NYC Fire Code
NEW YORK CITY ADMINISTRATIVE CODE
TITLE 29
NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE
CHAPTER 1
ENACTMENT OF THE NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE
§29-101. Short title. This title shall be known as and may be cited as the “New York city
fire code” or the “fire code.”
§29-102. Enactment. The New York city fire code, based on the 2003 edition of the
International Fire Code published by the International Code Council, with amendments reflecting
the unique character of the city, is hereby enacted to read as set forth in Chapter 2 of this title.
§29-103. Enforcement. The fire commissioner shall be responsible for the administration
and enforcement of the fire code.
§29-104. Periodic review and amendment. No later than the third year after the effective
date of this title and every third year thereafter, the fire commissioner shall review the latest
edition of the International Fire Code and submit to the city council such proposed amendments
as he or she may determine should be made to the fire code based upon such model code.
CHAPTER 2
NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE
CHAPTER 1
ADMINISTRATION
SECTION FC 101
GENERAL
101.1 Title. This code, including any appendices hereto, shall be known as the New York City
Fire Code, hereinafter referred to as “this code” or “the code”. All section numbers in this code
shall be deemed to be preceded by the designation “FC”.
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101.2 Scope. This code governs:
1. The manufacturing, storage, handling, use, sale and transportation of hazardous materials
and combustible materials, except for the installation of storage tanks and auxiliary storage
tanks for oil-burning equipment.
2. The design, installation, operation and maintenance of devices, equipment and systems
designed to prevent, mitigate, control and extinguish fire, explosions or other life safety
hazards.
3. Emergency prepardness and planning, including the orderly evacuation of occupants of
buildings, structures or premises in the event of fire, explosion, biological, chemical or
hazardous material incident or release, natural disaster or other emergency, or the threat
thereof.
4. The prevention, mitigation and control of hazards to firefighters and emergency responders
during emergency operations.
5. The operation and maintenance of any manual, automatic or other fire alarm or fire
extinguishing device, equipment or system.
101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish reasonable minimum requirements and
standards for life safety and property protection, to accomplish the purposes set forth in Section
101.2.
101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is adjudged
by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or
invalidate the remainder thereof, but shall be confined in its operation to the section, subsection,
sentence, clause or phrase thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment
shall have been rendered.
SECTION FC 102
APPLICABILITY
102.1 Design and installation provisions. The design and installation provisions of this code
shall apply to:
1. Facilities established and conditions arising on or after the effective date of this code.
2. Facilities and conditions not lawfully existing prior to the effective date of this code.
3. Facilities and conditions lawfully existing prior to the effective date of this code, except as
otherwise provided in Section 102.3.
102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions. The administrative,
operational and maintenance provisions of this code, including permit and certification
requirements, shall apply to:
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1. Facilities, operations, conditions, uses and occupancies established or arising on or after
the effective date of this code.
2. Facilities, operations, conditions, uses and occupancies established or existing prior to the
effective date of this code.
102.2.1 Existing permits and certificates continued. Permits and certificates for facilities,
operations, conditions, uses and occupancies issued pursuant to the New York City Fire
Prevention Code and in effect on the effective date of this code shall remain in effect until
they expire unless sooner revoked or suspended in accordance with this code. Renewal of
such permits and certificates shall be in accordance with the provisions of this code.
102.2.2 New permits and certificates. In any case where a provision of this code requires a
permit or certificate for a facility, operation, condition, use or occupancy and no permit or
certificate was previously required therefor pursuant to the New York City Fire Prevention
Code, such facility, operation, condition, use or occupancy may be continued without such
permit or certificate until July 1, 2009.
102.3 Lawfully existing facilities and conditions. Facilities, or parts thereof, lawfully existing
on the effective date of this code, as to which the design or installation of a facility would not be
allowed or approved under this code may be continued in compliance with the New York City
Fire Prevention Code and other laws, rules and regulations or permit conditions applicable at the
time such facility was lawfully allowed or approved, and as such provisions may be amended
from time to time. Manufacturing, storage, handling or use of materials in premises under
conditions that would not be allowed or approved under this code, but which conditions lawfully
existed in such premises on the effective date of this code, may be continued in compliance with
the requirements of the New York City Fire Prevention Code and other laws, rules and
regulations or permit conditions applicable at the time such condition was lawfully allowed or
approved, and as such provisions may be amended from time to time.
Exceptions:
1. Facilities and conditions lawfully existing prior to the effective date of this code shall
comply with the requirements of this code when specifically required by this code.
2. Facilities and conditions lawfully existing prior to the effective date of this code shall
comply with the requirements of this code when the commissioner determines such
facility or condition to constitute a life safety hazard.
3. Facilities and conditions existing prior to the effective date of this code shall comply
with the requirements of this code when the part of the building, structure, facility or
premises in which the facility is located or the condition exists undergoes a change in
use or occupancy on or after such effective date.
4. Facilities and conditions existing prior to the effective date of this code shall comply
with the requirements of this code when the part of the building, structure, facility or
premises in which the facility is located or the condition exists, undergoes alteration,
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whether made voluntarily, or as a result of damage, deterioration or other cause, on or
after such effective date.
102.4 Application of construction codes. The design and construction of buildings, structures,
facilities or other premises shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes.
102.5 Reserved.
102.6 Relationship with other applicable codes, standards and rules.
102.6.1 Referenced codes. Any codes or other provisions of law referenced in this code,
including those referenced in Chapter 45, shall be considered part of the requirements of this
code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences or inconsistencies
arise between the provisions of this code and any other code or provision of law referenced in
this code, the more restrictive provision shall govern.
102.6.1.1 Construction codes and Electrical Code references. References in this code
to the construction codes or the Electrical Code shall not be deemed to be a grant of
authority to the commissioner to enforce such codes, provided, however, that the
department may require proof of compliance with the requirements of such codes
pursuant to Section 105.3.9.
102.6.2 Appendices and referenced standards. Any appendix to this code and any
referenced standard in Chapter 45 shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to
the prescribed extent of each such reference. The provisions of any appendix or referenced
standard may be amended by the commissioner pursuant to the rule making process set forth
in the charter. Where differences or inconsistencies arise between the referenced standards,
the provisions of this code or any rules promulgated thereunder, the provisions of this code or
such rules shall govern.
102.6.3 Rules. The commissioner may promulgate rules in accordance with the charter and
this code.
102.7 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no applicable fire safety or other safety
standards or requirements are set forth in this code, or applicable laws, codes, rules or regulations
enforced by the commissioner, facilities, operations and conditions in a building, structure,
facility or other premises shall comply with nationally recognized fire safety or other safety
standards of the particular industry, as approved. Nothing herein shall derogate from the
authority of the commissioner to determine compliance with the requirements of the codes,
standards, or rules for those facilities, operations and conditions within such buildings,
structures, facilities or other premises within the commissioner’s jurisdiction or responsibility.
102.8 Matters not adequately provided for in this code. Requirements that are essential for
fire safety in an existing or proposed building, structure, or premises, or in connection with the
regulation of any material, operation or facility, which are not specifically provided for by this
code may be established by the commissioner.
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102.9 Internal references and inconsistent provisions. Where one chapter, section or other
provision of this code requires compliance with or otherwise references another chapter, section
or other provision of this code, such reference shall be construed in a manner that harmonizes the
various provisions and furthers the purpose of this code.
SECTION FC 103
RESERVED
SECTION FC 104
DUTIES AND POWERS OF COMMISSIONER
104.1 Enforcement. The commissioner shall be responsible for the interpretation and
enforcement of this code. The commissioner may adopt policies, procedures, rules and
regulations in order to clarify or implement the application of its provisions. Such interpretations,
policies, procedures, rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of
this code and shall, except in those instances in which a modification has been granted, not have
the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.
104.2 Applications and approvals. The commissioner shall receive, review and, if satisfactory,
approve, applications for permits, certificates and other approvals, and design and installation
documents required to be submitted to the commissioner by this code or the construction codes,
issue permits, inspect buildings, structures, facilities, premises, marine vessels and vehicles for
the purpose of enforcing compliance with the requirements of this code, and otherwise
administer, implement and enforce the provisions of this code.
104.2.1 Acceptance of professional certification. The commissioner shall not accept
professional certification of compliance with the requirements of this code and the rules in
lieu of required department inspections, witnessing of tests, or approval of design and
installation documents, except as otherwise provided in this section. Professional
certification may only be accepted with respect to fire alarm system devices or equipment
that are not part of the building's core fire alarm system. The commissioner shall adopt a
written policy setting forth procedures by which professionally certified fire alarm system
devices or equipment will be audited by the department to ensure the accuracy of such
professional certifications. For purposes of this section, “professional certification" or
"professionally certified" means the submission to the department of a signed, personal
verification by a registered design professional that accompanies an application and/or design
and installation documents filed with the department that attests that such application or
design and installation documents do not contain any false information and that such
application or design and installation documents are in compliance with all applicable laws,
rules and regulations.
104.2.1.1 Disqualification for false certification. The commissioner may adopt rules
setting forth the penalty for submission of false or fraudulent documents certifying
compliance with the requirements of this code and the rules. Penalties may include
disqualification from submission of professionally certified applications, as set forth in
FC104.2.1. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to prohibit the submission of
design and installation documents by registered design professionals for department
review and approval.
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104.3 Right of entry. The commissioner and his or her authorized representatives, in the
discharge of their duties, shall have the right to enter upon and inspect, at all reasonable times,
any building, structure, facility, premises, marine vessel, watercraft, vehicle or any part thereof,
for the purpose of determining compliance with the requirements this code and other applicable
laws, rules and regulations enforced by the department. If access is not obtained, the
commissioner shall have recourse to remedies provided by law to secure entry.
104.4 Identification. When entering property pursuant to Section 104.3, officers and employees
of the department shall identify themselves by exhibiting the badge or other official
identification of the department; and other authorized representatives of the commissioner shall
identify themselves by producing and exhibiting their authority in writing signed by the
commissioner.
104.5 Notices and orders. Notices, orders and violations may be issued by or in the name of the
commissioner in accordance with Title 15 of the New York City Administrative Code to enforce
the provisions of this code or the rules.
104.5.1 Seizure of contraband material. The commissioner may order the seizure,
destruction or other arrangement for disposal thereof of any device, equipment or other
article, the manufacture, storage, handling, use, transportation or sale of which is prohibited
by this code or the rules, or which is manufactured, stored, handled, used, transported or sold
in violation thereof.
104.6 Official records. The department shall keep official records of applications received,
approvals, inspections, administrative decisions, permits and certificates issued, modifications
approved, fees collected, and notices, orders and violations, and such other records as the
commissioner may prescribe. Such official records shall be retained for the period required for
retention of public records.
104.7 Approved devices and equipment. All devices, equipment or other articles approved by
the commissioner shall be designed, constructed, installed and used in accordance with such
approval. Devices, equipment and other articles required by the provisions of this code to be of a
type for which a certificate of approval has been issued shall be designed, constructed, installed
and used in accordance with such certificate approval conditions, Section 112 and the rules.
104.7.1 Device, equipment and system reuse. Devices, equipment and systems shall not be
reused or reinstalled unless they have been reconditioned, tested and placed in good and
proper working condition. Devices, equipment and systems that are unsafe to operate or use
shall not be operated or used.
104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptability of technologies, processes,
products, facilities, materials and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building,
structure, facility or other premises subject to inspection by the commissioner, the
commissioner may require the owner to provide, at the owner’s expense, a technical opinion
and report prepared by a registered design professional or other individual or organization
whose qualifications are acceptable to the commissioner. Such individual or organization
shall evaluate the safety of the design, operation or use of the building, structure, facility or
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other premises and the facilities, operations and conditions situated or conducted thereon, as
applicable.
104.8 Modifications. When the circumstances, conditions, limitations or surroundings of any
business, occupation, trade, industry or premises to which this code applies are unusual, or such
as to render it impracticable to enforce all the provisions applicable thereto, the commissioner
may waive or modify such provisions to such extent as the commissioner may deem necessary
consistent with public safety.
104.8.1 Application for modification. Any owner or other person subject to a provision of
this code may request the modification of such provision in accordance with this section.
104.8.1.1 Submission. Any person seeking a modification shall submit a written request
to the commissioner stating the grounds thereof supported by relevant evidence and
citation to this code or any other law, rule or regulation or other legal authority. Any
additional information or other supplemental submission requested by the commissioner
shall be filed with the department within twenty (20) days of the date of the request, or
within such other time as may be prescribed by the commissioner.
104.8.1.2 Determination. The commissioner shall render a written determination
denying the request, or granting such modification as the commissioner determines is
necessary and appropriate upon such terms and conditions as the commissioner may
prescribe.
104.8.1.3 Stay of enforcement. The filing of such request for a modification shall not
stay the enforcement of the provision. The person filing such modification may request a
stay of enforcement of such provision. Such request shall be in writing and shall be
subject to the same requirements as a modification. The commissioner shall expeditiously
render a written determination of such request for a stay, giving due consideration to the
interests of public safety, the costs of compliance, and the apparent merits of the request.
104.8.2 Board of standards and appeals variances. Notwithstanding any other provision of
law, rule or regulation, no application for a variance shall be granted by the board of standards
and appeals in approving changes in bulk storage in excess of the standards set forth in this
code or the rules, as it may apply to the storage of liquefied natural gas, synthetic or substitute
natural gas or naptha in the liquid or gaseous state.
104.9 Alternative devices, equipment and systems. The provisions of this code and the rules
are not intended to prevent the design, installation or use of any device, equipment or system not
specifically prescribed or prohibited by this code or the rules, provided that any such alternative
has been approved by the commissioner. The commissioner may approve such an alternative
device, equipment or system where the commissioner finds that the proposed design, installation
or use is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code or the rules, and
that the device, equipment or system offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent
of that prescribed in this code or the rules in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance,
durability and safety.
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104.10 Fire investigations. The commissioner may investigate the cause, origin and
circumstances of any fire, explosion or other life safety hazard.
104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The firefighting personnel in charge at the
scene of a fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or property, or any part
thereof, shall have the authority to direct such operation as necessary to extinguish or control any
fire, perform any rescue operation, investigate the existence of suspected or reported fires, gas
leaks or other hazardous conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in the
reasonable performance of duty. In the exercise of such power, firefighting personnel may
prohibit any person, vehicle, marine vessel or object from approaching the scene and may
remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the scene, any vehicle, vessel or object which
could impede or interfere with the operations of the department and, in the judgment of
firefighting personnel, any person not actually and usefully employed in the extinguishing of
such fire or in the preservation of property in the vicinity thereof.
104.11.1 Barricades. The firefighting personnel in charge at the scene of a fire or other
emergency may place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions across any street, alley,
place or private property in the vicinity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or
interference with the lawful efforts of the department to manage and control the situation.
104.11.2 Obstructing representatives of the department. It shall be unlawful to obstruct,
interfere with or otherwise hamper any representative of the department in conducting any
inspection, issuing any notice, order or violation, or otherwise enforcing the provisions of
this code, or any other law, rule or regulation enforced by the department, or otherwise
executing the performance of his or her lawful duties.
104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render a life safety device, equipment or
system inoperative during an emergency except as directed by the firefighting personnel in
charge of the scene of a fire or other emergency.
104.12 Cooperation of other departments. Upon request of the commissioner, it shall be the
duty of all departments to cooperate with the department at all times and to furnish the
department with such information, reports and assistance as the commissioner may require.
SECTION FC 105
PERMITS AND OTHER APPROVALS
105.1 General. Permits and other approvals shall be required as set forth in Section 105.
105.1.1 Permits required. It shall be unlawful to manufacture, store, handle, use, sell or
transport a hazardous material or combustible material, or to conduct an operation or to
maintain a facility for which a permit is required pursuant to the provisions of this code
without such permit. Permits required by this code shall be obtained from the commissioner.
Permit and other applicable fees shall be paid prior to issuance of the permit. Issued permits
shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily available for
inspection by any representative of the department.
105.1.2 Types of permits. There shall be two types of permits as follows:
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1. Site-specific permit. Such permit authorizes the permit holder to manufacture, store,
handle, use or sell hazardous materials or combustible materials, or conduct an
operation or maintain a facility at a specific premises or location, for which a permit is
required by Section 105.6.
2. Citywide permit. Such permit authorizes the permit holder to store, handle, use, sell
or transport hazardous materials, or conduct an operation on a citywide basis, for which
a permit is required by Section 105.6. A citywide permit is valid to store, handle, use,
sell or transport hazardous materials or to conduct an operation at one or more locations
provided the duration of such activity at any individual location does not exceed 30
days. Periods of activity in excess of 30 days at any one location shall require a sitespecific permit.
105.1.3 Permits for the same premises or location. When more than one permit is required
for the same premises or other location or portion thereof, the commissioner may consolidate
such permits into a single permit; provided that each type of hazardous material, operation or
facility is listed in the permit, and provided further that the total fees payable for such single
permit shall be determined by adding the fees for the permits consolidated into the single
permit.
105.1.4 Approval of design and installation documents. Where approval of design and
installation documents is required by this code or other law, rule and regulation, other than in
connection with a permit application, applications shall be made for such approval in
accordance with Section 105.4.
105.1.5 Insurance. The commissioner may require applicants for permits or other approvals
to obtain and furnish proof of general liability insurance, in such amounts and in accordance
with such requirements, as may be set forth in this code or the rules, otherwise required by
law, or required as a condition of the permit or other approval. The permit or other approval
shall expire by operation of law if any such required insurance lapses, expires or is cancelled
during the term of the permit or other approval.
105.2 Permit application. Application for a permit required by this code shall be made to the
commissioner in such form and detail as the commissioner may prescribe. Applications for
permits shall be accompanied by design and installation documents and/or such other
information or documentation as may be prescribed by this code, the rules or the department.
Applications for permits relating to the storage, handling, use or transportation of high
explosives shall be accompanied by proof of United States citizenship.
105.2.1 Reserved.
105.2.2 Inspection authorized. Before a permit or other approval is issued, the
commissioner may inspect the building, structure, facility, premises, marine vessel, vehicle,
or any portion thereof to confirm the facts set forth in the application, determine compliance
with the requirements of this code, the rules and other applicable laws, rules or regulations
enforced by the commissioner, or to evaluate whether any restrictions should be imposed as a
condition of the permit or other approval. The department may require the applicant to
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arrange any such inspection, and require the applicant to attend such inspection with his or
her design professionals, contractor or other appropriate representatives.
105.2.3 Time limitation on application. An application for a permit or other approval shall
be deemed to have been abandoned six months after the date of filing, unless such
application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit or other approval shall have been
issued; except that the commissioner may grant one or more extensions of time for additional
periods not exceeding 90 days each if there is reasonable cause.
105.2.4 Action on application. Completed permit applications for the manufacture, storage,
handling, use, transportation or sale of flammable or combustible liquids, combustible
materials or hazardous materials or an operation or facility that comply with the requirements
of this code and other applicable laws, rules and regulations shall be approved by the
commissioner no later than 40 calendar days after the submission thereof, except that on or
before the fortieth day, the commissioner may, for good cause, extend such time for an
additional 40 calendar days. Permit applications that do not comply with the requirements of
this code and other applicable laws, rules and regulations shall be denied or preliminarily
denied no later than 40 calendar days from the submission thereof and written notice of such
denial or preliminary denial, stating the grounds therefor, shall be promptly given to the
applicant. When a permit application has been denied or preliminarily denied and is
thereafter revised and resubmitted to meet the stated grounds for denial, the revised
completed application shall be approved or denied or preliminarily denied in accordance with
the foregoing procedures and time periods.
105.3 Authority granted by permit. A permit shall constitute permission to manufacture, store,
handle, use, sell or transport hazardous materials or combustible materials, conduct an operation,
or maintain a facility, as applicable, in accordance with this code where a permit is required by
Section 105.6. Such permission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or set aside
any of the provisions of this code or other applicable laws, rules or regulations.
105.3.1 Permit issuance and renewal. Every permit or renewal thereof granted by the
commissioner shall be for a period specified therein, not to exceed two years, and shall
expire at the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its renewal. Permits are
not transferable and any change in occupancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall require
that a new permit be issued.
105.3.2 through and including 105.3.4 Reserved.
105.3.5 Posting the permit. Permits shall be posted in a conspicuous location on the
premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily available for inspection by any
representative of the department.
105.3.6 Compliance with the requirements of the code. The issuance or granting of a
permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the
provisions of this code or of other law, rule or regulation. Permits purporting to authorize any
such violation shall not be valid. The department’s approval of design and installation
documents or other submission, in connection with or independent of a permit application,
shall not prevent the department from requiring the correction of errors in such documents or
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other submission. Any addition to, or alteration of, approved design and installation
documents shall be approved in advance by the department.
105.3.7 Reserved.
105.3.8 Hazardous industries. Except as otherwise provided in this code, no person shall
engage in a hazardous industry, trade, occupation, activity or operation requiring the
manufacture, storage, handling, sale, use or transportation of hazardous materials or
combustible materials without a permit, issued upon such conditions as the commissioner
deems necessary in the interest of public safety.
105.3.9 Compliance with the requirements of the construction codes and Electrical
Code. The commissioner may require that the applicant for a permit or renewal thereof
demonstrate, by submission of a certificate of occupancy or other authorization or approval
issued by the Department of Buildings, that the building, structure or premises or portion
thereof used for the manufacture, storage, handling or use of flammable or combustible
liquids, combustible materials or hazardous materials, and all operations or facilities subject
to this code, are designed, constructed and occupied in accordance with the certificate of
occupancy, the construction codes and the Electrical Code.
105.3.9.1 Department of Buildings required approval. No permit shall be issued when
work requires the approval of the Commissioner of Buildings in connection with a
material, operation or facility unless proof is submitted to the department that such work
has been approved by the Commissioner of Buildings.
105.4 Design and installation documents. Design and installation documents required to be
submitted to the commissioner pursuant to the provisions of this code, the rules or the
construction codes, including but not limited to those set forth below, or as directed by the
commissioner to demonstrate or document that a device, equipment, system, operation or facility
regulated by this code is designed and installed in accordance with this code, shall be submitted
in accordance with this section. The time limitations for approval of design and installation
documents and for deeming such submissions abandoned shall be as set forth in Section 105.2.4
and Section 105.2.3, respectively.
1. Aerosol products storage facilities:
1.1. General purpose warehouses (Section 2804).
1.2. Aerosol warehouses (Section 2804).
1.3. Liquid storage rooms (Section 2804).
1.4. Liquid warehouses (Section 2804).
1.5. Outside storage (Section 2805).
1.6. Retail display (Section 2806).
2. Aircraft fueling systems (Section 1106).
3. Ammonia diffusion systems for refrigerating systems using ammonia refrigerant (Section
606).
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4. Sprinkler systems where the design is specified in this code (Sections 2306, 2307, 2308,
2309, 2310, 2804, 2806 and 3404).
5. Cellulose nitrate film storage facilities (Section 306).
6. CNG motor fuel-dispensing systems (Sections 2201).
7. Combustible fibers storage facilities:
7.1. Loose fiber storage (Section 2904).
7.2. Baled fiber storage (Section 2905).
8. Combustible material storage (Section 315).
9. Commercial cooking system fire extinguishing systems (Section 904).
10. Corrosive materials systems and facilities:
10.1. Storage (Section 3104).
10.2. Handling and use (Section 3105).
11. Cryogenic fluids systems and facilities:
11.1. Storage (Sections 3203 and 3204).
11.2. Handling and use (Sections 3203 and 3205).
11.3. Liquefied natural gas facilities (Section 3206).
12. Dry cleaning systems using Class II and III solvents (Section 1207).
13. Explosion control systems for certain hazardous materials and special uses (Section 911).
14. Explosion (dust) protection systems for combustible metals, metal powders, metal dusts
and sulfur (Section 1304).
15. Explosives (Section 3304).
16. Fire alarm systems (Building Code Section 907).
17. Fire apparatus access roads for developments (Section 503).
18. Flammable and combustible liquids systems and facilities:
18.1. Piping, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, fuel-dispensing facilities and similar
facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are manufactured, stored,
handled or used, including dispensing (Section 3404).
18.2. Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses (Section 3404).
18.3. Liquid storage rooms (Section 3404).
18.4. Liquid storage warehouses (Section 3404).
18.5. Outdoor storage (Section 3404).
18.6. Bulk plants and terminals (Section 3406).
19. Flammable gases systems and facilities:
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19.1. Storage (Section 3504).
19.2. Handling and use (Section 3505).
19.3. CNG storage in portable containers (Section 3507).
19.4. Methane gas recovery from landfills (Section 3508).
20. Flammable solids systems and facilities:
20.1. Storage (Section 3604).
20.2. Handling and use (Section 3605).
21 Flammable spraying, dipping or powder-coating systems and facilities:
21.1. Spray booths (spray finishing)(Section 1504).
21.2. Spray rooms (spray finishing) (Section 1504).
21.3. Dip tanks (Section 1505).
21.4. Spray booths (powder coating) (Section 1507).
21.5. Spray rooms (powder coating) (Section 1507).
22. Flaring systems for refrigerating systems using flammable or toxic or highly toxic
refrigerants (Section 606).
23. Hazardous materials systems and facilities (Sections 2703, 2704 and 2705) (applicable to
compressed gases, corrosive materials, cryogenic fluids, explosives, flammable and
combustible liquids, flammable gases, flammable solids, highly toxic and toxic materials,
LPG, organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unstable (reactive) materials
and water-reactive solids and liquids):
23.1. Tanks (Section 2703).
23.2. Piping, tubing, valves and fittings (Section 2703).
23.3. Highly toxic and toxic compressed gas rooms (Section 2703).
24. Highly toxic and toxic materials systems and facilities:
24.1. Storage, handling and use of highly toxic and toxic solids and liquids (Section
3703).
24.2. Storage, handling and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases (Section
3704).
24.3. Ozone gas generators (Section 3705).
25. High-piled combustible storage areas (Section 2301).
26. Industrial furnaces (Section 2101).
27. Liquid motor fuel-dispensing systems:
27.1. Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities (Section 2201).
27.2. Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities (Section 2201).
28. LPG (Section 3801).
29. Medical gas storage rooms (Section 3006).
30. Non-flammable compressed gases systems and facilities (Section 3003).
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31. Non-water fire extinguishing systems:
31.1. Wet-chemical systems (Section 904).
31.2. Dry chemical systems (Section 904).
31.3. Foam systems (Section 904).
31.4. Carbon dioxide systems (Section 904).
31.5. Halon systems (Section 904).
31.6. Clean-agent systems (Section 904).
32. Organic coating manufacturing process facilities (Section 2005).
33. Organic peroxides storage and facilities:
33.1. Storage (Section 3904).
33.2. Handling and use (Section 3905).
34. Oxidizer systems and facilities:
34.1. Storage (Section 4004).
34.2. Handling and use (Section 4005).
35. Oxygen-fuel gas systems (Sections 2601 and 2609).
36. Private fire hydrant systems (Section 508).
37. Pyrophoric materials systems and facilities:
37.1. Storage (Section 4104).
37.2. Handling and use (Section 4105).
37.3. Storage, handling and use of silane gas (Section 4106).
38. Pyroxylin plastics systems and facilities (Section 4204).
39. Semiconductor fabrication facilities:
39.1. Facilities (Section 1803).
39.2. Fabrication areas (Section 1803).
39.3. Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms (Section 1803).
40. Treatment systems for refrigerating systems using toxic or highly toxic refrigerants
(Section 606).
41. Unstable (Reactive) materials systems and facilities:
41.1. Storage (Section 4304).
41.2. Handling and use (Section 4305).
42. Water-mist fire extinguishing systems (Section 904).
43. Water-reactive solids and liquids systems and facilities:
43.1. Storage (Section 4404).
43.2. Handling and use (Section 4405).
14
105.4.1 Submissions. Design and installation documents shall be submitted in such number
and in such form and detail as may be prescribed by the commissioner. The design and
installation documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional. The
commissioner may require that such submissions be made in an approved electronic format
or medium.
105.4.2 Information on design and installation documents. Design and installation
documents shall be drawn to scale. Design and installation documents shall indicate the
location, nature and extent of the work proposed and demonstrate compliance with the
requirements of this code, the rules and other applicable laws, rules and regulations.
105.4.3 Reserved.
105.4.4 Approved documents. The commissioner shall approve, or deny, or preliminarily
deny design and installation documents in accordance with the procedures and time periods
set forth in Section 105.2.4. Upon review and approval of design and installation documents,
the commissioner shall mark such approval upon such documents and/or issue a letter of
approval or other form of written authorization. Design and installation documents approved
by the commissioner are approved with the intent that such design and installation documents
comply in all respects with the requirements of this code, the rules and any other applicable
laws, rules or regulations. Review and approval by the commissioner shall not relieve the
applicant of the responsibility of compliance with the requirements of this code, the rules and
any other applicable laws, rules or regulations.
105.4.5 Corrected documents. Where field conditions necessitate any change from the
approved design and installation documents, corrected design and installation documents or
other documentation acceptable to the department shall be submitted.
105.4.6 Retention of design and installation documents. One set of design and installation
documents shall be retained by the commissioner. One set of approved design and
installation documents shall be returned to the applicant, and shall be kept on the site of the
building, structure or at the work site at all times and readily available for inspection by any
representative of the department until the required permit is posted on the premises as
required by Section 105.3.5, or where no permit is required, until the work performed under
such approved design and installation documents has been inspected and approved by the
department.
105.5 Revocation. The commissioner may revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this
code when:
1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other than that for which it was issued.
2. The permit is used for a purpose or operation other than that listed in the permit.
3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have been violated.
4. There has been a false statement or misrepresentation material to the issuance of the
permit.
15
5. The party engaging in the manufacture, storage, handle, use, sale or transportation of
hazardous materials or combustible materials, or conducting an operation or maintaining a
facility is different from the party to whom the permit was issued.
6. The permit holder fails, refuses or neglects to timely comply with the commissioner’s
orders or notices of violation duly served in accordance with this code, or other law, rule or
regulation enforced by the department.
7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of this code or other applicable law, rule or
regulation.
8. Circumstances or conditions material to the issuance of the permit applied for and issued
have changed.
9. Other good cause exists.
105.6 Required permits. The commissioner shall issue the following permits for the
manufacture, storage, handling, use, transportation and sale of the following materials, the
conduct of the following operations, and the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
the following facilities in accordance with this code:
Aerosol products. A permit is required to store, handle or use an aggregate quantity of Level
1, 2 or 3 aerosol products in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) net weight.
Amusement buildings. A permit is required to maintain or operate a special amusement
building.
Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. A permit is required to maintain or
operate an automotive liquid motor fuel- dispensing facility.
Aviation operations. A permit is required for the following aviation operations:
1. To operate or maintain an aircraft-fueling vehicle.
2. To operate or maintain a seaplane base.
3. To conduct a helicopter landing at other than an approved heliport, helistop or airport.
4. To conduct a helicopter lift operation.
5. To conduct a hot air balloon operation.
Cellulose nitrate film. A permit is required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in
the following quantities:
1. Any amount in a Group A occupancy.
16
2. 10 pounds (4.54 kg) or more in other than a Group A occupancy.
Combustible dust-producing operations. A permit is required to maintain or operate a
grain elevator, flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, cocoa,
magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations producing combustible dusts as defined in
Chapter 2.
Combustible fibers. A permit is required to store or handle combustible fibers in quantities
greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m3).
Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural storage.
Combustible material storage. A permit is required to store in any building, structure,
premises or facility more than 2,000 cubic feet (56.6 m3) gross volume of combustible empty
packing cases, boxes, barrels or similar containers, rubber (excluding tires), cork or similar
combustible material, including combustible waste, or more than 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of
plastic foam products, irrespective of volume.
Exceptions:
1. A permit is not required for such storage in buildings or structures protected
throughout by a sprinkler system.
2. A permit is not required if the storage is kept exclusively in a dedicated area of a
building or structure which is protected throughout by a sprinkler system and
separated from the rest of the building or structure by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated
construction.
Commercial cooking systems. A permit is required to maintain or operate a commercial
cooking system.
Compressed gases. A permit is required to store, handle or use compressed gases in excess
of the amounts listed in Table 105.6(1).
Exception: Permits are not required for motor vehicles equipped for and using
compressed gases as a fuel for propelling the vehicle.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) motor fuel-dispensing facility. A permit is required to
maintain or operate a CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility.
TABLE 105.6(1)
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES
TYPE OF GAS
AMOUNT (SCF)
Corrosive
400
Flammable
400
Highly toxic
Any Amount
Nonflammable and nonoxidizing, except carbon dioxide
3,000
17
Carbon dioxide
Oxidizing
Pyrophoric
4,500
504
Any Amount
Toxic
Unstable (reactive)
Water reactive
Any Amount
Any Amount
Any Amount
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
Compressing gases. A permit is required to compress:
1. A flammable gas to a pressure exceeding 6 psig.
2. A nonflammable, corrosive or oxidizing gas, including air, to a pressure exceeding 100
psig.
Exception: Outdoor air compressing at other than a fair or festival.
Cryogenic fluids. A permit is required to manufacture, store, handle or use, including
dispensing, cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6(2).
Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles equipped for and using cryogenic fluids
as a fuel for propelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the cargo.
TABLE 105.6(2)
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS
TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID
INDOORS
OUTDOORS
(gallons)
(gallons)
Flammable
More than 1
10
Nonflammable
60
100
Oxidizing (includes oxygen)
10
50
Physical or health hazard not indicated
Any Amount
Any Amount
above
For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
Dry cleaning facilities. A permit is required to maintain or operate dry cleaning equipment
that utilizes a Class II or Class III solvent.
Explosives. A permit is required to store, handle, use or sell explosives as follows:
1. Store, sell or offer for sale any amount of black powder and smokeless powder.
2. Store, sell or offer for sale any amount of blasting caps.
3. Store, sell or offer for sale 200 or more shells of small arms ammunition.
18
4. Store, handle, use, sell or offer for sale any amount of explosives, other than those
specified in Items 1, 2 and 3 above.
Fireworks. A permit is required for each display or other event involving the handling,
discharge or other use, or storage for use, of fireworks.
Flammable and combustible liquids. A permit is required:
1. To store, handle or use amounts of Class I liquids, other than paints, varnishes,
lacquers, gasoline and other petroleum-based Class I liquids, in excess of 5 gallons
(19 L), except that a permit is not required for the storage or use of Class I liquids in
the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft.
2. To store, handle or use amounts of gasoline and other petroleum-based Class I liquids
other than paints, varnishes and lacquers, in excess of 2½ gallons (9.5 L), except that a
permit is not required for the storage or use of gasoline or other petroleum-based Class
I liquids in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft.
3. To store, handle or use amounts of Class II or Class III liquids with a flash point of
300°F (149°C) or less, other than paints, varnishes and lacquers, in excess of 10 gallons
(38 L), except that a permit is not required for the storage or use of Class II or Class III
liquids with a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle,
aircraft, or watercraft.
4. To store, handle or use amounts in excess of 20 gallons (76 L) of Class I, Class II or
Class III liquids having a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less that are commonly used
for painting, varnishing, staining or other similar purposes, including paint, varnish and
lacquer.
5. To store, handle or use amounts in excess of 70 gallons of petroleum based Class III
liquids with a flash point exceeding 300°F (149°C).
6. To operate a bulk plant or terminal or bulk transfer facility where flammable and
combustible liquids are blended, produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or
used.
7. To manufacture flammable or combustible liquids.
8. To store and/or use fuel oil stored on a barge or marine vessel moored to or anchored
at privately owned waterfront property.
9. To store and use fuel oil on mobile heating trailers.
Floor finishing. A permit is required to conduct floor finishing or surfacing operations over
an area exceeding 350 square feet (33 m2) using Class I or Class II liquids or where the
quantity of floor finishing or surfacing products stored, handled or used requires a flammable
or combustible liquid permit pursuant to this section.
19
Fruit and crop ripening. A permit is required to maintain or operate a fruit-, or cropripening facility or conduct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas.
Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging. A permit is required to maintain or operate a
facility in which a fumigant or thermal insecticidal fogger is used.
Hazardous materials. A permit is required to store, handle or use hazardous materials in
excess of the amounts set forth in Table 105.6(3).
TABLE 105.6(3)
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
TYPE OF MATERIAL
AMOUNT
Combustible liquids
See Section 105.6 for flammable and
combustible liquids
Corrosive materials
Gases
See Table 105.6(1)
Liquids
55 gallons
Solids
1000 pounds
Explosive materials
See Section 105.6 for explosive materials
Flammable materials
Gases
See Table 105.6(1)
Liquids
See Section 105.6 for flammable and
combustible liquids
Solids
See Table 105.6(4)
Highly toxic materials
Gases
See Table 105.6(1)
Liquids
Any Amount
Solids
Any Amount
Oxidizing materials
Gases
See Table 105.6(1)
Liquids
Class 4
Any Amount
Class 3
1 gallon
Class 2
10 gallons
Class 1
55 gallons
Solids
Class 4
Any Amount
Class 3
10 pounds
Class 2
100 pounds
Class 1
500 pounds
Organic peroxides
Liquids
Class I
Any Amount
Class II
Any Amount
Class III
1 gallon
Class IV
2 gallons
Class V
No Permit Required
Solids
20
Any Amount
Any Amount
10 pounds
20 pounds
No Permit Required
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V
Pyrophoric materials
Gases
Liquids
Solids
Toxic materials
Gases
Liquids
Solids
Unstable (reactive) materials
Gases
Liquids
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Solids
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Water-reactive Materials
Gases
Liquids
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Solids
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
See Table 105.6(1)
Any Amount
Any Amount
See Table 105.6(1)
10 gallons
100 pounds
See Table 105.6(1)
Any Amount
Any Amount
5 gallons
10 gallons
Any Amount
Any Amount
50 pounds
100 pounds
See Table 105.6(1)
Any Amount
5 gallons
55 gallons
Any Amount
50 pounds
500 pounds
For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
TABLE 105.6(4)
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR FLAMMABLE SOLIDS
FORMS OF FLAMMABLE
INDOORS
OUTDOORS
SOLID
(pounds)
(pounds)
Pigs, ingots, billets, heavy
1,000
100
castings
Light castings, light metallic
125
100
products
Scraps, shavings, powders,
1
100
dusts
21
Hazardous production material (HPM) facilities. A permit is required to store, handle or
use hazardous production materials.
High-piled storage. A permit is required to use an area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2) in
a building or structure or part thereof as a high-piled storage area.
Hot work operations. A permit is required to conduct hot work using oxygen and a
flammable gas.
Industrial furnaces. A permit is required to maintain or operate an industrial furnace
regulated by Chapter 21.
Laboratory units. A permit is required to store, handle or use hazardous materials in a
laboratory unit in amounts exceeding 1 gallon (3..8 L) of flammable liquid, 1 gallon (3.8 L)
of combustible liquid or 75 SCF (2.12 m3) of flammable gas.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A permit is required to store, handle or use amounts of
LPG in excess of the amounts set forth in Table 105.6(1).
Exception: A permit is not required for stationary installations in Group R-3
occupancies.
Lumber yards. A permit is required to store amounts of lumber exceeding 100,000 board
feet (8,333 ft3) (236 m3).
Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. A permit is required to maintain or operate a
marine liquid motor fuel dispensing facility.
Methane recovery. A permit is required for the recovery of methane from landfills and
related processing.
Natural gas liquefication facility. A permit is required to maintain or operate a natural gas
liquefication facility.
Open flames. A permit is required to use open flames:
1. In any public assembly occupancy.
2. In any other place of public gathering.
3. In a covered mall building.
Organic coatings. A permit is required to conduct an organic-coating manufacturing
operation producing more than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in one day.
Places of assembly. A permit is required to maintain or operate a place of assembly.
22
Portable fueled space heaters. A permit is required to store, handle or use portable fueled
space heaters as follows:
1. Fueled by a combustible liquid.
2. Fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG).
3. Fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
4. Fueled by piped natural gas, except in Group R-3 occupancies.
Pyrotechnic material. A permit is required to store, handle or sell, including storage for
sale, any quantity of pyrotechnic materials, articles and devices, other than pyrotechnic
materials, articles and devices used solely for a purpose other than to create a special effect.
Pyroxylin plastics. A permit is required to store, handle and/or use pyroxylin plastics as
follows:
1. To store, handle and/or use more than 25 pounds (11 kg) of raw pyroxylin plastic.
2. To use any amount of raw pyroxylin plastic for the assembly or manufacture of
articles.
Refrigerating system. A permit is required to maintain or operate a refrigerating system that
uses a group A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 or B3 refrigerant or that is mounted on or suspended from a
roof or ceiling.
Exceptions:
1. A refrigerating system of less than five horsepower that uses a group A1
refrigerant and that is not mounted on or suspended from a roof or ceiling.
2. A refrigerating system installed in the residence portion of any building, installed
in motor vehicles, marine vessels, watercraft or tank cars, or employing water or air
as a refrigerant.
Repair garages. A permit is required to maintain or operate a repair garage.
Special effects. A permit is required for:
1. The discharge or other use for any purpose of any material, article or device of an
explosive, flammable or combustible nature used to create a special effect, including
fireworks meeting the definition of fireworks, 1.4G, and pyrotechnic materials, articles
or devices.
2. The storage for use in a special effects display or other event of any material, article or
device of an explosive, flammable or combustible nature, including fireworks meeting
the definition of fireworks, 1.4G, and pyrotechnic materials, articles or devices.
23
Spraying or dipping. A permit is required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation
utilizing flammable or combustible liquids or the application of combustible powders
regulated by Chapter 15.
Sulfur. A permit is required to store, handle or use sulfur in amounts that exceed 200 pounds
(90.8 kg).
Tar kettles. A permit is required to store, handle or use a tar kettle.
Tire-rebuilding plants. A permit is required to maintain or operate a tire-rebuilding plant.
Tires, scrap tires and tire byproducts. A permit is required to store tires, scrap tires and
tire byproducts, except tires mounted on vehicles, in amounts that exceed:
1. 2,500 cubic feet (71 m3) of total volume of scrap tires or 1,000 tires, whichever is less,
either outdoors, or in buildings of noncombustible construction that are protected
throughout by a sprinkler system.
2. 250 cubic feet (7.1 m3) of total volume of scrap tires or 100 tires, whichever is less, in
buildings of combustible construction, or in buildings of noncombustible construction
that are not protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
Transportation of hazardous materials. A permit is required to transport hazardous
materials, as follows:
1. Any marine vessel transporting upon the navigable waters within the city, any amount
of explosives for delivery at a wharf, pier, bulkhead, or other structure over or
contiguous to such navigable waters, or to a marine vessel lying thereto, in excess of
the amount required for the vessel’s own use.
2. Any motor vehicle transporting a flammable liquid in a quantity exceeding 1,000
pounds (454 kg) aggregate gross weight, except vehicles transporting paint products
prominently labeled as such in accordance with applicable laws, rules and regulations.
3. Any motor vehicle transporting a combustible liquid in a quantity exceeding 1,000
pounds (454 kg) aggregate gross weight, except vehicles transporting paint products
prominently labeled as such in accordance with applicable laws, rules and regulations.
4. Any motor vehicle transporting a compressed gas in an amount exceeding the limits set
forth in Tables 105.6(1) or 105.6(2).
5. Any motor vehicle transporting any amount of explosives, except small arms
ammunition.
24
SECTION FC 106
INSPECTIONS
106.1 Inspection authority. The commissioner may enter and examine any building, structure,
facility, premises, marine vessel, watercraft or vehicle in accordance with Section 104.3 for the
purpose of enforcing this code or any other law, rule or regulation enforced by the commissioner.
106.2 Reserved.
106.3 Concealed work. Whenever any installation subject to inspection, testing and/or approval
in accordance with this code, the construction codes or any other law, rule or regulation prior to
use is covered or concealed without having first been inspected, tested and/or approved, the
commissioner may require that such work be exposed for inspection.
SECTION FC 107
MAINTENANCE
107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Whenever or wherever any device, equipment or system is
installed, condition is established, or action is taken, whether or not required for compliance with
the requirements of this code or the rules, such device, equipment, system, condition, or action
shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with this code and the rules.
107.2 Testing and operation. Devices, equipment and systems requiring periodic inspection,
testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be inspected, tested or operated as set forth in
this code and the rules.
107.2.1 Test and inspection records. Required test and inspection records shall be available
at all times for inspection by any representative of the department or such records as the
commissioner designates shall be filed with the department.
107.2.2 Reinspection and testing. Where any work, installation or test required to be
witnessed by a representative of the department does not pass an initial inspection or test, the
necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance with the requirements of this
code or other law, rule or regulation enforced by the commissioner. The non-complying
condition shall then be corrected and arrangements made for reinspection and/or retesting.
107.3 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervision of a competent
person who shall ensure that such maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in
accordance with this code and the rules. When required by specific provisions of this code or the
rules, such person shall be certified by the department or the Department of Buildings.
107.4 Tampering with or rendering equipment inoperable. It shall be unlawful for any person
to deface, obscure, remove or otherwise tamper with or render inoperable or inaccessible any fire
protection system, fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, portable fire extinguisher or
other fire appliance and related appurtenances, except as necessary during emergencies,
maintenance, repairs, alterations, drills, prescribed testing or as otherwise authorized by the
commissioner.
25
Exception: Non-emergency use of fire hydrants approved by the Department of
Environmental Protection.
107.4.1 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Coverings placed on or over fire
protection devices to protect them from damage during construction operations shall be
removed immediately upon the completion of each work shift.
107.4.2 Other tampering. Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or
seals required by this code, the rules, permit or order of the commissioner shall not be
removed, defaced, obscured, unlocked and/or otherwise rendered illegible or inoperable.
107.5 Owner/occupant responsibility. The owner shall be responsible at all times for the safe
maintenance of a building, structure and premises in accordance with this code. Correction and
abatement of violations of this code and the rules shall be the responsibility of the owner. If an
occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazardous conditions in violation of this code or the
rules, the occupant shall also be responsible for the abatement of such hazardous conditions.
107.6 Overcrowding. It shall be unlawful to cause overcrowding, maintain an indoor or outdoor
space in an overcrowded condition, or allow an indoor or outdoor area or space to become
overcrowded. The commissioner may order remedial actions necessary to abate the
overcrowding condition and prevent future recurrence of such condition, including suspending or
terminating the event or other gathering, vacating the premises, enforcing the lawful use and
maximum occupancy of the premises and/or requiring the provision of fire guards.
107.7 Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping required by this code, the rules or the referenced
standards, including records of staff training, inspections, tests, servicing and other operation or
maintenance of devices, equipment, systems or facilities, shall be maintained on the premises or
other approved location for a minimum of 3 years, unless a different period of time is specified
in such code, rules or referenced standards.
SECTION FC 108
RESERVED
SECTION FC 109
VIOLATIONS
109.1 Violations. The provisions of this code and the rules shall be enforced in accordance with
this chapter, Title 15 of the New York City Administrative Code and the rules.
109.2 Penalties. Penalties for violations of this code and the rules shall be in accordance with
this chapter, Title 15 of the New York City Administrative Code and the rules.
109.2.1 Transportation of extremely hazardous materials. Except for transportation
subject to Section 2707.4 and in addition to any other penalties provided by law, rule or
regulation, a person who transports explosives, fireworks, chlorine, or any hazardous
material in violation of this code or the rules shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon
conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars and not
26
more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisonment for not more than six months or both, for
each offense.
109.2.2 Failure to provide fire protection systems. In addition to any other penalties
provided by law, rule or regulation, any person who shall violate, or refuse, or neglect to
comply with any provision of law requiring a sprinkler system, fire alarm system or
emergency lighting in a Group A occupancy shall upon conviction thereof be punished by a
fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars for the first
violation, not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars for the
second violation, not less than fifteen hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars for
the third violation, and not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars
for the fourth violation, and every subsequent violation, or, for any such violation by
imprisonment for not more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
109.2.3 Criminal liability. In the event that any person is burned by the explosion of any
material the sale of which is prohibited by this code, or which has not been approved as
herein provided, and death ensues therefrom, in addition to any other penalties provided by
law, rule or regulation, the person found guilty of selling the material shall be deemed guilty
of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished by a fine of not less than one thousand
dollars, nor more than five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment for a term not less than one
year nor more than five years; and in case of a bodily injury the person injured may maintain
an action for damages against the person violating the provisions of this code.
109.2.4 Civil penalty for use of fireworks without a permit. Nothwithstanding any other
provision of law, and in addition to any criminal penalties that may apply, any person who
violates Section 105.6 by discharging or otherwise using fireworks without a permit shall be
liable for a civil penalty of seven hundred fifty dollars, which may be recoverable in a
proceeding before the New York City Environmental Control Board. For the purposes of
subdivision e of Section 15-230 of the Administrative Code, such violation shall be deemed to
be hazardous.
SECTION FC 110
RESERVED
SECTION FC 111
ORDER TO DISCONTINUE WORK
111.1 Order. Whenever the commissioner finds any work regulated by this code or the rules
being performed in a manner contrary to the provisions of such code or the rules, any design and
installation document approved by the department, or any condition of a permit, or otherwise
being performed in an unsafe manner, the commissioner may issue an order to discontinue work.
111.2 Issuance. An order to discontinue work shall be in writing and shall be issued to the owner
or other person authorizing, supervising or engaging in the work. Upon issuance of an order to
discontinue work, the cited work shall immediately cease. The order to discontinue work shall
state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work may resume.
27
111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the commissioner shall not be required to give
written notice prior to ordering the work discontinued.
SECTION FC 112
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
112.1 Approval of articles, equipment and devices. Where required by this code, the
manufacturer of any article, equipment or device installed in any facility or used in connection
with any material or operation shall obtain a certificate of approval for the design, installation,
operation and/or maintenance of such article, equipment or device.
112.2 Conditions of approval. The commissioner may set forth in the certificate of approval
conditions on the approved purpose or use of such article, equipment or device, or type, class or
kind thereof, as may be necessary in the interest of public safety. The commissioner may include
under a single certificate of approval more than one type, class or kind of article, equipment or
device of a similar design or common characteristic.
112.3 Markings. Each article, equipment or device, or type, class or kind thereof, for which a
certificate of approval has been issued shall have the number of such certificate plainly stamped
or otherwise affixed upon it.
112.4 List of acceptable laboratories, articles and devices. A current list of all testing services
and laboratories acceptable to the commissioner for the purpose of testing articles, equipment
and devices, and a current list of all acceptable articles, equipment and devices shall be
maintained by the department and made available for public inspection.
112.5 Application. Applications for a new or renewal certificate of approval required by the
provisions of this code or the rules shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as
the commissioner may prescribe, including such information and documentation as the
commissioner may require. An application for a certificate of approval shall include complete
drawings of and specifications for the article, equipment or device for which approval is sought
and, unless the commissioner determines that it is impracticable, the article, equipment or device
itself shall be attached to or submitted with the application. The commissioner may require that
the article, equipment or device be examined, tested or demonstrated at the applicant’s expense
in a manner prescribed by the commissioner, including examination and testing by a testing
laboratory acceptable to the commissioner. In those instances where a testing or performance
standard is not prescribed by this code or the rules, the article, equipment or device or type, class
or kind of article, equipment or device shall have been examined and tested in a manner
acceptable to the commissioner.
112.6 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application for a certificate of approval upon a
determination that the application article, equipment or device is designed for the purpose for
which it is to be used and can be safely operated in accordance with this code, the rules and other
applicable laws, rules and regulations.
112.6.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal thereof granted by the
commissioner shall be for a period as specified therein, not to exceed 3 years, and shall
expire at the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its renewal.
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112.6.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. Applicants may apply for
renewal during the period from 60 days prior to a certificate’s expiration date to not more
than one year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew certificates that have
been expired for more than one year. Applicants holding such certificates must apply for
an original certificate and comply with all the original certificate requirements.
112.6.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discretion of the commissioner in
the interest of public safety. The department may reevaluate the design and safety of the
article, equipment or device in light of changes in applicable laws, rules or regulations,
new technology, and safety concerns arising from the use of the article, equipment or
device.
112.7 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to install articles, equipment or devices
authorized by a certificate after the term of such certificate has expired.
112.8 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commissioner may, at any time, revoke or
suspend a certificate for good cause. The certificate holder shall be afforded notice and an
opportunity to be heard prior to any such suspension or revocation except that, in the
circumstance of an imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to be heard may
be given promptly after such revocation or suspension.
SECTION FC 113
CERTIFICATES OF FITNESS AND QUALIFICATION
113.1 Supervision required. The commissioner may require that a material, operation or facility
subject to the provisions of this code, the rules, or other laws, rules and regulations enforced by
the department, be manufactured, stored, handled, used, maintained, inspected and tested,
transported, conducted by, or operated under the supervision of, a person holding a certificate
pursuant to this section. The commissioner may require such supervision to be personal
supervision or general supervision of the material, operation or facility. Where a reference in this
code is made to a certificate of fitness without identifying the type of certificate, such reference
shall be to the certificate of fitness designated by the commissioner as appropriate to conduct or
supervise the material, operation or facility.
113.1.1 Work location. Except as otherwise provided in this code or the rules, the
commissioner may issue certificates for one or more designated work locations.
113.2 Duties. In addition to any other responsibilities specified in this code or the rules, a
certificate holder shall be responsible for:
1. The safe manufacturing, storage, handling, use, operation, maintenance, inspection,
testing, repair and/or supervision of the material, operation or facility for which the
certificate is required, in accordance with this code, the rules, and any other applicable
laws, rules and regulations.
2. Notifying the department of any explosion, fire, reportable leak or other release of
hazardous material, or other emergency related to the duties of his or her certificate.
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3. Keeping such certificate upon his or her person or otherwise readily available for
inspection by any representative of the department, at all times while conducting or
supervising the material, operation or facility for which the certificate is required.
113.3 Applications. Applications for new or renewal certificates required by the provisions of
this code or the rules shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the
commissioner may prescribe, including such information and documentation as the
commissioner may require.
113.4 Minimum qualifications. Applicants for certificates shall comply with the following
minimum requirements:
1. Be at least 18 years of age, or such age above the age of 18 as may be required by law, rule
or regulation.
2. Have a reasonable understanding of the English language and be able to answer
satisfactorily such questions as may be asked of such applicant upon his or her
examination.
3. Present such evidence of his or her character, habits and past employment, as may be
satisfactory to the commissioner.
4. Present such evidence of his or her qualifications as set forth in the rules or the
department’s notice of examination for such certificate.
5. Pass an examination, administered by the department or other entity that tests the
applicant’s knowledge of the code, law, rules and regulations governing the regulated
material, operation or facility, and the precautions and other actions necessary to ensure the
proper and safe performance of his or her duties as a certificate holder.
6. When applying for a certificate of fitness relating to storage, handling and use of
explosives, present proof of United States citizenship.
113.5 Investigation. Applicants are subject to an investigation by the department in connection
with their application and their qualifications and fitness for the certificate.
113.6 Fingerprinting. Applicants for a certificate of fitness for the storage, use and handling of
explosives, fireworks, pyrotechnics and special effects shall be fingerprinted and a criminal
background check conducted for the purposes authorized by law. The commissioner may require
such fingerprinting and criminal background check for other certificates.
113.7 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application for a certificate upon a
determination that the applicant possesses the qualifications and fitness required for such
certificate, as set forth in the code and the rules.
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113.7.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal thereof granted by the commissioner
shall be for a period as specified therein, not to exceed 3 years, and shall expire at the end of
such period unless the commissioner approves its renewal.
113.7.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. Applicants may apply for renewal
during the period from 60 days prior to a certificate’s expiration date to not more than one
year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew certificates that have been expired for
more than one year. Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original certificate
and comply with all of the original certificate requirements.
113.7.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discretion of the commissioner in the
interest of public safety based on a review of the certificate holder’s qualifications and fitness.
The department may review certificate holder’s qualifications and fitness and may require a
certificate holder to complete a department-approved continuing education program and/or
provide other proof of the holder’s continuing qualifications and fitness.
113.8 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to perform or provide such supervision for a
material, operation or facility authorized by a certificate after the term of such certificate has
expired.
113.9 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commissioner may, at any time, revoke or
suspend a certificate for misconduct, or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be afforded
notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such suspension or revocation except that, in
the circumstance of an imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to be heard
may be given promptly after such revocation or suspension.
SECTION FC 114
CERTIFICATES OF LICENSE
114.1 Supervision required. The commissioner may require that the installation, alteration,
testing and repair of liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment and systems, and
flammable or combustible liquid storage systems, be conducted by a person holding a certificate
of license or by an employee of such certificate holder working under his or her direct
supervision.
114.2 Duties. In addition to any other responsibilities specified in this code or the rules, a
certificate of license holder shall be responsible for:
1. The proper and safe installation, alteration, testing and repair of liquid motor fuel storage
and dispensing equipment and systems, and flammable or combustible liquid storage
systems in accordance with this code, the rules, and any other applicable laws, rules and
regulations.
2. Verifying that all required approvals from the department have been obtained prior to
installing, altering, testing or repairing liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment,
and flammable or combustible liquid storage systems.
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3. Notifying the department of any explosion, fire, reportable leak or other release of
hazardous material, or other emergency related to the duties of his or her certificate.
114.3 Applications. Applications for new or renewal certificates required by the provisions of
this code or the rules shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the
commissioner may prescribe, including such information and documentation as the
commissioner may require.
114.4 Minimum qualifications. Applicants for certificates shall comply with the following
minimum requirements:
1. Be at least 18 years of age.
2. Have a reasonable understanding of the English language and be able to answer
satisfactorily such questions as may be asked of such applicant upon his or her
examination.
3. Present such evidence of his or her character and past employment, as may be satisfactory
to the commissioner.
4. Present such evidence of his or her qualifications set forth in the rules or the department’s
notice of examination for such certificate.
5. Pass an examination, administered by the department or other entity, that tests the
applicant’s knowledge of the code, law, rules and regulations governing the installation,
alteration, testing and repair of liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment and
systems and flammable and combustible liquid storage systems the precautions and other
actions necessary to ensure the proper and safe performance of his or her duties as a
certificate holder.
114.5 Investigation. Applicants and their principals are subject to an investigation by the
department in connection with their application and their qualifications and fitness for the
certificate.
114.6 Fingerprinting. The commissioner may require the fingerprinting and criminal
background check of applicants for a certificate for purposes authorized by law.
114.7 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application for a certificate of license upon a
determination that the applicant possesses the qualifications and fitness required for such
certificate, as set forth in the code and the rules.
114.7.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal thereof granted by the
commissioner shall be for a period as specified therein, not to exceed 2 years, and shall
expire at the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its renewal.
114.7.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. Applicants may apply for renewal
during the period from 60 days prior to a certificate’s expiration date to not more than one
year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew certificates that have been expired for
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more than one year. Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original certificate
and comply with all of the original certificate requirements.
114.7.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discretion of the commissioner in the
interest of public safety based on a review of the certificate holder’s qualifications and
fitness. The department may review certificate holder’s qualifications and fitness and may
require a certificate holder to complete a department-approved continuing education program
and/or provide other proof of the holder’s continuing qualifications and fitness.
114.8 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to engage in the business authorized by a
certificate after the term of such certificate has expired.
114.9 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commissioner may, at any time, revoke or
suspend a certificate for misconduct or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be afforded
notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such suspension or revocation except that, in
the circumstance of an imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to be heard
may be given promptly after such revocation or suspension.
114.10 Insurance. The commissioner may require certificate holders to obtain and furnish proof
of general liability insurance, in such amounts and in accordance with such requirements, as may
be set forth in the code or the rules, otherwise required by law, or required as a condition of the
certificate issuance. The certificate shall expire by operation of law if any such required
insurance lapses, expires or is cancelled during the term of the certificate.
SECTION FC 115
COMPANY CERTIFICATES
115.1 Duties. A certificate holder shall be responsible for the safe manufacturing, storage,
handling, use, operation, maintenance, inspection, testing, repair and/or supervision of the
activity for which the certificate is required, in accordance with this code, the rules and any other
applicable laws, rules or regulations.
115.2 Applications. Applications for new or renewal certificates required by the provisions of
this code or the rules shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the
commissioner may prescribe, including such information and documentation as the
commissioner may require.
115.3 Minimum qualifications. Applicants and their principals shall submit evidence acceptable
to the commissioner of such experience and qualifications as set forth in this code, the rules or
the department’s notice of examination for such certificate.
115.4 Investigation. Applicants and their principals are subject to an investigation by the
department in connection with their application and their qualifications and fitness for the
certificate.
115.5 Fingerprinting. The commissioner may require the fingerprinting and criminal
background check of applicants for a certificate and their principals.
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115.6 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application for a company certificate upon a
determination that the applicant possesses all of the qualifications for such certificate, as set forth
in the code and the rules.
115.6.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal thereof granted by the
commissioner shall be for a period as specified therein, not to exceed 2 years, and shall
expire at the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its renewal.
115.6.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. Applicants may apply for renewal
during the period from 60 days prior to a certificate’s expiration date to not more than one
year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew certificates that have been expired for
more than one year. Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original certificate
and comply with all the original certificate requirements.
115.6.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discretion of the commissioner in the
interest of public safety based on a review of the certificate holder’s qualifications and
fitness. The department may review certificate holder’s qualifications and fitness and may
require a certificate holder to complete a department-approved continuing education program
and/or provide other proof of the holder’s continuing qualifications and fitness.
115.7 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to engage in the business authorized by a
certificate after the term of such certificate has expired.
115.8 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commissioner may, at any time, revoke or
suspend a certificate for misconduct or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be afforded
notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such suspension or revocation except that, in
the circumstance of an imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to be heard
may be given promptly after such revocation or suspension.
115.9 Misrepresentation as department employees. No person may falsely represent himself
or herself to be a member or agent of the department.
115.10 Insurance. The commissioner may require certificate holders to obtain and furnish proof
of general liability insurance, in such amounts and in accordance with such requirements, as may
be set forth in the code or the rules, otherwise required by law, or required as a condition of the
certificate issuance. The certificate shall expire by operation of law if any such required
insurance lapses, expires or is cancelled during the term of the certificate.
SECTION FC 116
EXPEDITOR REGISTRATION CERTIFICATES
116.1 Registration. No person may submit, file, request, negotiate or otherwise seek approval of
applications for issuance of permits, or other approvals, including approval of design and
installation documents, without first having obtained an expeditor registration certificate in
accordance with this section and the rules. It shall be unlawful to hold oneself out to the public or
otherwise represent that one is “registered with the fire department”, “registered” or make any
similar representation in such a manner as to convey the impression that such person is registered
with the department unless such person is registered in accordance with this section.
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Exceptions: The following persons are exempt from the provisions of this section:
1. Any person or entity making application on his, her or its own behalf. If the applicant
is a partnership or corporation, the general partners and principal officers thereof shall
be included within this exception. Principal officers of a corporation shall include the
president, vice presidents, secretary and treasurer.
2. The occupants of a premises that is the subject of the application, if authorized by the
owner to file the application.
3. Registered architects licensed by the New York State Department of Education.
4. Professional engineers licensed by the New York State Department of Education.
5. Attorneys admitted to practice in New York State.
6. Master plumbers licensed by the Commissioner of Buildings, when such application
relates to work performed under their license.
7. Master fire suppression piping contractors licensed by the Commissioner of Buildings,
when such application relates to work performed under their license.
8. Master electricians licensed by the Commissioner of Buildings, when such application
relates to work performed under their license.
9. Certificate of license holders, when such application relates to work performed under
their license.
10. Fire safety director or fire safety/emergency action plan director certificate holders
when the application relates to the fire safety and evacuation plan or emergency action
plan of the building for which they are registered.
116.2 Applications. Applications for new or renewal expeditor registration certificates required
by Section 116.1 shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the commissioner
may prescribe, including such information and documentation as the commissioner may require.
116.3 Investigation. Applicants are subject to an investigation by the department in connection
with their application and their qualifications and fitness for the certificate.
116.4 Fingerprinting. The commissioner may require fingerprinting and a criminal background
check for a certificate for purposes authorized by law.
116.5 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application for a certificate upon a
determination that the applicant possesses all of the qualifications for such certificate, as set forth
in the code and the rules, qualifying the applicant to appear before the department to submit, file,
request, negotiate or otherwise seek approval of applications for issuance of permits, or other
approvals.
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116.5.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal thereof granted by the
commissioner shall be for a period as specified therein, not to exceed 2 years, and shall
expire at the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its renewal.
116.5.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. Applicants may apply for renewal
during the period from 60 days prior to a certificate’s expiration date to not more than one
year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew certificates that have been expired for
more than one year. Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original certificate
and comply with all the original certificate requirements.
116.5.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discretion of the commissioner in the
interest of public safety based on a review of the certificate holder’s qualifications and
fitness.
116.6 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to engage in the business authorized by a
certificate when the term of such certificate has expired.
116.7 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commissioner may, at any time, revoke or
suspend a certificate for misconduct or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be afforded
notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such suspension or revocation except that, in
the circumstance of an imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to be heard
may be given promptly after such revocation or suspension.
SECTION FC 117
FEES
117.1 Fees. Fees shall be as set forth in Appendix A.
117.2 Fee exemptions. Exemptions from department fees shall be in accordance with Sections
117.2.1 through 117.2.3.
117.2.1 Permit, inspection and performance test fee exemption. The provisions of this
code as to the payment of fees for permits, inspections or witnessing of required system
performance tests shall not apply to premises used and owned or operated by a church,
corporation or association organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable or
educational purposes that is qualified as an exempt organization pursuant to United States
Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c)(3), provided that no part of the net earnings enures to
the benefit of any private shareholder or individual, and provided further, that this exemption
shall apply only to such portions of the premises as are used by such church, corporation or
association for religious, charitable or educational purposes.
117.2.2 Individual certificate fee exemption. Employees of the city who submit evidence
satisfactory to the commissioner that they require such certificate as a condition of their
continued employment with the city shall be exempt from payment of any application,
written examination, practical examination and renewal fees. This fee exemption shall not
include any required late renewal or fingerprinting fees. Certificate holders converting their
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certificate from fee-exempt to non-fee-exempt status shall be required to pay all applicable
original application, written examination and practical examination fees previously waived.
117.2.3 Company certificate fee exemption. Agencies of the city that require certificates to
conduct the business of their agency shall be exempt from payment of certificate fees.
117.3 Penalties and fees for late renewal. Failure to timely render payment of fees for any
certificate, permit or other approval issued by the commissioner, or service provided by the
department, shall be sufficient grounds for denial of a certificate, permit or other approval or
service, or renewal thereof. Fees for late renewal shall be in accordance with Sections 117.3.1
through 117.3.2.2.
117.3.1 Late renewal of certificates. In addition to the payment of the renewal fee, any
applicant renewing a certificate more than 90 days but less than one year after its expiration
date shall be subject to a late filing charge of 50 percent of the renewal fee or 25 dollars,
whichever is greater.
117.3.2 Late renewal of permits. Fees for late permit renewal shall be in accordance with
Sections 117.3.2.1 and 117.3.2.2, except the commissioner may waive the payment of late
filing fees or prior annual fees, or both, upon a determination that the late renewal was
caused by circumstances beyond the control of the applicant.
117.3.2.1 Renewal within one year. In addition to the payment of the renewal fee, any
applicant renewing a permit more than 90 days but less than one year after its expiration
date shall be subject to a late filing charge of 50 percent of the renewal fee.
117.3.2.2 Renewal after one year. In addition to the payment of the renewal fee, any
applicant renewing a permit later than one year after its expiration date shall be subject to
a late filing charge of 100 percent of the renewal fee. Such applicant shall be liable also
for all the annual fees which should have been paid from the date on which the permit
expired to the date on which such permit was renewed.
117.3.3 Late payment of fees for services. All fees for services rendered by the department,
including inspections and witnessing of tests, shall be paid within 30 days of receipt of the
bill therefor. Any disputes regarding such bill shall be submitted in writing within 20 days of
the date of receipt thereof. Failure to timely remit payment shall subject the owner or other
person receiving such service to be additionally liable to the department for interest on the
compensation due and owing to the department. Such interest shall be computed for the
period from the date of the bill to the date of payment, based on the amount of the bill and
the rate of interest set forth in Section 5004 of the New York Civil Practice Law and Rules.
117.4 Liens on property for permit and inspection fees. Liens on property for permit and
inspection fees shall be as follows:
1. Any unpaid fee for an inspection performed by the department pursuant to law or rule, any
unpaid fee for the issuance or renewal pursuant to this code of a permit to manufacture,
store, handle, use or sell hazardous materials or combustible materials, or conduct an
operation or maintain a facility on land or in a building specified therein, and any unpaid
37
penalties imposed for late payment of any such renewal fees shall constitute a lien upon the
land and buildings upon or in respect to which such inspection was performed, or upon the
land and buildings specified in such permit, as hereinafter provided.
2. There shall be filed in the office of the department a record of all fees for inspections
performed by or on behalf of the department, all fees for permits to manufacture, store,
handle, use or sell hazardous materials or combustible materials, or conduct an operation or
maintain a facility on land or in a building issued or renewed by the department, and all
penalties for late payment of any such renewal fees imposed by the department. Such
records shall be kept on a building by building basis and shall be accessible to the public
during normal business hours. An entry of a fee on the records of the department shall
constitute notice to all parties.
3. All such unpaid fees shall constitute a lien upon the land and building upon or in respect to
which such inspection was performed, or upon the land and buildings specified in such
permit, when the amount thereof shall have been definitely computed as a statement of
account by the department, and the department shall cause to be filed in the office of the
city collector an entry of the account stated in the book in which such charges against the
premises are to be entered. Such lien shall have a priority over all other liens and
encumbrances except for the lien of taxes and assessments. However, no lien created
pursuant to this section shall be enforced against a subsequent purchaser in good faith or
mortgagee in good faith unless such transaction occurred after the date of entry of a fee on
the records of the department pursuant to Section 117.4(2).
4. A notice thereof, stating the amount due and the nature of the charge, shall be mailed by
the city collector, within 5 days after such entry, to the last known address of the person
whose name appears on the records in the office of the city collector as being the owner or
agent or as a person designated by the owner to receive tax bills or, where no name
appears, to the premises, addressed to either the owner or the agent.
5. If such charge is not paid within 30 days from the date of entry, it shall be the duty of the
city collector to receive interest thereon at a rate of 15 percent per annum, to be calculated
to the date of payment from the date of entry.
6. Such charges and the interest thereon shall continue to be, until paid, a lien on the
premises. Such lien shall be a tax lien within the meaning of Sections 11-319 and 11-401 of
the New York City Administrative Code and may be sold, enforced or foreclosed in the
manner provided in Chapters 1, 3 and 4 of Title 11 of the New York City Administrative
Code or may be satisfied in accordance with Section 1354 of the New York State Real
Property Actions and Proceedings Law.
7. Such notice mailed by the city collector pursuant to this section shall have stamped or
printed thereon a reference to this section of this code.
8. In any proceedings to enforce or discharge a lien created pursuant to this section, the
validity of the lien shall not be subject to challenge based on the lawfulness of the
inspection, or the propriety and accuracy of the fee for which a lien is claimed, except as
provided in this section.
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9. No such challenge may be made except by the owner of the property, or a mortgagee or
lienor whose mortgage or lien would, but for the provisions of this section, have priority
over the department’s lien.
117.5 Disposition of revenues. All fees, fines and forfeitures and all proceeds of suits for
penalties, which may be paid or collected pursuant to this code, shall be paid into the general
fund of the city established pursuant to Section 109 of the New York City Charter.
CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS
SECTION FC 201
GENERAL
201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for the purposes of
this code, have the meanings set forth in this chapter.
201.2 Interchangeability. Words stated in the present tense include the future; words stated in
the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural
and the plural the singular.
201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined
in the construction codes or Electrical Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them
as in those codes. Any reference to any of the construction codes shall be deemed to include any
related or other applicable provisions of any of the construction codes.
201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this
section, such terms shall have the ordinarily accepted meanings as the context implies.
SECTION FC 202
DEFINITIONS
AEROSOL. See Section 2802.1.
Level 1. See Section 2802.1.
Level 2. See Section 2802.1.
Level 3. See Section 2802.1.
AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1.
AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1.
AIRBLAST. See Section 3302.1.
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AIRCRAFT LANDING SITE. See Section 1102.1.
AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA. See Section 1102.1.
AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.
AIRPORT. See Section 1102.1.
AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.
ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.
ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.
ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Section 3402.1.
ALTERATION. Any addition to, or modification of, an existing installation, other than any
repair made in the ordinary course of maintenance.
AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302.1.
ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1.
APPLICATION. An application submitted to the commissioner for a permit, certificate or other
approval or determination issued or made by the commissioner pursuant to this code or other
law, rule or regulation, including documents and oral representations submitted in connection
with such application.
APPROVED. Acceptable to the commissioner.
AREAWAY. See Section 502.1.
ARRAY. See Section 2302.1.
ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1.
ASSISTANT BLASTER. See Section 3302.1.
AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.
AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING FACILITY. See Section 302.1.
AVIATION FACILITY. See Section 1102.1.
BARRICADE. See Section 3302.1.
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Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1.
Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1.
BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1.
BATTERY, LEAD ACID. See Section 602.1.
BATTERY, VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA). See Section 602.1.
BATTERY, VENTED (FLOODED) LEAD-ACID. See Section 602.1.
BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See Section 602.1.
BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1.
BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1.
BLAST SITE. See Section 3302.1.
BLASTER. See Section 3302.1.
BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302.1.
BLASTING CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. See Section 3302.1.
BLASTING CREW. See Section 3302.1.
BLASTING OPERATION. See Section 3302.1.
BOILING POINT. See Section 2702.1.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound
(0.454 kg) of water by 1°F (0.5565°C).
BUILDING. An enclosed structure designed or occupied to house any use or occupancy.
BUILDING CODE. The New York City Building Code in effect on and after July 1, 2008.
BULK NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1.
BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1.
BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1.
BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1.
BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1.
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CARGO TANK. See Section 2702.1.
CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.
CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1.
CENTRAL STATION. See Section 902.1.
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL. A written statement issued by the commissioner, certifying
that an article, device or equipment, or type, class or kind thereof, has been examined, tested and
approved for a specific purpose or use in conformity with the requirements of this code or the
rules.
CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS. A written statement issued by the commissioner certifying that
the person to whom it is issued has passed an examination as to his or her qualifications or is
otherwise deemed qualified to use or supervise the storage, handling and use of a material,
conduct or supervise an operation, or supervise a facility for which such certificate is required by
this code or the rules.
CERTIFICATE OF LICENSE. A written statement issued by the commissioner authorizing
the operation of a business to install, alter, test or repair liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing
equipment and systems or flammable or combustible liquid storage systems, for which such
certificate is required by this code or the rules.
CERTIFICATE OF OPERATION. See Section 902.1.
CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION. See Section 602.1.
CERTIFIED ATTENDANT. See Section 2202.1.
CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1.
CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702.1.
CITYWIDE STANDARD KEY. See Section 502.1.
CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1.
CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1.
CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of any compressed gas, and the use of a solid or liquid hazardous
material in equipment or a vessel or system that remains closed during normal operation, such
that vapors emitted during the operation of such equipment, vessel, or system are not liberated
outside of the equipment, vessel or system and the gas or hazardous material is not exposed to
the atmosphere during such operation. Examples of closed systems include hazardous materials
conveyed through a piping system into closed equipment or a closed vessel or system.
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CNG. See Section 2202.1.
CNG MOTOR FUEL. See Section 2202.1.
CNG MOTOR FUEL SYSTEM. See Section 2202.1.
CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1.
COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1.
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1.
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE. Any substance, item or other organic or inorganic matter that
presents a fire hazard and is a byproduct or residue of the construction, use or occupancy of any
premises, or any activity conducted thereon, that has no economic value in connection with such
use or occupancy. A combustible waste that has economic value in connection with the use and
occupancy of such premises shall be deemed to be a combustible material.
COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Section 602.1.
COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST
CERTIFICATE. See Section 902.1.
SYSTEM
SERVICING
COMPANY
COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
COMMISSIONER. Fire Commissioner of the City of New York or his or her duly authorized
representative.
COMMODITY. See Section 2302.1.
COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1.
Compressed gases in solution. See Section 3002.1.
Compressed gas mixtures. See Section 3002.1.
Liquefied compressed gases. See Section 3002.1.
Nonliquefied compressed gases. See Section 3002.1.
COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1.
COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1.
CONDITION. The location or manner at or in which a material may be manufactured, stored,
handled, used, or an operation conducted, upon a premises.
43
CONIFER. See Section 802.1.
CONSTRUCTION CODES. The New York City construction codes, consisting of the New
York City Building, Fuel Gas, Mechanical and Plumbing Codes in effect on and after July 1,
2008.
CONSTRUCTION SITE. See Section 1402.1.
CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1.
CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1.
CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1.
CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 1802.1.
CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.
CORROSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3102.1.
CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1.
CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1.
DANGER ZONE. See Section 3302.1.
DECORATION. See Section 802.1.
DECORATIVE MATERIAL. See Section 802.1.
DEFINED FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1.
DEPARTMENT. The Fire Department of the City of New York.
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION DOCUMENTS. Plans and specifications, or other written,
graphic and pictorial documents or submissions, setting forth the location, design, arrangement
and physical characteristics of the device, equipment, system, operation or facility for which
approval by the commissioner is sought.
DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1.
DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1.
DETEARING. See Section 1502.1.
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DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1.
DETONATION. See Section 3302.1.
DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1.
DEVELOPMENT. See Section 502.1.
DIP TANK. See Section 1502.1.
DISCHARGE AREA. See Section 1102.1.
DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1.
DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1.
DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 2202.1.
DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1.
DOTn. United States Department of Transportation.
DOTy. United States Department of Treasury.
DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1.
DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1.
DRY CLEANING FACILITY. See Section 1202.1.
DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Section 1202.1.
DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1.
EAP DIRECTOR. See Section 401.7.2.
EAP DRILL. See Section 402.1.
EAP STAFF. See Section 402.1.
EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1.
ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1.
EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN. See Section 402.1.
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
45
EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1802.1.
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See Section 1002.1.
EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1.
EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1.
EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 2702.1.
EXIT. See Section 1002.1.
EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1.
EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1.
EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1.
EXPLOSION. See Section 2702.1.
EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1.
High Explosive. See Section 3302.1.
Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1.
Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1.
UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1.
EXTERNAL LOAD. See Section 1102.1.
EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.
FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1.
FACILITY. Any premises at, in or upon which a material regulated by this code is
manufactured, stored, handled, used or transported, or an operation regulated by this code is
conducted.
FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1.
FINISHED PYROXYLIN PLASTIC PRODUCTS. See Section 4202.1.
FIRE. A rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases heat and light, especially the burning of
a combustible substance in the presence of oxygen. For purposes of this code, a flame used in
any lawful, properly operating device, equipment or system or other controlled setting shall not
be considered a fire.
46
FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1.
FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1.
FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.
FIRE ALARM SUB-SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502.1.
FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1.
FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1.
FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD KEY. See Section 502.1.
FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.
FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware, and other
components.
FIRE DRILL. See Section 402.1.
FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
FIRE GUARD. See Section 2602.1.
FIRE LANE. See Section 502.1.
FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire.
FIRE POINT. See Section 3402.1.
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
FIRE-RETARDANT COATING. See Section 802.1.
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLAN. See Section 402.1.
FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic
surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the
purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs of fire, raising an alarm
of fire and notifying the department.
FIREWORKS. See Section 3302.1.
47
Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302.1.
Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 3302.1.
FIREWORKS CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. See Section 3302.1.
FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1.
FLAME-RESISTANT MATERIAL. See Section 802.1.
FLAME-RETARDANT TREATMENT. See Section 802.1.
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE SYSTEM. See Section 3402.1.
FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1.
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1.
FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502.1.
FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. See Section 2202.1.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common
sources of heat or at a temperature of 600oF (316oC) or less.
FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1.
FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702.1.
FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1.
FLEET AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section
2202.1.
FLEET CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
FLEET MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
FLOOR FINISHING OPERATION. See Section 1502.1.
FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1.
48
FRONTAGE SPACE. See Section 502.1.
FSP STAFF. See Section 402.1.
FUEL GAS CODE. New York City Fuel Gas Code.
FULL SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.
See Section 2202.1.
FULL SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
FULL SERVICE MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See
Section 2202.1.
FUME CLASS 1. See Section 3302.1.
FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1.
FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1.
FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL
COMPANY CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1.
FOGGING
OPERATION
FURNACE. See Section 2102.1.
CLASS A. See Section 2102.1.
CLASS B. See Section 2102.1.
CLASS C. See Section 2102.1.
CLASS D. See Section 2102.1.
FURNISHING. See Section 802.1.
GAS CABINET. See Section 2702.1.
GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1.
GENERAL SUPERVISION. Except as otherwise provided in this code, supervision by the
holder of any department certificate who is responsible for performing the duties set forth in
Section 113.2 but need not be personally present on the premises at all times.
HANDLING. See Section 2702.1.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.
49
HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See Section 1802.1.
HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1.
HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATION. See Section 1102.1.
HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1.
HELISTOP. See Section 1102.1.
HI-BOY. See Section 302.1.
HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.
HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1.
HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIAL. See Section 3702.1.
HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1.
HOOD. See Section 602.1.
Type I. See Section 602.1.
HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATION. See Section 1102.1.
HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1.
HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1.
HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1.
HOT WORK PROGRAM AUTHORIZATIONS. See Section 2602.1.
HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1.
HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1.
HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1.
HYDRANT-FUELING VEHICLE. See Section 1102.1.
IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 2702.1.
IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1.
INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.
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INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1.
INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.
INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1.
IRRITANT. A material which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory
effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A material shall be classified a
skin irritant if, when tested in accordance with the regulations of the United States Consumer
Product Safety Commission, as set forth in 16 CFR Section 1500.41, it results in an empirical
score of 5 or more. A material shall be classified as an eye irritant in accordance with the
regulations of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, as set forth in 16 CFR
Section 1500.42.
JOB SITE. See Section 3302.1.
KEY BOX. See Section 502.1.
