Certain individuals may experience epileptic seizures or loss of
consciousness when subjected to strong, flashing lights for long
periods of time. Such individuals may therefore experience a seizure
while operating computer or video games. This can also affect
individuals who have no prior medical record of epilepsy or have
never previously experienced a seizure.
If you or any family member has ever experienced epilepsy symptoms
(seizures or loss of consciousness) after exposure to flashing lights,
please consult your doctor before playing this game.
Parental guidance is always suggested when children are using a
computer and video games. Should you or your child experience
dizziness, poor eyesight, eye or muscle twitching, loss of
consciousness, feelings of disorientation or any type of involuntary
movements or cramps while playing this game, turn it off immediately
and consult your doctor before playing again.
• Do not sit too close to the monitor.
• Sit as far as comfortably possible.
• Use as small a monitor as possible.
• Do not play when tired or short on sleep.
• Take care that there is sufficient lighting in the room.
• Be sure to take a break of 10-15 minutes every hour.
System Requirements
Updates and Forum Support4
Main Menu
Campaigns & Scenarios
Tutorial Scenarios
Loading, Deleting, & Renaming a Game
Saving a Game (& PBEM)
Winning the Game
Victory Points (VP) National Morale (NM)
Game Scale
Fixed Units
Command Chain
Promoting & Relieving Leaders39
Element Attributes –
Inspection Panel
Leader Attributes
Blocking Movement & Evasion51
Interception & Combination
Special Orders & Movement
Rules of Engagement (ROE)
Fog of War
Detection Value
Hide Value
The Map
Navigating the Map
Regions & Sea Zones - Terrain & Structures
Fronts (Theaters)
Map Filters
Out of Supply Penalties
Supply Sources
Supply Distribution & Depots
Supply Wagons and Trucks
Naval Units
Army Organization
Understanding the Stack Panel29
What is a Unit?
What is an Element?
Manipulating Stacks
Climate & Weather
Military Control
Controlling Structures
Diplomacy and Alignment72
Diplomacy Regions
Diplomacy Regions: Alignment and War Support
Diplomacy: Notes & Examples
Diplomatic Regions: Alignment and Diplomacy
Military Influencing Alignment 80
The War Economy
Men (Conscripts)
State Funds
Blockade & Raiding Commerce
Submarine Warfare
Raising Units
Gameplay: Army organization and troop roles
Managing your Nation
Unit Roster
Technology & Research
Political Options
Objectives Screen
Regional Decisions & Decision Mode
Combat in the Field
Engaging in Combat
Battle Planner
Marching to the Sound of the Guns
Combat Range
Fire Combat
Unit Morale
Melee Combat
Battle Aftermath
Naval Combat
Air Warfare
Air Missions Type
Air Mission Points
Air-to-air Combat
Air Advices
Zeppelins gameplay
Storming a Structure
Losses & Replacements
Glossary & Abbreviations
Shortcut Keys
City Icons
NATO Symbols
Special Ability Icon Definition138
Nationalities Icon Definition
Regional Decisions List
The Great War Timeline
A printed game manual is a document that is prepared usually 6-8
weeks before official release of the first version of the product.
Therefore it is common that between the time the manual was written
and the release some elements of the game will change through the
later stages of beta testing. Ageod games also receive improvements
via post-release patches or updates, which may render some sections
of a printed manual no longer accurate.
Therefore we recommend that you always check for the latest PDF
version of the manual on the Ageod’s END ALL WARS forum in case
of doubt, and remember that in-game information is more recent and
accurate. Should you need more details and precise answers, ask on
the Ageod forums. The team will always be glad to answer you there.
The Development Team
August 2014
To End All Wars Game Manual
To End All Wars (EAW) is a historical strategy game using
simultaneous turn resolution – also called a WEGO system – that
places players at the head of the Entente Allies (France, Britain,
Russia and more) or the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary
and more) during the Great War (1914-1918). It can be played either
against the computer’s artificial intelligence (AI) or against a human
opponent using file transfer protocols such as email or online file
sharing services (PBEM).
Players assume the role of military and political leaders leading
the Armies and Fleets of their nation during up to five years of bitter
struggle throughout the world. All sides will strive to capture and
hold key Objectives, destroy enemy forces in order to break their
will to fight and hopefully win the war.
Although clearly focused on military operations, key political,
diplomatic, technological and economic factors are also modeled
in great detail by historical options and regional decisions that can
affect the course of the war. There is more to war than battles: the
alliances must work to gain or prevent foreign support for the other
side, increase production capacity through targeted investment,
prevail in the economic war of industrial mobilization, blockade,
commerce raiding and technology research. Many events have a
substantial impact on National Morale, which reflects the struggle
to break the enemy’s will to continue the fight. If neither side can
break the other’s morale, victory points will determine the result
of the game.
To End All Wars Game Manual
Start your computer and insert the DVD labeled EAW into your DVD
drive (or click on the installer link you have just downloaded if not a
physical copy). The setup program will start automatically. Follow the
on-screen instructions to install the game. If Autoplay is not activated,
start the setup program by double clicking on My Computer, then on
the icon of your DVD drive and finally on “setup.exe”.
If Microsoft (R) DirectX 9.0c (R) is not present on your PC, please
launch the DirectX installer, which can be found on the DVD.
Once the game has been installed, you can start it from the
Windows Start menu, the desktop shortcut or by inserting the DVD.
Note that the DVD is not required to play the game.
Removing the game: select “Add/remove programs” in the
Control Panel. Select EAW, and then click “Add/remove”. This will
uninstall EAW.
System Requirements
Recommended Requirements
Processor: Dual Core 2.6 GHz or AMD64X2 2.6 GHz or higher
Memory: 3 GB RAM
Hard disk space: 4 GB before installation.
Graphics: 1024 MB Video RAM – Screen Resolution : 1024x768
or higher
DirectX®: 9.0c
Sound: card (or chipset) required.
Operating System: Windows 7/8, XP, Vista.
To End All Wars Game Manual
Updates and
Forum Support
AGEOD strives to fix any identified problems as soon as possible
with “patches” which can be downloaded on the following web page:
Updates found there may add further content to the game from
time to time, and DLCs may be available for purchase.
In case of technical problems, you may ask for help on the AGEOD
forum ( http://www.ageod-forum.com/forum.php ) or by email using
[email protected] A proof of purchase (serial number) may
be asked for in some cases.
A wealth of game information can be accessed through so-called
“tooltips”. If you hover your mouse long enough over a particular
item on the screen, a text box will appear with detailed information
about the corresponding feature.
The tooltip delay is set to “instantaneous” by default, but it can be
adjusted in the Options Menu.
Note: Tooltips are extremely valuable for accessing information
about almost everything in the game, including features not documented
in this manual. Don’t hesitate to explore the various tooltips for the
To End All Wars Game Manual
Figure 1: Hovering your mouse over a region will display a black
“tooltip” box with additional information about the region.
game screens as these can aid greatly in understanding the details of
the game.
The Esc key (at the top left of most keyboards) allows you to close
any window currently open. If you hit the Esc key while on the main
map, you will be returned to the Main Menu where you can save
and/or quit the game in progress. Note that the game automatically
saves your position when you End Turn or exit to the Main Menu, so
nothing is lost by accidentally escaping out of the main game.
Finally, there are many keyboard shortcuts that are listed on p. 132-134.
Main Menu
After starting the game, you will reach the Main Menu where you
can access all the basic game functions. These include starting a game
(against the computer or a human opponent), saving or loading a
game, and setting game options.
To End All Wars Game Manual
You can activate/deactivate music and sounds, choose the language
used in the game, adjust the tooltip delay (see p. 7) and adjust the
combat animation delay. You can also select the way that Units will be
displayed on the map (“Regroup Armies” option) as well as whether
the turn resolution should be paused for immediate inspection of
battle results (“Pause after Battle”) in addition to being reported in
the Message Log for the turn.
In this menu, you can activate/deactivate the Fog of War (see p. 61),
Activation (see p. 45). You can also play with Leaders randomized
to various degrees: in this case, leader names and attributes are
randomized when you create a new game. We recommend leaving the
default settings for your first game. You may adjust whether armies
delay before committing to battle, and the level of routine attrition you
choose to model. You may select Extended Force Pools to relax the
To End All Wars Game Manual
historical limitations on available Units by doubling or tripling them
(expect great divergence from historical patterns). Player aids available
here include Easy Supply rules, simplified Naval Box handling, several
degrees of automated replacements, and a variety of other options. We
believe the best historical feel is achieved by using the default settings.
This is where you select the difficulty level and adjust the intelligence,
aggressiveness, activation bonus, and Detection ability of your
computer opponent – the Athena engine. Even a slight improvement to
Detection has a significant impact on your Athena’s ability to strategize.
Adjusting difficulty can give Athena a bonus or penalty – for example,
“Lieutenant” ranking gives the AI better movement speed, cohesion
recovery, and reduced command penalties for undercommanded
military forces – but no direct combat advantages. You can also allow
the game more time to process between turns, improving the opposing
military planning AI (which is the most processing-intensive). The
game campaigns and scenarios have been optimized for the default
settings (e.g., middle box for Activation, second box for Redeployment
and for Delayed Commitment, and Low for AI Detection).
You can adjust technical settings here. These include “Memory
Usage”, “Maximum Texture Size” and “Textures Initialization” which
allow for smoother scrolling at the cost of a longer loading time. The
AGEOD forum can help you decide which settings are best for you.
This allows you to enable or disable major historical events if
provided for by the scenario or campaign. It might be possible to see
no scripts here if the campaign don’t allow for that.
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Note: The “reset” button on options pages allows you to reset that
page to its default settings.
Campaigns & Scenarios
When starting a new game, you will be presented with several types
of scenarios to choose from. There are basically four levels of play
ranging from the shorter scenarios, involving a limited number of
Units for a short period of time on a portion of the map, to the full
Grand Campaign:
• The Grand Campaign covers the whole duration of the war
up from 1914 to 1918, using the whole map. You can begin in
July 1914, allowing you to raise and organize the initial armies
according to different war plans and diplomatic options, or
start with the historical August 1914 situation, after the initial
armies have already been mobilized for action.
• Scenarios are more limited in scope and feature individual
Campaigns or Battles, such as Tannenberg 1914. The time period,
To End All Wars Game Manual
the Units involved and the map area covered are accordingly
limited. As such, scenarios are highly recommended as an
introduction to the game.
Upcoming planned schedule (post 1.0 release)
• Theater Campaigns (not in version 1.0) cover part or the whole
duration of the war but only in a specific geographical region
(please check on the forum).
• Annual Campaigns (not in version 1.0) cover part of the war
(starting in each of the war’s crucial years) for the whole map
(please check on the forum).
Tutorial Scenarios
The list also includes Tutorials, which are instructive scenarios
designed to help learn the basic game mechanics and provide some
gameplay tips. Players are strongly encouraged to play through these
early, perhaps before finishing this manual. These tutorial scenarios
are designed not only to introduce certain core game concepts
(through a series of step-by-step instructional event boxes) but also
to provide a hands-on introduction to the game interface.
Note: the stars next to the scenario pictures indicate the level of
complexity (the more stars the higher)
Loading, Deleting, &
Renaming a Game
Instead of starting a new game, you can resume a game you previously
saved or that was saved automatically. You also have the option to
rename, delete or restore a previous turn, of any saved game by using
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the appropriate buttons at the top right of the Load Game window. It
is not advised to rename a saved game other than through this EAW
interface. It is best to rename files only through this interface. To go
back to the end of the last turn played, hover over your current save
and type “Home” as described in the menu. It erases the current save
and loads the save from the end of the previous turn. This can be
used repeatedly to access an even earlier save.
Saving a Game (& PBEM)
At any time during a game, you can reach the Main Menu (Esc key).
From here, you can select the Save Game menu. You don’t generally
have to save a game, as this is done automatically each turn once you
hit End Turn. As explained previously, you have the option to restore
the 3 previous turns of any saved game (there is an option to save more
also). Usually, the only cases where you would want to manually save
a game is either if you halt your planning in the middle of a turn and
want to resume giving orders after quitting the game or to change the
name of the save game from its default. In other words, if you click End
Turn, watch it unfold and only check your forces without entering new
orders, you can quit safely and everything is saved by default.
Play by Email (PBEM)
EAW can be played against one or two humans opponents using
PBEM or any other valid file transfer protocol, such as Instant
Messaging or Dropbox™ . One of the players (the “Host”) will have
to initiate the game. The procedure is detailed below:
1. Create a game:
The Hosting player chooses a Campaign/Scenario and a side and
starts the game as usual. This automatically generates a sub-folder
To End All Wars Game Manual
in the <User Directory>\EAW\Saves\ directory, named after the
Campaign or Scenario selected (1914 Campaign if you play the “1914
Campaign” scenario, for example). Please note that a number helps
differentiate between multiple instances of the same Campaign/
Scenario. However, the best way to avoid confusion is to rename the
in-game files with the appropriate button in the Load Game Window
(e.g. 1914 Campaign John vs. Joe). Do NOT rename any EAW files
externally to the game.
If you have trouble finding your User Directory, you can look at
the Options window, in the main menu, it will be indicated there.
In this newly created folder you will find a single HST file,
containing all game data.
2. Host sends the HST file to opponent:
The Hosting player now sends his opponent the HST file. The
opponent must store this file in a folder of his choice within
<User Directory>\EAW\Saves\. It is advisable to use a specific
subfolder per game, for example <User Directory>\EAW\Saves\
JohnVsJoe subfolder.
Note: In order to avoid possible data corruption if transferred by
E-mail, it is strongly advised to E-Mail using some type of compressed
format such as ZIP or RAR.
3. Non-Host sends ORD file to Host:
Each player now loads the game and gives his orders for the upcoming
turn. When ready, each player saves the game. This will generate an
ORD file (in the folders mentioned above). Important: do not click
on End Turn at this step.
The Non-Hosting player then sends his ORD file to the
Hosting player.
To End All Wars Game Manual
4. Host resolves turn
The Hosting player saves the ORD file received from his opponent
into the appropriate directory (there should be one HST file and
then one ORD file per active player) and loads the game again (or
if he is not playing, he loads a turn from any player). He now clicks
on End Turn to launch the turn resolution, where all orders are then
executed. A new turn is now ready to start. Go back to step # 2 and
Note: The Non-Hosting player doesn’t get by default a “play back”
of his opponent’s turn. However, he can check the turn’s Message Log
to see what has occurred during the turn, including battle reports.
There is an unofficial playback support though, that can be activated
in-game. Please refer to the EAW forum at Ageod on this topic.
Winning the Game
Automatic Victory (or defeat) is achieved when one side reaches its
minimum or maximum “National Morale” (NM) level(only Western
Entente and Central Powers can have an automatic NM win/loss. If
Eastern Entente NM reaches 0, it will be removed from the war but
the Western Entente can continue the fight). However, if the game
ends without reaching an Automatic Victory, the “Victory Points”
(VPs) of each side determine the winner. The side with more VPs
wins the war and the level of victory is based on the VP difference.
Important Note: For the Entente, total VP is determined on the
last turn by adding the VP of the Western Entente (ENT) with the VP
of the Eastern Entente (EN1), *if the Eastern Entente is still in the
war!* Otherwise, only the Western Entente VP total is considered.
To End All Wars Game Manual
Victory Points (VP)
Each side accumulates VPs every turn by controlling important cities
and Objectives or by destroying enemy Units (or their component
The Objectives page (shortcut: F9) shows on the left page how
many VPs you accrue each turn (VPs can be expended during
the course of the game, as a currency, but remember, he who has
the most at scenario’s end wins if nobody achieves an Automatic
Victory). On the right page, each Objective is listed with its worth
(this amount is how much NM is gained/lost when capturing/
losing an Objective). Current VP Level is also tallied in the upper
left corner of the main screen and is your main indicator of how
well you are doing in the game.
VP Accumulation:
Strategic City
Objective City
1-3 VP/Turn depending on the value set by the
Destroyed Units Per element destroyed
Note: You don’t lose VPs when your own Units are destroyed.
To End All Wars Game Manual
National Morale (NM)
For both sides in the conflict, the will to fight is tracked by their
National Morale (NM). Above and below certain levels, you instantly
win or lose the game. These thresholds will vary during the course of
play depending on the political situation.
Important note: In 1917-1918, most nations become very sensitive to
morale loss, due to war weariness.
Current NM is tallied in the upper left
corner of the main screen, inside the banners.
The victory and defeat thresholds of both
sides are displayed in the Objectives screen
of the Strategic Atlas (shortcut: F9) (and as a
tooltip in the upper left corner of the screen).
NM is influenced by several factors:
• Capturing the Objective regions set by the current scenario
will increase the capturing player’s NM and lower the enemy’s
by the values indicated in the Objectives screen. These include
strategic cities and symbolic objectives.
• Winning a battle will boost the winner’s NM while reducing
the enemy’s according to the number of enemy Unit and
general elements taken out of action (see p. 114-115).
• Promoting junior officers over senior ones or dismissing
leaders with political favor will lower your NM (see p. 39).
• In the late years, war weariness gradually reduces each side’s NM.
• Some Historical Options or Games Decisions have an impact
on NM, as indicated elsewhere.
Below a certain depressed level, as long as a side is still in control of
its capital, it will start to regain NM (this is called War Resilience).
To End All Wars Game Manual
In addition to triggering Automatic Victory conditions, NM also
has an impact on the following:
• Unit Cohesion (i.e., how fast they move and how well they
fight) (so defeats can become a vicious circle)
• Economic output
• Number of recruits (referred to generally as “Conscripts”)
Game Scale
Turn Length – Two Weeks
(one week in Tannenberg
1914 scenario)
Units – Regiments,
Brigades, Divisions, Corps,
Armies, Batteries, Ships,
Squadrons, and Fleets
Map – Regional areas of most of Europe (the part at war) and
map “boxes” representing adjoining and overseas areas
The Map
1. Active Side, Main Functions (Production, Decisions, Strategic
Atlas) and National Morale
National Morale is the main indicator of your success. The
three round buttons give you to the respective important game
To End All Wars Game Manual
Figure 2: The Main Interface
functions of Production, Decisions and Strategic Atlas. Check
the tooltips for additional details.
2. Available Assets and Foreign Entry Level
Key assets such as Victory Points, State Funds, Conscripts, War
Supplies, Rail Transport capacity that are currently available, as well as
the number of Engagement Points (a currency used to pay for some ingame decisions) and Ammunitions (used for heavy artillery and ships).
3. Current Date & Main Commands
The current date is displayed here. The tooltip tells you how
many turns remain before the game ends. The three icons to the
right of the current date allow you to start the Resolution Phase,
to reach the Main Menu or to Save the game respectively.
4. Filters, Region Terrain and Minimap
The different Map Filters (see p. 27) can be accessed from here.
You also see information on the currently selected land, sea or
navigable river region (terrain and supply). The minimap shows the
whole geographic scope of the war with your troop dispositions
and allows you to jump to any location by clicking on it.
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5. Stack Panel Tabs for Stacks in Region
Each tab represents a Stack in the currently selected region.
6. Stack Panel and Unit Counters
The lower part of the Stack Panel displays the Units present in the
currently selected Stack (see p. 29). When no Stack is selected,
the panel is removed from view to show more of the map. You
can use the buttons located at the left-hand side of the panel to
change the posture and engagement orders (a.k.a. postures) of the
selected Stack (see p. 59), and the Special Orders buttons to issue
specialized commands.
7. Inspection Panel
The small panel on the bottom right shows the main information
about the currently selected Stack. If you click on a specific Unit
counter in the Stack Panel, the Inspection Panel will slightly
change to show the selected Unit’s component elements. By
further clicking on these element icons, you will access the
element details window which provides extensive details
regarding that element (see p. 30). Reviewing this information
is not necessary to play the game, but can sometimes provide
advantages in organizing and using your forces.
8. Army Outliner
This small square counter located on the upper-left hand side of the
screen is a convenient shortcut to one of your armies on the map
(there might be as many squares as you have armies on the map).
9. Shipping or Blockade
These boxes, located
near Germany (Baltic),
Britain (Atlantic) or
Italy (Mediterranean),
represents Allied or
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Central Powers merchant shipping for one, the blockade patrols
for others (see p. 84-85).
10. Atlantic and Mediterranean
Blockade Boxes (not shown
on the screen capture)
These boxes, located
west of England and near
Sardinia, represent Central
Powers trade routes to the
outside world (see p. 8485) which the Entente will
seek to blockade.
11. Offmap Boxes
They are located all around the main map and usually connected
with it via “Transition Link” (a way to reach one box from
another or from the map, and vice versa) or via connected sea
zones themselves connected to the main map. In those boxes, the
scale is considered different from the main map and combat takes
more time to produce effects.
Message Panel
This panel can be accessed by clicking on the Message Bar buttons
that show at the bottom right of the screen when no Stack is selected.
The six buttons allow you to filter the messages by categories (check
the tooltip for details). You can always return to the Message Log
message list by right clicking on the lower part of the map. Red
messages are events of particular importance. Click on the icon to the
left of the messages to center the map on the region corresponding
To End All Wars Game Manual
to the message or open details for a red message. For notable events,
special message icons appear along the lower right side of the screen
which disappears as you select them.
Figure 3: The Message Log is displayed after turn resolution.
The Strategic Atlas
Many of the game functions are accessed from here. Click on the
book-button (the right button in the top left corner of the screen)
and you will open a new window. Click on the thumbnails (or use
shortcut keys F1 to F9) to cycle between the different screens (see p.
98 Managing Your Nation for details).
Figure 4: Many critical game functions are accessed through the Strategic Atlas,
such as recruitment and research or diplomatic decisions (F1 to F10 shortcut keys).
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Navigating the Map
To scroll through the map, simply place and hold the pointer on the
edge of the screen, hold the left button and drag the mouse, or use
the arrow keys. To zoom in or out of the map, either use the mouse
wheel or the End, Page Up, and Page Down keys. You can also press the
mouse wheel button to swap between highest and lowest zoom level.
Regions & Sea Zones Terrain & Structures
Stacks and Fleets move and battle across land regions, sea zones and
navigable river regions. Tooltips indicate the different characteristics
of each region and sea zone. Terrain type and weather are also
displayed at the top of the minimap.
Note that sections of navigable rivers may be moved into by ships
or by ground troops using riverine ships to speed up their movement.
Note: Regions are further grouped into Areas, and Areas into Fronts
(also called Theaters). Areas and Fronts borders can be displayed on the
map using the appropriate filters (see below).
Civilization Level
The different Civilization Levels are:
• Wild
• Cleared
• Civilized
• Rich
Depending on the Civilization Level (and other factors), unsupplied
troops in an enemy region have a limited ability to live off the land
each turn (see p. 62).
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Transport Network
• Roads
• Railways
Units moving into regions with tracks will never pay more than 150%
of the clear terrain cost, whatever the terrain type.
Units moving into regions with roads or rails won’t pay more than
the clear terrain cost, whatever the real terrain type.
Units moving by train will only spend one day for each region
Terrain Type
Different terrain types have varying effects on movement, combat
and Supply (see also Appendix):
Obstacle to
movement and
Supply transport
Effect on
Effect on
Slight bonus
Moderate bonus -
Moderate bonus
Bonus of 1 to
Hide Value.
Bonus of 1 to
Hide Value.
Similar to marshes
Severe penalty
for line Units.
