® VT 275 V6 ENGINE model year 2005 FORWARD This publication is intended to provide technicians and service personnel with an overview of technical features of the International® VT 275 Diesel Engine. The information contained in this publication will supplement information contained in available service literature. Consult the latest SERVICE and DIAGNOSTIC manuals before conducting any service or repairs. Safety Information This manual provides general and specific service procedures and repair methods essential for reliable engine operation and your safety. Since many variations in procedures, tools, and service parts are involved, advice for all possible safety conditions and hazards cannot be stated. Batteries • Batteries produce highly flammable gas during and after charging. • Always disconnect the main negative battery cable first. • Always connect the main negative battery cable last. Departure from instructions in this manual or disregard of warnings and cautions can lead to injury, death, or both, and damage to the engine or vehicle. • Avoid leaning over batteries. • Protect your eyes. Read safety instructions below before doing service and test procedures in this manual for the engine or vehicle. See related application manuals for more information. • Do not expose batteries to open flames or sparks. • Do not smoke in workplace. Safety Instructions Compressed Air • Limit shop air pressure for blow gun to 207 kPa (30psi). Vehicle • Make sure the vehicle is in neutral, the parking brake is set, and the wheels are blocked before doing any work or diagnostic procedures on the engine or vehicle. Work Area • Keep area clean, dry and organized. • Use approved equipment. • Do not direct air at body or clothing. • Wear safety glasses or goggles. • Wear hearing protection. • Keep tools and parts off the floor. • Use shielding to protect others in the work area. • Make sure the work area is ventilated and well lit. Tools • Make sure all tools are in good condition. • Make sure a First Aid Kit is available. Safety Equipment • Use correct lifting devices. • Make sure all standard electrical tools are grounded. • Check for frayed power cords before using power tools. • Use safety blocks and stands. Protective Measures • Wear protective glasses and safety shoes (do not work in bare feet, sandals, or sneakers). Fluids Under Pressure • Use extreme caution when working on systems under pressure. • Follow approved procedures only. • Wear appropriate hearing protection. • Wear correct clothing. Fuel • Do not over fill fuel tank. Over fill creates a fire hazard. • Do not wear rings, watches, or other jewelry. • Do not smoke in the work area. • Restrain long hair. • Do not refuel the tank when the engine is running. Fire prevention • Make sure charged fire extinguishers are in the work area. Removal of Tools, Parts, and Equipment • Reinstall all safety guards, shields and covers after servicing the engine. NOTE: Check the classification of each fire extinguisher to ensure that the following fire types can be extinguished. 1. Type A - Wood, paper, textiles, and rubbish 2. Type B - Flammable liquids 3. Type C - Electrical equipment • Make sure all tools, parts, and service equipment are removed from the engine and vehicle after all work is done. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 COMPONENT LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 DESIGN FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 INJECTOR OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 LUBRICATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 ENGINE & CHASSIS SCHEMATIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER FUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 International® VT 275 V6 Engine 3 4 DIRECT INJECTION TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE VT 275 FEATURES • • • • • • • • • 90° V6 Offset Crankpins Rear Gear Train Primary Balancer Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharging System Four Valves per Cylinder Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation Electro-Hydraulic Generation 2 Fuel Injection System Top Mounted Oil and Fuel Filters International® VT 275 V6 Engine 5 VT 275 OVERVIEW VT 275 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Engine Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-stroke, direct injection diesel Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V6, pushrod operated four valves / cylinder Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 cu. in. (4.5 liters) Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.74 in. (95 mm) Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.134 in. (105 mm) Compression Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.0:1 Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twin turbocharged and charge air cooled Rated Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 hp @ 2700 rpm Peak Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 lb-ft @ 1800 rpm Engine Rotation, Facing the Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counterclockwise Injection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electro-hydraulic generation 2 fuel injection Cooling System Capacity (Engine Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 quarts Lube System Capacity (Engine Only) . . . . . . 13 quarts with oil filter (14 quarts at overhaul) Slide Title Goes Here Horsepower and Torque 250 450 225 400 200 350 175 300 150 250 125 200 100 Power (HP) Load (ft-lb) Power & Torque Curve 500 75 150 Torque (ft-lb) 100 50 Power (HP) 50 25 3600 3400 3200 2800 3000 2400 2600 2200 1800 2000 1600 1400 1200 1000 0 800 600 0 Engine Speed (RPM) 6 International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The VT 275 engine is offered with only one horsepower and torque rating for the 2005 model year. The engine creates 200 horsepower at 2700 rpm and 440 lb-ft of torque at 1800 rpm. The engine has a high idle speed of 2775 rpm with automatic transmission. The engine idle speed is set at 700 rpm and is not adjustable. VT 275 OVERVIEW Engine Serial Number • The Engine Serial Number (ESN) for the VT 275 is located on a machined surface at the left rear corner of the crankcase just below the cylinder head. • The ESN identifies the engine family, the build location, and the sequential build number. • Engine Serial Number Example 4.5HM2Y0135617 4.5 = Engine displacement H = Diesel, Turbocharged M2 = Motor Truck Y = Huntsville 0135617 = Build Sequence Emissions Label • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions label is on top of the breather, toward the front, on the left valve cover. The label includes the following: -Advertised horsepower rating -Engine model code -Service application -Emission family and control system -Year the engine was certified to meet EPA emission standards. Cylinder Numbering • The cylinders on the VT 275 are numbered from the front of the right bank 1, 3, 5 and from the front of the left bank 2, 4 and 6. L Front R 2 1 4 3 6 5 • The engine firing order is 1-2-5-6-3-4 International® VT 275 V6 Engine 7 COMPONENT LOCATIONS - FRONT OF ENGINE HEATER SUPPLY TUBE AIR INLET HEATER SMOOTH IDLER PULLEY AIR INLET FUEL TUBE TO RIGHT BANK MAT SENSOR BANJO BOLT WITH CHECK VALVE POWER STEERING PUMP BRACKET BELT TENSIONER OIL PUMP COVER 8 INTAKE MANIFOLD International® VT 275 V6 Engine COMPONENT LOCATIONS - LEFT FRONT OF ENGINE GROOVED IDLER PULLEY BREATHER HEATER RETURN TUBE COOLANT OUTLET SMOOTH IDLER PULLEY International® VT 275 V6 Engine 9 COMPONENT LOCATIONS - LEFT SIDE OF ENGINE AIR INLET DUCT OIL LEVEL GAUGE LEFT BANK GLOW PLUGS CMP SENSOR SUPPLY FROM FUEL PUMP AND PRIMARY FILTER FUEL RETURN TO TANK 10 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COMPONENT LOCATIONS - LEFT REAR OF ENGINE LIFTING EYES IPR AND HEAT SHIELD LEFT BANK EXHAUST MANIFOLD REAR COVER International® VT 275 V6 Engine 11 COMPONENT LOCATIONS - REAR OF ENGINE OIL FILTER HOUSING FUEL FILTER HOUSING TURBINE OUTLET EXHAUST TUBE ASSEMBLY HIGH PRESSURE PUMP COVER 12 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COMPONENT LOCATIONS - RIGHT REAR OF ENGINE HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR HOUSING COOLANT HEATER UPPER OIL PAN LOWER OIL PAN International® VT 275 V6 Engine 13 COMPONENT LOCATIONS - RIGHT SIDE OF ENGINE OUTLET TO CHARGE AIR COOLER TURBOCHARGER CROSSOVER TUBE ICP SENSOR RIGHT BANK GLOW PLUGS CRANKCASE CKP SENSOR LOWER CRANKCASE 14 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COMPONENT LOCATIONS - RIGHT FRONT OF ENGINE PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID MAP SENSOR ECT SENSOR WATER PUMP PULLEY AND FAN DRIVE International® VT 275 V6 Engine 15 COMPONENT LOCATIONS - TOP OF ENGINE WITHOUT HARNESS HIGH PRESSURE PUMP INJECTOR CONNECTORS HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE HOUSING TURBOCHARGER OIL SUPPLY LINE EOP SWITCH EOT SENSOR EGR VALVE LOW PRESSURE TURBO COMPRESSOR HOUSING 16 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COMPONENT LOCATIONS - TOP OF ENGINE WITH HARNESS MAF SENSOR CONNECTOR (SENSOR NOT SHOWN) INJECTOR HARNESS CONNECTOR HARNESS TO CHASSIS MOUNTED ECM/IDM BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID ALTERNATOR FUSIBLE LINKS (ALTERNATOR NOT SHOWN) International® VT 275 V6 Engine 17 VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES ROCKER ARM Cylinder Head Assembly • The VT 275 has an aluminum rocker arm carrier for each cylinder head. The carrier holds the fulcrum plates and the attached rocker arms and can be removed as an assembly from the cylinder head without removing the rocker arms. ROCKER ARM CARRIER • Each rocker arm pivots on a steel ball located by detents in the fulcrum plate. Four head bolts on each cylinder head pass through the two single and two dual fulcrum plates serving to clamp the plates to the carrier. ROCKER ARM FULCRUM • The cylinder head is sealed to the crankcase deck surface with a shim type gasket that must be replaced if any of the head bolts are removed. The 14mm head bolts are torque to yield and cannot be reused. • The carrier is sealed to the cylinder head with a push-in-place gasket. The cylinder head and carrier are clamped to the crankcase with eight 14mm bolts. Six additional 8mm bolts around the perimeter clamp the carrier to the cylinder head and four additional 8mm bolts serve to clamp the top of the head to the crankcase. Two hollow dowels in the cylinder head are used to align the rocker arm carrier to the cylinder head. INJECTOR PASSTHROUGH Rocker Arm Carrier DUAL FULCRUM PLATE HEAD BOLTS SINGLE FULCRUM PLATE 18 8mm FULCRUM BOLT GLOW PLUG CONNECTOR OPENING International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The rocker arm carrier serves as an attachment point for the fulcrum plates and the rocker arms. In addition to the head bolts, single fulcrum plates are attached to the rocker arm carrier with one 8mm bolt. The dual fulcrum plates are attached with two 8mm bolts. The fulcrum plates are marked with E and I as assembly aids to show the valves they support. The E and I must be visible after assembly to the head. In addition, the carrier provides a passage for each snap-in-place injector passthrough and the push-in-place glow plug connectors. VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES Crankcase Assembly 14mm MAIN BEARING BOLTS LOWER CRANKCASE • The VT 275 has four main bearings but replaces the traditional individual main bearing caps with a one-piece lower crankcase assembly. The lower crankcase is made of cast iron and is stronger than the individual caps. The lower crankcase is attached to the crankcase with sixteen 14mm main bearing bolts of two lengths with the shorter bolts to the outside. Three additional 8mm bolts are used on each side at the perimeter. The lower crankcase is sealed to the crankcase with two pushin-place seals. 8mm BOLTS Crankcase and Oil Pan • The upper oil pan bolts to the lower crankcase and is sealed with a full perimeter push-in-place gasket. The lower sheet metal oil pan is sealed to the upper cast aluminum oil pan with a full perimeter push-in-place gasket. The upper oil pan is wider than the crankcase and allows for greater oil pan capacity without increased depth. • The oil pickup is sealed to the upper oil pan with an O-ring and attached with two 6mm bolts. Oil pulled through the oil pickup tube passes through a passage cast in the upper oil pan to the lower crankcase. The lower crankcase has a machined passage that takes oil to a front cover passage that leads to the oil pump. Openings in the upper oil pan allow oil to return to the pan during engine operation but also serve to keep oil in the pan away from the rotating crankshaft. LOWER OIL PAN OIL PICK-UP TUBE UPPER OIL PAN LOWER CRANKCASE CRANKSHAFT UPPER CRANKCASE International® VT 275 V6 Engine 19 VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES HIGH PRESSURE OIL PUMP GEAR Rear Gear Train • The VT 275 gear train is located at the rear of the engine. The crankshaft gear is a press fit on the crankshaft and drives the camshaft gear directly. The crankshaft flange with integral gear is pressed on the end of the crankshaft then clamped with six 12mm bolts. The camshaft gear must be timed to the crankshaft gear during assembly to maintain the correct relationship. • The rear flange gear drives the primary balance shaft gear at a one-to-one ratio. The balance shaft runs through the hollow camshaft to the front of the crankcase and has the balance shaft counterweight bolted to the front of the shaft. The flange gear and balance shaft gear must be timed to maintain the correct relationship between the balance shaft counterweight and the crankshaft. CAMSHAFT GEAR BALANCER SHAFT GEAR • The high-pressure oil pump is located in the Vee of the engine and is driven directly off the camshaft gear. The oil pump gear does not require timing. CRANKSHAFT FLANGE AND GEAR • Note: The crankshaft gear that drives the camshaft is located behind the flange gear. CAMSHAFT GEAR TIMING PIN HOLE BALANCER SHAFT GEAR TIMING GEAR DOTS CRANKSHAFT FLANGE & GEAR 20 International® VT 275 V6 Engine Gear Timing • The camshaft and balance shaft must be timed to the crankshaft for proper engine operation. During reassembly a timing pin that aligns the camshaft gear and the balance shaft gear is placed through the gears and into a hole machined in the crankcase, then the crankshaft is installed while aligning the balance shaft and flange gear dots. If only the balance shaft is out of the engine, the shaft can be installed while aligning the balance shaft gear and flange gear dots. VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES Offset Crankpins • The 4-stroke engine requires 720° of crankshaft rotation to complete all four strokes of the cycle. In a multi-cylinder engine dividing the 720 degrees by the number of cylinders will equal the ideal crankshaft rotation between combustion events in the firing order. The VT 275 achieves equal spacing of the combustion events by splitting the crankpins and staggering the individual journals 30º. #4 CRANKPIN #3 CRANKPIN Balance Shaft Timing • The crankshaft counterweight, flywheel, and damper are used to offset the rotating and reciprocating forces developed in the 90° V6 engine, but these components alone will not offset the couple imbalance. Couple imbalance is created when two or more forces act on the crankshaft at different points along its length. Couple imbalance, if not offset, results in pitch and yaw forces on the engine that are felt by the vehicle occupants as a vibration. BALANCER SHAFT COUNTER WEIGHT COUNTER WEIGHTED BALANCER SHAFT GEAR • Couple imbalance forces in the engine are offset by the balance shaft forces as it rotates at crankshaft speed but in the opposite direction. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 21 ® ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM • • • • ECM and IDM control system Dual magnetic pick-up timing sensors Electric motor driven EGR valve ECM boost control System Features ECM IDM • The VT 275 engine uses the Diamond Logic™ II Control System. The electronic control system features an Engine Control Module (ECM) and an Injector Drive Module (IDM). • The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve is positioned by an ECM controlled electric stepper motor. The system uses an EGR drive module to communicate commands from the ECM to the EGR valve. IPR BCS ICP MAF / IAT ECT MAP BAP • VT 275 engines use two magnetic pickup sensors to determine crankshaft speed and position and camshaft position. Magnetic pick-up sensors feature high reliability and accuracy. • The VT 275 engine uses a twin turbocharger with ECM boost control. MAT 22 EGR DRIVE MODULE APS / IVS EOP CKP CMP EOT International® VT 275 V6 Engine ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM ECM • The ECM uses sensor inputs to control the Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR), the EGR valve, the boost control solenoid, the glow plug relay and the inlet air heater relay. The ECM also shares sensor data with the IDM over communication links between the two modules. INLET AIR HEATER RELAY GLOW PLUG RELAY CONTROL MODULE ASSEMBLY BRACKET • The IDM is mounted on brackets cast into the ECM. The ECM and IDM are then mounted with vibration isolator grommets to the control module assembly bracket. The bracket is bolted to the truck's frame directly behind the passenger side of the cab and serves as the mounting point for the inlet air heater relay, the glow plug relay, and the Power Distribution Center (PDC). ECM IDM • The Injector Drive Module (IDM) receives sensor information from the ECM over three communication links: the CAN 2 link, the CMPO circuit, and the CKPO circuit. The IDM uses this information to calculate injection timing and duration. The IDM controls injector operation through 48-volt signals to the twin injector coils. • The ECM has four connectors. The connectors are called X1 through X4 with ECM X1 being the top ECM connector as mounted on the truck. The IDM has three connectors with IDM X1 being the top connector as mounted on the truck. The ECM X1 and X2 connectors are for engine sensor inputs and X3 and X4 are for chassis inputs. The IDM X1 and X2 connectors are for injector operation and X3 is for chassis inputs and communication between the ECM and IDM. IDM X1 ECM X1 IDM X2 ECM X2 IDM X3 ECM X3 ECM X4 IDM International® VT 275 V6 Engine 23 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM EGR Drive Module • The EGR Drive Module is mounted below the de-aeration tank. The module receives the desired EGR valve position from the ECM over the engine CAN 2 link. The module then sends a series of voltage and ground signals to the Motor U, V, and W terminals of the EGR valve. The voltage signals are Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) to control current flow to the motor field coils. • The module receives battery voltage and ground through the 12-way engine-tochassis connector. The module supplies a reference voltage to three position sensors within the EGR valve. The drive module uses the sensor signals to determine the percent of valve opening. EGR DRIVE MODULE Inlet Air Heater Element • The Inlet Air Heater element is located in the lower side of the intake manifold and projects through the manifold and into the inlet air stream. INTAKE MANIFOLD INLET AIR HEATER 24 International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The element warms the incoming air to aid cold start and reduce emissions during warm-up. The ECM turns the inlet air heater on for a predetermined amount of time, based on engine oil temperature, intake air temperature, and barometric air pressure. The inlet air heater can remain on while the engine is running to reduce white smoke during engine warm-up. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM Inlet Air Heater Relay • The Inlet Air Heater (IAH) element is used to improve cold start operation, reduce emissions and white smoke, and improve engine warm-up. The relay is mounted next to the Power Distribution Center and is the taller of the two relays. The IAH relay receives battery power from the starter power-feed terminal and the normally open terminal connects to the element through the harness. One end of the relay coil is grounded through the engine 12-way connector. The relay closes when the coil receives voltage from the ECM. Glow Plug Relay AIR HEATER RELAY GLOW PLUG RELAY • Glow plugs are used to improve cold engine starting. Glow plug operation is controlled by the ECM through the glow plug relay. The glow plug relay is mounted next to the Power Distribution Center and is the shorter of the two relays. The relay common terminal is connected by jumper to the common terminal of the Inlet Air Heater relay. The normally open terminal connects to the glow plug harness. One end of the relay coil is grounded through the engine 12-way connector. The relay is closed when the other end of the coil receives voltage from the ECM. Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) Valve SWIVEL CONNECTOR • The IPR mounts to the high-pressure pump and controls the amount of oil allowed to drain from the high-pressure system. When the ECM increases the IPR signal duty cycle, the valve blocks the oil’s path to drain and pressure rises. When the ECM reduces the duty cycle, a larger volume of oil is allowed to drain from the system and pressure is reduced. The valve contains a pressure relief valve for the system that opens if system pressure reaches 4500 psi. The IPR is protected by a heat shield that must be reinstalled after servicing. IPR International® VT 275 V6 Engine 25 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM NOT USED Boost Control Solenoid GREEN HOSE TO AIR INLET DUCT • The turbocharger boost control solenoid valve is controlled by the ECM. When the ECM signal to the Boost Control solenoid is high, the valve opens, allowing pressure in the pneumatic actuator to vent into the turbo inlet duct. When the ECM signal is low, the valve closes, and pressure to the actuator equals boost pressure in the intake manifold. BLACK HOSE TO INTAKE MANIFOLD ELBOW BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve EGR VALVE • The EGR valve is used to control the percent of exhaust gas in the intake charge. The EGR valve consists of circuit board mounted position sensors, field coils surrounding an armature, and the valve group. The valve group has two poppet valves mounted to a common stem. When the drive module provides voltage and ground to the field coils in the proper sequence, stepped armature rotation occurs. A threaded rod engaged in the center of the rotating armature pushes or pulls against the spring loaded valve stem to force the valve to open or close. EXHAUST INLET EXHAUST OUTLET POPPETS EXHAUST OUTLET O-RINGS Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor MAF / IAT 5-PIN CONNECTOR 26 MAF International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor is mounted with ductwork between the turbocharger inlet and the air filter element. The sensor applies voltage to a low resistance thermistor exposed to the fresh air portion of the intake charge. The MAF sensor circuitry measures the increase in voltage required to offset the cooling effect of the air flow over the thermistor. This voltage is then converted into a variable frequency that is sent to the ECM. The MAF value can be read with MasterDiagnostics® software in lb./min. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM PDC# Device F4 F12 30A...IDM/ECM 20A...RUN/ACC F41 F46 10A...ECM PWR 5A...ECM KEY PWR R1 X1 X2 ECM X3 X4 X3-3 VIGN X3-5 ECM MPR X4-1 ECM PWR X4-2 ECM PWR ECM RELAY - POSITION 50 PDC 200 A F4 TO IDM RELAY F41 R1 3 5 1 2 TO ENGINE INLINE 12-WAY BATTERY F-46 STARTER MOTOR RELAY KEY SWITCH F-12 ECM Relay Circuit Operation • The ECM controls its own power up and power down process. When the key is OFF, the ECM stays powered up for a brief period. The ECM then powers down after internal housekeeping functions have been completed. Key Power • The Run/Accessory position of the key switch receives battery voltage from the Power Distribution Center (PDC) fuse F-12. When the key is ON, the switch supplies battery voltage through fuse F46 to ECM pin X3-3. Battery voltage is available at all times through fuses F4 and F41 to ECM relay pins 1 and 3. The two fuses are in series, with F4 feeding both the IDM and ECM relays, and F41 dedicated to protecting the ECM circuit alone. Pin 1 supplies voltage to the relay coil. • Pin 2 connects the coil to pin X3-5 of the ECM. • When the key is ON, voltage supplied to pin X3-3 signals the ECM that the operator is going to start the engine. The ECM then supplies a ground circuit to pin X3-5. When this occurs, current flows through the ECM relay coil and creates a magnetic field causing the relay to latch. When latched, the relay connects pin 3 to pin 5 and supplies current to the ECM through pin X4-1 and X4-2. International® VT 275 V6 Engine Shut Down • When the key is OFF and voltage is removed from ECM pin X3-3, the ECM shuts down the engine but keeps the ECM powered up briefly until the internal house keeping is completed. 27 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM PDC# F4 F12 F40 F46 R2 Device X3-8 IDM LOGIC POWER X3-24 IDM MAIN POWER X3-25 IDM MAIN POWER X3-4 IDM MAIN POWER X3-23 IDM MAIN POWER X3-27 IDM MPR X3-7 VIGN 30A...IDM/ECM 20A...RUN/ACC 10A...IDM LOGIC 5A...ECM KEY PWR IDM RELAY - POSITION 55 X1 X2 X3 X4 X1 X2 X3 IDM ECM PDC BATTERY 200 A 12 R2 F4 30 87 TO IDM RELAY 6 F40 85 86 8 F-46 9 STARTER MOTOR RELAY ENGINE IN-LINE 12-WAY KEY SWITCH IDM Relay Circuit Operation • The IDM controls its own power up and power down process. When the key is OFF, the IDM stays powered up for a brief period. The IDM then powers down after internal housekeeping functions have been completed. IDM Power Up • The key switch receives battery voltage from the Power Distribution Center (PDC) F-12 fuse. When the key is ON, the switch supplies battery voltage through F-46 fuse and pin 9 of the engine 12-way connector to pin X3-7 of the IDM. F-12 When the key is ON, voltage supplied to pin X3-7 signals the IDM to provide a ground circuit to pin X3-27. When this occurs, current flowing through the IDM relay coil builds a magnetic field that causes the relay to latch. When latched, the relay connects pin 30 to pin 87 and supplies current through pin 12 of the engine in-line 12-way connector to pin X3-4, X323, X3-24, and X3-25 of the IDM. Four pins receive voltage to spread the current draw over multiple pins. • Battery voltage is available through the PDC F-4 fuse to IDM relay pin 30 and 85 at all times. Pin 85 supplies voltage to the relay coil. Pin 86 takes that voltage through pin 8 of the engine 12-way connector to pin X3-27 of the IDM. 28 International® VT 275 V6 Engine IDM Logic • The IDM also requires voltage for the internal logic circuit. When the IDM relay latches, pin 87 of the relay supplies voltage to the IDM logic circuit through the F-40 fuse in the PDC. The F-40 fuse feeds through pin 6 of the engine in-line 12-way connector to the IDM pin X3-8. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM RIGHT BANK INJECTORS X1 MAF / IAT X2 LEFT BANK INJECTORS X3 E D C B A IAT X1-7 IAT IDM X1 X1-6 GRD X2 X1-8 ECT ECT X3 X2-1 EOT X4 IAH RELAY X2-14 MAT EGR DRIVE MODULE ECM VOLTAGE EOT R1 R2 SENSOR R2 ECM MICROPROCESSOR MAT Temperature Sensor Operation • There are four, two-wire temperature sensors on the VT 275 engine. Each sensor contains a resistor whose value varies depending on temperature. The ECM supplies a separate reference voltage to each temperature sensor. Then, the sensor conditions its voltage to produce the sensor signal. Sensor Circuit • A temperature variable resistor is a thermistor. Each thermistor is connected to a current-limiting resistor of fixed value within the ECM. The thermistor and the resistor make a series circuit with a reference voltage applied at one end and a ground at the other. The voltage in the circuit between the two resistors changes as the thermistor's resistance changes. When the temperature is low, the sensor's resistance is high and the GLOW PLUG RELAY BCS R1 IPR signal voltage is high. When the temperature is high, the resistance is low and the signal voltage is low. Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor • The ECT sensor is mounted in the front cover. The body of the sensor is exposed to coolant as it returns from the cylinder heads. The ECT signal is input into the optional engine warning protection system, coolant compensation, glow plug operation and the instrument cluster temperature gauge. Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor • The EOT sensor is mounted in the oil filter adapter. The EOT signal allows the ECM to compensate for viscosity changes in the oil due to temperature. The EOT signal is input into calculations that determine the fuel quantity and timing. International® VT 275 V6 Engine EGR VALVE REFERENCE VOLTAGE Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor • The MAT sensor is mounted towards the front of the left bank leg of the intake manifold. The MAT sensor measures the temperature of the air in the intake manifold. The ECM uses this information in calculations that control the EGR valve operation. Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor • The IAT sensor is contained within the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor housing. The MAF sensor is mounted to the inlet duct leading to the turbocharger. The ECM uses the IAT information to control injection timing and fuel rate when starting cold. 29 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM RIGHT BANK INJECTORS X1 X2 LEFT BANK INJECTORS X3 X1-6 GRD IDM X1 X1-13 EOPS X2 X1-14 VREF X3 EOPS X4 X1-20 ICP EGR DRIVE MODULE X2-3 MAP ECM Functional Equivelant ECM SENSOR ICP MICROPROCESSOR BCS MAP Pressure Sensor Operation • The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor, the Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor and the Engine Oil Pressure Switch (EOPS) are used to send pressure information to the ECM. • The MAP and ICP are three-wire pressure sensors. Three-wire pressure sensors receive a reference voltage and a ground from the ECM. The sensor returns a portion of the reference voltage, proportional to the pressure, back to the ECM as a signal. Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Sensor • The ICP sensor is a Micro Strain Gauge (MSG) style sensor. The MSG type sensor has a small strain gauge that senses changes in pressure. Sensor mounted electronic circuitry converts the 30 IPR change into a signal voltage proportional to the pressure being measured. The ICP sensor is used to make corrections to the IPR signal and to continually check the performance of the Injection Control Pressure system. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor • The MAP sensor is a variable capacitance style sensor. In a variable capacitance sensor, the pressure being measured deflects a ceramic disk towards a metal disk. The two materials make up a variable capacitor. Sensor mounted circuitry converts the capacitance into a signal voltage proportional to the measured pressure. The MAP sensor measures turbocharger boost in the intake manifold. The MAP signal is input into calculations that determine fueling quantities and the desired EGR valve position. International® VT 275 V6 Engine VREF EGR VALVE SWITCH REFERENCE VOLTAGE Engine Oil Pressure Switch (EOPS) • The EOPS is used to detect oil pressure and is an input to the dash cluster and the engine warning protection system. The switch is normally open with the engine off but closes when oil pressure reaches 5 to 7 psi. The ECM sends 5 volts through a current limiting resistor to the EOPS and reads the voltage between the resistor and the switch. When oil pressure is low, the switch is open and the ECM reads 5 volts. When the oil pressure is greater than 5 to 7 psi, the switch is closed, the circuit is shorted to ground, and the ECM reads a low voltage. When the ECM detects oil pressure, MasterDiagnostics® will display 40 psi. When the oil pressure is below 5 psi, MasterDiagnostics® will display 0 psi. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM RIGHT BANK INJECTORS X1 LEFT BANK INJECTORS CKPO X3-5 X2 CMPO X3-10 X3 CKP (+) X1-1 X1 X2 CKP (-) X1-2 CMP (+) X1-9 X3 X4 CMP (-) X1-10 CKPO X1-19 IDM CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR CMPO X1-24 ECM CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR 1 + 2 + - Magnetic Pick-Up Sensors • The Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor are both magnetic pick-up type sensors. Each sensor contains a permanent magnet core surrounded by a coil of wire. The sensor generates a signal through the collapse of a magnetic field created by a moving metal trigger. Movement of the trigger induces an Alternating Current (AC) voltage in the sensor coil. Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor • The CMP sensor is mounted on the left front of the crankcase. The CMP sensor reacts to a single peg pressed into the camshaft. The peg passes the sensor once per camshaft revolution producing an AC signal in the coil. • The ECM uses the AC signal to determine the position of the camshaft. The ECM converts the AC signal to a square wave output. The output signal, Camshaft Position Output (CMPO), is sent to the IDM for fueling calculations. The ECM conditions the CMP signal and sends it out as the TACH signal for body builder use. Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor • The CKP sensor is mounted on the right front of the lower crankcase. The CKP sensor reacts to a sixtyminus-two tooth trigger wheel affixed to the front of the crankshaft. The sensor produces pulses for each of the 58 teeth as they pass the magnet. The two tooth gap allows the ECM to calculate the position of the crankshaft. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 1 2 • The ECM uses the CKP signal to determine the position and speed of the crankshaft. The ECM converts the AC signal to a square wave output, Crankshaft Position Output (CKPO), and sends it to the IDM for fueling calculations. • The ECM needs both the CKP and CMP signals to calculate engine speed and crankshaft position. From the CKP signal the ECM can determine the speed of the crankshaft and the position of each piston relative to Top Dead Center. From the CMP sensor the ECM can determine the current stroke of each (i.e., compression or exhaust). 31 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM X1-17 GPC X1 X2 2 4 6 X1-21 GPD X3 X4 GLOW PLUGS BAP ECM BATTERY GPC 200 A GPD ECT 1 3 5 N.O. TERMINAL IAH RELAY STARTER IAH GLOW PLUG RELAY 4 12-WAY ENGINE TO CHASSIS CONNECTOR Glow Plug System • The VT 275 uses glow plugs to aid cold starts. The ECM turns on the glow plugs prior to engine cranking to increase the temperature of the cylinders. Glow plug operation is controlled by the ECM through the glow plug relay. The glow plugs have full voltage if battery voltage is normal, or pulse width modulated to control the current if battery voltage is above normal. The ECM calculates glow plug ontime based on coolant temperature and barometric pressure. The required time to warm up the cylinders decreases as engine coolant temperature increases. Warm up time decreases as barometric air pressure increases. The glow plugs may continue to be energized after start-up to reduce emissions. 32 Relay Operation • The glow plug relay receives battery voltage to its common terminal from the starter power-feed terminal. The normally open terminal connects to the individual glow plugs through the glow plug harness. One end of the relay coil is always grounded through pin 4 of the engine 12-way connector. The ECM supplies 12 volts to the other end of the coil through ECM pin X1-17 in order to close the relay contacts. Glow Plug Lamp • The glow plug lamp is used as a wait-to-start indicator. The ECM lights the glow plug lamp at glow plug activation to signal the operator to wait for the cylinders to warm up. International® VT 275 V6 Engine • Both lamp operation and the glow plug operation are based on BAP and ECT values but are independent of each other. • The glow plug operation may continue after the lamp is off. Glow Plug Diagnostics • Glow plug diagnostics are used to determine if the relay is operating correctly when commanded on. An additional wire on the relay's normally open terminal connects to ECM pin X1-21. This circuit, GPD, allows the ECM to monitor the relay operation. • The glow plugs can be turned on using the KOEO Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Test. The test can only be activated twice per key cycle. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM X1-18 IAHC X1 X2 X2-11 IAHD X3 X4 MAF / IAT BAP ECM BATTERY IAHC 200 A IAHD EOT N.O. TERMINAL IAH RELAY STARTER IAH 4 12-WAY ENGINE TO CHASSIS CONNECTOR Inlet Air Heater Operation • The VT 275 has an Inlet Air Heater (IAH) element mounted in the front of the intake manifold. The IAH is used to improve cold start operation, reduce emissions and white smoke, and improve engine warm-up. When the key is ON, the ECM determines if the element should be activated and for how long, based on barometric pressure and engine oil temperature. On time is limited to prevent heater element damage and to prevent damage to the intake manifold. The heater relay delivers full voltage to the element if battery voltage is normal, or the relay is pulsed by the ECM to control the current if battery voltage is above normal. If the battery voltage is so low that the starter motor operation may be affected, the inlet air heater is disabled. Relay Operation • The IAH relay receives battery power from the starter power feed terminal. The normally open terminal connects to the element through the harness. One end of the relay coil is always grounded through pin 4 of the engine 12-way connector. The other end of the coil receives 12 volts from ECM pin X1-18 to close the relay contacts. International® VT 275 V6 Engine Inlet Air Heater Diagnostics • An additional wire on the normally open terminal connects to ECM pin X2-11. This diagnostic circuit allows the ECM to determine if the IAH relay is on when commanded on by the ECM. • The Inlet Air Heater can be turned on using the KOEO Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Test. The test can only be activated twice per key cycle. The ECM will delay the Inlet Air Heater operation for three seconds after the test is activated. 33 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM ECM MAF MICROPROCESSOR B+ SIG RIGHT BANK INJECTORS X1 LEFT BANK INJECTORS X2 VREF SIGNAL CONTROL B+ X3 THERMISTOR HEATED ELEMENT FIXED RESISTOR X1-7 IAT GRD X1-6 IAT SIG GRD X1 X2-2 MAF X2 X3 FIXED RESISTOR X4 MAF / IAT A KEY PWR 4 9 ENGINE IN-LINE 12-WAY CONNECTOR IAT B SIGNAL GRD C ACTUATOR GRD D KEY POWER MAF SIGNAL EGR DRIVE MODULE ECM ACT GRD E IDM BCS IPR Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor • The MAF sensor is used to measure the mass of the fresh air portion of the intake air charge. To reduce Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), a portion of the fresh air charge is displaced with cooled exhaust gases. The ECM calculates the total engine gas flow based on MAT, MAP and RPM. The ECM then determines the required EGR percent based on the current engine operating conditions. At this point, the ECM commands the exhaust portion of the total charge through the EGR valve while monitoring the fresh air portion through the MAF sensor. 34 Sensor Construction • The sensor housing contains two sensors, the MAF sensor and the Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor. The MAF sensor contains a heated element placed in the air stream. The amount of electrical power needed to maintain the element at the proper temperature depends directly on the mass of air moving over the element. Sensor Operation • The MAF sensor is made up of two voltage divider circuits. A thermistor and a fixed resistor make up one voltage divider circuit, and the heated element and a fixed resistor make up the other voltage divider circuit. The two voltage divider circuits are combined into a bridge circuit with a common power supply and a common ground. International® VT 275 V6 Engine EGR VALVE • During operation, when voltage is applied to the bridge, the temperature of the heated element increases and the resistance decreases. This affects the output of the divider circuit. The thermistor side is affected only by ambient air temperature. The divider voltages are compared and the input voltage to the bridge is increased or decreased until both divider voltages are equal. An increase or decrease in airflow will change the ratio between the divider voltages, which results in a change to the supply voltage. The signal controller circuit measures the voltage to the bridge and, based on that value, sends a frequency signal to the ECM. The correct key-on, engine-off frequency is 400+100 Hz. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM PDC# X1 X2 X3 X4 F11 F19 X3-1 WIF Device 20A...FUEL PUMP 20A...FUEL HEATER X4-15 FPM X3-9 FPC PDC ECM 2 5 TO IGNITION POWER FUEL PUMP RELAY 1 1 TO RUN / ACC RELAY BATTERY HFCM 3 F11 2 200 A 2 F19 HEATER 1 2 2 5 PUMP 1 FUEL HEATER RELAY 1 3 TO KEY SWITCH Pump Operation • The VT 275 has an ECM controlled chassis mounted electric fuel pump. At key-on, the ECM will operate the fuel pump for up to 60 seconds to prime the system. Priming allows the pump to pressurize the system and to allow air in the system to bleed out through an orifice between the filter housing and the fuel return circuit. When the engine is in run mode, the pump will operate continuously. If the engine dies or is shut down, or if it is not started within 60 seconds, the ECM will stop the pump. GRD Circuit Operation • To operate the pump, the ECM provides a ground at ECM pin X3-9 to latch the fuel pump relay. The relay takes power from fuse F11 and provides it to pin 1 of the pump connector. The ECM monitors the relay's operation through ECM pin X4-15. Battery voltage should be present at X4-15 when the relay is commanded on. If the ECM does not detect the voltage, a DTC will be logged. Water-In-Fuel Sensor • The pump module contains a Water-In-Fuel (WIF) sensor. The WIF sensor receives voltage from the key switch. If the filter detects water, the sensor sends the voltage to ECM pin X3-1. The ECM then activates the dash WIF lamp. Fuel Heater • The Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module (HFCM) contains a fuel heater. When the key is ON, the fuel heater relay latches and provides power to pin 1 of the heater connector. The heater element contains a thermostat that controls the heater operation. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 35 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM IN CAB CRUISE SWITCHES RIGHT BANK INJECTORS X1 LEFT BANK INJECTORS X2 X3 X4-6 COO BAP ECM IDM X3-14 RAS X3-21 SCS X3-24 BAP X4-18 APS X4-24 GRD X1 X2 X3 X4 EGR DRIVE MODULE A X4-4 VREF B B X4-12 IVS C E APS / IVS D PDC F TO KEY SWITCH BCS F46 PDC# F46 Device Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor / Idle Validation Switch (APS/IVS) • The APS/IVS sensor has two components built into one housing: the Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (APS) and the Idle Validation Switch (IVS). • The APS is a potentiometer type sensor. The ECM supplies a reference voltage (Vref) and ground to the potentiometer and the sensor sends a voltage signal back to the ECM indicating the pedal position. The idle validation switch receives 12 volts from the chassis harness and signals the ECM when the pedal is in the idle position. If the ECM detects an APS signal out of range high or low, the ECM will ignore the APS signal and operate at low idle. 36 IPR 5A...ECM KEY PWR • If a disagreement in the state of IVS and APS is detected by the ECM, and the ECM determines that the IVS is at fault, the ECM will allow a maximum of 50% of APS. If the ECM cannot determine that the IVS is at fault, the engine will be restricted to low idle only. Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) sensor • The BAP sensor is mounted in the cab. The BAP sensor provides altitude information to the ECM, so fuel quantity and timing, glow plug on time, intake heater on time, and the operation of the Boost Control Solenoid can be adjusted to compensate for air density changes. International® VT 275 V6 Engine EGR VALVE Cruise Control • Cruise control operation is controlled through the ECM. Two switches in the cab are used to signal the operator's intention for speed control. The switches receive battery voltage through fuse 46 in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). The Cruise On/Off (COO) switch sends a voltage signal to ECM pin X4-6. With the COO switch on, the operator can use the Set (SCS) and resume (RES) switch to control the vehicle speed. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM EGR DRIVE MODULE POWER ECM GRD X1 POWER X1 GRD X2 X2-13 X3-31 X2-6 X3-30 X2 5 2 3 4 1 6 7 8 X3 X3 W V U X4 X2-12 SHD IDM S N S N N S S N N S N S EGR VALVE EGR DRIVE MODULE TO FRAME GROUND TO ECM RELAY ‘NORMALLY OPEN’ TERMINAL 10 4 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 SENSOR GRD POSITION SENSOR W POSITION SENSOR V POSITION SENSOR U SENSOR 5V SUPPLY EGR VALVE SHIELD DRAIN MOTOR W MOTOR V MOTOR U CAN2CAN2+ GRD ACT PWR ENGINE IN-LINE RELAY EGR System • The motor-actuated EGR valve is controlled and monitored by the EGR Drive Module. The module is connected to the engine CAN 2 link allowing bi-directional communication with the ECM. EGR Valve • The EGR Valve poppet stem is positioned by a three-phase motor. The armature of the motor has twelve permanent magnet segments alternating as north or south poles of a magnet. The armature is surrounded by nine field coils divided into three sets or phases. Each phase has three coils wired in parallel and spaced 120° apart around the motor armature. One lead of each coil set is connected to the respective motor circuit on the drive module. The other leads from all of the nine coils are joined together. Two coil sets are powered together to reposition the motor, with one set connected to power and the other to ground. Each powered coil set creates either a north or a south magnetic field depending on the direction of current flow through the coils. Drive Module Operation • The direction of current flow through the coil sets is controlled by the EGR Drive Module. When the integrated circuit in the module connects one coil set to ground, and one of the other two coil sets to a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power source, the magnetic fields created by the coils oppose the armature magnetic fields and a controlled rotation of the armature occurs. International® VT 275 V6 Engine The drive module constantly switches the coil sets (identified as Motor W, V, and U) from power and ground to continually produce rotation. Pulse width modulation is used to control the current. Communication • Three Hall-Effect sensors are located on a circuit board at the top of the valve housing. The sensors are supplied power and ground through the drive module and produce a series of signals so the module can track the rotation of the motor and the opening position of the valve. 37 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM X1 X2 X1-19 CKPO X3-5 X1-24 CMPO X3-10 X2-6 CAN 2 (+) X3-30 X2-13 CAN 2 (-) X3-31 X3 X3-12 CAN 1 (+) X4 X3-13 CAN 1 (-) X3-28 X3-29 2 3 X1 X2 X3 ENGINE IN-LINE 12-WAY CONNECTOR X4-20 ATA (+) X4-21 ATA (-) IDM ECM TO TRANS CONTROLLER D C 4 3 F G EGR DRIVE MODULE ECM/IDM Communications • The ECM and IDM communicate over three independent communication links. The three links are CMPO, CKPO, and CAN 2. In addition to communications with the IDM, the ECM also sends engine information over the CAN 1 link to the vehicle's instrument cluster and the 9-pin Diagnostic connector. CAN 2 • The engine CAN 2 link is a twowire, bi-directional communication circuit between the ECM and IDM and the ECM and the EGR Drive Module. The ECM and IDM use the link to share operating strategies, sensor information, diagnostic demands, and Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC). The ECM also shares desired EGR valve position with the EGR drive module over the CAN 2 link. The EGR Drive Module 38 EGR DRIVE MODULE CONNECTOR 9-WAY DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR translates those messages and then commands the EGR valve motor. The EGR drive module monitors the valve action and communicates any faults back to the ECM over the CAN 2 link. Cam Position Output (CMPO) • The CMPO signal is a 0-12V digital signal used to communicate the camshaft position to the IDM. The CMPO signal is a square wave signal derived from the information contained in the camshaft position sensor's AC voltage signal. The ECM generates the CMPO signal by pulling down (switching to ground) a single wire 12V circuit that originates in the IDM. The IDM reads the signal and uses it for injector timing calculations. Crank Position Output (CKPO) • The CKPO signal is a 0-12V digital signal used to communicate the International® VT 275 V6 Engine crankshaft position and speed to the IDM. The CKPO signal is a square wave signal derived from the information contained in the crankshaft position sensor's AC voltage signal. The ECM generates the CKPO signal by pulling down (switching to ground) a single wire 12V circuit that originates in the IDM. CKPO is used by the IDM for injector timing and fuel quantity calculations. American Trucking Association (ATA) • The ATA link is a 0-5V signal that enables communications between the ECM and the MasterDiagnostics software. The data communication link also allows for programming of the ECM and IDM. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH X1 X2 ECT CANCAN1+ 1(+) X3-10 AC DEMAND X3 CAN1CAN 1(-) X4 X3-22 AC CONTROL CMP HPSW ECM LPSW TO IGN SW T-STAT SW h PDC 5 A/C CLUTCH RELAY 7 APS TO TRANS CONTROLLER A/C CLUTCH 1 3 2 5 1 2 C A BATTERY GRD TO BATTERY POSITIVE • The VT 275 ECM controls the A/C clutch. The ECM receives an A/C demand signal from the chassis, and engages the A/C clutch if engine conditions are correct. If conditions are not right, clutch action may be delayed. When the ECM receives the A/C demand signal, it considers engine run time (to avoid stalling at start up) and engine coolant temperature (to avoid compressor operation when liquid refrigerant may be present in the compressor). In addition, the ECM looks at transmission shift action (to avoid clutch action during a transmission shift), engine RPM (to avoid clutch overspeed), and APS percent (to avoid engagement during full throttle acceleration). A/C Demand • The A/C demand signal originates at the ECM as a reference voltage F12 IGNITION SWITCH A/C CLUTCH DIODE A/C Clutch Control F34 200A MEGA FUSE on X3-10. The ECM supplies 5 volts to pin 10 and considers clutch engagement when the voltage is pulled low (shorted to ground) by the A/C on/off switch in the dashlocated A/C Control Head. The low-pressure switch (LPSW), high-pressure switch (HPSW), and the thermostat switch (T-STAT SW) are in series in the A/C demand circuit. If the compressor head pressure rises above 350 psi, the high-pressure switch opens and the demand signal will be 5V. If pressure on the low side of the compressor goes below 7 psi, the low-pressure switch will open and the demand signal will be 5V. The last switch is the thermostat control in the A/C Control Head. If the thermostat is positioned so that in-cab temperature demands are satisfied, the thermostat will open and the demand signal will be 5V. International® VT 275 V6 Engine A/C Control • If the A/C demand signal is pulled low and the ECM determines that the clutch can be engaged, the ECM pulls the AC Control circuit low at pin X3-22. When pin 22 is low, a ground is provided for the A/C Clutch Relay. The relay latches and battery voltage is provided to the A/C clutch through pin 5 of the engine 12-way connector. Switches • The thermostatic switch (T-STAT SW) monitors evaporator core temperature to prevent freezing and to regulate cab temperatures. • The low pressure switch (LPSW) prevents compressor damage in the event of a refrigerant leak. • The high pressure cutoff Switch (HPSW) interrupts compressor operation in the event of high system pressures. 39 ® Air Management System • Regulated two-stage turbocharger • Cooled exhaust gas recirculation • Intake air heater Inlet air Compressed air Exhaust gas Crankcase vapors Charge Air Cooler (CAC) System Features Air filter MAF/IAT sensor Dual stage turbocharger Normal exhaust flow bypass shut Exhaust flow bypass open IAH MAP Exhaust system Left exhaust manifold Left cylinder MAT head Left exhaust in Right exhaust in Right cylinder Right exhaust head manifold EGR valve Intake manifold EGR cooler Exhaust to dual stage Exhaust tube assembly turbocharger Left Right 40 International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The Air Management System consists of the air filter, two-stage turbocharger, charge air cooler, intake manifold, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler and EGR valve. The mass air flow sensor, the intake air temperature sensor, the manifold air temperature sensor, the manifold absolute pressure sensor, and the EGR valve position sensors within the EGR valve are all inputs from the system to the ECM. The ECM controls the system through the EGR valve, and the turbocharger boost control solenoid. AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FROM CHARGE AIR COOLER (CAC) EGR VALVE LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR INLET BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR INTAKE MANIFOLD COMPRESSOR OUTLET TO CHARGE AIR COOLER (CAC) LOW PRESSURE TURBINE OUTLET EXHAUST TUBE ASSEMBLY System Operation compressor flows through the crossover tube to the compressor inlet of the high-pressure turbocharger. Air from the compressor goes to the Charge Air Cooler (CAC). • The VT 275 uses a regulated twostage turbocharger to boost the volume of air flowing into the cylinders. The system consists of two turbochargers with exhaust flow through the units controlled by the turbocharger boost control solenoid. The smaller of the two turbochargers is identified as the high-pressure turbocharger and is sized to provide boost for low to medium speeds. The larger turbocharger is the low-pressure turbo and is sized to work in tandem with the high-pressure unit to provide the boost and air flow needed for high-speed, high-load engine conditions. • The CAC is mounted in front of the radiator. The cooler is an air-to-air heat exchanger that uses airflow to remove heat energy from the pressurized intake charge. Reducing the temperature of the air increases the charge density, which results in a more efficient engine with quicker engine response and reduced emissions. • Air passes through the air filter element and the mass air flow sensor to enter the compressor of the low-pressure turbocharger. Air that leaves the low-pressure • Exhaust flow from the cylinders exits the exhaust manifolds and spools up the high-pressure turbine. The exhaust passes through the • After the CAC, the air flows through piping to the intake manifold where it is distributed to the cylinders. International® VT 275 V6 Engine high-pressure turbine and enters the low-pressure turbine. The exhaust gases then exit the turbine and flow out the exhaust system. • A bypass valve controls the exhaust flow through a passage that allows a portion of the exhaust to bypass the high-pressure turbine and go directly to the low-pressure turbine. Part of the exhaust gas that leaves the left bank exhaust manifold is diverted to the EGR cooler. Heat energy is removed from the exhaust while in the cooler and transferred to the engine's coolant. The cooled exhaust gases then flow through a short internal passage in the intake manifold to the EGR valve. The EGR valve meters a portion of the cooled exhaust gases into the intake manifold where the exhaust displaces a portion of the fresh air charge. 41 AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Air Filter Restriction Gauge • The filter restriction gauge is mounted on the air filter housing. The gauge allows the operator to check the condition without removing the filter. The restriction gauge can be reset by pushing the yellow button on the end. FILTER RESTRICTION GAUGE • Note: The filter restriction gauge bellows will lock in position if restriction exceeds 26 inches of water. The filter should be replaced and the gauge reset. • The filter element should be replaced if restriction passes 12.5 inches of H2O when tested at high-idle, no-load with a magnehelic gauge. Intake Manifold EGR VALVE • The intake manifold directs air from the charge air cooler to the intake ports in the cylinder heads. The manifold also provides an internal passage for exhaust gases from the EGR cooler to reach the EGR valve. Exhaust gas will flow into the intake manifold and mix with the intake charge when the EGR valve is open and the exhaust backpressure is higher than the boost pressure. INTAKE MANIFOLD • The manifold has an additional internal passage for coolant from the EGR cooler to return to the front cover. 42 International® VT 275 V6 Engine AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FROM AIR FILTER LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR HOUSING PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR TO CAC HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE HOUSING LOW PRESSURE TURBINE HOUSING HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR HOUSING EXHAUST INLET TO HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE EXHAUST OUTLET Two-Stage Regulated Turbocharger • The dual turbocharger consists of two turbochargers in series. The high pressure turbocharger is the smaller unit and is configured to provide boost at low speeds and loads. The low pressure turbo is the larger turbocharger and is configured to provide boost at higher speeds and loads. Exhaust Flow • Exhaust flow from the cylinders enters the turbine housing of the high-pressure turbocharger and causes the high-pressure turbine and compressor wheel to spin. Exhaust then exits the highpressure turbo and enters the lowpressure turbine housing, causing the low-pressure turbine and compressor to spin. Intake Flow • Fresh airflow starts at the inlet of the low-pressure compressor housing, flows from the lowpressure compressor to the highpressure compressor inlet and then exits directly to the charge air cooler piping. Operation • During operation, the high pressure turbo provides most of the boost at low speeds and light loads. as speed and load increases the low pressure turbo begins to provide the increased airflow. open the bypass valve and divert some of the excess gas flow directly to the low pressure turbine. • The high pressure turbocharger results in improved response and higher low speed boost capability providing improved low speed engine torque. The compounding capability of the two turbos in the mid range results in increased power, fuel efficiency and the ability to maintain power at higher altitudes. The larger compressor is capable of providing the airflow requirement without sacrificing the efficiency of the engine. • Under certain conditions the ECM can modify the air flow through the turbocharger by commanding the boost control solenoid (BCS) closed. When the BCS is closed, boost pressure builds in the pneumatic actuator, and when boost is sufficient, the actuator will International® VT 275 V6 Engine 43 AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Exhaust Bypass Valve • The path that exhaust takes through the twin turbochargers is affected by the position of the exhaust bypass valve located under the metal plate on the top of the high-pressure turbine housing. With the bypass valve open, a portion of the exhaust enters the low-pressure turbine housing directly, bypassing the highpressure turbine. BYPASS VALVE HIGH PRESSURE TURBO OIL INLET Diverted Exhaust Gas Flow • With the bypass valve open, a portion of the exhaust gases bypass the highpressure turbine. The gases pass through the bypass valve opening and through a port cast into the high-pressure turbine housing. The exhaust flow exits at the inlet to the low-pressure turbine. CAST PORT HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE HOUSING 44 International® VT 275 V6 Engine AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Turbocharger Actuator • The pneumatic actuator for the bypass valve receives intake manifold boost pressure from the intake elbow through a plastic tube. When the Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal to the boost control solenoid is 100%, the valve is open, and the boost pressure is vented to the inlet duct. With boost vented, the pneumatic actuator will be in the relaxed position. PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR • When conditions occur that would result in higher boost pressure than desired, the ECM reduces the PWM signal to 0%. The low signal causes the valve to close, boost builds in the actuator, and if boost is high enough, the actuator opens the diverter valve. COMPRESSOR INLET Actuator Line Routing AIR FILTER CHARGER AIR COOLER air MAINIFOLD AIR INLET ORIFICE BYPASS VALVE BCS exhaust out ACTUATOR • The ECM controls the venting of the actuator through the Boost Control Solenoid (BCS). Proper operation of the pneumatic actuator is dependent on the routing of the pneumatic lines. The actuator is connected through the black plastic tube to the rubber tee at the intake manifold elbow. The rubber tee at the intake manifold elbow is also connected to the BCS through a black plastic tube. The BCS is then connected to atmospheric pressure in the turbocharger inlet duct with a green plastic tube. When the BCS is open, the pressure in the black tube is vented to atmosphere through the green tube. When the BCS is closed, pressure in the manifold will build in the actuator. MANIFOLD International® VT 275 V6 Engine 45 AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Turbocharger Crossover Tube CROSSOVER TUBE O-RING • Air from the low-pressure turbocharger compressor outlet is routed to the highpressure turbocharger compressor inlet through the crossover tube. The crossover tube is sealed at the inlet of the high pressure turbocharger with an O-ring and at the low pressure compressor discharge with a press-in seal. If the crossover tube is removed, the seal and O-ring must be replaced. The Turbocharger Crossover Seal Remover/Installer (ZTSE4676) is required to remove and replace the seal. CROSSOVER TUBE SEAL OIL DRAIN ASSEMBLY Turbocharger Mounting • The turbocharger is mounted to the engine at two points. The low-pressure turbine housing is bolted to the high-pressure pump cover and the high-pressure turbine housing is bolted to the exhaust tube assembly. The two turbochargers are connected by the turbine-mating V-band clamp that allows for minor angular variances in the mounting surfaces. In addition, the oil drain tube assembly is made of three pieces, and allows for changes in the mounting points. • Note: Removal of the turbocharger will change the relationship of the two mounting points and require that a special mounting and torque sequence be used. See the Service Manual for further details. 