Java Interview Questions and Answers

Java Interview Questions and Answers
Java Interview Questions and Answers
What is Collection API ?
The Collection API is a set of classes and interfaces that support
operation on collections of objects. These classes and interfaces are
more flexible, more powerful, and more regular than the vectors,
arrays, and hash tables if effectively replaces.
Example of classes: HashSet, HashMap, ArrayList, LinkedList, TreeSet
and TreeMap. Example of interfaces: Collection, Set, List and Map.
Is Iterator a Class or Interface? What is its use?
Iterator is an interface which is used to step through the elements of a
Collection.
What is similarities/difference between an Abstract class and
Interface?
Differences are as follows:
Interfaces provide a form of multiple inheritance. A class can extend
only one other class. Interfaces are limited to public methods and
constants with no implementation. Abstract classes can have a partial
implementation, protected parts, static methods, etc.
A Class may implement several interfaces. But in case of abstract class,
a class may extend only one abstract class. Interfaces are slow as it
requires extra indirection to find corresponding method in in the actual
class. Abstract classes are fast.
Similarities:
Neither Abstract classes or Interface can be instantiated.
How to define an Abstract class?
A class containing abstract method is called Abstract class. An Abstract
class can't be instantiated.
Example of Abstract class: abstract class testAbstractClass { protected
String myString;
public String getMyString() {
return myString;
}
public abstract string anyAbstractFunction();
}
How to define an Interface in Java?
In Java Interface defines the methods but does not implement them.
Interface can include constants. A class that implements the interfaces
is bound to implement all the methods defined in Interface.
Emaple of Interface:
public interface sampleInterface {
public void functionOne();
public long CONSTANT_ONE = 1000;
}
If a class is located in a package, what do you need to change in the
OS environment to be able to use it?
You need to add a directory or a jar file that contains the package
directories to the CLASSPATH environment variable. Let's say a class
Employee belongs to a package com.xyz.hr; and is located in the file
c:\dev\com\xyz\hr\Employee.java. In this case, you'd need to add
c:\dev to the variable CLASSPATH. If this class contains the method
main(), you could test it from a command prompt window as follows:
c:\>java com.xyz.hr.Employee
How many methods in the Serializable interface?
There is no method in the Serializable interface. The Serializable
interface acts as a marker, telling the object serialization tools that
your class is serializable.
How many methods in the Externalizable interface?
There are two methods in the Externalizable interface. You have to
implement these two methods in order to make your class
externalizable.
These
two
methods
are
readExternal()
and
writeExternal().
What is the difference between Serializalble and Externalizable
interface?
When you use Serializable interface, your class is serialized
automatically by default. But you can override writeObject() and
readObject() two methods to control more complex object serailization
process. When you use Externalizable interface, you have a complete
control over your class's serialization process.
What is a transient variable in Java?
A transient variable is a variable that may not be serialized. If you don't
want some field to be serialized, you can mark that field transient or
static.
Which containers use a border layout as their default layout?
The Window, Frame and Dialog classes use a border layout as their
default layout.
How are Observer and Observable used?
Objects that subclass the Observable class maintain a list of observers.
When an Observable object is updated, it invokes the update() method
of each of its observers to notify the observers that it has changed
state. The Observer interface is implemented by objects that observe
Observable objects.
What is Java?
Java is an object-oriented programming language developed initially by
James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems. The language,
initially called Oak (named after the oak trees outside Gosling's office),
was intended to replace C++, although the feature set better resembles
that of Objective C. Java should not be confused with JavaScript, which
shares only the name and a similar C-like syntax. Sun Microsystems
currently maintains and updates Java regularly.
What does a well-written OO program look like?
A well-written OO program exhibits recurring structures that promote
abstraction, flexibility, modularity and elegance.
Can you have virtual functions in Java?
Yes, all functions in Java are virtual by default. This is actually a pseudo
trick question because the word "virtual" is not part of the naming
convention in Java (as it is in C++, C-sharp and VB.NET), so this would
be a foreign concept for someone who has only coded in Java. Virtual
functions or virtual methods are functions or methods that will be
redefined in derived classes.
What is more advisable to create a thread, by implementing a
Runnable interface or by extending Thread class?
Strategically speaking, threads created by implementing Runnable
interface are more advisable. If you create a thread by extending a
thread class, you cannot extend any other class. If you create a thread
by implementing Runnable interface, you save a space for your class to
extend another class now or in future.
When an object is not initialized, the default value is null. When the
following things happen, the NullPointerException is thrown:
--Calling the instance method of a null object.
--Accessing or modifying the field of a null object.
--Taking the length of a null as if it were an array.
--Accessing or modifying the slots of null as if it were an array.
--Throwing null as if it were a Throwable value.
The NullPointerException is a runtime exception. The best practice is to
catch such exception even if it is not required by language design.
An application needs to load a library before it starts to run, how to
code?
One option is to use a static block to load a library before anything is
called. For example,
class Test {
static {
System.loadLibrary("path-to-library-file");
}
....
}
When you call new Test(), the static block will be called first before any
initialization happens. Note that the static block position may matter.
How could Java classes direct program messages to the system
console, but error messages, say to a file?
The class System has a variable out that represents the standard
output, and the variable err that represent the standard error device. By
default, they both point at the system console. This how the standard
output could be re-directed:
Stream
st
=
new
Stream(new
FileOutputStream("output.txt"));
System.setErr(st); System.setOut(st);
What's the difference between an interface and an abstract class?
An abstract class may contain code in method bodies, which is not
allowed in an interface. With abstract classes, you have to inherit your
class from it and Java does not allow multiple inheritance. On the other
hand, you can implement multiple interfaces in your class.
Name the containers which uses Border Layout as their default
layout?
Containers which uses Border Layout as their default are: window,
Frame and Dialog classes.
What do you understand by Synchronization?
Synchronization is a process of controlling the access of shared
resources by the multiple threads in such a manner that only one
thread can access one resource at a time. In non synchronized
multithreaded application, it is possible for one thread to modify a
shared object while another thread is in the process of using or
updating the object's value. Synchronization prevents such type of data
corruption.
E.g. Synchronizing a function:
public synchronized void Method1 () {
// Appropriate method-related code.
}
E.g. Synchronizing a block of code inside a function:
public myFunction (){
synchronized (this) {
// Synchronized code here.
}
}
What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to
control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without
synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object
while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object's
value. This often causes dirty data and leads to significant errors.
What are synchronized methods and synchronized statements?
Synchronized methods are methods that are used to control access to a
method or an object. A thread only executes a synchronized method
after it has acquired the lock for the method's object or class.
Synchronized statements are similar to synchronized methods. A
synchronized statement can only be executed after a thread has
acquired the lock for the object or class referenced in the synchronized
statement.
What are three ways in which a thread can enter the waiting state?
A thread can enter the waiting state by invoking its sleep() method, by
blocking on IO, by unsuccessfully attempting to acquire an object's
lock, or by invoking an object's wait() method. It can also enter the
waiting state by invoking its (deprecated) suspend() method.
Can a lock be acquired on a class?
Yes, a lock can be acquired on a class. This lock is acquired on the
class's Class object.
What's new with the stop(), suspend() and resume() methods in JDK
1.2?
The stop(), suspend() and resume() methods have been deprecated in
JDK 1.2.
What is the preferred size of a component?
The preferred size of a component is the minimum component size that
will allow the component to display normally.
What's the difference between J2SDK 1.5 and J2SDK 5.0?
There's no difference, Sun Microsystems just re-branded this version.
What would you use to compare two String variables - the operator
== or the method equals()?
I'd use the method equals() to compare the values of the Strings and the
== to check if two variables point at the same instance of a String
object.
What is thread?
A thread is an independent path of execution in a system.
What is multi-threading?
Multi-threading means various threads that run in a system.
How does multi-threading take place on a computer with a single
CPU?
The operating system's task scheduler allocates execution time to
multiple tasks. By quickly switching between executing tasks, it creates
the impression that tasks execute sequentially.
How to create a thread in a program?
You have two ways to do so. First, making your class "extends" Thread
class. Second, making your class "implements" Runnable interface. Put
jobs in a run() method and call start() method to start the thread.
Can Java object be locked down for exclusive use by a given thread?
Yes. You can lock an object by putting it in a "synchronized" block. The
locked object is inaccessible to any thread other than the one that
explicitly claimed it.
Can each Java object keep track of all the threads that want to
exclusively access to it?
Yes. Use Thread.currentThread() method to track the accessing thread.
Does
it
matter
in
what
order
catch
statements
FileNotFoundException and IOExceptipon are written?
Yes, it does. The FileNoFoundException is inherited from
IOException. Exception's subclasses have to be caught first.
for
the
What invokes a thread's run() method?
After a thread is started, via its start() method of the Thread class, the
JVM invokes the thread's run() method when the thread is initially
executed.
What is the purpose of the wait(), notify(), and notifyAll() methods?
The wait(),notify(), and notifyAll() methods are used to provide an
efficient way for threads to communicate each other.
What are the high-level thread states?
The high-level thread states are ready, running, waiting, and dead.
What is the difference between yielding and sleeping?
When a task invokes its yield() method, it returns to the ready state.
When a task invokes its sleep() method, it returns to the waiting state.
What happens when a thread cannot acquire a lock on an object?
If a thread attempts to execute a synchronized method or synchronized
statement and is unable to acquire an object's lock, it enters the waiting
state until the lock becomes available.
What is the difference between Process and Thread?
A process can contain multiple threads. In most multithreading
operating systems, a process gets its own memory address space; a
thread doesn't. Threads typically share the heap belonging to their
parent process. For instance, a JVM runs in a single process in the host
O/S. Threads in the JVM share the heap belonging to that process; that's
why several threads may access the same object. Typically, even though
they share a common heap, threads have their own stack space. This is
how one thread's invocation of a method is kept separate from
another's. This is all a gross oversimplification, but it's accurate enough
at a high level. Lots of details differ between operating systems. Process
vs. Thread A program vs. similar to a sequential program an run on its
own vs. Cannot run on its own Unit of allocation vs. Unit of execution
Have its own memory space vs. Share with others Each process has one
or more threads vs. Each thread belongs to one process Expensive, need
to context switch vs. Cheap, can use process memory and may not need
to context switch More secure. One process cannot corrupt another
process vs. Less secure. A thread can write the memory used by another
thread
Can an inner class declared inside of a method access local variables
of this method?
It's possible if these variables are final.
What can go wrong if you replace &emp;&emp; with &emp; in the
following code: String a=null; if (a!=null && a.length()>10) {...}
A single ampersand here would lead to a NullPointerException.
What is the Vector class?
The Vector class provides the capability to implement a growable array
of objects
What modifiers may be used with an inner class that is a member of
an outer class?
A (non-local) inner class may be declared as public, protected, private,
static, final, or abstract.
If a method is declared as protected, where may the method be
accessed?
A protected method may only be accessed by classes or interfaces of
the same package or by subclasses of the class in which it is declared.
What is an Iterator interface?
The Iterator interface is used to step through the elements of a
Collection.
How many bits are used to represent Unicode, ASCII, UTF-16, and
UTF-8 characters?
Unicode requires 16 bits and ASCII require 7 bits. Although the ASCII
character set uses only 7 bits, it is usually represented as 8 bits. UTF-8
represents characters using 8, 16, and 18 bit patterns. UTF-16 uses 16bit and larger bit patterns.
What's the main difference between a Vector and an ArrayList?
Java Vector class is internally synchronized and ArrayList is not.
What are wrapped classes?
Wrapped classes are classes that allow primitive types to be accessed as
objects.
Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of
memory?
No, it doesn't. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources
faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs
to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection.
What is the difference between preemptive scheduling and time
slicing?
Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it
enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into
existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of
time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then
determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other
factors.
Name Component subclasses that support painting ?
The Canvas, Frame, Panel, and Applet classes support painting.
What is a native method?
A native method is a method that is implemented in a language other
than Java.
How can you write a loop indefinitely?
for(;;)--for loop; while(true)--always true, etc.
Can an anonymous class be declared as implementing an interface
and extending a class?
An anonymous class may implement an interface or extend a
superclass, but may not be declared to do both.
What is the purpose of finalization?
The purpose of finalization is to give an unreachable object the
opportunity to perform any cleanup processing before the object is
garbage collected.
When should the method invokeLater()be used?
This method is used to ensure that Swing components are updated
through the event- dispatching thread.
How many methods in Object class?
This question is not asked to test your memory. It tests you how well
you know Java. Ten in total.
clone()
equals() & hashcode()
getClass()
finalize()
wait() & notify()
toString()
How does Java handle integer overflows and underflows?
It uses low order bytes of the result that can fit into the size of the type
allowed by the operation.
What is the numeric promotion?
Numeric promotion is used with both unary and binary bitwise
operators. This means that byte, char, and short values are converted to
int values before a bitwise operator is
applied.
If a binary bitwise operator has one long operand, the other operand is
converted to a long value.
The type of the result of a bitwise operation is the type to which the
operands have been promoted. For example:
short a = 5; byte b = 10; long c = 15;
The type of the result of (a+b) is int, not short or byte. The type of the
result of (a+c) or
(b+c) is long.
Is the numeric promotion available in other platform?
Yes. Because Java is implemented using a platform-independent virtual
machine, bitwise operations always yield the same result, even when
run on machines that use radically different CPUs.
What is the difference between the Boolean & operator and the &&
operator?
If an expression involving the Boolean & operator is evaluated, both
operands are evaluated. Then the & operator is applied to the operand.
When an expression involving the && operator is evaluated, the first
operand is evaluated. If the first operand returns a value of true then
the second operand is evaluated. The && operator is then applied to the
first and second operands. If the first operand evaluates to false, the
evaluation of the second operand is skipped.
Operator & has no chance to skip both sides evaluation and && operator
does. If asked why, give details as above.
What is the GregorianCalendar class?
The GregorianCalendar provides support
calendars.
for
traditional
Western
What is the SimpleTimeZone class?
The SimpleTimeZone class provides support for a Gregorian calendar.
How can a subclass call a method or a constructor defined in a
superclass?
Use the following syntax: super.myMethod(); To call a constructor of the
superclass, just write super(); in the first line of the subclass's
constructor.
What is the Properties class?
The properties class is a subclass of Hashtable that can be read from or
written to a stream. It also provides the capability to specify a set of
default values to be used.