Bonus of 1 to
Hide Value.
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Obstacle to
movement and
Supply transport
Same as wilderness, with increased penalties for wheeled and mounted Units.
Each day spent
in a desert
incurs severe
attrition losses.
Severe obstacle to land
movement. Steamboats
may navigate major
May freeze
Major bonus if
during winter,
attacker crosses
blocking all
the river.
naval movement.
Minor River
* Same picture as Major River/
Moderate obstacle to
land movement. Not
navigable at all.
Minor bonus if
attacker crosses the river.
Ferry or Bridge
* Same picture as Major River/
Moderate obstacle to
land movement. Not
navigable at all.
Minor bonus if
attacker crosses the river.
Shallow Waters
* Same picture as Major River/
Land Units can cross
shallow waters at a
cost. Seagoing vessels
cannot navigate in
shallow waters.
May freeze
during winter,
blocking all
naval movement.
Steamboats may
navigate in coastal
Non-seagoing Units
(coastal defense ships,
for example) cannot
navigate in the ocean.
Transit Link
Travel to and from an
* No picture, often illustrated by off-map box takes many an arrow between off map boxes days.
Transit links
connect off-map
areas to on-map
Effect on
Effect on
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All structures provide shelter for friendly
land Units in the region against bad weather
(see p. 42). Ports do the same for ships. When
there are Units actually inside a structure, this
is indicated by the presence of small squares
by the structure icon (light brown for land
Units, light blue for naval Units). Clicking on
Figure 3: The square
those squares will display these Units in the
denotes a single land
Stack inside the city.
Stack Panel. The currently selected Stack will
also be represented in the region on the map.
It’s possible to see what the structures in a region are by doing a
Ctrl-click on the structure sprite.
City: Controlling cities is critical to winning the game (see p. 12).
Cities cannot be destroyed in this game. On the map, Units inside
a city are not displayed but rather are indicated by small
boxes as shown in Fig. 3 above. Each dot (green or blue)
represents 3 Units in the structure.
Cities have a Level between 1 and 20 noted on the Box
before their name on the city’s nameplate.
• Town: A town is a small city (Level 1 to 3). It is too
small to be able to forward
Supply during the Supply Distribution Phase unless
a Depot has been built in the town.
• Depot: It can be built at a cost of two Supply Wagons or by
two transports ships if a harbor is in the region. They can
also be destroyed. Depots are able to stockpile and pass on
Supply during the Supply Distribution Phase. A good network
of Depots is critical to move Supply from your rear areas to
the front. Presence of a depot inside a city is
indicated by tents and crates.
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Important Note: Evaluate the potential bottlenecks in your Supply
network by checking which rear-area cities stockpile too much Supply
that should be available at the front line (the Supply Filter will help
you with that). Create a ‘grid’ of Depots to alleviate the problem, and
watch out for towns (Level 1 to 3 cities) which can’t push
Supplies forward unless they contain a Depot.
• Pre-War Fort: These concrete structures were built before
war broke out and are rather powerful. Nevertheless, they can
easily be destroyed thanks to Fort Bombardment decisions
(see Decisions). They interfere with enemy movement and also
provide some Supply. Pre-War Forts may be destroyed.
• Permanent Fortification: Either made up of older forts or modern
fortifications made mostly of earthworks, they are shown by four
bastions extensions on each corner of the city sprite.
Permanent fortifications can’t be destroyed unless via
Fort Bombardment decisions and/or caputre.
• Ports: Ports provide Supply unless blockaded. Fleets
in ports cannot be attacked. On the map, naval Units inside a port
are not displayed but indicated by a blue flag on the city
mast. Click on the port basin to access the naval Units.
Ships are produced in ports and need a port to repair.
• Airfields: These are displayed on map next to air
units; they are not structures really, but a display of
the presence of aircrafts units.
• Redoubt: A redoubt is the simplest form of defense in
the game for defensive emplacements (such as
coastal batteries).
• Industrial Structures: These are located inside
cities (see Summary in the Appendix). To see them, use Ctrlclick on a city sprite. They will then be displayed inside the
Stack Panel. Among those structures, we find:
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Coal and Iron Mines: a small production facility for
industrial resources. They mostly generate Ammunition
and State Funds.
• Armories: a production facility for ammunition and various
weapons and equipment. They mostly generate Ammunition
and State Funds.
• Arsenals: the largest a production facility for weapons and
ammunition. They mostly generate Ammunition and State
• Steel Mills: they represent production facilities of heavy
war material, like big guns, steel, armor and other types
of weapons and ammunition. They mostly generate large
amounts of War Supplies.
There are also a few off-map boxes displayed on the borders of
the game map. They represent areas that are distant but had some
influence over the conflicts in Europe (such as Africa, Middle East or
event some regions in the Far East).
Trenches represent the variety of entrenchments and other temporary
field fortifications built by stationary infantry and artillery Units that
provide defensive benefits to their occupants depending on their Level
(1 to 8). They can be of major importance in defensive battles. Trenches
are not considered to be structures, although they do provide limited
shelter against bad weather. They are not subject to siege.
Units automatically start entrenching if they don’t move during a
turn and can keep improving their entrenchments over a period of
weeks or months. A Stack only needs a few days to dig into Level 1.
Each additional level requires increasingly more time to build (i.e.,
building a trench from Level 2 to Level 3 takes longer than expanding
a trench from Level 1 to Level 2). The building leader’s Strategic
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Rating plays a key role in the speed of the process, especially for
low-level trenches.
Levels 5-8 can only be achieved if there is artillery present in the
region. These levels do not provide more protection but do increase
the firepower of the artillery batteries. In addition, such emplaced
batteries will defend the river(s)/seacoast in their region and fire on
moving enemy Fleets. Batteries may also engage bombarding ships
and can block enemy Supply transport by river.
Note: The highest entrenchment levels represent the extensive networks
of field fortifications like those of the famous Hindenburg line around
Saint Quentin in northern France. They are still trenches, not structures.
Trench Levels are shown graphically on the map. In a battle
report, the average level of entrenchment of a Stack is represented as
a percentage of level 1 (e.g., 200 means 200%, average entrenchment
level of 2).
Important (and New for returning players): in EAW, trench level
is ‘mutualized’ at the start of
each turn, meaning that in a
given region, all your stacks
will automatically acquire
the trench level of the
highest friendly trench level
of the region.
Structures defined as having the auto-garrison feature (e.g., cities,
forts and depots – mostly depending on scenarios) spawn an
automatic garrison if enemy forces appear in the region. These range
in size depending on the structure and prevent it from being taken
without a fight. An enemy attack will also release Units present that
are otherwise permanently fixed in position.
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Each Area has limited resources, so it can only field a limited number
of troops for the side controlling it. You won’t be able to raise more
Units in an Area than this maximum “Force Pool” value. In addition,
you can only draft Units in an Area if you control at least one of
the Area’s Strategic Cities, and heavy equipment such as artillery
requires the presence of industry. Strategic Cities are shown on the
map with a star by the city name. Several political and economic
decisions are also declared at Area-level.
Note: Both sides can raise troops in the same Area if they each
control one of the Area’s Strategic Cities.
Fronts (Theaters)
A Front (also called a “Theater”) is usually a collection of Areas,
usually concentrated within the same geographical zone. Some rules
and abilities work at the Front-level. Most ships are also recruited
on a Front-basis. Using the Front filter displays them on the map
with specific colors. Some rules
and special abilities work only at
the Theater level, and the highestranked leader with the most
seniority in the Theater is treated
as commander in chief.
Map Filters
There are eight filters in EAW to help visualize information on
the map. To activate them, use the 1-8 keys or click on the buttons
located on top of the minimap. The different filters are:
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Military Control: Shows which side has the dominant
military presence in each region (even if you don’t have
a Stack present). See p. 70.
Supply: Crates and cannonballs indicate the quantity
of General Supply and Ammunition respectively that
are present and regions highlighted in green indicate
how far your Supply network extends. See p. 62.
Tooltips provide specific information regarding Supply
levels in particular regions.
Objectives: Highlights Objectives and cities granting
VPs and indicates their owner. See p. 23.
Alignment: Shows the local population’s bias towards
one of the sides in the conflict. See p. 72.
Areas: The different Areas are shown with different
colors. See p. 27.
Fronts: Each Front (also known as a “Theater”) is
shown with a different color. See p. 27.
Weather: shows the current weather on the map. See
p. 68.
Terrain: shows the current terrain type. See p. 21 above.
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Army Organization
Understanding the Stack Panel
There can be a variety of Stacks in a region and/or in the structures
therein. The purpose of having separate Stacks is that they can
be issued different orders. The size of a Stack is also limited by
leadership (see p. 37).
Figure 4: Stack Panel Details
When you click on a playing piece or structure on the map, the
window in the Stack Panel shows Units in the region (1).
Hint: Use the arrow buttons on each side (2) to scroll between a
Stack’s Units if they are too numerous to fit within the Unit Panel. The
mouse wheel will also scroll the panel.
Additional Stacks in the region are each indicated by a tab
(3) along the top of the Stack Panel. To switch Stacks, click on its
corresponding tab and it will become the active Stack. The active
Stack is also represented on the map by a Stack counter, which can
be selected to receive its orders.
The Unit currently selected within the Stack has its name,
composition, current position and destination indicated in the top
left corner (4), just after the parchment icon (which allows selecting
the special orders for the Unit in question).
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Essential information about a Stack (level of General Supply,
Ammunition, etc.) can be displayed in a tooltip by hovering your
mouse over the different icons in the Inspection Panel to the right of
the Stack Panel (5).
What is a Unit?
The Unit Panel shows all of the different components of a Stack
(see illustration above), which fall under the term “Unit”. There are
many types of Units in the game representing anything from full
Divisions to independent artillery batteries or administrative staff
(headquarters), but they all share the ability to be moved and be given
orders individually if needed. This makes them the smallest elements
in the game that you can manipulate, although they seldom operate
alone and are usually grouped into Stacks, as explained above.
Exceptions: Corps are a special class of Unit, as they can contain one
or more divisions, brigade or smaller Units that are treated all as a single
Corps Unit until these are split off from the Corps. (See p. 36).
Leaders are also treated as Units in most respects and can be
manipulated the same way. However, they are rated differently. The
main characteristics of combat Units (see p. 40) and leaders (see p.
37) are displayed right on their counter in the Unit Panel.
What is an Element?
Units are made up of 1 to 9 Elements (also referred to as sub-units),
which are displayed in the Inspection Panel when a Unit is selected
in the Stack Panel. Elements are an integral part of their parent Unit
and cannot be manipulated separately.
Procedure: To display the list of a Unit’s elements in the Inspection Panel,
click on a Unit to select it (this is indicated by a gray square around the counter).
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Figure 5: Here, the British First Corps is made of 2 Infantry Divisions, each
containing two infantry elements and one gun battery, as shown by the NATO
symbols displayed on the right (you can click on this symbol to open a detailed
window describing the element).
Each single element is in turn differentiated by its attributes, as
explained on p. 40.
Please note that some Units are so small that they cannot be
subdivided. They are represented in the game as having a single
element, which is the Unit itself.
Leaders are handled in the same way: one leader = one element
which is the leader himself (see Fig.6).
Figure 6: This leader Unit is made up of a single element alone. A Unit is a
container of 1-9 elements.
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Manipulating Stacks
In order to split one or more Units from a Stack, select the Units
to be separated from the main Stack in the Unit Panel, then drag
and drop them to their current region on the map. They are now
considered a new Stack and will be shown in a separate tab.
Multi selection procedure: To select/deselect several Units, CtrlClick on each Unit in turn.
In order to issue a movement order to a Stack, either select it and
drag & drop its counter from its region to its destination or drag its
corresponding tab from the Stack Panel directly to its destination
on the map. You can also move Units between Stacks by dragging
and dropping them onto the destination Stack’s tab. Finally, you can
merge Stacks in the same location by dragging and dropping one
Stack tab onto another.
Fixed Units
In some scenarios and campaigns, you will come
padlock and a
across fixed Units identified by a
red diagonal stripe on their counter. This indicates
it cannot move - the tooltip will explain why. Usually,
they can move if a specific event indicated on their
tooltip occurs, such as a number of turns pass or
enemy enters their region. In some cases, Units are permanently
fixed and will not move under any circumstances.
Command Chain
In EAW, your Stacks are loosely organized into the following
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Army Group
Any Unit (Corps, Division, Brigade, battery…)
Elements (within an unit)
Units are deemed “in the Command Chain” if they belong
to an Army which is, in turn, attached to an Army Group (also
sometimes called the GHQ, Great Headquarter). Any Units which
don’t belong to such an Army are considered independent Stacks
for Command Chain purposes, and they have a penalty of -50% to
the Command Points generated by the leaders in that Stack. Naval
Stacks are handled differently without a hierarchy other than Units
and Fleets.
On the map, you can then have three kinds of land Stacks:
• The Army Group (or GHQ) Stack, which is the Stack
commanding subordinate Armies.
• The Army Stack, which is a Stack subordinate to an Army
Group or GHQ Stack.
• Independent Stack, which is a Stack Out of the Command
These three Stacks each have Units and they are all “containers”
for Units. Units represent formations of various sizes and act as
“containers” for elements, with from 1 to 9 elements in each Unit.
Army Group
An Army Group (sometimes also called GHQ) represents a leader
and his staff along with reserve troops and leaders that may be
directly attached to the Army Group. The Strategic Rating of an
Army Group commander determines both his Command Radius
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(press and hold the Shift key while an Army Group
is selected to show this radius on the map) and his
overall combat power).
The Army Outliner on the left edge of the
screen is a series of counter images (leader portrait
in a flag), one for each Army Group, which when
clicked refocuses your view on that Army Group
Figure 7: A Stack
(see picture on the left).
is identified as
Armies attached to an Army Group and within
an Army Group
by a star icon on
its Command Radius during the Planning Phase
its Stack Panel
can receive some important benefits (see below).
tab and on its
Procedure: To form an Army Group, form a Stack
Inspection Panel.
with 3 or 4 star leader plus any leaders and Units
you want to attach directly to the Army Group commander (these
can also be added later), then select the “Form Army Group” Special
Order. This will change the status of the Stack from Independent to an
Army Group. This is the command GHQ of the Army Group (hence
sometimes called GHQ for simplification), not the entire Army: an
Army Group’s fighting formations are its attached Armies.
If assignment of Army Group command to a leader bypassed a leader
with higher rank or more seniority (see p. 39), then you will lose some NM, as
warned in the Form Army Group Special Order tooltip. You can also dismiss
an Army Group commander, but doing so will also cost you NM according to
the political favor of its commander. Despite the NM cost, you may sometimes
want to do this in order to put a new and better leader in charge.
Notes: An Army Group (GHQ) with combat Units in reserve will
react quickly to support Army formations but should not be viewed as
a combat Stack. It is important to note that a lone Army Group Stack
will never initiate combat by itself.
New (for returning players): An army group commander faring badly
will cost each turn victory points until he is replaced by a new general.
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Figure 8: A Stack is identified as an Army by a diamond icon on its tab and
on the Inspection Panel.
Armies are attached to specific Army Groups/GHQs. Their
purpose is twofold: they never suffer the Out of Command Chain
penalty (see p. 39) and they get the following bonuses when operating
within range of their Army Group:
• The Armies commander’s Strategic, Offensive and Defensive
Ratings are increased by the expertise of the GHQ commander.
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If stacked in the same region, the Armies’ formations have
the ability to stay together during movement by choosing the
corresponding Special Order (Synchronized Move).
If spread out in different regions, there is a chance of supporting
an adjacent Army engaged in combat (i.e. “March to the Sound
of the Guns”). This ability is influenced by the level of Military
Control in both regions (see p. 70) and by the Armies’ Cohesion
(page 29).
Increased Command Points efficiency.
Combat bonuses when several Armies are fighting together
(they will help each other more efficiently during a fight).
Some special abilities of the Army Group/GHQ commander
can benefit its Armies.
Procedure: To form an Army, select a 2 or 3 star leader within range
of an Army Group plus any Units (including any Corps, Divisions
and leaders) you want to include in the Armies, then select the “Create
Army” Special Order.
Note: An Army must always occupy a single region and is a single
Stack of Units. You could separate Units from their Armies to extend
your coverage, but they would become an Independent Stack in the
process, losing Armies benefits and suffering possible Out of Command
Chain penalties as a consequence.
Grouping Units into Corps whenever possible helps you optimize
Command Points usage (see below). A Corps leader is required and
provides bonuses to the Corps. This can be in addition to the commanding
officer of the Stack to which the Corps belongs (whatever the nature of
the Stack: Army Group/GHQ Stack, Army Stack, or an Independent
Stack). Since a Corps is a Unit, it cannot include more than 9 elements.
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Figure 9: Hovering your mouse over a Corps (1) in the Unit Panel displays its
constituent Units (2).
Procedure: To form a Corps, first select a general and press the
‘Enable Corps Command’ button. Then select the Units and the general
to be included in the Corp and click the “Combine” Special Order to
form the Corps. You can break down a Corps into its constituent Units
at any time and without any penalty by using the same button (which
also operates in reverse).
Important Note: There are HQ support Units that provide useful
benefits to their Stack, but to form an Army Group or an Army, all you
need is an appropriate leader. Some leaders, even of the right rank, may
also be prohibited to form a GHQ or Army.
Leaders have an enormous impact on the effectiveness and
efficiency of military forces. Inadequately led Units suffer
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movement and combat penalties. Leadership ratings reflect their
historical abilities, and these ratings affect almost every aspect of
the game. Leaders can be wounded or die, so they may be available
for a longer or shorter duration than they were in history. Good
performance by a leader can lead to advancement in seniority and
At any time, the “Command Cost” of the troops in a Stack is
compared with the “Command Points” of the leaders present in
order to determine whether a penalty applies as well as the size of the
penalty. To see the details of the calculation, check the tooltip of the
command icon of your Stack.
Note: Command Penalties can be quite severe. A small and wellcommanded Stack moves much faster and has as much hitting power
as a larger Stack lacking leaders.
Each Unit in a region has a certain Command Cost:
• Basic Unit (Division, Brigade or Regiment/Squadron/Battery):
1 to 6
• Corps: 12
Each leader provides Command Points (CP) to his Stack, depending
on his rank:
• 1 star: 24
• 2 star: 36
• 3 or 4 star: 48
The total CP provided by leaders in a Stack is limited to a maximum
of 48, no matter how many leaders are present, but this base value
can be increased by certain bonuses.
Note: This simulates both the military doctrine of the day, as well as
the chaos inevitably generated when a place gets too crowded.
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Out-of-Command-Chain Penalty – Important
If a Stack is an Independent Stack (not an Army Stack or a GHQ
Stack), then the CP generated by leaders in the Stack will be halved.
CP generated by leaders can be further increased by the following
• Signal Unit present: 2
• Recon Unit (ex. Balloons) present: 1
• If a Army or GHQ Stack: Army/GHQ commander’s Strategic
Rating minus two (can give negative effects too!).
• Units in the region are part of an Army or attached to an Army
Group (GHQ) which includes a capable Aide de Camp (i.e.,
A non-GHQ commander leader with a Strategic Rating of 4+
who is in a the Stack): 1
Promoting & Relieving Leaders
Officers who have shown favorable results in their current rank
may become eligible for promotion to the next rank. This is shown
by a flashing promotion icon on its counter (you also get a message
in the Message Log). Be aware that promoting a leader to 3 or 4
star who is considered too junior by the military and political
establishment (i.e., there are other more senior officers of the same
rank) will cost you NM and VPs, depending on the “bypassed”
leaders’ Political Cost.
The same applies to 3 or 4 star leaders assuming Army command
if another more senior unassigned leader is bypassed. Finally,
relieving an officer from his command will also entail a loss in NM
proportional to his Political Cost.
Note: This only applies at GHQ level, not at Army level and below.
Please note that an officer’s abilities may change (for better or
worse!) after getting promoted, depending on each individual’s talents.
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Historical Note: Robert Nivelle, a very capable and aggressive
French army commander, incurred excessive losses after promotion
to GHQ command. Several good army commanders proved
unsatisfactory leaders when promoted to GHQ (for example,
Erich von Falkenhayn was not seen as a good GHQ commander
but proved very able in the field in Rumania in 1916). The player
may shape promotion prospects by giving some commanders easy
successes against minor objectives while high-ranking deadwood
can be assigned to dead-end locations.
Army generals when fighting will gain and lose experience points,
thus gaining or losing seniority ranks. Some of these experiences
points will also be transferred to their GHQ leader. If a GHQ leader
has a worse seniority than the one he starts with, then you may have
to remove him from command at some points, as the general will
cost you Victory Points each turn.
Units Attributes
Unit counters are differentiated by the following:
• Nationality (background color)
• Area of Origin (mostly for troops from various minorities or
associated nations, such as Austrian, Russian or Commonwealth)
• Special Abilities or Nationality (left hand side)
• Unit Type (top right corner, illustrated by a NATO symbol –
See Appendices for details)
• Combat Power (“PWR” - the numerical value at the top, here 230)
• Number of Elements (number of ribbons on the left hand side
• Experience (color of the ribbons on the left hand side)
• Cohesion (purple column)
• Manpower (green column)
• Captured Support Unit (Gray Background with ‘capt.’ noted
on Unit also)
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Figure 10: The Division d’Oran is a French unit, but of colonial origin
(can be raised only in Algeria)
Special Abilities
Any Special Abilities of the Unit are listed, and
their description is on the symbol’s tooltip (see
also page 138).
Figure 11: Engineers are among the Units with Special
Abilities, as denoted by the icons on the bottom of the
left side.
NATO Symbol and Unit Type
There is a NATO symbol on the Unit counter to show the primary
type of the elements it contains. For example, an Infantry Division
is an infantry Unit, but in addition to infantry brigades may contain
artillery regiments and cavalry, shown on the Inspection Panel. You
can click on any NATO symbol, on the Unit or on the elements, to
get even more details.
Each element is of a specific type, with corresponding strengths
and weaknesses, as shown in the elements details Window accessed
through the Inspection Panel (see Element Attributes below). A Unit’s
characteristics are derived from the attribute values of its elements.
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As new equipment becomes available (with technological progress,
starting in 1915), elements (sub-units) are automatically upgraded
into other, more effective types (e.g. early to late infantry). This
mostly affects the defensive rating of Units, simulating the increased
difficulty of attacking positions defended by troops equipped with
more efficient weapons.
Historical Note: This trend culminated in the terrible deadlock of
trench warfare.
Combat Power (“pwr”)
This gives an indication of the lethality and staying power of a
Unit during combat. It is a number used to provide a quick and
general assessment of a Unit’s combat power, but is not a number
used during battle. The Combat Software Engine works at the
element level, taking each parameter of each element into account
to simulate the outcome of every battle (gun range, rate of fire,
discipline and such).
Note: Cohesion and Manpower effects are already factored into
PWR. E.g. a Division with a Cohesion Level of 1 will have a very
low Combat Efficiency.
Play Note: A good general will preserve his experienced Units by
regularly sending them to the rear area in order to allow rest (i.e.,
Cohesion recovery) as well as replacement of losses.
Number of Elements and Experience
The ribbons on the left-hand side of a Unit indicate both the number
of elements in the Unit and their Experience. There are three
Experience Levels (bronze, silver and gold). Units gradually gain
experience with each battle, increasing both their overall efficiency
in combat and maximum Cohesion level.
