VT275 manual - Alliant Power

VT275 manual - Alliant Power
®
VT 275 V6 ENGINE
model year 2005
FORWARD
This publication is intended to provide technicians and service personnel with an overview of technical features of the
International® VT 275 Diesel Engine. The information contained in this publication will supplement information contained in available
service literature. Consult the latest SERVICE and DIAGNOSTIC manuals before conducting any service or repairs.
Safety Information
This manual provides general and specific service procedures
and repair methods essential for reliable engine operation and
your safety. Since many variations in procedures, tools, and
service parts are involved, advice for all possible safety
conditions and hazards cannot be stated.
Batteries
• Batteries produce highly flammable gas during and after
charging.
• Always disconnect the main negative battery cable first.
• Always connect the main negative battery cable last.
Departure from instructions in this manual or disregard of
warnings and cautions can lead to injury, death, or both, and
damage to the engine or vehicle.
• Avoid leaning over batteries.
• Protect your eyes.
Read safety instructions below before doing service and test
procedures in this manual for the engine or vehicle. See related
application manuals for more information.
• Do not expose batteries to open flames or sparks.
• Do not smoke in workplace.
Safety Instructions
Compressed Air
• Limit shop air pressure for blow gun to 207 kPa (30psi).
Vehicle
• Make sure the vehicle is in neutral, the parking brake is set,
and the wheels are blocked before doing any work or
diagnostic procedures on the engine or vehicle.
Work Area
• Keep area clean, dry and organized.
• Use approved equipment.
• Do not direct air at body or clothing.
• Wear safety glasses or goggles.
• Wear hearing protection.
• Keep tools and parts off the floor.
• Use shielding to protect others in the work area.
• Make sure the work area is ventilated and well lit.
Tools
• Make sure all tools are in good condition.
• Make sure a First Aid Kit is available.
Safety Equipment
• Use correct lifting devices.
• Make sure all standard electrical tools are grounded.
• Check for frayed power cords before using power tools.
• Use safety blocks and stands.
Protective Measures
• Wear protective glasses and safety shoes (do not work in
bare feet, sandals, or sneakers).
Fluids Under Pressure
• Use extreme caution when working on systems
under pressure.
• Follow approved procedures only.
• Wear appropriate hearing protection.
• Wear correct clothing.
Fuel
• Do not over fill fuel tank. Over fill creates a fire hazard.
• Do not wear rings, watches, or other jewelry.
• Do not smoke in the work area.
• Restrain long hair.
• Do not refuel the tank when the engine is running.
Fire prevention
• Make sure charged fire extinguishers are in the work area.
Removal of Tools, Parts, and Equipment
• Reinstall all safety guards, shields and covers after servicing
the engine.
NOTE: Check the classification of each fire extinguisher to
ensure that the following fire types can be extinguished.
1. Type A - Wood, paper, textiles, and rubbish
2. Type B - Flammable liquids
3. Type C - Electrical equipment
• Make sure all tools, parts, and service equipment are
removed from the engine and vehicle after all work is done.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
COMPONENT LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
DESIGN FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
INJECTOR OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
LUBRICATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
ENGINE & CHASSIS SCHEMATIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER FUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
3
4
DIRECT INJECTION TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE
VT 275 FEATURES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
90° V6
Offset Crankpins
Rear Gear Train
Primary Balancer
Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharging System
Four Valves per Cylinder
Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Electro-Hydraulic Generation 2 Fuel Injection System
Top Mounted Oil and Fuel Filters
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
5
VT 275 OVERVIEW
VT 275 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Engine Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-stroke, direct injection diesel
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V6, pushrod operated four valves / cylinder
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 cu. in. (4.5 liters)
Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.74 in. (95 mm)
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.134 in. (105 mm)
Compression Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.0:1
Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twin turbocharged and charge air cooled
Rated Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 hp @ 2700 rpm
Peak Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 lb-ft @ 1800 rpm
Engine Rotation, Facing the Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counterclockwise
Injection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electro-hydraulic generation 2 fuel injection
Cooling System Capacity (Engine Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 quarts
Lube System Capacity (Engine Only) . . . . . . 13 quarts with oil filter (14 quarts at overhaul)
Slide Title Goes Here
Horsepower and Torque
250
450
225
400
200
350
175
300
150
250
125
200
100
Power (HP)
Load (ft-lb)
Power & Torque Curve
500
75
150
Torque (ft-lb)
100
50
Power (HP)
50
25
3600
3400
3200
2800
3000
2400
2600
2200
1800
2000
1600
1400
1200
1000
0
800
600
0
Engine Speed (RPM)
6
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The VT 275 engine is offered with only one
horsepower and torque rating for the 2005
model year. The engine creates 200
horsepower at 2700 rpm and 440 lb-ft of
torque at 1800 rpm. The engine has a
high idle speed of 2775 rpm with
automatic transmission. The engine idle
speed is set at 700 rpm and is not adjustable.
VT 275 OVERVIEW
Engine Serial Number
• The Engine Serial Number (ESN) for the
VT 275 is located on a machined surface
at the left rear corner of the crankcase just
below the cylinder head.
• The ESN identifies the engine family, the
build location, and the sequential
build number.
• Engine Serial Number Example
4.5HM2Y0135617
4.5 = Engine displacement
H = Diesel, Turbocharged
M2 = Motor Truck
Y = Huntsville
0135617 = Build Sequence
Emissions Label
• The Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) emissions label is on top of the
breather, toward the front, on the left valve
cover. The label includes the following:
-Advertised horsepower rating
-Engine model code
-Service application
-Emission family and control system
-Year the engine was certified to meet EPA
emission standards.
Cylinder Numbering
• The cylinders on the VT 275 are numbered
from the front of the right bank 1, 3, 5 and
from the front of the left bank 2, 4 and 6.
L
Front
R
2
1
4
3
6
5
• The engine firing order is 1-2-5-6-3-4
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
7
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - FRONT OF ENGINE
HEATER SUPPLY TUBE
AIR INLET HEATER
SMOOTH IDLER PULLEY
AIR INLET
FUEL TUBE TO RIGHT BANK
MAT SENSOR
BANJO BOLT WITH
CHECK VALVE
POWER STEERING
PUMP BRACKET
BELT TENSIONER
OIL PUMP COVER
8
INTAKE MANIFOLD
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - LEFT FRONT OF ENGINE
GROOVED IDLER PULLEY
BREATHER
HEATER
RETURN TUBE
COOLANT OUTLET
SMOOTH IDLER PULLEY
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
9
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - LEFT SIDE OF ENGINE
AIR INLET DUCT
OIL LEVEL
GAUGE
LEFT BANK
GLOW PLUGS
CMP SENSOR
SUPPLY FROM FUEL PUMP
AND PRIMARY FILTER
FUEL RETURN TO TANK
10
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - LEFT REAR OF ENGINE
LIFTING EYES
IPR AND
HEAT SHIELD
LEFT BANK
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
REAR COVER
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
11
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - REAR OF ENGINE
OIL FILTER HOUSING
FUEL FILTER HOUSING
TURBINE OUTLET
EXHAUST TUBE ASSEMBLY
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP COVER
12
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - RIGHT REAR OF ENGINE
HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR HOUSING
COOLANT
HEATER
UPPER OIL PAN
LOWER OIL PAN
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
13
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - RIGHT SIDE OF ENGINE
OUTLET TO CHARGE AIR COOLER
TURBOCHARGER CROSSOVER TUBE
ICP
SENSOR
RIGHT BANK
GLOW PLUGS
CRANKCASE
CKP SENSOR
LOWER
CRANKCASE
14
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - RIGHT FRONT OF ENGINE
PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID
MAP
SENSOR
ECT
SENSOR
WATER PUMP
PULLEY
AND FAN DRIVE
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
15
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - TOP OF ENGINE WITHOUT HARNESS
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
INJECTOR CONNECTORS
HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE HOUSING
TURBOCHARGER
OIL SUPPLY LINE
EOP SWITCH
EOT SENSOR
EGR VALVE
LOW PRESSURE TURBO COMPRESSOR HOUSING
16
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COMPONENT LOCATIONS - TOP OF ENGINE WITH HARNESS
MAF SENSOR CONNECTOR
(SENSOR NOT SHOWN)
INJECTOR HARNESS CONNECTOR
HARNESS TO
CHASSIS MOUNTED
ECM/IDM
BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID
ALTERNATOR FUSIBLE LINKS
(ALTERNATOR NOT SHOWN)
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
17
VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES
ROCKER ARM
Cylinder Head Assembly
• The VT 275 has an aluminum rocker arm
carrier for each cylinder head. The carrier
holds the fulcrum plates and the attached
rocker arms and can be removed as an
assembly from the cylinder head without
removing the rocker arms.
ROCKER ARM CARRIER
• Each rocker arm pivots on a steel ball
located by detents in the fulcrum plate.
Four head bolts on each cylinder head
pass through the two single and two dual
fulcrum plates serving to clamp the plates
to the carrier.
ROCKER ARM FULCRUM
• The cylinder head is sealed to the
crankcase deck surface with a shim type
gasket that must be replaced if any of the
head bolts are removed. The 14mm head
bolts are torque to yield and cannot
be reused.
• The carrier is sealed to the cylinder head
with a push-in-place gasket. The cylinder
head and carrier are clamped to the
crankcase with eight 14mm bolts. Six
additional 8mm bolts around the perimeter
clamp the carrier to the cylinder head and
four additional 8mm bolts serve to clamp
the top of the head to the crankcase. Two
hollow dowels in the cylinder head are
used to align the rocker arm carrier to the
cylinder head.
INJECTOR
PASSTHROUGH
Rocker Arm Carrier
DUAL FULCRUM PLATE
HEAD BOLTS
SINGLE
FULCRUM
PLATE
18
8mm FULCRUM BOLT
GLOW PLUG
CONNECTOR OPENING
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The rocker arm carrier serves as an
attachment point for the fulcrum plates and
the rocker arms. In addition to the head
bolts, single fulcrum plates are attached to
the rocker arm carrier with one 8mm bolt.
The dual fulcrum plates are attached with
two 8mm bolts. The fulcrum plates are
marked with E and I as assembly aids to
show the valves they support. The E and I
must be visible after assembly to the head.
In addition, the carrier provides a passage
for each snap-in-place injector passthrough and the push-in-place glow
plug connectors.
VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES
Crankcase Assembly
14mm MAIN BEARING BOLTS LOWER CRANKCASE
• The VT 275 has four main bearings but
replaces the traditional individual main
bearing caps with a one-piece lower
crankcase assembly. The lower crankcase
is made of cast iron and is stronger than
the individual caps. The lower crankcase is
attached to the crankcase with sixteen
14mm main bearing bolts of two lengths
with the shorter bolts to the outside. Three
additional 8mm bolts are used on each
side at the perimeter. The lower crankcase
is sealed to the crankcase with two pushin-place seals.
8mm BOLTS
Crankcase and Oil Pan
• The upper oil pan bolts to the lower
crankcase and is sealed with a full
perimeter push-in-place gasket. The lower
sheet metal oil pan is sealed to the upper
cast aluminum oil pan with a full perimeter
push-in-place gasket. The upper oil pan is
wider than the crankcase and allows for
greater oil pan capacity without
increased depth.
• The oil pickup is sealed to the upper oil
pan with an O-ring and attached with two
6mm bolts. Oil pulled through the oil
pickup tube passes through a passage
cast in the upper oil pan to the lower
crankcase. The lower crankcase has a
machined passage that takes oil to a front
cover passage that leads to the oil pump.
Openings in the upper oil pan allow oil to
return to the pan during engine operation
but also serve to keep oil in the pan away
from the rotating crankshaft.
LOWER OIL PAN
OIL PICK-UP TUBE
UPPER OIL PAN
LOWER
CRANKCASE
CRANKSHAFT
UPPER
CRANKCASE
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
19
VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES
HIGH PRESSURE OIL
PUMP GEAR
Rear Gear Train
• The VT 275 gear train is located at the rear
of the engine. The crankshaft gear is a
press fit on the crankshaft and drives the
camshaft gear directly. The crankshaft
flange with integral gear is pressed on the
end of the crankshaft then clamped with
six 12mm bolts. The camshaft gear must
be timed to the crankshaft gear during
assembly to maintain the correct relationship.
• The rear flange gear drives the primary
balance shaft gear at a one-to-one ratio.
The balance shaft runs through the hollow
camshaft to the front of the crankcase and
has the balance shaft counterweight
bolted to the front of the shaft. The flange
gear and balance shaft gear must be timed
to maintain the correct relationship
between the balance shaft counterweight
and the crankshaft.
CAMSHAFT
GEAR
BALANCER SHAFT
GEAR
• The high-pressure oil pump is located in
the Vee of the engine and is driven directly
off the camshaft gear. The oil pump gear
does not require timing.
CRANKSHAFT FLANGE
AND GEAR
• Note: The crankshaft gear that drives the
camshaft is located behind the flange gear.
CAMSHAFT
GEAR
TIMING PIN HOLE
BALANCER
SHAFT GEAR
TIMING GEAR
DOTS
CRANKSHAFT
FLANGE & GEAR
20
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Gear Timing
• The camshaft and balance shaft must be
timed to the crankshaft for proper engine
operation. During reassembly a timing pin
that aligns the camshaft gear and the
balance shaft gear is placed through the
gears and into a hole machined in the
crankcase, then the crankshaft is installed
while aligning the balance shaft and flange
gear dots. If only the balance shaft is out of
the engine, the shaft can be installed while
aligning the balance shaft gear and flange
gear dots.
VT 275 DESIGN FEATURES
Offset Crankpins
• The 4-stroke engine requires 720° of
crankshaft rotation to complete all four
strokes of the cycle. In a multi-cylinder
engine dividing the 720 degrees by the
number of cylinders will equal the ideal
crankshaft rotation between combustion
events in the firing order. The VT 275
achieves equal spacing of the combustion
events by splitting the crankpins and
staggering the individual journals 30º.
#4 CRANKPIN
#3 CRANKPIN
Balance Shaft Timing
• The crankshaft counterweight, flywheel,
and damper are used to offset the rotating
and reciprocating forces developed in the
90° V6 engine, but these components
alone will not offset the couple imbalance.
Couple imbalance is created when two or
more forces act on the crankshaft at
different points along its length. Couple
imbalance, if not offset, results in pitch and
yaw forces on the engine that are felt by
the vehicle occupants as a vibration.
BALANCER SHAFT
COUNTER WEIGHT
COUNTER WEIGHTED
BALANCER SHAFT GEAR
• Couple imbalance forces in the engine are
offset by the balance shaft forces as it
rotates at crankshaft speed but in the
opposite direction.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
21
®
ELECTRONIC CONTROL
SYSTEM
•
•
•
•
ECM and IDM control system
Dual magnetic pick-up timing sensors
Electric motor driven EGR valve
ECM boost control
System Features
ECM
IDM
• The VT 275 engine uses the Diamond
Logic™ II Control System. The electronic
control system features an Engine
Control Module (ECM) and an Injector
Drive Module (IDM).
• The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
valve is positioned by an ECM controlled
electric stepper motor. The system uses
an EGR drive module to communicate
commands from the ECM to the
EGR valve.
IPR
BCS
ICP
MAF / IAT
ECT
MAP
BAP
• VT 275 engines use two magnetic pickup sensors to determine crankshaft
speed and position and camshaft
position. Magnetic pick-up sensors
feature high reliability and accuracy.
• The VT 275 engine uses a twin
turbocharger with ECM boost control.
MAT
22
EGR DRIVE
MODULE
APS / IVS
EOP
CKP
CMP
EOT
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
ECM
• The ECM uses sensor inputs to control the
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR), the
EGR valve, the boost control solenoid, the
glow plug relay and the inlet air heater
relay. The ECM also shares sensor data
with the IDM over communication links
between the two modules.
INLET AIR
HEATER RELAY
GLOW PLUG RELAY
CONTROL MODULE
ASSEMBLY BRACKET
• The IDM is mounted on brackets cast into
the ECM. The ECM and IDM are then
mounted with vibration isolator grommets
to the control module assembly bracket.
The bracket is bolted to the truck's frame
directly behind the passenger side of the
cab and serves as the mounting point for
the inlet air heater relay, the glow plug relay,
and the Power Distribution Center (PDC).
ECM
IDM
• The Injector Drive Module (IDM) receives
sensor information from the ECM over
three communication links: the CAN 2 link,
the CMPO circuit, and the CKPO circuit.
The IDM uses this information to calculate
injection timing and duration. The IDM
controls injector operation through 48-volt
signals to the twin injector coils.
• The ECM has four connectors. The
connectors are called X1 through X4 with
ECM X1 being the top ECM connector as
mounted on the truck. The IDM has three
connectors with IDM X1 being the top
connector as mounted on the truck. The
ECM X1 and X2 connectors are for engine
sensor inputs and X3 and X4 are for
chassis inputs. The IDM X1 and X2
connectors are for injector operation and
X3 is for chassis inputs and
communication between the ECM and IDM.
IDM X1
ECM X1
IDM X2
ECM X2
IDM X3
ECM X3
ECM X4
IDM
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
23
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
EGR Drive Module
• The EGR Drive Module is mounted below
the de-aeration tank. The module receives
the desired EGR valve position from the
ECM over the engine CAN 2 link. The
module then sends a series of voltage and
ground signals to the Motor U, V, and W
terminals of the EGR valve. The voltage
signals are Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)
to control current flow to the motor field coils.
• The module receives battery voltage and
ground through the 12-way engine-tochassis connector. The module supplies a
reference voltage to three position sensors
within the EGR valve. The drive module
uses the sensor signals to determine the
percent of valve opening.
EGR DRIVE MODULE
Inlet Air Heater Element
• The Inlet Air Heater element is located in
the lower side of the intake manifold and
projects through the manifold and into the
inlet air stream.
INTAKE MANIFOLD
INLET AIR HEATER
24
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The element warms the incoming air to aid
cold start and reduce emissions during
warm-up. The ECM turns the inlet air
heater on for a predetermined amount of
time, based on engine oil temperature,
intake air temperature, and barometric air
pressure. The inlet air heater can remain on
while the engine is running to reduce white
smoke during engine warm-up.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
Inlet Air Heater Relay
• The Inlet Air Heater (IAH) element is used
to improve cold start operation, reduce
emissions and white smoke, and improve
engine warm-up. The relay is mounted next
to the Power Distribution Center and is the
taller of the two relays. The IAH relay
receives battery power from the starter
power-feed terminal and the normally open
terminal connects to the element through
the harness. One end of the relay coil is
grounded through the engine 12-way
connector. The relay closes when the coil
receives voltage from the ECM.
Glow Plug Relay
AIR HEATER RELAY
GLOW PLUG RELAY
• Glow plugs are used to improve cold
engine starting. Glow plug operation is
controlled by the ECM through the glow
plug relay. The glow plug relay is mounted
next to the Power Distribution Center and
is the shorter of the two relays. The relay
common terminal is connected by jumper
to the common terminal of the Inlet Air
Heater relay. The normally open terminal
connects to the glow plug harness. One
end of the relay coil is grounded through
the engine 12-way connector. The relay is
closed when the other end of the coil
receives voltage from the ECM.
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) Valve
SWIVEL CONNECTOR
• The IPR mounts to the high-pressure pump
and controls the amount of oil allowed to
drain from the high-pressure system.
When the ECM increases the IPR signal
duty cycle, the valve blocks the oil’s path to
drain and pressure rises. When the ECM
reduces the duty cycle, a larger volume of
oil is allowed to drain from the system and
pressure is reduced. The valve contains a
pressure relief valve for the system that
opens if system pressure reaches 4500
psi. The IPR is protected by a heat shield
that must be reinstalled after servicing.
IPR
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
25
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
NOT USED
Boost Control Solenoid
GREEN HOSE TO
AIR INLET DUCT
• The turbocharger boost control solenoid
valve is controlled by the ECM. When
the ECM signal to the Boost Control
solenoid is high, the valve opens,
allowing pressure in the pneumatic
actuator to vent into the turbo inlet duct.