LABELED. A listed material, device, equipment or system to which has been attached a label,
symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory or other approved
organization, and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards and
designates suitable usage.
LABORATORY CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1.
LABORATORY UNIT. See Section 2702.1.
LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202.1.
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS ( LPG). See Section 3802.1.
LIQUID. See Section 2702.1.
LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. See Section 2202.1.
LIQUID MOTOR FUEL STORAGE AND DISPENSING SYSTEM. See Section 2202.1.
LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1.
LIQUID TIGHT CONSTRUCTION. Construction designed to prevent a liquid manufactured,
stored, handled or used in a room or other area from escaping from such room or other area by
means of penetration through a surface.
LISTED. A material, device, equipment or system included on a list published by a nationally
recognized testing laboratory or other approved organization performing product evaluations that
maintains periodic inspection of production of such listed material, device, equipment or system,
51
and whose listing indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards and designates
suitable usage.
LOADER. See Section 3302.1.
LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1.
LOW-PRESSURE CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1.
LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1.
LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 2702.1.
MAGAZINE. See Section 3302.1.
MAGAZINE KEEPER. See Section 3302.1.
MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1.
MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 2702.1.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE (MAWP). See Section 3202.1.
MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.
MECHANICAL CODE. New York City Mechanical Code.
MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1.
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.
MINIMUM SECURED RADIUS. See Section 3302.1.
MORTAR. See Section 3302.1.
MOTOR VEHICLE. See Section 2202.1.
MUCKING. See Section 3302.1.
MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 902.1.
NESTING. See Section 3002.1.
NATURAL DECORATIVE GREEN. See Section 802.1.
52
NATURAL TREE. See Section 802.1.
NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 3302.1.
NON-PRODUCTION LABORATORY. See Section 2702.1.
NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). See Section 2702.1.
OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building or space is used or designed to be
used. References to occupancy classification shall be deemed to include the equivalent
occupancy classifications under the 1968 Building Code and all prior Building Codes or other
applicable laws, rules and regulations. The occupancy classifications used in this code are
defined as follows:
Group A. An assembly occupancy, including Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5, as
defined in Section 303 of the Building Code.
Group B. A business occupancy, as defined in Section 304 of the Building Code.
Group E. An educational occupancy, as defined in Section 305 of the Building Code.
Group F. A factory and industrial occupancy, including Groups F-1 and F-2, as defined in
Section 306 of the Building Code.
Group H. A high-hazard occupancy, including H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5, as defined in
Section 307 of the Building Code.
Group I. An institutional occupancy, including Groups I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4, as defined in
Section 308 of the Building Code.
Group M. A mercantile occupancy, as defined in Section 309 of the Building Code.
Group R. A residential occupancy, including Groups R-1, R-2 and R-3, as defined in Section
310 of the Building Code.
Group S. A storage occupancy, including Groups S-1 and S-2, as defined in Section 311 of
the Building Code.
Group U. A utility and miscellaneous occupancy, as defined in Section 312 of the Building
Code.
OFFICE BUILDING. See Section 402.1.
OPEN FIRES. See Section 302.1.
OPEN FLAME. See Section 302.1.
53
OPEN-FLAME DEVICE. See Section 302.1.
OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material in equipment or a vessel, or
system that remains open during normal operation, such that vapors are emitted during the
operation of such equipment, vessel or system and the material is exposed to the atmosphere
during such operation. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from
or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.
OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a device, equipment or system operates.
ORGANIC COATING. See Section 2002.1.
ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1.
Class I. See Section 3902.1.
Class II. See Section 3902.1.
Class III. See Section 3902.1.
Class IV. See Section 3902.1.
Class V. See Section 3902.1.
Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902.1.
OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.
OUT OF SERVICE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when: (1) the number of occupants present in any
premises or part thereof exceeds the maximum number of occupants specified for such premises
or part thereof by the certificate of occupancy or other authorization issued by the New York
City Department of Buildings, or, in the absence of such certificate or authorization, the
maximum number of occupants established by using the applicable occupant-area allowances set
forth in Section 1004.1 of the Building Code; or (2) the commissioner determines that a threat
exists to the safety of the occupants of any premises or part thereof by reason of the number of
persons on the premises and/or the presence of persons sitting and/or standing in locations that
may obstruct or impede access to means of egress, including obstructing or impeding access to
aisles, passages, corridors, stairways or exits.
OWNER. The owner of the freehold of any real property (as defined in section two of the Real
Property Law), or of a lesser estate therein, a mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of
rents, receiver, executor, trustee, lessee, agent, or any other person, firm or corporation, directly
or indirectly in control of real property. Any reference in this code to the owner of any structure
shall be deemed to designate collectively any and all of the foregoing, including, but not limited
to, the owner of the freehold or lesser estate therein and a managing agent designated by such
owner pursuant to Section 27-2098 of the New York City Administrative Code.
54
OXIDIZER. See Section 4002.1.
Class 1. See Section 4002.1.
Class 2. See Section 4002.1.
Class 3. See Section 4002.1.
Class 4. See Section 4002.1.
OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1.
OZONE GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1.
PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1.
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 2702.1.
PERMIT. A written statement issued by the commissioner authorizing the manufacture, storage,
handling, use or transportation of a hazardous material, or other material, or to conduct an
operation or to maintain a facility, for which a permit is required by this code.
PERSONAL SUPERVISION. Except as otherwise provided in this code, supervision by the
holder of any department certificate who is required to be personally present on the premises, or
other proximate location acceptable to the department, while performing the duties for which the
certificate is required.
PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1.
PLUMBING CODE. New York City Plumbing Code.
PORTABLE COOKING EQUIPMENT. See Section 902.1.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SALES COMPANY CERTIFICATE. See Section
902.1.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SERVICING COMPANY CERTIFICATE. See
Section 902.1.
PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT. See 302.1
PORTABLE SPACE HEATER. See Section 302.1.
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1.
PREMISES. Any real property, including buildings and structures thereon, or any part thereof.
PRESIGNAL SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
55
PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702.1.
PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion
of that container which comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material being
contained.
PRIMER. See Section 3302.1.
PRIVATE ROAD. See Section 502.1.
PRIVATE STREET. See Section 502.1.
PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1.
PROCESSING VESSEL. See Section 3402.1.
PROPELLANT. See Section 2802.1.
PROTECTED EXPOSURE. See Section 3302.1.
PROTECTED PREMISES. See Section 902.1.
PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1.
PUBLIC STREET. See Section 502.1.
PYROPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 4102.1.
PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE OR DEVICE. See Section 3302.1.
PYROTECHNIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.
PYROTECHNIC SUPPLIER CERTIFICATE. See Section 3302.1.
PYROXYLIN PLASTIC. See Section 4202.1.
RACK STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.
RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1.
RAW PYROXYLIN PLASTIC. See Section 4202.1.
READY BOX. See Section 3302.1.
REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1.
REFINERY. See Section 3402.1.
56
REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1.
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. See Section 602.1.
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect registered to practice the profession
of architecture, or an engineer licensed to practice the profession of engineering, as set forth in
the laws, rules and regulations of the State of New York.
REGULAR BUSINESS HOURS. See Section 402.1.
REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1.
REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1.
RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1.
RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1.
RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1.
ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1.
RUBBISH. Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including dust, dirt, ashes, rags,
paper, cartons, cans, plastic and glass containers, and discarded appliances.
RULES. Rules of the commissioner, promulgated pursuant to the authority granted by the New
York City Charter, this code, or other law, rule or regulation.
SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702.1.
SCENERY. See Section 802.1.
SEAPLANE BASE. See Section 1102.1.
SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702.1.
SELF-SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.
See Section 2202.1.
SELF-SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.
SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See Section 1802.1.
SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 3302.1.
SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1.
57
SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.
SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. See Section 3302.1.
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION PRIMERS. See Section 3302.1.
SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.
SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1.
SMOKE DETECTOR MAINTENANCE COMPANY CERTIFICATE. See Section 902.1.
SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302.1.
SOLID. See Section 2702.1.
SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302.1.
SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402.1.
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that
contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or
over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not
readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or
is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure.
SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302.1.
SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Section 3302.1.
SPONSOR. See Section 3302.1.
SPRAY AREA. See Section 1502.1.
SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1.
SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1502.1.
SPRAY SPACE. See Section 1502.1.
SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1
STAGING AREA. See Section 1102.1.
STANDARD CUBIC FEET (SCF). See Section 2702.1.
58
STANDPIPE, MULTI-ZONE. See Section 902.1.
STANDPIPE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.
STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the Building Code.
STRUCTURE. Any construction on, above or below real property, including buildings,
enclosures, sheds and tents.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.
SYSTEM. See Section 2702.1.
TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L).
TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1.
TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1.
TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402.1.
TANK, PROTECTED ABOVEGROUND. See Section 2202.1 and Section 3402.1.
TANK, STATIONARY. See Section 2702.1.
TENT. See Section 2402.1.
THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1.
THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 1702.1.
TNT EQUIVALENT. See Section 3302.1.
TOOL. See Section 1802.1.
TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1.
TOXIC MATERIAL. See Section 3702.1.
TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1.
TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.
UNDERGROUND BUILDING. See Section 402.1.
UNNECESSARY ALARM. See Section 902.1.
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UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 4302.1.
Class 1. See Section 4302.1
Class 2. See Section 4302.1.
Class 3. See Section 4302.1.
Class 4. See Section 4302.1.
UNWARRANTED ALARM. See Section 902.1.
VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502.1.
VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1.
VENDOR. See Section 3302.1.
VIEWING AREA. See Section 3302.1.
WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1.
Class 1. See Section 4402.1.
Class 2. See Section 4402.1.
Class 3. See Section 4402.1.
WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1.
ZONING RESOLUTION. New York City Zoning Resolution.
CHAPTER 3
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE
SECTION FC 301
GENERAL
301.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the operation and maintenance of buildings, structures
and premises with respect to precautions to prevent fire and the spread of fire. This chapter shall
additionally govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of the operations,
facilities and premises set forth herein.
301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
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SECTION FC 302
DEFINITIONS
302.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING FACILITY. Any premises used for the
dismantling and/or wrecking of motor vehicles in connection with the sale of auto parts or scrap
metal.
HI-BOY. A cart used to move hot roofing materials on a roof.
OPEN FIRES. The burning of materials wherein products of combustion are emitted directly
into the ambient air without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. For
the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, during the time
combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide
combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open.
OPEN FLAME. A flame that is generated by any material or device in a sustained and
controlled manner and that is not securely enclosed by noncombustible material, such as a candle
that is unenclosed or enclosed in a globe or lantern, or a gas light lantern, but not a flame
contained in a furnace or other similar approved device, equipment or system. Torches operated
in accordance with Chapter 26 and lighted smoking paraphernalia shall not be considered an
open flame.
OPEN-FLAME DEVICE. Any device utilizing an open flame.
PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT. Any portable device, equipment or system, whether or
not flue-connected, that utilizes a flammable or combustible liquid or flammable gas as a fuel,
except an open-flame device.
PORTABLE SPACE HEATER. Any portable equipment designed or used for space heating
that utilizes a combustible liquid or flammable gas as a fuel, whether or not flue-connected.
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, platform lift truck or motorized hand
truck powered by an electrical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks do
not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for highway use.
SECTION FC 303
TAR KETTLES
303.1 Transporting. Tar kettles shall not be transported or otherwise moved when the heat
source for the kettle is operating.
Exception: Tar kettles in the process of patching road surfaces.
303.2 Location. Tar kettles shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible
material, combustible building surface or any building opening and within a controlled area
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identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or other approved means. Tar kettles and pots shall
not be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roofing kettles and operating tar
kettles shall not block means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances.
303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm)
from the burner.
Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or flame are allowed to be within 2 feet
(610 mm) of the burner.
303.4 Supervision. An operating tar kettle requiring a permit shall be under the personal
supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness. The certificate of fitness holder shall be
within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the kettle, have the kettle within sight and have unobstructed
access to the kettle. Ladders and other obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the
certificate of fitness holder and the kettle. The certificate of fitness holder shall not have to climb
or descend a ladder or circumvent any obstacle to gain access to the kettle.
303.5 Portable fire extinguishers. There shall be at least one portable fire extinguisher
complying with the requirements of Section 906 and with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating within
25 feet (7620 mm) of each tar kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized, and one
additional portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being
covered.
303.6 Lids. Tar kettles shall be equipped with tight-fitting lids.
303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Hi- boys shall be
limited to a capacity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall not be allowed
as part of a hi-boy.
303.8 Kettle construction. Any kettle used as a tar kettle shall be constructed of noncombustible
materials.
303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. It shall be unlawful to store, handle or use fuel
containers that operate under air pressure.
303.10 Flammable liquid fuel. It shall be unlawful to store, handle or use tar kettles that utilize
flammable liquid as a fuel.
303.11 Roofing operations. Roofing operations, including repairs, using open-flame devices
shall comply with the requirements of Section 1417 and Chapters 26 and 35.
SECTION FC 304
STORAGE AND ACCUMULATION OF RUBBISH AND OTHER COMBUSTIBLE
WASTE
304.1 Accumulation of combustible waste. It shall be unlawful to cause or allow rubbish and
other combustible waste to accumulate in a building or structure or upon a premises.
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304.1.1 Maintenance. Roofs, courts, yards, vacant lots, alleys, parking lots, open spaces, and
the space beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, or other similar structure, shall be
regularly cleaned so as to prevent the accumulation of any rubbish, vegetation or other
combustible waste.
304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines, brush or other vegetation that is capable of being
ignited shall be regularly pruned, or cleared and removed for a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm)
from any building or structure by the owner.
304.2 Unsafe storage of combustible waste prohibited. It shall be unlawful to store rubbish or
other combustible waste in a manner that creates a fire hazard or public nuisance.
304.3 Containers. Rubbish and other combustible waste stored pending removal in a building or
structure or upon a premises shall be stored in accordance with this section, and any other
applicable law, rule or regulation.
304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Rubbish and other combustible waste susceptible to
spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. Contents
of such containers shall be removed and disposed of daily.
304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33
cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be
constructed of noncombustible materials or approved combustible materials.
304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters and containers with an individual
capacity of 1.5 cubic yards (40.5 cubic feet) (1.15 m3) or more shall not be stored in
buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible
roof eave lines.
Exceptions:
1. Dumpsters or containers in areas protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
2. Storage shall not be prohibited in a structure of Type I or Type IIA construction or
other construction with an equivalent fire rating, where such storage is located not
less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings or structures and used exclusively
for dumpster or other container storage.
304.4 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 10
feet (3048 mm) of a property line or within 50 feet (15240 mm) of the nearest wall of a building
occupied as a Group A occupancy, Group E (educational) occupancy or
Group R-2 occupancy.
304.4.1 Height. Storage shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.
304.4.2 Reduced separation distance. The separation distances required by Section 304.4
may be reduced when approved and when in compliance with the requirements of Sections
304.4.2.1 through 304.4.2.3.
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304.4.2.1 Fencing. The storage shall be enclosed by an approved well-constructed and
maintained fence between 10 and 18 feet (3048 and 5486 mm) in height above the street
level. If any building having an unpierced fire wall adjoins the enclosure, no fence shall
be required on that side.
304.4.2.2 Separation from building openings. The storage shall be completely
separated from any window or door openings of any wall of an adjoining building by a
well-constructed and maintained fence of noncombustible material of an approved height,
erected at least 6 feet (1829 mm) from such opening and extending at least 6 feet (1829
mm) on each side thereof and continued to the sides of the enclosure or carried to the
walls of the building.
304.4.2.3 Pile height. The storage at any point shall not be piled higher than 2 feet (610
mm) below the top of the fence required by Section 304.4.2.1.
304.4.3 Portable fire extinguishers. At least one portable fire extinguisher with a rating of
at least 4-A shall be provided for every 2,500 square feet (232.3 m2) of storage area, or
portion thereof, or in lieu thereof, a hose of at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter, equipped
with a nozzle of at least ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter, sufficient in length to reach all parts
of the enclosure, and connected to an adequate water supply may be provided.
SECTION FC 305
IGNITION SOURCES
305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between ignition sources, such as light
fixtures, heaters and open-flame devices, and combustible materials shall be maintained in an
approved manner.
305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or
greasy or oily materials subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a combustible
container, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combustible material, including combustible walls
and partitions and combustible waste, or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings or
structures.
Exception: The minimum required separation distance to other combustible materials shall
be 2 feet (610 mm) where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible receptacle
placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface or stand.
305.3 Open-flame warning devices. It shall be unlawful to use an open-flame device on
roadways as a warning signal or for any other purposes.
Exception: The use of fusees at the scene of an emergency or as required by standard
railroad operating procedures.
305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to deliberately or through
negligence set fire to or cause the burning of combustible material or combustible waste in such
a manner as to endanger the safety of persons or property.
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SECTION FC 306
MOTION PICTURE FILM AND SCREENS
306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon or other light source projection
equipment which develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of ribbon-type
cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source used in projection, shall be operated within a
motion picture projection room complying with the requirements of Section 409 of the Building
Code.
306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage, handling and use. Cellulose nitrate film shall be stored,
handled and used in accordance with NFPA 40 and subject to the approval of the commissioner.
306.2.1 Supervision. The handling and use of cellulose nitrate film, including motion picture
projection, shall be under the personal supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness.
The storage of cellulose nitrate film shall be under the general supervision of a person
holding a certificate of fitness.
306.3 Motion picture screens. The screens upon which motion pictures are projected shall be of
noncombustible construction as set forth in Chapter 6 of the Building Code, or shall be treated to
be flame resistant in accordance with NFPA 701, or shall comply with the requirements for a
Class A interior finish in accordance with Section 803 of the Building Code. Screens installed
prior to the effective date of this code shall comply with the applicable Building Code
requirements. The construction supporting such motion picture screens shall be of
noncombustible construction as set forth in Chapter 6 of the Building Code, and shall comply
with the load bearing requirements of the Building Code.
SECTION FC 307
OPEN FIRES
307.1 General. Kindling, building, maintaining or using an open fire is prohibited.
Exceptions:
1. Outdoor barbecues on residential property as authorized by Section 307.5.
2. Outdoor noncommercial barbecue fires in equipment provided by and located in city
parks where such open fires are permitted by the Department of Parks and Recreation.
3. In connection with training of fire brigades or similar purposes by persons or entities
where such training is required by law, rule or regulation.
4. Approved open fires used for special effects in connection with television, motion
picture, theatrical and other entertainment productions.
307.2 Reserved.
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307.2.1 Authorization. Open fires allowed pursuant to Section 307.1 may only be kindled,
built, maintained or used with the prior written authorization of the agencies with regulatory
jurisdiction, property owner and other required approvals, and only when such open fires are
maintained in compliance with all conditions of such authorization or approval. The
commissioner may prohibit the kindling, building, maintaining or use of open fire or order
the extinguishment of any open fire allowed by this section, upon a determination that such
open fire will create an undue hazard because of conditions in the surrounding environment.
307.3 Reserved.
307.4 Attendance. Open fires shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A
minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 with
a minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand,
water barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for immediate use.
307.5 Barbecues on residential premises. Outdoor barbecues on residential premises shall be
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 307.5.1 through 307.5.3.
307.5.1 Charcoal and electric barbecues. Outdoor barbecues designed to use charcoal or
electricity with a total grate area not exceeding 10 square feet (0.929 m2) may be installed,
operated and maintained on any residential premises, provided that such barbecues are not
installed or operated within 10 feet (3048 mm) of any combustible waste, or combustible
material, including combustible building surfaces, balconies and decks, and a garden type
hose attached to a water supply or a minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying
with the requirements of Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating is readily available for use.
307.5.2 Piped natural gas-fired barbecues. Outdoor barbecues designed to use piped
natural gas shall be installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Section 307.5.1.
The natural gas piping shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes,
including the Plumbing Code.
307.5.3 LPG-fired barbecues. Outdoor barbecues designed to use LPG from portable
containers shall be installed, operated and maintained on the premises of a Group R-3
occupancy in accordance with Section 307.5.1 and the following requirements:
1. Not more than 2 containers may be stored and/or used.
2. Each container shall have a maximum capacity of 20 pounds (9.08 kg) LPG, except
that on balconies, each container shall have a maximum capacity of 16.4 ounces (0.465
kg) LPG.
SECTION FC 308
OPEN FLAMES
308.1 General. This section governs the use of open flames in all buildings, structures and
premises.
308.2 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
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1. Cause or allow an open flame to be lit or maintained in any room or other area of a
building, structure, premises, marine vessel, watercraft or other place in which a hazardous
material is stored, handled or used, or where conditions exist that could cause ignition of
flammable vapors or combustible material.
2. Use or maintain in any area in which smoking is prohibited, as set forth in Section 310 or
elsewhere in this code, a lighted match or other flame which has not been approved for use
by the commissioner in such areas.
3. Place or discard, or cause to be placed or discarded, an open flame, lighted match or other
flaming substance or object on any surface or article where it can cause the ignition of
combustible material or combustible waste, or otherwise cause an unwanted fire.
308.3 Use of open flames. Open flames may only be lighted, maintained and used in Group A
occupancy and public gathering places in accordance with this section.
308.3.1 Reserved.
308.3.2 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame decorative devices, including wallmounted candles, torch sconces, insect-repellant candles in glass jars or metal cans, tabletop
candles and oil lamps, free standing torch holders and candelabras, shall comply with the
following requirements:
1. Class I and Class II liquids and LPG shall not be used.
2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel
must self-extinguish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute
(1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.
3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent the spillage of liquid fuel or wax
at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) when the device
or holder is not in an upright position.
4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will return to the upright position after
being tilted to an angle of 45 degrees from vertical.
Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at
the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.
5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings on the side are not more than 0.375
inch (9.5mm) diameter or where openings are on the top and the distance to the top is
such that a piece of tissue paper placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds.
6. Enclosures shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the
open-flame device.
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Exception: An enclosure is not required to be attached to any open-flame device that
will self-extinguish if the device is tipped over.
7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage.
8. Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34.
9. Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached
to the open-flame device holder or enclosure.
10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be securely fastened in place to prevent
overturning, and shall be located away from occupants using the area and away from
possible contact with drapes, curtains or other combustibles.
11. Open-flame decorative devices in Group A occupancies and other buildings,
structures and premises used for a public gathering shall additionally comply with the
requirements of applicable rules promulgated by the commissioner designed to ensure
the safe use of such devices.
308.3.3 Separation from combustibles. Open flames shall be kept at a safe distance from
decorations, decorative vegetation or other combustible materials.
308.3.4 Aisles and exits. Lighted candles shall be prohibited in areas where occupants stand,
or in an aisle or exit.
308.3.5 Reserved.
308.3.6 Theatrical performances. Where use is approved in conjunction with theatrical
performances, open flames shall be used in accordance with Chapter 33 and NFPA 160.
308.3.7 Prohibition. It shall be unlawful to light, maintain or use an open flame in a Group
A occupancy or other building or structure used for a public gathering.
Exceptions:
1. Open flames may be used in the following locations and circumstances, provided
that precautions are taken to prevent ignition of combustible material and otherwise
ensure the safety of occupants, in accordance with this code, the rules and the
permit:
1.1 Where necessary for ceremonial or religious purposes.
1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance in accordance
with Section 308.3.6.
1.3. Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial
noncombustible bases and the candle flames are protected.
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1.4 The preparation of flaming foods or beverages in accordance with Section
308.6.
1.5. Open-flame devices using LPG for demonstrations in exhibitions or trade
shows.
1.6. Open-flame device for food warming.
2. Nonportable heat-producing equipment installed in compliance with the
requirements of Chapter 6 and the Mechanical Code.
3. Natural gas light fixtures installed in compliance with the requirements of the
Building Code and the Plumbing Code, and approved precautions are taken to
prevent ignition of combustible materials.
308.4 Torches for removing paint. It shall be unlawful to remove paint in or on buildings,
structures or premises with a torch or any other flame-producing device. Such paint removal may
be performed using heat-producing devices other than open-flame devices. The person using
such heat-producing device to remove the paint shall remain at the location where the heating
operation was performed to maintain a fire watch for not less than one hour after using such
device.
308.5 Reserved.
308.5.1 Signals and markers. Open-flame devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares,
shall not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or on any building, structure or
premises.
Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scene of an emergency or as required by
standard railroad operating procedures.
308.5.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable open-flame devices fueled by
flammable gases or combustible liquids shall be enclosed or used in such a manner as to
prevent the flame from contacting or igniting combustible material or combustible waste.
308.6 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The preparation of flaming foods or beverages
in Group A occupancies and public gathering places shall be in accordance with Section 308.6.1
through 308.6.5.
308.6.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids used in the preparation of flaming
foods or beverages shall be dispensed from one of the following:
1. A 1-ounce (29.6 ml) container; or
2. A container not exceeding 1-quart (946.5 ml) capacity with a controlled-pouring
device that will limit the flow to a 1-ounce (29.6 ml) serving.
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308.6.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured to prevent spillage when not in
use.
308.6.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flaming foods or beverages shall be done in
a safe manner and shall not create flames higher than 6 inches (152.4 mm). The pouring,
ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 mm) above
the receiving receptacle.
308.6.3.1 Ignition. The flaming food or beverage shall be ignited on serving tables. Such
tables shall have noncombustible tops or, if the top is combustible, it shall be protected
by a noncombustible mat. The mat, when used, shall cover the entire top of the table.
Flames shall be extinguished before serving.
308.6.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be prepared only in the immediate
vicinity of the table being served. Flaming foods and beverages shall not be transported or
carried while burning.
308.6.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming foods or beverages shall have a
wet cloth towel immediately available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an
emergency and, in addition to portable fire extinguishers required by Section 906, a carbon
dioxide extinguisher with at least a 5-B rating shall be kept within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the
flaming food or beverage preparation area and at the doorway between the kitchen and the
dining area.
SECTION FC 309
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS
309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks shall be operated and maintained in accordance with
this section.
309.1.1 Hazardous locations. Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as
hazardous (classified) locations in accordance with the Electrical Code shall be listed and
labeled for use in such environments in accordance with NFPA 505. Entry by non-classified
equipment may be allowed for the purpose of maintenance where the owner has established
an entry authorization procedure and has verified that the entry area is clear of hazardous
environment and will remain so for the duration of the entry.
309.1.2 Powered industrial trucks using flammable gas fuel. Powered industrial trucks
that use LPG or other flammable gas as fuel shall be limited to one fuel container with a
capacity not greater than 40 pounds (18.16 kg) or 340 SCF (9.63 m3), whichever is less.
Liquefied gas containers installed in a horizontal position shall be of such a design that the
pressure relief valve will discharge vapor properly. Such powered industrial trucks shall not
be parked near open flames or other heat or ignition sources, or near open pits, underground
entrances, elevator shafts, or similar areas. Such powered industrial trucks shall be stored and
used in locations with adequate ventilation. It shall be unlawful to store or use such powered
industrial trucks in below grade areas, including in a basement or cellar.
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309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an approved type. Combustible storage
shall be kept a minimum of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging shall not be
conducted in areas accessible to the public.
309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved manner in battery-charging
areas to prevent the accumulation of flammable gas.
309.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Powered industrial trucks shall be equipped with one 2-B:C
rated portable fire extinguisher. Battery-charging areas shall be provided with a portable fire
extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C
rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the battery charger.
309.5 Storage and handling of fuel. Powered industrial trucks using a liquid or gas fuel shall be
refueled or have their cylinders replaced outdoors or in areas specifically approved for that
purpose and in accordance with this code and the rules. All connecting and disconnecting of fuel
gas containers shall be performed outdoors away from open pits, underground entrances, or
similar below grade areas, and away from all open flames or other heat or ignition sources.
309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and repairs utilizing open flame or
welding shall be done in approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically
approved for that purpose.
309.7 Storage. When not in use, powered industrial trucks that use a liquid and/or a gas fuel
shall be stored in approved designated storage areas. Each storage area shall be provided with a
portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 having a minimum 4A:20-B:C rating.
SECTION FC 310
SMOKING
310.1 General. Smoking, including the carrying of a lighted pipe, cigar, cigarette or any other
type of smoking paraphernalia or material, shall be conducted in accordance with this section.
310.2 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Smoke in any area in which smoking is prohibited, as set forth in this section or elsewhere
in this code.
2. Place or discard, or cause to be placed or discarded, any lighted pipe, cigar, cigarette or
other type of smoking paraphernalia or material where it can cause the ignition of
combustible material or combustible waste, or otherwise cause an unwanted fire.
3. Smoke in any building, structure, premises or part thereof where flammable or
combustible materials or explosives are manufactured, stored, handled, used or transported.
4. Smoke in the following occupancies and spaces:
4.1. Cellars and basements, except in R-3 occupancies.
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4.2. Group A occupancies and public gathering places.
4.3. Group M occupancies.
4.4. Hospitals, nursing homes, sanatorias, convalescent homes, homes for the aged or
chronic patients, except within designated smoking rooms when in compliance with
the requirements of the Title 17 of the Administrative Code, the New York City
Health Code and rules promulgated by the commissioner.
4.5. On any bulkhead, dock, drydock, shipyard, pier, wharf, warehouse or shed on the
waterfront.
4.6. On board any ship, barge, ferry, lighter, carfloat, scow, and all other similar floating
watercraft or equipment whether berthed or moored at a dock, wharf, pier, or to a
marine vessel made fast thereto or in a shipyard.
4.7. Factories as set forth in Section 283 of the New York State Labor Law.
4.8. As otherwise prohibited by this code or the rules.
310.3 “No Smoking” signs. When smoking is prohibited by this code or the rules, durable “No
Smoking” signs shall be conspicuously posted at approved locations throughout the facility or
other location in accordance with Section 310, or as otherwise specifically provided in this code.
The content, lettering, size and color of required “No Smoking” signs shall be in accordance with
the rules, or as otherwise approved by the commissioner.
310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted “No Smoking” sign shall not be removed,
obscured or rendered illegible.
310.5 Compliance with “No Smoking” signs. It shall be unlawful to smoke, or discard or
deposit any burning substance, in any building, structure or premises or part thereof, in which
“No Smoking” signs are posted pursuant to this code or the rules or otherwise for fire safety
purposes.
310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable noncombustible ash trays or receptacles
shall be provided at appropriate locations.
310.7 Reserved.
310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. The commissioner may prohibit lighted matches,
cigarettes, cigars or other burning substances in any location upon a determination that such
activity creates an undue fire hazard because of conditions in the surrounding environment.
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SECTION FC 311
VACANT AND TEMPORARILY UNOCCUPIED PREMISES
311.1 Vacant buildings. Any vacant building, structure or premises, or part thereof, that is
deemed unsafe pursuant to Article 216 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code, shall be
safeguarded and maintained in compliance with the requirements of this section, the Department
of Buildings and/or the Department of Housing, Preservation and Development, as applicable.
Any vacant building, structure or premises, or part thereof, not deemed unsafe pursuant to such
provisions shall be deemed to constitute a temporarily unoccupied building, and shall comply
with the requirements of this section applicable thereto.
311.2 Temporarily unoccupied buildings. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures,
premises or parts thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be secured and protected in accordance
with this section.
311.2.1 Security. Exterior openings and interior openings accessible to unauthorized
persons, including tenants, shall be locked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by
unauthorized persons.
311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be maintained in
an operable condition at all times, except as authorized by the commissioner.
311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, fire barriers, and fire walls,
including those separating temporarily unoccupied tenant spaces from the remainder of the
building shall be maintained. Openings, joints, and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated
assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7 of the Building Code.
311.3 Removal of combustible waste. The owner of any building, structure or premises, or part
thereof, that is deemed unsafe, and any temporarily unoccupied building, structure or premises,
or part thereof, shall remove therefrom and prevent accumulations of rubbish and other
combustible waste by regular cleaning of the premises.
Exception: Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or parts thereof
undergoing construction or repair in accordance with the Building Code, where rubbish and
other combustible waste is controlled and removed in accordance with Section 304.
311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. The owner of any vacant building, structure or
premises, or part thereof, that contains hazardous materials and that is deemed unsafe pursuant to
Article 216 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code shall comply forthwith with the facility
closure requirements of Section 2701.6. The owner of a temporarily unoccupied building,
structure or premises, or part thereof, that contains hazardous materials regulated by Chapter 27
shall comply with the facility closure requirements of Section 2701.6. Vacant and temporarily
unoccupied buildings, structures or premises, and all parts thereof, shall thereafter be maintained
free of hazardous materials, including hazardous waste material, except as approved by the
commissioner.
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SECTION FC 312
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION
312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this code shall be provided by posts that
comply with the requirements of Section 312.2 or by other approved physical barriers that
comply with the requirements of Section 312.3.
312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with the following requirements:
1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter and concrete filled.
2. Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on center.
3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 15-inch (381
mm) diameter.
4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above ground.
5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected object.
312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) in height and
shall resist a force of 12,000 pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adjacent
ground surface.
SECTION FC 313
PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT
313.1 Scope. The storage, handling and use of portable fueled equipment shall be governed by
this section and the rules.
313.2 General. Portable fueled equipment shall be stored, handled and used in accordance with
this section.
313.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Store, handle or use indoors portable fueled equipment, including lawn-care equipment
and kerosene and other portable space heaters. The owner of a building, structure or
premises shall not provide, or cause to be provided, any such equipment, including
equipment designed for space heating.
Exceptions:
1. Storage, handling and/or use of portable fueled equipment, other than portable
fueled space heaters, in buildings or structures constructed for such purposes in
accordance with this code and the Building Code. Portable fueled equipment may
be stored and handled, and motor vehicles may be stored, handled and used, in
garages or garage spaces if such garage or garage spaces are separated from the
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dwelling spaces or other occupancies in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
2. The storage, handling and use of portable fueled equipment where authorized by
this code, including this section, Sections 308 and 314, and Chapter 14.
2. Store, handle or use for space heating, other than storage for sale, any portable fueled
equipment that utilizes a flammable liquid as a fuel, or, except as authorized by Section
313.5, that utilizes a combustible liquid as a fuel. Any such portable fueled equipment that
shows evidence of having been used shall be deemed to be in use.
3. Use any portable fueled equipment that utilizes waste oil as a fuel. Any such portable
fueled equipment that shows evidence of having been used shall be deemed to be in use.
313.4 Removal. The commissioner may confiscate or order the removal of portable fueled
equipment from locations where the storage, handling and/or use of such equipment is
determined by the commissioner to be hazardous.
313.5 Portable fueled space heaters. Portable fueled equipment used for space heating shall
additionally be stored, handled and used in accordance with Sections 313.5.1 through 313.5.2.
313.5.1 Listing and labeling of space heaters. Portable fueled space heaters and other
portable fueled equipment used for space heating shall be listed and labeled.
313.5.2 Authorized uses. Portable fueled equipment may be used for space heating as set
forth in Sections 313.5.2.1 through 313.5.2.6.
313.5.2.1 Portable natural gas heaters. Portable space heaters fueled by natural gas
supplied from a public utility may be stored, handled and used for outdoor use when
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this code, the rules and
the construction codes, including the Building Code.
313.5.2.2 Construction sites. Portable fueled space heaters may be stored, handled and
used at construction sites in accordance with Chapter 14 and the rules.
313.5.2.3 Business storage and handling. Portable fueled space heaters may be stored,
handled and used for indoor or outdoor use when they are lawfully used in the business of
manufacturing, storing, handling, selling, repairing or transporting such heaters, provided
that such heaters are not stored, handled or used for the purpose of space heating.
313.5.2.4 Local emergency. In the event of failure during severe cold weather of a
central heating unit in any building or structure other than a private dwelling, multiple
dwelling or Group A occupancy, portable fueled space heaters approved for such indoor
use may be used for a period not to exceed two weeks when such use has been approved.
313.5.2.5 Public emergencies. In the event of a public emergency which disrupts,
interferes with or impairs the operation or use of equipment, supplies or utilities normally
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utilized for heating, use of portable fueled space heaters for indoor or outdoor use may be
authorized by the commissioner upon a declaration of emergency by the mayor.
313.5.2.6 Supervision. The handling and use of portable fueled space heaters shall be
under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. The storage of portable
fueled space heaters, and the fuel therefor, shall be under the general supervision of a
certificate of fitness holder.
Exception: Group R-3 occupancies.
SECTION FC 314
INDOOR DISPLAYS
314.1 General. Indoor displays in any occupancy shall be designed and installed in accordance
with Sections 314.2 through 314.4.
314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods for sale to the public shall be
arranged so as to maintain free, immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by
Chapter 10 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
314.3 Highly combustible goods. It shall be unlawful to display highly combustible goods,
including flammable or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, oxidizing materials,
pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors.
314.4 Vehicles and watercraft. Watercraft and fueled vehicles, including motor vehicles,
motorcycles and mopeds, that are displayed indoors shall comply with the following
requirements:
1. Batteries shall be disconnected.
2. Fuel in fuel tanks shall not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 gallons (19 L) (whichever is
least).
3. Fuel tanks and fill openings shall be closed and sealed to prevent tampering.
4. Fueling or defueling shall not be conducted indoors.
5. Such additional requirements as the commissioner may promulgate governing the display
of such vehicles and watercraft in Group A occupancies, and buildings, structures or
premises used for public gatherings.
314.5 Required clearance from fire safety systems. Sprinklers and fire alarm systems shall not
be obstructed by indoor displays.
314.5.1 Sprinkler systems. A sprinkler system shall be installed in or under covered kiosks,
displays, booths, or concession stands that exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. The clearance
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between any sprinkler head deflector installed above the top of the kiosks, displays, booths,
or concession stands shall not be less than 18 inches (457 mm).
Exception: Open-grid and drop-out ceilings complying with the requirements of NFPA
13 may be installed beneath sprinklers.
314.5.2 Fire alarm systems. Sufficient clearance shall be provided between kiosks, displays,
booths, or concession stands and fire alarm and carbon monoxide systems equipment and
devices including detectors and strobes, so as not to interfere with their operation.
SECTION FC 315
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS STORAGE
315.1 General. Combustible materials shall be stored, handled and used in accordance with this
section.
Exception: Storage of materials during construction and demolition operations shall comply
with the requirements of Chapter 14.
315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials in buildings shall be orderly.
Storage area shall be separated from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that
ignition cannot occur.
315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the
ceiling in areas of buildings not protected by a sprinkler system, or a minimum of 18 inches
(457 mm) below sprinkler head deflectors in areas protected by a sprinkler system.
315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not be stored in a manner that
obstructs egress from any building, structure or premises.
315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not be stored in boiler rooms,
mechanical rooms or electrical equipment rooms.
315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces
used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required
for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that
are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 1.75
inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists.
Exceptions:
1. Areas protected throughout by sprinkler systems.
2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies.
315.3 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 10
feet (3048 mm) of a property line or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the nearest wall of a building
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occupied as a Group A occupancy, Group E educational occupancy, Group I-2 occupancy, or
any building, structure or premises used for a public gathering.
315.3.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from buildings. Combustible materials
stored or displayed outdoors at locations adjoining buildings or structures that are protected
throughout by a sprinkler system shall not be stored or displayed under eaves, canopies or
other projections or overhangs that are not protected by a sprinkler system.
315.3.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.
315.3.3 Reduced separation distance. The separation distances required by Section 315.3
may be reduced when approved and when in compliance with the requirements of Sections
315.3.3.1 through 315.3.3.3.
315.3.3.1 Fencing. The outdoor storage area shall be enclosed by an approved wellconstructed and maintained fence between 10 and 18 feet (3048 and 5486 mm) in height
above the street level. If any building having an unpierced fire wall adjoins the enclosure,
no fence shall be required on that side.
315.3.3.2 Separation from building openings. The outdoor storage area shall be
completely separated from any window or door openings of any wall of an adjoining
building by a well-constructed and maintained fence of non combustible material of an
approved height, erected at least 6 feet (1829 mm) from such opening and extending at
least 6 feet (1829 mm) on each side thereof and continued to the sides of the enclosure or
carried to the walls of the building.
315.3.3.3 Pile height. The outdoor storage at any point shall not be piled higher than 2
feet (610 mm) below the top of the fence required by Section 315.3.3.1.
315.3.4 Portable fire extinguishers. At least one portable fire extinguisher with a rating of
at least 4-A shall be provided for every 2,500 square feet (232.3 m2) of storage area, or
portion thereof, or in lieu thereof, a hose of at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter, equipped
with a nozzle of at least ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter, sufficient in length to reach all parts
of the enclosure, and connected to an adequate water supply may be provided.
315.4 Space underneath grandstands and bleachers. Except where enclosed in not less than 1hour fire-resistance-rated construction in accordance with the Building Code, spaces underneath
grandstand and bleacher seating shall not be occupied or utilized for purposes other than means
of egress.
SECTION FC 316
AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING FACILITIES
316.1 General. Automotive salvage and wrecking facilities shall be designed, installed, operated
and maintained in accordance with this section.
316.2 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
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1. Dispose of any fuel or flammable or combustible liquid waste by discharging or otherwise
disposing of such fuel or liquid waste in any drain or sewer, upon any premises, or in any
river, stream or other body of water.
2. Light or maintain an open fire for the burning, dismantling, salvaging, scrapping wrecking
of motor vehicles or parts thereof.
316.3 Supervision. The de-fueling of motor vehicle fuel tanks and the transfer of fuel from the
de-fueling equipment shall be under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder.
316.4 Facility requirements. Automotive salvage and wrecking facilities shall be in accordance
Sections 316.4.1 through 316.4.3.
316.4.1 Licensing. Department permits and other approvals shall be issued to an automotive
salvage and wrecking facility only if such facility is licensed and maintained in accordance
with requirements of the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles and the New York
City Department of Consumer Affairs.
316.4.2 Lawful occupancy. Department permits and other approvals shall be issued to
automotive salvage and wrecking facilities only if use of the premises for such facility is
authorized by the certificate of occupancy or otherwise constitutes a lawful use of the
premises.
316.4.3 Design requirements. Automotive salvage and wrecking facilities shall be designed
in accordance with Sections 316.4.3.1 and 316.4.3.3.
316.4.3.1 Facility enclosure. The facility shall be enclosed on all sides by a solid,
opaque fence or wall at least 8 feet (2438 mm) in height in accordance with the Building
Code and the Zoning Resolution.
316.4.3.2 Fire apparatus roads. The facility shall be accessible from fire apparatus
roads with a minimum unobstructed width of 20 feet (6096 mm). An outdoor area of the
facility shall be accessible by fire apparatus roads on all four sides with a distance
between such roads of not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) by 100 feet (30 480 mm).
316.4.3.3 De-fueling area. The de-fueling of motor vehicle fuel tanks shall be conducted
at an approved location that is protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system.
316.5 Operation and maintenance. Automotive salvage and wrecking facilities shall be
operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 316.5.1 through 316.5.4.
316.5.1 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads shall be maintained
unobstructed to provide access for department apparatus.
316.5.2 Torch operations. Torch operations shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter
26 and in compliance with the following requirements:
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1. Torch operations shall be conducted at least 25 feet (7620 mm) from combustible
waste, other motor vehicles, stacks of motor vehicles or other combustible material,
unless protection in the form of non-combustible shields or covers are provided to
restrict the scattering of sparks and molten metal.
2. Torch operations shall not be conducted in any location where hazardous gases or
vapors may be present. Fuel tanks of motor vehicles shall be emptied of fuel and
purged of all flammable vapors before any torch operations are commenced.
3. Compressed gas containers, when in use, shall be properly supported and placed a safe
distance from torch operations.
4. Compressed gas containers, when not in use, and reserve containers, shall be properly
supported and stored in a location remote from torch operations. The valves of such
containers shall be closed and protected from mechanical damage by the placement of
protective caps. Empty containers shall be treated as full.
5. Torch operation areas shall be protected by a charged hose line, at least 1 inch (25.4
mm) in diameter, connected to an approved source of water. In lieu of such hose line, at
least 4 portable fire extinguishers with a minimum 2-A rating each may be provided.
6. The torch operator or a person designated as a fire watch shall search the torch
operation area immediately after operations to determine that no sparks or molten metal
remain in the area. Additionally, a second such search shall be conducted
one-half hour thereafter. A record of such searches shall be maintained in a log book at
the premises and made available for inspection by any representative of the department.
316.5.3 Draining of motor vehicle fluids. The draining of fluids from motor vehicles shall
be in accordance with Sections 316.5.3.1 and 316.5.3.2.
316.5.3.1 Draining of motor vehicle fuel tanks. As soon as practicable after arrival, the
fuel tank of motor vehicles received at salvage and wrecking facilities shall be de-fueled
through the vehicle’s fuel connection, or other approved procedure.
De-fueling equipment shall be listed for such purpose as a complete assembly and shall
have a container capacity not exceeding 65 gallons (246 L). The fuel recovered by the defueler shall be transferred to a storage tank complying with the requirements of Chapter
22 or 34, as applicable. De-fueling equipment shall not be used to fuel motor vehicles.
316.5.3.2 Draining of other motor vehicle fluids. Crankcase oil and other flammable or
combustible liquid waste shall be removed from motor vehicles and stored outdoors, in
tanks complying with the requirements of Chapter 34, or, when approved, portable
containers.
316.5.4 Emergency operations. In automotive salvage and wrecking facilities provided with
cranes for the purpose of moving or stacking motor vehicles, procedures shall be developed
by the owner such that a crane operator would be made available in a reasonable period of
time in the event that crane operation is required during a fire or other emergency.
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316.6 Excessive fires. The occurrence of more than two fires in an automotive salvage and
wrecking facility during any 12-month period shall give rise to a rebuttable presumption that the
owner has failed to properly maintain the facility in compliance with the requirements of this
section, and shall be grounds for revocation of department permits and other approvals, or other
appropriate enforcement action.
CHAPTER 4
EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS
SECTION FC 401
GENERAL
401.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern emergency reporting, planning and
preparedness.
401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety and evacuation plans and emergency
action plans shall be approved by the commissioner.
401.3 Emergency notification. Any owner, occupant or other person who becomes aware of a
fire or explosion or any other emergency shall immediately report such emergency to the
department. No owner or other person shall issue any directive or take any action to prevent or
delay the reporting of a fire or other emergency to the department.
401.3.1 Reserved.
401.3.2 Reserved.
401.3.3 Fire drills and emergency action plan drills. Nothing in this section shall prohibit
the sounding or other activation of a fire alarm signal for the purposes of conducting a fire
drill or EAP drill in accordance with Section 405.
401.4 Reserved.
401.5 Reserved.
401.6 Supervision of fire safety and evacuation plans. The owner shall designate competent
persons to act as FSP staff, train the FSP staff and conduct fire drills. Such persons shall possess
such qualifications and/or hold such certificate of fitness as are required by this chapter or the
rules. The owner shall ensure that adequate FSP staff is present on the premises during regular
business hours, and at other times when the building is occupied, to perform the duties and
responsibilities set forth in the fire safety and evacuation plan. The owners of the following
buildings and occupancies shall additionally comply with the requirements set forth in Sections
401.6.1 through 401.6.8.
401.6.1 Group A occupancies. The FSP staff in Group A occupancies whose lawful use,
occupancy or operation requires issuance of a license by the New York City Department of
Consumer Affairs shall be organized and trained by a person holding a certificate of fitness
for fire safety training.
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401.6.2 Group B occupancy office buildings. Group B occupancy office buildings or parts
thereof occupied or designed to be occupied by more than 500 persons on one or more floors,
including street level, or by more than 100 persons on one or more floors other than street
level, shall comply with the requirements of Sections 401.6.2.1 through 401.6.2.2.
Exception: Office buildings that have lawfully installed an interior fire alarm system,
provided that the fire drills required by Section 405 are conducted by a person holding a
certificate of fitness as fire drill conductor.
401.6.2.1 FSP staff. The fire safety and evacuation plan shall designate a fire safety
director, deputy fire safety directors, fire safety building evacuation supervisors, fire
safety wardens, deputy fire safety wardens, fire safety brigade members and searchers,
with such authority, duties and qualifications as set forth in the rules.
401.6.2.2 Fire safety director. The fire safety director and deputy fire safety directors
designated in the fire safety and evacuation plan shall hold a fire safety director
certificate of fitness, and shall have the following duties and responsibilities and such
other duties and responsibilities as prescribed by rule:
1. The fire safety director shall be present in the building during regular business
hours. When the fire safety director is absent during such hours, a deputy fire safety
director shall be present in the building and shall perform the duties of the fire
safety director.
2. In the event of a fire, the fire safety director shall report to the fire command
station or designated alternative location, and, if appropriate, implement the fire
safety and evacuation plan in accordance with its terms and the provisions of the
rules, and notify arriving emergency response personnel and incident commander of
the fire and the building response thereto.
3. The fire safety director designated shall be fully familiar with the provisions of the
fire safety and evacuation plan and shall conduct FSP staff training drills required
by Section 406.
4. The fire safety director shall conduct the fire drills required by Section 405.
401.6.3 Buildings with class B or M occupancy fire alarm system. Buildings or parts
thereof equipped with a fire alarm system with voice communication of the type required in
Group B or M occupancies, regardless of whether such system is required in such building or
part thereof, shall comply with the requirements of Section 401.6.2.
401.6.4 Group I-2 occupancies. FSP staff training drills required by Section 406 shall be
conducted by a person holding a certificate of fitness for fire safety training.
401.6.5 Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancy buildings or parts thereof shall be
operated in accordance with Sections 401.6.5.1 through 401.6.5.2.
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Exceptions:
1.Group R-1 college or school student dormitories occupied or designed to be
occupied by 500 persons or less, and that are 6 stories or 75 feet (22 860 mm) in
height from grade or less need not designate a fire safety director or deputy fire
safety directors.
2. Homeless shelters operated in accordance with Section 401.6.8.
3. All other Group R-1 occupancies occupied by 30 or fewer lodgers, with not more
than 15 lodgers above street level; operated to accommodate no more than these
numbers of lodgers; designed to contain 30 or fewer sleeping rooms, with not more
than 15 sleeping rooms above street level; and in each instance not occupied or
operated to be occupied by lodgers, or designed to contain sleeping rooms, on any
floor more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above street level.
401.6.5.1 FSP staff. The fire safety and evacuation plan shall designate a fire safety
director, and a sufficient number of deputy fire safety directors and fire safety brigade
members, with such authority, duties and qualifications as set forth in the rules. The fire
safety director and deputy fire safety directors designated shall be fully familiar with the
provisions of the fire safety and evacuation plan.
401.6.5.2 Fire safety director. The fire safety director and deputy fire safety directors
designated in the fire safety and evacuation plan shall hold a fire safety director
certificate of fitness, and shall have the following duties and responsibilities and such
other duties and responsibilities as prescribed by rule:
1. The fire safety director shall be present in the building at all times. When the fire
safety director is absent, a deputy fire safety director shall be present in the building
and shall perform the duties of the fire safety director.
2. In the event of a fire, the fire safety director shall report to the fire command
station or designated alternative location, and, if appropriate, implement the fire
safety and evacuation plan in accordance with its terms and the rules, and notify
arriving emergency response personnel and incident commander of the fire and the
building response thereto.
3. The fire safety director and deputy fire safety directors designated shall be fully
familiar with the provisions of the fire safety and evacuation plan, and when a fire
brigade is required by Section 401.6.5.1, shall conduct fire brigade training drills
required by Section 406.
4. The fire safety director shall conduct fire drills required by Section 405.
401.6.6 Buildings or parts thereof with class R-1 occupancy fire alarm system. Buildings
or parts thereof equipped with a fire alarm system with voice communication of the type
required in R-1 occupancies, regardless of whether such system is required in such building
or part thereof, shall comply with the requirements of Section 401.6.5.
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401.6.7 Group R-2 occupancies as set forth in Section 404.2.1(8). Group R-2 occupancies,
occupied or operated to be occupied, as set forth in Section 404.2.1(8), in whole or in part,
shall comply with the requirements of Section 401.6.5.
401.6.8 Group R-1 homeless shelters. Group R-1 occupancy buildings or parts thereof
occupied as a homeless shelter shall be in accordance with Sections 401.6.8.1 through
401.6.8.3.
401.6.8.1 FSP staff. The fire safety and evacuation plan shall designate a fire safety
coordinator and a sufficient number of deputy fire safety coordinators, with such
authority, duties and qualifications as set forth in the rules.
401.6.8.2 Fire safety coordinator. The fire safety coordinator and deputy fire safety
coordinators designated in the fire safety and evacuation plan shall hold a fire safety
coordinator certificate of fitness, and shall have the following duties and responsibilities
and such other duties and responsibilities as prescribed by rule:
1. The fire safety coordinator shall be present in the building at all times while the
building is occupied. When the fire safety coordinator is absent, a deputy fire safety
coordinator shall be present in the building and shall perform the duties of the fire
safety coordinator.
2. In the event of a fire, the fire safety coordinator shall report to the fire command
station or designated alternative location, and, if appropriate, implement the fire
safety and evacuation plan in accordance with its terms and the provisions of the
rules, and notify arriving emergency response personnel and incident commander of
the fire, the building response thereto, and the building’s fire protection systems.
3. The fire safety coordinator and deputy fire safety coordinators designated shall be
fully familiar with the provisions of the fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire
safety coordinator shall conduct fire drills required by Section 405.
401.6.8.3 Fire guard patrols. Buildings or parts thereof occupied or operated to be
occupied by homeless persons shall be continuously patrolled by a person holding a
certificate of fitness as fire guard. Every area of the building shall be patrolled at least
once every hour.
401.7 Supervision of emergency action plan. The owner shall designate competent persons to
act as EAP staff, train the EAP staff and conduct EAP drills. Such persons shall possess such
qualifications and/or hold such certificate of fitness as set forth in this chapter or the rules. The
owner shall ensure that adequate EAP staff is present on the premises during regular business
hours, and other times when the building is occupied, to perform the duties and responsibilities
as set forth in the emergency action plan. The owner shall additionally comply with the
requirements set forth in Sections 401.7.1 and 401.7.2.
401.7.1 EAP staff. The emergency action plan shall designate a fire safety/EAP director,
deputy fire safety/EAP directors, fire safety/EAP building evacuation supervisors, fire
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safety/EAP wardens, deputy fire safety/EAP wardens, fire safety/EAP brigade members and
critical operation staff, with such authority, duties and qualifications as set forth in the rules.
401.7.2 Fire safety/EAP director. The fire safety/EAP director and deputy fire safety/EAP
directors designated in the emergency action plan shall hold a fire safety/EAP director
certificate of fitness, shall be the persons designated as the fire safety director and deputy fire
safety director in the fire safety and evacuation plan, and shall have the following duties and
responsibilities and such other duties and responsibilities as prescribed by rule:
1. The fire safety/EAP director shall be present in the building during regular business
hours. When the fire safety/EAP director is required but absent, a deputy fire
safety/EAP director shall be present in the building and shall perform the duties of the
fire safety/EAP director.
2. In the event of an emergency requiring sheltering in place, in-building relocation,
partial evacuation or evacuation, the fire safety/EAP director shall report to the fire
command station or designated alternative location, and, if appropriate, implement the
emergency action plan in accordance with its terms and the rules, and notify arriving
emergency response personnel and incident commander of the emergency and the
building response thereto.
3. The fire safety/EAP director shall be fully familiar with the provisions of the
emergency action plan, and shall conduct EAP staff training drills required by Section
406.
4. The fire safety/EAP director shall conduct EAP drills required by Section 405.
401.8 Periodic inspection. Any occupancy, building, or part thereof required to have a fire
safety and evacuation plan, emergency action plan and/or a public gathering site plan pursuant to
the provisions of this chapter or the rules, shall be subject to periodic fire safety inspection by the
department, including to ensure that the fire safety and evacuation plan, the emergency action
plan and/or the public gathering site plan have been prepared and/or implemented in compliance
with the requirements of this chapter.
401.9 Workplace exit inspections. In addition to any other inspection requirement imposed by
law, rule or regulation, the department shall inspect Group M occupancies to determine whether
workplace exits are locked in violation of Section BC 1001.3.1 of the Building Code. A
minimum of 50 unannounced inspections shall be conducted each year. Such inspections shall
include, but not be limited to, premises at which violations of such section are known or
suspected to have occurred.
SECTION FC 402
DEFINITIONS
402.1 Definition. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
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EAP DRILL. A training exercise by which building occupants are familiarized with and/or
practice the procedures for safe, orderly and expeditious sheltering in place, in-building
relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation, in accordance with the emergency action plan, and
to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of such plan.
EAP STAFF. The individuals identified in an emergency action plan as responsible for the
implementation of such plan, including but not limited to the fire safety/EAP director, deputy fire
safety/EAP director, fire safety/EAP building evacuation supervisor, fire safety/EAP wardens,
deputy fire safety/EAP wardens and members of the fire safety/EAP brigade.
EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN. A written plan which sets forth the circumstances and
procedures for the sheltering in place, in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation of
building occupants in response to an incident involving an explosion, a biological, chemical or
nuclear incident or release, natural disaster or other emergency, or the threat thereof, or a
declaration of emergency by a lawful authority.
FIRE DRILL. A training exercise by which building occupants are familiarized with and/or
practice the procedures for the safe, orderly and expeditious in-building relocation, partial
evacuation or evacuation, as applicable to the occupancy or building type, in accordance with the
fire safety and evacuation plan, and to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the
implementation of such plan.
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLAN. A written plan which sets forth the
circumstances and procedures for the in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation of
building occupants, required or as appropriate for such occupancy or building type, in response
to a fire.
FSP STAFF. The individuals identified in a fire safety and evacuation plan as responsible for
the implementation of such plan.
OFFICE BUILDING. A group B occupancy designed and arranged to provide offices and other
areas for the conduct of business ordinarily conducted in offices.
REGULAR BUSINESS HOURS. Times of day and days of the week during which a building
or occupancy is normally occupied and business is conducted, and any time when an office
building is occupied by more than 500 persons on one or more floors, including street level, or
by more than 100 persons on one or more floors other than street level.
UNDERGROUND BUILDING. A building or part thereof having a floor level for human use
or occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit discharge, as that term
is defined in the Building Code.
SECTION FC 403
PUBLIC GATHERINGS
403.1 General. The commissioner may establish by rule requirements to ensure fire safety at
indoor and outdoor public gatherings, including arcades, bazaars, carnivals, displays, exhibits,
street fairs and theaters. Such requirements may include preparation and submission to the
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department of a site plan; pre-event fire safety inspection; provision of fire guards or other
qualified personnel; and provision and maintenance of fire apparatus access, and of aisles and
other means of egress from the public gathering.
403.2 Overcrowding prohibited. Overcrowding shall not be caused, maintained or allowed in
any indoor or outdoor area or space used for public gatherings.
403.3 Limitations on standing at public gatherings. Where the Building Code, certificate of
occupancy or approved seating plan allows audience members to stand at performing arts or
other indoor or outdoor events at which seating is provided for the audience, standing areas shall
be maintained in accordance with Sections 403.3.1 through 403.3.4.
403.3.1 Standing areas to be indicated. The space to be occupied by standing audience
members shall be separated from the space to be left clear for passage by a rope, tape or other
thin material at a height of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) nor more than 4 feet (1219 mm)
above the floor, supported by lightweight posts, all to be constructed and placed so as not to
constitute an obstruction in case of panic or emergency. Such standing areas shall be clearly
demarcated by durable markings on the floor indicating the boundaries of the standing area.
403.3.2 Standing in aisles. It shall be unlawful to stand, or allow any person to stand, in or at
the head of an aisle.
403.3.3 Standing in passageways.
1. If the passageway is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) and less than 16 feet (4877 mm)
deep, persons may stand therein, provided an unobstructed passageway of at least 6 feet
(1829 mm) in depth is left open, and there are no more than four rows of persons
standing.
2. If the passageway is more than 16 feet (4877 mm) deep, any number of persons or
rows of persons may stand therein, provided that an unobstructed passageway of at
least 10 feet (3048 mm) in depth is left open.
3. In places of assembly having a passageway to the rear of the seats, 6 feet (1829 mm) or
less in depth, and having in addition an outer passageway in the rear thereof, to which
all aisle heads have straight and direct access, a maximum of two rows of persons may
be permitted to stand in the passageway to the rear of such seats.
403.3.4 Standing in balconies. Only one row of persons shall be allowed to stand in
balconies.
403.4 Announcements. In performing arts theaters or motion picture theaters, and in any other
Group A occupancy in which there is a non-continuous performance or program, other than an
occupancy regularly attended by the same audience, an audible announcement shall be made not
more than 10 minutes prior to the start of each performance or program informing the occupants
of the location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other emergency, provided,
however, that in any theater the announcement may be projected upon a screen or other surface
approved by the commissioner in a manner approved by the commissioner. Notwithstanding the
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foregoing, the commissioner may grant an exception from such requirement upon a
determination that the occupancy has at least one exit clearly visible from every seat or standing
area from which members of the audience are authorized to view the performance.
403.5 Trade shows. The owner of any Group A occupancy wherein a trade show or other similar
temporary exhibition is to be conducted shall, at least one month before the date of such
exhibition, submit to the department a written notice and a plan containing the following
information and such other information and documentation as the commissioner may prescribe:
1. The dates, times, location, and nature of the trade show or other exhibition, and whether
the event will be open to the public or restricted to the trade.
2. The design and arrangement of the trade show or other exhibition, including aisles, display
booths, decorations and drapes, and equipment using any hazardous material or open
flame.
SECTION FC 404
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS AND EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS
404.1 General. The owner of any premises subject to this section shall cause a fire safety and
evacuation plan and an emergency action plan to be prepared for such premises in a form
prescribed by the commissioner, and periodically reviewed and amended, in accordance with this
section and the rules. The commissioner may prescribe by rule the qualifications of the person
preparing such plans.
404.1.1 Existing buildings. For purposes of Section 102.2, the preparation of a fire safety and
evacuation plan and an emergency action plan shall constitute an operational requirement.
Owners of buildings and occupancies not required to have a fire safety and evacuation plan
prior to the effective date of this code shall have one year from such effective date to prepare
and, if required pursuant to Section 404.6, submit, such plan. Any owner of a building or
occupancy that has an approved fire safety plan and an emergency action plan on the effective
date of this code shall not be required to prepare and/or file new plans within such one-year
period, but shall maintain the existing plans in compliance with the requirements of the laws,
rules and regulations applicable to such plans prior to the effective date of this code and such
additional or amended requirements as may be adopted after the effective date of this code, as
applicable in accordance with the terms of such additional or amended requirements.
404.2 Where required. A fire safety and evacuation plan and/or emergency action plan is
required for the occupancies and buildings as set forth in Sections 404.2.1 and 404.2.2.
404.2.1 Fire safety and evacuation plans. A fire safety and evacuation plan is required for
the following occupancies and buildings:
1. Group A occupancies, other than Group A occupancies used exclusively for purposes
of religious worship that have an occupant load less than 2,000.
2. Group B occupancy office buildings or parts thereof and other office buildings or parts
thereof, occupied or designed to occupied by more than 500 persons on one or more
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floors, including street level, or by more than 100 persons on one or more floors other
than street level.
3. Group B occupancy educational facilities.
4. Group E occupancy schools, educational facilities and day care facilities.
5. Group H occupancies, except buildings or parts thereof that have prepared one or more
of the following plans in compliance with applicable requirements:
5.1. An emergency action plan in accordance with the regulations of the United States
Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Section 1910.119.
5.2. A contingency plan and emergency procedures in accordance with the
regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, as
set forth in 6 NYCRR Part 373.
5.3. A risk management plan in accordance with the rules of the New York City
Department of Environmental Protection, as set forth in 15 RCNY §41-08.
6. Group I occupancies.
7. Group M occupancies occupied or designed to be occupied by more than 500 persons
on one or more floors, including street level, or by more than 100 persons on one or
more floors other than street level, or in which more than 25 persons are employed.
8. Group R-1 occupancies, occupied by more than 30 lodgers, or more than 15 lodgers
above street level, for a period of 90 days or less; and/or operated to accommodate such
numbers of lodgers for such period of occupancy; and/or designed to contain a total of
more than 30 sleeping rooms, or more than 15 sleeping rooms above the street level, for
such period of occupancy; and/or occupied by one or more lodgers on a floor more than
75 feet (22 860 mm) above the street level, for such period of occupancy, or operated or
designed for such lodging.
9. Group R-2 occupancies occupied by more than 30 lodgers, or more than 15 lodgers
above street level, for a period of 90 days or less; and/or operated to accommodate such
number of lodgers for such period of occupancy; and/or designed to contain a total of
more than 30 sleeping rooms, or more than 15 sleeping rooms above the street level, for
such period of occupancy; and/or occupied by one or more lodgers on a floor more than
75 feet (22 860 mm) above the street level, for such period of occupancy, or operated or
designed for such lodging. All other Group R-2 occupancies shall comply with the
requirements of Section 408.9.
10. Buildings or parts thereof equipped with a fire alarm system with voice
communication of the type required in Class B, R-1 or M occupancies, regardless of
whether such system is required in such building or part thereof.
11. Buildings with an atrium and containing a Group A, E or M occupancy.
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12. Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in aggregate floor area.
13. Buildings that are greater than 6 stories or 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height, except
Group R-2 occupancies.
14. Underground buildings occupied or designed to be occupied by more than 100
persons below street level.
15. Buildings occupied or designed to be occupied to provide emergency shelter for more
than 15 homeless persons for more than 30 days in a year.
404.2.2 Emergency action plans. An emergency action plan is required in Group B
occupancy office buildings or parts thereof:
1. Greater than 6 stories in height; or
2. Greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height; or
3. Occupied or designed to be occupied by more than 500 persons on one or more floors,
including street level, or by more than 100 persons on one or more floors other than
street level; or
4. Equipped with a fire alarm system with voice communication of the type required in
Class B or M occupancies, regardless of whether such system is required in such
building or space; or
5. Ordered by the department to comply with the requirements of this section, based upon
a determination that compliance with this section is required in the interest of public
safety given the location, use or occupancy of the building.
404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan and emergency action plan contents shall be in
accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2.
404.3.1 Fire safety and evacuation plans. A fire safety and evacuation plan shall include
the following information and such other information and documentation as the
commissioner may prescribe:
1. The procedures for notifying building occupants of a fire and reporting a fire to the
department, including the preferred and any alternative means of notifying and
reporting.
2. Whether the response to a fire emergency will require the occupants of the building to
be completely evacuated, partial evacuation or relocated within the building, and the
procedures for each such response.
3. Site plans indicating the following:
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3.1. Surrounding buildings and streets, including cross streets, and fire apparatus
access roads.
3.2. The location of building occupant assembly areas, if applicable.
4. Floor plans, with corresponding legend, identifying the locations of the following, as
applicable:
4.1. Exits.
4.2. Evacuation routes.
4.3. Fire barriers.
4.4. Areas of refuge.
4.5. Stairs with letter designation.
4.6. Access and convenience stairways.
4.7. Elevator bank letter and car number designations.
4.8. Fire command station.
4.9. Fire warden phones.
4.10. Manual fire alarm boxes.
4.11. Standpipe hose outlets.
4.12. Sprinkler and standpipe system riser diagrams and siamese connections.
4.13. Sprinkler and standpipe system control valves.
4.14. Any part of the building not protected by a sprinkler system.
4.15. Emergency power generator and fuel supply.
5. Permitted hazardous material and combustible material storage, handling or use at the
premises.
6. Identification of fire safety director or other building employees responsible for
implementing the fire safety and evacuation plan, training FSP staff, or other duties
related to the fire safety and evacuation plan.
7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for operation of building fire
protection, fire extinguishing and life safety systems, or other critical equipment.
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8. Procedures for employees who must operate critical equipment.
9. Procedures for accounting for building employees and building occupants after such
employees or occupants have been relocated or evacuated to a safe area.
10. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for implementing the plan.
11. Identification of personnel available, if any, to provide emergency medical care.
12. A description of the emergency voice/alarm communication system alert tone and
preprogrammed voice messages, when approved.
13. Procedures for identifying in advance building occupants who require assistance to
participate in the plan because of an infirmity or disability or other special need, and
approved procedures for providing for such assistance.
404.3.2 Emergency action plans. The commissioner shall promulgate rules establishing
standards, procedures and requirements for the safety of occupants in any office building or
part thereof in the event of an explosion, a biological, chemical or nuclear incident or release,
natural disaster or other emergency, or the threat thereof, or a declaration of emergency by
lawful authorities, including procedures for the orderly evacuation therefrom. Such rules may
require the owner of such premises to develop a written emergency action plan that includes
the following information, and such other information and documentation as the
commissioner may prescribe:
1. Preparation of the emergency action plan, including the form and submission of such
plan and supporting documentation.
2. The responses to be taken in response to each type of emergency.
3. The designation and qualifications of EAP staff, and their emergency action plan
duties and responsibilities.
4. Reporting of emergencies to the department.
5. Communication with building occupants.
6. Use of elevators and the operation of other building systems.
7. The conduct of EAP drills.
8. Recordkeeping requirements.
9. Obligations of building occupants and employers of building occupants.
10. Procedures for identifying in advance building occupants who require assistance to
participate in the plan because of an infirmity or disability or other special need, and
approved procedures for providing for such assistance.
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404.4 Periodic review and revision. Fire safety and evacuation plans and emergency action
plans shall be reviewed and updated as necessitated by changes in staff assignments, use or
occupancy, or the design and arrangement of the premises, but at least annually. An entry shall
be made in the log book required by Section 405.5 documenting such review, and indicating the
general nature of any amendments to be made to such plan.
404.5 Maintenance on premises. A copy of the fire safety and evacuation plan and the
emergency action plan shall be readily available on the premises during regular business hours.
For buildings provided with a fire command station, the plans shall be maintained at such station,
if practicable.
404.6 Submission of plans. Group B office building fire safety and evacuation plans and
emergency action plans, fire safety and evacuation plans for Group R-1 occupancies and
buildings with a fire alarm system with voice communication as set forth in Section 404.2.1(9),
and such other fire safety and evacuation plans as may be specified by the commissioner by rule,
shall be submitted to the commissioner for acceptance. Such plans shall be accompanied by a
copy of the fire protection plan filed with the New York City Department of Buildings in
accordance with the Building Code, unless already submitted to the department. A fire safety and
evacuation plan and an emergency action plan, as applicable, shall be prepared, and, as
applicable, accepted prior to occupancy of the building.
404.7 Building information card. The commissioner may require by rule the preparation of a
building information card depicting and/or setting forth the relevant fire safety information for a
building or occupancy for which a fire safety and evacuation plan is required to be submitted to
the department pursuant to Section 404.6. A building information card, when required to be
prepared, shall be maintained on the premises and made available upon request to any
department representative.
SECTION FC 405
FIRE DRILLS AND EAP DRILLS
405.1 General. Fire drills and EAP drills shall be conducted in occupancies and buildings set
forth in Section 404.2, in accordance with Sections 405.2 and 405.3.
405.2 Frequency of fire drills. Required fire drills shall be conducted in the buildings set forth
in Section 404.2, in accordance with Table 405.2. All building occupants, including the FSP
staff, shall participate in fire drills.
TABLE 405.2
FIRE DRILL FREQUENCY
OCCUPANCY OR BUILDING TYPE
FREQUENCY
Group B colleges and universities
Group B office buildings subject to compliance with Section
404.2.1(2)
Group E day care facilities
Group E schools and educational facilities
Group F
Group I-1a
Group R-1 college or school student dormitories
In accordance with Section 405.2.1
Quarterlyb
Monthly
In accordance with Section 405.2.2
Monthly in accordance with Section 405.2.3
In accordance with Section 405.2.4
In accordance with Section 405.2.2
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Group R-1 homeless shelters
Group R-2 occupancies subject to compliance with Section 404.2.1(8)
Monthly on each shift
Quarterly on each shift
a. Fire drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall include complete evacuation of the building in accordance with Section 408.5.5.
b. The frequency may be reduced to semi-annually two years after the certificate of occupancy has been issued.
405.2.1 Group B occupancy colleges and universities fire drill frequency. In Group B
colleges and university facilities, the frequency and timing of fire drills shall be in
accordance with the New York State Education Law.
405.2.2 Group E occupancy schools and educational facility fire drill frequency. In
Group E schools and educational facilities, including dormitories, the frequency and timing
of fire drills shall be in accordance with New York State Education Law.
405.2.3 Group F occupancy fire drill frequency. Fire drills in Group F occupancies shall
be conducted as required and in accordance with the New York City Board of Standards and
Appeals Rules, as set forth in 2 RCNY § 9-01.
405.2.4 Group I-1 occupancy fire drill frequency. Fire drills in Group I-1 occupancies
shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times per year on each shift. Twelve drills
shall be conducted in the first year of operation.
405.3 EAP drills. The owner shall conduct EAP drills on a regular basis, during regular business
hours, in accordance with this section and the rules.
405.3.1 Frequency of EAP drills. EAP drills shall be conducted on a regular basis, as
follows:
1. At least two EAP drills shall be conducted within one year of the date of department
acceptance of the building’s initial emergency action plan, the first of which shall be
conducted within six months of such date of acceptance.
2. Beginning one year from the date of department acceptance of the building’s initial
emergency action plan, an EAP drill shall be conducted on each floor of the building at
least once a year.
405.3.2 Participation in EAP drills. All building occupants present on the affected floors at
the time the EAP drill is conducted, including visitors, shall be required to participate in such
drill.
405.3.3 Coordination with fire drills. EAP drills shall be conducted separately from fire
drills required for the building, and shall highlight the differences between the building’s fire
safety and evacuation plan and emergency action plan, and the appropriate actions to be
taken by building occupants upon implementation of each plan.
405.4 Time. Drills shall be conducted at varying times of day.
405.5 Recordkeeping. A written record of fire drills and EAP drills shall be maintained in a
bound log book with consecutive numbered pages, or other form of approved electronic
recordkeeping, and maintained on the premises for a period of 3 years for fire drills, and 5 years
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for EAP drills, and made available upon request of any department representative. An entry shall
be made in such log book for each fire drill and EAP drill that is conducted in the building that
includes the following information, and such other information and documentation as the
commissioner may require:
1. The name and, if applicable, certificate of fitness number of the person conducting the
drill.
2. Date and time of the drill.
3. Name and title of the FSP staff or EAP staff assisting in the conduct of the drill.
4. Number of occupants participating in the drill.
5. Evaluation of effectiveness of the drill, including any delays and deficiencies.
6. If evacuation was conducted, time required to accomplish evacuation.
405.6 Reserved.
405.7 Alarm activation. The fire alarm system shall be activated each time a fire drill is
conducted to initiate the drill and familiarize building occupants with the alarm tones.
405.8 Accounting for occupants. Occupants in a building shall be accounted for in accordance
with Sections 405.8.1 and 405.8.2.
405.8.1 Educational occupancies. When occupants are evacuated and directed to an
assembly area, school administrators shall account for all students present in the building
prior to the drill.
405.8.2 Office buildings. In office buildings, all areas of the building to be evacuated shall
be searched to ensure that all occupants have participated in the drill.
SECTION FC 406
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLAN AND EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN STAFF
TRAINING
406.1 General. FSP staff and EAP staff shall be trained in the performance of their duties in
accordance with the fire safety and evacuation plan and emergency action plan, respectively.
406.2 Frequency. FSP staff and EAP staff shall receive initial training in the contents of the fire
safety and evacuation plan and emergency action plan upon commencement of their authority
and duties in the building. Such staff shall participate in training sessions designed to familiarize
them with their duties pursuant to the plan in accordance with the frequency set forth in Tables
406.2(1) and 406.2(2), as applicable. A written record of such staff training shall be maintained
in a bound log book with consecutive numbered pages, or other form of approved recordkeeping,
and maintained on the premises for a period of 3 years and made available for inspection by
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department representatives. An entry shall be made in such log book for each training session
conducted.
TABLE 406.2(1)
FSP STAFF TRAINING DRILLS
OCCUPANCY OR BUILDING TYPE
Group A
Group I-1
Group I-2
Group R-1
Buildings with a fire alarm system with communication as set forth in
Section 404.2.1(9)
All other occupancies or building types
REFRESHER TRAINING DURATION AND FREQUENCY
1 hour quarterly
30 minutes every 2 months
Monthly in accordance with Section 406.2.1
1 hour quarterly on each shift
1 hour quarterlya
1 hour annually
a. The commissioner may require participation of building occupants in the training drill, depending upon the nature of the occupancy in which
such fire alarm system is installed. Training drills shall be conducted on a semi-annual basis beginning two years after the certificate of
occupancy has been issued.
406.2.1 Group I-2 occupancy FSP staff training drills. In Group I-2 occupancies, FSP
staff training drills may be conducted throughout the entire occupancy or in specific areas
thereof, but training shall be conducted in each and every area of the occupancy over the
period of 1 year. Such training shall be conducted at least once each month for a total of not
less than twelve training drills per year, distributed among the three shifts as follows:
1. Day shift - at least three training drills.
2. Evening shift - at least six training drills.
3. Night shift - at least three training drills.
TABLE 406.2(2)
EAP STAFF TRAINING DRILLS
EAP STAFF MEMBER
Deputy fire safety/EAP directors
Fire safety/EAP building evacuation
supervisors
Fire safety/EAP wardens
Deputy fire safety/EAP warden
Fire safety/EAP brigade
INITIAL TRAINING DURATION
3 hours
REFRESHER TRAINING DURATION
AND FREQUENCY
1 hour semi-annually
3 hours
1 hour semi-annually
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour annually
1 hour annually
1 hour annually
SECTION FC 407
RESERVED
SECTION FC 408
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS
408.1 General. The premises used or occupied for the purposes set forth in this section shall
additionally comply with the requirements of this section, as applicable.
408.2 Group A occupancies. All Group A occupancies shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.2.1.
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408.2.1 Seating plan. A copy of the seating plan for Group A occupancies required by the
Building Code shall be submitted to the department prior to occupancy.
408.3 Group B occupancies. Group B occupancy office buildings or parts thereof, occupied or
designed to be occupied by more than 500 persons on one or more floors, including street level,
or by more than 100 persons on one or more floors other than street level, shall be operated and
maintained in compliance with the additional emergency preparedness and planning
requirements set forth in the rules.
408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.4.1 through 408.4.4.
408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the requirements of Section 404 and Section
407.6, plans and diagrams shall be maintained in an approved location on the premises
indicating the plan for each area, the amount and type of HPM stored, handled and used,
locations of shutoff valves for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and
locations of exits.
408.4.2 Periodic review and revision. The plans and diagrams required by Section 408.4.1
shall be maintained up to date and the commissioner shall be notified of all changes in use or
occupancy, and design and arrangement of the premises.
408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons shall be designated the on-site
emergency response team and trained to be liaison personnel for the department. These
persons shall aid the department in preplanning emergency responses, identifying locations
where HPM is stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical nature of such
material. An adequate number of personnel for each work shift shall be designated.
408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site emergency response team shall be
conducted on a regular basis but not less than once every three months. Records of
emergency drills conducted shall be maintained in the same manner as records of fire drills.
408.5 Group I-1 occupancies. Group I-1 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.5.1 through 408.5.5.
408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety and evacuation plan required by
Section 404 shall include special FSP staff actions, including fire protection procedures
necessary for residents, and shall be revised upon admission of any resident with special
needs.
408.5.2 Reserved.
408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be
trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include actions to
take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or
habilitation training, training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall
be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other
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in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without
additional personal risk.
408.5.4 Reserved.
408.5.5 Resident participation. Fire drills shall involve the actual evacuation of all residents
to a selected assembly area.
408.6 Group I-2 occupancies. Group I-2 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.6.1 and 408.6.2.
408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During fire drills, the movement of patients to safe areas
or to the exterior of the building is not required.
408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When fire drills are conducted after visiting hours or when
patients or residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement is allowed instead of
audible alarms.
408.7 Group I-3 occupancies. Group I-3 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.7.1 through 408.7.4.
408.7.1 FSP staff training content. FSP staff shall be instructed in the proper use of
portable fire extinguishers and other manual fire suppression equipment.
408.7.2 Staffing. In Group I-3 occupancies, FSP staff shall be in the building at all times,
and within three floors or 300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door of
each resident housing area. When movement of occupants from one smoke compartment to
another or egress from the building is impeded by staff-controlled manual releases, the FSP
staff responsible for controlling such movement or egress must be continuously available to
initiate emergency procedures within 2 minutes of an alarm.
Exception: FSP staff shall not be required to be located within three floors or 300 feet
(9144 mm) of areas in which all locks may be unlocked automatically in accordance with
Section 408.4 of the Building Code.
408.7.3 Notification. Provision shall be made to promptly notify FSP staff of an emergency.
408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed in a means of egress shall be
individually identifiable by both touch and sight.
408.8 Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.8.1 and 408.8.3.
408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be posted
on or immediately adjacent to every required egress door from each hotel guest room, motel
guest room, or dormitory room. The diagram shall indicate the following:
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1. A visual representation of the number of doors opening onto the public corridor which
must be passed to reach each exit stair.
2. Location of the fire alarm pull stations.
3. Procedures to be followed in the event of a fire alarm or smoke detector alarm.
4. A written description or visual representation of the procedures to be followed in the
event of fire or smoke conditions.
408.8.2 Reserved.
408.8.3 Signage. Group R-1 occupancies shall comply with the additional signage and such
other emergency preparedness and planning requirements set forth in the rules.
408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancy buildings or parts thereof with 3 or more
dwelling units, including apartment houses, apartment buildings, apartment hotels and other
residential buildings or parts thereof that are occupied for the shelter and sleeping
accommodations of individuals on a month to month or longer-term basis shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 408.9.4 and the rules. Such buildings or parts thereof
shall not be required to comply with the supervision requirements of Sections 401, and the
requirements of Sections 404, 405 and 406.
Exception: Group R-2 occupancy buildings or parts thereof required to prepare a fire safety
and evacuation plan as set forth in Section 404.2.1(8). Such buildings or parts thereof shall be
operated and maintained in compliance with the additional emergency preparedness and
planning requirements set forth in the rules.