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Cohesion represents a Unit’s general readiness for combat. It is
critical to a Unit’s overall efficiency as it impacts almost every aspect
of the game, such as morale, speed, firepower and the ability to
“March to the Sound of the Guns”.
Note: A Unit with low Cohesion could suffer from poor morale,
desertions and stragglers, exhaustion, disorganization, inadequate
training or any other debilitating factor. It will be slow in moving and
prone to break during combat.
Movement and combat reduce a Unit’s Cohesion. Resting (see p.
50) gradually improves its Cohesion until it ultimately reaches its
maximum level, which depends on training and Experience. NM
affects a Unit’s maximum Cohesion and its Cohesion recovery rate
when resting.
A Unit’s remaining number of men, indicating its ability to fight and
sustain further damage. Passing the mouse over the PWR number
box on a Unit counter shows the manpower and further details
instead of the Unit name. This is also indicated by the level of the
manpower bar and as a red area within individual element symbols in
the Inspection Panel.
Element Attributes –
Inspection Panel
Each single element of a Unit has several attributes (such as discipline
or weight) influencing a variety of mechanics (combat, transport,
etc.) throughout the game, as indicated elsewhere.
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Figure 12: Click on an element’s NATO Unit type symbol in the Inspection
Panel to display the element details window, which provides several pages
of detailed information on the Unit and all of its different attributes. Here, a
German infantry brigade’s details are shown.
Leader Attributes
Good leadership is essential to win battles. All leaders have strengths
and weaknesses as represented by their attributes.
Note: Try to use your leaders to the best of their abilities. For instance,
some are good on the offensive while others are better at defending.
Figure 13: A leader’s counter only shows two pieces of information: Rank
(number of stars) and Special Abilities (icon(s) in the bottom-left). Selecting a
leader displays more data in the Inspection Panel on the right.
In addition to providing CP (see p. 38), as every leader does, the
commanding officer of a Stack (i.e. most senior leader of the highest44
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rank in the Stack) improves the capabilities of his subordinate Units
with his Offensive/Defensive Rating (+5% to combat for each point)
and his Special Abilities. His Strategic Rating also has a critical
impact on the Stack’s performance (see below). Units in a Corps not
only benefit from the benefits just described, but also from their own
Corps leader’s capabilities (see p. 38).
If a leader is alone in a region with enemy Units, he may be
detected and eliminated.
Rank is shown by the number of stars on a leader’s counter. It
determines the CP contribution of a leader (see p. 38), as well as
the highest type of command he may assume (GHQ, Army or
Note: Be aware that - just like in real life - the most talented officers
are not always in command.
Special Abilities
Leaders may have Special Abilities, denoted by one or more icons
(see p. 138). The tooltips will provide more details. They are
usually beneficial. Some of these abilities apply at all times and
others conditionally. Likewise, some only apply to certain Units
while others affect the whole Stack or even other Stacks in the
Examples: The Cavalryman Special Ability only benefits cavalry
Units and does not apply in mountain terrain.
Strategic Rating & Activation
Each turn, each Stack commanding officer makes a test based on his
Strategic Rating. If he fails (indicated by a brown envelope icon on
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the Stack counter and in the Stack’s Inspection Panel), the leader is
deemed inactivated for the coming Planning Phase and will suffer the
following penalties:
• Reduced movement (-50% speed)
• Combat penalties in hostile regions (up to –50%).
• Offensive Posture prohibited (does not affect admirals).
Not being activated can represent delayed orders, over cautiousness,
or even incompetence at the operational level or above.
Note: A very cautious GHQ commander can even impact negatively
the Activation Check of subordinate Army commanders.
Technical Note: You may de-activate the activation tests rule in the
Options Menu.
Leaderless troops are always activated, as they don’t have leaders, but
suffer from movement and combat penalties (by lack of CP). They
are not prohibited from assuming Offensive Posture (the unknown
general or colonel commanding is willing to take action but is not the
best man for the job).
Offensive & Defensive Ratings
These ratings are used as a bonus in combat when attacking or
defending (see p. 106).
Order of seniority differentiates leaders of the same Rank. It is
expressed as a number (with 1 being the most senior) and has a direct
impact on promotion (see p. 39). Seniority is affected by winning and
losing battles. In case of a seniority tie, the officer who held the rank
earlier is senior.
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Political Cost
The Political Cost of a leader is a measure of a leader’s place within
the military hierarchy (Rank and Seniority), as well as his political
influence and level of popularity. It has a direct impact on promotion.
Historical Note: many WW1 leaders were notoriously incapable in
key military areas, yet either very popular among their troops or
with strong political backing. The cost of sacking such a leader is not
to be underestimated.
Leaders gain and lose experience by winning battles and losing
battles. This will in turn affect their other attributes.
Randomized Generals Option
You can choose to play the game with Leader attributes randomly
generated - see the Options Window and choose the level of
randomness desired.
Naval Stacks are treated in much the same way as land Stacks, except
that Command Chain rules don’t apply. Naval leaders are called Admirals
(irrespective of Rank) and cannot command land Stacks (and vice-versa).
An Admiral makes an Activation Check each turn, but, if he fails, he
is only delayed in
his actions and
not prevented from
setting his Fleet to an
Offensive Posture.
Figure 14: The British West Indies squadron in 1914.
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The game is played in simultaneous turn mode. This means both
sides simultaneously plan their orders for the upcoming two-week
turn. This is called the “Planning Phase”. Then, the turn’s orders
are simultaneously resolved during the “Resolution Phase”. As a
consequence, you cannot accurately predict what is going to happen
during the Resolution Phase.
Basically, you can plan your Stack movement and general behavior
(see Postures, p. 59), but you will have to trust your general’s
judgment to carry out your orders as well as possible during the
turn resolution. Please note however that your Stacks have a limited
ability to dynamically adjust to the enemy’s movements in the form
of Interception Orders (see p. 53).
In between turns (i.e., after the Resolution Phase of a turn, but
before the Planning Phase of the next turn), a number of activities
are automatically carried out in the “Hosting Phase”, notably Supply
distribution and weather-related Attrition.
Note: Your forces will not blindly follow your orders. For instance,
if a Stack in Offensive Posture comes across a larger enemy force, it will
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try to engage as ordered, but will then attempt to retreat once it realizes
it is facing a superior enemy.
The default order you issue to your land Stacks is to move by land,
but you can combine land movement with rail movement. Note that
movement is severely restricted by the presence of enemy Units.
Naval Units face limitations depending on their type: some can
enter ocean regions while others are limited to coastal regions.
Shallow draft vessels are the only ones allowed to move along
Historical Note: The Entente’s naval capacity was far superior to
the Central Powers’.
The speed of movement is based on Cohesion, because exhausted
and disorganized Units will travel much slower than fully-rested
ones. Movement also has a Cohesion Cost, which varies greatly
depending on the enemy military presence in the region, as well
as the type of terrain crossed and the type of transportation (as
indicated below):
Regular Land Unit Movement is affected by weather, terrain
type and the level of road infrastructure. Forced March can be faster
but greatly increases the Cohesion Cost of movement. Posture also
has an influence, with Offensive Posture Units incurring increased
Cohesion loss and Passive Posture Units incurring reduced loss.
Without any modifications, a Stack moving one day will spend one
Cohesion point in doing so.
• Rail Movement costs only a minimal amount of Cohesion and
is very fast.
• Naval Transport costs only a minimal amount of Cohesion,
except in very harsh weather.
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Ships lose a small amount of Cohesion depending on the
weather and the ship type.
Procedure: Use drag and drop to move each Stack. The estimated
number of days required to move from a region to another is indicated
for each leg of the movement path. The game will auto-plot a path
that is the fastest route, considering terrain and infrastructure and
the retarding effect of enemy forces. This may not be the most direct or
strategically wise route, so you can also order movement in stages by
selecting each leg of the journey yourself. In order to cancel the last leg of
a move, press the Delete key. To cancel the whole movement, drag and
drop the Stack on its original region. To add another leg to an existing
movement path drag and drop the copy of the Stack counter which is
shown at its current destination to the next desired destination in its
movement path. The Tutorial explains in full detail how to manipulate
In addition, Units will take a number of hits from Attrition
proportional to this Cohesion loss each time they move (see p. 43).
Note: This simulates the inevitable losses incurred by moving Units
(deserters, disease, etc.), especially in inhospitable regions.
Units can recover Cohesion if they don’t move. The Base Daily Rate
for land Units is 0.75 Cohesion point, modified by:
• Entrenched and outside of a structure: +0.5
• Inside a structure: +0.75
• In a loyal region: up to +0.5
• Besieged land Unit: -1.5
• Besieger (unless in Passive Posture): -0.5
• Land Unit transported aboard a ship: -0.5
• Offensive Posture: -0.5
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Land Unit in Passive Posture: +1
• Irregular: +0.5
The Base Daily Rate for naval Units is two and provided the Fleet is
in a port (modifiers above are not applicable).
These rates are further modified by NM. Note that the fastest
recovery is resting in Passive Posture in a structure within a loyal
region. Resting also allows a Unit to gradually fill in its ranks with
replacements if you have some available (see p. 128).
It’s possible to move units over the map rapidly. This is done with
the special order ‘Redeploy’, which will need your units to be on
a continuous series of railways. Planes units, representing both the
actual planes and accompanying personals, can also use this order,
but much more leniently as they can redeploy without the use of a
railroad, over body of water, provided they land in the same Theater
(example: West Front). This way, it’s possible to move planes in the
London area to France or even in Italy.
Blocking Movement & Evasion
Enemy presence (especially Forts) inhibits movement in a land
region. If this presence is strong enough, your Units won’t be able to
bypass the defender to penetrate further into the enemy’s rear areas
unless they fight to push the enemy back. However, some troops are
particularly stealthy and can more easily manage to sneak into the
enemy’s rear. This is represented by the Patrol and Evasion Values of
the moving and blocking Stacks, as well as by the Military Control
exerted over the region.
You cannot enter a land region if the enemy’s Patrol Value divided by
your Evasion Value is greater than your Military Control of the region.
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Play Note: This basically means you can fall back on friendly regions but are
usually prohibited from moving further into enemy territory, unless your force is
particularly stealthy and/or the enemy lacks proper reconnaissance Units.
Patrol and Evasion Values also play a role in avoiding combat, if
your Stack is on Passive Posture or if you have the ‘Evade Combat’
Special Order enabled (see p. 54).
Procedure: Regions your Stack is prohibited from entering will pulsate
in red. An icon on the Unit Panel provides you with detailed information.
Patrol Value
This value represents your troops’ ability to block the enemy’s
movement. The sum of your Units’ Patrol Values is added to any Fort’s
Patrol Value, if present. The level of Military Control you exert over
the region also comes into play in this calculation. Note that each Unit
type has different Patrol Values depending on its mobility and size.
Play Note: Fortifications greatly enhance your Patrol Value. Large
numbers of troops, especially mobile ones (such as cavalry) also help stop
the enemy from infiltrating your territory.
Evasion Value
This value represents your troops’ ability to infiltrate rear areas and to
avoid contact with the enemy. Here too, each Unit type has different
Evasion Values according to mobility and size. Stacks qualifying
as Small Forces have better Evasion Values. Similarly, Large Forces
suffer a penalty. Harsh weather and terrain which provides cover also
increase Evasion Values.
Finding the Enemy at Sea
You cannot directly stop an enemy’s movement through a sea region
(or river), but Evasion and Patrol Values will determine the probability
of a naval engagement occurring.
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Example 1: A Raider (high Evasion Value) can reasonably attempt
to reach the open sea by outrunning opposing ships.
Example 2: Light Cruisers (high Patrol Value) are fast Units which
help their Fleet locate and engage any enemy trying to sneak around
Example 3: steaming past enemy Forts and coastal defenses is
always a risky proposition. Some admirals have a special ability that
will help.
Interception & Combination
There are cases where you don’t want to move to a specific region
but rather intercept a moving enemy Stack wherever it goes. You
may also need to join and merge with a friendly Stack. Both are
handled similarly.
Procedure: Drag and drop your Stack onto an enemy or friendly
Stack and your army/fleet will attempt to intercept the enemy or join
the friendly Stack by adjusting its destination each day toward the
then-current location of the targeted Stack. If it does not reach its target
during the Resolution Phase, it may continue moving to intercept into a
later turn if the target remains visible.
If your intercepting Stack cannot locate the enemy (see p. 61-62),
the intercepting Stack will stop its movement. An enemy Stack you
are following may also split, in which case the intercepting Stack will
usually go after the larger enemy formation. Intercepting Stacks also
may be engaged by enemy before they arrive at their target.
Naval Interception
Naval units also benefit from a special order ‘Naval Interception’
which will allow the fleet to intercept any adjacent enemy fleet
passing by. See next section for details.
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Special Orders & Movement
Special Orders allow you to fine-tune how your Stacks move
and react to the enemy during the upcoming turn and to
issue a wide variety of specialized movement and non-movement
orders. Special Orders are located on the Special Orders bar, which
is accessed by clicking one of the three Special Orders buttons to the
left of the Stack Panel tabs. Available orders are affected by the type
of Unit and current conditions. Note that inactive leaders lose the
ability to perform some Special Orders.
Unless noted otherwise, Special Orders require some kind of
check (mostly related to leader and Unit attributes) before they occur
in order to determine the extent of success/failure. Special Orders
needing days to be completed are always executed first during a
turn. If there is any remaining time, your Unit will then carry out its
movement order (if any).
Ambush: Non-moving Irregular Units (mostly colonial
forces) can try to set an ambush in wild, swampy, hilly, forested or
jungle regions. If they succeed they will have enhanced combat
benefits against an enemy entering the region, including first fire
and the possibility of retreating easily.
NB: not active in version 1.00 of the game as no unit qualifies for
its use.
Forced March: Forced March allows the Stack to move at
a faster pace but at a loss in Cohesion due to stragglers. Light
Units get a bonus.
Enter Structure: The Stack will enter the friendly city/Fort
in the region where it ends its move. Success is automatic. This
will also Stack your Units to move into a nearby city (located in
the same region) if they suffer from a retreat in battle.
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Sortie: Your Stack is currently within a besieged Fort/city.
This orders it to join any combat initiated by a relief Stack
against the besiegers. If the Stack has a leader, he must be
Naval Bombardment: Your Fleet will bombard the first
coastal structure or entrenched position it meets, provided you
have a land Stack in the target region. The enemy can retaliate
if he has emplaced batteries (trench Level 5+) or a Fort. A
structure under bombardment will display this icon
on the
Build Depot: The Stack will expend two Supply Units and
build a Depot in the current region.
Destroy Depot: The Stack will destroy any Depot present
in the current region.
Build Fortification: The Stack will expend two Supply
Units and four artillery batteries (i.e. elements) to build a field
Destroy Fortification: The Stack will destroy any low-level
Fort in the region.
Repair Rail Network: The Stack will build or repair the rail
network in its region.
Destroy Rail Network: The Stack will destroy the rail
network in its region.
Move by River: The Stack can now benefit from river
movement during the turn.
Move by Rail: The Stack can now benefit from rail
movement during the turn.
Delay Move: The Stack will move at the same time as the
latest activated Stack in the same region.
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Synchronize Movement: If in the same region, the Army
GHQ and all subordinate Armies will move together (at the
pace of the slowest Army). Note: This is selected by default. In
addition, when the Army GHQ moves, all subordinate Armies
in the region will automatically synchronize without needing
to use this Special Order.
Distant Unload: The Stack is ordered to unload into the
designated land region adjoining the destination sea or river
zone of the transporting ships as soon as the ships arrive there.
Promote Leader: The leader is eligible for promotion to the
next rank, though at a possible Political Cost.
Demote Leader: the opposite of the above. A Political cost
will be paid also.
Combine Units: The selected Units can be combined into
a single one. This is used to form a Corps, if a leader with
Corps command enabled is included. It is also used to merge
weakened Units into a stronger one. The Unit selected first will
absorb the other Unit, which returns to the Force Pool.
Split Units: the opposite of the above (e.g., removing all
Units from a Corps).
Form GHQ: See p. 33
Dismiss GHQ: See p. 33
Create Army: See p. 35. This forms an Army attached to the
nearest GHQ.
Dismiss Army from GHQ: See p. 35. This detaches an Army
as an independent Stack.
Relocate: allows to move a Unit or a leader from a region to
another provided both are connected by an uninterrupted line
of railroads.
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Intercept: The moving naval Stack will try to intercept
an enemy Unit or Stack passing by.
Evade Combat: The moving land or naval Stack will try to
avoid contact during movement and will also enter Raid mode.
Inactive leaders may not use this order.
Disband: selected Stack will be disbanded at a cost in VPs.
Surrender: selected Stack will surrender.
Rail Movement
A Stack with “Move by Rail” Special Order(s) will use existing rail lines
on its movement path, resulting in a much faster movement rate and
vastly reduced Cohesion cost. You must have at least 25% Military
Control in a region to use its rail network. This icon
shows that a
region’s rail lines have been cut and are unusable until repaired.
This type of movement draws upon
national pools of trains depending on
the size of the Stack to be transported,
which limits the number of Stacks that
can simultaneously move this way. Your
transport capacity is displayed on the
Transport Assets Panel at the top of the
map. Rail transport assets are also used
to transport Supply along railroads (see p.
62). As a consequence, only the transport
capacity not assigned to move Units will be
available for Supply distribution.
Regular Sea Movement
You must use individual transport ships to transport troops
by sea. The first type of seaborne (or Riverine) movement is
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to transport Units from one friendly port to another. In this
case the Units automatically disembark when they reach their
destination port.
Procedure: First, merge the transporting Fleet and the Units to be
transported in the port of departure, then order the combined Stack to
move to the destination port.
Note that the transporting Fleet needs to have enough transport
capacity to do so.
Embark and Disembark to Port
You can embark Units by dragging them onto the transport Units
Stack or Stack Panel Tab and they will sail away after they finish
loading. A land Unit contained on a naval transport Unit will
automatically disembark upon reaching a port.
Amphibious Landing
Landing in an enemy region or a region without a port (even if
friendly) is a two-step process:
1. Move the transport Fleet and its cargo to a water zone adjacent
to the landing spot as you would for a regular transport.
2. The turn after your Fleet reaches its destination, split the
Stack and order the detached land Units to move ashore.
The Distant Unload order will do this automatically as
soon as the Fleet arrives, but will send every land Unit
being transported ashore. The Fleet disembarking Units
this way can be given a move order and will sail away after
disembarking is complete.
3. You can reverse the procedure to embark Units from coastal
regions unto naval transports in an adjacent water zone and the
transport will sail away according to its orders when the loading
is complete.
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The offensive or defensive stance of a Stack is called its “posture”.
Four buttons represent the different postures. Once a posture is
selected, a corresponding icon is displayed over the counter as a
The possible postures are:
Assault: Your Stack will attack any detected opponent it
comes across. During a siege, your Stack will attempt to storm
the Fort/city - expect heavy casualties unless the defenses have
been breached (see p. 126).
Offensive: Same as Assault, except during a siege your
Stack will not attempt to storm a Fort/City (it will continue
the siege instead).
Defensive: Your Stack won’t engage enemy Units. If
attacked, it will defend with the benefit of the region’s terrain
bonus, if any. It will continue an ongoing siege.
Passive: This is the same as Defensive Posture but with
combat penalties if you are attacked. However your chance of
withdrawing from combat is increased. Passive Units also won’t
increase the Military Control of their region.
Rules of Engagement (ROE)
The Rules of Engagement options available are different according to
the Stack’s assigned Posture.
Assault and Offensive Posture ROEs
The possible ROE options for a Stack in either an Assault or
Offensive posture are:
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All-Out Attack: A Stack will not attempt to retreat during
the first two (2) combat rounds of a battle. The chances of
attempting a retreat are reduced during subsequent combat
rounds. Losses are increased for both sides.
Sustained Attack: A Stack conducts combat normally. This
is the default ROE for Stacks in Assault or Offensive posture.
Conservative Attack: A Stack attempts to withdraw from
the battle beginning with the third combat round unless it
appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in
withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides
are reduced.
Feint/Probe Attack: A Stack attempts to withdraw from
the battle beginning with the second combat round unless it
appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in
withdrawing from battle are greatly increased. Losses for both
sides are significantly reduced.
Defensive and Passive ROEs
The possible ROE options for a Stack in a Defensive posture are:
Hold At All Costs: A Stack will never attempt to retreat.
Routing is still possible. Losses for defending Stack will be
Defend: A Stack conducts combat normally. This is the
default ROE for Stacks in Defensive or Passive posture.
Defend and Retreat: A Stack attempts to withdraw from
the battle beginning with the third combat round unless it
appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in
withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides
are reduced.
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Retreat if Engaged: A Stack will attempt to withdraw
beginning with the first combat round. The chances of
succeeding in withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses
for both sides are reduced. A ‘Retreat if Engaged’ ROE is
automatically assigned to a Stack adopting a Passive Posture.
Postures and ROEs are assigned to Stacks individually and
independent of assignments made to other Stacks. In other words, it
is permissible (and indeed likely) that multiple friendly Stacks located
in the same region of the game map will have different Postures and
ROEs. Such groupings of Stacks treat the presence of enemy forces
according to their individually assigned Postures and ROEs.
Fog of War
A player will only see enemy Units if they are detected. The Hide
Value of the enemy Units is compared to the friendly Detection
Value in the region: if your Detection Value equals the Hide Value of
your opponent, you detect him. Extra Detection points above that
increase the accuracy of the intelligence gathered.
Detection Value
Detection Points in a region are generated by 3 sources (not
cumulative, use only the highest value):
1. At least 51% Military Control in your favor: 2 points
2. At least 51% Population Alignment in your favor: 2 points
3. Troops: Highest Detection Rating present
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Detection also extends to adjacent regions but with a –1 reduction. A
region is grayed out if your Detection Level there is 0.
Planes: They will perform automatically recon missions up to a
distance of 3 regions away (depending of technology). When a recon
is successful, a bonus of 1-2 detection points is given in the region.
Hide Value
If a Stack is in a region with a structure (friendly or enemy), its Hide
Value is set to 2 unless in Passive Posture.
Otherwise, a group possesses the Hide Value of its Unit with the
worst Hide Value, modified as follows:
• Only leaders present: +1
• Small Force or Passive: +1
• Large Force: -1
• Sneaky terrain: +1
• Bad weather: +1
See the glossary for definitions of a Small Force or Large Force.
Hint: Stacks near enemy territory or troops are automatically
detected, unless the region is completely wild (i.e. no structure present).
Stacks in your rear areas, however, usually remain unspotted. Some
Irregular Units are good choices to recon and spot enemy Units doing
the same.
Supply is divided into two categories: General Supply (such as food,
water, clothing, small arms and general shells for field artillery, etc.) and
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Ammunition (used for large guns, howitzer and siege artillery). They
are tracked separately but follow the same rules. Armies and Fleets
need General Supply each turn to keep operating while Ammunition is
only used during battles by the medium and heavy artillery units (only).
Many Units normally carry two turns worth of General Supply and
enough Ammunition to last for two battles. They will try to replenish
their stockpile each turn. Hover your mouse over a Stack’s supply icon
to check how much General Supply and Ammunition it carries.
Out of Supply Penalties
Units lacking General Supply will start taking hits and lose Cohesion.