When the ECM signal is low, the valve
closes, and pressure to the actuator
equals boost pressure in the intake manifold.
BLACK HOSE TO INTAKE
MANIFOLD ELBOW
BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve
EGR VALVE
• The EGR valve is used to control the
percent of exhaust gas in the intake
charge. The EGR valve consists of circuit
board mounted position sensors, field
coils surrounding an armature, and the
valve group. The valve group has two
poppet valves mounted to a common
stem. When the drive module provides
voltage and ground to the field coils in the
proper sequence, stepped armature
rotation occurs. A threaded rod engaged
in the center of the rotating armature
pushes or pulls against the spring
loaded valve stem to force the valve to
open or close.
EXHAUST INLET
EXHAUST OUTLET
POPPETS
EXHAUST
OUTLET
O-RINGS
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor
MAF / IAT
5-PIN
CONNECTOR
26
MAF
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor is
mounted with ductwork between the
turbocharger inlet and the air filter element.
The sensor applies voltage to a low
resistance thermistor exposed to the fresh
air portion of the intake charge. The MAF
sensor circuitry measures the increase in
voltage required to offset the cooling
effect of the air flow over the thermistor.
This voltage is then converted into a
variable frequency that is sent to the ECM.
The MAF value can be read with
MasterDiagnostics® software in lb./min.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
PDC#
Device
F4
F12
30A...IDM/ECM
20A...RUN/ACC
F41
F46
10A...ECM PWR
5A...ECM KEY PWR
R1
X1
X2
ECM
X3
X4
X3-3 VIGN
X3-5 ECM MPR
X4-1 ECM PWR
X4-2 ECM PWR
ECM RELAY - POSITION 50
PDC
200 A
F4
TO IDM RELAY
F41
R1
3
5
1
2
TO
ENGINE
INLINE
12-WAY
BATTERY
F-46
STARTER
MOTOR
RELAY
KEY SWITCH
F-12
ECM Relay Circuit Operation
• The ECM controls its own power up
and power down process. When
the key is OFF, the ECM stays
powered up for a brief period. The
ECM then powers down after
internal housekeeping functions
have been completed.
Key Power
• The Run/Accessory position of the
key switch receives battery voltage
from the Power Distribution Center
(PDC) fuse F-12. When the key is
ON, the switch supplies battery
voltage through fuse F46 to ECM
pin X3-3. Battery voltage is
available at all times through fuses
F4 and F41 to ECM relay pins 1
and 3. The two fuses are in series,
with F4 feeding both the IDM and
ECM relays, and F41 dedicated to
protecting the ECM circuit alone.
Pin 1 supplies voltage to the
relay coil.
• Pin 2 connects the coil to pin X3-5
of the ECM.
• When the key is ON, voltage
supplied to pin X3-3 signals the
ECM that the operator is going to
start the engine. The ECM then
supplies a ground circuit to pin X3-5.
When this occurs, current flows
through the ECM relay coil and
creates a magnetic field causing
the relay to latch. When latched, the
relay connects pin 3 to pin 5 and
supplies current to the ECM
through pin X4-1 and X4-2.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Shut Down
• When the key is OFF and voltage is
removed from ECM pin X3-3, the
ECM shuts down the engine but
keeps the ECM powered up briefly
until the internal house keeping is
completed.
27
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
PDC#
F4
F12
F40
F46
R2
Device
X3-8 IDM LOGIC POWER
X3-24 IDM MAIN POWER
X3-25 IDM MAIN POWER
X3-4 IDM MAIN POWER
X3-23 IDM MAIN POWER
X3-27 IDM MPR
X3-7 VIGN
30A...IDM/ECM
20A...RUN/ACC
10A...IDM LOGIC
5A...ECM KEY PWR
IDM RELAY - POSITION 55
X1
X2
X3
X4
X1
X2
X3
IDM
ECM
PDC
BATTERY
200 A
12
R2
F4
30
87
TO IDM RELAY
6
F40
85
86
8
F-46
9
STARTER
MOTOR
RELAY
ENGINE IN-LINE
12-WAY
KEY SWITCH
IDM Relay Circuit Operation
• The IDM controls its own power up
and power down process. When
the key is OFF, the IDM stays
powered up for a brief period. The
IDM then powers down after
internal housekeeping functions
have been completed.
IDM Power Up
• The key switch receives battery
voltage from the Power Distribution
Center (PDC) F-12 fuse. When the
key is ON, the switch supplies
battery voltage through F-46 fuse
and pin 9 of the engine 12-way
connector to pin X3-7 of the IDM.
F-12
When the key is ON, voltage
supplied to pin X3-7 signals the
IDM to provide a ground circuit to
pin X3-27. When this occurs,
current flowing through the IDM
relay coil builds a magnetic field
that causes the relay to latch. When
latched, the relay connects pin 30
to pin 87 and supplies current
through pin 12 of the engine in-line
12-way connector to pin X3-4, X323, X3-24, and X3-25 of the IDM.
Four pins receive voltage to spread
the current draw over multiple pins.
• Battery voltage is available through
the PDC F-4 fuse to IDM relay pin
30 and 85 at all times. Pin 85
supplies voltage to the relay coil.
Pin 86 takes that voltage through
pin 8 of the engine 12-way
connector to pin X3-27 of the IDM.
28
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
IDM Logic
• The IDM also requires voltage for
the internal logic circuit. When the
IDM relay latches, pin 87 of the relay
supplies voltage to the IDM logic
circuit through the F-40 fuse in the
PDC. The F-40 fuse feeds through
pin 6 of the engine in-line 12-way
connector to the IDM pin X3-8.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
RIGHT BANK INJECTORS
X1
MAF / IAT
X2
LEFT BANK INJECTORS
X3
E D C B A IAT
X1-7 IAT
IDM
X1
X1-6 GRD
X2
X1-8 ECT
ECT
X3
X2-1 EOT
X4
IAH RELAY
X2-14 MAT
EGR
DRIVE
MODULE
ECM
VOLTAGE
EOT
R1
R2
SENSOR
R2
ECM
MICROPROCESSOR
MAT
Temperature Sensor Operation
• There are four, two-wire temperature sensors on the VT 275
engine. Each sensor contains a
resistor whose value varies depending on temperature. The ECM
supplies a separate reference
voltage to each temperature sensor.
Then, the sensor conditions its
voltage to produce the sensor signal.
Sensor Circuit
• A temperature variable resistor is a
thermistor. Each thermistor is
connected to a current-limiting
resistor of fixed value within the
ECM. The thermistor and the
resistor make a series circuit with a
reference voltage applied at one
end and a ground at the other. The
voltage in the circuit between the
two resistors changes as the
thermistor's resistance changes.
When the temperature is low, the
sensor's resistance is high and the
GLOW PLUG
RELAY
BCS
R1
IPR
signal voltage is high. When the
temperature is high, the resistance
is low and the signal voltage is low.
Engine Coolant Temperature
(ECT) Sensor
• The ECT sensor is mounted in the
front cover. The body of the sensor
is exposed to coolant as it returns
from the cylinder heads. The ECT
signal is input into the optional
engine warning protection system,
coolant compensation, glow plug
operation and the instrument
cluster temperature gauge.
Engine Oil Temperature
(EOT) Sensor
• The EOT sensor is mounted in the
oil filter adapter. The EOT signal
allows the ECM to compensate for
viscosity changes in the oil due to
temperature. The EOT signal is
input into calculations that
determine the fuel quantity and timing.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
EGR
VALVE
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
Manifold
Air
Temperature
(MAT) Sensor
• The MAT sensor is mounted
towards the front of the left bank leg
of the intake manifold. The MAT
sensor measures the temperature
of the air in the intake manifold. The
ECM uses this information in
calculations that control the EGR
valve operation.
Intake Air Temperature
(IAT) Sensor
• The IAT sensor is contained within
the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor
housing. The MAF sensor is
mounted to the inlet duct leading to
the turbocharger. The ECM uses
the IAT information to control
injection timing and fuel rate when
starting cold.
29
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
RIGHT BANK INJECTORS
X1
X2
LEFT BANK INJECTORS
X3
X1-6 GRD
IDM
X1
X1-13 EOPS
X2
X1-14 VREF
X3
EOPS
X4
X1-20 ICP
EGR
DRIVE
MODULE
X2-3 MAP
ECM
Functional Equivelant
ECM
SENSOR
ICP
MICROPROCESSOR
BCS
MAP
Pressure Sensor Operation
• The Manifold Absolute Pressure
(MAP) sensor, the Injection Control
Pressure (ICP) sensor and the
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
(EOPS) are used to send pressure
information to the ECM.
• The MAP and ICP are three-wire
pressure sensors. Three-wire
pressure sensors receive a
reference voltage and a ground
from the ECM. The sensor returns a
portion of the reference voltage,
proportional to the pressure, back
to the ECM as a signal.
Injection Control Pressure
(ICP) Sensor
• The ICP sensor is a Micro Strain
Gauge (MSG) style sensor. The
MSG type sensor has a small strain
gauge that senses changes in
pressure.
Sensor
mounted
electronic circuitry converts the
30
IPR
change into a signal voltage
proportional to the pressure being
measured. The ICP sensor is used
to make corrections to the IPR
signal and to continually check the
performance of the Injection
Control Pressure system.
Manifold Absolute Pressure
(MAP) sensor
• The MAP sensor is a variable
capacitance style sensor. In a
variable capacitance sensor, the
pressure being measured deflects a
ceramic disk towards a metal disk.
The two materials make up a
variable capacitor. Sensor mounted
circuitry converts the capacitance
into a signal voltage proportional to
the measured pressure. The MAP
sensor measures turbocharger
boost in the intake manifold. The
MAP signal is input into calculations
that determine fueling quantities
and the desired EGR valve position.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
VREF
EGR
VALVE
SWITCH
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
(EOPS)
• The EOPS is used to detect oil
pressure and is an input to the dash
cluster and the engine warning
protection system. The switch is
normally open with the engine off
but closes when oil pressure
reaches 5 to 7 psi. The ECM sends
5 volts through a current limiting
resistor to the EOPS and reads the
voltage between the resistor and
the switch. When oil pressure is
low, the switch is open and the
ECM reads 5 volts.
When the oil pressure is greater
than 5 to 7 psi, the switch is closed,
the circuit is shorted to ground, and
the ECM reads a low voltage.
When the ECM detects oil pressure, MasterDiagnostics® will display
40 psi. When the oil pressure is
below 5 psi, MasterDiagnostics®
will display 0 psi.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
RIGHT BANK INJECTORS
X1
LEFT BANK INJECTORS
CKPO X3-5
X2
CMPO X3-10
X3
CKP (+) X1-1
X1
X2
CKP (-) X1-2
CMP (+) X1-9
X3
X4
CMP (-) X1-10
CKPO X1-19
IDM
CRANKSHAFT
POSITION
SENSOR
CMPO X1-24
ECM
CAMSHAFT
POSITION
SENSOR
1 +
2 +
-
Magnetic Pick-Up Sensors
• The Camshaft Position (CMP)
sensor and Crankshaft Position
(CKP) sensor are both magnetic
pick-up type sensors. Each sensor
contains a permanent magnet core
surrounded by a coil of wire. The
sensor generates a signal through
the collapse of a magnetic field
created by a moving metal trigger.
Movement of the trigger induces an
Alternating Current (AC) voltage in
the sensor coil.
Camshaft Position
(CMP) Sensor
• The CMP sensor is mounted on the
left front of the crankcase. The
CMP sensor reacts to a single peg
pressed into the camshaft. The peg
passes the sensor once per
camshaft revolution producing an
AC signal in the coil.
• The ECM uses the AC signal to
determine the position of the
camshaft. The ECM converts the
AC signal to a square wave output.
The output signal, Camshaft
Position Output (CMPO), is sent to
the IDM for fueling calculations.
The ECM conditions the CMP
signal and sends it out as the TACH
signal for body builder use.
Crankshaft Position
(CKP) Sensor
• The CKP sensor is mounted on the
right front of the lower crankcase.
The CKP sensor reacts to a sixtyminus-two tooth trigger wheel
affixed to the front of the crankshaft.
The sensor produces pulses for
each of the 58 teeth as they pass
the magnet. The two tooth gap
allows the ECM to calculate the
position of the crankshaft.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
1
2
• The ECM uses the CKP signal to
determine the position and speed
of the crankshaft. The ECM
converts the AC signal to a square
wave output, Crankshaft Position
Output (CKPO), and sends it to the
IDM for fueling calculations.
• The ECM needs both the CKP and
CMP signals to calculate engine
speed and crankshaft position.
From the CKP signal the ECM can
determine the speed of the
crankshaft and the position of each
piston relative to Top Dead Center.
From the CMP sensor the ECM can
determine the current stroke of
each (i.e., compression or exhaust).
31
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
X1-17 GPC
X1
X2
2 4 6
X1-21 GPD
X3
X4
GLOW PLUGS
BAP
ECM
BATTERY
GPC
200 A
GPD
ECT
1 3 5
N.O. TERMINAL
IAH
RELAY
STARTER
IAH
GLOW PLUG
RELAY
4
12-WAY
ENGINE TO CHASSIS
CONNECTOR
Glow Plug System
• The VT 275 uses glow plugs to aid
cold starts. The ECM turns on the
glow plugs prior to engine cranking
to increase the temperature of the
cylinders. Glow plug operation is
controlled by the ECM through the
glow plug relay. The glow plugs
have full voltage if battery voltage is
normal, or pulse width modulated to
control the current if battery voltage
is above normal.
The ECM calculates glow plug ontime based on coolant temperature
and barometric pressure. The
required time to warm up the
cylinders decreases as engine
coolant temperature increases.
Warm up time decreases as
barometric air pressure increases.
The glow plugs may continue to be
energized after start-up to
reduce emissions.
32
Relay Operation
• The glow plug relay receives battery
voltage to its common terminal from
the starter power-feed terminal. The
normally open terminal connects to
the individual glow plugs through
the glow plug harness. One end of
the relay coil is always grounded
through pin 4 of the engine 12-way
connector. The ECM supplies 12
volts to the other end of the coil
through ECM pin X1-17 in order to
close the relay contacts.
Glow Plug Lamp
• The glow plug lamp is used as a
wait-to-start indicator. The ECM
lights the glow plug lamp at glow
plug activation to signal the
operator to wait for the cylinders to
warm up.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• Both lamp operation and the glow
plug operation are based on BAP
and ECT values but are independent of each other.
• The glow plug operation may
continue after the lamp is off.
Glow Plug Diagnostics
• Glow plug diagnostics are used to
determine if the relay is operating
correctly when commanded on. An
additional wire on the relay's
normally open terminal connects to
ECM pin X1-21. This circuit, GPD,
allows the ECM to monitor the
relay operation.
• The glow plugs can be turned on
using the KOEO Glow Plug/Inlet
Air Heater Test. The test can only
be activated twice per key cycle.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
X1-18 IAHC
X1
X2
X2-11 IAHD
X3
X4
MAF / IAT
BAP
ECM
BATTERY
IAHC
200 A
IAHD
EOT
N.O. TERMINAL
IAH
RELAY
STARTER
IAH
4
12-WAY
ENGINE TO CHASSIS
CONNECTOR
Inlet Air Heater Operation
• The VT 275 has an Inlet Air Heater
(IAH) element mounted in the front
of the intake manifold. The IAH is
used to improve cold start
operation, reduce emissions and
white smoke, and improve engine
warm-up. When the key is ON, the
ECM determines if the element
should be activated and for how
long, based on barometric pressure
and engine oil temperature. On time
is limited to prevent heater element
damage and to prevent damage to
the intake manifold.
The heater relay delivers full voltage
to the element if battery voltage is
normal, or the relay is pulsed by the
ECM to control the current if battery
voltage is above normal. If the
battery voltage is so low that the
starter motor operation may be
affected, the inlet air heater is disabled.
Relay Operation
• The IAH relay receives battery
power from the starter power feed
terminal. The normally open terminal
connects to the element through
the harness. One end of the relay
coil is always grounded through pin
4 of the engine 12-way connector.
The other end of the coil receives
12 volts from ECM pin X1-18 to
close the relay contacts.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Inlet Air Heater Diagnostics
• An additional wire on the normally
open terminal connects to ECM pin
X2-11. This diagnostic circuit
allows the ECM to determine if the
IAH relay is on when commanded
on by the ECM.
• The Inlet Air Heater can be turned
on using the KOEO Glow
Plug/Inlet Air Heater Test. The test
can only be activated twice per key
cycle. The ECM will delay the Inlet
Air Heater operation for three
seconds after the test is activated.
33
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
ECM
MAF
MICROPROCESSOR
B+
SIG
RIGHT BANK INJECTORS
X1
LEFT BANK INJECTORS
X2
VREF
SIGNAL
CONTROL
B+
X3
THERMISTOR
HEATED
ELEMENT
FIXED
RESISTOR
X1-7 IAT
GRD
X1-6 IAT SIG GRD
X1
X2-2 MAF
X2
X3
FIXED
RESISTOR
X4
MAF / IAT
A
KEY PWR
4
9
ENGINE
IN-LINE 12-WAY
CONNECTOR
IAT
B
SIGNAL GRD
C
ACTUATOR GRD
D
KEY POWER
MAF SIGNAL
EGR
DRIVE
MODULE
ECM
ACT GRD
E
IDM
BCS
IPR
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor
• The MAF sensor is used to measure
the mass of the fresh air portion of
the intake air charge. To reduce
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), a portion
of the fresh air charge is displaced
with cooled exhaust gases.
The ECM calculates the total
engine gas flow based on MAT,
MAP and RPM. The ECM then
determines the required EGR
percent based on the current
engine operating conditions. At this
point, the ECM commands the
exhaust portion of the total charge
through the EGR valve while
monitoring the fresh air portion
through the MAF sensor.
34
Sensor Construction
• The sensor housing contains two
sensors, the MAF sensor and the
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor.
The MAF sensor contains a heated
element placed in the air stream.
The amount of electrical power
needed to maintain the element at
the proper temperature depends
directly on the mass of air moving
over the element.
Sensor Operation
• The MAF sensor is made up of two
voltage divider circuits. A thermistor
and a fixed resistor make up one
voltage divider circuit, and the
heated element and a fixed resistor
make up the other voltage divider
circuit. The two voltage divider
circuits are combined into a bridge
circuit with a common power supply
and a common ground.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
EGR
VALVE
• During operation, when voltage is
applied to the bridge, the
temperature of the heated element
increases and the resistance
decreases. This affects the output
of the divider circuit.
The thermistor side is affected only
by ambient air temperature. The
divider voltages are compared and
the input voltage to the bridge is
increased or decreased until both
divider voltages are equal.
An increase or decrease in airflow
will change the ratio between the
divider voltages, which results in a
change to the supply voltage.
The signal controller circuit
measures the voltage to the bridge
and, based on that value, sends a
frequency signal to the ECM. The
correct
key-on,
engine-off
frequency is 400+100 Hz.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
PDC#
X1
X2
X3
X4
F11
F19
X3-1 WIF
Device
20A...FUEL PUMP
20A...FUEL HEATER
X4-15 FPM
X3-9 FPC
PDC
ECM
2
5
TO
IGNITION
POWER
FUEL
PUMP
RELAY
1
1
TO
RUN / ACC
RELAY
BATTERY
HFCM
3
F11
2
200 A
2
F19
HEATER
1
2
2
5
PUMP
1
FUEL HEATER RELAY
1
3
TO KEY SWITCH
Pump Operation
• The VT 275 has an ECM controlled
chassis mounted electric fuel pump.
At key-on, the ECM will operate the
fuel pump for up to 60 seconds to
prime the system. Priming allows
the pump to pressurize the system
and to allow air in the system to
bleed out through an orifice
between the filter housing and the
fuel return circuit.
