E PI LEP SY WARNING PLEASE READ THIS NOTICE BEFORE PLAYING THIS GAME OR BEFORE ALLOWING YOUR CHILDREN TO PLAY. Certain individuals may experience epileptic seizures or loss of consciousness when subjected to strong, flashing lights for long periods of time. Such individuals may therefore experience a seizure while operating computer or video games. This can also affect individuals who have no prior medical record of epilepsy or have never previously experienced a seizure. If you or any family member has ever experienced epilepsy symptoms (seizures or loss of consciousness) after exposure to flashing lights, please consult your doctor before playing this game. Parental guidance is always suggested when children are using a computer and video games. Should you or your child experience dizziness, poor eyesight, eye or muscle twitching, loss of consciousness, feelings of disorientation or any type of involuntary movements or cramps while playing this game, turn it off immediately and consult your doctor before playing again. PRECAUTIONS DURING USE: • Do not sit too close to the monitor. • Sit as far as comfortably possible. • Use as small a monitor as possible. • Do not play when tired or short on sleep. • Take care that there is sufficient lighting in the room. • Be sure to take a break of 10-15 minutes every hour. USE OF THIS PRODUCT IS SUBJECT TO ACCEPTANCE OF THE SINGLE USE SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT Contents WARNING1 Introduction2 Installation3 System Requirements 3 Updates and Forum Support4 Interface4 Main Menu 5 Options6 Campaigns & Scenarios 8 Tutorial Scenarios 9 Loading, Deleting, & Renaming a Game 9 Saving a Game (& PBEM) 10 Winning the Game Victory Points (VP) National Morale (NM) 12 13 14 Game Scale 15 Fixed Units 32 Command Chain 32 Leadership37 Promoting & Relieving Leaders39 Element Attributes – Inspection Panel 43 Leader Attributes 44 Fleets47 Orders48 Movement49 Blocking Movement & Evasion51 Interception & Combination 53 Special Orders & Movement 54 Postures59 Rules of Engagement (ROE) 59 Fog of War Detection Value Hide Value 61 61 62 The Map 15 Navigating the Map 20 Regions & Sea Zones - Terrain & Structures 20 Areas27 Fronts (Theaters) 27 Map Filters 27 Supply62 Out of Supply Penalties 63 Supply Sources 63 Supply Distribution & Depots 64 Supply Wagons and Trucks 66 Naval Units 67 Foraging67 Army Organization 29 Understanding the Stack Panel29 What is a Unit? 30 What is an Element? 30 Manipulating Stacks 32 Climate & Weather 68 Attrition69 Military Control 70 Effects70 Controlling Structures 71 Diplomacy and Alignment72 Diplomacy Regions 73 Diplomacy Regions: Alignment and War Support 74 Diplomacy: Notes & Examples 75 Diplomatic Regions: Alignment and Diplomacy 78 Military Influencing Alignment 80 The War Economy (Resources)81 Men (Conscripts) 81 State Funds 82 Supplies83 Industrialization84 Blockade & Raiding Commerce 84 Submarine Warfare 87 Raising Units 89 Gameplay: Army organization and troop roles 96 Managing your Nation Unit Roster Technology & Research Political Options Objectives Screen Regional Decisions & Decision Mode 98 98 99 103 104 104 Combat in the Field Engaging in Combat Battle Planner 106 107 108 Marching to the Sound of the Guns 109 Withdrawal110 Frontage111 Combat Range 111 Fire Combat 112 Unit Morale 113 Melee Combat 113 Battle Aftermath 114 Naval Combat 116 Air Warfare Air Missions Type Air Mission Points Air-to-air Combat Air Advices Zeppelins gameplay Storming a Structure 118 118 121 121 123 124 128 Losses & Replacements 128 Appendices131 Glossary & Abbreviations 131 Shortcut Keys 132 City Icons 135 NATO Symbols 137 Special Ability Icon Definition138 Nationalities Icon Definition 142 Regional Decisions List 144 The Great War Timeline 151 Credits159 WARNING A printed game manual is a document that is prepared usually 6-8 weeks before official release of the first version of the product. Therefore it is common that between the time the manual was written and the release some elements of the game will change through the later stages of beta testing. Ageod games also receive improvements via post-release patches or updates, which may render some sections of a printed manual no longer accurate. Therefore we recommend that you always check for the latest PDF version of the manual on the Ageod’s END ALL WARS forum in case of doubt, and remember that in-game information is more recent and accurate. Should you need more details and precise answers, ask on the Ageod forums. The team will always be glad to answer you there. The Development Team August 2014 To End All Wars Game Manual Introduction To End All Wars (EAW) is a historical strategy game using simultaneous turn resolution – also called a WEGO system – that places players at the head of the Entente Allies (France, Britain, Russia and more) or the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary and more) during the Great War (1914-1918). It can be played either against the computer’s artificial intelligence (AI) or against a human opponent using file transfer protocols such as email or online file sharing services (PBEM). Players assume the role of military and political leaders leading the Armies and Fleets of their nation during up to five years of bitter struggle throughout the world. All sides will strive to capture and hold key Objectives, destroy enemy forces in order to break their will to fight and hopefully win the war. Although clearly focused on military operations, key political, diplomatic, technological and economic factors are also modeled in great detail by historical options and regional decisions that can affect the course of the war. There is more to war than battles: the alliances must work to gain or prevent foreign support for the other side, increase production capacity through targeted investment, prevail in the economic war of industrial mobilization, blockade, commerce raiding and technology research. Many events have a substantial impact on National Morale, which reflects the struggle to break the enemy’s will to continue the fight. If neither side can break the other’s morale, victory points will determine the result of the game. 2 To End All Wars Game Manual Installation Start your computer and insert the DVD labeled EAW into your DVD drive (or click on the installer link you have just downloaded if not a physical copy). The setup program will start automatically. Follow the on-screen instructions to install the game. If Autoplay is not activated, start the setup program by double clicking on My Computer, then on the icon of your DVD drive and finally on “setup.exe”. If Microsoft (R) DirectX 9.0c (R) is not present on your PC, please launch the DirectX installer, which can be found on the DVD. Once the game has been installed, you can start it from the Windows Start menu, the desktop shortcut or by inserting the DVD. Note that the DVD is not required to play the game. Removing the game: select “Add/remove programs” in the Control Panel. Select EAW, and then click “Add/remove”. This will uninstall EAW. System Requirements Recommended Requirements Processor: Dual Core 2.6 GHz or AMD64X2 2.6 GHz or higher Memory: 3 GB RAM Hard disk space: 4 GB before installation. Graphics: 1024 MB Video RAM – Screen Resolution : 1024x768 or higher DirectX®: 9.0c Sound: card (or chipset) required. Operating System: Windows 7/8, XP, Vista. 3 To End All Wars Game Manual Updates and Forum Support AGEOD strives to fix any identified problems as soon as possible with “patches” which can be downloaded on the following web page: http://www.ageod-forums.com/. Updates found there may add further content to the game from time to time, and DLCs may be available for purchase. In case of technical problems, you may ask for help on the AGEOD forum ( http://www.ageod-forum.com/forum.php ) or by email using [email protected] A proof of purchase (serial number) may be asked for in some cases. Interface A wealth of game information can be accessed through so-called “tooltips”. If you hover your mouse long enough over a particular item on the screen, a text box will appear with detailed information about the corresponding feature. The tooltip delay is set to “instantaneous” by default, but it can be adjusted in the Options Menu. Note: Tooltips are extremely valuable for accessing information about almost everything in the game, including features not documented in this manual. Don’t hesitate to explore the various tooltips for the 4 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 1: Hovering your mouse over a region will display a black “tooltip” box with additional information about the region. game screens as these can aid greatly in understanding the details of the game. The Esc key (at the top left of most keyboards) allows you to close any window currently open. If you hit the Esc key while on the main map, you will be returned to the Main Menu where you can save and/or quit the game in progress. Note that the game automatically saves your position when you End Turn or exit to the Main Menu, so nothing is lost by accidentally escaping out of the main game. Finally, there are many keyboard shortcuts that are listed on p. 132-134. Main Menu After starting the game, you will reach the Main Menu where you can access all the basic game functions. These include starting a game (against the computer or a human opponent), saving or loading a game, and setting game options. 5 To End All Wars Game Manual Options Media You can activate/deactivate music and sounds, choose the language used in the game, adjust the tooltip delay (see p. 7) and adjust the combat animation delay. You can also select the way that Units will be displayed on the map (“Regroup Armies” option) as well as whether the turn resolution should be paused for immediate inspection of battle results (“Pause after Battle”) in addition to being reported in the Message Log for the turn. Game In this menu, you can activate/deactivate the Fog of War (see p. 61), Activation (see p. 45). You can also play with Leaders randomized to various degrees: in this case, leader names and attributes are randomized when you create a new game. We recommend leaving the default settings for your first game. You may adjust whether armies delay before committing to battle, and the level of routine attrition you choose to model. You may select Extended Force Pools to relax the 6 To End All Wars Game Manual historical limitations on available Units by doubling or tripling them (expect great divergence from historical patterns). Player aids available here include Easy Supply rules, simplified Naval Box handling, several degrees of automated replacements, and a variety of other options. We believe the best historical feel is achieved by using the default settings. AI This is where you select the difficulty level and adjust the intelligence, aggressiveness, activation bonus, and Detection ability of your computer opponent – the Athena engine. Even a slight improvement to Detection has a significant impact on your Athena’s ability to strategize. Adjusting difficulty can give Athena a bonus or penalty – for example, “Lieutenant” ranking gives the AI better movement speed, cohesion recovery, and reduced command penalties for undercommanded military forces – but no direct combat advantages. You can also allow the game more time to process between turns, improving the opposing military planning AI (which is the most processing-intensive). The game campaigns and scenarios have been optimized for the default settings (e.g., middle box for Activation, second box for Redeployment and for Delayed Commitment, and Low for AI Detection). System You can adjust technical settings here. These include “Memory Usage”, “Maximum Texture Size” and “Textures Initialization” which allow for smoother scrolling at the cost of a longer loading time. The AGEOD forum can help you decide which settings are best for you. Scripts This allows you to enable or disable major historical events if provided for by the scenario or campaign. It might be possible to see no scripts here if the campaign don’t allow for that. 7 To End All Wars Game Manual Note: The “reset” button on options pages allows you to reset that page to its default settings. Campaigns & Scenarios When starting a new game, you will be presented with several types of scenarios to choose from. There are basically four levels of play ranging from the shorter scenarios, involving a limited number of Units for a short period of time on a portion of the map, to the full Grand Campaign: • The Grand Campaign covers the whole duration of the war up from 1914 to 1918, using the whole map. You can begin in July 1914, allowing you to raise and organize the initial armies according to different war plans and diplomatic options, or start with the historical August 1914 situation, after the initial armies have already been mobilized for action. • Scenarios are more limited in scope and feature individual Campaigns or Battles, such as Tannenberg 1914. The time period, 8 To End All Wars Game Manual the Units involved and the map area covered are accordingly limited. As such, scenarios are highly recommended as an introduction to the game. Upcoming planned schedule (post 1.0 release) • Theater Campaigns (not in version 1.0) cover part or the whole duration of the war but only in a specific geographical region (please check on the forum). • Annual Campaigns (not in version 1.0) cover part of the war (starting in each of the war’s crucial years) for the whole map (please check on the forum). Tutorial Scenarios The list also includes Tutorials, which are instructive scenarios designed to help learn the basic game mechanics and provide some gameplay tips. Players are strongly encouraged to play through these early, perhaps before finishing this manual. These tutorial scenarios are designed not only to introduce certain core game concepts (through a series of step-by-step instructional event boxes) but also to provide a hands-on introduction to the game interface. Note: the stars next to the scenario pictures indicate the level of complexity (the more stars the higher) Loading, Deleting, & Renaming a Game Instead of starting a new game, you can resume a game you previously saved or that was saved automatically. You also have the option to rename, delete or restore a previous turn, of any saved game by using 9 To End All Wars Game Manual the appropriate buttons at the top right of the Load Game window. It is not advised to rename a saved game other than through this EAW interface. It is best to rename files only through this interface. To go back to the end of the last turn played, hover over your current save and type “Home” as described in the menu. It erases the current save and loads the save from the end of the previous turn. This can be used repeatedly to access an even earlier save. Saving a Game (& PBEM) At any time during a game, you can reach the Main Menu (Esc key). From here, you can select the Save Game menu. You don’t generally have to save a game, as this is done automatically each turn once you hit End Turn. As explained previously, you have the option to restore the 3 previous turns of any saved game (there is an option to save more also). Usually, the only cases where you would want to manually save a game is either if you halt your planning in the middle of a turn and want to resume giving orders after quitting the game or to change the name of the save game from its default. In other words, if you click End Turn, watch it unfold and only check your forces without entering new orders, you can quit safely and everything is saved by default. Play by Email (PBEM) EAW can be played against one or two humans opponents using PBEM or any other valid file transfer protocol, such as Instant Messaging or Dropbox™ . One of the players (the “Host”) will have to initiate the game. The procedure is detailed below: 1. Create a game: The Hosting player chooses a Campaign/Scenario and a side and starts the game as usual. This automatically generates a sub-folder 10 To End All Wars Game Manual in the <User Directory>\EAW\Saves\ directory, named after the Campaign or Scenario selected (1914 Campaign if you play the “1914 Campaign” scenario, for example). Please note that a number helps differentiate between multiple instances of the same Campaign/ Scenario. However, the best way to avoid confusion is to rename the in-game files with the appropriate button in the Load Game Window (e.g. 1914 Campaign John vs. Joe). Do NOT rename any EAW files externally to the game. If you have trouble finding your User Directory, you can look at the Options window, in the main menu, it will be indicated there. In this newly created folder you will find a single HST file, containing all game data. 2. Host sends the HST file to opponent: The Hosting player now sends his opponent the HST file. The opponent must store this file in a folder of his choice within <User Directory>\EAW\Saves\. It is advisable to use a specific subfolder per game, for example <User Directory>\EAW\Saves\ JohnVsJoe subfolder. Note: In order to avoid possible data corruption if transferred by E-mail, it is strongly advised to E-Mail using some type of compressed format such as ZIP or RAR. 3. Non-Host sends ORD file to Host: Each player now loads the game and gives his orders for the upcoming turn. When ready, each player saves the game. This will generate an ORD file (in the folders mentioned above). Important: do not click on End Turn at this step. The Non-Hosting player then sends his ORD file to the Hosting player. 11 To End All Wars Game Manual 4. Host resolves turn The Hosting player saves the ORD file received from his opponent into the appropriate directory (there should be one HST file and then one ORD file per active player) and loads the game again (or if he is not playing, he loads a turn from any player). He now clicks on End Turn to launch the turn resolution, where all orders are then executed. A new turn is now ready to start. Go back to step # 2 and repeat. Note: The Non-Hosting player doesn’t get by default a “play back” of his opponent’s turn. However, he can check the turn’s Message Log to see what has occurred during the turn, including battle reports. There is an unofficial playback support though, that can be activated in-game. Please refer to the EAW forum at Ageod on this topic. Winning the Game Automatic Victory (or defeat) is achieved when one side reaches its minimum or maximum “National Morale” (NM) level(only Western Entente and Central Powers can have an automatic NM win/loss. If Eastern Entente NM reaches 0, it will be removed from the war but the Western Entente can continue the fight). However, if the game ends without reaching an Automatic Victory, the “Victory Points” (VPs) of each side determine the winner. The side with more VPs wins the war and the level of victory is based on the VP difference. Important Note: For the Entente, total VP is determined on the last turn by adding the VP of the Western Entente (ENT) with the VP of the Eastern Entente (EN1), *if the Eastern Entente is still in the war!* Otherwise, only the Western Entente VP total is considered. 12 To End All Wars Game Manual Victory Points (VP) Each side accumulates VPs every turn by controlling important cities and Objectives or by destroying enemy Units (or their component elements). The Objectives page (shortcut: F9) shows on the left page how many VPs you accrue each turn (VPs can be expended during the course of the game, as a currency, but remember, he who has the most at scenario’s end wins if nobody achieves an Automatic Victory). On the right page, each Objective is listed with its worth (this amount is how much NM is gained/lost when capturing/ losing an Objective). Current VP Level is also tallied in the upper left corner of the main screen and is your main indicator of how well you are doing in the game. VP Accumulation: Strategic City VP/Turn Objective City 1-3 VP/Turn depending on the value set by the scenario Destroyed Units Per element destroyed Note: You don’t lose VPs when your own Units are destroyed. 13 To End All Wars Game Manual National Morale (NM) For both sides in the conflict, the will to fight is tracked by their National Morale (NM). Above and below certain levels, you instantly win or lose the game. These thresholds will vary during the course of play depending on the political situation. Important note: In 1917-1918, most nations become very sensitive to morale loss, due to war weariness. Current NM is tallied in the upper left corner of the main screen, inside the banners. The victory and defeat thresholds of both sides are displayed in the Objectives screen of the Strategic Atlas (shortcut: F9) (and as a tooltip in the upper left corner of the screen). NM is influenced by several factors: • Capturing the Objective regions set by the current scenario will increase the capturing player’s NM and lower the enemy’s by the values indicated in the Objectives screen. These include strategic cities and symbolic objectives. • Winning a battle will boost the winner’s NM while reducing the enemy’s according to the number of enemy Unit and general elements taken out of action (see p. 114-115). • Promoting junior officers over senior ones or dismissing leaders with political favor will lower your NM (see p. 39). • In the late years, war weariness gradually reduces each side’s NM. • Some Historical Options or Games Decisions have an impact on NM, as indicated elsewhere. Below a certain depressed level, as long as a side is still in control of its capital, it will start to regain NM (this is called War Resilience). 14 To End All Wars Game Manual In addition to triggering Automatic Victory conditions, NM also has an impact on the following: • Unit Cohesion (i.e., how fast they move and how well they fight) (so defeats can become a vicious circle) • Economic output • Number of recruits (referred to generally as “Conscripts”) Game Scale • • • Turn Length – Two Weeks (one week in Tannenberg 1914 scenario) Units – Regiments, Brigades, Divisions, Corps, Armies, Batteries, Ships, Squadrons, and Fleets Map – Regional areas of most of Europe (the part at war) and map “boxes” representing adjoining and overseas areas The Map 1. Active Side, Main Functions (Production, Decisions, Strategic Atlas) and National Morale National Morale is the main indicator of your success. The three round buttons give you to the respective important game 15 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 2: The Main Interface functions of Production, Decisions and Strategic Atlas. Check the tooltips for additional details. 2. Available Assets and Foreign Entry Level Key assets such as Victory Points, State Funds, Conscripts, War Supplies, Rail Transport capacity that are currently available, as well as the number of Engagement Points (a currency used to pay for some ingame decisions) and Ammunitions (used for heavy artillery and ships). 3. Current Date & Main Commands The current date is displayed here. The tooltip tells you how many turns remain before the game ends. The three icons to the right of the current date allow you to start the Resolution Phase, to reach the Main Menu or to Save the game respectively. 4. Filters, Region Terrain and Minimap The different Map Filters (see p. 27) can be accessed from here. You also see information on the currently selected land, sea or navigable river region (terrain and supply). The minimap shows the whole geographic scope of the war with your troop dispositions and allows you to jump to any location by clicking on it. 16 To End All Wars Game Manual 5. Stack Panel Tabs for Stacks in Region Each tab represents a Stack in the currently selected region. 6. Stack Panel and Unit Counters The lower part of the Stack Panel displays the Units present in the currently selected Stack (see p. 29). When no Stack is selected, the panel is removed from view to show more of the map. You can use the buttons located at the left-hand side of the panel to change the posture and engagement orders (a.k.a. postures) of the selected Stack (see p. 59), and the Special Orders buttons to issue specialized commands. 7. Inspection Panel The small panel on the bottom right shows the main information about the currently selected Stack. If you click on a specific Unit counter in the Stack Panel, the Inspection Panel will slightly change to show the selected Unit’s component elements. By further clicking on these element icons, you will access the element details window which provides extensive details regarding that element (see p. 30). Reviewing this information is not necessary to play the game, but can sometimes provide advantages in organizing and using your forces. 8. Army Outliner This small square counter located on the upper-left hand side of the screen is a convenient shortcut to one of your armies on the map (there might be as many squares as you have armies on the map). 9. Shipping or Blockade Box These boxes, located near Germany (Baltic), Britain (Atlantic) or Italy (Mediterranean), represents Allied or 17 To End All Wars Game Manual Central Powers merchant shipping for one, the blockade patrols for others (see p. 84-85). 10. Atlantic and Mediterranean Blockade Boxes (not shown on the screen capture) These boxes, located west of England and near Sardinia, represent Central Powers trade routes to the outside world (see p. 8485) which the Entente will seek to blockade. 11. Offmap Boxes They are located all around the main map and usually connected with it via “Transition Link” (a way to reach one box from another or from the map, and vice versa) or via connected sea zones themselves connected to the main map. In those boxes, the scale is considered different from the main map and combat takes more time to produce effects. Message Panel This panel can be accessed by clicking on the Message Bar buttons that show at the bottom right of the screen when no Stack is selected. The six buttons allow you to filter the messages by categories (check the tooltip for details). You can always return to the Message Log message list by right clicking on the lower part of the map. Red messages are events of particular importance. Click on the icon to the left of the messages to center the map on the region corresponding 18 To End All Wars Game Manual to the message or open details for a red message. For notable events, special message icons appear along the lower right side of the screen which disappears as you select them. Figure 3: The Message Log is displayed after turn resolution. The Strategic Atlas Many of the game functions are accessed from here. Click on the book-button (the right button in the top left corner of the screen) and you will open a new window. Click on the thumbnails (or use shortcut keys F1 to F9) to cycle between the different screens (see p. 98 Managing Your Nation for details). Figure 4: Many critical game functions are accessed through the Strategic Atlas, such as recruitment and research or diplomatic decisions (F1 to F10 shortcut keys). 19 To End All Wars Game Manual Navigating the Map To scroll through the map, simply place and hold the pointer on the edge of the screen, hold the left button and drag the mouse, or use the arrow keys. To zoom in or out of the map, either use the mouse wheel or the End, Page Up, and Page Down keys. You can also press the mouse wheel button to swap between highest and lowest zoom level. Regions & Sea Zones Terrain & Structures Stacks and Fleets move and battle across land regions, sea zones and navigable river regions. Tooltips indicate the different characteristics of each region and sea zone. Terrain type and weather are also displayed at the top of the minimap. Note that sections of navigable rivers may be moved into by ships or by ground troops using riverine ships to speed up their movement. Note: Regions are further grouped into Areas, and Areas into Fronts (also called Theaters). Areas and Fronts borders can be displayed on the map using the appropriate filters (see below). Civilization Level The different Civilization Levels are: • Wild • Cleared • Civilized • Rich Depending on the Civilization Level (and other factors), unsupplied troops in an enemy region have a limited ability to live off the land each turn (see p. 62). 