging and dropping each item into the course tree. Any page types you omit will be missing from the
Page Layout Toolbox when course developers create content pages with this style.
Chapter 7: Creating Your Own Styles 83
Change text properties and words
1.
With the exception of the green Correct Feedback text that question pages inherit from the master layout,
change the text for all pages to black:
a.
Open each item that has its own text objects (which is every page type except Glossary, FAQ, Question
Pool Container, and Pooled Question).
b. Select the text in each text object, and choose Layout - Text Properties box to change the object's text color
to Black.
Note The Classification content page has a text object called Initial Description that has four different sets of
feedback. Right-click the text object, choose Add/Edit Feedback text and select each type of feedback in turn
to make it visible, so you can change the text color to black.
2.
Open the Quiz Score (by Questions) item and select all the text in the Pass Text layout object. Replace the
default text with "Congratulations. You have a passing score." Resize the text box to make the text fit on one
line.
3.
Open the Quiz Score (by Objectives) item and select all the text in the Pass Text layout object. Replace the
default text with "Congratulations. You have a passing score." Resize the text box to make the text fit on one
line.
84 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Change colors and graphics
1.
Click the Glossary item and choose Selected - Page Properties. Make the following changes.
•
For the background color, select Antique White.
•
For the Glossary Term Not Found message enter the text "The entry was not found."
2.
Click the FAQ item and choose Selected - Page Properties. Change the background color to Antique White.
3.
Change the default graphic for the Menu item. For this example, we'll assume you have an image called
gulf_coast.jpg that is the same size (436 x 344 pixels) as the default graphic.
a.
Click the field next to Graphic Filename again and click the ellipsis (...).
b. Browse to the Image Files directory in the NewCourseSample directory, select gulf_coast.jpg, and click
OK.
c.
Click Yes when you are prompted to copy the graphic to the correct media location.
When you save these pages as a new style later, the new graphic will be copied with all other graphics that
are part of this style.
4.
Change the border and fill colors for the menu items on the Menu page:
a.
Click the button called Menu Item 1.
b. Choose Layout - Layout Properties.
c.
Change the Border Color to Silver.
(Click the label Border Color and click the ellipsis (...) next to the field to open the Color Prompter
window. Choose Silver as the color, then click OK.)
d. Change the Background Color to Alice Blue.
e.
5.
Repeat these steps for the other menu items.
Choose Selected - Preview to look at the menu page.
a.
Click OK when you're prompted about Course Tracking not being enabled.
b. If there are missing graphics on the page, refresh the page.
Chapter 7: Creating Your Own Styles 85
Step 5. Save the course as a new style
When your changes are complete, choose Format - Save as New Style to save these pages as a custom style. Call it
Learning at Work and save it in the Authoring Tool's main program directory. (You can save it any directory, but
saving it in the main program directory allows you to see the Custom Style without browsing to other directories.)
The authoring tool creates a new Style_n folder that contains the changes you made, as well as any other files that
haven't changed.
Tip To find out what number the authoring tool assigned to your new style, open the Styles.mdb database in
Microsoft Access or another database tool and look at the Styles table. The StyleID corresponds to the new style's
folder name.
Step 6. Make changes to buttons, icons, and the background
For this example, we're going to alter the color of the graphics for the background image and for active buttons and
icons. Your changes will only affect the graphics stored in the Style_n directory created for this style. The modified
graphics are the same size, so changes won't affect the layouts of the content pages.
1.
Use a paint or drawing program to open the background image.
The file name is bkg.gif. In the example shown above, it is located in the Style_8\graphics directory.
86 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
2.
Change the color of bkg.gif.
For the example in this chapter, we changed the palette for each graphic to a blue-based palette.
3.
Open the rest of the files in the graphics directory and change the ones that should have different colors.
In this example, we changed graphics that represent an active state (their file name has _a in the name). We
left the graphics for an inactive state (their file name has _i in the name) as the default gray.
4.
Save each of the modified graphics.
Step 7. Test the custom style
1.
To test the style, create a new course and choose the custom style "Learning at Work" for the course.
2.
Add a Content Pages item to the course.
3.
Switch to Authoring mode and create content pages.
4.
Preview the pages to see the new style.
Tip If there are missing graphics the first time you preview, refresh the browser page. All graphics should
appear when the page refreshes.
Chapter 7: Creating Your Own Styles 87
Chapter 8
Working with External Content
The term "external content" refers to courses or parts of courses that are created outside of the authoring tool —
either by third-party vendors who specialize in course development or by individuals who use other content
authoring products to create their courses. This guide describes how to work with external content in the authoring
tool so it can be customized for the LMS.
Why should you use the authoring tool to work with external content?
Before any course can be delivered to students, it needs to be brought into the LMS as a course master. Course
offerings are created from these masters and delivered to students. The LMS provides two utilities for importing
your courses into the LMS: the authoring tool and the Command Line Import Utility (CLIMP). The LMS product
installation program lets you install these tools to the LMS server, where developers can look for and download the
tools to their local workstations.
The table below summarizes the differences between the authoring tool and CLIMP. Unless you have a large
number of SCORM 1.2 course packages that you know won't ever change, you should use the authoring tool to
prepare external content for the LMS because the tool offers more flexibility.
Authoring Tool
Allows multiple-course importing
Allows single-course importing
Accepts SCORM 1.2 courses
Accepts SCORM 1.1 courses
Accepts AICC-formatted courses
Allows you to make changes to courses later
Allows you to add sequencing instructions
Allows you to add LMS course items
Allows you to save migrated course progress
data from LearningSpace
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CLIMP
X
X
X
Bringing external content into the authoring tool
When you bring external content into the authoring tool, you format it in a way that the LMS can understand. Once
external content is in the authoring tool, you can also make changes or add LMS-specific features to the course.
When you are done working with the external content in the authoring tool, you use the Package, Send, and Import
features to transfer the course to the LMS, as described in Chapter 5. A unique package identifier allows you to
make updates to the same course later and distribute the updates to all related course offerings throughout the LMS
system, as described in Chapter 6. This section describes how to import any external content that is formatted as
SCORM packages or AICC files.
1.
In the authoring tool, open the File - New screen.
2.
Click the Import tab.
Chapter 8: Working with External Content 89
3.
Select the format that is appropriate for the course you're importing.
Importing external courses requires you to know whether your course is supplied as AICC files or a SCORM
package. AICC and SCORM are two different industry standards for defining and packaging course
information. The course developer can tell you which standard was used to develop the course.
4.
Click OK.
5.
The Select a Location dialog box prompts you for three things:
•
A new name to assign to the imported course's folder.
The authoring tool will create a new folder and then store the imported files there.
•
The location for the course folder.
It's good practice to create a separate Courses directory on your local workstation and use this as your
location for new course folders.
•
6.
The style for any new content pages you may build in the authoring tool. Clicking Select allows you to
choose another style.
Click OK.
The dialog boxes that follow are specific to the format you selected. They are described in the next two
sections.
Importing AICC Files
1.
In the Import File Directory dialog box, browse to the directory where the AICC files are stored.
2.
Select the .crs file.
3.
Select "Include Content" if you want to copy the course's images, HTML pages, multimedia files, and so on
to the new course directory.
90 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
This enables you to include content files in the course package you send to the LMS.
4.
Click Import.
5.
If you selected the "Include Content" option, specify the directory where content is stored (usually the parent
directory of all the corresponding files). The authoring tool maintains the content's directory structure to
avoid breaking links in HTML pages you've created.
6.
Click Import.
Close the dialog box after you're notified that the import operation was successful. The course outline
appears in the authoring tool in Planner mode, which is described in Chapter 3.
Importing a SCORM Package
1.
In the Import a Package Interchange File dialog box, browse to the directory where the SCORM course
package is stored.
2.
Select the .zip or .xml file.
If you select a zip file, the authoring tool first unzips the file into a temporary directory. This takes longer
than unzipping the file yourself and then selecting the course's xml file.