They also incur a moderate combat penalty. Heavy artillery units
lacking Ammunition will incur a severe combat penalty (or won’t be
able to shoot at all).
Note: Supply is absolutely critical to military operations, as
starvation, desertion and disease take a great toll on Units.
Supply Sources
The basic amounts generated are as follows:
General Supply/Level
Fort or Redoubt
This is further modified by:
• Investment in Industrial Development (Options) (see p. 84)
• Alignment: Production is multiplied by [Alignment + 50 %].
For instance, if a region is completely aligned to your side
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(100% Alignment) production in the region will be multiplied
by 1.5
• National Morale
• Blockade
You can check the total General Supply generated in a region with
its tooltip.
Design Note: These values may further be altered during Beta
Testing. Please check the ingame tooltips for the latest values.
Supply Distribution & Depots
Each structure and Unit in the game will “pull” a certain amount of
Supply each turn. This occurs during the Hosting Phase (see p. 12).
Supply sources will strive to distribute their Supply surplus to nearby
structures and Units that need it. This will trigger a chain reaction, with
Supply being forwarded from one structure to another until it reaches
the farthest Units/structures. This process is automated and conducted
in three consecutive “push” steps taking many parameters into account.
The amount of Supply that can transit through a structure is
roughly proportional to its Production Capacity (see above) and the
distance covered by your abstracted Supply columns during each
step can range from one to five regions depending on:
• Terrain
• Weather
• Enemy presence
• Rail Transport
• River Transport
• Sea Transport
You can directly check on the map how much General Supply/
Ammunition is stockpiled and where by using the Supply Filter
(see p. 23).
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Note: Isolated Units – such as Units under siege – will begin to
suffer from starvation when their General Supply reserves are depleted.
Rail & Sea Transport
Each turn, the trains left unused during the movement phase will
be available for Supply distribution. These will be used to transport
Supply over friendly rail lines.
Note: Controlling railroads is strategically important, as they
allow you to transport great quantities of Supply and men compared to
overland Supply paths using roads.
Both sides have the option to transport Supply by sea to coastal
areas and ports. The transport capacity depends on the number of
transport ships allocated to their respective “Shipping” boxes and is
displayed on the Transport Assets Panel at the top of the map.
Example: Entente shipping allows long distance Supply transport, for
example from Canada or Australia to Europe. The process is automated
and will strive to augment the Supply of needy ports and coastal Depots by
transporting any excess Supply in the Entente harbors to where it is needed.
Note: The Central Powers shipping ability is mostly concentrated
in the Baltic Sea (German ships in the Baltic Shipping box provide the
tools for transporting supplies in that sea)
Depots are very useful in optimizing your Supply lines. You can build
them in critical locations such as Supply bottlenecks or remote areas
lacking other structures. These will then act as transit points in order
to bridge gaps in your Supply lines, extend the reach of your Supply
network and increase Supply throughput. A Depot will attract and
then push forward more Supplies than Level 1-14 cities. When the
Supply Filter is active, your Depots will pulsate on the map to help
you see their locations.
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Note 1: Building a Depot network every three to five regions is
highly recommended.
Note 2: Depots are tempting targets for enemy raiders and should be
adequately protected.
Supply Wagons and Trucks
Supply Wagons and Trucks (commonly called Supply Units) are
special Units which act as moving Supply stockpiles and thus provide
you with limited direct control over Supply. They fill up during the
Supply Distribution Phase. Supply Units allow you to keep selected
Stacks supplied, even if they operate far from their Supply bases.
However, this will only last until they become empty and need to be
resupplied themselves from a regular Supply source.
Supply Units tend to slow down the Stack they accompany and
cannot be used by naval Units.
Supply Units also have the following additional benefits:
• They provide a +10% fire bonus during battles (provided they
have some ammo left)
• They protect Units from bad weather effects by trading hits
for Supply
A Supply Unit or transport ship is able to supply any land Unit
with both General Supply and Ammunition if it is in the same or an
adjacent region.
Note: If you have too many depleted Supply Units near the front,
you can move them back by train to rear areas stockpiles so they get
replenished. This is one manual means that players have to control
precisely where they want Supply. Most of the micro-management
burden is handled by the automated Supply Distribution Phase.
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Naval Units
Fleets at sea can replenish General Supply from adjacent land regions
with a stockpile, but they can only replenish Ammunition while in
port. Naval Transport Units can also be used to manually transport
General Supply for troops located in adjacent coastal regions, similar
to Supply Units.
Note/Example: Any Central Powers Naval Transport Unit in the
Baltic Shipping Box will also help shuffling supply to coastal regions of
the Baltic Sea. Naval Supply is as important as supplying your land Units,
and can be trickier. Ships with low supply will lose cohesion quickly and
must be returned to port to regain it. By manually rotating fully-Supplied
transports to the naval boxes you can maintain them at sea for a much
longer time (until they need to replenish Ammunition in port).
Out-of-Supply Units located in an enemy region have a chance
of finding enough subsistence by foraging to momentarily avoid
the penalties due
to lack of General
Supply. This depends
on the terrain and
Civilization Level of
the region, as well
as the time of year.
A leader with the
Ability also improves
his Stack’s chances.
One at a time, each
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Out-of-Supply element will make its own test to see if it forages
enough General Supply.
However, as soon as a single test is failed, the region is considered
icon, and will
to have been looted and pillaged, as shown by the
not provide any more Supply until it recovers, which happens during
the harvest season.
Technical Note: The Supply calculations use sophisticated
pathfinding algorithms that can take between 5 and 30 seconds to
process, depending on scenario size and your CPU’s power.
Climate & Weather
Weather plays a critical role in the conduct of operations. It affects movement,
Supply and combat in many ways, as shown on the following chart.
Important: Stacks in a reasonably loyal region with a friendly structure
ignore Attrition due to bad weather. Please note that the Stack does not
need to be located within the structure to benefit from its protection: the
structure provides shelter to all Stacks in the region, both within and
outside the structure (this avoids needless micro-management).
Movement & Supply Transport Combat
Moderate penalty.
River crossing more difficult.
Slight penalty for the
Mountain regions suffer
Moderate penalty.
Moderate penalty for the
attacker. Battles start at
close range.
All Stacks suffer Attrition
(unless sheltered)
Moderate penalty. Bodies of water
may freeze, as shown by the
Moderate penalty for the
Same as Snow, with
slightly greater losses
Severe penalty. Bodies of water
may freeze.
Severe penalty for the
attacker. Battles start at
close range.
Same as Frozen, with
even greater losses
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Contrary to popular belief, more casualties during wars in general
were caused by Attrition (disease, cold, desertion, etc.) rather than
direct battle losses. In EAW, the following activities will result in
Units taking hits:
Hits are proportional to the Cohesion cost of the move (see
p. 49).
Desert or Jungle Terrain:
Each turn spent in desert terrain results in severe Attrition
Lack of General Supply:
Units will take Attrition hits (in addition to Cohesion losses
and combat penalties, see p. 69)
Bad Weather:
Units lacking shelter will take a number of hits depending on
the severity of weather conditions (see table above). Supply
Wagons (see p. 66) in a Stack automatically “shield” Units from
Attrition by expending 5 General Supply points per Attrition
hit negated. Fleets do not enjoy this benefit.
Attrition is slightly reduced if in civilized regions (x 0.9), if there is a
Supply Unit present in the Stack (x 0.9). Or if Units are entrenched
(x 0.8).
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Military Control
Military Control is represented as a percentage of control in each
region. As such, a region’s control ranges from 50/50, representing
a region that is equally contested by both sides, to 100/0, where one
side has absolute control of the region.
If both sides have troops present in a region, neither may increase
Military Control until one side assumes an Offensive Posture (see
p. 38) in an attempt to increase control of the region. If the attacker
is successful, the beaten defender will lose a portion of Military
Control and either retreat locally, in which case it will stay in the
region, or retreat to an adjacent region if soundly defeated.
Note that Stacks in Passive Posture or those composed exclusively
of support Units will not contest control of a region, meaning the
enemy will increase its Military Control without fighting.
If you manage to push back the enemy from a region and leave
some Units to occupy it, you will gain complete Military Control in
one or two turns, depending of the amount of troops you have. An
Army on the march can even convert a region in a few days!
Having Military Control of a region greatly increases both your
chances of stopping an enemy Stack trying to cross it (see p. 51) and
the Cohesion cost incurred by enemy Units moving into/through the
region. It also affects the chances of an Army successfully “Marching
to the Sound of the Guns” (see p. 36).
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In addition, if you control at least 51% of a region your Detection
Level will increase (see p. 61).
Finally, you cannot retreat from battle into completely hostile
regions (i.e. less than 5% Military Control).
Note: Engaging in a battle deep within enemy territory is a very
risky proposition, as losing will result in complete destruction for lack
of a retreat path!
In regions with 5% or less Military Control (i.e., enemy territory),
a Stack will automatically adopt Offensive Posture in an attempt to
get a foothold there. However, Stacks in Passive Posture or those
composed entirely of cavalry, Irregulars or support Units may transit
through enemy territory without switching Posture.
Note: When penetrating into enemy territory, a Stack will have to
face opposing forces blocking the main avenues of advance, unless it is
fast-moving/stealthy enough to attempt infiltration deeper into enemy
territory. A Stack can also attempt to retreat to its lines through enemy
territory, trying to avoid contact.
During amphibious assaults and river crossings into regions where
you have 10% or less Military Control, your posture is also automatically
set to Offensive (unless the Stack is entirely composed of Irregulars).
Note: Armies amphibiously landing or crossing a river have no
choice but to fight the enemy defending the crossing or beach at a
disadvantage. However, Stacks crossing/landing into a region where
you previously secured a beachhead/bridgehead (more than 10%
Military Control) can reinforce it without fighting. Irregulars are also
considered stealthy enough to cross/land unopposed.
Controlling Structures
To control a structure, you must simply be the latest to have occupied
it with a combat Unit.
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Note: You don’t necessarily need to leave a Unit garrisoning the
structure, although it is good practice to do so even if it has its own
“auto-garrison” Unit.
Irregulars and Partisans will only take control of a city if the
population in the area is friendly (51% Alignment or more). They cannot
capture Depots or Forts and will instead destroy them automatically.
Diplomacy and
Alignment is a measure of the local population’s inclination for one
side or the other and is independent of Military Control. You can
quickly occupy an enemy region with your troops, but winning its
population to your side is a far slower process.
Also, in this game, Alignment is used to represent support of the
local population to the overall war effort, and also war weariness: a
region with a low alignment means the population there is no longer
supporting the war effort on your side.
High Alignment within a region will give the following benefits:
• You don’t need to garrison Objectives in order to earn VPs.
• The locals will provide you some intelligence as to the enemy’s
whereabouts (see p. 61).
• The region will produce more Supply, State Funds, and Resources.
• If the enemy occupies a region loyal to your side without leaving
enough of a garrison, its Military Control will gradually shift in
your favor and there is a chance that Partisans will appear in
the region.
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If a region is very hostile to the occupant (10% or less Alignment),
non-garrisoned cities may even openly revolt, in which case an
enemy Unit will appear and take control of the city.
Diplomacy Regions
As the Great War
nations, EAW is designed
to handle diplomacy
and alliances via special
Regions. This area of
the map can be accessed by clicking on the area of the mini-map
indicated by the red ellipse in the image picture above on the left. On
the map screen, you will see regions indicating the various nations
which may participate in some fashion in the Great War.
The next two sections will describe the effects of these special
Diplomacy Regions.
Figure 15: The Diplomatic Boxes (right) are on the top-right of the main map.
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Diplomacy Regions:
Alignment and War Support
For any nation involved in the war, the Diplomacy Region
corresponding to that nation indicates the contentment of its home
front. Hovering over the region will show a Alignment value, split
between the alliance the nation is attached to, and the Rebel faction,
indicating discontent at home.
In general, Rebel Alignment increases by 1% each turn, though
losses on the field (particularly strategic and objective cities),
certain Regional Decisions, and various events may increase (or
decrease) this value as well. Once Rebel Alignment exceeds 80%
in a nation, there is a 1% chance per point over 80 of the nation’s
will crumbling and it withdrawing from the war (for example, if
Rebel Alignment in Russia is 85%, there is a 5% chance per turn of
Russia signing an armistice). Withdrawal will involve the nation’s
regions becoming blocked to all sides (though any regions held by
the enemy will not be blocked and will become occupied regions
belonging to the enemy alliance).
As an example, consider the image below.
Figure 16: France Diplomatic status
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Here we have the off-map Diplomacy Region of France, with an
Entente Alignment of 97% and a Rebel Alignment of 3%. At this
point, France has little to worry about with ill-content on the home
front, but should Rebel Alignment ever increase beyond 80%, the
chances would begin of France pulling out of the war!
The Dilution Effect (or when +30% is not +30%!):
Alignment is often modified by events. You’ll see for example that
an event will add +30% alignments to a specific region. One turn after
the outcome, the expected increase is lower than you would expect.
How can it be? The easiest way to explain it is with some numbers.
Germany starts with 80% alignment. France with 20%. An event
boosts Germany alignment by 30%. What will be the end result?
The game gives 30% to Germany, for a 110% alignment value.
France is still at 20% here, for a grand total of 130%. Then the game
‘normalizes’ these values toward a sum of 100%, by doing these maths:
Germany new alignment will be 110/130 = 85%
France new alignment will be 20/130 = 15%
In a nutshell: the higher alignment you already have, the smaller the
actual gain will be. Said differently, it will be extremely hard to take
away the last few percentages points of alignment in a given region.
Diplomacy: Notes & Examples
Neutral nations can end up allied to either the Central Powers or
the Entente, regardless of which side they fought on historically. The
only exceptions are Great Britain and United States, which will never
join the Central Powers (but may remain neutral).
The Balkans have the most flexibility. In particular, if the Central
Powers do not recognize Bulgaria’s claims on Serbia, it’s far more
likely to have the Balkan nations up for grabs on either side (though
this will also likely mean their entry later in the war, such as late 1916
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or early 1917). So, as an example, the Recognize Bulgaria’s Claims
event gives the Central Powers +20% loyalty with Bulgaria, but at a
cost of Greece, Romania, and Serbia moving +20% towards Entente
(in Serbia’s case, this means boosting their morale at home, since they
are already allied to Entente). Then, when/if Bulgaria actually joins
the Central Powers, Greece and Romania move another +10% towards
Entente. So there’s a total net +30% swing for Greece and Romania,
which heavily puts them in the Entente court. Now, whether this is a
bad thing or not is up to the player, since Bulgaria has a better military
than the other two, and with proper courting, can be in the Centrals
alliance in 1915, whereas the other two are likely to take longer.
Italy and Ottoman Empire have a lot of possibilities too, though it
takes some costly measures to swing them towards ahistorical directions.
For the Ottoman Empire, the Centrals have two key options they
can play early on. The first is a substantial 500 State Funds donation
to the Ottomans (essentially a big loan), and the other is the Goeben
& Breslau event (which can be averted if these ships can be sunk in
the first turn in the Mediterranean, but catching them is tough). Each
of these swings the Ottomans +10% towards the Centrals (they start
at 60% Centrals/40% Entente). The British have the option of giving
the Ottomans the Agincourt and Erin battleships, which will move
Ottomans back +10% towards Entente, but this means the Ottomans
have a slightly better navy with which to threaten the Entente. It’s
very tough for the Ottomans to end up on the Entente side, but it’s
quite possible to delay their entry a bit, and if the Centrals don’t
play either of their events, it’s in the realm of possibility they might
eventually join the Entente.
Italy is tough to influence either way in 1914, but in 1915 a bunch of
options come open. The biggest one the Centrals can play is letting
Austria cede the Italian claims in Trieste and Trento areas, which moves
Italy +25% towards Centrals but gives up good defensive regions on
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the Italian/Austrian border and severely harms Austrian homefront
loyalty. But it will keep the Italians out of the war for quite a while,
perhaps the whole war if the Centrals maintain diplomatic pressure,
and can even lead to the Italians joining the Central Powers later in the
war if the Entente neglects to put diplomatic pressure on the Italians).
The Entente have more options they can play on Italy, including
D’Annuzio (which is low cost +10% loyalty), Recognizing Italian
War Goals (+20% Entente loyalty, but Austrian homefront loyalty
is boosted heavily and Centrals get +5 NM, NOTE: this option
becomes unavailable if Austria has given concessions!), and Tunisia to
Italy (+10% Entente loyalty, but France loses loyalty on its homefront
and Western Entente suffer -5 NM, -100 VP). Italy has the most
flexibility of the “major powers”, but its costly to either side to swing
it away from the historical path.
In practice, it’s very tough to see an ahistorical alliance occur (though
it can happen), but it’s very viable to see nations remain neutral much
longer than they actually did, with the right choices made.
Political Alignment Decisions
The Regional Decisions (RGD) which specifically affect Political
Region Alignment are as follows:
Grant Concessions: This RGD represents concessions
by the nation’s government to quell labor unrest and ease
the effects of strikes. When played, this RGD will bring the
nation 3% towards the alliance’s Alignment, but at a cost of 50 VP
and 2 Engagement Pts. It can be played an individual nation once
every 12 turns (6 months).
Change Government: This RGD represents fundamental
changes in the ruling cabinet of government. This will
help improve Alignment in the nation it is played on, but
undermines other aspects of the alliance’s strength. When played,
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his RGD will move the nation 8% towards the alliance’s Alignment,
but with a cost of 5 Morale, 250 VP, and 8 Engagement Pts. It can be
played on an individual nation once every 24 turns (12 months).
Diplomatic Regions:
Alignment and Diplomacy
For nations not currently at war (still neutral), the Alignment values
represent which alliance the nation is currently leaning towards. For
example, if Bulgaria is still neutral, it may have a Alignment split
of 60% Central Powers, 40% Entente (these percentages will always
total 100%). When a neutral nation reaches 100% Alignment towards
one of the alliances, it will join the alliance.
Neutral nations can have various other effects on the opposing
alliances, depending on their current Alignment ranges. These effects
are listed in icons on the sides of the Diplomatic Region (Entente
effects are always on left, Central Powers effects are always on the
right). If an effect is currently inactive, it will be shown with a red X
through it. Hovering over the icons will give a full description of the
effects and under what circumstances they are active.
Figure 17: Serbian has been declared war upon by the Central Powers
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In the example below, the USA is still strictly neutral, and hovering
over the neutral icons will give the tool-tip shown below. On the
right side, there are three icons with a red X, these are benefits the
USA will supply to the Entente as they become more loyal to the
Entente alliance.
Figure 18: The USA are still neutral
Diplomatic Alignment Decisions
Many events during the game can impact Alignment, but the primary
influence comes from a specific Regional Decision:
Send Diplomat (Major/Minor): The Central Powers and
Western Entente each have 1 Send Diplomat (Major) and
4 Send Diplomat (Minor) RGDs (all Entente diplomacy is
handled by Western Entente). The Major decision can be
played on Great Britain, Italy, USA, or Ottoman Empire (if
they are still neutral), while the Minor decision is played on
any other neutral nation. When a diplomat option is in effect,
a check is made each turn against the current Alignment of
the nation towards the alliance playing the RGD, if successful,
the nation moves 2% towards the alliance. So, for example, if
the Ottoman Empire is currently 66% Central Powers/34%
Entente Alignment, a Central Powers Send Diplomat will have
a 66% chance of increasing Ottoman Alignment 2% towards
Central Powers, while the Entente would only have a 34%
chance if playing the decision.
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Declare War: The Central Powers and Western Entente players
may play this RGD on a neutral nation’s off-map region to declare
war (with some historical exceptions; i.e. Western Entente may
not declare war on USA). Once played, the following turn your
alliance will be at war with the nation and it will be a member of
the opposing alliance. Western Entente declarations of war are
binding for the Eastern Entente player as well.
Military Influencing Alignment
Over time, Martial Law imposed by the occupant will slowly shift a
region’s Alignment in his favor. This is particularly true if a leader with
the “Occupier” Special Ability is present, but the process remains a
slow one. The only way to really get population to stop supporting
their side is to demoralize the enemy by capturing Strategic Cities.
Each time this happens, the bad news triggers a wave of Alignment
Checks across the map depending on the distance:
• One check for each Strategic City on the map
• One check for each region with a Strategic City in the Area
• One check for each adjacent region
Note: The news spread faster in large cities, and their psychological
impact is highly influenced by proximity. Conversely, remote areas are
less volatile in their loyalties.
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The War Economy
To raise Units, you will need Men, State Funds and War Supplies: this
is what your war economy is about. However, you are limited in the
numbers and locations of your newly raised Units since each Area
can only provide a limited share of its resources to your war effort.
Men (Conscripts)
Each alliance begins with a pool of conscripts/volunteers contributed
by the major nations within the alliance (e.g. Western Entente conscript
pool represents French and British manpower, Central Powers
represents German and Austro-Hungarian, etc). When a new nation
joins the alliance, additional manpower is contributed to this pool,
corresponding to its size (minor nations give only a small contribution,
while large nations such as USA give a substantial increase). Cities and
towns within the alliance will also contribute an amount each turn
(though this will vary based on Alignment and military control).
To help ensure units are distributed between nations, EAW grants a
bonus/penalty to the cost (in State Funds) of units in the Force Pool based
on what percentage of the Force Pool has been built (this only impacts
infantry, cavalry, and militia units). This formula works as follows:
• If a Force Pool (FP) has 20% or less of its units on the map, it
costs 50% of its normal cost (bonus)
• If 21-40% of FP units on the map, it costs 75% of its normal
cost (bonus)
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If 41-60% of FP units on the map, the cost is unaffected
• If 61-80% of FP units on the map, the cost is 125% of normal
cost (penalty)
• If 81% or higher of FP units on the map, the cost is 150% of
normal cost (penalty)
In this way, overbuilding a certain nation’s allotment of troops will
quickly drain the alliances State Funds pool.
Men are needed in order to raise new Units and to replace losses for
Units on the field (see p. 89).
State Funds
In addition to Men and War Supplies, every Unit and replacement
has a cost in State Funds, as do many options and Regional Decisions.
State Funds are produced each turn in places such as your national
capital, financial centers, key strategic cities, factories and structures of
various kinds, but this will prove insufficient for raising the quantities
of troops and war equipment on the scale of the Great War.
The primary method of raising exceptional funds comes from the
following Regional Decision:
Print Money: This decision will immediately grant your
alliance 1000 State Funds, but at a cost of Morale, VP, and
Engagement Pts, and a 2% increase in inflation. It can only
be played on certain nations (France, Great Britain, USA,
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia), only if they are
in your alliance, and only once every 3 turns (1.5 months).
Proper usage of this decision will greatly impact your war
economy, as funds will be needed quickly, but over-use can
lead to collapse of the economy through hyper-inflation.
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Supplies come in three varieties in WW1. Cities will
produce these three kinds of supplies each turn based
on their size.
War Supplies
This is a general term representing the heavier equipment needed
by your troops. Heavy ships and artillery cost lots of War Supplies,
as they require industrial capacity and raw materials. Infantry, on
the other hand, costs few, since rifles and other light equipment are
easier to manufacture.
Central Powers blockade runners may provide some imported
War Supplies to their side after selling goods and other cargoes
overseas to still neutral powers.
Central Powers naval raiders may also slightly disrupt Entente
War Supplies and State Funds production (but won’t bring back their
prizes to the Central Powers ports).
