fiber optic and accessories

fiber optic and accessories
FIBER OPTIC
AND ACCESSORIES
Introduction to Fiber Optic
Optical Cables
Fiber Optics are made of thin threads of silicon in the form of silicon dioxide (SiO2), which “guide” the light. These can be considered as “glass wave
guides” which transport photons (light) instead of electrons (electrical current) as with conventional wave guides in microwaves or in coaxial cables
used in electronics.
This support, similar in shape to a fine hair, is made of two coaxial cylinders of different transparent dielectric material.The figure 1 shows a frontal
section of the structure of a typical step index fiber and emphasizes the different index of refraction, n1 and n2, between materials that compose
core and cladding.
At the point of contact between the two materials there is a sharp increase in the refractive index, which has given its name to the “step index”
fiber (figure 2).
The light wave is emitted inside the nucleus, which is confined within the core by the cladding. In order to isolate any existing micro-fractures, the fiber
has a primary covering of one or two layers of synthetic coating (acrylate or silicon rubber). In order to understand the principle of “guided” emission,
it is necessary to consider what happens when an elementary ray of light cuts into the dividing surface of the two material elements, both optically
transparent, but characterized by different densities and therefore different refractive indexes.
When a ray of light reaches the joint between two materials which have different refractive indexes, “optic refraction” occurs. This is the sharp deviation
of the ray which enters the core material with a different angle of incidence in relation to the direction of the same when it enters the cladding material,
that is, the angle of incidence is different from the angle of refraction of the emerging ray. If the angle of incidence at the joint is the same as the socalled “critical angle”, which depends on the relationship between the refractive indexes of the two elements, total reflection occurs. The emerging ray
of light spreads in a parallel direction to the joint between the two materials. In this case the light wave remains confined within the core.
Optical cables can be divided in different categories according to their use or structure.
According to their use, they can be divided into two main categories: internal cables and external cables.
Internal cables usually contain tight buffered fibers, which are not waterproof and are easier to terminate.
In multiway cables the absence of a protecting tube and of a gel make them ideal for onsite direct termination.
Tight buffer duplex cables are used to manufacture patch cables.
The most common fiber classification is:
• Multimode – when the light ray emission has many varied angles of incidence (which are always less than the acceptance angle)
• Singlemode – when the only emission mode is that which is parallel to the fiber axis
These are then over sheathed with a cable jacket or jackets, to suit the particular cable’s purpose.
As this kind of application can be expensive, a gel filled single loose tube construction has been developed:
instead of having multiple tubes, the number of 250 μm (up to 24) are deployed loosely in a single tube, which is
over sheathed with aramid or glass yarn strength member and a cable jacket.
The fibers are covered with an ink that increases external diameter to 250 μm and are protected by a tube.
Each tube usually contains a water blocking gel to fill the interstices to protect the fibers against the entry and
propagation of water in order to make them suitable for use in areas subjected to flooding.
For external installations loose cables are mostly used, with various kind of reinforcement.
Traditionally this design entails two or more 250 μm fibers installed loosely in tubes, with single or multiple tubes,
usually wound around a central strength member.
Cables section
Section
By combining both types of classification criteria we have the following:
• Multimode graded index fibers – are used both to send data at high speed and for telecommunications over medium distance (a few km)
• Singlemode step index fibers – are used for very high speed, long distance telecommunications and local and nationwide telephone networks
0.9 mm
Distance
Speed
300 m 500 m 2,000 m
100 Mb/s
OM1
1,000 Mb/s
OM1
Section
OM1
OM1
OM2
OS1
10,000 Mb/s OM3
OS1
OS1
Section
Core
Cladding 125 µ
Primary coating 250 µ
Secondary coating 900 µ
5. Tight buffered fibers
6. Kevlar or glass yarn
strength member
7. Outer sheath
Break-out cable
Section
Cladding n2
1.
2.
3.
8.
12.
Core n1
Section
Loose tube
Loose Tube 2-Layers
7.