When the engine is in run mode, the
pump will operate continuously. If
the engine dies or is shut down, or
if it is not started within 60 seconds, the ECM will stop the pump.
GRD
Circuit Operation
• To operate the pump, the ECM
provides a ground at ECM pin X3-9
to latch the fuel pump relay. The
relay takes power from fuse F11
and provides it to pin 1 of the pump
connector. The ECM monitors the
relay's operation through ECM pin
X4-15. Battery voltage should be
present at X4-15 when the relay is
commanded on. If the ECM does
not detect the voltage, a DTC will
be logged.
Water-In-Fuel Sensor
• The pump module contains a
Water-In-Fuel (WIF) sensor. The
WIF sensor receives voltage from
the key switch. If the filter detects
water, the sensor sends the voltage
to ECM pin X3-1. The ECM then
activates the dash WIF lamp.
Fuel Heater
• The Horizontal Fuel Conditioning
Module (HFCM) contains a fuel
heater. When the key is ON, the fuel
heater relay latches and provides
power to pin 1 of the heater
connector. The heater element
contains a thermostat that
controls the heater operation.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
35
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
IN CAB CRUISE SWITCHES
RIGHT BANK INJECTORS
X1
LEFT BANK INJECTORS
X2
X3
X4-6 COO
BAP
ECM
IDM
X3-14 RAS
X3-21 SCS
X3-24 BAP
X4-18 APS
X4-24 GRD
X1
X2
X3
X4
EGR
DRIVE
MODULE
A
X4-4 VREF B
B
X4-12 IVS
C
E
APS / IVS
D
PDC
F
TO KEY SWITCH
BCS
F46
PDC#
F46
Device
Accelerator Pedal Position
Sensor / Idle Validation Switch
(APS/IVS)
• The APS/IVS sensor has two
components built into one housing:
the Accelerator Pedal Position
Sensor (APS) and the Idle
Validation Switch (IVS).
• The APS is a potentiometer type
sensor. The ECM supplies a
reference voltage (Vref) and ground
to the potentiometer and the sensor
sends a voltage signal back to the
ECM indicating the pedal position.
The idle validation switch receives
12 volts from the chassis harness
and signals the ECM when the
pedal is in the idle position. If the
ECM detects an APS signal out of
range high or low, the ECM will
ignore the APS signal and operate
at low idle.
36
IPR
5A...ECM KEY PWR
• If a disagreement in the state of IVS
and APS is detected by the ECM,
and the ECM determines that the
IVS is at fault, the ECM will allow a
maximum of 50% of APS. If the
ECM cannot determine that the IVS
is at fault, the engine will be
restricted to low idle only.
Barometric Absolute Pressure
(BAP) sensor
• The BAP sensor is mounted in the
cab. The BAP sensor provides
altitude information to the ECM, so
fuel quantity and timing, glow plug
on time, intake heater on time, and
the operation of the Boost Control
Solenoid can be adjusted to
compensate for air density
changes.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
EGR
VALVE
Cruise Control
• Cruise control operation is
controlled through the ECM. Two
switches in the cab are used to
signal the operator's intention for
speed control. The switches receive
battery voltage through fuse 46 in
the Power Distribution Center
(PDC). The Cruise On/Off (COO)
switch sends a voltage signal to
ECM pin X4-6. With the COO
switch on, the operator can use the
Set (SCS) and resume (RES)
switch to control the vehicle speed.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
EGR DRIVE MODULE
POWER
ECM
GRD
X1
POWER
X1
GRD
X2
X2-13
X3-31
X2-6
X3-30
X2
5
2
3
4
1
6
7
8
X3
X3
W
V
U
X4
X2-12 SHD
IDM
S N S N
N
S
S
N
N S N S
EGR VALVE
EGR DRIVE
MODULE
TO FRAME
GROUND
TO ECM RELAY
‘NORMALLY OPEN’
TERMINAL
10
4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
SENSOR GRD
POSITION SENSOR W
POSITION SENSOR V
POSITION SENSOR U
SENSOR 5V SUPPLY
EGR
VALVE
SHIELD DRAIN
MOTOR W
MOTOR V
MOTOR U
CAN2CAN2+
GRD
ACT PWR
ENGINE IN-LINE
RELAY
EGR System
• The motor-actuated EGR valve is
controlled and monitored by the
EGR Drive Module. The module is
connected to the engine CAN 2 link
allowing bi-directional communication with the ECM.
EGR Valve
• The EGR Valve poppet stem is
positioned by a three-phase motor.
The armature of the motor has
twelve
permanent
magnet
segments alternating as north or
south poles of a magnet. The
armature is surrounded by nine field
coils divided into three sets or
phases. Each phase has three coils
wired in parallel and spaced 120°
apart around the motor armature.
One lead of each coil set is
connected to the respective motor
circuit on the drive module. The
other leads from all of the nine coils
are joined together.
Two coil sets are powered together
to reposition the motor, with one set
connected to power and the other
to ground. Each powered coil set
creates either a north or a south
magnetic field depending on the
direction of current flow through
the coils.
Drive Module Operation
• The direction of current flow
through the coil sets is controlled
by the EGR Drive Module. When
the integrated circuit in the module
connects one coil set to ground,
and one of the other two coil sets to
a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)
power source, the magnetic fields
created by the coils oppose the
armature magnetic fields and a
controlled rotation of the
armature occurs.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
The drive module constantly
switches the coil sets (identified as
Motor W, V, and U) from power and
ground to continually produce
rotation. Pulse width modulation is
used to control the current.
Communication
• Three Hall-Effect sensors are
located on a circuit board at the top
of the valve housing. The sensors
are supplied power and ground
through the drive module and
produce a series of signals so the
module can track the rotation of the
motor and the opening position of
the valve.
37
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
X1
X2
X1-19 CKPO
X3-5
X1-24 CMPO
X3-10
X2-6 CAN 2 (+)
X3-30
X2-13 CAN 2 (-)
X3-31
X3
X3-12 CAN 1 (+)
X4
X3-13 CAN 1 (-)
X3-28
X3-29
2
3
X1
X2
X3
ENGINE IN-LINE
12-WAY CONNECTOR
X4-20 ATA (+)
X4-21 ATA (-)
IDM
ECM
TO TRANS
CONTROLLER
D
C
4
3
F
G
EGR DRIVE
MODULE
ECM/IDM Communications
• The ECM and IDM communicate
over three independent communication links. The three links are
CMPO, CKPO, and CAN 2. In
addition to communications with
the IDM, the ECM also sends
engine information over the CAN 1
link to the vehicle's instrument
cluster
and
the
9-pin
Diagnostic connector.
CAN 2
• The engine CAN 2 link is a twowire, bi-directional communication
circuit between the ECM and IDM
and the ECM and the EGR Drive
Module. The ECM and IDM use the
link to share operating strategies,
sensor information, diagnostic
demands, and Diagnostic Trouble
Codes (DTC). The ECM also shares
desired EGR valve position with the
EGR drive module over the CAN 2
link. The EGR Drive Module
38
EGR
DRIVE MODULE
CONNECTOR
9-WAY DIAGNOSTIC
CONNECTOR
translates those messages and
then commands the EGR valve
motor. The EGR drive module
monitors the valve action and
communicates any faults back to
the ECM over the CAN 2 link.
Cam Position Output (CMPO)
• The CMPO signal is a 0-12V digital
signal used to communicate the
camshaft position to the IDM. The
CMPO signal is a square wave
signal derived from the information
contained in the camshaft position
sensor's AC voltage signal. The
ECM generates the CMPO signal
by pulling down (switching to
ground) a single wire 12V circuit
that originates in the IDM. The IDM
reads the signal and uses it for
injector timing calculations.
Crank Position Output (CKPO)
• The CKPO signal is a 0-12V digital
signal used to communicate the
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
crankshaft position and speed to
the IDM. The CKPO signal is a
square wave signal derived from the
information contained in the
crankshaft position sensor's AC
voltage signal. The ECM generates
the CKPO signal by pulling down
(switching to ground) a single wire
12V circuit that originates in the
IDM. CKPO is used by the IDM for
injector timing and fuel quantity
calculations.
American Trucking Association
(ATA)
• The ATA link is a 0-5V signal that
enables communications between
the ECM and the MasterDiagnostics software. The data
communication link also allows for
programming of the ECM and IDM.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
FUNCTION SELECTOR
SWITCH
X1
X2
ECT
CANCAN1+
1(+)
X3-10 AC DEMAND
X3
CAN1CAN 1(-)
X4
X3-22 AC CONTROL
CMP
HPSW
ECM
LPSW
TO IGN
SW
T-STAT SW
h
PDC
5
A/C CLUTCH
RELAY
7
APS
TO
TRANS
CONTROLLER
A/C
CLUTCH
1
3
2
5
1
2
C A
BATTERY
GRD
TO BATTERY
POSITIVE
• The VT 275 ECM controls the A/C
clutch. The ECM receives an A/C
demand signal from the chassis,
and engages the A/C clutch if
engine conditions are correct. If
conditions are not right, clutch
action may be delayed. When the
ECM receives the A/C demand
signal, it considers engine run time
(to avoid stalling at start up) and
engine coolant temperature (to
avoid compressor operation when
liquid refrigerant may be present in
the compressor). In addition, the
ECM looks at transmission shift
action (to avoid clutch action during
a transmission shift), engine RPM
(to avoid clutch overspeed), and
APS percent (to avoid engagement
during full throttle acceleration).
A/C Demand
• The A/C demand signal originates
at the ECM as a reference voltage
F12
IGNITION
SWITCH
A/C CLUTCH
DIODE
A/C Clutch Control
F34
200A
MEGA
FUSE
on X3-10. The ECM supplies 5
volts to pin 10 and considers clutch
engagement when the voltage is
pulled low (shorted to ground) by
the A/C on/off switch in the dashlocated A/C Control Head.
The low-pressure switch (LPSW),
high-pressure switch (HPSW), and
the thermostat switch (T-STAT SW)
are in series in the A/C demand
circuit. If the compressor head
pressure rises above 350 psi, the
high-pressure switch opens and the
demand signal will be 5V. If
pressure on the low side of the
compressor goes below 7 psi, the
low-pressure switch will open and
the demand signal will be 5V.
The last switch is the thermostat
control in the A/C Control Head. If
the thermostat is positioned so that
in-cab temperature demands are
satisfied, the thermostat will open
and the demand signal will be 5V.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
A/C Control
• If the A/C demand signal is pulled
low and the ECM determines that
the clutch can be engaged, the
ECM pulls the AC Control circuit
low at pin X3-22. When pin 22 is
low, a ground is provided for the
A/C Clutch Relay. The relay latches
and battery voltage is provided to
the A/C clutch through pin 5 of the
engine 12-way connector.
Switches
• The thermostatic switch (T-STAT
SW) monitors evaporator core
temperature to prevent freezing and
to regulate cab temperatures.
• The low pressure switch (LPSW)
prevents compressor damage in the
event of a refrigerant leak.
• The high pressure cutoff Switch
(HPSW) interrupts compressor
operation in the event of high
system pressures.
39
®
Air Management
System
• Regulated two-stage turbocharger
• Cooled exhaust gas recirculation
• Intake air heater
Inlet air
Compressed air
Exhaust gas
Crankcase vapors
Charge Air Cooler
(CAC)
System Features
Air filter
MAF/IAT
sensor
Dual stage
turbocharger
Normal exhaust
flow bypass
shut
Exhaust flow
bypass open
IAH
MAP
Exhaust system
Left exhaust
manifold
Left cylinder
MAT
head
Left
exhaust in
Right
exhaust in
Right cylinder
Right exhaust
head
manifold
EGR
valve
Intake
manifold
EGR
cooler
Exhaust to dual stage
Exhaust tube assembly turbocharger
Left
Right
40
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The Air Management System consists of
the air filter, two-stage turbocharger,
charge air cooler, intake manifold,
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler
and EGR valve. The mass air flow
sensor, the intake air temperature
sensor, the manifold air temperature
sensor, the manifold absolute pressure
sensor, and the EGR valve position
sensors within the EGR valve are all
inputs from the system to the ECM. The
ECM controls the system through the
EGR valve, and the turbocharger boost
control solenoid.
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FROM CHARGE AIR COOLER (CAC)
EGR VALVE
LOW PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR INLET
BOOST CONTROL SOLENOID
PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
INTAKE MANIFOLD
COMPRESSOR OUTLET TO
CHARGE AIR COOLER (CAC)
LOW PRESSURE
TURBINE OUTLET
EXHAUST TUBE ASSEMBLY
System Operation
compressor flows through the
crossover tube to the compressor
inlet of the high-pressure turbocharger. Air from the compressor
goes to the Charge Air Cooler (CAC).
• The VT 275 uses a regulated twostage turbocharger to boost the
volume of air flowing into the
cylinders. The system consists of
two turbochargers with exhaust
flow through the units controlled by
the turbocharger boost control
solenoid. The smaller of the two
turbochargers is identified as the
high-pressure turbocharger and is
sized to provide boost for low to
medium speeds. The larger
turbocharger is the low-pressure
turbo and is sized to work in tandem
with the high-pressure unit to
provide the boost and air flow
needed for high-speed, high-load
engine conditions.
• The CAC is mounted in front of the
radiator. The cooler is an air-to-air
heat exchanger that uses airflow to
remove heat energy from the
pressurized intake charge. Reducing the temperature of the air
increases the charge density, which
results in a more efficient engine
with quicker engine response and
reduced emissions.
• Air passes through the air filter
element and the mass air flow
sensor to enter the compressor of
the low-pressure turbocharger. Air
that leaves the low-pressure
• Exhaust flow from the cylinders
exits the exhaust manifolds and
spools up the high-pressure turbine.
The exhaust passes through the
• After the CAC, the air flows through
piping to the intake manifold where
it is distributed to the cylinders.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
high-pressure turbine and enters
the low-pressure turbine. The
exhaust gases then exit the turbine
and flow out the exhaust system.
• A bypass valve controls the exhaust
flow through a passage that allows
a portion of the exhaust to bypass
the high-pressure turbine and go
directly to the low-pressure turbine.
Part of the exhaust gas that leaves
the left bank exhaust manifold is
diverted to the EGR cooler. Heat
energy is removed from the exhaust
while in the cooler and transferred
to the engine's coolant. The cooled
exhaust gases then flow through a
short internal passage in the intake
manifold to the EGR valve. The
EGR valve meters a portion of the
cooled exhaust gases into the
intake manifold where the exhaust
displaces a portion of the fresh
air charge.
41
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Air Filter Restriction Gauge
• The filter restriction gauge is mounted on
the air filter housing. The gauge allows the
operator to check the condition without
removing the filter. The restriction gauge
can be reset by pushing the yellow button
on the end.
FILTER
RESTRICTION
GAUGE
• Note: The filter restriction gauge bellows
will lock in position if restriction exceeds
26 inches of water. The filter should be
replaced and the gauge reset.
• The filter element should be replaced if
restriction passes 12.5 inches of H2O
when tested at high-idle, no-load with a
magnehelic gauge.
Intake Manifold
EGR VALVE
• The intake manifold directs air from the
charge air cooler to the intake ports in the
cylinder heads. The manifold also provides
an internal passage for exhaust gases from
the EGR cooler to reach the EGR valve.
Exhaust gas will flow into the intake
manifold and mix with the intake charge
when the EGR valve is open and the
exhaust backpressure is higher than the
boost pressure.
INTAKE MANIFOLD
• The manifold has an additional internal
passage for coolant from the EGR cooler
to return to the front cover.
42
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FROM AIR FILTER
LOW PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR
HOUSING
PNEUMATIC
ACTUATOR
TO CAC
HIGH PRESSURE
TURBINE HOUSING
LOW PRESSURE
TURBINE
HOUSING
HIGH PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR HOUSING
EXHAUST INLET TO
HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE
EXHAUST OUTLET
Two-Stage Regulated
Turbocharger
• The dual turbocharger consists of
two turbochargers in series. The
high pressure turbocharger is the
smaller unit and is configured to
provide boost at low speeds and
loads. The low pressure turbo is the
larger
turbocharger
and
is
configured to provide boost at
higher speeds and loads.
Exhaust Flow
• Exhaust flow from the cylinders
enters the turbine housing of the
high-pressure turbocharger and
causes the high-pressure turbine
and compressor wheel to spin.
Exhaust then exits the highpressure turbo and enters the lowpressure turbine housing, causing
the low-pressure turbine and
compressor to spin.
Intake Flow
• Fresh airflow starts at the inlet of
the low-pressure compressor
housing, flows from the lowpressure compressor to the highpressure compressor inlet and then
exits directly to the charge air
cooler piping.
Operation
• During operation, the high pressure
turbo provides most of the boost at
low speeds and light loads. as
speed and load increases the low
pressure turbo begins to provide
the increased airflow.
open the bypass valve and divert
some of the excess gas flow
directly to the low pressure turbine.
• The high pressure turbocharger
results in improved response and
higher low speed boost capability
providing improved low speed
engine torque. The compounding
capability of the two turbos in the
mid range results in increased
power, fuel efficiency and the ability
to maintain power at higher
altitudes. The larger compressor is
capable of providing the airflow
requirement without sacrificing the
efficiency of the engine.
• Under certain conditions the ECM
can modify the air flow through the
turbocharger by commanding the
boost control solenoid (BCS)
closed. When the BCS is closed,
boost pressure builds in the
pneumatic actuator, and when
boost is sufficient, the actuator will
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
43
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Exhaust Bypass Valve
• The path that exhaust takes through the
twin turbochargers is affected by the
position of the exhaust bypass valve
located under the metal plate on the top of
the high-pressure turbine housing. With
the bypass valve open, a portion of the
exhaust enters the low-pressure turbine
housing directly, bypassing the highpressure turbine.
BYPASS VALVE
HIGH PRESSURE
TURBO OIL
INLET
Diverted Exhaust Gas Flow
• With the bypass valve open, a portion of
the exhaust gases bypass the highpressure turbine. The gases pass through
the bypass valve opening and through a
port cast into the high-pressure turbine
housing. The exhaust flow exits at the inlet
to the low-pressure turbine.
CAST PORT
HIGH
PRESSURE
TURBINE
HIGH PRESSURE
TURBINE HOUSING
44
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Turbocharger Actuator
• The pneumatic actuator for the bypass
valve receives intake manifold boost
pressure from the intake elbow through a
plastic tube. When the Pulse Width
Modulated (PWM) signal to the boost
control solenoid is 100%, the valve is
open, and the boost pressure is vented to
the inlet duct. With boost vented, the
pneumatic actuator will be in the
relaxed position.
PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
• When conditions occur that would result in
higher boost pressure than desired, the
ECM reduces the PWM signal to 0%. The
low signal causes the valve to close, boost
builds in the actuator, and if boost is high
enough, the actuator opens the diverter valve.
COMPRESSOR INLET
Actuator Line Routing
AIR
FILTER
CHARGER AIR
COOLER
air
MAINIFOLD
AIR
INLET
ORIFICE
BYPASS
VALVE
BCS
exhaust
out
ACTUATOR
• The ECM controls the venting of the
actuator through the Boost Control
Solenoid (BCS). Proper operation of the
pneumatic actuator is dependent on the
routing of the pneumatic lines. The
actuator is connected through the black
plastic tube to the rubber tee at the intake
manifold elbow. The rubber tee at the
intake manifold elbow is also connected to
the BCS through a black plastic tube. The
BCS is then connected to atmospheric
pressure in the turbocharger inlet duct
with a green plastic tube. When the BCS
is open, the pressure in the black tube is
vented to atmosphere through the green
tube. When the BCS is closed, pressure in
the manifold will build in the actuator.