20 To End All Wars Game Manual Transport Network None Tracks • Roads • Railways Units moving into regions with tracks will never pay more than 150% of the clear terrain cost, whatever the terrain type. Units moving into regions with roads or rails won’t pay more than the clear terrain cost, whatever the real terrain type. Units moving by train will only spend one day for each region traveled. • • Terrain Type Different terrain types have varying effects on movement, combat and Supply (see also Appendix): TERRAIN Obstacle to movement and Supply transport Effect on Attacker Effect on Defender Notes Clear - - - -. Woods Slight - Slight bonus - Forest Moderate - Moderate bonus - Hills Moderate - Moderate bonus Bonus of 1 to Hide Value. Marshes Severe -. - Bonus of 1 to Hide Value. Swamp Similar to marshes Severe penalty for line Units. - Bonus of 1 to Hide Value. Wilderness Severe 21 To End All Wars Game Manual TERRAIN Obstacle to movement and Supply transport Mountain Same as wilderness, with increased penalties for wheeled and mounted Units. Impassable Mountain Impassable n/a n/a - Desert - - - Each day spent in a desert incurs severe attrition losses. Major River/ Lake Severe obstacle to land movement. Steamboats may navigate major rivers. May freeze Major bonus if during winter, attacker crosses blocking all the river. naval movement. Minor River * Same picture as Major River/ Lake Moderate obstacle to land movement. Not navigable at all. - Minor bonus if attacker crosses the river. Ferry or Bridge * Same picture as Major River/ Lake Moderate obstacle to land movement. Not navigable at all. - Minor bonus if attacker crosses the river. Shallow Waters * Same picture as Major River/ Lake Land Units can cross shallow waters at a cost. Seagoing vessels cannot navigate in shallow waters. - - May freeze during winter, blocking all naval movement. Coastal Waters Steamboats may navigate in coastal waters. - - - Ocean Non-seagoing Units (coastal defense ships, for example) cannot navigate in the ocean. - - Prairie - - - - Transit Link Travel to and from an * No picture, often illustrated by off-map box takes many an arrow between off map boxes days. - Transit links connect off-map areas to on-map areas. 22 Effect on Attacker Effect on Defender Notes To End All Wars Game Manual Structures All structures provide shelter for friendly land Units in the region against bad weather (see p. 42). Ports do the same for ships. When there are Units actually inside a structure, this is indicated by the presence of small squares by the structure icon (light brown for land Units, light blue for naval Units). Clicking on Figure 3: The square those squares will display these Units in the denotes a single land Stack inside the city. Stack Panel. The currently selected Stack will also be represented in the region on the map. It’s possible to see what the structures in a region are by doing a Ctrl-click on the structure sprite. City: Controlling cities is critical to winning the game (see p. 12). Cities cannot be destroyed in this game. On the map, Units inside a city are not displayed but rather are indicated by small boxes as shown in Fig. 3 above. Each dot (green or blue) represents 3 Units in the structure. Cities have a Level between 1 and 20 noted on the Box before their name on the city’s nameplate. • Town: A town is a small city (Level 1 to 3). It is too small to be able to forward Supply during the Supply Distribution Phase unless a Depot has been built in the town. • Depot: It can be built at a cost of two Supply Wagons or by two transports ships if a harbor is in the region. They can also be destroyed. Depots are able to stockpile and pass on Supply during the Supply Distribution Phase. A good network of Depots is critical to move Supply from your rear areas to the front. Presence of a depot inside a city is indicated by tents and crates. 23 To End All Wars Game Manual Important Note: Evaluate the potential bottlenecks in your Supply network by checking which rear-area cities stockpile too much Supply that should be available at the front line (the Supply Filter will help you with that). Create a ‘grid’ of Depots to alleviate the problem, and watch out for towns (Level 1 to 3 cities) which can’t push Supplies forward unless they contain a Depot. • Pre-War Fort: These concrete structures were built before war broke out and are rather powerful. Nevertheless, they can easily be destroyed thanks to Fort Bombardment decisions (see Decisions). They interfere with enemy movement and also provide some Supply. Pre-War Forts may be destroyed. • Permanent Fortification: Either made up of older forts or modern fortifications made mostly of earthworks, they are shown by four bastions extensions on each corner of the city sprite. Permanent fortifications can’t be destroyed unless via Fort Bombardment decisions and/or caputre. • Ports: Ports provide Supply unless blockaded. Fleets in ports cannot be attacked. On the map, naval Units inside a port are not displayed but indicated by a blue flag on the city mast. Click on the port basin to access the naval Units. Ships are produced in ports and need a port to repair. • Airfields: These are displayed on map next to air units; they are not structures really, but a display of the presence of aircrafts units. • Redoubt: A redoubt is the simplest form of defense in the game for defensive emplacements (such as coastal batteries). • Industrial Structures: These are located inside cities (see Summary in the Appendix). To see them, use Ctrlclick on a city sprite. They will then be displayed inside the Stack Panel. Among those structures, we find: 24 To End All Wars Game Manual Coal and Iron Mines: a small production facility for industrial resources. They mostly generate Ammunition and State Funds. • Armories: a production facility for ammunition and various weapons and equipment. They mostly generate Ammunition and State Funds. • Arsenals: the largest a production facility for weapons and ammunition. They mostly generate Ammunition and State Funds. • Steel Mills: they represent production facilities of heavy war material, like big guns, steel, armor and other types of weapons and ammunition. They mostly generate large amounts of War Supplies. There are also a few off-map boxes displayed on the borders of the game map. They represent areas that are distant but had some influence over the conflicts in Europe (such as Africa, Middle East or event some regions in the Far East). • Trenches Trenches represent the variety of entrenchments and other temporary field fortifications built by stationary infantry and artillery Units that provide defensive benefits to their occupants depending on their Level (1 to 8). They can be of major importance in defensive battles. Trenches are not considered to be structures, although they do provide limited shelter against bad weather. They are not subject to siege. Units automatically start entrenching if they don’t move during a turn and can keep improving their entrenchments over a period of weeks or months. A Stack only needs a few days to dig into Level 1. Each additional level requires increasingly more time to build (i.e., building a trench from Level 2 to Level 3 takes longer than expanding a trench from Level 1 to Level 2). The building leader’s Strategic 25 To End All Wars Game Manual Rating plays a key role in the speed of the process, especially for low-level trenches. Levels 5-8 can only be achieved if there is artillery present in the region. These levels do not provide more protection but do increase the firepower of the artillery batteries. In addition, such emplaced batteries will defend the river(s)/seacoast in their region and fire on moving enemy Fleets. Batteries may also engage bombarding ships and can block enemy Supply transport by river. Note: The highest entrenchment levels represent the extensive networks of field fortifications like those of the famous Hindenburg line around Saint Quentin in northern France. They are still trenches, not structures. Trench Levels are shown graphically on the map. In a battle report, the average level of entrenchment of a Stack is represented as a percentage of level 1 (e.g., 200 means 200%, average entrenchment level of 2). Important (and New for returning players): in EAW, trench level is ‘mutualized’ at the start of each turn, meaning that in a given region, all your stacks will automatically acquire the trench level of the highest friendly trench level of the region. Auto-Garrisons Structures defined as having the auto-garrison feature (e.g., cities, forts and depots – mostly depending on scenarios) spawn an automatic garrison if enemy forces appear in the region. These range in size depending on the structure and prevent it from being taken without a fight. An enemy attack will also release Units present that are otherwise permanently fixed in position. 26 To End All Wars Game Manual Areas Each Area has limited resources, so it can only field a limited number of troops for the side controlling it. You won’t be able to raise more Units in an Area than this maximum “Force Pool” value. In addition, you can only draft Units in an Area if you control at least one of the Area’s Strategic Cities, and heavy equipment such as artillery requires the presence of industry. Strategic Cities are shown on the map with a star by the city name. Several political and economic decisions are also declared at Area-level. Note: Both sides can raise troops in the same Area if they each control one of the Area’s Strategic Cities. Fronts (Theaters) A Front (also called a “Theater”) is usually a collection of Areas, usually concentrated within the same geographical zone. Some rules and abilities work at the Front-level. Most ships are also recruited on a Front-basis. Using the Front filter displays them on the map with specific colors. Some rules and special abilities work only at the Theater level, and the highestranked leader with the most seniority in the Theater is treated as commander in chief. Map Filters There are eight filters in EAW to help visualize information on the map. To activate them, use the 1-8 keys or click on the buttons located on top of the minimap. The different filters are: 27 To End All Wars Game Manual 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 28 Military Control: Shows which side has the dominant military presence in each region (even if you don’t have a Stack present). See p. 70. Supply: Crates and cannonballs indicate the quantity of General Supply and Ammunition respectively that are present and regions highlighted in green indicate how far your Supply network extends. See p. 62. Tooltips provide specific information regarding Supply levels in particular regions. Objectives: Highlights Objectives and cities granting VPs and indicates their owner. See p. 23. Alignment: Shows the local population’s bias towards one of the sides in the conflict. See p. 72. Areas: The different Areas are shown with different colors. See p. 27. Fronts: Each Front (also known as a “Theater”) is shown with a different color. See p. 27. Weather: shows the current weather on the map. See p. 68. Terrain: shows the current terrain type. See p. 21 above. To End All Wars Game Manual Army Organization Understanding the Stack Panel There can be a variety of Stacks in a region and/or in the structures therein. The purpose of having separate Stacks is that they can be issued different orders. The size of a Stack is also limited by leadership (see p. 37). Figure 4: Stack Panel Details When you click on a playing piece or structure on the map, the window in the Stack Panel shows Units in the region (1). Hint: Use the arrow buttons on each side (2) to scroll between a Stack’s Units if they are too numerous to fit within the Unit Panel. The mouse wheel will also scroll the panel. Additional Stacks in the region are each indicated by a tab (3) along the top of the Stack Panel. To switch Stacks, click on its corresponding tab and it will become the active Stack. The active Stack is also represented on the map by a Stack counter, which can be selected to receive its orders. The Unit currently selected within the Stack has its name, composition, current position and destination indicated in the top left corner (4), just after the parchment icon (which allows selecting the special orders for the Unit in question). 29 To End All Wars Game Manual Essential information about a Stack (level of General Supply, Ammunition, etc.) can be displayed in a tooltip by hovering your mouse over the different icons in the Inspection Panel to the right of the Stack Panel (5). What is a Unit? The Unit Panel shows all of the different components of a Stack (see illustration above), which fall under the term “Unit”. There are many types of Units in the game representing anything from full Divisions to independent artillery batteries or administrative staff (headquarters), but they all share the ability to be moved and be given orders individually if needed. This makes them the smallest elements in the game that you can manipulate, although they seldom operate alone and are usually grouped into Stacks, as explained above. Exceptions: Corps are a special class of Unit, as they can contain one or more divisions, brigade or smaller Units that are treated all as a single Corps Unit until these are split off from the Corps. (See p. 36). Leaders are also treated as Units in most respects and can be manipulated the same way. However, they are rated differently. The main characteristics of combat Units (see p. 40) and leaders (see p. 37) are displayed right on their counter in the Unit Panel. What is an Element? Units are made up of 1 to 9 Elements (also referred to as sub-units), which are displayed in the Inspection Panel when a Unit is selected in the Stack Panel. Elements are an integral part of their parent Unit and cannot be manipulated separately. Procedure: To display the list of a Unit’s elements in the Inspection Panel, click on a Unit to select it (this is indicated by a gray square around the counter). 30 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 5: Here, the British First Corps is made of 2 Infantry Divisions, each containing two infantry elements and one gun battery, as shown by the NATO symbols displayed on the right (you can click on this symbol to open a detailed window describing the element). Each single element is in turn differentiated by its attributes, as explained on p. 40. Please note that some Units are so small that they cannot be subdivided. They are represented in the game as having a single element, which is the Unit itself. Leaders are handled in the same way: one leader = one element which is the leader himself (see Fig.6). Figure 6: This leader Unit is made up of a single element alone. A Unit is a container of 1-9 elements. 31 To End All Wars Game Manual Manipulating Stacks In order to split one or more Units from a Stack, select the Units to be separated from the main Stack in the Unit Panel, then drag and drop them to their current region on the map. They are now considered a new Stack and will be shown in a separate tab. Multi selection procedure: To select/deselect several Units, CtrlClick on each Unit in turn. In order to issue a movement order to a Stack, either select it and drag & drop its counter from its region to its destination or drag its corresponding tab from the Stack Panel directly to its destination on the map. You can also move Units between Stacks by dragging and dropping them onto the destination Stack’s tab. Finally, you can merge Stacks in the same location by dragging and dropping one Stack tab onto another. Fixed Units In some scenarios and campaigns, you will come padlock and a across fixed Units identified by a red diagonal stripe on their counter. This indicates it cannot move - the tooltip will explain why. Usually, they can move if a specific event indicated on their tooltip occurs, such as a number of turns pass or enemy enters their region. In some cases, Units are permanently fixed and will not move under any circumstances. Command Chain In EAW, your Stacks are loosely organized into the following hierarchy: 32 To End All Wars Game Manual Ä Army Group Ä Army Ä Any Unit (Corps, Division, Brigade, battery…) Ä Elements (within an unit) Units are deemed “in the Command Chain” if they belong to an Army which is, in turn, attached to an Army Group (also sometimes called the GHQ, Great Headquarter). Any Units which don’t belong to such an Army are considered independent Stacks for Command Chain purposes, and they have a penalty of -50% to the Command Points generated by the leaders in that Stack. Naval Stacks are handled differently without a hierarchy other than Units and Fleets. On the map, you can then have three kinds of land Stacks: • The Army Group (or GHQ) Stack, which is the Stack commanding subordinate Armies. • The Army Stack, which is a Stack subordinate to an Army Group or GHQ Stack. • Independent Stack, which is a Stack Out of the Command Chain. These three Stacks each have Units and they are all “containers” for Units. Units represent formations of various sizes and act as “containers” for elements, with from 1 to 9 elements in each Unit. Army Group An Army Group (sometimes also called GHQ) represents a leader and his staff along with reserve troops and leaders that may be directly attached to the Army Group. The Strategic Rating of an Army Group commander determines both his Command Radius 33 To End All Wars Game Manual (press and hold the Shift key while an Army Group is selected to show this radius on the map) and his overall combat power). The Army Outliner on the left edge of the screen is a series of counter images (leader portrait in a flag), one for each Army Group, which when clicked refocuses your view on that Army Group Figure 7: A Stack (see picture on the left). is identified as Armies attached to an Army Group and within an Army Group by a star icon on its Command Radius during the Planning Phase its Stack Panel can receive some important benefits (see below). tab and on its Procedure: To form an Army Group, form a Stack Inspection Panel. with 3 or 4 star leader plus any leaders and Units you want to attach directly to the Army Group commander (these can also be added later), then select the “Form Army Group” Special Order. This will change the status of the Stack from Independent to an Army Group. This is the command GHQ of the Army Group (hence sometimes called GHQ for simplification), not the entire Army: an Army Group’s fighting formations are its attached Armies. If assignment of Army Group command to a leader bypassed a leader with higher rank or more seniority (see p. 39), then you will lose some NM, as warned in the Form Army Group Special Order tooltip. You can also dismiss an Army Group commander, but doing so will also cost you NM according to the political favor of its commander. Despite the NM cost, you may sometimes want to do this in order to put a new and better leader in charge. Notes: An Army Group (GHQ) with combat Units in reserve will react quickly to support Army formations but should not be viewed as a combat Stack. It is important to note that a lone Army Group Stack will never initiate combat by itself. New (for returning players): An army group commander faring badly will cost each turn victory points until he is replaced by a new general. 34 To End All Wars Game Manual Army Figure 8: A Stack is identified as an Army by a diamond icon on its tab and on the Inspection Panel. Armies are attached to specific Army Groups/GHQs. Their purpose is twofold: they never suffer the Out of Command Chain penalty (see p. 39) and they get the following bonuses when operating within range of their Army Group: • The Armies commander’s Strategic, Offensive and Defensive Ratings are increased by the expertise of the GHQ commander. 35 To End All Wars Game Manual • • • • • If stacked in the same region, the Armies’ formations have the ability to stay together during movement by choosing the corresponding Special Order (Synchronized Move). If spread out in different regions, there is a chance of supporting an adjacent Army engaged in combat (i.e. “March to the Sound of the Guns”). This ability is influenced by the level of Military Control in both regions (see p. 70) and by the Armies’ Cohesion (page 29). Increased Command Points efficiency. Combat bonuses when several Armies are fighting together (they will help each other more efficiently during a fight). Some special abilities of the Army Group/GHQ commander can benefit its Armies. Procedure: To form an Army, select a 2 or 3 star leader within range of an Army Group plus any Units (including any Corps, Divisions and leaders) you want to include in the Armies, then select the “Create Army” Special Order. Note: An Army must always occupy a single region and is a single Stack of Units. You could separate Units from their Armies to extend your coverage, but they would become an Independent Stack in the process, losing Armies benefits and suffering possible Out of Command Chain penalties as a consequence. Corps Grouping Units into Corps whenever possible helps you optimize Command Points usage (see below). A Corps leader is required and provides bonuses to the Corps. This can be in addition to the commanding officer of the Stack to which the Corps belongs (whatever the nature of the Stack: Army Group/GHQ Stack, Army Stack, or an Independent Stack). Since a Corps is a Unit, it cannot include more than 9 elements. 36 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 9: Hovering your mouse over a Corps (1) in the Unit Panel displays its constituent Units (2). Procedure: To form a Corps, first select a general and press the ‘Enable Corps Command’ button. Then select the Units and the general to be included in the Corp and click the “Combine” Special Order to form the Corps. You can break down a Corps into its constituent Units at any time and without any penalty by using the same button (which also operates in reverse). Important Note: There are HQ support Units that provide useful benefits to their Stack, but to form an Army Group or an Army, all you need is an appropriate leader. Some leaders, even of the right rank, may also be prohibited to form a GHQ or Army. Leadership Leaders have an enormous impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of military forces. Inadequately led Units suffer 37 To End All Wars Game Manual movement and combat penalties. Leadership ratings reflect their historical abilities, and these ratings affect almost every aspect of the game. Leaders can be wounded or die, so they may be available for a longer or shorter duration than they were in history. Good performance by a leader can lead to advancement in seniority and promotions. At any time, the “Command Cost” of the troops in a Stack is compared with the “Command Points” of the leaders present in order to determine whether a penalty applies as well as the size of the penalty. To see the details of the calculation, check the tooltip of the command icon of your Stack. Note: Command Penalties can be quite severe. A small and wellcommanded Stack moves much faster and has as much hitting power as a larger Stack lacking leaders. Each Unit in a region has a certain Command Cost: • Basic Unit (Division, Brigade or Regiment/Squadron/Battery): 1 to 6 • Corps: 12 Each leader provides Command Points (CP) to his Stack, depending on his rank: • 1 star: 24 • 2 star: 36 • 3 or 4 star: 48 The total CP provided by leaders in a Stack is limited to a maximum of 48, no matter how many leaders are present, but this base value can be increased by certain bonuses. Note: This simulates both the military doctrine of the day, as well as the chaos inevitably generated when a place gets too crowded. 38 To End All Wars Game Manual Out-of-Command-Chain Penalty – Important If a Stack is an Independent Stack (not an Army Stack or a GHQ Stack), then the CP generated by leaders in the Stack will be halved. CP generated by leaders can be further increased by the following bonuses: • Signal Unit present: 2 • Recon Unit (ex. Balloons) present: 1 • If a Army or GHQ Stack: Army/GHQ commander’s Strategic Rating minus two (can give negative effects too!). • Units in the region are part of an Army or attached to an Army Group (GHQ) which includes a capable Aide de Camp (i.e., A non-GHQ commander leader with a Strategic Rating of 4+ who is in a the Stack): 1 Promoting & Relieving Leaders Officers who have shown favorable results in their current rank may become eligible for promotion to the next rank. This is shown by a flashing promotion icon on its counter (you also get a message in the Message Log). Be aware that promoting a leader to 3 or 4 star who is considered too junior by the military and political establishment (i.e., there are other more senior officers of the same rank) will cost you NM and VPs, depending on the “bypassed” leaders’ Political Cost. The same applies to 3 or 4 star leaders assuming Army command if another more senior unassigned leader is bypassed. Finally, relieving an officer from his command will also entail a loss in NM proportional to his Political Cost. Note: This only applies at GHQ level, not at Army level and below. Please note that an officer’s abilities may change (for better or worse!) after getting promoted, depending on each individual’s talents. 39 To End All Wars Game Manual Historical Note: Robert Nivelle, a very capable and aggressive French army commander, incurred excessive losses after promotion to GHQ command. Several good army commanders proved unsatisfactory leaders when promoted to GHQ (for example, Erich von Falkenhayn was not seen as a good GHQ commander but proved very able in the field in Rumania in 1916). The player may shape promotion prospects by giving some commanders easy successes against minor objectives while high-ranking deadwood can be assigned to dead-end locations. Army generals when fighting will gain and lose experience points, thus gaining or losing seniority ranks. Some of these experiences points will also be transferred to their GHQ leader. If a GHQ leader has a worse seniority than the one he starts with, then you may have to remove him from command at some points, as the general will cost you Victory Points each turn. Units Attributes Unit counters are differentiated by the following: • Nationality (background color) • Area of Origin (mostly for troops from various minorities or associated nations, such as Austrian, Russian or Commonwealth) • Special Abilities or Nationality (left hand side) • Unit Type (top right corner, illustrated by a NATO symbol – See Appendices for details) • Combat Power (“PWR” - the numerical value at the top, here 230) • Number of Elements (number of ribbons on the left hand side • Experience (color of the ribbons on the left hand side) • Cohesion (purple column) • Manpower (green column) • Captured Support Unit (Gray Background with ‘capt.’ noted on Unit also) 40 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 10: The Division d’Oran is a French unit, but of colonial origin (can be raised only in Algeria) Special Abilities Any Special Abilities of the Unit are listed, and their description is on the symbol’s tooltip (see also page 138). Figure 11: Engineers are among the Units with Special Abilities, as denoted by the icons on the bottom of the left side. NATO Symbol and Unit Type There is a NATO symbol on the Unit counter to show the primary type of the elements it contains. For example, an Infantry Division is an infantry Unit, but in addition to infantry brigades may contain artillery regiments and cavalry, shown on the Inspection Panel. You can click on any NATO symbol, on the Unit or on the elements, to get even more details. Each element is of a specific type, with corresponding strengths and weaknesses, as shown in the elements details Window accessed through the Inspection Panel (see Element Attributes below). A Unit’s characteristics are derived from the attribute values of its elements. 