Outer sheath
10. Simplex cable
11. Fillers
Core
Tight buffer cable
Tight Buffer Cable
Quattro
Rays entering at different angles travel different
distances through the same length of fiber.
50µ
Simplex/duplex cable
6. Kevlar strenght member
7. Outer sheath
9. Semi tight fiber
Semi-tight buffer
1.
2.
3.
4.
Section
125µ
Core
Cladding 125 µ
Primary coating 250 µ
Secondary coating 900 µ
Semi-tight Buffer
Duo
Cladding
Section
Simplex/Duplex Cable
1.
2.
3.
4.
approx.
0.9 mm
The second edition of ISO 11801 has recently redefined optical fibers in terms of three multimode grades called
OM1, OM2 and OM3 and a singlemode fiber to be called OS1.
Generally speaking, OM1 is similar to the 62.5/125 fiber in circulation today. OM2 aligns with today’s 50/125
and OS1 is G652 singlemode fiber. OM3 however will be a new ‘VCSEL laser enhanced’ 50/125 fiber intended
to support 10 gigabit Ethernet over 300 meters. OM3 has a very large bandwidth at the first operating window
(850 nm), at least 2,000 MHz.km (ten times more than OM1 and OM2), and has a near perfect refractive index
profile optimized for laser transmission through multimode fibers.
Which fiber type is required is determined by the questions: how far, how fast? A look on the table below will help.
Tight buffer
Tight Buffer
3 or 4 mm
A further classification is that relating to refractive indexes. We distinguish:
• Step-Index fibers, where the refractive indexes of the core and cladding are uniform. In this case the light rays follow a straight route within the core,
reflecting against the dividing surface between the core and cladding on each impact
• Graded Index fibers, (the most commonly used nowadays) where the refractive index of the core is graded from the centre towards the edge. This type
of core is obtained by placing layers of glass with decreasing refractive indexes so that the light rays are diverted, causing a curved line of progression
towards the fiber axis
Tight buffered cables usually contain up to 12 fibers buffered to 900 μm, beyond this number the diameter of
cables increases considerably making difficult the passage in pipes.
The installation of a loose cable turns out to be easier in case of an increasing number of fibers. The loose cable
is suitable to external and internal installations.
Central tube loose cable
Section
Core
Cladding 125 µ
Primary coating 250 µ
Gel
Synthetic sheat
Multitube loose cable
N2
n
n1
n2
N1
Acceptance
Angle
Fig.1 Vertical section of “Step
Index” fiber optic
Primary coating
Light Rays
Stranded Design
Central Tube Design
Fig. 2 “Step index” fiber optic structure
6. Kevlar or glass yarn strenght
number
7. Outer sheath
13. Loose tube
6. Kevlar or glass yarn
strength member
7. Outer sheath
13. Loose tube
14. Central strength member
1
Optical Connectors
Tight Cables
INTERNAL SIMPLEX AND DUPLEX CABLE
Simplex cable is a tight buffer construction available in both singlemode and multimode versions, reinforced with Kevlar and a protective
LS0H jacket for a robust light weight cable structure.
Zip duplex cables consist of two individual coated fibers in a 900 μm tight buffer tube, reinforced with Kevlar and a 2.8 or 2.1 mm
LS0H jacket, laid together and joined by an easy tear web in an “eight figure” configuration. Available in multimode and singlemode
version and also round suitable for FDDI or ESCON application.
Internal “mini-zip” duplex cable is designed as a duplex cable with small dimensions (1.6 mm × 2) compared to a conventional zip
duplex in order to fit to the new generation connectors SFF (Small Form Factor).
Since the tiny core of an optical fiber is what transmits the actual light, it is imperative that the fiber be properly
aligned with emitters in transmitters, photo-detectors in receivers and adjacent fibers in splices. This is the
function of the optical connector. Because of the small sizes of fibers, the optical connector is usually a high
precision device with tolerance on the order of fractions of a thousandth of an inch.
There are several types of optical connectors.
• Currently the connector specified in norms ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A, Commercial Building Telecommunications
Cabling Standard, is the SC duplex plug connector.