46 LOW PRESSURE TURBOCHARGER MOUNTING POINT International® VT 275 V6 Engine HIGH PRESSURE TURBOCHARGER MOUNTING POINT AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM EGR Valve • The EGR valve consists of a stepper motor and two poppet valves connected by a common shaft. When inserted into the manifold, the valve aligns with the port in the intake manifold that connects to the EGR cooler. When the valve is open, exhaust gases flow from the cooler and enter the manifold through the open poppet valves. STEPPER MOTOR HOUSING COMMON SHAFT • The EGR valve opens when the ECM commands the EGR drive module to position the valve. The drive module then sends signals to the stepper motor to produce armature rotation. When the armature turns, the poppet valves move off their seats. POPPET VALVES EGR V A LVE INTAKE MANIFOLD EGR C O O L E R EGR Flow • The ECM-controlled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve meters cooled exhaust gases in the intake charge air to reduce Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Exhaust gases from the exhaust pipe assembly are directed to the EGR cooler. Gases flowing through exhaust passages in the cooler lose heat energy to engine coolant flowing through the coolant passages in the cooler. The cooled exhaust gases travel from the cooler into a passage cast into the intake manifold. The EGR valve fits into the exhaust passage and is sealed with two O-rings. • When the EGR valve opens, exhaust gases flow into the intake charge air from both the top and bottom of the passage, providing better distribution of the gases. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 47 ® FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM • • • • • Chassis-mounted electric fuel pump Water-in-fuel detection Electric fuel heater Chassis-mounted primary fuel filter Engine-mounted secondary fuel filter element System Features SECONDARY FUEL FILTER HOUSING • The VT 275 uses a chassis-mounted electric fuel pump. The pump is mounted with the fuel heater and primary filter in the Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module (HFCM). The fuel pump relay, which is located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC), is controlled and monitored by the ECM. FILTER INLET Water separated from the fuel in the HFCM is detected by the Water-in-Fuel (WIF) sensor. The sensor is an input to the ECM, which controls the WIF dash lamp through the CAN 1 link. • The HFCM has both an electric fuel heater and a temperature controlled recirculation valve. The valve regulates recirculation through the system to assist the heater in warming the fuel. The secondary filter and fuel pressure regulator valve are mounted on the engine. BANJO BOLT 48 International® VT 275 V6 Engine FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM Secondary fuel filter Unfiltered fuel from the fuel tank Conditioned fuel from HFCM to fuel filter Conditioned fuel from fuel filter Fuel pressure test port Cylinder heads Fuel return from engine to HFCM Fuel return to tank Fuel injectors Fuel supply to HFCM Primary fuel filter Fuel supply to engine HFCM Drilled passage Drilled passage Check valve in banjo bolt Check valve in banjo bolt Fuel tank System Operation • The fuel pump, fuel heater, pressure relief valve, Water-in-Fuel (WIF) sensor, recirculation valve, water drain and primary filter are all located in the Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module (HFCM). The secondary filter, pressure regulator and banjo bolts are mounted on the engine. • The ECM uses the fuel pump relay to activate the fuel pump at key-on. Fuel drawn from the tank contacts the electric fuel heater, passes through the one-way check valve, and enters the filter where water is separated. Fuel passes through the filter media and enters the pump inlet while water settles to the bottom of the housing until the level of water activates the WIF sensor. Pressurized fuel from the pump is routed to the engine-mounted filter. Fuel flows through the filter, then through individual steel lines to the cylinder heads. Each line is attached to the cylinder head with a banjo bolt. Each bolt contains an orifice and a check valve. Once in the head passages, fuel is distributed to the injectors. • Fuel is exposed to the pressure regulator in the secondary filter housing. The regulator returns excess fuel to the HFCM where it is directed to either the fuel tank or the pump inlet, depending on fuel temperature. • Both filter elements push open a fuel passage valve when inserted into their respective housings. Without the filter in place, fuel will not flow through the system. The engine could start without the filter, but will not run properly. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 49 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module (HFCM) COVER PRESSURE TO SECONDARY FILTER WIF CONNECTOR DRAIN PLUG PUMP CONNECTOR SUCTION SIDE RECIRCULATION CONTROL VALVE FUEL PUMP FILTER HEATER HEATER CONNECTOR 50 International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The HFCM is chassis mounted on CF500 and CF600 trucks. The module is mounted on the inside of the left frame rail behind the cab. The module is mounted with the cover/mount facing the rail. The module contains the fuel pump, fuel filter, WIF sensor, heater and the recirculation control valve. The water drain valve and all fuel connections are mounted on the module cover. The lower connection on the pump end of the module is the suction side to the tank and the lower connection on the filter side is pressure to the engine-mounted filter. The drain valve is accessible through a hole in the frame rail. Primary Fuel Filter and Fuel Heater • The HFCM contains a 10-micron primary fuel filter. The replaceable filter element opens a fuel passage in the end of the pump when the filter is inserted into the housing. Without the filter in place, sufficient fuel will not pass through the system for correct engine operation. • Fuel from the tank is exposed to the electric fuel heater as it enters the HFCM module. The heater is controlled by the key switch start/run circuit and is selfregulating. The heater comes on when fuel temperature is below 50°F (10°C) and goes off at 80°F (27°C). Return fuel from the engine is recirculated to the suction side of the filter until the fuel temperature is sufficient to cause the recirculation valve to close. After the valve closes, all returned fuel is directed back to the tank. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM FILTER ELEMENT Secondary Fuel Filter • The secondary filter is a top-loaded, engine-mounted fuel filter. Fuel enters the filter housing under pressure from the fuel pump through the inlet line and banjo bolt. Fuel passes through the 4-micron filter element and through the filter stand pipe to enter the two fuel lines to the cylinder heads. • The filter standpipe contains a valve that is opened by the filter when it is installed in the housing. Without the filter in place, sufficient fuel will not pass through the system for correct engine operation. FILTER HOUSING Fuel Pressure Regulator Valve • The fuel pressure regulator is located between the fuel filter housing and the oil filter housing. Fuel pressure pushes the regulator piston against the regulator spring. When fuel pressure exceeds 45 psi, the regulator begins to open and fuel passes back to the horizontal fuel conditioning module. REGULATOR PISTON AIR BLEED HOLE INLET BANJO BOLT FUEL RETURN • The fuel filter housing contains an air bleed to allow any air in the system to pass back to the fuel tank. REGULATOR SPRING FUEL TO CYLINDER HEADS Fuel Inlet Check Valves • Fuel passing through the filter enters steel lines that lead to the right and left bank cylinder heads. Each line is attached to the cylinder head with a banjo bolt that contains a one-way check valve and a small orifice. The orifice and check valve minimizes pressure pulses in the fuel rail, resulting in smoother delivery of fuel to the injectors. • Each fuel line fitting is sealed to the cylinder head by two copper gaskets that must be replaced if the bolt is removed. BANJO BOLT International® VT 275 V6 Engine 51 ® FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM • • • • Electro-hydraulic injectors Crankcase integrated high-pressure reservoir Gear driven rear mounted high-pressure pump Rail mounted ICP sensor System Features RESERVOIR INJECTOR HIGH PRESSURE PUMP ICP SENSOR HIGH PRESSURE OIL RAIL CASE-TO-HEAD TUBE REAR OF ENGINE 52 International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The VT 275 engine uses electrohydraulic injectors. The injectors use lube oil under high-pressure to provide the mechanical force needed to inject fuel into the combustion chamber. • The reservoir for the high-pressure pump is cast into the front of the crankcase Vee. The reservoir is supplied by the lube oil pump and is used to provide a constant supply of oil to the highpressure pump. • The high-pressure pump is mounted at the rear of the crankcase Vee and is gear driven off the rear gear train. • The Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor is mounted on the right bank high-pressure rail. FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IDM ECM CMP CKP EOPS MAP APS / IVS INJECTION CONTROL PRESSURE (ICP) SYSTEM MAF / IAT LUBRICATION SYSTEM BAP ECT FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM MAT EOT ICP High-pressure oil Fuel Electronic circuit Lube oil pressure System Operation • The high-pressure oil system is composed of the reservoir, highpressure pump, injection pressure regulator, rear branch tube, case-tohead tubes, high-pressure rails and the injection control pressure sensor. • The crankshaft driven lube oil pump supplies the reservoir. The reservoir stores the oil under low-pressure to supply the high-pressure pump. The Vee-configured, four-piston highpressure pump is mounted at the rear of the crankcase Vee and is driven off the rear gear train. The pump is a positive displacement pump capable of high-pressures. Oil discharged by the pump enters the rear branch tube. The branch tube serves to transfer the oil to the case-to-head tubes. EGR DRIVE MODULE • The high-pressure rails are mounted above the injectors. Oil from the pump enters each rail through a case-to-head tube and a check valve built into the port plug. Oil from the rail can then enter the top of the injector. • When the spool valve closes, pressure pushing on the intensifier piston is vented. With pressure on the plunger relieved, injection stops and low-pressure fuel from the fuel supply system refills the barrel and plunger area of the injector. • As each injector spool valve opens, oil pushes the intensifier piston down, pressurizing the fuel below the plunger. Fuel pressure acts on the bevel of the nozzle needle. When the force on the needle exceeds the Valve Opening-Spring Pressure (VOP) the needle lifts and forces fuel into the combustion chamber. • The ICP sensor allows the ECM to monitor the injection control pressure. The ECM commands the injection pressure regulator to vary the pressure according to operating conditions. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 53 FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Oil Reservoir RESERVOIR SCREEN HIGH PRESSURE PUMP RESERVOIR • The reservoir for the high-pressure pump is cast into the front of the crankcase Vee. The reservoir receives oil under pressure from the crankshaft driven lube oil pump. The reservoir holds approximately one quart (one liter) of oil. • A raised cavity in the bottom of the reservoir feeds oil from the reservoir to the high-pressure pump. • A 150-micron screen in the oil reservoir filters any large debris that may be in the oil before it reaches the pump. HIGH PRESSURE PUMP High Pressure Pump • The high-pressure pump produces the injection control pressure. The pump is mounted under the pump cover at the rear of the crankcase and has four pistons arranged in a Vee configuration. The pump is gear driven off the camshaft gear. The pump aligns with an O-ring sealed passage that leads to the reservoir. Pump output is directed to the branch tube assembly through a quick disconnect adapter. The pump, which protrudes through the top of the pump cover, is sealed at the cover opening with an O-ring. Injection Pressure Regulator HIGH PRESSURE PUMP INJECTION PRESSURE REGULATOR 54 • The Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) mounts on the high-pressure pump. • The pump moves more oil than the system requires, so excess oil is drained from the system to control the pressure. The ECM commands the IPR in order to increase or decrease the amount of oil drained from the system. The IPR coil swivels on the IPR so the connection can be positioned pointing down after the IPR is tightened. HIGH PRESSURE PUMP COVER International® VT 275 V6 Engine FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Injection Control Pressure Sensor • The Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor mounts on the right bank highpressure rail but protrudes through the valve cover and is accessible without removing the valve cover. • The sensor measures pressure in the rail and produces a signal that is sent to the ECM. The ICP sensor is the feedback device for the operation of the IPR. The ECM constantly checks the pressure to determine if the system is performing correctly. When the ECM detects variations, the IPR command is corrected to achieve the desired results. RIGHT BANK VALVE COVER ICP SENSOR High Pressure Oil Rail • A high-pressure rail is mounted over each bank of injectors. The rail serves as a reservoir of high-pressure oil for use by the injectors. The rail is connected to each injector with a short tube that fits through the injector O-ring. The tubes have the ability to swivel to align with the injector openings. REAR PORT PLUG FRONT PORT PLUG ICP SENSOR • The rail does not need to be drained before removal. HIGH PRESSURE RAIL Port Plugs and Tubes • There is one O-ring sealed case-to-head tube assembly for each bank of cylinders. The case-to-head tube connects the branch tube assembly in the tappet area to the rail through the rear port plug. The rear port plug contains a one-way check valve that dampens pressure pulsations caused by injector operation. REAR PORT PLUG & CHECK VALVES FRONT PORT PLUG • The front port plug is used to block oil from leaking into the valve train area. Both port plugs must be in place for the engine to build ICP sufficient to start the engine. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 55 ® INJECTOR OPERATION • • • • • • Electro-hydraulic Two control coils Spool valve controlled inlet 48 volt operation short coil on-time self extracting clamps Fuel Injector Features • The VT 275 fuel system uses electro-hydraulic injectors. The injectors utilize lube oil pressurized by the high-pressure pump to provide the mechanical force needed to inject fuel into the cylinders. Each injector has two coils. 