41 To End All Wars Game Manual Upgrading As new equipment becomes available (with technological progress, starting in 1915), elements (sub-units) are automatically upgraded into other, more effective types (e.g. early to late infantry). This mostly affects the defensive rating of Units, simulating the increased difficulty of attacking positions defended by troops equipped with more efficient weapons. Historical Note: This trend culminated in the terrible deadlock of trench warfare. Combat Power (“pwr”) This gives an indication of the lethality and staying power of a Unit during combat. It is a number used to provide a quick and general assessment of a Unit’s combat power, but is not a number used during battle. The Combat Software Engine works at the element level, taking each parameter of each element into account to simulate the outcome of every battle (gun range, rate of fire, discipline and such). Note: Cohesion and Manpower effects are already factored into PWR. E.g. a Division with a Cohesion Level of 1 will have a very low Combat Efficiency. Play Note: A good general will preserve his experienced Units by regularly sending them to the rear area in order to allow rest (i.e., Cohesion recovery) as well as replacement of losses. Number of Elements and Experience The ribbons on the left-hand side of a Unit indicate both the number of elements in the Unit and their Experience. There are three Experience Levels (bronze, silver and gold). Units gradually gain experience with each battle, increasing both their overall efficiency in combat and maximum Cohesion level. 42 To End All Wars Game Manual Cohesion Cohesion represents a Unit’s general readiness for combat. It is critical to a Unit’s overall efficiency as it impacts almost every aspect of the game, such as morale, speed, firepower and the ability to “March to the Sound of the Guns”. Note: A Unit with low Cohesion could suffer from poor morale, desertions and stragglers, exhaustion, disorganization, inadequate training or any other debilitating factor. It will be slow in moving and prone to break during combat. Movement and combat reduce a Unit’s Cohesion. Resting (see p. 50) gradually improves its Cohesion until it ultimately reaches its maximum level, which depends on training and Experience. NM affects a Unit’s maximum Cohesion and its Cohesion recovery rate when resting. Manpower A Unit’s remaining number of men, indicating its ability to fight and sustain further damage. Passing the mouse over the PWR number box on a Unit counter shows the manpower and further details instead of the Unit name. This is also indicated by the level of the manpower bar and as a red area within individual element symbols in the Inspection Panel. Element Attributes – Inspection Panel Each single element of a Unit has several attributes (such as discipline or weight) influencing a variety of mechanics (combat, transport, etc.) throughout the game, as indicated elsewhere. 43 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 12: Click on an element’s NATO Unit type symbol in the Inspection Panel to display the element details window, which provides several pages of detailed information on the Unit and all of its different attributes. Here, a German infantry brigade’s details are shown. Leader Attributes Good leadership is essential to win battles. All leaders have strengths and weaknesses as represented by their attributes. Note: Try to use your leaders to the best of their abilities. For instance, some are good on the offensive while others are better at defending. Figure 13: A leader’s counter only shows two pieces of information: Rank (number of stars) and Special Abilities (icon(s) in the bottom-left). Selecting a leader displays more data in the Inspection Panel on the right. In addition to providing CP (see p. 38), as every leader does, the commanding officer of a Stack (i.e. most senior leader of the highest44 To End All Wars Game Manual rank in the Stack) improves the capabilities of his subordinate Units with his Offensive/Defensive Rating (+5% to combat for each point) and his Special Abilities. His Strategic Rating also has a critical impact on the Stack’s performance (see below). Units in a Corps not only benefit from the benefits just described, but also from their own Corps leader’s capabilities (see p. 38). If a leader is alone in a region with enemy Units, he may be detected and eliminated. Rank Rank is shown by the number of stars on a leader’s counter. It determines the CP contribution of a leader (see p. 38), as well as the highest type of command he may assume (GHQ, Army or Corps). Note: Be aware that - just like in real life - the most talented officers are not always in command. Special Abilities Leaders may have Special Abilities, denoted by one or more icons (see p. 138). The tooltips will provide more details. They are usually beneficial. Some of these abilities apply at all times and others conditionally. Likewise, some only apply to certain Units while others affect the whole Stack or even other Stacks in the theater. Examples: The Cavalryman Special Ability only benefits cavalry Units and does not apply in mountain terrain. Strategic Rating & Activation Important Each turn, each Stack commanding officer makes a test based on his Strategic Rating. If he fails (indicated by a brown envelope icon on 45 To End All Wars Game Manual the Stack counter and in the Stack’s Inspection Panel), the leader is deemed inactivated for the coming Planning Phase and will suffer the following penalties: • Reduced movement (-50% speed) • Combat penalties in hostile regions (up to –50%). • Offensive Posture prohibited (does not affect admirals). Not being activated can represent delayed orders, over cautiousness, or even incompetence at the operational level or above. Note: A very cautious GHQ commander can even impact negatively the Activation Check of subordinate Army commanders. Technical Note: You may de-activate the activation tests rule in the Options Menu. Leaderless troops are always activated, as they don’t have leaders, but suffer from movement and combat penalties (by lack of CP). They are not prohibited from assuming Offensive Posture (the unknown general or colonel commanding is willing to take action but is not the best man for the job). Offensive & Defensive Ratings These ratings are used as a bonus in combat when attacking or defending (see p. 106). Seniority Order of seniority differentiates leaders of the same Rank. It is expressed as a number (with 1 being the most senior) and has a direct impact on promotion (see p. 39). Seniority is affected by winning and losing battles. In case of a seniority tie, the officer who held the rank earlier is senior. 46 To End All Wars Game Manual Political Cost The Political Cost of a leader is a measure of a leader’s place within the military hierarchy (Rank and Seniority), as well as his political influence and level of popularity. It has a direct impact on promotion. Historical Note: many WW1 leaders were notoriously incapable in key military areas, yet either very popular among their troops or with strong political backing. The cost of sacking such a leader is not to be underestimated. Experience Leaders gain and lose experience by winning battles and losing battles. This will in turn affect their other attributes. Randomized Generals Option You can choose to play the game with Leader attributes randomly generated - see the Options Window and choose the level of randomness desired. Fleets Naval Stacks are treated in much the same way as land Stacks, except that Command Chain rules don’t apply. Naval leaders are called Admirals (irrespective of Rank) and cannot command land Stacks (and vice-versa). An Admiral makes an Activation Check each turn, but, if he fails, he is only delayed in his actions and not prevented from setting his Fleet to an Offensive Posture. Figure 14: The British West Indies squadron in 1914. 47 To End All Wars Game Manual Orders The game is played in simultaneous turn mode. This means both sides simultaneously plan their orders for the upcoming two-week turn. This is called the “Planning Phase”. Then, the turn’s orders are simultaneously resolved during the “Resolution Phase”. As a consequence, you cannot accurately predict what is going to happen during the Resolution Phase. Basically, you can plan your Stack movement and general behavior (see Postures, p. 59), but you will have to trust your general’s judgment to carry out your orders as well as possible during the turn resolution. Please note however that your Stacks have a limited ability to dynamically adjust to the enemy’s movements in the form of Interception Orders (see p. 53). In between turns (i.e., after the Resolution Phase of a turn, but before the Planning Phase of the next turn), a number of activities are automatically carried out in the “Hosting Phase”, notably Supply distribution and weather-related Attrition. Note: Your forces will not blindly follow your orders. For instance, if a Stack in Offensive Posture comes across a larger enemy force, it will 48 To End All Wars Game Manual try to engage as ordered, but will then attempt to retreat once it realizes it is facing a superior enemy. Movement The default order you issue to your land Stacks is to move by land, but you can combine land movement with rail movement. Note that movement is severely restricted by the presence of enemy Units. Naval Units face limitations depending on their type: some can enter ocean regions while others are limited to coastal regions. Shallow draft vessels are the only ones allowed to move along rivers. Historical Note: The Entente’s naval capacity was far superior to the Central Powers’. The speed of movement is based on Cohesion, because exhausted and disorganized Units will travel much slower than fully-rested ones. Movement also has a Cohesion Cost, which varies greatly depending on the enemy military presence in the region, as well as the type of terrain crossed and the type of transportation (as indicated below): Regular Land Unit Movement is affected by weather, terrain type and the level of road infrastructure. Forced March can be faster but greatly increases the Cohesion Cost of movement. Posture also has an influence, with Offensive Posture Units incurring increased Cohesion loss and Passive Posture Units incurring reduced loss. Without any modifications, a Stack moving one day will spend one Cohesion point in doing so. • Rail Movement costs only a minimal amount of Cohesion and is very fast. • Naval Transport costs only a minimal amount of Cohesion, except in very harsh weather. 49 To End All Wars Game Manual • Ships lose a small amount of Cohesion depending on the weather and the ship type. Procedure: Use drag and drop to move each Stack. The estimated number of days required to move from a region to another is indicated for each leg of the movement path. The game will auto-plot a path that is the fastest route, considering terrain and infrastructure and the retarding effect of enemy forces. This may not be the most direct or strategically wise route, so you can also order movement in stages by selecting each leg of the journey yourself. In order to cancel the last leg of a move, press the Delete key. To cancel the whole movement, drag and drop the Stack on its original region. To add another leg to an existing movement path drag and drop the copy of the Stack counter which is shown at its current destination to the next desired destination in its movement path. The Tutorial explains in full detail how to manipulate Stacks. In addition, Units will take a number of hits from Attrition proportional to this Cohesion loss each time they move (see p. 43). Note: This simulates the inevitable losses incurred by moving Units (deserters, disease, etc.), especially in inhospitable regions. Resting Units can recover Cohesion if they don’t move. The Base Daily Rate for land Units is 0.75 Cohesion point, modified by: • Entrenched and outside of a structure: +0.5 • Inside a structure: +0.75 • In a loyal region: up to +0.5 • Besieged land Unit: -1.5 • Besieger (unless in Passive Posture): -0.5 • Land Unit transported aboard a ship: -0.5 • Offensive Posture: -0.5 50 To End All Wars Game Manual Land Unit in Passive Posture: +1 • Irregular: +0.5 The Base Daily Rate for naval Units is two and provided the Fleet is in a port (modifiers above are not applicable). These rates are further modified by NM. Note that the fastest recovery is resting in Passive Posture in a structure within a loyal region. Resting also allows a Unit to gradually fill in its ranks with replacements if you have some available (see p. 128). • Redeploying It’s possible to move units over the map rapidly. This is done with the special order ‘Redeploy’, which will need your units to be on a continuous series of railways. Planes units, representing both the actual planes and accompanying personals, can also use this order, but much more leniently as they can redeploy without the use of a railroad, over body of water, provided they land in the same Theater (example: West Front). This way, it’s possible to move planes in the London area to France or even in Italy. Blocking Movement & Evasion Enemy presence (especially Forts) inhibits movement in a land region. If this presence is strong enough, your Units won’t be able to bypass the defender to penetrate further into the enemy’s rear areas unless they fight to push the enemy back. However, some troops are particularly stealthy and can more easily manage to sneak into the enemy’s rear. This is represented by the Patrol and Evasion Values of the moving and blocking Stacks, as well as by the Military Control exerted over the region. You cannot enter a land region if the enemy’s Patrol Value divided by your Evasion Value is greater than your Military Control of the region. 51 To End All Wars Game Manual Play Note: This basically means you can fall back on friendly regions but are usually prohibited from moving further into enemy territory, unless your force is particularly stealthy and/or the enemy lacks proper reconnaissance Units. Patrol and Evasion Values also play a role in avoiding combat, if your Stack is on Passive Posture or if you have the ‘Evade Combat’ Special Order enabled (see p. 54). Procedure: Regions your Stack is prohibited from entering will pulsate in red. An icon on the Unit Panel provides you with detailed information. Patrol Value This value represents your troops’ ability to block the enemy’s movement. The sum of your Units’ Patrol Values is added to any Fort’s Patrol Value, if present. The level of Military Control you exert over the region also comes into play in this calculation. Note that each Unit type has different Patrol Values depending on its mobility and size. Play Note: Fortifications greatly enhance your Patrol Value. Large numbers of troops, especially mobile ones (such as cavalry) also help stop the enemy from infiltrating your territory. Evasion Value This value represents your troops’ ability to infiltrate rear areas and to avoid contact with the enemy. Here too, each Unit type has different Evasion Values according to mobility and size. Stacks qualifying as Small Forces have better Evasion Values. Similarly, Large Forces suffer a penalty. Harsh weather and terrain which provides cover also increase Evasion Values. Finding the Enemy at Sea You cannot directly stop an enemy’s movement through a sea region (or river), but Evasion and Patrol Values will determine the probability of a naval engagement occurring. 52 To End All Wars Game Manual Example 1: A Raider (high Evasion Value) can reasonably attempt to reach the open sea by outrunning opposing ships. Example 2: Light Cruisers (high Patrol Value) are fast Units which help their Fleet locate and engage any enemy trying to sneak around them. Example 3: steaming past enemy Forts and coastal defenses is always a risky proposition. Some admirals have a special ability that will help. Interception & Combination There are cases where you don’t want to move to a specific region but rather intercept a moving enemy Stack wherever it goes. You may also need to join and merge with a friendly Stack. Both are handled similarly. Procedure: Drag and drop your Stack onto an enemy or friendly Stack and your army/fleet will attempt to intercept the enemy or join the friendly Stack by adjusting its destination each day toward the then-current location of the targeted Stack. If it does not reach its target during the Resolution Phase, it may continue moving to intercept into a later turn if the target remains visible. If your intercepting Stack cannot locate the enemy (see p. 61-62), the intercepting Stack will stop its movement. An enemy Stack you are following may also split, in which case the intercepting Stack will usually go after the larger enemy formation. Intercepting Stacks also may be engaged by enemy before they arrive at their target. Naval Interception Naval units also benefit from a special order ‘Naval Interception’ which will allow the fleet to intercept any adjacent enemy fleet passing by. See next section for details. 53 To End All Wars Game Manual Special Orders & Movement Special Orders allow you to fine-tune how your Stacks move and react to the enemy during the upcoming turn and to issue a wide variety of specialized movement and non-movement orders. Special Orders are located on the Special Orders bar, which is accessed by clicking one of the three Special Orders buttons to the left of the Stack Panel tabs. Available orders are affected by the type of Unit and current conditions. Note that inactive leaders lose the ability to perform some Special Orders. Unless noted otherwise, Special Orders require some kind of check (mostly related to leader and Unit attributes) before they occur in order to determine the extent of success/failure. Special Orders needing days to be completed are always executed first during a turn. If there is any remaining time, your Unit will then carry out its movement order (if any). • Ambush: Non-moving Irregular Units (mostly colonial forces) can try to set an ambush in wild, swampy, hilly, forested or jungle regions. If they succeed they will have enhanced combat benefits against an enemy entering the region, including first fire and the possibility of retreating easily. NB: not active in version 1.00 of the game as no unit qualifies for its use. 54 • Forced March: Forced March allows the Stack to move at a faster pace but at a loss in Cohesion due to stragglers. Light Units get a bonus. • Enter Structure: The Stack will enter the friendly city/Fort in the region where it ends its move. Success is automatic. This will also Stack your Units to move into a nearby city (located in the same region) if they suffer from a retreat in battle. To End All Wars Game Manual • Sortie: Your Stack is currently within a besieged Fort/city. This orders it to join any combat initiated by a relief Stack against the besiegers. If the Stack has a leader, he must be Active. • Naval Bombardment: Your Fleet will bombard the first coastal structure or entrenched position it meets, provided you have a land Stack in the target region. The enemy can retaliate if he has emplaced batteries (trench Level 5+) or a Fort. A structure under bombardment will display this icon on the map. • Build Depot: The Stack will expend two Supply Units and build a Depot in the current region. • Destroy Depot: The Stack will destroy any Depot present in the current region. • Build Fortification: The Stack will expend two Supply Units and four artillery batteries (i.e. elements) to build a field fortification. • Destroy Fortification: The Stack will destroy any low-level Fort in the region. • Repair Rail Network: The Stack will build or repair the rail network in its region. • Destroy Rail Network: The Stack will destroy the rail network in its region. • Move by River: The Stack can now benefit from river movement during the turn. • Move by Rail: The Stack can now benefit from rail movement during the turn. • Delay Move: The Stack will move at the same time as the latest activated Stack in the same region. 55 To End All Wars Game Manual 56 • Synchronize Movement: If in the same region, the Army GHQ and all subordinate Armies will move together (at the pace of the slowest Army). Note: This is selected by default. In addition, when the Army GHQ moves, all subordinate Armies in the region will automatically synchronize without needing to use this Special Order. • Distant Unload: The Stack is ordered to unload into the designated land region adjoining the destination sea or river zone of the transporting ships as soon as the ships arrive there. • Promote Leader: The leader is eligible for promotion to the next rank, though at a possible Political Cost. • Demote Leader: the opposite of the above. A Political cost will be paid also. • Combine Units: The selected Units can be combined into a single one. This is used to form a Corps, if a leader with Corps command enabled is included. It is also used to merge weakened Units into a stronger one. The Unit selected first will absorb the other Unit, which returns to the Force Pool. • Split Units: the opposite of the above (e.g., removing all Units from a Corps). • Form GHQ: See p. 33 • Dismiss GHQ: See p. 33 • Create Army: See p. 35. This forms an Army attached to the nearest GHQ. • Dismiss Army from GHQ: See p. 35. This detaches an Army as an independent Stack. • Relocate: allows to move a Unit or a leader from a region to another provided both are connected by an uninterrupted line of railroads. To End All Wars Game Manual • Intercept: The moving naval Stack will try to intercept an enemy Unit or Stack passing by. • Evade Combat: The moving land or naval Stack will try to avoid contact during movement and will also enter Raid mode. Inactive leaders may not use this order. • Disband: selected Stack will be disbanded at a cost in VPs. • Surrender: selected Stack will surrender. Rail Movement A Stack with “Move by Rail” Special Order(s) will use existing rail lines on its movement path, resulting in a much faster movement rate and vastly reduced Cohesion cost. You must have at least 25% Military Control in a region to use its rail network. This icon shows that a region’s rail lines have been cut and are unusable until repaired. This type of movement draws upon national pools of trains depending on the size of the Stack to be transported, which limits the number of Stacks that can simultaneously move this way. Your transport capacity is displayed on the Transport Assets Panel at the top of the map. Rail transport assets are also used to transport Supply along railroads (see p. 62). As a consequence, only the transport capacity not assigned to move Units will be available for Supply distribution. Regular Sea Movement You must use individual transport ships to transport troops by sea. The first type of seaborne (or Riverine) movement is 57 To End All Wars Game Manual to transport Units from one friendly port to another. In this case the Units automatically disembark when they reach their destination port. Procedure: First, merge the transporting Fleet and the Units to be transported in the port of departure, then order the combined Stack to move to the destination port. Note that the transporting Fleet needs to have enough transport capacity to do so. Embark and Disembark to Port You can embark Units by dragging them onto the transport Units Stack or Stack Panel Tab and they will sail away after they finish loading. A land Unit contained on a naval transport Unit will automatically disembark upon reaching a port. Amphibious Landing Landing in an enemy region or a region without a port (even if friendly) is a two-step process: 1. Move the transport Fleet and its cargo to a water zone adjacent to the landing spot as you would for a regular transport. 2. The turn after your Fleet reaches its destination, split the Stack and order the detached land Units to move ashore. The Distant Unload order will do this automatically as soon as the Fleet arrives, but will send every land Unit being transported ashore. The Fleet disembarking Units this way can be given a move order and will sail away after disembarking is complete. 3. You can reverse the procedure to embark Units from coastal regions unto naval transports in an adjacent water zone and the transport will sail away according to its orders when the loading is complete. 58 To End All Wars Game Manual Postures The offensive or defensive stance of a Stack is called its “posture”. Four buttons represent the different postures. Once a posture is selected, a corresponding icon is displayed over the counter as a reminder. The possible postures are: • Assault: Your Stack will attack any detected opponent it comes across. During a siege, your Stack will attempt to storm the Fort/city - expect heavy casualties unless the defenses have been breached (see p. 126). • Offensive: Same as Assault, except during a siege your Stack will not attempt to storm a Fort/City (it will continue the siege instead). • Defensive: Your Stack won’t engage enemy Units. If attacked, it will defend with the benefit of the region’s terrain bonus, if any. It will continue an ongoing siege. • Passive: This is the same as Defensive Posture but with combat penalties if you are attacked. However your chance of withdrawing from combat is increased. Passive Units also won’t increase the Military Control of their region. Rules of Engagement (ROE) The Rules of Engagement options available are different according to the Stack’s assigned Posture. Assault and Offensive Posture ROEs The possible ROE options for a Stack in either an Assault or Offensive posture are: 59 To End All Wars Game Manual • All-Out Attack: A Stack will not attempt to retreat during the first two (2) combat rounds of a battle. The chances of attempting a retreat are reduced during subsequent combat rounds. Losses are increased for both sides. • Sustained Attack: A Stack conducts combat normally. This is the default ROE for Stacks in Assault or Offensive posture. • Conservative Attack: A Stack attempts to withdraw from the battle beginning with the third combat round unless it appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides are reduced. • Feint/Probe Attack: A Stack attempts to withdraw from the battle beginning with the second combat round unless it appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in withdrawing from battle are greatly increased. Losses for both sides are significantly reduced. Defensive and Passive ROEs The possible ROE options for a Stack in a Defensive posture are: 60 • Hold At All Costs: A Stack will never attempt to retreat. Routing is still possible. Losses for defending Stack will be increased. • Defend: A Stack conducts combat normally. This is the default ROE for Stacks in Defensive or Passive posture. • Defend and Retreat: A Stack attempts to withdraw from the battle beginning with the third combat round unless it appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides are reduced. To End All Wars Game Manual • Retreat if Engaged: A Stack will attempt to withdraw beginning with the first combat round. The chances of succeeding in withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides are reduced. A ‘Retreat if Engaged’ ROE is automatically assigned to a Stack adopting a Passive Posture. Postures and ROEs are assigned to Stacks individually and independent of assignments made to other Stacks. In other words, it is permissible (and indeed likely) that multiple friendly Stacks located in the same region of the game map will have different Postures and ROEs. Such groupings of Stacks treat the presence of enemy forces according to their individually assigned Postures and ROEs. Fog of War A player will only see enemy Units if they are detected. The Hide Value of the enemy Units is compared to the friendly Detection Value in the region: if your Detection Value equals the Hide Value of your opponent, you detect him. Extra Detection points above that increase the accuracy of the intelligence gathered. Detection Value Detection Points in a region are generated by 3 sources (not cumulative, use only the highest value): 1. At least 51% Military Control in your favor: 2 points 2. At least 51% Population Alignment in your favor: 2 points 3. Troops: Highest Detection Rating present 61 To End All Wars Game Manual Detection also extends to adjacent regions but with a –1 reduction. A region is grayed out if your Detection Level there is 0. Planes: They will perform automatically recon missions up to a distance of 3 regions away (depending of technology). When a recon is successful, a bonus of 1-2 detection points is given in the region. Hide Value If a Stack is in a region with a structure (friendly or enemy), its Hide Value is set to 2 unless in Passive Posture. Otherwise, a group possesses the Hide Value of its Unit with the worst Hide Value, modified as follows: • Only leaders present: +1 • Small Force or Passive: +1 • Large Force: -1 • Sneaky terrain: +1 • Bad weather: +1 See the glossary for definitions of a Small Force or Large Force. Hint: Stacks near enemy territory or troops are automatically detected, unless the region is completely wild (i.e. no structure present). Stacks in your rear areas, however, usually remain unspotted. Some Irregular Units are good choices to recon and spot enemy Units doing the same. Supply Supply is divided into two categories: General Supply (such as food, water, clothing, small arms and general shells for field artillery, etc.) and 62 To End All Wars Game Manual Ammunition (used for large guns, howitzer and siege artillery). They are tracked separately but follow the same rules. Armies and Fleets need General Supply each turn to keep operating while Ammunition is only used during battles by the medium and heavy artillery units (only). Many Units normally carry two turns worth of General Supply and enough Ammunition to last for two battles. They will try to replenish their stockpile each turn. Hover your mouse over a Stack’s supply icon to check how much General Supply and Ammunition it carries. Out of Supply Penalties Units lacking General Supply will start taking hits and lose Cohesion. They also incur a moderate combat penalty. Heavy artillery units lacking Ammunition will incur a severe combat penalty (or won’t be able to shoot at all). Note: Supply is absolutely critical to military operations, as starvation, desertion and disease take a great toll on Units. Supply Sources The basic amounts generated are as follows: Structure General Supply/Level Ammunition/Level City 6 0 Depot 4 1 Harbor 3 1 Fort or Redoubt 2 0 This is further modified by: • Investment in Industrial Development (Options) (see p. 84) • Alignment: Production is multiplied by [Alignment + 50 %]. For instance, if a region is completely aligned to your side 63 To End All Wars Game Manual (100% Alignment) production in the region will be multiplied by 1.5 • National Morale • Blockade You can check the total General Supply generated in a region with its tooltip. Design Note: These values may further be altered during Beta Testing. Please check the ingame tooltips for the latest values. Supply Distribution & Depots Each structure and Unit in the game will “pull” a certain amount of Supply each turn. This occurs during the Hosting Phase (see p. 12). Supply sources will strive to distribute their Supply surplus to nearby structures and Units that need it. This will trigger a chain reaction, with Supply being forwarded from one structure to another until it reaches the farthest Units/structures. This process is automated and conducted in three consecutive “push” steps taking many parameters into account. The amount of Supply that can transit through a structure is roughly proportional to its Production Capacity (see above) and the distance covered by your abstracted Supply columns during each step can range from one to five regions depending on: • Terrain • Weather • Enemy presence • Rail Transport • River Transport • Sea Transport You can directly check on the map how much General Supply/ Ammunition is stockpiled and where by using the Supply Filter (see p. 23). 