408.9.1 Residential fire safety guide and notices. The owner of any premises containing a
Group R-2 occupancy shall cause a fire safety guide to be prepared for such premises, and
periodically reviewed, amended and distributed in accordance with this section and the rules.
408.9.1.1 Fire safety guide. The residential fire safety guide shall serve to inform
building occupants and building service employees as to the building’s construction, fire
safety systems, means of egress, and evacuation and other procedures to be followed in
the event of fire in the building.
408.9.1.2 Fire safety notices. The fire safety notice shall serve to inform building
occupants, building service employees and visitors as to the evacuation and other
procedures to be followed in the event of fire in the building. Such notice shall be in
such form as prescribed by the commissioner by rule and shall be posted within each
dwelling unit and such other locations as set forth in the rules.
408.9.2 Periodic review and revision. Fire safety guides and notices shall be reviewed prior
to each distribution and posting, and shall be revised within 60 days of any material change
in the building’s fire safety systems, means of egress or other building condition required to
be included in such fire safety guide or notice.
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408.9.3 Distribution and posting. A copy of the fire safety guide and fire safety notice shall
be distributed to building occupants, and fire safety notices shall be posted as set forth in this
section and the rules.
408.9.3.1 Cooperative or condominium. In Group R-2 occupancies with a cooperative
or condominium form of ownership and management, the board of directors,
condominium association or other party generally responsible for maintenance of
common areas shall be responsible for the preparation and distribution of the fire safety
guide, the posting and maintenance of fire safety notices in common areas, and the
preparation and distribution to individual dwelling unit owners or proprietary lessees of
fire safety notices for dwelling unit doors, including instructions and the means for
affixing the notice. The owners or proprietary lessees of the individual units in such
residential buildings or parts thereof shall be responsible for the posting and maintenance
of the fire safety notice on their respective dwelling unit doors.
408.9.4 Floor numbering list. The commissioner shall promulgate rules establishing
requirements for the electronic submission of floor numbering lists to the department by
owners of buildings or parts thereof classified in Group R-2 occupancies that are 150 feet (45
720 mm) or more in height, and such other occupancies as the commissioner may designate
by rule. Such rules shall provide that each owner of a building with non-sequential or nonstandard floor numbering, as defined by rule, submit a floor numbering list indicating the
floor numbers assigned to each floor, and submit an amended floor numbering list within 2
business days of a change in any floor numbering designation.
408.10 Group R-1 occupancy school and college dormitories. Group R-1 school and college
dormitories shall prepare an FSP, or prepare and distribute a fire safety guide and notice, as
prescribed by the commissioner by rule.
408.11 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 408.11.1 through 408.11.3.
408.11.1 Floor plan. The floor plan required by Section 404.3.1(4) shall additionally include
the following information:
1. Each occupancy, including identification of tenant.
2. Exits from each tenant space.
408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant space provided with a secondary exit
to the exterior or exit corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by business name
and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be conspicuously posted on the exterior or exit
corridor side of the door, be plainly legible and shall contrast with their background.
408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be:
1. Kept free from the storage of any combustible materials.
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2. Kept separate from other tenant spaces and areas of the mall by maintaining any fire
separation requirement of the Building Code during the period of time that the space
remains unoccupied or under reconstruction.
3. Periodically inspected on at least a weekly basis to ensure that the space is being
maintained in accordance with this section. Doors to spaces shall be secured from entry
by keeping all doors locked at all times when the space is unoccupied.
4. Kept free from rubbish and other combustible waste.
408.12 Buildings with Class B or M fire alarm systems. Buildings or parts thereof equipped
with a fire alarm system with voice communication of the type required in Class B or M
occupancies, regardless of whether such system is required in such building or space, shall be
operated and maintained in compliance with the requirements of Section 408.3.
408.13 Buildings with Class R-1 fire alarm systems. Buildings or parts thereof equipped with a
fire alarm system with voice communication of the type required in Group R-1 occupancies,
regardless of whether such system is required in such building or space, shall be operated and
maintained in compliance with the requirements of Section 408.8.3.
408.14 Fire emergency reporting. In a conspicuous location in every lobby or entrance hall of a
commercial or public building, the owner shall post a sign indicating the method of transmitting
a fire alarm. Such signs shall conform to the following format and the owner shall insert all
information necessary to complete the instructions contained therein:
Fire alarm box at__________________ and_________________
(Name of street)
(Name of street)
or
To report a fire by telephone dial"911" or, depending upon the borough in which the property is
located, insert one of the following telephone numbers:
Bronx properties
Brooklyn properties
Manhattan properties
Queens properties
Staten Island properties
(718) 999-3333
(718) 999-4444
(212) 999-2222
(718) 999-5555
(718) 999-6666
Exception: This section shall not apply to educational facilities where fire drills are
conducted in accordance with Section FC 405.
408.14.1 Fire emergency reporting signs. Signs required by this section shall be of such
size and contain such lettering as the commissioner may prescribe by rule.
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CHAPTER 5
FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES
SECTION FC 501
GENERAL
501.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern buildings, structures and premises with respect to
requirements designed to ensure safe and effective firefighting operations.
501.2 Reserved
501.3 Design and installation documents. The commissioner may require that design and
installation documents for proposed fire apparatus access roads, showing their location,
dimensions and specifications, and design and installation documents for private fire hydrant
systems, including hydraulic calculations, be submitted to the department for review and
approval prior to installation.
501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access roads or a water supply for fire
protection is required to be installed, such protection shall be installed and made serviceable
prior to and during the time of construction except when approved alternative methods of
protection are provided. Temporary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection when
construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles in accordance with Section 505.2.
SECTION FC 502
DEFINITIONS
502.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AREAWAY. A space below grade, adjacent to a building, open to the outdoors and enclosed by
walls.
CITYWIDE STANDARD KEY. A key of special or controlled design approved by the
commissioner which serves to operate elevator emergency recall and emergency in-service
operation service switches and other devices or locks as required by the construction codes,
including the Building Code, this code or the rules.
DEVELOPMENT. A development includes the construction of a new building on a zoning lot,
the relocation of an existing building to another zoning lot, or the use of a tract of land for a new
use.
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that serves to provide access for fire apparatus
from a public street to the frontage space of one or more buildings in a development. A fire
apparatus access road includes any road that serves such purpose whether denominated as a fire
lane, private street, private road, driveway or parking lot lane.
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FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status
of the detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the
system(s) can be manually controlled.
FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD KEY. A key of special or controlled design, also known
as a "1620" key, for the use of department personnel and others specifically authorized by the
commissioner, which serves to operate all switches, locks and other devices required to be
operable by a citywide standard key.
FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. It
may also serve as a secondary means of access to a private road.
FRONTAGE SPACE. A street or an open space outside of a building that is within 30 feet
(9144 mm) of the main front entrance to the building and not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in any
dimension. It shall be accessible from a public street or fire apparatus access road. It shall be
designed and constructed to allow operation of department apparatus on the front side of the
building and shall be maintained free of obstructions that may interfere with its use by the
department.
KEY BOX. A secure, tamperproof device with a lock operable only by a fire department
standard key, and containing building entry keys and other keys that may be required for access
in an emergency.
PRIVATE ROAD. A road or other passageway to two or more buildings or structures in a
development that serves to provide access from a public street and which may serve as a fire
apparatus access road. Private road does not include a public street.
PUBLIC STREET. All streets mapped or dedicated for public use, including mapped streets,
record streets, marginal streets and restricted use streets.
SECTION FC 503
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS
503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be designed, installed and maintained
in accordance with this section.
503.1.1 Fire apparatus access roads. Buildings or structures shall be accessible to
department fire apparatus by way of a public street or an approved fire apparatus access road
with an asphalt, concrete or other approved driving surface installed in accordance with the
standards of the New York City Department of Transportation and capable of supporting the
imposed load of department apparatus weighing at least 75,000 pounds (34 050 kg) and the
operational load of department aerial apparatus outrigger support (48,000 pounds (21 792 kg)
over a 2 foot (610 mm) by 2 foot (610 mm) area). When fire apparatus access roads are
required by this section, such roads shall provide access from a public street to the frontage
space of each building or structure in a development in accordance with this section.
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503.1.2 Additional access. The commissioner may require more than one means of fire
apparatus access based on the potential for impairment of a single road by vehicle
congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or other factors that could limit access.
503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire apparatus access roads to buildings used for high-piled
combustible storage shall additionally comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter
23.
503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads to one or more buildings in a development
shall comply with the requirements of this code and the standards established by the New York
City Department of Transportation and shall be designed and installed in accordance with
Sections 503.2.1 through 503.2.7.
503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less
than 38 feet (11 582 mm) and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 14 feet
(4267 mm).
Exceptions. A fire apparatus access road may be less than 38 feet (11 582 mm) in width
provided that it satisfies the following requirements:
1. The fire apparatus access road has an unobstructed width of not less than 34 feet
(10 363 mm) and satisfies the requirements of Section 26-21 of the Zoning
Resolution; or
2. The fire apparatus access road has an unobstructed width of not less than 30 feet
(9144 mm) and satisfies the requirements of Section 119-214 of the Zoning
Resolution; or
3. It is not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) wide, provides access to not more than 5
dwelling units, and all buildings to which the private road provides access are
protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
503.2.2 Authority. The commissioner may require an increase in the minimum access
widths where circumstances arising from site conditions or the design of the development
render such widths inadequate for fire or other emergency response operations.
503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall comply with the requirements of the New
York City Department of Transportation and shall be designed and maintained to support the
imposed loads of fire apparatus, as set forth in Section 503.1.1, and shall be surfaced so as to
provide all-weather driving capabilities.
503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a fire apparatus access road shall be
determined by the commissioner.
503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in
length, as measured from the curb line of the nearest public street which is not itself a dead–
end, shall be provided with an approved turnaround area for fire apparatus in accordance
with Table 503.2.5. Such roads more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) and up to and including 400
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feet (121 920 mm) in length shall not require a turnaround if all buildings served by the road
are protected throughout by a sprinkler system. Dead-end fire apparatus roads shall not
exceed 400 feet (121 920 mm) in length unless approved by the commissioner.
TABLE 503.2.5
REQUIREMENTS FOR DEAD-END FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS
LENGTH (feet)
WIDTH (feet)b
TURNAROUNDS REQUIRED
0–150
38
> 150 and ≤ 400a
38
None required
90-foot hammerhead, or 70-foot-diameter unobstructed cul-de-sac or other
approved means.c
Only where approved by the commissioner
> 400
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. A turnaround may not be required if all buildings served by the road are protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
b. Except as otherwise provided in Section 503.2.1.
c. See Figure 503.2.5
a. 70-Foot-Diameter Cul-de-Sac
b. 90-Foot Hammerhead
FIGURE 503.2.5 DEAD-END FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD TURNAROUND
503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a
fire apparatus access road, the bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with
the standards established by the New York City Department of Transportation. Bridges and
elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire
apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges when required by
the commissioner. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent
to surfaces which are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both
shall be installed and maintained when required by the commissioner.
503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road shall not exceed 10 percent unless
approved by the commissioner.
503.3 Marking. Where required by the commissioner, approved signs shall be provided for fire
apparatus access roads, in conspicuous locations, to identify such roads or prohibit the
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obstruction thereof. A posted sign shall not be defaced, obscured, removed, mutilated or
otherwise rendered illegible.
503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads shall not be
obstructed in any manner. Vehicles shall not be parked on fire apparatus access roads, except in
authorized parking locations. The minimum widths and clearances established in Section 503.2.1
shall be maintained at all times.
503.5 Required gates or barricades. The commissioner may require the installation and
maintenance of gates or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, trails or
other accessways, excluding public streets.
503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, gates and barricades shall be secured
in an approved manner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been closed and
obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used
unless authorized by the owner and the commissioner.
Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to government officials in conjunction
with their official duties.
503.6 Fire apparatus access road gates. The installation of gates across a fire apparatus access
road shall be approved by the commissioner. Gates and appurtenances shall not reduce the
approved width of a fire apparatus access road. Where gates are installed, they shall have an
approved means of emergency operation. The emergency operation of such gate shall be
maintained in good working order at all times.
Gates securing a fire apparatus access road shall comply with the following requirements:
1. The minimum gate width shall be not less than that approved for the fire apparatus access
road.
2. Gates shall be of the swinging or sliding type.
3. Design and installation of manually operated gates shall allow for operation by one person.
4. The gates shall be maintained in good working order at all times and replaced or repaired
when defective.
5. An approved opening device for emergency access by firefighters or other emergency
response personnel shall be provided for electrically operated gates.
6. Manually operated gates shall not be locked with a padlock or chain and padlock unless
they are capable of being opened by standard tools such as bolt cutters.
7. Only approved locking devices shall be used.
503.7 Signs. Fire apparatus access roads subject to parking restrictions shall be marked with
permanent NO PARKING—FIRE ACCESS ROAD signs complying with Figure 503.7. Signs
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shall have a minimum dimension of 12 inches (305 mm) wide by 18 inches (457 mm) high and
have red letters on a white reflective background. Signs shall be posted on the sides of the fire
apparatus access road upon which parking is prohibited.
NO
PARKING
FIRE ACCESS
ROAD
BY ORDER OF
THE FIRE
COMMISSIONER
FIGURE 503.7 FIRE ACCESS ROAD SIGN
503.8 Public streets. Access to buildings on public streets shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 503.8.1 through 503.8.3.
503.8.1 Dead ends. Dead end public streets in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length, as
measured from the curb line of the nearest public street that is not a dead-end, shall be
provided with an approved turnaround area for fire apparatus that meets the requirements of
Section 503.2.
Exception: A turnaround shall not be required for dead end public streets more than 150
feet (45 720 mm) in length if all new buildings on such street are protected throughout by
a sprinkler system.
503.8.2 Substandard width. Except as otherwise approved, buildings on public streets that
have an unobstructed width of less than 38 feet (11 582 mm) shall be protected throughout by
a sprinkler system.
SECTION FC 504
ACCESS TO BUILDINGS AND ROOFS
504.1 Building access. Exterior doors and openings required by this code or the construction
codes, including the Building Code, shall be maintained in a manner that affords access by
firefighting personnel in accordance with the requirements of this section, Chapter 10, and the
Building Code. An approved access walkway leading from fire apparatus access roads to exterior
openings shall be provided when required by the commissioner.
504.1.1 Frontage space obstructions. Obstructions, such as planters, fences and bollards,
shall not be placed in the required frontage space unless they have been approved by the
Commissioner of Buildings, the Commissioner of Transportation, or the commissioner, as
applicable.
504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior doors and their function shall not
be eliminated without prior approval of the New York City Department of Buildings. Exterior
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doors that have been rendered nonfunctional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance
shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the words THIS DOOR
BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters having a principal stroke of not less than 0.75 inch
(19.1 mm) wide and at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting background. Required
department access doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall
comply with the requirements of Chapter 10 and the construction codes, including the Building
Code. Access doors for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with the requirements of
Section 2306.6.1.
504.3 Stairway access to roof. Stairway access to the roof shall be in accordance with Chapter
10 and the construction codes, including the Building Code. Such stairway shall be marked at
street and floor levels with a sign indicating that the stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs
are used for roof gardens or for other lawful purposes, stairways shall be provided as required for
such occupancy classification.
504.4 Rooftop access and obstructions. The rooftops of buildings 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less
in height, except rooftops with a slope exceeding 20° from the horizontal, shall be maintained in
a manner that avoids or minimizes obstructions to access for firefighting operations. For
purposes of this section only, “rooftop” shall include rooftops of building setbacks, and
“obstruction” shall mean any fixture or other item that is not readily movable by a person
without the use of tools or equipment, including air conditioning systems, billboards and other
signs, cellular antenna equipment, cooling towers, fuel oil storage tanks, generators, heating
systems, planters, solar panels, ventilation system ducts, intakes and exhausts, and window
cleaning equipment, but shall not include non-metallic decking.
504.4.1 Rooftop access. Access to building rooftops shall be provided as follows:
1. For each 12 linear feet (3658 mm) of building perimeter accessible from the frontage
space of the building and from any other exposure accessible to fire apparatus, a
minimum clearance of 6 feet (1829 mm) in width and 6 feet (1829 mm) in depth from
any obstruction shall be provided at the parapet wall or other perimeter of the rooftop.
Where such building perimeter is 24 linear feet (7315 mm) or greater, but less than 36
linear feet (10 973 mm), the required clearance openings shall be separated by a
distance of not less than 12 linear feet (3658 mm). Where such building perimeter is 36
linear feet (10 973 mm) or greater, the required clearance openings may be contiguous,
provided, however, that such contiguous openings shall not exceed 12 linear feet (3658
mm) and shall be separated from other required clearance openings by a distance of not
less than 12 linear feet (3658 mm). Each exposure accessible by fire apparatus may be
treated separately for purposes of locating clearance openings and otherwise complying
with the requirements of this provision.
2. A minimum clearance of 6 feet (1829 mm) in all directions shall be provided from
each door opening onto a rooftop from a dwelling unit, stairway, bulkhead, or other
occupied space or means of egress, as measured from the door hinge.
3. A minimum clearance of 3 feet (914 mm) in all directions shall be provided from any
fire escape or rooftop access ladder, as measured from each side of the ladder or
landing.
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504.4.2 Rooftop obstructions. Unobstructed space shall be provided on rooftops sufficient
to allow firefighting operations, as follows:
1. A clear path of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontal width and 9 feet (2743 mm)
in height shall be provided from the front of the building to the rear of the building and
from one side of the building to the other, except that a conduit or pipe in compliance
with the requirements of this section may cross such path. Such clear path shall be
accessible from each point of the rooftop access from which clearance is required
pursuant to Section 504.4.1.
2. To the maximum extent practicable, conduits, including cable trays, and piping, shall
be installed on the rooftop side of the parapet wall. If such installation is not
practicable, conduits and piping shall be installed along the periphery of the rooftop, in
order to minimize rooftop obstructions. Steps or ramps constructed of non-combustible
material and equipped with railings shall be provided in the clear paths for any conduits
or piping installations that exceed 1 foot (305 mm) in height above the rooftop. All
conduits and piping installations shall be color coded with continuous, durable and
weatherproof reflective or luminescent markings as follows:
2.1. High voltage wiring – Red.
2.2. Low voltage wiring – Orange.
2.3. Natural gas piping – Yellow.
2.4. Other compressed gas piping – Yellow, labeled at regular intervals with the type
of gas.
2.5. Fuel oil piping – Yellow with black stripes.
504.4.3 Telecommunications installations. Telecommunications installations on building
rooftops, including cellular antenna installations, shall additionally comply with the
following requirements:
1. Transmitting antennas shall be identified by affixing to the antenna, the antenna
mounting, or a conspicuous location near the antenna, continuous, durable and
weatherproof reflective or luminescent markings and 3 inch (76.2 mm) lettering that
reads, “TRANSMITTER.”
2. A durable sign shall be conspicuously posted on or near any equipment closet, roof
base station or similar telecommunications antenna installation, identifying the owner
of the installation, providing a 24 hour/7 day per week telephone number by which
such owner can be contacted, and identifying the installation by number or other unique
designation.
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504.4.4 Existing installations. Existing telecommunications conduit and piping installations
shall comply with the operational requirements for marking and signage set forth in this
section within one year of the effective date of this code.
504.5 Parking lots on developments. Parking lot lanes between rows of parking spaces shall
have a width of at least 24 feet (7315 mm). A minimum aisle space of at least 24 inches (610
mm) between vehicles shall be provided.
SECTION FC 505
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION
505.1 Address numbers. All buildings and structures shall have their lawful address numbers,
building numbers or approved building identification placed at a location on or near a building
that allows such building identification to be plainly discernible from the public street or frontage
space. These numbers shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic
numerals or alphabet letters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a
minimum stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm).
505.1.1 Developments. Buildings within developments shall be identified in compliance
with the requirements of Section 505.1. Where required by the commissioner, additional
signage shall be provided in new developments which is clearly visible at the intersection of
the public street and any fire apparatus access road that provides access to buildings in the
development. The additional signage shall indicate the addresses of all buildings in the
development served by the fire apparatus access road.
505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads within developments shall be identified with
approved signs in accordance with the requirements of the New York City Department of
Transportation. Temporary signs shall be installed at each street intersection when construction
of new roadways allows passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, weather
resistant and be maintained until replaced by permanent signs.
SECTION FC 506
KEY BOXES
506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure or an area is restricted because of
secured openings or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or firefighting purposes,
the commissioner may require a key box operable by a fire department standard key or other
approved key to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an approved type
and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the commissioner.
506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock operable by a fire department standard key shall be
installed on gates or similar barriers when required by the commissioner.
506.2 Key box maintenance. The owner of the building shall immediately notify the
commissioner and provide the new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such lock
shall be secured in the key box.
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SECTION FC 507
HAZARDS TO EMERGENCY RESPONDERS
507.1 Hoistway and shaftway protection. The doors and/or gates to hoistways, freight elevator
shafts, trap doors and other means used to provide access to vertical openings, shall be kept
closed and secured, or otherwise protected, except when being used to provide access, and shall
be closed, secured or protected, as applicable, at the end of each work day.
507.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by this section.
507.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings accessible to the department and
which open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in
a building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches
(152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily
discernible from the outside of the building.
507.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway
from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red
letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be
placed so as to be readily discernible.
Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway openings which are readily
discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.
507.3 Pitfalls. Installations designed to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders are prohibited. No
person shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, razor wire, explosives, flammable
or combustible liquid containers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant, piercing
sounds or other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively or actively disable, injure,
maim or kill a firefighter or other emergency responders who enters a building or premises,
forcibly or otherwise, for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a fire, rescuing trapped
occupants or rendering other emergency assistance.
SECTION FC 508
FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES
508.1 Required water supply. For premises requiring the installation of private fire hydrant
systems or yard hydrant systems, an approved water supply capable of supplying the required
design capacity for fire protection shall be provided.
508.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of pressure tanks, elevated tanks,
water mains or other approved fixed systems capable of providing the required design capacity.
508.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service mains and appurtenances shall be
installed in accordance with NFPA 24 and the requirements of the New York City
Department of Environmental Protection.
508.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private hydrant systems and yard hydrant systems
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22.
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508.2.3 Yard hydrant systems. Outdoor amusement and exhibition places, bulk plants or
terminals, lumber yards, trailer camps, industrial parks, and similar occupancies shall be
provided with a yard hydrant system installed in conformance with the requirements of the
construction codes, including the Building Code, this section and Section 914. Yard hydrants
shall be installed such that the entire area may be reached by 250 feet (76.2 m) of hose from a
yard hydrant or a street hydrant supplied from a direct connection to a city water main or
other approved water supply.
508.3 Design capacity. The design capacity of the water supply shall be determined by an
approved method.
508.4 Water supply test. Upon completion of the installation of a private fire hydrant system
and yard hydrant system, a flow test shall be conducted to verify that the system provides the
minimum design capacity required by Section 508.3. Certification of the water supply test shall
be submitted to the commissioner by a registered design professional.
508.5 Private fire hydrant systems. Private fire hydrant systems shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 508.5.1 through 508.5.6.
508.5.1 Where required. Where the front entrance of a building is more than 250 feet (76.2
m) from a hydrant on a public street, as measured by an approved route, private fire hydrants
and mains shall be provided as required by the commissioner.
508.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Private fire hydrant systems shall be subject
to periodic tests as required by the commissioner. Private fire hydrant systems shall be
maintained in good working order at all times and shall be repaired when defective.
Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing shall comply with approved standards.
508.5.2.1 Department flow tests. The department may periodically inspect and test
private fire hydrant systems, at the risk of the owner, for proper operation and
unobstructed flow of such hydrant system.
508.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Private fire service mains and water
tanks shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25 at
the following intervals:
1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually and after each operation; flow test
and maintenance annually.
2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, annually; flow test every 5 years.
3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and maintenance after each use.
508.5.4 Obstructions. Posts, fences, vegetation, rubbish containers, vehicles and other items
shall not be installed, planted, placed, parked or stored near fire hydrants, fire department
inlet connections or fire protection system control valves in a manner that would obscure the
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location of such fire hydrants, connections or valves, or that would hinder immediate access
thereto by firefighting personnel.
508.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A 3-foot (914 mm) radius clear space shall be
maintained around the circumference of fire hydrants to allow unobstructed operation of the
hydrant operating nut, except as otherwise required or approved.
508.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by motor vehicles,
posts that comply with the requirements of the New York City Department of Environmental
Protection shall be installed. Notwithstanding the requirements of Section 508.5.5, these
posts may be installed no less than 2 feet (610 mm) from the hydrant if they do not obstruct
the use of a 24-inch (610-mm) wrench on the hydrant operating nut.
SECTION FC 509
FIRE COMMAND CENTER
509.1 Installation and maintenance. Where required by this code or the construction codes,
including the Building Code, a fire command center for department operations shall be provided.
The location and accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by the department.
The fire command center shall be installed according to the construction codes, including the
Building Code. A layout of the fire command center and all operational features shall be
submitted for approval prior to installation. The fire command center shall be maintained in
accordance with NFPA 72.
SECTION FC 510
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT
510.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner.
Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire
detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the department.
Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location, shall be
constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and conspicuously posted.
510.2 Safe access. Fire protection devices, equipment and systems, including fire detection
systems and fire extinguishing systems, shall be readily accessible for inspection, operation and
maintenance. Sprinkler and standpipe system control valves located at a height of 7 feet (2134
mm) or more above the floor shall be provided with permanent ladders, chains and wheels, or
other approved means to provide ready access.
510.3 Natural gas shutoff tools. Natural gas utilities shall provide the department with suitable
tools for the operation of outdoor gas service line valves for a building or structure or other
outdoor emergency shutoff device or equipment. The number of such tools required to supply the
department’s needs shall be determined by the commissioner.
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CHAPTER 6
BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS
SECTION FC 601
GENERAL
601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
fuel-fired appliances, devices, equipment and systems, emergency power systems, electrical
systems and equipment, refrigerating systems, elevator recall, stationary lead-acid battery
systems and commercial cooking exhaust hoods.
601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
601.3 General. Fuel-fired appliances, devices, equipment and systems, emergency and standby
power systems, electrical systems and equipment, refrigerating systems, elevator recall,
stationary lead-acid battery systems and commercial cooking exhaust hoods shall be designed,
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter.
SECTION FC 602
DEFINITIONS
602.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
BATTERY, LEAD ACID. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal
voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load. The number of cells connected in
series determines the nominal voltage rating of the battery. The size of the cells determines the
discharge capacity of the entire battery.
BATTERY, VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA). A lead-acid battery consisting of
sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure
of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid
electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by
the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries).
BATTERY, VENTED (FLOODED) LEAD-ACID. A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that
have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for
the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the
escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other
ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell.
BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A system which consists of three
interconnected subsystems:
1. A lead-acid battery.
2. A battery charger.
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3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters, and associated electrical equipment as
required for a particular application.
CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION. A written statement issued by the commissioner
certifying that the person to whom it is issued has passed an examination as to his or her
qualifications to direct, control and supervise the operation of a refrigerating system, for which
such certificate is required by this code or the rules.
CITYWIDE-STANDARD KEY. See Section 502.1.
COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service
establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes,
smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such
appliances shall include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; steam-jacketed
kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers (charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and
similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall include
any building, structure or portion thereof used for the preparation and serving of food, other than
commercial cooking appliances in carts or other mobile stands operated by street vendors.
HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, impingement, adhesion or similar
means, grease and similar contaminants before they enter a duct system.
Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.
REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system; the refrigerant
absorbs heat and transfers it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a change
of state.
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts
constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of
extracting then expelling heat.
SECTION FC 603
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT
603.1 Installation. Nonportable fuel-fired appliances, devices, equipment and systems shall be
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Fuel Gas Code and the Mechanical Code.
603.1.1 Manufacturer’s instructions. In addition to the requirements of this code and other
applicable laws, rules and regulations, the installation shall be made in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify, or alter a
manufacturer’s instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the
manufacturer.
603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances, devices,
equipment and systems shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the Fuel
Gas Code and the Mechanical Code.
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603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment used in
connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with
Section 605 and the Electrical Code.
603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is
approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer and approved by the Department of
Buildings. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall not be used,
except when such waste oil is mixed with number six fuel oil in bulk or waste oil recovery
plants, the resultant mixture meets the minimum specifications for number six fuel oil set
forth in the Building Code, and the use of such waste oil complies with all laws, rules and
regulations relating to smoke and other emissions and is approved by the Department of
Environmental Protection.
603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces;
removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft
regulators, and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.
603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After installation of the oil-burning equipment,
operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner
is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices
function properly in accordance with the requirements of the Department of Buildings and
the Department of Environmental Protection.
603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish
not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves,
one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an
approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency.
603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the
owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall also
furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact
for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.
603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical
panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with the Electrical Code. Clearances
between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Building Code and the Mechanical Code.
603.1.8 Supervision of operation. Every stationary oil-fired device, equipment or system
that is not fully automatic or requires preheating of the oil shall be operated by or under the
personal supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness or a person holding a high
pressure boiler operating engineer’s license issued by the Department of Buildings. In
addition to providing personal supervision, such person shall be present at the device,
equipment or system during startup. A stationary oil-fired device, equipment or system that is
subject to annual inspection pursuant to Section 28-303.1 of the Building Code may be
operated under the general supervision of a certificate of fitness holder or a high pressure
boiler operating engineer license holder.
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603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Building Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and
installed in accordance with the construction code, including the Building Code and the
Mechanical Code.
603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage and piping systems shall be installed in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code. Fuel oil storage shall be
subject to the permit requirements set forth in Section 105.6.
603.4 Reserved.
603.5 Heating appliances and equipment. Heating appliances and equipment shall be listed
and shall comply with the requirements of this section.
603.5.1 Protection of heating element. The heating element or combustion chamber shall
have a permanent device to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
603.5.2 Heating appliance and equipment installation. Heating appliances and equipment
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, the Electrical Code, and
the construction codes, including the Building Code, the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas
Code.
603.6 Chimney installation. Chimneys, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or
hot gases to the outer air and the incinerators, stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which such
devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard.
603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to have
open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building or
structure, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed
chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions
or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Building Code and the Mechanical Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney
service.
603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are corroded or improperly supported shall
be repaired or replaced.
603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built
chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the
specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney
manufacturer’s installation instructions.
603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built chimneys that are damaged, corroded
or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
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603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or
improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
603.6.6 Incinerator requirements. Incinerators shall be maintained and operated in
accordance with Sections 603.6.6.1 and 603.6.6.2.
603.6.6.1 Spark arrestor. Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for
arresting sparks.
603.6.6.2 Time of burning. Burning shall take place only during approved hours.
603.6.7 Discontinuance. The commissioner may require the operation of an incinerator or
other device connected to a chimney to be discontinued immediately upon a determination
that the use of the incinerator or other device constitutes an undue fire hazard because of
conditions in the surrounding environment.
603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appliances and equipment. The
commissioner may order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove,
oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing appliance, device, equipment or
system found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances,
devices, equipment or systems after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or
agent or operator in charge of the same. The commissioner may take measures to prevent the
operation of any appliance, device, equipment or system without notice upon a determination of
the existence of an immediate fire hazard or imminent peril to public safety. The defective
appliance, device, equipment or system shall remain out of service until all necessary repairs or
alterations have been made.
603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user,
firm or agent to continue the utilization of any appliance, device, equipment or system (the
operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section
603.7), unless written authority to resume operation is given by the department. Removing or
breaking the means by which operation of the appliance, device, equipment or system is
prevented shall be a violation of this code.
603.8 Reserved.
603.9 Gas meters. Aboveground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be
protected by a barrier complying with the requirements of Section 312 or otherwise protected in
an approved manner.
SECTION FC 604
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEMS
604.1 Installation. Emergency power systems shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with the Electrical Code and the construction codes, including the
Building Code.
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604.2 Where required. Emergency power systems shall be maintained in accordance with
NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time
specified for the type and duration of emergency power required by the Electrical Code and the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
604.3 Maintenance. Emergency power systems shall be maintained such that the system is
capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration of emergency
power required by the Electrical Code and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and other maintenance of emergency power systems
shall be conducted in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion
and approval of the system installation.
604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, testing and other maintenance of
emergency power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician,
a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring
correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be kept on the premises
served by the emergency power system and be available for inspection by any representative
of the department.
604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency power system transfer switches shall be included
in the maintenance schedule required by Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be
maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the
transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration
is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch
manufacturer’s instructions.
604.4 Operational inspections and testing. Emergency power systems, including all
appurtenant components, shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110
and NFPA 111.
Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load
shaving, such use shall be recorded and may substitute for scheduled testing of the
emergency power system, provided that appropriate records are maintained of such use.
604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically
operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then
returning back to the normal position.
604.5 Supervision. Inspection, testing and other maintenance shall be conducted under the
personal supervision of a person who possesses the required knowledge and training to conduct
such maintenance, and who has at least one of the following qualifications:
1. An electrician licensed by the Department of Buildings.
2. An electrician holding a special license issued by the Department of Buildings.
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3. A person holding a stationary engineer license, or high-pressure boiler operating
engineer’s license, issued by the Department of Buildings.
4. A person holding a certificate of qualification for refrigerating system operating engineer.
5. A person holding a certificate of fitness as fire safety director.
6. A registered design professional.
SECTION FC 605
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS
605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Defective devices, equipment or systems shall not be
used and the hazardous conditions shall be corrected or the device, equipment or system shall be
removed from the premises. Electrical wiring, devices and other equipment that is damaged or
otherwise constitutes an electrical or fire hazard shall not be used, and the hazardous condition
shall be corrected or the equipment removed from the premises.
605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control
centers and electrical panelboards.
605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in
width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front
of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches
(762 mm), the working space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No storage of any
materials shall be located within the designated working space.
Exceptions:
1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by the Electrical Code.
2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear
opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).
605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly
visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The
disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard
or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose
is clearly evident.
605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adaptors, such as cube adaptors, unfused plug strips or any
other device not complying with the requirements of the Electrical Code shall be prohibited.
605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded
type, equipped with overcurrent protection, and shall be listed.
605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently
installed receptacle.
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605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings,
floors, under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for
permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to buildings or
structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall
such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used
only with portable devices.
605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved
receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension
cords, shall serve only one portable device.
605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be less than the rated
capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without
splices, deterioration or damage.
605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded when serving grounded portable
devices.
605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited.
Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.
605.7 Electrical devices and equipment. Electrical devices and equipment shall be listed or
labeled and installed in accordance with the construction codes and the Electrical Code.
605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive
accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.
605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is
allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable
provisions of the Electrical Code.
Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed
during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures,
equipment or similar activities.
605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring attached to a building or structure
shall be attached in an approved manner.
SECTION FC 606
REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS
606.1 General. Refrigerating systems shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in
accordance with this code and the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
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606.1.1 Supervision. It shall be unlawful to operate any refrigerating system for which a
permit is required and which is a system described in Table 606.1.1, unless such operation is
under either the personal supervision or general supervision, as set forth in Table 606.1.1, of
a person who has obtained a certificate of qualification for refrigerating system operating
engineer. For purposes of this section, personal supervision shall mean that such person is
present in the building at all times while the system is in operation and that the operation of
such system is under his or her personal direction and control, and general supervision shall
mean that such person is responsible at all times for the safe operation of such system when
such system is in operation and that such system is operated under his or her general
direction and control. Persons providing general or personal supervision as required by this
section shall register their work location with the department.
606.1.2 Operator inspection after repairs. After any repairs are made to a refrigerating
system the operation of which requires supervision by a certificate of qualification holder, the
certificate of qualification holder shall check the repairs, together with the functioning of all
control devices and the positioning of all valves. Such certificate of qualification holder shall
also be present when the system is restarted after repairs.
606.1.3 Operator logbook. A logbook or other form of approved recordkeeping shall be
maintained for all refrigerating systems whose operation requires either personal or general
supervision by a certificate of qualification holder. For systems requiring personal
supervision the logbook shall, at a minimum, contain an entry for each shift the system is in
operation. For systems requiring general supervision the logbook shall, at a minimum,
contain an entry for each day during which the system is in operation.
606.1.3.1 Logbook entries. The logbook shall provide information relevant to the
operation of the system, including any operating problems or deficiencies and required
periodic tests. The signature of the certificate of qualification holder shall appear next to
each entry.
606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered, and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
606.4 Change in refrigerant type. Any change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigerating
system shall be made in accordance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
606.5 Access. Refrigerating systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 200
pounds (91 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be
accessible to the department at all times as required by the commissioner. Refrigerating systems
requiring a permit shall be accessible at all times, and shall, where practicable, be made
accessible for department inspection without the use of portable ladders or other portable
equipment.
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606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigerating equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit
containing more than 200 pounds (91 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group
refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. A written
record of required testing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency devices or
systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by a person holding a certificate of
qualification.
606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices or systems shall be tested at least
monthly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
1. Treatment and flaring systems.
2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigerating
system control boxes.
3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
4. Detection and alarm systems.
TABLE 606.1.1 REFRIGERATING SYSTEM OPERATING ENGINEER
Installation
Date
Prior to
June 1,
1957
Refrigerant
Group Or
Name
(See Note 1)
Occupancy
Type
A1
Industrial
A1
Industrial
A1
Industrial
A1
All except All
Industrial
All except All
Industrial
All except All
Industrial
A1
A1
On or after A1
June 1,
1957
A1
Application
Pounds Of
System
Refrigerant In Horsepower
System
System Design Supervision
Required
(see Note 3)
Human
comfort
Human
comfort
Human
comfort
More than
50
More than
200
More than
50 up to
200
More than
50
More than
200
More than
50 up to
200
NA
Not fully
automatic
Fully
automatic
Fully
automatic
Personal
Not fully
automatic
Fully
automatic
Fully
automatic
Personal
(See Note 2)
Industrial
Human
comfort
All except All
Industrial
NA
123
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
More than NA
50 (or
kilowatt
equivalency)
More than NA
50 (or
kilowatt
equivalency)
Personal
General
Personal
General
Personal
Personal
Regardless A2, A3,
All
of when
B1, B2, B3
installed
and carbon
dioxide
A2, A3,
All
B1, B2, B3
and carbon
dioxide
A1
Industrial
A1
Industrial
A1 and
carbon
dioxide
A1
Industrial
All
All
More than NA
50
Not fully
automatic
Personal
All
More than NA
200
Fully
automatic
Personal
All except
human
comfort
All except
human
comfort
All except
human
comfort
Human
comfort
More than NA
50
Not fully
automatic
Personal
More than NA
200
Fully
automatic
Personal
More than NA
Fully
50 up to
automatic
200
NA
Aggregate NA
exceeds 100
(see Note 4)
General
Personal
Notes:
1. For purposes of this table, refrigerant R-123 shall be treated as a group A1 refrigerant, and
carbon dioxide shall not be treated as a group A1 refrigerant.
2. For purposes of this table, “industrial” occupancy refers to occupancy groups F, H and S. For
installations constructed under the 1968 Building Code, “industrial” occupancy refers to
occupancy groups A, B and D. For installations constructed prior to such 1968 code,
“industrial” occupancy refers to that portion of a building used for manufacturing, processing,
or storage of materials or products, including, among others, chemical, food, candy, and ice
cream factories, ice making plants, meat packing plants, refineries, perishable food
warehouses, and similar occupancies.
3. A fully automatic refrigerating system is one whose regulating and safety devices are
automatically activated once the system is in operation.
4. This aggregate provision applies only to systems within a single building which are under the
sole direct control of a single occupant, lessee or owner. Systems with a rating of 15
horsepower or less or the kilowatt equivalency thereof are excluded from the aggregate.
606.7 Emergency signs. Emergency signs shall be provided in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Mechanical Code.
606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an
audible and visual alarm as required by the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code
for the refrigerant classification.
606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in
the machinery room and the emergency ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
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606.9.1 Reserved.
606.9.2 Reserved.
606.9.3 Emergency control box. Emergency control boxes shall be provided for
refrigerating systems required to be equipped with a treatment system, flaring system or
ammonia diffusion system.
606.9.3.1 Location. Emergency control boxes shall be located outside of the building at
an approved accessible location. All portions of the emergency control box shall be 6 feet
(1829 mm) or less above the adjoining grade.
606.9.3.2 Construction. Emergency control boxes shall be of iron or steel not less than
0.055 inch (1.4 mm) in thickness and provided with a hinged cover and lock.
606.9.3.3 Operating procedure. Valves and switches shall be identified in an approved
manner as to the sequential procedure to be followed in the event of an emergency.
606.9.3.4 Identification. Emergency control boxes shall be provided
label on the outside cover reading: FIRE DEPARTMENT
REFRIGERANT CONTROL BOX, and including the name of the
system. Hazard identification in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be
outside of the control box.
with a permanent
USE ONLY—
refrigerant in the
posted inside and
606.9.3.5 Instructions. Written instructions and information shall be provided and
located in the emergency control box designating the following information:
1. Instructions for shutting down and securing the operation of the system in the event
of an emergency.
2. The name, address and emergency telephone numbers to obtain emergency service.
3. The location and operation of emergency discharge systems.
606.10 Storage, handling and use. Flammable liquids, combustible liquids, combustible
materials and combustible waste, except for quantities of combustible liquids below permit
amounts, spare parts, tools, and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation
and maintenance of the system, shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigerating systems.
Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters
27, 30, 32 and 34 and the Mechanical Code.
606.11 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems
for refrigerating systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of Group A2 or B2 refrigerants,
as classified in the Mechanical Code, shall be provided with an approved discharge system as
required by Sections 606.11.1, 606.11.2 and 606.11.3. Discharge piping and devices connected
to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent
plugging the pipe in the event of the fusible plug or rupture member functions. The location for
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the relief valve discharge from systems containing Group A3 or B3 refrigerants shall be
approved.
606.11.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing flammable refrigerants having a
density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere
only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.11.4 or a flaring
system in accordance with Section 606.11.5. Systems containing flammable refrigerants
having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the
atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure and not
less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096
mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
606.11.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems containing toxic or highly toxic
refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment
system in accordance with Section 606.11.4 or a flaring system in accordance with Section
606.11.5.
606.11.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing ammonia refrigerant shall discharge
vapor to the atmosphere through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section
606.11.4, a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.11.5, or through an approved
ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.11.6, or by other approved means.
Exceptions:
1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of
ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.
2. When the commissioner determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared
in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard
would not result from discharging ammonia directly to the atmosphere.
606.11.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable
discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the
point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 37.
606.11.5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be
designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not
pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of
discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback, and shall not expose structures or materials
to threat of fire. Emergency power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the
required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system.
606.11.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank
containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 kg of
ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the
discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the
pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but no lower than
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33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of
water and ammonia without overflowing.
606.12 Discharge location for refrigerating system machinery room ventilation. Exhaust
from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigerating machinery rooms capable of
exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved
treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations of flammable, toxic or highly toxic
refrigerants to those values or lower.
606.13 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The commissioner shall be notified immediately
when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with
Section 2703.3.1.
606.14 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant quantities brought into and
removed from the premises. Such records shall be available for inspection by any representative
of the department.
606.15 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in
the Mechanical Code, are used, refrigerating system machinery rooms shall conform to the Class
I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of the Electrical Code.
Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with
Section 1106.3 of the Mechanical Code.
606.16 Use of Group A3 and B3 refrigerants. Nothing contained in this section shall be
construed to authorize the use of Group A3 or B3 refrigerants, as classified in the Mechanical
Code, if otherwise prohibited by the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
SECTION FC 607
ELEVATORS IN READINESS
607.1 Phase I emergency recall and Phase II emergency in-service operation. Elevators
intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for firefighting or rescue purposes shall be
provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in
accordance with the Building Code.
607.2 Emergency signs. All required signage for elevators shall be provided in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Building Code.
607.3 Elevator keys. Keys for the elevator car doors and firefighter service keys shall be kept in
an approved location for immediate use by the department. Firefighter service key switches shall
be operable by citywide-standard key.
607.4 Elevators in readiness. Elevators in every building 75 feet (22 860 mm) or more in height
shall be kept ready for immediate use by the department during all hours of the night and day
including holidays and weekends. There shall be a competent building attendant available to
operate such elevators, except that no attendant shall be required for buildings between 75 and
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150 feet (22 860 and 45 720 mm) in height having elevators with Phase I emergency recall and
Phase II emergency in-service operation.
607.5 Emergency elevator operation and maintenance. All elevators equipped with Phase I
emergency recall and Phase II emergency in-service operation shall be maintained in proper
working order such that the emergency elevator operations are operable at all times. All elevators
with Phase I emergency recall shall be subjected, at least monthly, to a Phase I recall test. All
elevators with Phase II emergency in-service operation shall be subjected, at least monthly, to a
minimum of a one-floor operation II test. A written record of the operational status of the
elevator shall be made and kept on the premises and made available for inspection by any
representatives of the department.
SECTION FC 608
STATIONARY LEAD-ACID BATTERY SYSTEMS
608.1 Scope. Stationary lead-acid battery systems using vented (flooded) lead-acid batteries
having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) used for facility standby power,
emergency power, or uninterrupted power supplies shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with this section. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are not subject to
the requirements of this section, but shall comply with the requirements of Section 609.
608.2 Safety venting. Batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.
608.3 Room design and construction. Enclosure of stationary lead-acid system rooms shall
comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code. The
battery systems are permitted to be in the same room with the equipment they support.
608.4 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method and materials for the control and
neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided. The method and materials shall be
capable of controlling and neutralizing a spill from the largest lead-acid battery to a pH between
7.0 and 9.0.
608.5 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Mechanical Code, and the following:
1. The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen
to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or
2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute
per square foot (1 cfm/ft2) [(0.0051m3/(s·m2)] of floor area of the room.
608.6 Signs. Doors into rooms or buildings containing stationary lead-acid battery systems shall
be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that the room contains lead-acid battery
systems, that the battery room contains energized electrical circuits, and that the battery
electrolyte solutions are corrosive liquids.
608.7 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with
the Building Code.
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608.8 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in
battery rooms in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
SECTION FC 609
VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA) BATTERY SYSTEMS
609.1 Scope. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery systems having an electrolyte capacity
of more than 50 gallons (189 L) used for facility standby power, emergency power or
uninterrupted power supply (UPS), shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in
accordance with this section.
609.2 Safety vents. VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety
vents.
609.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other
approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway.
609.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of VRLA battery system rooms shall comply
with the requirements of the Building Code. The battery systems are permitted to be in the same
room with the equipment they support. When VRLA battery systems are installed in a separate
equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be allowed to be installed on
an open rack for ease of maintenance. When a VRLA battery system is situated in an occupied
work center, it shall be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access
by unauthorized personnel.
609.5 Neutralization. An approved manual method and materials for the neutralization of a
release of electrolyte shall be provided. The method and materials shall be capable of controlling
and neutralizing a release of 3 percent of the capacity of the largest VRLA cell or block in the
room to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.
609.6 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided to limit the maximum concentration of
hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the room during the worst-case event of
simultaneous “boost” charging of all batteries in the room. Where calculations are not provided
to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot
per minute per square foot (1 ft3/min/ft2) [(0.0051 m3/(s·m2)] of floor area of the room shall be
provided. The ventilation shall be either mechanically or naturally induced.
609.7 Cabinet ventilation. Where VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet
shall be vented. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1
percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost”
charging of all batteries in the cabinet. Where calculations are not provided to substantiate the
ventilation rate, continuous ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per
square foot (1 ft3/min/ft2) [0.0051m3/(s·m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet shall be
provided. The ventilation shall be either mechanically or naturally induced. The room in which
the cabinet is installed shall also be ventilated as required in Section 609.6.
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609.8 Signs. Doors into electrical equipment rooms containing VRLA battery systems shall be
provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that the room contains lead-acid battery
systems and contains energized electrical circuits. Where VRLA batteries are contained in
cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048
mm) of the equipment that they support. The cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the
manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the
contained battery system. Within the cabinet there shall be signs that indicate the relevant
electrical, chemical and fire hazards.
609.9 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with
the Building Code.
609.10 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in
rooms containing VRLA battery systems in accordance with the Building Code.
SECTION FC 610
COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST HOODS
610.1 General. Commercial cooking exhaust hoods shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code and the
Mechanical Code. Type 1 hoods shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9
of this code.
CHAPTER 7
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION
SECTION FC 701
GENERAL
701.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the maintenance of fire-resistance-rated construction.
701.2 General. Fire-resistance-rated construction shall be maintained in accordance with this
chapter.
SECTION FC 702
DEFINITIONS
702.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chapter, for the purposes of this chapter
and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown in Chapter 2 or elsewhere in this
code.
SECTION FC 703
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION
703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of fire-resistance-rated construction
(including walls, fire stops, shaft enclosures, partitions and floors) shall be maintained. Such
elements shall be properly repaired, restored or replaced when damaged, altered, breached or
penetrated. Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, ducts, air
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transfer openings, and holes made for any reason shall be protected with approved methods
capable of resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resistance-rated
assemblies shall be protected by self-closing or automatic-closing doors of approved
construction meeting the fire protection requirements for the assembly.
703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required fireblocking and draftstopping in
combustible concealed spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integrity of the
construction.
703.1.2 Smoke barriers. Required smoke barrier partitions shall be maintained to prevent
the passage of smoke and all openings protected with approved smoke barrier doors or
leakage-rated (smoke) dampers.
703.2 Maintenance of openings. Fire doors and fire windows shall be maintained in good
working order in accordance with NFPA 80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be
blocked or obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be replaced promptly
whenever fused, damaged or otherwise rendered inoperable. Fire door assemblies shall not be
modified.
703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the commissioner, a sign shall be permanently displayed
on or near each fire door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as follows:
1. For doors designed to normally be kept open: FIRE DOOR—DO NOT BLOCK.
2. For doors designed to normally be kept closed: FIRE DOOR—KEEP CLOSED.
703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open devices and automatic door closers,
where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for
repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position.
703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and
latch automatically. The door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the door from
any partially open position.
703.3 Ceilings. The hanging of decorative material, merchandise displayed for sale or other
display items from acoustical ceiling systems that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling
or roof/ceiling assembly shall be prohibited.
703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire doors shall be inspected and tested
annually to confirm proper operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained and
be made available for inspection by any representative of the department.
SECTION FC 704
FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS
704.1 Enclosures. Interior vertical shafts, including stairways, elevator hoistways, service and
utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed or protected as
specified in the construction codes, including the Building Code. When openings are required to
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be protected by the construction codes, including the Building Code, openings into such shafts
shall be maintained self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fusible-linktype automatic door-closing devices are permitted if the fusible link rating does not exceed 135oF
(57oC).
CHAPTER 8
INTERIOR FURNISHINGS, DECORATIONS AND SCENERY
SECTION FC 801
GENERAL
801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern furnishings, decorative vegetation, decorations and
scenery in buildings and structures.
801.2 General. The furnishings, decorative vegetation, decorations and scenery governed by this
chapter shall be designed, stored, handled and used in accordance with this chapter.
801.3 Flame-retardant treatments. When a material or item is treated with a flame-retardant
chemical to meet the requirements of this chapter for a flame-resistant material, such chemical
and its method of application shall be approved. Flame-retardant treatments shall be maintained
so as to retain the effectiveness of the treatment under conditions encountered in actual use.
801.4 Fire-retardant coating. When a material or item is coated with a fire-retardant coating to
meet the requirements of this chapter for a flame-resistant material, such coating and its method
of application shall be approved. Flame-retardant coatings shall be maintained so as to retain the
effectiveness of the coating under conditions encountered in actual use.
801.5 Prohibited decorative vegetation, decorations and scenery. It shall be unlawful in
Group A, E, I-1, I-2 nursing homes and hospitals, I-3 and I-4 day care facility occupancies to
store or use decorative vegetation, decorations or scenery that consists of or is coated with
pyroxylin or similarly hazardous base.
801.6 Obstructions. The required width of any portion of a means of egress shall not be
obstructed by any furnishing, decorative vegetation, decoration or scenery nor shall such
furnishing, decorative vegetation, decoration or scenery obstruct any exit or the visibility thereof.
801.7 Supervision. When a material or item is treated with a flame retardant chemical to meet
the requirements of this chapter for a flame-resistant material, the application of the chemical
shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder.
801.8 Certificate of approval. Any flame-retardant chemical used to render a material flameresistant to meet the requirements of this chapter shall be of a type for which a certificate of
approval has been issued in accordance with Section FC 112 and the rules.
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SECTION FC 802
DEFINITIONS
802.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and used elsewhere
in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
CONIFER. Any tree, plant or shrub containing pitch, including hemlock, balsam, pine and fir.
DECORATION. Any item that is used for aesthetic or artistic enhancement of interior space,
including draperies, hangings, artwork and decorative greens.
FIRE-RETARDANT COATING. An approved coating that, when applied to the surface of
scenery in an approved manner, imparts flame resistance and reduces flame spread.
FLAME-RETARDANT TREATMENT. An approved chemical that, when applied to a
material in an approved manner, imparts flame resistance to a material.
FLAME-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Material that meets the criteria for flame-resistance as set
forth in NFPA 701, either because it is inherently flame-resistant or because it has been subjected
to a flame-retardant treatment.
FURNISHING. Furniture or items other than structural elements, building service equipment or
interior finishes that are installed or placed in a building for the human comfort or other use of
the occupants.
INTERIOR FINISH. Construction materials that form the exposed interior surfaces of a
building and that are part of or affixed to walls, fixed or folding partitions, ceilings, and other
construction elements.
NATURAL DECORATIVE GREEN. A bough of a natural tree or part thereof.
NATURAL TREE. Any live tree, plant or shrub, including conifer, that is rooted in soil.
SCENERY. Any or all of those devices ordinarily used on a stage in the presentation of a
theatrical, artistic, musical or other similar live performance, such as back drops, side tabs,
teasers, borders or scrim, rigid flats, set pieces, and all properties, except costumes.
SECTION FC 803
FURNISHINGS
803.1 Reserved
803.2 Group A occupancies. The requirements in Sections 803.2.1 and 803.2.2 shall apply to
Group A occupancies.
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803.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materials and unprotected materials containing
foam plastic used for decorative purposes or exhibit booths shall have a maximum heat
release rate of 100 kilowatts (kW) when tested in accordance with UL 1975, except
individual foam plastic item or items containing foam plastic where the foam does not exceed
1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight.
803.2.2 Motion picture screens. Motion picture screens and supporting construction shall
comply with the requirements of Section 306.3.
803.3 Group E occupancy educational facilities. The requirements in Sections 803.3.1 and
803.3.2 shall apply to Group E occupancy educational facilities.
803.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored
in corridors and lobbies.
Exceptions:
1. Corridors protected throughout by a sprinkler system, provided the minimum
required egress width is maintained.
2. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is
maintained.
803.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and educational materials shall be limited on the walls of
corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.
803.4 Group I-4 occupancy day care facilities. The requirements in Sections 803.4.1 and
803.4.2 shall apply to Group I-4 day care facilities.
803.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored
in corridors and lobbies.
Exceptions:
1. Corridors protected throughout by a sprinkler system, provided the minimum
required egress width is maintained.
2. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is
maintained.
803.4.2 Artwork. Artwork and educational materials shall be limited on walls of corridors to
not more than 20 percent of the wall area.
803.5 Group I-2 occupancy nursing homes and hospitals. The requirements in Sections
803.5.1 through 803.5.4 shall apply to Group I-2 nursing homes and hospitals.
803.5.1 Upholstered furniture. New or used upholstered furniture placed in a Group I-2
nursing home or hospital on or after the effective date of this code shall be shown to resist
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ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with NFPA 261 and
shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm).
Exceptions:
1. Upholstered furniture owned by the patient in sleeping rooms of a nursing home,
provided that a smoke detector is installed in such rooms in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler
system.
803.5.2 Upholstered furniture heat release rate. New or used upholstered furniture placed
in a Group I-2 nursing home or hospital on or after the effective date of this code shall have
limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or NFPA 266.
1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed
250 kW, except upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a
sprinkler system.
2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 5
minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 megajoules (mJ), except upholstered furniture in
rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
803.5.3 Mattresses, heat-release rate. New or used mattresses placed in a Group I-2
occupancy nursing home or hospital on or after the effective date of this code shall have
limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or NFPA 267.
1. The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not exceed 250 kW, except
mattresses in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
2. The total energy released by the mattress during the first 5 minutes of the test shall not
exceed 40 mJ, except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler
system.
803.5.4 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency,
confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 803.5.1 and 803.5.2.
803.6 Group I-1 occupancy board and care facilities. The requirements in Sections 803.6.1
through 803.6.3 shall apply to Group I-1 occupancy board and care facilities.
803.6.1 Upholstered furniture. New or used upholstered furniture placed in a Group I-1
board and care facility on or after the effective date of this code shall meet the requirements
for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260, except upholstered furniture in rooms
or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
803.6.2 Mattresses. New or used mattresses placed in a Group I-1 board and care facility on
or after the effective date of this code shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51
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mm) where tested in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632, except upholstered furniture
in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
803.6.3 Mattresses, heat-release rate. New or used mattresses placed in a Group I-1
occupancy board and care facility on or after the effective date of this code shall have limited
rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or NFPA 267.
1. The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not exceed 250 kW, except
mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by a sprinkler system.
2. The total energy released by the mattress during the first 5 minutes of the test shall not
exceed 40 mJ, except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler
system.
803.7 Group I-3 occupancy detention and correction facilities. The requirements in Sections
803.7.1 through 803.7.6 shall apply to Group I-3 occupancy detention and correction facilities.
803.7.1 Upholstered furniture classification. New or used upholstered furniture placed in a
Group I-3 occupancy detention and correction facility on or after the effective date of this
code shall meet the requirements for Class I where tested in accordance with NFPA 260,
except upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
803.7.2 Upholstered furniture heat release rate. New or used upholstered furniture placed
in a Group I-3 occupancy detention and correction facility on or after the effective date of
this code shall have limited rates of heat release, as follows:
1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed
250 kW.
Exceptions:
1. In Use Condition I, II and III occupancies, as defined in the Building Code,
upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by approved smoke detectors
that initiate, without delay, an alarm that is audible in that room or space.
2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler
system.
2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 5
minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 mJ, except upholstered furniture in rooms or
spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
.
803.7.3 Mattresses, char length. New or used mattresses placed in a Group I-3 occupancy
detention and correction facility on or after the effective date of this code shall have a char
length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm) when tested in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part
1632, except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
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803.7.4 Mattresses, heat release rate. New or used mattresses placed in a Group I-3
occupancy detention and correctional facility on or after the effective date of this code shall
have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or NFPA
267, as follows:
1. The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not exceed 250 kW, except
mattresses in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
2. The total energy released by the mattress during the first 5 minutes of the test shall not
exceed 40 mJ, except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler
system.
803.7.5 Wastebaskets. Wastebaskets and other waste containers shall be of noncombustible
or other approved materials.
803.7.6 Wastebasket lids. Waste containers with a capacity of more than 20 gallons (76 L)
shall be provided with a lid of noncombustible or other approved material.
SECTION FC 804
DECORATIVE VEGETATION
804.1 Natural trees and cut natural trees. Natural trees and cut natural trees shall be stored,
sold, displayed and maintained in accordance with Sections 804.1.1 through 804.1.6.
804.1.1 Indoor display of cut natural trees. Cut natural trees may be displayed in a
building, except in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4, M, R-1 and R-2 occupancies and any
building or structure used for a public gathering. Notwithstanding the foregoing occupancy
restrictions, cut natural trees may be displayed in houses of worship and dwelling units in
Group R-2 apartment house occupancies.
804.1.2 Indoor storage of cut natural trees. It shall be unlawful to store cut natural trees in
any building, except in connection with a display permitted under Section 804.1.1.
804.1.3 Indoor storage and display of natural trees. Natural trees, except conifers, may be
stored and displayed in a building, provided they are maintained in a healthy condition and
are not allowed to become dry. It shall be unlawful to store or display natural trees that are
conifers in any building.
804.1.4 Support devices. Cut natural trees for display in any building shall have the trunk
bottoms cut off at least 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a
support device. The support device shall be of a type that is stable, holds the tree in an
upright position and meets all of the following criteria:
1. The device shall hold the tree securely and be of adequate size to avoid tipping over of
the tree.
2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum 2-day supply of water.
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3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at least 2 inches (51 mm). The
water level shall be maintained above the fresh cut and checked at least once daily.
804.1.5 Dryness. Natural trees and cut natural trees shall be removed from the building
whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles
are brittle and break when bent between the thumb and index finger. Trees shall be checked
daily for dryness.
804.1.6 Retail sale of cut natural trees. Merchants of cut natural trees, including Christmas
trees, shall, at the time of retail sale of each such tree, attach to the tree a printed tag
containing appropriate instructions for its safe and lawful display and disposal.
804.2 Reserved.
804.3 Open flames. Candles and other open flames shall not be used or maintained on or near
decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept a distance at least equal to the height of the
tree from heat vents and any open-flame or heat-producing devices.
804.3.1 Electrical fixtures and wiring. It shall be unlawful to use, allow or maintain
unlisted electrical lighting, wiring or other items on decorative vegetation.
804.4 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation, including artificial trees, shall be
flame resistant or flame retardant. Such flame resistance or flame retardance shall be certified by
a testing laboratory, or by the manufacturer in an approved manner. Documentation of such
certification shall be submitted to the department upon request and as required by the rules.
804.4.1 Electrical fixtures and wiring. It shall be unlawful to use, allow or maintain
unlisted electrical lighting, wiring or other items on decorative vegetation. The use of
electrical wiring and lighting on metal artificial trees is prohibited.
804.5 Natural decorative greens. Natural decorative greens shall be stored and displayed in a
building in accordance with Sections 804.5.1 through 804.5.4.
804.5.1 Storage. It shall be unlawful to store natural decorative greens in any building,
except merchandise for sale or displayed for sale which does not contain conifers.
804.5.2 Display. Natural decorative greens may be displayed in buildings on a temporary
basis. The display of natural decorative greens in Group A, E, I, and M occupancies, in
common areas of Group R-1, R-2 and B occupancies, and any building or structure used for a
public gathering, except display of works of art in museums and houses of worship, shall
comply with the restrictions set forth in Section 804.5.3.
804.5.3 Restrictions on display. It shall be unlawful to display in any building natural
decorative greens that:
1. Contain pitch, such as hemlock, balsam, pine or Spanish moss.
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2. Are displayed at a location less than 3 feet (914 mm) from stuffed furniture, rugs, or
other combustible material or contain combustible decorations.
3. Are on a combustible framework or displayed in conjunction with combustible
material unless such material is flame resistant.
804.5.4 Dryness. Any natural decorative green shall be removed from the building at the first
sign of deterioration or dryness. Natural decorative greens shall be checked at least daily for
dryness.
SECTION FC 805
DECORATIONS AND SCENERY
805.1 Decorations. Except as otherwise specifically provided for in this chapter, in Group A, E,
I, M occupancies, common areas in Group R-1, R-2 and B occupancies, and any building or
structure used as a place for public gathering, curtains, draperies, hangings and decorations shall
be flame resistant in accordance with Section 805.1.3 and NFPA 701. In Groups I-1 and I-2
occupancies, decorations shall be flame resistant unless the decorations are so limited in number
or size that the hazard of fire or fire spread is not present. This section shall not apply to
decorations being displayed solely for sale in any building or as a work of art in any museum or
art gallery.
805.1.1 Reserved.
805.1.2 Flame-resistant materials. The type and quantity of interior trim allowed shall be as
set forth in Section 805 of the Building Code. The quantity of decorations when combined
with combustible trim shall not exceed 10 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceilings.
805.1.3 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to be flame resistant, decorations
shall be capable of passing Test 1 or 2, as described in NFPA 701. Certification of
compliance shall be prepared by a certificate of fitness holder and made available to
department representatives in accordance with the rules.
805.2 Scenery. All scenery in Group A occupancies shall be made of noncombustible materials,
materials having a Class A flame-spread rating, or materials that have been rendered flame
resistant by the application of a fire-retardant coating, except that the commissioner may
authorize the use of scenery not complying with any of the above requirements where provision
is made to ensure an equivalent level of fire safety.
805.2.1 Foam plastics. Foam plastic materials used for scenery shall have a maximum heat
release rate of 100 kilowatts (kW) when tested in accordance with UL 1975, except
individual foam plastic items or items containing foam plastic where the foam plastic does
not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight.
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SECTION FC 806
INTERIOR FINISH
806.1 General. The quantity and type of interior finishes shall comply with the requirements of
Chapter 8 of the Building Code.
CHAPTER 9
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
SECTION FC 901
GENERAL
901.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance,
including inspection and testing, of fire protection devices, equipment and systems, and other fire
protection measures for the control and extinguishment of fire.
901.1.1 General. Fire protection systems shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with this chapter and the reference standards set forth in Table
901.6.
901.2 Design and installation documents. The commissioner may require design and
installation documents and calculations to be submitted for review for all fire protection systems.
Design and installation documents required or regulated by this code or the rules shall be
submitted for review and approval prior to installation, and shall certify that the design complies
with the requirements of this code and the rules.
901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
901.4 Design and installation. Fire protection systems shall be designed and installed in
accordance with Sections 901.4.1 through 901.4.5.
901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall be designed and
installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code, and, as
applicable, this code and the rules, and the applicable referenced standards listed in this code.
Required systems shall be extended or altered as necessary to maintain and continue
protection whenever the building or structure is altered. Alterations to fire protection systems
shall be performed in compliance with the requirements of this code, the rules, and the
construction codes, as applicable. Buildings and structures shall be provided with such fire
hose, portable fire extinguishers and other means of preventing and extinguishing fires as the
commissioner may direct.
901.4.2 Fire protection systems not required by code. Any fire protection system or
portion thereof not required by this code, the rules or the construction codes, including the
Building Code, may be installed to provide partial or complete protection of a building or
structure, provided such system meets the requirements of this code, the rules and the
construction codes, including the Building Code, as applicable. Where the design and
installation of such fire protection system is governed by this code or the rules, the
commissioner may modify such requirements, consistent with the interests of fire safety,
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upon a determination that such modification will promote public safety by encouraging the
installation of such systems.
901.4.3 Additional fire protection systems. Where the material or operation to be
conducted in a particular occupancy gives rise to special hazards in addition to the normal
hazards of the occupancy, or where the commissioner determines that access to the
occupancy would unduly delay the ability of firefighting personnel to respond to the hazard,
the commissioner may require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not
be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, fire
extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection
equipment shall be installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Building Code.
901.4.4 Prohibition of deceptive equipment. It shall be unlawful to install or maintain any
device that has the physical appearance of fire protection equipment but that does not
perform the fire protection function, in any building, structure or premises where it may be
confused with actual fire protection equipment.
901.4.5 Certificate of approval. The following fire protection devices, equipment and
systems shall be of a type for which a certificate of approval has been issued in accordance
with this code, or which was approved by the Department of Buildings or the Board of
Standards and Appeals prior to the effective date of this section, unless such approval by the
Department of Buildings or the Board of Standards and Appeals is amended or repealed by
the commissioner:
1. Pre-engineered non-water fire extinguishing systems, including systems installed in
connection with commercial cooking systems.
2. Prefabricated hoods and grease filters installed in connection with commercial cooking
systems.
3. Fire department siamese connections, standpipe system hose outlets and pressure
reducing valves.
4. Fire alarm system control panels.
901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and alarm systems, fire extinguishing
systems, private fire hydrant systems, yard hydrant systems, standpipe systems, fire pump
systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances
thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as set forth in the installation standards specified in
this code. Where required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, this code or
the rules, such tests shall be conducted, at the owner's risk, by his or her representative before a
representative of the department.
901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure
until any required fire detection system, fire alarm system, standpipe system and fire
extinguishing systems have been tested and approved.
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901.6 Maintenance. Fire protection systems shall be maintained in good working order at all
times. Any fire protection system that is not in good working order shall be repaired or replaced
as necessary to restore such system to good working order, or, where authorized by the Building
Code, removed from the premises.
901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested, serviced and otherwise
maintained in accordance with this section, the rules and the referenced standards listed in
Table 901.6.1. Where required by this section, such inspection, testing and maintenance shall
additionally comply with the rules. Where applicable, the requirements of the reference
standards listed in Table 901.6.1 shall be in addition to those requirements specified in the
rules.
TABLE 901.6.1
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
SYSTEM
STANDARD
Portable fire extinguishers
Low, medium and high expansion foam systems
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system
Halon 1301 fire extinguishing systems
Foam water sprinkler and spray systems
Dry chemical fire extinguishing systems
Wet chemical fire extinguishing systems
Water based fire protection systems
Fire alarm systems
Water mist fire extinguishing systems
Clean agent fire extinguishing systems
NFPA 10
NFPA 11 and NFPA 25
NFPA 12
NFPA 12A
NFPA 16 and NFPA 25
NFPA 17
NFPA 17A
NFPA 25
NFPA 72
NFPA 750
NFPA 2001
901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests, servicing and other maintenance
required by this code, the rules or the referenced standards shall be maintained on the
premises for a minimum of 3 years and made available for inspection by any department
representative.
901.6.2.1 Standpipe and sprinkler systems. In addition to those records required by
NFPA 25, an approved card bearing the dates of each inspection, certificate of fitness
number and signature of the certificate of fitness holder shall be posted on the premises
near the main water supply control valve. A detailed inspection report relative to
conditions of water supply, gravity and pressure tanks and levels therein, valves, risers,
piping, sprinkler heads, hose valves, hose and nozzles, siamese connections, alarms, fire
pumps, obstructions, and conditions of all other system equipment and appurtenances
shall be completed monthly by the certificate of fitness holder. All defects or violations
shall be noted on the inspection report.
901.6.3 Supervision. Inspection, testing, servicing and other maintenance of the following
fire protection systems shall be performed under the personal supervision of a person holding
a certificate of fitness.
1. Sprinkler systems.
Exception: Buildings classified in Group R-3 occupancies.
2. Standpipe systems.
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3. Foam fire extinguishing systems.
4. Fire alarm systems.
5. Private fire hydrant systems.
6. Yard hydrant systems.
901.6.3.1 Servicing of portable fire extinguishers. It shall be unlawful for any person
engaged in the business of servicing portable fire extinguishers to service portable fire
extinguishers without a portable fire extinguisher servicing company certificate. Any
person that services portable fire extinguishers shall hold a certificate of fitness, except
that a person training for such certificate of fitness may service portable fire extinguishers
under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. Nothing in this section
shall preclude portable fire extinguishers that are maintained on a premises for use at
such premises from being serviced by the owner or occupant of the premises, or an
employee of such owner or occupant, who possesses a certificate of fitness for portable
fire extinguisher servicing and the tools, materials, equipment and facility necessary to
perform such services.
901.6.3.2 Portable fire extinguisher sales. It shall be unlawful for any person to engage
in the business of selling portable fire extinguishers door to door to owners of buildings
or businesses for use on their premises without a portable fire extinguisher sales company
certificate.
Exception: Sale to owners of Group R-2 and R-3 occupancy buildings.
901.6.3.3 Commercial cooking exhaust systems. It shall be unlawful for any person
engaged in the business of inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking exhaust systems
as required by the provisions of this code to perform such service without a commercial
cooking exhaust system servicing company certificate. The inspection and cleaning of
commercial cooking exhaust systems required by Section 904.11 shall be performed by a
person holding a certificate of fitness. Nothing in this section shall preclude commercial
cooking exhaust systems from being inspected and cleaned by the owner or occupant of
the premises, or an employee of such owner or occupant, who possesses a certificate of
fitness for inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking exhaust systems and the tools,
materials, and equipment necessary to perform such services in accordance with this
section.
901.6.3.4 Smoke detector cleaning and testing. The cleaning and testing for smoke
entry and sensitivity of smoke detectors installed in a defined fire alarm system shall be
performed by a person holding a certificate of fitness for smoke detector maintenance.
Such work shall be performed under the supervision and by employees of a person
holding a smoke detector maintenance company certificate, except that such smoke
detector cleaning and testing may be performed by an owner or occupant of the premises,
or an employee of such owner or occupant, who possesses a certificate of fitness for
smoke detector maintenance, and possesses the tools, instruments or other equipment
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necessary to perform such services in accordance this code and the rules. All other smoke
detector maintenance shall be performed by a person possessing the requisite
qualifications and experience, and any applicable license or certificate.
901.6.3.5 Central station fire alarm monitoring. It shall be unlawful for any person to
operate a central station that monitors fire alarm systems and maintain transmitters in
protected premises without a certificate of operation.
901.7 Out of service systems. Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the
department shall be notified immediately and unless otherwise directed by the commissioner,
either the building shall be evacuated or a fire watch shall be maintained by one or more persons
holding a certificate of fitness for fire guard. Any other actions as the commissioner may direct
in addition to or in lieu of such measures shall also be undertaken, until the fire protection system
has been returned to service. Where utilized, fire guards shall be provided with at least one
approved means for notification of the department and their only duty shall be to perform
constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.
901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner shall assign an impairment
coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, is out
of service.
901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system
control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center,
indicating which system, or part thereof, is out of service. The commissioner shall specify
where the tag is to be placed.
901.7.4 Planned removal from service. The certificate of fitness holder and the impairment
coordinator shall be made aware of and authorize the placing of systems out of service.
Before authorizing such action the impairment coordinator shall:
1. Determine the extent and expected duration of the out of service condition.
2. Inspect the areas or buildings involved and assess the increased risks.
3. Make appropriate recommendations to the owner.
4. Notify the department and the responsible person designated by the owner to issue hot
work authorizations in accordance with Chapter 26.
5. Notify the central station and insurance carrier.
6. Notify the occupants in the affected areas.
7. Place out of service tags at all required and appropriate locations.
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8. Maintain system in service until work is ready to begin.
901.7.5 Unplanned out of service condition. The certificate of fitness holder, impairment
coordinator, and/or other person responsible for inspecting, maintaining or supervising the
operation of a fire protection system who observes a serious defect such as an empty tank,
break or major leak in system water piping, inoperative or shut water supply valves, defective
siamese connections, or complete or partial shut down of sprinkler and/or standpipe systems,
other than a shutdown for scheduled inspection, testing or maintenance, shall immediately
report such condition to the owner of the building, and to the department. When a system
fails or otherwise goes out of service, the certificate of fitness holder or the impairment
coordinator shall take the actions set forth in Section 901.7.4. and such other actions
necessary or appropriate to protect the occupants of the building and minimize property
damage. When the certificate of fitness holder or other such person observes a minor defect
or other condition not presenting a serious safety hazard, he or she shall report the defect or
condition to the owner, and if the defect or condition is not corrected within 30 days, shall
report it in writing to the department.
901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When an out of service device, equipment or system
is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall:
1. Conduct necessary inspections and tests to verify that the affected systems are
operational.
2. Reserved.
3. Notify the department.
4. Notify the owner, central station, insurance carrier and occupants in the affected areas.
5. Remove the out of service tags.
901.8 Tampering with or rendering equipment inoperable. Fire protection systems and
related apparatus shall not be tampered with or rendered inoperable, except as set forth in Section
107.4.
SECTION FC 902
DEFINITIONS
902.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component, such as a bell,
horn, speaker, light, text display or vibration device that issues an audible, tactile, and/or visual
alert.
ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a
signal indicative of fire.
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ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays, or
other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit,
condition or location.
AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, any device, equipment or system that
initiates system function as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise,
or combustion products, without the necessity for human intervention.
CENTRAL STATION. A facility that receives alarm signals from a protected premises and
retransmits or otherwise reports such alarm signals to the department.
CERTIFICATE OF OPERATION. A written statement issued by the commissioner approving
the operation of a central station, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules,
or the construction codes.
CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or gaseous fire extinguishant that does
not leave a residue upon evaporation.
COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM. A system consisting of commercial cooking
equipment, exhaust hood, filters, exhaust duct system, fire extinguishing system and other related
appurtenances designed to capture grease-laden cooking vapors and exhaust them safely to the
outdoors.
COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST SYSTEM SERVICING COMPANY
CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business
of inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking equipment exhaust systems, which authorizes
such person to inspect and clean commercial cooking equipment exhaust systems, for which such
certificate is required by this code or the rules.
DEFINED FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A fire alarm system or any sub-system thereof that
automatically transmits signals to the department or a central station and that is installed in
premises which are required to have a fire alarm system.
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of an
emergency condition involving a release of hazardous materials or other hazardous material
incident.
FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.
FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic
and manual fire alarm devices and is capable of supplying power to detection devices and
transponder(s) of off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit is capable of providing a transfer
of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays of devices.
FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual
fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose activation is
indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.
146
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. Any system, including any interconnected fire alarm sub-system, of
components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or
supervisory signal-initiating devices.
FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior
walls, or fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building.
FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire
signature and to initiate action.
FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which
detects a fire and discharges an approved fire extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.
Such term includes automatic systems and, where such systems are authorized by this code or the
Building Code, manually activated systems.
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations
of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage
smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof, including fire extinguishing systems,
fire alarm systems, sprinkler systems and standpipe systems.
IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible for ensuring that proper safety
precautions are taken when a fire protection system is out of service.
INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state
condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch.
MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can
be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to
operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other
detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.
OUT OF SERVICE SYSTEM. A fire protection system that is not fully functional; or whose
operation is impaired or is otherwise not in good working order.
PORTABLE COOKING EQUIPMENT. Commercial cooking equipment, provided with or
installed with wheels.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SALES COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate
issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of selling portable fire
extinguishers door to door to owners of buildings or business for use on their premises, which
authorizes such person to engage in such business and supervise such sales.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SERVICING COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A
certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of servicing portable
fire extinguishers, which authorizes such person to engage in such business and supervise the
provision of such servicing by certificate of fitness holders.
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PRESIGNAL SYSTEM. A fire alarm system having a feature that allows initial fire alarm
signals to sound in a constantly attended central location and for which a human action is
subsequently required to achieve a general alarm, or a feature that allows the control equipment
to delay the general alarm by more than one minute after the start of the alarm processing.
PROTECTED PREMISES. A building, occupancy or structure located in the city that is
equipped with a fire alarm system that transmits an alarm signal to the department or a central
station that monitors such system for the purposes of reporting fire alarms to the department,
whether or not the installation of such system on the premises is required by law.
SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control
equipment, and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in
the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke and not connected
to a system.
SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.
SMOKE DETECTOR MAINTENANCE COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued
by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of performing smoke detector cleaning
and testing, which authorizes such person to engage in such business and supervise the
performance of such cleaning and testing by certificate of fitness holders.
SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A fire extinguishing system, other than a mist fire extinguishing
system, that utilizes water as the extinguishing agent.
STANDPIPE SYSTEM. Piping installed in a building or structure that serves to transfer water
from a water supply to hose connections at one or more locations in a building or structure used
for firefighting purposes.
STANDPIPE, MULTI-ZONE. A standpipe system that is vertically subdivided as required by
the construction codes, including the Building Code, into zones to limit the maximum operating
pressure in the system. Each zone will have its own individual automatic water supply.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need for action in connection with the
supervision of guard tours, fire extinguishing systems or equipment, fire alarm systems or the
maintenance features of related systems.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device, such as a valve
supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler
system, that triggers a supervisory signal.
TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault
in a monitored circuit or component.
UNNECESSARY ALARM. An alarm signal transmitted by a fire alarm system which
functioned as designed, but for which a department response proved unnecessary. An example of
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an unnecessary alarm is an alarm triggered by smoke from a lit cigarette in a non-smoking area,
when the presence of such smoke does not implicate fire safety concerns.
UNWARRANTED ALARM. An alarm signal transmitted by a fire alarm system which failed
to function as designed as a result of improper installation, improper maintenance, malfunction,
or other factor. Examples of unwarranted alarms are alarms resulting from improper smoke
detector placement, improper detector setting for installed location, lack of system maintenance,
and control panel malfunction.
SECTION FC 903
SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
903.1 General. Sprinkler systems shall comply with the requirements of this section.
903.2 Where required. Sprinkler systems shall be provided in buildings, structures, premises, or
parts thereof, when required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, this code or
the rules.
903.2.1 through and including 903.2.10 Reserved.
903.2.11 During construction. Sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration
and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the Building
Code and Section 1414.
903.2.12 Reserved.
903.2.13 Other required fire extinguishing systems. In addition to the requirements of
Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.13 also require the installation of a fire
extinguishing system for certain buildings and areas.
TABLE 903.2.13 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
SECTION
SUBJECT
1208.2
1208.3
1504.1
1504.6
1505.1
1505.6.1
1505.8.4
1803.10
1803.10.1.1
1803.10.2
1803.10.3
1803.10.4
1803.10.4.1
1803.10.4.2
2106.1
2106.2
Table 2306.2
2306.4
2703.8.4.1
2703.8.5.3
2704.5
2705.1.8
Dry cleaning plants
Dry cleaning machines
Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
Spray booths and rooms
Dip-tank rooms
Dip tanks
Hardening and tempering tanks
HPM facilities
HPM work station exhaust
HPM gas cabinets
HPM corridors
HPM exhaust
HPM noncombustible ducts
HPM combustible ducts
Class A and B furnaces
Class C and D furnaces
Storage fire protection
Storage
Gas rooms
Exhausted enclosures
Indoor storage of hazardous materials
Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
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2804.4.1
2904.5
3306.5.2.1
3306.5.2.3
3404.3.7.5.1
3404.3.8.4
3405.3.7.3
3704.1.2
3704.1.3
3704.2.2.6
3704.3.3
4106.2.2
4204.1.1
4204.1.3
4204.2
Building Code
Aerosol warehouses
Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
Storage of smokeless propellant
Storage of small arms ammunition and primers
Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
Exhausted enclosures or gas cabinets for silane gas
Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing
Sprinkler requirements as set forth in the construction codes, including the Building Code
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3.