MANIFOLD
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
45
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Turbocharger Crossover Tube
CROSSOVER TUBE
O-RING
• Air from the low-pressure turbocharger
compressor outlet is routed to the highpressure turbocharger compressor inlet
through the crossover tube. The crossover
tube is sealed at the inlet of the high
pressure turbocharger with an O-ring and
at the low pressure compressor discharge
with a press-in seal. If the crossover tube is
removed, the seal and O-ring must be
replaced. The Turbocharger Crossover
Seal Remover/Installer (ZTSE4676) is
required to remove and replace the seal.
CROSSOVER TUBE SEAL
OIL DRAIN
ASSEMBLY
Turbocharger Mounting
• The turbocharger is mounted to the engine
at two points. The low-pressure turbine
housing is bolted to the high-pressure
pump cover and the high-pressure turbine
housing is bolted to the exhaust tube
assembly. The two turbochargers are
connected by the turbine-mating V-band
clamp that allows for minor angular
variances in the mounting surfaces. In
addition, the oil drain tube assembly is
made of three pieces, and allows for
changes in the mounting points.
• Note: Removal of the turbocharger will
change the relationship of the two
mounting points and require that a special
mounting and torque sequence be used.
See the Service Manual for further details.
46
LOW PRESSURE
TURBOCHARGER
MOUNTING
POINT
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
HIGH PRESSURE
TURBOCHARGER
MOUNTING
POINT
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
EGR Valve
• The EGR valve consists of a stepper motor
and two poppet valves connected by a
common shaft. When inserted into the
manifold, the valve aligns with the port in
the intake manifold that connects to the
EGR cooler. When the valve is open,
exhaust gases flow from the cooler and
enter the manifold through the open
poppet valves.
STEPPER MOTOR HOUSING
COMMON SHAFT
• The EGR valve opens when the ECM
commands the EGR drive module to
position the valve. The drive module then
sends signals to the stepper motor to
produce armature rotation. When the
armature turns, the poppet valves move off
their seats.
POPPET
VALVES
EGR V A LVE
INTAKE MANIFOLD
EGR C O O L E R
EGR Flow
• The ECM-controlled Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR) valve meters cooled
exhaust gases in the intake charge air to
reduce Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
emissions. Exhaust gases from the exhaust
pipe assembly are directed to the EGR
cooler. Gases flowing through exhaust
passages in the cooler lose heat energy to
engine coolant flowing through the coolant
passages in the cooler. The cooled
exhaust gases travel from the cooler into a
passage cast into the intake manifold. The
EGR valve fits into the exhaust passage
and is sealed with two O-rings.
• When the EGR valve opens, exhaust
gases flow into the intake charge air from
both the top and bottom of the passage,
providing better distribution of the gases.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
47
®
FUEL SUPPLY
SYSTEM
•
•
•
•
•
Chassis-mounted electric fuel pump
Water-in-fuel detection
Electric fuel heater
Chassis-mounted primary fuel filter
Engine-mounted secondary fuel filter element
System Features
SECONDARY FUEL FILTER
HOUSING
• The VT 275 uses a chassis-mounted
electric fuel pump. The pump is mounted
with the fuel heater and primary filter in
the Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module
(HFCM). The fuel pump relay, which is
located in the Power Distribution Center
(PDC), is controlled and monitored by
the ECM.
FILTER INLET
Water separated from the fuel in the
HFCM is detected by the Water-in-Fuel
(WIF) sensor. The sensor is an input to
the ECM, which controls the WIF dash
lamp through the CAN 1 link.
• The HFCM has both an electric fuel
heater and a temperature controlled
recirculation valve. The valve regulates
recirculation through the system to
assist the heater in warming the fuel.
The secondary filter and fuel pressure
regulator valve are mounted on the engine.
BANJO BOLT
48
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
Secondary fuel filter
Unfiltered fuel from the fuel tank
Conditioned fuel from HFCM to fuel filter
Conditioned fuel from fuel filter
Fuel pressure
test port
Cylinder heads
Fuel return from
engine to HFCM
Fuel return
to tank
Fuel injectors
Fuel supply
to HFCM
Primary fuel filter
Fuel supply
to engine
HFCM
Drilled passage
Drilled passage
Check valve in
banjo bolt
Check valve in
banjo bolt
Fuel tank
System Operation
• The fuel pump, fuel heater, pressure
relief valve, Water-in-Fuel (WIF)
sensor, recirculation valve, water
drain and primary filter are all
located in the Horizontal Fuel
Conditioning Module (HFCM). The
secondary filter, pressure regulator
and banjo bolts are mounted on
the engine.
• The ECM uses the fuel pump relay
to activate the fuel pump at key-on.
Fuel drawn from the tank contacts
the electric fuel heater, passes
through the one-way check valve,
and enters the filter where water is
separated. Fuel passes through the
filter media and enters the pump
inlet while water settles to the
bottom of the housing until the level
of water activates the WIF sensor.
Pressurized fuel from the pump is
routed to the engine-mounted filter.
Fuel flows through the filter, then
through individual steel lines to the
cylinder heads. Each line is
attached to the cylinder head with a
banjo bolt. Each bolt contains an
orifice and a check valve. Once in
the head passages, fuel is
distributed to the injectors.
• Fuel is exposed to the pressure
regulator in the secondary filter
housing. The regulator returns
excess fuel to the HFCM where it is
directed to either the fuel tank or
the pump inlet, depending on fuel
temperature.
• Both filter elements push open a
fuel passage valve when inserted
into their respective housings.
Without the filter in place, fuel will
not flow through the system. The
engine could start without the filter,
but will not run properly.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
49
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module
(HFCM)
COVER
PRESSURE TO
SECONDARY
FILTER
WIF
CONNECTOR
DRAIN PLUG
PUMP CONNECTOR
SUCTION SIDE
RECIRCULATION
CONTROL VALVE
FUEL PUMP
FILTER
HEATER
HEATER CONNECTOR
50
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The HFCM is chassis mounted on CF500
and CF600 trucks. The module is mounted
on the inside of the left frame rail behind
the cab. The module is mounted with the
cover/mount facing the rail. The module
contains the fuel pump, fuel filter, WIF
sensor, heater and the recirculation control
valve. The water drain valve and all fuel
connections are mounted on the module
cover. The lower connection on the pump
end of the module is the suction side to the
tank and the lower connection on the filter
side is pressure to the engine-mounted
filter. The drain valve is accessible through
a hole in the frame rail.
Primary Fuel Filter and Fuel Heater
• The HFCM contains a 10-micron primary
fuel filter. The replaceable filter element
opens a fuel passage in the end of the
pump when the filter is inserted into the
housing. Without the filter in place,
sufficient fuel will not pass through the
system for correct engine operation.
• Fuel from the tank is exposed to the
electric fuel heater as it enters the HFCM
module. The heater is controlled by the key
switch start/run circuit and is selfregulating. The heater comes on when fuel
temperature is below 50°F (10°C) and
goes off at 80°F (27°C). Return fuel from
the engine is recirculated to the suction
side of the filter until the fuel temperature
is sufficient to cause the recirculation valve
to close. After the valve closes, all returned
fuel is directed back to the tank.
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
FILTER ELEMENT
Secondary Fuel Filter
• The secondary filter is a top-loaded,
engine-mounted fuel filter. Fuel enters the
filter housing under pressure from the fuel
pump through the inlet line and banjo bolt.
Fuel passes through the 4-micron filter
element and through the filter stand pipe to
enter the two fuel lines to the cylinder heads.
• The filter standpipe contains a valve that is
opened by the filter when it is installed in
the housing. Without the filter in place,
sufficient fuel will not pass through the
system for correct engine operation.
FILTER
HOUSING
Fuel Pressure Regulator Valve
• The fuel pressure regulator is located
between the fuel filter housing and the oil
filter housing. Fuel pressure pushes the
regulator piston against the regulator
spring. When fuel pressure exceeds 45
psi, the regulator begins to open and fuel
passes back to the horizontal fuel
conditioning module.
REGULATOR PISTON
AIR BLEED HOLE
INLET BANJO
BOLT
FUEL RETURN
• The fuel filter housing contains an air bleed
to allow any air in the system to pass back
to the fuel tank.
REGULATOR SPRING
FUEL TO CYLINDER
HEADS
Fuel Inlet Check Valves
• Fuel passing through the filter enters steel
lines that lead to the right and left bank
cylinder heads. Each line is attached to the
cylinder head with a banjo bolt that
contains a one-way check valve and a
small orifice. The orifice and check valve
minimizes pressure pulses in the fuel rail,
resulting in smoother delivery of fuel to
the injectors.
• Each fuel line fitting is sealed to the
cylinder head by two copper gaskets that
must be replaced if the bolt is removed.
BANJO BOLT
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
51
®
FUEL MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
•
•
•
•
Electro-hydraulic injectors
Crankcase integrated high-pressure reservoir
Gear driven rear mounted high-pressure pump
Rail mounted ICP sensor
System Features
RESERVOIR
INJECTOR
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
ICP
SENSOR
HIGH PRESSURE
OIL RAIL
CASE-TO-HEAD TUBE
REAR OF ENGINE
52
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The VT 275 engine uses electrohydraulic injectors. The injectors use
lube oil under high-pressure to provide
the mechanical force needed to inject
fuel into the combustion chamber.
• The reservoir for the high-pressure pump
is cast into the front of the crankcase
Vee. The reservoir is supplied by the lube
oil pump and is used to provide a
constant supply of oil to the highpressure pump.
• The high-pressure pump is mounted at
the rear of the crankcase Vee and is gear
driven off the rear gear train.
• The Injection Control Pressure (ICP)
sensor is mounted on the right bank
high-pressure rail.
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
IDM
ECM
CMP
CKP
EOPS
MAP
APS / IVS
INJECTION CONTROL
PRESSURE (ICP)
SYSTEM
MAF / IAT
LUBRICATION
SYSTEM
BAP
ECT
FUEL SUPPLY
SYSTEM
MAT
EOT
ICP
High-pressure oil
Fuel
Electronic circuit
Lube oil pressure
System Operation
• The high-pressure oil system is
composed of the reservoir, highpressure pump, injection pressure
regulator, rear branch tube, case-tohead tubes, high-pressure rails and
the injection control pressure sensor.
• The crankshaft driven lube oil pump
supplies the reservoir. The reservoir
stores the oil under low-pressure to
supply the high-pressure pump. The
Vee-configured, four-piston highpressure pump is mounted at the
rear of the crankcase Vee and is
driven off the rear gear train. The
pump is a positive displacement
pump capable of high-pressures.
Oil discharged by the pump enters
the rear branch tube. The branch
tube serves to transfer the oil to the
case-to-head tubes.
EGR DRIVE
MODULE
• The high-pressure rails are mounted
above the injectors. Oil from the
pump enters each rail through a
case-to-head tube and a check
valve built into the port plug. Oil
from the rail can then enter the top
of the injector.
• When the spool valve closes,
pressure pushing on the intensifier
piston is vented. With pressure on
the plunger relieved, injection stops
and low-pressure fuel from the fuel
supply system refills the barrel and
plunger area of the injector.
• As each injector spool valve opens,
oil pushes the intensifier piston
down, pressurizing the fuel below
the plunger. Fuel pressure acts on
the bevel of the nozzle needle.
When the force on the needle
exceeds the Valve Opening-Spring
Pressure (VOP) the needle lifts and
forces fuel into the combustion chamber.
• The ICP sensor allows the ECM to
monitor the injection control
pressure. The ECM commands the
injection pressure regulator to vary
the pressure according to
operating conditions.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
53
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Oil Reservoir
RESERVOIR
SCREEN
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP RESERVOIR
• The reservoir for the high-pressure pump is
cast into the front of the crankcase Vee.
The reservoir receives oil under pressure
from the crankshaft driven lube oil pump.
The reservoir holds approximately one
quart (one liter) of oil.
• A raised cavity in the bottom of the
reservoir feeds oil from the reservoir to the
high-pressure pump.
• A 150-micron screen in the oil reservoir
filters any large debris that may be in the oil
before it reaches the pump.
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
High Pressure Pump
• The high-pressure pump produces the
injection control pressure. The pump is
mounted under the pump cover at the rear
of the crankcase and has four pistons
arranged in a Vee configuration. The pump
is gear driven off the camshaft gear. The
pump aligns with an O-ring sealed
passage that leads to the reservoir. Pump
output is directed to the branch tube
assembly through a quick disconnect
adapter. The pump, which protrudes
through the top of the pump cover, is
sealed at the cover opening with an O-ring.
Injection Pressure Regulator
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
INJECTION
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
54
• The Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)
mounts on the high-pressure pump.
• The pump moves more oil than the system
requires, so excess oil is drained from the
system to control the pressure. The ECM
commands the IPR in order to increase or
decrease the amount of oil drained from
the system. The IPR coil swivels on the
IPR so the connection can be positioned
pointing down after the IPR is tightened.
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP COVER
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Injection Control Pressure Sensor
• The Injection Control Pressure (ICP)
sensor mounts on the right bank highpressure rail but protrudes through the
valve cover and is accessible without
removing the valve cover.
• The sensor measures pressure in the rail
and produces a signal that is sent to the
ECM. The ICP sensor is the feedback
device for the operation of the IPR. The
ECM constantly checks the pressure to
determine if the system is performing
correctly. When the ECM detects
variations, the IPR command is corrected
to achieve the desired results.
RIGHT BANK
VALVE COVER
ICP SENSOR
High Pressure Oil Rail
• A high-pressure rail is mounted over each
bank of injectors. The rail serves as a
reservoir of high-pressure oil for use by the
injectors. The rail is connected to each
injector with a short tube that fits through
the injector O-ring. The tubes have the
ability to swivel to align with the
injector openings.
REAR PORT PLUG
FRONT PORT PLUG
ICP SENSOR
• The rail does not need to be drained
before removal.
HIGH PRESSURE RAIL
Port Plugs and Tubes
• There is one O-ring sealed case-to-head
tube assembly for each bank of cylinders.
The case-to-head tube connects the
branch tube assembly in the tappet area to
the rail through the rear port plug. The rear
port plug contains a one-way check valve
that dampens pressure pulsations caused
by injector operation.
REAR PORT PLUG
& CHECK VALVES
FRONT
PORT
PLUG
• The front port plug is used to block oil from
leaking into the valve train area. Both port
plugs must be in place for the engine to
build ICP sufficient to start the engine.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
55
®
INJECTOR
OPERATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electro-hydraulic
Two control coils
Spool valve controlled inlet
48 volt operation
short coil on-time
self extracting clamps
Fuel Injector Features
• The VT 275 fuel system uses
electro-hydraulic injectors. The
injectors utilize lube oil pressurized
by the high-pressure pump to
provide the mechanical force
needed to inject fuel into the
cylinders. Each injector has two coils.
56
• The IDM selectively signals the
coils with 48 volts to control the
position of the spool valve that
directs oil flow into and out of each
injector. After being positioned, the
spool is held in position with
residual magnetism. The coils draw
20 amps.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• No special tools are required to
remove the injector from their
bores. The injectors are selfextracted from their bore when the
hold down clamp is removed.
INJECTOR OPERATION
OIL INLET FROM RAIL
Spool Valve
• The open and close coils move the spool
valve from side to side using magnetic force.
• The spool valve has two positions. When
the valve is in the open position, oil flows
from the high pressure oil rail into the
injector. When the valve is in the closed
position, oil drains from the injector back to
the crankcase.
COIL
COIL
SPOOL
Intensifier Piston
• Since the intensifier piston is approximately
seven times greater in surface area than
the plunger, the fuel pressure under the
plunger is approximately seven times
greater than the injection control pressure.
INTENSIFIER
PISTON
Barrel & Plunger
• The barrel and plunger of the injector is
where high fuel pressure is generated by
the movement of the plunger.
PLUNGER
• Plunger coating reduces the possibility of
scuffing and poor performance.
Nozzle
BARREL
FUEL INLET
• The nozzle needle opens when fuel
pressure, pushing on the bevel of the
needle, is greater than the spring pressure
holding the needle closed. At that point,
the needle lifts and fuel under high
pressure passes through the nozzle holes.
NEEDLE
NOZZLE
NOZZLE HOLES
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
57
INJECTOR OPERATION
Fill
• During the fill stage, the spool valve is in
the closed position. High pressure oil from
the oil rail cannot pass through the
spool valve.
• Low pressure fuel passes through the fuel
inlet check valve and fills the plunger cavity.
• The needle control spring holds the needle
on its seat so that fuel cannot enter the
combustion chamber.
Oil Pressure
High Pressure Oil
Atmosphereic Pressure
Fuel Pressure
Fuel Supply Pressure
Above 3100 PSI
Injection
• The injector drive module energizes the
open coil, and the spool valve moves to the
open position. The Injector Drive Module
turns off the current to the coil, but the
spool remains in the open position.
• High pressure oil flows to the intensifier
piston. Fuel pressure builds when the
plunger moves downward. The fuel inlet
check ball seats due to an increase in fuel
pressure under the plunger.
• When fuel pressure rises above the valve
opening pressure, the nozzle needle lifts
off its seat and injection begins.
Oil Pressure
High Pressure Oil
Atmosphereic Pressure
Fuel Pressure
Fuel Supply Pressure
Above 3100 PSI
58
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
INJECTOR OPERATION
End of injection
• When the injector drive module
determines that the correct amount of fuel
has been delivered, it sends a current to
the close-coil of the injector. The spool
valve closes, and high pressure oil flow
into the injector stops.
• Oil above the intensifier piston flows past
the spool valve through the exhaust ports
out into the valve cover area. The intensifier
piston and plunger return under spring
pressure to the fill position.
• Fuel pressure under the plunger
decreases until the nozzle needle control
spring forces the needle back onto its seat
and injection stops.
Oil Pressure
High Pressure Oil
Atmosphereic Pressure
Fuel Pressure
Fuel Supply Pressure
Above 3100 PSI
OIL INLET
Injector Sealing
• The injector has two replaceable O-rings
on the outside of the body. These O-rings
seal the fuel inlet area. In addition, the
injector has a copper gasket where the
nozzle passes through the cylinder head
into the combustion chamber.
• The oil inlet o-ring is contained in the top of
the injector. This o-ring can not be replaced.
CONNECTOR O-RING
• The injector has two coils with a single 4
pin pigtail lead that connects to the valve
cover gasket pass-though connecter pigtail.
O-RINGS
NOZZLE
GASKET
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
59
®
LUBRICATION
SYSTEM
•
•
•
•
•
Crankshaft driven lube oil pump
Integrated oil cooler
External oil pressure regulator
Easy access canister oil filter
Piston cooling jets
System Features
OIL FILTER
ADAPTER
• The crankshaft driven oil pump is located
behind the vibration damper and is
integrated into the front cover.
• The oil pressure regulator valve is
located in the front cover below the oil
pump and is accessed by removing the
pressure regulator end plug.
GEROTOR
OIL PUMP
• The oil cooler is located under the oil
cooler cover in the engine's Vee. The
cooler occupies a portion of the space in
the high-pressure reservoir.
• The oil filter is a canister style filter
located on top of the engine.
• Oil spray through the piston cooling jets is
used to reduce piston crown temperatures.
OIL PRESSURE
REGULATOR
60
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Diagnostic EOPS
port
Oil
filter
EOT
Primary
balancer
bushing
Filter
bypass
Cam
Main
bushing bearing
Rod
bearing
Lifter
Dual
turbocharger
Piston
Cooling tube
To oil pan
Oil
cooler
Cooler
bypass
Oil reservoir for
high-pressure
pump 0.95 qts
To high-pressure
oil system
Oil
Pump
Pump
regulator
75 psi
System Operation
• Oil is drawn from the oil pan through
the pick-up tube, upper oil pan,
lower crankcase and the front cover
passage that leads to the oil pump
gear set. The oil is moved under
pressure by the crank-driven gear
set to the outlet port of the pump
where pressurized oil is exposed to
the pressure regulator valve. If the
pressure is high, the excess oil is
returned to the inlet side of the
pump. Oil then enters the vertical
passage in the crankcase that takes
the oil to the oil cooler cover.