64 To End All Wars Game Manual Note: Isolated Units – such as Units under siege – will begin to suffer from starvation when their General Supply reserves are depleted. Rail & Sea Transport Each turn, the trains left unused during the movement phase will be available for Supply distribution. These will be used to transport Supply over friendly rail lines. Note: Controlling railroads is strategically important, as they allow you to transport great quantities of Supply and men compared to overland Supply paths using roads. Both sides have the option to transport Supply by sea to coastal areas and ports. The transport capacity depends on the number of transport ships allocated to their respective “Shipping” boxes and is displayed on the Transport Assets Panel at the top of the map. Example: Entente shipping allows long distance Supply transport, for example from Canada or Australia to Europe. The process is automated and will strive to augment the Supply of needy ports and coastal Depots by transporting any excess Supply in the Entente harbors to where it is needed. Note: The Central Powers shipping ability is mostly concentrated in the Baltic Sea (German ships in the Baltic Shipping box provide the tools for transporting supplies in that sea) Depots Depots are very useful in optimizing your Supply lines. You can build them in critical locations such as Supply bottlenecks or remote areas lacking other structures. These will then act as transit points in order to bridge gaps in your Supply lines, extend the reach of your Supply network and increase Supply throughput. A Depot will attract and then push forward more Supplies than Level 1-14 cities. When the Supply Filter is active, your Depots will pulsate on the map to help you see their locations. 65 To End All Wars Game Manual Note 1: Building a Depot network every three to five regions is highly recommended. Note 2: Depots are tempting targets for enemy raiders and should be adequately protected. Supply Wagons and Trucks Supply Wagons and Trucks (commonly called Supply Units) are special Units which act as moving Supply stockpiles and thus provide you with limited direct control over Supply. They fill up during the Supply Distribution Phase. Supply Units allow you to keep selected Stacks supplied, even if they operate far from their Supply bases. However, this will only last until they become empty and need to be resupplied themselves from a regular Supply source. Supply Units tend to slow down the Stack they accompany and cannot be used by naval Units. Supply Units also have the following additional benefits: • They provide a +10% fire bonus during battles (provided they have some ammo left) • They protect Units from bad weather effects by trading hits for Supply A Supply Unit or transport ship is able to supply any land Unit with both General Supply and Ammunition if it is in the same or an adjacent region. Note: If you have too many depleted Supply Units near the front, you can move them back by train to rear areas stockpiles so they get replenished. This is one manual means that players have to control precisely where they want Supply. Most of the micro-management burden is handled by the automated Supply Distribution Phase. 66 To End All Wars Game Manual Naval Units Fleets at sea can replenish General Supply from adjacent land regions with a stockpile, but they can only replenish Ammunition while in port. Naval Transport Units can also be used to manually transport General Supply for troops located in adjacent coastal regions, similar to Supply Units. Note/Example: Any Central Powers Naval Transport Unit in the Baltic Shipping Box will also help shuffling supply to coastal regions of the Baltic Sea. Naval Supply is as important as supplying your land Units, and can be trickier. Ships with low supply will lose cohesion quickly and must be returned to port to regain it. By manually rotating fully-Supplied transports to the naval boxes you can maintain them at sea for a much longer time (until they need to replenish Ammunition in port). Foraging Out-of-Supply Units located in an enemy region have a chance of finding enough subsistence by foraging to momentarily avoid the penalties due to lack of General Supply. This depends on the terrain and Civilization Level of the region, as well as the time of year. A leader with the “Forage” Special Ability also improves his Stack’s chances. One at a time, each 67 To End All Wars Game Manual Out-of-Supply element will make its own test to see if it forages enough General Supply. However, as soon as a single test is failed, the region is considered icon, and will to have been looted and pillaged, as shown by the not provide any more Supply until it recovers, which happens during the harvest season. Technical Note: The Supply calculations use sophisticated pathfinding algorithms that can take between 5 and 30 seconds to process, depending on scenario size and your CPU’s power. Climate & Weather Weather plays a critical role in the conduct of operations. It affects movement, Supply and combat in many ways, as shown on the following chart. Important: Stacks in a reasonably loyal region with a friendly structure ignore Attrition due to bad weather. Please note that the Stack does not need to be located within the structure to benefit from its protection: the structure provides shelter to all Stacks in the region, both within and outside the structure (this avoids needless micro-management). Weather Movement & Supply Transport Combat Attrition Mud Moderate penalty. River crossing more difficult. Slight penalty for the Attacker Mountain regions suffer Attrition Snow Moderate penalty. Moderate penalty for the attacker. Battles start at close range. All Stacks suffer Attrition (unless sheltered) Frozen Moderate penalty. Bodies of water may freeze, as shown by the icon. Moderate penalty for the attacker. Same as Snow, with slightly greater losses Blizzard Severe penalty. Bodies of water may freeze. Severe penalty for the attacker. Battles start at close range. Same as Frozen, with even greater losses 68 To End All Wars Game Manual Attrition Contrary to popular belief, more casualties during wars in general were caused by Attrition (disease, cold, desertion, etc.) rather than direct battle losses. In EAW, the following activities will result in Units taking hits: • • • • Movement: Hits are proportional to the Cohesion cost of the move (see p. 49). Desert or Jungle Terrain: Each turn spent in desert terrain results in severe Attrition losses. Lack of General Supply: Units will take Attrition hits (in addition to Cohesion losses and combat penalties, see p. 69) Bad Weather: Units lacking shelter will take a number of hits depending on the severity of weather conditions (see table above). Supply Wagons (see p. 66) in a Stack automatically “shield” Units from Attrition by expending 5 General Supply points per Attrition hit negated. Fleets do not enjoy this benefit. Attrition is slightly reduced if in civilized regions (x 0.9), if there is a Supply Unit present in the Stack (x 0.9). Or if Units are entrenched (x 0.8). 69 To End All Wars Game Manual Military Control Military Control is represented as a percentage of control in each region. As such, a region’s control ranges from 50/50, representing a region that is equally contested by both sides, to 100/0, where one side has absolute control of the region. If both sides have troops present in a region, neither may increase Military Control until one side assumes an Offensive Posture (see p. 38) in an attempt to increase control of the region. If the attacker is successful, the beaten defender will lose a portion of Military Control and either retreat locally, in which case it will stay in the region, or retreat to an adjacent region if soundly defeated. Note that Stacks in Passive Posture or those composed exclusively of support Units will not contest control of a region, meaning the enemy will increase its Military Control without fighting. If you manage to push back the enemy from a region and leave some Units to occupy it, you will gain complete Military Control in one or two turns, depending of the amount of troops you have. An Army on the march can even convert a region in a few days! Effects Having Military Control of a region greatly increases both your chances of stopping an enemy Stack trying to cross it (see p. 51) and the Cohesion cost incurred by enemy Units moving into/through the region. It also affects the chances of an Army successfully “Marching to the Sound of the Guns” (see p. 36). 70 To End All Wars Game Manual In addition, if you control at least 51% of a region your Detection Level will increase (see p. 61). Finally, you cannot retreat from battle into completely hostile regions (i.e. less than 5% Military Control). Note: Engaging in a battle deep within enemy territory is a very risky proposition, as losing will result in complete destruction for lack of a retreat path! In regions with 5% or less Military Control (i.e., enemy territory), a Stack will automatically adopt Offensive Posture in an attempt to get a foothold there. However, Stacks in Passive Posture or those composed entirely of cavalry, Irregulars or support Units may transit through enemy territory without switching Posture. Note: When penetrating into enemy territory, a Stack will have to face opposing forces blocking the main avenues of advance, unless it is fast-moving/stealthy enough to attempt infiltration deeper into enemy territory. A Stack can also attempt to retreat to its lines through enemy territory, trying to avoid contact. During amphibious assaults and river crossings into regions where you have 10% or less Military Control, your posture is also automatically set to Offensive (unless the Stack is entirely composed of Irregulars). Note: Armies amphibiously landing or crossing a river have no choice but to fight the enemy defending the crossing or beach at a disadvantage. However, Stacks crossing/landing into a region where you previously secured a beachhead/bridgehead (more than 10% Military Control) can reinforce it without fighting. Irregulars are also considered stealthy enough to cross/land unopposed. Controlling Structures To control a structure, you must simply be the latest to have occupied it with a combat Unit. 71 To End All Wars Game Manual Note: You don’t necessarily need to leave a Unit garrisoning the structure, although it is good practice to do so even if it has its own “auto-garrison” Unit. Irregulars and Partisans will only take control of a city if the population in the area is friendly (51% Alignment or more). They cannot capture Depots or Forts and will instead destroy them automatically. Diplomacy and Alignment Alignment is a measure of the local population’s inclination for one side or the other and is independent of Military Control. You can quickly occupy an enemy region with your troops, but winning its population to your side is a far slower process. Also, in this game, Alignment is used to represent support of the local population to the overall war effort, and also war weariness: a region with a low alignment means the population there is no longer supporting the war effort on your side. High Alignment within a region will give the following benefits: • You don’t need to garrison Objectives in order to earn VPs. • The locals will provide you some intelligence as to the enemy’s whereabouts (see p. 61). • The region will produce more Supply, State Funds, and Resources. • If the enemy occupies a region loyal to your side without leaving enough of a garrison, its Military Control will gradually shift in your favor and there is a chance that Partisans will appear in the region. 72 To End All Wars Game Manual • If a region is very hostile to the occupant (10% or less Alignment), non-garrisoned cities may even openly revolt, in which case an enemy Unit will appear and take control of the city. Diplomacy Regions As the Great War encompassed many nations, EAW is designed to handle diplomacy and alliances via special off-map Diplomacy Regions. This area of the map can be accessed by clicking on the area of the mini-map indicated by the red ellipse in the image picture above on the left. On the map screen, you will see regions indicating the various nations which may participate in some fashion in the Great War. The next two sections will describe the effects of these special Diplomacy Regions. Figure 15: The Diplomatic Boxes (right) are on the top-right of the main map. 73 To End All Wars Game Manual Diplomacy Regions: Alignment and War Support For any nation involved in the war, the Diplomacy Region corresponding to that nation indicates the contentment of its home front. Hovering over the region will show a Alignment value, split between the alliance the nation is attached to, and the Rebel faction, indicating discontent at home. In general, Rebel Alignment increases by 1% each turn, though losses on the field (particularly strategic and objective cities), certain Regional Decisions, and various events may increase (or decrease) this value as well. Once Rebel Alignment exceeds 80% in a nation, there is a 1% chance per point over 80 of the nation’s will crumbling and it withdrawing from the war (for example, if Rebel Alignment in Russia is 85%, there is a 5% chance per turn of Russia signing an armistice). Withdrawal will involve the nation’s regions becoming blocked to all sides (though any regions held by the enemy will not be blocked and will become occupied regions belonging to the enemy alliance). As an example, consider the image below. Figure 16: France Diplomatic status 74 To End All Wars Game Manual Here we have the off-map Diplomacy Region of France, with an Entente Alignment of 97% and a Rebel Alignment of 3%. At this point, France has little to worry about with ill-content on the home front, but should Rebel Alignment ever increase beyond 80%, the chances would begin of France pulling out of the war! The Dilution Effect (or when +30% is not +30%!): Alignment is often modified by events. You’ll see for example that an event will add +30% alignments to a specific region. One turn after the outcome, the expected increase is lower than you would expect. How can it be? The easiest way to explain it is with some numbers. Germany starts with 80% alignment. France with 20%. An event boosts Germany alignment by 30%. What will be the end result? The game gives 30% to Germany, for a 110% alignment value. France is still at 20% here, for a grand total of 130%. Then the game ‘normalizes’ these values toward a sum of 100%, by doing these maths: Germany new alignment will be 110/130 = 85% France new alignment will be 20/130 = 15% In a nutshell: the higher alignment you already have, the smaller the actual gain will be. Said differently, it will be extremely hard to take away the last few percentages points of alignment in a given region. Diplomacy: Notes & Examples Neutral nations can end up allied to either the Central Powers or the Entente, regardless of which side they fought on historically. The only exceptions are Great Britain and United States, which will never join the Central Powers (but may remain neutral). The Balkans have the most flexibility. In particular, if the Central Powers do not recognize Bulgaria’s claims on Serbia, it’s far more likely to have the Balkan nations up for grabs on either side (though this will also likely mean their entry later in the war, such as late 1916 75 To End All Wars Game Manual or early 1917). So, as an example, the Recognize Bulgaria’s Claims event gives the Central Powers +20% loyalty with Bulgaria, but at a cost of Greece, Romania, and Serbia moving +20% towards Entente (in Serbia’s case, this means boosting their morale at home, since they are already allied to Entente). Then, when/if Bulgaria actually joins the Central Powers, Greece and Romania move another +10% towards Entente. So there’s a total net +30% swing for Greece and Romania, which heavily puts them in the Entente court. Now, whether this is a bad thing or not is up to the player, since Bulgaria has a better military than the other two, and with proper courting, can be in the Centrals alliance in 1915, whereas the other two are likely to take longer. Italy and Ottoman Empire have a lot of possibilities too, though it takes some costly measures to swing them towards ahistorical directions. For the Ottoman Empire, the Centrals have two key options they can play early on. The first is a substantial 500 State Funds donation to the Ottomans (essentially a big loan), and the other is the Goeben & Breslau event (which can be averted if these ships can be sunk in the first turn in the Mediterranean, but catching them is tough). Each of these swings the Ottomans +10% towards the Centrals (they start at 60% Centrals/40% Entente). The British have the option of giving the Ottomans the Agincourt and Erin battleships, which will move Ottomans back +10% towards Entente, but this means the Ottomans have a slightly better navy with which to threaten the Entente. It’s very tough for the Ottomans to end up on the Entente side, but it’s quite possible to delay their entry a bit, and if the Centrals don’t play either of their events, it’s in the realm of possibility they might eventually join the Entente. Italy is tough to influence either way in 1914, but in 1915 a bunch of options come open. The biggest one the Centrals can play is letting Austria cede the Italian claims in Trieste and Trento areas, which moves Italy +25% towards Centrals but gives up good defensive regions on 76 To End All Wars Game Manual the Italian/Austrian border and severely harms Austrian homefront loyalty. But it will keep the Italians out of the war for quite a while, perhaps the whole war if the Centrals maintain diplomatic pressure, and can even lead to the Italians joining the Central Powers later in the war if the Entente neglects to put diplomatic pressure on the Italians). The Entente have more options they can play on Italy, including D’Annuzio (which is low cost +10% loyalty), Recognizing Italian War Goals (+20% Entente loyalty, but Austrian homefront loyalty is boosted heavily and Centrals get +5 NM, NOTE: this option becomes unavailable if Austria has given concessions!), and Tunisia to Italy (+10% Entente loyalty, but France loses loyalty on its homefront and Western Entente suffer -5 NM, -100 VP). Italy has the most flexibility of the “major powers”, but its costly to either side to swing it away from the historical path. In practice, it’s very tough to see an ahistorical alliance occur (though it can happen), but it’s very viable to see nations remain neutral much longer than they actually did, with the right choices made. Political Alignment Decisions The Regional Decisions (RGD) which specifically affect Political Region Alignment are as follows: Grant Concessions: This RGD represents concessions by the nation’s government to quell labor unrest and ease the effects of strikes. When played, this RGD will bring the nation 3% towards the alliance’s Alignment, but at a cost of 50 VP and 2 Engagement Pts. It can be played an individual nation once every 12 turns (6 months). Change Government: This RGD represents fundamental changes in the ruling cabinet of government. This will help improve Alignment in the nation it is played on, but undermines other aspects of the alliance’s strength. When played, 77 To End All Wars Game Manual his RGD will move the nation 8% towards the alliance’s Alignment, but with a cost of 5 Morale, 250 VP, and 8 Engagement Pts. It can be played on an individual nation once every 24 turns (12 months). Diplomatic Regions: Alignment and Diplomacy For nations not currently at war (still neutral), the Alignment values represent which alliance the nation is currently leaning towards. For example, if Bulgaria is still neutral, it may have a Alignment split of 60% Central Powers, 40% Entente (these percentages will always total 100%). When a neutral nation reaches 100% Alignment towards one of the alliances, it will join the alliance. Neutral nations can have various other effects on the opposing alliances, depending on their current Alignment ranges. These effects are listed in icons on the sides of the Diplomatic Region (Entente effects are always on left, Central Powers effects are always on the right). If an effect is currently inactive, it will be shown with a red X through it. Hovering over the icons will give a full description of the effects and under what circumstances they are active. Figure 17: Serbian has been declared war upon by the Central Powers 78 To End All Wars Game Manual In the example below, the USA is still strictly neutral, and hovering over the neutral icons will give the tool-tip shown below. On the right side, there are three icons with a red X, these are benefits the USA will supply to the Entente as they become more loyal to the Entente alliance. Figure 18: The USA are still neutral Diplomatic Alignment Decisions Many events during the game can impact Alignment, but the primary influence comes from a specific Regional Decision: Send Diplomat (Major/Minor): The Central Powers and Western Entente each have 1 Send Diplomat (Major) and 4 Send Diplomat (Minor) RGDs (all Entente diplomacy is handled by Western Entente). The Major decision can be played on Great Britain, Italy, USA, or Ottoman Empire (if they are still neutral), while the Minor decision is played on any other neutral nation. When a diplomat option is in effect, a check is made each turn against the current Alignment of the nation towards the alliance playing the RGD, if successful, the nation moves 2% towards the alliance. So, for example, if the Ottoman Empire is currently 66% Central Powers/34% Entente Alignment, a Central Powers Send Diplomat will have a 66% chance of increasing Ottoman Alignment 2% towards Central Powers, while the Entente would only have a 34% chance if playing the decision. 79 To End All Wars Game Manual Declare War: The Central Powers and Western Entente players may play this RGD on a neutral nation’s off-map region to declare war (with some historical exceptions; i.e. Western Entente may not declare war on USA). Once played, the following turn your alliance will be at war with the nation and it will be a member of the opposing alliance. Western Entente declarations of war are binding for the Eastern Entente player as well. Military Influencing Alignment Over time, Martial Law imposed by the occupant will slowly shift a region’s Alignment in his favor. This is particularly true if a leader with the “Occupier” Special Ability is present, but the process remains a slow one. The only way to really get population to stop supporting their side is to demoralize the enemy by capturing Strategic Cities. Each time this happens, the bad news triggers a wave of Alignment Checks across the map depending on the distance: • One check for each Strategic City on the map • One check for each region with a Strategic City in the Area • One check for each adjacent region Note: The news spread faster in large cities, and their psychological impact is highly influenced by proximity. Conversely, remote areas are less volatile in their loyalties. 