Architectural Performance of WiMAX over WiFi with Reliable QoS

Architectural Performance of WiMAX over WiFi with Reliable QoS
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01 Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
Architectural Performance of WiMAX over
WiFi with Reliable QoS over Wireless
Sunil Kr. Singh
Associate Professor, CSE Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Delhi-110063, India
Email: -
Ajay Kumar
Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad, India
Siddharth Gupta, Ratnakar Madan
CSE Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s college of Engineering, New Delhi-110063, India
Email: -, ,
-------------------------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT-------------------------------------------------------------Due to fast development of technology, future communication and transmission are totally depends upon wireless
network. Wireless networks are generally less efficient and irregular compared to wired networks, which make quality
of service (QoS) provision a bigger challenge for wireless communications. The wireless medium has limited bandwidth,
higher packet error rate, and higher packet overheads that in total to limit the capacity of the network to offer guaranteed
QoS. In response to the increasing QoS challenge in wireless networks, researchers have made significant modifications
in Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) in the legacy IEEE 802.11 standards to make possible QoS to end users. The design
constraints at several layers of the IEEE 802.11 restrict its capacity to deliver guaranteed QoS. Recently, the IEEE 802.16
standard, also known as worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), has emerged as the strongest
contender for broadband wireless technology with promises to give guaranteed QoS to wireless application end users
over wifi wireless technology. This paper tries to explain the architectural performance issues of WiMax over WiFi
wireless communication in the term of wireless network design and management which upgrading the upcoming wireless
communication technology over a wide region.
Keyword: WiMAX, WiFi, WLAN, Wireless Networks, QoS.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Submission: April 16, 2011
Date of Acceptance: May 28, 2011
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I. Introduction
Wireless access techniques are continuously expanding
their transmission bandwidth, coverage, and Quality of
Service (QoS) support in recent years. With the huge
market success of Wireless Local Area Networks
(WLANs) (IEEE 802.11), the new-generation wireless
technique, WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) has now been
standardized and deployed. WiMAX stands for Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX
technology enables ever-present communication of
wireless broadband service for fixed and/or mobile users,
and became a truth in 2006 when Korea Telecom started
the use of a 2.3 GHz version of mobile WiMAX service
called WiBRO in the Seoul metropolitan area to offer high
performance communication for data and video over
wireless communication. The WiMAX Forum is an
industry-led non-profit organization which has more than
570 member companies including service providers,
equipment vendors, chip vendors and content providers.
Its primary mission is to ensure interoperability among
IEEE 802.16 based .The air interface of WiMAX
technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. In
particular, the current Mobile WiMAX technology is
mainly based on the IEEE 802.16e which specifies the
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
(OFDMA) air interface and provides support for mobility
The network specifications of mobile WiMAX
devices are include the end-to-end networking
specifications and network interoperability specifications.
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
The Network Working Group (NWG) within the WiMAX
Forum is responsible for these network specifications,
some of which involve Access Service Network (ASN)
control and data plane protocols, Connectivity Services
Network (CSN), ASN profiles, mobility support,
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
interworking with other technologies, and various services
such as Location-Based Service (LBS), Multicast and
Broadcast Service (MCBCS) etc.
IEEE 802.11 WLAN, or WiFi, is possibly the
most widely accepted broadband wireless networking
technology, providing the highest transmission rate among
standard wireless networking technologies. Today’s WiFi
devices, based on IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g, provide
transmission rates up to 54 Mbps and new standard of
IEEE 802.11n which supports up to 600Mbps transmission
rates. The transmission range of a typical WiFi device is
up to 100m but its exact transmission range varies. It
depend upon the transmission power, surrounding
environments, and others parameters. The 802.11 devices
operate in unlicensed bands at 2.4 and 5 GHz, where the
exact available operate bands is varies according to
Wireless Technology:
The theory of wireless access networks emerged
in the late 1980s as invention of cellular wireless
technology. Wireless means transmitting signals using
radio waves as the medium instead of wires. There are
some inbuilt qualities of wireless communications systems
like mobility, reachability, simplicity, maintainability,
roaming services, new smart Services etc. which make it
attractive for users. There are three basic way to setup
wireless network for the end user, which are Point-to-point
bridge, Point-to-multipoint bridge and Mesh or ad hoc
network. Wireless access techniques are constantly
increasing their transmission bandwidth, coverage, and
Quality of Service (QoS) support to future
Wireless technologies can be classified in
different ways depending on their range. Each wireless
technology is designed to serve a specific usage sector.