General Supply
Armies and Fleets need food, clothing, general small arms ammos
and field artillery shells, as well as all other basic supplies to keep on
moving and fighting. These are all grouped into the term “General
Supply” (as opposed to “War Supplies”) and are distributed to your
Depots and your troops every turn (see p. 62).
Another commodity you will need to keep your heavy artillery
(important for heavy bombardments and sieges) is Ammunition,
which is tracked separately from General Supply but otherwise
follows the same production and distribution mechanisms.
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Industrialization is very limited in the game, as industry was already
present almost everywhere needed. What was critical in the era was
the conversion of existing civilian factories into war material factories
to support the armed forces and the war effort. To keep it simple and
manageable, we have limited this to the creation of extra Munitions.
This is an option that you can play using Game Decisions (see also
Munitions Factory: This decision will build a Munitions
Factory in the region where it is played. Munitions factories
will output 5 ammunition points (representing artillery
munitions) each turn. Ammunition is key to keeping medium
artillery and heavy artillery functional in combat, and in turn these units
are crucial to breaking the trench deadlock in the later years of the war.
Blockade & Raiding Commerce
The Entente, with the mighty Royal Navy (and later on other allied
fleets), will strive to block Central Powers commerce with the rest of
the world in order to ruin or weaken their economy.
Blockade Boxes
There are two blockades which can be enacted:
• The Atlantic Blockade: By placing ships in the Atlantic Blockade Box
(at the north end of the North Sea), the Entente can enact the Atlantic
Blockade, which gradually erodes support for the war in Germany.
• The Mediterranean Blockade: By placing ships in the
Mediterranean Blockade Box (just south of Sardinia), the
Entente can enact the Mediterranean Blockade, which gradually
erodes support for the war in Austro-Hungary.
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Both blockades start off mild in effect and grow worse as time
progresses. Each turn, there is a 4% chance per heavy or light warship
element the Entente have in a Blockade Box of incrementing the
effects (so 4 Battlecruiser and 4 Light Cruiser elements would have 8
x 4% = 32% chance of increasing the Blockade counter), and enacting
the Neutrals Blockade option (available early in the war) will allow
this check to be made twice per turn.
Initial Level
The Blockades start at Level 1 (once Entente ships are in the Blockade
Box) and can go as high as Level 6. The level progresses forward when
a Blockade counter has increased by 20. So if the Entente has at least
25 ships elements in the Atlantic Blockade, it will have a (25 x 4% =
100%) each turn of increasing the Atlantic Blockade counter by 1 (and
if Neutrals Blockade has been chosen, another 1 will be added, for a
total of 2 each turn). With the Neutrals Blockade in effect, it will thus
take 10 turns (5 months) to increase from Level 1 to Level 2 of the
Blockade Box, then from Level 2 to Level 3, etc. It will take twice as
long (20 turns = 10 months) without the Neutral Blockade in effect.
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Effects of blockade
The effects of the Blockade Levels are as follows (these effects are
also visible in-game as tool-tips in the Blockade Box regions):
Level 1
Atlantic Blockade: 20% chance each turn Rebel Alignment will
decrease by 1% in Germany (at this stage, the Blockade actually
increases morale in Germany due to outrage over the Blockade)
Mediterranean Blockade: No effect as of yet on
Level 2
Atlantic Blockade: 10% chance each turn Rebel Alignment
will increase by 1% in Germany
Mediterranean Blockade: 10% chance each turn Rebel
Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary
Level 3
Atlantic Blockade: 25% chance each turn Rebel Alignment
will increase by 1% in Germany
Mediterranean Blockade: 25% chance each turn Rebel
Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary
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Level 4
Atlantic Blockade: 60% chance each turn Rebel Alignment
will increase by 1% in Germany
Mediterranean Blockade: 60% chance each turn Rebel
Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary
Level 5
Atlantic Blockade: 90% chance each turn Rebel Alignment
will increase by 1% in Germany
Mediterranean Blockade: 90% chance each turn Rebel
Alignment will increase by 1% in Austria-Hungary
Level 6
Atlantic Blockade: 95% chance each turn Rebel Alignment
will increase by 2% in Germany
Mediterranean Blockade: 95% chance each turn Rebel
Alignment will increase by 2% in Austria-Hungary
Note: By the time the Blockade reaches Level 5 or higher, the ill effects
will gradually drive the Central Powers to collapse. Thus, the Blockade
is a very effective tool for eventually winning the war, but it should be
enacted early on for best long-term effect.
Submarine Warfare
Submarine warfare is a crucial part of World War One. A large portion
of the Western Entente income in State Funds and War Supply is
derived from the Atlantic Shipping Box (located south of the Irish Sea
and west of the English Channel) and the Mediterranean Shipping Box
(located between Crete and Alexandria). The
Entente maintains large merchant shipping in
these zones and accumulates income based on
the number of merchant vessels active.
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Submarines and Technology
The Central Powers may wage submarine warfare by placing sub
units in either or both of these Shipping Boxes. Each submarine
element the Central Powers have in a Shipping Box has a 10% chance
each turn of sinking one merchant shipping element of the Entente
(this chance increases to 14% per submarine element upon reaching
U-Boat Technology Level 3, and 20% per submarine element upon
reaching U-Boat Technology Level 4; see Technology section for
further details).
Note: These submarine effects are non-cumulative.
ASW and Technology
Conversely, the Entente may cancel out merchant shipping losses by
placing screening light warships (destroyers and light cruisers) in the
Shipping Boxes. The ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) Technology
level is the key factor in how effective screeners operate. At ASW
Technology Level 2, each screener element has a 10% chance of
negating a merchant shipping loss inflicted by submarine, at Level
3, each screener element has a 20% chance of negating a loss, and at
Level 4, each screener element has a 33% chance of negating a loss.
Submarine Warfare Alignment Effects
For the Entente, receiving shipping imports is crucial to maintaining
support for the war at home, especially for Great Britain. Therefore,
if merchant shipping elements fall below a certain threshold, there
is a chance of Rebel Alignment growing on nation home fronts, as
If there are less than 25 merchant shipping elements in the Atlantic
Shipping Box, Great Britain must make 3 checks, with a chance of
4% per element less than 25; for each check failed, Rebel Alignment
increases by 1% in Great Britain off-map Diplomacy Region.
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Example: if merchant shipping elements have fallen to 20 (due
to submarine raiding), Great Britain will make 3 checks at 20%, if
the checks result in 12, 36, and 19, two checks have failed and Rebel
Alignment increases by 2% in Great Britain that turn.
If there are less than 25 merchant shipping elements in the
Mediterranean Shipping Box, Great Britain, France, and Italy
(if Entente ally) must each make a check with a chance of 4% per
element less than 25; for each check failed, Rebel Alignment increase
by 1% in the nation’s off-map Diplomacy Region.
Thus, the Atlantic Shipping Box has more impact on Great
Britain, but does not affect other nations, while the Mediterranean
Shipping Box has less impact on Great Britain, but can also impact
France and Italy.
Raising Units
Units are raised via the Construction Mode. To enter
Construction Mode, just click on the first round button on
the top-left part of the interface (the one showing a gear).
Construction Filters
The Construction Mode is used to allow you to build new Units for the
nation you are playing. Of course, some limitations are applied, such as
how many your nation is allowed to have (the “Force Pool” concept) in
the field, the various assets needed to pay for the construction (recruits,
State Funds and war supplies) and also the location of the build, as it is
not always possible to construct all kinds of Units everywhere.
There are some filters buttons are used to switch between the various
construction possibilities. One set allows you to filter constructions
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by Unit types while the other allows filtering by sections of the
country. In both cases, you may click on the first button (showing 3
stars) to return to the whole list (all Units, all Fronts).
Constructible Units
Figure 23: Different Entente cavalry and the various areas where you can
raise them
Constructible Units are listed in the main interface. You can see all
those Units that are still available for construction, and the number of
them is indicated in the white square on the upper-left corner of the
Unit stamp. A tooltip on each Unit gives you indication on the number
of these on map, name, costs in the various assets required (State Funds,
Men, War Supplies) and construction time (in number of days).
Figure 24: British Militia Division: 12 are already on map and 8 more can be
raised, as indicated by the tooltip
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Important Note: The cost of a given type of unit will vary greatly,
depending if there are many deployed on the map or not. The game will
sort the cost for you, cheaper units being shown first.
Where to Raise Units
When you select a Unit to raise, the map
coloring changes and shows you regions in
either a green, orange or red background.
You can see where a Unit can be dropped for
construction as the region is in a green color.
If the region is colored in orange, you
could in theory construct there, but you
are lacking one (or more) of the assets
to do so (Note: drop the Unit there and
the error message will tell you the reason). Finally, all regions where
construction would not be allowed are colored in a red background.
You can find out why by mousing over the red colored region.
In this game, Unit construction is usually only possible in cities
originally belonging to your own nation in 1914. For instance, you
cannot build Units in conquered enemy cities.
If you have trouble finding a green region, simply double click on
the unit card in the construction panel to have the game shows you one.
Note: each Unit has a certain construction weight and a given
region has a maximum weight of construction it can support at any one
time. This is to represent capacity limits and the distributed nature of
recruitment and training. By accessing the structures of a region (ctrlclick on a structure sprite), you can see in each structure tooltip what is
the construction weight they provide.
It is also possible to see the statistics of the elements of the Unit to
be raised by clicking on the NATO symbols in the Inspection Panel
on the bottom right pane while the Unit is selected.
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Figure 25: Map shows where the Central Powers can raise cavalry from
How to Raise Units
Select the Unit you wish to raise and drag and drop it on the map in a
green-colored region. In other regions, the drag & drop will be refused
and a short message will appear in the top part of the interface explaining
why: it is usually because the capacity of the chosen site would be
exceeded or you lack one (or more) of the required assets (see below).
Possible causes preventing the construction of Units
If the region is in green, you can build the Unit. If the region is in
yellow/orange, you could theoretically, if you had enough resources. If
the region is in red, there is at least one regional constraint preventing
you from building/construction the Unit. Some possible causes are:
• No available Unit in the Force Pool.
• The region’s build weight capacity is exceeded.
• The Unit is a ship and there is no harbor.
• The region is not playable in this scenario.
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You don’t have enough Military Control in the region.
• The Alignment of the region is too low or the region is in riot
(i.e. a demonstration card has been played there)
• The Unit needs soldiers and the region does not have enough
• A specific required structure is not there (e.g., War Supplies
production for Artillery Units).
• The Unit can only be built in some parts of the map (e.g.,
British Units are raised in England, not Canada or Australia).
• The Unit can only be built in the capital.
There are some rarer causes preventing you from building in a given
region. In all cases, the tooltip will give you the reason.
It’s possible to disband a unit created in the current turn by
selecting the unit and hitting the Delete key . You’ll get full refund.
Construction Assets and Limits
To raise Units, you need Men, State Funds and War Supplies: this is
what your war economy is about. However, you are limited in the
numbers and locations of your newly raised Units since each owned
city of your home nation (most conquered cities do not contribute,
except for some rare cases, like in border states) can only provide a
limited share of its total resources to your war effort.
Except for a very few places which raise a small number of recruits
every turn, conscripts are generally limited by the conscript income
from cites under a side’s control. Each side starts with a substantial
conscript pool (State Funds and war supply will limit early builds
rather than available manpower). Beware when the conscripts pool
begins to run low (typically sometime in 1917) as the heavy casualties
of Great War battles will become very difficult to replace quickly!
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State Funds
State Funds is produced each turn in a few places such as your
national capital or key financial or commercial centers (e.g. major
trade ports, central bank, regional capitals), but those sources of
income are marginal. The great bulk of your income will proceed
from exceptional events (rarely) and, above all, Financial Options
taken by the government, such as taxes.
War Supplies
This is a general term representing the heavy equipment needed by
some Units. Artillery and Ships (mostly) and Airplanes or Cavalry
(less) cost usually a lot of War Supplies, as they require industrial
capacity, horses and raw materials. Infantry, on the other hand, are
a easier to build, as rifles and other light equipment are easier to
manufacture and therefore represented by the State Funds cost of
the Unit.
Force Pools
Each Nation can only field a limited number of troops at any time.
This is what is called its Force Pool (FP). In addition, if all of a
Nation’s Units are in play, the Nation can’t field more Units until
some are eliminated.
Units under Construction on the Map
Units appear immediately on the map on the same turn as you request
them, but they start completely depleted in Strength and Cohesion,
as they are gathering men, training them, collecting supplies, etc.
• Such Units cannot be moved and are basically defenseless.
• Their status is indicated by a red label. The label on the
Unit will change color progressively (to a white color) as the
construction process advances.
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Their various components are shown
in red (i.e., depleted)
and will fill up progressively over time.
After a while, Units under
construction progressively
lose this ‘special’ status
and can be moved, but
rushing those green Units Figure 26: a view of the War Production
into combat should best be showing Units in production
avoided. To get a summary of
your Units under construction, press F3 and open the War Front window.
Note: Ideally, you should wait until they have completed their
training (i.e., health and cohesion is at 100%) before ordering them in
harm’s way. You can move then in passive mode toward their destination
though; they will continue to be completed (all soldiers and equipment
are considered present, but the troops are still very green). Note that
when a Unit can be moved you get a message in the Message Panel.
Build Duration
The build duration is indicated in the tooltip when you hover
over the Unit under construction. This is the time in days needed
for a Unit to reach its full Strength and Cohesion and depends on
Unit type (as well as National Morale which influences it). Within
the Unit, the various elements will achieve 100% health at their own
construction speed (in essence the time indicated for the whole Unit
is the time of the element which takes the longest to build/recruit).
Example: Militia are low-quality troops best for garrison duty or
defending fortified positions but have a fast build rate, while ships,
planes or artillery takes quite a while longer to complete .
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the time indicated is
the time needed to
‘unlock’ the unit, but
you should probably
wait some days or
be prudent with it
until it reaches 100%
Figure 27: The 7th Scottish Div. will be ready in 57 days
Gameplay: Army organization
and troop roles
The game parallels history in representing the importance of
combined arms to victory– infantry, artillery, cavalry, air support,
tanks (late in the war) and supporting specialized support troops all
have their role to play. Infantry normally make up the entire front
line in battle and the reserves that can replace battered front-line
brigades. Artillery, particularly medium and heavy varieties, plays a
pivotal role in EAW, but both quantity and munitions are initially
limited. Cavalry is initially useful for screening and detecting enemy
strength, though air units will quickly become the prime source of
intelligence. The attributes of other more specialized troops provide
their own situational benefits.
For these reasons, field artillery is usually present at the Division
level for direct fire support of their own Division, while medium and
heavy artillery is either consolidated into a Corps combined unit,
or kept separate at the Army level. A single cavalry regiment per
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Stack (e.g., Corps) is sufficient for most purposes. Some infantry,
cavalry and artillery with the Army HQ can prove a useful reserve
to support its Corps – whether a high-quality or low-quality reserve
is best is a command decision. Leaders with abilities that apply to
an officer’s Stack even if he is not in command are very useful in
building strong formations.
Corps are the basic building blocks of Armies – 2 or 3 Corps
at 12 CP each plus some additional smaller Units selected for their
special attributes such as cavalry, artillery or engineers. Supply
Wagons slow the Armies down but provide important bonuses and
incur no CP cost, so one or more Supply Wagon Units are advisable.
Sometimes that extra Unit is worth the percentage penalty involved,
but ideally Armies and Corps structures and roles are thought out
well in advance to fit available CPs. Corps can also be used effectively
as independent units on the map, stacked with their support units
similar to Army stacks.
It is sometimes worthwhile to create multiple small independent
Stacks to avoid a large CP penalty, but this risks the separate forces
being defeated in detail by a concentrated enemy force.
Small raiding forces can be elusive and tie down many detachments
in garrisons of strategic points. They are best chased down with a mix
of flying columns (mounted troops and horse artillery with leaders
having relevant bonuses) and a network of garrisons to obstruct
enemy freedom of movement. Having the advantage of a railroad
for swift movement can be decisive in catching the enemy. Beware
of using unguarded Supply Wagons or Depots with these forces
roaming around.
Captured Units are usually remnants of artillery formations. These
Units can be useful support in fortified positions or for militia and
second-line Units. However, captured Units usually do not receive
replacements (a.k.a. “field repair”).
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Garrison troops are designed to defend a fixed position, so have 0
CP command cost but move extremely slowly, so effectively moving
them to more useful spots requires rail or waterborne transport.
Managing your Nation
Several key decisions are made at the nation or even alliance (Entente
or Central Powers) level. Here is an overview of different policies
along with explanations for those that are not described in other
chapters (such as “The War Economy”).
Unit Roster
This is a list of all your Units currently on the map. Check the
tooltips for sorting options.
Figure 28: Unit Roster – Here, a click on a unit’s symbol will close the
Strategic Atlas and center the map on this Unit.
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Technology & Research
The Great War saw a rapid
incorporation of new 20th
century technologies into the
armies of Europe. Keeping up
with technological advancements
will be important for maintaining
a competitive edge over your
Figure 19: The Diplomatic Boxes (right) are on the top-right of the main map.
Technological Centers
Technology is represented in the off-map
Research Area of the map, accessible by
clicking on the region of the mini-map in
the area indicated by the red circle below,
and navigating to the right of the Diplomacy
Regions. Here you will see a section for
Central Powers, Western Entente, and Eastern
Entente indicating the technology categories,
their current level (1-4, show in top right
of the technology icon), and the percentage
progress towards next level (0-100%, show in
bottom right of the technology icon).
Technology will increase gradually
over time. In addition, beginning in 1915,
funding can be immediately directed to
a certain technology category via the F6
Research screen (shown in figure below).
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For a cost in State Funds and Engagement Pts, progress can be
made immediately towards the technology being funded. It will
take 6-12 turns (3-6 months) before funding in the same category
can be applied again.
Figure 31: The Research Ministry view
Additionally, certain events can be played to give one-time
increases in a technology category (such as Fokker by the Central
Powers for a one-time Aviation Research bonus) to represent
historical advantages certain nations possessed.
Technological Decisions
A brief description of the Technology Categories follows (for further
detail, see the tool-tips in game on the technology counters in the
Research off-map regions):
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Infantry Research: Each infantry tech level will improve the
stats of line infantry models, gradually improving protection,
trench penetration, and firepower/assault values. At level 4,
assault troops/stormtroopers will become available, useful for
making breaches in heavy entrenchments.
Artillery Research: Each level of artillery tech will lead to
improvements in field artillery and/or medium/heavy artillery
pieces. Artillery is crucial for breaking through entrenchments and
softening up heavily defended enemy positions later in the war.
Aviation Research: Aviation research will improve the fighting
capabilities of air units, and at later levels improve the bombing
capabilities as well. Early planes are incapable of combat, and
maintaining an edge in this category is crucial for claiming the
skies (and in turn keeping tabs on enemy positions and strength).
Chemical Research: Chemical research levels will unlock
new forms of chemical warfare, ranging from early chlorine to
phosgene and mustard gas attacks. Once unlocked, each level
will grant Regional Decisions (RGD) which can be used against
enemy positions to weaken the enemy prior to an assault. The
very first time gas is used (of any type) it will have a much stronger
effect due to the surprise nature of the attack. Correspondingly,
each gas has a slight bonus the first 3 times it is used. Afterwards,
gas effects are somewhat muted (though still helpful). Therefore,
there is a great advantage towards researching and using this
technology before your opponent does.
Tank Research: Tanks can be very helpful disrupting enemy
trenches and weakening the enemy before the infanty move in.
Each level of tank research improves the models and statistics
of tanks being built.
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Note: Unlike other technologies, tank research does not progress
until 8/1/1915, and cannot be funded for extra gain prior to this
time either.
U-Boat Research (Central Powers only): U-Boat research
will increase the Force Pool availability of submarine units, as
well as improving submarine combat capabilities. Its primary
effect is increasing the raiding capability of submarines in the
Shipping Boxes. See the section on Submarine Warfare for
more details.
Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Research (Western
Entente only): ASW research will improve the screening
ability of Entente light warships in protecting convoys from
submarine warfare. See the section on Submarine Warfare for
more details.
Note: Unlike other technologies, ASW research cannot be funded
until 6/1/1915 (due to the Entente’s slowness in incorporating
ASW technologies, but it will progress slowly on its own prior
to this date).
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Political Options
Figure 32: Events which are locked appear on the F5 screen, while those whose
conditions are now enabled appear on the F4 screen (and can be invoked)
Various events can be played by each side, to represent historical
situations which occurred during the Great War. The F5 screen
shows options which are currently Locked (meaning they cannot
currently be played but may become available later). Hovering over
any of these options will give a description of the event, and under
which circumstances it unlocks. The F4 screen shows unlocked
options, and options can be invoked here by clicking on the event
image (once chosen, a stamped seal will appear in the bottom right
of the event to indicate it has been invoked). Pay careful attention to
the details of the events, as sometimes they carry a cost in addition
to the benefit they provide!
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Objectives Screen
This important screen should be closely monitored, as it indicates
who owns each Objective and how many VPs it is worth, as well as
your current number of VPs and how many you will gain this turn
from Strategic Cities and Objectives under your control.
It also shows the NM and victory/defeat thresholds of each side as
well as the number of turns remaining in the game.
Figure 33: All your objectives appear here
Regional Decisions &
Decision Mode
This mode uses an intuitive and simple card-based method of playing
Regional Decisions that enable the player to interact with the map and
get local benefits (such as Supply, Alignment, or State Funds), although
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often at a cost. Some Decisions might also be described as local military
actions, political measures, policies, stratagems, plots, or intrigues.
Decision Mode
To enter Decision Mode, just click on the middle round button located
on the top-left corner of the screen (the one showing Playing Cards)
or press the F12 button. This allows you to make Regional Decisions.
Click on a Decision. Regions where the Decision may be played
are displayed in green color (in fact the logic is the same as in the
construction mode).
Figure 34: A lot of Regional Decision cards can be played
The different Decisions available are listed in Appendix G below.
Note that to have an effect:
Almost all Regional Decisions require at least a level 1 town in the
region, and most have some ownership or Alignment requirements.
All Decisions but those linked to sieges require that you have
military control of the region. Siege related decisions require that
you are besieging an enemy-controlled city.
Most decisions take effect on the turn following play. However,
some effects occur for a certain amount of time, and you can only take
a Decision a limited number of times as indicated in the interface.
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The effect of the Decision will be applied at the end of the period
unless it specifies otherwise (which means you normally need to have
majority military control of the region for the whole period).
Design Note: Not all Decisions are accessible to all sides at all
times. Some may only become available after events.
Liege Forts bombarded - 1914 (a Decision is used in the game for this)
Combat in the Field
Combat happens when two enemy Stacks meet and at least one of
them is in Offensive or Assault Posture and has detected the other. It
ranges from minor skirmishes involving few Units for a limited time
to full-scale battles lasting more than one day.
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Figure 35: When battle starts, the battle gauge opens and shows the forces
involved and balance.
Engaging in Combat
Combat is resolved in a series of one hour rounds between engaged
troops at regimental or brigade level. Not all elements of a Stack will
necessarily participate from the beginning: different bodies of troops
will join the fray at different times, especially in large battles. Each
hour, a test is made to see which Units reach the battlefield.
Unengaged troops that are not moving, or are in Offensive or
Assault posture, tend to join first, though others may join if targeted.