What is the purpose of the Runtime class?
The purpose of the Runtime class is to provide access to the Java
runtime system.
What is the purpose of the System class?
The purpose of the System class is to provide access to system
resources.
What is the purpose of the finally clause of a try-catch-finally
statement?
The finally clause is used to provide the capability to execute code no
matter whether or not an exception is thrown or caught.
What is the Locale class?
The Locale class is used to tailor program output to the conventions of
a particular geographic, political, or cultural region.
What is an abstract method?
An abstract method is a method whose implementation is deferred to a
subclass. Or, a method that has no implementation.
What is the difference between interface and abstract class?
interface contains methods that must be abstract; abstract class may
contain concrete methods. interface contains variables that must be
static and final; abstract class may contain non-final and final variables.
members in an interface are public by default, abstract class may
contain non-public members. interface is used to "implements";
whereas abstract class is used to "extends". interface can be used to
achieve multiple inheritance; abstract class can be used as a single
inheritance. interface can "extends" another interface, abstract class can
"extends" another class and "implements" multiple interfaces. interface
is absolutely abstract; abstract class can be invoked if a main() exists.
interface is more flexible than abstract class because one class can only
"extends" one super class, but "implements" multiple interfaces. If given
a choice, use interface instead of abstract class.
What is a static method?
A static method is a method that belongs to the class rather than any
object of the class and doesn't apply to an object or even require that
any objects of the class have been instantiated.
What is a protected method?
A protected method is a method that can be accessed by any method in
its package and inherited by any subclass of its class.
What is the difference between a static and a non-static inner class?
A non-static inner class may have object instances that are associated
with instances of the class's outer class. A static inner class does not
have any object instances.
What is an object's lock and which object's have locks?
An object's lock is a mechanism that is used by multiple threads to
obtain synchronized access to the object. A thread may execute a
synchronized method of an object only after it has acquired the
object's lock. All objects and classes have locks. A class's lock is
acquired on the class's Class object.
When can an object reference be cast to an interface reference?
An object reference can be cast to an interface reference when the
object implements the referenced interface.
What is the difference between a Window and a Frame?
The Frame class extends Window to define a main application window
that can have a menu bar.
What is the difference between a Window and a Frame?
Heavy weight components like Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), depend
on the local windowing toolkit. For example, java.awt.Button is a heavy
weight component, when it is running on the Java platform for Unix
platform, it maps to a real Motif button. In this relationship, the Motif
button is called the peer to the java.awt.Button. If you create two
Buttons, two peers and hence two Motif Buttons are also created. The
Java platform
communicates with the Motif Buttons using the Java Native Interface.
For each and every component added to the application, there is an
additional overhead tied to the local windowing system, which is why
these components are called heavy weight.
Which package has light weight components?
javax.Swing package. All components in Swing, except JApplet, JDialog,
JFrame and
JWindow are lightweight components.
What are peerless components?
The peerless components are called light weight components.
What is the difference between the Font and FontMetrics classes?
The FontMetrics class is used to define implementation-specific
properties, such as ascent and descent, of a Font object
What is the difference between the Reader/Writer class hierarchy
and the InputStream/OutputStream class hierarchy?
The Reader/Writer class hierarchy is character-oriented, and the
InputStream/OutputStream class hierarchy is byte-oriented.
What classes of exceptions may be caught by a catch clause?
A catch clause can catch any exception that may be assigned to the
Throwable type. This includes the Error and Exception types.
What is the difference between throw and throws keywords?
The throw keyword denotes a statement that causes an exception to be
initiated. It takes the Exception object to be thrown as argument. The
exception will be caught by an immediately encompassing try-catch
construction or propagated further up the calling hierarchy.
The throws keyword is a modifier of a method that designates that
exceptions may come out of the method, either by virtue of the method
throwing the exception itself or because it fails to catch such
exceptions that a method it calls may throw.
If a class is declared without any access modifiers, where may the
class be accessed?
A class that is declared without any access modifiers is said to have
package or friendly access. This means that the class can only be
accessed by other classes and interfaces that are defined within the
same package.
What is the Map interface?
The Map interface replaces the JDK 1.1 Dictionary class and is used
associate keys with values.
Does a class inherit the constructors of its super class?
A class does not inherit constructors from any of its superclasses.
Name primitive Java types.
The primitive types are byte, char, short, int, long, float, double, and
Boolean.
Which class should you use to obtain design information about an
object?
The Class class is used to obtain information about an object's design.
How can a GUI component handle its own events?
A component can handle its own events by implementing the required
event-listener interface and adding itself as its own event listener.
How are the elements of a GridBagLayout organized?
The elements of a GridBagLayout are organized according to a grid.
However, the elements are of different sizes and may occupy more than
one row or column of the grid. In addition, the rows and columns may
have different sizes.
What advantage do Java's layout managers provide over traditional
windowing systems?
Java uses layout managers to lay out components in a consistent
manner across all windowing platforms. Since Java's layout managers
aren't tied to absolute sizing and positioning, they are able to
accommodate platform-specific differences among windowing systems.
What are the problems faced by Java programmers who don't use
layout managers?
Without layout managers, Java programmers are faced with determining
how their GUI will be displayed across multiple windowing systems and
finding a common sizing and positioning that will work within the
constraints imposed by each windowing system.
What is the difference between static and non-static variables?
A static variable is associated with the class as a whole rather than with
specific instances of a class. Non-static variables take on unique values
with each object instance.
What is the difference between the paint() and repaint() methods?
The paint() method supports painting via a Graphics object. The
repaint() method is used to cause paint() to be invoked by the AWT
painting thread.
What is the purpose of the File class?
The File class is used to create objects that provide access to the files
and directories of a local file system.
Why would you use a synchronized block vs. synchronized method?
Synchronized blocks place locks for shorter periods than synchronized
methods.
What restrictions are placed on method overriding?
Overridden methods must have the same name, argument list, and
return type. The overriding method may not limit the access of the
method it overrides. The overriding method may not throw any
exceptions that may not be thrown by the overridden method.
What is casting?
There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric
types and casting between object references. Casting between numeric
types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller
values, such as byte values. Casting between object references is used
to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or array type
reference.
Explain the usage of the keyword transient?
This keyword indicates that the value of this member variable does not
have to be serialized with the object. When the class will be deserialized, this variable will be initialized with a default value of its
data type (i.e. zero for integers).
What class allows you to read objects directly from a stream?
The ObjectInputStream class supports the reading of objects from input
streams.
How are this() and super() used with constructors?
this() is used to invoke a constructor of the same class. super() is used
to invoke a superclass constructor.
How is it possible for two String objects with identical values not to be
equal under the
== operator? How are this() and super() used with constructors?
The == operator compares two objects to determine if they are the same
objects in memory. It is possible for two String objects to have the same
value, but located in different areas of memory.
What is an IO filter?
An IO filter is an object that reads from one stream and writes to
another, usually altering the data in some way as it is passed from one
stream to another.
What is the Set interface?
The Set interface provides methods for accessing the elements of a
finite mathematical set. Sets do not allow duplicate elements.
How can you force garbage collection?
You can't force GC, but could request it by calling System.gc(). JVM does
not guarantee that GC will be started immediately.
What is the purpose of the enableEvents() method?
The enableEvents() method is used to enable an event for a particular
object. Normally, an event is enabled when a listener is added to an
object for a particular event. The enableEvents() method is used by
objects that handle events by overriding their event- dispatch methods.
What is the difference between the File and RandomAccessFile
classes?
The File class encapsulates the files and directories of the local file
system. The RandomAccessFile class provides the methods needed to
directly access data contained in any part of a file.
What interface must an object implement before it can be written to
a stream as an object?
An object must implement the Serializable or Externalizable interface
before it can be written to a stream as an object.
What is the ResourceBundle class?
The ResourceBundle class is used to store locale-specific resources that
can be loaded by a program to tailor the program's appearance to the
particular locale in which it is being run.
How do you know if an explicit object casting is needed?
If you assign a superclass object to a variable of a subclass's data type,
you need to do explicit casting. For example:
Object a; Customer b; b = (Customer) a;
When you assign a subclass to a variable having a supeclass type, the
casting is performed automatically.
What is a Java package and how is it used?
A Java package is a naming context for classes and interfaces. A package
is used to create a separate name space for groups of classes and
interfaces. Packages are also used to organize related classes and
interfaces into a single API unit and to control accessibility to these
classes and interfaces.
How do you restrict a user to cut and paste from the html page?
Using Servlet or client side scripts to lock keyboard keys. It is one of
solutions.
What are the Object and Class classes used for?
The Object class is the highest-level class in the Java class hierarchy.
The Class class is used to represent the classes and interfaces that are
loaded by a Java program.
What is Serialization and deserialization ?
Serialization is the process of writing the state of an object to a byte
stream.
Deserialization is the process of restoring these objects.
Explain the usage of Java packages.
This is a way to organize files when a project consists of multiple
modules. It also helps resolve naming conflicts when different packages
have classes with the same names. Packages access level also allows
you to protect data from being used by the non- authorized classes.
Does the code in finally block get executed if there is an exception
and a return statement in a catch block?
If an exception occurs and there is a return statement in catch block,
the finally block is still executed. The finally block will not be executed
when the System.exit(1) statement is executed earlier or the system
shut down earlier or the memory is used up earlier before the thread
goes to finally block.
Is Java a super set of JavaScript?
No. They are completely different. Some syntax may be similar.
What is a Container in a GUI?
A Container contains and arranges other components (including other
containers) through the use of layout managers, which use specific
layout policies to determine where components should go as a function
of the size of the container.
How the object oriented approach helps us keep complexity of
software development under control?
We can discuss such issue from the following aspects:
Objects allow procedures to be encapsulated with their data to reduce
potential interference.
Inheritance allows well-tested procedures to be reused and enables
changes to make once and have effect in all relevant places.
The well-defined separations of interface and implementation allow
constraints to be imposed on inheriting classes while still allowing the
flexibility of overriding and overloading.
What is polymorphism?
Polymorphism means "having many forms". It allows methods (may be
variables) to be written that needn't be concerned about the specifics of
the objects they will be applied to. That is, the method can be specified
at a higher level of abstraction and can be counted on to work even on
objects of un-conceived classes.
What is design by contract?
The design by contract specifies the obligations of a method to any
other methods that may use its services and also theirs to it. For
example, the preconditions specify what the method required to be true
when the method is called. Hence making sure that preconditions are.
Similarly, postconditions specify what must be true when the method is
finished, thus the called method has the responsibility of satisfying the
post conditions.
In Java, the exception handling facilities support the use of design by
contract, especially in the case of checked exceptions. The assert
keyword can be used to make such contracts.
What are use cases?
A use case describes a situation that a program might encounter and
what behavior the program should exhibit in that circumstance. It is
part of the analysis of a program. The collection of use cases should,
ideally, anticipate all the standard circumstances and many of the
extraordinary circumstances possible so that the program will be
robust.
What is scalability and performance?
Performance is a measure of "how fast can you perform this task." and
scalability describes how an application behaves as its workload and
available computing resources increase.
What is the benefit of subclass?
Generally: The sub class inherits all the public methods and the
implementation. The sub class inherits all the protected methods and
their implementation.
The sub class inherits all the default(non-access modifier) methods and
their implementation.
The sub class also inherits all the public, protected and default member
variables from the super class.
The constructors are not part of this inheritance model.
How to add menushortcut to menu item?
If you have a button instance called aboutButton, you may add menu
short cut by calling aboutButton.setMnemonic('A'), so the user may be
able to use Alt+A to click the button.
In System.out.println(),what is System,out and println,pls explain?
System is a predefined final class,out is a PrintStream object acting as a
field member and println is a built-in overloaded method in the out
object.
Can you write a Java class that could be used both as an applet as
well as an application?
Yes. Add a main() method to the applet.
Can you make an instance of an abstract class? For example java.util.Calender is an abstract class with a method getInstance()
which returns an instance of the Calender class.
No! You cannot make an instance of an abstract class. An abstract class
has to be sub- classed. If you have an abstract class and you want to
use a method which has been implemented, you may need to subclass
that abstract class, instantiate your subclass and then call that method.
What is the output of x > y? a:b = p*q when x=1,y=2,p=3,q=4?
When this kind of question has been asked, find the problems you think
is necessary to ask back before you give an answer. Ask if variables a
and b have been declared or initialized. If the answer is yes. You can
say that the syntax is wrong. If the statement is rewritten as: x
What is the difference between Swing and AWT components?
AWT components are heavy-weight, whereas Swing components are
lightweight. Heavy weight components depend on the local windowing
toolkit. For example, java.awt.Button is a heavy weight component,
when it is running on the Java platform for Unix platform, it maps to a
real Motif button.
Why Java does not support pointers?
Because pointers are unsafe. Java uses reference types to hide pointers
and programmers feel easier to deal with reference types without
pointers. This is why Java and C-sharp shine.
Parsers? DOM vs SAX parser
Parsers are fundamental xml components, a bridge between XML
documents and applications that process that XML. The parser is
responsible for handling xml syntax, checking the contents of the
document against constraints established in a DTD or Schema.
DOM
1. Tree of nodes
2. Memory: Occupies more memory, preffered for small XML documents
3. Slower at runtime
4. Stored as objects
5. Programmatically easy
6. Ease of navigation
SAX
1. Sequence of events
2. Doesn't use any memory preferred for large documents
3. Faster at runtime
4. Objects are to be created
5. Need to write code for creating objects
6. Backward navigation is not possible as it sequentially processes the
document
Can you declare a class as private?
Yes, we can declare a private class as an inner class.
For example,
class MyPrivate {
private static class MyKey { String key = "12345";
}
public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println(new
MyKey().key);//prints 12345
}
}
What is the difference between shallow copy and deep copy?
Shallow copy shares the same reference with the original object like
cloning, whereas the deep copy get a duplicate instance of the original
object. If the shallow copy has been changed, the original object will be
reflected and vice versa.
Can one create a method which gets a String and modifies it?
No. In Java, Strings are constant or immutable; their values cannot be
changed after they are created, but they can be shared. Once you
change a string, you actually create a new object. For example:
String s = "abc"; //create a new String object representing "abc"
s = s.toUpperCase(); //create another object representing "ABC"
Why is multiple inheritance not possible in Java?