903.3 Installation requirements. Except as otherwise provided in this code, sprinkler systems
shall be designed and installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building
Code.
903.4 Sprinkler system monitoring and alarms. All valves controlling the water supply for
sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures, and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by the fire alarm system.
Exceptions:
1. Sprinkler systems protecting Group R-3 occupancies.
2. Reserved.
3. Sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply
main is used to supply both domestic water and the sprinkler system, and a separate
shutoff valve for the sprinkler system is not provided, except where the Building Code
requires such sprinkler system to be supervised.
4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are
sealed or locked in the open position.
6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the
open position.
7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are
sealed or locked in the open position.
903.5 Maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be periodically inspected, tested, serviced and
otherwise maintained in accordance with Section 901.6 and the rules. Except as otherwise
provided in Sections 903.5.1 through 903.5.4, sprinkler systems shall be inspected and otherwise
maintained as follows:
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1. Sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a month by a person holding a certificate
of fitness, employed by the owner, to ensure that all parts of the system are in perfect
working order, and that the department connections, if any, are ready for immediate use by
the department. A detailed record of each inspection shall be kept for examination by any
representative of the department.
2. There shall be one or more employees instructed in the maintenance of sprinkler systems.
3. There shall be kept available at all times in the premises a supply of at least 6 extra
sprinkler heads to replace promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers.
4. Fire department connections shall be hydrostatically tested at least once every 5 years, in
accordance with Section 912.6.
903.5.1 Sprinkler systems in converted dwellings and single room occupancies. In any
converted dwelling or tenement used in whole or in part for single room occupancy,
regardless of occupancy classification, in which a sprinkler system has been installed
pursuant to the requirements of the Multiple Dwelling Law, such sprinkler system shall be
inspected and otherwise maintained as follows:
1. Sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a month by a person employed by the
owner, holding a certificate of fitness issued by the department, a fire suppression
contractor license issued by the Department of Buildings, or, for a sprinkler system
with not more than 30 sprinkler heads, holding a master plumber license issued by the
Department of Buildings, to ensure that all parts of the system are in perfect working
order, and that the department connections, if any, are ready for immediate use by the
department. Such inspection shall include a check of all control valves on the system,
including the main supply control valve, making certain the valves are fully open and
sealed in such open position; a check of the static pressure in the sprinkler system from
a pressure gauge, if installed, located at or near the inspector’s test connection, making
certain the system design pressure is being maintained; a check that all sprinkler heads
are in place; and such other requirements as the commissioner may prescribe. A
detailed record of each inspection shall be kept for examination by any representative
of the department.
2. There shall be one or more employees instructed in the location and status of the
sprinkler system control valves.
3. There shall be kept available at all times in the premises a supply of at least 6 extra
sprinkler heads, to replace promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers, except that a
supply of at least 3 extra sprinkler heads shall be kept available for any sprinkler
system installed in accordance with NFPA 13R as modified by the Building Code.
4. Fire department connections shall be hydrostatically tested at least once every 5 years
in accordance with Section 912.6.
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5. Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once every year, a flow test of the
sprinkler system shall be conducted. Such test shall be conducted at the owner's risk by
his or her representative, who shall be a licensed master plumber or licensed master fire
suppression contractor. At least one such flow test shall be conducted before a
representative of the department at least once every 5 years. A report of each test, on an
approved form, shall be certified by such licensed master plumber or licensed master
fire suppression contractor and shall be kept for not less than 5 years and made
available for inspection by any representative of the department.
6. The owner or managing agent of any building subject to the requirements of this
section shall maintain a record of each inspection and test and a listing of all
outstanding violations issued pursuant to this section. Such records and listing shall be
made available for inspection by occupants of such residential buildings during regular
business hours.
903.5.2 Sprinkler systems in other R-2 occupancies. Except as otherwise provided in
Section 903.5.1, in Group R-2 occupancies, sprinkler system shall be inspected and otherwise
maintained as follows:
1. Sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a month by a person employed by the
owner, holding a certificate of fitness issued by the department, a fire suppression
contractor license issued by the New York City Department of Buildings, or, for a
sprinkler system with not more than 30 sprinkler heads, holding a master plumber
license issued by the New York City Department of Buildings, to ensure that all parts
of the system are in perfect working order, and that the department connections, if any,
are ready for immediate use by the department. Such inspection shall include a check of
all control valves on the system, including the main supply control valve, making
certain the valves are fully open and sealed in such open position; a check of the static
pressure in the sprinkler system from a pressure gauge, if installed, located at or near
the inspector’s test connection, making certain the system design pressure is being
maintained; a check that all sprinkler heads are in place; and such other requirements as
the commissioner may prescribe. A detailed record of each inspection shall be kept for
examination by any representative of the department.
2. There shall be one or more employees instructed in the location and status of the
sprinkler system control valves.
3. There shall be kept available at all times in the premises a supply of at least 6 extra
sprinkler heads, to replace promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers, except that a
supply of at least 3 extra sprinkler heads shall be kept available for any sprinkler
system installed in accordance with NFPA 13R as modified by the Building Code
4. Fire department connections shall be hydrostatically tested at least once every 5 years
in accordance with Section 912.6.
5. Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once every year, a flow test of the
sprinkler system shall be conducted; provided, however, that where there is a pressure
gauge installed at or near the inspector’s test location that is checked during the
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required monthly inspection described in Section 903.5.2(1) to make certain the system
design pressure is being maintained, a flow test of the sprinkler system shall be
conducted upon order of the commissioner, but at least once every 30 months. Such test
shall be conducted at the owner's risk by his or her representative, who shall be a
licensed master plumber or licensed master fire suppression contractor. At least one
such test shall be conducted before a representative of the department at least once
every 5 years. A report of each test, on a form prepared by the department, shall be
certified by such licensed master plumber or licensed master fire suppression contractor
and shall be kept for not less than 5 years and made available for inspection by any
representative of the department.
6. The owner or managing agent of any building subject to the requirements of this
section shall maintain a record of each inspection and test and a listing of all
outstanding violations issued pursuant to this section. Such records and listing shall be
made available for inspection by occupants of such residential buildings during regular
business hours.
903.5.3 Sprinkler systems in Group R-3 occupancies. Sprinkler systems in buildings
classified in Group R-3 occupancies shall be maintained in perfect working order.
903.6 Dry pipe sprinkler system valves. In addition to the maintenance requirements set forth
in Section 903.5, any dry pipe valve installed in a sprinkler system shall be trip tested at least
once every 5 years and whenever the system is altered. Such trip test shall be conducted at the
owner’s risk, with the control valve fully open and the quick-opening device, if provided, in
service, by a licensed master fire suppression contractor before a representative of the
department.
SECTION FC 904
FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
904.1 General. Fire extinguishing systems shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained
in accordance with this section, Section 901 and the applicable referenced standards, including
performing all required inspections, testing and servicing.
904.1.1 Installation acceptance testing. Fire extinguishing systems shall be subject to
acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards set forth in this code and the rules.
When a discharge test is not required by the installation standard, the commissioner may
require such test when there is evidence that the system will not provide the necessary level
of protection. Such tests shall be conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her representative
before a representative of the department.
904.1.2 Additional safeguards. If an area is protected by a fire extinguishing system which
uses an extinguishing agent that will make the protected area hazardous by its discharge or
thermal decomposition, suitable safeguards shall be provided to ensure prompt evacuation, to
prevent entry into such atmospheres, and to provide means for prompt rescue of any trapped
personnel. Such safeguards shall include establishment of a trained brigade, equipped with
and qualified in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus with 30 minute minimum
supply, for prompt search of the protected area.
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Exception: Self-contained breathing apparatus shall not be required for a clean agent fire
extinguishing system installation if:
1. The installation is provided with an alarm system that is connected to an approved
central station.
2. The protected area is provided with an approved fixed emergency forced
ventilation system able to expel the extinguishing agent. Such emergency forced
ventilation system shall have a capacity sufficient to effect at least 20 air changes
per hour.
3. The protected area is of a size, design and/or occupied in such a manner that egress
will not be impeded.
4. The protected area is not normally occupied by any individual requiring assistance
in evacuation.
904.2 Where required. Where this code or the rules requires the installation of a fire
extinguishing system, other than a sprinkler system, the commissioner shall approve the type fire
extinguishing system to be installed. Fire extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to
sprinkler systems otherwise required by this code or the construction codes, including the
Building Code, shall be approved by the commissioner. Such a system may be accepted by the
commissioner where the nature of the fire hazard is such that water is not effective as an
extinguishing agent and the system is acceptable to the Commissioner of Buildings. If a system
using a fixed amount of extinguishing agent is authorized to be installed in lieu of a required
sprinkler system or any other fire extinguishing system otherwise required by law, a connected
reserve of charged agent cylinders equal to the primary supply shall be provided. The
commissioner may impose additional requirements on the installation of any fire extinguishing
system to be installed in lieu of any required sprinkler system. Fire extinguishing systems shall
not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions permitted by other
requirements of this code.
904.3 Installation. Fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with the Electrical Code.
904.3.2 Actuation. Fire extinguishing systems shall be provided with a manual means of
actuation.
904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation
controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, and other
features necessary for proper operation of the fire extinguishing system shall be provided as
required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of
fire extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be
provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing
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agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of
occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert
occupants once agent discharge has begun.
904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is installed, fire extinguishing
systems shall be monitored by such fire alarm system.
904.4 Installation acceptance inspection and testing. Fire extinguishing systems shall be
inspected and tested in accordance with this section prior to the installation acceptance testing
required by Section 904.1.1.
904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be
inspected:
1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual- initiating devices.
3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
6. Operating instructions.
904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems, and
connections to an approved central station shall be tested in accordance with this section and
Section 907 to verify proper operation.
904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility and visibility of notification
appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be
verified.
904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to central stations shall be tested to verify proper
identification and retransmission of alarms from fire extinguishing systems.
904.5 Wet chemical systems. Wet chemical fire extinguishing systems shall be installed,
periodically inspected, tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Sections 901, 904.1.1
and 904.4, NFPA 17A as modified by Appendix B, and their listing.
904.5.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained
and knowledgeable person to assess whether the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system shall inspect,
test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and the
manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semiannual basis. Tests
shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual
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stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing agent containers shall be weighed to
verify the required amount of agent. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the
required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at
intervals specified by the manufacturer.
904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature- sensing elements shall be maintained
to ensure proper operation of the system.
904.5.3 Commercial cooking installations. Wet chemical fire extinguishing systems
installed to protect a commercial cooking operation shall additionally comply with the
requirements of Section 904.11.
904.6 Dry chemical systems. Dry chemical fire extinguishing systems shall be installed,
periodically inspected, tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Sections 901, 904.1.1
and 904.4, NFPA 17 as modified by Appendix B, and their listing.
904.6.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained
and knowledgeable person to assess that the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system shall inspect,
test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and the
manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semiannual basis. Tests
shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual
stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing agent containers shall be checked to
verify that the system has not been discharged. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked
for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and
replaced at intervals specified by the manufacturer.
904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained
to ensure proper operation of the system.
904.7 Foam systems. Foam fire extinguishing systems shall be installed, periodically inspected,
tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Sections 901, 904.1.1 and 904.4, NFPA 11
as modified by Appendix B, Section B101.1, NFPA 11A as modified by Appendix B, and NFPA
16 as modified by Appendix B, and their listing.
904.7.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a
certificate of fitness holder to assess whether the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system, shall
inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and
the manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on an annual basis.
904.7.2 Commercial cooking installations. Foam fire extinguishing systems installed to
protect a commercial cooking operation shall additionally comply with the requirements of
Section 904.11.
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904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems shall be installed,
periodically inspected, tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Section 901, Section
904.1.1, 904.4, NFPA 12 as modified by Appendix B, and their listing. Total flooding carbon
dioxide fire extinguishing systems shall not be installed to protect hazards within normally
occupied areas. Existing total flooding carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems installed to
protect normally occupied areas prior to the effective date of this code may be continued in
service until July 1, 2013, after which they shall be removed from service, and a replacement fire
extinguishing system shall be installed, where required, in accordance with the Building Code,
this code or other applicable laws, rules and regulations.
904.8.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained
and knowledgeable person to assess whether the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system shall inspect,
test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and the
manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semiannual basis.
904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of
the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss
in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall
be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10
percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage.
Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square
inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa)
for low-pressure systems.
904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches,
door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary
alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are
in proper operating condition.
904.8.6 Safety precautions. All areas whose atmospheres will be made hazardous by the
discharge of carbon dioxide shall be provided with:
1. Exit and exit routes that are kept clear at all times.
2. Lighting and exit directional signs in accordance with the construction codes, including
the Building Code.
3. Only outward swinging, self-closing doors at exits, and panic hardware on any such
doors that are secured with a locking or latching device.
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4. A fixed emergency forced ventilation system able to clear the area. Such emergency
forced ventilation shall have sufficient capacity to accomplish at least 6 air changes per
hour.
5. Such other safety equipment as may be prescribed by the commissioner.
904.8.7 Detection, activation, alarm and control. Detection, pre-discharge alarms and
discharge alarms shall be provided within and outside the protected area and such other areas
that are made hazardous by a carbon dioxide discharge. Such alarms shall be audible and
visible.
904.8.7.1 Automatic operation. The carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system shall be
activated by an automatic cross-zoned detection system in which activation of a detection
device in one zone shall sound a local alarm and transmit an alarm to an approved central
station, and activation of a detection device in the cross zone shall initiate the
predischarge warning signal and after a time delay, initiate the discharge of carbon
dioxide. The predischarge warning signal time delay shall be of sufficient duration to
allow for evacuation from the protected area. Distinct alarms shall indicate the activation
of a detector in one zone, the activation of a detector in a cross zone (predischarge alarm)
and the discharge of carbon dioxide. Such alarms shall be continued until the atmosphere
has been returned to normal except that the alarm for the detector in one zone may be
discontinued when the alarm for the cross-zone detector is activated.
Exceptions:
1. A carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system activated solely by manual means
may be installed only if approved. Such a system may be approved upon a
showing satisfactory to the commissioner of the need for such a system.
2. A detection system that is not cross-zoned may be approved upon a showing
satisfactory to the commissioner of the need for such a detection and activation
system.
904.8.7.2 Manual operation. A manual pull station shall be provided which, upon
activation, transmits an alarm to an approved central station, overrides any delay other
than the predischarge delay, and causes the carbon dioxide to discharge. Activation of a
carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system by means of a manual pull station shall result in
a complete predischarge delay sequence prior to system discharge.
904.8.7.3 Abort systems. Abort systems may be installed, but shall be limited to systems
activated by smoke detectors. Abort controls shall be located in the protected area near
the means of egress for the area, and shall be designed to cause the discharge of carbon
dioxide after a time delay unless the abort control is reactivated for another cycle of
delay. Abort controls shall not interfere with transmission of local alarms or central
station alarms.
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904.8.7.4 Power supply. Power supply to the alarm system shall be in accordance with
applicable requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code and the
Electrical Code.
904.8.8 Pressure relief venting. The protected area enclosure shall be provided with suitable
pressure relief venting which vents outdoors.
Exception: Such venting shall not be required when a registered design professional
certifies that the walls, ceilings and floors comprising the protected space have sufficient
porosity and leakage to prevent damage to the integrity of such space upon discharge of
the extinguishing agent, and that the inert gas agent leakage into other non-flooded rooms
and spaces will not reach dangerous concentrations.
904.8.9 Commercial cooking installations. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems
installed to protect commercial cooking operations shall additionally comply with the
requirements of Section 904.11.
904.9 Halon systems. Halon fire extinguishing systems shall be installed, periodically inspected,
tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Section 901, Section 904.1.1, Section 904.4,
NFPA 12A and their listing.
904.9.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained
and knowledgeable person to assess whether the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system shall inspect,
test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and the
manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semiannual basis.
904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be
checked at least on a semiannual basis. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10
percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container
shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage.
Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than
1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less
than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon
1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for highpressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches,
door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary
alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in
proper operating condition.
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904.10 Clean agent systems. Clean agent fire extinguishing systems shall be installed,
periodically inspected, tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Section 901, Section
904.1.1, Section 904.4, NFPA 2001 as modified by Appendix B, and their listing. The use of a
clean agent fire extinguishing system shall be limited to automatic total flooding systems.
904.10.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained
and knowledgeable person to assess whether the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation, and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system shall
inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and
the manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semiannual basis.
904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall
be checked at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more
than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10
percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container
shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage.
Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year intervals.
904.10.4 System alarm and activation. Audible and visible alarms shall be installed both
inside and outside the protected area to signal the activation of an automatic detection device
and the operation of the fire extinguishing system. Such signals shall continue until the
atmosphere has been returned to normal. Activation of a single automatic detection device
shall sound a local alarm and transmit an alarm to an approved central station. Unless the
alarm is cancelled by an abort system as set forth in Section 904.10.5, activation of a second
automatic detection device shall, within 30 seconds, initiate the discharge of clean agent.
Power supply to the alarm system shall be in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code, the Electrical Code and NFPA 2001.
904.10.4.1 Warning and instruction signs. Warning and instruction signs shall be
posted at entrances to and within the protected area subject to flooding.
904.10.5 Abort systems. Abort systems may be installed only on systems activated by
smoke detectors. Abort controls shall be manually operated, shall be located in the protected
area, and shall cause the dumping of the clean agent after a 2-minute delay unless the abort
control is reactivated for another cycle of delay. A manual pull station shall be provided
which, upon activation, shall transmit an alarm to an approved central station, override the
delay and cause the clean agent to dump immediately. Abort controls shall not interfere with
transmission of local alarms or central station alarms.
904.10.6 Means of egress. Where the protected area is normally occupied, provision shall be
made for adequate clear routes of exit with doors opening in direction of travel. Emergency
lighting shall be provided for such exits. Exit directional signs shall clearly indicate the path
of egress.
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904.10.7 Fixed emergency forced ventilation. When the protected area is normally
occupied, a fixed emergency forced ventilation system sufficient to accomplish at least six air
changes per hour of the flooded protected area shall be provided unless all of the following
apply:
1. The clean agent fire extinguishing system is used to extinguish a Class A fire.
2. The design concentration does not exceed the "no observable adverse effect level" for
halocarbon agents, or "no effect level" for inert gas agents as defined in NFPA 2001.
3. If other than inert gas agents are used, the quantity of the thermal decomposition
products formed from such agents is below the dangerous toxic load (DTL) for humans
as described in Meldrum's “Toxicology of Substances in Relation to Major Hazards:
Hydrogen Fluoride” (HMSO, London, 1993). Upon request, documentation of hazard
assessment of thermal decomposition products formed from such agents shall be filed
with the department.
904.10.8 Pressure relief venting. Clean agent fire extinguishing systems using inert gas
agents shall be provided with suitable pressure relief venting for the flooded protected area
that discharges outdoors.
Exception: Such venting shall not be required when a registered design professional
certifies that the walls, ceilings and floors comprising the protected space have sufficient
porosity and leakage to prevent damage to the integrity of such space upon discharge of
the extinguishing agent, and that the inert gas agent leakage into other non-flooded rooms
and spaces will not reach dangerous concentrations.
904.11 Commercial cooking systems. Commercial cooking systems shall be designed and
installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code, and shall
comply with the requirements of Section 901, Section 904.1.1, Section 904.4 and this section.
The fire extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of an approved type
recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and
arrangement protected. Preengineered wet chemical fire extinguishing systems shall be tested in
accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Dry chemical fire
extinguishing systems shall not be installed to protect commercial cooking equipment and
exhaust systems. Other types of fire extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific
use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance
with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Fire extinguishing
systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard
indicated, as follows:
1. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.
2. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.
3. Wet chemical fire extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.
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904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual activation device shall be located at or near a
means of egress from the cooking area, a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of
20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual activation device shall be
located a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) above
the floor at its center. The manual activation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds
(178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to activate the fire extinguishing
system.
Exception: Sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with a manual
activation device.
904.11.2 System interconnection. The activation of the fire extinguishing system shall
automatically shut down the fuel and electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The
fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
904.11.3 Reserved.
904.11.4 Acceptance testing. Upon completion of the installation of a commercial cooking
system, such system shall be tested at the owner’s risk, by his or her representative, to
confirm proper installation and operation of the system in compliance with the requirements
of the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code, and this code. The owner’s
representative shall furnish the necessary equipment required to conduct the test. No permit
shall be issued for the operation of a commercial cooking system until satisfactory
performance of the fire extinguishing system is demonstrated, including compliance with the
following requirements:
1. A performance test of the exhaust system conducted before a representative of the
department, in accordance with Section 507.16 of the Mechanical Code. The test shall
verify that the exhaust airflow rate and makeup airflow meet the standards set forth in
the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code, and verify proper operation as
specified in this chapter.
2. A performance test of the fire extinguishing system conducted before a representative
of the department, in accordance with the applicable installation standard set forth in
this chapter and its listing.
3. Chimneys serving masonry ovens shall be proved tight by a smoke test. A report of
such test shall be prepared by the installer and made available for inspection by a
representative of the department at the time the performance tests of the exhaust system
and fire extinguishing system are witnessed by such department representative.
904.11.5 Commercial cooking equipment. Commercial cooking equipment shall be
attended at all times while in operation and shall comply with the requirements of Sections
904.11.5.1 through 904.11.5.5.
904.11.5.1 Unlawful operation. It shall be unlawful to operate commercial cooking
equipment that generates smoke or grease-laden vapors or fumes under any of the
following conditions:
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1. Without a permit for the operation of a commercial cooking system.
2. Without a lawfully installed fire extinguishing system.
3. Without a lawfully installed exhaust system.
4. While its fire extinguishing system or exhaust system is out of service.
904.11.5.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided
within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of commercial cooking equipment. Cooking
equipment involving vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K
rated portable fire extinguisher.
904.11.5.3 Deep fat fryers. Deep fat fryers shall be separated from any adjacent cooking
equipment that uses an open flame by at least 16 inches (406.4 mm). In lieu of such
separation distance, a 16-inch (406.4 mm) high by ⅛-inch (3.2 mm) thick steel baffle
permanently attached to the longer of the two cooking appliances may be used. The
baffle shall extend to the full depth of the cooking equipment it is attached to.
904.11.5.3.1 Deep-fat fryer high-limit controls. Deep-fat fryers shall be equipped
with an independent high-limit control in addition to the adjustable operating control
(thermostat). Such high-limit control shall be designed and arranged to shut off the
fuel supply, including electrical energy, when the fat temperature reaches not more
than 475°F (246°C), 1 inch (25.4 mm) below the liquid surface. All high-limit
controls shall be replaced every 3 years with a new or rebuilt unit certified to operate
at not more than 475°F (246°C). A record of such replacement shall be maintained at
the premises and made available for inspection by any representative of the
department upon request.
904.11.5.4 Portable cooking equipment. The proper positioning of portable cooking
equipment (equipment on wheels) shall be outlined on the floor in a durable 1-inch (25.4
mm) wide yellow line or other approved means.
904.11.5.5 Staff training. The owner or operator of commercial cooking equipment shall
train all staff in the proper procedures for the use of all components of the grease removal
system, cleaning of filters, and the manual operation of the fire extinguishing system. At
least once every 6 months the owner or operator of the premises shall review the
instructions for manual operation of the fire extinguishing system with all staff.
904.11.6 Operation and maintenance. Commercial cooking systems shall be operated and
maintained in accordance with this section.
904.11.6.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system in connection with hoods shall be
operated at the required rate of air movement, and approved grease filters shall be in
place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used. Exhaust systems shall be
operated at all times while cooking equipment is being used. Fixed air supply openings
installed to provide make-up air for air exhausted through the exhaust system shall not be
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restricted by covers, dampers, or any other means that would reduce the operating
efficiency of the exhaust system. Commercial cooking hoods shall not be painted.
904.11.6.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors are installed, they shall be
operated when the commercial cooking equipment is used.
904.11.6.3 Exhaust system inspection and cleaning. The entire exhaust system,
including but not limited to hoods, filters, grease removal devices, ducts, fans, pollution
control devices, and other appurtenances, shall be inspected and cleaned at least once
every three months under the personal supervision of a person holding a certificate of
fitness. Surfaces shall be cleaned to bare metal and no powder or other foreign substance
shall remain in the exhaust system after cleaning. Flammable cleaning fluids shall not be
used. If saponifying agents are used, residues shall be removed. Cleaning fluids shall not
be applied on fusible links or other detection devices of the fire extinguishing system.
Electrical switches that may be accidentally activated during the cleaning process shall be
electrically locked out during such process.
Exception: Vertical portions of interior and exterior vertical ducts in excess of three
stories in height shall be cleaned at least every six months by a person holding a
certificate of fitness. Horizontal portions of such ducts, including all elbows, shall be
inspected and cleaned in accordance with Section 904.11.6.3.
904.11.6.3.1 Filters. Filters shall be cleaned or replaced as frequently as necessary,
but at least once per month, by a properly trained employee of the owner or by a
person holding a certificate of fitness. No exhaust system shall be operated without
filters installed while cooking equipment is being used.
904.11.6.3.2 Spark arrestors. Any spark arrestor provided in conjunction with a
solid fuel cooking operation shall be inspected monthly and shall be cleaned as
required to maintain free of debris and unobstructed.
904.11.6.3.3 System deactivation. Unless necessary to accomplish cleaning,
components of the fire extinguishing system shall not be rendered inoperable during
the cleaning process. If electrical switches, detection devices, or other components of
the fire extinguishing system must be deactivated during the cleaning process, such
deactivation shall be performed by a licensed master fire suppression piping
contractor. Immediately upon completion of the cleaning process the licensed master
fire suppression piping contractor shall restore the system to proper operation.
904.11.6.4 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a
trained and knowledgeable person to assess that the system is in good working order. A
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge
of the installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this
section and the manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on a
semiannual basis. At a minimum, the semiannual inspection, testing and servicing shall
include:
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1. Verification that the hazard has not changed.
2. Verification that the fire extinguishing system has not been altered.
3. Examination of all detectors, agent and gas containers, releasing devices, piping,
hose assemblies, nozzles, and all auxiliary equipment.
4. Verification that the agent distribution piping is not obstructed.
5. Verification that the extinguishing agent container and/or auxiliary pressure
containers have been, as applicable, inspected, re-tested and marked in
conformance with the requirements of the United States Department of
Transportation.
6. A test of the system’s automatic and manual releasing devices, including any
associated equipment.
7. A test of the gas and electric power source shutoff devices.
8. Preparation and submission to the owner of a written report of any system defects.
9. Upon satisfactory completion of the semiannual inspection and correction of all
defects, providing the owner with an inspection, testing and service compliance tag.
Such tag shall indicate the date issued, the name and license number of the licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor issuing the tag, and that the system was
found to be in compliance with the requirements of this section.
904.11.6.5 Fusible link and sprinkler head replacement. Fusible links and foam water
sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be
serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.
904.11.6.6 Recordkeeping. Records shall be maintained as set forth in Section 901 and
as follows:
1. A record of the inspection and cleaning of the exhaust system required by Section
904.11.6.3 shall be maintained at the premises and made available for inspection by
any representative of the department upon request. Such record shall indicate the
date that such inspection and cleaning was conducted, and the name and certificate
of fitness number of the individual supervising such inspection and cleaning.
2. A record indicating the name of the person or firm doing the servicing and the
dates when filters were cleaned or replaced shall be maintained at the premises and
made available for inspection by any representative of the department upon request.
3. Upon satisfactory completion of the semiannual inspection as required by Section
904.11.6.4 and the correction of all system defects, the licensed master fire
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suppression piping contractor shall issue an inspection, testing and service
compliance tag. Such tag shall be posted in a conspicuous location on the premises.
A new compliance tag shall be posted for each required semiannual inspection.
4. A record of the periodic inspection of all portable fire extinguishers shall be
maintained as required in Section 906.
5. A record of the replacement of deep fat fryer high-limit controls shall be
maintained in accordance with Section 904.11.5.3.1.
904.11.6.7 Postings. Postings required by this section shall be clearly and concisely
written, at least 8½ inches (215.9 mm) by 11 inches (279.4 mm) in size, and posted under
glass or laminated. The following information shall be posted:
1. A complete set of cleaning and operating instructions covering all components of
the cooking equipment and exhaust system and a schematic drawing or sketch
showing the origin, run, and terminus of the exhaust system. Such posting shall be
at the main entrance or other approved entrance to the cooking area.
2. Instructions for manual operation of the fire extinguishing system with a statement
that the fire extinguishing system shall be manually activated prior to using a
portable fire extinguisher. Such posting shall be near the portable fire extinguisher.
904.11.7 Solid fuel cooking operations. Unless otherwise approved by the Commissioner of
Buildings, the burning of solid fuel in commercial cooking equipment, such as briquettes,
mesquite, hardwood, or charcoal, shall be permitted only for purposes of flavor enhancement.
Solid fuel shall be ignited with a match or other approved means. Combustible or flammable
liquids shall not be used. Matches shall not be stored in the immediate vicinity of cooking
equipment. Solid fuel shall be added to the fire only as required, shall be done in a safe
manner and in quantities that will not create a flame higher than required. Long handled
tongs, hooks and other required devices shall be provided and used in order to safely add
fuel, adjust the fuel, position and control the fire, without having to reach into the fire box.
The room where solid fuel is used or stored shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler
system.
904.11.7.1 Solid fuel storage. Solid fuel shall be stored in a dedicated room with walls,
floor and ceiling having a minimum fire rating of one hour. The storage room floor shall
be non-combustible or covered with non-combustible material. Not more than a one-day
supply may be kept in the same room as the solid fuel cooking appliance or masonry
oven or in the room with the fuel loading or clean-out doors.
Solid fuel shall not be stored:
1. Within 3 feet (911.4 mm) of any portion of a solid fuel burning appliance, masonry
oven or any other heating or cooking appliance.
2. Within 6 feet (1828.8 mm) of any solid fuel loading opening or door of the solid
fuel cooking appliance or masonry oven.
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3. Above any heating or cooking appliance, flue or vent.
904.11.7.2 Solid fuel cooking equipment. Cooking equipment burning solid fuel shall
be installed on floors of noncombustible construction that extend 3 feet (911.4 mm) from
the cooking equipment in all directions. Combustible surfaces or construction shall not be
permitted within 3 feet (911.4 mm) of the sides or 6 feet (1828.8 mm) above any such
cooking equipment.
904.11.7.3 Water supply. A water supply with a flexible hose shall be provided near
solid fuel cooking appliances and masonry ovens to cool down any fire that becomes too
hot and to completely extinguish any fire before leaving the premises. The water source
shall be a fixed pipe system with a hose of adequate length to reach to the combustion
and cooking chambers of the appliance. The nozzle shall be fitted with a manual shut-off
device, and shall be of the type to provide a fine to medium spray. A full flow or strong
stream shall not be used.
904.11.7.4 Spent fuel. Spent fuel, ash, cinders and other fire debris shall be removed
from the fire box at regular intervals, but at least once a day, and, once removed, shall not
be stored indoors. Adequate long handle rakes, hoes, scrapers and shovels shall be
provided for such removal. When being removed from the fire box, the spent fuel shall be
sprinkled adequately with water from the required water supply to cool it and to control
the dust. Dedicated metal containers (minimum 16 gauge) with covers shall be provided
for such removal. Each container of spent fuel, ash, cinder and other debris so removed
shall not exceed 20 gallons (75.7 L) capacity, shall be sized to easily pass through any
passageway to the outside and shall be capable of being handled easily by any employee
assigned this task. The spent fuel shall be placed outside in heavy metal containers or a
dumpster used exclusively for this purpose and shall be separated from all combustible
construction and combustible materials. The containers shall be covered at all times.
904.12 Water-mist systems. Water-mist extinguishing systems shall be installed, periodically
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901, Section 904.4, NFPA 750 as
modified by Appendix B, and their listing. All devices and appurtenances shall be listed and
installed in conformance to the terms of the listing.
904.12.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained
and knowledgeable person to assess whether the system is in good working order. A licensed
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system shall inspect,
test, service and otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this section and the
manufacturer’s specifications and servicing manuals at least on an annual basis.
SECTION FC 905
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS
905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided where required by the construction codes,
including the Building Code, this code or the rules. Fire hose threads used in connection with
standpipe systems shall be approved by the commissioner. The location of fire department hose
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connections shall be approved by the commissioner. Standpipe systems in buildings used for
high-piled combustible storage shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.
905.1.1 Standpipe system operator. In buildings with a multi-zone standpipe system, such
system shall be continuously under the personal supervision of a person holding a certificate
of fitness, who shall be immediately available to assist the department in the operation of
such system.
905.2 Installation standards. Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
905.3 through and including 905.6 Reserved.
905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing firefighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose,
portable fire extinguishers and water supply control valves, shall not be obstructed from use or
obscured from view.
905.8 Reserved.
905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open
position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at
the central station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal
shall also be transmitted to the fire alarm system control panel.
Exceptions:
1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the
municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in
buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required during construction, alteration and
demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the Building Code and
Section 1413.
905.11 Reserved.
905.12 Maintenance. Standpipe systems shall be maintained, including all required inspection,
testing and servicing, in accordance with this section, Section 901.6 and NFPA 25.
905.12.1 Standpipe hydrostatic pressure and flow tests. Upon order of the commissioner,
but at least once every 5 years, the standpipe system shall be subjected to a hydrostatic
pressure test and a flow test to demonstrate its suitability for department use. These tests shall
be conducted in compliance with the requirements of the rules and shall be conducted at the
owner's risk, by his or her representative before a representative of the department.
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905.12.2 Pressure reducing valves. Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once every
3 years, standpipe systems with pressure reducing valves installed shall be flow tested to
demonstrate proper adjustment of such valves.
SECTION FC 906
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations.
1. In all Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2 adult homes and enriched housing, and S
occupancies.
2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are manufactured, stored, handled and
used, including dispensing, in quantities requiring a permit pursuant to Section 105.6.
4. On each floor of structures under construction, alteration or demolition, except detached
Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 1415.1.
5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and
generator rooms, where required by the commissioner.
7. Where required by other provisions of this code or the rules.
TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
SECTION
SUBJECT
303.5
304.4.3
307.4
307.5
308.6.5
309.4
315.3.4
1105.2
1105.3
1105.4
1105.5
1105.6
1107.7
1110.6.2
1208.4
1415.1
1417.3
1418.1
1504.6.4
1505.5
1507.10
1908.8
1909.5
2003.5
Tar kettles
Outdoor storage of combustible waste
Open fires
Barbecues on residential properties
Flaming food and beverages in Group A occupancies
Powered industrial trucks
Outdoor storage of combustible material
Aircraft towing vehicles
Aircraft welding apparatus
Aircraft-fueling vehicles
Aircraft hydrant-fueling vehicles
Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
Heliports and helistops
Helicopter lift operations
Dry cleaning plants
Buildings, structures, premises and facilities under construction, alteration or demolition
Roofing operations
Ammunition at a construction site
Spray-finishing operations
Dip-tank operations
Powder coating operations
Storage of wood chips and other wood waste materials
Exterior lumber storage
Organic-coating areas
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2106.3
2205.5
2208.7.4.1
2210.6.4
2211.6
2306.10
2404.12
2508.2
2604.2.6
2707.9.3
2903.6 and 2906.6.4
3309.9.1
3403.2.1
3404.3.3.1
3404.3.7.5.2
3405.4.9
3406.2.7
3406.4.10.1
3406.8.1(20)
3506.5
3808.2
Industrial furnaces
Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities
CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities
Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities
Repair garages
Rack storage
Tents and other membrane structures
Tire rebuilding/storage
Welding and other hot work
Transportation of flammable and combustible liquids in cargo tanks
Combustible fibers
Special effects
Flammable and combustible liquids, general
Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
Solvent distillation units
Construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
Vapor recovery and processing equipment at bulk plants and terminals
Sterilizers using flammable gas containing ethylene oxide
LPG
906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and
maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.
Exception: The travel distance to reach a portable fire extinguisher shall not apply to the
spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
906.2.1 Maintenance. Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in accordance with
Section 901.6 and this section.
906.2.1.1 Monthly inspection. An inspection to verify that the portable fire extinguishers
are readily available and in good working order shall be conducted at least once a month.
The person conducting such inspections shall keep records of all portable fire
extinguishers inspected, including the date the inspection was performed, the person
performing the inspection, and those portable fire extinguishers found to require
corrective action. Such recordkeeping shall be either kept on a tag or label securely
attached to the portable fire extinguisher, on an inspection checklist maintained on file or
by an approved electronic method that provides a permanent record.
906.2.1.2 Servicing. Annual servicing and recharging shall be performed by a person or
company meeting the requirements of Section 901.6.3.1. Records of servicing and
recharging of portable fire extinguishers shall be provided and maintained in accordance
with NFPA 10. The required tag or label for servicing shall also include the following
information:
1. The name and certificate of fitness number of the person who serviced the portable
fire extinguisher.
2. The month and year the portable fire extinguisher was serviced.
3. The name, street address and telephone number of the portable fire extinguisher
servicing company, if any, servicing the portable fire extinguisher.
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906.2.1.3 Hydrostatic testing. Periodic hydrostatic testing of portable fire extinguishers
shall be done in accordance with NFPA 10.
906.3 Size and distribution. For occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the
minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Portable fire extinguishers for
occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to
0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). Portable
fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of
greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) or involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in
accordance with NFPA 10. Extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on
the basis of the anticipated Class A or Class B hazard.
906.3.1 Sprinklered areas. In buildings classified as Group A-3 occupancy houses of
worship and Group B occupancy office buildings that are protected throughout by a sprinkler
system, the maximum floor area per unit of A required by Table 906.3(1) may be doubled.
TABLE 906.3(1)
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS
Minimum Rated Single
Extinguisher
Maximum Floor Area Per
Unit of A
Maximum Travel Distance
to Extinguisher
LIGHT (Low) HAZARD
OCCUPANCYd
ORDINARY (Moderate)
HAZARD OCCUPANCYd
EXTRA (High) HAZARD
OCCUPANCYd
2-Ac
2-A
4-Aa
3,000 square feete
1,500 square feet
1,000 square feet
75 feet
75 feet
75 feet
2
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m , 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 2.5-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Reserved
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard
Occupancies.
d. For the purposes of Table 906.3(1), the terms “Light (Low) Hazard”, “Ordinary (Moderate) Hazard” and “Extra (High) Hazard” shall be as
defined in NFPA 10.
e. In areas classified as Groups A3, B, or E which are protected throughout by a sprinkler system, the maximum floor area per unit of A may be
doubled.
TABLE 906.3(2)
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH
TYPE OF HAZARD
Light (Low)
Ordinary (Moderate)
Extra (High)
BASIC MINIMUM PORTABLE FIRE
EXTINGUISHER RATING
MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
5-B
10-B
10-B
20-B
40-B
80-B
30
50
30
50
30
50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see NFPA 10, Sections 3-3 and 3-4.
906.4 Cooking grease fires. Portable fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking
grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the fire extinguishing system agent and
in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous
locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These
locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the commissioner determines that the
hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
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Exceptions:
1. Portable fire extinguishers subject to theft, malicious use or damage may be located in
locations approved by the commissioner.
2. In rooming houses and single room occupancies, as defined in the New York State
Multiple Dwelling Law, with over 15 sleeping rooms, a 2-A rated portable fire
extinguisher may be kept in the apartment of the manager or the building
superintendent.
906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or
obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely
avoided, signs or other markings shall be provided to indicate the locations of portable fire
extinguishers.
906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets,
shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely
anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be readily identifiable
and shall not be locked.
Exceptions:
1. Portable fire extinguishers subject to theft, malicious use or damage, if provided with
an approved means of ready access.
2. Portable fire extinguishers in Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in
Group I-2 occupancies may be locked or located in staff locations, provided the staff of
the institution has ready access to the cabinet or other storage location.
906.9 Height above floor. Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40
pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the
floor. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg)
shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor. The
clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held extinguishers shall not be less
than 4 inches (102 mm).
906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled portable fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a
designated location.
SECTION FC 907
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS
907.1 General. This section covers the operation and maintenance of fire alarm systems and
their components.
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907.1.1 Design and installation documents. Design and installation documents for fire
alarm systems shall be submitted to the department for review and approval prior to system
installation. Design and installation documents shall include such design and installation
details as may be required by the construction codes, including the Building Code.
907.2 Where required. An approved manual, automatic, or manual and automatic fire alarm
system shall be provided where required by the construction codes, including the Building Code
or this code. An approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 72.
907.3 Reserved.
907.4 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be installed in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Building Code.
907.4.1 through and including 907.4.4 Reserved.
907.4.5 Protective covers. The commissioner may require the installation of manual fire
alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or provide the manual fire
alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall comply with the
requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code.
907.5 through and including 907.7 Reserved.
907.8 Presignal system. Presignal systems shall not be installed unless approved by the
commissioner. Where a presignal system is installed, personal supervision shall be provided at
an approved location, in order that the alarm signal can be activated in the event of fire or other
emergency.
907.9 through and including 907.12 Reserved.
907.13 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector for periodic inspection, testing and
other maintenance.
907.14 Fire extinguishing systems. Fire extinguishing systems shall be connected to the
building fire alarm system where a fire alarm system is required or is otherwise installed.
907.15 Monitoring. Where required by this code, the rules or by the construction codes,
including the Building Code, such monitoring by a central station shall be performed in
compliance with the requirements of NFPA 72 and the rules.
Exception: Supervisory service is not required for:
1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.10 of the
Building Code.
2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
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3. Sprinkler systems in Group R-3 occupancies.
907.16 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to
transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any department telephone number unless
approved by the commissioner.
907.17 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installation of a fire alarm system, including
alarm notification appliances and circuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisorysignal initiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and primary and secondary power
supplies, such system shall be tested at the owner’s risk, by his or her representative, before a
representative of the department, to confirm its proper installation and operation of the system in
compliance with the requirements of the Building Code and this code.
907.18 Record of completion. A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying
that the system has been installed in accordance with the approved design and installation
documents and specifications shall be provided by the installing contractor.
907.19 Instructions. Inspection, testing, operation and maintenance instructions, as built design
and installation documents and equipment specifications shall be provided on site at an approved
location.
907.20 Inspection, testing and other maintenance. Fire alarm and fire alarm detection systems
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with this code, Section 901, the rules and NFPA
72.
907.20.1 Reserved.
907.20.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72
or more frequently where required by the commissioner. Where automatic testing is
performed at least weekly by a remotely monitored fire alarm control unit specifically listed
for the application, the system may be manually tested on an annual basis.
Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be
tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the commissioner, but not less
than every 18 months.
907.20.3 Detector sensitivity. Detector sensitivity shall be checked in compliance with the
manufacturer’s instructions and NFPA 72. Detectors which are connected to a fire alarm
system that automatically transmit signals to the department or to a central station shall, as
applicable, also be checked in compliance with the rules.
907.20.4 Method. To ensure that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked
sensitivity range, it shall be tested using either a calibrated test method, the manufacturer’s
calibrated sensitivity test instrument, listed control equipment arranged for the purpose, a
smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control
unit where its sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range or other calibrated
sensitivity test method acceptable to the commissioner. Detectors found to have a sensitivity
outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.
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Exceptions:
1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within
the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be
replaced.
2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
907.20.4.1 Testing device. Detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a
device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the
detector.
907.20.5 Maintenance. The owner shall be responsible for ensuring that the fire and life
safety systems are maintained in good working order at all times. Service personnel shall
possess the qualifications set forth in NFPA 72 for inspecting, testing, servicing and
otherwise maintaining such systems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be made
available to the commissioner. When required by the rules, a smoke detector maintenance log
book and an alarm log book shall be maintained.
907.20.6 Smoke detector maintenance. The owner of any premises, or part thereof,
monitored by a fire alarm system or sub-system thereof, whether required or not required by
this code, which automatically transmit signals to the department or to a central station, shall
be responsible for preventing unnecessary and unwarranted alarms as set forth in rules.
Cleaning and testing of smoke detectors shall be performed and records maintained of smoke
detectors installed in a defined fire alarm system as required by the rules.
SECTION FC 908
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS
908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an
emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27.
908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in
an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas detection
system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 1803.13.
908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection
system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.
908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gasgenerator rooms in accordance with Section 3705.3.2.
908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for
vehicles fueled by non-odorized gases in accordance with Section 2211.7.2.
908.6 Refrigerating systems. Refrigerating system machinery rooms shall be provided with a
refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8 and the Mechanical Code.
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908.7 Carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors shall be
installed where required by the construction codes, including the Building Code and, where
applicable, the requirements of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and
Development.
908.8 Medical gas systems. Medical gas systems shall comply with the requirements of Section
3006.4 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
908.9 Flammable gas. Flammable gas detection systems shall be as set forth in the construction
codes, including the Building Code, this code or the rules.
908.9.1 Flammable gas distribution piping. Areas within buildings and structures
containing flammable gas distribution piping operating at levels above 15 pounds per square
inch (psig)(103.4 kPa) shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection-alarm
system.
908.10 Maintenance. Emergency alarm and detection systems addressed by this section shall be
inspected, tested, serviced and otherwise maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s
specifications. Those approved for connection to a fire alarm system or which will transmit an
alarm to a central station shall additionally comply with the requirements of NFPA 72 and the
rules governing the operation and maintenance of such systems.
908.10.1 Carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be inspected, tested, serviced
and otherwise maintained in compliance with the requirements of the construction codes,
including the Building Code, and, where applicable, the requirements of the New York City
Department of Housing Preservation and Development. Those connected to a fire alarm
system or which will transmit an alarm to a central station shall additionally comply with the
requirements of Section 901.6, NFPA 72 and the rules governing the operation and
maintenance of such systems.
SECTION FC 909
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS
909.1 Smoke control systems. Smoke control systems, including stairwell pressurization, shall
be provided as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, and shall be
designed, installed and tested as required by such codes.
909.1.1 Smoke control system maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be maintained in
good working order. Periodic testing, inspection and other maintenance shall be performed
in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Sections 909.1.1.1 through 909.1.1.3.
909.1.1.1 Schedule. A written maintenance program, including periodic inspection and
testing, shall be established and implemented immediately upon installation of the smoke
control system.
909.1.1.2 Recordkeeping. A logbook or other approved form of recordkeeping
documenting each inspection and test shall be maintained on the premises and made
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available for inspection by any department representative. The written record shall
include the date of the maintenance, identification of servicing personnel, description of
any operating defects or deficiencies, notifications made and corrective action taken,
including parts replaced.
909.1.1.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all
components of the system, including initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and
windows.. Dedicated smoke control systems shall be tested semiannually. Nondedicated
smoke control systems shall be tested annually. All systems shall be tested under both
normal power and emergency power.
909.2 Post-fire smoke purge systems. Post-fire smoke purge systems shall be provided as
required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, and shall be designed, installed
and tested as required by such codes.
909.2.1 Post-fire smoke purge system maintenance. Post-fire smoke purge systems shall
be maintained in good working order. A record of inspections and tests shall be maintained
on the premises and made available for inspection by any department representative.
SECTION FC 910
SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS
910.1 General. Where required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, this
code or the rules or otherwise installed, smoke and heat vents, or mechanical smoke exhaust
systems, and draft curtains shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
910.2 Where required. Approved smoke and heat vents shall be installed where required by the
construction codes, including the Building Code, this code or the rules.
910.3 Reserved.
910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the Commissioner of Buildings,
engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents.
Mechanical smoke exhaust shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
910.5 Maintenance. Automatically and manually operated heat vents and engineered
mechanical smoke exhaust systems shall be inspected periodically and an operational test of each
shall be conducted at least every 12 months. A record of each inspection and test shall be
maintained as required by Section 901.6.
Exception: Gravity operated drop out vents need only be inspected.
SECTION FC 911
EXPLOSION CONTROL
911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the following locations:
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1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as
set forth in Table 911.1.
2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum
allowable quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1).
Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting, explosion (deflagration)
prevention systems, or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69 or NFPA 495, as
applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from
detonation hazards.
TABLE 911.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
MATERIAL
EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
Explosion (deflagration) venting
Barricade
or explosion (deflagration)
construction
prevention systems
CLASS
Hazard Category
Combustible dustsa
Cryogenic fluids
Explosives
Flammable gas
Flammable liquids
Organic peroxidese
Oxidizer liquids and solids
Pyrophoric materiale
Pyrophoric gasese
Unstable (reactive)e
Water-reactive liquids and
solidse
—
Flammable
Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Gaseous
Liquefied
IAb
IBc
Unclassified Detonable
I
4
Detonable
Nondetonable
4
3 detonable
3 nondetonable
3 detonable
3 nondetonable
2 detonable
2 nondetonable
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Required
Not required
Required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not permitted
Not permitted
Not permitted
Not permitted
Required
Not permitted
Not permitted
Required
Not permitted
Required
Not permitted
Required
Not required
Required
Not required
Required
Not permitted
Required
Special Uses
Grain processing
Where explosion
existd
hazards
—
Detonation
Deflagration
a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2.
b. Storage or use.
c. In open use or dispensing.
d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature
of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
e. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive)
materials (see Chapter 43) and detonable water-reactive materials (see Chapter 44) are considered as explosives for purposes of storage.
911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required to be provided with deflagration
venting shall comply with the following requirements:
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1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a
minimum internal pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The minimum
internal design pressure shall not be less than five times the maximum internal relief
pressure specified in Section 911.2(5).
2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs.
Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof venting cannot be provided because
of inadequate exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall be allowed by
specially designed shafts vented to the exterior of the building.
3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where
relieving a deflagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity
and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property
or adjacent public streets.
4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure
resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Section 911.2(1) and the maximum
internal pressure allowed by Section 911.2(5).
5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination of the
following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa),
but not less than the loads required by the construction codes, including the Building Code:
5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward.
5.2. Hatch covers.
5.3. Outward swinging doors.
5.4. Roofs designed to uplift.
5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose.
6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a
deflagration shall discharge directly outdoors where an unoccupied space not less than 50
feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the
property line.
Exception: Vents complying with the requirements of Section 911.2(7).
7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a deflagration shall be so
located that the discharge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically from
window openings and exits in the building and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits
in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same
property, and from the property line.
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8. Vent lines shall discharge outdoors.
911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention systems shall be of an approved
type and installed in accordance with this code and NFPA 69. Where the building or structure or
part thereof is provided with a fire alarm system, explosion prevention system alarms shall be
transmitted to the fire alarm system control panel and to an approved central station.
911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 495.
SECTION FC 912
FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS
912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be installed in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
912.2 Location. The location of fire department connections shall be approved.
912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections shall be located on the street side of
buildings, fully visible and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department
vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the commissioner.
912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times
and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other object for a minimum of 3
feet (914 mm).
912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The commissioner may require locking
caps on fire department connections for sprinkler and standpipe systems.
912.4 Marking. Wall hydrants and fire pump test headers located on the exterior of buildings
shall be conspicuously marked to indicate their function. Fire department connections shall be
marked as follows:
1. Fire department connections serving a standpipe system shall be provided with caps
painted red, and shall have the word “STANDPIPE” in letters 1 inch (25.4 mm) high and
1/8 inch (3.2 mm) deep cast in the body or on a non-ferrous metal plate secured to the
connections or mounted on the wall in a visible location, except that caps of fire
department connections used for combination standpipe and sprinkler systems shall be
painted yellow and the words shall read “COMBINATION STANDPIPE AND
SPRINKLER SYSTEMS.”
2. Fire department connections serving a sprinkler system protecting an entire building or
structure shall be provided with caps painted green and shall have the word “SPRINKLER”
in letters 1 inch (25.4 mm) high and 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) deep cast in the body or on a nonferrous metal plate secured to the connections or mounted on the wall in a visible location,
except that caps of fire department connections used for combination standpipe and
sprinkler systems shall be painted yellow and the words shall read “COMBINATION
STANDPIPE AND SPRINKLER SYSTEMS.”
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3. Fire department connections serving a non-automatic sprinkler system shall have the entire
connection painted silver.
4. Fire department connections serving a sprinkler system protecting only a portion of a
building or structure shall have durable metal signs securely fastened to, or above, the
connection indicating the portion of the building or structure protected.
912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to all sprinkler systems and standpipe
systems shall be protected against backflow as required by the construction codes, including the
Plumbing Code, and the requirements of the New York City Department of Environmental
Protection.
912.6 Maintenance. Sprinkler system and standpipe system fire department connections shall be
periodically inspected, tested, serviced and otherwise maintained in accordance with Section
901.6 and NFPA 25. Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once every 5 years, such fire
department connections shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test to demonstrate their
suitability for department use. The test shall be conducted in accordance with the rules and at the
owner's risk, by his or her representative before a representative of the department.
SECTION FC 913
FIRE PUMPS
913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with this section, the
construction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 20.
913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire pump, driver, and controller shall be
protected in accordance with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through damage
caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism
and other adverse conditions.
913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the
temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C).
913.3.1 Engine manufacturer’s recommendation. Temperature of the pump room, pump
house or area where engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum recommended
by the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer’s recommendations for oil heaters
shall be followed.
913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves,
and the isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open
by a fire alarm system and monitored by an approved central station.
913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision. Fire pump test outlet valves shall be supervised in the
closed position.
913.5 Operation and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be operated and maintained in compliance
with the requirements of this section, Section 901.6 and NFPA 25, including all required
inspection, testing and servicing.
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913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done in accordance with Section 901.5
and NFPA 20. Acceptance tests shall be conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her
representative before a representative of the department.
913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying emergency power to fire pump
assemblies shall be periodically tested in accordance with Section 604 and the Electrical
Code.
913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches shall be periodically tested in
accordance with Section 604 and the Electrical Code.
913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of pump room environmental
conditions, including heating, ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper
manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment.
913.6 Fire pump supervision. The following fire pump operations shall be electrically
supervised by the fire alarm system in accordance with the Electrical Code and NFPA 20; and
monitored by a central station in accordance with this code and the rules:
1. Pump running.
2. Pump power failed.
3. Pump phase reversal.
SECTION FC 914
YARD HYDRANT SYSTEMS
914.1 General. Yard hydrant systems shall be installed where required by the construction
codes, including the Building Code, this code, including Section 508.2.3, or the rules.
914.2 Operation and maintenance. Yard hydrant systems shall be operated and maintained in
accordance with Section 901.6 and NFPA 25.
914.3 Supervision. At all times when the area served by the yard hydrant system is in use, the
system shall be under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder, who shall be
available to assist the department in the operation of such system.
CHAPTER 10
MEANS OF EGRESS
SECTION FC 1001
GENERAL
1001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the maintenance of means of egress from all buildings,
structures and premises in all occupancy classifications.
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1001.2 General. Buildings, structures and premises, or parts thereof, shall be provided with a
means of egress system as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code. The
maintenance of means of egress from all buildings, structures and premises and all occupancies
shall be in accordance with this chapter.
SECTION FC 1002
DEFINITIONS
1002.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other
similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an
emergency.
EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is separated from other interior spaces of
a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as required
to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits
include vertical exits, exterior exit doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways,
exterior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits, but do not include access stairs,
aisles, exit access doors opening to corridors or corridors. This term shall include the locations
on a premises at which egress may be had from an enclosed outdoor space.
EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion
of a building, structure or premises to an exit.
EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an
exit and a public way.
MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress
travel from any occupied portion of a building, structure or premises to a public way. A means of
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.
SECTIONS FC 1003
THROUGH AND INCLUDING
SECTION FC 1024
RESERVED
SECTION FC 1025
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE
1025.1 General. Emergency escape and rescue openings as required by the Building Code shall
be provided in Group R occupancies.
1025.2 Reserved.
1025.3 Reserved.
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1025.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings and windows or other
openings onto fire escapes, as that term is defined in the New York State Multiple Dwelling
Law, shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or tools. Bars,
grilles, grates or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue
openings and windows or other openings onto fire escapes, provided the minimum net clear
opening size complies with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building
Code and the New York State Multiple Dwelling Law, and such devices are releasable or
removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is
required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening, window or other opening.
1025.5 Certificate of approval. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices placed over emergency
escape and rescue openings, and windows or other openings onto fire escapes, shall be of a type
for which a certificate of approval has been issued in accordance with this code.
SECTION FC 1026
RESERVED
SECTION FC 1027
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS
1027.1 General. The means of egress for buildings, structures or premises, or parts thereof, shall
be maintained in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code and this
section.
1027.2 Prohibition. It shall be unlawful to obstruct or impede access to any required means of
egress, including any exit, exit access or exit discharge.
1027.3 Unobstructed and unimpeded egress required. All required means of egress, including
each exit, exit access and exit discharge, shall be continuously maintained free from obstructions
and impediments to immediate use in the event of fire or other emergency.
1027.3.1 Door hardware. Door hardware and other devices and physical components of the
means of egress shall be maintained in good working order at all times.
1027.3.2 Security devices. It shall be unlawful for a security device to emit any substance
that could obscure a means of egress in any building, structure or premises. Security devices
affecting means of egress shall be subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Buildings
in consultation with the commissioner.
1027.3.3 Snow and ice. All required means of egress shall be maintained free from the
accumulation of snow and ice.
1027.3.4 Overcrowding. Premises shall not be caused, allowed or maintained in such a
manner as to become overcrowded, such that the number of persons present on the premises
and/or their location thereon obstructs or impedes access to any means of egress.
1027.4 Furnishings and decorations. Furnishings, decorations or other objects shall not be
placed so as to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. Hangings and
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draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or otherwise be located to conceal or obstruct an
exit except as authorized by the commissioner. Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors
shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit.
1027.4.1 Corridor storage. It shall be unlawful to store combustible materials or
combustible waste in corridors except as authorized by this code or by the commissioner
by rule.
1027.5 Existing window gates and other restrictions. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices
installed on windows and other openings onto fire escapes prior to the effective date of this code
shall be in accordance with the applicable laws, rules and regulations in effect at the time of
installation, and Section 1025.4.
1027.6 Maintenance of window gates and other restrictions. Bars, grilles, grates or similar
devices placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, and windows or other openings onto
fire escapes shall be maintained in good working order.
CHAPTER 11
AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS
SECTION FC 1101
GENERAL
1101.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
aviation facilities, including aircraft landing sites, airports, heliports, helistops, helicopter
landings, seaplane bases and helicopter lift operations.
1101.2 Regulations not covered. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter or any other
federal, state or local law, rule or regulation, aviation facilities and related operations shall be
operated or conducted in accordance with nationally recognized standards.
1101.3 General. Aircraft landing sites, airports, heliports, helistops and seaplane bases shall be
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter. Aviation
operations, including helicopter landings, helicopter lift operations and hot air balloon
operations, shall be conducted in accordance with this chapter.
1101.4 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for aircraft fueling vehicles, seaplane base operations,
helicopter landing operations, helicopter lift operations and hot air balloon operations, as set
forth in Section 105.6.
SECTION FC 1102
DEFINITIONS
1102.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AIRCRAFT LANDING SITE. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed
or used for the landing or takeoff of aircraft, other than helicopters, and any appurtenant areas,
185
but which is not designed or used for fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of such
aircraft.
AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA. Any area used or intended for use for the parking, taxiing,
takeoff, landing or other aviation-related operations.
AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is designed or used for the landing and
takeoff of aircraft with an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and an overall exterior
fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and any appurtenant areas that are designed or
used for aviation facilities and operations.
AVIATION FACILITY. Any premises upon which an aircraft landing site, airport, heliport,
helistop, seaplane base or other aviation-related operation is located or conducted.
DISCHARGE AREA. Any portion of a premises or other location to which an external load is
to be delivered by helicopter.
EXTERNAL LOAD. Cargo transported by, but not within, the helicopter.
HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATION. The movement of an external load with the use of a
helicopter.
HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed or used for the
landing and takeoff of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are designed or used for
heliport facilities and operations.
HELISTOP. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed or used for the
landing or takeoff of helicopters, but which is not designed or used for fueling, defueling,
maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters, including any staging or other appurtenant areas.
HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATION. The filling of balloons with hot air for purposes of
display or flight.
HYDRANT-FUELING VEHICLE. A type of aircraft fueling vehicle that is equipped to
transfer fuel between a fuel hydrant and an aircraft.
SEAPLANE BASE. An area of water that is used for the landing or takeoff of airplanes, and
any appurtenant areas of land or water designed or used for fueling, defueling, maintenance,
repair or storage of seaplanes.
STAGING AREA. Any portion of a premises or other location from where an external load is to
be lifted by helicopter.
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SECTION FC 1103
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
1103.1 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to use or maintain an open flame, flameproducing device or other source of ignition in an aircraft hangar or other location within 50 feet
(15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling or defueling operation.
1103.2 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in an aircraft hangar or other location used for
aircraft fueling or defueling, cleaning, paint removal or painting operations. “No Smoking” signs
shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.
1103.3 Maintenance. The aircraft operation area and related areas shall be kept free from
combustible waste at all times.
1103.4 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and
maintained in accordance with Chapter 5 and the construction codes, including the Building
Code. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions shall be designed in a manner so
as to preclude the possibility of fire vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked aircraft.
1103.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids. Flammable and combustible liquids
shall be dispensed and otherwise stored, handled and used in accordance with this chapter and
Chapter 34. Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be designed, installed,
operated and maintained in accordance with Chapter 22.
1103.6 Combustible material storage. Combustible materials stored in aircraft hangars shall be
stored in approved locations and containers.
1103.7 Hazardous material storage. Hazardous materials shall be stored in accordance with
Chapter 27.
SECTION FC 1104
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
1104.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids. Flammable and combustible liquids
shall not be dispensed into or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft, except in
approved locations.
1104.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid finishes. The application of
flammable or Class II combustible liquid finishes shall be conducted in an approved location,
using methods and procedures in accordance with Chapter 15.
1104.3 Cleaning parts. Class IA flammable liquids shall not be used to clean aircraft, aircraft
parts or aircraft engines. Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall be in
accordance with Section 3405.3.6.
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1104.4 Spills. The following actions shall be taken in response to spills of flammable and
combustible liquids and other hazardous materials, in addition to the procedures set forth in
Section 1106.11.
1104.4.1 Cessation of work. Activities in the affected area not related to the mitigation of
the spill shall cease until the spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been
mitigated.
1104.4.2 Vehicle movement. Aircraft or other vehicles shall not be moved through the spill
area until the spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated.
1104.4.3 Mitigation. Spills shall be reported, documented and mitigated in accordance with
this chapter and Section 2703.3, and any other applicable law, rule or regulation.
1104.5 Running engines. Aircraft engines shall not be operated in aircraft hangars, except in
approved engine test areas.
1104.6 Open flame. Repair of aircraft requiring the use of open flames, spark-producing devices
or the heating of parts above 500°F (260°C) shall only be performed outdoors or in an area
complying with the requirements of the construction codes, including the requirements of the
Building Code for a Group F-1 occupancy.
SECTION FC 1105
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flammable or combustible liquid and
electrical-type fires shall be provided as set forth in Sections 1105.2 through 1105.7 and Section
906. Portable fire extinguishers required by this section shall be inspected and maintained in
accordance with Section 906.
1105.2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft shall be equipped with a minimum
of one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 and
having a minimum rating of 20-B:C.
1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be equipped with a minimum of one
listed portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 and having a
minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C.
1105.4 On aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be equipped with a
minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section
906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. A portable fire extinguisher shall be readily
accessible from either side of the vehicle.
1105.5 On hydrant-fueling vehicles. Hydrant-fueling vehicles shall be equipped with a
minimum of one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section
906, and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C.
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1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:
1. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is not more than 200 gallons
per minute (13 L/s), a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with
the requirements of Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C shall be provided.
2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is more than 200 gallons per
minute (13 L/s) but not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a minimum of one listed
wheeled portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 and
having a minimum extinguishing rating of 80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125
pounds (57 kg), shall be provided.
3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is more than 350 gallons per
minute (22 L/s), a minimum of two listed wheeled portable fire extinguishers complying
with the requirements of Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 80-B:C each, and a
minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided.
1105.6.1 Location of portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers at aircraft fueldispensing stations shall be located such that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet
(22 860 mm) from one such extinguisher.
1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers required by this chapter shall be
accessible at all times. Where necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of
snow, ice and other forms of weather-related obstructions.
1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments used to house portable fire
extinguishers shall be clearly marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at
least 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments shall be readily accessible at all
times.
SECTION FC 1106
AIRCRAFT AND MOTOR VEHICLE FUELING
1106.1 Motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities. Motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities at
aviation facilities shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with
Chapter 22.
1106.2 Aircraft-fueling systems. Aircraft-fueling systems shall be designed and constructed in
accordance with NFPA 407.
Exception: Aircraft fueling systems may be designed and constructed as a full service
automotive liquid motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facility in accordance with Chapter 22,
subject to such conditions as the commissioner may require.
1106.3 Design of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be designed in
accordance with Section 1106 and NFPA 407.
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1106.3.1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be equipped and maintained
with an approved transfer apparatus.
1106.3.1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such transfer apparatus is operated by an
individual unit of the internal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall be located as
remotely as practicable from pumps, piping, meters, air eliminators, water separators,
hose reels, and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate compartment from
any of the aforementioned items. The fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably
designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L)
where the tank is installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail pipe shall be
shielded.
1106.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or chains, the gears, chains, shafts,
bearings, housing and all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall be
installed and maintained in an approved manner.
1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections for the purpose of eliminating
vibration are allowed if the material used therein is designed, installed, operated and
maintained in an approved manner, provided such connections do not exceed 24 inches
(610 mm) in length.
1106.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type shall be provided with a bypass
relief valve set at a pressure of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working
pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and maintained with a pressure gauge on
the discharge side of the pump.
1106.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles. Hoses shall be designed for the transferring of
hydrocarbon liquids and shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient fuel
transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer
nozzles shall be self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure only. Notches and
other devices shall not be used for holding a nozzle valve handle in the open position.
Nozzles shall be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper attachment for aircraft
to be serviced.
1106.3.4 Protection of electrical equipment. Electric wiring, switches, lights and other
sources of ignition, when located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air eliminators,
water separators, hose reels or similar equipment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing.
Electrical motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type approved for use as
specified in the Electrical Code.
1106.3.5 Venting of equipment compartments. Compartments housing piping, pumps, air
eliminators, water separators, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately ventilated
at floor level or within the floor itself.
1106.3.6 Accessory equipment. Ladders, hose reels and similar accessory equipment used
for aircraft-fueling operations shall be of an approved type, as follows:
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1. Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are allowed to be used with or
attached to aircraft-fueling vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of such
ladders is approved and does not constitute an additional fire or accident hazard in the
operation of such fueling vehicles.
2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles shall be constructed of
noncombustible materials and shall be provided with a packing gland or other device
which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and fuel manifolds.
1106.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions. Transfer apparatus shall be metallically
interconnected with tanks, chassis, axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles.
1106.3.7.1 Bonding cables. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be provided and maintained
with a substantial heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be bonded to the
aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be metallically connected to the transfer
apparatus or chassis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be provided with
a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to be fixed to the aircraft.
1106.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection. The bonding cable shall be bare or have a
transparent protective sleeve and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for no
other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that it will not be subjected to sharp
kinks or accidental breakage under conditions of general use.
1106.3.8 Smoking. Smoking in aircraft-fueling vehicles is prohibited. Signs to this effect
shall be conspicuously posted in the driver’s compartment of all fueling vehicles.
1106.3.9 Smoking equipment. Smoking equipment such as cigarette lighters and ash trays
shall not be provided in aircraft-fueling vehicles.
1106.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling vehicles. The operation,
maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4.1
through 1106.4.5 and other applicable provisions of this chapter.
1106.4.1 Proper maintenance. Aircraft-fueling vehicles and all related equipment shall be
properly maintained and kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and other
flammable or combustible waste are prohibited. Maintenance and servicing of such
equipment shall be accomplished in approved areas.
1106.4.2 Vehicle integrity. Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and other fueling equipment shall be
maintained leak free at all times.
1106.4.3 Removal from service. Aircraft-fueling vehicles and related equipment which are
in violation of Section 1106.4.1 or 1106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled, removed from
service and properly repaired or disposed of.
1106.4.4 Identification of operator. Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are operated by a person,
firm or corporation other than the permittee or the permittee’s authorized employee shall be
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provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle showing the name of the person,
firm or corporation operating such unit.
1106.4.5 Training. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be attended and operated by competent
personnel familiar with the safety hazards of each type of fuel used at the facility.
1106.5 Fueling and defueling. Aircraft-fueling and defueling operations shall be conducted in
accordance with Sections 1106.5.1 through 1106.5.4.
1106.5.1 Positioning of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be
parked or otherwise allowed to stop or stand in a position where such vehicle would obstruct
egress from an aircraft, including emergency exits. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be
parked or otherwise permitted to stop or stand under any portion of an aircraft.
1106.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress. A clear path shall be maintained for aircraft-fueling
vehicles to allow ready access to and egress from the fueling area.
1106.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings. A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be
maintained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and an aircraft-fueling vehicle.
1106.5.1.3 Parking. Prior to leaving the cab, the operator of an aircraft-fueling vehicle
shall set the parking brake. At least two chock blocks not less than 5 inches by 5 inches
by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of the
tires shall be utilized and positioned in such a manner so as to preclude movement of the
vehicle in any direction.
1106.5.2 Electrical bonding. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be electrically bonded to the
aircraft being fueled or defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to making fueling
connections and shall not be disconnected until the fuel-transfer operations are completed
and the fueling connections have been removed. Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is
used for fueling, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant system prior to
bonding the fueling equipment to the aircraft.
1106.5.2.1 Conductive hose. In addition to the bonding cable required by Section
1106.5.2, conductive hose shall be used for all fueling operations.
1106.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles. Transfer nozzles shall be equipped
with approved bonding conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise positively
engaged with the bonding attachment provided on the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank
cap prior to removal of the cap.
Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no appropriate bonding attachment
adjacent to the fuel fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling operator
shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle spout prior to removal of the cap. The
nozzle shall be kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is completed.
1106.5.2.3 Funnels. It shall be unlawful to use funnels in aircraft-fueling operations.
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1106.5.3 Training. All personnel engaged in fuel storage and aircraft-fueling operations
shall receive appropriate hazard and fire safety training relating to such storage and fueling
operation, including training in the use of fire extinguishing equipment. The owner or
operator of the aviation facilities shall maintain on the premises a record of all such training
and make such records available for inspection by any department representative.
1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer operations, a qualified person shall be in
control of each transfer nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate control of
the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or otherwise control the flow of fuel from the time
fueling operations are begun until they are completed.
Exceptions:
1. For underwing refueling, the person stationed at the point of fuel intake is not
required.
2. For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the fuel pumping equipment shall
not be required when the person at the fuel dispensing device is within 75 feet (22
800 mm) of the emergency shutoff device, is not on the wing of the aircraft and has
a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping equipment; and, the fuel
dispensing line does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length.
1106.5.4.1 Monitoring during fueling. The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of
the fueling equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure fueling or shall
monitor the fill port during overwing fueling.
1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff controls and procedures shall comply
with the requirements of Sections 1106.6.1 through 1106.6.4.
1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls shall be readily accessible at all
times when the fueling system is being operated.
1106.6.2 Notification of the department. The owner or operator of the aviation facility shall
establish a procedure by which the department will be notified in the event of an emergency
involving the activation of an emergency fuel shutoff control.
1106.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of normal fuel flow, the cause of
emergency fuel shutoff conditions shall be determined and corrected.
1106.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be operationally tested at intervals
not exceeding three months. The fueling-system operator shall maintain suitable records of
these tests. These records shall be maintained on the premises and made available for
inspection by any representative of the department.
1106.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall
be properly placed on the approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the top
decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is provided for security and protection of such
equipment. Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part of the fueling vehicle,
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except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer hose shall not be dragged when a fueling vehicle is
moved from one fueling position to another.
1106.8 Loading and unloading of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be
loaded only at an approved loading rack, except that aircraft-fueling vehicles may be loaded
from the fuel tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations. Such loading racks shall be in
accordance with Chapter 34.
1106.8.1 Unloading of aircraft-fueling vehicles. The fuel cargo of such vehicles shall be
unloaded only by approved transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, approved
underground storage tanks or approved aboveground storage tanks.
1106.9 Passengers. Passenger traffic is not allowed during the time that fuel transfer operations
are in progress.
1106.10 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to smoke, or light or maintain an open flame,
within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any location where fuel is being transferred. Electrical and motordriven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected from an aircraft at any time fueling
operations are in progress on such aircraft.
1106.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures. Fuel spill prevention and the procedures for
handling spills shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1106.11.1 through 1106.11.7.
1106.11.1 Fueling equipment maintenance. Aircraft fueling equipment shall be maintained
and kept free from leaks. Fueling equipment that malfunctions or leaks shall be immediately
defueled, removed from service and properly repaired or disposed of.
1106.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be carried utilizing appropriate
handles. Dragging fuel nozzles along the ground is prohibited.
1106.11.3 Drum fueling. Fueling from drums or other containers is prohibited.
1106.11.4 Fuel spill procedures. The owner or operator of the aviation facility shall
establish comprehensive procedures to implement in the event of a fuel spill, which shall
include the following actions:
1. Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling operator shall immediately stop
the delivery of fuel by releasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control valve.
2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued spillage of fuel shall be cause for
the activation of the appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device.
3. A supervisor shall respond to the fuel spill area immediately.
1106.11.5 Notification of the department. The department shall be notified of any fuel spill
which is considered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or more of the
following criteria:
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1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet (3048 mm).
2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m2).
3. The release of fuel is continuing.
1106.11.6 Investigation required. An investigation shall be conducted by the owner or
operator of the aviation facility into the cause of all spills requiring notification of the
department, the response thereto by the persons in charge of the aircraft fueling operation and
other aviation facility personnel. Should it be determined that corrective measures are
necessary to prevent future incidents of the same nature, such measures shall be implemented
in a timely manner.
1106.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles. Simultaneous delivery of fuel from more than
one aircraft-fueling vehicle to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless proper
backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent fuel flow into the aircraft-fueling
vehicles.
1106.12 Aircraft engines and heaters. Aircraft onboard engines and combustion heaters shall
be shut down prior to commencing fueling operations and shall remain off until the fueling
operation is completed.
Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed to be operated with the onboard
engine running during fueling operations where all of the following conditions are met:
1. The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard failure of the aircraft’s auxiliary
power unit.
2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by ground support services is not
available.
3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the aircraft or on the opposite side of
the aircraft from the fueling operations.
4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a written procedure approved by the
commissioner.
1106.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions. During aircraft-fueling operations, only aircraftfueling vehicles or other equipment actively involved in the fueling operation are allowed within
50 feet (15 240 mm) of the aircraft being fueled. Other aircraft-fueling vehicles or equipment are
prohibited in this area until the fueling operation is complete.
Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing single-point refueling with a sealed,
mechanically locked fuel line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liquid.
1106.13.1 Overwing fueling. Vehicles or equipment shall not be allowed beneath the trailing
edge of the wing when aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft fuel-system
vents are located on the upper surface of the wing.
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1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, including but not limited to, battery
chargers, ground or auxiliary power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, nor
shall they be connected or disconnected from their power source, during fueling operations.
1106.14.1 Other equipment. Electrical or other spark-producing equipment shall not be
used within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill areas
unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and approved for use in an explosive atmosphere.
1106.15 Reserved.
1106.16 Lightning. The commissioner may require the owner or operator of an aviation facility
to establish criteria for the suspension and resumption of aircraft-fueling operations and other
written procedures to implement in the event of lightning flashes at or near the aviation facility.
1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft-fueling operations shall be prohibited indoors.
Exception: In aircraft hangars designed in accordance with the Building Code for Group F-1
occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are allowed where:
1. Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system maintenance operations. Such operations
shall be performed in accordance with nationally recognized standards; or
2. The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 100°F (37.8°C).
1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall be positioned such that any fuel
system vents and other fuel tank openings are a minimum of:
1. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or structures other than jet bridges; and
2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for boiler, heater or incinerator rooms.
1106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for fire service equipment to aircraft shall be
maintained during aircraft-fueling operations.
1106.18 Defueling operations. The requirements for aircraft-fueling operations contained in this
section shall also apply to aircraft-defueling operations. Additional procedures shall be
established by the owner or operator of the aviation facility to prevent overfilling of the cargo
tank or other vehicle used in the defueling operation.
1106.19 Maintenance of aircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fueling hoses shall be maintained in
accordance with Sections 1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4.
1106.19.1 Inspections. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft shall be inspected periodically to
ensure their serviceability and suitability for continued service. The owner or operator of the
aviation facility shall maintain records of all inspections and tests performed on fueling
hoses.
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1106.19.1.1 Daily inspection. Hoses shall be inspected daily. This inspection shall
include a complete visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blistering or
leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for evidence of leaks, slippage or
misalignment.
1106.19.1.2 Monthly inspection. A more thorough inspection, including pressure
testing, shall be performed on each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection shall include
examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen for rubber particles, which may indicate
deterioration of the hose lining.
1106.19.2 Damaged hose. Hose that has been damaged shall be immediately removed from
service.
1106.19.3 Repairing hose. Hoses are allowed to be repaired by removing the damaged
portion and recoupling the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only couplings designed
and approved for the size and type of hose in question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this
manner shall be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to being placed back in
service.
1106.19.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected prior to being placed into service.
1106.20 Aircraft-fueling vehicles parking. Unattended aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be parked
in areas that provide for both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in the event of an
emergency and the control of leakage such that adjacent buildings and storm drains are not
contaminated by leaking fuel.
1106.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be designed
and utilized such that a clearance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked
vehicle for department access. In addition, a minimum clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm)
shall be maintained between aircraft-fueling vehicles and parked aircraft and structures other
than those used for the maintenance of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles
shall not be stored in a building or structure.
1106.21 Radar equipment. Aircraft-fueling operations shall be prohibited while the weathermapping radar of that aircraft is operating. Aircraft-fueling or other operations in which
flammable liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be conducted within 300 feet (91
440 mm) of an operating aircraft surveillance radar. Aircraft-fueling operations shall not be
conducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveillance radar equipment.
Aircraft-fueling or other operations in which flammable liquids, vapors or mists may be present
shall not be conducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic surveillance radar
equipment.
1106.21.1 Direction of radar beams. The beam from ground radar equipment shall not be
directed toward fuel storage or loading racks.
Exceptions:
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1. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 feet (91 440mm) from airport flight
traffic surveillance equipment.
2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 feet (30 480 mm) from airport
ground traffic surveillance equipment.
SECTION FC 1107
HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS
1107.1 General. Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in accordance with this section.
Helistops and heliports on buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Building Code.
1107.2 Clearances. The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having
minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet (1524
mm). The clear area shall be maintained.
1107.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage. Landing areas on buildings or
structures shall be maintained so as to confine flammable or Class II combustible liquid spillage
to the landing area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from exits or
stairways serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway.
1107.4 Exits. Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
1107.5 Standpipe systems. Where a building with a rooftop helistop or heliport is equipped with
a standpipe system, the system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop or
heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport area shall be within 150 feet (45 720
mm) of a standpipe system outlet connection.
1107.6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities shall be provided for rooftop
heliports as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code. Such systems shall
be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
1107.6.1 Initial foam fire extinguishing system test. Upon installation, a foam fire
extinguishing system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9. The test shall be
conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her representative before a representative of the
department.
1107.6.2 Periodic foam fire extinguishing system test. The foam fire extinguishing system
shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. Additionally, the
foam fire extinguishing system shall be tested at least once every two years, as required in
Section 3406.4.10.7.
1107.7 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher having a
minimum 80-B:C rating shall be provided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for
the aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance of these portable fire
extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906.
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1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from helistops and heliports, approval
shall be obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration and any other federal, state or city
authority having jurisdiction.
SECTION FC 1108
SEAPLANE BASE OPERATIONS
1108.1 General. Seaplane bases shall be operated in accordance with this section.
1108.2 Hours of operation. Seaplane bases shall be operated during daylight hours only, under
visual flight rules, and shall be further restricted to the hours of 8 am through 8 pm, Monday
through Friday, except as authorized by the commissioner.
1108.3 Arrival and departure notification. Aircraft arriving at or departing from a seaplane
base shall make such notifications prior to such arriving or departing as the commissioner may
require.
1108.4 Emergency procedures manual. The permit holder shall prepare an emergency
procedures manual and obtain the approval of the department and the mayor’s office of
emergency management for such manual prior to commencing a seaplane base operation. An
approved copy of the manual shall be maintained at the seaplane base facility at an approved
location.
SECTION FC 1109
HELICOPTER LANDING OPERATIONS
1109.1 General. Helicopter landing operations, at other than an approved heliport or helistop,
shall be conducted in accordance with this section.
1109.2 Permit application. The owner or operator of the helicopter conducting the helicopter
landing operation shall make a permit application to the department at least 20 days prior to the
proposed landing. The permit applications shall be on such form and include such information
and documentation as the commissioner may require, including the following:
1. A site map of the area in which the helicopter landing operation is proposed to be
conducted.
2. Proof of a liability and casualty insurance policy in an amount to be determined by the
commissioner but not less than two million dollars. Such insurance policy shall cover the
permit holder and the permit holder’s employees, agents and contractors for any loss,
damage or injury to persons or property by reason of the conduct of the helicopter landing
operation, or the failure to comply with any requirement of this chapter or the rules, or the
terms and conditions of the permit.
3. A copy of the pilot’s license issued by the Federal Aviation Administration.
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4. A copy of the aircraft’s airworthiness certificate issued by the Federal Aviation
Administration.
5. An affidavit of the property owner authorizing the helicopter landing operation on their
property.
1109.3 Required clearances. The location at which the helicopter landing operations are to be
conducted is subject to the approval of the department. The commissioner may specify the open
space clearances to be provided.