• The one that is most widely used is the bayonet coupling ST connector.
• New and small in size are MTRJ and LC.
INTERNAL TIGHT BUFFERED CABLE
Also known as Distribution Cable, this consists of 900 μm tight buffered fibers, encased in aramid yarns, and over sheathed by LSOH
or Flame Retardant material. It stands for easy indoor cabling and often replaces the Breakout cables in buildings. It is also the ideal
cable for installations right to the desk due to the flexibility and the easy strip ability of the tight buffered fibers. It is available from
4 to 12 fibers.
BREAKOUT CABLE
The breakout cable can hold two or more simplex units, each with its own individual 900 μm buffered fiber aramid yarn strengthening
and LS0H jacket to provide the fiber protection.
The fiber are contained in an external sheath.
Its typical application is for short and medium distances in protected outdoor environments and for indoor applications.
TIGHT BUFFERED FIBERS
These fibers are secondary coated to 900 μm and are designed for the manufacture of pigtails etc., to be used without splice trays
and other protected environments.
Loose Cables
ALL DIELECTRIC ARMOURED
The loose optical cable dielectric armoured can hold from 2 to 144 fibers. It shows a good tensile strength to cable weight ratio. Its
longitudinal water barrier, provided by the specially treated glass yarns and the wear-resistant PE-sheath, make this cable suitable for
use in empty ducts and for laying in trunking.
The glass yarns covering the loose tubes provide rodent protection and excellent crush resistance, which is important when the cable
is laid with other cables.
It is available in single (up to 24 fibers) or multi tube version.
EXTERNAL ARMOURED CABLES
Armoured loose cable are available in many versions: steel tape cables, steel wire braid cables and steel wire armoured cables.
They can hold up to 144 fibers and they are designed for conditions where mechanical or chemical attack or rodent damage occur.
They guarantee excellent fiber protection from water and moisture.
LOOSE CABLES
WITH
CENTRAL STEEL TUBE
Premium line has recently introduced Market a new cable on the Italian. This cable with dielectric armouring and central stainless
steel tube allows you to have a very light and useful, but completely anti rodent cable.
Main features:
• Use in heavy environmental conditions
• Flexibility and crush resistance
• Total rodent protection
• Water proof
• Halogen free sheath
LOOSE PROTECTING TUBE
The loose protecting tube is used to protect primary coated 250 μm fibers, when they are exposed to handling for any reason, for
instance, during field termination of loose cables.
The tube itself has a 3.0 or 2.0 mm outer diameter and can be installed over coated or tight buffered fibers up to 1meter. A Kevlar
strength member is also included within the product for extra protection.
2
ST® CONNECTORS
• Easy to assemble, with high optical performance and
low in cost.
• 2.5mm diameter keyed ferrule design.
• Ceramic and polymer ferrules.
• Metallic or plastic body.
• Singlemode and multimode.
• Also available as pre-loaded or Light Crimp.
LC CONNECTORS
• It measures one-half-inch, doubling port density.
• 1.25mm diameter ferrule.
• IBM is producing LC-based transceivers for the Fiber
Channel protocol.
• User-friendly audible latch to indicate proper
mating.
SC PC/APC CONNECTORS
•
•
•
•
•
•
The SC connector is becoming the most popular.
Chosen as standard by EIA/TIA board.
Resistant proof plastic body.
Minimum back reflection.
Common housing for duplex connectors.
Rectangular plug housing eliminates the need to
rotate the plug housing and the resulting torque
applied to the ferrule.
• SC also allows high-density mounting, which is further
increased by use of the SC Duplex.
FC PC/APC CONNECTORS
• High precision connector with metallic body, but
expensive.
• It is a screwed connector made up of several, all
metallic, parts. Specially designed for telecommunication applications. FC connectors are available in
standard version or can be angled for low back
reflection requirements.
• Zirconia ferrules, 8º angle on APC ferrule.
SMA CONNECTORS
• Connector designed for multimode application of
data communication in industrial field.