• Oil entering the oil cooler cover is
directed to the cooler and oil cooler
bypass valve. If the oil is cold and
thick, the bypass allows oil to enter
the filter without moving through the
cooler. After passing through the
cooler, oil enters the oil adapter
assembly and is directed to the
filter. The top of the filter standpipe
Right side
contains the oil filter bypass valve,
which allows oil to bypass the filter
if the filter is restricted. After
passing through the filter, oil returns
to the cooler cover assembly and is
directed to the high-pressure pump
reservoir and the crankcase passages.
• Cooled and filtered oil enters two
oil passages at the top of the
crankcase. The right passage leads
to the right bank oil galley where oil
is directed to the crankshaft main
bearings, camshaft, right bank
lifters, and the right bank piston
cooling jets. The left passage leads
to the left bank oil gallery where oil
is directed to the left bank lifters
and cooling jets. Spray from the
cooling jets removes heat from the
crown of the pistons.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Left side
• Lubrication of the connecting rod
bearings is through drilled
passages from the main bearing
journals to the rod journals.
• Each lifter directs oil up the hollow
push rod to the rocker arm, where
oil from the push rod splashlubricates the rocker arm and valve
stem. The rear gear train is
lubricated by splash oil thrown off
the rear main bearing and drain oil
from the injection pressure regulator.
61
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
LOWER PAN
Upper and Lower Oil Pan
• The VT 275 uses a two-piece oil pan. The
upper oil pan is cast aluminum and serves
to adapt the lower sheet metal pan to the
crankcase. The upper pan also serves as a
baffle to keep oil in the pan away from the
crankshaft.
PICK-UP TUBE
UPPER PAN
• The pick-up tube bolts to the upper oil pan.
The upper pan has a cast passage that
connects the pick-up tube to the lower
crankcase.
• The upper pan is sealed on both sides with
a push-in-place gasket.
Front Cover Oil Flow
• Oil flows from the lower crankcase to the
oil pump through a passage in the back of
the front cover. When the crankshaft turns
the oil pump, oil pulled from the oil pan is
pushed from a passage in the front cover
to the vertical passage in the crankcase
that takes oil to the oil cooler cover. Two
dowels in the front cover ensure the oil
pump is concentric with the crankshaft.
• All of the passages from the front cover to
the crankcase are sealed with a silicon-inmetal, one-piece gasket.
62
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Gerotor Pump
• The gerotor style oil pump is integrated
into the front cover with the gear set driven
off two flats on the nose of the crankshaft.
The gear set rides directly on the surface
of the crankcase front cover.
DOWEL PIN
COVER
• The gears are a matched set, and should
be marked before disassembly so they can
be reassembled with the same side
facing out.
• The oil pump front cover is located with
two dowel pins and sealed with a press-inplace gasket.
DOWEL PIN
GEAR SET
Oil Pressure Regulator Valve
• The oil pressure regulator valve is
responsible for regulating the maximum
pressure in the lubrication system. The
regulator, which can be removed with the
engine in the chassis, is located in the front
cover just below the gerotor oil pump cover.
REGULATOR
PISTON
PLUG
REGULATOR HOUSING
• The face of the regulator piston is exposed
to the pressurized oil. When pressure
exceeds 75 psi, the piston is depressed
against spring pressure enough to expose
a port that allows excess oil to be relieved
to the suction side of the pump.
REGULATOR SPRING
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
63
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
OIL COOLER COVER
Oil Cooler
• The stacked-plate type oil cooler is
mounted to the bottom of the oil cooler
cover. When the cooler cover is set in
place on the crankcase, the cooler sets in
the high-pressure oil reservoir. The water
pump circulates coolant through the
cooler to remove excess heat from the
engine oil.
HIGH PRESSURE
OIL RESERVOIR
OIL COOLER
Oil Cooler Housing and Oil Filter Base
• The oil cooler cover, oil filter base, and oil
filter adapter all contain passages that
direct the flow of oil. In addition, the oil
cooler cover and the oil filter base both
contain passages that direct the flow
of coolant.
• The coolant and oil are separated by
multiple plates that create passages in the
oil cooler. The cooler cover and cooler are
not serviced as separate components.
• The volume of the reservoir, with the oil
cooler in place, is approximately one quart.
UNFILTERED OIL FROM
THE OIL PUMP
COOLED OIL TO THE
FILTER
FILTERED AND COOLED OIL
COOLANT TO THE
COOLER
OIL COOLER COVER
• Oil is routed from a passage in the
crankcase to the oil cooler cover inlet
where oil is directed rearward to the oil
cooler. Oil flows through the cooler and is
then directed through the oil filter adapter.
Oil passes through the filter and down the
standpipe, then back to the oil filter base
where it's directed to the reservoir and the
main oil galleries. Coolant is directed from
a passage in the crankcase to the to the
cooler cover. Coolant passes through the
oil cooler and exits at the EGR cooler
supply port.
OIL TO THE COOLER
OIL FILTER BASE
• The oil filter adapter mounts the oil
pressure switch and the oil temperature
sensor, and feeds oil to the turbocharger
lubrication line.
64
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COOLANT TO THE
EGR COOLER
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil Filter
FILTER LID
• The VT 275 uses a cartridge style oil filter
located on top of the engine.
FILTER ELEMENT
• When the oil filter is removed, the oil filter
drain valve opens to allow oil to drain from
the filter housing, through the adapter, and
back to the oil pan.
The oil filter element snaps onto the lid.
This allows the filter element to be
extracted without contact with the element.
• Note: The oil filter lid should be removed
before draining the oil from the oil pan so
that the oil can drain from the filter housing
into the oil pan.
OIL FILTER HOUSING
FILTER BYPASS VALVE
Oil Filter Bypass
• The filter bypass valve is located at the top
of the filter standpipe. The top of the oil
filter element has a hole that matches the
location of the valve. Unfiltered oil
surrounds the filter, including the top of the
filter and the bypass valve. The valve opens
if there is a pressure difference of 32 psi
between the outside of the paper filter
material, which is unfiltered oil, and the
inside of the filter paper.
STANDPIPE
OIL FILTER
HOUSING
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
65
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil Filter Base and Valves
• Oil enters the filter base from the oil cooler
through the anti-drain back valve. The valve
is not spring loaded; instead the valve
closes under its own weight when the
engine is shut off. This keeps the oil in the
filter housing from draining back into the
lube system.
• The oil cooler bypass valve is in the filter
base. This valve allows the oil to bypass
the cooler when cooler inlet pressure is 25
psi higher than the unfiltered side of the oil
filter. This protects the cooler from highpressure during cold start up.
ANTI-DRAIN
BACK VALVE
COOLER BYPASS VALVE
Reservoir and Screen
• The oil reservoir for the high-pressure oil
pump is located under the oil cooler cover
in the crankcase Vee. The reservoir holds
approximately one quart after the cooler
and cooler cover are put in place.
• The passage at the bottom of the reservoir
is for oil feed to the high-pressure pump.
The screen in the reservoir filters any large
debris that may be in the oil before it gets
to the high-pressure pump.
HIGH PRESSURE RESERVOIR
SCREEN
66
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Turbocharger Feed Line
TURBOCHARGER OIL LINE SUPPLY
• Pressurized oil from the filtered passage in
the oil-filter adapter is supplied to each
center section of the twin turbocharger.
The oil is transferred through a hose to
the turbocharger.
• The turbocharger ends of the hose are
sealed with face seals. The oil filter adapter
end of the hose pushes into a cavity on the
filter adapter and is sealed with O-rings
and retained by a single cap screw.
OIL OUTLET
OIL FILTER ADAPTER
Crankcase Oil and Coolant Passages
2) LEFT
BANK
5) FILTER DRAIN
1) FEED TO
COOLER
3) RIGHT
BANK
• There are six crankcase passages near the
oil reservoir.
1. Oil feed to the cooler: Directs oil from the
pump to the oil cooler.
2. Left Bank: Feeds filtered and cooled oil to
the left bank tappets and piston cooling jets.
6) TO HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
3. Right Bank: Feeds filtered and cooled oil
to the right bank tappets, piston cooling
jets, and the main bearings and cam bearings.
4) COOLANT TO OIL COOLER
4. Coolant: Feeds coolant from the water
pump to the oil cooler and the EGR cooler.
5. Filter Drain: Allows drain oil from the filter
to reach the oil pan when the filter is removed.
6. Reservoir: Feed to the high-pressure pump.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
67
®
COOLING
SYSTEM
•
•
•
•
Modular water pump
Stainless steel injector sleeves
Stainless steel glow plug sleeves
Extended life coolant
System Features and Flow
• The modular water pump mounts in the
front cover and draws coolant from the
radiator via the coolant inlet on the front
cover. The water pump pushes coolant
through two ports on the front cover to
matching ports on the crankcase.
Coolant flows through the crankcase
and cylinder passages, then returns to
the front cover. Coolant is then directed
to the thermostat where coolant flows to
either the bypass port or the radiator,
depending on the coolant temperature.
Coolant leaving the water pump is also
directed to the oil cooler where it travels
between the plates of the oil cooler and
then to the EGR cooler.
68
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COOLING SYSTEM
Front Cover Flow
• Coolant is drawn into the water inlet by the
water pump. Coolant is discharged from
the pump to the crankcase coolant jackets.
Coolant is also routed from the front cover
through a crankcase passage to the oil
cooler cover.
FROM THE INTAKE MANIFOLD
HEATER
SUPPLY
TO RADIATOR
HEATER
RETURN
• Return coolant from the crankcase coolant
jackets is directed to the thermostat by the
front cover. If the thermostat is open,
coolant flows to the radiator to be cooled.
If the thermostat is closed, coolant is
returned to the water pump via a bypass
circuit in the front cover.
FROM RADIATOR
Crankcase Flow
FROM THE INTAKE MANIFOLD
• Coolant is directed out of the front cover to
the crankcase through three passages.
Two of the passages route coolant through
the crankcase water jackets to cool the
cylinders and cylinder heads. The third
passage routes coolant to the oil cooler via
a passage in the crankcase.
• There are three passages for coolant
return to the crankcase. Two receive
coolant from the crankcase and one
receives coolant from the intake manifold.
FRONT COVER
Coolant Flow/Oil Cooler
• Engine coolant is routed to the oil cooler
cover via a passage in the crankcase.
TO INTAKE
MANIFOLD
• The cooler cover directs the coolant
through the oil cooler and then into the
EGR cooler via the intake manifold.
• The oil cooler bundle is sealed at the cover
with two O-rings at both the inlet and
outlet pipe areas. To prevent mixing of oil
and coolant, the area between the two
seals is vented through a weep hole on the
cooler cover. This allows leakage past
either seal to weep out of the cooler cover.
OIL COOLER
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
69
COOLING SYSTEM
EGR Cooler Flow
• Coolant flow from the oil cooler is directed
through the cooler cover to the intake
manifold. Coolant flows from the manifold
into the EGR cooler then back into the
manifold to return to the front cover.
• The EGR cooler is used to reduce the
temperature of the exhaust before it
reaches the EGR valve.
EGR Cooler Seal
EGR COOLER SEAL
O-RING
• The intake manifold fits over the oil cooler
cover outlet to receive coolant flow from
the oil cooler. The EGR cooler bolts to the
manifold and has two coolant ports
connected through O-rings to the
manifold. The EGR cooler inlet to oil cooler
cover seal consists of both a rubber seal
and an O-ring.
Glow Plug and Injector Sleeves
• The VT 275 uses stainless steel injector
sleeves to seal coolant from the injectors.
The injector sleeves are used to aid in the
transfer of heat from each injector to the
coolant. The injector sleeves are replaceable.
GLOW PLUG SLEEVE
• Stainless steel glow plug sleeves are used
to seal coolant from the glow plugs. The
glow plugs sleeves are also replaceable.
INJECTOR SLEEVE
70
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
COOLING SYSTEM
Service Intervals
• The VT 275 is designed to use Extended
Life Coolants.
Service Intervals for the VT 275 Engine
• Extended life coolant can be identified by
its red/orange color in contrast to
conventional green or blue antifreeze.
Change Oil and Filter
• The service interval is 5 years, 300,000
miles or 12,000 hours if the chemical
extender is added at 30 months, 150,000
miles, or 6000 hours.
Primary and Secondary
Fuel Filters
Belt Routing
22,500 mi., or 18 months
300,000 miles / 12,000 hours / 5 years
Coolant
• Note: Do not add supplemental coolant
additives like DCA4 to long-life coolant.
*7,500 mi., or 6 months
(Extended Life Coolant)
* See the Engine Operation and Maintenance Manual for the hours and gallons of
fuel component for the correct oil change interval.
Alternator
• The VT 275 uses one accessory drive belt.
The belt must be routed correctly for the
proper operation of the cooling fan,
alternator, water pump and power
steering pump.
• The engine uses a combination of grooved
and smooth idler pulleys. The large
diameter smooth pulley is located to the
left of the engine's center when viewed
from the front.
(if extender is added at 30 months,
150,000 miles, or 6,000 hours)
Smooth idler pulley
Grooved idler pulley
Grooved
idler pulley
Belt tensioner
Smooth
idler pulley
• The smaller smooth pulley is the lower idler
on the right side of the front cover when
viewed from the front of the engine.
Power
steering pump
A/C Compressor
Vibration Damper
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
71
®
UNIQUE REPAIR
PROCEDURES
Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs
Removing Flywheel Adapter
RREEAARR CCOOVVEERR
• The flywheel adapter can be removed
using the edge of a heel bar by using the
adjacent rear cover bolt for support. The
heel bar may also be inserted into the
adapter opening and supported on a
crankshaft flange bolt to push the
adapter off.
FLYWHEEL ADAPTER
HEEL BAR
Removing Seal
• Drill two small holes to fit the screw end of
a slide hammer. Insert the slide hammer
and pull the seal from the rear cover. The
new seal is assembled with a wear sleeve.
The wear sleeve must not be removed from
the seal prior to installation.
REAR
MAIN SEAL
SLIDE
HAMMER
REAR COVER
72
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Seal Installer Base
• Place a 360° bead of Loctite® Hydraulic
Sealant on the outer circumference of the
crankshaft flange. Bolt the base of the rear
main seal/wear sleeve installer to the
crankshaft. Make sure the crankshaft
dowel pin is in the recess provided in the
face of the tool. Lubricate the outer
diameter of the seal with a 50/50 mixture
of soap and water (do not use any other
lubricant). Side the seal over the base.
SEAL INSTALLER
BASE
Installing Seal & Wear Sleeve
• Position the rear seal/wear sleeve installer
on the base. Place the thrust bearing and
drive nut on the threaded shaft. Tighten the
nut until the rear main oil seal bottoms out
in the rear oil seal carrier. After the seal
bottoms out remove the installer tool and
base and install the flywheel adapter,
making sure the dowel pin is lined up with
the adapter holes.
SEAL INSTALLER
Flexplate Bolts
• The flexplate bolts are not reusable. Install
ten new flexplate bolts. Tighten all bolts in
sequence to specification using the torque
sequence. Use an alternating pattern
across the center to evenly pull down
the flexplate.
2
1
5
7
10
9
8
6
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
3
4
73
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Turbocharger Removal
• Remove the oil supply line at the
turbocharger center sections and the oil
filter adapter. Remove the air inlet duct
clamp, duct mounting bolt and the
breather tubing from the breather. Loosen
and remove the four exhaust flange bolts.
EXHAUST FLANGE
Removing Mounting Bolts
• Remove three turbocharger mounting bolts
that mount the low-pressure turbocharger
turbine housing to the high-pressure
pump cover.
LOW PRESSURE TURBINE OUTLET
Removing Turbocharger
• Lift the turbocharger from the highpressure pump cover.
74
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Replacing O-Rings
• Before reinstalling the turbocharger,
replace the oil drain O-ring and the oil
supply line O-rings.
TURBOCHARGER DRAIN O-RING
Turbocharger Installation
• Lower the Turbocharger onto the highpressure pump cover. Install the three
pump cover mounting bolts and handtighten. Apply anti-seize compound to the
four exhaust pipe flange bolts and install
hand tight with a new gasket. Loosen the
crossover tube clamp and the turbinemating clamp.
• The following torque procedure should be
followed to assure the turbocharger parts
are allowed to align correctly to the
exhaust pipe assembly. First, torque the
three turbocharger to pump-cover
mounting bolts.
Torque Turbine Mating Clamp
• Second, torque the exhaust pipe assembly
to the manifolds. Third, torque the exhaust
pipe to EGR cooler clamp. Fourth, torque
the exhaust pipe assembly to the
turbocharger inlet. This procedure
correctly aligns the exhaust assembly; now
torque the crossover tube clamp and the
turbine-mating clamp. This procedure
ensures that the two turbochargers are
aligned before the components are tightened.
TURBINE
MATING
CLAMP
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
75
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Replacing Turbocharger Crossover Seal
• Place the holding fixture of the crossover
tube seal installing tool into a vise. Clamp
the crossover pipe into the fixture. Screw
the threads of the removal tool
into the seal.
CROSSOVER TUBE
HOLDING FIXTURE
Removing Seal
• Install a side hammer into the seal remover
tool and pull the seal out.
SEAL PULLER
Installing Seal
• Drive a new seal into the crossover tube
using the seal driver and a hammer. Install
a new O-ring on the other end of the
crossover tube. Assemble the crossover
tube to the turbocharger so the clamp bolt
will be vertical with the turbocharger on the
engine. A small amount of soap and water
solution maybe needed to get the seal over
the turbine inlet.
SEAL INSTALLER
76
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Removing EGR Valve
• The EGR puller must be used when
removing the EGR valve or the valve and
intake manifold may be damaged.
EGR VALVE PULLER
• To remove the EGR valve, first remove the
EGR valve mounting bolts that hold the
valve to the intake manifold.
• Rotate the valve counterclockwise until the
pins at the ends of the EGR puller arms
will slip under the EGR valve housing tabs
and into the holes. Hook the other end of
the puller arms to the puller beam. Position
the other two arms over the holes in the
intake manifold. Turn the shaft clockwise to
remove the EGR valve.
EGR VALVE
Injector Removal
• After removing the valve cover, remove the
rear port plug. The port plug may pull the
case-to-head tube from the branch
tube assembly. Remove the seven bolts
that hold the oil rail to the rocker arm
carrier. Pull the rail from the head.
REAR PORT PLUG
RAIL BOLTS
• Oil is not drained from the rail prior to
removal, so oil will leak from the rail as it
is removed.
• Note: The port plug and case-to-head
tube's O-rings are not replaceable. The
port plug and case-to-head tube must be
replaced if the O-rings are damaged.
Injector Connectors
• The injector connectors on the VT 275
pass through the rocker lever carrier.
Disconnect the injector harness from the
injectors by depressing the metal bail on
the harness connector body while pulling
the harness connector from the injector.
To remove the injector pass-through
connector, use the Injector Connector
Remover (ZTSE4650) or push the open
end of a 12-point 19mm socket over the
connector to release the clips. Carefully
pull the connector body from the carrier.
The injectors will be extracted when the
injector hold-down clamp bolts are
removed.
19mm 12 POINT
INJECTOR PASS THROUGH
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
77
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
O-Ring Replacement
OIL INLET
CONNECTOR
O-RING
• Carefully remove and replace the external
O-rings. The injector nozzle gasket can be
installed using a 12-point 9mm deep-well
socket. The socket is used to apply even
pressure around the gasket during installation.
• The connector O-rings should be replaced
each time the injector is removed from the
cylinder head.
O-RINGS
INJECTOR PASS THROUGH
NOZZLE GASKET
PASS THROUGH CONNECTOR
• Note: Do not attempt to remove the oil
inlet O-ring. It is not replaceable. If the Oring is damaged, the injector must be
replaced. Do not pull on the wires while
working on the injector.
Injector Installation
• Lubricate the upper and lower O-rings on
the body of the injector. Place the holddown clamp lug into the notch of the
injector body. Lower the injector into the
bore and use a #40 Torx bit to tighten the
bolt to the specified torque. Install the
injector pass through connector into the
carrier, making sure that the connector
snaps in fully.