SECTION FC 1110
HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATIONS
1110.1 General. Helicopter lift operations shall be conducted in accordance with this section.
1110.1.1 Department of Buildings approval. Helicopter lift operations shall not be
conducted except when the commissioner of buildings has authorized such operation.
1110.2 Permit application. The owner or operator of the helicopter used to conduct the lift
operation shall make application to the department for a permit at least 20 days prior to the
proposed lift operation. The permit application shall be on such form and include such
information and documentation as the commissioner may require, including the following:
1. A site map of the area in which the lifting operation is proposed to be conducted.
2. Proof of a liability and casualty insurance policy in an amount to be determined by the
commissioner but not less than five million dollars. Such insurance policy shall cover the
permit holder and the permit holder’s employees, agents and contractors from any loss,
damage or injury to persons or property by reason of the conduct of the lift operation, or
the failure to comply with any requirement of this chapter or the rules, or the terms and
conditions of the permit.
3. A copy of the pilot’s license issued by the Federal Aviation Administration.
4. A copy of the aircraft’s airworthiness certificate issued by the Federal Aviation
Administration.
5.An affidavit of the property owner authorizing the helicopter lift operation on their
property.
1110.3 Helicopter fueling. It shall be unlawful to fuel helicopters in the staging or discharge
area.
1110.3.1 Portable fuel tanks. Portable fuel tanks or drums within or on the exterior of the
helicopter are prohibited. Auxiliary fuel storage tanks may be used provided they are an
integral part of the aircraft's fuel system and of a type meeting the requirements of the
Federal Aviation Administration.
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1110.4 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of a fuel storage
area or fueling operation. It shall be unlawful to smoke within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the
helicopter staging area or discharge area while lift operations are being conducted.
1110.5 Staging and discharge areas. The location of the staging and discharge areas, and their
distance from any buildings or other impediments to flight, shall be subject to the approval of the
commissioner, and shall be arranged and operated as set forth in Sections 1110.5.1 and 1110.5.2.
1110.5.1 Emergency access. Entrances to and exits from any premises or other location
wherein lifting operations are being conducted shall be safeguarded in accordance with
applicable laws, rules and regulations, but shall not be obstructed in a manner that prevents
access or egress in the event of an emergency.
1110.5.2 Restricted locations. Bulk plants or terminals or other premises where hazardous
operations or occupancies are maintained shall not be used as a staging area or discharge area
unless approved by the commissioner.
1110.6 Fire protection. An adequate supply of water shall be provided at the location where
lifting operations are conducted. When the discharge area or other area of the lifting operation
requires the use of a fire pump or other auxiliary equipment to augment the water supply, such
equipment shall be under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder.
1110.6.1 Foam protection. An air foam nozzle, pick-up tube and a minimum of 5 gallons
(19 L) of foam, suitable for the fuel hazard presented, shall be available on site.
1110.6.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Both the staging area and discharge area shall be
provided with a minimum of 2 portable fire extinguishers each having a minimum 80-B:C
rating.
1110.6.3 Department monitoring. Lift operations permitted pursuant to this section may be
monitored by representatives of the department to ensure compliance with the requirements
of this chapter and the rules. Such representatives shall be allowed within the perimeter of the
lift operation for such purpose.
1110.7 Communication. Radio and/or other two-way wireless communication shall be
maintained between the helicopter pilot and the ground at all times during the lift operation. The
department representatives monitoring the lifting operation shall be provided with the ability to
monitor such communications.
1110.8 Discontinuance. Department representatives may temporarily suspend or cancel any
lifting operation if, in their judgment, conditions exist that endanger public safety.
SECTION FC 1111
HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATIONS
1111.1 General. Hot air balloon operations shall be conducted in accordance with this section.
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1111.1.1 Storage, handling and use of flammable gas. The storage, handling and use of
LPG or other flammable gas for hot air balloon operations shall additionally be conducted in
accordance with Chapter 35 and 38, as applicable, and the rules.
1111.2 Permit application. The owner or operator of the hot air balloon, or in the case of an
event involving multiple owners or operators of hot air balloons, the sponsor of such event, shall
make application to the department for a permit at least 20 days prior to any anticipated or
scheduled operation. Permit applications shall be on such form and include such information and
documentation as the commissioner may require, including the following:
1. A site map of the area in which the hot air balloon operation is proposed to be conducted.
2. Proof of a liability and casualty insurance policy in an amount to be determined by the
commissioner but not less than two million dollars. Such insurance policy shall cover the
permit holder and the permit holder’s employees, agents and contractors from any loss,
damage or injury to persons or property by reason of the conduct of the lifting operation, or
the failure to comply with any requirement of this chapter or the rules, or the terms and
conditions of the permit.
3. A copy of the pilot’s license issued by the Federal Aviation Administration.
4. A copy of the aircraft’s airworthiness certificate issued by the Federal Aviation
Administration.
5. An affidavit of the property owner authorizing the hot air balloon operation on their
property.
6. All information and documentation required for issuance of a permit for LPG storage,
handling and use in connection with the hot air balloon operation pursuant to Chapter 38
and the rules.
1111.3 Required clearances. The location at which hot air balloon operations are to be
conducted are subject to the approval of the department, provided, however, that a balloon shall
not be secured or filled unless there is at least 150 feet (45 720 mm) of open space in all
directions when measured from the center of the balloon.
1111.4 Securing of balloons. Balloons shall have at least a three-point tie down to substantially
immovable objects.
1111.5 Weather conditions. Hot air balloon operations shall be conducted only under weather
conditions conducive to such operation and in no circumstance when prevailing winds exceed 15
miles (24.135 km) per hour.
1111.6 Discontinuance. Department representatives may temporarily suspend or cancel any hot
air balloon operation if, in their judgment, conditions exist that endanger public safety.
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CHAPTER 12
DRY CLEANING
SECTION FC 1201
GENERAL
1201.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the installation, operation and maintenance of dry
cleaning facilities.
1201.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1201.3 General. Dry cleaning facilities shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in
accordance with this chapter.
1201.4 Supervision. Dry cleaning facilities using Class II or III solvents in dry cleaning systems
shall be under the general supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. Such certificate of fitness
holder shall be an employee of the dry cleaning facility. The certificate of fitness holder shall
monitor the equipment and facilities, ensure that the equipment and facilities are operated and
maintained in accordance with this section, and instruct all employees who use or supervise the
use of equipment in the proper operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Exception. Dry cleaning facilities may be operated under the general supervision of a person
who is not an employee of the dry cleaning facility, provided that such person:
1. Holds a certificate of fitness.
2. Is an authorized representative of the manufacturer of the dry cleaning equipment, and
provides the owner of the dry cleaning facility with appropriate proof of such authority.
3. Instructs all employees of the dry cleaning facility who use or supervise the use of the
equipment in the proper operation and maintenance of the equipment.
4. Personally conducts a monthly inspection of the equipment and facility to ensure that
they are being operated and maintained in accordance with this section.
5. Records each monthly inspection in a logbook maintained on the premises by the
owner of the dry cleaning facility, by making the following entries: the date of the
inspection, the name, address, and certificate of fitness number and expiration date of
the person conducting the inspection and the certification that the equipment and
facility are being operating and maintained in accordance with this section.
1201.4.1 Proof of qualification. Photocopies of the certificates of fitness of all persons
responsible for the supervision of a dry cleaning facility, and of the proof that such person is
an authorized representative of the manufacturer, where applicable, shall be maintained on
the premises and made available for inspection by any representative of the department.
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SECTION FC 1202
DEFINITIONS
1202.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt and stains or otherwise cleaning apparel,
textiles, rugs and other items with nonaqueous liquid solvents.
DRY CLEANING FACILITY. A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are
conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms.
DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a building used for dry cleaning, the
installation, storage and/or use of dry cleaning equipment and/or the storage of dry cleaning
solvents.
DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Equipment used to perform dry cleaning, including immersion or
agitation in solvent of the items to be cleaned, and the extraction of solvent from such items.
SECTION FC 1203
CLASSIFICATIONS
1203.1 Dry cleaning solvent classifications. Dry cleaning solvents shall be classified according
to their flash points as follows:
1. Class I solvents are flammable liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).
2. Class II solvents are combustible liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and
below 140°F (60°C).
3. Class IIIA solvents are combustible liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C)
and below 200°F (93°C).
4. Class IIIB solvents are combustible liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
5. Class IV solvents are liquids that are neither flammable nor combustible.
1203.2 Classification of dry cleaning systems and facilities. Dry cleaning systems shall be
classified based on the use of solvents as follows:
1. Type I—systems using Class I solvents.
2. Type II—systems using Class II solvents.
3. Type III-A—systems using Class IIIA solvents.
4. Type III-B—systems using Class IIIB solvents.
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5. Type IV—systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is not conducted by the
public.
6. Type V—systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is conducted by the
public.
1203.2.1 Multiple solvents. Dry cleaning facilities using more than one class of dry cleaning
system shall be classified based on the numerically lowest type of system.
1203.2.2 Spotting and pretreating operations. Spotting and pretreating operations
conducted in accordance with Section 1206 shall not affect the classification of the dry
cleaning system or facility.
1203.3 Design. Dry cleaning facilities shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code, and located in accordance with the Zoning
Resolution, including Sections 32-15(A) and 32-25(D).
SECTION FC 1204
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1204.1 Prohibited dry cleaning systems. It shall be unlawful to install, operate or maintain a
Type I dry cleaning system.
1204.1.1 Allowed use of Class I solvents. Class I solvents stored, handled and used in the
amounts authorized by Section 1206 are allowed in dry cleaning facilities.
1204.2 Building services and systems. Building services and systems shall be designed,
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this section, Chapter 6 and the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the construction
codes, including Section 502 of the Mechanical Code, and United States Department of
Labor regulations, as set forth in 29 CFR Section 1910.1000, as applicable.
1204.2.2 Heating. In Type II dry cleaning facilities, heating shall be by indirect means using
steam or hot water.
1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment in dry cleaning
rooms or other portions of the facility exposed to flammable vapors shall be installed in
accordance with the Electrical Code.
1204.2.4 Bonding and grounding. Storage tanks, treatment tanks, filters, pumps, piping,
ducts, dry cleaning units, stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other dry cleaning equipment,
where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be bonded together and grounded. Isolated
equipment shall be grounded.
1204.2.5 Smoking prohibited. It shall be unlawful to smoke in a dry cleaning facility. “NO
SMOKING” signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.
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SECTION FC 1205
OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
1205.1 General. Dry cleaning systems shall be operated and maintained in compliance with the
requirements of this section, the manufacturer’s specifications and the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
1205.1.1 Written instructions. The manufacturer’s manuals for the installation, operation
and maintenance of the equipment shall be maintained on the premises and made available
for inspection by any representative of the department.
1205.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems. Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry
cleaning systems shall be operated in accordance with the instructions provided by the
manufacturer. The owner shall ensure that all persons operating dry cleaning equipment
comply with such instructions.
1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for customer use of Type V dry
cleaning systems shall be conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning
equipment. A telephone number shall be provided for emergency assistance.
1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer shall permanently affix to dry
cleaning equipment nameplates indicating the class of solvent for which each piece of
equipment is designed. The name of the dry cleaning solvent approved for use in dry
cleaning equipment shall be clearly and conspicuously marked or posted at the fill
connection of the equipment.
1205.1.3 Prohibited operations. It shall be unlawful to dry clean by immersion and agitation
in open systems.
1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. Only solvents of a type listed for a particular piece of
equipment shall be used in that equipment.
1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. Proper operating practices and
maintenance shall be observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the accumulation
of lint. The handling of waste generated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of
facilities shall comply with the requirements of this section.
1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and II liquids as defined in Section 3402 shall not be used for
cleaning floors.
1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other waste containing solvent shall be stored in
covered metal containers and disposed of lawfully.
1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and other waste shall be removed from traps daily, deposited in
approved waste cans and disposed of lawfully. Lint traps shall remain in place while the
dry cleaning equipment is in operation.
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1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning systems, customer areas shall be
kept free of rubbish and other combustible waste.
1205.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning systems shall be operated in accordance with the
following additional requirements.
1205.2.1 Inspection of items. Items to be dry cleaned shall be searched thoroughly, and
foreign materials, including matches and metallic substances, shall be removed.
1205.2.2 Transfer. In removing dry cleaned items from the washer, provision shall be made
to minimize the dripping of solvent onto the floor. Where items are transferred from a washer
to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron shall be placed so that the apron rests on the
drain tub and the cylinder of the washer.
1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall be installed in dry cleaning
rooms and in drying rooms in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry cleaning
equipment is in operation and shall have manual controls at an approved location.
1205.3 Type III, IV and V systems. Type III, IV and V dry cleaning systems shall be provided
with an automatically activated exhaust ventilation system as required and in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
1205.4 Periodic inspection and testing. All dry cleaning equipment using Class II or III
solvents shall be inspected and tested on at least an annual basis. The owner of the dry cleaning
facility shall remove from service any equipment that is found to be defective, and shall
promptly repair such equipment or remove it from the premises. Such equipment shall not be
returned to service until it has been inspected and tested. All such inspection and testing shall be
performed by a person holding a certificate of fitness.
1205.4.1 Inspection reports. The individual performing the inspection and testing of
equipment shall prepare a written report identifying any defects in the condition and
operation of the equipment and/or certifying that the equipment can be safely operated in
accordance with this chapter. A certification that all equipment in service is in proper
working order in accordance with this chapter shall be maintained on the premises for 3 years
and made available for inspection by any representative of the department.
1205.5 Filling and emptying. The filling and emptying of dry cleaning equipment with Class II
or III solvents shall be performed by a certificate of fitness holder. Each filling and emptying of
dry cleaning equipment with a Class II or III solvent shall be recorded in a logbook. Such records
shall include the date of the filling or emptying, the type and amount of dry cleaning solvent, the
equipment filled or emptied, and the name and certificate number of the certificate of fitness
holder who performed the filling or emptying. The records shall be maintained on the premises
for 3 years and made available for inspection by any representative of the department.
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SECTION FC 1206
SPOTTING AND PRETREATING
1206.1 General. The storage, handling and use of dry cleaning solvents for spotting and
pretreating operations in any dry cleaning facility shall comply with the requirements of this
section, based on the classification of the solvent.
1206.2 Class I solvents. The maximum quantity of Class I solvents allowed at any dry cleaning
facility shall be 1 gallon (4 L). Class I solvents shall be stored in approved metal containers or
safety cans of not more than 2 quarts (2 L) capacity.
1206.3 Class II and III solvents. Spotting and pretreating, including scouring and brushing,
shall be conducted with Class II or III solvents. The maximum quantity of Class II or III solvents
allowed at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In an occupancy other than a Group H-2
occupancy, the aggregate quantities of solvents shall not exceed the maximum allowable
quantity per control area for use-open systems.
1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting tables on which items are soaked in
solvent shall have a liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch (25 mm)
high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure thorough draining to a 1.5-inch (38 mm)
drain connected to an approved container.
1206.3.2 Special handling. Items that may be damaged from being washed in the washing
equipment may be manually cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs shall comply with the
following requirements:
1. Only Class II or III liquids shall be used.
2. The total amount of solvent used in such tubs shall not exceed 3 gallons (11 L).
3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor.
4. Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 1.5- inch (38 mm) drains. Such
drains shall be provided with a trap and shall be connected to an approved container.
1206.3.3 Ventilation. Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing or spotting operations shall be
located such that solvent vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating system.
1206.3.4 Bonding and grounding. Metal scouring, brushing and spotting tables and
scrubbing tubs shall be permanently and effectively bonded and grounded.
1206.4 Reserved.
1206.5 Prohibited spotting and pretreating operation. It shall be unlawful to store, handle or
use any Class I, Class II or Class III solvent for spotting or pretreating operations in any Type V
dry cleaning facility or in connection with the use of any Type V dry cleaning system.
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SECTION FC 1207
DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS
1207.1 General equipment requirements. Dry cleaning systems, including dry cleaning units,
washing equipment, stills, drying cabinets, tumblers, and their appurtenances, including pumps,
piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained
in accordance with NFPA 32, the manufacturer’s specifications, and the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank storage rooms shall not be
located below grade or above the lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3.
Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in vaults or in special enclosures in
accordance with Chapter 34.
1207.2.1 Firefighting access. Type II dry cleaning facilities shall be located so that access is
provided and maintained from at least one side for firefighting and fire control purposes in
accordance with Section 503 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1207.2.2 Means of egress. Type II dry cleaning rooms shall have not less than two means of
egress through doors located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which shall lead
directly to the outdoors.
1207.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment. Curbs, drains, or other provisions for
spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.2
to collect solvent leakage and fire protection water and direct it to a safe location.
1207.3 Solvent storage tanks. Solvent storage tanks for Class II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall
conform to the requirements of Chapter 34 and be located underground, or outdoors,
aboveground.
Exception: Indoor storage tanks in compliance with the requirements of NFPA 32 and
Chapter 34.
SECTION FC 1208
FIRE PROTECTION
1208.1 General. Where required by this section, fire protection devices, equipment and systems
shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
1208.2 Sprinkler system. Dry cleaning facilities containing Type II, Type III-A or Type III-B
dry cleaning systems shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
1208.3 Fire extinguishing systems. Type II dry cleaning systems in Type II dry cleaning
facilities shall be protected by a fire extinguishing system.
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1208.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided and maintained
in accordance with this section and Section 906. A minimum of two 2-A:10-B:C portable fire
extinguishers shall be provided near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II,
Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems.
CHAPTER 13
COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS
SECTION FC 1301
GENERAL
1301.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern combustible dust-producing operations, and the
equipment and processes utilized in connection with such operations in order to minimize and
mitigate dust explosion hazards.
1301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1301.3 General. Combustible dust-producing operations shall be conducted in accordance with
this chapter. All devices, equipment, systems and processes utilized in connection with such
operations shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter.
SECTION FC 1302
DEFINITIONS
1302.1 Definition. The following term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or less in diameter,
will pass through a U.S. standard No. 40 sieve and, when dispersed in air in sufficient
concentrations, can be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition.
SECTION FC 1303
PRECAUTIONS
1303.1 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to smoke, or use heating or other devices
employing an open flame or spark-producing equipment, in areas where combustible dust is
generated, processed or otherwise stored, handled or used.
1303.2 Housekeeping. Accumulation of combustible dust shall be kept to a minimum indoors.
Accumulated combustible dust shall be collected by vacuum cleaning or other means that will
not place combustible dust into suspension in air. Forced air or similar methods shall not be used
to remove dust from surfaces.
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SECTION FC 1304
EXPLOSION PROTECTION
1304.1 Standards. Prevention and control of dust explosions shall be in compliance with the
applicable operation and maintenance requirements of the codes and standards listed in Table
1304.1.
STANDARD
NFPA 61
NFPA 69
NFPA 85
NFPA 120
NFPA 484
NFPA 654
NFPA 655
Electrical Code
TABLE 1304.1
EXPLOSION PROTECTION STANDARDS
SUBJECT
Agriculture and Food Products
Explosion Prevention
Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards
Coal Preparation Plants
Standard for Combustible Metals, Metal Powders, and Metal
Dusts
Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical and Plastics
Sulfur
Electrical Installations
CHAPTER 14
FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION, ALTERATION AND DEMOLITION
SECTION FC 1401
GENERAL
1401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern fire safety measures during the construction, alteration,
or demolition of buildings, structures, premises and facilities.
1401.2 General. Buildings, structures, premises and facilities undergoing construction, alteration
or demolition shall comply with the fire safety measures set forth in this chapter, and shall
additionally comply with the requirements of NFPA 241 as to measures not specifically
addressed herein.
1401.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1401.4 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful at a construction site to store, handle or use portable
fueled heating devices or equipment:
1. For purposes of human comfort or any other purpose other than construction-related curing
and drying.
2. Utilizing a flammable liquid as a fuel.
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SECTION FC 1402
DEFINITIONS
1402.1 Definitions. The following term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
CONSTRUCTION SITE. Any location at which a building, structure, premises or facility is
undergoing construction, alteration or demolition.
SECTION FC 1403
PORTABLE FUELED SPACE HEATERS
1403.1 Design. Portable fueled space heaters shall be designed, listed and labeled in accordance
with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code, and
standards promulgated by the commissioner by rule, as applicable. Portable fueled space heaters
shall be installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter, the terms of the
listing, and manufacturer's specifications.
1403.2 Portable oil-fueled heaters. Portable oil-fueled space heaters may be used at
construction sites for construction-related curing and drying purposes. Such heaters shall be
stored, handled and used in accordance with the rules.
1403.3 Portable gas-fueled heaters. Portable gas-fueled space heaters utilizing liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and piped natural gas may be used at
construction sites for construction-related curing and drying purposes. Such heaters shall be
stored, handled and used in accordance with the rules.
1403.4 Refueling. Refueling operations shall be conducted in accordance with Section 3405.
Portable fueled space heaters shall be shut down and cool to the touch before refueling.
1403.5 Installation. Clearance to combustibles from portable fueled space heaters shall be
maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. When in operation, portable
fueled space heaters shall be fixed in place and protected from overturning, movement or
damage in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
1403.5.1 Protection of heating element. The heating element or combustion chamber shall
have a permanent device to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
1403.6 Supervision. The handling and use of portable fueled space heaters shall be under the
personal supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness. The storage of portable fueled
space heaters, and the fuel therefore, shall be under the general supervision of a certificate of
fitness holder.
SECTION FC 1404
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE
1404.1 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited at all construction sites. Signs shall be posted in
accordance with Section 310.
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1404.2 Waste disposal. Combustible waste, including rubbish and construction and demolition
material, shall not be accumulated within buildings and shall be removed from buildings at the
end of each work shift, but at least once a day. Combustible waste, including rubbish and
construction and demolition material, shall be removed from the premises or stored in
noncombustible containers.
1404.3 Open fires. It shall be unlawful to ignite or maintain an open fire at a construction site.
1404.4 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags,
shall be stored in a container listed for such use.
1404.5 Fire watch. The commissioner may require, for demolition operations that are hazardous
in nature, that persons holding a certificate of fitness as fire guard be provided to serve as an onsite fire watch. Fire guard personnel shall be provided with at least one approved means for
notification of the department and their sole duty shall be to perform constant patrols and watch
for the occurrence of fire.
1404.6 Cutting and welding. Operations involving the use of cutting and welding shall be
performed in accordance with Chapter 26.
1404.7 Electrical. Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations at
construction sites shall comply with the requirements of the Electrical Code.
SECTION FC 1405
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
1405.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids. Storage of flammable and combustible
liquids shall be in accordance with Section 3404.
1405.2 Class I and Class II liquids. The storage, handling and use of flammable and
combustible liquids at construction sites shall be in accordance with Section 3406.2. Adequate
ventilation shall be provided for operations involving the application of materials containing
flammable solvents.
1405.3 Housekeeping. Flammable and combustible liquid storage areas shall be maintained
clear of vegetation and combustible waste. Such storage areas shall not be used for the storage of
combustible materials.
1405.4 Precautions against fire. Sources of ignition and smoking shall be prohibited in
flammable and combustible liquid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with
Section 310.
1405.5 Handling at point of final use. Class I and II liquids shall be stored in approved safety
containers.
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1405.6 Leakage and spills. Leaking containers shall be immediately repaired or taken out of
service. Spills shall be cleaned up immediately and all liquid and waste material disposed of
lawfully.
SECTION FC 1406
FLAMMABLE GASES AND OXYGEN
1406.1 Flammable gases. The storage, handling and use of flammable gases shall comply with
the requirements of Chapters 26, 35 and 38, as applicable.
1406.2 Oxygen. The storage, handling and use of oxygen shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 1406.2.1 through 1406.2.3, and Chapters 26 and 30, as applicable.
1406.2.1 Portable liquid oxygen containers. The storage, handling and use of portable
liquid oxygen containers shall be in accordance with Sections 1406.2.1.1 through 1406.2.1.9.
1406.2.1.1 Design and installation documents. A sketch showing the following
information shall be submitted to the department for approval in connection with an
application for a permit for oxygen storage.
1. Number and size of containers.
2. Enclosure, manifold and service piping construction.
3. Location of risers and outlets.
4. Location of all equipment and devices including vaporizers, valves and safety relief
devices.
1406.2.1.2 Indoor storage restrictions. Not more than one liquid oxygen container
having a maximum water capacity of 6.2 cubic feet (0.176 m3) may be installed indoors.
Such container shall be connected for use with a flammable gas. Storage in excess of one
liquid oxygen container shall be located outdoors.
1406.2.1.3 Ventilation. The room used for the storage, handling and use of a liquid
oxygen container shall be equipped with ventilation direct to the outdoors, and shall not
contain any combustible material or flammable gas.
1406.2.1.4 Manifolds and vaporizers. Manifolds and vaporizers shall be constructed of
materials suitable for oxygen service at a pressure of 250 psig (1724 kPa). Such
manifolds and vaporizers shall have a minimum bursting pressure of 1,000 psig (6895
kPa) and shall be protected with safety relief devices which will relieve at or below 500
psig (3448 kPa).
1406.2.1.4.1 Test. The assembled vaporizer and manifold shall be pressure tested at
500 psig (3448 kPa) with an oil free and non-flammable material as the testing
medium.
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1406.2.1.5 Service piping from the oxygen manifold. Service piping from the oxygen
manifold shall be copper tubing, stainless steel, wrought iron or steel, and shall run
vertically outside the building to the floor or floors being serviced, where outlets may be
provided for hose connections to approved torches. The service piping shall be properly
secured, protected from damage from mechanical injury and properly labeled. Any
connection between service piping and the manifold shall be made using not more than 5
feet (1524 mm) of hose capable of withstanding pressure up to at least 1,000 psig (6895
kPa).
1406.2.1.5.1 Service pressure. Service piping shall be suitable for 250 psig (1724
kPa) service unless an intervening pressure regulator is provided at the manifold, and
shall withstand a test of two times the maximum operating pressure, using an oil free
and non-flammable material as the testing medium.
1406.2.1.6 Hose and connectors. Hose and connectors capable of withstanding pressure
up to at least 1,000 psig (6895 kPa) and of a design suitable for oxygen service at a
pressure of 250 psig (1724 kPa) shall be used to connect the outlets on the service piping
to the blowpipes. Hose shall be rejected for use if it shows excessive wear, loose
connections, leaks or burns; hose subjected to a flash back in use shall be tested to twice
the service pressure, but not less than 200 psig (1379 kPa), before being returned to
service.
1406.2.1.7 Signs. Signs shall be posted in the vicinity of liquid oxygen container storage
and use, reading: DANGER-LIQUID OXYGEN-NO SMOKING-NO OPEN FLAMES.
1406.2.1.8 Operating instructions. Legible operating instructions shall be posted near
any liquid oxygen manifold.
1406.2.1.9 Affidavit. An affidavit shall be provided by the installer and/or contractor to
certify that the vaporizer, valves, piping, hose and safety devices are of an approved type,
that they meet the specifications for bursting test and design pressure, and that they have
been satisfactorily tested in accordance with this section.
1406.2.2 Oxygen trailers. The storage and use of oxygen trailers shall be in accordance with
Sections 1406.2.2.1 through 1406.2.2.5.
1406.2.2.1 Design, construction, testing and maintenance. Oxygen trailer containers
shall be designed, constructed, tested and maintained in accordance with the United
States Department of Transportation specifications and regulations.
1406.2.2.2 Instructions. Legible operating instructions shall be posted in the trailer and
on or near any oxygen manifold used indoors.
1406.2.2.3 License plates. Oxygen trailers shall at all times have affixed to them a motor
vehicle license plate as issued in accordance with New York State or other applicable
motor vehicle license plate laws, rules or regulations.
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1406.2.2.4 Notification. The owner or operator of an oxygen trailer shall notify the
department, in writing, of the delivery of the trailer to a construction site, at least 48
hours in advance of such delivery. Such notification shall include:
1. Contractor's name, address and telephone number.
2. Location of the construction site.
3. Quantity and frequency of oxygen delivery to the construction site.
4. Expected duration of oxygen storage and use at the construction site.
1406.2.2.5 Oxygen trailers having a capacity exceeding 20,000 SCF (566 m3). The
distance between oxygen trailers having a total aggregate capacity exceeding 20,000 SCF
(566 m3) and exposures shall be in accordance with NFPA 50.
1406.2.3 Supervision. The handling and use of portable liquid oxygen containers and
oxygen trailers shall be under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. The
storage of liquid oxygen containers and oxygen trailers shall be under the general supervision
of a certificate of fitness holder.
SECTION FC 1407
EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
1407.1 Storage and handling. Explosive materials shall be stored, handled and used in
accordance with Section 1418 and Chapter 33.
1407.2 Blasting operations. Blasting operations shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter
33.
1407.3 Demolition using explosives. Fire hoses and nozzles for use by demolition personnel,
connected to an approved water supply under pressure, shall be provided and maintained at the
demolition site whenever explosives are used for demolition. Such fire hoses, nozzles and water
supply shall be available prior to explosives arriving at the site. Such fire hoses and nozzles shall
be capable of a continuous flow of 180 gallons (681 L) per minute with a minimum reach of 35
feet (10 668 mm) from the nozzle and be capable of being brought to bear anywhere on the
construction site. Hose shall be pressure tested to withstand at least 600 pounds per square inch
gauge (psig)(2413 kPa).
SECTION FC 1408
CONSTRUCTION SITE FIRE SAFETY MANAGER
1408.1 Fire safety manager. Where a site safety manager or site safety coordinator is required
by the Building Code, the owner shall designate a person to be the fire safety manager for the
construction site. The fire safety manager may be the site safety manager or site safety
coordinator required by the Building Code. The fire safety manager shall be responsible for
ensuring compliance with the requirements of this code, including this chapter, and the rules.
The fire safety manager shall conduct an inspection of the construction site and all fire safety
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measures on at least a daily basis, and maintain a record of same in a bound log book or other
approved system of recordkeeping. The log book or other approved recordkeeping shall be made
available for inspection by any representative of the department. Where fire watch service is
provided, the fire safety manager shall be responsible for the general supervision of the fire
guards.
1408.2 Pre-fire plans. The fire safety manager shall develop and maintain at the construction
site an approved pre-fire plan, and make it available for examination by any representative of the
department. The department shall be notified of any changes in site conditions materially
affecting the procedures set forth in such plan.
1408.3 Training. The fire safety manager shall ensure that construction site personnel are
acquainted with the operation of portable fire extinguishers and other fire protection equipment
on the construction site.
1408.4 Fire protection devices. The fire safety manager shall ensure that all fire protection
equipment and systems are readily available and periodically inspected and tested, and
maintained in accordance with this code, the rules and the Building Code.
1408.5 Hot work operations. The fire safety manager shall be responsible for supervising the
issuance of authorizations for hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 26.
1408.6 Impairment of fire protection systems. The fire safety manager or impairment
coordinator shall comply with the requirements of Section 901 in the event of impairment of any
fire protection system.
1408.7 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Coverings placed on or over fire
protection devices to protect them from damage during construction processes shall comply with
the requirements of Chapter 9 and shall be immediately removed upon the completion of the
construction processes in the room or area in which the devices are installed.
SECTION FC 1409
FIRE ALARM REPORTING
1409.1 Emergency telephone. A telephone not requiring a coin to operate, or other approved
clearly identified means to notify the department, shall be provided at an approved location. The
street address of the construction site and the emergency telephone number of the fire department
shall be posted adjacent to the telephone or other approved device.
SECTION FC 1410
ACCESS FOR FIREFIGHTING
1410.1 Required access. Approved vehicle access for fire apparatus shall be provided to all
construction sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of temporary
or permanent fire department connections. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary
or permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under all weather conditions. Vehicle
access shall be maintained until permanent fire apparatus access roads are available.
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1410.2 Key boxes. Key boxes shall be provided as required by Chapter 5 and the Building Code.
SECTION FC 1411
MEANS OF EGRESS AND ELEVATORS
1411.1 Stairways. Stairways at construction sites shall be provided, maintained, and made
available for department use in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building
Code.
1411.2 Maintenance. Required means of egress shall be maintained during construction,
alteration and demolition in accordance with this code and the Building Code.
1411.3 Elevators. Elevators at construction sites shall be provided, maintained, and made
available for department use in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building
Code.
SECTION FC 1412
WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION
1412.1 Water supply. An approved water supply for fire protection, either temporary or
permanent, shall be made available prior to hazardous materials or combustible material arriving
at the site. Any water source intended for firefighting operations, including standpipe outlets,
street hydrants and yard hydrants, shall not be used for construction, alteration or demolition
purposes, unless approved.
SECTION FC 1413
STANDPIPES
1413.1 Standpipe systems. Standpipe systems for use at construction sites shall be provided,
maintained, and made available for department use in accordance with this code, and the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
1413.2 Demolition operations. Where a building or structure with an existing standpipe system
is being demolished, such system shall be maintained for the use of the department in accordance
with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
SECTION FC 1414
SPRINKLER SYSTEM
1414.1 Sprinkler systems. Sprinkler systems for use at construction sites shall be provided,
maintained, and made available for department use, in accordance with this code, and the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
1414.2 Completion before occupancy. In buildings or structures where a sprinkler system is
required by this code or the construction codes, including the Building Code, it shall be unlawful
to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the sprinkler system installation has been
tested and approved.
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1414.3 Operation of valves. Sprinkler control valves shall be operated only by authorized
personnel. Such operation shall be under the general supervision of the fire safety manager
where one is required pursuant to Section 1408. When the sprinkler system valves are being
regularly closed and opened to facilitate connection of newly completed or disconnected
segments, the sprinkler control valves shall be inspected at the end of each work day to ascertain
that the system is in good working order.
SECTION FC 1415
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
1415.1 Where required. Buildings or structures under construction, alteration or demolition
shall be provided with not less than one approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with
Section 906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows:
1. At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible materials are being stored or
combustible waste is being generated.
2. At the entrance of each storage and construction shed.
3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided where flammable and combustible
liquids are stored, handled and used.
SECTION FC 1416
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION-POWERED EQUIPMENT
1416.1 Conditions of use. Internal-combustion-powered construction equipment shall be used in
accordance with the following requirements:
1. Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not discharge against combustible material.
2. Exhausts shall be piped to the outdoors.
3. Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation.
4. Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved outdoor area, and shall be moved in
approved containers not to exceed 5 gallons (19 L).
SECTION FC 1417
SAFEGUARDING ROOFING OPERATIONS
1417.1 General. Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing systems or other ignition sources
shall be performed by a competent person. Roofing operations involving hot work shall comply
with the requirements of Chapters 26, 35 and 38, as applicable.
1417.2 Tar kettles. Tar kettles shall be handled and used in accordance with Section 303.
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1417.3 Portable fire extinguishers for roofing operations. Portable fire extinguishers shall be
provided in accordance with Section 906. There shall be not less than one multi-purpose portable
fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A 40-B:C rating on the roof being covered or repaired.
1417.4 Prohibited operations. It shall be unlawful to install any roofing material using a torch
on a roof of combustible construction, or otherwise engage in roofing operations on roofs of
combustible construction using hot work equipment.
SECTION FC 1418
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION FOR POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS
1418.1 Storage, handling and use. Small arms ammunition shall be stored, handled and used
for powder-actuated tools at a construction site, as follows:
1. The main store of small arms ammunition shall be kept in a locked metal box interlined
with ½ inch (12.7 mm) of non-combustible insulating material.
2. The small arms ammunition storage box shall be kept away from heat and shall not be
stored in the same storage area or storage facility containing compressed gases or
flammable liquids.
3. The storage area or storage facility in which the locked metal small arms ammunition box
is stored shall bear a permanent sign bearing the words "DANGER-AMMUNITION" in 2inch (50.8-mm) white letters on a red background.
4. Powder-actuated tools shall not be used in an explosive atmosphere.
5. The certificate of fitness holder shall establish a safe zone behind a work area in which
powder-actuated tools are to be used by evacuating the area or placing a barrier constructed
of ½ inch (12.7 mm) steel plate.
6. At least one portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 2-A rating shall be provided in
the area where small arms ammunition is stored.
1418.1.1 Supervision. Powder-actuated tools utilizing small arms ammunition shall be used only
by a certificate of fitness holder. Small arms ammunition shall be handled only by a certificate of
fitness holder. Storage of small arms ammunition shall be under the general supervision of a
certificate of fitness holder.
CHAPTER 15
FLAMMABLE FINISHES
SECTION FC 1501
GENERAL
1501.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the following operations, and the design, installation,
operation and maintenance of any building, structure or premises wherein such operations are
conducted:
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1. The application of flammable or combustible paint, varnish, lacquer, stain, fiberglass
resins or other flammable or combustible liquid applied by means of spray apparatus in
continuous or intermittent processes.
2. Dip-tank operations in which articles or materials are passed through contents of tanks,
vats or containers of flammable or combustible liquids, including coating, finishing,
treatment and similar processes.
3. The application of combustible powders when applied by powder spray guns, electrostatic
powder spray guns, fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds.
4. Floor finishing operations.
5. The application of dual-component coatings or Class I or II liquids when applied by brush
or roller in quantities exceeding 1 gallon (4 L).
6. Spraying and dipping operations.
1501.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1501.3 General. Flammable finishing operations governed by this chapter shall be conducted in
accordance with this chapter. The buildings, structures and premises in which such flammable
finishing operations are conducted shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in
accordance with this chapter.
1501.4 Supervision. The following finishing operations shall be conducted by or under the
personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder:
1. Spray-finishing and dipping operations.
2. Floor finishing operations requiring a permit.
SECTION FC 1502
DEFINITIONS
1502.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or
coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field.
DIP TANK. A tank, vat or other container of flammable or combustible liquid in which articles
or materials are immersed for the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes.
ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is
aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material which is
electrically charged with a charge opposite to the charge of the object to be coated. Such object is
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transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order
to be coated.
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the material being applied is a
flammable liquid, combustible liquid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel
coatings.
FLOOR FINISHING OPERATION. Any activity involving the finishing of a floor, including
but not limited to cleaning, stripping, sealing, painting, varnishing, lacquering, staining and
waxing.
FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so
as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object
to be coated is immersed and transported.
LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which spraying operations for touch-up or spot
painting of a surface area are conducted.
RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced plastics are used to manufacture
products by hand lay-up or spray-fabrication methods.
ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and impregnating fabrics, paper or other
materials as they are passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or
combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving partially submerged in a flammable
or combustible liquid.
SPRAY AREA. A room or other area in which spraying operations are conducted that generate
flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits, including spray spaces, spray
booths, spray rooms, ducts exhausting from spraying processes, any area in the direct path of
spray, any area containing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, combustible residue,
dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result of spraying operations or other such areas approved for
spraying operations.
SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of varying dimensions and construction
provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the escape of
spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely.
SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying operations constructed in
accordance with the Building Code and separated from the remainder of the building by a
minimum 1-hour fire barrier.
SPRAY SPACE. The interior of spray booths, the interior of exhaust ducts or any area in the
direct path of spray operations.
VAPOR AREA. An area containing flammable vapors in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards
or associated drying, conveying or other equipment during operation or shutdown periods, the
dimensions of which are as determined by the commissioner, taking into consideration the
characteristics of the liquid, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations.
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SECTION FC 1503
PROTECTION OF OPERATIONS
1503.1 General. Operations covered by this chapter shall be protected as required by this section
and the Electrical Code.
1503.2 Sources of ignition. Protection against sources of ignition shall be provided in
accordance with Sections 1503.2.1 through 1503.2.8.
1503.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply
with the requirements of this chapter and the Electrical Code.
1503.2.1.1 Spray spaces and vapor areas. Electrical wiring and equipment in spray
spaces and vapor areas shall be of an explosion-proof type approved for use in such
hazardous locations. Such areas shall be considered to be Class I, Division 1 or Class II,
Division 1 hazardous locations in accordance with the Electrical Code.
1503.2.1.2 Electrical wiring and equipment in resin application areas. Electrical
wiring and equipment located in resin application areas shall be in accordance with the
Electrical Code.
1503.2.1.3 Areas subject to deposits of residues. Electrical equipment in the vicinity of
spray areas and dip tanks or associated drain boards or drying operations which are
subject to splashing or dripping of liquids shall be specifically approved for locations
containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors.
Exceptions:
1. This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid conduit, threaded boxes or
fittings not containing taps, splices or terminal connections.
2. This provision shall not apply to electrostatic equipment allowed by Section
1506.
1503.2.1.3.1 Resin application areas. In resin application areas, electrical wiring and
equipment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be listed for such
exposure and shall be installed as required for hazardous (classified) locations.
Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues shall
be installed as required for ordinary hazard locations.
1503.2.1.4 Areas adjacent to spray booths. Electrical wiring and equipment located
outside of, but within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) vertically of
openings in a spray booth or a spray room shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 or
Class II, Division 2 hazardous locations, whichever is applicable.
1503.2.1.5 Areas subject to overspray deposits. Electrical equipment in spray areas
located such that deposits of combustible residues could readily accumulate thereon shall
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be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and
explosive vapors in accordance with the Electrical Code.
Exceptions:
1. Wiring in rigid conduit.
2. Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or terminal connections.
3. Equipment allowed by Sections 1504 and 1506 and Chapter 21.
1503.2.1.6 Flexible power cords. The use of flexible power cords may be used as
authorized by the Electrical Code.
1503.2.2 Open flames and sparks. Open flames and spark-producing devices shall not be
located in spray spaces or vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of
such areas unless separated by a permanent partition.
Exception: Drying and baking apparatus complying with the requirements of Section
1504.7.2.
1503.2.3 Hot surfaces. Heated surfaces having a temperature sufficient to ignite vapors shall
not be located in vapor areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes or hot surfaces in a
spray area or a resin application area shall be located such that they are not subject to
accumulation of deposits of combustible residues.
Exception: Drying apparatus complying with the requirements of Section 1504.7.2.
1503.2.4 Equipment enclosures. Equipment or apparatus that is capable of producing sparks
or particles of hot metal that would fall into a spray space or vapor area shall be totally
enclosed.
1503.2.5 Grounding. Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts and piping systems
conveying Class I or II liquids shall be electrically grounded in accordance with the
Electrical Code. Metallic parts located in resin application areas, including but not limited to
exhaust ducts, ventilation fans, spray application equipment, workpieces and piping, shall be
electrically grounded.
1503.2.6 Smoking prohibited. It shall be unlawful to smoke in a powder coating area,
organic peroxide and dual-component coating area, any spray space, limited spraying space,
or vapor area. “No Smoking” signs complying with the requirements of Section 310 shall be
conspicuously posted in such areas and other locations.
1503.2.7 Hot work warning signs. Welding, cutting and other hot work operations shall not
be conducted in or adjacent to spray areas or dipping or coating operations. Durable signs
bearing the following warning shall be conspicuously posted in the vicinity of spray areas
and dipping or coating operations:
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NO WELDING
THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING
EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA
IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE
AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS.
1503.2.8 Powered industrial trucks. Powered industrial trucks used in electrically classified
areas shall be listed for such use.
1503.3 Storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids. The storage,
handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section
and Chapter 34.
1503.3.1 Use. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be of a closed type or provided with
metal covers which are kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on
noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Containers supplying spray nozzles by
gravity flow shall not exceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity.
1503.3.2 Valves. Containers and piping to which a hose or flexible connection is attached
shall be provided with a shutoff valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut when
hoses are not in use.
1503.3.3 Pumped liquid supplies. Where flammable or combustible liquids are supplied to
spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be provided with
an approved relief valve discharging to pump suction or a safe detached location.
1503.3.4 Liquid transfer. Where a flammable liquid is transferred from one portable
container to another, a bond shall be provided between the two containers. At least one
container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and Class II liquids shall be
permanently grounded.
1503.3.5 Class I liquids as solvents. Class I liquids used as solvents shall be used in spray
gun and equipment cleaning machines which have been listed and approved for the purpose
or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in accordance with Sections 1503.3.5.1 and
1503.3.5.2.
1503.3.5.1 Listed devices. Cleaning machines for spray guns and equipment shall not be
located in areas open to the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in
accordance with their listings or by a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), whichever is greater.
The quantity of solvent used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of the
machine.
1503.3.5.2 Within spray booths and spray rooms. Mechanical ventilation equipment
shall be operated when solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and auxiliary
equipment and for a period of time thereafter to allow for the exhaust of the vapors within
spray booths and spray rooms.
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1503.3.6 Class II and Class III liquids. Solvents used outside of spray booths, spray rooms
or listed and approved spray gun and equipment cleaning machines shall be restricted to
Class II and Class III liquids.
1503.4 Operations and maintenance. Spray areas, exhaust fan blades and exhaust ducts shall
be kept free from the accumulation of deposits of combustible residues. Where excessive residue
accumulates in booths, ducts, discharge points or other spray areas, spraying operations shall be
discontinued until the accumulation is removed from such areas and properly disposed of.
1503.4.1 Tools. Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for cleaning purposes shall be
constructed of non-sparking materials.
1503.4.2 Residue. Residue removed during cleaning and debris contaminated with residue
shall be immediately removed from the premises and disposed of lawfully.
1503.4.3 Waste cans. Approved metal waste cans equipped with self-closing lids shall be
provided wherever rags or waste are impregnated with finishing material. Such rags and
waste shall be deposited therein immediately after being utilized. The contents of waste cans
shall be properly disposed of at the end of each work shift and at least once daily.
1503.4.4 Solvent recycling. Solvent distillation equipment used to recycle and clean dirty
solvents shall comply with the requirements of Section 3405.4.
SECTION FC 1504
SPRAY FINISHING
1504.1 Location of spray-finishing operations. Spray-finishing operations conducted in
buildings used for Group A, E, I or R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected
throughout by a sprinkler system, and separated vertically and horizontally from other areas in
accordance with the Building Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing operations shall be
conducted in a spray room, spray booth or limited spraying space approved for such use.
1504.1.1 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be constructed and designed in accordance with
this section and the construction codes, including the Building Code, and shall comply with
the requirements of Sections 1504.2, 1504.3, 1504.4, 1504.5 and 1504.6.
1504.1.1.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in spray rooms shall be covered by
approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except that combustible coverings,
such as thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, may be utilized over noncombustible
materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray rooms.
1504.1.1.2 Certificate of approval. Pre-manufactured spray rooms shall be of a type for
which a certificate of approval has been issued in accordance with this code, or which
was previously approved by the Department of Buildings or the Board of Standards and
Appeals, unless such approval is amended or repealed by the commissioner.
1504.1.2 Spray booths. The design and construction of spray booths shall be in accordance
with Sections 1504.1.2.1 through 1504.1.2.7, Sections 1504.2 through 1504.6, and NFPA 33.
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1504.1.2.1 Construction. Spray booths shall be constructed of approved noncombustible
materials. Aluminum shall not be used.
Where walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of sheet metal, single-skin
assemblies shall be no thinner than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) and each sheet of
double-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 0.0359 inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm).
Structural sections of spray booths are allowed to be sealed with latex-based or
similar caulks and sealants.
1504.1.2.2 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth and shall be
constructed so as to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior
and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be designed to confine residues within
the booth. Aluminum shall not be used.
1504.1.2.3 Floor. Combustible floor construction in spray booths shall be covered by
approved, noncombustible, non-sparking material, except that combustible coverings,
such as thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, may be utilized over noncombustible
materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray booths.
1504.1.2.4 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be provided in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
Exception: Means of egress doors from pre-manufactured spray booths shall not be
less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width by 80 inches (2032 mm) in height.
1504.1.2.5 Clear space. Spray booths shall be installed so that all parts of the booth are
readily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) shall be
maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This clear space shall be kept free of any
storage or combustible construction.
Exceptions:
1. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet
(914 mm) to or directly against an interior partition, wall or floor/ceiling
assembly, that has a fire-resistance-rating of not less than 1 hour, provided the
spray booth can be adequately cleaned and maintained.
2. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet
(914 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly provided the wall or roof is
constructed of noncombustible material and provided the spray booth can be
adequately cleaned and maintained.
1504.1.2.6 Size. The aggregate area of spray booths in a building shall not exceed the
lesser of 10 percent of the area of any floor of the building or the basic area allowed for a
Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set forth in the construction codes,
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including the Building Code. The area of an individual spray booth in a building shall not
exceed the lesser of the aggregate size limit or 1,500 square feet (139 m2).
Exception: One individual booth not exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2).
1504.1.2.7 Certificate of approval. Pre-manufactured spray booths shall be of a type for
which a certificate of approval has been issued in accordance with this code, or which
was previously approved by the Department of Buildings or the Board of Standards and
Appeals, unless such approval is amended or repealed by the commissioner.
1504.1.3 Spray spaces. Spray spaces shall be designed and constructed in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Building Code, and Sections 1504.1.3.1, 1504.2,
1504.3, 1504.4, 1504.5 and 1504.6 of this code.
1504.1.3.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in spray spaces shall be covered by
approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except that combustible coverings,
such as thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, may be utilized over noncombustible
materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray spaces.
1504.1.4 Limited spraying spaces. Limited spraying spaces shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 1504.1.4.1 through 1504.1.4.4.
1504.1.4.1 Job size. The aggregate surface area to be sprayed shall not exceed 9 square
feet (0.84 m2).
1504.1.4.2 Frequency. Spraying operations shall not be of a continuous nature.
1504.1.4.3 Ventilation. Positive mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance
with Section 502.7.2 of the Mechanical Code. Such system shall meet the requirements of
this code for handling flammable vapors. Explosion venting is not required.
1504.1.4.4 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the floor and
20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally of the limited spraying space shall be designed for Class
I, Division 2 locations in accordance with the Electrical Code.
1504.2 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation of spray areas shall be provided in accordance with
Sections 502.7 and 510 of the Mechanical Code.
1504.2.1 Operation. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all times while
spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow vapors
from drying coated articles and finishing material residue to be exhausted. Spraying
equipment shall be interlocked with the ventilation of the spray area such that spraying
operations cannot be conducted unless the ventilation system is in operation.
1504.2.2 Reserved.
1504.2.3 Reserved.
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1504.2.4 Ventilation obstruction. Articles being sprayed shall be positioned in a manner
that does not obstruct collection of overspray.
1504.3 Filters. Air intake filters that are part of a wall or ceiling assembly shall be listed as Class
I or Class II in accordance with UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be provided.
1504.3.1 Supports. Supports and holders for filters shall be constructed of noncombustible
materials.
1504.3.2 Attachment. Overspray collection filters shall be readily removable and accessible
for cleaning or replacement.
1504.3.3 Maintaining air velocity. Visible gauges, audible alarms or pressure-activated
devices shall be installed to indicate or ensure that the required air velocity is being
maintained.
1504.3.4 Filter rolls. Spray booths equipped with a filter roll that is automatically advanced
when the air velocity is reduced to less than 100 linear feet per minute (51 m/s) shall be
arranged to shut down the spraying operation if the filter roll fails to advance automatically.
1504.3.5 Filter disposal. Discarded filter pads shall be immediately removed from the
premises or placed in a noncombustible container with a tight-fitting lid, and disposed of
lawfully.
1504.3.6 Spontaneous ignition. Spray booths using dry filters shall not be used for spraying
materials that are highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. Filters shall be
changed prior to spraying materials that could react with other materials previously collected.
Examples of potentially reactive combinations include lacquer when combined with
varnishes, stains or primers.
1504.3.7 Waterwash spray booths. Waterwash spray booths shall be of an approved design
so as to prevent excessive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue at duct outlets. Such
booths shall be arranged so that air and overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing
water curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the outdoors.
1504.4 Different coatings. Spray booths, spray rooms and spray spaces shall not be alternately
utilized for different types of coating materials where the combination of materials is conducive
to spontaneous ignition, unless all deposits of one material are removed from the booth, room or
space and exhaust ducts prior to spraying with a different material.
1504.5 Illumination. Where spray spaces, spray rooms or spray booths are illuminated through
glass panels or other transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall be utilized as a source
of illumination.
1504.5.1 Glass panels. Panels for light fixtures or for observation shall be of heat-treated
glass, wired glass or hammered-wire glass and shall be sealed to confine vapors, mists,
residues, dusts and deposits to the spray area. Panels for light fixtures shall be separated from
the fixture to prevent the surface temperature of the panel from exceeding 200oF (93oC).
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1504.5.2 Exterior fixtures. Light fixtures attached to the walls or ceilings of a spray area,
but which are outside of any classified area and are separated from the spray area by vaportight glass panels, shall be suitable for use in ordinary hazard locations. Such fixtures shall be
serviced from outside the spray area.
1504.5.3 Integral fixtures. Light fixtures that are an integral part of the walls or ceiling of a
spray area are allowed to be separated from the spray area by glass panels that are an integral
part of the fixture. Such fixtures shall be listed for use in Class I, Division 2 or Class II,
Division 2 locations, whichever is applicable, and also shall be suitable for accumulations of
deposits of combustible residues. Such fixtures are allowed to be serviced from inside the
spray area.
1504.5.4 Portable electric lamps. Portable electric lamps shall not be used in spray areas
during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps used during cleaning or repairing
operations shall be of a type approved for hazardous locations.
1504.6 Fire protection. Spray booths and spray rooms shall be protected throughout by a fire
extinguishing system. Such fire extinguishing system shall also protect exhaust plenums, exhaust
ducts and both sides of dry filters when such filters are used.
1504.6.1 Protection of sprinklers. Sprinkler systems installed in spray areas shall be
protected from accumulation of residue from spraying operations in an approved manner.
Sprinkler heads shall be inspected at least once per week and cleaned as needed. Bags used
as a protective covering shall be 0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or cellophane or
shall be thin paper. Sprinkler heads contaminated by overspray particles shall be replaced
with new sprinkler heads.
1504.6.2 Automated spray application operations. Where protecting automated spray
application operations, fire extinguishing systems shall be equipped with an approved
interlock feature that will, upon discharge of the system, automatically stop the operation of
spraying operations and workpiece conveyors into and out of the spray area. Where the
building is equipped with a fire alarm system, discharge of the fire extinguishing system shall
also activate the building alarm notification appliances.
1504.6.2.1 Alarm station. A manual fire alarm and emergency system shutdown station
shall be installed to serve each spray area. When activated, the station shall accomplish
the functions indicated in Section 1504.6.2. At least one such station shall be readily
accessible to operating personnel. Where access to this station is likely to involve
exposure to danger, an additional station shall be located adjacent to an exit from the
area.
1504.6.3 Ventilation interlock prohibited. Makeup air and spray area exhaust systems shall
not be interlocked with the fire alarm system and shall remain in operation during a fire
alarm condition.
Exception: Where the type of fire extinguishing system used requires that ventilation be
discontinued, makeup air and exhaust systems shall shut down and dampers shall close.
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1504.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers complying with the
requirements of Section 906 shall be provided for spray areas in accordance with the
requirements for an extra (high) hazard occupancy.
1504.7 Drying operations. Spray booths and spray rooms shall not be used for the purpose of
drying by arrangements which could cause an increase in the surface temperature of the spray
booth or spray room, except in accordance with Sections 1504.7.1 through 1504.7.2.3.
1504.7.1 Spraying procedure. The spraying procedure shall use low-volume spray
application.
1504.7.2 Drying apparatus. Fixed drying apparatus shall comply with the requirements of
this chapter and the applicable provisions of Chapter 21. When recirculation ventilation is
provided in accordance with Section 1504.2.2, the heating system shall not be within the
recirculation air path.
1504.7.2.1 Interlocks. The spraying apparatus, drying apparatus and ventilating system
for the spray booth or spray room shall be equipped with interlocks arranged to:
1. Prevent operation of spraying apparatus while drying operations are in progress.
2. Purge spray vapors from the spray booth or spray room for a period of not less than
3 minutes before drying apparatus is rendered operable.
3. Have the ventilating system maintain a safe atmosphere within the spray booth or
spray room during the drying process and automatically shut off drying apparatus in
the event of a failure of the ventilating system.
4. Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if the air temperature within the booth
exceeds 200oF (93oC).
1504.7.2.2 Portable infrared apparatus. When portable infrared drying apparatus is
used, electrical wiring and portable infrared drying equipment shall comply with the
requirements of the Electrical Code. Electrical equipment located within 18 inches (457
mm) of floor level shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations. Metallic
parts of drying apparatus shall be electrically bonded and grounded. During spraying
operations, portable drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall
not be located within spray booths, spray rooms or other areas where spray residue would
be deposited thereon.
1504.7.2.3 Sources of ignition. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section,
drying or baking units utilizing a heating system having open flames or which are capable
of producing sparks, shall not be installed in a spray area.
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SECTION FC 1505
DIPPING OPERATIONS
1505.1 Location of dip-tank operations. Dip-tank operations conducted in buildings used for
Group A, I or R occupancies shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, protected
throughout by a sprinkler system, and separated vertically and horizontally from other areas in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1505.2 Ventilation of vapor areas. Vapor areas shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in
accordance with Section 502.7.4 of the Mechanical Code.
1505.3 Construction of dip tanks. Dip tanks shall be constructed in accordance with this
section, and NFPA 34. Dip tanks, including drain boards, shall be constructed of noncombustible
material and their supports shall be of heavy metal, reinforced concrete or masonry.
1505.3.1 Overflow. Dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 square feet
(0.93 m2) in liquid surface area shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading to an
approved outdoor location. The bottom of the overflow connection shall not be less than 6
inches (152 mm) below the top of the tank.
1505.3.2 Bottom drains. Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in liquid capacity shall
be equipped with bottom drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain the
tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of the liquid at normal atmospheric
temperature makes this impractical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessible
location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, automatic pumps shall be provided. Such
drains shall be trapped and discharge to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an approved
location outdoors.
Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible liquids where the liquids are not
heated above room temperature, and the process area is protected throughout by a
sprinkler system.
1505.3.3 Dipping liquid temperature control. Protection against the accumulation of
vapors, self-ignition and excessively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liquids
that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the object being dipped.
1505.4 Conveyors. Dip tanks utilizing a conveyor system shall be arranged such that in the
event of fire, the conveyor system shall automatically cease motion and the required tank bottom
drains shall open.
1505.5 Portable fire extinguishers. Areas in the vicinity of dip tanks shall be provided with
portable fire extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section 906 and suitable for
flammable and combustible liquid fires as specified for extra (high) hazard occupancies.
1505.6 Fire extinguishing equipment. A fire extinguishing system or dip tank covers in
accordance with Section 1505.7 shall be provided for the following dip tanks:
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1. Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in liquid
surface area.
2. Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 110oF (43oC), used in such manner
that the liquid temperature could equal or be greater than its flash point from artificial or
natural causes, and having both a capacity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liquid
surface area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m2).
1505.6.1 Fire extinguishing system. A fire extinguishing system shall be provided for dip
tanks with a 150-gallon (568 L) or more capacity, or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) or larger in a
liquid surface area. Fire extinguishing system design shall be in accordance with NFPA 34.
1505.7 Dip tank covers. Dip tank covers allowed by Section 1505.6 shall be capable of manual
operation and shall be automatic-closing by approved automatic-closing devices designed to
operate in the event of fire.
1505.7.1 Construction. Covers shall be constructed of noncombustible material or be of a
tin-clad type with enclosing metal applied with locked joints.
1505.7.2 Supports. Chain or wire rope shall be utilized for cover supports or operating
mechanisms.
1505.7.3 Closed covers. Covers shall be kept closed when tanks are not in use.
1505.8 Hardening and tempering tanks. Hardening and tempering tanks shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 1505.3 through 1505.5 but shall be exempt from other provisions of
Section 1505.
1505.8.1 Location. Tanks shall be located as far as practical from furnaces and shall not be
located on or near combustible floors.
1505.8.2 Hoods. Tanks shall be provided with a noncombustible hood and vent or other
approved venting means, terminating outdoors to serve as a vent in case of a fire. Such vent
ducts shall be treated as flues, and proper clearances shall be maintained from combustible
materials.
1505.8.3 Alarms. Tanks shall be equipped with a high-temperature limit switch arranged to
sound an alarm when the temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50oF (10oC) below
the flash point.
1505.8.4 Fire protection. Hardening and tempering tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L)
in capacity or 25 square feet (2.3 m2) in liquid surface area shall be protected by a fire
extinguishing system.
1505.8.5 Use of air pressure. Air under pressure shall not be used to fill or agitate oil in
tanks.
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1505.9 Flow-coating operations. Flow-coating operations shall comply with the requirements
for dip tanks. The area of the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be considered to be
the area of a dip tank.
1505.9.1 Paint supply. Paint shall be supplied by a gravity tank not exceeding 10 gallons
(37.9 L) in capacity or by direct low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automatically in
case of fire by means of approved heat-actuated devices.
1505.10 Roll-coating operations. Roll-coating operations shall comply with the requirements of
Section 1505.9. In roll-coating operations utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, sparks
from static electricity shall be prevented by electrically bonding and grounding all metallic
rotating and other parts of machinery and equipment and by the installation of static collectors or
by maintaining a conductive atmosphere such as a high relative humidity.
SECTION FC 1506
ELECTROSTATIC APPARATUS
1506.1 General. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in connection with paint-spraying and
paint-detearing operations shall be of an approved type.
1506.2 Location. Transformers, power packs, control apparatus and all other electrical portions
of the equipment, except high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads and connections,
shall be located outside of the spray area or vapor area, or shall comply with the requirements of
Section 1503.2.
1506.3 Construction of equipment. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be of
approved construction, rigidly supported in permanent locations and effectively insulated from
ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and noncombustible.
1506.4 Clear space. A space of at least twice the sparking distance shall be maintained between
goods being painted or deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads or conductors. A
sign stating the sparking distance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.
1506.5 Emergency shutdown. Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped with automatic controls
operating without time delay to disconnect the power supply to the high-voltage transformer and
signal the operator under any of the following conditions:
1. Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause.
2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the high-voltage grid.
3. Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any point of the high-voltage system.
4. Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 1506.4.
1506.6 Ventilation interlock. Hand electrostatic equipment shall be interlocked with the
ventilation system for the spray area so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the
ventilating system is in operation.
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1506.7 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment.
Automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment shall be protected by the installation
of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in the event of ignition, react to
the presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish all of the following:
1. Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying operation and activation of the
building alarm system, if such system is provided.
2. Shutting down of the coating material delivery system.
3. Termination of all spray application operations.
4. Stopping of conveyors into and out of the spray area.
5. Disconnection of power to the high-voltage elements in the spray area and disconnection
of power to the system.
1506.8 Barriers. Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall be placed about the equipment such
that either by their location or character, or both, isolation of the process is maintained from plant
storage and personnel. Railings, fencing and guards shall be of conductive material, adequately
grounded, and shall be at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from processing equipment.
1506.9 Signs. Durable signs shall be conspicuously posted to provide the following information:
1. Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect to fire and accident.
2. Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically conductive objects in the spray
area, including persons.
3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only.
1506.10 Ventilation. The spray area shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 1504.2.
1506.11 Maintenance. Insulators shall be kept clean and dry. Drip plates and screens subject to
paint deposits shall be removable and taken to a safe place for cleaning.
1506.12 Fire protection. Areas used for electrostatic spray finishing with fixed equipment shall
be protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system.
SECTION FC 1507
POWDER COATING
1507.1 General. Operations using finely ground particles of protective finishing material applied
in dry powder form by fluidized bed, electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns or
electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with the requirements of this section.
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1507.2 Location and construction of powder coating rooms and booths. Powder coating
operations shall be conducted in enclosed rooms constructed of noncombustible materials,
enclosed powder coating facilities which are ventilated, or ventilated spray booths complying
with the requirements of Section 1504.1.2.
Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are constructed of other materials shall be
allowed.
1507.3 Sources of ignition. When parts are heated prior to coating, the temperature of the parts
shall not exceed the ignition temperature of the powder to be used. Precautions shall be taken to
minimize the possibility of ignition by static electrical sparks through static bonding and
grounding, where possible, of powder transport, application and recovery equipment. Sources of
ignition shall additionally comply with the requirements of Section 1503.2.
1507.4 Ventilation. Exhaust ventilation and powder recovery systems shall be provided in
accordance with of Section 502.7.6 of the Mechanical Code.
1507.5 Drying, curing and fusion equipment. Drying, curing and fusion equipment shall
comply with the requirements of Chapter 21.
1507.6 Operation and maintenance. Powder coating areas shall be kept free from the
accumulation of powder coating dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams,
pipes, hoods, booths and floors.
1507.6.1 Cleaning. Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a manner so as to avoid scattering dusts
to other places or creating dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type
approved for use in hazardous location.
1507.6.2 Spark-producing metals. Iron or spark-producing metals shall be prevented from
being introduced into the powders being applied by magnetic separators, filter-type
separators, or by other approved means.
1507.7 Fixed electrostatic-spraying equipment. In addition to Section 1507, Section 1506 shall
apply to fixed electrostatic equipment used in powder coating operations.
1507.8 Fire protection. Areas used for powder coating shall be protected throughout by a fire
extinguishing system.
1507.9 Additional protection for fixed systems. Automated powder application equipment
shall be protected by the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that
shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish all of the following:
1. Shutting down of energy supplies (electrical and compressed air) to conveyor, ventilation,
application, transfer and powder collection equipment.
2. Closing of segregation dampers in associated ductwork to interrupt airflows from
application equipment to powder collectors.
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3. Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the powder coating room or booth.
1507.10 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers complying with the
requirements of Section 906 shall be provided for areas used for powder coating in accordance
with the requirements for extra (high) hazard occupancy.
SECTION FC 1508
AUTOMOBILE UNDERCOATING
1508.1 General. Automobile undercoating spray operations conducted in areas with approved
natural or mechanical ventilation shall not be required to comply with the requirements of
Section 1504 when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or IIIB combustible liquids.
SECTION FC 1509
ORGANIC PEROXIDES AND DUAL-COMPONENT COATINGS
1509.1 Contamination prevention. Organic peroxide initiators shall not be contaminated with
foreign substances.
1509.2 Equipment. Spray guns and related handling equipment used with organic peroxides
shall be of a type manufactured for such use.
1509.3 Pressure tanks. Separate pressure vessels and inserts specifically for the application
shall be used for the resin and for the organic peroxide, and shall not be interchanged. Organic
peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be constructed of stainless steel or polyethylene.
1509.4 Residue control. Materials shall not be contaminated by dusts and overspray residues
resulting from the sanding or spraying of finishing materials containing organic peroxides.
1509.5 Spilled material. Spilled organic peroxides shall be promptly removed so there are no
residues. Spilled material absorbed by using a noncombustible absorbent shall be promptly
removed from the premises and disposed of lawfully.
1509.6 Use of organic peroxide coatings. Spraying operations involving the use of organic
peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be conducted in spray booths complying with
the requirements of Section 1504.1.2 that are protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
1509.7 Storage. The storage of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with Chapter 39.
1509.8 Handling. Handling of organic peroxides shall be conducted in a manner that avoids
shock and friction that produces decomposition and violent reaction hazards.
1509.9 Mixing. Organic peroxides shall not be mixed directly with accelerators or promoters.
1509.10 Sources of ignition. Only nonsparking tools shall be used in areas where organic
peroxides are stored, mixed or applied. Such areas shall comply with the requirements of Section
1503.2.
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SECTION FC 1510
FLOOR FINISHING OPERATIONS
1510.1 Scope. All floor finishing operations using Class I or Class II liquids shall comply with
the requirements of Sections 1510.1.1 and 1510.1.2. Floor finishing operations exceeding 168
square feet (15.6 m2) and using Class I or Class II liquids shall additionally comply with the
requirements of Sections 1510.2 through 1510.5.
1510.1.1 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Use flammable floor finishing products with a flash point below 80°F (27°C) indoors.
2. Smoke, use or maintain open flames, including torches, in rooms or other indoor areas
in which floor finishing products are being stored and/or in which floor finishing
operations are being conducted.
3. Conduct floor finishing operations in rooms or other indoor areas occupied by anyone
other than the individuals engaged in such operations.
1510.1.2 General requirements. All floor finishing operations shall comply with the
following requirements:
1. Floor finishing operations shall be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions for the storage, handling and use of floor finishing products.
2. Flammable or combustible liquids or mixtures, other than floor finishing products,
stored, handled or used in connection with floor finishing operations shall be stored,
handled or used in accordance with Chapter 34.
3. Floor finishing product containers shall be closed when not in use.
4. Empty containers of floor finishing products and all other floor finishing product waste
and residue shall be removed from the premises not less than once a day.
5. Gas burners, pilot lights, electrical devices, electronic devices and other sources of
ignition in vapor areas shall be shut off prior to commencing work.
6. At least one portable fire extinguisher with a minimum rating of 20-B shall be
immediately accessible during floor finishing operations. The travel distance to such
extinguisher shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm).
7. Quantities of floor finishing products at a site shall not exceed the amount necessary
for that day’s operations. In no event shall such quantity exceed 20 gallons (76 L).
1510.2 Business operation. Floor finishing operations shall not be conducted while an
establishment is open to the public.
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1510.3 Ventilation. To prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors, mechanical ventilation at
a minimum rate of 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s × m2)] of area being
finished shall be provided. Such ventilation shall be by approved temporary or portable means.
Vapors shall be exhausted outdoors. Such ventilation equipment shall be kept in operation while
the floor finishing operations are conducted and for a period of time thereafter to allow for the
exhaust of the vapors.
1510.4 Mechanical system operation. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems shall
not be operated during refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the application of flammable
or combustible liquids.
1510.5 Sources of ignition. No electrical equipment or device that is a potential source of
ignition of floor finishing product vapors, including switches and outlets, shall be operated
during floor finishing operations. Precautions shall be taken prior to commencing work to
prevent inadvertent operation of such equipment or devices, such as shutting down electrical
power, unplugging equipment and taping over switches and outlets.
1510.6 Retail sale. Floor finishing products with a flash point below 80°F (27°C) shall be
provided with a conspicuous and durable tag bearing the words, “WARNING: INDOOR USE
OF THIS PRODUCT IS PROHIBITED IN NEW YORK CITY.” A sign shall be conspicuously
posted in the area in which the floor finishing product is displayed, warning that the product is
prohibited for indoor use in New York City.
SECTION FC 1511
INDOOR MANUFACTURING OF REINFORCED PLASTICS
1511.1 General. Indoor manufacturing processes involving spray or hand application of
reinforced plastics and using more than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be
conducted in accordance with this section.
1511.2 Resin application equipment. Equipment used for spray application of resin shall be
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 1509 and 1511.
1511.3 Fire protection. Resin application areas shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler
system. The sprinkler system design shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard,
Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or
storage arrangements are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of
sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.
1511.4 Sources of ignition in resin application areas. Sources of ignition in resin application
areas shall comply with the requirements of Section 1503.2.
1511.5 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation shall be provided throughout resin application areas
in accordance with Sections 1504.2 and 1504.3. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to
maintain the concentration of flammable vapors in the resin application area at or below 25
percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL).
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Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for buildings that are unenclosed for at
least 75 percent of the perimeter.
1511.5.1 Local ventilation. Local ventilation shall be provided inside of workpieces where
personnel will be under or inside of the workpiece.
1511.6 Storage and use of hazardous materials. Storage and use of organic peroxides shall be
in accordance with Section 1509 and Chapter 39. Storage and use of flammable and combustible
liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34. Storage and use of unstable (reactive) materials
shall be in accordance with Chapter 43.
1511.7 Handling of excess catalyzed resin. A noncombustible, open-top container shall be
provided for disposal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin shall be drained into the
container while still in the liquid state. Enough water shall be provided in the container to
maintain a minimum 2-inch (51 mm) water layer over contained resin.
1511.8 Control of overchop. In areas where chopper guns are used, exposed wall and floor
surfaces shall be covered with paper, polyethylene film, or other approved material to allow for
removal of overchop. Overchop shall be allowed to cure for not less than 4 hours prior to
removal.
1511.8.1 Disposal. Following removal, used wall and floor covering materials required by
Section 1511.8 shall be placed in a noncombustible container and removed from the facility.
CHAPTER 16
FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING
SECTION FC 1601
GENERAL
1601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
facilities in which ethylene gas is used, other than in self-contained equipment, to promote the
ripening of fruits, vegetables and other crops.
Exception: Mixtures of ethylene and one or more inert gases in concentrations which
prevent the gas from reaching greater than 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL)
when released to the atmosphere.
1601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1601.3 Ethylene generators. Approved ethylene generators shall be operated and maintained in
accordance with Section 1606.
1601.4 General. Facilities using ethylene gas to promote the ripening of fruits, vegetables and
other crops shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter.
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SECTION FC 1602
DEFINITIONS
1602.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chapter, for the purposes of this chapter
and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown in Chapter 2 or elsewhere in this
code.
SECTION FC 1603
ETHYLENE GAS
1603.1 Location. Ethylene gas shall be discharged only into approved rooms or enclosures
designed and constructed for this purpose.
1603.2 Dispensing. Valves controlling discharge of ethylene shall provide positive and failclosed control of flow and shall be set to limit the concentration of gas in air below 1,000 parts
per million (ppm).
SECTION FC 1604
SOURCES OF IGNITION
1604.1 Ignition prevention. Sources of ignition shall be controlled or protected in accordance
with this section and Chapter 3.
1604.2 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment, including lighting
fixtures, shall be approved for use in Class I, Division 2, Group C hazardous (classified)
locations.
1604.3 Static electricity. Devices, equipment and systems, including containers and piping, used
to dispense ethylene, shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the discharge of static sparks or
arcs.
1604.4 Lighting. Lighting shall be by approved electric lamps or fixtures only.
1604.5 Heating. Heating shall be by indirect means utilizing low-pressure steam, hot water, or
warm air.
Exception: Electric or fuel-fired heaters approved for use in hazardous (classified) locations
which are installed and operated in accordance with the Electrical Code, the Mechanical
Code or the Fuel Gas Code.
SECTION FC 1605
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE
1605.1 Housekeeping. Empty boxes, cartons, pallets and other combustible waste shall be
removed from ripening rooms or enclosures and properly disposed of at the end of each work
shift, but at least once a day.
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SECTION FC 1606
ETHYLENE GENERATORS
1606.1 Ethylene generators. Ethylene generators shall be listed and labeled by an approved
testing laboratory and used only in approved rooms in accordance with the ethylene generator
manufacturer’s instructions. The listing evaluation shall include documentation that the
concentration of ethylene gas does not exceed 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).
1606.2 Ethylene generator rooms. Ethylene generators shall be used in rooms having a volume
of not less than the minimum room size provided for in the manufacturer's specifications and
testing laboratory listing, but in no case less than 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3). Rooms shall have air
circulation to ensure even distribution of ethylene gas and shall be free from sparks, open flames
or other ignition sources.
SECTION FC 1607
WARNING SIGNS
1607.1 Required warning sign. Approved warning signs identifying the hazard and indicating
the danger involved and necessary precautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the
premises in accordance with Chapter 27.
CHAPTER 17
FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING
SECTION FC 1701
GENERAL
1701.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations
within buildings and structures.
1701.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1701.3 General. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations within buildings and
structures shall be conducted in accordance with this chapter.
1701.4 Supervision. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations shall be supervised
in accordance with Section 1701.4.1 and 1701.4.2.
1701.4.1 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operation company certificate.
Persons engaged in the business of fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations
shall obtain a fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operation company certificate.
1701.4.2 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations. Fumigation and thermal
insecticidal fogging operations requiring a permit or a company certificate shall be conducted
by or under the personal supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness.
1701.5 Compliance with other provisions of law. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging
operations shall comply with all applicable federal, state and city laws, rules and regulations.
242
SECTION FC 1702
DEFINITIONS
1702.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination with any other substance emits or
liberates a gas, fume or vapor utilized for the destruction or control of insects, rats or other
vermin or fungi, germs or similar conditions, as distinguished from insecticides and disinfectants
which are essentially effective in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide,
ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and sulfuryl fluoride.
FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of a fumigant in concentrations that
are hazardous or acutely toxic to humans.
FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING OPERATION
COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in
the business of fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations, which authorizes an
owner or principal of such business to conduct such fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging
operations, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules.
THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization of insecticidal liquids passed
through thermal fog-generating units where, by means of heat, pressure and turbulence, such
liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or mist blown into an area to be
treated.
SECTION FC 1703
FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
1703.1 General. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations in buildings and
structures shall be conducted in compliance with the fire protection and safety requirements of
Sections 1703.2 through 1703.7.
1703.2 Sources of ignition. Open flames and similar sources of ignition shall be removed from
the space in which fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging operations are being conducted.
Heating, where needed, shall be of an approved type.
1703.2.1 Electricity. Electricity in any part of the building or structure where operation of
switches or electrical devices, equipment and systems could serve as a source of ignition
during and for a reasonable time after any fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging
operation shall be shut off.
Exception: Circulating fans that have been specifically designed for utilization in
hazardous atmospheres and installed in accordance with the Electrical Code.
1703.2.2 Electronic devices. Electronic devices, including portable equipment and cellular
phones, shall be shut off. Telephone lines shall be disconnected from telephones.
243
1703.3 Notification. The department shall be notified in writing at least 48 hours before the
building or structure is to be closed in connection with the utilization of any toxic or flammable
fumigant. Notification shall give the location of the enclosed space to be fumigated or fogged,
the occupancy, the fumigants or insecticides to be utilized, the person or persons responsible for
the operation, and the date and time at which the operation will begin. Written notice of any
fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging operation shall be given to all affected occupants of
the building, structure or portion thereof in which such operations are to be conducted, with
sufficient advance notice to allow all such spaces to be vacated in an orderly manner. Such
notice shall inform the occupants as to the purposes and anticipated duration of the fumigation
operations.
1703.3.1 Warning signs. Approved warning signs indicating the danger, type of chemical
involved and necessary precautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the premises
and upon all gangplanks and ladders from the deck, pier or land to the marine vessel. Such
notices shall be printed in red ink on a white background. Letters in the headlines shall be at
least 2 inches (51 mm) in height and shall state the date and time of the operation, the name
and address of the person conducting the fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging, the
name of the operator in charge, and a warning stating that the occupied premises shall be
vacated at least 1 hour before the operation begins and shall not be reentered until the danger
signs have been removed by the proper authorities. Advance notice shall be given to all
occupants of the building or structure where fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging
operations are to be conducted to warn of the hazards of such operation.
1703.3.2 Reserved.
1703.3.3 Watch personnel. During the period fumigation is in progress, except when
fumigation is conducted in a gas-tight vault or tank, a responsible watchperson shall remain
on duty at the entrance or entrances to the enclosed fumigated space until after the
fumigation is completed and the premises is properly ventilated and safe for occupancy.
Sufficient watchers shall be provided to prevent persons from entering the enclosed space
under fumigation.
1703.4 Prohibited thermal insecticidal fogging liquids. It shall be unlawful to use thermal
insecticidal fogging liquids with a flash point below 100oF (38oC).
1703.5 Wrapping of buildings. Paper and other similar combustible materials that are not flame
resistant shall not be used to wrap or cover a building in excess of that required for the sealing of
cracks, casements and similar openings.
1703.6 Ventilation and cleanup. At the end of the exposure period, fumigators shall safely and
properly ventilate the premises and contents; properly dispose of fumigant containers, residues,
debris and other waste materials; and clear obstructions from gas-fired appliance vents.
1703.7 Flammable fumigants restricted. It shall be unlawful to use carbon disulfide and
hydrogen cyanide for fumigation unless conducted on a premises used solely for agriculture.
244
CHAPTER 18
SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES
SECTION FC 1801
GENERAL
1801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development facilities
classified as Group H-5 occupancies, and the storage, handling and use of hazardous materials
therein.
1801.2 Application. The requirements set forth in this chapter are requirements specific only to
Group H-5 and shall be applied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements set forth
elsewhere in this code.
1801.3 Multiple hazards. Where a material poses multiple hazards, all hazards shall be
addressed in accordance with Section 2701.1.
1801.4 General. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development
facilities classified as Group H-5 occupancies shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with this chapter. Such facilities and hazardous materials shall
additionally comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building
Code.
1801.5 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
SECTION FC 1802
DEFINITIONS
1802.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical
instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption
on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.
EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises of a
semiconductor fabrication facility staffed by trained personnel that monitor the operation of
equipment and systems including alert and alarm signals.
FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility in which processes
using hazardous production materials are conducted.
HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with
semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as defined in NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research,
laboratory or production processes which have as their end product materials that are not
hazardous.
245
HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable
liquid or a Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquid.
HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM
is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.
PASS-THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a door on each side that allows
chemicals, HPM, equipment, and parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other.
SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A building or structure, or portion
thereof, in which electrical circuits or devices, commonly known as semiconductors, are
manufactured on solid crystalline substances having electrical conductivity greater than
insulators but less than conductors.
SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage, other than one designated as a required
means of egress, through which HPM can be moved during handling.
TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation, or process machine used in a fabrication area.
WORKSTATION. A defined space within a fabrication area in which a specific function,
laboratory procedure or research activity relating to semiconductor manufacture is conducted. A
workstation may include equipment using HPM, hazardous materials storage cabinets,
flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets, ventilation equipment, fire protection devices,
detection devices and electrical devices.
SECTION FC 1803
GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS
1803.1 Emergency control station. An emergency control station shall be maintained on the
premises at an approved location outside of the fabrication area, and shall be continuously
staffed by trained personnel. The emergency control station shall monitor signals from
emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems, including the following systems,
whether required by this code or the construction codes or voluntarily installed.
1. Sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.
2. Manual fire alarm systems.
3. Emergency alarm systems.
4. Continuous-gas detection systems.
5. Smoke detection systems.
6. Emergency power systems.
246
1803.2 Devices, equipment and systems. Devices, equipment and systems including,
containers, piping, tubing, valves and fittings shall comply with the requirements of this section,
Section 2703.2, and other applicable provisions of this code, and the construction codes,
including the Building Code and the Mechanical Code.
1803.2.1 Additional regulations for HPM supply piping and tubing. The requirements set
forth in Section 2703.2.2.2 shall apply to supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and
liquids. Supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking
of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections located within a ventilated
enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is
provided for connections if the material is a liquid.