Chapter 8: Working with External Content 91
3.
Click Import.
Close the dialog box after you're notified that the import operation was successful. The course outline
appears in the authoring tool in Planner mode, which is described in Chapter 3.
What can you change in an imported course?
Importing content into the authoring tool produces a course outline, populates the outline with course items, and
picks up all original properties, URLs, file references, and meta-data that are supported in the authoring tool. You
can add or change properties for any of the course items in the outline, remove or resequence items, or add new
course items. When your course is ready for distribution to students, package it in the authoring tool and import it
to the LMS, as described in Chapter 5.
This section lists some of the most common types of changes you may want to make for external content.
Verify or change Web Launch Addresses
You connect external Web-based content to a course item by way of the Web Launch Settings Address.
1.
Select a course item, then click the ellipsis (...) next to the field to open the Launch and Add Content dialog
box.
2.
Click Modify from that dialog box to see the fields where you can specify the URL or file that launches for
the course item.
3.
Make changes to the address, if necessary, in the lower portion of the box.
Your changes will be reflected on the Properties page when you return to it. For more information, see
"Step 5. Create a link that launches a Welcome page" in Chapter 3.
92 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Allow students to preview a course
When "Allow Preview" is set to True in the properties for a course, students can preview the course or parts of a
course before they start. Set this property for the course if you intend to allow any previewing. Then disallow
previewing in the properties page for any individual content pages, assessments, or content links that you don't
want previewed.
Allow the course to be used offline
To allow students to use the Offline Learning Client to work on a course locally, you must set the "Allow Offline
Use" to True in the properties for a course. Individual content pages, assessments, or content links will also allow
offline use unless you specifically disallow it in a course item's properties page.
The offline students must also have all content with their course. To do this, you select "Include Source Files" when
you package the course.
They must also install the Offline Learning Client installed on their local machines. For more information, see the
Learning Management System's Help.
Use a Remote Tracking API Address
The Tracking API is a mechanism that sends student progress information to the LMS Server. A remote tracking API
address is only needed if your content is stored on a server other than the LMS Server and uses SCORM tracking
Use this procedure to set up a remote tracking API address.
1.
Copy the LMS tracking frameset to the remote content server.
This frameset is stored in TrackingFrameSet.zip in the "distribute" directory of the LMS CD. Create a
“trackingapi” folder on the remote content server. The trackingapi folder should be under
<drive>:\inetpub\wwwroot. Copy and unzip TrackingFrameSet.zip into this folder.
Verify that the tracking frameset is browser-accessible using this address:
http://<remote_server_url>/trackingapi/apiFrameset.html
2.
In the authoring tool's Planner mode, set each trackable course item's Remote Tracking API Address to the
URL you tested in Step 1.
You connect the remote tracking frameset to each course item by way of the Remote Tracking API Address.
Click the ellipsis (...) next to the field to open the Launch and Add Content dialog box. When you click
Modify, you see the field where you can specify the tracking frameset URL. Set the URL to match the URL
you tested in Step 1. Your changes will be reflected on the Properties page when you return to it.
Chapter 8: Working with External Content 93
When students launch the course in the Learning Management System, they'll see a message that states the Content
URL, the Tracking ID, the Tracking URL, and the API Adapter URL. They can click OK to proceed to the course.
Importing Microsoft PowerPoint files
Microsoft has a Learning Resource iNterchange (LRN) toolkit that allows PowerPoint 2000 and 2002 users to publish
their presentations so they can be imported into the authoring tool. The free tool can be downloaded from
www.microsoft.com/elearn. The toolkit includes the LRN Converter for PowerPoint, which creates an
imsmanifest.xml file, HTML files, and .xsd files and collects them all in one directory. You must already have
PowerPoint and Internet Explorer 6.0 or later installed on your machine.
Publishing the PowerPoint presentation
After installing the LRN Toolkit, follow these steps to publish the slide show.
1.
Open your PowerPoint presentation and choose File - Publish as LRN.
This menu command is added to the File menu when you install the LRN Toolkit.
2.
In the Publish as LRN dialog box:
•
Select Complete presentation or specify which slides to include.
•
Select a navigation layout; your choice affects how each slide is organized in the authoring tool's course
outline.
"Promote title slides" places the first slide at the first level of the outline and indents successive slides
under the title slide. The "Flat hierarchy" choices place all slides at the same level in the outline.
•
Change the Output Type to SCORM.
•
Specify a location and file name for the package.
The process produces several loose files as well as a content files directory. It's a good idea to allow the
toolkit to create a new directory for the published files.
94 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
3.
Click Publish.
Importing the presentation into the authoring tool
1.
In the authoring tool, open the File - New screen and click the Import tab.
2.
Select "Import SCORM Package" and click OK.
3.
The Select a Location dialog box prompts you for three things:
•
A new name to assign to the imported course's folder.
The authoring tool will create a new folder and then store the imported files there.
•
The location for the course folder.
It's good practice to create a separate Courses directory on your local workstation and use this as your
location for new course folders.
•
The style for any new content pages you may build in the authoring tool. Clicking Select allows you to
choose another style.
4.
Click OK.
5.
In the Import a Package Interchange File dialog box, browse to the directory where you published the
presentation. Select imsmanifest.xml from the presentation's LRN directory.
Chapter 8: Working with External Content 95
6.
Click Import.
Close the dialog box after you're notified that the import operation was successful.
7.
The course outline opens in the authoring tool's Planner mode and shows each slide as an individual course
item.
To view or change properties for a course item, select the item in the outline to make it active. To make
changes, double-click values in the Properties page. To supply a title for the new course, click the binder icon
in the outline and supply a title.
8.
To add content pages to the course, use the Planner item toolbox to drag and drop other items on the outline.
Importing Macromedia files
The recent online learning boom has prompted Macromedia to expand its offerings to give developers more choices
for easy-to-use products that are rich in e-learning features. The Macromedia eLearning Resource Center
(www.macromedia.com/resources/elearning) is a good place to start if you’re new to online learning and want to
find out more about what Macromedia offers.
The trio of products in the eLearning Suite —Dreamweaver, Flash, and Authorware — allows developers to mix and
match the features that work best for the kinds of courses they want to build. In addition, Macromedia provides free
extensions to these products that include the interaction, navigation, and tracking components most content
96 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
developers need. Go to the Macromedia Exchange (www.macromedia.com/exchange) to download new extensions
for eLearning Suite products.
Dreamweaver MX
Macromedia provides three learning extensions that are useful to Dreamweaver developers:
•
Coursebuilder is a useful extension for developing learning interaction objects quickly.
•
The SCORM Runtime Wrapper extension allows you to make your content compliant with the ADL SCORM
version 1.2. This extension adds code that calls API.LMSInitialize() when the content is loaded and
API.LMSCommit() and API.LMSFinish() when the content is unloaded. It also eliminates the need to provide
a tracking frameset file with your Dreamweaver content because you can use the tracking mechanism
provided with the LMS.
•
The Manifest Maker for ADL SCORM extension gives you the ability to create a SCORM package from your
Dreamweaver content so it can be imported into the authoring tool. After installing the extension, use the
Commands menu to set the manifest options. In the dialog box, select "Copy XSD Files to Site" and "Use XSD
Files from Local Drive" to include all the XML files needed for the package. After running the Manifest
Maker, compress your files into a single .zip file and import the file into the authoring tool.
Flash MX
Two templates provided with Flash MX allow you to create files that can be tracked in the Learning Management
System.
•
When you publish with the Flash w/SCORM Tracking template, the Flash file finds the SCORM API object,
then calls API.LMSInitialize() and API.LMSFinish().
•
When you publish with the Flash w/FSCommand template, the Flash file finds the SCORM API object and
executes any fscommand actions you've added to the movie. The FS SCORM template does not
automatically call the LMSInitialize and LMSFinish methods of the API object. You need to call those
methods either through fscommands or by other means.