• Lubricate the internal O-ring at the top of
the injector.
HOLD
DOWN
CLAMP
• Install the rail over the injectors and start
the bolts by hand. Torque the rail bolts
using the proper sequence.
Case-to-Head Tube Installation
• If the tube does not pull out with the port
plug it will need to be removed after the rail
is removed using the Case-to-head Tube
Removal Tool (ZTSE4694). Before
installation, lubricate the O-rings on the
case-to-head tube and port plugs. Push
the port plug into the tube and insert into
the oil rail. Torque the port plug to
specification.
REAR PORT PLUG
CASE-TO-HEAD TUBE
• Note: The O-rings are not serviceable.
Inspect the O-rings and replace the caseto-head tube and port plug if the seals
are damaged.
78
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Position Crankshaft for Rocker Removal
• Special Tool ZTSE4697 can be used to
service the rocker arms, valve bridges or
push rods. Rotate the crankshaft until the
vibration damper dowel pin is in the twelve
o'clock position. Wiggle the rocker arms
for number 1 cylinder. If the rockers do not
move freely, rotate the crankshaft one
complete revolution. The rockers should
now be loose on number 1 cylinder.
Cylinders number 1, 2 and 4 can now be
serviced. Rotate the crankshaft one
revolution to service cylinders 3, 5 and 6.
DOWEL PIN HOLE
Installing Spring Compressor Base
• Remove the injector of the cylinder to be
serviced. Insert the injector's hold-down
clamp into the base of tool. Install the
assembly as if installing an injector. Snug
the hold-down bolt but do not torque.
• Note: Use clean shop towels to plug any oil
drain holes before removing any components.
Compressor Plate
• Install the valve spring compressor plate
on top of the valve bridges. With the plate
in position, install the compressor bolt.
Turn the bolt with a hand wrench until the
plate contacts the top of the base. The
rocker arms may now be removed. If the
valve bridges must be serviced, back out
the compressor bolt and remove the plate
to gain access. Reinstall the rocker arms
using the compressor tool.
• Caution: Be careful not to drop the rocker
arm ball into the engine.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
79
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Cylinder Head Removal: Rocker Carrier
• The rocker arm carrier is held in place with
six small bolts and eight cylinder head bolts.
• Four additional small bolts at the top hold
the cylinder head to the crankcase.
• Note: When any of the eight large cylinder
head bolts are removed the head gasket
and the cylinder head bolts must be
replaced.
HEAD BOLTS (8)
8MM BOLTS (6)
Cylinder Head Removal Continued
VALVE BRIDGE (INTAKE)
• The rocker arms, push rods and valve
bridges must be installed in their original
position during reassembly.
• The valve bridges can be marked with a
permanent marker during disassembly.
• Note: If the rocker arms and/or valve
bridges are not correctly installed
premature valve train wear may result.
VALVE
BRIDGE
(EXHAUST)
80
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Installing Head and Carrier
• Verify that the cylinder head dowel sleeves
are installed in the crankcase. Install the
new head gasket and two guide pins
(locally made). Install the head and the four
8mm bolts across the top of the head.
Install the push rods with copper ends to
the rocker and the valve bridges in their
proper location.
INTAKE
ROCKER
EXHAUST ROCKER
ROCKER LEVER CARRIER
• Rotate the crankshaft until the damper
dowel-pin hole is at six o'clock. Make sure
the rocker arm carrier dowels are in the
head and install the carrier. Verify dowel
engagement into the carrier as the head
bolts are tightened to specifications.
Intake Manifold Gaskets
TAB
INTAKE
MANIFOLD
GASKET
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The intake manifold gaskets must be
oriented correctly upon reassembly. After
the intake manifold is assembled to the
engine, the gasket would be in the position
as shown with the tabs facing up. To aid in
reassembly, the gaskets can be held to the
intake manifold by pushing the manifold
bolts through the captured rubber washers
on the gasket.
81
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Cylinder Head Torque Sequence
• Install new 14mm head bolts (lightly
lubricated). Torque bolts 1 through 8 in
sequence to 65 lb-ft (88 Nm).
• Torque bolts 1, 3, 5, and 7 to 85 lb-ft
(116 Nm).
• Torque bolts 2, 4, 6, and 8 to 85 lb-ft
(116 Nm).
• Tighten all bolts 1 through 8 in sequence
90 degrees.
• Tighten all bolts 1 through 8 a second time
90 degrees.
• Tighten all bolts numbered 1 through 8 a
third time 90 degrees.
• Tighten all bolts 9 through 12 in sequence
to 18 lb-ft.
• Tighten all bolts 9 through 12 in sequence
to 23 lb-ft.
Vibration Damper
• If the vibration damper bolts are removed,
they are not reusable and must be
discarded. Torque the new bolts to
specifications in the proper sequence.
82
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
4
1
2
3
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Connecting Rod
• The VT 275 engine uses fractured
connecting rods. Do not alter the fractured
mating surface of the rod or cap. Any
alteration of the surface will result in severe
engine damage. If the fracture surface is
damaged by dropping the rod or by
tightening the wrong cap to a rod, the
connecting rod must be discarded.
CONNECTING ROD
CAP
FRACTURED SURFACES
Crankshaft Flange Bolts
FLANGE
• The crankshaft flange is pressed on and
bolted to the crankshaft during
manufacturing. To prevent engine damage
do not remove the crankshaft flange bolts
under any circumstances.
CRANKSHAFT FLANGE BOLTS
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
83
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Rear Cover Removal
COOLANT DRAIN PLUG
LOWER CRANKCASE
REAR COVER
• Remove the rear cover bolts. Use a rubber
hammer to loosen the cover from the
crankcase but do not remove. Separate
the rear cover from the crankcase gasket
and the high-pressure pump cover gasket.
• Caution: Failure to separate the rear
cover from the crankcase gasket and
pump cover gasket could result in damage
to both gaskets. Engine removal and
disassembly would be required to replace
the lower crankcase gasket. Replacing the
pump cover gasket would require the
turbocharger, intake manifold and pump
cover to be removed.
Front Cover Removal
• A small quantity of liquid gasket (RTV) is
used at the crankcase to lower crankcase
joint. Cut the sealant between the gasket
and the front cover and between the
gasket and the crankcase before removing
the cover.
FRONT COVER
LOWER CRANKCASE
• Caution: To prevent engine damage cut
the sealant where the crankcase and lower
crankcase meet when removing the front
cover. Failure to adequately cut the
sealant prior to remove the front cover or
the front cover gasket, could cause the
lower crankcase gasket to be pulled out.
Complete engine disassembly will be
required to replace the crankcase gasket.
Primary Balance Weight Removal
COUNTERWEIGHT
THRUSTPLATE
84
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• The primary balancer shaft runs within the
camshaft and turns the balance
counterweight. To remove the counterweight, remove the 10mm balance shaft
counterweight bolt and the three 6mm
thrust plate bolts (removal of the third bolt
will require rotating the crankshaft to
uncover the bolt). The thrust plate fits in a
groove cut in the counterweight. The
difference between the thickness of the
thrust plate and the width of the groove cut
in the counterweight determines the
primary shaft endplay. The counterweight
is timed to the primary balance shaft by a
flat on the shaft and a flat on the
counterweight.
UNIQUE REPAIR PROCEDURES
Balance Shaft Removal
• The primary balance shaft rides within two
bushings in the hollow camshaft. With the
rear cover and the counterweight
removed, the shaft can be extracted
through the rear of the camshaft. The inner
camshaft bushings are non-serviceable.
CAMSHAFT
GEAR
PRIMARY
BALANCER
DRIVEN GEAR
Balance Shaft Timing
• The balance shaft is timed during
reassembly by aligning the dot on the
balance shaft gear with the dot on the
crankshaft flange gear.
TIMING
PIN HOLE
• With the dots aligned, the flex plate pin,
the balance shaft gear dot, the flange gear
dot and the timing-pin hole will be in a
straight line.
FLEX PLATE PIN
TIMING
DOTS
Camshaft Timing
• Camshaft timing is set during assembly.
After installing the camshaft and the
balance shaft, align the timing pin through
the hole in each gear and insert the timing
pin tool through the gears until it engages
the crankcase hole. Align the dot on the
balance shaft with the dot on the face of
the crankshaft flange gear as the
crankshaft is lowered into the crankcase
main bearings.
TIMING
PIN HOLE
• With the dots aligned, the flex plate pin,
the balance shaft gear dot, the flange gear
dot and the timing-pin hole will be in a
straight line.
TIMING
DOTS
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
85
SPECIAL TOOLS
ZTSE4687
ZTSE4690
• Crankshaft Timing
Tool
ZTSE4517
ZTSE4670
• Front Wear Sleeve
Remover
ZTSE4666
• Glow Plug
Connector
Remover/Installer
ZTSE4698
• IPR Valve Socket
Part No. 180971C91
• Oil Fill Extension
ZTSE4518
• Fuel Inlet Restriction
Adapter
ZTSE4515A
• Rear Seal/Wear
Sleeve installer
ZTSE4581
• Rear Wear Sleeve
Removal Tool
86
• ICP Adapter / Plug
Kit
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• Quick Release Tool
SPECIAL TOOLS
ZTSE4676
ZTSE4669
• Turbocharger
Crossover Seal
Remover/Installer
ZTSE4545
• EGR Valve Puller
ZTSE4685
• EGR Cooler Test
Plates
ZTSE4559
• EGR Valve Puller
Arm (offset)
ZTSE4694
• Intake Port Magnetic
Covers
ZTSE4531
• Case-to-head Tube
Removal Tool
ZTSE4532
• Glow Plug Sleeve
Remover
ZTSE4528
• Glow Plug Sleeve
Installer
ZTSE4529
• Injector Sleeve
Remover
• Injector Sleeve
Installer
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
87
SPECIAL TOOLS
ZTSE4681
ZTSE4525
• Fuel Pressure
Gauge
• Oil Cooler Test Plate
/ Pressure Adapter
ZTSE4693
ZTSE4695
• Relay Breakout
Harness
ZTSE4664
ZTSE4696
• EGR Valve Breakout
Harness
ZTSE7559
• Fuel Pressure Test
Adapter
ZTSE4510
• Vacuum Pump and
Gauge
ZTSE4665
• Crankcase Pressure
Test Adapter
ZTSE4650
• 12-Pin Brakeout
Harness
88
• MAF / IAT Sensor
Breakout Harness
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• Injector Connector
Remover
SPECIAL TOOLS
ZTSE4661
ZTSE4680
• Cylinder Head
Lifting Bracket
• Front Seal Installer /
Wear Sleeve
Installer
ZTSE4557
ZTSE4526
• Oil Cooler Reservoir
/ High-Pressure
Pump Magnetic
Covers
• Fuel / Oil Pressure
Test Coupler
ZTSE4542
ZTSE4682
• Intake Manifold
Pressure Test Cap
• Fuel Pressure Test
Fitting
(used for oil pressure
measurement)
ZTSE4409
ZTSE4594
• Gauge Bar Tool
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• ICP System Test
Adapter
89
HARD START NO START DIAGNOSTICS
Technician
Hard Start and No Start Diagnostics
®
Date
VT 275
Hours
Unit No.
VIN
4. KOEO Standard Test
WARNING
To avoid serious personal injury, possible death or damage
to the engine or vehicle, read all safety instructions in the
"Safety information" section of Engine Diagnostics Manual
EGES-305 before doing procedures on this form.
Do all tests in sequence unless otherwise stated. Doing a
test out of sequence could cause incorrect results.
If a problem was found and corrected, it is not necessary
to complete the rest of the form unless a starting concern
remains.
See Appendix A in EGES-305 for engine specifications.
Transmission
Manual
Auto
Truck build
8. Engine Oil
Leaks
Contaminated oil (fuel or coolant)
Oil gr ade, visco sity, and level
Kilometers or Miles and hours on oil
Use EST to run KOEO Standard Test
Active DTCs
Notes
See "Hard Start and No Start Diagnostics"- Section 5 in
EGES-305. Use figures and additional information to do
each test or procedure on this form. Record results on this
form.
0
For starting concerns with ECT temperatures below 16 C
(60 0F), do Tests 14 and 15. Service as necessary. If a
problem was found and corrected, it is not necessary to
complete the rest of this form - unless a starting concern
remains.
K ilometers
Miles
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
If an EST is not available, see "Standard Test using
Cruise Switches" in Section 3.
Comments
9. Intake and Exhaust Restriction
5. KOEO Injector Test
Air inlet and duct
Hoses and piping
Filter minder
Intake and exhaust restriction
Use EST to run KOEO Injector Test.
Active DTCs
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
Comments
See Appendix B in EGES-305 or Form CGE 310-1 for
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs).
1. Initial Ignition Key On (Do not start)
6. EST Data List
Check for WAIT TO START lamp
Check amber WATER IN FUEL lamp
Listen for injector precycle. (Duration is temp. dependent.)
Listen for hum or buzz from electronic fuel pump.
Enter data in the Cranking Spec column.
Monitor KOEO values and enter in KOEO column.
Crank engine and monitor DATA for 20 seconds.
Enter data in the Actual Spec column.
Comme nts
P ID
KOEO
Cranking
spec
Actual
spec
VB AT
RPM
2. Engine Cranking
ICP
Does engine crank?
Check cranking rpm. (Instrument panel)
Check smoke color.
Check
Spec
EOP
E G RP
Actual
rpm
Smoke color
3. Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Install Electronic Service T ool (EST) .
Use EST to read DTCs.
Use EST to check KOEO values for temperature and
pressure sensors.
7. Engine Systems
Leaks
Loose connections
Active DTCs
Inactive DTCs
Abnormal sensor values
Suspect sensor/value
If voltage is below spec, see "ECM Power" in Section 7.
If no rpm is noted, check DTCs.
If ICP is below spec, do "Low ICP System Pressure - Test
13.
If EOP is below spec, see "Engine Symptoms Diagnostics"
in Section 4 and "EOP switch" in Section 7.
Yes
No
Fue l
Oil
Coolant
Electrical
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
If an EST is not available, see "Standard Test using
Cruise Switches" in Section 3.
90
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Air
10. Fuel Supply System
Measure pressure at the secondary fuel filter housing test
port.
If concerns were not found in test 10.1, do not continue
testing fuel system.
10.1 Pressure,
quality, and
aerated fuel
Fuel in tank
Yes
No
Hear FP running
Yes
No
First sample
A e r at e d f u e l
Yes
No
Contaminated fuel
Yes
No
Second sample Aerated fuel
(if needed)
Contaminated fuel
Yes
No
Yes
No
Spec
Actual
10.2 Fuel pump Discharge
discharge
pressure
pressure
Spec
Actual
10.3 Fuel pump Restriction
inlet restriction
Spec
Actual
Fuel pressure
K OE O
If a hum can not be heard from the HFCM, verify fuel
pump is being powered. Repair as necessary.
If fuel has air bubbles, check for leaks in supply lines tank to HFCM.
If fuel is contaminated, correct condition.
If fuel pressure is low or slow to build, replace both filters
and retest.
If fuel pressure is below specification, do test 10.2.
If pump discharge pressure is in specification, inspect fuel
regulator valve.
If discharge pressure is low or slow to build, do test 10.3.
HARD START NO START DIAGNOSTICS
Ambient temperature
Engine SN
Coolant temperature
Engine HP
Complaint
Engine Family Rating Code
11. Main Power Relay Voltage to ECM
14. Glow Plug System
Connect breakout harness between ECM main power
relay and distribution box
Crank engine and use a DMM to measure voltage to
ECM. (Min 130 rpm for 20 seconds)
Check voltage between connector Pin 5 and ground
Instrum ent
S pe c
E C M c al i b r a t i o n
IDM calibration
Injector No.
Turbocharger No.
Use EST to do Output State Test for glow plugs. After
40 seconds, measure amperage and check for DTCs.
If test results in 14.1 are within specification, do not
continue testing the glow plug system.
14.1 Glow Plug system
A ct u al
Amperage
DMM
14.2 Glow Plug Harness
to Ground
12. Main Power Relay Voltage to IDM
Connect 12 - Pin Breakout harness between engine and
c ha ssi s ha r n e ss
Crank engine and use a DMM to measure voltage to
IDM. (Min 130 rpm for 20 seconds)
Check voltage between connector Pin 12 and Pin 1.
Instrum ent
S pe c
Actual
13. Low ICP System Pressure
Do only the following tests, if ICP was not to spec during
Test 6.
Start and continue Test 13.1 System Function, if lube oil
pressure is not a concern and terminals on the IPR valve
and engine harness are not damaged or corroded.
If test result is Yes for 13.1 System Function, do not do
Tests 13.2 through 13.5 for low ICP.
Low ICP
test
Question
13.1
System
function
IPR connectors: Corroded,
bent or pushed back pins
Over 3.45 Mpa (500 psi)
(0.82V)?
13.2
IPR function
Audible air leak?
13.3
Under valve
cover leaks
Audible air leak?
Result
Yes
No
Yes
No
Unplugged B+ applied
Yes
Yes
No
No
Cylinder Head
Left
Right
Yes
Yes
No
No
Crankcase
Left
Ri ght
Yes
No
13.4
Cylinder Head
isolation
Audible air leak?
13.5
High-pressure
pu m p
Over 3.45 Mpa (500 psi)
(0.82V)?
Left
Yes
Yes
No
Right
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Spec
Left
Right
24-42 amps
24-42 amps
Glow plugs LT
1
Yellow
3
Red
Actual
Glow plugs RT
5
2
White Yellow
4
Red
6
White
Spec 0.1 -6 ohmns
14.3 Glow Plug to
Ground
Spec 0.1 -6 ohmns
14.4 Engine Harness
3-pin to Relay
Spec <5 ohmns
14.5 Relay Operation
DMM
Cylinder
Head
Terminal
Spec
Battery feed
B+
Relay output
B+
Actual
If results of 14.1 are not within spec, do test 14.2 for all
g l o w p l u gs o u t o f s pe c .
If results of 14.1 are 0 amps for both cylinder heads and
DTC 251 was not set, do test 14.5.
If DTC 251 was set, do GPC (Glow Plug Control) circuit”
in Section 7.
If results of 14.2 are within spec, do test 14.4.
If results of 14.2 are not within spec, do test 14.3 for all
g lo w p l u g s ou t o f sp e c .
If results of 14.3 are within spec, replace failed glow plug
harness
If results of 14.3 are not within spec, replace the glow plug
that was out of spec.
15. Inlet Air Heater System
Install Amp Clamp around feed wire and use EST to do
Output State Test for Inlet Air heater. After 4 seconds,
measure amperage for heater wire.
If test results in 15.1 are within specification, do not
continue testing the Inlet Air Heater System.
Air Heater Wire
Test
Spec
BAT V
15.2 Voltage at Element
15.3 Resistance or Element
< 5 ohms
15.4 Wiring harness continuity
and resistance
< 5 ohms
15.5 Relay operation
Battery feed
Relay output
VT 275 Diagnostic Form EGED-315
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Circuit
50 +/- 5
amps
15.1 Amperage draw
B+
B+
c 2004 INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION
91
PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSTICS
Technician
Performance Diagnostics
®
Unit No.
5. Fuel Supply System
WARNING
To avoid serious personal injury, possible death or damage to
the engine or vehicle, read all safety instructions in the "Safety
information" section of Engine Diagnostics Manual EGES-305
before doing procedures on this form.
Notes
See "Performance Diagnostics"- Section 6 in EGES-305. Use
figures and additional information to do each test or procedure
on this form. Record results on this form.
Do all checks in sequence unless otherwise stated. Doing a
check or test out of sequence could cause incorrect results.
If a problem was found and corrected, it is not necessary to
complete the rest of the form unless a performance concern
remains.
See Appendix A in EGES-305 for engine specifications.