For example, if your Offensive Forces are overcome and your
Defensive Forces are targeted, they will join in (a Defensive Forces
that joins in brings all other Defensive Forces in with it).
Elements fighting are organized in two lines – line troops
(infantry and cavalry) in the front line, and support troops (artillery
and non-combat Units such as supply wagons) in the second line. An
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element’s special abilities apply to its Unit even if the element itself
is not engaged in a particular round of combat.
It is important to understand that Units do not dissipate their fire
over the whole enemy force. Elements belonging to a single Unit
always target elements of a single enemy Unit, favoring weightier
targets. Artillery elements always target the eligible enemy elements
on the field with the most hits remaining. This means large Units
concentrate more fire on their target, and are able to absorb more
damage from the enemy.
Battle Planner
The new Battle Planner interface give the player the opportunity to
select a Deployment and a Battle Plan just before a battle starts, but only
in the Single Player game (currently not available in Multiplayer games).
Figure 36: A battle planner window which opens just before a battle is started
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When the conditions are met to trigger a new battle, the player
will see a new window with all the information about the upcoming
battle, including the commanders of each side, the estimated power
(PWR) of the forces in the region, the weather, and obviously the
region where the action is happening.
Based on all that information, the player can select a Deployment
and then one of the associated Battle Plans. These Battle Plans can
grant you different bonuses to try to turn the battle in your favor if
they succeed, but they can also fail or be countered by the AI Battle
If the player’s Commander is good enough, he may be able to see
the Deployment selected by the AI and also the possible Battle Plans
that she may choose… but he will not know exactly which Battle Plan
will be played, so it will be the player’s decision to guess wisely the
possible Battle Plan of the AI.
After all is set, the player can now start the battle and see how the
action unrolls. When the battle is finished, the player will be able to
see the results of his decisions on the Battle Report window.
It’s possible to disable entirely the battle planner in the Options
Window, Main Menu.
Marching to the Sound
of the Guns
Depending on the situation, an Army or GHQ engaged in combat
may decide to call for reinforcements. If it does, Armies attached
to that same GHQ (Army Group) located in adjacent regions may
answer the call and join the fight if they pass a check. This check
takes into account distance, the level of Military Control in both
regions and the Strategic Rating of the reinforcing Army leader.
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Army GHQs also have a greater chance to reinforce a battle and
get reinforcements themselves. You can then use the Army GHQ
as a sort of reserve, to pack some punch in case of need. Reinforcing
Armies will return to their original region after the battle.
Withdrawal is an orderly retreat putting distance between opposing
forces with minimal risk to the withdrawing force. A Rout, on the
other hand, is an unordered disorganized flight for safety due to
an overall collapse of troop morale. Before each round, each side
checks to see if it will attempt to withdraw. An exception is Units
attacking in an amphibious assault as these must fight to the last man
because they cannot retreat. The decision to withdraw is based on
relative strength, leader aggressiveness (i.e., Offensive Rating) and
the presence of fortifications. A Stack that decides to withdraw will
automatically change its posture to Passive for the rest of the turn.
Stacks attempting to withdraw must now make a check: the chance
to successfully withdraw increases each round and is influenced by
Stack size, “Evade Combat” Special Order, commanding leader’s
Strategic Rating, and the presence of cavalry (on both sides). Units
which successfully set an ambush and Units commanded by leaders
with the “Skirmisher” Special Ability also have a much higher chance
to break contact with the enemy should they decide to try.
If the attempt fails, the Stack fights one more round with a slight
penalty and renews its attempt on the next round. If the attempt
succeeds, the Stack withdraws.
If there is a non-besieged structure in the region and the Stack
has the “Enter Structure” Special Order, it will withdraw into the
structure; otherwise it will withdraw to an adjacent region under
friendly Military Control. Depending on the level of enemy Military
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Control in the region chosen for withdrawal, the Stack may be forced
into another battle by the pursuing enemy.
A surrounded Stack (i.e. all adjacent regions are 95% or more
enemy controlled) will keep on fighting instead of withdrawing.
Units that retreat or rout may be subject to losses from enemy
pursuit. Cavalry and terrain are important factors in pursuit.
Depending on a region’s terrain, the maximum number of sub-units
that can deploy and fight in a battle will vary. Elements unable to
deploy will be held in reserve and relieve weakened troops in the
frontline during the battle.
Note: Fighting in terrain with limited frontage is well suited to delaying
tactics. A veteran defending Stack in such terrain may even force the enemy
to break and cancel his assault despite a large numerical advantage.
The frontage space occupied by an element depends inversely on
its maneuverability in this type of terrain.
Example: On the one hand, regular Units are quite slow and
unwieldy in mountain terrain and take up much frontage space in such
terrain as a consequence. Partisans, on the other hand, are much faster
and more agile in mountains and take up less frontage space. This
means you could engage the enemy with many more Partisans than
regular Units in this particular case.
Combat Range
The initial range of a battle depends on local weather and terrain.
Range will then decrease every round as troops close the distance.
Range will determine which elements are able to fire in each round.
Close range combat can be very bloody.
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As a rule, medium and heavy artillery have a longer range than
field artillery and infantry, so artillery hits (and consecutive cohesion
loss) will be applied first.
Note: Take on a strong artillery position with slow-moving infantry
in open terrain at your own risk!
Fire Combat
High initiative provides big benefits in combat as it is the biggest factor
in determining who fires first each round. Elements will fire a number
of times depending on their rate of fire (with a minimum of one).
Out of Command Chain status (see p. 38) and lack of Command
Points (see p. 39) penalizes elements in terms of initiative, rate of fire,
and chance to hit.
Successful firing depends on an element’s Offensive Fire Value (if
the Stack is in Offensive Posture) or Defensive Fire Value (if the Stack
is in Defensive Posture) and is influenced by the following:
• Unit’s Discipline Rating
• Unit’s Experience Level
• Leader Offensive Fire/Defensive Fire Rating, as appropriate
• Cover of target Unit provided by terrain or fortifications
• Weather
• Leader Special Abilities
• Command Penalties (Out of Command Chain status and/or
lack of CP)
• Lack of Ammunition and/or General Supply
• Friendly Supply Wagon present (+10%)
• River crossing/Amphibious landing
• Forced March
• Failed withdrawal/Passive Posture
• Trench Level above five (for artillery only)
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Infantry and cavalry that score a hit inflict usually one Strength point
loss. Artillery causes one or two losses and “heavy” Units (siege artillery,
ships) can even sometimes cause three losses or more (check details in
the element details window accessed through the Inspection Panel).
An element that suffers losses equal to its Strength Value is
eliminated. However, it will usually rout and flee the battlefield
before this happens (mostly because of cohesion loss being faster,
therefore entailing rout – see Morale below). Severe losses will also
affect an element’s chance to break under fire (see below).
Unit Morale
On the one hand, every hour each sub-unit must check its Discipline
unless it is intact (i.e., did not take any losses so far during the battle).
If the test fails, the Unit becomes shaken and has its rate of fire
decreased for the current round.
On the other hand, an element that is hit during fire combat must make
a check based on its current Cohesion level with the following modifiers:
• Militia and Volunteers fighting in their own Area of origin.
• Trench Level (capped at Level 4)
• Loss level of element
• Fighting in a Symbolic Objective (one of the capitals, for example)
If it loses this check, it is routed off the field and no longer participates
in the battle. In addition, when the number of routed Units becomes
too large, the whole Stack becomes routed, withdrawing in flight and
suffering increased losses to pursuit.
Melee Combat
If the range ever reaches 0, melee combat ensues. Support sub-units
(such as artillery) do not participate in melee.
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This close-quarters combat is similar to fire combat, but a subunit’s Assault Value is used instead of its Offensive/Defensive Fire
Value. Discipline, Cohesion and superior quality each play a key
role. Both sides deal damage simultaneously and losses can be quite
devastating at such a short range.
Play Note: Highly trained Units and some special Units are more
effective in close quarters.
Battle Aftermath
The side that withdraws is the loser of the battle, without regard
to losses. A battle may end as a draw if neither side withdrew. The
winner will pursue the retreating forces and inflict casualties in the
process. These losses are much greater if the loser routed instead of
executing an orderly withdrawal.
Figure 37: A battle Report window which opens just before after a battle is
completed, with detailed info on what happened
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Battle reports start on a first page summarizing the battle results
and a click-through to the second and later pages that provide
round-by-round and unit-by-unit combat details.
A picture of the most senior commander involved appears in the
upper corner on the first page, with his name and Strategic-OffenseDefense rating and the strength of his forces. He may not have
started the battle in the same region, having marched to the sound of
the guns. Other participating named commanders are shown in the
display, unit by unit, and the condition of each Unit is shown at the
start and after each round of combat.
Going into details: It’s possible to see more details about the
current round by hovering the mouse over the heart or cohesion
symbol nearby the top commander (topmost tooltip, as seen in the
screenshot). For a given unit, it’s even possible to see how it fared
during the round, again by mousing over the heart or cohesion
symbol in this unit’s line (lower tooltip shown in the above
Impact of Battle
A battle will influence VPs, NM, and Leader Seniority as follows:
• The winner gains VPs for losses inflicted on the enemy. The
loser does not gain any.
• The winner gains NM depending on the losses inflicted. The
loser’s NM decreases correspondingly.
• Leaders with a good loss ratio (i.e. who inflicted more losses
than they received, even if they lost and retreated) gain Seniority
while their opponent loses some.
Troops also gain Experience by participating in battles (even if
they lost). Leaders must make a check based on their Rank to see
if they were wounded or killed in action. A 1 star leader is the most
vulnerable while 3 star leaders and above are immune. In addition,
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winning leaders gain Experience, progressively increasing their
attributes and even sometimes getting new Special Abilities. Leaders
on the losing side suffer from a slight reduction in attributes.
Naval Combat
Battles between Fleets are handled similarly to land battles with a
few minor twists (no frontage, etc.). Withdrawing Fleets will move
to an adjacent sea region/river section. Remember to return damaged
ships to port for repairs, as they cannot recover hits while at sea.
Naval Battle Resolution and
Overall, the naval combat procedure and resolution is using the same
engine as the land battles. Obviously, there will be more firing steps
and less assaults (considered as Torpedoing range for naval battles).
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Figure 37: The British West Indies Fleet led by Admiral Rosslyn E. Wemyss is
on station to protect allied shipping from German corsair cruisers in the South
Atlantic, early August 1914.
The VP and Experience gains or loss work the same way
Important Note: don’t lose heavy warships (Dreadnoughts and
Battle cruisers) in a Battle because they cost a fortune in Moral losses.
The concept of Fleet in Being is an important one to master for weaker
naval powers. Do not hesitate to talk with our friendly and veterans
players in our forum at Ageod.com/forums about these concepts!
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Air Warfare
The game represents air forces via squadrons attached to an air base.
This air base is a land unit consisting of all the staff necessary for the
maintenance of the planes.
The air missions are implicitly made, if the air base is capable
of operating its planes. There is therefore no specific order to give
during your turn, but it is up to you to position your air bases in
places adequate to the air missions, or to remove them from the
front-line if your squadrons need to rest and receive replacements.
An air base unit will not perform missions if in Passive posture
though and will get priority for replacements.
Air Missions Type
There is three types of possible missions for your air squadrons:
• Reconnaissance
• Air Combat and Interception (dogfighting)
• Bombardment
Mission restriction
Air fight only occurs as an interception of one of the two other
missions types and never for another reason. Bombardment only
occurs in support of a land battle.
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represented by a single
element, consists for
simplicity sake of a
single type of aircraft.
These are generally
capable of fulfilling at
best one of the mission
type but they can provide support in a secondary
role. For example if fighter participate in a bombardment mission,
they will strafe enemy columns with their machine-guns; if they
participate in a reconnaissance mission, they will bring a slight bonus
to its chances of success. Mission range can be up to 3 regions away,
but in 1914 no airplane will reach this range, you’ll need to improve
their technology with research.
It is unnecessary, even foolhardy, to stack your Air unit directly
in the region a battle is occurring, although if your land units are
attacked, planes in the same region will provide some support in
the battle. Similarly, planes can intercept enemy planes performing
missions in any adjacent regions to your air base and up to 3 regions
away, depending of the plane.
If there is at least one air unit (air base) in a region capable of some
operations, then an airfield icon will be displayed. If you pass the
mouse over said icon, then you’ll get the list of planes there. If the
airfield is an enemy one, the plane count will be less detailed.
Air reconnaissance mission
They will automatically be performed from a
region containing an airbase, each game turn,
if planes are not grounded (by the weather).
Air reconnaissance will generally target a
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neighboring region which contains enemy forces, and which has not
been the subject of a previous reconnaissance mission this turn.
The more planes available for the reconnaissance mission, the higher
the chances of success. In case of success, a bonus of one (1) will be
given for the detection rolls (of the enemy units) during a turn. In case
of major success, the bonus will be two (2). The air base will usually
launch a mission toward an enemy region in range (up to 3 regions,
depending of the plane) which has strong forces. These missions can
even lift fog of war in regions where you had 0 intelligence!
Bombardment Missions
They work slightly differently: First of all it requires that a battle is
taking place in the region within range of your planes. If a support
action is launched, then every bombers squadron (and to a much
lesser degree, every fighter squadron in escort) will have a small
chance to inflict some disorganization on a randomly chosen enemy
unit, and a very small chance to inflict significant losses in men.
Do not expect any miracle, however; the
Great War period was not the mother of
blitzkrieg or strategic carpet bombing, although
in the end years, with lot of planes, significant
cohesion damages can at least be achieved.
Escort and Interceptions
Finally, escort or interception missions are will only happen if a
mission of either other types is actually taking place.
In case of escort, fighters will be scrambled
to escort the other planes.
In case of interception, a number of fighters
will be launched (capped to a very high value;
approximately ~15 squadrons!) no matter the
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strength importance of the opposite side (Being outnumbered rarely
dissuaded the defending pilots to stay on the ground).
Air Mission Points
Each aircraft squadron has a number of mission points per round.
This number depends on the pilots’ fatigue and condition of their
equipment, which are both abstractly represented by the cohesion
value of the squadron unit. These points are also reduced in the event
of bad weather (and become nil in case of snowstorm). In addition,
some regions do not allow aircraft to take off, regardless of other
factors (mountain for example).
The ‘airbase’ unit is representing the aircraft, personnel and
equipment. This will be indicated visually via an icon of a plane that
can take off in a region with an active airbase. You should see one such
icon in every region you have an aircraft unit. Also note that giving the
air base a passive posture will always keep your aircraft on the ground.
A squadron will spend between one and three points for each
mission task it performs (A squadron generally has a theoretical
maximum between 6 and 9, but only in good weather, with well
rested pilots, and aircraft in good condition!). The base mission
cost is one point, with an extra point if the mission is not in your
region and 1 other point if the weather is bad (so the mission cost is
between 1 and 3 in the end). This benefits planes defending a region,
as they can make more sorties above it. To summarize, in case of bad
weather, at best you can make one offensive mission...
Air-to-air Combat
An air-to-air combat happens when fighters are sent on an interception
mission against enemy planes. In this case the game divides the
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opposing aircrafts by combat fitness, assuming that the least adequate
planes to fight are the planes to protect most. Each plane, then, has a
small probability of hitting a hostile aircraft during duels. If a squadron
has more aircraft than another, the fight will not happen by putting two
planes against one in some duels, but by adding a bonus for the 2nd
plane in some of the pair, before resolving the duel.
After several rounds (3 to 6) the battle ends even if there are
still planes in each camp. Regarding the actual combat mechanics,
remember that the aircraft initiative value is as important as
its firepower value. There is also a significant bonus for having
experienced pilots. When the experience level is 4 or more, the
Figure 38: A medium-sized dogfight battle over Metz between French and
German aircrafts. As seen, the German planes managed to abort all French
planes, thus effectively cancelling their mission, even if no enemy squadron
was fully destroyed.
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experience bonus is raised even further, as it describes squadrons
which have ‘Aces’ amongst their pilots. Aces – by their very large
bonuses and because the combat model promotes quality rather
than quantity (the surpluses planes are giving a bonus but do not
fight at 100% of their value, in fact) - are the masters of the skies,
and may shoot down more aircraft without receiving hits. However,
remember even them are not immortal; you will certainly experience
it during the conflict.
Once this air battle phase is resolved, all planes that have been hit
return back to base, while the planes that are intact carry on with
their objective and accomplish the mission. In the combat report
window, you’ll see the initial aircraft for each camp, the number
of aircraft after the air fight, and the number of aircraft that have
completed their mission on the target.
Each squadron icon has a tool-tip telling you what it did during
the battle. Summary icons are also present at the bottom of the air
phase panel.
Air Advices
Remember that your air units represent both aircraft, pilots, ground
staff and maintenance equipment. This means that you can move
your air units by train or, more slowly, by wheeled carts or trucks
(they would then move like a land unit, but with a speed penalty).
Air units can redeploy much better than others units though, with
the special order ‘Redeploy’. They are entitled to redeploy over the
whole theater they are in. Typically you can redeploy fighters in the
United Kingdom into France.
Although a structure is not necessary for air operations, air
squadrons will recover cohesion and replacements faster if on a
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The planes are fragile, and quickly destroyed or damaged, so
do not hesitate to switch the air unit posture to passive or even to
withdraw it completely to the rear, to give time for your pilots and
equipment to recover. Don’t forget to buy replacements for them!
The basic concept of air units in EAW, is that your planes will
operate automatically if an opportunity arises within their range.
They are easier to use in defense than in attack, but the period saw
aircraft with a very limited range, and the military concept of the
Blitzkrieg had yet to be invented. So, if you nevertheless want to use
you air units in an offensive, do not risk them by moving them with
the army you are committing to storm a region; rather, prepare your
offensive against a strong opposition by setting a depot first in an
adjacent region, and then move to go to battle, leaving your air unit
(and a small protection/reserve force) behind. This will ensure, first
that your attacking units are well supplied for the combat, and then,
that the air units will help from a distance.
Don’t discount the detection bonus the aircrafts can give with their
reconnaissance missions also. Although be prepared to see air battles
if the enemy has enemy fighters. In the early period, with limited range
and few sorties per turn, air battles will be much rarer though.
Zeppelins gameplay
Zeppelins are an exclusive German airship unit.
They can perform 2 types of missions, by playing
decisions cards representing their actions.
Bomb London
This decision asks for at least 2 Zeppelins elements at most 6
regions away from London. You can’t play the decision if the
British player has a currently active ‘Fighters Patrol’ decision.
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When played, this decision will remove 1 national morale from
the British player and will weaken (or even destroy entirely) 1 to 2
Zeppelins elements stationed on the Western Front.
Zeppelin Naval Reconnaissance
Works similarly to the bomb decisions, except it can
target any sea region. One Zeppelin must be within 6
regions of the target. It will reduce by 2 points the hide
value of ships in the region. Some minor attrition will be
taken as in the Bomb London mission, but much less severe.
Both missions award experience to the Zeppelins (3 and 1 xp
respectively). This is mostly for flavour though.
Receiving Zeppelins Decisions
Decisions are received four times per
year with an event that will check how
many Zeppelins in good shape are on the
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Western Front. This implies that the
German player lets his Zeppelins
rest (to restore cohesion), buy
Zeppelins replacements (to repair
hits) or even build entirely new
The more he has on map, the
more decisions he receives (from
0 to 3 for Bombs, from 0 to 5 for
Recon, four times a year).
British Fighters patrols
British player can buy decisions allowing the total
protection of London (‘Fighters Patrol’). It is assumed
that the regular Zeppelins losses are coming from fighters
and flak in the area, so here we are speaking of a special,
major effort from Britain, and thus the decision.
These decisions are given regularly during the course of play,
depending on how many fighters planes in good shape are nearby (2
regions away at most) of London.
Siege Combat
Sieges can happen when one or more Stacks defend in a permanent
fortification, a City, or a Depot. Two values - one for each side - are
randomly generated to resolve the siege. Various bonuses are also
added and these are indicated below:
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Besieging side:
• Artillery combat factors
• Leader with the “Engineer”, “Siege Artillery” or “Siege Expert”
Special Ability (may not accumulate)
• Breach achieved (see below)
• Defender lacks General Supply
Besieged side:
• Artillery combat factors
• Leader with the “Engineer”, “Siege Artillery” or “Fort Defender”
Special Ability (may not accumulate)
• Fort Level
The difference between these two values, called the Siege Roll Value
(SRV), indicates the result (effects are cumulative)
• SRV > defending Units’ average discipline:
Defender surrenders and all Units are eliminated unless the
defending Stack includes a Supply Wagon that is not empty, in
which case the result is ignored
• SRV >= 3:
A breach is made. The siege icon
will change to indicate
a breach is in progress or achieved
. Cities and pre-war
Forts are breached after a single breach result while permanent
Fortifications require two breach results to be fully breached.
• SRV > 0:
5 hits are inflicted on the defenders for each point of SRV
• SRV < 0:
The defender has managed to repair a breach
Besieged Units may only recover hits if they are in a nonblockaded port.
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Storming a Structure
A Stack in Assault Posture will try to storm the structure instead
of besieging it. The procedure is the same as in regular combat
except that the defender enjoys a combat bonus. Frontage is quite
limited in such combat, especially in Forts. Defenders in a Depot
or Native village don’t get any defensive benefit except limited
frontage. Entrenchment bonuses still apply in a City/Town/
Village etc.
Note: It is usually advised to defend outside in the surrounding
terrain rather in a Depot or City. Other than running out of supplies,
artillery and not manpower is the biggest factor in deciding sieges.
Therefore it is usually unwise to pen up a field army uselessly in defenses.
A full understanding of combat frontages suggests which approach is
preferable given the opposing forces.
Losses &
Each basic Unit is made up of sub-units called elements (regiments,
batteries, squadrons and individual ships). Combat is calculated, and
then losses from battle, damage, attrition, or lack of maintenance are
taken as “hits” by these discrete elements (indicated by a number of
red heart symbols in the battle report and men icons in the element
details window accessed from the Inspection Panel. Each element is
destroyed when all its “hits” are used up.
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As long as an element is not totally destroyed, it may recover hits
by filling its ranks with replacements drawn from the replacement
pool during the Hosting Phase (see p. 12) if the element didn’t
move during a turn. This is in addition to recovering Cohesion. If
you choose the Historical Attrition setting, land Units must be in a
friendly Depot to receive replacements.
The replacement rate per turn, as a percentage of an element’s full
complement (inside a Unit), is:
• Base recovery rate for land Units: 5%
• Depot: 20%
• City: 10%
• Fort: 10%
• Naval Unit: 5%/port level
Replacements are not required for maintenance, but you will
need to have replacements of the appropriate type available in
your pool to recover hits. The number of replacements used up
in the process depends on the number of hits recovered and a
random factor. As a rule of thumb, one replacement element can
replace exactly one lost element or be expected to replace an
element’s worth of hits lost (with a chance of being consumed
for each hit replaced)
Units under siege are unable to recover hits unless located in a city
with a non-blockaded port.
Important! Make sure you always have some replacements in your
pool, because Units don’t recover any hits if the appropriate replacements
are unavailable.
If an element is completely destroyed, the parent Unit will need to
draw a full replacement element from the Replacement Pool. This is
limited to a single replacement per turn for each Unit.