To import a Flash movie into the authoring tool, you'll need to import the file into a content page or bring your
movie into Dreamweaver and use the Manifest Maker extension to create a course package that can be imported
into the authoring tool.
Importing Flash files into content pages
In Authoring mode, the content page "Text with Video" has a layout object that allows you to add Flash movies to a
content page you create in the authoring tool.
1.
In Authoring mode, select the Text with Video page in the course tree.
2.
Click the video layout object on the right of the screen.
3.
Choose Layout - Layout Properties to see the default video associated with the object.
Chapter 8: Working with External Content 97
4.
Click the Video Filename field.
5.
Click the ellipsis (...) to browse for your own Flash file, then click OK to return to the properties box.
6.
Resize or move the video layout object to change its default size or location.
7.
Choose Selected - Preview to see the page with the Flash file you selected.
Authorware
Authorware offers Knowledge Objects that allow you to create learning pages quickly. In addition, Macromedia
provides samples for publishing Web-based files in its TechNote 16087 "Learning Management Systems and
Authorware" (http://www.macromedia.com/support/authorware/ts/documents/lms_aw.htm). To import an
Authorware piece into the authoring tool, you'll need to bring your Authorware file into Dreamweaver and use the
Manifest Maker extension to create a course package that can be imported into the authoring tool.
Migrating courses from LearningSpace
There are several methods for migrating LearningSpace courses, but there is only one that allows you to retain
students' progress information — course completion status and grades — and still be able to update the course
structure and content.
The three-step process:
•
uses the LMS Migration utilities to migrate the LearningSpace 4.11 or LearningSpace 5.01 course to the LMS
•
uses the authoring tool to update the course with new or unmigrated features and send the updates to the
LMS
•
uses the LMS user interface to update the course master and offerings in the LMS
Note You must migrate your LearningSpace users to the LMS before migrating courses to ensure that progress data
is preserved.
Downloading the Migration utilities
The Migration utilities are available as a separate download on the IBM Support site. They are intended for use on a
Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Windows 2000 Server, or Windows 2000 Professional machine. This
machine must be on the same network as the machines hosting your LearningSpace database and your LMS
databases.
To download the migration utilities:
1.
Point your browser at: http://www-1.ibm.com/support/search/index.html.
98 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
2.
Search for "Learning Management System Migration Utility and Quarterly Documentation Updates".
This displays the information you need for locating the migration utilities.
3.
4.
Download the following files:
•
migrate.zip – the migration utilities; extract using a program compatible with PKZip 2.04g.
•
LS4and5MigrationGuide.pdf – instructions on migrating from LearningSpace to the LMS
•
LS_Migration_ReleaseNotes.html – special notices and lists of known problems
Follow the instructions in the LearningSpace 4 and 5 Migration Guide (LS4and5MigrationGuide.pdf) to install
and run the migration utilities.
Migrating a course with the authoring tool
When migrating LearningSpace courses, IBM recommends that you use the method that involves migrating the
courses with the authoring tool, for the following reasons:
•
You can update URLs pointing to content files; this is especially important if you previously migrated
courses from LearningSpace Forum and stored them in the LearningSpace Repository database.
•
You can enable scoring and tracking for migrated assessments (which migrate as regular content pages by
default).
•
You can replace Live sessions (lost during migration from LearningSpace) with similar real-time sessions in
the Lotus Virtual Classroom.
•
You can update the course structure, and even add in sequencing, before sending the course to the LMS.
•
You can preserve a copy of the course to be posted for use with the LMS Offline Learning Client, which
allows students to work on a course even when disconnected from the network.
•
Most importantly, you can preserve an editable copy of the course, which you can modify and resend to the
LMS at any time, thus updating the course master and all its related offerings in the LMS without importing
a whole new course.
If you bypass the authoring tool and import the course directly into the LMS, you won’t be able to update the course
later to make any of these changes.
Updating URLs pointing to content files
Course content is not migrated from LearningSpace to the LMS. The content remains on the server where it was
hosted for LearningSpace, and the links to it are migrated to the LMS with the course structure as URLs. This
requires the content server to be accessible to the LMS in order for the content to be used with migrated courses. If
you have moved the content files to another location after upgrading to the LMS, the original content URLs need to
be adjusted. This can only be done by importing the course into the authoring tool and adjusting the URL in the
Web Launch Settings Address field for each of the content pages in the course outline.
If your LearningSpace installation includes courses previously migrated from LearningSpace Forum, you’ll need to
handle those courses a little differently during migration to the LMS. When you migrated courses from Forum, the
content was stored in the LS Repository (migrate.nsf) on the LearningSpace Collaboration Server. When you
upgrade to the LMS, you’ll need to move the LS Repository to a Domino server running R5.010 or later, as the LMS
doesn’t support earlier versions of Domino and adjust tracking and launch page settings accordingly. Then, you’ll
need to edit the course in the authoring tool and update the URLs pointing to content, so they reference the
Repository’s new location. This is explained in the LearningSpace 4 and 5 Migration Guide.
Chapter 8: Working with External Content 99
Enabling scoring and tracking for LearningSpace 5 assessments
Previously published LearningSpace 5 assessments are imported into the authoring tool as regular, untracked
content link pages. They need to be set up for scoring and tracking.
1.
Copy the LMS tracking frameset to the server hosting the published assessment.
This frameset is stored in TrackingFrameSet.zip in the "distribute" directory of the LMS CD. Create a
“trackingapi” folder on the server hosting the published assessment. The trackingapi folder should be under
<drive>:\inetpub\wwwroot. Copy and unzip TrackingFrameSet.zip into this folder.
Verify that the tracking frameset is browser-accessible using this address:
http://<LS5_assessment_server_url>/trackingapi/apiFrameset.html
2.
Copy the LearningSpace tracking program to the LMS Server.
This program is on the server hosting the published assessment. It is called ibmkpaicc.jar and is usually
stored in <drive>:\inetpub\wwwroot\learningspace5\tracking\hacp. On the LMS Server, create a folder
called tracking/hacp under the IBMHttpServer root (for a US installation, this is probably
IBMHttpServer/htdocs/en_US). Copy the LS5 tracking program to the LMS directory.
Verify that the tracking program is browser-accessible using this address:
http://<lms_server_url>/tracking/hacp/ibmkpaicc.jar
3.
In the authoring tool's Planner mode, update the Web Launch Settings Address to point to the server hosting
the published assessment.
The URL should resemble this example:
http://<LS5_core_server_url>/LearningSpace5/MaterialsPublish/lspublish5/v1/
assessment101/index.htm
4.
Set the assessment's Remote Tracking API Address to the URL you tested in Step 1; for example:
http://<LS5_core_server_url>/trackingapi/apiFrameset.html
Source files and question pools for published assessments are not migrated, which means that the original
assessments and questions can never be modified. If you want to be able to update a course's assessments, you'll
need to create them again in the authoring tool.
1.
Use the authoring tool's Planner mode to add a new assessment pages item to your course outline.
2.
In Authoring mode, add Question Pages, a Quiz Score page, and, if needed, a Question Pool.
3.
Publish the assessment to generate HTML pages.
4.
In Planner mode, delete the original migrated assessments.
Replacing Live sessions
The Live session feature has been replaced by the Lotus Virtual Classroom (LVC) product, which has similar
features. Live sessions and their materials are dropped from any course that is migrated to the LMS. However, you
can use the authoring tool to add LVC items to a course outline. See the Authoring Tool Help for more information.
100 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Chapter 9
Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course
Sequencing instructions add pre-testing, remediation, and re-testing into your course. This chapter introduces you
to the tools that allow you to set up sequencing and objectives in the authoring tool and gives you some samples
that illustrate some specific learning strategies.