See Appendix B in EGES-305 or Form CGE 310-1 for
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs).
Install Electronic Service Tool (EST).
Use EST to read DTCs.
Use EST to check KOEO values for temperature and
pressure sensors.
Active DTCs
Inactive DTCs
Yes
No
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
To access DTCs without EST, see “Diagnostic Software
Operation” - Section 3.
2. KOEO Standard Test
Use EST to run KOEO Standard Test
Active DTCs
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
If an EST is not available, see “Standard Test Using
Cruise Switches” in Section 3.
3. KOEO Injector Test
Use EST to run KOEO Injector Test.
DTCs found
5.1. Pressure,
quality and
aerated fuel
Fuel in tank
Yes
No
Hear FP running
Yes
No
First sample
Aerated fuel
Yes
No
Contaminated fuel
Yes
No
Second sample Aerated fuel
(if needed)
Contaminated fuel
Yes
No
Yes
No
Fuel pressure
KOEO
Spec
Actual
Fuel pressure low
idle
Spec
Actual
Fuel pressure high
idle
Spec
Actual
5.2. Fuel pump
discharge
pressure
Discharge
pressure
Spec
Actual
5.3. Fuel pump
inlet restriction
Restriction
Spec
Actual
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
4. Engine Oil
Leaks
Contaminated oil (fuel or coolant)
Oil gra de, viscosity, and level
Kilometers or Miles and hours on oil
Comme nts
If a hum can not be heard from the HFCM, verify fuel
pump is being powered. Repair as necessary.
If fuel has air bubbles, check for leaks in supply lines tank to HFCM.
If fuel is contaminated, correct condition.
If fuel pressure is low or slow to build, replace both filters
and retest.
If fuel pressure is still low or slow to build, do test 5.2.
If pump discharge pressure is in specification, inspect fuel
regulator valve.
If discharge pressure is low or slow to build, do test 5.3.
6. Intake and Exhaust Restriction
Auto
Truck build
Spec
Actual
Magnehelic gauge
or Manometer
Comment
Correct problem causing out-of-specification values,
before continuing.
7. KOER Standard Test
Note: Engine coolant temperature must be 70 °C (158 °F)
or higher.
Use EST to run KOER Standard Test.
Correct problem causing active DTCs before continuing.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Use EST to monitor ICP and engine speed.
Condition
Spec
Actual
Low idle
High idle - Initial
High idle - After 2 minutes
Aerated oil Yes
No
If ICP is high or unstable, hold at high idle for 2 minutes.
Return to low idle, take oil sample, check for foam, and
correct condition if oil is aerated.
If oil is not aerated, disconnect ICP sensor and check for
engine stability.
If problem is corrected, see Operational Voltage checks
for ICP sensor in Section 7 in EGES-305.
If ICP still high or unstable, replace IPR and retest.
9. Injector Disable
Use EST to run injector disable diagnostics to identify
s uspe ct cyl in d ers .
Selected
cylinder
EOT fAuveel rraagtee
Deviation
Average
eng ine lo ad
Deviation
Base Line
1
2
3
4
5
6
Base Line
Cut-off values:
Fuel rate
Engine load
10. Relative Compression
DTCs found
92
Manual
If any cylinder is suspect, do Test 12.
Air inlet and duct
Hose and piping
Intake and exhaust restriction
Measure restriction at high idle, no load.
Instrument
Transmission
8. Injection Control Pressure
Measure pressure at the secondary fuel filter housing test
port.
If no concerns are found in test 5.1, do not continue
testing fuel system.
1. Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Abnormal sensor values
Suspect sensor/value
Date
VT 275
Kilometers
Miles
Hours
VIN
Turn ignition key to ON.
Use EST to run Relative Compression Test.
C r a n k e ng i n e f o l l o w i n g E S T i n s t r u c t i o n s .
Relative Compression Test
Value
Cylinder 1 Relative Compression
Cylinder 2 Relative Compression
Cylinder 3 Relative Compression
Cylinder 4 Relative Compression
Cylinder 5 Relative Compression
Cylinder 6 Relative Compression
If a Relative Compression Test and Injector Disable Test
identify a suspect cylinder, check for a mechanical
problem.
If a Relative Compression Test does not identify a suspect
cylinder, but the Injector Disable Test does, replace
suspect injector(s).
PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSTICS
Ambient temperature
Engine SN
Coolant temperature
Engine HP
Complaint
Engine Family Rating Code
ECM calibration
IDM calibration
Injector No.
Turbocharger No.
15. Test Drive (Full load, rated speed)
11. Air Management
Use EST to set engine idle speed, monitor engine load,
toggle EGR valve and monitor MAF.
Idle speed
MAF
L oa d
EGR close
M AF
Me ss ag e S e t
EGR ope n
MAF
DTC Set
EGR close
MAF
DTC Set
Correct problem causing messages or DTCs before
restarting.
12. Boost Control
12.1. Linkage connected
Yes
12.2. Linkage movement
No
Use EST to monitor boost pressure and engine speed.
Condition
Spec
Sp ec
Engine speed Boost
Actual
EST boost reading
Peak HP
Peak Torque
If boost pressure is not to specification continue
performance diagnostics; if to specification do not
continue.
Use EST to monitor Mass Air Flow (MAF) and engine
speed.
Condition
Spec
Sp e c
Actual
Yes
No
Air pressure - Initial movement
Spec
Actual
Peak HP
Peak Torque
L ea k s
Y es
No
12.3. Linkage movement
Yes
No
If MAF is not to specification continue performance
diagnostics; if to specification do not continue.
12.4. Linkage movement
Yes
No
Air pressure - Initial movement
Spec
Actual
Engine speed MAF
EST MAF reading
Measure fuel pressure at secondary fuel filter fuel
pressure test port (full load, rated speed).
Instrument
Spec
Actual
0 - 160 psi gauge
L ea k s
Y es
No
13. Torque Converter Stall
Set parking brake and apply service brake.
Put transmission in drive.
Push accelerator to the floor, begin timing and monitor
tachometer until tachometer stops moving.
Record RPM and time.
Condition
Spec
Actual
Stall RPM
Time (idle to stall in seconds)
If fuel pressure is low, perform Test 5 including measure
fuel inlet restriction.
Use EST to monitor ICP and engine speed
Instrument
Spec
Actual
EST
Aerated oil Yes
No
Af ter 2 m in .
Disconnect ICP and test drive vehicle.
If problem is corrected, see Operational Voltage checks
for ICP sensor in Section 7 in EGES-305.
If still high or unstable, replace IPR and retest.
If minimum RPM is reached within specified time, for a
launch concern do not continue with performance
diagnostics .
If RPM is low, or was not reached within specified time,
continue with performance diagnostics.
STOP
14. Crankcase Pressure
Measure at oil fill tube with crankcase pressure test
adapter.
Clamp off crankcase breather hose.
Measure at high idle, no load.
Instrument
Spec
Actual
Magnehelic gauge
or Manometer
VT 275 Diagnostic Form EGED-315
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
c 2004 INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION
93
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS*
Measure Fuel Pressure
FUEL PRESSURE GAUGE
• The engine will not perform correctly with
low fuel pressure. Fuel pressure can be
measured at the secondary filter housing
by removing the fuel pressure test port
plug and install the ICP System Test
Adapter (ZTSE4594). Connect the Fuel
Pressure Gauge (ZTSE4681) to the ICP
System Test Adapter. Turn the key switch
to the ON position and measure the fuel
pressure. The following pressure
minimums should be met:
Cranking
Idle
High Idle/No load
Full load @ rated speed
• If fuel pressure does not meet the
minimum, verify there is fuel in the tank and
the pump is running. Then check for fuel
aeration, primary and secondary filter
condition, pump inlet restriction, pump
deadhead pressure, and pressure
regulator operation.
ICP SYSTEM TEST ADAPTER
Check for Fuel Aeration
• The engine will not operate correctly with
aerated fuel. Aeration can be checked
visually using a clear hose and valve.
• Remove the fuel pressure test port plug.
Connect the Fuel Pressure Gauge
(ZTSE4681) to the secondary fuel filter
housing using the ICP System Test
Adapter (ZTSE4594). With the key switch
ON, open the valve to allow fuel to flow
into a clean container. Observe the fuel
flow. Opening the system to install the
hose will allow some air to enter the
system. This air will be visible in the fuel
flow initially but should clear within a few
seconds.
• If the fuel continues to show signs of
aeration, check the suction side of the
system for air leaks.
*Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs
94
20 psi
50 psi
50 psi
50 psi
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
Measure Fuel Pump Discharge Pressure
• Determine the ability of the fuel pump to
develop pressure by isolating the fuel
pump from the engine-mounted regulator.
• Remove the banjo bolt on the pressure line
at the secondary fuel filter and insert the
bolt through the back of the fitting so that
the bolt faces away from the engine. Install
the Fuel Pressure Test Adapter
(ZTSE4696) and tighten the bolt. Attach a
0-160 psi Fuel Pressure Gauge
(ZTSE4681) to the test adapter. The fuel
pump and its internal pressure regulator
are now isolated from the engine-mounted
fuel pressure regulator.
FUEL PRESSURE TEST ADAPTER
• Turn the key switch to the ON position and
measure the fuel pressure while the pump
is running. Pump discharge pressure
should reach 80 psi. If the pressure is low,
check for a plugged primary filter and/or
high pump inlet restriction.
Measure Fuel Inlet Restriction
• High inlet restriction can starve the suction
side of the fuel pump and cause low
fuel pressure.
FUEL INLET
RESTRICTION
ADAPTER
• With the key switch OFF, remove the water
drain plug from the fuel pump. Install the
Fuel Inlet Restriction Adapter (ZTSE4698)
in place of the plug. Connect the 0-30
in/hg pressure gauge to the adapter with a
shut off valve in the OFF position between
the pump and the Fuel Pressure Gauge
(ZTSE4681).
• Turn the key switch ON. With the fuel
pump running, open the valve to the 0-30
in/hg pressure gauge and record the
restriction.
• If inlet restriction causes a gauge reading
of greater than 6 in/Hg, check the lines
from the fuel tank to the pump for restrictions.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
95
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
Measure Crankcase Pressure
• Crankcase pressure can be used to
evaluate the condition of the power
cylinders. Remove the oil fill cap and
thread the extended Oil Fill Tube (part
number 180971C91) into the valve cover
fill cap opening. Thread the Crankcase
Pressure Test Adapter (ZTSE4510) into
the fill adapter.
• Block off the crankcase breather. By
blocking the breather, all of the crankcase
gasses are forced through the Crankcase
Pressure Test Adapter.
• Connect the magnehelic gauge to the
Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter. Run the
engine to reach normal operating
temperature (158°F or higher).
• Run the engine at high idle. Allow the
reading to stabilize before taking the
reading. Compare the reading with the
performance specifications. Use the
Injector Disable test and the Relative
Compression test to further evaluate
high readings.
ICP System Checks
• The Injection Control Pressure system must
be able to build a minimum of 500 psi
during cranking for the engine to start. The
possible causes of low ICP during
cranking are:
-Faulty ICP sensor
-Low oil level in the reservoir
-Faulty IPR circuit
-ECM not controlling the IPR
-Inoperative IPR
-Leak in the high-pressure system
-Inoperative pump
• If the ICP is low while cranking, verify the
engine has met the minimum cranking lube
oil pressure of 20 psi. Lube oil system
pressure is required to maintain the
correct level in the reservoir.
• Inspect the IPR connector for corrosion.
Perform the KOEO Standard test. The
standard test will verify the IPR circuit. If
the circuit has a fault, a 241 DTC
will be set.
96
Oil rail
Oil rail
Fuel injectors
From low-pressure
oil system
ICP
sensor
Oil reservoir
screen
Highpressure
pump
IPR valve
Check valve
with orifice
Oil drain to sump
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
Check valve
with orifice
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
ICP System Function Test
• The Injection Control Pressure system must
be able to build a minimum of 500 psi for
the engine to start. During cranking, the
ECM must command the IPR valve
partially closed to create the pressure
required for starting. Test this function by
replacing the ECM signal with a direct
connection between the IPR and battery
power and ground.
• Disconnect the IPR from the engine
harness. Install the Actuator Breakout
Harness (ZTSE4484) to the IPR only. Use
jumper wires to provide power to one lead
and a ground to the other. Crank the
engine while measuring the injection
control pressure. If the engine starts or the
pressure now exceeds the minimum
cranking pressure, the ECM is not
controlling the IPR.
IPR HEAT SHIELD
ACTUATOR
BREAKOUT
HARNESS
• Caution: Do not leave the IPR powered
for more than 120 seconds or the IPR may
be damaged.
IPR Function Test
• The IPR must function for the ICP system
to build sufficient pressure to start.
Remove the ICP sensor from the right
bank valve cover. Install the ICP System
Test Adapter (ZTSE4594) with an air
fitting in place of the sensor. Remove the
oil fill cap and attach shop air pressure to
the air fitting.
SHOP AIR SUPPLY
ICP TEST ADAPTER
RIGHT BANK VALVE COVER
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• Listen at the opening of the oil fill cap for
air leaking into the crankcase from the IPR.
Allow five minutes for the air to displace
the oil through the system (cold oil may
take longer). If there is a massive air leak in
the crankcase when the air is connected,
go to the Under Valve Cover Leak test. If
there is a faint leak, install the Actuator
Breakout Harness (ZTSE4484) to the IPR
only. Provide power to one breakout
harness lead and a ground to the other.
The faint air leak in the crankcase should
stop when power is applied. This verifies
the ECM signal can operate the IPR valve
internally. If the faint air leak stops when
the IPR is given power and ground,
perform the pump test.
97
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
Under Valve Cover Leak Test
• If the IPR function test reveals a massive
air leak, remove the valve covers and apply
shop air pressure to the ICP System Test
Adapter (ZTSE4594). Attempt to isolate
the location of the leak. The possible leak
points are:
-Rail to injector O-rings
-Rail fittings
-Case-to-head tube and port plug O-rings
-Branch tube assembly
-Pump housing
• If the air leak is in the valve cover area, use
a short length of rubber hose as a
stethoscope to locate the air leak.
• If the air leak is from the crankcase (not the
valve cover area), remove the case-to-head
tubes and inspect the lower O-rings. If the
O-rings are good, remove the highpressure pump cover and listen for the air
leak at the pump-to-branch tube connections.
Cylinder Head Isolation
• If an air leak is heard, but the location
cannot be detected, isolate each bank,
one at a time, and test. To test the left
bank, remove the left bank rear port plug
and install the ICP Leak Test Plug
(ZTSE4690) in place of the port plug.
Leave the valve covers off, but connect the
ICP sensor. Crank the engine while
measuring ICP pressure. If the engine
starts or ICP pressure exceeds 500 psi,
the leak causing the low ICP is in the
left bank.
ICP LEAK TEST PLUG
LEFT BANK RAIL
• To test the right bank, install the ICP
Sensor Adapter (ZTSE4690) in place of
the rear right bank port plug. Install the ICP
sensor in the top of the adapter and
connect the ICP sensor to the harness
using the three-wire Pressure Sensor
Breakout Harness (ZTSE4347) as an extension, if needed. Leave the valve covers
off. Crank the engine while measuring ICP
pressure. If the engine starts or ICP
pressure exceeds 500 psi, the leak
causing the low ICP is in the right bank.
98
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
High Pressure Pump Test
• The pump can be deadheaded by installing
the ICP Leak Test Plug (ZTSE4690) in
place of the rear left bank port plug, and
the ICP Sensor Adapter ( also ZTSE4690)
in place of the rear right bank port plug.
Install the ICP sensor in the top of the ICP
Sensor Adapter and connect the ICP
sensor to the harness using the three-wire
Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness
(ZTSE4347) as an extension, if needed.
Leave the valve covers off. Crank the
engine while measuring ICP pressure.
ICP
SENSOR
ICP
SENSOR
ADAPTER
RIGHT BANK RAIL
• If the ICP pressure exceeds 500 psi, the
pump is not at fault and there is a leak in
the system.
• If the pressure is below the minimum
cranking pressure, and there are no leaks
around the pump, remove the pump from
the crankcase. Oil should come up from
the pump feed port in the crankcase
indicating that the reservoir has oil. If the
reservoir had oil, the pump is inoperative.
ICP Diagnostics
ICP Diagnostic Test
Purpose
KOEO Standard Test
Verifies the IPR Circuit
ICP System Function Test
Verifies that the ECM can control the IPR
IPR Function Test
Verifies the IPR is working
Under the Valve Cover Leak Test
Locates leaks under the valve cover
Cylinder Head Isolation
Identifies which bank of cylinders
has a high pressure leak
High Pressure Pump Test
Verifies the pump’s operation
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
• If there is lube oil pressure while cranking,
the IPR functions, and there are no leaks in
the hydraulic lines or rails, then either the
pump is not getting oil from the reservoir,
the pump is not turning with the
crankshaft, or the pump is defective.
• Rotation can be verified by removing the
high-pressure pump cover and cranking
the engine while observing the pump gear.
Oil in the reservoir can be verified by
removing the pump and observing the oil
flow from the pump feed passage in the
crankcase. Oil should come up from the
pump passage indicating that the reservoir
has oil. If the reservoir had oil, the pump
is inoperative.