80 To End All Wars Game Manual The War Economy (Resources) To raise Units, you will need Men, State Funds and War Supplies: this is what your war economy is about. However, you are limited in the numbers and locations of your newly raised Units since each Area can only provide a limited share of its resources to your war effort. Men (Conscripts) Each alliance begins with a pool of conscripts/volunteers contributed by the major nations within the alliance (e.g. Western Entente conscript pool represents French and British manpower, Central Powers represents German and Austro-Hungarian, etc). When a new nation joins the alliance, additional manpower is contributed to this pool, corresponding to its size (minor nations give only a small contribution, while large nations such as USA give a substantial increase). Cities and towns within the alliance will also contribute an amount each turn (though this will vary based on Alignment and military control). To help ensure units are distributed between nations, EAW grants a bonus/penalty to the cost (in State Funds) of units in the Force Pool based on what percentage of the Force Pool has been built (this only impacts infantry, cavalry, and militia units). This formula works as follows: • If a Force Pool (FP) has 20% or less of its units on the map, it costs 50% of its normal cost (bonus) • If 21-40% of FP units on the map, it costs 75% of its normal cost (bonus) 81 To End All Wars Game Manual If 41-60% of FP units on the map, the cost is unaffected • If 61-80% of FP units on the map, the cost is 125% of normal cost (penalty) • If 81% or higher of FP units on the map, the cost is 150% of normal cost (penalty) In this way, overbuilding a certain nation’s allotment of troops will quickly drain the alliances State Funds pool. • Usage Men are needed in order to raise new Units and to replace losses for Units on the field (see p. 89). State Funds In addition to Men and War Supplies, every Unit and replacement has a cost in State Funds, as do many options and Regional Decisions. State Funds are produced each turn in places such as your national capital, financial centers, key strategic cities, factories and structures of various kinds, but this will prove insufficient for raising the quantities of troops and war equipment on the scale of the Great War. The primary method of raising exceptional funds comes from the following Regional Decision: Print Money: This decision will immediately grant your alliance 1000 State Funds, but at a cost of Morale, VP, and Engagement Pts, and a 2% increase in inflation. It can only be played on certain nations (France, Great Britain, USA, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia), only if they are in your alliance, and only once every 3 turns (1.5 months). Proper usage of this decision will greatly impact your war economy, as funds will be needed quickly, but over-use can lead to collapse of the economy through hyper-inflation. 82 To End All Wars Game Manual Supplies Supplies come in three varieties in WW1. Cities will produce these three kinds of supplies each turn based on their size. War Supplies This is a general term representing the heavier equipment needed by your troops. Heavy ships and artillery cost lots of War Supplies, as they require industrial capacity and raw materials. Infantry, on the other hand, costs few, since rifles and other light equipment are easier to manufacture. Central Powers blockade runners may provide some imported War Supplies to their side after selling goods and other cargoes overseas to still neutral powers. Central Powers naval raiders may also slightly disrupt Entente War Supplies and State Funds production (but won’t bring back their prizes to the Central Powers ports). General Supply Armies and Fleets need food, clothing, general small arms ammos and field artillery shells, as well as all other basic supplies to keep on moving and fighting. These are all grouped into the term “General Supply” (as opposed to “War Supplies”) and are distributed to your Depots and your troops every turn (see p. 62). Ammunition Another commodity you will need to keep your heavy artillery (important for heavy bombardments and sieges) is Ammunition, which is tracked separately from General Supply but otherwise follows the same production and distribution mechanisms. 83 To End All Wars Game Manual Industrialization Industrialization is very limited in the game, as industry was already present almost everywhere needed. What was critical in the era was the conversion of existing civilian factories into war material factories to support the armed forces and the war effort. To keep it simple and manageable, we have limited this to the creation of extra Munitions. This is an option that you can play using Game Decisions (see also Appendices) Munitions Factory: This decision will build a Munitions Factory in the region where it is played. Munitions factories will output 5 ammunition points (representing artillery munitions) each turn. Ammunition is key to keeping medium artillery and heavy artillery functional in combat, and in turn these units are crucial to breaking the trench deadlock in the later years of the war. Blockade & Raiding Commerce The Entente, with the mighty Royal Navy (and later on other allied fleets), will strive to block Central Powers commerce with the rest of the world in order to ruin or weaken their economy. Blockade Boxes There are two blockades which can be enacted: • The Atlantic Blockade: By placing ships in the Atlantic Blockade Box (at the north end of the North Sea), the Entente can enact the Atlantic Blockade, which gradually erodes support for the war in Germany. • The Mediterranean Blockade: By placing ships in the Mediterranean Blockade Box (just south of Sardinia), the Entente can enact the Mediterranean Blockade, which gradually erodes support for the war in Austro-Hungary. 84 To End All Wars Game Manual Both blockades start off mild in effect and grow worse as time progresses. Each turn, there is a 4% chance per heavy or light warship element the Entente have in a Blockade Box of incrementing the effects (so 4 Battlecruiser and 4 Light Cruiser elements would have 8 x 4% = 32% chance of increasing the Blockade counter), and enacting the Neutrals Blockade option (available early in the war) will allow this check to be made twice per turn. Initial Level The Blockades start at Level 1 (once Entente ships are in the Blockade Box) and can go as high as Level 6. The level progresses forward when a Blockade counter has increased by 20. So if the Entente has at least 25 ships elements in the Atlantic Blockade, it will have a (25 x 4% = 100%) each turn of increasing the Atlantic Blockade counter by 1 (and if Neutrals Blockade has been chosen, another 1 will be added, for a total of 2 each turn). With the Neutrals Blockade in effect, it will thus take 10 turns (5 months) to increase from Level 1 to Level 2 of the Blockade Box, then from Level 2 to Level 3, etc. It will take twice as long (20 turns = 10 months) without the Neutral Blockade in effect. 85 To End All Wars Game Manual Effects of blockade The effects of the Blockade Levels are as follows (these effects are also visible in-game as tool-tips in the Blockade Box regions): • Level 1 Atlantic Blockade: 20% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will decrease by 1% in Germany (at this stage, the Blockade actually increases morale in Germany due to outrage over the Blockade) Mediterranean Blockade: No effect as of yet on Austria-Hungary • Level 2 Atlantic Blockade: 10% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Germany Mediterranean Blockade: 10% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary • Level 3 Atlantic Blockade: 25% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Germany Mediterranean Blockade: 25% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary 86 To End All Wars Game Manual • • • Level 4 Atlantic Blockade: 60% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Germany Mediterranean Blockade: 60% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary Level 5 Atlantic Blockade: 90% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Germany Mediterranean Blockade: 90% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary Level 6 Atlantic Blockade: 95% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 2% in Germany Mediterranean Blockade: 95% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will increase by 2% in Austria-Hungary Note: By the time the Blockade reaches Level 5 or higher, the ill effects will gradually drive the Central Powers to collapse. Thus, the Blockade is a very effective tool for eventually winning the war, but it should be enacted early on for best long-term effect. Submarine Warfare Submarine warfare is a crucial part of World War One. A large portion of the Western Entente income in State Funds and War Supply is derived from the Atlantic Shipping Box (located south of the Irish Sea and west of the English Channel) and the Mediterranean Shipping Box (located between Crete and Alexandria). The Entente maintains large merchant shipping in these zones and accumulates income based on the number of merchant vessels active. 87 To End All Wars Game Manual Submarines and Technology The Central Powers may wage submarine warfare by placing sub units in either or both of these Shipping Boxes. Each submarine element the Central Powers have in a Shipping Box has a 10% chance each turn of sinking one merchant shipping element of the Entente (this chance increases to 14% per submarine element upon reaching U-Boat Technology Level 3, and 20% per submarine element upon reaching U-Boat Technology Level 4; see Technology section for further details). Note: These submarine effects are non-cumulative. ASW and Technology Conversely, the Entente may cancel out merchant shipping losses by placing screening light warships (destroyers and light cruisers) in the Shipping Boxes. The ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) Technology level is the key factor in how effective screeners operate. At ASW Technology Level 2, each screener element has a 10% chance of negating a merchant shipping loss inflicted by submarine, at Level 3, each screener element has a 20% chance of negating a loss, and at Level 4, each screener element has a 33% chance of negating a loss. Submarine Warfare Alignment Effects For the Entente, receiving shipping imports is crucial to maintaining support for the war at home, especially for Great Britain. Therefore, if merchant shipping elements fall below a certain threshold, there is a chance of Rebel Alignment growing on nation home fronts, as follows: If there are less than 25 merchant shipping elements in the Atlantic Shipping Box, Great Britain must make 3 checks, with a chance of 4% per element less than 25; for each check failed, Rebel Alignment increases by 1% in Great Britain off-map Diplomacy Region. 88 To End All Wars Game Manual Example: if merchant shipping elements have fallen to 20 (due to submarine raiding), Great Britain will make 3 checks at 20%, if the checks result in 12, 36, and 19, two checks have failed and Rebel Alignment increases by 2% in Great Britain that turn. If there are less than 25 merchant shipping elements in the Mediterranean Shipping Box, Great Britain, France, and Italy (if Entente ally) must each make a check with a chance of 4% per element less than 25; for each check failed, Rebel Alignment increase by 1% in the nation’s off-map Diplomacy Region. Thus, the Atlantic Shipping Box has more impact on Great Britain, but does not affect other nations, while the Mediterranean Shipping Box has less impact on Great Britain, but can also impact France and Italy. Raising Units Units are raised via the Construction Mode. To enter Construction Mode, just click on the first round button on the top-left part of the interface (the one showing a gear). Construction Filters The Construction Mode is used to allow you to build new Units for the nation you are playing. Of course, some limitations are applied, such as how many your nation is allowed to have (the “Force Pool” concept) in the field, the various assets needed to pay for the construction (recruits, State Funds and war supplies) and also the location of the build, as it is not always possible to construct all kinds of Units everywhere. There are some filters buttons are used to switch between the various construction possibilities. One set allows you to filter constructions 89 To End All Wars Game Manual by Unit types while the other allows filtering by sections of the country. In both cases, you may click on the first button (showing 3 stars) to return to the whole list (all Units, all Fronts). Constructible Units Figure 23: Different Entente cavalry and the various areas where you can raise them Constructible Units are listed in the main interface. You can see all those Units that are still available for construction, and the number of them is indicated in the white square on the upper-left corner of the Unit stamp. A tooltip on each Unit gives you indication on the number of these on map, name, costs in the various assets required (State Funds, Men, War Supplies) and construction time (in number of days). Figure 24: British Militia Division: 12 are already on map and 8 more can be raised, as indicated by the tooltip 90 To End All Wars Game Manual Important Note: The cost of a given type of unit will vary greatly, depending if there are many deployed on the map or not. The game will sort the cost for you, cheaper units being shown first. Where to Raise Units When you select a Unit to raise, the map coloring changes and shows you regions in either a green, orange or red background. You can see where a Unit can be dropped for construction as the region is in a green color. If the region is colored in orange, you could in theory construct there, but you are lacking one (or more) of the assets to do so (Note: drop the Unit there and the error message will tell you the reason). Finally, all regions where construction would not be allowed are colored in a red background. You can find out why by mousing over the red colored region. In this game, Unit construction is usually only possible in cities originally belonging to your own nation in 1914. For instance, you cannot build Units in conquered enemy cities. If you have trouble finding a green region, simply double click on the unit card in the construction panel to have the game shows you one. Note: each Unit has a certain construction weight and a given region has a maximum weight of construction it can support at any one time. This is to represent capacity limits and the distributed nature of recruitment and training. By accessing the structures of a region (ctrlclick on a structure sprite), you can see in each structure tooltip what is the construction weight they provide. It is also possible to see the statistics of the elements of the Unit to be raised by clicking on the NATO symbols in the Inspection Panel on the bottom right pane while the Unit is selected. 91 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 25: Map shows where the Central Powers can raise cavalry from Germany. How to Raise Units Select the Unit you wish to raise and drag and drop it on the map in a green-colored region. In other regions, the drag & drop will be refused and a short message will appear in the top part of the interface explaining why: it is usually because the capacity of the chosen site would be exceeded or you lack one (or more) of the required assets (see below). Possible causes preventing the construction of Units If the region is in green, you can build the Unit. If the region is in yellow/orange, you could theoretically, if you had enough resources. If the region is in red, there is at least one regional constraint preventing you from building/construction the Unit. Some possible causes are: • No available Unit in the Force Pool. • The region’s build weight capacity is exceeded. • The Unit is a ship and there is no harbor. • The region is not playable in this scenario. 92 To End All Wars Game Manual You don’t have enough Military Control in the region. • The Alignment of the region is too low or the region is in riot (i.e. a demonstration card has been played there) • The Unit needs soldiers and the region does not have enough population. • A specific required structure is not there (e.g., War Supplies production for Artillery Units). • The Unit can only be built in some parts of the map (e.g., British Units are raised in England, not Canada or Australia). • The Unit can only be built in the capital. There are some rarer causes preventing you from building in a given region. In all cases, the tooltip will give you the reason. It’s possible to disband a unit created in the current turn by selecting the unit and hitting the Delete key . You’ll get full refund. • Construction Assets and Limits To raise Units, you need Men, State Funds and War Supplies: this is what your war economy is about. However, you are limited in the numbers and locations of your newly raised Units since each owned city of your home nation (most conquered cities do not contribute, except for some rare cases, like in border states) can only provide a limited share of its total resources to your war effort. Conscripts Except for a very few places which raise a small number of recruits every turn, conscripts are generally limited by the conscript income from cites under a side’s control. Each side starts with a substantial conscript pool (State Funds and war supply will limit early builds rather than available manpower). Beware when the conscripts pool begins to run low (typically sometime in 1917) as the heavy casualties of Great War battles will become very difficult to replace quickly! 93 To End All Wars Game Manual State Funds State Funds is produced each turn in a few places such as your national capital or key financial or commercial centers (e.g. major trade ports, central bank, regional capitals), but those sources of income are marginal. The great bulk of your income will proceed from exceptional events (rarely) and, above all, Financial Options taken by the government, such as taxes. War Supplies This is a general term representing the heavy equipment needed by some Units. Artillery and Ships (mostly) and Airplanes or Cavalry (less) cost usually a lot of War Supplies, as they require industrial capacity, horses and raw materials. Infantry, on the other hand, are a easier to build, as rifles and other light equipment are easier to manufacture and therefore represented by the State Funds cost of the Unit. Force Pools Each Nation can only field a limited number of troops at any time. This is what is called its Force Pool (FP). In addition, if all of a Nation’s Units are in play, the Nation can’t field more Units until some are eliminated. Units under Construction on the Map Units appear immediately on the map on the same turn as you request them, but they start completely depleted in Strength and Cohesion, as they are gathering men, training them, collecting supplies, etc. • Such Units cannot be moved and are basically defenseless. • Their status is indicated by a red label. The label on the Unit will change color progressively (to a white color) as the construction process advances. 94 To End All Wars Game Manual Their various components are shown in red (i.e., depleted) and will fill up progressively over time. After a while, Units under construction progressively lose this ‘special’ status and can be moved, but rushing those green Units Figure 26: a view of the War Production into combat should best be showing Units in production avoided. To get a summary of your Units under construction, press F3 and open the War Front window. Note: Ideally, you should wait until they have completed their training (i.e., health and cohesion is at 100%) before ordering them in harm’s way. You can move then in passive mode toward their destination though; they will continue to be completed (all soldiers and equipment are considered present, but the troops are still very green). Note that when a Unit can be moved you get a message in the Message Panel. • Build Duration The build duration is indicated in the tooltip when you hover over the Unit under construction. This is the time in days needed for a Unit to reach its full Strength and Cohesion and depends on Unit type (as well as National Morale which influences it). Within the Unit, the various elements will achieve 100% health at their own construction speed (in essence the time indicated for the whole Unit is the time of the element which takes the longest to build/recruit). Example: Militia are low-quality troops best for garrison duty or defending fortified positions but have a fast build rate, while ships, planes or artillery takes quite a while longer to complete . 95 To End All Wars Game Manual Important note: the time indicated is the time needed to ‘unlock’ the unit, but you should probably wait some days or be prudent with it until it reaches 100% cohesion. Figure 27: The 7th Scottish Div. will be ready in 57 days Gameplay: Army organization and troop roles The game parallels history in representing the importance of combined arms to victory– infantry, artillery, cavalry, air support, tanks (late in the war) and supporting specialized support troops all have their role to play. Infantry normally make up the entire front line in battle and the reserves that can replace battered front-line brigades. Artillery, particularly medium and heavy varieties, plays a pivotal role in EAW, but both quantity and munitions are initially limited. Cavalry is initially useful for screening and detecting enemy strength, though air units will quickly become the prime source of intelligence. The attributes of other more specialized troops provide their own situational benefits. For these reasons, field artillery is usually present at the Division level for direct fire support of their own Division, while medium and heavy artillery is either consolidated into a Corps combined unit, or kept separate at the Army level. A single cavalry regiment per 96 To End All Wars Game Manual Stack (e.g., Corps) is sufficient for most purposes. Some infantry, cavalry and artillery with the Army HQ can prove a useful reserve to support its Corps – whether a high-quality or low-quality reserve is best is a command decision. Leaders with abilities that apply to an officer’s Stack even if he is not in command are very useful in building strong formations. Corps are the basic building blocks of Armies – 2 or 3 Corps at 12 CP each plus some additional smaller Units selected for their special attributes such as cavalry, artillery or engineers. Supply Wagons slow the Armies down but provide important bonuses and incur no CP cost, so one or more Supply Wagon Units are advisable. Sometimes that extra Unit is worth the percentage penalty involved, but ideally Armies and Corps structures and roles are thought out well in advance to fit available CPs. Corps can also be used effectively as independent units on the map, stacked with their support units similar to Army stacks. It is sometimes worthwhile to create multiple small independent Stacks to avoid a large CP penalty, but this risks the separate forces being defeated in detail by a concentrated enemy force. Small raiding forces can be elusive and tie down many detachments in garrisons of strategic points. They are best chased down with a mix of flying columns (mounted troops and horse artillery with leaders having relevant bonuses) and a network of garrisons to obstruct enemy freedom of movement. Having the advantage of a railroad for swift movement can be decisive in catching the enemy. Beware of using unguarded Supply Wagons or Depots with these forces roaming around. Captured Units are usually remnants of artillery formations. These Units can be useful support in fortified positions or for militia and second-line Units. However, captured Units usually do not receive replacements (a.k.a. “field repair”). 97 To End All Wars Game Manual Garrison troops are designed to defend a fixed position, so have 0 CP command cost but move extremely slowly, so effectively moving them to more useful spots requires rail or waterborne transport. Managing your Nation Several key decisions are made at the nation or even alliance (Entente or Central Powers) level. Here is an overview of different policies along with explanations for those that are not described in other chapters (such as “The War Economy”). Unit Roster This is a list of all your Units currently on the map. Check the tooltips for sorting options. Figure 28: Unit Roster – Here, a click on a unit’s symbol will close the Strategic Atlas and center the map on this Unit. 98 To End All Wars Game Manual Technology & Research The Great War saw a rapid incorporation of new 20th century technologies into the armies of Europe. Keeping up with technological advancements will be important for maintaining a competitive edge over your opponents. Figure 19: The Diplomatic Boxes (right) are on the top-right of the main map. Technological Centers Technology is represented in the off-map Research Area of the map, accessible by clicking on the region of the mini-map in the area indicated by the red circle below, and navigating to the right of the Diplomacy Regions. Here you will see a section for Central Powers, Western Entente, and Eastern Entente indicating the technology categories, their current level (1-4, show in top right of the technology icon), and the percentage progress towards next level (0-100%, show in bottom right of the technology icon). Technology will increase gradually over time. In addition, beginning in 1915, funding can be immediately directed to a certain technology category via the F6 Research screen (shown in figure below). 99 To End All Wars Game Manual For a cost in State Funds and Engagement Pts, progress can be made immediately towards the technology being funded. It will take 6-12 turns (3-6 months) before funding in the same category can be applied again. Figure 31: The Research Ministry view Additionally, certain events can be played to give one-time increases in a technology category (such as Fokker by the Central Powers for a one-time Aviation Research bonus) to represent historical advantages certain nations possessed. Technological Decisions A brief description of the Technology Categories follows (for further detail, see the tool-tips in game on the technology counters in the Research off-map regions): 100 To End All Wars Game Manual • Infantry Research: Each infantry tech level will improve the stats of line infantry models, gradually improving protection, trench penetration, and firepower/assault values. At level 4, assault troops/stormtroopers will become available, useful for making breaches in heavy entrenchments. • Artillery Research: Each level of artillery tech will lead to improvements in field artillery and/or medium/heavy artillery pieces. Artillery is crucial for breaking through entrenchments and softening up heavily defended enemy positions later in the war. • Aviation Research: Aviation research will improve the fighting capabilities of air units, and at later levels improve the bombing capabilities as well. Early planes are incapable of combat, and maintaining an edge in this category is crucial for claiming the skies (and in turn keeping tabs on enemy positions and strength). • Chemical Research: Chemical research levels will unlock new forms of chemical warfare, ranging from early chlorine to phosgene and mustard gas attacks. Once unlocked, each level will grant Regional Decisions (RGD) which can be used against enemy positions to weaken the enemy prior to an assault. The very first time gas is used (of any type) it will have a much stronger effect due to the surprise nature of the attack. Correspondingly, each gas has a slight bonus the first 3 times it is used. Afterwards, gas effects are somewhat muted (though still helpful). Therefore, there is a great advantage towards researching and using this technology before your opponent does. • Tank Research: Tanks can be very helpful disrupting enemy trenches and weakening the enemy before the infanty move in. Each level of tank research improves the models and statistics of tanks being built. 101 To End All Wars Game Manual Note: Unlike other technologies, tank research does not progress until 8/1/1915, and cannot be funded for extra gain prior to this time either. • U-Boat Research (Central Powers only): U-Boat research will increase the Force Pool availability of submarine units, as well as improving submarine combat capabilities. Its primary effect is increasing the raiding capability of submarines in the Shipping Boxes. See the section on Submarine Warfare for more details. • Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Research (Western Entente only): ASW research will improve the screening ability of Entente light warships in protecting convoys from submarine warfare. See the section on Submarine Warfare for more details. Note: Unlike other technologies, ASW research cannot be funded until 6/1/1915 (due to the Entente’s slowness in incorporating ASW technologies, but it will progress slowly on its own prior to this date). 