Procedure: Press F3 or go to the Replacements page of the Strategic Atlas to
check available replacements in each category. The top number is the number
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of hits that need to be
replaced. The first number
below represents currently
shows how many have
been ordered this turn.
remember Figure 38: The Entente replacement pool as can
be seen inside the War Front (shortcut: F3)
you can also recover hits
by merging similar Units that also incurred losses.
Example: If a division had lost an entire infantry brigade element,
you could merge an individual infantry brigade Unit into the division.
Similarly, if a division lost one infantry brigade and one artillery
regiment element, and you had a division which had lost all its
elements except one infantry brigade, you could merge these two Units
into a single Unit with a full complement.
Note: A Unit absorbed into another one to replace losses is removed
from the game and its elements cannot be separated from the merged Unit.
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Glossary & Abbreviations
Aide de Camp: A non-GHQ commander leader with a
Strategic Rating of 4+ who is in an GHQ Stack. He provides a
bonus to the Stack.
Central Powers: the alliance between Germany and AustriaHungary (also Italy but it defected in 1914, and Ottoman
Empire who joined in late 1914, and Bulgaria who joined in
Element: These are the usually brigade-size building blocks
of Units. They have their own attributes but cannot be
manipulated except through their Unit.
Independent Stack/Unit: Any Stack or Unit that is not part of
an Army. They suffer a 50% CP penalty.
NM: National Morale. A measure of your side’s will to fight, or
willingness to surrender if sufficiently depressed.
Stack: A collection of land or naval Unit(s) moving and fighting
together as a single force and represented by a Stack counter.
You issue orders to Stacks.
Unit: The smallest force you can manipulate in the game, made
of 1 to 18 elements. Leaders are a special kind of Unit.
Entente: alos known as the Allies. France and Russia initially,
with Great-Britain joining early. Minor nation like Belgium
or Serbia also de facto joined. Major nations like Japan, Italy
or USA participated later, even if not technically members of
the Entente. In the game, we divided the Entente in two: the
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Western one, and the Eastern One, in order to better represent
coordination issues within the alliance.
VP: Victory Point
Supply: Both General Supply and Ammunition.
Symbolic Objective: Shown by a star after the city name, this
objective motivates its defenders.
“Large Force” – Stack consists of 13+ CP worth of Units or 13+
“Small Force” – Stack consists of 4 or less CP and 4 Units or
Shortcut Keys
Mouse wheel: Zoom in/Zoom out
Click on mouse wheel: Alternate between maximum and minimum
zoom levels
End: Same
Page Up: Zoom in
Page Down: Zoom out
Manipulating Stacks
Left-click: Select a Stack
Right-click: Unselect (and returns to messages display)
[Ctrl]+click: Cycle through the various region Stacks.
Drag & drop on another region: Move
Drag & drop on same region: Cancel whole move (exception: if
[Shift] is pressed it allows circular trips)
Drag & drop on another Stack: Either intercept an enemy or merge
with a friendly Stack
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Drag & drop on city, port: Enter the structure
Drag & drop on a tab: Merge with this Stack
Del: Cancel the last leg of the movement path of an Army or Fleet
C: Center map on selected Stack
[Shift] When a GHQ Stack is selected: See the GHQ Command
[Shift] When a (non-Army) Stack is selected: See the nearby regions
and nature of the movement links to them.
E/R: Cycle through land Stacks. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to skip
Units who are not moving.
T/Y: Cycle through naval Stacks. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to skip
Units who are not moving.
S (sentry): Selected Stack will be skipped when cycling with keys
[Ctrl] +S: Remove all “sentry” orders
[Ctrl] + L: Lock/unlock all Stacks (prevents a Stack drop onto
another Stack from merging)
Right-click on a tab: Lock/unlock this Stack against merging. A
padlock icon shows locked status.
Alt-click on a tab: Backspace to erase and type to enter a new tab
Keys 1 – 9: Switch Map Filter
List of Forces
War Production
Options (Unlocked)
Options (Locked)
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Strategic Map
Scenario Background
In the Unit Panel:
Ctrl-click: Select/unselect multiple Units
Mouse wheel scroll: Move through the list of Units
Select Unit(s) then drag & drop on the map: Create a new Army/
Fleet. This is used for disembarking in a coastal region without a
friendly port, for example.
A, O, D, P: Change the Stack to the corresponding posture
Operational Orders (if applicable)
Shift+T: Enter Town upon reaching destination
Shift+F: Build Fort
Shift+D: Build Depot
Shift+S: Sortie from structure
Shift+M: Forced March
Shift+A: Set an Ambush
Shift+R: Raze Fort
Shift+B: Burn Structure (land Units)
Shift+B: Bombard (naval Units)
[Ctrl] +C: When several Units are selected, combine them.
[Ctrl] +D: Detach the Unit if it consists of several Units.
Messages Log:
Simple-click: Go to region where event occurred (if relevant)
Double-click: Display messages content (if message is red) and
opens specific message window
Mouse wheel scroll: To scroll up and down the message list
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Esc: Close the window
Saved Games:
When you move the mouse over a saved game on the load game
screen, you can either back up one turn (Home), rename it (insert
key) or delete it (delete key).
City Icons
Below is a general description of some of the icons you might
encounter when viewing cities on the map. This list is not intended
to be comprehensive but is intended to give the player a general idea.
Fort (level #1)
City (Western Europe)
Fortified City
City (Russia)
Fortified City
City (Northern Europe)
Fortified City
Fort (level #2)
City (Southern Europe)
Fortified City City (Middle-East)
Fortified City
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Ammo Depot Supply Depot (inside city) Depot (outside city)
Naval Base
Fortified Line
(without and with air units)
Minor cities or settlements
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NATO Symbols
Admiral (one or more symbols)
Artillery, Coastal
Artillery, Field
Artillery, Heavy
Artillery, Horse
Artillery, Light
Artillery, Siege
Cavalry, Divisional
Cavalry, Heavy
Cavalry, Light
General (one or more symbols)
General/Cavalry Mixed (one or more symbols)
General/Infantry Mixed (one or more symbols)
Infantry, Divisional
Infantry, Heavy
Infantry, Light
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Militia (various states)
Naval Engineers
Special Ability Icon Definition
EAW includes more than 70 special abilities. Hovering your mouse
over a Special Ability’s icon will also display a tooltip with useful
information. A list is provided below:
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Picture Description
Discipline bonus of 1, Cohesion bonus of 10 to all Militia in the Stack.
25% combat bonus for all cavalry Units in the Stack if in clear, prairie or desert
20% combat bonus for all artillery Units in the Stack.
10% defensive fire bonus and 1 extra protection when the Stack is already
10% defensive fire bonus and 1 extra protection for the Unit this element is in,
if already entrenched.
30% combat bonus and 2 extra protection to all Irregular Units in the Stack.
Applies only in difficult terrain.
This Unit possesses Sharpshooters that impede enemy reaction. +1 Initiative
bonus in battle to the whole Unit.
Fast Mover
If the commander, 15% move bonus to the whole Stack.
Very Fast Mover
If the commander, 25% move bonus to the whole Stack.
Very Fast
If the commander, 25% move bonus to all cavalry in the Stack.
Very Fast Raider
If the commander, 25% move bonus to all Irregulars in the Stack.
Slow Mover
If the commander, 25% move penalty to the whole Stack.
25% move bonus to the whole Stack in wild areas.
Provides a 50% speed bonus to the whole Stack when crossing rivers.
If the commander, provides a 25% move bonus to the whole Fleet.
Supply Ranger
15% reduction in General Supply consumption to the whole Stack in wild
Master Logistician
If the commander, 25% reduction on the whole Stack General Supply
This element or commander reduces by 25% the chances that a Unit pillages
a region when foraging (i.e. when General Supply is lacking).
Expert Forager
This element or commander reduces by 50% the chances that a Unit pillages
a region when foraging (i.e. when General Supply is lacking).
Siege Expert
Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Stack when attacking Forts.
Fort Defender
Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Stack when defending in a Fort.
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Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Stack when defending or
attacking Forts.
If the commander, 50% bonus to Irregulars’ chance to ambush in non-clear
If the commander, 20% chance of surprising the enemy (first fire).
If the commander, allows an easier retreat in the first two hours of the battle.
Adept Raider
If the commander, allows a 85% chance of retreat at any round of battle, if
overwhelmed. Applies only to Stacks needing 4 or fewer command points.
If the commander, will have difficulty retreating on the first two hours of the
If the commander, won’t be able to order a retreat during the first two hours
of the battle.
(Various symbols): Can lead troops of several nations without penalties.
Gives a 25% bonus to the raise of Partisans and volunteers in the State where
he is present.
Recruiting Officer
Can muster new Conscripts on a regular basis in cities of Level 5+. Must be
in the city to do so.
Training Officer
If the commander, will train up to two regiments of Conscripts to regular
soldier every turn.
Training Master
Provides 1 experience point every turn to all the troops in the Stack by drilling
Master Spy
If the commander, improves the detection of enemy Units (except Irregulars)
within the Front.
Poor Spy Network
If the commander, erroneous reports received which worsen the detection of
enemy Units (except Irregulars) within the Front.
Large Transport
This Unit has a transport capacity of 10.
Medium Transport
This Unit has a transport capacity of 5.
This Unit has a transport capacity of 3.
Small Transport
This Unit has a transport capacity of 2.
Tiny Transport
This Unit has a transport capacity of 1.
This leader has a charismatic aura. If the commander, provides +5 maximum
Cohesion and a +25% increase in the fatigue recovery rate of Units under his
Good Army
The leader is appreciated by his men and cares about their well-being. If the
commander, provides a +15% increase in the fatigue recovery rate of Units
under his command.
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Dispirited Leader
This commander is absolutely not charismatic in the eyes of his men or is a
defeatist. -5 Maximum Cohesion to the Stack if the commander, -25% to the
Cohesion recovery rate.
HQ Command
Because of an efficient command structure, Divisions HQs are able to give +5
Maximum Cohesion and +5% to the Cohesion Recovery Rate, to all divisional
Strong Morale
This element is either composed of highly motivated, battle-hardened
individuals or is a leader capable of inspiring his men. The inspiration provided
gives a +5 Maximum Cohesion bonus to all others elements of the Unit.
Medical Service
This element is a Medical Service company, able to provide health care even
on the battlefield. Give +15% to the Cohesion Recovery rate of all others
elements of the Stack they are in.
Hated Occupier
This leader will apply Martial Law with extreme severity in any rebellious city
he has to pacify.
This leader will not hesitate to proclaim Martial Law in any rebellious city he
has to administer.
Good Population
If the most senior General in the region, will progressively increase the
Alignment of the population over time. (+1% each turn up to 75%)
If the most senior commander in the region, this leader will let his men burn
and pillage the countryside without regards for justice, slaughtering civilians
if need be. Only the most loyal and policed regions will be spared by his cruel
If the Commander in Chief in the Front, provides +1 Command Point and an
additional +1 per ability level, to his Stack and all subordinates Corps.
Good Commander
If in command provides +1 Command Point per ability level. (If in command of
an Army, subordinates Corps also receive this bonus)
This general is gifted for command. +2 Command Points and +1 additional
CP per ability level above 1, to any Stack he commands. (If in command of an
Army, subordinates Corps also receive this bonus)
This general knows how to pick his subordinates and is able to delegate
command at the right moment. +3 Command Points to any Stacks he
commands. This ability does not improve.
Quickly Angered
This general is quickly angered and is often having arguments with his
subordinates. -4 Command Points to the Stack he commands and to
subordinates Corps if any.
Over Cautious
This commander is far too cautious when it comes to engaging the enemy,
resulting in passivity and a lack of reactivity in the Chain of Command of his
Army. -4 CP if the commander of the Stack (applied to subordinate Corps if in
command of an Army)
This signal Unit is of great use to an able commander for transmitting orders
along the chain of command. +2 Command Points to the Stack it is in. This
ability does not improve.
This Balloon Unit is of great use to an able commander for spotting the enemy
and coordinating movements between his regiments. +1 Command Points to
the Stack it is in. This ability does not improve.
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This element or general is adept at establishing dummy positions (Quaker
guns and such), camouflaging to the enemy the real strength of his Stack. +1
to the Hide Value of the Stack, if entrenched.
This element or general is able to screen and mask the progression of the
whole Stack with the clever use of scouts, side-tracks, stealthy marches,
and subterfuges. +1 to the Hide Value of the Stack and +25% to the Evasion
Value, if the Stack is moving.
Deep Raider
This element or general is able to mount deep raids which can avoid enemy
patrols, with the use of side-tracks, stealthy marches, and subterfuges. +50%
to the Evasion Value, if the Stack is moving.
This element or general is proficient in making more effective patrols in the
region he is in, by setting an effective picket network or establishing signal
towers. +1 to Detection Value; +35% to the Patrol Value of the Stack the
element is in, if entrenched.
Sea Spotter
This element or admiral is proficient in surveying the seas and spotting enemy
ships. +1 to Detection Value, +35% to the Patrol Value of the Stack the
element is in.
Dispersed Move
This general (if the commander) has the bad habit of letting his troops move
in disorder, thus reducing their ability to patrol the region or conceal their
approach. -25% to Evasion and Patrol, -1 to Hide Value of the whole Stack,
if moving.
Blockade Runner
If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at avoiding enemy naval
Stacks, if need be. +35% to the Evasion Value of the Fleet. Works only if
Fort Runner
If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at running enemy Forts, if
need be. +10% to the Evasion Value, -35% to the damage taken from Forts
firing on the passing Fleet. Works only if moving.
Sea Raider
If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at avoiding enemy naval
Stacks, if need be. +25% to the Evasion Value of the Fleet. Works even if not
Emplaced Guns
These guns are emplaced batteries and can’t be moved outside the region.
This element will burn immediately any enemy Depot or stockade captured.
Nationalities Icon Definition
EAW includes more than 20 different subnationalites possibilites
(not all of them are used for now, we are showing only those currently
present in the version 1.0). Hovering your mouse over a Special
Ability’s icon will also display a tooltip with useful information. A
list is provided opposite:
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Picture Description
African (Black)
Black troops raided in the African OMBs.
(French North Africa)
French troops from the Algérie (and sometimes Maroc and Tunisie) offmap
boxes. Replacement acronym: FNF
Troops raised in the Middle East (Turkish irregulars, Arab nationalists).
Replacement acronym: TAR
Armenian (Caucasus)
Russian Troops raised in the Caucasus. Replacement acronym: RCA
British troops and leaders from Australia. Replacement acronym: GAZ.
Russian units and leaders from the Baltic region (Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia).
Replacement acronym: RBA
British troops and leaders from Canada. Replacement acronym: GCA.
Foreign Legion
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from the Bohemia and Moravia region.
Replacement acronym: ACZ. Also used for Russian Czech legion troops and
leaders (acronym RCZ) and Czech troops in French (FCZ) service
French Elite fighting force, raisable only in the Algérie offmap box.
Replacement acronym: FLE.
Russian units and leaders from the Finland region. Replacement acronym: RFN
French Indochina
French troops from the Indochine offmap boxes. Replacement acronym: FID
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Hungary region. Replacement
acronym: AHU
British troops and leaders from British India. Replacement acronym: GIN.
British troops and leaders from Ireland. Replacement acronym: GIR.
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Tirol and Istria regions.
Replacement acronym: AIT.
New Zealand
British troops and leaders from New Zealand. Replacement acronym: GNZ.
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Poland region. Replacement
acronym: APO.
Also used for German Polish troops and leaders (acronym GPO) and Polish
troops in French (FPO) service.
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Poland region. Replacement
acronym: ARO.
British troops and leaders from Scotland. Replacement acronym: GSC.
Russian units and leaders from the Siberia region. Replacement acronym: RSI.
Slavic (Southern
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Croatia and Bosnia regions.
Replacement acronym: ASS.
Also used for Slavic troops in French (FRU) service.
South African
British troops and leaders from Scotland. Replacement acronym: GSF.
Ukrainian /
Austro-Hungarian units and leaders from Ruthenia region. Replacement
acronym: AUK.
Also used for Russian troops from Ukraine. Replacement acronym RUK.
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Regional Decisions List
Here are charts with the depiction of the various in-game decisions.
There are sorted by main categories of usage.
Important Design Note: those Decisions will be refined and altered
during the last stages of playtesting, so please refer to ingame tooltips for
exact conditions and descriptions.
Government Related
Menu Icon Name & Map Icon Description of Decision
Condition(s): Revolutions may effect Russia, France, Germany, AustriaHungary, Italy, and Ottoman Empire. For Russia, the chance of Revolution
begins when Rebel loyalty reaches 70% or higher in the Russia off-map
region, for the others when Rebel loyalty reaches 80% or higher. The
chances of Russia succumbing to Revolution is also higher each turn
than the others.
Strategy & Description: A nation in Revolution struggles to maintain
popular support for remaining in the Great War. Each turn, a 100-side
dice is rolled against the nation’s Rebel Alignment; if successful, the
nation moves 1% towards Rebels (so, effect becomes worse as nation
descends into revolution). Once a nation has spiraled into Revolution, it
is usually only a matter of time before the nation signs an armistice and
Important Note: This RGD is placed via event, not by the player, and
cannot be removed by the player once in effect.
Change Government
Condition(s): Can only be played on off-map diplomacy regions, on
nations allied to your side. Once played, it will be 24 turns before the
decision can be played again on this particular nation.
Strategy & Description: Moves off-map region 8% towards your
alliance’s loyalty, at a cost of 8 Engagement Points, 5 National Morale, and
250 Victory Points. This is a fairly drastic measure meant to bolster loyalty
within an individual nation, but at a high cost to the alliance as a whole.
Grant Concessions
Condition(s): Can only be played on off-map diplomacy regions, on
nations allied to your side. Once played, it will be 12 turns before the
decision can be played again on this particular nation.
Strategy & Description: Moves off-map region 3% towards your
alliance’s loyalty, at a cost of 2 Engagement Points and 50 Victory Points.
These measures can be helpful in maintaining loyalty of individual
nations, at a relatively low cost.
To End All Wars Game Manual
Print State
Print State Funds
Condition(s): This decision may only be played on off-map regions of France,
Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and United States. Once played, it will be
3 turns before the decision can be played again on this particular nation.
Strategy & Description: Grants immediate 1000 State Funds, at a
cost of 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 75 Victory Points, 2%
inflation. Proper usage of this decision is crucial to managing the war
effort, but it must be played with care. Using too often will result in
sinking morale and rampant inflation!
Menu Icon Name & Map Icon Description of Decision
Munitions Factory
Build a new munitions factory (for production of artillery ammunition)
Condition(s): Costs 2 Engagement Points, 200 State Funds, and 100
War Supply. Must target an owned region.
Strategy & Description: Munitions Factories, once build, produce 5
Ammunition (Munitions Shells) each turn, which are used by medium artillery,
heavy artillery, fortress artillery, and naval ships. All nations start with a
limited income of munitions, so building these sites is crucial to the long term
war effort, as artillery is ineffective without the munitions needed to fire it!
COMBAT Related
Menu Icon Name & Map Icon Description of Decision
Chlorine gas
Enemy units in target region have 25% chance of -2 health, -10%
cohesion (may 6 enemy elements affected)
Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 50 War Supply, and
50 Victory, Level 2 Chemical Research must have been reached
Strategy & Description: The very first time gas of any sort is used, it will
do an additional -33% cohesion to the enemy (this is one time per game,
across all sides!). Each of the 3 gas attack decisions will also do -25%
cohesion to the enemy the first 3 times they are used (this is not combined
with the first use bonus)
Phosgene gas
Enemy units in target region have 25% chance of -12 health, -5%
cohesion (may 10 enemy elements affected)
Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 50 War Supply, and
50 Victory, Level 3 Chemical Research must have been reached
Strategy & Description: The very first time gas of any sort is used, it will
do an additional -33% cohesion to the enemy (this is one time per game,
across all sides!). Each of the 3 gas attack decisions will also do -25%
cohesion to the enemy the first 3 times they are used (this is not combined
with the first use bonus)
To End All Wars Game Manual
Mustard gas
Enemy units in target region have 33% chance of -25% cohesion (may
15 enemy elements affected)
Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, 50 War Supply, and
50 Victory, Level 4 Chemical Research must have been reached
Strategy & Description: The very first time gas of any sort is used, it will do
an additional -33% cohesion to the enemy (this is one time per game, across
all sides!). Each of the 3 gas attack decisions will also do -25% cohesion to the
enemy the first 3 times they are used (this is not combined with the first use bonus)
Fort Bombardment
Condition(s): Must target an enemy owned region with a city or fort,
where you have > 50% military control, and at least 2 super heavy
artillery elements present. This will also consume 4 elements of munitions
trains, due to the excessive shelling involved.
Strategy & Description: The enemy structure will immediately suffer one
breach, Enemy fortress guns in the region will suffer -95% cohesion and
-75% strength immediately. This represents suppression of enemy guns via
extremely heavy bombardment. It is quite effective for breaching enemy forts,
but building artillery heavy enough to do such attacks is very expensive!
Unlock Fort
Unlock Fort Guns
Condition(s): Costs 1 Engagement Point, 1 National Morale, and 200
Victory Points. Must target a fortress containing fort guns, in a region
owned by your side, and belonging to France, Russia, Germany, AustriaHungary, Great Britain, Italy, USA, or Ottoman Empire.
Strategy & Description: This decision will convert fortress guns into
unfixed heavy artillery, which can be incorporated into your units on the
map. This decision should only be used when State Funds and War Supply
are too low to build desperately needed artillery, or perhaps in the early
months of the war when artillery is much needed in a quick timeframe.
Appoint Generals
Condition(s): Costs 3 Engagement Points and 300 State Funds. Must
be played on an off-map diplomacy region. May only be played on an
individual nation once every 6 turns.
Strategy & Description: Will unlock 6 generals in the off-map region,
and place them in the corresponding nation’s capital (ex. if played on
off-map region of Germany, will unlock 6 German generals and they will
appear in Berlin the next turn). Generals will be needed throughout the
game to lead the armies and corps on the map.
Max Hoffman
Max Hoffman
Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point, must be played on a region in
Germany, on Eastern Front, which the Russians now own.
Strategy & Description: All Russian units on German territory will suffer
-66% cohesion, leaders will be inactive, and stacks will be fixed for 1 turn.
Zeppelin Recon
Zeppelin Recon
Condition(s): Nothing but the decision is expended definitively. Only
available to Central Powers.
Strategy & Description: Will reduce by 2 the hiding value of enemy ships
Will damages or even destroy some Zeppelins. Will get more decisions via
event if there are operational Zeppelins on the map.
To End All Wars Game Manual
Zeppelin Bombing.
Condition(s): 1 Engagement Point. Is not effective if Western Entente
has played the CAP decision to counter Zeppelin raids. Only available to
Central Powers.
Strategy & Description: Will reduce by one Entente National Morale. Will
get more decisions via event if there are operational Zeppelins on the map.
Condition(s): Nothing but the decision is expended definitively. Only
available to Western Entente.
Strategy & Description: Will prevent or destroy any Zeppelins raid. Will
get more decisions via event if there are operational fighter planes nearby
London. Can only be played if some fighter planes are also in the vicinity.
Stormtroops (SE)
Condition(s): The player will receive special units called StossTruppen
(literally Assault troop). These units, although of very good quality, should
not be used in the same way as others troops, as they don’t have the raw
firepower of a full infantry corps. Instead, using special infiltration tactics,
they can provoke a breakthrough in the enemy lines.