Sample courses for this chapter
Six of the sample courses provided with this guide are designed to accompany this chapter:
•
ChoiceAllSample
•
FlowAllSample
•
ChoiceFlowSample
•
PrimaryObjectiveSample
•
MultipleObjectivesSample
•
GlobalObjectiveSample
See Chapter 1 for information about installing and opening the courses in the authoring tool.
Displaying sequencing properties
The sequencing properties described in this chapter are hidden by default. To see them, follow these steps:
1.
In Planner mode, select Tools - Options.
2.
In the Planner Options tab, select "Show Advanced Sequencing Properties" and click OK.
The Sequencing tab now appears behind the Properties tab on the right side of the screen.
Choice and Flow: Your two sequencing tools
Choice and Flow are the two sequencing controls that allow you to manage the presentation and launching of
course activities. You should always have one or the other, or both, selected. When Choice is turned on, students can
launch activities from the course list by clicking links, as shown in the picture below. There are no restrictions
placed on the order in which they launch the activities.
When Flow is turned on, students see Continue and Previous buttons in the activity that let them proceed through
the activities without returning to the course list.
Choice and Flow options are set for a course or topic while working in Planner mode in the authoring tool. Select the
item in the course outline to show its properties page, then click the Sequencing tab.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 101
Next to the Choice label, select True (the default) to allow students to pick the course or topic whenever they want
to. Select False to prohibit students from deciding how they want to proceed.
Next to the Flow label, select True to enable the flow mechanism, which presents Continue and Previous buttons
with each item so students can launch the activities in order. Select False (the default) to have students return to the
course list to launch other items. If you set Forward Only to True, students have a Continue button only; they aren't
allowed to return to previous items. The flow mechanism is also used when you want to alter which activities
students see depending on their results on a pre-test or prerequisite activity.
Choice and Flow combinations
When you are planning sequencing for a course or a topic, select one of these four combinations.
Choice - All
Choice - All means that all items are marked as Choice = True. All learning items can be launched at any time, as
shown in the picture below.
Choice - All is a good strategy for presenting general reference information. This is the default setting for courses
and topics. With this strategy, students may pick and choose specific topics and activities relating to what they need
to know and proceed through the information in any order they choose. An example of a course that uses this
102 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
strategy is one that contains an overview of a system for informational purposes only and doesn't have any
prerequisites or assessments.
The Choice All sample course
The Choice All sample course has Choice set to True and Flow set to False for the course plan, each of the three
learning topics, and the Post Tests topic.
What students see
Students see all topics and activities for the course. They can open or launch any item in any order. There aren't any
Previous or Continue buttons that proceed to the next topic. Students must return to the course outline to launch a
new item.
Flow - All
Flow - All means that all items are marked as Flow = True. When students open a topic for which Flow = True,
"Continue" and "Previous" options are displayed on the screen for the items in the topic. As shown in the picture
below, no links are provided for launching activities from the course list. Students can only navigate using the
Continue button to proceed and the Previous button to return to an item they've already seen.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 103
Flow- All is a good strategy if you have a very structured course where students must view the material in a fixed
order because there are pre- or post-tests or because the material builds on information students have acquired in
previous activities. An example of such a course is one that teaches a maintenance procedure, where it is crucial that
students follow the instructions in the same order that the procedure is to be carried out.
The Flow All sample course
The Flow All sample has Choice set to False and Flow set to True for the course plan, each of the three learning
topics, and the Post Tests topic.
What students see
The course starts with a pretest that asks students which topics they need to learn about.
104 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Students use the Continue and Previous buttons to complete the individual segments in a topic. They then flow to a
post-test that gauges their knowledge of the material in the course.
Choice and Flow - All
Choice and Flow - All means that all items are marked as both Choice = True and Flow = True. The course outline
looks like the Choice - All course, but students also have Continue and Previous buttons.
This is an expansion of "Choice - All." This strategy is useful when you want to encourage students to proceed
through the course in a linear fashion, but don't want to restrict others who may want to pick and choose the course
items they want to see. An example of such a course is one that caters to both new and returning students. You want
to encourage new students to start at the beginning and work through the course in the order in which you've
designed it. For others who have taken the course already, you provide the Choice option to allow them to select
which information they want to see again.
Choice, then Flow
Choice, then Flow means that the course or top-level topic is marked as Choice = True, but items beneath it are
marked as Flow = True. Students can choose any top-level item they want, as shown in the picture that follows, but
they can only navigate through the lower-level activities by using the Continue and Previous buttons. Students can
choose to start another topic at any time, without finishing the topic they're in, but they will always start from the
beginning of a topic, even if they've worked in that topic before.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 105
Choice, then Flow is a good strategy if you have material that requires sequential reading within a topic, but the
topics themselves are not prerequisites to each other. For example, a course on a software application might teach
about several wizards that perform repetitive tasks. Each wizard is self-contained, so the student doesn't need to
know about one wizard before learning about another. However, each wizard proceeds in a strict linear fashion.
When students select the wizard they want to learn about, they must follow the material in a certain order.
Hiding the activities in a topic
Activities within topics can be hidden, which is useful when you don't want students to see individual activities
within a topic when you have set up Flow for the topic. Changing the course item property "Is Visible" to False hides
the activity in the Topic list.
For example, if Reading eMail is hidden, students don't see it as an activity in the eMail topic, even though it will
launch as the first activity.
106 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The Choice, then Flow sample course
The Choice, then Flow sample course has Choice set to True and Flow set to False for the course plan as in the
Choice All course. However, each of the learning topics and the Post Tests topic has Choice set to False and Flow set
to True.
What students see
Students can choose to open the pretest, any of the topics, or the Post Tests topic, in any order they like. Once they
open a topic though, they must complete all of its activities in the correct sequence by using the Continue button.
They can't skip activities within a topic or launch activities out of order.
Combinations to avoid
The authoring tool allows the following combinations, but you should avoid them because they aren't useful.
Choice and Flow - None means that both Choice and Flow are set to False. The result of this is that you can't launch
any of the activities contained within that course item.
Flow, then Choice means that Flow = True for the top-level items and Choice = True for lower-level items. The
result of this is that you can flow into a top-level item, but at all times you can also choose any item beneath it. Once
you have chosen a lower-level item, you can no longer flow out of it.
Objectives: The sequencing messengers
To understand the sequencing scenarios presented later in this chapter, you need to understand how to set up and
use objectives in the authoring tool. In Chapter 4, you learned about tying an assessment to one objective. This
section introduces you to more advanced techniques for using objectives. It focuses on using objectives with
assessments because that is the most typical scenario, but you can use objectives with any type of course items that
have scoring or pass/fail information.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 107
Sequencing decisions are made by evaluating Pass/Fail and Score information from the current course item or
another course item. To make a decision based on the status of another course item you need to be able to pass that
information around. In the authoring tool, you use objectives as the messengers that collect and distribute
information from one course item to another.
What's in an objective?
There are two kinds of information you can collect in an objective.
•
Pass/Fail Status
A Pass status means that the objective's goal has been satisfied. You determine the nature of the goal as part
of the objective's definition. It could mean that a student has achieved a certain score on a course item or that
the student completed or launched the item. In the authoring tool, this Pass status is called Objective Status
or Satisfied Status.
•
Score
A score is a number that represents the percentage of correct answers for an assessment. In the authoring
tool, score is called Normalized Measure or Objective Measure. This is a value from 0 to 100 or 0.00000 to
1.00000, depending on where you are working in the tool.
Passing information between objectives
Many sequencing scenarios rely on information being passed from one objective to another. It is important to
understand the concepts of local and global objectives and objective mapping to understand how information flows
between objectives.
A local objective is associated with a single course item. The score and status for a local objective affect that one
item. One local objective per item can be marked as a primary objective. All objectives can have a score and a status,
but the primary objective's score and status are the only pieces of information that are rolled up into an overall score
or status for a topic or course. If a primary objective isn't explicitly defined, it will be created when the item is
imported into the LMS.