56 • The IDM selectively signals the coils with 48 volts to control the position of the spool valve that directs oil flow into and out of each injector. After being positioned, the spool is held in position with residual magnetism. The coils draw 20 amps. International® VT 275 V6 Engine • No special tools are required to remove the injector from their bores. The injectors are selfextracted from their bore when the hold down clamp is removed. INJECTOR OPERATION OIL INLET FROM RAIL Spool Valve • The open and close coils move the spool valve from side to side using magnetic force. • The spool valve has two positions. When the valve is in the open position, oil flows from the high pressure oil rail into the injector. When the valve is in the closed position, oil drains from the injector back to the crankcase. COIL COIL SPOOL Intensifier Piston • Since the intensifier piston is approximately seven times greater in surface area than the plunger, the fuel pressure under the plunger is approximately seven times greater than the injection control pressure. INTENSIFIER PISTON Barrel & Plunger • The barrel and plunger of the injector is where high fuel pressure is generated by the movement of the plunger. PLUNGER • Plunger coating reduces the possibility of scuffing and poor performance. Nozzle BARREL FUEL INLET • The nozzle needle opens when fuel pressure, pushing on the bevel of the needle, is greater than the spring pressure holding the needle closed. At that point, the needle lifts and fuel under high pressure passes through the nozzle holes. NEEDLE NOZZLE NOZZLE HOLES International® VT 275 V6 Engine 57 INJECTOR OPERATION Fill • During the fill stage, the spool valve is in the closed position. High pressure oil from the oil rail cannot pass through the spool valve. • Low pressure fuel passes through the fuel inlet check valve and fills the plunger cavity. • The needle control spring holds the needle on its seat so that fuel cannot enter the combustion chamber. Oil Pressure High Pressure Oil Atmosphereic Pressure Fuel Pressure Fuel Supply Pressure Above 3100 PSI Injection • The injector drive module energizes the open coil, and the spool valve moves to the open position. The Injector Drive Module turns off the current to the coil, but the spool remains in the open position. • High pressure oil flows to the intensifier piston. Fuel pressure builds when the plunger moves downward. The fuel inlet check ball seats due to an increase in fuel pressure under the plunger. • When fuel pressure rises above the valve opening pressure, the nozzle needle lifts off its seat and injection begins. Oil Pressure High Pressure Oil Atmosphereic Pressure Fuel Pressure Fuel Supply Pressure Above 3100 PSI 58 International® VT 275 V6 Engine INJECTOR OPERATION End of injection • When the injector drive module determines that the correct amount of fuel has been delivered, it sends a current to the close-coil of the injector. The spool valve closes, and high pressure oil flow into the injector stops. • Oil above the intensifier piston flows past the spool valve through the exhaust ports out into the valve cover area. The intensifier piston and plunger return under spring pressure to the fill position. • Fuel pressure under the plunger decreases until the nozzle needle control spring forces the needle back onto its seat and injection stops. Oil Pressure High Pressure Oil Atmosphereic Pressure Fuel Pressure Fuel Supply Pressure Above 3100 PSI OIL INLET Injector Sealing • The injector has two replaceable O-rings on the outside of the body. These O-rings seal the fuel inlet area. In addition, the injector has a copper gasket where the nozzle passes through the cylinder head into the combustion chamber. • The oil inlet o-ring is contained in the top of the injector. This o-ring can not be replaced. CONNECTOR O-RING • The injector has two coils with a single 4 pin pigtail lead that connects to the valve cover gasket pass-though connecter pigtail. O-RINGS NOZZLE GASKET International® VT 275 V6 Engine 59 ® LUBRICATION SYSTEM • • • • • Crankshaft driven lube oil pump Integrated oil cooler External oil pressure regulator Easy access canister oil filter Piston cooling jets System Features OIL FILTER ADAPTER • The crankshaft driven oil pump is located behind the vibration damper and is integrated into the front cover. • The oil pressure regulator valve is located in the front cover below the oil pump and is accessed by removing the pressure regulator end plug. GEROTOR OIL PUMP • The oil cooler is located under the oil cooler cover in the engine's Vee. The cooler occupies a portion of the space in the high-pressure reservoir. • The oil filter is a canister style filter located on top of the engine. • Oil spray through the piston cooling jets is used to reduce piston crown temperatures. OIL PRESSURE REGULATOR 60 International® VT 275 V6 Engine LUBRICATION SYSTEM Diagnostic EOPS port Oil filter EOT Primary balancer bushing Filter bypass Cam Main bushing bearing Rod bearing Lifter Dual turbocharger Piston Cooling tube To oil pan Oil cooler Cooler bypass Oil reservoir for high-pressure pump 0.95 qts To high-pressure oil system Oil Pump Pump regulator 75 psi System Operation • Oil is drawn from the oil pan through the pick-up tube, upper oil pan, lower crankcase and the front cover passage that leads to the oil pump gear set. The oil is moved under pressure by the crank-driven gear set to the outlet port of the pump where pressurized oil is exposed to the pressure regulator valve. If the pressure is high, the excess oil is returned to the inlet side of the pump. Oil then enters the vertical passage in the crankcase that takes the oil to the oil cooler cover. • Oil entering the oil cooler cover is directed to the cooler and oil cooler bypass valve. If the oil is cold and thick, the bypass allows oil to enter the filter without moving through the cooler. After passing through the cooler, oil enters the oil adapter assembly and is directed to the filter. The top of the filter standpipe Right side contains the oil filter bypass valve, which allows oil to bypass the filter if the filter is restricted. After passing through the filter, oil returns to the cooler cover assembly and is directed to the high-pressure pump reservoir and the crankcase passages. • Cooled and filtered oil enters two oil passages at the top of the crankcase. The right passage leads to the right bank oil galley where oil is directed to the crankshaft main bearings, camshaft, right bank lifters, and the right bank piston cooling jets. The left passage leads to the left bank oil gallery where oil is directed to the left bank lifters and cooling jets. Spray from the cooling jets removes heat from the crown of the pistons. International® VT 275 V6 Engine Left side • Lubrication of the connecting rod bearings is through drilled passages from the main bearing journals to the rod journals. • Each lifter directs oil up the hollow push rod to the rocker arm, where oil from the push rod splashlubricates the rocker arm and valve stem. The rear gear train is lubricated by splash oil thrown off the rear main bearing and drain oil from the injection pressure regulator. 61 LUBRICATION SYSTEM LOWER PAN Upper and Lower Oil Pan • The VT 275 uses a two-piece oil pan. The upper oil pan is cast aluminum and serves to adapt the lower sheet metal pan to the crankcase. The upper pan also serves as a baffle to keep oil in the pan away from the crankshaft. PICK-UP TUBE UPPER PAN • The pick-up tube bolts to the upper oil pan. The upper pan has a cast passage that connects the pick-up tube to the lower crankcase. • The upper pan is sealed on both sides with a push-in-place gasket. Front Cover Oil Flow • Oil flows from the lower crankcase to the oil pump through a passage in the back of the front cover. When the crankshaft turns the oil pump, oil pulled from the oil pan is pushed from a passage in the front cover to the vertical passage in the crankcase that takes oil to the oil cooler cover. Two dowels in the front cover ensure the oil pump is concentric with the crankshaft. • All of the passages from the front cover to the crankcase are sealed with a silicon-inmetal, one-piece gasket. 62 International® VT 275 V6 Engine LUBRICATION SYSTEM Gerotor Pump • The gerotor style oil pump is integrated into the front cover with the gear set driven off two flats on the nose of the crankshaft. The gear set rides directly on the surface of the crankcase front cover. DOWEL PIN COVER • The gears are a matched set, and should be marked before disassembly so they can be reassembled with the same side facing out. • The oil pump front cover is located with two dowel pins and sealed with a press-inplace gasket. DOWEL PIN GEAR SET Oil Pressure Regulator Valve • The oil pressure regulator valve is responsible for regulating the maximum pressure in the lubrication system. The regulator, which can be removed with the engine in the chassis, is located in the front cover just below the gerotor oil pump cover. REGULATOR PISTON PLUG REGULATOR HOUSING • The face of the regulator piston is exposed to the pressurized oil. When pressure exceeds 75 psi, the piston is depressed against spring pressure enough to expose a port that allows excess oil to be relieved to the suction side of the pump. REGULATOR SPRING International® VT 275 V6 Engine 63 LUBRICATION SYSTEM OIL COOLER COVER Oil Cooler • The stacked-plate type oil cooler is mounted to the bottom of the oil cooler cover. When the cooler cover is set in place on the crankcase, the cooler sets in the high-pressure oil reservoir. The water pump circulates coolant through the cooler to remove excess heat from the engine oil. HIGH PRESSURE OIL RESERVOIR OIL COOLER Oil Cooler Housing and Oil Filter Base • The oil cooler cover, oil filter base, and oil filter adapter all contain passages that direct the flow of oil. In addition, the oil cooler cover and the oil filter base both contain passages that direct the flow of coolant. • The coolant and oil are separated by multiple plates that create passages in the oil cooler. The cooler cover and cooler are not serviced as separate components. • The volume of the reservoir, with the oil cooler in place, is approximately one quart. UNFILTERED OIL FROM THE OIL PUMP COOLED OIL TO THE FILTER FILTERED AND COOLED OIL COOLANT TO THE COOLER OIL COOLER COVER • Oil is routed from a passage in the crankcase to the oil cooler cover inlet where oil is directed rearward to the oil cooler. Oil flows through the cooler and is then directed through the oil filter adapter. Oil passes through the filter and down the standpipe, then back to the oil filter base where it's directed to the reservoir and the main oil galleries. Coolant is directed from a passage in the crankcase to the to the cooler cover. Coolant passes through the oil cooler and exits at the EGR cooler supply port. OIL TO THE COOLER OIL FILTER BASE • The oil filter adapter mounts the oil pressure switch and the oil temperature sensor, and feeds oil to the turbocharger lubrication line. 64 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COOLANT TO THE EGR COOLER LUBRICATION SYSTEM Oil Filter FILTER LID • The VT 275 uses a cartridge style oil filter located on top of the engine. FILTER ELEMENT • When the oil filter is removed, the oil filter drain valve opens to allow oil to drain from the filter housing, through the adapter, and back to the oil pan. The oil filter element snaps onto the lid. This allows the filter element to be extracted without contact with the element. • Note: The oil filter lid should be removed before draining the oil from the oil pan so that the oil can drain from the filter housing into the oil pan. OIL FILTER HOUSING FILTER BYPASS VALVE Oil Filter Bypass • The filter bypass valve is located at the top of the filter standpipe. The top of the oil filter element has a hole that matches the location of the valve. Unfiltered oil surrounds the filter, including the top of the filter and the bypass valve. The valve opens if there is a pressure difference of 32 psi between the outside of the paper filter material, which is unfiltered oil, and the inside of the filter paper. STANDPIPE OIL FILTER HOUSING International® VT 275 V6 Engine 65 LUBRICATION SYSTEM Oil Filter Base and Valves • Oil enters the filter base from the oil cooler through the anti-drain back valve. The valve is not spring loaded; instead the valve closes under its own weight when the engine is shut off. This keeps the oil in the filter housing from draining back into the lube system. • The oil cooler bypass valve is in the filter base. This valve allows the oil to bypass the cooler when cooler inlet pressure is 25 psi higher than the unfiltered side of the oil filter. This protects the cooler from highpressure during cold start up. ANTI-DRAIN BACK VALVE COOLER BYPASS VALVE Reservoir and Screen • The oil reservoir for the high-pressure oil pump is located under the oil cooler cover in the crankcase Vee. The reservoir holds approximately one quart after the cooler and cooler cover are put in place. • The passage at the bottom of the reservoir is for oil feed to the high-pressure pump. The screen in the reservoir filters any large debris that may be in the oil before it gets to the high-pressure pump. HIGH PRESSURE RESERVOIR SCREEN 66 International® VT 275 V6 Engine LUBRICATION SYSTEM Turbocharger Feed Line TURBOCHARGER OIL LINE SUPPLY • Pressurized oil from the filtered passage in the oil-filter adapter is supplied to each center section of the twin turbocharger. The oil is transferred through a hose to the turbocharger. • The turbocharger ends of the hose are sealed with face seals. The oil filter adapter end of the hose pushes into a cavity on the filter adapter and is sealed with O-rings and retained by a single cap screw. OIL OUTLET OIL FILTER ADAPTER Crankcase Oil and Coolant Passages 2) LEFT BANK 5) FILTER DRAIN 1) FEED TO COOLER 3) RIGHT BANK • There are six crankcase passages near the oil reservoir. 1. Oil feed to the cooler: Directs oil from the pump to the oil cooler. 2. Left Bank: Feeds filtered and cooled oil to the left bank tappets and piston cooling jets. 6) TO HIGH PRESSURE PUMP 3. Right Bank: Feeds filtered and cooled oil to the right bank tappets, piston cooling jets, and the main bearings and cam bearings. 4) COOLANT TO OIL COOLER 4. Coolant: Feeds coolant from the water pump to the oil cooler and the EGR cooler. 5. Filter Drain: Allows drain oil from the filter to reach the oil pan when the filter is removed. 6. Reservoir: Feed to the high-pressure pump. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 67 ® COOLING SYSTEM • • • • Modular water pump Stainless steel injector sleeves Stainless steel glow plug sleeves Extended life coolant System Features and Flow • The modular water pump mounts in the front cover and draws coolant from the radiator via the coolant inlet on the front cover. The water pump pushes coolant through two ports on the front cover to matching ports on the crankcase. Coolant flows through the crankcase and cylinder passages, then returns to the front cover. Coolant is then directed to the thermostat where coolant flows to either the bypass port or the radiator, depending on the coolant temperature. Coolant leaving the water pump is also directed to the oil cooler where it travels between the plates of the oil cooler and then to the EGR cooler. 68 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COOLING SYSTEM Front Cover Flow • Coolant is drawn into the water inlet by the water pump. Coolant is discharged from the pump to the crankcase coolant jackets. Coolant is also routed from the front cover through a crankcase passage to the oil cooler cover. FROM THE INTAKE MANIFOLD HEATER SUPPLY TO RADIATOR HEATER RETURN • Return coolant from the crankcase coolant jackets is directed to the thermostat by the front cover. If the thermostat is open, coolant flows to the radiator to be cooled. If the thermostat is closed, coolant is returned to the water pump via a bypass circuit in the front cover. FROM RADIATOR Crankcase Flow FROM THE INTAKE MANIFOLD • Coolant is directed out of the front cover to the crankcase through three passages. Two of the passages route coolant through the crankcase water jackets to cool the cylinders and cylinder heads. The third passage routes coolant to the oil cooler via a passage in the crankcase. • There are three passages for coolant return to the crankcase. Two receive coolant from the crankcase and one receives coolant from the intake manifold. FRONT COVER Coolant Flow/Oil Cooler • Engine coolant is routed to the oil cooler cover via a passage in the crankcase. TO INTAKE MANIFOLD • The cooler cover directs the coolant through the oil cooler and then into the EGR cooler via the intake manifold. • The oil cooler bundle is sealed at the cover with two O-rings at both the inlet and outlet pipe areas. To prevent mixing of oil and coolant, the area between the two seals is vented through a weep hole on the cooler cover. This allows leakage past either seal to weep out of the cooler cover. OIL COOLER International® VT 275 V6 Engine 69 COOLING SYSTEM EGR Cooler Flow • Coolant flow from the oil cooler is directed through the cooler cover to the intake manifold. Coolant flows from the manifold into the EGR cooler then back into the manifold to return to the front cover. • The EGR cooler is used to reduce the temperature of the exhaust before it reaches the EGR valve. EGR Cooler Seal EGR COOLER SEAL O-RING • The intake manifold fits over the oil cooler cover outlet to receive coolant flow from the oil cooler. The EGR cooler bolts to the manifold and has two coolant ports connected through O-rings to the manifold. The EGR cooler inlet to oil cooler cover seal consists of both a rubber seal and an O-ring. Glow Plug and Injector Sleeves • The VT 275 uses stainless steel injector sleeves to seal coolant from the injectors. The injector sleeves are used to aid in the transfer of heat from each injector to the coolant. The injector sleeves are replaceable. GLOW PLUG SLEEVE • Stainless steel glow plug sleeves are used to seal coolant from the glow plugs. The glow plugs sleeves are also replaceable. INJECTOR SLEEVE 70 International® VT 275 V6 Engine COOLING SYSTEM Service Intervals • The VT 275 is designed to use Extended Life Coolants. Service Intervals for the VT 275 Engine • Extended life coolant can be identified by its red/orange color in contrast to conventional green or blue antifreeze. Change Oil and Filter • The service interval is 5 years, 300,000 miles or 12,000 hours if the chemical extender is added at 30 months, 150,000 miles, or 6000 hours. Primary and Secondary Fuel Filters Belt Routing 22,500 mi., or 18 months 300,000 miles / 12,000 hours / 5 years Coolant • Note: Do not add supplemental coolant additives like DCA4 to long-life coolant. *7,500 mi., or 6 months (Extended Life Coolant) * See the Engine Operation and Maintenance Manual for the hours and gallons of fuel component for the correct oil change interval. Alternator • The VT 275 uses one accessory drive belt. The belt must be routed correctly for the proper operation of the cooling fan, alternator, water pump and power steering pump. • The engine uses a combination of grooved and smooth idler pulleys. The large diameter smooth pulley is located to the left of the engine's center when viewed from the front. (if extender is added at 30 months, 150,000 miles, or 6,000 hours) Smooth idler pulley Grooved idler pulley Grooved idler pulley Belt tensioner Smooth idler pulley • The smaller smooth pulley is the lower idler on the right side of the front cover when viewed from the front of the engine. Power steering pump A/C Compressor Vibration Damper International® VT 275 V6 Engine 71 ® UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs Removing Flywheel Adapter RREEAARR CCOOVVEERR • The flywheel adapter can be removed using the edge of a heel bar by using the adjacent rear cover bolt for support. The heel bar may also be inserted into the adapter opening and supported on a crankshaft flange bolt to push the adapter off. FLYWHEEL ADAPTER HEEL BAR Removing Seal • Drill two small holes to fit the screw end of a slide hammer. Insert the slide hammer and pull the seal from the rear cover. The new seal is assembled with a wear sleeve. The wear sleeve must not be removed from the seal prior to installation. REAR MAIN SEAL SLIDE HAMMER REAR COVER 72 International® VT 275 V6 Engine UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Seal Installer Base • Place a 360° bead of Loctite® Hydraulic Sealant on the outer circumference of the crankshaft flange. Bolt the base of the rear main seal/wear sleeve installer to the crankshaft. Make sure the crankshaft dowel pin is in the recess provided in the face of the tool. Lubricate the outer diameter of the seal with a 50/50 mixture of soap and water (do not use any other lubricant). Side the seal over the base. SEAL INSTALLER BASE Installing Seal & Wear Sleeve • Position the rear seal/wear sleeve installer on the base. Place the thrust bearing and drive nut on the threaded shaft. Tighten the nut until the rear main oil seal bottoms out in the rear oil seal carrier. After the seal bottoms out remove the installer tool and base and install the flywheel adapter, making sure the dowel pin is lined up with the adapter holes. SEAL INSTALLER Flexplate Bolts • The flexplate bolts are not reusable. Install ten new flexplate bolts. Tighten all bolts in sequence to specification using the torque sequence. Use an alternating pattern across the center to evenly pull down the flexplate. 2 1 5 7 10 9 8 6 International® VT 275 V6 Engine 3 4 73 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Turbocharger Removal • Remove the oil supply line at the turbocharger center sections and the oil filter adapter. Remove the air inlet duct clamp, duct mounting bolt and the breather tubing from the breather. Loosen and remove the four exhaust flange bolts. EXHAUST FLANGE Removing Mounting Bolts • Remove three turbocharger mounting bolts that mount the low-pressure turbocharger turbine housing to the high-pressure pump cover. LOW PRESSURE TURBINE OUTLET Removing Turbocharger • Lift the turbocharger from the highpressure pump cover. 