It depends on how you understand "inheritance". Java can only
"extends" one super class, but can "implements" many interfaces; that
doesn't mean the multiple inheritance is not possible. You may use
interfaces to make inheritance work for you. Or you may need to work
around. For example, if you cannot get a feature from a class because
your class has a super class already, you may get that class's feature by
declaring it as a member field or getting an instance of that class. So
the answer is that multiple inheritance in Java is possible.
What's the difference between constructors and other methods?
Constructors must have the same name as the class and cannot return a
value. They are only called once while regular methods could be called
many times.
What is the relationship between synchronized and volatile
keyword?
The JVM is guaranteed to treat reads and writes of data of 32 bits or
less as atomic.(Some JVM might treat reads and writes of data of 64 bits
or less as atomic in future) For long or double variable, programmers
should take care in multi-threading environment. Either put these
variables in a synchronized method or block, or declare them volatile.
This class (IncrementImpl) will be used by various threads
concurrently; can you see the inherent flaw(s)? How would you
improve it?
public class IncrementImpl {
private static int counter = 0;
public synchronized void increment() {
counter++;
}
public int getCounter() {
return counter;
}
}
The counter is static variable which is shared by multiple instances of
this class. The increment() method is synchronized, but the
getCounter() should be synchronized too. Otherwise the Java run-time
system will not guarantee the data integrity and the race conditions will
occur. The famous producer/consumer example listed at Sun's thread
tutorial site will tell more.
one of solutions
public class IncrementImpl {
private static int counter = 0;
public synchronized void increment() {
counter++;
}
public synchronized int getCounter() {
return counter;
}
}
What are the drawbacks of inheritance?
Since inheritance inherits everything from the super class and interface,
it may make the subclass too clustering and sometimes error-prone
when dynamic overriding or dynamic overloading in some situation. In
addition, the inheritance may make peers hardly understand your code
if they don't know how your super-class acts and add learning curve to
the process of development.
Usually, when you want to use a functionality of a class, you may use
subclass to inherit such function or use an instance of this class in your
class. Which is better, depends on your specification.
Is there any other way that you can achieve inheritance in Java?
There are a couple of ways. As you know, the straight way is to
"extends" and/or "implements". The other way is to get an instance of
the class to achieve the inheritance. That means to make the supposedsuper-class be a field member. When you use an instance of the class,
actually you get every function available from this class, but you may
lose the dynamic features of OOP
Two methods have key words static synchronized and synchronized
separately. What is the difference between them?
Both are synchronized methods. One is instance method, the other is
class method. Method with static modifier is a class method. That
means the method belongs to class itself and can be accessed directly
with class name and is also called Singleton design. The method
without static modifier is an instance method. That means the instance
method belongs to its object. Every instance of the class gets its own
copy of its instance method.
When synchronized is used with a static method, a lock for the entire
class is obtained. When synchronized is used with a non-static method,
a lock for the particular object (that means instance) of the class is
obtained.
Since both methods are synchronized methods, you are not asked to
explain what is a synchronized method. You are asked to tell the
difference between instance and class method. Of course, your
explanation to how synchronized keyword works doesn't hurt. And you
may use this opportunity to show your knowledge scope.
How do you create a read-only collection?
The Collections class has six methods to help out here:
1. unmodifiableCollection(Collection c)
2. unmodifiableList(List list)
3. unmodifiableMap(Map m)
4. unmodifiableSet(Set s)
5. unmodifiableSortedMap(SortedMap m)
6. unmodifiableSortedSet(SortedSet s)
If you get an Iterator from one of these unmodifiable collections, when
you call remove(), it will throw an UnsupportedOperationException.
Can a private method of a superclass be declared within a subclass?
Sure. A private field or method or inner class belongs to its declared
class and hides from its subclasses. There is no way for private stuff to
have a runtime overloading or overriding (polymorphism) features.
Why Java does not support multiple inheritance ?
This is a classic question. Yes or No depends on how you look at Java. If
you focus on the syntax of "extends" and compare with C++, you may
answer 'No' and give explanation to support you. Or you may answer
'Yes'. Recommend you to say 'Yes'.
Java DOES support multiple inheritance via interface implementation.
Some people may not think in this way. Give explanation to support
your point.
What is the difference between final, finally and finalize? Short
answer:
final - declares constant
finally - relates with exception handling finalize - helps in garbage
collection
If asked to give details, explain:
final field, final method, final class try/finally, try/catch/finally
protected void finalize() in Object class
What kind of security tools are available in J2SE 5.0?
There are three tools that can be used to protect application working
within the scope of security policies set at remote sites.
keytool -- used to manage keystores and certificates. jarsigner -- used to
generate and verify JAR signatures. policytool -- used for managing
policy files.
There are three tools that help obtain, list and manage Kerberos tickets.
kinit -- used to obtain Kerberos V5 tickets.
tklist -- used to list entries in credential cache and key tab. ktab -- used
to help manage entries in the key table.
How to make an array copy from System?
There is a method called arraycopy in the System class. You can do it:
System.arraycopy(sourceArray, srcOffset, destinationArray, destOffset,
numOfElements2Copy);
When you use this method, the destinationArray will be filled with the
elements of sourceArray at the length specified.
Can we use System.arraycopy() method to copy the same array?
Yes, you can. The source and destination arrays can be the same if you
want to copy a subset of the array to another area within that array.
What is shallow copy or shallow clone in array cloning?
Cloning an array invloves creating a new array of the same size and
type and copying all the old elements into the new array. But such copy
is called shallow copy or shallow clone because any changes to the
object would be reflected in both arrays.
When is the ArrayStoreException thrown?
When copying elements between different arrays, if the source or
destination arguments are not arrays or their types are not compatible,
an ArrayStoreException will be thrown.
How to check two arrays to see if contents have the same types and
contain the same elements?
One of options is to use the equals() method of Arrays class.
Arrays.equals(a, b);
If the array types are different, a compile-time error will happen.
Can you call one constructor from another if a class has multiple
constructors?
Yes. Use this() syntax.
What are the different types of inner classes?
There are four different types of inner classes in Java. They are: a)Static
member classes , a static member class has access to all static methods
of the parent, or top-level, class b) Member classes, the member class is
instance specific and has access to any and all methods and members,
even the parent's this reference c) Local classes, are declared within a
block of code and are visible only within that block, just as any other
method variable. d) Anonymous classes, is a local class that has no
name
In which case would you choose a static inner class?
Interesting one, static inner classes can access the outer class's
protected and private fields. This is both a positive and a negative
point for us since we can, in essence, violate the encapsulation of the
outer class by mucking up the outer class's protected and private fields.
The only proper use of that capability is to write white-box tests of the
class -- since we can induce cases that might be very hard to induce via
normal black-box tests
(which don't have access to the internal state of the object). Second
advantage,if I can say, is that, we can this static concept to impose
restriction on the inner class. Again as discussed in earlier point, an
Inner class has access to all the public, private and protected members
of the parent class. Suppose you want to restrict the access even to
inner class, how would you go ahead? Making the inner class static
enforces it to access only the public static members of the outer class(
Since, protected and private members are not supposed to be static and
that static members can access only other static members). If it has to
access any non-static member, it has to create an instance of the outer
class which leads to accessing only public members.
What is weak reference in Java?
A weak reference is one that does not prevent the referenced object
from being garbage collected. You might use them to manage a
HashMap to look up a cache of objects. A weak reference is a reference
that does not keep the object it refers to alive. A weak reference is not
counted as a reference in garbage collection. If the object is not
referred to elsewhere as well, it will be garbage collected.
What is the difference between final, finally and finalize?
final is used for making a class no-subclassable, and making a member
variable as a constant which cannot be modified. finally is usually used
to release all the resources utilized inside the try block. All the
resources present in the finalize method will be garbage collected
whenever GC is called. Though finally and finalize seem to be for a
similar task there is an interesting tweak here, usually I prefer finally
than finalize unless it is unavoidable. This is because the code in finally
block is guaranteed of execution irrespective of occurrence of
exception, while execution of finalize is not guarenteed.finalize method
is called by the garbage collector on an object when the garbage
collector determines that there are no more references to the object.
Presumably the garbage collector will, like its civil servant namesake,
visit the heap on a regular basis to clean up resources that are no
longer in use. Garbage collection exists to prevent programmers from
calling delete. This is a wonderful feature. For example, if you can't call
delete, then you can't accidentally call delete twice on the same object.
However, removing delete from the language is not the same thing as
automatically cleaning up. To add to it, Garbage collection might not
ever run. If garbage collection runs at all, and an object is no longer
referenced, then that object's finalize will run. Also, across multiple
objects, finalize order is not predictable. The correct approach to
resource cleanup in Java language programs does not rely on finalize.
Instead, you simply write explicit close methods for objects that wrap
native resources. If you take this approach, you must document that
the close method exists and when it should be called. Callers of the
object must then remember to call close when they are finished with a
resource.
What's the difference between the methods sleep() and wait()?
The code sleep(1000); puts thread aside for exactly one second. The
code wait(1000), causes a wait of up to one second. A thread could stop
waiting earlier if it receives the notify() or notifyAll() call. The method
wait() is defined in the class Object and the method sleep() is defined in
the class Thread.
The following statement prints true or false, why?
byte[] a = { 1, 2, 3 };,
byte[] b = (byte[]) a.clone(); System.out.println(a == b);
The false will be printed out. Because the two arrays have distinctive
memory
addresses.
Starting
in
Java
1.2,
we
can
use
java.util.Arrays.equals(a, b) to compare whether two arrays have the
same contents.
Why
do
we
need
to
use
getSystemResource()
and
getSystemResources() method to load resources?
Because we want to look for resources strictly from the system
classpath, These methods use the system ClassLoader to locate
resources, which gives you stricter control of the resources used by the
application.
ArithmeticException?
The ArithmeticException is thrown when integer is divided by zero or
taking the remainder of a number by zero. It is never thrown in
floating-point operations.
What is a transient variable?
A transient variable is a variable that may not be serialized.
Which containers use a border Layout as their default layout?
The window, Frame and Dialog classes use a border layout as their
default layout.
Why do threads block on I/O?
Threads block on I/O (that is enters the waiting state) so that other
threads may execute while the I/O Operation is performed.
What is the output from System.out.println("Hello"+null);?
Hellonull
What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to
control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without
synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object
while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object's
value. This often leads to significant errors.
Can a lock be acquired on a class?
Yes, a lock can be acquired on a class. This lock is acquired on the
class's Class object.
What's new with the stop(), suspend() and resume() methods in JDK
1.2?
The stop(), suspend() and resume() methods have been deprecated in
JDK 1.2.
Is null a keyword?
The null value is not a keyword.
What is the preferred size of a component?
The preferred size of a component is the minimum component size that
will allow the component to display normally.
What method is used to specify a container's layout?
The setLayout() method is used to specify a container's layout.
Which containers use a FlowLayout as their default layout?
The Panel and Applet classes use the FlowLayout as their default layout.
What state does a thread enter when it terminates its processing?
When a thread terminates its processing, it enters the dead state.
What is the Collections API?
The Collections API is a set of classes and interfaces that support
operations on collections of objects.
Which characters may be used as the second character of an
identifier, but not as the first character of an identifier?
The digits 0 through 9 may not be used as the first character of an
identifier but they may be used after the first character of an identifier.
What is the List interface?
The List interface provides support for ordered collections of objects.
How does Java handle integer overflows and underflows?
It uses those low order bytes of the result that can fit into the size of
the type allowed by the operation.
What is the Vector class?
The Vector class provides the capability to implement a growable array
of objects
What modifiers may be used with an inner class that is a member of
an outer class?
A (non-local) inner class may be declared as public, protected, private,
static, final, or abstract.
What is an Iterator interface?
The Iterator interface is used to step through the elements of a
Collection.
What is the difference between the >> and >>> operators?
The >> operator carries the sign bit when shifting right. The >>> zerofills bits that have been shifted out.
Which method of the Component class is used to set the position
and size of a component?
setBounds()
How many bits are used to represent Unicode, ASCII, UTF-16, and
UTF-8 characters?
Unicode requires 16 bits and ASCII require 7 bits. Although the ASCII
character set uses only 7 bits, it is usually represented as 8 bits. UTF-8
represents characters using 8, 16, and 18 bit patterns. UTF-16 uses 16bit and larger bit patterns.
What is the difference between yielding and sleeping?
When a task invokes its yield() method, it returns to the ready state.
When a task invokes its sleep() method, it returns to the waiting state.
Which java.util classes and interfaces support event handling?
The EventObject class and the EventListener interface support event
processing.
Is sizeof a keyword?
The sizeof operator is not a keyword.
What are wrapper classes?
Wrapper classes are classes that allow primitive types to be accessed as
objects.
Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of
memory?
Garbage collection does not guarantee that a program will not run out
of memory. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources
faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs
to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection.
What restrictions are placed on the location of a package statement
within a source code file?
A package statement must appear as the first line in a source code file
(excluding blank lines and comments).
Can an object's finalize() method be invoked while it is reachable?
An object's finalize() method cannot be invoked by the garbage
collector while the object is still reachable. However, an object's
finalize() method may be invoked by other
objects.
What is the immediate superclass of the Applet class?
Panel
What is the difference between preemptive scheduling and time
slicing?
Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it
enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into
existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of
time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then
determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other
factors.
Name three Component subclasses that support painting.
The Canvas, Frame, Panel, and Applet classes support painting.
What value does readLine() return when it has reached the end of a
file?
The readLine() method returns null when it has reached the end of a
file. What is the immediate superclass of the Dialog class?
Window.
What is clipping?
Clipping is the process of confining paint operations to a limited area
or shape.
What is a native method?
A native method is a method that is implemented in a language other
than Java.
Can a for statement loop indefinitely?
Yes, a for statement can loop indefinitely. For example, consider the
following: for(;;) ;
What are order of precedence and associativity, and how are they
used?
Order of precedence determines the order in which operators are
evaluated in expressions. Associatity determines whether an expression
is evaluated left-to-right or right-to-left
When a thread blocks on I/O, what state does it enter?
A thread enters the waiting state when it blocks on I/O.
To what value is a variable of the String type automatically
initialized?
The default value of a String type is null.
What is the catch or declare rule for method declarations?