A global objective allows information to be passed from one item's local objective to another. It is the only type of
objective that can be accessed outside the scope of a single course item. Note that the identifier must be unique
throughout the entire LMS system, because its scope is not limited to the course in which it is defined.
To pass information between local objectives, you use a process of exporting information from one local objective
and importing it into another, using a global objective as a conduit. The authoring tool knows the route the objective
information should take because you create maps that tell where the information goes for each leg of the journey.
Exporting objective information
Think of the process of exporting a local objective into the global space as picking up a ball from one box and
throwing it into another. The first step is to create a box that the ball starts off in. This is a local objective. The next
step is to create a shared box to throw the ball into. This is a global objective. The last step is to throw the ball by
creating a map that tells the authoring tool which local box has the ball and which shared box should receive the
ball.
108 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
In the authoring tool, the objective definitions look something like this:
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 109
The map you create specifies the shared destination (the global objective) and the source (the local objective). You
export the data by selecting "Map Objective Satisfied Status" and "Map Objective Normalized Measure."
Importing objective information
Importing objective results reverses the process. Importing a global objective into the local space is like picking up a
ball from a shared box and throwing it into a local box. You already have a shared box that has the ball (the global
objective). You then need a box to throw the ball into (a local objective). The last step is to throw the ball by creating
a map that tells the authoring tool which global box has the ball and which local box it's going to.
110 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
In the authoring tool, the local objective definition looks something like this:
The map you create specifies the shared source (the global objective) and the destination (the local objective). You
are only importing information, so you don't select "Map Objective Satisfied Status" and "Map Objective Normalized
Measure."
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 111
The Global Objective Sample course (Example 3, later in this chapter) illustrates the use of global and local objectives
for making sequencing decisions.
Example 1: Primary Objective Sample (Students must pass pre-test to proceed)
The sample course called Primary Objective Sample has a pre-test to evaluate student's readiness for new material.
A passing score on the test allows students to proceed with the rest of the course. A failing score prevents them from
continuing.
The sample contains:
1.
A pre-test with a mastery score of 80 and setting Flow to True.
2.
A primary objective for the pre-test that is satisfied if the student passes.
3.
A sequencing rule that prevents forward navigation if the objective isn't satisfied.
Let's see how this is set up in the authoring tool.
Step 1. Create a pre-test
The pre-test is an Assessment Pages course item under a topic. The topic's sequencing controls are Choice = False
and Flow = True. The pre-test's Mastery Score to 80.
112 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The pre-test has a question page and a Quiz score page. The question page and the Quiz Score page share the same
Exam ID: PreReqExam. The Quiz Score page has the value for Is Master Exam? set to True.
Step 2: Create a primary objective
In Planner mode, you create a new objective by selecting the pre-test from the course outline, opening the Objectives
tab, and clicking the star icon (circled in the picture below).
The objective has a descriptive identifier, name, and description. The sample course has a long alphanumeric
objective identifier because it was created with the option "Generate a New Identifier." "Objective Satisfied by
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 113
Measure" is selected and .800000 is the Minimum Satisfied Normalized Measure, which tells the authoring tool to
change the status of the Objective to "Passed" if the student's mastery score is 80 or greater.
In Planner mode, the objective was flagged as a primary objective by selecting it from the list and clicking the 1 icon.
These steps have linked the overall results of the pre-test to the item's primary objective and have laid the
groundwork for creating a sequencing rule based on the primary objective.
Step 3: Add a sequencing rule to restrict forward navigation
In Planner mode, you create a new sequencing rule by selecting the pre-test from the course outline, opening the
Sequencing tab, and selecting "Sequence Rule" from the New Rule drop-down list.
114 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
In the sample, Rule Conditions Evaluate to "All True" and "Not" and "Satisfied" are selected. Clicking "Add" adds
the rule to the list.
Then the Objective is associated with the "Not Satisfied" rule by clicking Objectives, selecting the objective, and
clicking OK.
The final step for defining the new rule is to assign an action for the condition by choosing "Stop Forward Traversal"
from the "Perform Action" list box.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 115
Now if students take the pre-test and fail, they can't continue to later parts of the course. If they take it and pass,
they can continue to the next section of the course.
Example 2: Multiple Objectives Sample (Two branches of remediation)
This scenario is illustrated in the sample course called Multiple Objectives Sample. Navigation in the course is
dictated by students' results on two types of questions in an assessment. One set of questions evaluates students'
mastery of basic knowledge. The other set evaluates students' mastery of advanced knowledge. If students haven't
mastered the basic knowledge, they must repeat the assessment until they receive a passing score on the basic
knowledge questions. If they have mastered the basic knowledge, but not the advanced knowledge, they review the
last unit of material and then try the assessment again. When they master both, they can proceed to the next part of
the course.
The sample contains:
1.
A topic that organizes content pages and the assessment and directs the navigation flow.
2.
An assessment with questions that assess basic knowledge and advanced knowledge and a Quiz Score page.
3.
Two objectives: one that watches for mastery of basic knowledge and one that is linked to mastery of
advanced knowledge.
4.
Objective IDs assigned to each question that correspond to the objectives.
5.
Two sequencing rules: one for the Basic objective that forces students to retry the assessment again if they
have not received a passing score and one for the Advanced objective that returns students to the previous
topic so they can review the material.
Let's look at how you set this up in the authoring tool.
Step 1. Create a Flow-only topic
The sample course has a topic that contains content pages, an assessment, and a summary. Navigation is determined
by results on the assessment, so Flow is set to True and Choice is set to False for both the course plan and the topic.
Students aren't allowed to decide how they complete the course.
116 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Step 2. Create an assessment
The assessment contains two questions and a Quiz Score (by Objectives) page. To tie these results together, all three
items have the Exam ID "E." The Quiz Score page also has Is Master Exam? and Report Objectives set to True, which
allow results and objective status to be sent to the LMS.
Step 3. Associate each question with an objective
To set up an association between a question and an objective, it's convenient to think of an objective name now and
add it to each question's properties sheet. Later in this procedure, you'll switch to Planner mode to create an
objective that matches the Objective ID you name here. The Basic question will be affiliated with an objective called
"basic" and the Advanced question will be affiliated with the "advanced" objective.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 117
Step 3. Create the objectives
The assessment has two objectives, which are created in Planner mode. After selecting the Assessment, click the
New Objective (the asterisk) icon. This sample has two objectives, whose identifiers match the Objective ID you
named for each question in the previous step.
The basic objective represents a student's success on the basic knowledge question and the advanced objective
represents success with the advanced knowledge question. In the Objective Definition box, each objective has an
identifier and a name. "Objective Satisfied by Measure" is selected and .800000 is the Minimum Satisfied Normalized
Measure, which tells the authoring tool to change the status of the Objective to "Passed" if the student's mastery
score is 80 or greater. The picture below shows the Objective Definition for the basic objective.
118 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Step 5. Add sequencing rules to the assessment
The assessment has two sequencing rules. These are created in Planner mode. After selecting the Assessment,
choose Sequence Rule from the New Rule list box. Each rule has a specific action tied to one of the objectives.
The Sequence Rule box has three parts:
•
The conditions for the action
•
The objective whose results trigger the action
•
When the action occurs and what it entails
To add a rule to the list, make selections for the condition and click Add. Click Objectives to add an objective. To
make other selections, click the appropriate checkboxes and drop-down list boxes.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 119
When there are multiple sequencing rules for a course item, they are evaluated in the order in which they appear in
the Sequencing Rule list. You can use the Up and Down arrows to place the rules in a different order.
Rule #1 - Retry the assessment if student is unsuccessful with basic question
This rule is associated with the basic objective. Its action of Retry (after the assessment completes) returns the
student to the assessment if his or her mastery score is not 80% on the basic question.
Rule #2 - Return to previous assignment if the Advanced objective is not met
This rule is associated with the advanced objective. Its action of Previous (after the assessment completes) returns
the student to the previous item in the outline (the Core Content) if his or her mastery score is not 80% on the
advanced question.