74 International® VT 275 V6 Engine UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Replacing O-Rings • Before reinstalling the turbocharger, replace the oil drain O-ring and the oil supply line O-rings. TURBOCHARGER DRAIN O-RING Turbocharger Installation • Lower the Turbocharger onto the highpressure pump cover. Install the three pump cover mounting bolts and handtighten. Apply anti-seize compound to the four exhaust pipe flange bolts and install hand tight with a new gasket. Loosen the crossover tube clamp and the turbinemating clamp. • The following torque procedure should be followed to assure the turbocharger parts are allowed to align correctly to the exhaust pipe assembly. First, torque the three turbocharger to pump-cover mounting bolts. Torque Turbine Mating Clamp • Second, torque the exhaust pipe assembly to the manifolds. Third, torque the exhaust pipe to EGR cooler clamp. Fourth, torque the exhaust pipe assembly to the turbocharger inlet. This procedure correctly aligns the exhaust assembly; now torque the crossover tube clamp and the turbine-mating clamp. This procedure ensures that the two turbochargers are aligned before the components are tightened. TURBINE MATING CLAMP International® VT 275 V6 Engine 75 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Replacing Turbocharger Crossover Seal • Place the holding fixture of the crossover tube seal installing tool into a vise. Clamp the crossover pipe into the fixture. Screw the threads of the removal tool into the seal. CROSSOVER TUBE HOLDING FIXTURE Removing Seal • Install a side hammer into the seal remover tool and pull the seal out. SEAL PULLER Installing Seal • Drive a new seal into the crossover tube using the seal driver and a hammer. Install a new O-ring on the other end of the crossover tube. Assemble the crossover tube to the turbocharger so the clamp bolt will be vertical with the turbocharger on the engine. A small amount of soap and water solution maybe needed to get the seal over the turbine inlet. SEAL INSTALLER 76 International® VT 275 V6 Engine UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Removing EGR Valve • The EGR puller must be used when removing the EGR valve or the valve and intake manifold may be damaged. EGR VALVE PULLER • To remove the EGR valve, first remove the EGR valve mounting bolts that hold the valve to the intake manifold. • Rotate the valve counterclockwise until the pins at the ends of the EGR puller arms will slip under the EGR valve housing tabs and into the holes. Hook the other end of the puller arms to the puller beam. Position the other two arms over the holes in the intake manifold. Turn the shaft clockwise to remove the EGR valve. EGR VALVE Injector Removal • After removing the valve cover, remove the rear port plug. The port plug may pull the case-to-head tube from the branch tube assembly. Remove the seven bolts that hold the oil rail to the rocker arm carrier. Pull the rail from the head. REAR PORT PLUG RAIL BOLTS • Oil is not drained from the rail prior to removal, so oil will leak from the rail as it is removed. • Note: The port plug and case-to-head tube's O-rings are not replaceable. The port plug and case-to-head tube must be replaced if the O-rings are damaged. Injector Connectors • The injector connectors on the VT 275 pass through the rocker lever carrier. Disconnect the injector harness from the injectors by depressing the metal bail on the harness connector body while pulling the harness connector from the injector. To remove the injector pass-through connector, use the Injector Connector Remover (ZTSE4650) or push the open end of a 12-point 19mm socket over the connector to release the clips. Carefully pull the connector body from the carrier. The injectors will be extracted when the injector hold-down clamp bolts are removed. 19mm 12 POINT INJECTOR PASS THROUGH International® VT 275 V6 Engine 77 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES O-Ring Replacement OIL INLET CONNECTOR O-RING • Carefully remove and replace the external O-rings. The injector nozzle gasket can be installed using a 12-point 9mm deep-well socket. The socket is used to apply even pressure around the gasket during installation. • The connector O-rings should be replaced each time the injector is removed from the cylinder head. O-RINGS INJECTOR PASS THROUGH NOZZLE GASKET PASS THROUGH CONNECTOR • Note: Do not attempt to remove the oil inlet O-ring. It is not replaceable. If the Oring is damaged, the injector must be replaced. Do not pull on the wires while working on the injector. Injector Installation • Lubricate the upper and lower O-rings on the body of the injector. Place the holddown clamp lug into the notch of the injector body. Lower the injector into the bore and use a #40 Torx bit to tighten the bolt to the specified torque. Install the injector pass through connector into the carrier, making sure that the connector snaps in fully. • Lubricate the internal O-ring at the top of the injector. HOLD DOWN CLAMP • Install the rail over the injectors and start the bolts by hand. Torque the rail bolts using the proper sequence. Case-to-Head Tube Installation • If the tube does not pull out with the port plug it will need to be removed after the rail is removed using the Case-to-head Tube Removal Tool (ZTSE4694). Before installation, lubricate the O-rings on the case-to-head tube and port plugs. Push the port plug into the tube and insert into the oil rail. Torque the port plug to specification. REAR PORT PLUG CASE-TO-HEAD TUBE • Note: The O-rings are not serviceable. Inspect the O-rings and replace the caseto-head tube and port plug if the seals are damaged. 78 International® VT 275 V6 Engine UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Position Crankshaft for Rocker Removal • Special Tool ZTSE4697 can be used to service the rocker arms, valve bridges or push rods. Rotate the crankshaft until the vibration damper dowel pin is in the twelve o'clock position. Wiggle the rocker arms for number 1 cylinder. If the rockers do not move freely, rotate the crankshaft one complete revolution. The rockers should now be loose on number 1 cylinder. Cylinders number 1, 2 and 4 can now be serviced. Rotate the crankshaft one revolution to service cylinders 3, 5 and 6. DOWEL PIN HOLE Installing Spring Compressor Base • Remove the injector of the cylinder to be serviced. Insert the injector's hold-down clamp into the base of tool. Install the assembly as if installing an injector. Snug the hold-down bolt but do not torque. • Note: Use clean shop towels to plug any oil drain holes before removing any components. Compressor Plate • Install the valve spring compressor plate on top of the valve bridges. With the plate in position, install the compressor bolt. Turn the bolt with a hand wrench until the plate contacts the top of the base. The rocker arms may now be removed. If the valve bridges must be serviced, back out the compressor bolt and remove the plate to gain access. Reinstall the rocker arms using the compressor tool. • Caution: Be careful not to drop the rocker arm ball into the engine. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 79 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Cylinder Head Removal: Rocker Carrier • The rocker arm carrier is held in place with six small bolts and eight cylinder head bolts. • Four additional small bolts at the top hold the cylinder head to the crankcase. • Note: When any of the eight large cylinder head bolts are removed the head gasket and the cylinder head bolts must be replaced. HEAD BOLTS (8) 8MM BOLTS (6) Cylinder Head Removal Continued VALVE BRIDGE (INTAKE) • The rocker arms, push rods and valve bridges must be installed in their original position during reassembly. • The valve bridges can be marked with a permanent marker during disassembly. • Note: If the rocker arms and/or valve bridges are not correctly installed premature valve train wear may result. VALVE BRIDGE (EXHAUST) 80 International® VT 275 V6 Engine UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Installing Head and Carrier • Verify that the cylinder head dowel sleeves are installed in the crankcase. Install the new head gasket and two guide pins (locally made). Install the head and the four 8mm bolts across the top of the head. Install the push rods with copper ends to the rocker and the valve bridges in their proper location. INTAKE ROCKER EXHAUST ROCKER ROCKER LEVER CARRIER • Rotate the crankshaft until the damper dowel-pin hole is at six o'clock. Make sure the rocker arm carrier dowels are in the head and install the carrier. Verify dowel engagement into the carrier as the head bolts are tightened to specifications. Intake Manifold Gaskets TAB INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The intake manifold gaskets must be oriented correctly upon reassembly. After the intake manifold is assembled to the engine, the gasket would be in the position as shown with the tabs facing up. To aid in reassembly, the gaskets can be held to the intake manifold by pushing the manifold bolts through the captured rubber washers on the gasket. 81 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Cylinder Head Torque Sequence • Install new 14mm head bolts (lightly lubricated). Torque bolts 1 through 8 in sequence to 65 lb-ft (88 Nm). • Torque bolts 1, 3, 5, and 7 to 85 lb-ft (116 Nm). • Torque bolts 2, 4, 6, and 8 to 85 lb-ft (116 Nm). • Tighten all bolts 1 through 8 in sequence 90 degrees. • Tighten all bolts 1 through 8 a second time 90 degrees. • Tighten all bolts numbered 1 through 8 a third time 90 degrees. • Tighten all bolts 9 through 12 in sequence to 18 lb-ft. • Tighten all bolts 9 through 12 in sequence to 23 lb-ft. Vibration Damper • If the vibration damper bolts are removed, they are not reusable and must be discarded. Torque the new bolts to specifications in the proper sequence. 82 International® VT 275 V6 Engine 4 1 2 3 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Connecting Rod • The VT 275 engine uses fractured connecting rods. Do not alter the fractured mating surface of the rod or cap. Any alteration of the surface will result in severe engine damage. If the fracture surface is damaged by dropping the rod or by tightening the wrong cap to a rod, the connecting rod must be discarded. CONNECTING ROD CAP FRACTURED SURFACES Crankshaft Flange Bolts FLANGE • The crankshaft flange is pressed on and bolted to the crankshaft during manufacturing. To prevent engine damage do not remove the crankshaft flange bolts under any circumstances. CRANKSHAFT FLANGE BOLTS International® VT 275 V6 Engine 83 UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Rear Cover Removal COOLANT DRAIN PLUG LOWER CRANKCASE REAR COVER • Remove the rear cover bolts. Use a rubber hammer to loosen the cover from the crankcase but do not remove. Separate the rear cover from the crankcase gasket and the high-pressure pump cover gasket. • Caution: Failure to separate the rear cover from the crankcase gasket and pump cover gasket could result in damage to both gaskets. Engine removal and disassembly would be required to replace the lower crankcase gasket. Replacing the pump cover gasket would require the turbocharger, intake manifold and pump cover to be removed. Front Cover Removal • A small quantity of liquid gasket (RTV) is used at the crankcase to lower crankcase joint. Cut the sealant between the gasket and the front cover and between the gasket and the crankcase before removing the cover. FRONT COVER LOWER CRANKCASE • Caution: To prevent engine damage cut the sealant where the crankcase and lower crankcase meet when removing the front cover. Failure to adequately cut the sealant prior to remove the front cover or the front cover gasket, could cause the lower crankcase gasket to be pulled out. Complete engine disassembly will be required to replace the crankcase gasket. Primary Balance Weight Removal COUNTERWEIGHT THRUSTPLATE 84 International® VT 275 V6 Engine • The primary balancer shaft runs within the camshaft and turns the balance counterweight. To remove the counterweight, remove the 10mm balance shaft counterweight bolt and the three 6mm thrust plate bolts (removal of the third bolt will require rotating the crankshaft to uncover the bolt). The thrust plate fits in a groove cut in the counterweight. The difference between the thickness of the thrust plate and the width of the groove cut in the counterweight determines the primary shaft endplay. The counterweight is timed to the primary balance shaft by a flat on the shaft and a flat on the counterweight. UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES Balance Shaft Removal • The primary balance shaft rides within two bushings in the hollow camshaft. With the rear cover and the counterweight removed, the shaft can be extracted through the rear of the camshaft. The inner camshaft bushings are non-serviceable. CAMSHAFT GEAR PRIMARY BALANCER DRIVEN GEAR Balance Shaft Timing • The balance shaft is timed during reassembly by aligning the dot on the balance shaft gear with the dot on the crankshaft flange gear. TIMING PIN HOLE • With the dots aligned, the flex plate pin, the balance shaft gear dot, the flange gear dot and the timing-pin hole will be in a straight line. FLEX PLATE PIN TIMING DOTS Camshaft Timing • Camshaft timing is set during assembly. After installing the camshaft and the balance shaft, align the timing pin through the hole in each gear and insert the timing pin tool through the gears until it engages the crankcase hole. Align the dot on the balance shaft with the dot on the face of the crankshaft flange gear as the crankshaft is lowered into the crankcase main bearings. TIMING PIN HOLE • With the dots aligned, the flex plate pin, the balance shaft gear dot, the flange gear dot and the timing-pin hole will be in a straight line. TIMING DOTS International® VT 275 V6 Engine 85 SPECIAL TOOLS ZTSE4687 ZTSE4690 • Crankshaft Timing Tool ZTSE4517 ZTSE4670 • Front Wear Sleeve Remover ZTSE4666 • Glow Plug Connector Remover/Installer ZTSE4698 • IPR Valve Socket Part No. 180971C91 • Oil Fill Extension ZTSE4518 • Fuel Inlet Restriction Adapter ZTSE4515A • Rear Seal/Wear Sleeve installer ZTSE4581 • Rear Wear Sleeve Removal Tool 86 • ICP Adapter / Plug Kit International® VT 275 V6 Engine • Quick Release Tool SPECIAL TOOLS ZTSE4676 ZTSE4669 • Turbocharger Crossover Seal Remover/Installer ZTSE4545 • EGR Valve Puller ZTSE4685 • EGR Cooler Test Plates ZTSE4559 • EGR Valve Puller Arm (offset) ZTSE4694 • Intake Port Magnetic Covers ZTSE4531 • Case-to-head Tube Removal Tool ZTSE4532 • Glow Plug Sleeve Remover ZTSE4528 • Glow Plug Sleeve Installer ZTSE4529 • Injector Sleeve Remover • Injector Sleeve Installer International® VT 275 V6 Engine 87 SPECIAL TOOLS ZTSE4681 ZTSE4525 • Fuel Pressure Gauge • Oil Cooler Test Plate / Pressure Adapter ZTSE4693 ZTSE4695 • Relay Breakout Harness ZTSE4664 ZTSE4696 • EGR Valve Breakout Harness ZTSE7559 • Fuel Pressure Test Adapter ZTSE4510 • Vacuum Pump and Gauge ZTSE4665 • Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter ZTSE4650 • 12-Pin Brakeout Harness 88 • MAF / IAT Sensor Breakout Harness International® VT 275 V6 Engine • Injector Connector Remover SPECIAL TOOLS ZTSE4661 ZTSE4680 • Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket • Front Seal Installer / Wear Sleeve Installer ZTSE4557 ZTSE4526 • Oil Cooler Reservoir / High-Pressure Pump Magnetic Covers • Fuel / Oil Pressure Test Coupler ZTSE4542 ZTSE4682 • Intake Manifold Pressure Test Cap • Fuel Pressure Test Fitting (used for oil pressure measurement) ZTSE4409 ZTSE4594 • Gauge Bar Tool International® VT 275 V6 Engine • ICP System Test Adapter 89 HARD START NO START DIAGNOSTICS Technician Hard Start and No Start Diagnostics ® Date VT 275 Hours Unit No. VIN 4. KOEO Standard Test WARNING To avoid serious personal injury, possible death or damage to the engine or vehicle, read all safety instructions in the "Safety information" section of Engine Diagnostics Manual EGES-305 before doing procedures on this form. Do all tests in sequence unless otherwise stated. Doing a test out of sequence could cause incorrect results. If a problem was found and corrected, it is not necessary to complete the rest of the form unless a starting concern remains. See Appendix A in EGES-305 for engine specifications. Transmission Manual Auto Truck build 8. Engine Oil Leaks Contaminated oil (fuel or coolant) Oil gr ade, visco sity, and level Kilometers or Miles and hours on oil Use EST to run KOEO Standard Test Active DTCs Notes See "Hard Start and No Start Diagnostics"- Section 5 in EGES-305. Use figures and additional information to do each test or procedure on this form. Record results on this form. 0 For starting concerns with ECT temperatures below 16 C (60 0F), do Tests 14 and 15. Service as necessary. If a problem was found and corrected, it is not necessary to complete the rest of this form - unless a starting concern remains. K ilometers Miles Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. If an EST is not available, see "Standard Test using Cruise Switches" in Section 3. Comments 9. Intake and Exhaust Restriction 5. KOEO Injector Test Air inlet and duct Hoses and piping Filter minder Intake and exhaust restriction Use EST to run KOEO Injector Test. Active DTCs Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. Comments See Appendix B in EGES-305 or Form CGE 310-1 for Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). 1. Initial Ignition Key On (Do not start) 6. EST Data List Check for WAIT TO START lamp Check amber WATER IN FUEL lamp Listen for injector precycle. (Duration is temp. dependent.) Listen for hum or buzz from electronic fuel pump. Enter data in the Cranking Spec column. Monitor KOEO values and enter in KOEO column. Crank engine and monitor DATA for 20 seconds. Enter data in the Actual Spec column. Comme nts P ID KOEO Cranking spec Actual spec VB AT RPM 2. Engine Cranking ICP Does engine crank? Check cranking rpm. (Instrument panel) Check smoke color. Check Spec EOP E G RP Actual rpm Smoke color 3. Diagnostic Trouble Codes Install Electronic Service T ool (EST) . Use EST to read DTCs. Use EST to check KOEO values for temperature and pressure sensors. 7. Engine Systems Leaks Loose connections Active DTCs Inactive DTCs Abnormal sensor values Suspect sensor/value If voltage is below spec, see "ECM Power" in Section 7. If no rpm is noted, check DTCs. If ICP is below spec, do "Low ICP System Pressure - Test 13. If EOP is below spec, see "Engine Symptoms Diagnostics" in Section 4 and "EOP switch" in Section 7. Yes No Fue l Oil Coolant Electrical Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. If an EST is not available, see "Standard Test using Cruise Switches" in Section 3. 90 International® VT 275 V6 Engine Air 10. Fuel Supply System Measure pressure at the secondary fuel filter housing test port. If concerns were not found in test 10.1, do not continue testing fuel system. 10.1 Pressure, quality, and aerated fuel Fuel in tank Yes No Hear FP running Yes No First sample A e r at e d f u e l Yes No Contaminated fuel Yes No Second sample Aerated fuel (if needed) Contaminated fuel Yes No Yes No Spec Actual 10.2 Fuel pump Discharge discharge pressure pressure Spec Actual 10.3 Fuel pump Restriction inlet restriction Spec Actual Fuel pressure K OE O If a hum can not be heard from the HFCM, verify fuel pump is being powered. Repair as necessary. If fuel has air bubbles, check for leaks in supply lines tank to HFCM. If fuel is contaminated, correct condition. If fuel pressure is low or slow to build, replace both filters and retest. If fuel pressure is below specification, do test 10.2. If pump discharge pressure is in specification, inspect fuel regulator valve. If discharge pressure is low or slow to build, do test 10.3. HARD START NO START DIAGNOSTICS Ambient temperature Engine SN Coolant temperature Engine HP Complaint Engine Family Rating Code 11. Main Power Relay Voltage to ECM 14. Glow Plug System Connect breakout harness between ECM main power relay and distribution box Crank engine and use a DMM to measure voltage to ECM. (Min 130 rpm for 20 seconds) Check voltage between connector Pin 5 and ground Instrum ent S pe c E C M c al i b r a t i o n IDM calibration Injector No. Turbocharger No. Use EST to do Output State Test for glow plugs. After 40 seconds, measure amperage and check for DTCs. If test results in 14.1 are within specification, do not continue testing the glow plug system. 