1803.3 Design and installation requirements. Semiconductor fabrication facilities shall be
designed and installed in accordance with Sections 1803.3.1 through 1803.3.8.
1803.3.1 Fabrication areas. Design, installation and location of fabrication areas shall
comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1803.3.2 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall
be constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1803.3.3 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms shall comply with the requirements of
Chapter 34 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1803.3.4 HPM rooms. HPM rooms shall comply with the requirements of the construction
codes, including the Building Code.
1803.3.5 Gas cabinets. Gas cabinets shall comply with the requirements of
2703.8.6.
Section
1803.3.6 Exhausted enclosures. Exhausted enclosures shall comply with the requirements
of Section 2703.8.5.
1803.3.7 Gas rooms. Gas rooms shall comply with the requirements of Section 2703.8.4.
1803.3.8 Service corridors. Service corridors shall comply with the requirements of Section
1805.3 and the Building Code.
1803.4 Emergency plan. A fire safety and evacuation plan shall be prepared in accordance with
Chapter 4.
1803.5 Maintenance of devices, equipment, systems and processes. Maintenance of devices,
equipment, systems and processes shall comply with the requirements of Section 2703.2.6.
1803.6 Reserved.
1803.7 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment in HPM facilities
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1803.7.1 through 1803.7.3.
247
1803.7.1 Fabrication areas. Electrical wiring and equipment in fabrication areas shall
comply with the requirements of the Electrical Code.
1803.7.2 Workstations. Electrical equipment and devices within 5 feet (1524 mm) of
workstations in which flammable or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall
comply with the requirements of the Electrical Code for Class I, Division 2 hazardous
locations. Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation in
accordance with Section 1803.14.
Exception: Class I, Division 2 hazardous electrical equipment is not required when the
air removal from the workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of flammable
vapors and fumes on a continuous basis.
1803.7.3 Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage
rooms. Electrical wiring and equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage rooms
shall comply with the requirements of the Electrical Code.
1803.8 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Hazardous materials shall not be used or
stored in exit access corridors or exit access enclosures.
1803.9 Service corridors. Hazardous materials shall not be used in service corridors.
1803.10 Sprinkler system. A sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Sections
1803.10.1 through 1803.10.5, Chapter 9 and the Building Code.
1803.10.1 Workstations and tools. The design of the sprinkler system in the area shall take
into consideration the spray pattern and the effect on the equipment.
1803.10.1.1 Combustible workstations. A sprinkler head shall be installed within each
branch exhaust connection or individual plenums of workstations of combustible
construction. The sprinkler head in the exhaust connection or plenum shall be located not
more than 2 feet (610 mm) from the point of the duct connection or the connection to the
plenum. When necessary to prevent corrosion, the sprinkler head and connecting piping
in the duct shall be coated with approved or listed corrosion-resistant materials. The
sprinkler head shall be accessible for periodic inspection in accordance with Chapter 9.
Exceptions:
1. Alternative fire extinguishing systems shall be allowed where approved.
Activation of such systems shall deactivate the related processing equipment.
2. Process equipment that operates at temperatures exceeding 932°F (500°C) and
has automatic shutdown capabilities that will interrupt HPM flow for hazardous
materials.
3. Exhaust ducts 10 inches (254 mm) or less in diameter from flammable gas
storage cabinets that are part of a workstation.
248
4. Ducts listed or approved for use without internal sprinkler protection.
1803.10.1.2 Combustible tools. Where the horizontal surface of a combustible tool is
obstructed from ceiling sprinkler discharge, sprinkler protection that covers the horizontal
surface of the tool shall be provided.
Exceptions:
1. A gaseous fire extinguishing local surface application system shall be allowed
as an alternative to sprinklers when approved. Gaseous fire extinguishing
systems shall be actuated by infrared (IR) or ultraviolet/infrared (UVIR) optical
detectors.
2. Tools constructed of materials that are listed or approved for use without
internal fire extinguishing system protection.
1803.10.2 Gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A sprinkler system shall be provided in
gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures containing HPM compressed gases.
Exception: Gas cabinets located in a HPM room other than those cabinets containing
pyrophoric gases.
1803.10.3 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. Pass-throughs in exit access corridors
shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
1803.10.4 Exhaust ducts for HPM. A sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts
conveying vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with this section
and the Mechanical Code and the Building Code.
1803.10.4.1 Metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. A sprinkler
system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when
the following conditions apply:
1. The largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).
2. The ducts are within the building.
3. The ducts are conveying flammable vapors or fumes.
1803.10.4.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. A sprinkler system shall be
provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when the largest cross-sectional
diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).
Exceptions:
1. Ducts listed or approved for applications without sprinkler system protection.
249
2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.
1803.10.4.3 Exhaust connections and plenums of combustible workstations. Fire
extinguishing system protection for exhaust connections and plenums of combustible
workstations shall comply with the requirements of Section 1803.10.1.
1803.10.4.4 Exhaust duct sprinkler system requirements. Sprinkler systems installed
in exhaust duct systems shall be hydraulically designed to provide 0.5 gallons per minute
(gpm) (1.9 L/min) over an area derived by multiplying the distance between the
sprinklers in a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Minimum discharge shall be 20
gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler from the five hydraulically most remote sprinklers.
1803.10.4.4.1 Sprinkler head locations. Sprinkler heads shall be installed at 12-foot
(3658 mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical runs,
sprinkler heads shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.
1803.10.4.4.2 Control valve. A separate indicating control valve shall be provided
for sprinkler heads installed in exhaust ducts.
1803.10.4.4.3 Drainage. Drainage shall be provided to remove sprinkler water
discharged in exhaust ducts.
1803.10.4.4.4 Corrosive atmospheres. Where corrosive atmospheres exist, exhaust
duct sprinkler heads and pipe fittings shall be manufactured of corrosion- resistant
materials or coated with approved materials.
1803.10.4.4.5 Maintenance and inspection. Sprinkler heads in exhaust ducts shall
be accessible for inspection and maintenance and shall be inspected and maintained
on not less than an annual basis.
1803.10.5 Sprinkler alarms and supervision. Sprinkler systems shall be electrically
supervised and provided with alarms in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Building Code. Sprinkler system alarm and supervisory signals shall be transmitted to the
emergency control station.
1803.11 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system shall be installed throughout
buildings containing a Group H-5 occupancy. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a local
alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. Manual fire alarm systems shall be
designed and installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1803.12 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in accordance
with this section, Section 2704.9 and Section 2705.4.4. The maximum allowable quantity per
control area provisions of Section 2704.1 shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required
for HPM.
1803.12.1 Where required. Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in the areas
indicated in Sections 1803.12.1.1 through 1803.12.1.3.
250
1803.12.1.1 Service corridors. An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided
in service corridors, with at least one alarm device in the service corridor.
1803.12.1.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Emergency alarms for exit
access corridors and exit enclosures shall comply with the requirements of Section
2705.4.4.
1803.12.1.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for
liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with the requirements of
Section 2704.9.
1803.12.2 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm
manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as
emergency alarm-initiating devices.
1803.12.3 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency alarm system shall sound a local
alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.
1803.13 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas detection system shall be
provided for HPM gases when the physiological warning properties of the gas are at a higher
level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1803.14 Exhaust ventilation systems for HPM. Exhaust ventilation systems and materials for
exhaust ducts utilized for the exhaust of HPM shall comply with the requirements of this section,
other applicable provisions of this code, the construction codes, including the Building Code and
the Mechanical Code.
1803.14.1 Where required. Exhaust ventilation systems shall be provided in the following
locations in accordance with this section and the construction codes, including the Building
Code:
1. Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication areas shall comply with the
requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code. Additional
manual control switches shall be provided as may be required by the commissioner.
2. Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust fumes and
vapors at workstations.
3. Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid storage rooms shall comply with
the requirements of Section 2704.3 and the construction codes, including the Building
Code and Mechanical Code.
4. HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms shall comply with the requirements
of Section 2704.3 and the construction codes, including the Building Code and the
Mechanical Code.
251
5. Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets shall comply with the requirements
of Section 2703.8.6.2. The gas cabinet ventilation system is allowed to connect to a
workstation ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing highly
toxic or toxic gases shall additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 37.
6. Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures shall comply with
the requirements of Section 2703.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures
containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall additionally comply with the requirements
of Chapter 37.
7. Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall comply with the requirements of
Section 2703.8.4.2. Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic
gases shall additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 37.
1803.14.2 Penetrations. Exhaust ducts penetrating fire barrier assemblies shall be contained
in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate
fire walls. Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts.
1803.14.3 Treatment systems. Treatment systems for highly toxic and toxic gases shall
comply with the requirements of Chapter 37.
1803.15 Emergency power system. An emergency power system shall be provided in Group H5 occupancies where required by the construction codes, including the Building Code. The
emergency power system shall be designed to supply power automatically to required electrical
systems when the normal supply system is interrupted.
1803.15.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power shall be provided for electrically
operated equipment and connected control circuits as required by Section 415.9.10.1 of the
Building Code or this code.
SECTION FC 1804
STORAGE
1804.1 General. Hazardous materials shall be stored in accordance with this section, Section
1803 and other applicable provisions of this code.
1804.2 Fabrication areas. Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within approved or
listed storage cabinets, gas cabinets or within a workstation. Flammable and combustible liquid
storage cabinets shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 34. Hazardous materials storage
cabinets shall comply with the requirements of Section 2703.8.7. Gas cabinets shall comply with
the requirements of Section 2703.8.6. Gas cabinets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall
additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 37. Workstations shall comply with the
requirements of Section 1805.2.2.
1804.2.1 Maximum aggregate quantities. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials
stored, handled and used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth
in Table 1804.2.1.
252
Exception: Fabrication areas containing quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding
the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Chapters 27 and 34.
TABLE 1804.2.1
a
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5
HAZARD CATEGORY
PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS
Combustible dust
Combustible fiber
Loose
Baled
Combustible liquid
Class II
Class IIIA
Class IIIB
Combination Class I, II and IIIA
Cryogenic gas
Flammable
Oxidizing
Explosives
Flammable gas
Gaseous
Liquefied
Flammable liquid
Class IA
Class IB
Class IC
Combination Class IA, IB and IC
Combination Class I, II and IIIA
Flammable solid
Organic peroxide
Unclassified detonable
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V
Oxidizing gas
Gaseous
Liquefied
Combination of Gaseous and
Liquefied
Oxidizer
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Combination oxidizer Class 1, 2, 3
Pyrophoric
Unstable reactive
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Water reactive
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS
Corrosives
Highly toxics
Toxics
SOLIDS
(pounds/square foot)
LIQUIDS
(gallons/square foot)
GAS
(SCF/square foot)
Note b
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Note b
Note b
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.01
0.02
Not Limited
0.04
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Note b
Note b
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.0025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.04
Not Applicable
Not
Applicable
0.001
Note b
Note b
0.025
0.1
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Note c
1.25
Note b
Note c
Note c
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
1.25
1.25
1.25
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Note b
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Note b
Note b
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.00125
Notes c and d
Note b
0.025
0.1
Not Limited
Note b
0.0025
0.01
Not Limited
Note b
Note b
Note b
Not Limited
Note b
0.25
Not Limited
0.00125
0.025
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Note c
Note c
253
Not
Applicable
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 0.025 L/m2, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.
b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables
2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2).
c. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 SCF.
d. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.8.2.
1804.2.2 Maximum quantities of HPM. The maximum quantities of HPM stored in a single
fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area
established by Chapters 27 and 34.
1804.3 Storage rooms. The storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Chapters 27
and 34 shall be in a room complying with the requirements of the construction codes, including
the Building Code, and this code for a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room as
appropriate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall comply with
the requirements of Chapter 27 and other applicable provisions of this code.
1804.3.1 Separation of incompatible hazardous materials. Incompatible hazardous
materials in storage shall be separated from each other in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
SECTION FC 1805
HANDLING AND USE
1805.1 General. Hazardous materials shall be handled and used in accordance with this section,
Section 1803 and other applicable provisions of this code.
1805.2 Fabrication areas. Hazardous production materials located in fabrication areas shall be
within approved or listed storage cabinets, gas cabinets or within a workstation, in accordance
with Chapter 27.
1805.2.1 Maximum aggregate quantities. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials
in a single fabrication area shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1804.2.1 and
1804.2.2, and Table 1804.2.1. The quantity of HPM in use at a workstation shall not exceed
the quantities listed in Table 1805.2.1.
254
TABLE 1805.2.1
e
MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATION
HPM CLASSIFICATION
Flammable, highly toxic,
pyrophoric and toxic combined
Flammable
STATE
MAXIMUM QUANTITY
Gas
3 containers
Liquid
Solid
Gas
Liquid
15 gallonsa, b, c
5 poundsb, c
3 containers
Use-Open System
25 gallonsa, c
Use-Closed System:
150 gallonsa,c,f
20 poundsb, c
15 gallonsa, b
5 poundsb
3 containers
12 gallonsa. b, c
20 poundsb, c
0.5 gallond
See Table 1804.2.1
15 gallonsa, b, c
5 poundsb, c
0.5 gallonb, c
5 poundsb, c
0.5 gallond
See Table 1804.2.1
Corrosive
Highly toxic
Oxidizer
Pyrophoric
Toxic
Unstable reactive Class 3
Water-reactive Class 3
Solid
Liquid
Solid
Gas
Liquid
Solid
Liquid
Solid
Liquid
Solid
Liquid
Solid
Liquid
Solid
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. DOT shipping containers with capacities of greater than 5.3 gallons shall not be located within a workstation.
b. Maximum allowable quantities may be increased 100 percent for closed systems operations. When Note c applies, the quantities increased may
be as set forth in both notes.
c. Quantities may be increased 100 percent when workstations are internally protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system complying with
the requirements of Chapter 9. When Note b applies, the quantities increased may be as set forth in both notes. When Note f applies, the
maximum increase authorized by both Notes c and f shall not exceed 100 percent.
d. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system.
e. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM.
f. Quantities may be increased 100 percent for nonflammable, noncombustible corrosive liquids when the materials of construction for
workstations are listed or approved for use without internal fire extinguishing system protection. When Note c applies, the maximum increase
authorized by both Notes c and f shall not exceed 100 percent.
1805.2.2 Workstations. Workstations in fabrication areas shall be constructed of materials
compatible with the materials stored and used at the workstation. The portion of the
workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM gases and flammable liquids shall be
noncombustible and, if of metal, shall not be less than 0.0478-inch (1.2mm) (18 gauge) steel.
1805.2.2.1 Protection of vessels. Vessels containing HPM located in or connected to a
workstation shall be protected from physical damage and shall not project from the
workstation. Hazardous gases and liquid vessels located within a workstation shall be
protected from seismic forces in an approved manner in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Building Code. Protection for HPM compressed gases shall
additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 30.
1805.2.2.2 Drainage and containment for HPM liquids. Each workstation utilizing
HPM liquids shall be provided with all of the following:
1. Drainage piping systems connected to a compatible system for disposition of such
liquids.
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2. The work surface provided with a slope or other means for directing spilled
materials to the containment or drainage system.
3. An approved means of containing or directing spilled or leaked liquids to the
drainage system.
1805.2.2.3 Clearances. Workstations where HPM is used shall be provided with
horizontal servicing clearances of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) for electrical equipment,
gas container connections and similar hazardous conditions. These clearances shall apply
only to normal operational procedures and not to repair or maintenance-related work.
1805.3 Handling. The handling of hazardous materials shall comply with the requirements of
this section and other applicable provisions of this code.
1805.3.1 Exit corridors access and exit enclosures. Exit access corridors and exit
enclosures shall not contain HPM except as permitted for exit access corridors by the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
1805.3.2 Reserved.
1805.3.3 Service corridors. A service corridor shall be provided where it is necessary to
move HPM during handling from a liquid storage room, HPM room, gas room or from the
outdoors to the perimeter wall of a fabrication area. Service corridors shall be designed and
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
1805.3.4 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks used to move HPM during handling in exit
access corridors and exit enclosures shall comply with the requirements of Section
2703.10.3.
1805.3.4.1 Identification. Carts and trucks shall be marked to indicate the contents.
CHAPTER 19
LUMBER YARDS AND WOOD WASTE MATERIALS
SECTION FC 1901
GENERAL
1901.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the manufacture, storage and handling of lumber, wood
products and wood waste material.
1901.2 Permit. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
1901.3 General. Lumber and wood waste materials shall be stored and handled in accordance
with this chapter. Facilities used for such purposes shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with this chapter.
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1901.4 Manufacturing prohibited. The manufacture of lumber, including plywood and other
manufactured wood sheets, from trees and other natural wood materials, is prohibited, except as
approved by the commissioner.
SECTION FC 1902
DEFINITIONS
1902.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chapter, for the purposes of this chapter
and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown in Chapter 2 or elsewhere in this
code.
SECTION FC 1903
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1903.1 Open yards. Open yards required by the construction codes, including the Building
Code, shall be maintained around structures.
1903.2 Reserved.
1903.3 Reserved.
1903.4 Reserved.
1903.5 Control of ignition sources. Sources of ignition shall be controlled or protected in
accordance with Chapter 3 and Sections 1903.5.1 and 1903.5.3.
1903.5.1 Hot work. Hot work shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 26.
1903.5.2 Reserved.
1903.5.3 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in a lumber yard or wood waste material
facility.
SECTION FC 1904
THROUGH AND INCLUDING
SECTION1907
RESERVED
SECTION FC 1908
OUTDOOR STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND OTHER WOOD WASTE MATERIALS
1908.1 General. Wood chips and other wood waste materials shall be stored and handled in
accordance with this section.
1908.2 Storage areas. Storage areas shall be level and on solid ground or other all-weather
surface. Storage areas shall be thoroughly cleaned before transferring wood products to the area.
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1908.3 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) in height, 150 feet (45 720 mm) in
width and 250 feet (76 200 mm) in length.
Exception: The commissioner may authorize increased pile sizes provided that adequate fire
safety is ensured by installing additional fire protection in accordance with Chapter 9 and the
construction codes, including the Building Code. The increase shall be based upon the
capabilities of the system installed.
1908.4 Pile separation. Piles shall be separated from adjacent piles by approved fire apparatus
access roads.
1908.5 Combustible waste. The storage of wood chips or other wood waste materials, the
accumulation and handling of combustible materials, the control of vegetation and the disposal
of combustible waste shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 3.
1908.6 Pile protection. Piles of wood chips or other wood waste materials shall be monitored by
an approved means to measure internal temperatures within the piles. Internal pile temperatures
shall be measured and recorded weekly. Records shall be kept on file at the facility and made
available for inspection by any representative of the department.
1908.7 Reserved.
1908.8 Fire protection. The commissioner may require that a yard hydrant system and/or
monitor nozzles connected to a fixed water supply be installed upon the premises where the
facility arrangement, pile arrangement, pile heights, number of piles or total volume of piles
would hamper the effectiveness of hose streams to control or extinguish a fire. Portable fire
extinguishers in compliance with the requirements of Section 906 and with a minimum rating of
4-A:60-B:C shall be readily available throughout the premises.
1908.9 Material-handling equipment. Approved material-handling equipment shall be
available for moving wood chips and other wood waste materials during firefighting operations.
SECTION FC 1909
OUTDOOR STORAGE OF FINISHED LUMBER PRODUCTS
1909.1 General. Finished lumber products shall be stored in accordance with this section.
1909.2 Size of piles. Outdoor lumber storage shall be arranged to form stable piles with a
maximum height of 20 feet (6096 mm). Piles shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m3) in
volume.
1909.3 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Section
503 and the construction codes, including the Building Code, shall be located so that a maximum
grid system unit of 50 feet by 150 feet (15 240 mm by 45 720 mm) is established.
1909.4 Security. Permanent outdoor lumber storage areas shall be surrounded with an approved
fence. Fences shall be a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
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1909.5 Fire protection. The commissioner may require that the yard hydrant system specified in
Section 508.2.3 to include monitor nozzles connected to the fixed water supply where the facility
arrangement, pile arrangement, pile heights, number of piles or total volume of piles would
hamper the effectiveness of hose streams to control or extinguish a fire. Portable fire
extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906 for extra-high hazards and
located so that the travel distance to the nearest portable fire extinguisher does not exceed 75 feet
(22 860 mm).
CHAPTER 20
MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS
SECTION FC 2001
GENERAL
2001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern facilities and processes where flammable and
combustible liquids are used for the manufacture of organic coatings, other than facilities and
processes using nonflammable coatings and operations applying coating materials.
2001.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2001.3 Maintenance. Service equipment within a building, structure or premises shall be
maintained in accordance with this code and NFPA 35.
2001.4 General. Organic coating manufacturing facilities and processes shall be designed,
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter.
2001.5 Prohibited organic coatings. It shall be unlawful to use nitrocellulose in the
manufacture of an organic coating.
SECTION FC 2002
DEFINITIONS
2002.1 Definition. The following term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as alkyd, acrylic or oil, and
flammable and combustible liquids, such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, which, when
spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protective and decorative finish.
SECTION FC 2003
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
2003.1 Building design. Manufacturing of organic coatings shall be conducted only in buildings
or structures that do not have pits, basements or other areas below grade.
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2003.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations and operations incidental to or
connected with organic coating manufacturing shall not be located in buildings having other
occupancies.
2003.2.1 Location restrictions. It shall be unlawful to manufacture organic coatings in any
building that is located within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a building occupied as a multiple
dwelling, school, hospital, theater, or other place of assembly.
2003.3 Firefighting access. Organic coating manufacturing operations shall be accessible from
at least one side for the purpose of fire control. Approved aisles shall be maintained for the
unobstructed movement of personnel and fire suppression equipment.
2003.4 Fire protection systems. It shall be unlawful to manufacture an organic coating in any
building unless the building is protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system. Fire
protection systems shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained, including performing
all required tests and inspections, in accordance with Chapter 9 and the Building Code.
2003.5 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying
with the requirements of Section 906 for extra hazard shall be provided in organic coating areas.
2003.6 Open flames. Open flames and open-flame devices are prohibited in areas where
flammable vapor-air mixtures exist.
2003.7 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in any organic coating manufacturing facility.
2003.8 Power equipment. Power-operated equipment and industrial trucks shall be of a type
approved for the location.
2003.9 Tank maintenance. The cleaning of tanks that have contained flammable or combustible
liquids shall be performed under the supervision of a person trained in and knowledgeable about
the fire and explosion potential.
2003.9.1 Repairs. Where necessary to make repairs involving hot work, the work shall be
conducted in accordance with Chapter 26.
2003.9.2 Reserved.
2003.10 Drainage. Drainage shall be provided to direct flammable and combustible liquid
leakage and fire protection water to an approved location away from the building, any other
structure, storage area or adjoining premises.
2003.11 Alarm system. An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
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SECTION FC 2004
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTION
2004.1 Wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be designed, installed,
operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter and the Electrical Code.
2004.2 Hazardous locations. Where Class I liquids are exposed to the air, the facility, including
all equipment and the ventilation system, shall be designed in a manner that limits Class I,
Division 1, locations to the following:
1. Piping trenches.
2. Within the equipment.
3. The immediate vicinity of pumps or equipment locations, such as dispensing stations, open
centrifuges, plate and frame filters, opened vacuum filters, change cans and the surfaces of
open equipment. The immediate vicinity shall include a zone extending from the vapor
liberation point 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally in all directions and vertically from the floor
to a level 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest point of vapor liberation.
2004.2.1 Other locations. Locations within the confines of the manufacturing room where
Class I liquids are handled shall be Class I, Division 2, except locations indicated in Section
2004.2.
2004.2.2 Ordinary equipment. Ordinary electrical equipment, including switchgear, is
prohibited except where installed in a room maintained under positive pressure with respect
to the hazardous area. The air or other media utilized for pressurization shall be obtained
from a source that will not cause any amount or type of flammable vapor to be introduced
into the room.
2004.3 Bonding. In any area of the facility in which an ignitable mixture may be present in the
atmosphere, equipment, including, but not limited to, tanks, machinery and piping, shall be
bonded and connected to a ground.
2004.3.1 Piping. Electrically isolated sections of metallic piping or equipment shall be
grounded or bonded to the other grounded portions of the system.
2004.3.2 Vehicles. Cargo tanks loaded or unloaded through open connections shall be
grounded and bonded to the receiving system.
2004.3.3 Containers. Where a flammable mixture is transferred from one portable container
to another, a bond shall be provided between the two containers, and one shall be grounded.
2004.4 Ground. Metal framing of buildings shall be grounded with resistance of not more than 5
ohms.
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SECTION FC 2005
PROCESS STRUCTURES
2005.1 Design. Process structures shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
2005.2 Fire apparatus access. Fire apparatus access complying with the requirements of
Section 503 shall be provided for the purpose of fire control to at least one side of organic
coating manufacturing operations.
2005.3 Drainage. Drainage facilities shall be provided in accordance with Section 2003.10
where topographical conditions are such that flammable and combustible liquids are capable of
flowing from the organic coating manufacturing operation so as to constitute a fire hazard to
other premises.
2005.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in areas subject to potential
deflagration hazards as set forth in NFPA 35. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance
with Section 911.
2005.5 Ventilation. Buildings in which Class I liquids are processed or handled shall be
ventilated at a rate of not less than [1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.00508 m3/s ⋅ m2)]
of solid floor area. Ventilation shall be accomplished by exhaust fans that take suction at floor
levels and discharge to a safe location outdoors. Noncontaminated intake air shall be introduced
in such a manner that all portions of solid floor areas are provided with continuous uniformly
distributed air movement.
2005.6 Heating. Heating provided in hazardous areas shall be by indirect means. Ignition
sources such as open flames or electrical heating elements, except as provided for in Section
2004, are prohibited within the building.
SECTION FC 2006
PROCESS MILLS AND KETTLES
2006.1 Mills. Mills, operating with close clearances, which process flammable and heat-sensitive
materials shall be located in a detached building or in a noncombustible structure without other
occupancies. The amount of flammable material brought into the area shall not be more than the
amount required for a batch.
2006.2 Mixers. Mixers shall be of the enclosed type or, where of the open type, shall be
provided with properly fitted covers. Where flow is by gravity, a shutoff valve shall be installed
as close as practical to the mixer, and a control valve shall be provided near the end of the fill
pipe.
2006.3 Open kettles. Open kettles shall be located in outdoor areas provided with a protective
roof; in a separate structure of noncombustible construction; or separated from other areas by a
noncombustible wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours.
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2006.4 Closed kettles. Contact-heated kettles containing solvents shall be equipped with safety
devices that, in case of a fire, will turn off the process heat, turn on the cooling medium and
inject inert gas into the kettle.
2006.4.1 Vaporizer location. The vaporizer section of heat-transfer systems that heat closed
kettles containing solvents shall be remotely located.
2006.5 Kettle controls. The kettle and thin-down tank shall be instrumented, controlled and
interlocked so that any failure of the controls will not result in an unsafe condition. The kettle
shall be provided with a pressure-rupture disc in addition to the primary vent. The vent piping
from the rupture disc shall be of minimum length and shall discharge to an approved location.
The thin-down tank shall be adequately vented. Thinning operations shall be provided with a
vapor removal system capable of ensuring a safe atmosphere.
SECTION FC 2007
PROCESS PIPING
2007.1 Design. All piping, valves and fittings shall be designed for the working pressures and
structural stresses to which the piping, valves and fittings will be subjected, and shall be of steel
or other material approved for the service intended.
2007.2 Valves and fittings. Valves shall be of an indicating type. Terminal valves on remote
pumping systems shall be of the dead-man type, shutting off both the pump and the flow of
solvent. Valves and fittings shall not be constructed of cast iron.
2007.3 Support. Piping systems shall be supported and protected against physical damage.
Piping shall be pitched to avoid unintentional trapping of liquids, or approved drains shall be
provided.
2007.4 Connectors. Approved flexible connectors shall be installed where vibration exists or
frequent movement is necessary. Hoses at dispensing stations shall be of an approved type.
2007.5 Tests. Before being placed in service, all piping shall be free of leaks when tested for a
minimum of 30 minutes at not less than 1.5 times the working pressure or a minimum of 5
pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (35 kPa) at the highest point in the system.
SECTION FC 2008
RAW MATERIALS IN PROCESS AREAS
2008.1 Reserved.
2008.2 Organic peroxides. Organic peroxides brought into the process area shall be in the
original shipping container. When in the process area, the organic peroxide shall not be placed in
locations exposed to ignition sources, heat, mechanical shocks or flammable liquids, except that
organic peroxide may be exposed to flammable liquid during raw material processing.
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SECTION FC 2009
RAW MATERIALS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS
2009.1 General. The storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids in process
areas shall be in accordance with Chapter 34. The storage, handling and use of organic peroxides
shall be in accordance with Chapter 39 and the storage, handling and use of oxidizers shall be in
accordance with Chapter 40.
2009.2 Tank storage. Tanks for the storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be
installed in accordance with Chapter 34. Process equipment storing or using flammable or
combustible liquids and storage in quantities necessary for maintaining the operation is allowed
in the process area.
2009.3 Loading and unloading. Tank car and cargo tank loading and unloading stations for
Class I liquids shall be separated from the process area, other facility structures, the nearest lot
line, public street or private road by a minimum distance in accordance with Chapter 34.
2009.3.1 Loading. Loading and unloading structures and platforms for flammable and
combustible liquids shall be designed and installed in accordance with Chapter 34.
2009.3.2 Safety. Tank cars and cargo tanks for flammable and combustible liquids shall be
loaded and unloaded in accordance with Chapter 34.
2009.4 Reserved.
2009.5 Organic peroxide storage. The storage of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with
Chapter 39.
2009.5.1 Size. The size of the package containing organic peroxide shall be selected so that,
as nearly as practical, full packages are utilized at one time. Spilled peroxide shall be
promptly removed and disposed of lawfully.
2009.6 Finished products. Finished products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be
stored outdoors, in a separate building, or in a room separate from the process area, in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code. The storage of finished
products shall be in tanks or closed containers in accordance with Chapter 34.
CHAPTER 21
INDUSTRIAL FURNACES
SECTION FC 2101
GENERAL
2101.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
industrial furnaces used for commercial and industrial processing of materials.
2101.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
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2101.3 General. Industrial furnaces shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in
accordance with this chapter, NFPA 86, and the construction codes, including the Fuel Gas Code
and the Mechanical Code.
SECTION FC 2102
DEFINITIONS
2102.1 Definitions. The following words shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
FURNACE. A compartment, receptacle, enclosed chamber or structure that is capable of being
heated to a high temperature in order to heat the contents thereof. Furnaces may be heated by
internal or external sources, including gas burners, oil burners, electrical elements, infrared
lamps, induction heaters and steam radiation systems, regardless of whether denominated as an
oven or furnace.
Industrial furnaces shall be classified as follows:
CLASS A. A furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at or near atmospheric
pressure and that presents a potential explosion or fire hazard if flammable volatiles or
combustible materials are processed or heated in the furnace. Such flammable volatiles or
combustible materials include those originating from paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from
finishing processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and impregnated materials; the substrate
material; wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging materials; or polymerization or
other molecular rearrangements.
CLASS B. A furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric
pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combustible materials being heated.
CLASS C. A furnace with any type of heating system and a special atmosphere supply system
that is potentially hazardous due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being used for
treatment of material in process, including integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath
furnaces.
CLASS D. A furnace with any type of heating system that operates at temperatures from above
ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) and at pressures normally below atmospheric, including
special processing atmosphere furnaces.
SECTION FC 2103
LOCATION
2103.1 Ventilation. Enclosed rooms, basements or other areas below grade containing industrial
furnaces shall be provided with combustion air in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code, and with ventilation in accordance with
the Mechanical Code.
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2103.2 Location. Industrial furnaces and heaters shall be located such that in the event of fire or
explosion resulting from overheating or from the escape of fuel gas or fuel oil, damage to the
building and injury to persons is minimized.
2103.3 Ignition source. Industrial furnaces shall be located so as not to pose an ignition hazard
to flammable vapors or mists or combustible dusts that may be present as a result of a
manufacturing operation or other lawful use and occupancy of the building.
2103.4 Temperatures. Roofs and floors of furnaces shall be insulated and ventilated to prevent
temperatures at combustible ceilings and floors from exceeding 160°F (71°C).
SECTION FC 2104
FUEL PIPING
2104.1 Fuel-gas piping. Fuel-gas piping serving industrial furnaces shall be designed and
installed in accordance with the Fuel Gas Code. Piping for other fuel sources shall comply with
the requirements of this section.
2104.2 Shutoff valves. Each industrial furnace shall be provided with an approved manual fuel
shutoff valve in accordance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code and the
Fuel Gas Code.
2104.2.1 Fuel supply lines. Valves for fuel supply lines shall be located within 6 feet (1829
mm) of the appliance served.
Exception: When approved and the valve is located in the same general area as the
appliance served.
2104.3 Valve position. The design of manual fuel shutoff valves shall incorporate a permanent
feature that visually indicates the open or closed position of the valve. Manual fuel shutoff valves
shall not be equipped with removable handles or wrenches unless the handle or wrench can only
be installed parallel with the fuel line when the valve is in the open position.
SECTION FC 2105
INTERLOCKS
2105.1 Shut down. Interlocks shall be provided for Class A furnaces so that conveyors or
sources of flammable or combustible materials shall shut down if either the exhaust or
recirculation air supply fails.
SECTION FC 2106
FIRE PROTECTION
2106.1 Required protection. Class A and B furnaces that contain, or are utilized for the
processing of, combustible materials shall be protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system
complying with the requirements of Chapter 9.
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2106.2 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. A fixed fire extinguishing system shall be provided
for Class C or D furnaces to protect against such hazards as overheating, spillage of molten salts
or metals, quench tanks, ignition of hydraulic oil and escape of fuel.
2106.3 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers complying with the requirements
of Section 906 shall be provided not closer than 15 feet (4572 mm) or a maximum of 50 feet (15
240 mm) from each furnace or in accordance with NFPA 10.
SECTION FC 2107
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
2107.1 Furnace operation and maintenance instructions. The furnace manufacturer’s
complete installation, inspection, testing, operation and maintenance instructions shall be
available on the premises to those individuals responsible for the operation, maintenance and
supervision of the furnace.
2107.2 Furnace nameplate. The following data for Class A furnaces shall be furnished on the
manufacturer’s nameplate:
1. The solvent used.
2. The number of gallons (liters) used per batch or per hour of solvent entering the furnace.
3. The required purge time.
4. The oven operating temperature.
5. The exhaust blower rating for the number of gallons (liters) of solvent per hour or batch at
the maximum operating temperature, or with regard to low-oxygen furnaces, the maximum
allowable oxygen concentration.
2107.3 Training. The operation and maintenance of furnaces shall be performed by a person
knowledgeable and trained in the operation and maintenance of such furnaces.
2107.4 Equipment maintenance. Equipment shall be maintained in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.
CHAPTER 22
MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES
SECTION FC 2201
GENERAL
2201.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, operation and maintenance of
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities,
CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages.
2201.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
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2201.3 Design and installation documents. Design and installation documents shall be
submitted to the department for review and approval prior to the installation, alteration, repair or
construction of automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities, marine liquid motor fueldispensing facilities and CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities in accordance with Section 105.4.
2201.3.1 Compliance with other codes. The installation or alteration of a liquid motor fuel
storage and dispensing system shall not be approved by the department unless the design and
installation documents demonstrate that the proposed work complies with the regulations of the
United States Environmental Protection Agency, as set forth in 40 CFR Part 280, and the
regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, as set forth in 6
NYCRR Parts 612, 613 and 614.
2201.4 General. All motor fuel-dispensing facilities, CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities and
repair garages shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this
chapter, Chapter 34, and the construction codes, including the Building Code, the Fuel Gas Code
and the Mechanical Code, and, as applicable, NFPA 30A.
2201.5 Electrical. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be suitable for the locations in which
they are installed and shall comply with the requirements of Section 605, NFPA 30A and the
Electrical Code, as applicable. Upon request, proof of compliance with the Electrical Code shall
be filed with the department.
2201.6 Heat-producing appliances. Heat-producing appliances shall be suitable for the
locations in which they are installed and shall comply with the requirements of the construction
codes, including the Building Code, the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code, and NFPA
30A, as applicable.
2201.7 Supervision. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel and CNG motor fuel at motor fuel
dispensing facilities shall be conducted by or under the supervision of a certified attendant, who
shall be responsible to ensure that dispensing operations are conducted and the facility is
maintained in accordance with this chapter, as follows:
1. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at self service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
2. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
3. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at full service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
4. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at self service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
5. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
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6. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at full service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
7. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at fleet marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
8. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a
certified attendant at full service marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
2201.8 Certificate of license. Persons who install, alter, test or repair any automotive or marine
liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing systems shall hold a certificate of license or shall be
employed by and perform such duties under the general supervision of a person holding such
certificate.
2201.9 Records of inspections and testing. Records of all inspections and testing required by this
chapter shall be kept in a bound log book or other approved recordkeeping, maintained on the
premises for a minimum of 4 years, and made available for inspection by any representative of the
department.
SECTION FC 2202
DEFINITIONS
2202.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. Any building,
structure or premises upon which or wherein, liquid motor fuel is stored and dispensed from a
liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing system into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or
motorcycles.
CERTIFIED ATTENDANT. A person holding a certificate of fitness for the supervision of an
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility or
automotive CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility.
CNG. Compressed natural gas.
CNG MOTOR FUEL. CNG used as fuel in the operation of motor vehicles.
CNG MOTOR FUEL SYSTEM. A system comprised of compressors, storage containers,
dispensers, piping, valves and ancillary equipment, that compresses natural gas into CNG, and
stores and/or dispenses CNG motor fuel.
CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. Any building, structure or premises upon
which, or wherein, CNG motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed from a CNG motor fuel system
into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or watercraft.
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DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device mounted above a
dispensing area, typically within a canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead
hose reel.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline or other flammable liquids used as fuel in
the operation of motor vehicles, motorcycles, watercraft and aircraft.
FLEET MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A marine liquid
motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed into the fuel
tank of watercraft owned or operated by or on behalf of the owner of the facility, and where such
dispensing operations are conducted by persons employed by or otherwise working for the owner
of the facility.
FLEET CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. Any CNG motor fuel-dispensing
facility wherein CNG motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles
or watercraft owned or operated by or on behalf of the owner of the facility itself, and where
dispensing operations are conducted by persons employed by or otherwise working for the owner
of the facility.
FLEET AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. An
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is stored and/or
dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or motorcycles owned or operated by or on behalf
of the owner of the facility, and where dispensing operations are conducted by persons employed
by or otherwise working for the owner of the facility.
FULL SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. An
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is dispensed into the
fuel tank of motor vehicles or motorcycles by a certified attendant or, when under the personal
supervision of a certified attendant, by persons employed by or otherwise working for the owner
of the facility.
FULL SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A CNG motor fueldispensing facility wherein CNG is dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or watercraft
by a certified attendant or, when under the personal supervision of a certified attendant, by
persons employed by or otherwise working for the owner of the facility.
FULL SERVICE MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A marine
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is dispensed into the fuel tank of
watercraft by a certified attendant or, when under the personal supervision of a certified
attendant, by persons employed by or otherwise working for the owner of the facility.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of
methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other
components normally found in natural gas.
LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline, diesel fuel or other flammable or combustible liquids used
as fuel in the operation of motor vehicles, motorcycles, watercraft and aircraft.
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LIQUID MOTOR FUEL STORAGE AND DISPENSING SYSTEM. A liquid motor fuel
storage tank and all motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment associated with such tank,
including the tank, piping, valves, fill connection catchment basins, vent lines, pumps,
dispensing devices and any other ancillary equipment.
MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. Any building, structure or
premises, whether on shore, piers, docks or wharves, upon which or wherein, liquid motor fuel is
stored and/or dispensed from a liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing system into the fuel
tanks of watercraft.
MOTOR VEHICLE. A vehicle or other conveyance having more than 2 running wheels and
using liquid motor fuel or flammable gas as fuel for generating motive power, except such
vehicles as have a storage tank with a maximum capacity for less than 2 gallons (7.6 L) of liquid
motor fuel or flammable gas that generates energy that is equivalent to the energy generated by 2
gallons (7.6 L) of gasoline.
REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing
motor vehicles or motorcycles.
SELF-SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. An
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility where liquid motor fuel is dispensed from a
liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing system into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or
motorcycles by customers of the facility.
SELF-SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A CNG motor fueldispensing facility wherein CNG motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed from a CNG motor fuel
system into the fuel tank of motor vehicles by customers of the facility.
TANK, PROTECTED ABOVEGROUND. An atmospheric aboveground tank listed in
accordance with UL 2085 or equivalent standard that is provided with integral secondary
containment, protection from physical damage, and an insulation system intended to reduce the
heat transferred to the primary tank when the tank is exposed to a high intensity liquid pool fire.
SECTION FC 2203
AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY
LOCATION OF DISPENSING DEVICES
2203.1 Location of dispensing devices. Dispensing devices at automotive liquid motor fueldispensing facilities shall be located as set forth in Sections 2203.1.1 and 2203.1.2.
2203.1.1 Outdoor dispensing devices. When installed outdoors, dispensing devices shall be
located as follows:
1. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines and building or structure openings.
2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings or structures having combustible exterior
wall surfaces or buildings or structures having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces
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that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings or structures
having combustible overhangs.
Exception: Canopies constructed in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code, providing weather protection for the motor fuel
dispensers.
3. Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility.
4. Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet
(1524 mm) of building or structure openings.
5. Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.
6. Twenty five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest subway grating, entrance or exit.
2203.1.2 Indoor dispensing devices. When installed inside a building or structure, the
dispensing area shall be located at street level, with no dispenser located more than 50 feet
(15 240 mm) from an exit or entrance to the building or structure used by motor vehicles.
2203.2 Emergency disconnect switches. An approved, clearly identified and readily accessible
emergency disconnect switch shall be provided at an approved location, to immediately shut
down the transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the event of a fuel spill or other emergency. An
emergency disconnect switch for exterior fuel dispensers shall be located within 100 feet (30 480
mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, the fuel dispensers. For interior fueldispensing operations, the emergency disconnect switch shall be installed at an approved
location. An approved sign shall be posted on or immediately adjacent to such devices and shall
read: EMERGENCY FUEL SHUTOFF. Such emergency disconnect switches shall be of a type
that is reset manually.
SECTION FC 2204
AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY
DISPENSING OPERATIONS
2204.1 Supervision of dispensing. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel at automotive liquid
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be conducted under the supervision of a certified attendant
as set forth in Section 2201.7.
2204.2 Self-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Self-service
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections
2204.2.1 through 2204.2.7. The certified attendant’s primary function shall be to supervise,
observe and monitor the dispensing of fuel. The certified attendant shall prevent the dispensing
of fuel into containers that do not comply with the requirements of Section 2204.4.1, control
sources of ignition, take immediate action upon an accidental spill or release, be ready to use a
portable fire extinguisher, and activate the fixed fire extinguishing system. Nothing in this
section shall be construed to prohibit a certified attendant from engaging in other activities so
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long as such activities do not interfere with the certified attendant’s ability to supervise, observe
and monitor the dispensing of fuel and other requirements of this chapter.
2204.2.1 Self-service dispensers. Approved self-service devices, equipment and systems
such as, but not limited to, card- operated and remote-preset types, are allowed at automotive
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. The certified attendant shall set the dispensing devices
in the “off” position when not in use if such dispensing device can be activated without the
certified attendant’s knowledge.
2204.2.2 Emergency controls. Approved emergency controls shall be provided in
accordance with Section 2203.2.
2204.2.3 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously
posted in approved locations on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the
emergency controls required by Section 2204.2.2.
2204.2.4 Monitoring of dispensing. A control area shall be located on the premises of every
self-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. The control area shall be an
interior or exterior enclosure to which the public has no access. The certified attendant shall
be present within the control area while dispensing operations are conducted. The control
area shall be designed and located so that the certified attendant stationed therein shall have a
full, unobstructed clear view of dispensing operations, except that mirrors and/or an approved
closed-circuit television installation may be provided to afford the certified attendant a clear
view of dispensing operations when the view from the control area is partially or temporarily
obstructed. For purposes of this section, the “clear” view provided by a closed-circuit
television installation shall mean that the image on the monitor shall be of such brightness
and resolution as to allow ready identification of individuals and easy observation of
activities at all times of day. Properly labeled manual switches that activate the fire
extinguishing system and electrically disconnect the liquid motor fuel dispensing pumps shall
be located adjacent to each other within the control area. A console that controls the selfservice liquid motor fuel dispensers shall be provided within the control area and within 5
feet (1524 mm) of the manual switches.
2204.2.5 Communications. A two-way voice communication system shall be installed to
provide contact between the control area and each dispensing island. A telephone not
requiring a coin to operate, or other approved clearly identified means to notify the
department, shall be provided at the facility in an approved location.
2204.2.6 Control area sign. A durable metal sign that reads as follows shall be posted in
plain view within the control area:
Emergency Procedures:
Shut off product pumps.
Direct vehicle occupants to exit vehicles and leave area immediately.
Keep all persons away from the area.
Manually activate fire extinguishing system.
Notify the Fire Department (Call 911).
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Such sign shall also indicate the department telephone number, the nearest fire alarm box
location, and the motor fuel-dispensing facility’s address, with cross-street reference.
2204.2.7 Lighting. Dispensing areas shall be well lighted whenever the facility is open for
business.
2204.3 Fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Fleet automotive liquid motor
fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2204.3.1 through
2204.3.7.
2204.3.1 General. The owner of fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall
provide, and be accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment inspection, and
maintenance.
2204.3.1.1 Supervision. The supervision of dispensing shall be in accordance with
Section 2201.7.
2204.3.2 Reserved.
2204.3.3 Emergency controls. Approved emergency controls shall be provided in
accordance with Section 2203.2.
2204.3.4 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously
posted in approved locations on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the
emergency controls required by Section 2204.3.3.
2204.3.5 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency procedures sign, in addition to
the sign required by Section 2206.12, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall
read:
IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE
1. USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF
2. ACTIVATE THE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PROTECTING THE
FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL DISPENSING AREA.
(where applicable) FIRE SUPPRESSION EMERGENCY CONTROL LOCATED
(indicate location)
3. NOTIFY THE FIRE DEPARTMENT (CALL 911)
FACILITY ADDRESS (indicate address, with cross street reference).
2204.3.6 Communications. A telephone not requiring a coin to operate or other approved,
clearly identified means to notify the department shall be provided at the facility in an
approved location.
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2204.3.7 Quantity limits. Dispensing equipment used at fleet automotive liquid motor fueldispensing facilities shall comply with one of the following:
1. Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted liquid motor fuel
delivery to not more than 25 gallons (95 L) and require a manual action to resume
delivery.
2. For other than flammable liquid motor fuel, the amount of liquid motor fuel being
dispensed shall be limited in quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved.
2204.4 Dispensing into portable containers. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel into portable
containers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2204.4.1 through 2204.4.4.
2204.4.1 Approved containers required. Liquid motor fuel shall not be dispensed into a
portable container unless such container is of approved material and construction, and has a
tight closure with screwed or spring-loaded cover so designed that the contents can be
dispensed without spilling. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable tanks or cargo tanks.
2204.4.1.1 Container capacity. Liquid motor fuel shall be dispensed into approved
containers with an individual capacity not greater than 2½ gallons (9.5 L).
2204.4.2 Nozzle operation. A hose nozzle valve used for dispensing liquid motor fuel into a
portable container shall be in compliance with the requirements of Section 2206.7.6 and be
manually held open during the dispensing operation.
2204.4.3 Location of containers being filled. Portable containers shall not be filled while
located inside the trunk, passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle or upon a
watercraft.
2204.4.4 Certified attendant. Only a certified attendant shall dispense liquid motor fuel into
portable containers.
2204.5 Dispensing from portable containers. No motor vehicle, motorcycle or watercraft shall
be fueled from a portable container while inside a building or structure.
2204.6 Full service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Full service automotive
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2204.6.1
through 2204.6.5.
2204.6.1 Supervision of dispensing. Dispensing of liquid motor fuel shall be in accordance
with Section 2201.7.
2204.6.2 Emergency controls. Approved emergency controls shall be provided in
accordance with Section 2204.3.3.
2204.6.3 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously
posted in approved locations on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the
emergency controls required by Section 2204.6.2.
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2204.6.4 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency procedures sign, in addition to
the sign required by Section 2206.12, shall be provided and posted in accordance with
Section 2204.3.5.
2204.6.5 Communications. A telephone not requiring a coin to operate or other approved,
clearly identified means to notify the department shall be provided at the facility in an
approved location.
2204.7 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to smoke or use or maintain an open flame in
areas where fuel is dispensed. The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during
fueling. Electrical equipment shall be installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the
Electrical Code.
2204.8 Liquid motor fuel dispensing on piers, docks or wharves. Flammable liquid motor
fuel shall not be dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles imported by ship to this country
while on any pier, dock or wharf.
SECTION FC 2205
AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY
OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
2205.1 Tank filling operations for liquid motor fuel. Delivery operations to tanks for liquid
motor fuel shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2205.1.1 through 2205.1.3 and the
applicable requirements of Chapter 34.
2205.1.1 Delivery vehicle location. Where liquid delivery to aboveground storage tanks is
accomplished by positive-pressure operation, cargo tanks shall be positioned a minimum of
15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving liquid motor fuel. During delivery, a cargo tank shall
not obstruct a public street, block motorists' view of roadways or impede the movement of
vehicles or pedestrians.
2205.1.2 Tank capacity calculation. The driver, operator or attendant of a cargo tank shall,
before making delivery to a tank, determine the unfilled, available capacity of such tank by
an approved tank level gauging device or method. A measuring stick shall not be used to
measure the contents of the tank through the fill connection line, except where there is a
direct fill connection.
2205.1.3 Tank connections. Delivery of liquid motor fuel shall be made by means of
approved liquid- and vapor-tight connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe.
Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery system, all connections required
for the safe and proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process shall be made.
Such connections shall be made liquid and vapor tight and remain connected throughout the
unloading process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during delivery.
2205.2 Equipment maintenance. Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility equipment
shall be maintained in good working order at all times in accordance with Sections 2205.2.1
through 2205.2.3.
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2205.2.1 Dispensing devices. Where maintenance to dispensing devices becomes necessary
and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following
precautions shall be taken:
1. Only persons with a certificate of license and knowledgeable in performing the
required maintenance shall perform the work.
2. Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut
off at the main electrical disconnect panel before maintenance begins.
3. The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed before
maintenance begins.
4. Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12
feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device before and during maintenance.
2205.2.2 Emergency shutoff valves. Automatic-closing emergency shutoff valves required
by Section 2206.7.4 shall be checked not less than once per year by manually tripping the
hold-open linkage.
2205.2.3 Leak detection system. The leak detection system required by Section 2206.7.7
shall be inspected monthly for proper operation and tested at least annually in accordance
with the manufacturer’s specifications to ensure proper installation and operation.
2205.3 Reserved.
2205.4 Reserved.
2205.5 Fire extinguishers. Approved portable fire extinguishers complying with the
requirements of Section 906 with a minimum rating of 40-B:C shall be provided and located
such that an extinguisher is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) but not more than 75 feet (22 860
mm) from pumps, dispensers or storage tank fill-pipe openings.
2205.6 Reserved.
2205.7 Control of brush and debris. Brush, grass, vines or other vegetation and combustible
waste shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the tank and dispensing location.
SECTION FC 2206
AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
2206.1 General. Storage of liquid motor fuel shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 except as
otherwise specified in this chapter.
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2206.2 Method of storage. Approved methods of storage for liquid motor fuel at automotive
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.2.1 through
2206.2.4.
2206.2.1 Underground tanks. The installation of underground tanks for the storage of liquid
motor fuel shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 34 except as otherwise specified in
this chapter.
2206.2.1.1 Inventory control for underground tanks. Accurate daily inventory records
shall be maintained and reconciled for underground liquid motor fuel storage tanks for
indication of possible leakage from tanks and piping. Inventory reconciliation shall be in
accordance with the regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation as set forth in 6 NYCRR Part 613. The records shall be kept at the premises
and be made available for inspection by any representative of the department. Records
shall include daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts and inventory on hand.
Where there is more than one system consisting of tanks serving separate pumps or
dispensers for a product, the reconciliation shall be maintained separately for each tank
system. A consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immediately reported to the
commissioner.
2206.2.1.2 Listing and approval. Underground liquid motor fuel storage tanks shall be
listed and approved.
2206.2.1.3 Tank design and construction. Underground liquid motor fuel storage tanks
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the following:
1. Tanks shall be completely double-walled and constructed of steel, fiberglassreinforced plastic or a combination of both materials. The secondary tank shall be
capable of containing any leakage from the primary tank.
2. Tanks shall be designed and constructed to withstand 1.5 times the maximum
operating loads and stresses, regardless of the amount of liquid motor fuel contained in
the tank. Such capabilities shall be established by buoyancy calculations and load and
stress analyses.
3. Tanks shall be designed and constructed to withstand a pressure of 15 pounds per
square inch gauge (psig)(103.4 kPa) or 1½ times the maximum anticipated static head
pressure, whichever is greater, for the primary tank and 5 pounds per square inch
gauge (psig)(34.5 kPa) for the secondary tank.
4. The capacity of each individual tank shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) of
liquid motor fuel.
2206.2.2 Prohibited aboveground storage. The storage of motor fuel in aboveground tanks
shall be prohibited as set forth in Sections 2206.2.2.1, 2206.2.2.2 and 2206.2.2.3.
2206.2.2.1 Storage of flammable liquid motor fuel. It shall be unlawful to store
flammable liquid motor fuel in aboveground tanks.
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2206.2.2.2 Storage of combustible liquid motor fuel. It shall be unlawful to store
combustible liquid motor fuel in aboveground tanks, except at a fleet liquid motor fueldispensing facility complying with the requirements of this chapter.
2206.2.2.3 Storage inside buildings. It shall be unlawful to store liquid motor fuel in
aboveground tanks within any building or structure.
2206.2.3 Aboveground tanks located outdoors, at grade. Outdoor storage of combustible
liquid motor fuel in aboveground tanks at a fleet liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility shall
comply with the requirements set forth in Sections 2206.2.3.1 through 2206.2.3.5.
2206.2.3.1 Tank design and construction. Only protected aboveground tanks shall be
used.
2206.2.3.2 Tank capacity. The capacity of each tank shall not exceed 4,000 gallons (15
140 L). Not more than a total of 4,000 gallons (15 140 L) of liquid motor fuel shall be
stored aboveground at any facility. The total storage capacity at a facility in both
aboveground and underground tanks shall not exceed 40,000 gallons (15 140 L) of liquid
motor fuel. Each tank shall have a separate fill line and a separate vent line that are
separate from the fill and vent lines of other tanks.
Exception: When approved, individual tanks may exceed 4,000 gallons (151 400 L)
but shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L).
2206.2.3.3 Tank base support. Tanks shall be placed on an approved base slab. The
surface of such base slab shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the level of the
surrounding area to permit visual inspection. Tanks shall be adequately supported and
anchored to the base slab to withstand uplifting by surface water and flooding.
2206.2.3.4 Tank connections. Tank connections shall be designed and located so as to:
1. Minimize the maneuvering necessary to position a cargo tank to make the delivery.
2. Minimize obstructing a public right of way or motorists’ view of roadways, or
impeding the movement of motor vehicles or pedestrians, during deliveries.
3. Provide connections by means of approved liquid and vapor-tight connections.
2206.2.3.5 Liquid level-indicating devices. Tanks shall be provided with an approved
liquid level-indicating device. The liquid level-indicating device shall be accessible to the
delivery operator. Liquid level indicating devices shall be designed and constructed to be
vapor-and-liquid tight.
2206.2.4 Location requirements for aboveground tanks at fleet automotive liquid motor
fuel-dispensing facilities. Tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2206.2.3 and as
follows:
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1. A minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from a subway grating, entrance or exit.
2. At a location that will not obstruct or interfere with any means of egress or department
access.
3. Tanks shall not be installed under electrical transmission lines, bridges, or public
highways.
TABLE 2206.2.3
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVEGROUND TANKS AT
FLEET MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES
CLASS OF LIQUID
AND TANK TYPE
INDIVIDUAL TANK
CAPACITY
(gallons)
MINIMUM
DISTANCE FROM
NEAREST
BUILDING
(feet)
MINIMUM
DISTANCE FROM
LOT LINE (feet)
MINIMUM
DISTANCE FROM
PUBLIC STREET
OR PRIVATE ROAD
(feet)
MINIMUM
DISTANCE
BETWEEN TANKS
(feet)
Liquid motor fuel
tanks
4000
15
15
5
3
Greater than 4000
25
25
15
3
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
2206.3 Security. Aboveground tanks for the storage of liquid motor fuel shall be safeguarded in
an approved manner from public access or unauthorized entry.
2206.4 Physical protection. Posts complying with the requirements of Section 312 or other
approved means shall be provided to protect aboveground tanks against impact by a motor
vehicle unless the tank is listed as a protected aboveground tank with vehicle impact protection.
2206.5 Secondary containment. Aboveground tanks shall be provided with diking in
accordance with Chapter 34. Diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks. The
secondary containment systems shall be monitored either visually or automatically. Enclosed
secondary containment systems shall be provided with emergency venting in accordance with
Section 2206.6.2.5.
2206.6 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for use with liquid motor fuel. The
design, fabrication, assembly, testing and inspection of piping, valves, fittings and ancillary
equipment for use with liquid motor fuel shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 except as
otherwise specified in Sections 2206.6.1 through 2206.6.3, 2206.9 and 2206.10.
2206.6.1 Protection from damage. Piping shall be located such that it is protected from
physical damage and designed to accommodate settlement, vibration, expansion or
contraction.
2206.6.2 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for aboveground tanks. Piping,
valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for aboveground tanks shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2206.6.2.1 through 2206.6.2.11.
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2206.6.2.1 Tank openings. Tank openings for aboveground tanks shall be through the
top only. There shall be no openings except those necessary to inspect, fill, empty and
vent the tank.
2206.6.2.2 Fill-pipe connections. The fill-pipe for aboveground tanks shall be provided
with a means for making a direct connection to the cargo tank’s fuel-delivery hose so that
liquid motor fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Operator
safety equipment for the filling operation shall be provided in accordance with OSHA
regulations. Where any portion of the fill-pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level
of the top of the tank, a check valve, a dry break coupling and a quick closing valve shall
be installed at the fill connection. Tank fill connections from a remote location are
prohibited.
2206.6.2.3 Overfill protection. Overfill protection shall be provided for aboveground
storage tanks. Overfill prevention devices shall be designed to withstand the pressure
generated by the cargo tank discharge pump and shall automatically shut off the flow into
the tank when the tank is not more than 95 percent full.
2206.6.2.4 Siphon prevention. An approved antisiphon method shall be provided in the
piping system to prevent flow of liquid motor fuel by siphon action.
2206.6.2.5 Emergency relief venting. Aboveground storage tanks, tank compartments
and enclosed secondary containment spaces shall be provided with emergency relief
venting in accordance with Chapter 34.
2206.6.2.6 Spill containers. Aboveground tank spill containers having a capacity of not
less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. Spill containers shall
be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve
that drains into the primary tank.
2206.6.2.7 Piping material construction. Piping shall be of a minimum Schedule 40
galvanized steel construction.
2206.6.2.8 Compatibility. Piping, fittings, components and joint compounds shall be
mutually compatible, and compatible with diesel fuel and other commonly-used
combustible liquid motor fuels, including the additives commonly used in such combustible
motor fuels. Joint compounds shall be listed and approved.
2206.6.2.9 Pressure relief devices. Where liquid motor fuel may become trapped
between shutoff valves and/or check valves, affected piping sections shall be provided
with pressure-relief devices that will discharge the pressure generated by thermal
expansion back into the tank.
2206.6.2.10 Vent piping. Each tank shall be provided with a separate unobstructed vent
line, without any trap or device that causes excessive back pressure, and shall be maintained
unobstructed at all times.
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2206.6.2.11 Vent termination. Vent outlets shall discharge outdoors and upward. The
discharge point shall be no less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjacent ground level and
no less than 15 feet (4572 mm) from the nearest building opening.
2206.6.3 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for underground tanks. Piping,
valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with the
requirements of Chapter 34 and NFPA 30A, except as otherwise provided in Sections
2206.6.3.1, 2206.6.3.2 and 2206.10.
2206.6.3.1 Piping design and construction. Piping, including vent piping, shall be of a
minimum Schedule 40 steel construction. Approved nonmetallic piping, such as fiberglassreinforced plastic or other equivalent corrosion-resistant material, may be installed
underground.
2206.6.3.2 Underground tank piping. Piping shall be installed underground, except for
the vertical riser of the vent.
2206.6.3.3 Compatibility. Piping, fittings, components and joint compounds shall be
mutually compatible, and compatible with gasoline, diesel fuel, methanol and other
commonly-used liquid motor fuels, including the additives commonly used in such liquid
motor fuels. Joint compounds shall be listed and approved.
2206.7 Fuel-dispensing systems for liquid motor fuel. The design, and installation of liquid
motor fuel-dispensing systems shall be in accordance with this section.
2206.7.1 Listed equipment. Electrical equipment, dispensers, hose, nozzles and submersible
or subsurface pumps used in fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed and approved.
2206.7.2 Fixed pumps required. Liquid motor fuel shall be transferred only from the top of
the tank by means of fixed pumps designed and equipped to allow control of the flow and
prevent leakage or accidental discharge.
2206.7.2.1 Aboveground tank dispenser. Only one vehicle may be fueled at a time.
Fuel dispensing from a location remote from the tank may be permitted when approved
by the commissioner.
2206.7.2.2 Pump sumps. Pump sumps shall be compatible with the liquid motor fuel,
liquid-tight, and accessible for inspection. Prefabricated pump sumps shall be approved.
2206.7.3 Mounting of dispensers. Dispensing devices, except those installed on top of a
protected aboveground tank that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be protected
against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in
height, or shall otherwise be suitably protected in accordance with Section 312. Dispensing
devices shall be installed and securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with
the dispenser manufacturer’s instructions. Dispensing devices installed indoors shall be
located in an approved position not in a direct line with vehicular traffic.
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2206.7.3.1 Protection of floor openings in indoor facilities. Openings in floors beneath
automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities located inside buildings or structures
shall be sealed.
2206.7.3.2 Dispenser pans. If a dispenser pan is installed beneath a dispenser, it shall be
approved, compatible with the liquid motor fuel, liquid-tight, accessible for inspection, no
larger than necessary, and installed solely for the purpose of collecting any liquid motor fuel
leaking from the dispenser. The dispenser pan shall not be used to collect liquid motor fuel
discharged from defective piping. The dispenser pan shall be backfilled up to not less than 6
inches (152 mm) above any nonmetallic piping and shall not interfere with the operation of
any safety device.
2206.7.4 Dispenser emergency valve. An approved emergency shutoff valve designed to
close automatically in the event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed in the liquid
supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a remote pump. The valve shall be
installed so that the shear groove is flush with or within 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the
concrete dispenser island and there is clearance provided for maintenance purposes around
the valve body and operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the liquid supply line inlet
of each overhead-type dispenser. Where installed, a vapor return line located inside the
dispenser housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible connector for the liquid
supply line emergency shutoff valve to function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed
and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, tested at the time of
initial installation and tested at least yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2205.2.2.
2206.7.5 Dispenser hose. Dispenser hoses shall be a maximum of 18 feet (5486 mm) in
length unless otherwise approved. Dispenser hoses shall be listed and approved. When not in
use, hoses shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from damage. The length of the
dispensing hose shall be such that at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) clearance between the hose and
the ground is maintained when the nozzle is rested on its bracket. Dispensing hoses installed
at aviation facilities, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities, and fleet vehicle liquid
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be of an approved length.
2206.7.5.1 Breakaway devices. Dispenser hoses shall be equipped with a listed
emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of a breakaway
point. Such devices shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. Where hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the
emergency breakaway device shall be located between the hose nozzle and the point of
attachment of the hose-retrieval mechanism to the hose.
2206.7.6 Fuel delivery nozzles. A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a
latch-open device shall be provided for dispensers used for dispensing liquid motor fuel,
except that a nozzle valve with a latch-open device may be installed and used at the
following automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities:
1. Full service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
2. Fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
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3. Dispensing of diesel fuel at self-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing
facilities.
2206.7.6.1 Special requirements for nozzles. Where dispensing of liquid motor fuel is
performed, a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be used that
incorporates all of the following features:
1. The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device, when
the use of such a device is authorized by this section.
2. When the flow of product is normally controlled by devices or equipment other
than the hose nozzle valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of being
opened unless the delivery hose is pressurized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the
nozzle shall close automatically.
Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporating insertion interlock devices
designed to achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle fill pipe.
3. The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe
during the filling operation.
4. The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the
closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before
the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.
2206.7.6.2 Control device. A control device shall be provided that will allow a liquid
motor fuel pump to operate only when the dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket
on the dispenser and the switch on the dispenser is manually activated. The flow of liquid
motor fuel shall automatically stop when the switch is deactivated or the nozzle returned
to its bracket.
2206.7.7 Leak detection. Underground liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing systems shall
be provided with a leak detection system in accordance with the following:
1. The leak detection system shall provide continuous monitoring of the tank's interstitial
space.
2. The leak detection system shall provide continuous monitoring of liquid motor fuel pump
sumps. Activation of the leak detection system shall cause shutdown of the liquid motor
fuel pumps.
3. The leak detection system shall provide continuous monitoring of dispenser pans
whenever such pans are provided. Activation of the leak detection system shall cause
shutdown of the affected dispenser or liquid motor fuel pump supplying such dispenser.
4. Primary discharge piping shall be provided with an automatic line leak detector.
Activation of such leak detector shall cause shutdown of the liquid motor fuel pump or
significantly restrict the product flow.
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5. The leak detection system shall have an alarm panel in a supervised location on the
premises; trigger both an audible and visible local alarm; be capable of producing
hardcopy printouts of all tests and/or leak notification reports; operate on low voltage; and
be intrinsically safe for a liquid motor fuel environment.
6. Leak detection systems shall be listed and approved.
2206.7.8 Gravity and pressure dispensing. Liquid motor fuel shall not be dispensed by
gravity from tanks, drums, barrels or similar containers. Liquid motor fuel shall not be
dispensed by a device operating through pressure within a storage tank, drum or container.
2206.7.9 Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems. Vapor-recovery and vaporprocessing systems shall be in accordance with Section 2206.7.9, the requirements of New
York State Department of Environmental Conservation and be approved.
2206.7.9.1 Vapor-balance systems. Vapor-balance systems shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2206.7.9.1.1 through 2206.7.9.1.5.
2206.7.9.1.1 Dispensing devices. Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for
vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or labeled dispensing
devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report
by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a
description of the component parts used in the modification and the recommended
method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available for
inspection by any department representative. Means shall be provided to shut down
fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.
2206.7.9.1.2 Vapor-return line closeoff. An approved method shall be provided to
close off the vapor return line from dispensers when the product is not being
dispensed.
2206.7.9.1.3 Piping. Piping in vapor-balance systems shall be in accordance with
Sections 3403.6 and 3404.2. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in accordance with
the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a
manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become
trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return
piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained
without opening.
2206.7.9.1.4 Flexible joints and shear joints. Flexible joints shall be installed in
accordance with Section 3403.6.9. An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted
and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at the base of each dispensing
device. The shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on which
the dispenser is mounted.
2206.7.9.1.5 Testing. Vapor return lines and vent piping shall be tested in accordance
with Section 2206.9.
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2206.7.9.2 Vapor-processing systems. Vapor-processing systems shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2206.7.9.2.1 through 2206.7.9.2.4.
2206.7.9.2.1 Equipment. Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose
nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of
flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually
listed for the intended use in a specified manner. Vapor-processing systems that
introduce air into the underground piping or storage tanks shall be provided with
equipment for prevention of flame propagation that has been tested and listed as
suitable for the intended use.
2206.7.9.2.2 Location. Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above
grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from
fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and
tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet
(3048 mm) from the nearest building or structure or lot line.
Exception: Where the required distances to buildings or structures, lot lines or
fuel-transfer areas cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to protect
equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable means shall include:
1. Approved protective enclosures, which extend at least 18 inches (457 mm)
above the equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or noncombustible
materials; and
2. Fire protection using an approved water-spray system.
2206.7.9.2.2.1 Location and safeguards. Vapor-processing equipment shall be
located a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing devices. Processing
equipment shall be protected against physical damage by guardrails, curbs,
protective enclosures or fencing. Where approved protective enclosures are used,
approved means shall be provided to ventilate the volume within the enclosure to
prevent pocketing of flammable vapors. Where a downslope exists toward the
location of the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, the commissioner
may require additional separation by distance and height.
2206.7.9.2.3 Installation. Vapor-processing units shall be securely mounted on
concrete, masonry or structural steel supports on concrete or other noncombustible
foundations. Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing equipment is allowed to be
installed on roofs when approved.
2206.7.9.2.4 Piping. Piping in a mechanical-assist system shall be in accordance with
Section 3403.6.
2206.8 Fire extinguishing system for dispensing area. Where flammable liquid motor fuel is
dispensed at an automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility, the dispensing area shall be
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provided with a dry chemical fire extinguishing system designed and installed in accordance
with Section 904.6, and the following requirements:
1. The fire extinguishing system shall be designed to provide overhead protection of the
dispenser area encompassed by a circle formed by the fully extended hose and nozzle on
each fuel dispenser and both ends of the dispenser island.
2. The extinguishing agent containers shall be equipped with indicators to show whether the
system is fully charged. Indicators shall be positioned to be easily read from grade.
3. The installation, alteration, testing and repair of the fire extinguishing system, including
any maintenance or modification of the system, shall be performed by a person possessing
a master fire suppression piping contractor license issued by the New York City
Department of Buildings and trained and knowledgeable in the installation, operation and
maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system.
4. Dispensers shall not be operated when the fire extinguishing system has discharged or is
inoperative, except as authorized in writing by the department. The motor fuel-dispensing
facility certified attendant shall immediately notify the department of system discharge or
inoperability.
5. Fire extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Section
2206.9.
6. Fire extinguishing systems at fleet vehicle automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing
facilities shall be monitored by an approved central station company.
2206.9 Inspection and testing. Inspection and testing required by Sections 2206.9.1 through
2206.9.7 shall be conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her representative before a
representative of the department.
2206.9.1 Initial tank test. Underground and aboveground tanks shall be tested
hydrostatically at 15 pounds per square inch (psig)(103.4 kPa), or 1½ times the maximum
anticipated static head pressure, whichever is greater, for the inner tank, and pneumatically or
hydrostatically at 5 pounds per square inch (psig)(34.5 kPa) for the annular space (secondary
containment tank). When a pneumatic test is allowed, an inert gas shall be used; however, air
may be used if the tank or piping system does not contain any liquid motor fuel or
combustible vapor. Test pressure shall be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual
inspection, but not less than 1 hour. A tank shall be deemed to have passed the test if it shows
no evidence of leakage or permanent deformation.
2206.9.2 Initial piping test. Prior to backfill, primary piping shall be tested hydrostatically
to 1½ times the maximum anticipated operating pressure, but not less than 15 pounds per
square inch (psig)(103.4 kPa). After backfill and installation of the top slab, discharge piping
shall be tested hydrostatically at 1½ times the maximum anticipated pressure, but not less
than 50 pounds per square inch (psig)(345 kPa). Secondary containment piping (annular
space) shall be tested pneumatically or hydrostatically at 5 pounds per square inch
(psig)(34.5 kPa). When a pneumatic test is allowed, an inert gas shall be used; however, air
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may be used if the tank system or piping system does not contain any liquid motor fuel or
combustible vapor. Hydrostatic test pressure shall be maintained for sufficient time to
complete visual inspection but not less than 1 hour. The test shall show that there is no
evidence of leakage. Test pressure for aboveground tank piping shall be at 1½ times the
maximum anticipated operating pressure but not less than 100 pounds per square inch
(psig)(690 kPa).
2206.9.3 Leak detection functionality test. Leak detection systems shall be inspected and
tested at the time of installation in accordance with the rules. Leak detection systems
monitoring underground liquid motor fuel storage systems shall be tested at least once every
2 years by a person holding a certificate of license. Such test shall confirm that all leak
detection equipment and associated alarms are in good working order.
2206.9.4 Fire extinguishing system test. A performance test of the fire extinguishing system
shall be performed at the time of installation in accordance with the approved design and
installation documents, and such procedures as may be prescribed by the commissioner. Fire
extinguishing systems shall be tested at least once every 5 years from the date of approval of
the initial installation. The test shall be in accordance with procedures prescribed by the
commissioner.
2206.9.5 Emergency tank and piping system test. The commissioner may require that a
tank and piping system be precision tested or pressure tested in accordance with this section
to determine the condition of the tank or piping. Storage systems that may contain liquid
motor fuel or combustible vapor shall not be tested pneumatically.
2206.9.6 Periodic tank and piping test. Any existing underground single-walled liquid
motor fuel storage tanks previously approved by the department or any existing underground
tanks that is not provided with a leak detection system meeting the requirements of Section
2206.7.7 shall be precision tested at least once every 5 years.
2206.9.7 Pouring concrete and backfilling. The pouring of concrete for the base and top
slab, the backfilling of tank and piping, and the construction of the top slab support shall be
witnessed by a representative of the department at time of installation.
2206.10. Installation of underground tank and piping systems. The installation of tank and
piping systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 34, except as otherwise specified in this
section.
1. Tanks shall be located so that the forces from building foundations and support loads are
not transmitted to the tanks. The distance from any part of a tank to the nearest wall of any
basement, pit, cellar or any property line shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm). Tanks shall
not be placed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a subway wall.
2. Tanks shall be installed so that the highest point of the tank is not less than 2 feet (609.6
mm) below the level of the lowest cellar floor of any building within a radius of 10 feet
(3048 mm) from the tank. No tank shall be located under a sidewalk or beyond the property
line of the automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility.
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3. Tanks shall be placed on a 12-inch (304.8-mm) thick base slab approved by the
Department of Buildings, or installed in such other manner as may be approved by the
Commissioner of Buildings, and secured against flotation. The system used for anchoring
the tank shall not damage the tank or its coating.
4. Tanks shall be placed on a bed of approved backfill material in accordance with
manufacturer's specifications. The backfill material shall evenly and completely support the
bottom quadrant of the tank. The backfill material shall be carefully placed along the
bottom, under the sides and under the end caps or heads of the tank, by shoveling and
tamping. Backfilling shall then be completed in 12-inch (304.8-mm) lifts placed uniformly
around the tank. Provision shall be made, consistent with site conditions, to prevent the
migration of backfill.
5. Tanks shall be covered with a reinforced concrete slab not less than 8 inches (203.2 mm)
thick, which shall extend not less than 12 inches (304.8 mm) beyond the horizontal outlines
of the tank. The slab and its support shall be of a design approved by the New York City
Department of Buildings.
6. Fill, suction and discharge piping shall be encased in 4 inches (101.6 mm) of concrete or
covered by a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) of manufacturer-approved backfill, or
covered by 4 inches (101.6 mm) of manufacturer-approved backfill and an 8-inch (203.2mm) reinforced concrete slab.
7. Not more than 40,000 gallons (151 400 L) of liquid motor fuel shall be stored at any facility,
including liquid motor fuel stored in aboveground tanks.
8. Tanks containing identical products may discharge liquid motor fuel into a common line,
provided that the total aggregate capacity of any group of such tanks discharging into a
common line does not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L).
9. Tank connections shall be designed and located so as to:
9.1. Minimize the maneuvering necessary to position a cargo tank to make the delivery.
9.2. Minimize obstructing a public right of way or motorists’ view of roadways, or
impeding the movement of motor vehicles or pedestrians, during deliveries.
9.3. Provide connections by means of approved liquid and vapor-tight connections.
10. Tanks installed underground inside a building or structure shall be provided with an
approved liquid level-indicating device. Liquid-level indicating devices shall be designed
and constructed to prevent the escape of liquid or vapor and shall be approved.
11. Test wells shall be prohibited in tanks located underground inside a building or structure.
Unused tank openings shall be permanently sealed at the tank to prevent removal of plugs or
covers.
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12. Secondary containment piping shall be required on all nonmetallic product-carrying pipes
except direct fill lines, suction lines or siphon lines containing only one check valve located
at the highest point of the line.
13. Underground piping shall have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot pitched toward the
tank and shall be installed so as to facilitate initial and periodic testing.
14. Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 3403.6.9.
15. Each underground motor fuel storage tank shall be provided with a separate unobstructed
vent line without any trap or device that causes excessive back pressure.
16. Vent piping shall be installed not less than 12 inches (304.8 mm) below the finished surface
measured from the point where the piping rises vertically and shall slope toward the tank.
17. Vent outlets shall discharge outdoors and upward. The discharge point shall be no less than
15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjacent ground level and no less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from
the nearest building opening.
18. An approved overfill prevention device shall be provided to prevent overfilling. When
installed in diesel fuel tanks, such overfill prevention device shall be designed to withstand
the pressure generated by the cargo tank discharge pump and shall automatically shut off the
flow into the tank when the tank is not more than 95 percent full.
19. Each tank fill connection shall be provided with a catchment basin with a capacity of at least
15 gallons (56.8 L). The contents of the catchment basin shall be automatically drained into
the tank without overfilling the tank after the transfer from the cargo tank is completed
provided, however, that if the Stage II vapor recovery system approved for the tank does not
allow for the installation of an automatic drain, a manual drain may be installed.
20. Where the discharging piping leak detector required by Section 2206.7.7(4) does not cause
shutdown of the liquid motor fuel pump, secondary containment piping shall be provided.
2206.11 Spill control. Provision shall be made to prevent liquids spilled during dispensing
operations from flowing into buildings, by grading driveways, raising doorsills, or other
approved means.
2206.12 Warning signs. Durable warning signs shall be conspicuously posted on or immediately
adjacent to each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:
1. It is illegal and dangerous to fill unapproved containers with fuel.
2. Smoking is prohibited.
3. The engine shall be shut off during the refueling process.
4. Portable containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, passenger
compartment, or truck bed of a vehicle.
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5. It is unlawful for customers to fill portable containers. See attendant for assistance.
SECTION FC 2207
RESERVED
SECTION FC 2208
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES
2208.1 General. CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with NFPA 52
except as otherwise specified in this section and Section 2201.
2208.1.1 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Operate a self-service marine CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility.
2. Fill a portable container, other than permanently mounted fuel containers on CNGpowered vehicles, except outdoors at a utility-operated facility.
2208.1.2 Supervision of dispensing operations. The dispensing of CNG at CNG motor fueldispensing facilities shall be supervised by a certified attendant as set forth in Section 2201.7.
2208.1.3 Maintenance. Maintenance of CNG motor fuel-dispensing systems shall be
conducted under the personal supervision of a person holding a CNG fueling facility
maintenance certificate of fitness.
2208.1.4 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously
posted in approved locations on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the
emergency shutdown device controls required by Section 2208.7.
2208.1.5 Communications. A telephone not requiring a coin to operate or otherwise
approved, clearly identified means to notify the department shall be provided on the site in an
approved location.
2208.1.6 Electrical equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be suitable for the
location in which they are installed and shall be in accordance with Section 605, NFPA 52
and the Electrical Code.
2208.1.7 Audible and visible alarms. All audible and visible alarms required by this section
shall actuate at a supervised location on the premises that assures immediate response.
2208.1.8 Warning signs. Durable warning signs shall be conspicuously posted on or
immediately adjacent to each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the
following:
1. Smoking is prohibited.
2. The engine shall be shut off during the refueling process.
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2208.1.9 Self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Self-service CNG motor fueldispensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2208.1.9.1 through
2208.1.9.5. The certified attendant’s primary function shall be to supervise, observe and
monitor the dispensing of CNG. The certified attendant shall prevent the dispensing of fuel
into portable containers, control sources of ignition, take immediate action upon a fire, leak
or other emergency and be ready to use a fire extinguisher. Nothing in this section shall be
construed to prohibit a certified attendant from engaging in activities directly related to the
sale of CNG motor fuel, such as the collection of money or processing of credit cards.
2208.1.9.1 Self-service dispensers. Approved self-service devices, equipment and
systems such as, but not limited to, card-operated and remote-preset types, are allowed at
CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. The certified attendant shall set the dispensing
devices in the “off” position when not in use if such dispensing device can be activated
without the certified attendant’s knowledge.
2208.1.9.2 Monitoring of dispensing. A control area shall be located on the premises of
every self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility. The control area shall be an
interior or exterior enclosure to which the public has no access. The certified attendant
shall be present within the control area while dispensing operations are conducted. The
control area shall be designed and located so that the certified attendant stationed therein
shall have a full, unobstructed clear view of dispensing operations, except that mirrors
and/or an approved closed-circuit television installation may be provided to afford the
certified attendant a clear view of dispensing operations when the view from the control
area is partially or temporarily obstructed. For purposes of this section, the “clear” view
provided by a closed-circuit television installation shall mean that the image on the
monitor shall be of such brightness and resolution as to allow ready identification of
individuals and easy observation of activities at all times of day. Audible and visible
alarms required by this section shall actuate within the control area. A properly labeled
manual switch that activates the emergency shut down device shall be located within the
control area. A console that controls the self-service CNG motor fuel dispensers shall be
provided within the control area and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the emergency shut
down device manual switch.
2208.1.9.3 Two-way voice communication. A two-way voice communication system
shall be installed to provide contact between the control area and each dispensing island.
2208.1.9.4 Control area sign. A durable metal sign that reads as follows shall be posted
in plain view within the control area.
Emergency Procedures:
Activate emergency CNG shut down
Direct vehicle occupants to exit vehicles and leave area immediately.