120 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Example 3: Global Objective Sample (Skip introductory material if students pass pre-test)
This scenario is illustrated in the sample course called Global Objective Sample. The course has a pre-test that
assesses students' readiness for the material to be covered. If students fail the pre-test, they see an introduction that
prepares them for the rest of the course. If they pass the pre-test, they proceed directly to the main part of the course.
The sample course contains:
1.
A topic that organizes the pre-test and content pages and directs the navigation flow.
2.
A pre-assessment with a question that assesses students' readiness and a Quiz Score page.
3.
Two local objectives and one global objective to export score and pass/fail information from the pre-test and
import it into the introduction. This operation involves the following tasks, which are explained in more
detail in the sections that follow:
a.
Create a primary local objective for the pre-test that is satisfied if the student receives a passing score.
b. Create a global objective that will serve as a holding tank for information coming from the pre-test that is
to be distributed to other items in the course.
c.
Map the pre-test objective to the global objective to export data to the global objective.
d. Create a local objective for the introduction.
e.
4.
Map the global objective to the introduction objective to import data to the local objective.
A sequencing rule for the introduction that says "Skip this if the objective for the pre-test (a passing score) is
satisfied."
Step 1: Create a flow-only topic
The sample course has a topic that contains a pre-test, an introduction, and the main learning assignment.
Navigation is determined by results on the pre-test, so Flow is set to True and Choice is set to False for both the
course plan and the topic because students aren't allowed to decide how they complete the course.
Step 2. Create a pre-assessment
The pre-assessment contains a question and a Quiz Score (by Objectives) page. To tie these results together, both
items have the Exam ID "PreReqExam." The Quiz Score page also has Is Master Exam? set to True.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 121
Step 3: Create the objectives and maps
The course has three objectives. These were created in Planner mode, by selecting the item that will have an
objective and clicking the New Objective icon.
The Pre-assessment has a primary local objective and a global objective that can be shared throughout the course:
The Intro Page has a regular objective that will receive information from the Pre-assessment's local objective via the
global objective:
Let's look at the export and import maps for these objectives. These are the vehicles that move objective information
into the global space and import it into a local space.
You create maps by selecting the course item for which you're creating a map and clicking the new map icon.
122 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
The export map
For an export map (exporting data to the global objective), the global objective that will receive the data is the
Shared Objective ID. The local objective that will export the data is the Item Objective ID. Both "Map Objective
Satisfied Status" and "Map Objective Normalized Measure" are selected because you want to export pass/fail and
score information, respectively.
The import map
For an import map (importing data from the global objective), the global objective that contains the data is the
Shared Objective ID. The local objective that will receive the data is the Item Objective ID. You don't need to select
"Map Objective Satisfied Status" or "Map Objective Normalized Measure" because the information isn't being
exported anywhere.
The import and export maps appear in the map list.
Step 4: Create a sequencing rule for the introduction
The Introduction has one sequencing rule. It was created in Planner mode by selecting the Intro Page and selecting
Sequence Rule from the New Rule list box. This rule is associated with the objective for the introduction. Its action of
Skip is a Pre Condition rule, meaning that it is evaluated before showing the introduction. The rule navigates the
student directly to the core leaning material if the student's mastery score is 80% or above on the pre-assessment.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 123
SCORM sequencing examples
The sequencing tools available in the authoring tool were based on the emerging SCORM Simple Sequencing 1.3
specification. To assist developers who are learning about the Simple Sequencing specification, the ADL researched
and identified several strategies most often used by course developers. It then produced sample SCORM courses to
reflect those strategies. Go to www.adlnet.org to learn more about sequencing as it relates to the SCORM
specification.
No Sequencing
This strategy contains no predefined sequencing. Without sequencing rules, the student is free to choose learning
activities at will, in any order. When all units of a given module are complete, the module is complete. If all
questions return passed, the whole course is passed. This uses a Choice-All sequencing directive.
Linear
This example adds "guided flow sequencing control" to ensure the student progresses through the course in a predetermined order. The student must encounter the introduction first, then all modules and lessons in a linear order.
There is always the option to "go back" to view previous lessons, but the student can't move forward until the
current lesson is completed. Each module is complete when the lessons are complete. There are no module exams,
124 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
only the comprehensive exam after all modules and lessons are completed. This uses a Flow-All sequencing
directive.
Learner Controlled
With this strategy, the student must experience and complete the introduction first, and then is presented with a
menu of module choices. The module names appear with the names of the lessons contained in each module below
them. The student cannot click on the lessons, but can click on the module name to enter that module of the course.
Before completing the module the student is presented with the module's exam. The student is not permitted to
attempt any module more than once. This uses a Choice, then Flow sequencing directive.
Knowledge Paced
The student must experience and complete the introduction and then proceed to the module 1 exam . If the student
passes this exam, the student proceeds to the next module exam. If the student does not pass, the student is directed
to that module of instruction, and once completed, must retake the module exam. This continues through all five
modules, and then the student takes the comprehensive exam. This uses a Flow-All sequencing directive, but adds
sequencing instructions that force the student to repeat previous work if the objective isn't met.
Remediation
The student must experience and complete the introduction, and then follows a linear sequence as described above.
If the student passes the comprehensive exam, the course is completed. For each section of the exam that is "failed",
the student is directed to that associated module(s) of instruction, and once completed, must retake the Module
Exam. This uses a Flow-All sequencing directive, but adds sequencing instructions that force the student to repeat
previous work if one or more objectives aren't met.
Chapter 9 : Adding Sequencing and Objectives to a Course 125
Appendix A
Learning Management System Glossary
This glossary covers terms you may encounter in the Learning Management System and the authoring tool.
A
ACL (access control list)
A security feature that determines the tasks each user, server, or group of users or servers in a Lotus Notes
database can perform. Not to be confused with permission.
ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning)
A set of standards designed to facilitate the sharing of learning objects across disparate learning management
systems.
AICC (Aircraft Industry Computer-Based Instruction Consortium)
A body responsible for maintaining standards for computer-managed instruction.
assessment
A tool for evaluating student progress, otherwise known as a quiz or test.
audit
As a verb, to attend (a course) without requesting or receiving academic credit. When used as a modifier in such
phrases as audit entry and audit log, the term refers to the mechanism for recording information about system
events, such as enrolling a user or deleting a user record.
audit entry
The data captured for a single event and written to the Auditing database. These data include the ID of the user
that initiated the event, the time that the event started and finished, and a description of the event.
audit log
A collection of audit entries. All entries reside in a single Auditing database.
audit stream
The subset of the entries in the audit log that describe the events initiated by users whose LDAP directory name
and attributes match a given matching string.
authoring tool
A program installed on a course developer's workstation that is used to import or create course outlines and to
design content pages that are delivered through the Learning Management System.
Authoring mode
A set of tools in the authoring tool that allows course developers to design and build HTML content pages and
assessments to be delivered in the Learning Management System.
Appendix A: LMS Glossary 127
auto-enrollment
The process by which all users with the same auto-enrollment profile are automatically enrolled in a course.
C
calendar
A view used to display one or more schedules. A calendar groups events by the day in which they occur.
CBT (computer-based training)
Courses that are delivered and taken on the computer.
certificate
A statement to the effect that the student has met the requirements of a certificate program.
certificate program
A program made up of course masters, curriculums, or other certificate programs into which a student enrolls in
order to receive a certificate.
classroom course
A course that is delivered outside of the IBM Lotus Learning Management System. The system is used to enroll
and schedule the course offering.
CMI (computer-managed instruction)
Software that allows you to manage record keeping, tracking, enrollment, and related tasks for computer-based
training.
CMS (content management system)
Software that allows you to manage the design and delivery of courseware using the Web.