14.1 Glow Plug system A ct u al Amperage DMM 14.2 Glow Plug Harness to Ground 12. Main Power Relay Voltage to IDM Connect 12 - Pin Breakout harness between engine and c ha ssi s ha r n e ss Crank engine and use a DMM to measure voltage to IDM. (Min 130 rpm for 20 seconds) Check voltage between connector Pin 12 and Pin 1. Instrum ent S pe c Actual 13. Low ICP System Pressure Do only the following tests, if ICP was not to spec during Test 6. Start and continue Test 13.1 System Function, if lube oil pressure is not a concern and terminals on the IPR valve and engine harness are not damaged or corroded. If test result is Yes for 13.1 System Function, do not do Tests 13.2 through 13.5 for low ICP. Low ICP test Question 13.1 System function IPR connectors: Corroded, bent or pushed back pins Over 3.45 Mpa (500 psi) (0.82V)? 13.2 IPR function Audible air leak? 13.3 Under valve cover leaks Audible air leak? Result Yes No Yes No Unplugged B+ applied Yes Yes No No Cylinder Head Left Right Yes Yes No No Crankcase Left Ri ght Yes No 13.4 Cylinder Head isolation Audible air leak? 13.5 High-pressure pu m p Over 3.45 Mpa (500 psi) (0.82V)? Left Yes Yes No Right Yes No No Yes No Spec Left Right 24-42 amps 24-42 amps Glow plugs LT 1 Yellow 3 Red Actual Glow plugs RT 5 2 White Yellow 4 Red 6 White Spec 0.1 -6 ohmns 14.3 Glow Plug to Ground Spec 0.1 -6 ohmns 14.4 Engine Harness 3-pin to Relay Spec <5 ohmns 14.5 Relay Operation DMM Cylinder Head Terminal Spec Battery feed B+ Relay output B+ Actual If results of 14.1 are not within spec, do test 14.2 for all g l o w p l u gs o u t o f s pe c . If results of 14.1 are 0 amps for both cylinder heads and DTC 251 was not set, do test 14.5. If DTC 251 was set, do GPC (Glow Plug Control) circuit” in Section 7. If results of 14.2 are within spec, do test 14.4. If results of 14.2 are not within spec, do test 14.3 for all g lo w p l u g s ou t o f sp e c . If results of 14.3 are within spec, replace failed glow plug harness If results of 14.3 are not within spec, replace the glow plug that was out of spec. 15. Inlet Air Heater System Install Amp Clamp around feed wire and use EST to do Output State Test for Inlet Air heater. After 4 seconds, measure amperage for heater wire. If test results in 15.1 are within specification, do not continue testing the Inlet Air Heater System. Air Heater Wire Test Spec BAT V 15.2 Voltage at Element 15.3 Resistance or Element < 5 ohms 15.4 Wiring harness continuity and resistance < 5 ohms 15.5 Relay operation Battery feed Relay output VT 275 Diagnostic Form EGED-315 International® VT 275 V6 Engine Circuit 50 +/- 5 amps 15.1 Amperage draw B+ B+ c 2004 INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION 91 PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSTICS Technician Performance Diagnostics ® Unit No. 5. Fuel Supply System WARNING To avoid serious personal injury, possible death or damage to the engine or vehicle, read all safety instructions in the "Safety information" section of Engine Diagnostics Manual EGES-305 before doing procedures on this form. Notes See "Performance Diagnostics"- Section 6 in EGES-305. Use figures and additional information to do each test or procedure on this form. Record results on this form. Do all checks in sequence unless otherwise stated. Doing a check or test out of sequence could cause incorrect results. If a problem was found and corrected, it is not necessary to complete the rest of the form unless a performance concern remains. See Appendix A in EGES-305 for engine specifications. See Appendix B in EGES-305 or Form CGE 310-1 for Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). Install Electronic Service Tool (EST). Use EST to read DTCs. Use EST to check KOEO values for temperature and pressure sensors. Active DTCs Inactive DTCs Yes No Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. To access DTCs without EST, see “Diagnostic Software Operation” - Section 3. 2. KOEO Standard Test Use EST to run KOEO Standard Test Active DTCs Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. If an EST is not available, see “Standard Test Using Cruise Switches” in Section 3. 3. KOEO Injector Test Use EST to run KOEO Injector Test. DTCs found 5.1. Pressure, quality and aerated fuel Fuel in tank Yes No Hear FP running Yes No First sample Aerated fuel Yes No Contaminated fuel Yes No Second sample Aerated fuel (if needed) Contaminated fuel Yes No Yes No Fuel pressure KOEO Spec Actual Fuel pressure low idle Spec Actual Fuel pressure high idle Spec Actual 5.2. Fuel pump discharge pressure Discharge pressure Spec Actual 5.3. Fuel pump inlet restriction Restriction Spec Actual Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. 4. Engine Oil Leaks Contaminated oil (fuel or coolant) Oil gra de, viscosity, and level Kilometers or Miles and hours on oil Comme nts If a hum can not be heard from the HFCM, verify fuel pump is being powered. Repair as necessary. If fuel has air bubbles, check for leaks in supply lines tank to HFCM. If fuel is contaminated, correct condition. If fuel pressure is low or slow to build, replace both filters and retest. If fuel pressure is still low or slow to build, do test 5.2. If pump discharge pressure is in specification, inspect fuel regulator valve. If discharge pressure is low or slow to build, do test 5.3. 6. Intake and Exhaust Restriction Auto Truck build Spec Actual Magnehelic gauge or Manometer Comment Correct problem causing out-of-specification values, before continuing. 7. KOER Standard Test Note: Engine coolant temperature must be 70 °C (158 °F) or higher. Use EST to run KOER Standard Test. Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing. International® VT 275 V6 Engine Use EST to monitor ICP and engine speed. Condition Spec Actual Low idle High idle - Initial High idle - After 2 minutes Aerated oil Yes No If ICP is high or unstable, hold at high idle for 2 minutes. Return to low idle, take oil sample, check for foam, and correct condition if oil is aerated. If oil is not aerated, disconnect ICP sensor and check for engine stability. If problem is corrected, see Operational Voltage checks for ICP sensor in Section 7 in EGES-305. If ICP still high or unstable, replace IPR and retest. 9. Injector Disable Use EST to run injector disable diagnostics to identify s uspe ct cyl in d ers . Selected cylinder EOT fAuveel rraagtee Deviation Average eng ine lo ad Deviation Base Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 Base Line Cut-off values: Fuel rate Engine load 10. Relative Compression DTCs found 92 Manual If any cylinder is suspect, do Test 12. Air inlet and duct Hose and piping Intake and exhaust restriction Measure restriction at high idle, no load. Instrument Transmission 8. Injection Control Pressure Measure pressure at the secondary fuel filter housing test port. If no concerns are found in test 5.1, do not continue testing fuel system. 1. Diagnostic Trouble Codes Abnormal sensor values Suspect sensor/value Date VT 275 Kilometers Miles Hours VIN Turn ignition key to ON. Use EST to run Relative Compression Test. C r a n k e ng i n e f o l l o w i n g E S T i n s t r u c t i o n s . Relative Compression Test Value Cylinder 1 Relative Compression Cylinder 2 Relative Compression Cylinder 3 Relative Compression Cylinder 4 Relative Compression Cylinder 5 Relative Compression Cylinder 6 Relative Compression If a Relative Compression Test and Injector Disable Test identify a suspect cylinder, check for a mechanical problem. If a Relative Compression Test does not identify a suspect cylinder, but the Injector Disable Test does, replace suspect injector(s). PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSTICS Ambient temperature Engine SN Coolant temperature Engine HP Complaint Engine Family Rating Code ECM calibration IDM calibration Injector No. Turbocharger No. 15. Test Drive (Full load, rated speed) 11. Air Management Use EST to set engine idle speed, monitor engine load, toggle EGR valve and monitor MAF. Idle speed MAF L oa d EGR close M AF Me ss ag e S e t EGR ope n MAF DTC Set EGR close MAF DTC Set Correct problem causing messages or DTCs before restarting. 12. Boost Control 12.1. Linkage connected Yes 12.2. Linkage movement No Use EST to monitor boost pressure and engine speed. Condition Spec Sp ec Engine speed Boost Actual EST boost reading Peak HP Peak Torque If boost pressure is not to specification continue performance diagnostics; if to specification do not continue. Use EST to monitor Mass Air Flow (MAF) and engine speed. Condition Spec Sp e c Actual Yes No Air pressure - Initial movement Spec Actual Peak HP Peak Torque L ea k s Y es No 12.3. Linkage movement Yes No If MAF is not to specification continue performance diagnostics; if to specification do not continue. 12.4. Linkage movement Yes No Air pressure - Initial movement Spec Actual Engine speed MAF EST MAF reading Measure fuel pressure at secondary fuel filter fuel pressure test port (full load, rated speed). Instrument Spec Actual 0 - 160 psi gauge L ea k s Y es No 13. Torque Converter Stall Set parking brake and apply service brake. Put transmission in drive. Push accelerator to the floor, begin timing and monitor tachometer until tachometer stops moving. Record RPM and time. Condition Spec Actual Stall RPM Time (idle to stall in seconds) If fuel pressure is low, perform Test 5 including measure fuel inlet restriction. Use EST to monitor ICP and engine speed Instrument Spec Actual EST Aerated oil Yes No Af ter 2 m in . Disconnect ICP and test drive vehicle. If problem is corrected, see Operational Voltage checks for ICP sensor in Section 7 in EGES-305. If still high or unstable, replace IPR and retest. If minimum RPM is reached within specified time, for a launch concern do not continue with performance diagnostics . If RPM is low, or was not reached within specified time, continue with performance diagnostics. STOP 14. Crankcase Pressure Measure at oil fill tube with crankcase pressure test adapter. Clamp off crankcase breather hose. Measure at high idle, no load. Instrument Spec Actual Magnehelic gauge or Manometer VT 275 Diagnostic Form EGED-315 International® VT 275 V6 Engine c 2004 INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION 93 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS* Measure Fuel Pressure FUEL PRESSURE GAUGE • The engine will not perform correctly with low fuel pressure. Fuel pressure can be measured at the secondary filter housing by removing the fuel pressure test port plug and install the ICP System Test Adapter (ZTSE4594). Connect the Fuel Pressure Gauge (ZTSE4681) to the ICP System Test Adapter. Turn the key switch to the ON position and measure the fuel pressure. The following pressure minimums should be met: Cranking Idle High Idle/No load Full load @ rated speed • If fuel pressure does not meet the minimum, verify there is fuel in the tank and the pump is running. Then check for fuel aeration, primary and secondary filter condition, pump inlet restriction, pump deadhead pressure, and pressure regulator operation. ICP SYSTEM TEST ADAPTER Check for Fuel Aeration • The engine will not operate correctly with aerated fuel. Aeration can be checked visually using a clear hose and valve. • Remove the fuel pressure test port plug. Connect the Fuel Pressure Gauge (ZTSE4681) to the secondary fuel filter housing using the ICP System Test Adapter (ZTSE4594). With the key switch ON, open the valve to allow fuel to flow into a clean container. Observe the fuel flow. Opening the system to install the hose will allow some air to enter the system. This air will be visible in the fuel flow initially but should clear within a few seconds. • If the fuel continues to show signs of aeration, check the suction side of the system for air leaks. *Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs 94 20 psi 50 psi 50 psi 50 psi International® VT 275 V6 Engine DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Measure Fuel Pump Discharge Pressure • Determine the ability of the fuel pump to develop pressure by isolating the fuel pump from the engine-mounted regulator. • Remove the banjo bolt on the pressure line at the secondary fuel filter and insert the bolt through the back of the fitting so that the bolt faces away from the engine. Install the Fuel Pressure Test Adapter (ZTSE4696) and tighten the bolt. Attach a 0-160 psi Fuel Pressure Gauge (ZTSE4681) to the test adapter. The fuel pump and its internal pressure regulator are now isolated from the engine-mounted fuel pressure regulator. FUEL PRESSURE TEST ADAPTER • Turn the key switch to the ON position and measure the fuel pressure while the pump is running. Pump discharge pressure should reach 80 psi. If the pressure is low, check for a plugged primary filter and/or high pump inlet restriction. Measure Fuel Inlet Restriction • High inlet restriction can starve the suction side of the fuel pump and cause low fuel pressure. FUEL INLET RESTRICTION ADAPTER • With the key switch OFF, remove the water drain plug from the fuel pump. Install the Fuel Inlet Restriction Adapter (ZTSE4698) in place of the plug. Connect the 0-30 in/hg pressure gauge to the adapter with a shut off valve in the OFF position between the pump and the Fuel Pressure Gauge (ZTSE4681). • Turn the key switch ON. With the fuel pump running, open the valve to the 0-30 in/hg pressure gauge and record the restriction. • If inlet restriction causes a gauge reading of greater than 6 in/Hg, check the lines from the fuel tank to the pump for restrictions. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 95 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Measure Crankcase Pressure • Crankcase pressure can be used to evaluate the condition of the power cylinders. Remove the oil fill cap and thread the extended Oil Fill Tube (part number 180971C91) into the valve cover fill cap opening. Thread the Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter (ZTSE4510) into the fill adapter. • Block off the crankcase breather. By blocking the breather, all of the crankcase gasses are forced through the Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter. • Connect the magnehelic gauge to the Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter. Run the engine to reach normal operating temperature (158°F or higher). • Run the engine at high idle. Allow the reading to stabilize before taking the reading. Compare the reading with the performance specifications. Use the Injector Disable test and the Relative Compression test to further evaluate high readings. ICP System Checks • The Injection Control Pressure system must be able to build a minimum of 500 psi during cranking for the engine to start. The possible causes of low ICP during cranking are: -Faulty ICP sensor -Low oil level in the reservoir -Faulty IPR circuit -ECM not controlling the IPR -Inoperative IPR -Leak in the high-pressure system -Inoperative pump • If the ICP is low while cranking, verify the engine has met the minimum cranking lube oil pressure of 20 psi. Lube oil system pressure is required to maintain the correct level in the reservoir. • Inspect the IPR connector for corrosion. Perform the KOEO Standard test. The standard test will verify the IPR circuit. If the circuit has a fault, a 241 DTC will be set. 96 Oil rail Oil rail Fuel injectors From low-pressure oil system ICP sensor Oil reservoir screen Highpressure pump IPR valve Check valve with orifice Oil drain to sump International® VT 275 V6 Engine Check valve with orifice DIAGNOSTIC TESTS ICP System Function Test • The Injection Control Pressure system must be able to build a minimum of 500 psi for the engine to start. During cranking, the ECM must command the IPR valve partially closed to create the pressure required for starting. Test this function by replacing the ECM signal with a direct connection between the IPR and battery power and ground. • Disconnect the IPR from the engine harness. Install the Actuator Breakout Harness (ZTSE4484) to the IPR only. Use jumper wires to provide power to one lead and a ground to the other. Crank the engine while measuring the injection control pressure. If the engine starts or the pressure now exceeds the minimum cranking pressure, the ECM is not controlling the IPR. IPR HEAT SHIELD ACTUATOR BREAKOUT HARNESS • Caution: Do not leave the IPR powered for more than 120 seconds or the IPR may be damaged. IPR Function Test • The IPR must function for the ICP system to build sufficient pressure to start. Remove the ICP sensor from the right bank valve cover. Install the ICP System Test Adapter (ZTSE4594) with an air fitting in place of the sensor. Remove the oil fill cap and attach shop air pressure to the air fitting. SHOP AIR SUPPLY ICP TEST ADAPTER RIGHT BANK VALVE COVER International® VT 275 V6 Engine • Listen at the opening of the oil fill cap for air leaking into the crankcase from the IPR. Allow five minutes for the air to displace the oil through the system (cold oil may take longer). If there is a massive air leak in the crankcase when the air is connected, go to the Under Valve Cover Leak test. If there is a faint leak, install the Actuator Breakout Harness (ZTSE4484) to the IPR only. Provide power to one breakout harness lead and a ground to the other. The faint air leak in the crankcase should stop when power is applied. This verifies the ECM signal can operate the IPR valve internally. If the faint air leak stops when the IPR is given power and ground, perform the pump test. 97 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Under Valve Cover Leak Test • If the IPR function test reveals a massive air leak, remove the valve covers and apply shop air pressure to the ICP System Test Adapter (ZTSE4594). Attempt to isolate the location of the leak. The possible leak points are: -Rail to injector O-rings -Rail fittings -Case-to-head tube and port plug O-rings -Branch tube assembly -Pump housing • If the air leak is in the valve cover area, use a short length of rubber hose as a stethoscope to locate the air leak. • If the air leak is from the crankcase (not the valve cover area), remove the case-to-head tubes and inspect the lower O-rings. If the O-rings are good, remove the highpressure pump cover and listen for the air leak at the pump-to-branch tube connections. Cylinder Head Isolation • If an air leak is heard, but the location cannot be detected, isolate each bank, one at a time, and test. To test the left bank, remove the left bank rear port plug and install the ICP Leak Test Plug (ZTSE4690) in place of the port plug. Leave the valve covers off, but connect the ICP sensor. Crank the engine while measuring ICP pressure. If the engine starts or ICP pressure exceeds 500 psi, the leak causing the low ICP is in the left bank. ICP LEAK TEST PLUG LEFT BANK RAIL • To test the right bank, install the ICP Sensor Adapter (ZTSE4690) in place of the rear right bank port plug. Install the ICP sensor in the top of the adapter and connect the ICP sensor to the harness using the three-wire Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness (ZTSE4347) as an extension, if needed. Leave the valve covers off. Crank the engine while measuring ICP pressure. If the engine starts or ICP pressure exceeds 500 psi, the leak causing the low ICP is in the right bank. 98 International® VT 275 V6 Engine DIAGNOSTIC TESTS High Pressure Pump Test • The pump can be deadheaded by installing the ICP Leak Test Plug (ZTSE4690) in place of the rear left bank port plug, and the ICP Sensor Adapter ( also ZTSE4690) in place of the rear right bank port plug. Install the ICP sensor in the top of the ICP Sensor Adapter and connect the ICP sensor to the harness using the three-wire Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness (ZTSE4347) as an extension, if needed. Leave the valve covers off. Crank the engine while measuring ICP pressure. ICP SENSOR ICP SENSOR ADAPTER RIGHT BANK RAIL • If the ICP pressure exceeds 500 psi, the pump is not at fault and there is a leak in the system. • If the pressure is below the minimum cranking pressure, and there are no leaks around the pump, remove the pump from the crankcase. Oil should come up from the pump feed port in the crankcase indicating that the reservoir has oil. If the reservoir had oil, the pump is inoperative. ICP Diagnostics ICP Diagnostic Test Purpose KOEO Standard Test Verifies the IPR Circuit ICP System Function Test Verifies that the ECM can control the IPR IPR Function Test Verifies the IPR is working Under the Valve Cover Leak Test Locates leaks under the valve cover Cylinder Head Isolation Identifies which bank of cylinders has a high pressure leak High Pressure Pump Test Verifies the pump’s operation International® VT 275 V6 Engine • If there is lube oil pressure while cranking, the IPR functions, and there are no leaks in the hydraulic lines or rails, then either the pump is not getting oil from the reservoir, the pump is not turning with the crankshaft, or the pump is defective. • Rotation can be verified by removing the high-pressure pump cover and cranking the engine while observing the pump gear. Oil in the reservoir can be verified by removing the pump and observing the oil flow from the pump feed passage in the crankcase. Oil should come up from the pump passage indicating that the reservoir has oil. If the reservoir had oil, the pump is inoperative. 