The requirements for each usage sector are based on a
variety of needs like bandwidth, distance and power. Now,
a wide variety of different wireless data technologies exist,
some in direct competition with each other’s and some
designed for specific applications. Some well know
wireless technologies are GSM, UTMS, HSPA, WiMax,
WiFi, CDMA, GPRS, Bluetooth etc. In the future
communication, competition will be new evolution of the
major cellular standards called 4G which have high-
bandwidth, low-latency and all-IP networks with voice
services. Currently 2G and 3G network operators will
migrate to a 4G network technology. Mobile WiMAX is
likely to face competition from 3G and 4G technology
enhancements. They include the code division multiple
access (CDMA) variants CDMA2000 and widebandCDMA(WCDMA) and their enhancements which are 1x
evolution data optimized (1xEVDO) and HSDPA,
Wi-Fi allows the deployment of local area
networks (LANs) without wires for client devices,
typically reducing the costs of network deployment and
expansion. Due to the complex nature of radio propagation
at typical Wi-Fi frequencies Mobility over wider ranges is
limited. High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is another
mobile telephony protocol that extends and improves the
performance of existing WCDMA protocols. HSPA
supports increased peak data rates of up to 14 Mbit/s in the
downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s in the uplink. HSPA increases
peak data rates and capacity. In Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the thirdgeneration (3G) mobile telecommunications technologies,
which is also being developed into a 4G technology.
UMTS, using 3GPP, supports maximum theoretical data
transfer rates of 42 Mbits/s. GSM is a cellular network,
which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching
for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate
in a number of different carrier frequency ranges. with
most 2G GSM networks operating in the 900 MHz or
1800 MHz bands[9]. Most 3G networks in Europe operate
in the 2100 MHz frequency band. Figure 1 show the
comparison between different wireless technologies like
WiFi, WiMAX, HSPA, UTMS and GSM in the respect of
the speed and mobility of nodes in their respective
Fig 1: Comparison of different Wireless technologies
Technology Model
This section introducing the essential properties
WiMAX/WiFi system and then provides a detailed
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
description of network performance and comparison
between mobility and transmission speed.
WiMAX System:
WiMAX is a telecommunications protocol that
provides fully and fixed mobile internet access. The
current WiMAX revision provides up to 40 Mbit per
second with the IEEE 802.16m update and expected to
offer up to 1 Gbit/s fixed communication speeds.
"WiMAX" name was first created by the WiMAX Forum,
which was formed in June 2001 and to promote
conventionality and interoperability of the IEEE standard.
The IEEE 802.16 standard forms of basis 'WiMAX' and it
is divided sometimes into Fixed WiMAX and Mobile
WiMAX of IEEE 802.16d and IEEE 802.16e standard
WiMAX has several different physical radio
transmission options which allow it to be deployed in
areas with different regulatory and frequency availability
requirements. Moreover, the system was designed with the
ability to be used in licensed or unlicensed frequency
bands using narrow or wide frequency channels. WiMAX
systems have the potential to provide very high data
transmission rates. Data throughput is the amount of data
information that can be transferred through a
communication channel or transfer through a point on a
communication system. iMAX systems can be configured
to offer services that have different types of quality of
service (QoS) levels. QoS is one or more measurement of
desired performance and priorities of a communications
system. QoS measures may include service availability,
maximum bit error rate (BER), minimum committed bit
rate (CBR) and other measurements that are used to ensure
quality communications service. The QoS capabilities of
WiMAX systems permit system operators to provide
priority services to high-value customers and best effort
services to less demanding consumers[11].