Collaboration server
A server that hosts the Discussion database, Chat, and Live sessions.
content
Any launchable asset referenced by a course master; the physical files (HTML, SWF, AWP, and so on) that make
up a course offering.
Content Aggregation
See course structure.
Course Catalog
In the Student user interface, a screen that shows all courses in which the student is eligible to enroll. In the
Administrator user interface, the Course Catalog screen allows access to the Course Offerings Catalog and the
Course Masters Catalog.
128 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
course list
A display showing a series of course names and numbers (for example, all the courses available to a student).
course master
a. The structure and meta-data information that is extracted from a course package to be stored in the database
for use by the application; b. the application's interpretation of the course package; c. the course definition.
course offering
A specific instance of a course, offered at a particular date and time.
course outline
In the authoring tool, a hierarchical representation of learning events and progress tracking items. An item
placed directly under the course plan is a parent; indented items are children of the parent under which they are
indented. Course outlines become uncataloged course masters when they are packaged and sent to the Learning
Management System.
course package
A compressed package interchange file (PIF) containing course structure and meta-data, and possibly course
content. This is the form in which courses are imported into the IBM Lotus Learning Management System.
course profile
A descriptive term (such as Engineering) used to label a course. The label can then be used as a search criterion
in the Course Catalog to locate the course.
course structure
a. The navigational map, typically presented as a tree, used to combine learning resources into a cohesive unit of
instruction; b. a student outline.
The term originates in AICC. SCORM calls this a Content Aggregation.
Course Tools box
A list of links available from the course content screen. These may include Progress Reports, Schedule List, Email, Chat, Discussion forum, and other items.
curriculum
A grouping of courses into which a student may enroll as a single unit.
customization set
A collection of settings that funnel users identified by a given matching string to an associated custom user
interface.
D
Delivery Server (DS)
A server that delivers course content to the client, and provides content tracking and navigation features.
Appendix A: LMS Glossary 129
disconnected use
The use of the IBM Lotus Learning Management System offline with no Web connection.
Discovery Server
The server component of the Lotus Knowledge Discovery system that hosts the Lotus K-station knowledge
portal.
Discussions
The discussion collaboration feature as it is shown in the Student user interface.
Distinguished Name
An LDAP attribute that uniquely identifies an entry in the directory. For example, cn=Alban
Berg,ou=Berlin,o=IBM uniquely identifies a user whose common name is Alban Berg, whose organizational unit
is Berlin, and whose organization is IBM.
E
event
Used in two different senses: (1) learning event and (2) system event.
F
FTP (file transfer protocol)
The protocol used for sending files to another computer over the Internet. The authoring tool uses FTP to send
course packages to the Learning Management System.
G
group
A collection of users identified in the LDAP directory.
H
Help Desk
A mechanism that allows students to send e-mail to administrators concerning problems they are having with
the IBM Lotus Learning Management System.
L
LCMS (learning content management system)
Software that serves as a repository for shared course content and that supports the creation, storage, retrieval,
and delivery of learning objects.
130 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) directory
The repository for user and group information that the system uses to identify users and their attributes.
learning event
An activity within an offering that has a start and end time. Events are either physical or virtual. Examples
include seminars, learning lunches, meetings, conferences, apprenticeships, videos, book readings.
learning object
The electronic representation of media, text, image, sound, or other data, or an aggregation of such pieces of data
into a cohesive unit of instruction, that can be delivered to a Web client.
LearningSpace 5.x
Refers to all versions of Lotus LearningSpace 5: (5 and 5.01).
Live session
A session conducted using the Web in real-time (using the Lotus Virtual Classroom) where students and
instructor can simultaneously view a Whiteboard, share applications, and, if they have audio-visual components
in place, see and hear each other.
LMM (Learning Management Module) Server
The server that manages the IBM Lotus Learning Management System Core operations. Also called the Learning
Management System (LMS) Server.
LMS (learning management system)
A software package that supports the design and deployment of computer-based curriculums, as well as the
ability to register users in courses and keep records of their progress.
logon name
The name a user enters to log in to the IBM Lotus Learning Management System. Not to be confused with user
ID.
LVC (Lotus Virtual Classroom) Server
A server that hosts Live sessions and Chat.
M
master layout
In the authoring tool, the design, properties, and objects that are preset for every page in a set of content pages or
assessments.
masters catalog
The service that lists and manages course masters.
Appendix A: LMS Glossary 131
masters manager
A person who creates classroom and learning event masters through the Administrator interface; a person who
manages the sum of learning content in the system.
matching string
An expression that identifies a user or group of users in an LDAP directory. For example, the string
*/Cambridge/IBM matches all ou=Cambridge,o=IBM entries in the LDAP directory; learningAdmins matches
all users in the group learningAdmins; and Arnold Schoenberg/Cambridge/IBM matches the user cn=Arnold
Schoenberg,ou=Cambridge,o=IBM.
meta-data
Information about a course or its items. SCORM meta-data, which can be added to a course in the authoring tool,
are predefined tags that describe parts of a course in a uniform way that allows them to be cataloged and
searched for with consistent results across courses.
O
objective
What a student is expected to learn or achieve by completing a course or element of a course.
offering
An enrollable item made available through the offerings catalog. These include course offerings, curriculums,
learning events, certificates.
offerings catalog
The service that lists and manages offerings.
offerings manager
A person who creates offerings.
Offline Learning Client
A version of the client software used for working offline.
P
page
A screen that contains information or activities for students. Pages are created or imported into the authoring
tool and are delivered through the Learning Management System.
permission
The authority granted to users with a given user role to gain access to the IBM Lotus Learning Management
System features or functionality. Not to be confused with ACL.
132 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Planner mode
A set of tools in the authoring tool that allows course developers to import courses, build course outlines, set up
objectives, and establish course sequencing and rollup rules.
profile
The IBM Lotus Learning Management System supports two distinct kinds of profile: course profiles and user
profiles.
Q
question
One assessment item, which receives a score when answered by the student.
question pool
A group of questions that are available for random placement in assessments.
R
Recorded Session
A Live session that is recorded for future playback.
resource
An assignable entity required for completing or accessing an offering. Resources can be finite or depletable. A
finite resource is a fixed resource with definable limitations, such as an instructor, projector, or classroom. A
depletable resource is a resource that can be reduced in number and quantity; that is, materials such as pencils,
paper, and chalk.
role
See user role.
rollup rule
In the authoring tool, determines how student results are tracked for multiple items in a course. Results from
course items are calculated (rolled up) into the results for each parent item, such as a topic or a main activity that
contains sub-activities. Results for parent items are calculated into the results for the course.
roster
As a verb, to add one or more user records to the IBM Lotus Learning Management System database. As a noun,
the set of user records in the database.
S
scheduled activity
Any activity that must be done at a specific time, such as (but not limited to) Live sessions.
Appendix A: LMS Glossary 133
scheduled offering
An offering with a start and end date that contains one or more learning events.
SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model)
A set of standards that define a Web-based learning content aggregation model and run-time environment for
learning objects.
self-enrollment
The process by which users can enroll in a course without administrative intervention.
sequencing
A model that defines the relative order in which learning objects are to be presented and the conditions under
which a learning object is selected or skipped in the presentation.
system event
An action in the IBM Lotus Learning Management System, such as enrolling a user in a course or modifying a
student progress record, that changes the system's state.
T
ToolTip
A message that the system displays when the cursor is on an icon or hot link. Otherwise known as hover or
mouseover help.
tracking
The capability that a learning management system provides to capture student progress and interaction data
produced by content for storage in, and subsequent retrieval from, a data store.
U
unscheduled offering
An offering with no start and end date, and no events. Self-paced offerings are unscheduled.
user ID
A string stored in the IBM Lotus Learning Management System database that uniquely identifies a registered
user. Not to be confused with logon name.
user profiles
There are two kinds of user profile. The first kind is one that administrators create and assign to users or groups
of users. This is known as a auto-enrollment profile and is used to enroll groups of users in courses. The second
kind of profile is one that administrators create and that a user can select. This is known as a user profile. In each
case, a profile is a descriptive label that can be used in various administrative functions.