99 DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs CODE NUMBER CIRCUIT NAME CONDITION DESCRIPTION 111 112 113 114* 115* 121* 122* 123* 124* 125* 131* 132* 133* 134* 135* 143 145 146 147 148* 149* 152* 154* 155* 161* 162* 163* 221 222 225 231 237 238 241 251 268 311* 312* 313** 315* ECM ECM PWR ECM PWR ECT ECT MAP MAP MAP ICP ICP APS / IVS APS / IVS APS / IVS APS / IVS APS / IVS CMP CMP CKP CKP MAF MAF BAP IAT IAT MAT MAT EGR SCCS BRAKE EOP ATA FPC IAH IPR GPC ACC EOT EOT EOPS EWPS No errors detected - flash code only Electrical system voltage B+ out of range high Electrical system voltage B+ out of range low Engine Coolant Temperature signal out of range low Engine Coolant Temperature signal out of range high Manifold Absolute Pressure signal out of range high Manifold Absolute Pressure signal out of range low Manifold Absolute Pressure signal in-range fault Injection Control Pressure signal out of range low Injection Control Pressure signal out of range high APS signal out of range low APS signal out of range high APS signal in-range fault APS signal and IVS disagree Idle Validation Switch circuit fault Incorrect CMP signal signature CMP signal inactive CKP signal inactive Incorrect CKP signal signature Mass Air Flow signal frequency out of range high Mass Air Flow signal frequency out of range high Barometric Absolute Pressure signal out of range low Air Inlet Temperature signal out of range low Air Inlet Temperature Signal out of range high Manifold Air Temperature Signal out of range low Manifold Air Temperature Signal out of range high Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Position Signal out of range low Cruise-PTO control switch circuit fault Brake switch circuit fault EOP sensor signal in range fault ATA data communication link error Fuel Pump Control OCC self-test failed Inlet Air Heater Control OCC self-test failed Injection Pressure Regulator OCC self-test failed Glow Plug Control OCC self-test failed AC Clutch Control Relay OCC self-test failed Engine Oil Temperature signal out of range low Engine Oil Temperature signal out of range high Engine Oil Pressure below warning level Engine speed above warning level *indicates amber ENGINE lamp on when DTC is set ** indicates red ENGINE lamp on when Engine Warning Protection System is enabled and a DTC is set 100 International® VT 275 V6 Engine DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES CODE NUMBER CIRCUIT NAME CONDITION DESCRIPTION 316 321** 322** 324** 325 331* 332* 333* 334 335 346 365* 368* 373 374 375 421-426 431-436 451-456 523 525* 533 534 543* 551 552 553 554 613* 614* 621* 622* 623* 624 626 631 632 655 661 664 665 EWPS EWPS EWPS IST EWPS ICP ICP ICP sys ICP sys ICP sys AMS EGR EGR IAH FPC GPC INJ INJ INJ IDM IDM IDM IDM ECM / IDM ECM / IDM ECM / IDM ECM / IDM ECM / IDM ECM ECM ECM ECM ECM ECM ECM PWR ECM ECM ECM ECM ECM ECM Engine Coolant Temperature unable to reach commanded set point Engine Coolant Temperature above warning level Engine Coolant Temperature above critical level Idle Shutdown Timer enabled engine shutdown Power reduced, matched to cooling system performance Injection Control Pressure above system working range Injection Control Pressure above specification with engine not running Injection Control Pressure above / below desired level ICP unable to achieve setpoint in time (poor performance) ICP unable to build pressure during cranking Faults detected during EGR portion of the AMS test EGR valve position above / below desired level EGR drive module / ECM2 communication fault Inlet Air Heater relay circuit fault Fuel Pump Relay Circuit fault Glow Plug Relay Circuit fault High side to low side open (cylinder number indicated) High side shorted to low side (cylinder number indicated) High side short to ground or VBAT (cylinder number indicated) IDM VIGN voltage low IDM fault IDM relay voltage high IDM relay voltage low ECM / IDM communications fault IDM / CMPO signal inactive IDM incorrect CKPO signal signature IDM CKPO signal inactive IDM incorrect CKPO signal signature ECM / IDM software not compatible EFRC / ECM configuration mismatch Engine using mfg. default rating Engine using field default rating Invalid Engine Family Rating Code (EFRC) Field default active Unexpected reset fault Read Only Memory (ROM) self test fault Random Access Memory (RAM) - CPU self test fault Programmable parameter list level incompatible RAM programmable parameter list corrupt Calibration level incompatible Programmable parameter memory content corrupt *indicates amber ENGINE lamp on when DTC is set ** indicates red ENGINE lamp on when Engine Warning Protection System is enabled and a DTC is set International® VT 275 V6 Engine 101 ENGINE & CHASSIS SCHEMATIC CKP EOT CMP EOP s w it ch MAT ECT IC P MAP MAF /I AT se nsor E D C B A 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 DB-LG LB-R GY-R BR-W LG-BK DB-LG BR-O R-W LG-R LG-R R O BK GY DB W-R P-O Y-R P-O W-LG P BR BK-PK 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 16 ACT PWR ACT PWR GND CAN 2 (+) CAN 2 (-) Valve Motor + (U Phase) Valve Motor + (V Phase) Valve Motor + (W Phase) Position Sensor Shield Drain Sensor Supply Position Sensor (U Phase) Position Sensor (V Phase) Position Sensor (W Phase) Sensor Supply Ground DB-LG BK R-LG LB-W BR-LG G-R P BK R-PK Y-W O-W BR-W BK-PK 8 7 6 1 4 3 2 5 A LG-Y DB-O R-LG LB-W B 2 1 Mit s u bi s h i EGR Valve BCS actuator EGR valve controller I PR actuator IDM X-3 X-2 X-1 X3-5 X3-10 X3-30 X3-31 Glow plugs Cylinder 1 Cylinder 3 X3-7 X3-27 X3-8 X3-4,23 X3-24,25 X3-1,2,3 X3-22,26 X3-28 X3-29 Cylinder 5 4 CKPO CMPO CAN 2 (+) CAN 2 (-) VIGN IDM MPR IDM LOGIC PWR IDM MAIN PWR IDM MAIN PWR IDM GND IDM GND ATA (+) ATA (-) 2 4 6 3 Glow plug relay 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 To battery power feed on starter Injector harness IAH relay To battery Power feed on starter 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 Open coil ground Open coil power Close coil ground Close coil power Open coil ground Open coil power Close coil ground Close coil power Open coil ground Open coil power Close coil ground Close coil power T-Y LG-BK LG-R LG-O LG-Y O-Y Y-LB O-LB LG-W W-BK W-LB DB X1-3 X1-17 X1-8 X1-18 X1-1 X1-23 X1-6 X1-24 X1-2 X1-19 X1-5 X1-20 Open coil ground Open coil power Close coil ground Close coil power Open coil ground Open coil power Close coil ground Close coil power Open coil ground Open coil power Close coil ground Close coil power LB-R W-LB O-Y W T-LG DB-O LB-BK DG-LG O-LG BK-PK W-P DG-P X2-2 X2-17 X2-6 X2-18 X2-1 X2-21 X2-5 X2-22 X2-4 X2-19 X2-8 X2-20 1 3 5 Cylinder 2 Glow Plug Circuits Cylinder 4 Cylinder 6 Yellow Red White Color Cylinder 1 3 5 Cylinder 102 2 4 6 Glow plugs International® VT 275 V6 Engine 1 2 3 Alternator Alternator control power 1 B+ at Starter stud To starter solenoid 2 A/C clutch ENGINE & CHASSIS SCHEMATIC ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS International ® R WARNING VT 275 ECM Engine (gray) Notes X-1 X-2 IAT MAF Signal Ground VREFA MAP ICP EOP MAT ECT EO T CMP (+) CMP (-) CMP/CKP SHD CKP (+) CKP (-) BCS IPR PWR IPR GPC GPD IAHC IAHD OWL X1-7 X2-2 X1-6 X1-14 X2-3 X1-20 X1-13 X2-14 X1-8 X2-1 X1-9 X1-10 X1-11 X1-1 X1-2 X2-18 X2-24 X1-12 X1-17 X1-21 X1-18 X2-11 X1-23 CKPO CMPO CAN 2 (+) CAN 2 (-) CAN 2 SHD BOO BPS X1-19 X1-24 X2-6 X2-13 X2-12 X1-15 X1-16 BK GY R-Y Information on this form for vehicle mounted components was current at the time of publication. Updates may be made to introduce product improvements and technical advancements. See correct truck service manual for chassis wiring. Colored lines on this schematic go to connector terminals for sensors and actuators. Color code for schematic lines Schematic Line description 12 Volts (VBAT) Red Red High side driver control Purple Injectors (48 Volts) Blue VREF (5 Volts) Signal circuit Green In-cab cruise switches Brown Data Communication Link Black Ground circuit Black Low side driver control A/C switch in control head Body Builder T-stat switch Ignitiion switch Low-pressure switch Transmission position switch High-pressure switch 1A P N D R 2 3 Starter85 motor relay 1 86 ECM Chassis (white) X-3 X-4 8 Pin connector BPS BOO OWL Starter sol 8 2 1 7 A /C 1 clutch relay X3-1 X3-19 X3-20 X3-22 WIF RPRE RVAR A/C control X3-23 X4-15 X4-17 X3-11 X3-14 X3-21 X4-6 ECI FPM WEL TACH RAS SCS COO X3-10 X3-12 X3-13 X3-15 X3-17 AC demand CAN 1 (+) CAN 1 (-) CAN 1 SHD VSS CAL (speedo) X3-24 X4-18 X4-24 X4-4 X4-12 X3-9 X3-5 X3-7 X3-6 X4-2 X4-1 X3-8 X3-3 X4-20 X4-21 BAP APS Signal Ground VREFB IVS FPC ECM MPR Battery Ground Battery Ground ECM PWR ECM PWR DDS VIGN ATA (+) ATA (-) 2 0 = Off 1 = Acc 1 2 = Run 3 = Crank 4 = Lock 30 40A 87 To starter solenoid 40A 5 Instrument Panel BAP RPM APS / IVS 2 TMC 9 Connector (316) Normally closed pressure switch Normally open pedal switch 5A A B C D E F 8 interlock Diagnostic connector A (237) 5A E F G D A H C J From relay B+ B Fuel pump relay 2 10A IDM relay 1 3 72 Park 12 86 2 1 5 87 1 30 3 F ue l 2 pump ECM relay 10A 20A 2 1 1 2 WIF probe Fuel heater - 85 3 1 5 + Act Pwr Gnd VIGN Act Pwr IDM MPR IDM Logic Pwr IDM Main Pwr IDM Pwr Gnd ATA (+) ATA (-) ALT I-Sense A/C Clutch (+) A/C Clutch (-) BAP - 4 9 10 8 6 12 1 2 3 11 7 5 MPH + BK P-O DB-LG R-Y W W BK-W LB-PK T W-BK R-W DB-Y 3 2 0 4 12 Pin connector C A A C EGED-310 International® VT 275 V6 Engine © 2004 INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION 103 POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs 104 International® VT 275 V6 Engine POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER 31 BLANK STARTER 32 40A PWR WINDOW 20A PARK LAMPS 33 25A BODY BUILDER 4* 30A IDM / ECM 34* 20A A/C CLUTCH 5 30A HEAD LAMPS 35 20A CLUSTER 6 40A BLOWER MOTOR 36 20A FUEL XFER PUMP 7 25A WIPER 37 10A TURN 8 30A ELECTRIC BRAKE 38 BLANK 9 20A DOOR LOCK 39 10A CORNERING LAMPS 10 20A STOP LAMPS 40* 10A IDM LOGIC PWR 11* 20A FUEL PUMP 41* 10A ECM PWR 12 20A RUN / ACC FEED 42 10A RADIO 13 20A RUN / START FEED 43 BLANK 14 15A HORN 44 BLANK 15 10A CLUSTER BATT 45 BLANK 16 15A B/U LAMPS 46* 5A 17 15A FOG LAMPS 47 BODY BUILDER 18 15A TRANS 48* FUEL PUMP RELAY 19* 20A FUEL HEATER 49 B/U LAMPS 20 60A ABS MODULE 50* ECM RELAY 21 30A CONJOINER 1 51* FUEL HEATER RELAY 22 30A CONJOINER 2 52 TRANS 23 40A TRAILER BATT 53* A/C CLUTCH RELAY 24 20A CIGAR LIGHTER 54 FOG LAMPS 25 20A HAZARD 55* IDM RELAY 26 15A KEYLESS 56 WIPER 27 10A RADIO 57* STARTER RELAY 28 10A DOME 58 BLANK 29 BLANK 59 PARK LAMPS 30 60A 60 TRANS RELAY DIODE 61 BLANK 1 BLANK 2* 30A 3 ABS PUMP ECM KEY PWR *indicates engine related fuse International® VT 275 V6 Engine 105 GLOSSARY Accelerator Position Sensor (APS) A potentiometer sensor that indicates the position of the throttle pedal. Actuator A device that performs work in response to an electrical input signal. Catalytic Converter An antipollution device in the exhaust system that contains a catalyst for chemically converting some pollutants in the exhaust gases (carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen) into harmless compounds. Charge Air Dense, pressurized, heated air discharged from the turbocharger. Aeration The entrainment of gas (air or combustion gas) in the coolant or lubricant. Controller Area Network (CAN) A J1939 high speed communication link. Ambient Temperature The environmental air temperature in which a unit is operating. Coolant A fluid used to transport heat from the engine to the radiator. American Trucking Association (ATA) Datalink A serial datalink specified by the American Trucking Association and the SAE. Crankcase The housing that encloses the crankshaft, connecting rods, and associated parts. Analog Signal A continuously variable voltage. Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor A magnetic pickup sensor that determines crankshaft position and speed. Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) Sensor A variable capacitance sensor which, when supplied with a 5 volt reference signal from the ECM, produces a linear analog voltage signal indicating atmospheric pressure. Duty Cycle A control signal that has a controlled on/off time measurement from 0 to 100%. Normally used to control solenoids. Boost Pressure The pressure of the charge air leaving the turbocharger. Electronic Control Module (ECM) An electronic processor that monitors and controls the engine. Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor A magnetic pickup sensor that indicates engine speed and camshaft position. EGR Cooler A cooler that allows heat to dissipate from the exhaust gasses before they enter the EGR Valve. CAN 1 A data link between the vehicle modules and ECM. EGR Valve A valve that regulates the flow of exhaust gasses into the intake manifold. CAN 2 The private link between the ECM and IDM. 106 International® VT 275 V6 Engine GLOSSARY Engine Oil Pressure Switch (EOPS) A switch that senses oil pressure. Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor A sensor that measures the air flow into the engine. Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor A thermistor sensor that senses engine oil temperature. Magnehelic Gauge A gauge that measures pressure in inches of water (in H2O). Exhaust Gas Recirculation A system used to recirculate a portion of the exhaust gases into the intake air charge in order to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Magnetic Pickup Sensor A sensor that creates an alternating current current voltage when a magnetic field is broken. Injection Control Pressure (ICP) High lube oil pressure generated by a high pressure pump/pressure regulator used to hydraulically actuate the fuel injectors. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Oxides of nitrogen form by a reaction between nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. Potentiometer An electro-mechanical device that senses the position of a mechanical component. Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Sensor A sensor that measures injection control pressure. Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) An ECM regulated valve that varies injection control pressure. Reference Voltage (VREF) A 5 volt reference supplied by the ECM to operate the engine sensors. Injector Drive Module (IDM) An electronic processor that calculates injection timing and fuel quantity and is the power supply for the injectors. Thermistor A semiconductor device that changes resistance as temperature changes. Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor A thermistor sensor that senses intake air temperature. Turbocharger A turbine driven compressor mounted to the exhaust manifold. The turbocharger increases the pressure, temperature and density of the intake air. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Boost pressure in the manifold that is a result of the turbocharger. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor A variable capacitance sensor that measures boost pressure. Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor A thermistor style sensor used to indicate air temperature in the intake manifold. International® VT 275 V6 Engine 107 INDEX Cruise Control, 36 A Accelerator Position Sensor (APS), 36, 100, 106 Crankcase Pressure, 96 Actuator, 15, 26, 41, 43, 45, 97, 106 Crankpins, 5, 21 Air Conditioning (A/C), 39, 105 Crankshaft Position Output (CKPO), 23, 31, 38, 101 Air Filter Restriction Gauge, 42 Cylinder Head, 18, 49, 51, 80, 82, 98 Aeration, 94, 106 D Duty Cycle, 26, 106 Ambient Temperature, 106 American Trucking Association (ATA) Datalink, 38, 106 Analog Signal, 106 B Balancer Shaft, 21, 84 E Electronic Control Module (ECM), 22-27, 29-39, 100, 101, 105, 106 EGR Cooler, 42, 64, 70, 106 EGR Drive Module, 24, 37, 38, 101 Banjo Bolt, 8, 48, 49, 51, 95 EGR Valve, 16, 22, 24, 26, 37, 38, 40-42, 47, 77, 101, 106 Belt Routing, 71 Engine Oil Pressure Switch (EOPS), 30, 100, 107 Boost Control Solenoid, 15, 17, 26, 41, 43, 45 Exhaust Gas Recirculation, 5, 40, 107 Boost Pressure, 43, 45, 106 Exhaust Manifold, 11, 41 Breather, 9, 40 Bypass Valve, 41, 43, 44, 61, 65, 66 F Flange Gear, 20, 85 C Camshaft, 20, 31, 38, 85 Front Cover, 29, 42, 60-63, 68, 69, 84 Fuel Filter, 48, 50, 51 Camshaft Position Output (CMPO), 31, 38, 101 Fuel Heater, 35, 48-50, 105 CAN 1, 38, 48, 106 Fuel Inlet Check Valve, 51, 58 CAN 2, 38, 106 Fuel Inlet Restriction, 95 Case-To-Head Tube, 52, 53, 55, 77, 78, 98 Fuel Pressure, 51, 53, 57-59, 94, 95 Catalytic Converter, 106 Charge Air, 14, 40-43, 106 G Gear Timing, 20 Charge Air Cooler, 14, 40-43 Gerotor Oil Pump, 60, 63 Crankshaft, 19-21, 31, 62, 73, 79, 81, 83, 106 Glow Plug, 10, 25, 32, 70 Controller Area Network, 106 Glow Plug Relay, 23, 25, 32, 101 Coolant, 29, 32, 47, 64, 67-71, 106 Grooved Idler Pulley, 9 Coolant Heater, 13 H Head Bolts, 18, 80-82 Counter Weight, 21 High Pressure Oil Rail, 52, 55, 57 Crankcase Breather, 40 High Pressure Pump, 16, 52, 54, 99 Crossover Tube, 14, 41, 46, 75, 76 Horizontal Full Conditioning Module (HFCM), 35, 48-50 108 International® VT 275 V6 Engine INDEX I Injection Control Pressure (ICP), 30, 54, 55, 96-99, 101, 107 S Secondary Fuel Filter, 48, 51 Sensors Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) Sensor, 36, 106 Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor, 10, 31, 38, 100, 106 Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor, 14, 31, 100, 106 Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor, 29 Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor, 16, 29, 100, 107 Hall-Effect Sensor, 37 Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Sensor, 30, 52, 55, 107 Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor, 26, 29, 34, 40, 107 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor, 15, 30, 40, 107 Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor, 29, 107 Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor, 26, 29, 34, 107 Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) Valve, 25, 54, 107 Injector, 23, 38, 52, 53, 55-59, 70, 77-79 Injector Drive Module (IDM), 22, 23, 28, 38, 58, 59, 101, 105, 107 Inlet Air Heater Relay, 23, 25, 32, 101 L Lower Crankcase, 14, 19, 62, 84 Lower Oil Pan, 13, 19, 62 Lube Oil Pump, 52-54, 60 M Magnehelic Gauge, 42, 96, 107 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP), 34, 100, 107 Smooth Idler Pulley, 8, 9, 71 O Oil Cooler, 60, 61, 64, 67-70 T Thermistor, 29, 34, 107 Oil Filter, 60, 61, 64-66 Timing Pin, 20, 85 Oil Pick-Up Tube, 19 Torque, 6, 75, 78, 82 Oil Pressure Regulator, 60 Turbocharger, 26, 40, 41, 43-46, 67, 74-76, 107 Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 34, 47, 107 U Upper Crankcase, 19 P Pneumatic Actuator, 15, 41, 43, 45 Upper Oil Pan, 13, 19, 62 Potentiometer, 36, 107 V Valve Bridge, 79, 80, 81 Primary Balance Shaft, 20, 84, 85 Vibration Damper, 82 Pulse Width Modulated (PWM), 24, 37, 45 R Reference Voltage (VREF), 36, 107 W Water-In-Fuel Sensor, 35 Water Pump, 64, 67-69, 71 Rear Cover, 11, 72, 84, 85 Rear Gear Train, 5, 20 Rocker Arm, 18, 79, 80 International® VT 275 V6 Engine 109 NOTES 110 International® VT 275 V6 Engine NOTES International® VT 275 V6 Engine 111 ® © 2005 I NTERNATI O NAL TRU CK AN D EN G I N E CO RPO R ATI O N TMT-120502 PRI NTED I N TH E U.S.A.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project