The 802.16a standard for 2-11 GHz is a wireless
metropolitan area network (MAN) technology that will
provide broadband wireless connectivity to Fixed, Portable
and Nomadic devices. WiMAX is expected to offer
initially up to about 40 Mbps capacity per wireless channel
for both fixed and portable applications, depending on the
particular technical configuration. WiMAX is also
intended to provide broadband connectivity to mobile
devices. It would not be as fast as in these fixed
applications, but expectations are for about 15 Mbps
capacity in a 3 km cell coverage area. WiMAX could
potentially be deployed in a variety of spectrum bands:
2.3GHz, 2.5GHz, 3.5GHz, and 5.8GHz. WiMAX, which
is an IP-based wireless broadband technology, can be
integrated into both wide-area third-generation (3G)
mobile and wireless and wire line networks [4]. Figure 2
presents the different composition of the current mobile
WiMAX technology, normally referred to as Release 1.0
profile. Its air interface specifications consist of four
related IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access
Standards, that is, IEEE Standard 802.16-2004, IEEE
Standard 802.16-2004/Cor.1-2005, IEEE Standard
802.16e-2005 and the IEEE Draft Standard P802.162004/Cor.2.[4][2]. Figure 3 presents the growth of the
802.16 wireless broadband band service specifications
over time.
Fig. 2: Products and certification of Mobile WiMAX Release 1.0
Fig. 3: Wireless Broadband (WiMAX) 802.16
WiFi System:
IEEE 802.11 WLAN, or WiFi, is probably the
most widely accepted broadband wireless networking
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
technology, providing the highest transmission rate among
standard-based wireless networking technologies. Today’s
WiFi devices, based on IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g ,
provide transmission rates up to 54 Mbps and, further, a
new standard IEEE 802.11n, which supports up to
600Mbps, is being standardized. The transmission range of
a typical WiFi device is up to 100m, where its exact range
varies depending on the transmission power, the
surrounding environments, and others. The 802.11 devices
operate in unlicensed bands at 2.4 and 5 GHz, but the
accurate available bands depend on each county.
IEEE 802.11 working group (WG) has generated
a family of standards for WLAN. The IEEE 802.11
standard specifies the protocols for both the medium
access control (MAC) sub-layer and the physical (PHY)
layer. As illustrated in Figure 3a, existing higher-layer
protocols, which were originally developed for wire-line
networking such as TCP, UDP, IP, and IEEE 802.2 logical
link control (LLC), can work on top of the 802.11 MAC
since the 802.11 was developed basically to provide the
services in a similar way that IEEE 802.3 Ethernet does.
There are several different versions of 802.11
WLAN systems .i.e. WiFi that have evolved over time.
Figure 3b shows how WiFi 802.11 systems have evolved
over time. This figure shows that the original 802.11
specification offered 1 or 2 Mbps data transmission rates
and operated at 2.4 GHz. This standard evolved through
new modulation to produce 802.11b that provides operated
at 2.4 GHz and provided data transmission rates up to 11
Mbps. This figure also shows that a new 802.11a system
was developed that provides data transmission rates up to
54 Mbps at 5.7 GHz. To help provide high-speed data
transmission rates and provide backward compatibility to
802.11 and 802.11b systems, the 802.11g systems was
developed that offers 54 Mbps data transmission in the 2.4
GHz range[4].
Fig. 3.1: WiFi system Layers and Evolution over time
WiMAX Network Architecture:
The IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard provides the air
interface for WiMAX technology but does not define the
full end-to-end WiMAX network. The WiMAX Forum's
Network Working Group (NWG), is responsible for
developing the end-to-end network requirements,
architecture, and protocols for WiMAX, using IEEE
802.16e-2005 as the air interface.
The WiMAX network reference model is unified
network architecture for supporting fixed, roaming, and
mobile deployments and is based on an IP service model.
Figure 4 is simplified design of IP-based WiMAX network
architecture. The overall network may be logically divided
into three basic parts:
Mobile Stations (MS) used by the end user to
access the network.