In LearningSpace, a user profile represented a collection of permissions that controlled access to the product's
features and functionality. That kind of profile is now known as a user role.
134 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
user role
A user role is a set of permissions. Roles are typically defined to include related permissions, and usually
correspond to some real-world role; for example the Registrar role would be defined to include those
permissions, such as the permission to create enrollments, that real-world registrars need in order to perform
their work. In LearningSpace, a user role was known as a user profile, a term that now has a different usage.
W
Web pages
A list of links to Web sites that instructors can include in a Lotus Virtual Classroom session.
Whiteboard
A feature of the Virtual Classroom which can be used during the session to present files, draw objects, and type
text.
Appendix A: LMS Glossary 135
136 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
Index
.xml files in course package, 14
.xsd files in course package, 14
.zip course package file, 14
LMS Server, 7
Lotus Virtual Classroom Server, 10
Offline Learning Client, 10
relational database management system, 8
SMTP Server, 9
adding items to the course outline, 18
content directory, 15
ADL, 1
Content Link item, 31
AICC
importing files, 90
standard, 8
properties, 28
Content Pages item
properties, 29
architecture for LMS, 7
Content Server, in LMS, 9
assessments
Content Version number, 78
adding, 49
creating pages, 54
feedback text, 52
properties, 50, 63
publishing, 61
scoring, 60
Authoring mode, 17, 21
page types, 35
Authorware files, importing, 98
auto-save, 17
bookmarks, 54
content, publishing, 46
course
add assessment, 49
course delivery data flow, 11
course import
Authorware files, 98
Dreamweaver MX files, 97
Flash MX files, 97
Macromedia files, 96
migrating from LearningSpace, 98
PowerPoint files, 94
buttons, removing, 35
course master, creating in LMS, 70
Chat Server, in LMS, 10
course outline, 18, 25
Choice sequencing control, 101
Classification page, 41
CLIMP, 9, 89
Command Line Import Utility, 9
command line importing utility, 89
components of the LMS, 7
authoring tool, 8
Chat Server, 10
Command Line Import Utility, 9
Content Server, 9
Delivery Server, 8
Discovery Server, 10
Discussion Server, 10
FTP Server, 9
LDAP Server, 9
adding assessments, 49
course package files, 14
course properties, 26
course styles, 25
course tree, 35
CoursePreview directory, 48
courses
accepting updates, 79
creating, 23
delivering to the LMS, 68
details page, 71, 72
importing, 89
importing into LMS, 8, 9
migrating from LearningSpace, 98
offering, 72
Index 137
packaging, 66
previewing, 64
refusing updates, 79
sample, 3
verifying links and references, 65
version numbers, 78
Flow sequencing control, 101
folders. See directories
FrameworkPaks directory, 13
FTP parameters, 67
custom styles, 81
FTP Server, in LMS, 9
Data directory, 12
Go to Authoring, 21
data flow, in LMS, 11
Go to Planner, 21
database management system, in LMS, 8
graphics
default course styles, 25
changing, 39, 85, 86
Delivery Server, in LMS, 8
HTML pages, publishing, 46
design
images
changing, 34
directories
content, 15
CoursePreview, 48
Data, 12
exa, 13
FrameworkPaks, 13
LanguagePaks, 13
LMSWebInfo, 24
Packages, 66
resources, 15
source, 15
templates, 13
Discovery Server, in LMS, 10
changing, 39, 85, 86
importing
server options, 67
importing courses, 89
AICC files, 90
Authorware files, 98
Dreamweaver MX files, 97
Flash MX files, 97
into LMS, 9
Macromedia files, 96
migrating from LearningSpace, 98
modifying after import, 92
PowerPoint files, 94
SCORM packages, 91
Discussion Server, in LMS, 10
Include Source Files option, packaging a course, 66
Domino Server, in LMS, 10
indenting course items, 19
Dreamweaver MX files, importing, 97
index, searchable, 83
enrollment, 73, 74
installing
exa directory, 13
feedback
images, 45
feedback text, 42
assessments, 52
files
created during course creation, 14
created during course packaging, 14
created during installation, 12
fill in the blank questions, 55
Flash MX files, importing, 97
138 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
sample courses, 3
the authoring tool, 2
language codes, 30
language versions of the authoring tool, 13
LanguagePaks directory, 13
Launch content, 31
layout
custom styles, 82
object bar, 44
LDAP Server, in LMS, 9
Learning Management System
components, 7
data flow, 11
Learning Management System Server, in LMS, 7
LearningSpace, migrating from, 98
Live sessions, 10
LMS components, 7
LMS migration utilities, 98
LMS Server, 7
LMSWebInfo directory, 24
log files, 13
Lotus Virtual Classroom, in LMS, 10
LRN toolkit, 94
LVC server, in LMS, 10
Macromedia files, importing, 96
master layout, 34
custom styles, 82
matching question pages, 58
Media Check, 47
Menu page, 37
meta-data for a course, 29
Microsoft PowerPoint files, importing, 94
migrating courses from LearningSpace, 98
migration utilities, LMS, 98
modes, in authoring tool, 17
modifying imported files, 92
multiple-choice questions, 57
allowing, 93
Offline Learning Client, 10
options
FTP parameters, 67
sequencing, 62
server import, 67
outline, of a course, 25
outlining courses, 18
Package Version number, 78
Packages directory, 66
packaging a course, 66
Page Layout toolbox, 35
page types
assessment page, 54
Classification page, 41
Menu page, 37
question page, 54
Quiz Score page, 60
Text with Image, 38
Planner Item toolbox, 26
Planner mode, 17
options, 18
outline, 18
previewing course, 64
properties, 20
Toolbox, 26
PlannerView.mdb database, 13
PowerPoint files, importing, 94
preview
allowing, 93
authoring mode, 37
Authoring mode, 38
Planner mode, 48
object bar, in layouts, 44
preview, allowing, 28
objective measure weight, 63
previewing
objectives, 107
export map, 123
exporting, 108
import map, 123
importing, 110
Offline Learning Client
allowing, 28
Planner mode, 64
progress results, 62
properties
assessments, 50
course, 26
course items, 20
questions, 53
Index 139
sequencing, 62, 101
text, 84
publishing
assessments, 61
courses, 46
questions
creating, 54
fill in ihe blank, 55
matching, 58
multiple-choice question, 57
properties, 53
Quiz Score Page, 60
registering a course as a master, in LMS, 70
relational database management system, in LMS, 8
remote Tracking API address, 93
removing buttons and text, 35
requirements, workstation, 2
resources directory, 15
rollup
assessments, 63
condition, 63
controls, 62
objective measure weight, 63
rules, 62
rules
rollup, 62
sequencing, 123
Sametime Server, in LMS, 10
sample courses, 3
Save as New Style, 86
saving your work, 17
SCORM
importing packages, 91
meta-data, 29
standard, 1, 8
searchable index, 83
sequencing
controls, 101
examples, 124
properties, 62, 101
140 IBM Lotus LMS Release 1 Authoring Tool Guide
rule, 123
server import, 67
SMTP server, in LMS, 9
source directory, 15
standards, 1
Structure Version number, 78
styles, 81
changing, 34
changing content page styles, 83
for courses, 25
saving, 86
system components, in LMS, 7
system requirements, 2
templates directory, 13
text
changing, 34
formatting, 38
text properties, changing, 84
Text with Image page, 38
text, removing, 35
Tracking API, 93
tracking properties, of assessments, 63
undo changes, 17
uninstalling the authoring tool, 3
updates
accepting course updates, 79
refusing course updates, 79
version numbers, 78
Verify Course, 65
versions
accepting course updates, 79
of courses, 78
refusing course updates, 79
Web address, 27
Welcome page, 31
workstation requirements, 2
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