You’ll receive approximately at the same time several regional
decisions called ‘Stormtroops Minor Efforts’, ‘Stormtroops Sustained
Efforts’,’Stormtroops Heavy Efforts’. These decisions can only be played
if you have at least 2 stormtroops adjacent to the region where you want
to play the decision. More stormtroops will be required to play the costlier
decisions. These decisions will reduce enemy cohesion and possibly
reduce entrenchments level, thus allowing an easier attack and a possible
breakthrough, if you attack the same turn you play the decision.
Nb: Planning wise, a decision played on a given turn will have its effect
applied before any combat can happen.
Once spent, a decision is gone forever, but new decisions are given back
several time per years, depending of the number of deployed stormtroopers.
These units must be in good shape (at least 50% cohesion and health) to
be considered for the computation. If you just keep the units in the force
pool, no new decisions can be added by the game.
Strategy & Description: Minor Efforts will reduce the cohesion of up to
40 enemy elements (average of 10) and will remove one level of trenches
from up to 4 enemy stacks (average of 1).
Stormtroops (SE) Stormtroops (SE)
Condition(s): see above
Strategy & Description: Sustained Efforts will reduce the cohesion of
up to 120 enemy elements (average of 30) and will remove one level of
trenches from up to 6 enemy stacks (average of 1.5).
Stormtroops (HE) Stormtroops (HE)
Condition(s): see above
Strategy & Description: Heavy Efforts will reduce the cohesion of up
to 240 enemy elements (average of 60) and will remove one level of
trenches from up to 8 enemy stacks (average of 2).
To End All Wars Game Manual
Menu Icon
Name & Map Icon Description of Decision
Agricultural Aid helps Germany reverse some of the harsh effects of
the Atlantic Blockade. For Agricultural Aid to be effective, the Atlantic
Blockade must be at least level 2. If so, then a 100 sided dice is rolled
and compared to the Rebel Alignment in the off-map Germany national
area. If the dice roll is equal to or lower than the Rebel Alignment,
Alignment in off-map Germany national area moves 1 point towards
Germany (and away from Rebels).
Agricultural Aid is available from the following nations under the listed
• Italy, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20%
• Belgium, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20%
• Holland, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10%
• Romania, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20%
Diplomatic Aid
Diplomatic Aid is a measure of the international diplomatic assistance a
nation provides to one of the alliances. In game, this is represented as
+2 EP per turn the nation provides to the alliance it is giving Diplomatic
Aid to.
Diplomatic Aid is available from the following nations under the listed
• France (to Entente), always
• Russia (to Entente), always, so long as not surrendered
• Germany (to Centrals), always
• Austria-Hungary (to Centrals), always, so long as not surrendered
• Great Britain (to Entente), if Entente Alignment is >= 60%
• Ottoman Empire (to Entente), if Entente Alignment is > 80%
• Ottoman Empire (to Centrals), if Central Powers Alignment is > 60%
Economic Aid
Economic Aid represents income available to the Western Entente
from favored relations with North America and the USA. It results in the
Western Entente gaining +75 State Funds per turn, when active.
Economic Aid is available from the following nations under the listed
• United States, if Entente Alignment is > 80% (ends if USA enters
the war)
Munitions Aid
Munitions Aid represents income available to the Western Entente
from favored relations with this nation. It results in the Western Entente
gaining +25 War Supply per turn, when active.
Munitions Aid is available from the following nations under the listed
• United States, if Entente Alignment is > 60% (ends if USA enters
the war)
• Great Britain, if Entente Alignment is >= 60% (ends if Great
Britain enters the war)
To End All Wars Game Manual
Neutral Nations have a set policy of non-intervention in the Great War
and are more difficult to sway towards one side or the other. When
Neutral Nation is in effect, the nation will move 1% back towards a
50%/50% Entente/Central Powers orientation each turn.
Neutral Nation is available from the following nations under the listed
• United States, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20%
• Belgium, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70%
• China, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% and <= 80%
• Denmark, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% and <= 70%
• Greece, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70%
• Holland, if Central Powers Alignment is > 10% and <= 70%
• Portugal, if Central Powers Alignment > 40% and <= 98%
• Spain, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70%
• Sweden, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70%
• Switzerland, if Central Powers Alignment is > 1% and <= 99%
• Luxembourg, if Central Powers Alignment is > 1% and <= 99%
• Brazil, if Central Powers Alignment is > 20% and <= 70%
Pro-Centrals Nations naturally lean towards the Central Powers alliance.
When Pro-Centrals Nation is in effect, the nation automatically moves
1% towards the Central Powers alliance each turn.
Pro-Centrals Nation is available from the following nations under the
listed conditions:
• Ottoman Empire, if Central Powers Alignment is > 60%
• Italy, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70%
• Bulgaria, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70%
• Greece, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70%
• Japan, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70%
• Romania, if Central Powers Alignment is > 70%
Pro-Entente Nations naturally lean towards the Entente alliance. When
Pro-Entente Nation is in effect, the nation automatically moves 1%
towards the Entente alliance each turn.
Pro-Entente Nation is available from the following nations under the
listed conditions:
• Great Britain, if Entente Alignment is > 60%
• United States, if Entente Alignment is > 80%
• Ottoman Empire, if Entente Alignment is > 80%
• Italy, if Entente Alignment is > 80%
• Bulgaria, if Entente Alignment is > 80%
• China, if Entente Alignment is > 80%
• Japan, if Entente Alignment is > 60%
• Portugal, if Entente Alignment is > 60%
• Romania, if Entente Alignment is > 80%
Czar Takes
Once Eastern Entente NM falls below 75, the Tsar takes command over
the Russian armies.
After this, any turn the Easter Entente NM is below 75, Russia moves
1% towards Rebel Alignment, representing the popular unrest against
the Tsar which gradually builds in Russia, should the war effort continue
to progress poorly.
To End All Wars Game Manual
This effect comes into play when the Central Powers player uses the
Rasputin option against Russia.
While in effect, Rasputin has a 25% per turn of costing the Eastern
Entente player 1 EP and a -1 Alignment in Russia, to represent the ill
effects of his presence in the Russian court.
Rasputin can be removed via the Assassinate Rasputin option available
to the Eastern Entente player.
This effect comes into play when the Central Powers player uses the
Lenin option against Russia.
While in effect, a 100-sided dice roll is made against Rebel Alignment in
Russia each turn. If successful, Alignment in Russia moves 1% towards
Rebels, and Eastern Entente player suffers -1 NM.
Declaration of War
Condition(s): None
Strategy & Description: just use it to declare war on a nation of your
choice (not one of your allies however).
To End All Wars Game Manual
The Great War
June 28
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the
throne of Austro-Hungarian empire, in Sarajevo, Bosnia
July 28
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Jul 29–Dec 9
Austria-Hungary repeatedly invades Serbia but is
repeatedly repulsed
August 1
Outbreak of war
Germany declares war on Russia
August 3
Germany declares war on France
August 4
Germany invades neutral Belgium
August 4
Britain declares war on Germany
August 4
US President Woodrow Wilson declares policy of US
August 14
Battle of the Frontiers begins
August 17-19
Russia invades East Prussia
August 23
Japan declares war on Germany
Aug 23–Sep 2
Austria-Hungary invades Russian Poland (Galicia)
August 26-30
Battle of Tannenberg, which Russia loses; Germany’s
greatest success of the war on Eastern Front
September 5-10 First Battle of Marne, halts German advance, resulting in
stalemate and trench warfare
September 9-14 First Battle of Masurian Lakes, which Russia again loses
September 14
First Battle of Aisne begins
Sep 15–Nov 24 The “race to the sea”, trenches appear on September 15
September 17-28 Austro-German attack western Poland
Oct 14–Nov 22 First Battle of Ypres
To End All Wars Game Manual
October 29
December 8
December 21
December 25
Jan 1–Mar 30
January 15
January 19-20
February 4
Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers
Battle of the Falkland Islands
First German air raid on Britain
Unofficial Christmas truce declared by soldiers along
the Western Front
Allied offensive in Artois and Champagne
Japan’s 21 demands on China
First German zeppelin attack on England
German U-boat attacks on Allied and neutral shipping;
declares blockade of Britain
February 7-21
Russians suffer heavy losses at Second Battle of
Masurian Lakes (also known as the Winter Battle)
February–April Austro-Hungarian attack on Russian Poland (Galicia)
collapses, with the Russians counterattacking
Feb 19-Aug
Allied amphibious attack on the Dardanelles and
Gallipoli (initiated by Winston Churchill, who resigns as
a consequence) ends with the Turkish siege of the Allied
March 1
First passenger ship sinks, the British liner Falaba
March 11
Britain announces blockade of German ports
Germans focus on Eastern Front, breaking through
Gorlice-Tarnow and forcing Russia out of much of
April 22–May 25 First use of poison gas by Germany starts Second Battle
of Ypres
April 25
Allied landing at Gallipoli
April 26
France, Russia, Italy and Britain conclude secret Treaty
of London
May 2
Austro-German offensive on Galicia begins
May 7
U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania with the loss of
American lives, creating a US-German diplomatic crisis
May 9
Second Battle of Artois begins
To End All Wars Game Manual
May 23
May 25
Jun 29–Dec 2
August 4
September 5
September 22
October 3
December 19
December 28
Feb 21–Dec 18
Mar 11–Nov 14
March 9
March 24
April 24
May 4
May 19
May 31–June 1
Ignoring treaty agreements with the Central Powers,
Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
British Prime Minister Asquith reorganises his Liberal
government as a coalition of the parties
Italians launch unsuccessful attack on Hungarians at
1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Battles of Isonzo; there are to be 12
in total
Germans capture Warsaw
Tsar Nicholas takes command of Russian armies
Second Battle of Champagne begins
Anglo-French force lands at Salonika in Greece
Austro-German-Bulgarian forces invade Serbia,
expelling Serbian army from the country
Sir Douglas Haig replaces Sir John French as
commander of British Expeditionary Force
Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli
German attack on Verdun in the longest battle of the
war, ultimately defended by the French at great cost to
both sides
5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th Battles of Isonzo between Italy
and Austria-Hungary
British forces in Mesopotamia begin advance on
Pancho Villa’s raid on Columbus, New Mexico
French passenger ship, Sussex, torpedoed
Easter rebellion starts in Ireland
Germany renounces submarine policy
Britain and France conclude Sykes-Picot agreement
Battle of Jutland, the biggest naval battle in history,
ultimately without a clear victor
Turkish forces, led by Enver Pasha, are defeated by the
Russians in the Caucasus
To End All Wars Game Manual
June 4–Sept 20
June 5
July 1
July 29
August 28
August 31
September 15
October 15
November 7-9
November 18
November 28
November 29
December 7
December 12
December 18
January 10
January 31
February 1
February 3
Feb 23–Apr 5
Russian Brusilov offensive in Carpathia nearly knocks
Austria-Hungary out of the war
With British support (led by T.E. Lawrence), Hussein,
grand sherif of Mecca, lead an Arab revolt against the
Turks in the Hejaz
Start of the Battle of the Somme, with the greatest
number of casualties in British military history, 60,000
US marines land in Haiti
Romania enters the war with the Allies, but is quickly
overrun by German forces
Italy declares war on Germany
Germany suspends submarine assaults
Tanks introduced for the first time on the Somme
battlefield by the British
Germany resumes U-boat attacks
US President Woodrow Wilson secures re-election
End of the Battle of the Somme
First German airplane (as opposed to zeppelin) air-raid
on Britain
US occupation of Santa Domingo proclaimed
David Lloyd George replaces Asquith as British Prime
Germany issues peace note suggesting compromise peace
US President Woodrow Wilson requests statements of
war objectives from warring nations in peace note
Allies state peace objectives in response to US President
Woodrow Wilson’s December 1916 peace note
Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare
US severs diplomatic ties with Germany
German forces begin withdrawal to strong positions on
the Hindenburg Line
To End All Wars Game Manual
February 24
Zimmermann Telegram is passed to the US by Britain,
detailing alleged German proposal of an alliance with
Mexico against the US
February 26
US President Woodrow Wilson requests permission
from Congress to arm US merchantmen
March 1
Zimmermann Telegram published in US press
March 11
British capture Baghdad
March 12
US President Woodrow Wilson announces arming of
US merchantmen by executive order after failing to win
approval from Congress
March 15
Tsar Nicholas II abdicates as a consequence of Russian
March 20
US President Woodrow Wilson’s war cabinet votes
unanimously in favour of declaring war on Germany
April 2
US President Woodrow Wilson delivers war address to
April 6
US declares war on Germany
April 9-20
Nivelle Offensive (Second Battle of Aisne, Third Battle
of Champagne) ends in French failure
April 9
Canadian success at the Battle of Vimy Ridge
April 16
Lenin arrives in Russia
April 29–May 20 Mutiny breaks out among French army
May 12–Oct 24 10th, 11th and 12th Battles of Isonzo fought, ending in
Italian failure
May 28
Pershing leaves New York for France
June 7
British explode 19 large mines under the Messines Ridge
June 15
US Espionage Act passed
June 26
First US troops arrive in France, 1st Division
June 27
Greece enters the war on the side of the Allies
July 2
Pershing makes first request for army of 1,000,000 men
July 6
T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba
July 11
Pershing revises army request figures upwards to
To End All Wars Game Manual
July 16
July 31
September 1
October 24
November 7
November 20
December 7
December 9
December 22
January 8
February 11
March 3
March 21
March 26
April 9
April 14
May 25
Third Battles of Ypres (Passchendaele) begins
Major British offensive launched at Ypres.
Germany takes the northernmost end of the Russian
front in the Riga offensive
Austria-Germany breakthrough at Caporetto on Italian
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia results in Communist
government under Lenin taking office
British launch surprise tank attack at Cambrai
US declares war on Austria-Hungary
Jerusalem falls to Britain
Russia opens separate peace negotiations with Germany
T.E. Lawrence leads Arab guerrillas in successful
campaign against Turkish positions in Arabia and
US President Woodrow Wilson makes “Fourteen
Points” speech to Congress
US President Woodrow Wilson makes “Four Principles”
speech to Congress
Soviet Russia concludes separate peace negotiations in
treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany launches Spring push, eventually mounting
five major offensives against Allied forces, starting with
the Battle of Picardy against the British
Doullens Agreement gives General Ferdinand Foch
“coordinating authority” over the Western Front
Germany launches second Spring offensive, the Battle of
the Lys, in the British sector of Armentieres
Foch appointed Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces
on Western Front
German U-boats appear in US waters for first time
To End All Wars Game Manual
May 27
May 28
June 6
June 9
June 15
July 6
July 15
July 16-17
July 18
August 3
August 8
September 12
September 19
September 26
September 26
Sep 27–Oct 17
September 29
Sep 28–Oct 14
Third German Spring offensive, Third Battle of the
Aisne, begins in French sector along Chemin des Dames
US forces (28th Regiment of 1st Division) victorious in
first major action, Battle of Cantigny
US 3rd Division captures Bouresches and southern part
of Belleau Wood
Germans launch fourth Spring offensive, Battle of the
Matz, in French sector between Noyan and Montdidier
Italians prevail against Austro-Hungarian forces at
Battle of Piave
US President Woodrow Wilson agrees to US
intervention in Siberia
Final phase of great German Spring push, the Second
Battle of Marne, begins
Former Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and children, are
murdered by the Bolsheviks
Allies counterattack against German forces, seizing
Allied intervention begins at Vladivosto
Haig directs start of successful Amiens offensive,
forcing all German troops back to the Hindenburg Line;
Ludendorff calls it a “black day” for German army
US forces clear the St.-Mihiel salient, during which the
greatest air assault of the war is launched by the US
Start of British offensive in Palestine, the Battle of
Battle of the Vardar pits Serb, Czech, Italian, French and
British forces against Bulgarian forces
Meuse-Argonne offensive opens; the final FrancoAmerican offensive of the war
Haig’s forces storm the Hindenburg Line, breaking
through at several points
Bulgaria concludes armistice negotiations
Belgian troops attack at Ypres
To End All Wars Game Manual
October 3-4
Oct 17–Nov 11
October 21
October 27
October 30
November 3
November 3
November 7-11
November 9
November 10
November 10
November 11
January 10-15
January 18
January 25
February 6
February 14
May 6
May 7–June 28
June 21
July 19
Germany and Austria send peace notes to US President
Woodrow Wilson requesting an armistice
British advance to the Sambre and Schledt rivers, taking
many German prisoners
Germany ceases unrestricted submarine warfare
Erich Ludendorff resigns
Turkey concludes an armistice with the Allies
German fleet mutinies at Kiel
Trieste falls to the Allies; Austria-Hungary concludes an
Germany negotiates an armistice with the Allies in
Ferdinand Foch’s railway carriage headquarters at
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates
Kaiser Wilhelm II flees to Holland
German republic is founded
Armistice day; fighting ceases at 11am (the eleventh hour
of the eleventh day of the eleventh month)
Communist revolt in Berlin
Start of peace negotiations in Paris
Peace conference accepts principle of a League of
German National Assembly meets in Weimar
Draft covenant of League of Nations completed
Peace conference disposes of German colonies
Treaty of Versailles drafted and signed
German High Seas Fleet scuttled at Scapa Flow
Cenotaph is unveiled in London
To End All Wars Game Manual
Lead Design
Ben McJunkins, Philippe Thibaut
Philippe Malacher
Art Director
Nicolas Eskubi
Nicolas Eskubi, , Ismael Martinez, Massimo Del Bono, Philippe Thibaut
Soldiers, Ships and Leaders Graphics
Massimo Del Bono
Additional Design
Philippe Malacher
Historical Research
Philippe Thibaut
Additional Research
Ol’Choctaw, Captain Orso, Le Ricain, Ebbingford, Jim-NC
Main Theme by Laurent Lecuyer.
Sounds SFX
Michael Huang
Philippe Thibaut & Sir Garnet
To End All Wars Game Manual
Communication, Web and Forum Administration
Marco Minoli, Filippo Chianetta, Philippe Malacher, Philippe Thibaut
Ageod Ltd
Special Thanks to these Volunteers
Ace, Le Ricain, Ebbingford, Jim-NC
Volunteers (Alphabetically)
abiondi, Ace, alastair, Alex877, alty59, Baelon, BigDuke66, Burdy323,
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A game produced by Ageod Ltd
To End All Wars Game Manual
JD McNeil
Iain McNeil
Tamas Kiss, Alex Stoikou
Erik Rutins
Philip Veale
Marco A. Minoli
Richard Evans
Olivier Georges
Bart Schouten
Claudio Guarnerio, Myriam Bell
Andrew Loveridge, Gerry Edwards
Dean Walker, Liz Stoltz
Paulo Costa, Joseph Miller
Valery Vidershpan, Andrea Nicola, Fernando Turi
Juan Diaz Bustamante
1. General. This software product in its entirety is copyrighted and is protected by international law. The
software and any accompanying documentation or media including this License whether on disk, in
read only memory, or in any other form is licensed, not sold, to you by Matrix Games Ltd. and is for use
only under the terms of this License. Matrix Games reserve all rights not expressly granted to you. The
rights granted herein are limited and do not include any patents or intellectual property rights. Matrix
Games expressly retains ownership of the Software itself.
2. Permitted License Uses and Restrictions. This License allows you to install and use one copy
of the Software on a single computer at any time. This License does not allow the Software to exist
on more than one computer at a time, and you may not make the Software available over a network
where it could be used by multiple computers at the same time. You may not copy, reproduce, translate,
decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble, modify, or create derivative works from the assembled
code or any part thereof. The software may contain an Editor that allows purchaser to create new
assets, modify existing assets or files or create custom levels, scenarios or other materials for use
solely in connection with the existing software (“new materials”). Purchaser is not permitted to use, or
allow third parties to use the Editor and/or any new materials created, for any commercial purposes
whatsoever, or in any other software, without the express prior written permission of Matrix Games
Ltd. Any persons so doing is committing an offence and or a copyright violation and will be subject to
appropriate civil or criminal action at the discretion Matrix Games Ltd.
3. Game Servers. Use of the software by purchaser on Slitherine’s servers is allowed entirely at the
discretion of Slitherine, who at their sole discretion reserve the right to remove, deny or prevent any
purchaser from using the Companies servers for any reason whatsoever including unreasonable,
abusive or offensive language or behaviour and without consultation or notice.
4. Support & Multiplayer. In certain situations and at their sole discretion Matrix Games Ltd. may
refuse technical support and/or access to multiplayer or online functionality, including but not limited
to the following; the user attempts or assist other to bypass security measures on the software, or the
user is abusive to Matrix Games staff and or it’s community, or Matrix Games has reason to suspect
the user is attempting to cheat or assisting others to cheat, or Matrix Games suspect that the person or
entity is not the original purchaser of the software or Matrix Games at its sole discretion has terminated
the Licence.
5. Transfer. Purchaser may not rent, lease, lend or sublicense the Software to any person or entity.
6. Termination. This License is effective until terminated. Your rights under this License will terminate
automatically without notice from Matrix Games if you fail to comply with any term(s) of this License.
Upon the termination of this License, you shall cease all use of the Software.
7. Warranty. This Software is provided without warranty of any kind, whether express or implied,
including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, which are hereby
disclaimed. In no event will Matrix Games Ltd be liable for any special, incidental, or consequential
damages resulting from possession, use, or malfunction of this software product.
8. Disclaimer. You expressly acknowledge and agree that use of the software is at your sole risk and
that the entire risk as to satisfactory quality, performance, accuracy and effort rests with you. The
software is provided “as is”; with all faults and without warranty of any kind, and Matrix Games Ltd or
their licensors, subsidiaries, affiliates or sub licensees hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions
with respect to the software, express, implied or statutory. Matrix Games do not warrant against
interference of your enjoyment of the software, nor that the functions contained in the software will
meet your requirements, nor that the operation of the software will be uninterrupted or error-free, or
that defects in the software will be corrected. No oral or written information or advice given by Matrix
Games or any authorized representative shall create a warranty. Should the software prove defective,
you assume the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction.
9. Limitation of Liability. Is restricted to the full extent not prohibited by law, in no event will Matrix
Games be liable for personal injury, or any incidental, special, indirect or consequential damages
whatsoever, including, without limitation, damages for loss of profits, loss of data, business interruption
or any other commercial damages or losses, arising out of or related to your use or inability to use the
software, however caused, regardless of the theory of liability (contract, tort or otherwise) and even
if Matrix Games has been advised of the possibility of such damages. In no event shall Matrix Games
Ltd’s total liability to you for all damages (other than as may be required by applicable law in cases
involving personal injury) exceed the amount which the purchaser paid for the software or Fifty US
Dollars ($50) whichever is less. The foregoing limitations will apply even if the above stated remedy
fails in its essential purpose.
10. Controlling Law and Severability. This License will be governed by and construed in accordance
with the laws of England and Wales. If for any reason a court of competent jurisdiction finds any
provision, or portion thereof, to be unenforceable, the remainder of this License shall continue in full
force and effect.
11. Complete Agreement; Governing Language. This License constitutes the entire agreement
between the parties with respect to the use of the Software licensed herein and supersedes all prior
or contemporaneous understandings regarding such subject matter. No amendment to or modification
of this License will be binding unless in writing and signed by Matrix Games Ltd. Any translation of
this License is done for local requirements only In the event of a dispute between the English and any
non-English versions; the English version of this License shall govern.
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