If a checked exception may be thrown within the body of a method, the
method must either catch the exception or declare it in its throws
clause.
What
is
the
difference
between
a
MenuItem
and
a
CheckboxMenuItem?
The CheckboxMenuItem class extends the MenuItem class to support a
menu item that may be checked or unchecked.
What is a task's priority and how is it used in scheduling?
A task's priority is an integer value that identifies the relative order in
which it should be executed with respect to other tasks. The scheduler
attempts to schedule higher priority tasks before lower priority tasks.
What class is the top of the AWT event hierarchy?
The java.awt.AWTEvent class is the highest-level class in the AWT eventclass hierarchy.
When a thread is created and started, what is its initial state?
A thread is in the ready state after it has been created and started.
Can an anonymous class be declared as implementing an interface
and extending a class?
An anonymous class may implement an interface or extend a
superclass, but may not be declared to do both.
What is the range of the short type?
The range of the short type is -(2^15) to 2^15 - 1.
What is the range of the char type?
The range of the char type is 0 to 2^16 - 1.
In which package are most of the AWT events that support the eventdelegation model defined?
Most of the AWT-related events of the event-delegation model are
defined in the java.awt.event package. The AWTEvent class is defined in
the java.awt package.
What is the immediate super class of Menu?
What is the immediate super class of Menu?
MenuItem
What is the purpose of finalization?
The purpose of finalization is to give an unreachable object the
opportunity to perform any cleanup processing before the object is
garbage collected.
What invokes a thread's run() method?
After a thread is started, via its start() method or that of the Thread
class, the JVM invokes the thread's run() method when the thread is
initially executed.
What is the difference between the Boolean & operator and the &&
operator?
If an expression involving the Boolean & operator is evaluated, both
operands are evaluated. Then the & operator is applied to the operand.
When an expression involving the && operator is evaluated, the first
operand is evaluated. If the first operand returns a value of true then
the second operand is evaluated. The && operator is then applied to the
first and second operands. If the first operand evaluates to false, the
evaluation of the second operand is skipped.
Name three subclasses of the Component class.
Box.Filler, Button, Canvas, Checkbox, Choice, Container, Label, List,
Scrollbar, or TextComponent
What is the GregorianCalendar class?
The GregorianCalendar provides support
calendars.
for
traditional
Western
Which Container method is used to cause a container to be laid out
and redisplayed?
validate()
What is the purpose of the Runtime class?
The purpose of the Runtime class is to provide access to the Java
runtime system.
How many times may an object's finalize() method be invoked by the
garbage collector?
An object's finalize() method may only be invoked once by the garbage
collector.
What is the purpose of the finally clause of a try-catch-finally
statement? garbage collector?
The finally clause is used to provide the capability to execute code no
matter whether or not an exception is thrown or caught.
What is the argument type of a program's main() method?
A program's main() method takes an argument of the String[] type.
Which Java operator is right associative?
The = operator is right associative.
What is the Locale class?
The Locale class is used to tailor program output to the conventions of
a particular geographic, political, or cultural region.
Can a double value be cast to a byte?
Yes, a double value can be cast to a byte.
What is the difference between a break statement and a continue
statement?
A break statement results in the termination of the statement to which
it applies (switch, for, do, or while). A continue statement is used to end
the current loop iteration and return control to the loop statement.
What must a class do to implement an interface?
It must provide all of the methods in the interface and identify the
interface in its implements clause.
What method is invoked to cause an object to begin executing as a
separate thread?
The start() method of the Thread class is invoked to cause an object to
begin executing as a separate thread.
Name two subclasses of the TextComponent class.
TextField and TextArea
What is the advantage of the event-delegation model over the earlier
event-inheritance model?
The event-delegation model has two advantages over the eventinheritance model. First, it enables event handling to be handled by
objects other than the ones that generate the events (or their
containers). This allows a clean separation between a component's
design and its use. The other advantage of the event-delegation model
is that it performs much better in applications where many events are
generated. This performance improvement
is due to the fact that the event-delegation model does not have to
repeatedly process unhandled events, as is the case of the eventinheritance model.
Which containers may have a MenuBar?
Frame
How are commas used in the initialization and iteration parts of a
for statement?
Commas are used to separate multiple statements within the
initialization and iteration parts of a for statement.
What is the purpose of the wait(), notify(), and notifyAll() methods?
The wait(),notify(), and notifyAll() methods are used to provide an
efficient way for threads to wait for a shared resource. When a thread
executes an object's wait() method, it enters the waiting state. It only
enters the ready state after another thread invokes the object's notify()
or notifyAll() methods.
What is an abstract method?
An abstract method is a method whose implementation is deferred to a
subclass.
How are Java source code files named?
A Java source code file takes the name of a public class or interface that
is defined within the file. A source code file may contain at most one
public class or interface. If a public class or interface is defined within
a source code file, then the source code file must take the name of the
public class or interface. If no public class or interface is defined within
a source code file, then the file must take on a name that is different
than its classes and interfaces. Source code files use the .java
extension.
What is the relationship between the Canvas class and the Graphics
class?
A Canvas object provides access to a Graphics object via its paint()
method.
What are the high-level thread states?
The high-level thread states are ready, running, waiting, and dead.
What value does read() return when it has reached the end of a file?
The read() method returns -1 when it has reached the end of a file.
Can a Byte object be cast to a double value?
No, an object cannot be cast to a primitive value.
What is the difference between a static and a non-static inner class?
A non-static inner class may have object instances that are associated
with instances of the class's outer class. A static inner class does not
have any object instances.
What is the difference between the String and StringBuffer classes?
String objects are constants. StringBuffer objects are not.
If a variable is declared as private, where may the variable be
accessed?
A private variable may only be accessed within the class in which it is
declared.
What is an object's lock and which objects have locks?
An object's lock is a mechanism that is used by multiple threads to
obtain synchronized access to the object. A thread may execute a
synchronized method of an object only after it has acquired the
object's lock. All objects and classes have locks. A class's lock is
acquired on the class's Class object.
What is the Dictionary class?
The Dictionary class provides the capability to store key-value pairs.
How are the elements of a BorderLayout organized?
The elements of a BorderLayout are organized at the borders (North,
South, East, and West) and the center of a container.
What is the % operator?
It is referred to as the modulo or remainder operator. It returns the
remainder of dividing the first operand by the second operand.
When can an object reference be cast to an interface reference?
An object reference be cast to an interface reference when the object
implements the referenced interface.
What is the difference between a Window and a Frame?
The Frame class extends Window to define a main application window
that can have a menu bar.
Which class is extended by all other classes?
The Object class is extended by all other classes.
Can an object be garbage collected while it is still reachable?
A reachable object cannot be garbage collected. Only unreachable
objects may be garbage collected..
Is the ternary operator written x : y ? z or x ? y : z ?
It is written x ? y : z.
What is the difference between the Font and FontMetrics classes?
The FontMetrics class is used to define implementation-specific
properties, such as ascent and descent, of a Font object.
How is rounding performed under integer division?
The fractional part of the result is truncated. This is known as rounding
toward zero.
What happens when a thread cannot acquire a lock on an object?
If a thread attempts to execute a synchronized method or synchronized
statement and is unable to acquire an object's lock, it enters the waiting
state until the lock becomes available.
What is the difference between the Reader/Writer class hierarchy
and the InputStream/OutputStream class hierarchy?
The Reader/Writer class hierarchy is character-oriented, and the
InputStream/OutputStream class hierarchy is byte-oriented.
What classes of exceptions may be caught by a catch clause?
A catch clause can catch any exception that may be assigned to the
Throwable type. This includes the Error and Exception types.
If a class is declared without any access modifiers, where may the
class be accessed?
A class that is declared without any access modifiers is said to have
package access. This means that the class can only be accessed by other
classes and interfaces that are defined within the same package.
What is the SimpleTimeZone class?
The SimpleTimeZone class provides support for a Gregorian calendar.
What is the Map interface?
The Map interface replaces the JDK 1.1 Dictionary class and is used
associate keys with values.
Does a class inherit the constructors of its superclass?
A class does not inherit constructors from any of its super classes.
For which statements does it make sense to use a label?
The only statements for which it makes sense to use a label are those
statements that can enclose a break or continue statement.
What is the purpose of the System class?
The purpose of the System class is to provide access to system
resources.
Which TextComponent method is used to set a TextComponent to
the read-only state?
setEditable()
How are the elements of a CardLayout organized?
The elements of a CardLayout are stacked, one on top of the other, like
a deck of cards.
Is &&= a valid Java operator?
No, it is not.
Name the eight primitive Java types.
The eight primitive types are byte, char, short, int, long, float, double,
and boolean.
Which class should you use to obtain design information about an
object?
The Class class is used to obtain information about an object's design.
What is the relationship between clipping and repainting?
When a window is repainted by the AWT painting thread, it sets the
clipping regions to the area of the window that requires repainting.
Is "abc" a primitive value?
The String literal "abc" is not a primitive value. It is a String object.
What is the relationship between an event-listener interface and an
event-adapter class?
An event-listener interface defines the methods that must be
implemented by an event handler for a particular kind of event. An
event adapter provides a default implementation of an event-listener
interface.
What restrictions are placed on the values of each case of a switch
statement?
During compilation, the values of each case of a switch statement must
evaluate to a value that can be promoted to an int value.
What modifiers may be used with an interface declaration?
An interface may be declared as public or abstract.
Is a class a subclass of itself?
A class is a subclass of itself.
What is the highest-level event class of the event-delegation model?
The java.util.EventObject class is the highest-level class in the eventdelegation class hierarchy.
What event results from the clicking of a button?
The ActionEvent event is generated as the result of the clicking of a
button.
How can a GUI component handle its own events?
A component can handle its own events by implementing the required
event-listener interface and adding itself as its own event listener.
What is the difference between a while statement and a do
statement?
A while statement checks at the beginning of a loop to see whether the
next loop iteration should occur. A do statement checks at the end of a
loop to see whether the next iteration of a loop should occur. The do
statement will always execute the body of a loop at least once.
How are the elements of a GridBagLayout organized?
The elements of a GridBagLayout are organized according to a grid.
However, the elements are of different sizes and may occupy more than
one row or column of the grid. In addition, the rows and columns may
have different sizes.
What advantage do Java's layout managers provide over traditional
windowing systems?
Java uses layout managers to lay out components in a consistent
manner across all windowing platforms. Since Java's layout managers
aren't tied to absolute sizing and positioning, they are able to
accommodate platform-specific differences among windowing systems.
What is the Collection interface?
The Collection interface provides support for the implementation of a
mathematical bag - an unordered collection of objects that may contain
duplicates.
What modifiers can be used with a local inner class?
A local inner class may be final or abstract.
What is the difference between static and non-static variables?
A static variable is associated with the class as a whole rather than with
specific instances of a class. Non-static variables take on unique values
with each object instance.
What is the difference between the paint() and repaint() methods?
The paint() method supports painting via a Graphics object. The
repaint() method is used to cause paint() to be invoked by the AWT
painting thread.
What is the purpose of the File class?
The File class is used to create objects that provide access to the files
and directories of a local file system.
Can an exception be rethrown?
Yes, an exception can be rethrown.
Which Math method is used to calculate the absolute value of a
number?
The abs() method is used to calculate absolute values.
How does multithreading take place on a computer with a single
CPU?
The operating system's task scheduler allocates execution time to
multiple tasks. By quickly switching between executing tasks, it creates
the impression that tasks execute sequentially.
When does the compiler supply a default constructor for a class?
The compiler supplies a default constructor for a class if no other
constructors are provided.
When is the finally clause of a try-catch-finally statement executed?
The finally clause of the try-catch-finally statement is always executed
unless the thread of execution terminates or an exception occurs within
the execution of the finally clause.
Which class is the immediate superclass of the Container class?
Component
If a method is declared as protected, where may the method be
accessed?
A protected method may only be accessed by classes or interfaces of
the same package or by subclasses of the class in which it is declared.
How can the Checkbox class be used to create a radio button?
By associating Checkbox objects with a CheckboxGroup.
Which non-Unicode letter characters may be used as the first
character of an identifier?
The non-Unicode letter characters $ and _ may appear as the first
character of an identifier
What restrictions are placed on method overloading?
Two methods may not have the same name and argument list but
different return types.
What happens when you invoke a thread's interrupt method while it
is sleeping or waiting?
When a task's interrupt() method is executed, the task enters the ready
state. The next time the task enters the running state, an
InterruptedException is thrown.
What is the return type of a program's main() method?
A program's main() method has a void return type.
Name four Container classes.
Window, Frame, Dialog, FileDialog, Panel, Applet, or ScrollPane
What is the difference between a Choice and a List?
A Choice is displayed in a compact form that requires you to pull it
down to see the list of available choices. Only one item may be selected
from a Choice. A List may be displayed in such a way that several List
items are visible. A List supports the selection of one or more List
items.
What class of exceptions are generated by the Java run-time system?
The Java runtime system generates RuntimeException and Error
exceptions.
What class allows you to read objects directly from a stream?
The ObjectInputStream class supports the reading of objects from input
streams.
What is the difference between a field variable and a local variable?
A field variable is a variable that is declared as a member of a class. A
local variable is a variable that is declared local to a method.
Under what conditions is an object's finalize() method invoked by
the garbage collector?
The garbage collector invokes an object's finalize() method when it
detects that the object has become unreachable.
How are this () and super () used with constructors?
this() is used to invoke a constructor of the same class. super() is used
to invoke a superclass constructor.
What is the relationship between a method's throws clause and the
exceptions that can be thrown during the method's execution?
A method's throws clause must declare any checked exceptions that are
not caught within the body of the method.
What is the difference between the JDK 1.02 event model and the
event-delegation model introduced with JDK 1.1?
The JDK 1.02 event model uses an event inheritance or bubbling
approach. In this model, components are required to handle their own
events. If they do not handle a particular event, the event is inherited
by (or bubbled up to) the component's container. The container then
either handles the event or it is bubbled up to its container and so on,
until the highest-level container has been tried. In the event-delegation
model, specific objects are designated as event handlers for GUI
components. These objects implement event- listener interfaces. The
event-delegation model is more efficient than the event- inheritance
model because it eliminates the processing required to support the
bubbling of unhandled events.
How is it possible for two String objects with identical values not to
be equal under the == operator?