102 To End All Wars Game Manual Political Options Figure 32: Events which are locked appear on the F5 screen, while those whose conditions are now enabled appear on the F4 screen (and can be invoked) Various events can be played by each side, to represent historical situations which occurred during the Great War. The F5 screen shows options which are currently Locked (meaning they cannot currently be played but may become available later). Hovering over any of these options will give a description of the event, and under which circumstances it unlocks. The F4 screen shows unlocked options, and options can be invoked here by clicking on the event image (once chosen, a stamped seal will appear in the bottom right of the event to indicate it has been invoked). Pay careful attention to the details of the events, as sometimes they carry a cost in addition to the benefit they provide! 103 To End All Wars Game Manual Objectives Screen This important screen should be closely monitored, as it indicates who owns each Objective and how many VPs it is worth, as well as your current number of VPs and how many you will gain this turn from Strategic Cities and Objectives under your control. It also shows the NM and victory/defeat thresholds of each side as well as the number of turns remaining in the game. Figure 33: All your objectives appear here Regional Decisions & Decision Mode This mode uses an intuitive and simple card-based method of playing Regional Decisions that enable the player to interact with the map and get local benefits (such as Supply, Alignment, or State Funds), although 104 To End All Wars Game Manual often at a cost. Some Decisions might also be described as local military actions, political measures, policies, stratagems, plots, or intrigues. Decision Mode To enter Decision Mode, just click on the middle round button located on the top-left corner of the screen (the one showing Playing Cards) or press the F12 button. This allows you to make Regional Decisions. Click on a Decision. Regions where the Decision may be played are displayed in green color (in fact the logic is the same as in the construction mode). Figure 34: A lot of Regional Decision cards can be played The different Decisions available are listed in Appendix G below. Note that to have an effect: Almost all Regional Decisions require at least a level 1 town in the region, and most have some ownership or Alignment requirements. All Decisions but those linked to sieges require that you have military control of the region. Siege related decisions require that you are besieging an enemy-controlled city. Most decisions take effect on the turn following play. However, some effects occur for a certain amount of time, and you can only take a Decision a limited number of times as indicated in the interface. 105 To End All Wars Game Manual The effect of the Decision will be applied at the end of the period unless it specifies otherwise (which means you normally need to have majority military control of the region for the whole period). Design Note: Not all Decisions are accessible to all sides at all times. Some may only become available after events. Liege Forts bombarded - 1914 (a Decision is used in the game for this) Combat in the Field Combat happens when two enemy Stacks meet and at least one of them is in Offensive or Assault Posture and has detected the other. It ranges from minor skirmishes involving few Units for a limited time to full-scale battles lasting more than one day. 106 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 35: When battle starts, the battle gauge opens and shows the forces involved and balance. Engaging in Combat Combat is resolved in a series of one hour rounds between engaged troops at regimental or brigade level. Not all elements of a Stack will necessarily participate from the beginning: different bodies of troops will join the fray at different times, especially in large battles. Each hour, a test is made to see which Units reach the battlefield. Unengaged troops that are not moving, or are in Offensive or Assault posture, tend to join first, though others may join if targeted. For example, if your Offensive Forces are overcome and your Defensive Forces are targeted, they will join in (a Defensive Forces that joins in brings all other Defensive Forces in with it). Elements fighting are organized in two lines – line troops (infantry and cavalry) in the front line, and support troops (artillery and non-combat Units such as supply wagons) in the second line. An 107 To End All Wars Game Manual element’s special abilities apply to its Unit even if the element itself is not engaged in a particular round of combat. It is important to understand that Units do not dissipate their fire over the whole enemy force. Elements belonging to a single Unit always target elements of a single enemy Unit, favoring weightier targets. Artillery elements always target the eligible enemy elements on the field with the most hits remaining. This means large Units concentrate more fire on their target, and are able to absorb more damage from the enemy. Battle Planner The new Battle Planner interface give the player the opportunity to select a Deployment and a Battle Plan just before a battle starts, but only in the Single Player game (currently not available in Multiplayer games). Figure 36: A battle planner window which opens just before a battle is started 108 To End All Wars Game Manual When the conditions are met to trigger a new battle, the player will see a new window with all the information about the upcoming battle, including the commanders of each side, the estimated power (PWR) of the forces in the region, the weather, and obviously the region where the action is happening. Based on all that information, the player can select a Deployment and then one of the associated Battle Plans. These Battle Plans can grant you different bonuses to try to turn the battle in your favor if they succeed, but they can also fail or be countered by the AI Battle Plans. If the player’s Commander is good enough, he may be able to see the Deployment selected by the AI and also the possible Battle Plans that she may choose… but he will not know exactly which Battle Plan will be played, so it will be the player’s decision to guess wisely the possible Battle Plan of the AI. After all is set, the player can now start the battle and see how the action unrolls. When the battle is finished, the player will be able to see the results of his decisions on the Battle Report window. It’s possible to disable entirely the battle planner in the Options Window, Main Menu. Marching to the Sound of the Guns Depending on the situation, an Army or GHQ engaged in combat may decide to call for reinforcements. If it does, Armies attached to that same GHQ (Army Group) located in adjacent regions may answer the call and join the fight if they pass a check. This check takes into account distance, the level of Military Control in both regions and the Strategic Rating of the reinforcing Army leader. 109 To End All Wars Game Manual Army GHQs also have a greater chance to reinforce a battle and get reinforcements themselves. You can then use the Army GHQ as a sort of reserve, to pack some punch in case of need. Reinforcing Armies will return to their original region after the battle. Withdrawal Withdrawal is an orderly retreat putting distance between opposing forces with minimal risk to the withdrawing force. A Rout, on the other hand, is an unordered disorganized flight for safety due to an overall collapse of troop morale. Before each round, each side checks to see if it will attempt to withdraw. An exception is Units attacking in an amphibious assault as these must fight to the last man because they cannot retreat. The decision to withdraw is based on relative strength, leader aggressiveness (i.e., Offensive Rating) and the presence of fortifications. A Stack that decides to withdraw will automatically change its posture to Passive for the rest of the turn. Stacks attempting to withdraw must now make a check: the chance to successfully withdraw increases each round and is influenced by Stack size, “Evade Combat” Special Order, commanding leader’s Strategic Rating, and the presence of cavalry (on both sides). Units which successfully set an ambush and Units commanded by leaders with the “Skirmisher” Special Ability also have a much higher chance to break contact with the enemy should they decide to try. If the attempt fails, the Stack fights one more round with a slight penalty and renews its attempt on the next round. If the attempt succeeds, the Stack withdraws. If there is a non-besieged structure in the region and the Stack has the “Enter Structure” Special Order, it will withdraw into the structure; otherwise it will withdraw to an adjacent region under friendly Military Control. Depending on the level of enemy Military 110 To End All Wars Game Manual Control in the region chosen for withdrawal, the Stack may be forced into another battle by the pursuing enemy. A surrounded Stack (i.e. all adjacent regions are 95% or more enemy controlled) will keep on fighting instead of withdrawing. Units that retreat or rout may be subject to losses from enemy pursuit. Cavalry and terrain are important factors in pursuit. Frontage Depending on a region’s terrain, the maximum number of sub-units that can deploy and fight in a battle will vary. Elements unable to deploy will be held in reserve and relieve weakened troops in the frontline during the battle. Note: Fighting in terrain with limited frontage is well suited to delaying tactics. A veteran defending Stack in such terrain may even force the enemy to break and cancel his assault despite a large numerical advantage. The frontage space occupied by an element depends inversely on its maneuverability in this type of terrain. Example: On the one hand, regular Units are quite slow and unwieldy in mountain terrain and take up much frontage space in such terrain as a consequence. Partisans, on the other hand, are much faster and more agile in mountains and take up less frontage space. This means you could engage the enemy with many more Partisans than regular Units in this particular case. Combat Range The initial range of a battle depends on local weather and terrain. Range will then decrease every round as troops close the distance. Range will determine which elements are able to fire in each round. Close range combat can be very bloody. 111 To End All Wars Game Manual As a rule, medium and heavy artillery have a longer range than field artillery and infantry, so artillery hits (and consecutive cohesion loss) will be applied first. Note: Take on a strong artillery position with slow-moving infantry in open terrain at your own risk! Fire Combat High initiative provides big benefits in combat as it is the biggest factor in determining who fires first each round. Elements will fire a number of times depending on their rate of fire (with a minimum of one). Out of Command Chain status (see p. 38) and lack of Command Points (see p. 39) penalizes elements in terms of initiative, rate of fire, and chance to hit. Successful firing depends on an element’s Offensive Fire Value (if the Stack is in Offensive Posture) or Defensive Fire Value (if the Stack is in Defensive Posture) and is influenced by the following: • Unit’s Discipline Rating • Unit’s Experience Level • Leader Offensive Fire/Defensive Fire Rating, as appropriate • Cover of target Unit provided by terrain or fortifications • Weather • Leader Special Abilities • Command Penalties (Out of Command Chain status and/or lack of CP) • Lack of Ammunition and/or General Supply • Friendly Supply Wagon present (+10%) • River crossing/Amphibious landing • Forced March • Failed withdrawal/Passive Posture • Trench Level above five (for artillery only) 112 To End All Wars Game Manual Infantry and cavalry that score a hit inflict usually one Strength point loss. Artillery causes one or two losses and “heavy” Units (siege artillery, ships) can even sometimes cause three losses or more (check details in the element details window accessed through the Inspection Panel). An element that suffers losses equal to its Strength Value is eliminated. However, it will usually rout and flee the battlefield before this happens (mostly because of cohesion loss being faster, therefore entailing rout – see Morale below). Severe losses will also affect an element’s chance to break under fire (see below). Unit Morale On the one hand, every hour each sub-unit must check its Discipline unless it is intact (i.e., did not take any losses so far during the battle). If the test fails, the Unit becomes shaken and has its rate of fire decreased for the current round. On the other hand, an element that is hit during fire combat must make a check based on its current Cohesion level with the following modifiers: • Militia and Volunteers fighting in their own Area of origin. • Trench Level (capped at Level 4) • Loss level of element • Fighting in a Symbolic Objective (one of the capitals, for example) If it loses this check, it is routed off the field and no longer participates in the battle. In addition, when the number of routed Units becomes too large, the whole Stack becomes routed, withdrawing in flight and suffering increased losses to pursuit. Melee Combat If the range ever reaches 0, melee combat ensues. Support sub-units (such as artillery) do not participate in melee. 113 To End All Wars Game Manual This close-quarters combat is similar to fire combat, but a subunit’s Assault Value is used instead of its Offensive/Defensive Fire Value. Discipline, Cohesion and superior quality each play a key role. Both sides deal damage simultaneously and losses can be quite devastating at such a short range. Play Note: Highly trained Units and some special Units are more effective in close quarters. Battle Aftermath The side that withdraws is the loser of the battle, without regard to losses. A battle may end as a draw if neither side withdrew. The winner will pursue the retreating forces and inflict casualties in the process. These losses are much greater if the loser routed instead of executing an orderly withdrawal. Figure 37: A battle Report window which opens just before after a battle is completed, with detailed info on what happened 114 To End All Wars Game Manual Battle reports start on a first page summarizing the battle results and a click-through to the second and later pages that provide round-by-round and unit-by-unit combat details. A picture of the most senior commander involved appears in the upper corner on the first page, with his name and Strategic-OffenseDefense rating and the strength of his forces. He may not have started the battle in the same region, having marched to the sound of the guns. Other participating named commanders are shown in the display, unit by unit, and the condition of each Unit is shown at the start and after each round of combat. Going into details: It’s possible to see more details about the current round by hovering the mouse over the heart or cohesion symbol nearby the top commander (topmost tooltip, as seen in the screenshot). For a given unit, it’s even possible to see how it fared during the round, again by mousing over the heart or cohesion symbol in this unit’s line (lower tooltip shown in the above screenshot). Impact of Battle A battle will influence VPs, NM, and Leader Seniority as follows: • The winner gains VPs for losses inflicted on the enemy. The loser does not gain any. • The winner gains NM depending on the losses inflicted. The loser’s NM decreases correspondingly. • Leaders with a good loss ratio (i.e. who inflicted more losses than they received, even if they lost and retreated) gain Seniority while their opponent loses some. Troops also gain Experience by participating in battles (even if they lost). Leaders must make a check based on their Rank to see if they were wounded or killed in action. A 1 star leader is the most vulnerable while 3 star leaders and above are immune. In addition, 115 To End All Wars Game Manual winning leaders gain Experience, progressively increasing their attributes and even sometimes getting new Special Abilities. Leaders on the losing side suffer from a slight reduction in attributes. Naval Combat Battles between Fleets are handled similarly to land battles with a few minor twists (no frontage, etc.). Withdrawing Fleets will move to an adjacent sea region/river section. Remember to return damaged ships to port for repairs, as they cannot recover hits while at sea. Naval Battle Resolution and Consequence Overall, the naval combat procedure and resolution is using the same engine as the land battles. Obviously, there will be more firing steps and less assaults (considered as Torpedoing range for naval battles). 116 To End All Wars Game Manual Figure 37: The British West Indies Fleet led by Admiral Rosslyn E. Wemyss is on station to protect allied shipping from German corsair cruisers in the South Atlantic, early August 1914. The VP and Experience gains or loss work the same way Important Note: don’t lose heavy warships (Dreadnoughts and Battle cruisers) in a Battle because they cost a fortune in Moral losses. The concept of Fleet in Being is an important one to master for weaker naval powers. Do not hesitate to talk with our friendly and veterans players in our forum at Ageod.com/forums about these concepts! 117 To End All Wars Game Manual Air Warfare The game represents air forces via squadrons attached to an air base. This air base is a land unit consisting of all the staff necessary for the maintenance of the planes. The air missions are implicitly made, if the air base is capable of operating its planes. There is therefore no specific order to give during your turn, but it is up to you to position your air bases in places adequate to the air missions, or to remove them from the front-line if your squadrons need to rest and receive replacements. An air base unit will not perform missions if in Passive posture though and will get priority for replacements. Air Missions Type There is three types of possible missions for your air squadrons: • Reconnaissance • Air Combat and Interception (dogfighting) • Bombardment Mission restriction Air fight only occurs as an interception of one of the two other missions types and never for another reason. Bombardment only occurs in support of a land battle. 118 To End All Wars Game Manual Each squadron, represented by a single element, consists for simplicity sake of a single type of aircraft. These are generally capable of fulfilling at best one of the mission type but they can provide support in a secondary role. For example if fighter participate in a bombardment mission, they will strafe enemy columns with their machine-guns; if they participate in a reconnaissance mission, they will bring a slight bonus to its chances of success. Mission range can be up to 3 regions away, but in 1914 no airplane will reach this range, you’ll need to improve their technology with research. It is unnecessary, even foolhardy, to stack your Air unit directly in the region a battle is occurring, although if your land units are attacked, planes in the same region will provide some support in the battle. Similarly, planes can intercept enemy planes performing missions in any adjacent regions to your air base and up to 3 regions away, depending of the plane. If there is at least one air unit (air base) in a region capable of some operations, then an airfield icon will be displayed. If you pass the mouse over said icon, then you’ll get the list of planes there. If the airfield is an enemy one, the plane count will be less detailed. Air reconnaissance mission They will automatically be performed from a region containing an airbase, each game turn, if planes are not grounded (by the weather). Air reconnaissance will generally target a 119 To End All Wars Game Manual neighboring region which contains enemy forces, and which has not been the subject of a previous reconnaissance mission this turn. The more planes available for the reconnaissance mission, the higher the chances of success. In case of success, a bonus of one (1) will be given for the detection rolls (of the enemy units) during a turn. In case of major success, the bonus will be two (2). The air base will usually launch a mission toward an enemy region in range (up to 3 regions, depending of the plane) which has strong forces. These missions can even lift fog of war in regions where you had 0 intelligence! Bombardment Missions They work slightly differently: First of all it requires that a battle is taking place in the region within range of your planes. If a support action is launched, then every bombers squadron (and to a much lesser degree, every fighter squadron in escort) will have a small chance to inflict some disorganization on a randomly chosen enemy unit, and a very small chance to inflict significant losses in men. Do not expect any miracle, however; the Great War period was not the mother of blitzkrieg or strategic carpet bombing, although in the end years, with lot of planes, significant cohesion damages can at least be achieved. Escort and Interceptions Finally, escort or interception missions are will only happen if a mission of either other types is actually taking place. In case of escort, fighters will be scrambled to escort the other planes. In case of interception, a number of fighters will be launched (capped to a very high value; approximately ~15 squadrons!) no matter the 120 To End All Wars Game Manual strength importance of the opposite side (Being outnumbered rarely dissuaded the defending pilots to stay on the ground). Air Mission Points Each aircraft squadron has a number of mission points per round. This number depends on the pilots’ fatigue and condition of their equipment, which are both abstractly represented by the cohesion value of the squadron unit. These points are also reduced in the event of bad weather (and become nil in case of snowstorm). In addition, some regions do not allow aircraft to take off, regardless of other factors (mountain for example). The ‘airbase’ unit is representing the aircraft, personnel and equipment. This will be indicated visually via an icon of a plane that can take off in a region with an active airbase. You should see one such icon in every region you have an aircraft unit. Also note that giving the air base a passive posture will always keep your aircraft on the ground. A squadron will spend between one and three points for each mission task it performs (A squadron generally has a theoretical maximum between 6 and 9, but only in good weather, with well rested pilots, and aircraft in good condition!). The base mission cost is one point, with an extra point if the mission is not in your region and 1 other point if the weather is bad (so the mission cost is between 1 and 3 in the end). This benefits planes defending a region, as they can make more sorties above it. To summarize, in case of bad weather, at best you can make one offensive mission... Air-to-air Combat An air-to-air combat happens when fighters are sent on an interception mission against enemy planes. In this case the game divides the 121 To End All Wars Game Manual opposing aircrafts by combat fitness, assuming that the least adequate planes to fight are the planes to protect most. Each plane, then, has a small probability of hitting a hostile aircraft during duels. If a squadron has more aircraft than another, the fight will not happen by putting two planes against one in some duels, but by adding a bonus for the 2nd plane in some of the pair, before resolving the duel. After several rounds (3 to 6) the battle ends even if there are still planes in each camp. Regarding the actual combat mechanics, remember that the aircraft initiative value is as important as its firepower value. There is also a significant bonus for having experienced pilots. When the experience level is 4 or more, the Figure 38: A medium-sized dogfight battle over Metz between French and German aircrafts. As seen, the German planes managed to abort all French planes, thus effectively cancelling their mission, even if no enemy squadron was fully destroyed. 122 To End All Wars Game Manual experience bonus is raised even further, as it describes squadrons which have ‘Aces’ amongst their pilots. Aces – by their very large bonuses and because the combat model promotes quality rather than quantity (the surpluses planes are giving a bonus but do not fight at 100% of their value, in fact) - are the masters of the skies, and may shoot down more aircraft without receiving hits. However, remember even them are not immortal; you will certainly experience it during the conflict. Once this air battle phase is resolved, all planes that have been hit return back to base, while the planes that are intact carry on with their objective and accomplish the mission. In the combat report window, you’ll see the initial aircraft for each camp, the number of aircraft after the air fight, and the number of aircraft that have completed their mission on the target. Each squadron icon has a tool-tip telling you what it did during the battle. Summary icons are also present at the bottom of the air phase panel. Air Advices Remember that your air units represent both aircraft, pilots, ground staff and maintenance equipment. This means that you can move your air units by train or, more slowly, by wheeled carts or trucks (they would then move like a land unit, but with a speed penalty). Air units can redeploy much better than others units though, with the special order ‘Redeploy’. They are entitled to redeploy over the whole theater they are in. Typically you can redeploy fighters in the United Kingdom into France. Although a structure is not necessary for air operations, air squadrons will recover cohesion and replacements faster if on a depot. 123 To End All Wars Game Manual The planes are fragile, and quickly destroyed or damaged, so do not hesitate to switch the air unit posture to passive or even to withdraw it completely to the rear, to give time for your pilots and equipment to recover. Don’t forget to buy replacements for them! The basic concept of air units in EAW, is that your planes will operate automatically if an opportunity arises within their range. They are easier to use in defense than in attack, but the period saw aircraft with a very limited range, and the military concept of the Blitzkrieg had yet to be invented. So, if you nevertheless want to use you air units in an offensive, do not risk them by moving them with the army you are committing to storm a region; rather, prepare your offensive against a strong opposition by setting a depot first in an adjacent region, and then move to go to battle, leaving your air unit (and a small protection/reserve force) behind. This will ensure, first that your attacking units are well supplied for the combat, and then, that the air units will help from a distance. Don’t discount the detection bonus the aircrafts can give with their reconnaissance missions also. Although be prepared to see air battles if the enemy has enemy fighters. In the early period, with limited range and few sorties per turn, air battles will be much rarer though. Zeppelins gameplay Zeppelins are an exclusive German airship unit. They can perform 2 types of missions, by playing decisions cards representing their actions. Bomb London This decision asks for at least 2 Zeppelins elements at most 6 regions away from London. You can’t play the decision if the British player has a currently active ‘Fighters Patrol’ decision. 