Keep all persons away from the area.
Notify the Fire Department (Call 911).
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Such sign shall also indicate the department telephone number, the nearest fire alarm box
location, and the CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility’s address, with cross street
reference.
2208.1.9.5 Lighting. Dispensing areas shall be well lighted whenever the facility is open
for business.
2208.1.10 Fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing
facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2208.1.10.1 through 2208.1.10.3.
2208.1.10.1 General. The owner of fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall
provide, and be accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment inspection, and
maintenance.
2208.1.10.2 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency procedures sign, in
addition to the sign required by Section 2208.1.9, shall be posted in a conspicuous
location and shall read:
IN CASE OF FIRE, LEAK OR OTHER EMERGENCY
1. ACTIVATE EMERGENCY CNG SHUTDOWN LOCATED (indicate location)
2. NOTIFY THE FIRE DEPARTMENT (CALL 911)
FACILITY ADDRESS (indicate address, with cross street reference)
2208.1.10.3 Quantity limits. Dispensing equipment used at fleet CNG motor fueldispensing facilities shall be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted CNG delivery to
an approved amount and require a manual action to resume delivery.
2208.1.11 Full service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Full service CNG motor fueldispensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of Section 2208.1.11.1.
2208.1.11.1 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency procedures sign, in
addition to the sign required by Section 2208.1.9, shall be provided and posted as set
forth in Section 2208.1.11.2.
2208.2 Design, installation and testing requirements. Devices, equipment and systems used
for the compression, storage and dispensing of CNG shall be designed, approved, listed and/or
tested in accordance with Sections 2208.2.1 through 2208.2.7.
2208.2.1 Approved equipment. Containers, vessels, compressors, pressure regulators,
pressure relief valves and other pressure relief devices and piping used for CNG shall be
approved.
2208.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, dispensers, gas detection systems and
electrical equipment used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections shall be listed
and labeled.
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2208.2.3 Vehicle fueling hose. Vehicle fueling hose shall be compatible with CNG and shall
withstand a pressure of at least 4 times the service pressure. Hoses shall be of retractable
design and shall be protected against physical damage. Hoses shall be tested for leaks with a
non-corrosive solution or equivalent leak detection method at least annually by a certified
attendant and shall be replaced if damaged. Records of required inspections and testing shall
be kept in a bound log book or other approved recordkeeping, maintained on the premises for
a minimum of 4 years and made available for inspection by any representative of the
department.
2208.2.4 Container. Prior to placing containers and pressure vessels in CNG service,
evidence of container and pressure vessel pressure tests shall be submitted to the department
demonstrating compliance with the requirements of NFPA 52.
2208.2.5 Gas piping. All CNG system gas piping shall be tested by a qualified person in
accordance with NFPA 52 at the owner’s risk and before a representative of the department
prior to placing the system in service. Required tests shall begin at the downstream side of
the remote manual shutdown valve.
2208.2.6 Filters and dryers. Filters and dryers used at CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities
shall be rated for the service and pressure intended and shall be tested in accordance with the
gas piping test requirements set forth in Section 2208.2.5.
2208.2.7 Safety devices. Upon installation, all automatic safety devices intended to cause
equipment shutdown shall be tested at the owner’s risk by his or her representative before a
representative of the department.
2208.3 Location of dispensing operations and equipment. CNG motor fuel-dispensing
facilities shall be located at a site operated by a natural gas utility, or other approved location.
2208.3.1 Location on property. In addition to the requirements of Section 2203.1 and
NFPA 52, compression, storage and dispensing devices, equipment and systems shall be
installed as follows:
1. Aboveground, and not beneath power lines.
2. At least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building, lot line, public street, private
road, sidewalk, or source of ignition.
Exception: Dispensing equipment need not be separated from canopies that are
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code,
and which provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment.
3. At least 25 feet (7620 mm) from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15
240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or
transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source
such as third rail or overhead catenary.
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4. At least 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire
of a trolley bus line.
2208.3.2 Rooftop operations. Rooftop dispensing shall be in accordance with Sections
2208.3.2.1 through 2208.3.2.3.
2208.3.2.1 Roof construction. The roof of the building or structure shall be of
noncombustible construction.
2208.3.2.2 Compressor and discharge piping. The compressor shall be located on the
roof and the discharge piping shall not enter the building or structure.
2208.3.2.3 Height. The building or structure shall be 75 feet (22 860 mm) or less in
height.
2208.4 Reserved.
2208.5 Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators shall be designed and installed or protected so
that their operation will not be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or ice), mud or
debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral part of the regulator.
2208.6 Manual valves. Gas supply piping to equipment shall be provided with a remote, readily
accessible manual shutoff valve of the fast-closing, quarter-turn type. Manual valves shall be
located so as to minimize the risk of physical damage and minimize being rendered inoperable as
a result of freezing.
2208.6.1 Location. Manual valves shall be located within the boundary of the facility and as
follows:
1. Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the compressor for compressors rated for 300
standard cubic feet per minute or less.
2. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from the compressor for compressors rated for
greater than 300 standard cubic feet per minute.
2208.7 Emergency shutdown switches. An approved, clearly identified and readily accessible
emergency shutdown switch shall be provided at an approved location. The switch, upon
activation, shall automatically and immediately shut off the power supply to the compressor and
close valves between the gas supply and the compressor and between the storage tanks and the
dispensers. Such emergency shutdown switches for outdoor CNG dispensers shall be located
within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, the fuel dispensers. For
interior fuel-dispensing operations, such emergency shutdown switches shall be installed at an
approved location. An additional automatic emergency shutdown switch shall be provided in the
compressor area for both indoor and outdoor compressors. An approved sign shall be posted on
or immediately adjacent to such switches and shall read: EMERGENCY CNG SHUTOFF. Such
emergency shutdown switch shall be of a type that is manually resettable.
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2208.7.1 Compressor shutdown devices. Each compressor shall be equipped with an
automatic shutdown device that will shut down the compressor in the event of low suction
pressure, high suction pressure, high motor temperature, high discharge pressure or high
discharge temperature.
2208.7.2 Gas detection system. Indoor compressing, storage and dispensing areas shall be
provided with a combustible gas detection alarm system meeting the standards of the
construction codes, including the Building Code. Such system shall activate a local audible
and visible alarm at 20 percent of the LEL and automatically shut off gas supply at 50
percent of the LEL, with simultaneous transmission of an alarm to the department by an
approved central station company. The automatic shut-off valve shall be located upstream
from the confined high pressure piping and shall be installed underground or otherwise
protected from exposure to fire in an approved manner.
2208.7.3 Heat detection system. Indoor compressing, storage and dispensing areas shall be
provided with a closed circuit heat detection system utilizing approved heat detection devices
and equipment designed to automatically activate a local audible and visible alarm with
simultaneous transmission to an approved central station, activate a fire extinguishing system
over the area or enclosure, and shutoff the gas supply to the compressor and dispenser. The
automatic shut-off valve shall be installed underground or be otherwise protected from
exposure to fire in an approved manner.
2208.7.3.1 Outdoor heat detection system. Outdoor compressing, storage and
dispensing shall be provided with a closed circuit heat detection system designed utilizing
approved heat detection devices and equipment designed to automatically activate a local
audible and visible alarm and shut off the gas supply to the compressor and dispenser.
The automatic shut-off valve shall be installed underground or otherwise protected from
exposure to fire in an approved manner.
2208.7.3.2 Outdoor storage exceeding 35,000 SCF (991.2 m3). For outdoor CNG
storage exceeding 35,000 SCF (991.2 m3) located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a building
or structure, activation of the heat detection system shall simultaneously transmit an
alarm to an approved central station.
2208.7.4 Fire extinguishing systems and appliances. Indoor compressing, storage and
dispensing areas shall be protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system.
2208.7.4.1 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided
adjacent to the CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility in the number and size specified by
NFPA 52 and Section 906.
2208.7.5 Smoking and open flames. It shall be unlawful to smoke or use or maintain an
open flame in any area where CNG motor fuel is compressed, stored or dispensed.
Exception: Welding, cutting or similar hot work may be conducted at times and places
for emergency repair, alteration or installation work, providing that all necessary safety
precautions are taken, and all required department permits and authorization from the
holder of a certificate of fitness for CNG station maintenance has been obtained.
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2208.7.6 Records of incidents. Records shall be kept of all incidents including fire, leak,
device, equipment or system failure, out of service fire protection, alarm, or safety system,
and of all equipment maintenance. Such records shall be kept in a bound log book or other
recordkeeping approved by the department, maintained on the premises for a minimum of 4
years and made available for inspection by any representative of the department.
2208.8 Discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel storage containers. The discharge of CNG
from motor vehicle fuel containers for the purposes of maintenance, container certification,
calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in accordance with Sections 2208.8.1 through
2208.8.1.2.
2208.8.1 Methods of discharge. The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel containers
shall be accomplished through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section
2208.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in accordance with Section
2208.8.1.2.
2208.8.1.1 Closed transfer system. Documentation of the procedure for discharging the
container shall be provided to the commissioner for approval. The procedure shall
include the actions the operator will take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure
natural gas release during the discharging activity. A schematic design document
illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings, and their
relation to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown
devices, shall be provided to the commissioner for approval.
2208.8.1.2 Atmospheric venting. Atmospheric venting of CNG shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2208.8.1.2.1 through 2208.8.1.2.6.
2208.8.1.2.1 Plans and specifications. A schematic design document illustrating the
location of the vessel support, piping, the method of grounding and bonding, and
other requirements specified herein or requested by the department shall be provided
to the commissioner for approval.
2208.8.1.2.2 Container stability. A method of rigidly supporting the container
during the venting of CNG shall be provided. The selected method shall provide not
less than two points of support and shall prevent the horizontal and lateral movement
of the container. The system shall be designed to prevent the movement of the
container based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the
container’s rated pressure and volume. The structure or appurtenance shall be
constructed of noncombustible materials.
2208.8.1.2.3 Separation. The structure or appurtenance used for stabilizing the
container shall be separated from other equipment or features as set forth in Table
2208.8.1.2.3.
TABLE 2208.8.1.2.3
SEPARATION DISTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTING OF CNG
EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE
MINIMUM SEPARATION (feet)
Buildings
Building openings
25
25
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Lot lines
Public street or private roads
Vehicles
CNG compressor and storage containers
CNG dispensers
15
15
25
25
25
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
2208.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding. The structure or appurtenance used for
supporting the container shall be grounded in accordance with the Electrical Code.
The container valve shall be bonded prior to the commencement of venting
operations.
2208.8.1.2.5 Vent tube. A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to the atmosphere
shall be installed on the container prior to commencement of the venting and purging
operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for
use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 30. The vent tube shall be capable of
dispersing the gas a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube
shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature that would limit or obstruct the
gas flow. At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the CNG container, a listed bidirectional detonation flame arrester shall be provided.
2208.8.1.2.6 Signage. Approved “No Smoking” signs complying with the
requirements of Section 310 shall be posted within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the
container support structure or appurtenance. Approved CONTAINER SHALL BE
BONDED signs shall be posted on the container support structure or appurtenance.
2208.9 Residential and other vehicle fueling appliance facilities. The compressing and
dispensing of CNG by a vehicle fueling appliance shall be in accordance with Sections 2208.9.1
through 2208.9.4.
2208.9.1 Residential fueling appliance facilities. The compressing and dispensing of CNG
at a residential fueling appliance facility shall be in accordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 52
and this chapter, except that such facilities shall be exempt from the requirements of Section
2208.3.1(2) with regard to the distance to the nearest building, and Sections 2208.7 through
2208.7.4.
2208.9.2 Non-residential fueling appliance facilities. The compressing and dispensing of
CNG at a non-residential fueling appliance facility shall be in accordance with Section 6.17
of NFPA 52 and this chapter, except that such facilities shall be exempt from Section
2208.3.1(2) with regard to the distance to the nearest building, and Sections 2208.7 through
2208.7.4.
2208.9.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Fill or store any containers, other than permanently mounted fuel containers on CNGpowered vehicles.
2. Compress and dispense CNG indoors.
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2208.9.4 Supervision. The operation of a vehicle fueling appliance facility shall be under the
personal supervision of a certified attendant.
2208.10 Mobile CNG fuel motor compression, storage and dispensing. A mobile CNG motor
fuel compression, storage and/or dispensing system may be used to fuel vehicle mounted
containers as approved by the commissioner and subject to such conditions as the commissioner
may prescribe consistent with public safety.
SECTION FC 2209
RESERVED
SECTION FC 2210
MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES
2210.1 General. The construction of marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 30A. The
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance and operation of liquid motor fuel storage and
dispensing system at marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with
this chapter governing automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities, except that full service
marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities do not require a fire extinguishing system for the
dispensing area.
2210.1.1 Prohibited facility. It shall be unlawful to operate a self-service marine liquid
motor fuel-dispensing facility.
2210.2 Storage and handling. The storage and handling of liquid motor fuel at marine liquid
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2210.2.1 through 2210.2.3.
2210.2.1 Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage. Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of
buildings or structures used for marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored
in approved containers. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).
2210.2.2 Dispensing from portable containers. No watercraft shall be fueled from a
portable container while inside a building or structure.
2210.2.3 Heating equipment. Heating equipment installed in liquid motor fuel storage or
dispensing areas shall comply with the requirements of Section 2201.6.
2210.3 Dispensing. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel at marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing
facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2210.3.1 through 2210.3.4.
2210.3.1 General. Unless another use has been approved, piers, docks or wharves at marine
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be used exclusively for the dispensing or transfer
of liquid motor fuel to or from watercraft, except that transfer of essential ship stores is
allowed.
2210.3.1.1 Flexible metallic piping. Where there is a need to provide flexibility in piping
to allow for motion of a pier or dock, flexible metallic piping of an approved length and
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design may be installed and used in compliance with NFPA 30A. All flexible metallic
piping or other flexible hose connections authorized by this section shall be inspected for
proper operation at least once a year by a certificate of license holder. A record of such
inspection shall be kept in a bound log book or other approved form of recordkeeping, and
maintained on the premises for a minimum of 4 years, and made available for inspection by
any representative of the department.
2210.3.2 Supervision. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel at marine liquid motor fueldispensing facilities shall be supervised by a certified attendant as set forth in Section 2201.7.
2210.3.3 Hoses and nozzles. Dispensing of liquid motor fuel into the fuel tanks of watercraft
shall be by means of an approved-type hose equipped with a listed automatic-closing nozzle
without a latch-open device. Hoses used for dispensing or transferring liquid motor fuel,
when not in use, shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from mechanical damage.
2210.3.4 Portable containers. Liquid motor fuel dispensing shall be performed in
accordance with Section 2204.4, except that portable containers that are approved and used
as the fuel tank for watercraft may be of a capacity not greater than 5½ gallons (20.8 L).
2210.3.5 Reserved.
2210.4 Fueling of marine vehicles at other than approved marine liquid motor fueldispensing facilities. It shall be unlawful to fuel floating watercraft with liquid motor fuel at
other than a marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility, except fueling of marine vessels and
watercraft performed by off-shore fueling vessels approved by the United States Coast Guard.
2210.5 Fire prevention. Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2210.5.1 through 2210.5.7.
2210.5.1 Housekeeping. Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be maintained in a
neat and orderly manner. Accumulations of rubbish or waste oils in excessive amounts are
prohibited. Rubbish and other combustible waste shall be regularly removed from the
premises and disposed of lawfully.
2210.5.2 Spills. Spills of liquid motor fuel near or in the water shall be reported immediately
to the department and other governmental agencies requiring such reporting.
2210.5.3 Rubbish containers. Metal containers with tight-fitting or self-closing metal lids
shall be provided for the temporary storage of rubbish or other combustible waste.
2210.5.4 Watercraft mooring. When watercraft is being fueled at a fuel dock, no other
watercraft shall be made fast to the watercraft being fueled or to the fuel dock. The
dispensing hose shall not cross one watercraft to reach another.
2210.5.5 Sources of ignition. Any activity or operation involving the use of open flames,
arc- or spark-producing devices shall not be performed at marine motor fuel-dispensing
facilities or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the dispensing facilities, including piers, docks or
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wharves, except where approved by the commissioner. Dispensing shall not be conducted at
such pier, dock or wharf during the course of such emergency repairs.
2210.5.5.1 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke, use or maintain an open flame within
50 feet (15 240 mm) of fueling operations. “No Smoking” signs complying with the
requirements of Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted throughout the premises. Such
signs shall have letters of not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height with a background of
contrasting color.
2210.5.6 Preparation of tanks for fueling. Watercraft owners and operators shall not offer
their watercraft for fueling unless the tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate
fumes to the outside atmosphere.
2210.5.7 Warning signs. Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each
pier, dock or wharf at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of watercraft
being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a
background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:
WARNING
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE
FUELING, SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY.
DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER
BELOW DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.
2210.6 Fire protection. Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2210.6.1 through 2210.6.4, and the construction codes, including the
Building Code.
2210.6.1 Standpipe hose stations. Fire hose, when required, shall be provided and enclosed
within a cabinet, and hose stations shall be labeled: FIRE HOSE—EMERGENCY USE
ONLY.
2210.6.2 Obstruction of fire protection equipment. Materials shall not be placed or stored
on a pier, dock or wharf in such a manner as to obstruct access to firefighting equipment or
piping system control valves.
2210.6.3 Access. Where the pier, dock or wharf is accessible to vehicular traffic, an
unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the pier, dock or wharf shall be maintained for
access by fire apparatus.
2210.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers. One portable fire extinguisher in accordance with
Section 906 having a minimum rating of 40-B:C shall be provided on the pier, dock or wharf
within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the head of the gangway to the pier, dock or wharf. If the
certified attendant’s office is within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on the pier, dock
or wharf, the fire extinguisher may be provided therein.
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SECTION FC 2211
REPAIR GARAGES
2211.1 General. Repair garages shall comply with the requirements of this section and the
construction codes, including the Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than
one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable requirements of this section for each type of
fuel used. Where a repair garage also includes a motor fuel-dispensing facility, the fueldispensing operation shall comply with the requirements of this chapter for motor fueldispensing facilities.
2211.2 Storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids. The storage and use of
flammable and combustible liquids in repair garages shall comply with the requirements of
Chapter 34 and Sections 2211.2.1 through 2211.2.4.
2211.2.1 Cleaning of parts. Cleaning of parts shall be conducted in listed and approved
parts-cleaning machines in accordance with Chapter 34.
2211.2.2 Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liquids. Waste oil, motor oil and other
Class IIIB liquids, including crankcase drainings shall be stored in approved tanks or
containers, which are allowed to be stored and dispensed from inside repair garages.
2211.2.2.1 Tanks storing waste oil. For tanks of a capacity of 500 gallons (1893 L) or
less, the fill connection may be located inside a building or structure provided that
discharge of vapor from the fill port is prevented from entering the building or structure
during and after filling. An automatic spring-loaded vertical check valve in the fill line or
other device designed to prevent vapors from escaping shall be provided. The fill line
shall be capped immediately after filling.
2211.2.3 Drainage and disposal of liquids and oil-soaked waste. Garage floor drains,
where provided, shall drain to approved oil separators or traps discharging to a sewer in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Plumbing Code. Contents of oil
separators, traps and floor drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent
intervals and removed from the premises to prevent oil from being carried into the sewers.
Crankcase drainings and liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, streams or on the ground,
but shall be stored in approved tanks or containers in accordance with Chapter 34 until
removed from the premises. Self-closing metal cans shall be used for oily waste.
2211.2.4 Spray finishing. Spray finishing with flammable or combustible liquids shall
comply with the requirements of Chapter 15.
2211.3 Sources of ignition. Sources of ignition shall not be located within 18 inches (457 mm)
of the floor and shall comply with the requirements of Chapters 3 and 26.
2211.3.1 Equipment. Appliances and equipment installed in a repair garage shall comply
with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code, the Mechanical
Code, and the Electrical Code.
2211.3.2 Smoking. Smoking is prohibited in repair garages.
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2211.4 Below-grade areas. Pits and below-grade work areas in repair garages shall comply with
the requirements of Sections 2211.4.1 through 2211.4.3.
2211.4.1 Construction. Pits and below-grade work areas shall be constructed in accordance
with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2211.4.2 Means of egress. Pits and below-grade work areas shall be provided with means of
egress in accordance with the Building Code.
2211.4.3 Ventilation. Where Class I liquids are stored or used within a building having a
basement or pit wherein flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement or pit shall be
provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with the construction codes, including
the Mechanical Code, at a minimum rate of 1.5 cubic feet per minute per square foot
(cfm/ft2) [0.008 m3/(s⋅m2)] to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors.
2211.5 Preparation of vehicles for repair. For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel
shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system. Vehicles
powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has been damaged shall be inspected and
evaluated for fuel system integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The inspection
shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery system for leakage.
2211.5.1 Drainage of liquid motor fuel tanks. Portable equipment used for defueling and
refueling shall be listed and labeled and shall have fuel storage tanks not exceeding 65
gallons (246 L). Systems for defueling and refueling, other than by use of portable
equipment, shall be approved.
2211.6 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance
with Section 906.
2211.7 Repair garages for vehicles fueled by lighter-than-air fuels. Repair garages for the
conversion and repair of vehicles which use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen or
other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in
accordance with Sections 2211.7 and 2211.7.2, and, as applicable, Section 2211.
Exception: Repair garages where work is not performed on the fuel system and is limited to
exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame or welding.
2211.7.1 Ventilation. Repair garages used for the repair of CNG, LNG or hydrogen-fueled
vehicles shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical
ventilation system shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Mechanical Code.
2211.7.2 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by CNG,
LNG or hydrogen shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system
meeting the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code.
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2211.8 Defueling of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage containers. Discharge or
defueling of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage containers for the purpose of
maintenance, container certification or other purposes shall be performed in accordance with
Section 2211.8.1.
2211.8.1 Methods of discharge. The discharge of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage
containers shall be accomplished through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section
2211.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in accordance with Section
2211.8.1.2.
2211.8.1.1 Closed transfer system. A documented procedure that explains the logic
sequence for discharging the storage container shall be provided to the commissioner for
review and approval. The procedure shall include the actions the operator is required to
take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure hydrogen release during discharging
activity. Schematic design documents shall be provided illustrating the arrangement of
piping, regulators and equipment settings. The design and installation documents shall
illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to
the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.
2211.8.1.2 Atmospheric venting of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage
containers. When atmospheric venting is used for the discharge of hydrogen from motor
vehicle fuel storage containers, such venting shall be performed in accordance with
Sections 2211.8.1.2.1 through 2211.8.1.2.4.
2211.8.1.2.1 Defueling equipment required at vehicle maintenance and repair
facilities. All facilities for repairing hydrogen systems on hydrogen-fueled vehicles
shall have equipment to defuel vehicle storage containers. Equipment used for
defueling shall be listed and labeled for the intended use.
2211.8.1.2.1.1 Manufacturer’s equipment required. Equipment supplied by the
vehicle manufacturer shall be used to connect the vehicle storage containers to be
defueled to the vent pipe system.
2211.8.1.2.1.2 Vent pipe maximum diameter. Defueling vent pipes shall have a
maximum inside diameter of 1 inch (25 mm) and be installed in an approved
manner.
2211.8.1.2.1.3 Maximum flow rate. The maximum rate of hydrogen flow
through the vent pipe system shall not exceed 1,000 cfm (28.3 m3/min) at NTP
and shall be controlled by means of the manufacturer’s equipment, at low
pressure and without adjustment.
2211.8.1.2.1.4 Isolated use. The vent pipe used for defueling shall not be
connected to a venting system used for another purpose.
2211.8.1.2.2 Design and installation documents. Design and installation documents
shall be provided illustrating the defueling system to be utilized. Plan details shall be
of sufficient detail and clarity to allow for evaluation of the piping and control
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systems to be utilized and include the method of support for containers to be used as
part of a closed transfer system, the method of grounding and bonding, and other
requirements set forth in this section.
2211.8.1.2.3 Stability of containers. A method of rigidly supporting containers used
during defueling of hydrogen shall be provided. The method shall provide not less
than two points of support and shall be designed to resist lateral movement of the
receiving container. The system shall be designed to resist movement of the receiver
based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the receiver’s rated
service pressure and volume. Supporting structures or appurtenances used to support
containers shall be constructed of noncombustible materials in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
2211.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding. Containers and piping systems used for
defueling shall be bonded and grounded. Structures or appurtenances used for
supporting the containers shall be grounded in accordance with the Electrical Code.
The valve of the vehicle storage container shall be bonded with the defueling system
prior to the commencement of discharge or defueling operations.
2211.8.2 Repair of hydrogen piping. Piping systems containing hydrogen shall not be
opened to the atmosphere for repair without first purging the piping with an inert gas to
achieve 1 percent hydrogen or less by volume. Defueling operations and exiting purge flow
shall be vented in accordance with Section 2211.8.1.2.
2211.8.3 Purging. Each individual component of a hydrogen defueling system shall have a
label affixed as well as a description in the installation and owner’s manuals describing the
procedure for purging air from the system during startup, regular maintenance and for
purging hydrogen from the system prior to disassembly (to admit air). For the
interconnecting piping between the individual manufactured components, the pressure rating
must be at least 20 times the absolute pressure present in the piping when any hydrogen
meets any air.
2211.8.3.1 System purge required. After installation, repair or maintenance, the
hydrogen piping system shall be purged of air in accordance with the manufacturer’s
specifications.
CHAPTER 23
HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE
SECTION FC 2301
GENERAL
2301.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern high-piled combustible storage, and the design,
installation, operation and maintenance of any building, structure or premises used for such
purpose.
2301.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
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2301.3 Permit application. Applications for permits for high-piled combustible storage shall
include design and installation documents that contain the following information, and such other
information and documentation as the commissioner may prescribe:
1. Floor plan of the building showing locations and dimensions of high-piled storage areas.
2. Usable storage height for each storage area.
3. Number of tiers within each rack, if applicable.
4. Commodity clearance between top of storage and the sprinkler deflector for each storage
arrangement.
5. Aisle dimensions between each storage array.
6. Maximum pile volume for each storage array.
7. Location and classification of commodities in accordance with Section 2303.
8. Location of commodities that are banded or encapsulated.
9. Location of required fire department access doors.
10. Type of fire extinguishing and fire detection systems.
11. Location of valves controlling the water supply of ceiling and in-rack sprinklers.
12. Type, location and specifications of smoke removal and curtain board systems.
13. Dimension and location of transverse and longitudinal flue spaces.
14. Such other information, regarding design features, commodities, storage arrangement and
fire protection features within the high-piled storage area, as may be required by the
commissioner to ensure compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
2301.3.1 Records. A copy of the permit application documents shall be maintained on the
premises and made available for inspection by any department representative.
2301.4 Egress plan. Where the area of the high-piled combustible storage requires a permit, the
owner shall prepare and familiarize employees with an egress plan that indicates the location and
width of aisles, exits, exit access doors, exit signs, height of storage and location of hazardous
materials. Such plan shall be maintained in an approved location and shall be made available for
inspection by any representative of the department.
2301.5 General. All buildings, structures and premises that contain high-piled combustible
storage shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter. In
addition to the requirements of this chapter, the following material-specific requirements shall
apply:
306
1. Aerosols shall be in accordance with Chapter 28.
2. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34.
3. Hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.
4. Storage of combustible paper records shall be in accordance with NFPA 13.
5. Storage of combustible fibers shall be in accordance with Chapter 29.
6. Storage of miscellaneous combustible material shall be in accordance with Chapter 3.
SECTION FC 2302
DEFINITIONS
2302.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
ARRAY. Each separate storage configuration, taking into consideration the type of packaging,
flue spaces, height of storage and compactness of storage.
ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 6-inch (152 mm) or smaller width vertical
flue space that restricts air movement through the stored commodity.
BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are selfsupporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space
exists around the boxes.
COMMODITY. Items in high-piled combustible storage, including products and product
packaging.
DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the
underside of the ceiling or roof.
EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for
early suppression fast-response performance.
EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on
the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material.
EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV
commodities that exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of high-hazard
commodities that exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height.
HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of combustible materials in closely
packed piles or combustible materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage
is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. High-piled combustible storage also includes certain
307
high-hazard commodities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets
and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building, structure or premises that is
designed or used for high-piled combustible storage.
LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. The flue space between rows of storage perpendicular to the
direction of loading.
MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing ladders or other
nonmechanical equipment to move stock.
MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing motorized vehicles or
hydraulic jacks to move stock.
RACK STORAGE. Any storage system, except shelf storage.
SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep with the distance
between shelves not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) vertically.
SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of other construction located in racks and
that obstructs sprinkler discharge down into the racks.
TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. The space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of
loading.
SECTION FC 2303
COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION
2303.1 Classification of commodities. Commodities shall be classified as Class I, II, III, IV or
high hazard in accordance with this section. Materials listed within each commodity
classification are assumed to be unmodified for improved combustibility characteristics. Use of
flame-retarding modifiers or the physical form of the material could change the classification.
See Section 2303.7 for classification of Group A, B and C plastics.
2303.2 Class I commodities. Class I commodities are essentially noncombustible products on
wooden or nonexpanded polyethylene solid deck pallets, in ordinary corrugated cartons with or
without single-thickness dividers, or in ordinary paper wrappings with or without pallets. Class I
commodities are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in accordance with
Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class I commodities include the following:
Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol
Cement in bags
Ceramics
Dairy products in nonwax-coated containers (excluding bottles)
Dry insecticides
Electrical appliances, noncombustible
Foods in noncombustible containers
308
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers
Frozen foods
Glass
Glycol in metal cans
Gypsum board
Inert materials, bagged
Insulation, noncombustible
Liquids, noncombustible, in plastic containers having less than a 5-gallon (19 L) capacity
Metal products, noncombustible
2303.3 Class II commodities. Class II commodities are Class I products in slatted wooden
crates, solid wooden boxes, multiple-thickness paperboard cartons or equivalent combustible
packaging material with or without pallets. Class II commodities are allowed to contain a limited
amount of Group A plastics in accordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class II
commodities include the following:
Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol, in combustible containers
Foods in combustible containers
Incandescent or fluorescent light bulbs in cartons
Thinly coated fine wire on reels or in cartons
2303.4 Class III commodities. Class III commodities are commodities of wood, paper, natural
fiber cloth, or Group C plastics or products thereof, with or without pallets. Products are allowed
to contain limited amounts of Group A or B plastics, such as metal bicycles with plastic handles,
pedals, seats and tires. Group A plastics shall be limited in accordance with Section 2303.7.4.
Examples of Class III commodities include the following:
Aerosol, Level 1 (see Chapter 28)
Combustible fiberboard
Cork, baled
Feed, bagged
Fertilizers, bagged
Food in plastic containers
Furniture: wood, natural fiber, upholstered, nonplastic, wood or metal with plastic-padded
and covered arm rests
Glycol in combustible containers not exceeding 25 percent
Liquids, noncombustible, in plastic containers having a capacity of more than 5 gallons (19
L)
Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in metal cans
Lumber
Mattresses, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics
Paints, oil base, in metal cans
Paper, waste, baled
Paper and pulp, horizontal storage, or vertical storage that is banded or protected with
approved wrap
Paper in cardboard boxes
Pillows, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics
Plastic-coated paper food containers
309
Plywood
Rags, baled
Rugs, without foam backing
Sugar, bagged
Wood, baled
Wood doors, frames and cabinets
Yarns of natural fiber and viscose
2303.5 Class IV commodities. Class IV commodities are Class I, II or III products containing
Group A plastics in ordinary corrugated cartons and Class I, II and III products, with Group A
plastic packaging, with or without pallets. Group B plastics and free-flowing Group A plastics
are also included in this class. The total amount of nonfree-flowing Group A plastics shall be in
accordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class IV commodities include the following:
Aerosol, Level 2 (see Chapter 28)
Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 20-percent but less than 80-percent alcohol, in cans or
bottles in cartons.
Clothing, synthetic or nonviscose
Combustible metal products (solid)
Furniture, plastic upholstered
Furniture,wood or metal with plastic covering and padding
Glycol in combustible containers (greater than 25 percent and less than 50 percent)
Linoleum products
Paints, oil base in combustible containers
Pharmaceutical, alcoholic elixirs, tonics, etc.
Rugs, foam back
Shingles, asphalt
Thread or yarn, synthetic or nonviscose
2303.6 High-hazard commodities. High-hazard commodities are high-hazard products
presenting special fire hazards beyond those of Class I, II, III or IV. Group A plastics not
otherwise classified are included in this class. Examples of high-hazard commodities include the
following:
Aerosol, Level 3 (see Chapter 28)
Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 80-percent alcohol, in bottles or cartons
Commodities of any class in plastic containers in carousel storage
Flammable solids (except solid combustible metals)
Glycol in combustible containers (50 percent or greater)
Lacquers, which dry by solvent evaporation, in metal cans or cartons
Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in plastic containers
Mattresses, foam rubber or foam plastics
Pallets and flats which are idle combustible
Paper, asphalt, rolled, horizontal storage
Paper, asphalt, rolled, vertical storage
Paper and pulp, rolled, in vertical storage which is unbanded or not protected with an
approved wrap
Pillows, foam rubber and foam plastics
310
Pyroxylin
Rubber tires
Vegetable oil and butter in plastic containers
2303.7 Classification of plastics. Plastics shall be designated as Group A, B or C in accordance
with this section.
2303.7.1 Group A plastics. Group A plastics are plastic materials having a heat of
combustion that is much higher than that of ordinary combustibles, and a burning rate higher
than that of Group B plastics. Examples of Group A plastics include the following:
ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer)
Acetal (polyformaldehyde)
Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate)
Butyl rubber
EPDM (ethylene propylene rubber)
FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester)
Natural rubber (expanded)
Nitrile rubber (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber)
PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate)
Polybutadiene
Polycarbonate
Polyester elastomer
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Polystyrene (expanded and unexpanded)
Polyurethane (expanded and unexpanded)
PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 15 percent plasticized, e.g., coated fabric
unsupported film)
SAN (styrene acrylonitrile)
SBR (styrene butadiene rubber)
2303.7.2 Group B plastics. Group B plastics are plastic materials having a heat of
combustion and a burning rate higher than that of ordinary combustibles, but not as high as
those of Group A plastics. Examples of Group B plastics include the following:
Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, ethyl cellulose)
Chloroprene rubber
Fluoroplastics (ECTFE, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer; ETFE, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene copolymer; FEP, fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer)
Natural rubber (nonexpanded)
Nylon (Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6)
PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 5-percent, but not exceeding 15-percent plasticized)
Silicone rubber
2303.7.3 Group C plastics. Group C plastics are plastic materials having a heat of
combustion and a burning rate similar to those of ordinary combustibles. Examples of Group
C plastics include the following:
311
Fluoroplastics (PCTFE, polychlorotrifluoroethylene;
PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene)
Melamine (melamine formaldehyde)
Phenol
PVC (polyvinyl chloride, rigid or plasticized less than 5 percent, e.g., pipe, pipe fittings)
PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride)
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride)
PVF (polyvinyl fluoride)
Urea (urea formaldehyde)
2303.7.4 Limited quantities of Group A plastics in mixed commodities. Figure 2303.7.4
shall be used to determine the quantity of Group A plastics allowed to be stored in a package
or carton or on a pallet without increasing the commodity classification.
SECTION FC 2304
DESIGNATION OF HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREAS
2304.1 General. High-piled storage areas, and portions of high-piled storage areas for storage of
a commodity class different from adjacent areas, shall be designed and specifically designated to
contain Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV or high-hazard commodities. The designation of a
high-piled combustible storage area, or portion thereof intended for storage of a different
commodity class, shall be based on the highest hazard commodity class stored except as
provided in Section 2304.2.
2304.2 Designation based on engineering analysis. The designation of a high-piled
combustible storage area, or portion thereof, is allowed to be based on a lower hazard class than
that of the highest class of commodity stored when a limited quantity of the higher hazard
commodity has been demonstrated by engineering analysis to be adequately protected by the
sprinkler system provided. The engineering analysis shall consider the ability of the sprinkler
system to deliver the higher density required by the higher hazard commodity. The higher
density shall be based on the actual storage height of the pile or rack and the minimum allowable
design area for sprinkler operation as set forth in the density/area figures provided in NFPA 13.
The contiguous area occupied by the higher hazard commodity shall not exceed 120 square feet
(11 m2), and additional areas of higher hazard commodity shall be separated from other such
areas by 25 feet (7620 mm) or more. The sprinkler system shall be capable of delivering the
higher density over a minimum area of 900 square feet (84 m2) for wet pipe systems and 1,200
square feet (11 m2) for dry pipe systems. The shape of the design area shall be in accordance
with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
SECTION FC 2305
HOUSEKEEPING AND MAINTENANCE
2305.1 Rack structures. The structural integrity of racks shall be maintained.
2305.2 Ignition sources. Clearance from ignition sources shall be provided in accordance with
Section 305.
312
2305.3 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited. Approved “No Smoking” signs shall be
conspicuously posted in accordance with Section 310.
2305.4 Aisle maintenance. When restocking is not being conducted, aisles shall be kept clear of
stored or waste material. Fire department access doors, aisles and exit doors shall not be
obstructed. During restocking operations using manual stocking methods, a minimum
unobstructed aisle width of 24 inches (610 mm) shall be maintained in 48-inch (1219 mm) or
smaller aisles, and a minimum unobstructed aisle width of one-half of the required aisle width
shall be maintained in aisles greater than 48 inches (1219 mm). During mechanical stocking
operations, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be maintained in
accordance with Section 2306.9.
2305.5 Pile dimension and height limitations. Pile dimensions and height limitations shall
comply with the requirements of Section 2307.3.
2305.6 Arrays. Arrays shall comply with the requirements of Section 2307.4.
2305.7 Flue spaces. Flue spaces shall comply with the requirements of Section 2308.3.
SECTION FC 2306
GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY FEATURES
2306.1 General. Fire protection and life safety features for high-piled storage areas shall be in
accordance with this section.
2306.2 Extent and type of protection. Where required by Table 2306.2, fire detection systems,
smoke and heat removal, draft curtains and sprinkler design densities shall extend the lesser of
15 feet (4572 mm) beyond the high-piled storage area or to a permanent partition. Where
portions of high-piled storage areas have different fire protection requirements because of
commodity, method of storage or storage height, the fire protection features required by Table
2306.2 within this area shall be based on the most restrictive design requirements.
2306.3 Separation of high-piled storage areas. High-piled storage areas shall be separated
from other portions of the building where required by Sections 2306.3.1 through 2306.3.2.2.
2306.3.1 Separation from other uses. Mixed occupancies shall be separated in accordance
with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2306.3.2 Multiple high-piled storage areas. Multiple high-piled storage areas shall be
designed and installed in accordance with Section 2306.3.2.1 or 2306.3.2.2.
2306.3.2.1 Aggregate area. The aggregate of all high-piled storage areas within a
building shall be used for application of Table 2306.2 unless such areas are separated
from each other by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier walls constructed in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code. Openings in such
walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies having a 1-hour fire protection
rating.
313
2306.3.2.2 Multiclass high-piled storage areas. High-piled storage areas classified as
Class I through Class IV not separated from high-piled storage areas classified as high
hazard shall utilize the aggregate of all high-piled storage areas as high hazard for
purposes of application of Table 2306.2. To be considered as separated, 1-hour fireresistance-rated fire barrier walls shall be constructed in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Building Code. Openings in such walls shall be protected by opening
protective assemblies having a 1-hour fire protection rating.
Exception: As provided for in Section 2304.2.
314
315
TABLE 2306.2
GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
SIZE OF HIGHALL STORAGE AREAS
PILED
(See Sections 2306, 2307 and 2308)b
STORAGE
Automatic
AREAa
Fire
fire(square feet)
extinguish
Building
Smoke and
Draft
detection
(see Sections ing system
system
Access
heat removal
curtains
2306.2 and
(see Section (see Section (see Section (see Section (see Section
COMMODITY
2306.4)
CLASS
2306.4)
2306.5)
2306.6)
2306.7)
2306.7)
0-500
501-2,500
I-IV
2,501-12,000
Public
accessible
2,501-12,000
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 1)
2,501-12,000
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 2)
12,00120,000
20,001500,000
Greater than
500,000g
0-500
High
hazard
501-2,500
Public
accessible
501-2,500
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 1)
501-2,500
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 2)
2,501300,000
300,001500,000g, h
Not
Requireda
Not
Requireda
Not
Required
Yesi
Not
Requirede
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
SOLID-PILED STORAGE, SHELF
STORAGE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE
(see Section 2307.3)
Maximum
pile
dimensionc
(feet)
Maximum
permissible
storage
heightd
(feet)
Maximum
pile volume
(cubic feet)
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
100
40
100,000
Yes
Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
100
40
400,000
Yes
Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
100
40
400,000
Not
Requireda
Yes
Yes
Yesj
Yesj
100
30f
200,000
Yes
Yesj
100
40
400,000
Yes
Yesj
100
40
400,000
100
40
400,000
50
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Yes
Yesj
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Yes
Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
50
30
75,000
Yes
Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
50
30
75,000
Not
Requireda
Yes
Yes
Yesj
Yesj
50
20
50,000
Yes
Yesj
50
30
75,000
Yes
Yesj
Not
Required
Not
Required
50
30
75,000
Yes
Yes
Yes
Not
Requireda
Yes
Yes
Not
Required
Not
Required
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3 , 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. When sprinkler systems are required for reasons other than those in Chapter 23, the portion of the sprinkler system protecting the high-piled
storage area shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 2307 and 2308.
b. For aisles, see Section 2306.9.
c. Piles shall be separated by aisles complying with the requirements of Section 2306.9.
d. For storage in excess of the height indicated, special fire protection shall be provided in accordance with Note g when required by the
commissioner. See also Chapters 28 and 34 for special limitations for aerosols and flammable and combustible liquids.
e. Section 503 shall apply for fire apparatus access.
f. For storage exceeding 30 feet in height, Option 1 shall be used.
g. Special fire protection provisions including fire protection of exposed steel columns; increased sprinkler density; additional in-rack sprinklers,
without associated reductions in ceiling sprinkler density; or additional fire department hose connections shall be provided when required by
the commissioner.
h. High-piled storage areas shall not exceed 500,000 square feet. A 2-hour fire wall constructed in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code shall be used to divide high-piled storage exceeding 500,000 square feet in area.
i. Not required when a fire extinguishing system is designed and installed to protect the high-piled storage area in accordance with Sections 2307
and 2308.
j. Not required when storage areas are protected throughout by early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinkler systems installed in accordance
with NFPA 13.
316
2306.4 Sprinkler systems. Sprinkler systems shall be provided in accordance with Sections
2307, 2308 and 2309.
2306.5 Fire detection. Where fire detection is required by Table 2306.2, an approved automatic
fire detection system shall be installed throughout the high-piled storage area. The system shall
be monitored and be in accordance with Section 907.
2306.6 Building access. Where building access is required by Table 2306.2, fire apparatus
access roads in accordance with Section 503 shall be provided within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of
all portions of the exterior walls of buildings used for high-piled storage.
Exception: Where fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of topography,
railways, waterways, non-negotiable grades or other similar conditions, the commissioner
may require additional fire protection.
2306.6.1 Access doors. Where building access is required by Table 2306.2, fire department
access doors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Access doors shall be
accessible without the use of a ladder.
2306.6.1.1 Number of doors required. A minimum of one access door shall be provided
in each 100 lineal feet (30 480 mm), or fraction thereof, of the exterior walls which face
required fire apparatus access roads.
2306.6.1.2 Door size and type. Access doors shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in
width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Roll-up doors shall not be used unless
approved.
2306.6.1.3 Locking devices. Only approved locking devices shall be used.
2306.7 Smoke and heat removal. Where smoke and heat removal are required by Table 2306.2,
smoke and heat vents shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Building Code. Where draft curtains are required by Table 2306.2, they shall be provided in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2306.8 Fire department hose connections. Where exit passageways are required by the
construction codes, including the Building Code for egress, a Class I standpipe system shall be
provided in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2306.9 Aisles. Aisles providing access to exits and fire department access doors shall be
provided in high-piled storage areas exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2), in accordance with
Sections 2306.9.1 through 2306.9.3. Aisles separating storage piles or racks shall comply with
the requirements of NFPA 13. Aisles shall also comply with the requirements of the construction
codes, including the Building Code.
Exception: Where aisles are precluded by rack storage systems, alternate methods of access
and protection are allowed when approved.
2306.9.1 Width. Aisle width shall be in accordance with Sections 2306.9.1.1 and 2306.9.1.2.
317
Exceptions:
1. Cross aisles used only for employee access between aisles shall be a minimum of
24 inches (610 mm) wide.
2. Aisles separating shelves classified as shelf storage shall be a minimum of 30
inches (762 mm) wide.
2306.9.1.1 Sprinklered buildings. Aisles in buildings protected throughout by a
sprinkler system shall be a minimum of 44 inches (1118 mm) wide. Aisles shall be a
minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in high-piled storage areas that exceed 2,500
square feet (232 m2) in area, and that are accessible to the public and designated to
contain high-hazard commodities.
Exception: Aisles in high-piled storage areas exceeding 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in
area, that are accessible to the public and designated to contain high-hazard
commodities, and that are protected throughout by a sprinkler system designed for
multiple-row racks of high-hazard commodities, shall be a minimum of 44 inches
(1118 mm) wide.
Aisles shall be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in areas accessible to the
public where mechanical stocking methods are used.
2306.9.1.2 Nonsprinklered buildings. Aisles in buildings not protected throughout by a
sprinkler system shall be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide.
2306.9.2 Clear height. The required aisle width shall extend from floor to ceiling. Rack
structural supports and catwalks are allowed to cross aisles at a minimum height of 6 feet 8
inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor level, provided that such supports do not interfere
with fire department hose stream trajectory.
2306.9.3 Dead ends. Dead-end aisles shall be in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
2306.10 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance
with Section 906.
SECTION FC 2307
SOLID-PILED AND SHELF STORAGE
2307.1 General. Shelf storage and storage in solid piles, solid piles on pallets and bin box
storage in bin boxes not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension, shall be designed and
maintained in accordance with Section 2306 and this section.
2307.2 Fire protection. Where sprinkler systems are required for solid-piled and shelf storage
pursuant to Table 2306.2, a sprinkler system shall be provided in any area containing such
storage that is enclosed in 1-hour fire-rated walls in accordance with the Building Code, or, if
318
such storage is not enclosed within such fire-rated walls, throughout the building. Openings in
such walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies having 1-hour fire protection
ratings. The design and installation of the sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection
shall be in accordance with this code, the construction codes, including the Building Code, and
NFPA 13.
2307.2.1 Shelf storage. Shelf storage greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) but less than 15 feet
(4572 mm) in height shall be in accordance with the fire protection requirements set forth in
NFPA 13. Shelf storage 15 feet (4572 mm) or more in height shall be protected in an
approved manner with special fire protection, such as in-rack sprinklers.
2307.3 Pile dimension and height limitations. Pile dimensions, the maximum permissible
storage height and pile volume shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.
2307.4 Array. Where a sprinkler system design utilizes protection based on a closed array, array
clearances shall be provided and maintained as specified by the standard used.
SECTION FC 2308
RACK STORAGE
2308.1 General. Rack storage shall be designed and maintained in accordance with Section 2306
and this section. Bin boxes exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension shall be regulated as
rack storage.
2308.2 Fire protection. Where a sprinkler system is required for rack storage pursuant to Table
2306.2, a sprinkler system shall be provided in any area containing such storage that is enclosed
in 1-hour fire-rated walls in accordance with the Building Code, or, if such storage is not
enclosed within such fire-rated walls, throughout the building. Openings in such walls shall be
protected by opening protective assemblies having 1-hour fire protection ratings. The design and
installation of the sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection shall be in accordance
with this code, the construction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 13.
2308.2.1 Plastic pallets and shelves. Storage on plastic pallets or plastic shelves shall be
protected by approved specially- engineered fire protection systems.
2308.2.2 Racks with solid shelving. Racks with solid shelving having an area greater than
32 square feet (3 m2), measured between approved flue spaces at all four edges of the shelf,
shall be in accordance with this section.
Exceptions:
1. Racks with mesh, grated, slatted or similar shelves having uniform openings not
more than 6 inches (152 mm) apart, comprising at least 50 percent of overall shelf
area, and with approved flue spaces, are allowed to be treated as racks without solid
shelves.
2. Racks used for the storage of combustible paper records, with solid shelving, shall
be in accordance with NFPA 13.
319
2308.2.2.1 Fire protection. Fire protection for racks with solid shelving shall be in
accordance with NFPA 13.
TABLE 2308.3
REQUIRED FLUE SPACES FOR RACK STORAGE
RACK
CONFIGURATION
Single-row rack
Double-row
rack
Multi-row rack
SPRINKLER
PROTECTION
Storage height
Sizeb
Transverse
Vertically
flue space
aligned
Longitudinal flue space
Sizeb
Transverse
Vertically
flue space
aligned
Longitudinal flue space
Sizeb
Transverse
Vertically
flue space
aligned
Longitudinal flue space
SPRINKLER AT THE CEILING WITH OR WITHOUT
MINIMUM IN-RACK SPRINKLERS
≤ 25 feet
> 25 feet
Option 1
Option 2
IN-RACK
SPRINKLERS AT
EVERY TIER
NONSPRINKLERED
Any height
Any height
3 inches
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
3 inches
Yes
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
6 inchesa
Not Required
Not Applicable
3 inches
Not Required
Not Required
3 inches
Yes
Not Required
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
6 inches
Not Required
6 inches
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
6 inches
6 inches
Yes
Not Required
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Three-inch transverse flue spaces shall be provided at least every 10 feet where ESFR sprinkler protection is provided.
b. Random variations are allowed, provided that the configuration does not obstruct water penetration.
2308.3 Flue spaces. Flue spaces shall be provided in accordance with Table 2308.3. Required
flue spaces shall be maintained.
2308.4 Column protection. Steel building columns shall be protected in accordance with NFPA
13.
2308.5 Extra-high-rack storage systems. Approval of the commissioner shall be obtained prior
to installing extra-high-rack combustible storage.
2308.5.1 Fire protection. Buildings with extra-high-rack combustible storage shall be
protected with a specially engineered sprinkler system. Extra-high-rack combustible storage
shall be provided with additional special fire protection, such as separation from other
buildings and additional built-in fire protection features and fire department access, when
required by the commissioner.
SECTION FC 2309
AUTOMATED STORAGE
2309.1 General. Automated storage shall be designed and maintained in accordance with this
section.
2309.2 Sprinkler systems. Where a sprinkler system is required by Table 2306.2, a sprinkler
system shall be installed throughout the building. The design and installation of such system
shall be in accordance with this code and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
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2309.3 Carousel storage. High-piled storage areas having greater than 500 square feet (46 m2)
of carousel storage shall be provided with automatic shutdown in accordance with one of the
following:
1. An automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code, with coverage extending 15 feet (4575 mm) in all directions
beyond unenclosed carousel storage systems and which sounds a local alarm at the
operator’s station and stops the carousel storage system upon the activation of a single
detector.
2. An automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code and within enclosed carousel storage systems, that sounds a
local alarm at the operator’s station and stops the carousel storage system upon the
activation of a single detector.
3. A single dead-man-type control switch that allows the operation of the carousel storage
system only when the operator is present. The switch shall be in the same room as the
carousel storage system and located to allow for observation of the carousel system.
SECTION FC 2310
RECORD STORAGE
2310.1 General. Records storage facilities used for the rack or shelf storage of combustible
paper records greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with Sections 2306 and 2308 and NFPA 13. Palletized storage of
records shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Section 2307.
CHAPTER 24
TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES
SECTION FC 2401
GENERAL
2401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern membrane structures.
2401.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
SECTION FC 2402
DEFINITIONS
2402.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure whose structural elements are inflated and
maintained by elevated air pressure and are not occupiable spaces.
AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure, the shape of which is attained and maintained
by elevated air pressure, and the occupancy of which is within the area of elevated pressure.
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MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air-inflated, air-supported, cable or frame-covered structure
or tent, as defined in Chapter 31 of the Building Code.
TENT. A non-pressurized membrane structure of a fabric weather barrier supported by poles and
guys in which the fabric weather barrier does not impart stability to the structure. Tents need not
be fully enclosed on the sides.
SECTION FC 2403
RESERVED
SECTION FC 2404
TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES
2404.1 General. All membrane structures shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained
in accordance with this section and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2404.2 Flame-resistant treatment. The owner or agent shall file with the commissioner a
certificate issued by an approved testing laboratory, certifying that the tent materials and their
appurtenances, sidewalls, drops and tarpaulins, floor coverings, bunting, combustible decorative
materials and effects, including sawdust when used on floors or passageways, shall be composed
of flame-resistant material or shall be treated with a flame retardant in an approved manner and
meet the requirements for flame resistance as determined in accordance with NFPA 701 and
Chapter 8, and that such flame resistance is effective for the period specified by the permit.
2402.2.1 Certification. An affidavit or affirmation shall be submitted to the commissioner
and a copy retained on the premises on which the tent is located. The affidavit shall attest to
the information required in Chapter 8 and the rules.
2404.2.2 Label. Membrane structures shall have a label permanently affixed to them
identifying the type and quality of the fabric or other material.
2404.3 Location and access. Membrane structures shall be placed and afforded access for
firefighting apparatus in accordance with this section.
2404.3.1 Access. Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided in accordance with Section
503 and the Building Code.
2404.3.2 Location. Membrane structures shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of
parked vehicles or internal combustion engines. For the purpose of determining required
distances, support ropes and guy wires shall be considered as part of the membrane structure.
2404.3.3 Fire break. An unobstructed fire break not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) wide and
free from guy ropes or other obstructions shall be maintained on all sides of all membrane
structures unless otherwise approved by the commissioner.
2404.4 Means of egress. Means of egress for membrane structures shall be in accordance with
this section and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
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2404.4.1 Seating arrangements. Seating in membrane structures shall be in accordance with
the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2404.4.2 Exit openings from tents. Exit openings from tents shall remain open unless
covered by a flame-resistant curtain. The curtain shall comply with the following
requirements:
1. Curtains shall be free sliding on a metal support. The support shall be a minimum of 80
inches (2032 mm) above the floor level at the exit. The curtains shall be so arranged
that, when open, no part of the curtain obstructs the exit.
2. Curtains shall be of a color, or colors, that contrasts with the color of the tent.
3. Curtains shall be flame resistant in accordance with Chapter 8.
2404.4.2.1 Door operation in air-supported structures. During high winds exceeding
50 miles per hour (80 kph) or in snow conditions, the use of doors in air-supported
structures shall be controlled to avoid excessive air loss. Doors shall not be left open.
2404.4.3 Aisle arrangement and maintenance. The arrangement of aisles shall be subject
to the approval of the commissioner and shall be maintained clear at all times.
2404.4.4 Maintenance of means of egress. The required width of exits, aisles and
passageways to a public street shall be maintained at all times. Guy wires, guy ropes and
other support members shall not cross a means of egress at a height of less than 8 feet (2438
mm). The surface of means of egress shall be maintained in an approved manner.
2404.5 Combustible materials. Hay, straw, shavings or similar combustible materials shall not
be located within any membrane structure containing an assembly occupancy, except the
materials necessary for the daily feeding and care of animals. Sawdust and shavings utilized for a
public performance or exhibit shall not be prohibited provided the sawdust and shavings are kept
damp. Combustible materials shall not be permitted under stands or seats at any time. The areas
within and adjacent to the membrane structure shall be maintained clear of all combustible
materials or vegetation that could create a fire hazard within 20 feet (6096 mm) from the
structure. Combustible trash shall be removed at least once a day from the structure during the
period the structure is occupied by the public.
2404.6 Smoking. Smoking shall not be permitted in membrane structures. Approved “No
Smoking” signs shall be conspicuously posted in accordance with Section 310.
2404.7 Open or exposed flame. Open flame or other devices emitting flame, fire or heat or any
flammable or combustible liquids, gas, charcoal or other cooking device or any other unapproved
devices shall not be permitted inside or located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of a membrane
structure while open to the public unless an open-flame permit has been issued.
2404.8 Fireworks and special effects. Any fireworks or special effects displays in or near any
membrane structure shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter 33.
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2404.9 Spot lighting. Spot or effect lighting shall only be by electricity, and all combustible
construction located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of such equipment shall be protected with
approved noncombustible insulation not less than 9.25 inches (235 mm) thick.
2404.10 Safety film. Motion pictures shall not be displayed in membrane structures unless the
motion picture film is safety film.
2404.11 Clearance. There shall be a minimum clearance of at least 3 feet (914 mm) between the
surface of a membrane structure and all contents therein.
2404.12 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as required by
Section 906.
2404.13 Fire protection equipment. Fire hose lines, water supplies and other auxiliary fire
equipment shall be maintained at the site in such numbers and sizes as required by the
commissioner.
2404.14 Occupant load. The occupant load allowed in a membrane structure, shall be
determined in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2404.15 Heating and cooking equipment. Heating and cooking equipment shall be in
accordance with this section.
2404.15.1 Installation. Heating or cooking equipment, tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves,
tubing and other related components shall be installed as set forth in the construction codes,
including the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code.
2404.15.2 Venting. Gas, liquid and solid fuel-burning equipment designed to be vented shall
be vented to the outdoors in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code. Such vents shall be equipped with approved spark
arresters when required. Where vents or flues are used, all portions of the membrane
structure shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the flue or vent.
2404.15.3 Location. Cooking and heating equipment shall not be located within 10 feet
(3048 mm) of exits or combustible materials.
2404.15.4 Operations. Operations such as warming of foods, cooking demonstrations and
similar operations that use solid flammables shall be approved by the commissioner.
2404.15.5 Cooking. Membrane structures in which cooking is performed shall be separated
from other membrane structures by a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm).
2404.15.6 Outdoor cooking. Outdoor cooking that produces sparks or grease-laden vapors
shall not be performed within 20 feet (6096 mm) from a membrane structure.
2404.15.7 Electrical heating and cooking equipment. Electrical cooking and heating
equipment shall comply with the requirements of the Electrical Code.
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2404.16 LPG. The storage, handling and use of LPG and LPG equipment shall be in accordance
with this section and Chapter 38.
2404.16.1 General. Stationary LPG installations, including tanks, piping, hoses, fittings,
valves, tubing and other related components shall be approved and in accordance with
Chapter 38.
2404.16.2 Location of containers. LPG containers shall be located outside the membrane
structure. Pressure relief valves shall be pointed away from the membrane structure.
2404.16.2.1 Containers. Portable LPG containers shall have a minimum separation
between the container and structure of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
2404.16.3 Protection and security. Portable LPG containers, piping, valves and fittings
which are being used to fuel LPG-fueled devices, equipment or systems inside a membrane
structure shall be located outside the membrane structure and shall be secured from
movement or other hazard.
2404.17 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage of flammable and combustible
liquids and the use of flammable-liquid-fueled equipment shall be in accordance with this
section.
2404.17.1 Use. Flammable-liquid-fueled equipment shall not be used in membrane
structures.
2404.17.2 Flammable and combustible liquid storage. Flammable and combustible liquids
shall be stored outside the membrane structure in an approved manner not less than 50 feet
(15 240 mm) from the membrane structure. Storage shall be in accordance with Chapter 34.
2404.17.3 Refueling. Refueling shall be performed at an approved location not less than 20
feet (6096 mm) from membrane structures.
2404.18 Display of liquid- and gas-fueled motor vehicles. Liquid- and gas-fueled vehicles and
equipment may be displayed within a membrane structure in accordance with this section and
Chapter 3.
2404.18.1 Batteries. Batteries shall be disconnected in an appropriate manner.
2404.18.2 Fuel systems. Vehicles or equipment shall not be fueled or defueled within the
membrane structure.
2404.18.2.1 Quantity limit. Fuel in the fuel tank shall not exceed 1 gallon (3.8 L).
2404.18.2.2 Inspection. Fuel systems shall be inspected for leaks.
2404.18.2.3 Closure. Fuel tank openings shall be locked and sealed to prevent the escape
of vapors.
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2404.18.3 Location. The location of vehicles or equipment shall not obstruct means of
egress.
2404.18.4 Display of CNG/LPG vehicles. When a compressed natural gas (CNG) or
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered vehicle is parked inside a membrane structure, all the
following conditions shall be met:
1. The quarter-turn shutoff valve or other shutoff valve on the outlet of the CNG or LPG
container shall be closed and the engine shall be operated until it stops. Valves shall
remain closed while the vehicle is indoors.
2. The hot lead of the battery shall be disconnected.
3. Dual-fuel vehicles equipped to operate on gasoline and CNG or LPG shall comply
with the requirements of this section and Sections 2404.18 through 2404.18.3 for
gasoline-powered vehicles.
2404.18.5 Competitions and demonstrations. Liquid and gas-fueled vehicles and
equipment used for competition or demonstration within a membrane structure shall comply
with the requirements of Section 2404.18.5.1.
2404.18.5.1 Fuel storage and dispensing. Fuel for vehicles or equipment shall be stored
and dispensed in an approved location outside of the membrane structure in accordance
with Section 2404.17.2, Section 2404.17.3 and Chapter 22.
2404.19 Separation of generators. Generators and other internal combustion power sources
shall be separated from membrane structures by a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) and shall be
isolated from contact with the public by fencing, enclosure or other approved means.
2404.20 Fire guards. When the interest of public safety so requires, the commissioner may
order the owner of any membrane structure in which a performance, exhibition, display, contest
or other activity is to be conducted to provide one or more fire guards or other qualified persons
to remain on duty during the times such places are open to the public, or when such activity is
being conducted. Such fire guards shall keep diligent watch for fires during the time such place
is open to the public or such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures for
extinguishment of fires that occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the structure.
2404.21 Vegetation removal. Vegetation shall be removed from the area occupied by a
membrane structure, and from areas within 30 feet (9144 mm) of such structures.
2404.22 Waste material. The floor surface inside membrane structures and the grounds outside
and within a 30-foot (9144 mm) perimeter shall be kept clear of combustible waste. Such
combustible waste shall not be permitted to accumulate and shall be stored in approved
containers until removed from the premises and disposed of lawfully.
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CHAPTER 25
TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE
SECTION FC 2501
GENERAL
2501.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, operation and maintenance of tire rebuilding
plants, tire storage and tire byproduct facilities.
2501.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2501.3 General. Tire rebuilding plants, tire storage and tire byproduct facilities shall be
designed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter, NFPA 13, NFPA 231D, and
if applicable, Chapter 23.
SECTION FC 2502
DEFINITIONS
2502.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall
have the meanings defined therein.
SECTION FC 2503
TIRE REBUILDING
2503.1 Construction. Tire rebuilding plants shall comply with the requirements of the
construction codes, including the Building Code.
2503.2 Location. Buffing operations shall be conducted in a room separated from the remainder
of the building housing the tire rebuilding or tire recapping operations by a 1-hour fire barrier.
Exception: Buffing operations are not required to be separated where the following
requirements are complied with:
1. Buffing operations are protected throughout by a continuous water-spray fire
protection system directed at the point of cutting action.
2. Buffing machines are connected to particle-collecting systems providing a minimum
air movement of 1,500 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.71m3/s) in volume and 4,500 feet
per minute (fpm) (23 m/s) in-line velocity.
3. The collecting system shall discharge the rubber particles to an approved outdoor
noncombustible or noncombustible container, which is emptied at frequent intervals to
prevent overflow.
2503.3 Cleaning. The buffing area shall be cleaned and combustible waste regularly removed
and disposed of to prevent the accumulation of rubber particles.
327
2503.4 Spray rooms and booths. Spray rooms or spray booths wherein flammable or
combustible solvents are applied shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15.
SECTION FC 2504
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE
2504.1 Open fires and flames prohibited. It shall be unlawful in a tire storage yard to ignite or
maintain an open fire or open flame.
2504.2 Hot work prohibited. It shall be unlawful in a tire storage yard to conduct hot work
operations.
2504.3 Smoking prohibited. It shall be unlawful in a tire storage yard to smoke.
2504.4 Power lines. Tire storage piles shall not be located beneath electrical power lines having
a voltage in excess of 750 volts or near lines supplying power to fire emergency systems where
a fire in such storage piles would damage such lines.
2504.5 Reserved.
2504.6 Communications. A telephone not requiring a coin to operate, or other approved clearly
identified means to notify the department, shall be provided at the facility in an approved
location. A sign shall be conspicuously posted at or near the telephone indicating that all fires
shall be immediately reported to the department, and setting forth the facility’s address with
cross-street reference and the fire department telephone number.
SECTION FC 2505
OUTDOOR STORAGE
2505.1 Individual piles. Tire storage shall be restricted to individual piles not exceeding 5,000
square feet (464.5 m2) of continuous area. Piles shall not exceed 50,000 cubic feet (1416 m3) in
volume or 10 feet (3048 mm) in height.
2505.2 Separation of piles. Individual tire storage piles shall be separated from other piles of
salvage by a clear space of at least 40 feet (12 192 mm).
2505.3 Distance between piles of other stored products. Tire storage piles shall be separated
by a clear space of at least 40 feet (12 192 mm) from piles of other stored product.
2505.4 Distance from lot lines and buildings. Tire storage piles shall be located at least 50 feet
(15 240 mm) from lot lines and buildings unless the commissioner approves a lesser separation
distance of tire storage piles in accordance with the criteria set forth in NFPA 231D.
2505.5 Fire breaks. Storage yards shall be maintained free from combustible ground vegetation
for a distance of 40 feet (12 192 mm) from the stored material to grass and weeds; and for a
distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm) from the stored product to brush and forested areas.
328
2505.6 Volume more than 150,000 cubic feet. Where the bulk volume of stored material is
more than 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m3), fire breaks shall be provided around the perimeter of
each group of storage piles in accordance with the following:
1. Individual storage piles shall be arranged so that there are not more than 16 individual
storage piles per group.
2. Fire breaks shall at least be 75 feet (22 860 mm) wide.
2505.7 Location of storage. Outdoor waste tire storage shall not be located under bridges,
elevated trestles, elevated roadways or elevated railroads.
SECTION FC 2506
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS
2506.1 Required access. New and existing tire storage yards shall be provided with fire
apparatus access roads in accordance with Section 503 and this section.
2506.2 Location. Fire apparatus access roads shall be located within all pile clearances identified
in Section 2505.4 and within all fire breaks required in Sections 2505.5 and 2505.6. Access
roadways shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of any point in the storage yard where storage
piles are located, at least 20 feet (6096 mm) from any storage pile.
SECTION FC 2507
FENCING
2507.1 Where required. Where the bulk volume of stored material is more than 20,000 cubic
feet (566 m3), a firmly anchored fence or other approved method of security that controls
unauthorized access to the storage yard shall surround the storage yard.
2507.2 Construction. The fence shall be constructed of approved materials and shall be at least
6 feet (1829 mm) high and provided with gates at least 20 feet (6096 mm) wide. Where gates are
constructed, they shall comply with the vertical clearance requirements of Section 503.6.
2507.3 Security. All gates to the storage yard shall be locked when the storage yard is not
staffed.
SECTION FC 2508
FIRE PROTECTION
2508.1 Water supply. A public or private fire protection water supply shall be provided in
accordance with Section 508. The water supply shall be arranged such that any part of the
storage yard can be reached by using not more than 300 feet (91 m) of hose.
2508.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Buildings or structures shall be provided with portable fire
extinguishers in accordance with Section 906. Fuel-fired vehicles operating in the storage yard
shall be equipped with a minimum 2-A:20-B:C rated portable fire extinguisher.
329
SECTION FC 2509
INDOOR STORAGE ARRANGEMENT
2509.1 Pile dimensions. Where tires are stored on-tread, the dimension of the pile in the
direction of the wheel hole shall not be more than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Tires stored adjacent to
or along one wall shall not extend more than 25 feet (7620 mm) from that wall. Other piles shall
not be more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width.
CHAPTER 26
WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK
SECTION FC 2601
GENERAL
2601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern welding, cutting and other torch and hot work
operations and equipment.
2601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2601.3 Approved locations. Hot work shall be conducted only in the areas set forth in this
section or approved by the commissioner.
2601.3.1 Authorized areas. Hot work may be conducted in the following areas:
1. Areas designed for hot work operations.
2. Areas authorized for that purpose by the responsible person at the premises when
precautions have been taken in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
2601.3.2 Restricted areas. Hot work shall not be conducted in the following areas unless
approval has been obtained from the commissioner:
1. Areas where the sprinkler system is impaired.
2. Areas where there exists the potential of an explosive atmosphere, such as locations
where flammable gases, liquids or vapors are present.
3. Areas with readily ignitable materials, such as storage of large quantities of bulk
sulfur, baled paper, cotton, lint, dust or loose combustible materials.
4. On board marine vessels or watercraft at dock under construction or repair.
2601.4 Containers. Compressed gas containers shall be designed, installed, operated and
maintained in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 30.
2601.5 Design and installation of oxygen-fuel gas systems. An oxygen-fuel gas system shall be
designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 51 and ANSI Z49.1, as applicable.
330
2601.5.1 Oxygen at construction sites. The storage and use of oxygen at a construction site
shall additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 14.
2601.6 Torches. Torches and tips that utilize a flammable gas for hot work operations shall be
listed.
SECTION FC 2602
DEFINITIONS
2602.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
FIRE GUARD. A person holding a certificate of fitness for such purpose, who is trained in and
responsible for maintaining a fire watch and performing such fire safety duties as may be
prescribed by the commissioner.
HOT WORK. Cutting, welding, thermit welding, brazing, soldering, grinding, thermal spraying,
thawing pipe, cadwelding, installation of torch-applied roof systems or any other similar
operation or activity.
HOT WORK AREA. The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, radiant heat, or convective heat as a
result of hot work.
HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. Electric or gas welding or cutting equipment used for hot work.
HOT WORK PROGRAM AUTHORIZATIONS. Authorizations issued by the responsible
person under a hot work program allowing welding or other hot work to be performed at the
premises.
HOT WORK PROGRAM. A program, implemented by a responsible person designated by the
owner of a building or structure in or on which hot work is being performed, to oversee and issue
authorizations for such hot work for the purpose of preventing fire and fire spread.
RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the fire safety hazards associated with hot work
and in the necessary and appropriate measures to minimize those hazards, who is designated by
the owner of a premises to authorize the performance of hot work at the premises.
TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. Bituminous roofing systems using membranes that are
adhered by heating with a torch and melting asphalt back coating instead of mopping hot asphalt
for adhesion.
SECTION FC 2603
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2603.1 General. Hot work operations, including temporary and fixed hot work areas, shall be
conducted in accordance with this chapter.
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2603.1.1 Torch operations using LPG. The use of LPG for torch operations shall
additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 38.
2603.1.2 Torch operations using CNG. The use of CNG for torch operations shall
additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 35.
2603.2 Hot work program. Whenever hot work is performed in any building or structure, on a
building roof or on a building setback, the owner shall ensure that such work is performed in
accordance with this chapter and shall designate a responsible person to ensure compliance.
2603.2.1 Hot work program responsible person. The responsible person shall ensure that a
permit has been obtained from the department when one is required, and ensure that the hot
work is performed in compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit. The
responsible person shall inspect the hot work site prior to issuing a hot work program
authorization and periodically monitor the work as it is being performed to ensure there are
no fire safety hazards.
2603.2.2 Responsible person supervision. Hot work operations shall be conducted under
the general supervision of the responsible person.
2603.3 Hot work program authorization. A hot work program authorization bearing the
signature of the responsible person shall be obtained for any project conducted on a premises
involving hot work operations by the person in charge of such hot work operations. Hot work
authorizations, issued by the responsible person, shall be available for inspection by any
representative of the department during the performance of the work and for 48 hours after the
work is complete.
2603.4 Qualifications of operators. An authorization for hot work operations shall not be issued
unless the individuals in charge of performing such operations are capable of performing such
operations safely. Demonstration of a working knowledge of the provisions of this chapter shall
constitute acceptable evidence of compliance with this requirement.
2603.4.1 Torch operations using oxygen and flammable gases. Torch operations using
oxygen and a flammable gas, and any torch operation for torch-applied roof systems, shall be
performed by a certificate of fitness holder.
Exception: Torch operations using oxygen and piped natural gas for manufacturing
jewelry may be performed under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness
holder, who shall be responsible to regulate the pressure and flow of oxygen and natural
gas to each torch.
2603.5 Records. The responsible person for the hot work area shall maintain “prework check”
reports in accordance with Section 2604.3.1. These reports shall be maintained on the premises
for a minimum of 48 hours after work is complete.
2603.6 Signage. Visible hazard identification signs shall be provided where required by Chapter
27. Where the hot work area is accessible to persons other than the operator of the hot work
332
equipment, signs shall be posted in a conspicuous location to warn others before they enter the
hot work area. Such signs shall read as follows:
CAUTION
HOT WORK IN PROGRESS
STAY CLEAR.
SECTION FC 2604
FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
2604.1 Protection of combustibles. Combustible material and combustible waste shall be
protected in accordance with Sections 2604.1.1 through 2604.1.9.
2604.1.1 Separation from combustibles. Hot work areas shall not be less than 35 feet (10
668 mm) from combustible materials and combustible waste or shall be provided with
appropriate shielding to prevent sparks, slag or heat from igniting exposed combustibles.
2604.1.2 Openings. Openings or cracks in walls, floors, ducts or shafts within 35 feet (10
668 mm) of the hot work area shall be tightly covered to prevent the passage of sparks to
adjacent combustible areas, or shielded by metal fire-resistant guards, or provided with
curtains to prevent passage of sparks or slag.
2604.1.3 Housekeeping. Combustible waste shall not be allowed to accumulate on floors
and other surfaces within the hot work area. Hot work areas shall be regularly cleaned and
combustible waste removed and disposed of lawfully.
2604.1.4 Conveyor systems. Conveyor systems that are capable of carrying sparks to distant
combustibles shall be shielded or shut down.
2604.1.5 Partitions. Partitions segregating hot work areas from other areas of the building
shall be of noncombustible construction. In fixed hot work areas, the partitions shall be
securely connected to the floor such that no gap exists between the floor and the partition.
Partitions shall prevent the passage of sparks, slag, and heat from the hot work area.
2604.1.5.1 Motor-fuel dispensing facilities. The use of a torch within a repair garage
located on a property upon which a motor-fuel dispensing facility is situated shall be
conducted within a fire-rated enclosure. All doors of such enclosure shall be fireproof and
self-closing.
2604.1.5.2 Repair garages. In a repair garage with a capacity for more than one vehicle,
hot work shall be conducted within a fire-rated enclosure in compliance with Section
2604.1.5.1 or behind a noncombustible screen that is positioned and of sufficient size to
prevent the passage of sparks, slag, and heat from the hot work area.
2604.1.6 Floors. Fixed hot work areas shall have floors with noncombustible surfaces.
2604.1.7 Precautions in hot work. Hot work shall not be performed on a container or
equipment that contains or has contained flammable liquids, gases or solids until the
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container or equipment has been thoroughly cleaned, inerted or purged; except that “hot
tapping” shall be allowed at bulk plants and terminals on tanks and piping when such work is
conducted by competent personnel. Hot work involving cutting, welding or heating of any
flammable solid in any form shall be conducted only with the approval of the commissioner.
2604.1.8 Sprinkler protection. Sprinkler system protection shall not be shut off or impaired
while hot work is performed unless approved by the commissioner. Where hot work is
performed close to sprinklers, noncombustible barriers or damp cloth guards shall shield the
individual sprinkler heads and shall be removed when the work is completed. If the work
extends over several days, the shields shall be removed at the end of each workday.
2604.1.9 Fire detection systems. Approved special precautions shall be taken to avoid
accidental operation of automatic fire detection systems.
2604.2 Fire watch. A fire watch shall be maintained and fire guards provided in accordance with
Sections 2604.2.1 through 2604.2.7.
2604.2.1 When required. A fire watch shall be maintained during hot work operations. The
fire watch shall continue for a minimum of 30 minutes after the conclusion of the work. The
commissioner, or the responsible person implementing a hot work program, may extend the
duration of the fire watch based on the hazards or work being performed.
2604.2.2 Location. The fire watch shall observe the entire hot work area. Hot work
conducted in areas with vertical or horizontal fire exposures that are not observable by a
single individual shall have additional personnel assigned to ensure that exposed areas are
monitored.
2604.2.3 Duties. Individuals assigned to fire watch duty shall have fire extinguishing
equipment readily available and shall be trained in the use of such equipment. Individuals
assigned to fire watch duty shall be responsible for identifying and extinguishing spot fires
and reporting such fires to the department.
2604.2.4 Fire training. The individuals responsible for performing the hot work, and for the
fire watch, shall be trained in the use of portable fire extinguishers.
2604.2.5 Fire hoses. Where hose lines are required, they shall be connected, charged and
ready for operation.
2604.2.6 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher
complying with the requirements of Section 906 and with a minimum 2-A:20-B:C rating
shall be readily accessible within 30 feet (9144 mm) of the location where hot work is
performed and where the fire guards are positioned.
2604.2.7 Fire guards for torch operations. The fire watch for torch operations conducted at
the following locations shall be conducted by fire guards:
1. Construction sites.
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2. On any rooftop, or in connection with any torch-applied roof system operation.
3. In any building or structure, when the torch operation is conducted by a person holding
a citywide permit for torch operations.
2604.2.7.1 Construction sites and torch-applied roof systems. A fire guard shall be
provided for each torch operation at a construction site and in connection with torchapplied roofing system operations. A fire guard shall be provided for each torch in
operation. An additional fire guard shall be provided on the floor or level below the torch
operation.
2604.3 Area reviews. Before hot work is authorized and at least once per day while the
authorization is in effect, the hot work area shall be inspected by the responsible person to ensure
that it is a fire safe area.
2604.3.1 Pre-hot work check. A pre-hot work check shall be conducted by the responsible
person prior to work to ensure that all equipment is safe and hazards are recognized and
protected. A report of the check shall be kept at the work site during the work and made
available for inspection by any representative of the department. The pre-hot work check
shall be conducted at least once per day and shall verify the following:
1. The hot work equipment is in good working order.
2. The hot work area is clear of combustibles and flammable solids or that such materials
present in the area are protected in accordance with Section 2604.1.1.
3. Exposed construction is of noncombustible materials or, if combustible, is protected.
4. Openings are protected.
5. Hot work area floors are clear of combustible waste accumulation.
6. Reserved.
7. Fire watch personnel, where required, are assigned.
8. Approved actions have been taken to prevent accidental activation of extinguishing
and detection equipment in accordance with Sections 2604.1.8 and 2604.1.9.
9. Portable fire extinguishers and fire hoses (where provided) are operable and available.
10. All persons performing hot work possess certificates of fitness, where such
certificates are required.
11. All persons performing hot work requiring a permit possess a site-specific permit or
citywide permit, authorizing such work.
335
SECTION FC 2605
GAS WELDING AND CUTTING
2605.1 General. Devices or attachments mixing air or oxygen with flammable gases prior to
consumption, except at the burner or in a standard torch or blow pipe, shall not be allowed unless
approved.
2605.2 Container storage, handling and use. Storage, handling and use of compressed gas
containers shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 30.
2605.3 Precautions. Containers, valves, regulators, hose and other apparatus and fittings for
oxygen shall be kept free of oil or grease. Oxygen containers, apparatus and fittings shall not be
handled with oily hands, oily gloves, or greasy tools or equipment.
2605.4 Acetylene gas. Acetylene gas shall not be piped except in approved container manifolds
and container manifold connections, or piped or utilized at a pressure exceeding 15 pounds per
square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa). Acetylene gas stored in containers shall be dissolved in a
suitable solvent. Acetylene gas shall not be brought in contact with unalloyed copper, except in a
torch.
2605.5 Remote locations. Oxygen and fuel gas containers shall be located at a distance from the
hot work area sufficient to protect such containers from heat, sparks, slag, or misdirection of the
torch flame.
2605.6 Container shutoff. The torch valve shall be closed and the gas supply to the torch
completely shut off when hot work operations are discontinued for a period of 1 hour or more.
2605.6.1 Emergency shut-off. Oxygen and fuel gas container valves shall be accessible to
the torch operator or fire guard for immediate shut off of the gas supply in the event of an
emergency.
2605.7 Prohibited operations. The following hot work operations shall be prohibited.
1. Welding or cutting operations supported by or resting on compressed gas containers.
2. Torch-applied roof system operations on roofs constructed of combustible materials.
3. Use of acetylene generators.
2605.8 Tests. It shall be unlawful to test piping equipment or systems for leaks using a flame.
Tests for suspected leaks in piping equipment and systems shall be made using soapy water.
SECTION FC 2606
ELECTRIC ARC HOT WORK
2606.1 General. The frame or case of electric hot work machines, except internal-combustionengine-driven machines, shall be grounded. Ground connections shall be mechanically strong
and electrically adequate for the required current.
336
2606.2 Return circuits. Welding current return circuits from the work to the machine shall have
proper electrical contact at joints. The electrical contact shall be periodically inspected.
2606.3 Disconnecting. Electrodes shall be removed from the holders when electric arc welding
or cutting is discontinued for any period of 1 hour or more. The holders shall be located to
prevent accidental contact and the machines shall be disconnected from the power source.
2606.4 Emergency disconnect. A switch or circuit breaker shall be provided so that fixed
electric welders and control equipment can be disconnected from the supply circuit. The
disconnect shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical Code.
2606.5 Damaged cable. Damaged cable shall be removed from service until properly repaired or
replaced.
SECTION FC 2607
RESERVED
SECTION FC 2608
RESERVED
SECTION FC 2609
PIPING MANIFOLDS AND HOSE SYSTEMS FOR FUEL GASES AND OXYGEN
2609.1 General. The use of piping manifolds, protective equipment and hose systems in oxygenfuel gas systems, including natural gas supplied from a utility for use in an oxygen-fuel gas
system, shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Section FC
2609, Chapter 30 and NFPA 51.