The == operator compares two objects to determine if they are the same
object in memory. It is possible for two String objects to have the same
value, but located indifferent areas of memory.
Why are the methods of the Math class static?
So they can be invoked as if they are a mathematical code library.
What Checkbox method allows you to tell if a Checkbox is checked?
getState()
What state is a thread in when it is executing?
An executing thread is in the running state.
What are the legal operands of the instanceof operator?
The left operand is an object reference or null value and the right
operand is a class, interface, or array type.
How are the elements of a GridLayout organized?
The elements of a GridBad layout are of equal size and are laid out
using the squares of a grid.
What an I/O filter?
An I/O filter is an object that reads from one stream and writes to
another, usually altering the data in some way as it is passed from one
stream to another.
If an object is garbage collected, can it become reachable again?
Once an object is garbage collected, it ceases to exist. It can no longer
become reachable again.
What are E and PI?
E is the base of the natural logarithm and PI is mathematical value pi.
Are true and false keywords?
The values true and false are not keywords.
What is a void return type?
A void return type indicates that a method does not return a value.
What is the purpose of the enableEvents() method?
The enableEvents() method is used to enable an event for a particular
object. Normally, an event is enabled when a listener is added to an
object for a particular event. The enableEvents() method is used by
objects that handle events by overriding their event- dispatch methods.
What is the difference between the File and RandomAccessFile
classes?
The File class encapsulates the files and directories of the local file
system. The RandomAccessFile class provides the methods needed to
directly access data contained in any part of a file.
What happens when you add a double value to a String?
The result is a String object.
What is your platform's default character encoding?
If you are running Java on English Windows platforms, it is probably
Cp1252. If you are running Java on English Solaris platforms, it is most
likely 8859_1.
Which package is always imported by default?
The java.lang package is always imported by default.
What interface must an object implement before it can be written to
a stream as an object?
An object must implement the Serializable or Externalizable interface
before it can be written to a stream as an object.
How are this and super used?
this is used to refer to the current object instance. super is used to
refer to the variables and methods of the superclass of the current
object instance.
What is the purpose of garbage collection?
The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard objects that
are no longer needed by a program so that their resources may be
reclaimed and reused.
What is a compilation unit?
A compilation unit is a Java source code file.
What interface is extended by AWT event listeners?
All AWT event listeners extend the java.util.EventListener interface.
What restrictions are placed on method overriding?
Overridden methods must have the same name, argument list, and
return type. The overriding method may not limit the access of the
method it overrides. The overriding method may not throw any
exceptions that may not be thrown by the overridden method.
How can a dead thread be restarted?
A dead thread cannot be restarted.
What happens if an exception is not caught?
An uncaught exception results in the uncaughtException() method of
the thread's ThreadGroup being invoked, which eventually results in
the termination of the program in which it is thrown.
What is a layout manager?
A layout manager is an object that is used to organize components in a
container.
Which arithmetic operations can result in the throwing of an
ArithmeticException?
Integer / and % can result in the throwing of an ArithmeticException.
When is an object subject to garbage collection?
An object is subject to garbage collection when it becomes unreachable
to the program in which it is used.
What method must be implemented by all threads?
All tasks must implement the run() method, whether they are a subclass
of Thread or implement the Runnable interface.
What methods are used to get and set the text label displayed by a
Button object?
getLabel() and setLabel()
Which Component subclass is used for drawing and painting?
Canvas
What are the two basic ways in which classes that can be run as
threads may be defined?
A thread class may be declared as a subclass of Thread, or it may
implement the Runnable interface.
What are the problems faced by Java programmers who don't use
layout managers?
Without layout managers, Java programmers are faced with determining
how their GUI will be displayed across multiple windowing systems and
finding a common sizing and positioning that will work within the
constraints imposed by each windowing system.
What is the difference between an if statement and a switch
statement?
The if statement is used to select among two alternatives. It uses a
Boolean expression to decide which alternative should be executed. The
switch statement is used to select among multiple alternatives. It uses
an int expression to determine which alternative should be executed.
Can there be an abstract class with no abstract methods in it?
yes.
Can an Interface be final?
yes.
Can an Interface have an inner class?
Yes public interface abc { static int i=0; void dd(); class a1 { a1() { int j;
System.out.println("in interfia"); }; public static void main(String a1[])
{ System.out.println("in interfia"); } } }
Can we define private and protected modifiers for variables in
interfaces?
Yes.
What is Externalizable?
Externalizable is an Interface that extends Serializable Interface. And
sends data into Streams in Compressed Format. It has two methods,
writeExternal(ObjectOuput out) and readExternal(ObjectInput in)
What modifiers are allowed for methods in an Interface?
Only public and abstract modifiers are allowed for methods in
interfaces.
What is a local, member and a class variable?
Variables declared within a method are "local" variables.
Variables declared within the class i.e not within any methods are
"member" variables
(global variables).
Variables declared within the class i.e not within any methods and are
defined as "static" are class variables
What are the different identifier states of a Thread?
The different identifiers of a Thread are:
R - Running or runnable thread
S - Suspended thread
CW - Thread waiting on a condition variable
MW - Thread waiting on a monitor lock
MS - Thread suspended waiting on a monitor lock
What are some alternatives to inheritance?
Delegation is an alternative to inheritance. Delegation means that you
include an instance of another class as an instance variable, and
forward messages to the instance. It is often safer than inheritance
because it forces you to think about each message you forward,
because the instance is of a known class, rather than a new class, and
because it doesn't force you to accept all the methods of the super
class: you can provide only the methods that really make sense. On the
other hand, it makes you write more code, and it is harder to re-use
(because it is not a subclass).
Why isn't there operator overloading?
Because C++ has proven by example that operator overloading makes
code almost impossible to maintain. In fact there very nearly wasn't
even method overloading in Java, but it was thought that this was too
useful for some very basic methods like print(). Note that some of the
classes like DataOutputStream have unoverloaded methods like
writeInt() and writeByte().
What does it mean that a method or field is "static"?
Static variables and methods are instantiated only once per class. In
other words they are class variables, not instance variables. If you
change the value of a static variable in a particular object, the value of
that variable changes for all instances of that class.
Static methods can be referenced with the name of the class rather than
the name of a particular object of the class (though that works too).
That's how library methods like System.out.println() work. out is a
static field in the java.lang.System class.
Why do threads block on I/O?
Threads block on i/o (that is enters the waiting state) so that other
threads may execute while the i/o Operation is performed.
What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to
control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without
synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object
while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object's
value. This often leads to significant errors.
Is null a keyword?
The null value is not a keyword.
Which characters may be used as the second character of an
identifier, but not as the first character of an identifier?
The digits 0 through 9 may not be used as the first character of an
identifier but they may be used after the first character of an identifier.
What is the difference between notify() and notifyAll()?
notify() is used to unblock one waiting thread; notifyAll() is used to
unblock all of them. Using notify() is preferable (for efficiency) when
only one blocked thread can benefit from the change (for example,
when freeing a buffer back into a pool). notifyAll() is necessary (for
correctness) if multiple threads should resume (for example, when
releasing a "writer" lock on a file might permit all "readers" to resume).
Why can't I say just abs() or sin() instead of Math.abs() and
Math.sin()?
The import statement does not bring methods into your local name
space. It lets you abbreviate class names, but not get rid of them
altogether. That's just the way it works, you'll get used to it. It's really a
lot safer this way.
However, there is actually a little trick you can use in some cases that
gets you what you want. If your top-level class doesn't need to inherit
from anything else, make it inherit from java.lang.Math. That *does*
bring all the methods into your local name space. But you can't use this
trick in an applet, because you have to inherit from java.awt.Applet.
And actually, you can't use it on java.lang.Math at all, because Math is a
"final" class which means it can't be extended.
Why are there no global variables in Java?
Global variables are considered bad form for a variety of reasons: ·
Adding state variables breaks referential transparency (you no longer
can understand a statement or expression on its own: you need to
understand it in the context of the settings of the global
variables).· State variables lessen the cohesion of a program: you need
to know more to understand how something works. A major point of
Object-Oriented programming is to break up global state into more
easily understood collections of local state.· When you add one variable,
you limit the use of your program to one instance. What you thought
was global, someone else might think of as local: they may want to run
two copies of your program at once.
For these reasons, Java decided to ban global variables.
What does it mean that a class or member is final?
A final class can no longer be subclassed. Mostly this is done for
security reasons with basic classes like String and Integer. It also allows
the compiler to make some optimizations, and makes thread safety a
little easier to achieve. Methods may be declared final as well. This
means they may not be overridden in a subclass.
Fields can be declared final, too. However, this has a completely
different meaning. A final field cannot be changed after it's initialized,
and it must include an initializer statement where it's declared. For
example,
public final double c = 2.998;
It's also possible to make a static field final to get the effect of C++'s
const statement or some uses of C's #define, e.g. public static final
double c = 2.998;
What are some alternatives to inheritance?
Delegation is an alternative to inheritance. Delegation means that you
include an instance of another class as an instance variable, and
forward messages to the instance. It is often safer than inheritance
because it forces you to think about each message you forward,
because the instance is of a known class, rather than a new class, and
because it doesn't force you to accept all the methods of the super
class: you can provide only the methods that really make sense. On the
other hand, it makes you write more code, and it is harder to re-use
(because it is not a subclass).
Why isn't there operator overloading?
Because C++ has proven by example that operator overloading makes
code almost impossible to maintain. In fact there very nearly wasn't
even method overloading in Java, but it was thought that this was too
useful for some very basic methods like print(). Note that some of the
classes like DataOutputStream have unoverloaded methods like
writeInt() and writeByte().
What does it mean that a method or field is "static"?
Static variables and methods are instantiated only once per class. In
other words they are class variables, not instance variables. If you
change the value of a static variable in a particular object, the value of
that variable changes for all instances of that class.
Static methods can be referenced with the name of the class rather than
the name of a particular object of the class (though that works too).
That's how library methods like System.out.println() work. out is a
static field in the java.lang.System class.
Why do threads block on I/O?
Threads block on i/o (that is enters the waiting state) so that other
threads may execute while the i/o Operation is performed.
What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to
control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without
synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object
while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object's
value. This often leads to significant errors.
What does it mean that a method or class is abstract?
An abstract class cannot be instantiated. Only its subclasses can be
instantiated. You indicate that a class is abstract with the abstract
keyword like this:
public abstract class Container extends Component {
Abstract classes may contain abstract methods. A method declared
abstract is not actually implemented in the current class. It exists only
to be overridden in subclasses. It has no body. For example,
public abstract float price();
Abstract methods may only be included in abstract classes. However, an
abstract class is not required to have any abstract methods, though
most of them do.
Each subclass of an abstract class must override the abstract methods
of its superclasses or itself be declared abstract.
What is the main difference between Java platform and other
platforms?
The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it's a
software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based
platforms.
The Java platform has three elements: Java programming language
The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM)
The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API)
What is the Java Virtual Machine?
The Java Virtual Machine is a software that can be ported onto various
hardware-based platforms.
What is the Java API?
The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components
that provide many useful capabilities, such as graphical user interface
(GUI) widgets.
What is the package?
The package is a Java namespace or part of Java libraries. The Java API
is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces; these
libraries are known as packages.
What is native code?
The native code is code that after you compile it, the compiled code
runs on a specific hardware platform.
Explain the user defined Exceptions?
User defined Exceptions are the separate Exception classes defined by
the user for specific purposed. An user defined can created by simply
sub-classing it to the Exception class. This allows custom exceptions to
be generated (using throw) and caught in the same way as normal
exceptions.
Example:
class myCustomException extends Exception {
// The class simply has to exist to be an exception
}
Is Java code slower than native code?
Not really. As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform
can be a bit slower than native code. However, smart compilers, welltuned interpreters, and just-in-time bytecode compilers can bring
performance close to that of native code without threatening
portability.
Can main() method be overloaded?
Yes. the main() method is a special method for a program entry. You can
overload main() method in any ways. But if you change the signature of
the main method, the entry point for the program will be gone.
What is the serialization?
The serialization is a kind of mechanism that makes a class or a bean
persistence by having its properties or fields and state information
saved and restored to and from storage.
Explain the new Features of JDBC 2.0 Core API?
The JDBC 2.0 API includes the complete JDBC API, which includes both
core and Optional Package API, and provides inductrial-strength
database computing capabilities. New Features in JDBC 2.0 Core API:
Scrollable result sets- using new methods in the ResultSet interface
allows programmatically move the to particular row or to a position
relative to its current position
JDBC 2.0 Core API provides the Batch Updates functionality to the java
applications. Java applications can now use the ResultSet.updateXXX
methods.
New data types - interfaces mapping the SQL3 data types
Custom mapping of user-defined types (UTDs)
Miscellaneous features, including performance hints, the use of
character streams, full precision for java.math.BigDecimal values,
additional security, and support for time zones in date, time, and
timestamp values.
How you can force the garbage collection?
Garbage collection automatic process and can't be forced.
Explain garbage collection?
Garbage collection is one of the most important feature of Java.
Garbage collection is also called automatic memory management as JVM
automatically removes the unused variables/objects (value is null) from
the memory. User program cann't directly free the object from memory,
instead it is the job of the garbage collector to automatically free the
objects that are no longer referenced by a program. Every class inherits
finalize() method from java.lang.Object, the finalize() method is called
by garbage collector when it determines no more references to the
object exists. In Java, it is good idea to explicitly assign null into a
variable when no more in use. I Java on calling System.gc() and
Runtime.gc(), JVM tries to recycle the unused objects, but there is no
guarantee when all the objects will garbage collected.
Describe the principles of OOPS.
There are three main principals of oops which are called Polymorphism,
Inheritance and
Encapsulation.
Explain the Encapsulation principle.
Encapsulation is a process of binding or wrapping the data and the
codes that operates on the data into a single entity. This keeps the data
safe from outside interface and misuse. One way to think about
encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents code and data
from being arbitrarily accessed by other code defined outside the
wrapper.
Explain the Inheritance principle.
Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties
of another object.
Explain the Polymorphism principle.
The meaning of Polymorphism is something like one name many forms.
Polymorphism enables one entity to be used as as general category for
different types of actions. The specific action is determined by the
exact nature of the situation. The concept of polymorphism can be
explained as "one interface, multiple methods".
Explain the different forms of Polymorphism.