The access service network (ASN), which
comprises one or more base stations and one or
more ASN gateways that form the radio access
network at the edge.
Connectivity service network (CSN), which
provides IP connectivity and all the IP core
network functions.
The below network reference model developed
by the WiMAX Forum NWG defines a number of
functional entities and interfaces between those entities.
Below Figure 4 shows some of the more important
functional entities[10], which are given as:
Base Station (BS): The BS is responsible for
providing the air interface to the MS. Additional
functions that may be part of the BS are micro
mobility management functions, such as handoff
triggering and channel establishment, radio resource
management, QoS policy enforcement, traffic
classification, DHCP (Dynamic Host Control
Protocol) proxy, key management, session
management, and multicast group management.
Access Service Network Gateway (ASN-GW):
The ASN gateway typically acts as a layer 2 traffic
aggregation point within an ASN. Additional
functions that may be part of the ASN gateway
include intra-ASN location management and paging,
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
radio resource management and admission control,
caching of subscriber profiles and encryption keys,
authentication authorization, and accounting (AAA)
client functionality, establishment and management
of mobility tunnel with base stations, QoS and
policy enforcement, foreign agent functionality for
mobile IP, and routing to the certain CSN.
Fig. 4: IP Based WiMAX Network Architecture
Connectivity Service Network (CSN):
support an integrated QoS for converged networks
comprising WiMAX and WiFi systems[6][8].
The CSN provides connectivity to the Internet,
Access Service network (ASN), other public
networks, and corporate networks. The CSN is
owned by the Network Service Provider and
includes AAA servers that support authentication
for the devices, users, and specific services. The
CSN also provides per user policy management of
QoS and security. The CSN is also responsible for
IP address management, support for roaming
between different NSPs, location management
between ASNs, and mobility and roaming between
To meet QoS, Researcher evaluates proposed
efficient and unified connection-oriented architecture for
integrating WiMAX and WiFi technologies in broadband
wireless networks [5]. In the proposed approach, a new
wireless Access Point (AP) device, designated as
WiMAX/WiFi AP (W2-AP), is developed to manage the
WiMAX/WiFi interface.
The WiMAX architecture framework allows for
the flexible decomposition and/or combination of
functional entities like ASN may be decomposed into base
station transceivers (BST), base station controllers (BSC),
and an ASNGW similar to the GSM architecture of BTS,
BSC, and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).
When constructing integrated WiMAX/WiFi
networks, one of the most challenging issues facing
network designers is that of designing efficient links and
Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocols to
optimize the QoS between the WiMAX and the WiFi
components of the architecture [3]. Several researchers
have recently proposed QoS provisioning mechanisms for
integrated WiMAX/WiFi systems. QoS framework for
802.16/802.11 internetworking applications designed to
map the QoS requirements of an application originating in
an IEEE 802.11e network to an IEEE 802.16 network.
Similarly, a QoS control protocol was also presented to
Fig. 5. Integrated WiMAX/WiFi Network structure.
Figure 5 presents a classical example of the
integrated WiMAX/WiFi network architecture. As shown
in figure, a single WiMAX Base station BS, operating in a
licensed band, serves both multiple WiMAX Subscriber
Stations (SSs) and multiple W2-APs within its coverage
area. In other words, the WiMAX system provides
broadband wireless access to multiple W2-AP devices in a
point-to-multipoint (PMP) topology. Each WiFi network is
connected to the WiMAX BS through a WiMAX/WiFi
(W2)-AP. The connection between the BS and a SS is
dedicated to a single user. However, the connection
between the BS and each W2-AP is shared amongst all the
nodes within the Wireless LAN served by the W2-AP. As
a result, the WiMAX network guarantee secured
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
communications service for connecting multiple scattered
WiFi nodes to the Internet.