124 To End All Wars Game Manual When played, this decision will remove 1 national morale from the British player and will weaken (or even destroy entirely) 1 to 2 Zeppelins elements stationed on the Western Front. Zeppelin Naval Reconnaissance Works similarly to the bomb decisions, except it can target any sea region. One Zeppelin must be within 6 regions of the target. It will reduce by 2 points the hide value of ships in the region. Some minor attrition will be taken as in the Bomb London mission, but much less severe. Both missions award experience to the Zeppelins (3 and 1 xp respectively). This is mostly for flavour though. Receiving Zeppelins Decisions Decisions are received four times per year with an event that will check how many Zeppelins in good shape are on the 125 To End All Wars Game Manual Western Front. This implies that the German player lets his Zeppelins rest (to restore cohesion), buy Zeppelins replacements (to repair hits) or even build entirely new Zeppelins. The more he has on map, the more decisions he receives (from 0 to 3 for Bombs, from 0 to 5 for Recon, four times a year). British Fighters patrols British player can buy decisions allowing the total protection of London (‘Fighters Patrol’). It is assumed that the regular Zeppelins losses are coming from fighters and flak in the area, so here we are speaking of a special, major effort from Britain, and thus the decision. These decisions are given regularly during the course of play, depending on how many fighters planes in good shape are nearby (2 regions away at most) of London. Siege Combat Sieges can happen when one or more Stacks defend in a permanent fortification, a City, or a Depot. Two values - one for each side - are randomly generated to resolve the siege. Various bonuses are also added and these are indicated below: 126 To End All Wars Game Manual Besieging side: • Artillery combat factors • Leader with the “Engineer”, “Siege Artillery” or “Siege Expert” Special Ability (may not accumulate) • Breach achieved (see below) • Defender lacks General Supply Besieged side: • Artillery combat factors • Leader with the “Engineer”, “Siege Artillery” or “Fort Defender” Special Ability (may not accumulate) • Fort Level The difference between these two values, called the Siege Roll Value (SRV), indicates the result (effects are cumulative) • SRV > defending Units’ average discipline: Defender surrenders and all Units are eliminated unless the defending Stack includes a Supply Wagon that is not empty, in which case the result is ignored • SRV >= 3: A breach is made. The siege icon will change to indicate a breach is in progress or achieved . Cities and pre-war Forts are breached after a single breach result while permanent Fortifications require two breach results to be fully breached. • SRV > 0: 5 hits are inflicted on the defenders for each point of SRV • SRV < 0: The defender has managed to repair a breach Besieged Units may only recover hits if they are in a nonblockaded port. 127 To End All Wars Game Manual Storming a Structure A Stack in Assault Posture will try to storm the structure instead of besieging it. The procedure is the same as in regular combat except that the defender enjoys a combat bonus. Frontage is quite limited in such combat, especially in Forts. Defenders in a Depot or Native village don’t get any defensive benefit except limited frontage. Entrenchment bonuses still apply in a City/Town/ Village etc. Note: It is usually advised to defend outside in the surrounding terrain rather in a Depot or City. Other than running out of supplies, artillery and not manpower is the biggest factor in deciding sieges. Therefore it is usually unwise to pen up a field army uselessly in defenses. A full understanding of combat frontages suggests which approach is preferable given the opposing forces. Losses & Replacements Each basic Unit is made up of sub-units called elements (regiments, batteries, squadrons and individual ships). Combat is calculated, and then losses from battle, damage, attrition, or lack of maintenance are taken as “hits” by these discrete elements (indicated by a number of red heart symbols in the battle report and men icons in the element details window accessed from the Inspection Panel. Each element is destroyed when all its “hits” are used up. 128 To End All Wars Game Manual As long as an element is not totally destroyed, it may recover hits by filling its ranks with replacements drawn from the replacement pool during the Hosting Phase (see p. 12) if the element didn’t move during a turn. This is in addition to recovering Cohesion. If you choose the Historical Attrition setting, land Units must be in a friendly Depot to receive replacements. The replacement rate per turn, as a percentage of an element’s full complement (inside a Unit), is: • Base recovery rate for land Units: 5% • Depot: 20% • City: 10% • Fort: 10% • Naval Unit: 5%/port level Replacements are not required for maintenance, but you will need to have replacements of the appropriate type available in your pool to recover hits. The number of replacements used up in the process depends on the number of hits recovered and a random factor. As a rule of thumb, one replacement element can replace exactly one lost element or be expected to replace an element’s worth of hits lost (with a chance of being consumed for each hit replaced) Units under siege are unable to recover hits unless located in a city with a non-blockaded port. Important! Make sure you always have some replacements in your pool, because Units don’t recover any hits if the appropriate replacements are unavailable. If an element is completely destroyed, the parent Unit will need to draw a full replacement element from the Replacement Pool. This is limited to a single replacement per turn for each Unit. Procedure: Press F3 or go to the Replacements page of the Strategic Atlas to check available replacements in each category. The top number is the number 129 To End All Wars Game Manual of hits that need to be replaced. The first number below represents currently available replacements while the second parenthesized number shows how many have been ordered this turn. Finally, remember Figure 38: The Entente replacement pool as can be seen inside the War Front (shortcut: F3) you can also recover hits by merging similar Units that also incurred losses. Example: If a division had lost an entire infantry brigade element, you could merge an individual infantry brigade Unit into the division. Similarly, if a division lost one infantry brigade and one artillery regiment element, and you had a division which had lost all its elements except one infantry brigade, you could merge these two Units into a single Unit with a full complement. Note: A Unit absorbed into another one to replace losses is removed from the game and its elements cannot be separated from the merged Unit. 130 To End All Wars Game Manual Appendices Glossary & Abbreviations • • • • • • • • Aide de Camp: A non-GHQ commander leader with a Strategic Rating of 4+ who is in an GHQ Stack. He provides a bonus to the Stack. Central Powers: the alliance between Germany and AustriaHungary (also Italy but it defected in 1914, and Ottoman Empire who joined in late 1914, and Bulgaria who joined in 1915). Element: These are the usually brigade-size building blocks of Units. They have their own attributes but cannot be manipulated except through their Unit. Independent Stack/Unit: Any Stack or Unit that is not part of an Army. They suffer a 50% CP penalty. NM: National Morale. A measure of your side’s will to fight, or willingness to surrender if sufficiently depressed. Stack: A collection of land or naval Unit(s) moving and fighting together as a single force and represented by a Stack counter. You issue orders to Stacks. Unit: The smallest force you can manipulate in the game, made of 1 to 18 elements. Leaders are a special kind of Unit. Entente: alos known as the Allies. France and Russia initially, with Great-Britain joining early. Minor nation like Belgium or Serbia also de facto joined. Major nations like Japan, Italy or USA participated later, even if not technically members of the Entente. In the game, we divided the Entente in two: the 131 To End All Wars Game Manual • • • • • Western one, and the Eastern One, in order to better represent coordination issues within the alliance. VP: Victory Point Supply: Both General Supply and Ammunition. Symbolic Objective: Shown by a star after the city name, this objective motivates its defenders. “Large Force” – Stack consists of 13+ CP worth of Units or 13+ Units. “Small Force” – Stack consists of 4 or less CP and 4 Units or less. Shortcut Keys Zooming Mouse wheel: Zoom in/Zoom out Click on mouse wheel: Alternate between maximum and minimum zoom levels End: Same Page Up: Zoom in Page Down: Zoom out Manipulating Stacks Left-click: Select a Stack Right-click: Unselect (and returns to messages display) [Ctrl]+click: Cycle through the various region Stacks. Drag & drop on another region: Move Drag & drop on same region: Cancel whole move (exception: if [Shift] is pressed it allows circular trips) Drag & drop on another Stack: Either intercept an enemy or merge with a friendly Stack 132 To End All Wars Game Manual Drag & drop on city, port: Enter the structure Drag & drop on a tab: Merge with this Stack Del: Cancel the last leg of the movement path of an Army or Fleet C: Center map on selected Stack [Shift] When a GHQ Stack is selected: See the GHQ Command Radius.. [Shift] When a (non-Army) Stack is selected: See the nearby regions and nature of the movement links to them. E/R: Cycle through land Stacks. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to skip Units who are not moving. T/Y: Cycle through naval Stacks. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to skip Units who are not moving. S (sentry): Selected Stack will be skipped when cycling with keys E/R/T/Y [Ctrl] +S: Remove all “sentry” orders [Ctrl] + L: Lock/unlock all Stacks (prevents a Stack drop onto another Stack from merging) Right-click on a tab: Lock/unlock this Stack against merging. A padlock icon shows locked status. Alt-click on a tab: Backspace to erase and type to enter a new tab name. Keys 1 – 9: Switch Map Filter F1: List of Forces F2: War Production F3:Warplans F4: Options (Unlocked) F5: Options (Locked) F6:Research 133 To End All Wars Game Manual F7: Strategic Map F8:Objectives F9: Scenario Background In the Unit Panel: Ctrl-click: Select/unselect multiple Units Mouse wheel scroll: Move through the list of Units Select Unit(s) then drag & drop on the map: Create a new Army/ Fleet. This is used for disembarking in a coastal region without a friendly port, for example. A, O, D, P: Change the Stack to the corresponding posture Operational Orders (if applicable) Shift+T: Enter Town upon reaching destination Shift+F: Build Fort Shift+D: Build Depot Shift+S: Sortie from structure Shift+M: Forced March Shift+A: Set an Ambush Shift+R: Raze Fort Shift+B: Burn Structure (land Units) Shift+B: Bombard (naval Units) [Ctrl] +C: When several Units are selected, combine them. [Ctrl] +D: Detach the Unit if it consists of several Units. Messages Log: Simple-click: Go to region where event occurred (if relevant) Double-click: Display messages content (if message is red) and opens specific message window Mouse wheel scroll: To scroll up and down the message list 134 To End All Wars Game Manual Windows: Esc: Close the window Saved Games: When you move the mouse over a saved game on the load game screen, you can either back up one turn (Home), rename it (insert key) or delete it (delete key). City Icons Below is a general description of some of the icons you might encounter when viewing cities on the map. This list is not intended to be comprehensive but is intended to give the player a general idea. Fort (level #1) City (Western Europe) Fortified City City (Russia) Fortified City City (Northern Europe) Fortified City Fort (level #2) City (Southern Europe) Fortified City City (Middle-East) Fortified City 135 To End All Wars Game Manual Ammo Depot Supply Depot (inside city) Depot (outside city) Harbor Naval Base Fortified Line Airfield (without and with air units) Minor cities or settlements 136 Redoubt To End All Wars Game Manual NATO Symbols Admiral (one or more symbols) Artillery, Coastal Artillery, Field Artillery, Heavy Artillery, Horse Artillery, Light Artillery, Siege Balloons Cavalry Cavalry, Divisional Cavalry, Heavy Cavalry, Light Engineers Flotilla General (one or more symbols) General/Cavalry Mixed (one or more symbols) General/Infantry Mixed (one or more symbols) Goods Headquarters Headquarters Headquarters Infantry Infantry, Divisional Infantry, Heavy Infantry, Light Ironclad Irregular Marines Medical 137 To End All Wars Game Manual Militia (various states) Mines Mountain Naval Engineers Partisans Pioneers Rangers Riverine Signal Steamer Submarine Supply Transport Warship Special Ability Icon Definition EAW includes more than 70 special abilities. Hovering your mouse over a Special Ability’s icon will also display a tooltip with useful information. A list is provided below: 138 To End All Wars Game Manual Name Picture Description Militiaman Discipline bonus of 1, Cohesion bonus of 10 to all Militia in the Stack. Cavalryman 25% combat bonus for all cavalry Units in the Stack if in clear, prairie or desert terrain. Artillerist 20% combat bonus for all artillery Units in the Stack. Defensive Engineer 10% defensive fire bonus and 1 extra protection when the Stack is already entrenched. Entrencher 10% defensive fire bonus and 1 extra protection for the Unit this element is in, if already entrenched. Partisan 30% combat bonus and 2 extra protection to all Irregular Units in the Stack. Applies only in difficult terrain. Sharpshooter This Unit possesses Sharpshooters that impede enemy reaction. +1 Initiative bonus in battle to the whole Unit. Fast Mover If the commander, 15% move bonus to the whole Stack. Very Fast Mover If the commander, 25% move bonus to the whole Stack. Very Fast Cavalryman If the commander, 25% move bonus to all cavalry in the Stack. Very Fast Raider If the commander, 25% move bonus to all Irregulars in the Stack. Slow Mover If the commander, 25% move penalty to the whole Stack. Ranger 25% move bonus to the whole Stack in wild areas. Pontoneer Provides a 50% speed bonus to the whole Stack when crossing rivers. Seaman If the commander, provides a 25% move bonus to the whole Fleet. Supply Ranger 15% reduction in General Supply consumption to the whole Stack in wild areas. Master Logistician If the commander, 25% reduction on the whole Stack General Supply consumption. Forager This element or commander reduces by 25% the chances that a Unit pillages a region when foraging (i.e. when General Supply is lacking). Expert Forager This element or commander reduces by 50% the chances that a Unit pillages a region when foraging (i.e. when General Supply is lacking). Siege Expert Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Stack when attacking Forts. Fort Defender Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Stack when defending in a Fort. 139 To End All Wars Game Manual Engineer Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Stack when defending or attacking Forts. Ambusher If the commander, 50% bonus to Irregulars’ chance to ambush in non-clear areas Surpriser If the commander, 20% chance of surprising the enemy (first fire). Skirmisher If the commander, allows an easier retreat in the first two hours of the battle. Adept Raider If the commander, allows a 85% chance of retreat at any round of battle, if overwhelmed. Applies only to Stacks needing 4 or fewer command points. Reckless If the commander, will have difficulty retreating on the first two hours of the battle. Hothead If the commander, won’t be able to order a retreat during the first two hours of the battle. Multi-nations Commander (Various symbols): Can lead troops of several nations without penalties. Patriot Gives a 25% bonus to the raise of Partisans and volunteers in the State where he is present. Recruiting Officer Can muster new Conscripts on a regular basis in cities of Level 5+. Must be in the city to do so. Training Officer If the commander, will train up to two regiments of Conscripts to regular soldier every turn. Training Master Provides 1 experience point every turn to all the troops in the Stack by drilling them. Master Spy If the commander, improves the detection of enemy Units (except Irregulars) within the Front. Poor Spy Network If the commander, erroneous reports received which worsen the detection of enemy Units (except Irregulars) within the Front. Large Transport This Unit has a transport capacity of 10. Medium Transport This Unit has a transport capacity of 5. Transport This Unit has a transport capacity of 3. Small Transport This Unit has a transport capacity of 2. Tiny Transport This Unit has a transport capacity of 1. Charismatic This leader has a charismatic aura. If the commander, provides +5 maximum Cohesion and a +25% increase in the fatigue recovery rate of Units under his command. Good Army Administrator The leader is appreciated by his men and cares about their well-being. If the commander, provides a +15% increase in the fatigue recovery rate of Units under his command. 140 To End All Wars Game Manual Dispirited Leader This commander is absolutely not charismatic in the eyes of his men or is a defeatist. -5 Maximum Cohesion to the Stack if the commander, -25% to the Cohesion recovery rate. HQ Command Because of an efficient command structure, Divisions HQs are able to give +5 Maximum Cohesion and +5% to the Cohesion Recovery Rate, to all divisional elements. Strong Morale This element is either composed of highly motivated, battle-hardened individuals or is a leader capable of inspiring his men. The inspiration provided gives a +5 Maximum Cohesion bonus to all others elements of the Unit. Medical Service This element is a Medical Service company, able to provide health care even on the battlefield. Give +15% to the Cohesion Recovery rate of all others elements of the Stack they are in. Hated Occupier This leader will apply Martial Law with extreme severity in any rebellious city he has to pacify. Occupier This leader will not hesitate to proclaim Martial Law in any rebellious city he has to administer. Good Population Administrator If the most senior General in the region, will progressively increase the Alignment of the population over time. (+1% each turn up to 75%) Pillager If the most senior commander in the region, this leader will let his men burn and pillage the countryside without regards for justice, slaughtering civilians if need be. Only the most loyal and policed regions will be spared by his cruel behavior. Strategist If the Commander in Chief in the Front, provides +1 Command Point and an additional +1 per ability level, to his Stack and all subordinates Corps. Good Commander If in command provides +1 Command Point per ability level. (If in command of an Army, subordinates Corps also receive this bonus) Gifted Commander This general is gifted for command. +2 Command Points and +1 additional CP per ability level above 1, to any Stack he commands. (If in command of an Army, subordinates Corps also receive this bonus) Good Subordinates This general knows how to pick his subordinates and is able to delegate command at the right moment. +3 Command Points to any Stacks he commands. This ability does not improve. Quickly Angered This general is quickly angered and is often having arguments with his subordinates. -4 Command Points to the Stack he commands and to subordinates Corps if any. Over Cautious This commander is far too cautious when it comes to engaging the enemy, resulting in passivity and a lack of reactivity in the Chain of Command of his Army. -4 CP if the commander of the Stack (applied to subordinate Corps if in command of an Army) Signal This signal Unit is of great use to an able commander for transmitting orders along the chain of command. +2 Command Points to the Stack it is in. This ability does not improve. Balloon This Balloon Unit is of great use to an able commander for spotting the enemy and coordinating movements between his regiments. +1 Command Points to the Stack it is in. This ability does not improve. 141 To End All Wars Game Manual Deceiver This element or general is adept at establishing dummy positions (Quaker guns and such), camouflaging to the enemy the real strength of his Stack. +1 to the Hide Value of the Stack, if entrenched. Screener This element or general is able to screen and mask the progression of the whole Stack with the clever use of scouts, side-tracks, stealthy marches, and subterfuges. +1 to the Hide Value of the Stack and +25% to the Evasion Value, if the Stack is moving. Deep Raider This element or general is able to mount deep raids which can avoid enemy patrols, with the use of side-tracks, stealthy marches, and subterfuges. +50% to the Evasion Value, if the Stack is moving. Patroller This element or general is proficient in making more effective patrols in the region he is in, by setting an effective picket network or establishing signal towers. +1 to Detection Value; +35% to the Patrol Value of the Stack the element is in, if entrenched. Sea Spotter This element or admiral is proficient in surveying the seas and spotting enemy ships. +1 to Detection Value, +35% to the Patrol Value of the Stack the element is in. Dispersed Move This general (if the commander) has the bad habit of letting his troops move in disorder, thus reducing their ability to patrol the region or conceal their approach. -25% to Evasion and Patrol, -1 to Hide Value of the whole Stack, if moving. Blockade Runner If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at avoiding enemy naval Stacks, if need be. +35% to the Evasion Value of the Fleet. Works only if moving. Fort Runner If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at running enemy Forts, if need be. +10% to the Evasion Value, -35% to the damage taken from Forts firing on the passing Fleet. Works only if moving. Sea Raider If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at avoiding enemy naval Stacks, if need be. +25% to the Evasion Value of the Fleet. Works even if not moving. Emplaced Guns These guns are emplaced batteries and can’t be moved outside the region. Pillager This element will burn immediately any enemy Depot or stockade captured. Nationalities Icon Definition EAW includes more than 20 different subnationalites possibilites (not all of them are used for now, we are showing only those currently present in the version 1.0). Hovering your mouse over a Special Ability’s icon will also display a tooltip with useful information. A list is provided opposite: 142 To End All Wars Game Manual Name Picture Description African (Black) Black troops raided in the African OMBs. Algerian (French North Africa) French troops from the Algérie (and sometimes Maroc and Tunisie) offmap boxes. Replacement acronym: FNF Troops raised in the Middle East (Turkish irregulars, Arab nationalists). Replacement acronym: TAR Arab Armenian (Caucasus) Russian Troops raised in the Caucasus. Replacement acronym: RCA Australian British troops and leaders from Australia. Replacement acronym: GAZ. Balt Russian units and leaders from the Baltic region (Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia). Replacement acronym: RBA Canadian British troops and leaders from Canada. Replacement acronym: GCA. Czech Foreign Legion Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from the Bohemia and Moravia region. Replacement acronym: ACZ. Also used for Russian Czech legion troops and leaders (acronym RCZ) and Czech troops in French (FCZ) service French Elite fighting force, raisable only in the Algérie offmap box. Replacement acronym: FLE. Finn Russian units and leaders from the Finland region. Replacement acronym: RFN French Indochina French troops from the Indochine offmap boxes. Replacement acronym: FID Hungarian Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Hungary region. Replacement acronym: AHU Indian British troops and leaders from British India. Replacement acronym: GIN. Irish British troops and leaders from Ireland. Replacement acronym: GIR. Italian Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Tirol and Istria regions. Replacement acronym: AIT. New Zealand British troops and leaders from New Zealand. Replacement acronym: GNZ. Polish Rumanian Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Poland region. Replacement acronym: APO. Also used for German Polish troops and leaders (acronym GPO) and Polish troops in French (FPO) service. Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Poland region. Replacement acronym: ARO. Scottish British troops and leaders from Scotland. Replacement acronym: GSC. Siberian Russian units and leaders from the Siberia region. Replacement acronym: RSI. Slavic (Southern Slavs) Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Croatia and Bosnia regions. Replacement acronym: ASS. Also used for Slavic troops in French (FRU) service. South African British troops and leaders from Scotland. Replacement acronym: GSF. Ukrainian / Ruthenian Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Ruthenia region. Replacement acronym: AUK. Also used for Russian troops from Ukraine. Replacement acronym RUK. 143 To End All Wars Game Manual Regional Decisions List Here are charts with the depiction of the various in-game decisions. There are sorted by main categories of usage. Important Design Note: those Decisions will be refined and altered during the last stages of playtesting, so please refer to ingame tooltips for exact conditions and descriptions. Government Related Menu Icon Name & Map Icon Description of Decision 144 Revolution Revolution Condition(s): Revolutions may effect Russia, France, Germany, AustriaHungary, Italy, and Ottoman Empire. For Russia, the chance of Revolution begins when Rebel loyalty reaches 70% or higher in the Russia off-map region, for the others when Rebel loyalty reaches 80% or higher. The chances of Russia succumbing to Revolution is also higher each turn than the others. Strategy & Description: A nation in Revolution struggles to maintain popular support for remaining in the Great War. Each turn, a 100-side dice is rolled against the nation’s Rebel Alignment; if successful, the nation moves 1% towards Rebels (so, effect becomes worse as nation descends into revolution). Once a nation has spiraled into Revolution, it is usually only a matter of time before the nation signs an armistice and surrenders. Important Note: This RGD is placed via event, not by the player, and cannot be removed by the player once in effect. Change Government Change Government Condition(s): Can only be played on off-map diplomacy regions, on nations allied to your side. Once played, it will be 24 turns before the decision can be played again on this particular nation. Strategy & Description: Moves off-map region 8% towards your alliance’s loyalty, at a cost of 8 Engagement Points, 5 National Morale, and 250 Victory Points. This is a fairly drastic measure meant to bolster loyalty within an individual nation, but at a high cost to the alliance as a whole. Grant Concessions Grant Concessions Condition(s): Can only be played on off-map diplomacy regions, on nations allied to your side. Once played, it will be 12 turns before the decision can be played again on this particular nation. Strategy & Description: Moves off-map region 3% towards your alliance’s loyalty, at a cost of 2 Engagement Points and 50 Victory Points. These measures can be helpful in maintaining loyalty of individual nations, at a relatively low cost. To End All Wars Game Manual Print State Funds Print State Funds Condition(s): This decision may only be played on off-map regions of France, Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and United States. Once played, it will be 3 turns before the decision can be played again on this particular nation. Strategy & Description: Grants immediate 1000 State Funds, at a cost of 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 75 Victory Points, 2% inflation. Proper usage of this decision is crucial to managing the war effort, but it must be played with care. Using too often will result in sinking morale and rampant inflation! INDUSTRY Related Menu Icon Name & Map Icon Description of Decision Ammos Munitions Factory Build a new munitions factory (for production of artillery ammunition) Condition(s): Costs 2 Engagement Points, 200 State Funds, and 100 War Supply. Must target an owned region. Strategy & Description: Munitions Factories, once build, produce 5 Ammunition (Munitions Shells) each turn, which are used by medium artillery, heavy artillery, fortress artillery, and naval ships. All nations start with a limited income of munitions, so building these sites is crucial to the long term war effort, as artillery is ineffective without the munitions needed to fire it! COMBAT Related Menu Icon Name & Map Icon Description of Decision Chlorine Chlorine gas Enemy units in target region have 25% chance of -2 health, -10% cohesion (may 6 enemy elements affected) Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 50 War Supply, and 50 Victory, Level 2 Chemical Research must have been reached Strategy & Description: The very first time gas of any sort is used, it will do an additional -33% cohesion to the enemy (this is one time per game, across all sides!). Each of the 3 gas attack decisions will also do -25% cohesion to the enemy the first 3 times they are used (this is not combined with the first use bonus) Phosgen Phosgene gas Enemy units in target region have 25% chance of -12 health, -5% cohesion (may 10 enemy elements affected) Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 50 War Supply, and 50 Victory, Level 3 Chemical Research must have been reached Strategy & Description: The very first time gas of any sort is used, it will do an additional -33% cohesion to the enemy (this is one time per game, across all sides!). Each of the 3 gas attack decisions will also do -25% cohesion to the enemy the first 3 times they are used (this is not combined with the first use bonus) 145 To End All Wars Game Manual Mustard Mustard gas Enemy units in target region have 33% chance of -25% cohesion (may 15 enemy elements affected) Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 50 War Supply, and 50 Victory, Level 4 Chemical Research must have been reached Strategy & Description: The very first time gas of any sort is used, it will do an additional -33% cohesion to the enemy (this is one time per game, across all sides!). Each of the 3 gas attack decisions will also do -25% cohesion to the enemy the first 3 times they are used (this is not combined with the first use bonus) Fort Bombardment Fort Bombardment Condition(s): Must target an enemy owned region with a city or fort, where you have > 50% military control, and at least 2 super heavy artillery elements present. This will also consume 4 elements of munitions trains, due to the excessive shelling involved. Strategy & Description: The enemy structure will immediately suffer one breach, Enemy fortress guns in the region will suffer -95% cohesion and -75% strength immediately. This represents suppression of enemy guns via extremely heavy bombardment. It is quite effective for breaching enemy forts, but building artillery heavy enough to do such attacks is very expensive! Unlock Fort Guns Unlock Fort Guns Condition(s): Costs 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, and 200 Victory Points. Must target a fortress containing fort guns, in a region owned by your side, and belonging to France, Russia, Germany, AustriaHungary, Great Britain, Italy, USA, or Ottoman Empire. Strategy & Description: This decision will convert fortress guns into unfixed heavy artillery, which can be incorporated into your units on the map. This decision should only be used when State Funds and War Supply are too low to build desperately needed artillery, or perhaps in the early months of the war when artillery is much needed in a quick timeframe. Appoint Generals Appoint Generals Condition(s): Costs 3 Engagement Points and 300 State Funds. Must be played on an off-map diplomacy region. May only be played on an individual nation once every 6 turns. Strategy & Description: Will unlock 6 generals in the off-map region, and place them in the corresponding nation’s capital (ex. if played on off-map region of Germany, will unlock 6 German generals and they will appear in Berlin the next turn). Generals will be needed throughout the game to lead the armies and corps on the map. Max Hoffman Max Hoffman Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, must be played on a region in Germany, on Eastern Front, which the Russians now own. Strategy & Description: All Russian units on German territory will suffer -66% cohesion, leaders will be inactive, and stacks will be fixed for 1 turn. Zeppelin Recon 146 Zeppelin Recon Condition(s): Nothing but the decision is expended definitively. Only available to Central Powers. Strategy & Description: Will reduce by 2 the hiding value of enemy ships Will damages or even destroy some Zeppelins. Will get more decisions via event if there are operational Zeppelins on the map. To End All Wars Game Manual Zeppelin Bombing Zeppelin Bombing. Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point. Is not effective if Western Entente has played the CAP decision to counter Zeppelin raids. Only available to Central Powers. Strategy & Description: Will reduce by one Entente National Morale. Will get more decisions via event if there are operational Zeppelins on the map. CAPs CAP Condition(s): Nothing but the decision is expended definitively. Only available to Western Entente. Strategy & Description: Will prevent or destroy any Zeppelins raid. Will get more decisions via event if there are operational fighter planes nearby London. Can only be played if some fighter planes are also in the vicinity. Stormtroops (ME) Stormtroops (SE) Condition(s): The player will receive special units called StossTruppen (literally Assault troop). These units, although of very good quality, should not be used in the same way as others troops, as they don’t have the raw firepower of a full infantry corps. Instead, using special infiltration tactics, they can provoke a breakthrough in the enemy lines. You’ll receive approximately at the same time several regional decisions called ‘Stormtroops Minor Efforts’, ‘Stormtroops Sustained Efforts’,’Stormtroops Heavy Efforts’. These decisions can only be played if you have at least 2 stormtroops adjacent to the region where you want to play the decision. More stormtroops will be required to play the costlier decisions. These decisions will reduce enemy cohesion and possibly reduce entrenchments level, thus allowing an easier attack and a possible breakthrough, if you attack the same turn you play the decision. Nb: Planning wise, a decision played on a given turn will have its effect applied before any combat can happen. Once spent, a decision is gone forever, but new decisions are given back several time per years, depending of the number of deployed stormtroopers. These units must be in good shape (at least 50% cohesion and health) to be considered for the computation. If you just keep the units in the force pool, no new decisions can be added by the game. Strategy & Description: Minor Efforts will reduce the cohesion of up to 40 enemy elements (average of 10) and will remove one level of trenches from up to 4 enemy stacks (average of 1). Stormtroops (SE) Stormtroops (SE) Condition(s): see above Strategy & Description: Sustained Efforts will reduce the cohesion of up to 120 enemy elements (average of 30) and will remove one level of trenches from up to 6 enemy stacks (average of 1.5). Stormtroops (HE) Stormtroops (HE) Condition(s): see above Strategy & Description: Heavy Efforts will reduce the cohesion of up to 240 enemy elements (average of 60) and will remove one level of trenches from up to 8 enemy stacks (average of 2). 147 To End All Wars Game Manual DIPLOMACY AND SPECIALS Related Menu Icon 148 Name & Map Icon Description of Decision Agricultural Aid Agricultural Aid helps Germany reverse some of the harsh effects of the Atlantic Blockade. For Agricultural Aid to be effective, the Atlantic Blockade must be at least level 2. If so, then a 100 sided dice is rolled and compared to the Rebel Alignment in the off-map Germany national area. If the dice roll is equal to or lower than the Rebel Alignment, Alignment in off-map Germany national area moves 1 point towards Germany (and away from Rebels). Agricultural Aid is available from the following nations under the listed circumstances: • Italy, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% • Belgium, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% • Holland, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% • Romania, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% Diplomatic Aid Diplomatic Aid is a measure of the international diplomatic assistance a nation provides to one of the alliances. In game, this is represented as +2 EP per turn the nation provides to the alliance it is giving Diplomatic Aid to. Diplomatic Aid is available from the following nations under the listed circumstances: • France (to Entente), always • Russia (to Entente), always, so long as not surrendered • Germany (to Centrals), always • Austria-Hungary (to Centrals), always, so long as not surrendered • Great Britain (to Entente), if Entente Alignment is >= 60% • Ottoman Empire (to Entente), if Entente Alignment is > 80% • Ottoman Empire (to Centrals), if Central Powers Alignment is > 60% Economic Aid Economic Aid represents income available to the Western Entente from favored relations with North America and the USA. It results in the Western Entente gaining +75 State Funds per turn, when active. Economic Aid is available from the following nations under the listed circumstances: • United States, if Entente Alignment is > 80% (ends if USA enters the war) Munitions Aid Munitions Aid represents income available to the Western Entente from favored relations with this nation. It results in the Western Entente gaining +25 War Supply per turn, when active. Munitions Aid is available from the following nations under the listed circumstances: • United States, if Entente Alignment is > 60% (ends if USA enters the war) • Great Britain, if Entente Alignment is >= 60% (ends if Great Britain enters the war) To End All Wars Game Manual Neutral Neutral Nations have a set policy of non-intervention in the Great War and are more difficult to sway towards one side or the other. When Neutral Nation is in effect, the nation will move 1% back towards a 50%/50% Entente/Central Powers orientation each turn. Neutral Nation is available from the following nations under the listed circumstances: • United States, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% • Belgium, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70% • China, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% and <= 80% • Denmark, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% and <= 70% • Greece, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70% • Holland, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% and <= 70% • Portugal, if Central Powers Alignment > 40% and <= 98% • Spain, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70% • Sweden, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70% • Switzerland, if Central Powers Alignment is > 1% and <= 99% • Luxembourg, if Central Powers Alignment is > 1% and <= 99% • Brazil, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70% Pro XYZ Pro-Centrals Nations naturally lean towards the Central Powers alliance. When Pro-Centrals Nation is in effect, the nation automatically moves 1% towards the Central Powers alliance each turn. Pro-Centrals Nation is available from the following nations under the listed conditions: • Ottoman Empire, if Central Powers Alignment is > 60% • Italy, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70% • Bulgaria, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70% • Greece, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70% • Japan, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70% • Romania, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70% Pro-Entente Nations naturally lean towards the Entente alliance. When Pro-Entente Nation is in effect, the nation automatically moves 1% towards the Entente alliance each turn. Pro-Entente Nation is available from the following nations under the listed conditions: • Great Britain, if Entente Alignment is > 60% • United States, if Entente Alignment is > 80% • Ottoman Empire, if Entente Alignment is > 80% • Italy, if Entente Alignment is > 80% • Bulgaria, if Entente Alignment is > 80% • China, if Entente Alignment is > 80% • Japan, if Entente Alignment is > 60% • Portugal, if Entente Alignment is > 60% • Romania, if Entente Alignment is > 80% Czar Takes Command Once Eastern Entente NM falls below 75, the Tsar takes command over the Russian armies. After this, any turn the Easter Entente NM is below 75, Russia moves 1% towards Rebel Alignment, representing the popular unrest against the Tsar which gradually builds in Russia, should the war effort continue to progress poorly. 149 To End All Wars Game Manual 150 Rasputin This effect comes into play when the Central Powers player uses the Rasputin option against Russia. While in effect, Rasputin has a 25% per turn of costing the Eastern Entente player 1 EP and a -1 Alignment in Russia, to represent the ill effects of his presence in the Russian court. Rasputin can be removed via the Assassinate Rasputin option available to the Eastern Entente player. Lenin This effect comes into play when the Central Powers player uses the Lenin option against Russia. While in effect, a 100-sided dice roll is made against Rebel Alignment in Russia each turn. If successful, Alignment in Russia moves 1% towards Rebels, and Eastern Entente player suffers -1 NM. DOW Declaration of War Condition(s): None Strategy & Description: just use it to declare war on a nation of your choice (not one of your allies however). To End All Wars Game Manual The Great War Timeline 1914 June 28 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austro-Hungarian empire, in Sarajevo, Bosnia July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Jul 29–Dec 9 Austria-Hungary repeatedly invades Serbia but is repeatedly repulsed August 1 Outbreak of war Germany declares war on Russia August 3 Germany declares war on France August 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium August 4 Britain declares war on Germany August 4 US President Woodrow Wilson declares policy of US neutrality August 14 Battle of the Frontiers begins August 17-19 Russia invades East Prussia August 23 Japan declares war on Germany Aug 23–Sep 2 Austria-Hungary invades Russian Poland (Galicia) August 26-30 Battle of Tannenberg, which Russia loses; Germany’s greatest success of the war on Eastern Front September 5-10 First Battle of Marne, halts German advance, resulting in stalemate and trench warfare September 9-14 First Battle of Masurian Lakes, which Russia again loses September 14 First Battle of Aisne begins Sep 15–Nov 24 The “race to the sea”, trenches appear on September 15 September 17-28 Austro-German attack western Poland Oct 14–Nov 22 First Battle of Ypres 151 To End All Wars Game Manual October 29 December 8 December 21 December 25 1915 Jan 1–Mar 30 January 15 January 19-20 February 4 Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers Battle of the Falkland Islands First German air raid on Britain Unofficial Christmas truce declared by soldiers along the Western Front Allied offensive in Artois and Champagne Japan’s 21 demands on China First German zeppelin attack on England German U-boat attacks on Allied and neutral shipping; declares blockade of Britain February 7-21 Russians suffer heavy losses at Second Battle of Masurian Lakes (also known as the Winter Battle) February–April Austro-Hungarian attack on Russian Poland (Galicia) collapses, with the Russians counterattacking Feb 19-Aug Allied amphibious attack on the Dardanelles and Gallipoli (initiated by Winston Churchill, who resigns as a consequence) ends with the Turkish siege of the Allied forces March 1 First passenger ship sinks, the British liner Falaba March 11 Britain announces blockade of German ports April-June Germans focus on Eastern Front, breaking through Gorlice-Tarnow and forcing Russia out of much of Poland April 22–May 25 First use of poison gas by Germany starts Second Battle of Ypres April 25 Allied landing at Gallipoli April 26 France, Russia, Italy and Britain conclude secret Treaty of London May 2 Austro-German offensive on Galicia begins May 7 U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania with the loss of American lives, creating a US-German diplomatic crisis May 9 Second Battle of Artois begins 152 To End All Wars Game Manual May 23 May 25 Jun 29–Dec 2 August 4 September 5 September 22 October 3 Oct–Nov December 19 December 28 1916 Feb 21–Dec 18 Mar 11–Nov 14 April March 9 March 24 April 24 May 4 May 19 May 31–June 1 June–August Ignoring treaty agreements with the Central Powers, Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary British Prime Minister Asquith reorganises his Liberal government as a coalition of the parties Italians launch unsuccessful attack on Hungarians at 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Battles of Isonzo; there are to be 12 in total Germans capture Warsaw Tsar Nicholas takes command of Russian armies Second Battle of Champagne begins Anglo-French force lands at Salonika in Greece Austro-German-Bulgarian forces invade Serbia, expelling Serbian army from the country Sir Douglas Haig replaces Sir John French as commander of British Expeditionary Force Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli German attack on Verdun in the longest battle of the war, ultimately defended by the French at great cost to both sides 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th Battles of Isonzo between Italy and Austria-Hungary British forces in Mesopotamia begin advance on Baghdad Pancho Villa’s raid on Columbus, New Mexico French passenger ship, Sussex, torpedoed Easter rebellion starts in Ireland Germany renounces submarine policy Britain and France conclude Sykes-Picot agreement Battle of Jutland, the biggest naval battle in history, ultimately without a clear victor Turkish forces, led by Enver Pasha, are defeated by the Russians in the Caucasus 153 To End All Wars Game Manual June 4–Sept 20 June 5 July 1 July 29 Aug–Dec August 28 August 31 September 15 October 15 November 7-9 November 18 November 28 November 29 December 7 December 12 December 18 1917 January 10 January 31 February 1 February 3 Feb 23–Apr 5 154 Russian Brusilov offensive in Carpathia nearly knocks Austria-Hungary out of the war With British support (led by T.E. Lawrence), Hussein, grand sherif of Mecca, lead an Arab revolt against the Turks in the Hejaz Start of the Battle of the Somme, with the greatest number of casualties in British military history, 60,000 US marines land in Haiti Romania enters the war with the Allies, but is quickly overrun by German forces Italy declares war on Germany Germany suspends submarine assaults Tanks introduced for the first time on the Somme battlefield by the British Germany resumes U-boat attacks US President Woodrow Wilson secures re-election End of the Battle of the Somme First German airplane (as opposed to zeppelin) air-raid on Britain US occupation of Santa Domingo proclaimed David Lloyd George replaces Asquith as British Prime Minister Germany issues peace note suggesting compromise peace US President Woodrow Wilson requests statements of war objectives from warring nations in peace note Allies state peace objectives in response to US President Woodrow Wilson’s December 1916 peace note Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare US severs diplomatic ties with Germany German forces begin withdrawal to strong positions on the Hindenburg Line To End All Wars Game Manual February 24 Zimmermann Telegram is passed to the US by Britain, detailing alleged German proposal of an alliance with Mexico against the US February 26 US President Woodrow Wilson requests permission from Congress to arm US merchantmen March 1 Zimmermann Telegram published in US press March 11 British capture Baghdad March 12 US President Woodrow Wilson announces arming of US merchantmen by executive order after failing to win approval from Congress March 15 Tsar Nicholas II abdicates as a consequence of Russian Revolution March 20 US President Woodrow Wilson’s war cabinet votes unanimously in favour of declaring war on Germany April 2 US President Woodrow Wilson delivers war address to Congress April 6 US declares war on Germany April 9-20 Nivelle Offensive (Second Battle of Aisne, Third Battle of Champagne) ends in French failure April 9 Canadian success at the Battle of Vimy Ridge April 16 Lenin arrives in Russia April 29–May 20 Mutiny breaks out among French army May 12–Oct 24 10th, 11th and 12th Battles of Isonzo fought, ending in Italian failure May 28 Pershing leaves New York for France June 7 British explode 19 large mines under the Messines Ridge June 15 US Espionage Act passed June 26 First US troops arrive in France, 1st Division June 27 Greece enters the war on the side of the Allies July 2 Pershing makes first request for army of 1,000,000 men July 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba July 11 Pershing revises army request figures upwards to 3,000,000 155 To End All Wars Game Manual July 16 July 31 September 1 October 24 November 7 November 20 December 7 December 9 December 22 1918 Jan–Sep January 8 February 11 March 3 March 21 March 26 April 9 April 14 May 25 156 Third Battles of Ypres (Passchendaele) begins Major British offensive launched at Ypres. Germany takes the northernmost end of the Russian front in the Riga offensive Austria-Germany breakthrough at Caporetto on Italian front Bolshevik Revolution in Russia results in Communist government under Lenin taking office British launch surprise tank attack at Cambrai US declares war on Austria-Hungary Jerusalem falls to Britain Russia opens separate peace negotiations with Germany (Brest-Litovsk) T.E. Lawrence leads Arab guerrillas in successful campaign against Turkish positions in Arabia and Palestine US President Woodrow Wilson makes “Fourteen Points” speech to Congress US President Woodrow Wilson makes “Four Principles” speech to Congress Soviet Russia concludes separate peace negotiations in treaty of Brest-Litovsk Germany launches Spring push, eventually mounting five major offensives against Allied forces, starting with the Battle of Picardy against the British Doullens Agreement gives General Ferdinand Foch “coordinating authority” over the Western Front Germany launches second Spring offensive, the Battle of the Lys, in the British sector of Armentieres Foch appointed Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces on Western Front German U-boats appear in US waters for first time To End All Wars Game Manual May 27 May 28 June 6 June 9 June 15 July 6 July 15 July 16-17 July 18 August 3 August 8 September 12 September 19 September 26 September 26 Sep 27–Oct 17 September 29 Sep 28–Oct 14 Third German Spring offensive, Third Battle of the Aisne, begins in French sector along Chemin des Dames US forces (28th Regiment of 1st Division) victorious in first major action, Battle of Cantigny US 3rd Division captures Bouresches and southern part of Belleau Wood Germans launch fourth Spring offensive, Battle of the Matz, in French sector between Noyan and Montdidier Italians prevail against Austro-Hungarian forces at Battle of Piave US President Woodrow Wilson agrees to US intervention in Siberia Final phase of great German Spring push, the Second Battle of Marne, begins Former Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and children, are murdered by the Bolsheviks Allies counterattack against German forces, seizing initiative Allied intervention begins at Vladivosto Haig directs start of successful Amiens offensive, forcing all German troops back to the Hindenburg Line; Ludendorff calls it a “black day” for German army US forces clear the St.-Mihiel salient, during which the greatest air assault of the war is launched by the US Start of British offensive in Palestine, the Battle of Megiddo Battle of the Vardar pits Serb, Czech, Italian, French and British forces against Bulgarian forces Meuse-Argonne offensive opens; the final FrancoAmerican offensive of the war Haig’s forces storm the Hindenburg Line, breaking through at several points Bulgaria concludes armistice negotiations Belgian troops attack at Ypres 157 To End All Wars Game Manual October 3-4 Oct 17–Nov 11 October 21 October 27 October 30 November 3 November 3 November 7-11 November 9 November 10 November 10 November 11 1919 January 10-15 January 18 January 25 February 6 February 14 May 6 May 7–June 28 June 21 July 19 158 Germany and Austria send peace notes to US President Woodrow Wilson requesting an armistice British advance to the Sambre and Schledt rivers, taking many German prisoners Germany ceases unrestricted submarine warfare Erich Ludendorff resigns Turkey concludes an armistice with the Allies German fleet mutinies at Kiel Trieste falls to the Allies; Austria-Hungary concludes an armistice Germany negotiates an armistice with the Allies in Ferdinand Foch’s railway carriage headquarters at Compiegne Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates Kaiser Wilhelm II flees to Holland German republic is founded Armistice day; fighting ceases at 11am (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month) Communist revolt in Berlin Start of peace negotiations in Paris Peace conference accepts principle of a League of Nations German National Assembly meets in Weimar Draft covenant of League of Nations completed Peace conference disposes of German colonies Treaty of Versailles drafted and signed German High Seas Fleet scuttled at Scapa Flow Cenotaph is unveiled in London To End All Wars Game Manual Credits Ageod Lead Design Ben McJunkins, Philippe Thibaut Development Philippe Malacher Art Director Nicolas Eskubi Graphics Nicolas Eskubi, , Ismael Martinez, Massimo Del Bono, Philippe Thibaut Soldiers, Ships and Leaders Graphics Massimo Del Bono Additional Design Philippe Malacher Historical Research Philippe Thibaut Additional Research Ol’Choctaw, Captain Orso, Le Ricain, Ebbingford, Jim-NC Music Main Theme by Laurent Lecuyer. Sounds SFX Michael Huang Manual Philippe Thibaut & Sir Garnet 159 To End All Wars Game Manual Communication, Web and Forum Administration Marco Minoli, Filippo Chianetta, Philippe Malacher, Philippe Thibaut Administration Ageod Ltd Special Thanks to these Volunteers Ace, Le Ricain, Ebbingford, Jim-NC Volunteers (Alphabetically) abiondi, Ace, alastair, Alex877, alty59, Baelon, BigDuke66, Burdy323, captainmatt, cegman, cestus, Chaplain Lovejoy, CheerfullyInsane, csdevore, Damascus, Dan1973, danand, Defcon One, derfderf, Djoug, DrPostman, DrTeflon, Dusty, eagleFMJ, Ebbingford, Enocm, ferrenava, fjvieane, Franciscus, Frank, fren08, Gazza, Gferreq, giperforg, Grim. Reaper, Gryphonrider, Guru94, hadrian, HerrDan, heyhellowhatsnew, HHFD50, Hicksey, HidekiTojo, Highlandcharge, Hinkel, Husky, hyroda, igor7111, IronClad61, Ironpaw, Jim-NC, JOSELICHI27, jward, Kaiser Drake, Kensai, kenshin714, Laelys, Lannister, lecrop, Liberty Bell, Lindi, m.b.johansson, manel, marsouin, Matto, Mauser, Metatron, MoriQuessir, mtathome2, nadia911, ohms_law, Pailhead, PandemicUK, Paul Roberts, paulopanz, pb783, Person of Interest, pivex, poweraxe, Prussian Konig, reedleyxd, Reiryc, rekim, Respenus, ROCKBRIDGE, Rpetchen, scott1964, Sean E, shri, sjgold, sneferu, stanco, Swotoro, Thronfolger, timrt, Uawcat, UsF, V for Vegas, Vincentius, Vlad Tepes, Von Glue, von wilhelm, wayne57, Wictor Hovander, wodin, wosung, wrichter, Xesco, Yappy Hank Production A game produced by Ageod Ltd 160 To End All Wars Game Manual Slitherine CHAIRMAN JD McNeil DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR Iain McNeil PRODUCER Tamas Kiss, Alex Stoikou OPERATIONS DIRECTOR Erik Rutins TECHNICAL DIRECTOR Philip Veale MARKETING DIRECTOR Marco A. Minoli CREATIVE DIRECTOR Richard Evans PUBLIC RELATIONS MANAGER Olivier Georges COMMUNITY MANAGER Bart Schouten ART LEAD Claudio Guarnerio, Myriam Bell QA & PRODUCTION ASSISANT Andrew Loveridge, Gerry Edwards ADMINISTRATION Dean Walker, Liz Stoltz CUSTOMER SUPPORT STAFF Paulo Costa, Joseph Miller WEB DEVELOPMENT Valery Vidershpan, Andrea Nicola, Fernando Turi SPAIN TERRITORY MANAGER Juan Diaz Bustamante 161 S I N G L E U S E S OFT WARE LI CENSE AGREEMENT READ THIS SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT (“LICENSE”) CAREFULLY BEFORE PROCEEDING TO INSTALL THE SOFTWARE. BY PRESSING “AGREE,” YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE, PRESS “DISAGREE”. THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT IS A LEGALLY BINDING CONTRACT BETWEEN YOU AND MATRIX GAMESLTD. AND/OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES OR SUB LICENSEES. 1. General. This software product in its entirety is copyrighted and is protected by international law. 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