From a practical programming viewpoint, polymorphism exists in three
distinct forms in
Java:
Method overloading
Method overriding through inheritance
Method overriding through the Java interface
What are Access Specifiers available in Java?
ccess specifiers are keywords that determines the type of access to the
member of a class. These are:
Public Protected Private
Defaults
Describe the wrapper classes in Java.
Wrapper class is wrapper around a primitive data type. An instance of a
wrapper class contains, or wraps, a primitive value of the
corresponding type.
Following table lists the primitive types and the corresponding wrapper
classes: Primitive Wrapper
boolean java.lang.Boolean byte java.lang.Byte
char java.lang.Character double java.lang.Double float java.lang.Float
int java.lang.Integer long java.lang.Long short java.lang.Short void
java.lang.Void
Question: Read the following program:
public class test {
public static void main(String [] args) {
int x = 3; int y = 1; if (x = y)
System.out.println("Not equal");
else
System.out.println("Equal");
}
}
What is the result?
A. The output is “Equal”
B. The output in “Not Equal”
C. An error at " if (x = y)" causes compilation to fall.
D. The program executes but no output is show on console. Answer: C
Use the Externalizable interface when you need complete control over
your Bean's serialization (for example, when writing and reading a
specific file format).
No. Earlier order is maintained.
The superclass constructor runs before the subclass constructor.
The subclass's version of the overridable method will be invoked
before the subclass's constructor has been invoked. If the subclass's
overridable method depends on the proper initialization of the
subclass (through the subclass constructor), the method will most
likely fail. Is that true?
Yes. It is true
Why are the interfaces more flexible than abstract classes?
--An interface-defined type can be implemented by any class in a class
hierarchy and can be extended by another interface. In contrast, an
abstract-class-defined type can be implemented only by classes that
subclass the abstract class.
--An interface-defined type can be used well in polymorphism. The socalled interface type vs. implementation types.
--Abstract classes evolve more easily than interfaces. If you add a new
concrete method to an abstract class, the hierarchy system is still
working. If you add a method to an interface, the classes that rely on
the interface will break when recompiled.
--Generally, use interfaces for flexibility; use abstract classes for ease of
evolution (like expanding class functionality).
What are new language features in J2SE 5.0?
Generally:
1. generics
2. static imports
3. annotations
4. typesafe enums
5. enhanced for loop
6. autoboxing/unboxing
7. varargs
8. covariant return types
What is covariant return type?
A covariant return type lets you override a superclass method with a
return type that subtypes the superclass method's return type. So we
can use covariant return types to minimize upcasting and downcasting.
class Parent { Parent foo () {
System.out.println ("Parent foo() called");
return this;
}
}
class Child extends Parent { Child foo () {
System.out.println ("Child foo() called");
return this;
}
}
class Covariant {
public static void main(String[] args) { Child c = new Child();
Child c2 = c.foo(); // c2 is Child
Parent c3 = c.foo(); // c3 points to Child
}
}
What is the result of the following statement?
int i = 1, float f = 2.0f;
i += f; //ok, the cast done automatically by the compiler i = i + f; //error
The compound assignment operators automatically include cast
operations in their behaviors.
What is externalization? Where is it useful?
Use the Externalizable interface when you need complete control over
your Bean's serialization (for example, when writing and reading a
specific file format).
What will be the output on executing the following code.
public class MyClass {
public static void main (String args[] ) { int abc[] = new int [5];
System.out.println(abc);
}
}
A Error array not initialized
B5
C null
D Print some junk characters
Answer : D
It will print some junk characters to the output. Here it will not give any
compile time or runtime error because we have declared and initialized
the array properly. Event if we are not assigning a value to the array, it
will always initialized to its defaults.
What will be the output on executing the following code.
public class MyClass {
public static void main (String args[] ) { int abc[] = new int [5];
System.out.println(abc[0]);
}
}
A Error array not initialized
B5
C0
D Print some junk characters
Answer : C.
What is a marker interface ?
An interface that contains no methods. E.g.: Serializable, Cloneable,
SingleThreadModel etc. It is used to just mark java classes that support
certain capability.
What are tag interfaces?
Tag interface is an alternate name for marker interface.
What are the restrictions placed on static method ?
We cannot override static methods. We cannot access any object
variables inside static method. Also the this reference also not available
in static methods.
What is JVM?
JVM stands for Java Virtual Machine. It is the run time for java
programs. All are java programs are running inside this JVM only. It
converts java byte code to OS specific commands. In addition to
governing the execution of an application's byte codes, the virtual
machine handles related tasks such as managing the system's memory,
providing security against malicious code, and managing multiple
threads of program execution.
What is JIT?
JIT stands for Just In Time compiler. It compiles java byte code to
native code.
What are ClassLoaders?
A class loader is an object that is responsible for loading classes. The
class ClassLoader is an abstract class. Given the name of a class, a class
loader should attempt to locate or generate data that constitutes a
definition for the class. A typical strategy is to transform the name into
a file name and then read a "class file" of that name from a file system.
Every Class object contains a reference to the ClassLoader that defined
it.
Class objects for array classes are not created by class loaders, but are
created automatically as required by the Java runtime. The class loader
for an array class, as returned by Class.getClassLoader() is the same as
the class loader for its element type; if the element type is a primitive
type, then the array class has no class loader.
Applications implement subclasses of ClassLoader in order to extend
the manner in which the Java virtual machine dynamically loads
classes.
What is Service Locator pattern?
The Service Locator pattern locates J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise
Edition) services for clients and thus abstracts the complexity of
network operation and J2EE service lookup as EJB (Enterprise JavaBean)
Interview Questions - Home and JMS (Java Message Service) component
factories. The Service Locator hides the lookup process's
implementation details and complexity from clients. To improve
application performance, Service Locator caches service objects to
eliminate unnecessary JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface)
activity that occurs in a lookup operation.
What is Session Facade pattern?
Session facade is one design pattern that is often used while developing
enterprise applications. It is implemented as a higher level component
(i.e.: Session EJB), and it contains all the iteractions between low level
components (i.e.: Entity EJB). It then provides a single interface for the
functionality of an application or part of it, and it decouples lower level
components simplifying the design. Think of a bank situation, where
you have someone that would like to transfer money from one account
to another. In this type of scenario, the client has to check that the user
is authorized, get the status of the two accounts, check that there are
enough money on the first one, and then call the transfer. The entire
transfer has to be done in a single transaction otherwise is something
goes south, the situation has to be restored.
As you can see, multiple server-side objects need to be accessed and
possibly modified. Multiple fine-grained invocations of Entity (or even
Session) Beans add the overhead of network calls, even multiple
transaction. In other words, the risk is to have a solution that has a high
network overhead, high coupling, poor reusability and mantainability.
The best solution is then to wrap all the calls inside a Session Bean, so
the clients will have a single point to access (that is the session bean)
that will take care of handling all the rest.
What is Data Access Object pattern?
The Data Access Object (or DAO) pattern: separates a data resource's
client interface from its data access mechanisms adapts a specific data
resource's access API to a generic client interface
The DAO pattern allows data access mechanisms to change
independently of the code that uses the data.
The DAO implements the access mechanism required to work with the
data source. The data source could be a persistent store like an RDBMS,
an external service like a B2B exchange, a repository like an LDAP
database, or a business service accessed via CORBA Internet Inter-ORB
Protocol (IIOP) or low-level sockets. The business component that relies
on the DAO uses the simpler interface exposed by the DAO for its
clients. The DAO completely hides the data source implementation
details from its clients. Because the interface exposed by the DAO to
clients does not change when the underlying data source
implementation changes, this pattern allows the DAO to adapt to
different storage schemes without affecting its clients or business
components. Essentially, the DAO acts as an adapter between the
component and the data source.
Can we make an EJB singleton?
This is a debatable question, and for every answer we propose there can
be contradictions. I propose 2 solutions of the same. Remember that
EJB's are distributed components and can be deployed on different
JVM's in a Distributed environment
i) Follow the steps as given below
Make sure that your serviceLocator is deployed on only one JVM.
In the serviceLocator create a HashTable/HashMap(You are the right
judge to choose between these two)
Whenever a request comes for an EJB to a serviceLocator, it first checks
in the HashTable if an entry already exists in the table with key being
the JNDI name of EJB. If key is present and value is not null, return the
existing reference, else lookup the EJB in JNDI as we do normally and
add an entry into the Hashtable before returning it to the client. This
makes sure that you maintain a singleton of EJB.
ii) In distributed environment our components/Java Objects would be
running on different JVM's. So the normal singleton code we write for
maintaining single instance works fine for single JVM, but when the
class could be loaded in multiple JVM's and Instantiated in multiple
JVM's normal singleton code does not work. This is because the
ClassLoaders being used in the different JVM's are different from each
other and there is no defined mechanism to check and compare what is
loaded in another JVM. A solution could be(Not tested yet. Need your
feedback on this) to write our own ClassLoader and pass this
classLoader as argument, whenever we are creating a new Instance and
make sure that only one instance is created for the proposed class. This
can be done easily.
How can we make a class Singleton ?
If the class is Serializable
class Singleton implements Serializable
{
private static Singleton instance;
private Singleton() { }
public static synchronized Singleton getInstance()
{
if (instance == null) instance = new Singleton(); return instance;
}
/**
If the singleton implements Serializable, then this
* method must be supplied.
*/
protected Object readResolve() {
return instance;
}
/**
This method avoids the object fro being cloned
*/
public Object clone() {
throws CloneNotSupportedException ;
//return instance;
}
}
B) If the class is NOT Serializable
class Singleton
{
private static Singleton instance;
private Singleton() { }
public static synchronized Singleton getInstance()
{
if (instance == null) instance = new Singleton(); return instance;
}
/**
This method avoids the object from being cloned
**/
public Object clone() {
throws CloneNotSupportedException ;
//return instance;
}
}
How
is
static
Synchronization
different
form
non-static
synchronization?
When Synchronization is applied on a static Member or a static block,
the lock is performed on the Class and not on the Object, while in the
case of a Non-static block/member, lock is applied on the Object and
not on class. [Trail 2: There is a class called Class in Java whose object
is associated with the object(s) of your class. All the static members
declared in your class will have reference in this class(Class). As long as
your class exists in memory this object of Class is also present. That’s
how even if you create multiple objects of your class only one Class
object is present and all your objects are linked to this Class object.
Even though one of your object is GCed after some time, this object of
Class is not GCed until all the objects associated with it are GCed.
This means that whenever you call a "static synchronized" block, JVM
locks access to this Class object and not any of your objects. Your client
can till access the non-static members of your objects.
What are class members and Instance members?
Any global members(Variables, methods etc.) which are static are called
as Class level members and those which are non-static are called as
Instance level members.
Name few Garbage collection algorithms?
Here they go:
Mark and Sweep Reference counting Tracing collectors Copying
collectors Heap compaction
Mark-compact collectors
Can we force Garbage collection?
java follows a philosophy of automatic garbage collection, you can
suggest or encourage the JVM to perform garbage collection but you
cannot force it. Once a variable is no longer referenced by anything it is
available for garbage collection. You can suggest garbage collection
with System.gc(), but this does not guarantee when it will happen. Local
variables in methods go out of scope when the method exits. At this
point the methods are eligible for garbage collection. Each time the
method comes into scope the local variables are re-created.
Does Java pass by Value or reference?
Its uses Reference while manipulating objects but pass by value when
sending method arguments.
Why Thread is faster compare to process?
A thread is never faster than a process. If you run a thread (say there's a
process which has spawned only one thread) in one JVM and a process
in another and that both of them require same resources then both of
them
would
take
same time
to execute.
But,
when
a
program/Application is thread based(remember here there will be
multiple threads running for a single process) then definitely a thread
based application/program is faster than a process based application.
This is because, when ever a process requires or waits for a resource
CPU takes it out of the critical section and allocates the mutex to
another process.
Before deallocating the earlier one, it stores the context(till what state
did it execute that process) in registers. Now if this deallocated process
has to come back and execute as it has got the resource for which it was
waiting, then it can't go into critical section directly. CPU asks that
process to follow scheduling algorithm. So this process has to wait
again for its turn. While in the case of thread based application, the
application is still with CPU only that thread which requires some
resource goes out, but its co threads(of same process/application) are
still in the critical section. Hence it directly comes back to the CPU and
does not wait outside. Hence an application which is thread based is
faster than an application which is process based.
Be sure that it’s not the competition between thread and process; it’s
between an application which is thread based or process based.
When and how is an object considered as Garbage by a GC?
An object is considered garbage when it can no longer be reached from
any pointer in the running program. The most straightforward garbage
collection algorithms simply iterate over every reachable object. Any
objects left over are then considered garbage.
What are generations in Garbage Collection terminology? What is its
relevance?
Garbage Collectors make assumptions about how our application runs.
Most common assumption is that an object is most likely to die shortly
after it was created: called infant mortality. This assumes that an object
that has been around for a while, will likely stay around for a while. GC
organizes objects into generations (young, tenured, and perm). This
tells that if an object lives for more than certain period of time it is
moved from one generation to another generations( say from young ->
tenured -> permanent). Hence GC will be run more frequently at the
young generations and rarely at permanent generations. This reduces
the overhead on GC and gives faster response time.
What is a Throughput Collector?
The throughput collector is a generational collector similar to the
default collector but with multiple threads used to do the minor
collection. The major collections are essentially the same as with the
default collector. By default on a host with N CPUs, the throughput
collector uses N garbage collector threads in the collection. The number
of garbage collector threads can be controlled with a command line
option.
When to Use the Throughput Collector?
Use the throughput collector when you want to improve the
performance of your application with larger numbers of processors. In
the default collector garbage collection is done by one thread, and
therefore garbage collection adds to the serial execution time of the
application. The throughput collector uses multiple threads to execute
a minor collection and so reduces the serial execution time of the
application. A typical situation is one in which the application has a
large number of threads allocating objects. In such an application it is
often the case that a large young generation is needed
What is Aggressive Heap?
The -XX:+AggressiveHeap option inspects the machine resources (size
of memory and number of processors) and attempts to set various
parameters to be optimal for long- running, memory allocationintensive jobs. It was originally intended for machines with large
amounts of memory and a large number of CPUs, but in the J2SE
platform, version 1.4.1 and later it has shown itself to be useful even
on four processor machines. With this option the throughput collector
(-XX:+UseParallelGC) is used along with adaptive sizing (XX:+UseAdaptiveSizePolicy). The physical memory on the machines
must be at least 256MB before Aggressive Heap can be used.