• Screwed connector with hexagonal nut.
• High quality stainless steel ferrule.
• Both accommodate 3mm cable jacketing.
MTRJ CONNECTORS
• Developed by a consortium including HewlettPackard, AMP, Siecor and Fujikura.
• Small, rugged design with the plug-in similar to RJ-45.
• Duplex connector.
• Plastic ferrule.
PRE-POLISHED CONNECTORS
SC
ST
FC
comp.
LC
MT-RJ
comp.
• They require no polishing and no epoxy during
installation.
• A special pre-polished toolkit completes the
connector in less than two minutes.
• Available ST, SC, FC, LC and MTRJ connectors in
standard.
Field fiber
Factory polished
end face
Fiber stub
Mechanical splice
with index matching gel
UniCam connector cross section
ADAPTERS
There is a wide range of adapters available for all
types of connectors, e.g.:
• ST-ST singlemode and multimode.
• SC-SC singlemode and multimode, simplex and
duplex.
• LC-LC singlemode and multimode, simplex and
duplex.
FIXED ATTENUATORS
• They use a wavelength sensitive neutral density
filter specify for 1310 nm operation.
• Available ST, SC, FC standards, female to female or
female to male.
• Attenuation in 5 dB increments up to 20 dB.
3
Optical Assemblies and Tools
PATCHCORDS
• ST/ST, ST/SC and SC/SC patch cords are available in
both multimode and singlemode, with 62.5/125 or
50/125 cable, LS0H or PVC jacket, in duplex or
simplex version and in the standard lengths of 1 m,
2 m, 3 m, 5 m, 7 m, and 10 m.
• Other lengths, OM3 and custom specifications on
request.
• LC/LC, LC/ST, LC//SC, MT-RJ/MT-RJ, MT-RJ/ST, MTRJ/SC, FC/FC, FC/MT-RJ, FC/ST, and FC/SC patch
cords are available in duplex version in multimode
with 62.5/125 or 50/125 cable, LS0H or PVC jacket in
standard lengths of 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 5 m, 7m, and 10 m.
• Other lengths, simplex, OM3 and custom specifications on request.
• All patch cords are manufactured using OFNR riser
grade cable and are 100 % factory tested to ensure
performance according to TIA/EIA-568-B, ISO
11801:2002 and EN 50173-1 standards.
PIGTAIL
• Pigtail is a fiber optic cable with a connector at one
end, terminated in laboratory. It allows field fiber
termination using a fusion splicer.
• Premium Line offers pigtails with various kind of fibers
and connectors in standard lengths of 1 m and 2 m.
RE-USABLE MECHANICAL SPLICES
• Mechanical Splices allow to join the fiber without
fusion splicer
• Requiring no special tools to install
• Equally compatible with 250 and 900 µm fibres
• Available in both single and multimode versions
• Extremely quick and easy to install and it is
re-usable with high performance
FUSION SPLICE PROTECTORS
• Standard length of 45 and 61 mm
• Reinforced by a stainless steel pin running down
its length ensuring the maximum possible
protection for delicate fusion splices
• Outside diameter is 2.4 mm
• Available in clear colour
ORGANIZER
• Accomodate up to 12 fusion splices
• Stackable tray
• Clear plastic cover
• Allows entry/exit of buffer tubing at any of the
four corners
4
Splicing and Fiber Management
SPIDERS & CLIPS
• The fibre spider not only looks tidier than the
traditional combination of clips, but also
controls the minimum bend radius of the
fibers. It has a hole at the end of each of its
four arms to accept the clips which are
ordered separately
SOLVENT DISPENSING BOTTLES
• Supplied in a 4oz standard version with a lockable
cap
• Suitable for inclusion in tool kits etc...