99
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs
CODE NUMBER
CIRCUIT NAME
CONDITION DESCRIPTION
111
112
113
114*
115*
121*
122*
123*
124*
125*
131*
132*
133*
134*
135*
143
145
146
147
148*
149*
152*
154*
155*
161*
162*
163*
221
222
225
231
237
238
241
251
268
311*
312*
313**
315*
ECM
ECM PWR
ECM PWR
ECT
ECT
MAP
MAP
MAP
ICP
ICP
APS / IVS
APS / IVS
APS / IVS
APS / IVS
APS / IVS
CMP
CMP
CKP
CKP
MAF
MAF
BAP
IAT
IAT
MAT
MAT
EGR
SCCS
BRAKE
EOP
ATA
FPC
IAH
IPR
GPC
ACC
EOT
EOT
EOPS
EWPS
No errors detected - flash code only
Electrical system voltage B+ out of range high
Electrical system voltage B+ out of range low
Engine Coolant Temperature signal out of range low
Engine Coolant Temperature signal out of range high
Manifold Absolute Pressure signal out of range high
Manifold Absolute Pressure signal out of range low
Manifold Absolute Pressure signal in-range fault
Injection Control Pressure signal out of range low
Injection Control Pressure signal out of range high
APS signal out of range low
APS signal out of range high
APS signal in-range fault
APS signal and IVS disagree
Idle Validation Switch circuit fault
Incorrect CMP signal signature
CMP signal inactive
CKP signal inactive
Incorrect CKP signal signature
Mass Air Flow signal frequency out of range high
Mass Air Flow signal frequency out of range high
Barometric Absolute Pressure signal out of range low
Air Inlet Temperature signal out of range low
Air Inlet Temperature Signal out of range high
Manifold Air Temperature Signal out of range low
Manifold Air Temperature Signal out of range high
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Position Signal out of range low
Cruise-PTO control switch circuit fault
Brake switch circuit fault
EOP sensor signal in range fault
ATA data communication link error
Fuel Pump Control OCC self-test failed
Inlet Air Heater Control OCC self-test failed
Injection Pressure Regulator OCC self-test failed
Glow Plug Control OCC self-test failed
AC Clutch Control Relay OCC self-test failed
Engine Oil Temperature signal out of range low
Engine Oil Temperature signal out of range high
Engine Oil Pressure below warning level
Engine speed above warning level
*indicates amber ENGINE lamp on when DTC is set
** indicates red ENGINE lamp on when Engine Warning Protection System is enabled and a DTC is set
100
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
CODE NUMBER
CIRCUIT NAME
CONDITION DESCRIPTION
316
321**
322**
324**
325
331*
332*
333*
334
335
346
365*
368*
373
374
375
421-426
431-436
451-456
523
525*
533
534
543*
551
552
553
554
613*
614*
621*
622*
623*
624
626
631
632
655
661
664
665
EWPS
EWPS
EWPS
IST
EWPS
ICP
ICP
ICP sys
ICP sys
ICP sys
AMS
EGR
EGR
IAH
FPC
GPC
INJ
INJ
INJ
IDM
IDM
IDM
IDM
ECM / IDM
ECM / IDM
ECM / IDM
ECM / IDM
ECM / IDM
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM PWR
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM
ECM
Engine Coolant Temperature unable to reach commanded set point
Engine Coolant Temperature above warning level
Engine Coolant Temperature above critical level
Idle Shutdown Timer enabled engine shutdown
Power reduced, matched to cooling system performance
Injection Control Pressure above system working range
Injection Control Pressure above specification with engine not running
Injection Control Pressure above / below desired level
ICP unable to achieve setpoint in time (poor performance)
ICP unable to build pressure during cranking
Faults detected during EGR portion of the AMS test
EGR valve position above / below desired level
EGR drive module / ECM2 communication fault
Inlet Air Heater relay circuit fault
Fuel Pump Relay Circuit fault
Glow Plug Relay Circuit fault
High side to low side open (cylinder number indicated)
High side shorted to low side (cylinder number indicated)
High side short to ground or VBAT (cylinder number indicated)
IDM VIGN voltage low
IDM fault
IDM relay voltage high
IDM relay voltage low
ECM / IDM communications fault
IDM / CMPO signal inactive
IDM incorrect CKPO signal signature
IDM CKPO signal inactive
IDM incorrect CKPO signal signature
ECM / IDM software not compatible
EFRC / ECM configuration mismatch
Engine using mfg. default rating
Engine using field default rating
Invalid Engine Family Rating Code (EFRC)
Field default active
Unexpected reset fault
Read Only Memory (ROM) self test fault
Random Access Memory (RAM) - CPU self test fault
Programmable parameter list level incompatible
RAM programmable parameter list corrupt
Calibration level incompatible
Programmable parameter memory content corrupt
*indicates amber ENGINE lamp on when DTC is set
** indicates red ENGINE lamp on when Engine Warning Protection System is enabled and a DTC is set
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
101
ENGINE & CHASSIS SCHEMATIC
CKP
EOT
CMP
EOP
s w it ch
MAT
ECT
IC P
MAP
MAF /I AT
se nsor
E D C B A
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 3 1
1
DB-LG
LB-R
GY-R
BR-W
LG-BK
DB-LG
BR-O
R-W
LG-R
LG-R
R
O
BK
GY
DB
W-R
P-O
Y-R
P-O
W-LG
P
BR
BK-PK
2 3 1
2 1
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16
ACT PWR
ACT PWR GND
CAN 2 (+)
CAN 2 (-)
Valve Motor + (U Phase)
Valve Motor + (V Phase)
Valve Motor + (W Phase)
Position Sensor Shield Drain
Sensor Supply
Position Sensor (U Phase)
Position Sensor (V Phase)
Position Sensor (W Phase)
Sensor Supply Ground
DB-LG
BK
R-LG
LB-W
BR-LG
G-R
P
BK
R-PK
Y-W
O-W
BR-W
BK-PK
8
7
6
1
4
3
2
5
A
LG-Y
DB-O
R-LG
LB-W
B
2 1
Mit s u bi s h i
EGR Valve
BCS
actuator
EGR valve
controller
I PR
actuator
IDM
X-3 X-2
X-1
X3-5
X3-10
X3-30
X3-31
Glow plugs
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 3
X3-7
X3-27
X3-8
X3-4,23
X3-24,25
X3-1,2,3
X3-22,26
X3-28
X3-29
Cylinder 5
4
CKPO
CMPO
CAN 2 (+)
CAN 2 (-)
VIGN
IDM MPR
IDM LOGIC PWR
IDM MAIN PWR
IDM MAIN PWR
IDM GND
IDM GND
ATA (+)
ATA (-)
2 4 6
3
Glow plug
relay
4 1
2
3
4 1
2
3
4 1
2
To battery power
feed on starter
Injector harness
IAH relay
To battery
Power feed
on starter
2
1 4
3
2
1 4
3
2
1 4
3
Open coil ground
Open coil power
Close coil ground
Close coil power
Open coil ground
Open coil power
Close coil ground
Close coil power
Open coil ground
Open coil power
Close coil ground
Close coil power
T-Y
LG-BK
LG-R
LG-O
LG-Y
O-Y
Y-LB
O-LB
LG-W
W-BK
W-LB
DB
X1-3
X1-17
X1-8
X1-18
X1-1
X1-23
X1-6
X1-24
X1-2
X1-19
X1-5
X1-20
Open coil ground
Open coil power
Close coil ground
Close coil power
Open coil ground
Open coil power
Close coil ground
Close coil power
Open coil ground
Open coil power
Close coil ground
Close coil power
LB-R
W-LB
O-Y
W
T-LG
DB-O
LB-BK
DG-LG
O-LG
BK-PK
W-P
DG-P
X2-2
X2-17
X2-6
X2-18
X2-1
X2-21
X2-5
X2-22
X2-4
X2-19
X2-8
X2-20
1 3 5
Cylinder 2
Glow Plug Circuits
Cylinder 4
Cylinder 6
Yellow Red White
Color
Cylinder
1
3
5
Cylinder
102
2
4
6
Glow plugs
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
1 2 3
Alternator Alternator
control
power
1
B+ at
Starter stud
To starter
solenoid
2
A/C clutch
ENGINE & CHASSIS SCHEMATIC
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS
International
®
R
WARNING
VT 275
ECM
Engine
(gray)
Notes
X-1 X-2
IAT
MAF
Signal Ground
VREFA
MAP
ICP
EOP
MAT
ECT
EO T
CMP (+)
CMP (-)
CMP/CKP SHD
CKP (+)
CKP (-)
BCS
IPR PWR
IPR
GPC
GPD
IAHC
IAHD
OWL
X1-7
X2-2
X1-6
X1-14
X2-3
X1-20
X1-13
X2-14
X1-8
X2-1
X1-9
X1-10
X1-11
X1-1
X1-2
X2-18
X2-24
X1-12
X1-17
X1-21
X1-18
X2-11
X1-23
CKPO
CMPO
CAN 2 (+)
CAN 2 (-)
CAN 2 SHD
BOO
BPS
X1-19
X1-24
X2-6
X2-13
X2-12
X1-15
X1-16
BK
GY
R-Y
Information on this form for vehicle mounted components
was current at the time of publication. Updates may be
made to introduce product improvements and technical
advancements. See correct truck service manual for
chassis wiring.
Colored lines on this schematic go to connector terminals
for sensors and actuators.
Color code for
schematic lines
Schematic Line
description
12 Volts (VBAT)
Red
Red
High side driver control
Purple
Injectors (48 Volts)
Blue
VREF (5 Volts)
Signal circuit
Green
In-cab
cruise switches
Brown
Data Communication Link
Black
Ground circuit
Black
Low side driver control
A/C switch
in control
head
Body Builder
T-stat
switch
Ignitiion
switch
Low-pressure
switch
Transmission
position switch
High-pressure
switch
1A
P
N D
R
2
3
Starter85
motor
relay
1
86
ECM
Chassis
(white)
X-3 X-4
8 Pin connector
BPS
BOO
OWL
Starter sol
8
2
1
7
A /C 1
clutch
relay
X3-1
X3-19
X3-20
X3-22
WIF
RPRE
RVAR
A/C control
X3-23
X4-15
X4-17
X3-11
X3-14
X3-21
X4-6
ECI
FPM
WEL
TACH
RAS
SCS
COO
X3-10
X3-12
X3-13
X3-15
X3-17
AC demand
CAN 1 (+)
CAN 1 (-)
CAN 1 SHD
VSS CAL (speedo)
X3-24
X4-18
X4-24
X4-4
X4-12
X3-9
X3-5
X3-7
X3-6
X4-2
X4-1
X3-8
X3-3
X4-20
X4-21
BAP
APS
Signal Ground
VREFB
IVS
FPC
ECM MPR
Battery Ground
Battery Ground
ECM PWR
ECM PWR
DDS
VIGN
ATA (+)
ATA (-)
2
0 = Off
1 = Acc
1 2 = Run
3 = Crank
4 = Lock
30
40A
87
To starter
solenoid
40A
5
Instrument Panel
BAP
RPM
APS / IVS
2
TMC
9
Connector
(316)
Normally closed
pressure switch
Normally open
pedal switch
5A
A
B
C
D
E
F
8
interlock
Diagnostic
connector A
(237)
5A
E
F
G
D
A
H
C
J
From
relay
B+
B
Fuel
pump
relay
2
10A
IDM
relay
1
3
72 Park
12
86
2
1
5
87
1
30
3
F ue l 2
pump
ECM
relay
10A
20A
2
1
1
2
WIF
probe
Fuel
heater
-
85
3
1
5
+
Act Pwr Gnd
VIGN
Act Pwr
IDM MPR
IDM Logic Pwr
IDM Main Pwr
IDM Pwr Gnd
ATA (+)
ATA (-)
ALT I-Sense
A/C Clutch (+)
A/C Clutch (-)
BAP
-
4
9
10
8
6
12
1
2
3
11
7
5
MPH
+
BK
P-O
DB-LG
R-Y
W
W
BK-W
LB-PK
T
W-BK
R-W
DB-Y
3
2 0 4
12 Pin connector
C
A
A
C
EGED-310
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
© 2004 INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION
103
POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER
Consult service literature for latest information before attempting any repairs
104
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER
31
BLANK
STARTER
32
40A
PWR WINDOW
20A
PARK LAMPS
33
25A
BODY BUILDER
4*
30A
IDM / ECM
34*
20A
A/C CLUTCH
5
30A
HEAD LAMPS
35
20A
CLUSTER
6
40A
BLOWER MOTOR
36
20A
FUEL XFER PUMP
7
25A
WIPER
37
10A
TURN
8
30A
ELECTRIC BRAKE
38
BLANK
9
20A
DOOR LOCK
39
10A
CORNERING LAMPS
10
20A
STOP LAMPS
40*
10A
IDM LOGIC PWR
11*
20A
FUEL PUMP
41*
10A
ECM PWR
12
20A
RUN / ACC FEED
42
10A
RADIO
13
20A
RUN / START FEED
43
BLANK
14
15A
HORN
44
BLANK
15
10A
CLUSTER BATT
45
BLANK
16
15A
B/U LAMPS
46*
5A
17
15A
FOG LAMPS
47
BODY BUILDER
18
15A
TRANS
48*
FUEL PUMP RELAY
19*
20A
FUEL HEATER
49
B/U LAMPS
20
60A
ABS MODULE
50*
ECM RELAY
21
30A
CONJOINER 1
51*
FUEL HEATER RELAY
22
30A
CONJOINER 2
52
TRANS
23
40A
TRAILER BATT
53*
A/C CLUTCH RELAY
24
20A
CIGAR LIGHTER
54
FOG LAMPS
25
20A
HAZARD
55*
IDM RELAY
26
15A
KEYLESS
56
WIPER
27
10A
RADIO
57*
STARTER RELAY
28
10A
DOME
58
BLANK
29
BLANK
59
PARK LAMPS
30
60A
60
TRANS RELAY DIODE
61
BLANK
1
BLANK
2*
30A
3
ABS PUMP
ECM KEY PWR
*indicates engine related fuse
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
105
GLOSSARY
Accelerator Position Sensor (APS)
A potentiometer sensor that indicates the position of the
throttle pedal.
Actuator
A device that performs work in response to an electrical
input signal.
Catalytic Converter
An antipollution device in the exhaust system that contains
a catalyst for chemically converting some pollutants in the
exhaust gases (carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons,
and oxides of nitrogen) into harmless compounds.
Charge Air
Dense, pressurized, heated air discharged from the turbocharger.
Aeration
The entrainment of gas (air or combustion gas) in the
coolant or lubricant.
Controller Area Network (CAN)
A J1939 high speed communication link.
Ambient Temperature
The environmental air temperature in which a unit is operating.
Coolant
A fluid used to transport heat from the engine to the radiator.
American Trucking Association (ATA) Datalink
A serial datalink specified by the American Trucking
Association and the SAE.
Crankcase
The housing that encloses the crankshaft, connecting rods,
and associated parts.
Analog Signal
A continuously variable voltage.
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
A magnetic pickup sensor that determines crankshaft
position and speed.
Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) Sensor
A variable capacitance sensor which, when supplied
with a 5 volt reference signal from the ECM, produces
a linear analog voltage signal indicating atmospheric pressure.
Duty Cycle
A control signal that has a controlled on/off time measurement
from 0 to 100%. Normally used to control solenoids.
Boost Pressure
The pressure of the charge air leaving the turbocharger.
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
An electronic processor that monitors and controls the engine.
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
A magnetic pickup sensor that indicates engine speed and
camshaft position.
EGR Cooler
A cooler that allows heat to dissipate from the exhaust
gasses before they enter the EGR Valve.
CAN 1
A data link between the vehicle modules and ECM.
EGR Valve
A valve that regulates the flow of exhaust gasses into the
intake manifold.
CAN 2
The private link between the ECM and IDM.
106
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
GLOSSARY
Engine Oil Pressure Switch (EOPS)
A switch that senses oil pressure.
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor
A sensor that measures the air flow into the engine.
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor
A thermistor sensor that senses engine oil temperature.
Magnehelic Gauge
A gauge that measures pressure in inches of water (in H2O).
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
A system used to recirculate a portion of the exhaust gases
into the intake air charge in order to reduce oxides of
nitrogen (NOx).
Magnetic Pickup Sensor
A sensor that creates an alternating current current voltage
when a magnetic field is broken.
Injection Control Pressure (ICP)
High lube oil pressure generated by a high pressure
pump/pressure regulator used to hydraulically actuate the
fuel injectors.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Oxides of nitrogen form by a reaction between nitrogen and
oxygen at high temperatures.
Potentiometer
An electro-mechanical device that senses the position of a
mechanical component.
Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Sensor
A sensor that measures injection control pressure.
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)
An ECM regulated valve that varies injection control pressure.
Reference Voltage (VREF)
A 5 volt reference supplied by the ECM to operate the
engine sensors.
Injector Drive Module (IDM)
An electronic processor that calculates injection timing and
fuel quantity and is the power supply for the injectors.
Thermistor
A semiconductor device that changes resistance as
temperature changes.
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor
A thermistor sensor that senses intake air temperature.
Turbocharger
A turbine driven compressor mounted to the exhaust
manifold. The turbocharger increases the pressure,
temperature and density of the intake air.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
Boost pressure in the manifold that is a result of the turbocharger.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor
A variable capacitance sensor that measures boost pressure.
Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor
A thermistor style sensor used to indicate air temperature in
the intake manifold.
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
107
INDEX
Cruise Control, 36
A
Accelerator Position Sensor (APS), 36, 100, 106
Crankcase Pressure, 96
Actuator, 15, 26, 41, 43, 45, 97, 106
Crankpins, 5, 21
Air Conditioning (A/C), 39, 105
Crankshaft Position Output (CKPO), 23, 31, 38, 101
Air Filter Restriction Gauge, 42
Cylinder Head, 18, 49, 51, 80, 82, 98
Aeration, 94, 106
D
Duty Cycle, 26, 106
Ambient Temperature, 106
American Trucking Association (ATA) Datalink, 38, 106
Analog Signal, 106
B
Balancer Shaft, 21, 84
E
Electronic Control Module (ECM), 22-27, 29-39, 100,
101, 105, 106
EGR Cooler, 42, 64, 70, 106
EGR Drive Module, 24, 37, 38, 101
Banjo Bolt, 8, 48, 49, 51, 95
EGR Valve, 16, 22, 24, 26, 37, 38, 40-42, 47, 77, 101, 106
Belt Routing, 71
Engine Oil Pressure Switch (EOPS), 30, 100, 107
Boost Control Solenoid, 15, 17, 26, 41, 43, 45
Exhaust Gas Recirculation, 5, 40, 107
Boost Pressure, 43, 45, 106
Exhaust Manifold, 11, 41
Breather, 9, 40
Bypass Valve, 41, 43, 44, 61, 65, 66
F
Flange Gear, 20, 85
C
Camshaft, 20, 31, 38, 85
Front Cover, 29, 42, 60-63, 68, 69, 84
Fuel Filter, 48, 50, 51
Camshaft Position Output (CMPO), 31, 38, 101
Fuel Heater, 35, 48-50, 105
CAN 1, 38, 48, 106
Fuel Inlet Check Valve, 51, 58
CAN 2, 38, 106
Fuel Inlet Restriction, 95
Case-To-Head Tube, 52, 53, 55, 77, 78, 98
Fuel Pressure, 51, 53, 57-59, 94, 95
Catalytic Converter, 106
Charge Air, 14, 40-43, 106
G
Gear Timing, 20
Charge Air Cooler, 14, 40-43
Gerotor Oil Pump, 60, 63
Crankshaft, 19-21, 31, 62, 73, 79, 81, 83, 106
Glow Plug, 10, 25, 32, 70
Controller Area Network, 106
Glow Plug Relay, 23, 25, 32, 101
Coolant, 29, 32, 47, 64, 67-71, 106
Grooved Idler Pulley, 9
Coolant Heater, 13
H
Head Bolts, 18, 80-82
Counter Weight, 21
High Pressure Oil Rail, 52, 55, 57
Crankcase Breather, 40
High Pressure Pump, 16, 52, 54, 99
Crossover Tube, 14, 41, 46, 75, 76
Horizontal Full Conditioning Module (HFCM), 35, 48-50
108
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
INDEX
I
Injection Control Pressure (ICP), 30, 54, 55, 96-99, 101,
107
S
Secondary Fuel Filter, 48, 51
Sensors
Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) Sensor, 36,
106
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor, 10, 31, 38,
100, 106
Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor, 14, 31, 100,
106
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor, 29
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor, 16, 29,
100, 107
Hall-Effect Sensor, 37
Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Sensor, 30, 52,
55, 107
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor, 26, 29, 34,
40, 107
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor, 15,
30, 40, 107
Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor, 29, 107
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor, 26, 29, 34, 107
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) Valve, 25, 54, 107
Injector, 23, 38, 52, 53, 55-59, 70, 77-79
Injector Drive Module (IDM), 22, 23, 28, 38, 58, 59, 101,
105, 107
Inlet Air Heater Relay, 23, 25, 32, 101
L
Lower Crankcase, 14, 19, 62, 84
Lower Oil Pan, 13, 19, 62
Lube Oil Pump, 52-54, 60
M
Magnehelic Gauge, 42, 96, 107
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP), 34, 100, 107
Smooth Idler Pulley, 8, 9, 71
O
Oil Cooler, 60, 61, 64, 67-70
T
Thermistor, 29, 34, 107
Oil Filter, 60, 61, 64-66
Timing Pin, 20, 85
Oil Pick-Up Tube, 19
Torque, 6, 75, 78, 82
Oil Pressure Regulator, 60
Turbocharger, 26, 40, 41, 43-46, 67, 74-76, 107
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 34, 47, 107
U
Upper Crankcase, 19
P
Pneumatic Actuator, 15, 41, 43, 45
Upper Oil Pan, 13, 19, 62
Potentiometer, 36, 107
V
Valve Bridge, 79, 80, 81
Primary Balance Shaft, 20, 84, 85
Vibration Damper, 82
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM), 24, 37, 45
R
Reference Voltage (VREF), 36, 107
W
Water-In-Fuel Sensor, 35
Water Pump, 64, 67-69, 71
Rear Cover, 11, 72, 84, 85
Rear Gear Train, 5, 20
Rocker Arm, 18, 79, 80
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
109
NOTES
110
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
NOTES
International® VT 275 V6 Engine
111
®
© 2005 I NTERNATI O NAL TRU CK AN D EN G I N E CO RPO R ATI O N
TMT-120502
PRI NTED I N TH E U.S.A.
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