What is a Concurrent Low Pause Collector?
The concurrent low pause collector is a generational collector similar to
the default collector. The tenured generation is collected concurrently
with this collector. This collector attempts to reduce the pause times
needed to collect the tenured generation. It uses a separate garbage
collector thread to do parts of the major collection concurrently with
the applications threads. The concurrent collector is enabled with the
command line option -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC. For each major
collection the concurrent collector will pause all the application threads
for a brief period at the beginning of the collection and toward the
middle of the collection. The second pause tends to be the longer of the
two pauses and multiple threads are used to do the collection work
during that pause. The remainder of the collection is done with a
garbage collector thread that runs concurrently with the application.
The minor collections are done in a manner similar to the default
collector, and multiple threads can optionally be used to do the minor
collection.
When to Use the Concurrent Low Pause Collector?
Use the concurrent low pause collector if your application would
benefit from shorter garbage collector pauses and can afford to share
processor resources with the garbage collector when the application is
running. Typically applications which have a relatively large set of longlived data (a large tenured generation), and run on machines with two
or more processors tend to benefit from the use of this collector.
However, this collector should be considered for any application with a
low pause time requirement. Optimal results have been observed for
interactive applications with tenured generations of a modest size on a
single processor.
What is Incremental Low Pause Collector?
The incremental low pause collector is a generational collector similar
to the default collector. The minor collections are done with the same
young generation collector as the default collector. Do not use either -
XX:+UseParallelGC or -XX:+UseParNewGC with this collector. The major
collections are done incrementally on the tenured generation. This
collector (also known as the train collector) collects portions of the
tenured generation at each minor collection. The goal of the
incremental collector is to avoid very long major collection pauses by
doing portions of the major collection work at each minor collection.
The incremental collector will sometimes find that a non-incremental
major collection (as is done in the default collector) is required in order
to avoid running out of memory.
When to Use the Incremental Low Pause Collector?
Use the incremental low pause collector when your application can
afford to trade longer and more frequent young generation garbage
collection pauses for shorter tenured generation pauses. A typical
situation is one in which a larger tenured generation is required (lots of
long-lived objects), a smaller young generation will suffice (most
objects are short-lived and don't survive the young generation
collection), and only a single processor is available.
How do you enable the concurrent garbage collector on Sun's JVM?
-Xconcgc options allows us to use concurrent garbage collector
(1.2.2_07+)we can also use -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC which is
available beginning with J2SE 1.4.1.
What is a platform?
A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program
runs. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the
operating system and hardware, like Windows 2000 and XP, Linux,
Solaris, and MacOS.
What is transient variable?
Transient variable can't be serialize. For example if a variable is
declared as transient in a Serializable class and the class is written to
an ObjectStream, the value of the variable can't be written to the stream
instead when the class is retrieved from the ObjectStream the value of
the variable becomes null.
How to make a class or a bean serializable?
By implementing either the java.io.Serializable interface, or the
java.io.Externalizable interface. As long as one class in a class's
inheritance hierarchy implements Serializable or Externalizable, that
class is serializable.
What restrictions are placed on method overloading?
Two methods may not have the same name and argument list but
different return types.
Name Container classes.
Window, Frame, Dialog, FileDialog, Panel, Applet, or ScrollPane
What is the List interface?
The List interface provides support for ordered collections of objects.
What is the difference between a Scrollbar and a ScrollPane?
A Scrollbar is a Component, but not a Container. A ScrollPane is a
Container. A ScrollPane handles its own events and performs its own
scrolling.
What is tunnelling?
Tunnelling is a route to somewhere. For example, RMI tunnelling is a
way to make RMI
application get through firewall. In CS world, tunnelling means a way to
transfer data.
What is meant by "Abstract Interface"?
First, an interface is abstract. That means you cannot have any
implementation in an interface. All the methods declared in an interface
are abstract methods or signatures of the methods.
Can Java code be compiled to machine dependent executable file?
Yes. There are many tools out there. If you did so, the generated exe file
would be run in the specific platform, not cross-platform.
Do not use the String contatenation operator in lengthy loops or
other places where performance could suffer. Is that true?
Yes.
What method is used to specify a container's layout?
The setLayout() method is used to specify a container's layout.
Which containers use a FlowLayout as their default layout?
The Panel and Applet classes use the FlowLayout as their default layout.
What state does a thread enter when it terminates its processing?
When a thread terminates its processing, it enters the dead state.
What is the Collections API?
The Collections API is a set of classes and interfaces that support
operations on collections of objects.
What is the List interface?
The List interface provides support for ordered collections of objects.
Is sizeof a keyword?
The sizeof operator is not a keyword in Java.
Which class is the superclass for every class?
Object.
Which Container method is used to cause a container to be laid out
and redisplayed?
validate()
What's the difference between a queue and a stack?
Stacks works by last-in-first-out rule (LIFO), while queues use the FIFO
rule
What comes to mind when you hear about a young generation in
Java?
Garbage collection.
You can create an abstract class that contains only abstract
methods. On the other hand, you can create an interface that
declares the same methods. So can you use abstract classes instead
of interfaces?
Sometimes. But your class may be a descendent of another class and in
this case the interface is your only option.
What comes to mind when someone mentions a shallow copy in
Java?
Object cloning.
If you're overriding the method equals() of an object, which other
method you might also consider?
hashCode()
You are planning to do an indexed search in a list of objects. Which
of the two Java collections should you use: ArrayList or LinkedList?
ArrayList
How would you make a copy of an entire Java object with its state?
Have this class implement Cloneable interface and call its method
clone().
How can you minimize the need of garbage collection and make the
memory use more effective?
Use object pooling and weak object references.
There are two classes: A and B. The class B need to inform a class A
when some important event has happened. What Java technique
would you use to implement it?
If these classes are threads I'd consider notify() or notifyAll(). For
regular classes you can use the Observer interface.
What access level do you need to specify in the class declaration to
ensure that only classes from the same directory can access it?
You do not need to specify any access level, and Java will use a default
package access level.
What is the difference between an Interface and an Abstract class?
An abstract class can have instance methods that implement a default
behavior. An Interface can only declare constants and instance
methods, but cannot implement default behavior and all methods are
implicitly abstract. An interface has all public members and no
implementation. An abstract class is a class which may have the usual
flavors of class members (private, protected, etc.), but has some
abstract methods.
What is the purpose of garbage collection in Java, and when is it
used?
The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard objects that
are no longer needed by a program so that their resources can be
reclaimed and reused. A Java object is subject to garbage collection
when it becomes unreachable to the program in which it is used.
Describe synchronization in respect to multithreading.
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to
control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without
synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared
variable while another thread is in the process of using or updating
same shared variable. This usually leads to significant errors.
Explain different way of using thread?
The thread could be implemented by using runnable interface or by
inheriting from the Thread class. The former is more advantageous,
'cause when you are going for multiple inheritance..the only interface
can help.
What are pass by reference and pass by value?
Pass By Reference means the passing the address itself rather than
passing the value. Passby Value means passing a copy of the value to be
passed.
What is HashMap and Map?
Map is Interface and Hashmap is class that implements that.
Difference between HashMap and HashTable?
The HashMap class is roughly equivalent to Hashtable, except that it is
unsynchronized and permits nulls. (HashMap allows null values as key
and value whereas Hashtable doesnt allow). HashMap does not
guarantee that the order of the map will remain constant over time.
HashMap is unsynchronized and Hashtable is synchronized.
Difference between Vector and ArrayList?
Vector is synchronized whereas arraylist is not.
Difference between Swing and AWT?
AWT are heavy-weight components.
Swings
are
light-weight
components. Hence swing works faster than AWT.
What is the difference between a constructor and a method?
A constructor is a member function of a class that is used to create
objects of that class. It has the same name as the class itself, has no
return type, and is invoked using the new operator. A method is an
ordinary member function of a class. It has its own name, a return type
(which may be void), and is invoked using the dot operator.
What is an Iterator?
Some of the collection classes provide traversal of their contents via a
java.util.Iterator interface. This interface allows you to walk through a
collection of objects, operating on each object in turn. Remember when
using Iterators that they contain a snapshot of the collection at the time
the Iterator was obtained; generally it is not advisable to modify the
collection itself while traversing an Iterator.
State the significance of public, private, protected, default modifiers
both singly and in combination and state the effect of package
relationships on declared items qualified by these modifiers.
public: Public class is visible in other packages, field is visible
everywhere (class must be public too)
private : Private variables or methods may be used only by an instance
of the same class that declares the variable or method, A private feature
may only be accessed by the class that owns the feature.
protected : Is available to all classes in the same package and also
available to all subclasses of the class that owns the protected feature.
This access is provided even to subclasses that reside in a different
package from the class that owns the protected feature. default :What
you get by default i.e., without any access modifier (ie, public private
or protected). It means that it is visible to all within a particular
package.
What is an abstract class?
Abstract class must be extended/subclassed (to be useful). It serves as a
template. A class that is abstract may not be instantiated (ie, you may
not call its constructor), abstract class may contain static data. Any
class with an abstract method is automatically abstract itself, and must
be declared as such. A class may be declared abstract even if it has no
abstract methods. This prevents it from being instantiated.
What is static in java?
Static means one per class, not one for each object no matter how many
instance of a class might exist. This means that you can use them
without creating an instance of a class. Static methods are implicitly
final, because overriding is done based on the type of the object, and
static methods are attached to a class, not an object. A static method in
a super class can be shadowed by another static method in a subclass,
as long as the original method was not declared final. However, you
can't override a static method with a no static method. In other words,
you can't change a static method into an instance method in a subclass.
What is final?
A final class can't be extended ie., final class may not be subclassed. A
final method can't be overridden when its class is inherited. You can't
change value of a final variable (is a constant).
What if the main method is declared as private?
The program compiles properly but at runtime it will give "Main method
not public." message.
What if the static modifier is removed from the signature of the
main method?
Program
compiles.
But
at
runtime
throws
an
error
"NoSuchMethodError".
What if I write static public void instead of public static void?
Program compiles and runs properly.
What if I do not provide the String array as the argument to the
method?
Program compiles but throws a runtime error "NoSuchMethodError".
What is the first argument of the String array in main method?
The String array is empty. It does not have any element. This is unlike
C/C++ where the first element by default is the program name.
If I do not provide any arguments on the command line, then the
String array of Main method will be empty or null?
It is empty. But not null.
How can one prove that the array is not null but empty using one
line of code?
Print args.length. It will print 0. That means it is empty. But if it would
have been null then it would have thrown a NullPointerException on
attempting to print args.length.
Can an application have multiple classes having main method?
Yes it is possible. While starting the application we mention the class
name to be run. The JVM will look for the Main method only in the class
whose name you have mentioned. Hence there is not conflict amongst
the multiple classes having main method.
Can I have multiple main methods in the same class?
No the program fails to compile. The compiler says that the main
method is already defined in the class.
Do I need to import java.lang package any time? Why ?
No. It is by default loaded internally by the JVM.
Can I import same package/class twice? Will the JVM load the
package twice at runtime?
One can import the same package or same class multiple times. Neither
compiler nor JVM complains about it. And the JVM will internally load
the class only once no matter how many times you import the same
class.
What are Checked and UnChecked Exception?
A checked exception is some subclass of Exception (or Exception itself),
excluding class RuntimeException and its subclasses. Making an
exception checked forces client programmers to deal with the
possibility that the exception will be thrown. e.g., IOException thrown
by java.io.FileInputStream's read() method· Unchecked exceptions are
RuntimeException and any of its subclasses. Class Error and its
subclasses also are unchecked. With an unchecked exception, however,
the compiler doesn't force client programmers either to catch the
exception or declare it in a throws clause. In fact, client programmers
may not even know that the exception could be thrown. eg,
StringIndexOutOfBoundsException thrown by String's charAt() method·
Checked exceptions must be caught at compile time. Runtime
exceptions do not need to be. Errors often cannot be.
What is Overriding?
When a class defines a method using the same name, return type, and
arguments as a method in its superclass, the method in the class
overrides the method in the superclass. When the method is invoked
for an object of the class, it is the new definition of the method that is
called, and not the method definition from superclass. Methods may be
overridden to be more public, not more private.
What are different types of inner classes?
Nested top-level classes, Member classes, Local classes, Anonymous
classes
Nested top-level classes- If you declare a class within a class and
specify the static modifier, the compiler treats the class just like any
other top-level class.
Any class outside the declaring class accesses the nested class with the
declaring class name acting similarly to a package. eg, outer.inner. Toplevel inner classes implicitly have access only to static variables.There
can also be inner interfaces. All of these are of the nested top-level
variety.
Member classes - Member inner classes are just like other member
methods and member variables and access to the member class is
restricted, just like methods and variables. This means public member
class acts similarly to a nested top-level class. The primary difference
between member classes and nested top-level classes is that member
classes have access to the specific instance of the enclosing class.
Local classes - Local classes are like local variables, specific to a block
of code. Their visibility is only within the block of their declaration. In
order for the class to be useful beyond the declaration block, it would
need to implement a more publicly available interface. Because local
classes are not members, the modifiers public, protected, private, and
static are not usable.
Anonymous classes - Anonymous inner classes extend local inner
classes one level further. As anonymous classes have no name, you
cannot provide a constructor.
Are the imports checked for validity at compile time?
e.g. will the code containing an import such as java.lang.ABCD
compile?
Yes the imports are checked for the semantic validity at compile time.
The code containing above line of import will not compile. It will throw
an error saying,can not resolve symbol
symbol : class ABCD location: package io import java.io.ABCD;
Does importing a package imports the subpackages as well? e.g.
Does importing com.MyTest.* also import com.MyTest.UnitTests.*?
No you will have to import the subpackages explicitly. Importing
com.MyTest.* will import classes in the package MyTest only. It will not
import any class in any of it's subpackage.
What is the difference between declaring a variable and defining a
variable?
In declaration we just mention the type of the variable and it's name.
We do not initialize it. But defining means declaration + initialization.
e.g String s; is just a declaration while String s = new String ("abcd"); Or
String s = "abcd"; are both definitions.
What is the default value of an object reference declared as an
instance variable?