• This bottle is manufactured with high density
polyethylene for optimum resistance to most
solvents used in fibre optic applications
• These dispensers can be used in manufacturing
operations since the sealing valve prevents
inhalation of dangerous vapours
KEVLAR CUTTERS
• Tool designed for trimming Kevlar strands from
fiber optic cable
• Long lasting high performance carbide shear
FIBER OPTIC CLOSURES
FROM
24
TO
144 FIBERS
• Complete range of fiber optic splice closures for
various outside plant applications
• Ultimate protection for fiber optic splices from
environmental conditions
• All closures are watertight and temperature
resistant
• Maximum durability in aerial or underground
installations
• All styles provide easy installation and fast re-entry
without the need for tools, minimizing network
disruption
• Each closure is provided with a “kit” of products
needed to effectively protect your fiber optic splices
SPLICE BRIDGE KITS
• The 12/24 position splice bridge allows you to fix
the fibers inside the optical box
• Supplied without lid
• Designed as a versatile solution to fibre splice
management, these grey plastic splice bridges can
be employed in most common applications
FIBER STRIPPING TOOL
PRE-POLISHED TERMINATION KIT
• The pre-polished termination kit is a new system
providing a fiber stub that is fully bonded and
factory polished into the ferrule
• The other end is precisely cleaved and placed
into the patented alignment mechanism
• The installation requires that the field fiber be
cleaned, cleaved, and inserted inside the
mechanical splice section
• Small installation tool completes the connector
on jacketed cable in less than two minutes
• The pre-polished Connector Termination Kit will
terminate ST, SC, FC, LC and MTRJ in both single
and multimode
• The pre-polished Kit includes:
- Installation tool
- Aramid yarn crimp tool
- Plier-type fiber stripper
- Jacket stripper
- Score and snap fiber cleaver
- Electrician’s scissors
- Number marker
- Tweezers
- Alcohol wipes
- Strip gauge
- Super glue
- Instruction manuals and video training
• High precision stripping tool
• It has extremely accurate hardened jaws giving a
smooth and clean stripping action
• It removes the coatings from 125 μm fiber without
scratching the fiber itself
• The primary coating stripper quickly and precisely
removes the 250 μm primary coating from loose tube
fibers without damaging the fiber in any way
200× & 320× MICROSCOPE
• High quality magnification
• Precision microscope designed for the examination
of optical connectors in the field, laboratory, or
manufacturing environments
• Including a universal 2.5 mm ferrule connector
adaptor
VISUAL FAULT LOCATOR
• The visual fault locator (VFL) is laser-based light
source
• 635–670 nm typical wavelength
• The light reaches a 3 km distance
• Tipically Used:
- To verify continuity of a fiber
- To find out where a fiber goes
- To verify polarity of a fiber pair
- To see some breaks in fibers
FUSION SPLICER
• A fiber optic network installation usually requires
splicing. The splices provide
two techniques: mechanical
and fusion.
• Mechanical splice is made
through a device that couples
the extremities of the fiber
binding them together.
• In fusion splicing the fibers
are “soldered” together by an
appropriate splicer. Thanks to
this technique the results are
nearly untraceable.
A good mechanical splice with
matching gel can have good results, but never
equals fusion splicing.
• The fusion splicer offered by Premium Line
automatically makes the whole process of fiber
fusion be finished in 25 seconds.
• The 5” multi color LCD monitor makes each
process of fiber fusion clear.
• User friendly multi language program.
19” FIBER OPTIC PANEL
• Premium Line’s 19” rack mountable fiber optic
patch panel is designed for direct cable
administration, termination, routing and
splicing.
• The modular design of the patch panel allows the
assembly with various face plates: standard face
plates are 8port SC, 8port ST and blank panel.
4port, 6port, duplex and LC face plates are on
request.
• The smooth sliding tray can be opened up to a
155° angle.
• Two tightly sealed cable entries on the back of
the panel.
• Splice cassettes and cable routings available.
WALL MOUNT FIBER OPTIC BOX
• Used for direct termination of fibers the Premium
Line wall mount fiber optic box comes in 24port
and 48port version for ST or SC adapters.
• Two separate sections for fusion splice trays and
routing optical connecting modules.
• Cable entry and exit protected against dust and
debris by flexible grommet seal.
www.premiumline-cabling.com
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