Performance Comparison of WiMAX with
Computing Technologies:
WiMAX technology reflects the general trend in
the communications industry toward unified packet-based
voice and data networks. Fundamental benefits of this
transition are reduced operation cost, improved network
optimization, and better management of changes. The
followings are some of the major benefits of WiMAX are,
Wireless: By using a WiMAX system, no longer
have to use expensive cables.
High bandwidth: WiMAX can provide shared data
rates of up to 70Mbps.
Long range: WiMAX compared to existing
wireless technologies is the range.WiMAX has a
communication range of up to 40 km.
Flexible architecture: WiMAX supports several
point-topoint,point-to-multipoint, and ubiquitous coverage.
WiMAX differs from Wi-Fi in various ways
including frequency band channel, Band width,
communication technology, radio technology, efficiency,
service range, data transmission throughput, quality of
service capability, security processes etc. The results of the
comparison show that WiMAX has better performance
with WiFi in all the areas listed in given below table 1 and
shown in figures 6.
a) Comparison of WiMAX with 802.11 Wi-Fi:
WiMAX is similar to the wireless standard
known as Wi-Fi, but on a much larger scale and at faster
speeds. 802.11 Wi-Fi is the IEEE standard for wireless
network communication to provide wireless local area
network (WLAN) services. It usually operates in the 2.4
GHz or 5.8 GHz spectrum and permits data transmission
speeds from 1 Mbps to 54 Mbps. Wi-Fi typically provides
local network access for around a few hundred feet (upto
100 meter) but WiMAX antenna is expected to have a
range of up to 50 kms with speeds of 70 Mbps or more.
WiMAX can bring the primary Internet connection needed
to service local Wi-Fi networks[2].
Figure: 6: Pictorial Comparison between WiMAX and
WiFi on Throughput & Access range
Tab.1: Performance comparison between WiMAX and WiFi on various standards
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
Comparison of Mobile WiMAX with 3G
At some point, Current 2G and 3G network
operators will migrate to a 4G network technology. Mobile
WiMAX is likely to face competition from 3G and 4G
technology enhancements. They include the code division
multiple access (CDMA) variants CDMA2000 and
wideband-CDMA (WCDMA) and their enhancements
which are 1x evolution data optimized (1xEVDO) and
HSDPA, respectively.
Mobile WiMAX has been simulated against the
3G enhancements [9]. These simulations have shown that
Mobile WiMAX peak data rates are up to 5x and spectral
efficiency is 3x better than any 3G+ technology. The
WCDMA specification was enhanced to create the high-
speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) and then HSPA
specifications. WiMAX requires new infrastructure while
high-speed packet access (HSPA) rides on UMTS.
1xEVDO is a high-speed data specification only for
1.25MHz frequency division duplex (FDD) channels with
a peak downlink (DL) data rate of 2.4Mbps. 1xEVDO is
an enhanced version of CDMA2000-1x.
A quantitative evaluation of mobile WiMAX,
1xEVDO, and HSPA system performance was conducted
based on the usually accepted 1xEVDV evaluation
standard. Table 2 and figure 6 (a, b, c) illustrates a
comparison of mobile WiMAX with 3G technologies
enhancements [1].
Table 2: Comparison of Mobile WiMAX with 3G Enhancements technologies
Fig 7 : Pictorial Comparison of moble WiMAX with 3G Enhancements technologies
Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications
Volume: 03, Issue: 01, Pages:1017-1024 (2011)
There are a number of differences between Mobile
WiMAX and WiFi. First of all, Mobile WiMAX is
developed for wireless metropolitan area network
(WMAN), providing the transmission range of a few
kilometers, while WiFi is for wireless local area network
with the transmission range up to 100m. WiMAX is an
excellent complement to other wireless technologies that
are designed to work in the LAN (WiFi) or that offer
wider exposure but with more limited capacity (GSM,
CDMA, UMTS, EVDO). Mobile WiMAX (802.16e)
provides the only standards-based OFDMA WAN
technology. WiMAX and future wireless networks that
aspire to offer 4G services will attempt to become unified
communications systems that fit various markets and have
very different sets of customers and requirements.