Null unless we define it explicitly.
Can a top level class be private or protected?
No. A top level class can not be private or protected. It can have either
"public" or no modifier. If it does not have a modifier it is supposed to
have a default access.If a top level class is declared as private the
compiler will complain that the "modifier private is not allowed here".
This means that a top level class can not be private. Same is the case
with protected.
What type of parameter passing does Java support?
In Java the arguments are always passed by value .
Primitive data types are passed by reference or pass by value?
Primitive data types are passed by value.
Objects are passed by value or by reference?
Java only supports pass by value. With objects, the object reference
itself is passed by value and so both the original reference and
parameter copy both refer to the same object.
What is serialization?
Serialization is a mechanism by which you can save the state of an
object by converting it to a byte stream.
How do I serialize an object to a file?
The class whose instances are to be serialized should implement an
interface Serializable. Then you pass the instance to the
ObjectOutputStream which is connected to a fileoutputstream. This will
save the object to a file.
Which methods of Serializable interface should I implement?
The serializable interface is an empty interface, it does not contain any
methods. So we do not implement any methods.
How can I customize the serialization process? i.e. how can one have
a control over the serialization process?
Yes it is possible to have control over serialization process. The class
should implement Externalizable interface. This interface contains two
methods namely readExternal and writeExternal. You should implement
these methods and write the logic for customizing the serialization
process.
What is the common usage of serialization?
Whenever an object is to be sent over the network, objects need to be
serialized. Moreover if the state of an object is to be saved, objects
need to be serilized.
What is Externalizable interface?
Externalizable is an interface which contains two methods readExternal
and writeExternal. These methods give you a control over the
serialization mechanism. Thus if your class implements this interface,
you can customize the serialization process by implementing these
methods.
When you serialize an object, what happens to the object references
included in the object?
The serialization mechanism generates an object graph for
serialization. Thus it determines whether the included object references
are serializable or not. This is a recursive process. Thus when an object
is serialized, all the included objects are also serialized alongwith the
original obect.
What one should take care of while serializing the object?
One should make sure that all the included objects are also serializable.
If any of the objects is not serializable then it throws a
NotSerializableException.
What happens to the static fields of a class during serialization?
There are three exceptions in which serialization doesnot necessarily
read and write to the stream. These are
1. Serialization ignores static fields, because they are not part of ay
particular state state.
2. Base class fields are only hendled if the base class itself is
serializable.
3. Transient fields.
Does Java provide any construct to find out the size of an object?
No there is not sizeof operator in Java. So there is not direct way to
determine the size of an object directly in Java.
What are wrapper classes?
Java provides specialized classes corresponding to each of the
primitive data types. These are called wrapper classes. They are e.g.
Integer, Character, Double etc.
Give a simplest way to find out the time a method takes for
execution without using any profiling tool?
Read the system time just before the method is invoked and
immediately after method returns. Take the time difference, which will
give you the time taken by a method for execution.
To put it in code...
long start = System.currentTimeMillis ();
method ();
long end = System.currentTimeMillis ();
System.out.println ("Time taken for execution is " + (end - start));
Remember that if the time taken for execution is too small, it might
show that it is taking zero milliseconds for execution. Try it on a
method which is big enough, in the sense the one which is doing
considerable amount of processing.
Why do we need wrapper classes?
It is sometimes easier to deal with primitives as objects. Moreover most
of the collection classes store objects and not primitive data types. And
also the wrapper classes provide many utility methods also. Because of
these reasons we need wrapper classes. And since we create instances
of these classes we can store them in any of the collection classes and
pass them around as a collection. Also we can pass them around as
method parameters where a method expects an object.
What are checked exceptions?
Checked exception are those which the Java compiler forces you to
catch. e.g. IOException are checked Exceptions.
What are runtime exceptions?
Runtime exceptions are those exceptions that are thrown at runtime
because of either wrong input data or because of wrong business logic
etc. These are not checked by the compiler at compile time.
What is the difference between error and an exception?
An error is an irrecoverable condition occurring at runtime. Such as
OutOfMemory error. These JVM errors and you can not repair them at
runtime. While exceptions are conditions that occur because of bad
input etc. e.g. FileNotFoundException will be thrown if the specified file
does not exist. Or a NullPointerException will take place if you try using
a null reference. In most of the cases it is possible to recover from an
exception (probably by giving user a feedback for entering proper
values etc.).
How to create custom exceptions?
Your class should extend class Exception, or some more specific type
thereof.
How does an exception permeate through the code?
An unhandled exception moves up the method stack in search of a
matching When an exception is thrown from a code which is wrapped in
a try block followed by one or more catch blocks, a search is made for
matching catch block. If a matching type is found then that block will
be invoked. If a matching type is not found then the exception moves
up the method stack and reaches the caller method. Same procedure is
repeated if the caller method is included in a try catch block. This
process continues until a catch block handling the appropriate type of
exception is found. If it does not find such a block then finally the
program terminates.
What are the different ways to handle exceptions?
There are two ways to handle exceptions,
1. By wrapping the desired code in a try block followed by a catch block
to catch the exceptions. and
2. List the desired exceptions in the throws clause of the method and
let the caller of the method handle those exceptions.
What is the basic difference between the 2 approaches to exception
handling?
1. try catch block and
2. specifying the candidate exceptions in the throws clause? When
should you use which approach?
In the first approach as a programmer of the method, you yourself are
dealing with the exception. This is fine if you are in a best position to
decide should be done in case of an exception. Whereas if it is not the
responsibility of the method to deal with it's own exceptions, then do
not use this approach. In this case use the second approach. In the
second approach we are forcing the caller of the method to catch the
exceptions, that the method is likely to throw. This is often the
approach library creators use. They list the exception in the throws
clause and we must catch them. You will find the same approach
throughout the java libraries we use.
Is it necessary that each try block must be followed by a catch
block?
It is not necessary that each try block must be followed by a catch
block. It should be followed by either a catch block OR a finally block.
And whatever exceptions are likely to be thrown should be declared in
the throws clause of the method.
If I write return at the end of the try block, will the finally block still
execute?
Yes even if you write return as the last statement in the try block and
no exception occurs, the finally block will execute. The finally block
will execute and then the control return.
How are Observer and Observable used?
Objects that subclass the Observable class maintain a list of observers.
When an Observable object is updated it invokes the update() method
of each of its observers to notify the observers that it has changed
state. The Observer interface is implemented by objects that observe
Observable objects.
What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to
control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without
synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object
while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object's
value. This often leads to significant errors.
How does Java handle integer overflows and underflows?
It uses those low order bytes of the result that can fit into the size of
the type allowed by the operation.
Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of
memory?
Garbage collection does not guarantee that a program will not run out
of memory. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources
faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs
to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection.
What is the difference between preemptive scheduling and time
slicing?
Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it
enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into
existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of
time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then
determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other
factors.
When a thread is created and started, what is its initial state?
A thread is in the ready state after it has been created and started.
What is the purpose of finalization?
The purpose of finalization is to give an unreachable object the
opportunity to perform any cleanup processing before the object is
garbage collected.
What is the Locale class?
The Locale class is used to tailor program output to the conventions of
a particular geographic, political, or cultural region.
What is the difference between a while statement and a do
statement?
A while statement checks at the beginning of a loop to see whether the
next loop iteration should occur. A do statement checks at the end of a
loop to see whether the next iteration of a loop should occur. The do
statement will always execute the body of a loop at least once.
What is the difference between static and non-static variables?
A static variable is associated with the class as a whole rather than with
specific instances of a class. Non-static variables take on unique values
with each object instance.
How are this() and super() used with constructors?
This() is used to invoke a constructor of the same class. super() is used
to invoke a superclass constructor.
What are synchronized methods and synchronized statements?
Synchronized methods are methods that are used to control access to
an object. A thread only executes a synchronized method after it has
acquired the lock for the method's object or class. Synchronized
statements are similar to synchronized methods. A synchronized
statement can only be executed after a thread has acquired the lock for
the object or class referenced in the synchronized statement.
What is daemon thread and which method is used to create the
daemon thread?
Daemon thread is a low priority thread which runs intermittently in the
back ground
doing the garbage collection operation for the java runtime system.
setDaemon method is used to create a daemon thread.
Can applets communicate with each other?
At this point in time applets may communicate with other applets
running in the same virtual machine. If the applets are of the same
class, they can communicate via shared static variables. If the applets
are of different classes, then each will need a reference to the same
class with static variables. In any case the basic idea is to pass the
information back and forth through a static variable.
An applet can also get references to all other applets on the same page
using the getApplets() method of java.applet.AppletContext. Once you
get the reference to an applet, you can communicate with it by using its
public members.
It is conceivable to have applets in different virtual machines that talk
to a server somewhere on the Internet and store any data that needs to
be serialized there. Then, when another applet needs this data, it could
connect to this same server. Implementing this is non-trivial.
What are the steps in the JDBC connection?
While making a JDBC connection we go through the following steps :
Step 1 : Register the database driver by using :
Class.forName(\" driver classs for that specific database\" ); Step 2 :
Now create a database connection using :
Connection
con
=
DriverManager.getConnection(url,username,password); Step 3: Now
Create a query using :
Statement stmt = Connection.Statement(\"select * from TABLE NAME\");
Step 4 : Exceute the query :
stmt.exceuteUpdate();
How does a try statement determine which catch clause should be
used to handle an exception?
When an exception is thrown within the body of a try statement, the
catch clauses of the try statement are examined in the order in which
they appear. The first catch clause that is capable of handling the
exceptionis executed. The remaining catch clauses are ignored.
Can an unreachable object become reachable again?
An unreachable object may become reachable again. This can happen
when the object's finalize() method is invoked and the object performs
an operation which causes it to become accessible to reachable objects.
What method must be implemented by all threads?
All tasks must implement the run() method, whether they are a subclass
of Thread or implement the Runnable interface.
What are synchronized methods and synchronized statements?
Synchronized methods are methods that are used to control access to
an object. A thread only executes a synchronized method after it has
acquired the lock for the method's object or class. Synchronized
statements are similar to synchronized methods. A synchronized
statement can only be executed after a thread has acquired the lock for
the object or class referenced in the synchronized statement.
What is Externalizable?
Externalizable is an Interface that extends Serializable Interface. And
sends data into Streams in Compressed Format. It has two methods,
writeExternal(ObjectOuput out) and readExternal(ObjectInput in)
What modifiers are allowed for methods in an Interface?
Only public and abstract modifiers are allowed for methods in
interfaces.
What are some alternatives to inheritance?
Delegation is an alternative to inheritance. Delegation means that you
include an instance of another class as an instance variable, and
forward messages to the instance. It is often safer than inheritance
because it forces you to think about each message you forward,
because the instance is of a known class, rather than a new class, and
because it doesn't force you to accept all the methods of the super
class: you can provide only the methods that really make sense. On the
other hand, it makes you write more code, and it is harder to re-use
(because it is not a subclass).
What does it mean that a method or field is "static"?
Static variables and methods are instantiated only once per class. In
other words they are class variables, not instance variables. If you
change the value of a static variable in a particular object, the value of
that variable changes for all instances of that class.
Static methods can be referenced with the name of the class rather than
the name of a particular object of the class (though that works too).
That's how library methods like System.out.println() work out is a static
field in the java.lang.System class.
What is the difference between preemptive scheduling and time
slicing?
Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it
enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into
existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of
time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then
determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other
factors.
What is the catch or declare rule for method declarations?
If a checked exception may be thrown within the body of a method, the
method must either catch the exception or declare it in its throws
clause.
Is Empty .java file a valid source file?
Yes, an empty .java file is a perfectly valid source file.
Can a .java file contain more than one java classes?
Yes, a .java file contain more than one java classes, provided at the
most one of them is a public class.
Is String a primitive data type in Java?
No String is not a primitive data type in Java, even though it is one of
the most extensively used object. Strings in Java are instances of String
class defined in java.lang package.
Is main a keyword in Java?
No, main is not a keyword in Java.
Is next a keyword in Java?
No, next is not a keyword.
Is delete a keyword in Java?
No, delete is not a keyword in Java. Java does not make use of explicit
destructors the way C++ does.
Is exit a keyword in Java?
No. To exit a program explicitly you use exit method in System object.
What happens if you don't initialize an instance variable of any of
the primitive types in Java?
Java by default initializes it to the default value for that primitive type.
Thus an int will be initialized to 0, a Boolean will be initialized to false.
What will be the initial value of an object reference which is defined
as an instance variable?
The object references are all initialized to null in Java. However in order
to do anything useful with these references, you must set them to a
valid object, else you will get NullPointerException everywhere you try
to use such default initialized references.
What are the different scopes for Java variables?
The scope of a Java variable is determined by the context in which the
variable is declared. Thus a java variable can have one of the three
scopes at any given point in time.
1. Instance : - These are typical object level variables, they are
initialized to default values at the time of creation of object, and
remain accessible as long as the object accessible.
2. Local : - These are the variables that are defined within a method.
They remain accessible only during the course of method execution.
When the method finishes execution, these variables fall out of scope.
3. Static: - These are the class level variables. They are initialized when
the class is loaded in JVM for the first time and remain there as long as
the class remains loaded. They are not tied to any particular object
instance.
What is the default value of the local variables?
The local variables are not initialized to any default value, neither
primitives nor object references. If you try to use these variables
without initializing them explicitly, the java compiler will not compile
the code. It will complain about the local variable not being initialized..
How many objects are created in the following piece of code?
MyClass c1, c2, c3;
c1 = new MyClass ();
c3 = new MyClass ();
Only 2 objects are created, c1 and c3. The reference c2 is only declared
and not initialized.
Can a public class MyClass be defined in a source file named
YourClass.java?
No the source file name, if it contains a public class, must be the same
as the public class name itself with a .java extension.
Can main method be declared final?
Yes, the main method can be declared final, in addition to being public
static.
What will be the output of the following statement?
System.out.println ("1" + 3);
It will print 13.
What will be the default values of all the elements of an array
defined as an instance variable?
If the array is an array of primitive types, then all the elements of the
array will be initialized to the default value corresponding to that
primitive type. e.g. All the elements of an array of int will be initialized
to 0, while that of Boolean type will be initialized to false. Whereas if
the array is an array of references (of any type), all the elements will be
initialized to null.
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