WiMAXis expected to take importance in about three
years (2013).The strengths of WiMAX lie in its ability to
address the requirements of modern telecommunications
networks and the commitment that has been shown to its
development and wide acceptance by a number of leading
equipment vendors and service providers. In future,
Develop the proposed a unified connection-oriented
architecture to support the integration of WiFi and
WiMAX technologies in broadband wireless networks.
This common architecture is supposed to result in an
overall advance in technology and a reduction in costs.
Metropolitan and Local Area Networks”, in Proc. of IEEE
ISCC, pp. 15-22.
[1] A. Yarali, B. Mbula, and A. Tumula(2007), WiMAX:
A key to bridging the digital divide, Proceedings of IEEE
Southeast Conf. , Richmond, VA.
Ajay Kumar is a lecturer in department of
technical education in Haryana. Presently, he is
pursuing his Ph.D from Faculty of Engineering
& Technology, Manav Rachna International
University, Faridabad, India. He intends to
pursue research work in the field of reliable network
communication medium, network security and mobile
computing. He has publications research papers in above
area in various conferences.
[2] Byeong Gi Lee and Sunghyun Choi(2008), Broadband
Wireless Access and Local Networks: Mobile WiMAX and
WiFi, Artech house Inc., London.
[3] Cavalcanti D, et al (2005), “Issues in Integrating
Cellular Networks WLANs, and MANETs: a Futuristic
Heterogeneous Wireless Network”, IEEE Wireless
Commun. Mag., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 30-41.
[4] D. R. Luhar (2006), Introduction to WiMax Explained,
Sigma publication, Ahmedabad, India
[5] Hui-Tang Lin, Ying-You Lin et al (2009), “An
Integrated WiMAX/WiFi Architecture with QoS
Consistency over Broadband Wireless Networks” in Proc.
of IEEE 978-1-4244-2309-5.
[6] Kamal Gakhar, Annie Gravey and Alain Leroy (2005),
“IROISE: A New QoS Architecture for IEEE 802.16 and
IEEE 802.11e Interworking”, in Proc.of IEEE
International Conference on Broadband Networks, pp.
[7] Marcos D. Katz and Frank H.P. Fitzek (2009), WiMAX
Evolution: Emerging Technologies and Applications, A
John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication, UK.
[8] Pedro Neves, Susana SargentoRui, L. Aguiar(2006),
“Support of Real-Time Services over Integrated 802.16
[9] White paper (2004), Understanding WiMAX and 3G
for portable/mobile broadband wireless, Intel.
[10] WiMax profile: standardized wireless version of
[11 ] Yan Zhang (2009), Wimax network planning and
optimization, CRC press, Taylor & Francis Group, NY.
Authors Biography
Sunil Kr. Singh received his B.E. in
computer Sc. & Engineering from the D.D.U.
Gorakhpur University and his M.E. from the
Delhi University, Delhi in 2005. Presently, He
is working as associate professor in CSE
department of Bharati Vidyapeeth College of engineering
(affiliated to GGSIPU, Delhi), New Delhi, India. He is
also pursuing his Ph.D. from Uttarakhand Technical
University, India. His research interests include
reconfigurable computing, embedded system architecture,
networking and communication signals. He has published
more than 25 research papers in the above areas. He is
AIRCC, ICST, ISOC technical societies.
Siddharth Gupta is a final year UG
Scholar, pursuing, Bachelor of Technology in
Computer Science and Engineering from
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi.
His research interests include Networking, Mobile
Communicatoion, softcomputing. He has worked with GE
research centre, Bangalore.
Ratnakar Madan is a final year UG Scholar,
pursuing, Bachelor of Technology in
Computer Science and Engineering from
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University,
New Delhi. His research interests include Digital Signal
Processing, Embedded Systems, Firmware Design,
Reconfigurable Computing, High Performance computing
etc. He has been working on development of Low cost
medical machines with the help of various laboratories in
India and has publications related to same. He has also
developed applications for the Education Sector on
Microsoft Multipoint Platform at Microsoft, India.
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