2609.2 Protection. Piping shall be protected against physical damage.
2609.3 Signage. Signage shall be provided for piping and hose systems as follows:
1. Aboveground piping systems shall be marked in accordance with ANSI A13.1.
2. Station outlets shall be marked to indicate their intended usage.
3. Signs shall be posted, indicating clearly the location and identity of section shutoff valves.
2609.4 Manifolding of containers. Oxygen manifolds shall be located at least 20 feet (6096
mm) away from combustible waste and combustible material, including oil and grease, and gas
containers containing flammable gases, unless the gas containers are separated from each other
by a fire partition.
2609.5 Identification of manifolds. Signs shall be posted for oxygen manifolds with service
pressures not exceeding 250 psig (1379 kPa). Such signs shall read as follows:
LOW-PRESSURE MANIFOLD
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DO NOT CONNECT HIGH-PRESSURE CONTAINERS
MAXIMUM PRESSURE 250 PSIG
2609.6 Clamps. Hose connections shall be clamped or otherwise securely fastened.
2609.7 Inspection. Hoses shall be inspected frequently for leaks, burns, wear, loose connections
or other defects.
2609.8 Piped natural gas precautions. When piped natural gas is used with oxygen in any hot
work operation, a listed protective device that serves as a combination flashback arrester and
backflow check valve shall be provided at an approved location on both the natural gas and
oxygen supply lines so as to ensure the safe operation of all devices, equipment and systems,
including the utility gas meter. Where pressure of the piped natural gas supply is insufficient to
ensure such safe operation, approved equipment shall be provided between the gas meter and the
fuel consuming appliance that increases such pressure to the level required for such safe
operation. Notwithstanding any section of this code to the contrary, such flashback arresters and
check valves, and pressure increasing equipment, shall be installed as components of both new
and existing installations. Installations involving the use of piped natural gas with oxygen in any
hot work operation shall additionally comply with the rules.
CHAPTER 27
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS
SECTION FC 2701
GENERAL
2701.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the storage, handling, use and transportation of
hazardous materials. Hazardous material storage, handling and use shall additionally comply
with the requirements of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Parts 595 through 614.
Exceptions:
1. The storage, handling and use in retail or wholesale sales occupancies of alcoholic
beverages, medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and consumer products containing not
more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of
the solutions not being flammable, when packaged in individual containers not
exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L) in volume.
2. Storage, handling and use of hazardous materials for agricultural purposes as a
pesticide, fertilizer or similar application, when approved for such use by the regulatory
agency having jurisdiction and when such storage, handling and use is in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
3. Reserved.
4. Reserved.
338
5. Refrigerating systems when designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance
with the Mechanical Code and Section 606.
6. Stationary lead-acid batteries when in accordance with Section 608.
7. The storage, handling and use, including storage for sale, of fireworks, in accordance
with Chapter 33.
8. The storage, handling and use of corrosives in Group M occupancies, including storage
for sale, of personal and household products, when in the manufacturer’s original
consumer packaging.
9. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.
10. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as
Class I or Class II liquids when in accordance with Section 3405.5.
2701.1.1 Relationship with other chapters. This chapter shall apply to all hazardous
materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that when
specific requirements inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter are set forth elsewhere
in this code, those specific requirements shall apply to the extent that they are inconsistent.
Where a material is in multiple hazard categories, compliance with each hazard category
shall be required. Where a material is both a physical hazard and a health hazard, compliance
with the requirements for each hazard category shall be required.
2701.2 Material classification. Hazardous materials shall be classified by physical hazard,
health hazard and/or other hazards associated with the properties of the material, or if the
hazardous material is a mixture, with the hazards associated with the mixture as a whole. The
commissioner may determine the appropriate hazard classification of a hazardous material, or
may accept the classification set forth in nationally recognized standards, material safety data
sheets, or other approved standard or method.
2701.2.1 Reserved.
2701.2.2 Reserved.
2701.2.2.1 Physical hazards. The material categories listed in this section are classified
primarily as physical hazards.
1. Explosives and blasting agents.
2. Flammable and combustible liquids.
3. Flammable solids and gases.
4. Organic peroxide materials.
339
5. Oxidizer materials.
6. Pyrophoric materials.
7. Unstable (reactive) materials.
8. Water-reactive solids and liquids.
9. Cryogenic fluids.
2701.2.2.2 Health hazards. The material categories listed in this section are classified
primarily as health hazards.
1. Highly toxic and toxic materials.
2. Corrosive materials.
2701.3 Reserved.
2701.4 Retail and wholesale storage and display. For retail and wholesale storage and display
of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in
Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, see Section 2703.11.
2701.5 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2701.5.1 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. The commissioner may require each
application for a permit to include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). Such
plan shall be drawn approximately to scale. The HMMP shall contain the following:
1. Storage, handling and use areas.
2. Maximum amount of each material stored, handled or used in each area.
3. Type and size of containers to be used for storage.
4. Location of valves and devices used to control and mitigate the accidental or
unauthorized release of hazardous materials, and where such valves are of the selfindicating type, an illustration of their on and off position.
5. Piping through which hazardous material liquids or gases are transferred, other than
utility-owned natural gas lines and low-pressure natural gas lines subject to compliance
with the requirements of the Plumbing Code.
6. Reserved.
7. Storage plan showing the storage arrangement, including the location and dimensions
of aisles.
340
8. The location and type of emergency equipment.
9. Such other information and documentation as the commissioner may prescribe.
2701.5.2 Hazardous materials reporting. The storage of hazardous materials shall be
reported as required by the New York State General Municipal Law Section 209-u. The
commissioner may require an application for a permit pursuant to this code to include a copy
of the current filing pursuant to such New York State General Municipal Law for the facility
or premises for which a permit is sought.
2701.6 Facility closure. Facilities shall be placed permanently out of service in accordance with
Sections 2701.6.2 and 2701.6.3 and, as applicable, with the New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation regulations as set forth in 6 NYCRR Sections 598.10 and 613.9.
2701.6.1 Reserved.
2701.6.2 Permanently out of service facilities. Facilities that are not operated for a period
of more than one year or for which a permit has lapsed for more than one year shall be
deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in an approved manner.
2701.6.3 Facility closure plan. The commissioner may require permittees to apply for
approval to permanently close a facility that manufactures, stores, handles or uses hazardous
materials. Such application shall be submitted at least 30 days prior to the planned closure of
the facility. Such plan and/or such other requirements as the commissioner may prescribe
shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that are manufactured, stored, handled or used in
the facility will be lawfully disposed of in a manner that eliminates the need for further
maintenance and any threat to public health and safety.
SECTION FC 2702
DEFINITIONS
2702.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, Chapters 28
through 44, and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the
atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury.
Where a boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not
have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated
point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling
point of the liquid.
CARGO TANK. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car or marine vessel, with a tank mounted
thereon or built as an integral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or
combustible liquids, LPG or other hazardous materials, including self-propelled vehicles and full
trailers and semi-trailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the load.
CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an airborne contaminant to which one may
be exposed shall be as established by the regulations of the United States Department of Labor,
341
as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, or if not listed therein, the ceiling Recommended
Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Threshold Limit Value — Ceiling (TLV-C)
concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists
(ACGIH), the ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides
published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), or other approved standard.
CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture of elements or compounds or both.
CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the
nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the
Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name that will clearly identify a chemical
for the purpose of conducting an evaluation.
CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a lid or other device capable of
preventing the escape of liquid, vapor or dusts in the ordinary course of storage, handling or use.
CONTAINER. For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in
capacity used for storage or transportation. For compressed gases, a cylinder, pressure vessel or
tank designed for pressures greater than one atmosphere at 68°F (20ºC). Pipes, piping systems,
engines and engine fuel tanks associated with solid or liquid hazardous materials or compressed
gases, shall not be deemed to be containers if in active use.
CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building that are enclosed and bounded by exterior walls,
fire walls, fire barriers and roofs, or a combination thereof, where quantities of hazardous
materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, handled or
used, including any dispensing.
DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a
flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at
a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.
DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a pressure vessel, device, component
or system is designed to withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use.
DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space,
used for the storage, handling or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance
from other buildings or structures.
DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring by other means of any material from a container,
tank or similar vessel, which would release dusts, fumes, mists, vapors or gases to the
atmosphere, unless such release is prevented by a device, equipment or system designed for that
purpose.
EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other approved device, equipment or
system designed to shut off flow caused by a rupture in a pressurized piping system.
342
EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. A device, typically consisting of a hood equipped with a fan
that serves to capture and exhaust fumes, mist, vapors and gases generated at a workstation or
other local environment. An exhausted enclosure does not include a room provided with general
ventilation.
EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, whether or not
accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, of enclosing materials, including the effects of the
following sources of explosion:
1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of
molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).
2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.
3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).
FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that
exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).
GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated
environment for compressed gas containers in storage or use, including any doors and access
ports for exchanging containers and accessing pressure-regulating controls .
GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and
associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.
HANDLING. The movement of a material in its container, the removal of the material from its
container, or any other action or process that may affect the material, other than its storage or
use.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances that are physical hazards or
health hazards as defined and classified in this chapter, whether the materials are in usable or
waste condition.
HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant
evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The
term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are toxic, highly toxic and corrosive.
IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of
air-borne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse
health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment, as established by
the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and
flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams
per cubic meter (mg/m3). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH
concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate
regulatory agency or other source approved by the commissioner shall make such determination.
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INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, if mixed or combined, could explode,
generate heat, gases or other byproducts, or react in a way hazardous to life or property.
LABORATORY CHEMICAL. A material with a health, flammability and/or instability hazard
ranking of 2, 3 or 4 as defined in NFPA 704.
LABORATORY UNIT. An enclosed space of a minimum one-hour fire rated construction,
designed or used as a non-production laboratory. Laboratory units may include one or more
separate laboratory work areas, and accessory storage rooms or spaces within or contiguous with
the laboratory unit, such as offices and lavatories.
LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a
boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 psia (101 kPa). When not otherwise
identified, the term “liquid” includes both flammable and combustible liquids.
LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See “Lower flammable limit.”
LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which
propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes
referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). A document prepared in accordance with the
regulations of the United States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1200 or a
federally approved state OSHA plan which sets forth information concerning a hazardous
material.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. The maximum amount
of a hazardous material allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a building or
structure or an outdoor control area.
NON-PRODUCTION LABORATORY. A building or portion thereof wherein chemicals or
gases are stored, handled or used on a non-production basis for testing, research, experimental,
instructional or educational purposes.
NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a
pressure of 1 atmosphere.
OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that contains hazardous materials in amounts
not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities of Table 2703.1.1(3) or 2703.1.1(4).
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum permitted 8-hour time-weightedaverage concentration of an air-borne contaminant as established by the regulations of the United
States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, the Recommended Exposure
Limit (REL) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH), the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA)
concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH), the Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), or other approved standard.
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PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including fungicides, but excluding any
product defined as a drug in the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, intended for the purpose
of preventing, repelling or killing pests or pest infestations, or for use as a plant regulator,
defoliant or desiccant.
PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate at pressures above 15 psig (103
kPa).
SAFETY CAN. An approved container with a capacity of not more than 5-gallons (19 L) and
equipped with a spring-closing lid and spout cover designed to relieve internal pressure when
exposed to fire.
SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. A device, equipment or system designed to contain liquid or
solid, that is external to and separate from the primary containment device, equipment or system.
SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or sublimates at a temperature
greater than 68°F (20°C).
STANDARD CUBIC FEET (SCF). Cubic feet of gas at normal temperature and pressure
(NTP).
SYSTEM. An assembly of devices, equipment, containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors
and connecting piping that is designed to perform a complex and/or complete function.
TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric
through 1.0 pound per square inch gauge (760 mm Hg through 812 mm Hg) measured at the top
of the tank.
TANK, PORTABLE. A container of more than 60-gallon (227 L) capacity, and designed to be
loaded into or on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or marine vessel and equipped
with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate handling of the tank by mechanical means. It
does not include any cargo tank or tank car.
TANK, STATIONARY. A container having not less than 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity,
designed primarily for stationary installations, and not intended to be moved in the course of
normal use.
VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid, as determined in accordance
with ASTM D 323.
SECTION FC 2703
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2703.1 General. Hazardous materials shall be manufactured, stored, handled, used and
transported in accordance with this chapter.
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2703.1.1 Maximum allowable quantity per control area. The maximum allowable
quantity per control area shall be as specified in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4), and
for retail and wholesale storage and display in Group M occupancies, and Group S storage,
as specified in Section 2703.11.
2703.1.2 Conversion. A conversion factor of 10 pounds per gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used
to ascertain the weight per gallon of liquid when such weight is not provided or otherwise
available to the commissioner.
2703.1.3 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.
The storage, handling and use of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the
maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through
2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
2703.1.4 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area. The
storage, handling and use of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum
allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4) shall
be in accordance with this chapter.
2703.1.5 Additional specific requirements. The storage, handling and use of hazardous
materials shall additionally comply with the specific requirements of Chapters 28 through 44,
as applicable.
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TABLE 2703.1.1(1)
a, j, m, n, q
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD
MATERIAL
Combustible
Liquidc, i, r
Combustible fiber
Cryogenics
Flammable
Cryogenics
Oxidizing
Explosives
Flammable gas
Flammable liquidsc, k
Combination
Flammable liquid
(IAo, IB, IC)
Flammable solid
Pigs, ingots, billets, heavy
castings
Light castings, light metallic
products
Scraps, shavings, powders,
dusts
Organic peroxidep
Oxidizer
Oxidizing gas
Pyrophoric materialp detonable
Pyrophoric material
nondetonable
CLASS
GROUP WHEN
THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY IS
EXCEEDEDq
II
H-2 or H-3
IIIA
H-2 or H-3
IIIB
Not Applicable
Loose
H-3
Baled
Not
H-2
Applicable
Not
H-3
Applicable
Division 1.1
H-1
Division 1.2
H-1
Division 1.3
H-1 or H-2
Division 1.4
H-3
Division 1.4G
H-3
Division 1.5
H-1
Division 1.6
H-1
Gaseous
H-2
Liquefied
o
IA
H-2
or
IB and IC
H-3
H-2
Not
or
Applicable
H-3
Not
Applicable
STORAGEb
Solid
Pounds
(cubic feet)
Not
Applicable
(100)
(1,000)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
1e, g
1e, g
5e, g
50e, g
125d, e, l
1e, g
1d, e, g
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
1,000d, e
H-3
125d, e
Liquid
Gallons
(pounds)
120d, e
330d, e
13,200e, f
Not
Applicable
45d
45d
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)e, g
(50)e, g
Not Applicable
USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb
Gas
SCF
Solid
Pounds
(cubic feet)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
(100)
(1,000)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
0.25g
0.25g
1g
50g
Not
Applicable
(1)e, g
1,000d, e
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
30d, e
30d, e
Not
Applicable
120d, e
120d, e, h
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
1d, e
Unclassified
Detonable
H-1
I
H-2
II
H-3
III
H-3
IV
Not Applicable
V
Not Applicable
H-1
4
k
H-2
3
H-3
2
H-3
1
Gaseous
H-3
Liquefied
Not Applicable
H-1
Not
H-2
Applicable
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
125d, e
Not Limited
Not Limited
1g
10d, e
250d, e
4,000e,f
Not
Applicable
1e, g
4e, g
120d
330d
13,200f
Not
Applicable
45d
45d
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
(50)g
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.25g
Not Applicable
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
1,000d
125d
USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Gas
[cubic feet
at NTP] SCF
Solid
Pounds
(cubic feet)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
(20)
(200)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
0.25g
0.25g
1g
Not
Applicable
1,000d, e
Not Applicable
30d, e
Not Applicable
30d
Not
Applicable
120d
120d, h
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
1d
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
Not
(50)d, e
Applicable
(125)d, e
Not Limited
Not Limited
(1)e, g
Not
(10)d, e
Applicable
(250)d, e
e,f
(4,000)
1,500d, e
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
15d, e
(1)e, g
10e, g
(4)e, g
50e, g
347
0.25g
1d
50d
125d
Not Limited
Not Limited
0.25g
2d
250d
4,000f
Not
Applicable
0.25g
1g
30d
80d
3,300f
Not
Applicable
10d
10d
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
10d
0.25g
(0.25)g
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
1,000d
125d
(0.25)g
30d
30d, h
Not
Applicable
1d
(0.25)g
(1)d
Not
(50)d
Applicable
(125)d
Not Limited
Not Limited
(0.25)g
Not
(2)d
Applicable
(250)d
f
(4,000)
1,500d, e
Not Applicable
15d, e
Not Applicable
(0.25)g
2e, g
(1)g
10e, g
0.25g
1d
10d
25d
Not Limited
Not Limited
0.25g
2d
50d
1,000f
Not
Applicable
0
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
(25)d
Not Limited
Not Limited
(0.25)g
(2)d
(50)d
(1,000)f
Not
Applicable
0
0
0
Unstable (reactive)p detonable
Unstable (reactive) nondetonable
Water-reactive detonablep
Water-reactive nondetonable
4
3
4
3
2
1
3
2
3
2
1
H-1
H-1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
Not Applicable
H-1
H-1
H-2
H-3
Not Applicable
1e, g
1e, g
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
Not Limited
1e, g
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
Not Limited
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
Not Limited
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
Not Limited
10e, g
10e, g
10e, g
50d, e
250d, e
750d, e
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.25g
0.25g
0.25g
1d
50d
Not Limited
0.25g
0.25g
5d
50d
Not Limited
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
Not Limited
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(5)d
(50)d
Not Limited
2e, g
2e, g
2e, g
10d, e
250d, e
Not Limited
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.25g
0.25g
0.25g
1d
10d
Not Limited
0.25g
0.25g
1d
10d
Not Limited
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
Not Limited
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
Not Limited
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 2703.8.3.
b. The aggregate quantity in storage, handling and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and
wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the
remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities, except for liquefied petroleum gas and flammable liquid motor fuel, may be increased 100 percent in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system. Where
Note e applies, the quantities may be increased as set forth in both notes.
e. Maximum allowable quantities, except for liquefied petroleum gas and flammable liquid motor fuel, may be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted
enclosures or safety cans. Where Note d applies, the quantities may be increased as set forth in both notes.
f. Quantities shall not be limited in a building protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
g. Allowed only in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, Class IB or Class IC flammable liquids.
i. Stationary fuel oil storage tanks shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
j. Quantities shown in the table in parentheses have the units shown in parentheses at the head of the column.
k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance and operation of equipment when the storage
containers and the manner of storage are approved.
l. Reserved.
m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.
n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with the requirements of Section 2703.11, see Table 2703.11.1.
o. For purposes of this table, gasoline and other flammable liquid motor fuels are classified as a Class IA flammable liquid.
p. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive) materials (see Chapter 43) and detonable water-reactive
materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage, handling and use (see Chapter 33).
q. The maximum allowable quantities shall be limited by Section 2706 for non-production laboratories classified as Occupancy Group B.
r. For storage of flammable and combustible liquids in Group M occupancy, see Chapter 34.
TABLE 2703.1.1(2)
a,b,c,j,k
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD
MATERIAL
Corrosive
Highly toxic
Toxic
Solid
Poundse, f
STORAGEd
Liquid
Gallons
(pounds)e, f
Gas
SCFe
Solid
poundse
USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSd
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)e
5,000
10
500
500
(10)I
(500)I
810
20h
810f
5,000
10
500
500
(10)i
(500)i
f, g
Gas
SCFe
810f, g
20h
810f
USE-OPEN SYSTEMSd
Liquid
Solid
gallons
e
pounds
(pounds)e
1,000
3
125
100
(3)i
(125)i
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 2703.8.3.
b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible
liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with the requirements of Section 2703.11, see Table 2703.11.1.
d. The aggregate quantity in storage, handling and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
348
e. Maximum allowable quantities may be increased 100 percent in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system. Where Note f applies, the quantities increased shall be as set forth in both notes.
f. Maximum allowable quantities may be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets, or exhausted enclosures. Where Note e applies, the quantities increased shall be
as set forth in both notes.
g. A single container of anhydrous ammonia containing not more than 150 pounds in a single control area in a building not protected throughout by a sprinkler system shall be considered a maximum
allowable quantity. Two containers of anhydrous ammonia, each containing not more than 150 pounds in a single control area shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building
is protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.
i. Quantities shown in the table in parentheses have the units shown in parentheses at the head of the column.
j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.
k. The maximum allowable quantities shall be limited by Section 2706 for non-production laboratories classified as occupancy group B.
TABLE 2703.1.1(3)
a, b, f
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA
b
MATERIAL
Flammable gas
Flammable solid
Organic peroxidee
Organic peroxidee
Oxidizerc
Oxidizing gas
Pyrophoric
materiale detonable
Pyrophoric
materiale
nondetonable
Unstable (reactive)e
detonable
Unstable (reactive)c
nondetonable
Water-reactivee
detonable
Water-reactivec
CLASS
Gaseous
Liquefied
Not
Applicable
Unclassifie
d
Detonable
I
II
III
IV
V
4
3
2
1
Gaseous
Liquefied
Not
Applicable
Solid
Pounds
Not
Applicable
125
STORAGE
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Not Applicable
15
Not
Applicable
1
(1)
5
50
125
500
Not Limited
1
10
250
4,000
Not
Applicable
(5)d
(50)d
(125)d
(500)d
Not Limited
(1)d
(10)d
(250)d
(4,000)
Not Applicable
15
1
Not
Applicable
4
3
4
3
2
1
3
2
3
b
Gas
SCF
Solid
Pounds
1000
Not Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
25
USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Not Applicable
15
Not
Applicable
0.25
(0.25)d
1,500
Not Applicable
1
50
125
500
Not Limited
1/4
2
250
4,000
Not
Applicable
(1)d
(50)d
(125)d
(500)d
Not Limited
(1/4)d
(2)d
(250)d
(4,000)
Not Applicable
15
(1)d
10
0.25
4
(4)d
50
1
1
1
5
50
Not Limited
1
1
5
(1)d
(1)d
(1)d
(5)d
(50)d
Not Limited
(1)d
(1)d
(5)d
10
10
10
50
250
750
10
10
50
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
349
b
Gas
SCF
1000
Not Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
USE-OPEN SYSTEMS
Liquid
Solid
gallons
Pounds
(pounds)
Not
Applicable
25
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
0.25
(0.25)d
1,500
Not Applicable
1
10
25
100
Not Limited
0.25
2
50
1,000
Not
Applicable
(1)d
(10)d
(25)d
(100)d
Not Limited
(0.25)d
(2)d
(50)d
(1,000)
Not
Applicable
(0.25)d
2
0.25
(0.25)
1
(1)d
10
0
0
0.25
0.25
0.25
1
50
Not Limited
0.25
0.25
5
(0.25)d
(0.25)d
(0.25)d
(1)d
(50)d
Not Limited
(0.25)d
(0.25)d
(5)d
2
2
2
10
250
Not Limited
2
2
10
0.25
0.25
0.25
1
10
Not Limited
0.25
0.25
1
(0.25)d
(0.25)d
(0.25)d
(1)d
(10)d
Not Limited
(0.25)d
(0.25)d
(1)d
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
nondetonable
2
1
50
Not Limited
(50)d
Not Limited
250
750
50
Not Limited
(50)d
Not Limited
250
Not Limited
10
Not Limited
(10)d
Not Limited
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.
b. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control
used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area when such storage is in accordance with Section 2703.11.
d. Quantities shown in the table in parentheses have the units shown in parentheses at the head of the column.
e. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive) materials (see Chapter 43) and detonable water-reactive
materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage (see Chapter 33).
f. In addition to these requirements, the outdoor storage and use of hazardous materials shall comply with applicable requirements of the Zoning Resolution.
TABLE 2703.1.1(4)
a,b,c,h
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA
MATERIAL
Corrosives
Highly toxics
Toxics
Solid
pounds
STORAGE
Liquid
Gallons
(pounds)
Gas
cubic feet at NTP
Solid
Pounds
5,000
10
500
500
(10)f
(500)e, f
810g
20d
810
5,000
10
500
USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS
Liquid
Gas
Gallons
cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
500
(10)f
50e
810g
20d
810
USE-OPEN SYSTEMS
Liquid
Solid
gallons
pounds
(pounds)
1,000
3
25
100
(3)f
(25)e, f
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound per square inch absolute = 6.895 kPa,oC = [(oF)-32/1.8].
a. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.
b. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage on a single property under the same ownership or control
used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area when such storage is in accordance with Section 2703.11.
d. Allowed only when used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or under fume hoods.
e. The maximum allowable quantity per control area for toxic liquids with vapor pressures in excess of 1 psia at 77oF shall be the maximum allowable quantity per control area listed for highly toxic
liquids.
f. Quantities shown in the table in parentheses have the units shown in parentheses at the head of the column.
g. Two containers of anhydrous ammonia, each container containing not more than 150 pounds, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity in an outdoor control area.
h. In addition to these requirements, the outdoor storage and use of hazardous materials shall comply with the applicable requirements of the Zoning Resolution.
350
2703.2 Devices, equipment, systems and processes. Devices, equipment, systems and
processes utilized for storage, handling and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance
with Sections 2703.2.1 through 2703.2.8 and the regulations of the New York State Department
of Environmental Conservation as set forth in 6 NYCRR Parts 596, 598, 599, 612, 613 and 614.
2703.2.1 Design and construction of containers and tanks. Containers and tanks shall be
designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, tanks and other
means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type.
2703.2.2 Piping, tubing, valves and fittings. Piping, tubing, valves and fittings conveying
hazardous materials, except piping for inlet connections to prevent backflow or piping for
pressure relief devices, shall be designed and installed in accordance with approved standards
and Sections 2703.2.2.1 and 2703.2.2.2.
2703.2.2.1 Design and construction. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and ancillary
equipment used for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the following:
1. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment shall be designed and
fabricated from materials compatible with the material to be contained and shall be
of adequate strength and durability to withstand the pressure, structural and seismic
stress, and exposure to which they are subjected.
2. Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate
the material conveyed.
3. Readily accessible manual valves, or automatic remotely-activated fail-safe
emergency shutoff valves, shall be installed on supply piping and tubing at the point
of use and at the tank, container or other source of supply.
4. Emergency shutoff valves shall be clearly visible and readily accessible. A durable
sign shall be conspicuously posted immediately adjacent to such valves that
identifies their location.
5. Backflow prevention or check valves shall be provided when the backflow of
hazardous materials could create a hazardous condition or cause the unauthorized
discharge of hazardous materials.
6. Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of health hazard Class 3 or 4,
flammability Class 4, or reactivity Class 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are
conveyed in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103
kPa), an approved means of leak detection and emergency shutoff or excess flow
control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a hazardous
material storage room or area, the excess flow control shall be located within the
storage room or area. Where the piping originates from any other source of supply,
the excess flow control shall be located as close to the source of supply as practical.
Exceptions:
351
1. Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow.
2. Piping for pressure relief devices.
2703.2.2.2 Additional regulations for supply piping for health-hazard materials.
Supply piping and tubing for gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in
accordance with NFPA704 shall be in accordance with ANSI B31.3 and the following:
1. Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of highly toxic, toxic or highly
volatile corrosive liquids and gases shall have welded, threaded or flanged
connections throughout, except where connections are located within a ventilated
enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment
is provided for connections if the material is a liquid.
2. Piping and tubing shall not be located within corridors, within any portion of a
means of egress required to be enclosed in fire-resistance-rated construction or in
concealed spaces in areas not classified as Group H occupancies.
Exception: Piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors
and the floor or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occupancies when
installed in accordance with Section 415.9.6.3 of the Building Code for Group H5 occupancies.
2703.2.3 Devices, equipment and systems. Devices, equipment and systems, including
required detection and alarm systems, installed or used in conjunction with the storage,
handling and use of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved.
2703.2.4 Installation of tanks. Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with Sections
2703.2.4.1 through 2703.2.4.2.1 and with the regulations of the New York State Department
of Environmental Conservation as set forth in 6 NYCRR Sections 599.6, 614.7 and 614.13.
2703.2.4.1 Underground tanks. Underground tanks used for the storage of liquid
hazardous materials shall be provided with secondary containment.
2703.2.4.2 Aboveground tanks. Aboveground stationary tanks used for the storage of
liquid hazardous materials shall be located and protected in compliance with the
requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved.
2703.2.4.2.1 Marking. Aboveground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by
Section 2703.5.
2703.2.5 Empty containers and tanks. Empty containers and tanks previously used for the
storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor in compliance
with the requirements of DOTn, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or
other governmental agencies having jurisdiction, or shall be stored, handled and used in
compliance with the requirements of this code.
352
2703.2.6 Maintenance. In addition to the requirements of Section 2703.2.3, all devices,
equipment and systems used in conjunction with hazardous materials, including tanks, and
detection and alarm systems, shall be maintained in good working order. Defective devices,
equipment and systems shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced, or disposed
of lawfully.
2703.2.6.1 Tanks out of service for 30 days. Stationary tanks not used for a period of 30
days or more shall be properly safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. Such
tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and pump connection secured against
tampering. Vent lines shall be properly maintained. Stationary tanks containing
flammable and combustible liquid out of service for a period of 30 days or more shall
additionally comply with the requirements of Section 3404.2.13.
2703.2.6.1.1 Return to service. Tanks that are returned to service shall be tested in
an approved manner prior to use.
2703.2.7 Liquid-level limit control. Atmospheric tanks that contain hazardous material
liquids shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other approved means to prevent
overfilling of the tank.
Exception: Tanks with a capacity not exceeding 500 gallons (1893 L) that are filled from
a source other than a cargo tank or tank car.
2703.2.8 Seismic protection. Machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials shall
be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the Building
Code for the seismic design category in which the machinery or equipment is classified.
2703.3 Release and disposal of hazardous materials. It shall be unlawful to release or dispose
of any amount of hazardous material, including pesticides and fertilizers used for domestic,
agricultural or horticultural purposes, into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, creek,
stream, river, lake or tidal waterway or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the
atmosphere, except when allowed by federal, state or local regulations or permits, including the
regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, as set forth in 6
NYCRR Parts 595 and 611.
2703.3.1 Reporting of discharges. When hazardous materials are released in quantities
reportable under federal, state or local regulations, the commissioner shall be notified and the
following procedures required in accordance with Sections 2703.3.1.1 through 2703.3.1.4.
2703.3.1.1 Records. Accurate records shall be kept of the discharge of hazardous
materials.
2703.3.1.2 Preparation. Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating
accidental discharges.
2703.3.1.3 Control. When a discharge is caused by a container failure, the container shall
be repaired or removed from service.
353
2703.3.1.4 Responsibility for cleanup. The owner of a facility or other person
responsible for an accidental discharge shall undertake all actions necessary to remediate
such discharge. When deemed necessary by the commissioner, cleanup may be initiated
by the department or other city agency. Costs associated with such cleanup shall be borne
by the owner or other person responsible for the discharge. The department shall give
such owner or other person written notice of such costs and an opportunity to be heard.
Payment of such costs shall be recoverable in any manner authorized by law, rule or
regulation. Failure to pay such costs shall cause a lien to be placed upon the premises
pursuant to the provisions of Section 117.4 of this code, as applicable, or against vehicles
or other personal property in accordance with the provisions applicable thereto. Nothing
in this section shall be construed to preclude the implementation of response measures, or
the recovery of the costs of such measures, by any other city agency, either prior or
subsequent to any response measure implemented pursuant to this section.
2703.4 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be readily
available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter.
2703.5 Hazard identification signs. Unless otherwise exempted by the commissioner, hazard
identification signs as set forth in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall be
conspicuously affixed on stationary containers and aboveground tanks and at entrances to
locations where hazardous materials are stored, handled or used, including dispensing, in
quantities requiring a permit, including locations where such materials are dispensed, and at such
other locations as may be designated by the commissioner.
2703.5.1 Markings. Individual containers, cartons or packages shall be conspicuously
marked or labeled in an approved manner. Signs reading “COMPRESSED GAS” shall be
conspicuously posted at the entrance to rooms or on cabinets containing compressed gases.
2703.6 Signs. Signs and markings required by Sections 2703.5 and 2703.5.1 shall not be
obscured or removed, shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this
code, shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be acceptable to the commissioner.
2703.7 Sources of ignition. Sources of ignition shall comply with the requirements of Sections
2703.7.1 through 2703.7.3.
2703.7.1 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in the following locations, and “No
Smoking” signs shall be provided in English as a primary language and in symbols
complying with the requirements of Section 310:
1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or used in open systems in
amounts requiring a permit.
2. Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor hazardous material storage, handling and use
areas, including dispensing areas.
3. Facilities or areas within facilities in which smoking has been entirely prohibited shall
have “No Smoking” signs conspicuously placed at all entrances to the facility or area.
354
Facilities or areas within facilities in which smoking is permitted in designated areas
shall have signs indicating that smoking is permitted in designated areas only.
4. In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible hazardous materials are stored,
handled or used.
2703.7.2 Open flames. Open flames and devices that generate or operate at a high
temperature shall be kept a safe distance from hazardous material in storage or use.
2703.7.3 Industrial trucks. Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous
(classified) locations in accordance with the Electrical Code shall be listed and labeled in
accordance with NFPA 505.
2703.8 Construction requirements. Buildings, structures, control areas, enclosures and cabinets
for hazardous materials shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 2703.8.1
through 2703.8.6.2.
2703.8.1 Buildings. Buildings, structures, or portions thereof, in which hazardous materials
are stored, handled or used shall be constructed in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
2703.8.2 Required detached buildings. Group H occupancies containing quantities of
hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 2703.8.2 shall be in detached
buildings.
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TABLE 2703.8.2
REQUIRED DETACHED STORAGE
DETACHED STORAGE IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
Solids and liquids
Gases
Material
Class
(tons)a, b
(SCF)a, b
Explosivesa
Oxidizers
Unstable (reactives) detonable
Water reactives detonable
Oxidizer, liquids and solids
Organic peroxides
Unstable (reactives) nondetonable
Water reactives nondetonable
Pyrophoric material
Pyrophoric gases
Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4c
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Class 4
Class 3 or 4
Class 2 or 3
Class 3
Class 2
Unclassified
Detonable
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 3
Class 2
Detonable
Nondetonable
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Not Applicable
1
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
1,200
Not Applicable
2,000
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Not Applicable
25
50
Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
1
2,000
25
10,000
1
Not Applicable
25
Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Not Applicable
2,000
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in the Building Code. For materials classified as
explosives, the required separation distances shall be as specified in Chapter 33. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39),
detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive) materials (see Chapter 43) and detonable water-reactive
materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage, handling and use (see Chapter 33).
b. “Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1).
c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of
Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or
deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.
2703.8.3 Control areas. Control areas shall be those spaces within a building or structure
and outdoor areas where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum
quantities allowed by this code are stored, handled or used.
2703.8.3.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall be separated from each other
by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with the construction
codes, including the Building Code.
2703.8.3.2 Number. The maximum number of control areas within a building or
structure shall be in accordance with Table 2703.8.3.2.
2703.8.3.3 Separation. The required fire-resistance rating for fire barrier assemblies shall
be in accordance with Table 2703.8.3.2. The floor construction of the control area and
construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fireresistance rating.
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TABLE 2703.8.3.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
FLOOR LEVEL
Above grade
Below grade
Higher than 9
7-9
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
Lower than 2
PERCENTAGE OF THE
MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER
CONTROL AREAa
NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER FLOORb
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
FOR
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSc
5
5
12.5
12.5
12.5
50
75
100
75
50
Not Allowed
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
Not Allowed
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
Not Allowed
a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2), with all increases
allowed in the footnotes to those tables.
b. There shall be a maximum of two control areas per floor in Group M occupancies and in buildings or portions of buildings having Group S
occupancies with storage conditions and quantities in accordance with Section 2703.11.
c. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
2703.8.3.4 Hazardous materials in Group M and S occupancies. The aggregate
quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous
materials allowed within a single control area of a Group M or S occupancy is allowed to
exceed the maximum allowable quantities specified in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and
2703.1.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided
that the materials are stored in accordance with Section 2703.11.
2703.8.4 Gas rooms. Where a gas room is provided to comply with the requirements of
Chapter 37, the gas room shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.4.1 and 2703.8.4.2.
2703.8.4.1 Construction. Gas rooms shall be protected with a sprinkler system. Gas
rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with the
construction codes, including the Building Code, based on the occupancy group into
which the building has been classified.
2703.8.4.2 Ventilation system. The ventilation system for gas rooms shall be designed to
operate at a negative pressure relative to the surrounding area. Highly toxic and toxic
gases shall additionally comply with the requirements of Section 3704.2.2.6. The
ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the construction codes, including
the Mechanical Code.
2703.8.5 Exhausted enclosures. Where an exhausted enclosure is used to increase maximum
allowable quantity per control area or when the location of hazardous materials in exhausted
enclosures is provided to comply with the requirements of Chapter 37, the exhausted
enclosure shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.5.1 through 2703.8.5.3.
2703.8.5.1 Construction. Exhausted enclosures shall be of noncombustible construction.
2703.8.5.2 Ventilation. The ventilation system for exhausted enclosures shall be
designed to operate at a negative pressure relative to the surrounding area. Ventilation
systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall additionally comply with the
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requirements of Sections 3704.1.2(1), 3704.1.2(2) and 3704.1.2(3). The ventilation
system shall be installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the
Mechanical Code.
2703.8.5.3 Fire extinguishing system. Exhausted enclosures where flammable materials
are used shall be protected by a fire extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9
and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2703.8.6 Gas cabinets. Where a gas cabinet is used to increase the maximum allowable
quantity per control area or when the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is
provided to comply with the requirements of Chapter 37, the gas cabinet shall be in
accordance with Sections 2703.8.6.1 through 2703.8.6.3.
2703.8.6.1 Construction. Gas cabinets shall be constructed of not less than 0.097-inch
(2.5 mm) (No. 12 gauge) steel; provided with self-closing limited access ports or
noncombustible windows to give access to equipment controls; and have all interior
surfaces treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the
hazardous materials stored.
2703.8.6.2 Ventilation. The ventilation system for gas cabinets shall be designed to
operate at a negative pressure relative to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used
for highly toxic and toxic gases shall additionally comply with the requirements of
Sections 3704.1.2(1), 3704.1.2(2) and 3704.1.2(3). The ventilation system shall be
installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
2703.8.6.3 Maximum number of containers per gas cabinet. The number of containers
stored in a single gas cabinet shall not exceed three.
2703.8.7 Hazardous materials storage cabinets. Where storage cabinets are used to
increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or to comply with the requirements of
this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.7.1 and 2703.8.7.2.
2703.8.7.1 Construction. All interior surfaces of such cabinets shall be treated, coated or
constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored. Cabinets
shall either be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or
constructed in accordance with the following:
1. Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.0478 inch (1.2 mm)
(No. 18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with a 1.5inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall
be tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a selflatching device.
2. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquid tight to a
minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm).
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2703.8.7.1.1 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment and devices within cabinets
used for the storage of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance with the
Electrical Code.
2703.8.7.2 Warning markings. Cabinets shall be clearly identified in an approved
manner with red letters on a contrasting background to read: HAZARDOUS — KEEP
FIRE AWAY.
2703.9 General safety precautions. General precautions for the safe storage, handling and use
of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.9.1 through 2703.9.9.
2703.9.1 Personnel training and written procedures. Persons responsible for the operation
of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or used, including dispensing, shall
be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions
necessary in the event of fire, leak or spill. A certificate of fitness shall be required when
specified by this code or the rules or as a condition of a permit.
2703.9.1.1 Fire department liaison. One or more responsible persons shall be
designated to serve as a liaison to the department in connection with any emergency
response to the premises, for purposes of providing access to the location where
hazardous materials are stored on the premises, providing access to Material Safety Data
Sheets, and otherwise assisting in the development and implementation of emergency
procedures. The names and telephone numbers of such responsible persons shall be
included on the annual inventory required by New York State General Municipal Law
Section 209-u and on a hazardous materials management plan when such plan is required.
Telephone numbers shall include a 24-hour contact number for such responsible persons.
2703.9.2 Security. Storage, handling and use areas, including dispensing areas, shall be
secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the
commissioner.
2703.9.3 Protection from vehicles. Posts or other approved means shall be provided to
protect storage tanks and connected piping, valves and fittings; use areas; and dispensing
areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
2703.9.4 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be
installed and maintained in accordance with the Electrical Code.
2703.9.5 Static accumulation. When conditions exist that could cause a flammable mixture
to be ignited by static electricity, equipment shall be grounded and all other necessary and
appropriate actions taken to prevent the accumulation of a static charge.
2703.9.6 Protection from light. Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in
containers designed to protect them from such exposure.
2703.9.7 Shock protection. Materials that are sensitive to shock shall be padded, suspended
or otherwise protected against jarring, seismic activity or other movement.
359
2703.9.8 Separation of incompatible materials. Incompatible materials shall be separated
while in storage or use except for stored materials in containers having a capacity of not more
than 5 pounds (2 kg) or 0.5 gallon (2 L). Separation shall be accomplished by:
1. Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a distance of not less than 20 feet
(6096 mm).
2. Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a noncombustible partition extending not
less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material.
3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous material storage cabinets. Materials that
are incompatible shall not be stored in the same cabinet.
4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures in accordance with
Sections 2703.8.5 and 2703.8.6. Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored
within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure.
2703.9.9 Shelf storage. Shelving shall be of substantial construction, and shall be braced and
anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the construction codes,
including the Building Code, for the seismic zone in which the material is located. Shelving
shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous
materials stored. Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard when used for the storage of
individual containers.
Exceptions:
1. Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically
designed for such use.
2. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not requiring a permit in accordance
with Section 105.6.
Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner.
2703.10 Handling. In addition to the requirements of Section 2703.2, the handling of hazardous
materials in corridors or exit enclosures shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.10.1 through
2703.10.3.6.
2703.10.1 Valve protection. Hazardous material gas containers and tanks moved during
handling shall have their protective caps in place. Containers and tanks of highly toxic or
toxic compressed gases shall have their valve outlets capped or plugged with an approved
closure device in accordance with Chapter 30.
2703.10.2 Carts and trucks required. Containers of hazardous materials having a hazard
ranking of 3 or 4 pursuant to NFPA 704, and liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons (19
L), shall be moved during handling on a cart or truck meeting the requirements of Section
2703.10.3, when moved through any corridor or exit enclosure.
360
Exceptions:
1. Two hazardous material liquid containers, which are hand carried in acceptable
safety carriers.
2. Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) each, which are moved
by suitable drum trucks.
3. Containers of compressed gases, which are moved by approved hand trucks, and
containers not exceeding 25 pounds (11 kg), which are hand carried.
4. Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), which are moved by
approved hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg),
which is hand carried.
2703.10.3 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks required by Section 2703.10.2 to be used to
move hazardous materials shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections
2703.10.3.1 through 2703.10.3.6.
2703.10.3.1 Design. Carts and trucks used to move hazardous materials shall be designed
to provide a stable base for such movement during handling and shall have a means of
restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement. Compressed gas containers
placed on carts and trucks shall be individually restrained.
2703.10.3.2 Speed-control devices. Carts and trucks shall be provided with a device that
will enable the operator to safely control movement by providing stops or speedreduction devices.
2703.10.3.3 Construction. The cart or truck shall be sturdily constructed of materials
compatible with the material being moved.
2703.10.3.4 Spill control. Carts and trucks used to move liquids shall be capable of
containing a spill from the largest single container being moved.
2703.10.3.5 Attendance. Carts and trucks used to move materials shall not obstruct or be
left unattended in any corridor, exit enclosure, or other means of egress.
2703.10.3.6 Incompatible materials. Incompatible materials shall not be moved during
handling on the same cart or truck.
2703.10.4 Emergency alarm. Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4
pursuant to NFPA 704 are handled through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be an
emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating
device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals throughout the handling route, and at
each exit doorway throughout the handling route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved
central station or remote supervising station or a constantly attended on-site location and
shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
361
2703.11 Group M storage and display and Group S storage. The aggregate quantity of
nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and
displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy, or an outdoor control area, or
stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy, may exceed the maximum allowable
quantity per control area indicated in Section 2703.1 when stored and displayed in accordance
with Sections 2703.11.1 through 2703.11.3.10.
2703.11.1 Maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies.
The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid
hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M
occupancy or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy shall not exceed the
amounts set forth in Table 2703.11.1.
TABLE 2703.11.1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES
d, e, f
NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
CONDITION
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
Solids
Materiala
Class
Liquids gallons
Pounds
HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
Corrosivesb, c
Highly Toxics
Toxicsb, c
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
9,750
20b, c
1,000
975
2b, c
100
PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS —NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
b, c
Oxidizers
Nondetonable
unstable (reactives)b, c
Nondetonable water reactives
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
3b, c
2b, c
1
Not Allowed
1,150g
2,250h
18,000i, j
Not Allowed
550
1,150
Not Limited
550
1,150
Not Limited
Not Allowed
115
225
1,800i, j
Not Allowed
55
115
Not Limited
55
115
Not Limited
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. Hazard categories are as specified in Section 2701.2.2.
b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system. When Note c applies,
amounts increased shall be as set forth in both notes.
c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 2703.8.
When Note b applies, amounts increased shall be as set forth in both notes.
d. See Table 2703.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas.
e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 2703.1.
f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
g. Maximum amounts may be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or
packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
h. Maximum amounts may be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or
packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
i. Quantities are unlimited where protected by a sprinkler system.
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
2703.11.2 Maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area in Group M or S
occupancies. The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single outdoor
control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table
2703.11.1.
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2703.11.3 Storage and display. Storage and display shall be in accordance with Sections
2703.11.3.1 through 2703.11.3.10.
2703.11.3.1 Density. Storage and display of solids shall not exceed 200 pounds per
square foot (976 kg/m2) of floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise. Storage and
display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gallons per square foot (0.50 L/m2) of floor area
actually occupied by liquid merchandise.
2703.11.3.2 Storage and display height. Display height shall not exceed 6 feet (1829
mm) above the finished floor in display areas of Group M occupancies. Storage height
shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor in storage areas of Group M
and Group S occupancies.
2703.11.3.3 Container location. Individual containers less than 5 gallons (19 L) or less
than 25 pounds (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves.
2703.11.3.4 Racks and shelves. Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be in
accordance with Section 2703.9.9.
2703.11.3.5 Container type. Containers shall be approved for the intended use and
identified as to their content.
2703.11.3.6 Container size. Individual containers shall not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg)
for solids or 10 gallons (38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas.
2703.11.3.7 Incompatible materials. Incompatible materials shall be separated in
accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
2703.11.3.8 Floors. Floors shall be in accordance with Section 2704.12.
2703.11.3.9 Aisles. Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides
of the storage or display area.
2703.11.3.10 Signs. Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with
Section 2703.5.
2703.12 Outdoor control areas. Outdoor control areas for hazardous materials in amounts not
exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in compliance with
the following requirements:
1. Outdoor control area shall be kept free from vegetation, rubbish and other combustible
waste, and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an
outdoor control area shall be kept clear of such materials for a minimum of 15 feet (4572
mm).
2. Outdoor control areas shall be located at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from a building opening
and at least 15 feet (4572 mm) from Group A occupancies. Outdoor control areas shall be
located at least 20 feet (6096 mm) from a lot line, public street or private road.
363
Exception: A 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall without openings extending not less than
30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area is allowed in lieu of such
distances required from a building opening, lot line, public street or private road.
3. Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m2), there may be two outdoor control
areas separated by a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm), when approved.
4. Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m2), there may be multiple outdoor
control areas, separated a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm), when approved.
SECTION FC 2704
STORAGE
2704.1 General. Hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity
per control area as set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be stored in accordance with Sections 2701,
2703 and 2704. Hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity
per control area as set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be stored in accordance with Sections 2701
and 2703. Nonflammable solid and nonflammable and noncombustible liquid hazardous
materials in Group M retail occupancies and Group S wholesale storage shall be stored and
displayed in accordance with Section 2703.11.
2704.2 Spill control and secondary containment for liquid and solid hazardous materials.
Buildings, structures, rooms or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materials
shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Sections
2704.2.1 through 2704.2.3.
Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved containment pallets in accordance
with Section 2704.2.3.
2704.2.1 Spill control for hazardous material liquids. Buildings, structures, rooms or areas
used for the storage of hazardous material liquids in individual vessels having a capacity of
more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds
1,000 gallons (3785 L), shall be provided with spill control to prevent the flow of liquids to
adjoining areas. Floors in indoor locations, and similar surfaces in outdoor locations, shall be
constructed to contain a spill from the largest single vessel by one of the following methods:
1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar protection in
outdoor locations.
2. Liquid-tight floors and raised or recessed sills or dikes in indoor locations or similar
protection in outdoor locations.
3. Sumps and collection systems.
4. Other approved engineered systems. Except for surfacing, the floors, sills, dikes,
sumps and collection systems shall be constructed of noncombustible material, and the
liquid-tight seal shall be compatible with the material stored. When liquid-tight sills or
364
dikes are provided, they are not required at perimeter openings having an open-grate
trench across the opening that connects to an approved collection system.
2704.2.2 Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids and solids. Where
required by Table 2704.2.2, buildings, structures, rooms or areas used for the storage of
hazardous materials liquids or solids shall be provided with secondary containment in
accordance with this section when the capacity of an individual vessel or the aggregate
capacity of multiple vessels exceeds the following quantities:
1. Liquids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate
capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
2. Solids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550 pounds (250 kg) or the aggregate
capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 10,000 pounds (4540 kg).
TABLE 2704.2.2
REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE
MATERIAL
Physical-hazard materials
Combustible
Class II
liquids
Class IIIA
Class IIIB
Cryogenic fluids
Explosivesa
Flammable liquids
Class IA
Class IB
Class IC
Flammable solids
Organic peroxides
Class I
nondetonable
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V
Oxidizers
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Pyrophorics nondetonable
Unstable
Class 4
(reactives)
Class 3
nondetonable
Class 2
Class 1
Water reactives
Class 3
nondetonable
Class 2
Class 1
Health-hazard materials
Corrosives
Highly toxics
Toxics
INDOOR STORAGE
Solids
Liquids
OUTDOOR STORAGE
Solids
Liquids
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 32
See Chapter 33
See Chapter 34
Not
See Chapter 34
Applicable
See Chapter 34
Not Required
Not Applicable
Required
Required
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 32
See Chapter 33
See Chapter 34
Not
See Chapter 34
Applicable
See Chapter 34
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Required
Required
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
a. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive)
materials (see Chapter 43) and detonable water-reactive materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage,
handling and use (see Chapter 33).
2704.2.2.1 Containment and drainage methods. The building, structure, room or area
shall contain or drain the hazardous materials and fire protection water through the use of
one of the following methods:
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1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar protection in
outdoor locations.
2. Liquid-tight floors and raised or recessed sills or dikes in indoor locations or
similar protection in outdoor locations.
3. Sumps and collection systems.
4. Drainage systems leading to an approved location.
5. Other approved engineered systems.
2704.2.2.2 Incompatible materials. Incompatible materials used in open systems shall
be separated from each other in the secondary containment system.
2704.2.2.3 Indoor design. Secondary containment for indoor storage areas shall be
designed to contain a spill from the largest vessel plus the design flow volume of fire
protection water calculated to discharge from the fire extinguishing system over the
minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is
located, whichever is smaller. The containment capacity shall be designed to contain the
flow for a minimum period of 20 minutes.
2704.2.2.4 Outdoor design. Secondary containment for outdoor storage areas shall be
designed to contain a spill from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to
rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to include the volume of a 24-hour
rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm but in no case less than 110% of the largest
individual vessel and provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of ground water
and rainwater.
2704.2.2.5 Monitoring. Monitoring shall be provided to detect hazardous materials in the
secondary containment system. The method of monitoring may be visual inspection of
the primary or secondary containment, or other approved means. Where secondary
containment is subject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for detecting water
shall be provided. Where monitoring devices are provided, they shall be connected to
approved audible or visible alarms.
2704.2.2.6 Drainage system design. Drainage systems shall be in accordance with the
Plumbing Code and the following requirements:
1. The slope of floors to drains in indoor locations, or similar protection in outdoor
locations, shall not be less than 1 percent.
2. Drains from indoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire
protection water as determined by the design density discharged from the fire
extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the
room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller.
366
3. Drains from outdoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire
flow and the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm.
4. Materials of construction for drainage systems shall be compatible with the
materials stored.
5. Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in
the drainage system.
6. Drains shall terminate in an approved location away from buildings, structures,
valves, means of egress, fire access roadways, adjoining property and storm drains.
2704.2.3 Containment pallets. When used as an alternative to spill control and secondary
containment for outdoor storage in accordance with the exception set forth in Section 2704.2,
containment pallets shall be in compliance with the following requirements:
1. A liquid-tight sump accessible for visual inspection shall be provided.
2. The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 gallons (250 L).
3. Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material stored.
4. The containment pallet shall be protected to prevent collection of rainwater within the
sump.
2704.3 Ventilation. Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be provided with
mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to
be acceptable for the materials as stored.
Exception: Storage areas for flammable solids complying with the requirements of Chapter
36.
2704.3.1 System requirements. Exhaust ventilation systems shall comply with the following
requirements:
1. Installation shall be in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
2. Mechanical ventilation shall be at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per
square foot [0.00508 m3/(s m2)] of floor area over the storage area.
3. Systems shall operate continuously unless alternative designs are approved.
4. A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of the room in a position adjacent
to the access door to the room or in an approved location. The switch shall be of the
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY
SHUTOFF.
367
5. Exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the density of the potential fumes or
vapors released. For fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall be taken
from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor.
6. The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings shall be designed to provide air
movement across all portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumulation of
vapors.
7. Exhaust ventilation shall not be recirculated within the room or building if the
materials stored are capable of emitting hazardous vapors.
2704.4 Separation of incompatible hazardous materials. Incompatible materials shall be
separated in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
2704.5 Sprinkler systems. Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be protected
throughout by a sprinkler system. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that
required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279
m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided
with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection
shall be provided.
2704.6 Explosion control. Buildings, structures and indoor rooms and other areas shall be
provided with explosion control in accordance with Section 911.
2704.7 Emergency power. Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature
control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall
be provided with an emergency power system in accordance with the Electrical Code, and the
construction codes, including the Building Code, and Section 604.
Exceptions:
1. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.
2. Storage areas for Class III, IV and V organic peroxides.
3. Storage areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, in accordance with Sections
3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.2.6.
4. Storage areas for which an approved fail-safe engineered system has been installed for
mechanical ventilation, treatment systems or temperature control systems.
2704.8 Limit controls. Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2704.8.1
and 2704.8.2.
2704.8.1 Temperature control. Materials that must be kept at temperatures other than
normal ambient temperatures shall be provided with an approved means to maintain the
temperature within a safe range. Redundant temperature control equipment that will operate
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on failure of the primary temperature control system, or other approved means to maintain
the required temperature range, shall be provided.
2704.8.2 Pressure control. Stationary tanks and equipment containing hazardous material
liquids that can generate pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires or
internal reaction, shall have some form of construction or other approved means that will
relieve excessive internal pressure. The means of pressure relief shall vent to an approved
location outdoors or to an exhaust scrubber or treatment system in accordance with Chapter
37.
2704.9 Emergency alarm. An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in
buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating
devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings,
rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to
alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.
2704.10 Supervision. Emergency alarm, detection and fire extinguishing systems required by
Section 2704 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or
shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
2704.11 Clearance from combustibles. The area surrounding an outdoor storage area or tank
shall be kept clear of vegetation, rubbish and other combustible waste, and combustible
materials, for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
2704.12 Noncombustible floor. Except for surfacing, floors of storage areas shall be of
noncombustible construction.
2704.13 Weather protection. Outdoor hazardous material storage areas sheltered by overhead
noncombustible construction shall not be considered indoor storage when the area is constructed
in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required by the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
Exception: Storage of explosives shall be considered as indoor storage.
SECTION FC 2705
HANDLING AND USE
2705.1 General. Hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity
per control area set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be handled and used, including dispensed, in
accordance with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2705. Hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding
the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be handled and
used, including dispensed, in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
2705.1.1 Separation of incompatible materials. Separation of incompatible materials shall
be in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
369
2705.1.2 Noncombustible floor. Except for floor finishing operations, floors of areas where
liquid or solid hazardous materials are used in open systems shall be of noncombustible,
liquid-tight construction.
2705.1.3 Spill control and secondary containment for hazardous material liquids. Where
required by other provisions of Section 2705, spill control and secondary containment shall
be provided for hazardous material liquids in accordance with Section 2704.2.
2705.1.4 Limit controls. Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections
2705.1.4.1 through 2705.1.4.4.
2705.1.4.1 High-liquid-level control. Open tanks in which liquid hazardous materials
are used shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other means to prevent
overfilling of the tank.
2705.1.4.2 Low-liquid-level control. Approved safeguards shall be provided to prevent a
low-liquid level in a tank from creating a hazardous condition, including overheating of a
tank or its contents.
2705.1.4.3 Temperature control. Temperature control shall be provided in accordance
with Section 2704.8.1.
2705.1.4.4 Pressure control. Pressure control shall be provided in accordance with
Section 2704.8.2.
2705.1.5 Emergency power. Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature
control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems
shall be provided with an emergency power system in accordance with the Electrical Code,
the construction codes, including the Building Code, and Section 604.
Exceptions:
1. Areas in which an approved fail-safe engineered system has been installed for
mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems.
2. Systems for highly toxic or toxic gases provided with emergency power in
accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.2.6.
2705.1.6 Supervision. Alarm, detection and fire extinguishing systems required by other
provisions of Section 2705 shall be supervised by an approved central station or shall initiate
an audible and visible signal at a continuously attended on-site location.
2705.1.7 Lighting. Adequate lighting by natural or artificial means shall be provided.
2705.1.8 Fire extinguishing systems. Indoor rooms or areas in which hazardous materials
are handled or used shall be protected by a fire extinguishing system in accordance with
Chapter 9 and the construction codes, including the Building Code. The design of any
sprinkler system shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, with a
370
minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage
arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler
system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.
2705.1.9 Ventilation. Indoor use areas, including dispensing areas, shall be provided with
exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 502.8 of the Mechanical Code.
Exception: Ventilation is not required for flammable solids, unless they are in the form
of finely divided particles or generate finely divided particles during use.
2705.1.10 Liquid transfer. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 pursuant to NFPA 704
shall be transferred by one of the following methods:
1. From safety cans complying with the requirements of UL 30.
2. Through an approved closed piping system.
3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in
the top of the container or tank.
4. From containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automaticclosing valve when the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with
spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 2704.2. Highly
toxic liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.
5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.
Exceptions:
1. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 when dispensed from approved containers not
exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
2. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 when dispensed from approved containers not
exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L).
2705.2 Indoor use. Indoor use, including dispensing, of hazardous materials shall be in
buildings complying with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building
Code, and in accordance with Section 2705.1 and Sections 2705.2.1 through 2705.2.2.5.
2705.2.1 Open systems. Use of hazardous materials in open containers or systems shall be in
accordance with Sections 2705.2.1.1 through 2705.2.1.4.
2705.2.1.1 Ventilation. Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4,
as defined in NFPA 704 are used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to
capture fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.
Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that do not generate harmful fumes, mists or
vapors.
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2705.2.1.2 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with
Section 2704.6 when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics
or nature of the hazardous materials or the manner in which they are used.
2705.2.1.3 Spill control for hazardous material liquids. Buildings, rooms or areas
where hazardous material liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L)
capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided
with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.
2705.2.1.4 Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids. Where required by
Table 2705.2.1.4, buildings, structures, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids
are used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance
with Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity
of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following quantities:
1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).
2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).
TABLE 2705.2.1.4
REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS USE
INDOOR USE
MATERIAL
Solids
OUTDOOR USE
Liquids
Solids
Liquids
Physical-hazard materials
Combustible
liquids
Class II
Class IIIA
Class IIIB
Cryogenic fluids
Explosivesa
Flammable liquids
Class IA
Class IB
Class IC
Flammable solids
Organic peroxides
nondetonable
Oxidizers
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Pyrophorics nondetonable
Unstable
(reactives)
nondetonable
Water reactives
nondetonable
Health-hazard materials
Corrosives
Highly toxics
Toxics
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
Not Applicable
See Chapter 32
See Chapter 33
See Chapter 34
Not Applicable
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
Not Applicable
See Chapter 32
See Chapter 33
See Chapter 34
Not Applicable
See Chapter 34
See Chapter 34
Not Required
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
372
a. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive)
materials (see Chapter 43) and detonable water-reactive materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage,
handling and use (see Chapter 33).
2705.2.2 Closed systems. Use of hazardous materials in closed containers or systems shall
be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.2.1 through 2705.2.2.5.
2705.2.2.1 Design. Systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be designed
by a qualified person. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or
leaving the process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path.
Where automatic controls are provided, they shall be designed to be fail safe.
2705.2.2.2 Ventilation. Where closed systems are designed to be opened as part of
normal operations, ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 2705.2.1.1.
2705.2.2.3 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with
Section 2704.6 where an explosive environment exists because of the hazardous materials
or the manner in which they are used.
Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case
explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions based on the most
likely failure.
2705.2.2.4 Spill control for hazardous material liquids. Buildings, rooms or areas
where hazardous material liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 55-gallon
(208 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.
2705.2.2.5 Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids. Where required by
Table 2705.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in
vessels or systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with
Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of
multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following quantities:
1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).
2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
2705.3 Outdoor use. Outdoor use, including dispensing, of hazardous materials shall be in
accordance with Sections 2705.3.1 through 2705.3.9.
2705.3.1 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.
Outdoor use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in
amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables
2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703, 2705.1 and
2705.3.
2705.3.2 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.
Outdoor use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in
373
amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables
2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
2705.3.3 Location. Outdoor use areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for
outdoor storage in accordance with Section 2704.
2705.3.4 Spill control for hazardous material liquids in open systems. Outdoor areas
where hazardous material liquids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L)
capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided
with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.
2705.3.5 Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids in open systems. Where
required by Table 2705.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used in
open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section
2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple
vessels or systems exceeds the following quantities:
1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).
2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).
2705.3.6 Spill control for hazardous material liquids in closed systems. Outdoor areas
where hazardous material liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons (208 L)
shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.
2705.3.7 Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids in closed systems.
Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used
in closed systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section
2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple
vessels or systems exceeds the following quantities:
1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).
2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
2705.3.8 Clearance from combustibles. The area surrounding an outdoor use area,
including an area used for dispensing, shall be kept clear of vegetation, rubbish and other
combustible waste, and combustible materials, for a minimum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).
2705.3.9 Weather protection. Outdoor hazardous material use areas sheltered by overhead
noncombustible construction shall not be considered indoor use when the area is constructed
in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required in the construction
codes, including the Building Code.
Exception: Use of explosives shall be considered as indoor use.
2705.4 Handling. Handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections
2705.4.1 through 2705.4.4.
374
2705.4.1 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor and outdoor locations in amounts exceeding the
maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through
2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703, 2705.1 and 2705.4.
2705.4.2 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum
allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2) shall be
in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2705.1. Handling of hazardous materials in
outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area
indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701
and 2703.
2705.4.3 Location. Outdoor handling areas for hazardous materials shall be located as
required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 2704.
SECTION FC 2706
NON-PRODUCTION CHEMICAL LABORATORIES
2706.1 Scope. This section shall govern the storage, handling and use of laboratory chemicals in
a non-production laboratory and accessory storage of laboratory chemicals in a storage room.
The design and construction of non-production laboratories and accessory storage rooms for
laboratory chemicals shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the
Building Code and the Mechanical Code.
2706.2 General. Laboratory chemicals within a laboratory unit shall be stored, handled and used
in accordance with this section and, except as otherwise provided in this section, NFPA 45
laboratory unit fire hazard class D requirements.
2706.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2706.4 Supervision. Non-production laboratory operations requiring a permit shall be under the
personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. At least one certificate of fitness holder
shall be present on each floor of the laboratory unit on which laboratory operations are being
conducted while the laboratory is in operation. Additional certificate of fitness holders shall be
provided as the commissioner may require as a condition of the permit. Accessory laboratory
chemical storage rooms shall be under the general supervision of a certificate of fitness holder.
2706.5 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful in any non-production laboratory or any accessory
storage of laboratory chemicals in a storage room to:
1. Store, handle or use any explosive.
2. Store, handle or use any unclassified detonable organic peroxide, detonable pyrophoric
material, detonable unstable (reactive) material or detonable water-reactive material.
3. Store, handle or use any Class 4 unstable (reactive) material.
375
4. Store, handle or use any Class 4 oxidizing material.
5. Store, handle or use below grade any flammable gas.
6. Use an open flame for heating or distilling any flammable solid, flammable liquid or
flammable gas.
2706.6 Quantity limitations.
2706.6.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The density and total quantity of flammable
and combustible liquids allowed within a laboratory unit, excluding storage rooms, shall be
in accordance with Table 10.1.1 of NFPA 45 for laboratory unit fire hazard class D.
Exceptions. For laboratory units other than educational or instructional laboratories
pursuant to NFPA 45:
1. The density of flammable and combustible liquids allowed within a laboratory unit
may be increased to those set forth in Table 10.1.1 of NFPA 45 for laboratory unit
fire hazard class B provided the total quantity of flammable and combustible liquid,
including any in storage cabinets or safety cans, does not exceed 25 gallons (95 L).
2. The density of flammable and combustible liquids allowed within a laboratory unit
may be increased to those set forth in Table 10.1.1 of NFPA 45 for laboratory unit
fire hazard class B provided the total quantity of flammable and combustible liquid,
including any in storage cabinets or safety cans, does not exceed 30 gallons (114 L)
and the walls, floors and ceilings of the laboratory unit are separated from all
adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction.
3. The quantity of flammable and combustible liquids allowed within a laboratory
unit, excluding quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans, may be increased to
100 gallons (379 L), and the total quantities of flammable and combustible liquids,
including quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans, may be increased to 200
gallons (757 L) provided the walls, floors and ceilings of the laboratory unit are
separated from all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction.
2706.6.2 Flammable solids. The storage, handling and use of flammable solids within a
laboratory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 36. The total quantity of
flammable solids stored, handled and used, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall
not exceed 10 pounds (4.54 kg).
Exception: The total quantity of flammable solids allowed within a laboratory unit that is
provided with walls, floors and ceilings that separate the laboratory unit from all
adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction shall not exceed 15 pounds (6.81 kg).
2706.6.3 Oxidizers and organic peroxides. The storage, handling and use of solid and
liquid oxidizers and organic peroxides within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance with
Chapters 27, 39 and 40 and the total quantity of all such material, excluding any quantities in
376
a storage room, shall not exceed 40 pounds (18.16 kg), provided that not more than 2 pounds
(0.908 kg) of such oxidizers are Class 3 oxidizers and not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of
such peroxides are Class I organic peroxides.
Exception: The total aggregate quantity of solid and liquid oxidizers and organic
peroxides allowed within a laboratory unit that is provided with walls, floors and ceilings
that separate the laboratory unit from all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction
shall not exceed 50 pounds (22.7 kg), provided that not more than 2 pounds (0.908 kg) of
such oxidizers are Class 3 oxidizers and not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such
peroxides are Class I organic peroxides.
2706.6.4 Unstable (reactive) material. The storage, handling and use of unstable (reactive)
material within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 43 and the total
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall not exceed 6 pounds (2.724 kg),
provided not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such reactive material is Class 3 unstable
(reactive).
Exception: The total quantity of unstable (reactive) material allowed within a laboratory
unit that is provided with walls, floors and ceilings that separate the laboratory unit from
all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction shall not exceed 12 pounds (5.44 kg),
provided not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such reactive material is Class 3 unstable
(reactive).
2706.6.5 Water reactive material. The storage, handling and use of water reactive material
within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 44 and the total
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall not exceed 2.5 pounds (1.135 kg).
Exception: The total quantity of water reactive material allowed within a laboratory unit
that is provided with walls, floors and ceilings that separate the laboratory unit from all
adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction shall not exceed 5 pounds (2.27 kg).
2706.6.6 Pyrophoric material. The storage, handling and use of solid or liquid pyrophoric
material within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 41 and the total
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall not exceed 0.5 pounds (0.227 kg).
Exception: The total quantity of solid or liquid pyrophoric material allowed within a
laboratory unit that is provided with walls, floors and ceilings that separate the laboratory
unit from all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire rated construction shall not exceed 1 pound
(0.454 kg).
2706.6.7 Highly toxic material. The storage, handling and use of solid or liquid highly toxic
material within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 37 and the total
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall not exceed 5 pounds (2.27 kg).
2706.6.8 Toxic material. The storage, handling and use of solid or liquid toxic material
within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 37 and the total
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall not exceed 250 pounds (113.5 kg).
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2706.6.9 Corrosive material. The storage, handling or use of solid or liquid corrosive
material within a laboratory shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 31 and the total
quantity, excluding any quantity in a storage room, shall not exceed 250 gallons (946 L).
2706.6.10 Highly toxic and toxic gases. It shall be unlawful to store, handle or use in any
educational and instructional laboratory unit any combination of highly toxic and toxic gases
in quantities that exceed 20 SCF (0.566 m3).
2706.7 Storage room classification. Storage rooms for laboratory chemicals accessory to a
laboratory unit shall be classified as set forth in the Building Code.
2706.8 Storage rooms. In addition to the quantities that may be stored, handled and used in a
laboratory unit pursuant to Section 2706.6, chemicals for use in a laboratory unit may be stored
in a dedicated storage room complying with the following requirements:
1. Storage room capacity shall not exceed a maximum of 300 gallons (1136 L) of chemicals
or 5 gallons per square foot (204 L/m2) of floor area.
2. Flammable gas storage rooms shall not contain more than 2,500 SCF (70.8 m3) of
flammable gas.
3. Chemicals that are incompatible with each other shall not be stored in the same storage
room, unless in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
4. Chemicals shall not be used within the storage room.
2706.9 Safety showers. Where more than 5 gallons (19 L) of corrosive liquid or flammable
liquid are stored, handled or used, suitable facilities with fixed overhead or flexible hand-held
showers shall be provided. Such shower shall be within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the laboratory unit
and storage room door and shall be maintained in good working order, and readily accessible at
all times.
2706.10 Neutralizing or absorbing agents. Where more than 5 gallons (19 L) of corrosive
liquids are stored, handled or used, a sufficient quantity of suitable neutralizing or absorbing
agents shall be provided.
2706.11 Curtains and drapes. Curtains and drapes installed in a laboratory unit shall comply
with the flame resistance requirements of Chapter 8.
SECTION FC 2707
TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
2707.1 Scope. This section shall govern the transportation of hazardous materials, as defined in
the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Part
173.
2707.2 General. Transportation of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the
regulations of the United States Department of Transportation and this section.
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2707.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Transport hazardous materials in or through the city where such transport is prohibited or
restricted by federal or state law, rule or regulation, including restrictions on transportation
of hazardous materials over bridges and through tunnels.
2. Transport in or through the city hazardous materials of such type, in such quantities, or in
such manner as is prohibited by this code or the rules, except where such transport is in
accordance with approved routes and times or other approved procedures or safety
measures.
3. Transport hazardous materials in quantities requiring a permit pursuant to this code or the
rules without such permit.
4. Deliver hazardous materials in quantities requiring a permit pursuant to this code or the
rules to any location unless the owner or other person taking delivery thereof is in
possession of a permit for the storage, handling and/or use of such hazardous material at
such location.
2707.4 Permits. Permits to transport hazardous materials shall be required as set forth in Section
105.6. Such permits shall be issued to a particular vehicle or marine vessel for such
transportation. Any hazardous material for which a permit is required pursuant to Section 105.6
for transportation, may be transported without a permit provided that such cargo originates
outside New York State and: (1) remains in continuous transit without picking up or delivering
such cargo in the city; or (2) remains in continuous transit through the city until delivering such
cargo to piers, airports and shipping terminals for transshipment out of the city. Such transport
shall be in accordance with approved routes and times or other approved procedures and safety
measures.
2707.5 Transportation of hazardous materials by vehicle. Transportation of hazardous
materials by vehicle shall be in accordance with this section, the rules, and the requirements
contained in the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49
CFR, Parts 171, 172, 173, 177, 178, 180, 383, 387, 390, 392, 393, 396 and 397 and their
appendices, and any amendments thereto, with respect to:
1. The design, construction, maintenance and equipment of cargo tanks and other vehicles.
2. The marking and placarding of vehicles.
3. The preparation, execution and use of shipping documents.
4. The handling, loading and unloading of hazardous materials.
5. The qualifications and commercial driver’s license requirements of vehicle operators.
6. Insurance and other financial requirements.
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2707.6 Transportation of explosives by vehicle. Transportation of explosives by vehicle for
storage, handling and use in the city shall additionally comply with the requirements of Sections
2707.6.1 through 2707.6.6.
2707.6.1 Approved vehicles. It shall be unlawful to transport, including delivering, any
blasting materials or Division 1.1 or 1.5 explosives for storage, handling or use in the city,
except in a vehicle designed and constructed in accordance with the rules, and for which a
permit has been issued.
2707.6.2 Nitroglycerine. It shall be unlawful to transport any nitroglycerine-containing
material, except nitroglycerine in the form of tablets, pills or granules, in quantities not
exceeding 10,000, containing not more than 1/50 of a grain each, or to transport frozen
nitroglycerine.
2707.6.3 Packing and marking. Other than as prescribed or approved by the commissioner,
it shall be unlawful to sell or deliver for use any explosive except in original and unopened
packages, packed in accordance with Sections 2707.6.3.1 through 2707.6.3.3.
2707.6.3.1 Explosives containing liquids. Dynamite and other explosives containing a
liquid which may exude a liquid shall be transported in DOTn approved cases, lined with
a liquid-proof plastic lining sufficient to prevent the exudation of the liquid. Such cases
shall contain not more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of net explosive weight.
2707.6.3.2 Other explosives. Other blasting materials (except black powder, blasting
powder and smokeless propellant) that do not contain a substance subject to deterioration
or instability by exposure to moisture shall be transported in DOTn approved cases each
containing not more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of net explosive weight.
2707.6.3.3 Sticks or cartridges. All explosives in the form of sticks or cartridges shall be
packed so as to lie on their sides; and, when the boxes are loaded in or upon a vehicle or
marine vessel, they shall be so arranged that the sticks or cartridges rest on their sides.
2707.6.4 Detonators. Transportation of blasting caps and other detonators shall additionally
comply with the requirements of Sections 2707.6.4.1 and 2707.6.4.2.
2707.6.4.1 Packaging. It shall be unlawful to bring into, transport, or deliver within the
city any blasting caps and other detonators, unless packaged in original, unopened boxes.
2707.6.4.2 Delivery vehicles. It shall be unlawful to transport any detonators in
quantities exceeding 5,000, or to transport or cause to be transported, detonators together
with any other explosives, except in an approved container in accordance with the
regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Part
177.
2707.6.5 Black powder, blasting powder or smokeless propellants. Black powder,
blasting powder or smokeless propellant shall be transported in containers of not more than
25 pounds (11.35 kg).
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2707.6.6 Restrictions. Vehicles transporting explosives shall comply with the following
requirements:
1. Vehicles shall deliver explosives only during daylight hours.
2. No unnecessary stops shall be made in transit.
3. Vehicles shall be escorted in accordance with Section 2707.12, as applicable.
4. If explosives are being transported in more than one vehicle, the vehicles shall
maintain a safe distance from each other of not less than 250 feet (76 200 mm).
5. It shall be unlawful to transport or deliver any explosives in a subway or other
underground tunnel or conveyance, except as approved for blasting operations.
2707.7 Transportation of explosives by marine vessel. Transportation of explosives by marine
vessel shall be in accordance with the regulations of the United States Department of
Transportation, as set forth in CFR Part 176, and any amendments thereto, and shall additionally
comply with the requirements of Sections 2707.7.1 through 2707.7.5.
2707.7.1 Temporary storage on marine vessel. It shall be unlawful to store for more than
48 hours on board of any marine vessel lying to at a wharf, pier, bulkhead or other structure
over or contiguous to navigable waters within the city, any explosives in excess of the
amount required for the vessel's own use for signaling or life saving purposes.
2707.7.2 Supervision. Any powder-boat or other marine vessel used to transport explosives
upon the navigable waters within the city for delivery at a wharf, pier, bulkhead or other
structure over or contiguous to navigable waters, or to a marine vessel lying thereto, shall,
while transporting explosives, have on board at all times two persons, each holding a
certificate of fitness for explosives handling. Only such certificate holders, the permit holder
and the marine vessel’s crew shall be allowed in or upon such vessel. Whenever practicable,
all explosives shall be stowed on deck under a waterproof cover or otherwise kept dry.
2707.7.3 Detonators. Except for marine vessels engaged in export trade, it shall be unlawful
to carry in or upon a marine vessel transporting explosives within the city, detonators
together with any other explosives, except in approved containers in accordance with the
regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Part
176.
2707.7.4 Unloading. It shall be unlawful to unload explosives onto a wharf, pier, bulkhead
or other structure over or contiguous to navigable waters. Explosives intended for storage,
handling or use within the city shall be transferred from the marine vessel making the
delivery directly to a vehicle at a wharf, pier, bulkhead or other structure over or contiguous
to navigable waters approved by the commissioner. Explosives intended for shipment to
points outside the city may be transferred from a marine vessel directly to another marine
vessel lying at a wharf, pier, bulkhead or other structure within the city over or contiguous to
navigable waters approved by the commissioner, provided the amount so transferred does not
exceed 2,500 pounds (1135 kg). All such shipments in quantities exceeding 2,500 pounds
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(1135 kg) but not more than 5,000 pounds (2270 kg), may be transferred from marine vessel
to marine vessel at a distance of not less than 1,000 feet (304 800 mm) from any pier line.
2707.7.5 Smoking and intoxicated persons. It shall be unlawful to smoke or maintain any
flame while in or upon any marine vessel carrying explosives, or allow in or upon such
vessel, any intoxicated person.
2707.8 Transportation of fireworks by vehicle. Transportation of fireworks by vehicle for
firework displays in the city shall additionally comply with the requirements of Section 2707.8.1
and 2707.8.2.
2707.8.1 Delivery to display site. It shall be unlawful to transport fireworks through the city
unless such fireworks are being transported to or from a display site for which a permit has
been issued and such vehicle is escorted by department firefighting apparatus in accordance
with Section 2207.12.
2707.8.2 Restrictions. Vehicles transporting fireworks shall comply with the requirements of
Section 2707.6.6.
2707.9 Transportation of flammable and combustible liquids by vehicle. Transportation of
flammable and combustible liquids by vehicle shall additionally comply with the requirements of
Sections 2707.9.1 through 2707.9.5.
2707.9.1 Operation of cargo tanks. Cargo tanks shall be maintained and operated in
accordance with Sections 2707.9.1.1 through 2707.9.1.13.
2707.9.1.1 Vehicle maintenance. Cargo tanks shall not be used unless they are in good
working order and free from accumulation of grease, oil or other flammable or
combustible waste.
2707.9.1.2 Monitoring of loading and unloading. The operator of a cargo tank shall not
remain in the vehicle during loading or unloading of the cargo and shall personally
supervise such operation from a location at which the operator may observe the vehicle,
the delivery and vapor recovery hoses, the fill connection and any overfilling of the tank.
2707.9.1.3 Vehicle shutdown. The cargo tank motor shall be shut down during the
making and breaking of hose connections. If loading or unloading is performed without
the use of a power pump, the cargo tank motor shall be shut down throughout such
operations.
2707.9.1.4 Secured from movement. All appropriate actions shall be taken to prevent
vehicle movement during the loading and unloading of the cargo, including setting the
parking brake and chocking of tires.
2707.9.1.5 Outage. A cargo tank or compartment thereof shall not be loaded to absolute
capacity. The vacant space in a cargo tank or compartment thereof shall not be less than 1
percent to prevent leakage from or distortion of such tank or compartment by expansion
of the contents caused by a rise in temperature.
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2707.9.1.6 Overfill prevention. The operator of a cargo tank shall, before making
delivery to a tank, determine the unfilled capacity of the tank by use of a suitable gauging
device, and shall not deliver cargo in excess of that amount.
2707.9.1.7 Securing hatches. During the loading of cargo tanks with openable domes,
the domes shall be secured on all but the receiving compartment, except that during
loading of gasoline, all domes shall be secured.
2707.9.1.8 Cargo temperature. Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be loaded
into or transported in a cargo tank or delivered at a temperature above the material’s
ignition temperature.
2707.9.1.9 Bonding to underground tanks. An external bond-wire connection or bondwire integral to the delivery hose shall be provided when transferring flammable liquids
into underground tanks.
2707.9.1.10 Smoking. It shall be unlawful for the operator of a cargo tank to smoke in
and around the vehicle while transporting, loading or unloading cargo or to allow others
to do so.
2707.9.1.11 Hose connections. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be transferred
to tanks by means of approved liquid and vapor tight connections between the delivery
hose and fill tank connection. Where underground tanks are equipped with a vapor
recovery system, all connections required for the safe and proper functioning of the vapor
recovery system shall be made and maintained liquid and vapor tight throughout the
unloading process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during delivery.
2707.9.1.12 Hose protection. In making any delivery of flammable or combustible liquid
the operator of the cargo tank shall ensure, prior to unloading, that all hoses utilized for
liquid delivery and vapor recovery are protected from physical damage, including
damage by motor vehicles. Such protection shall be provided by positioning the cargo
tank to prevent motor vehicles from passing through the area or areas occupied by hoses,
or by other approved equivalent means.
2707.9.1.13 Method of discharge. Gasoline that is transferred to underground tanks shall
be discharged by gravity only.
2707.9.2 Parking restrictions. Parking of cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Sections
2707.9.2.1 and 2707.9.2.2, except that in the event of an accident, mechanical breakdown or
other emergency, a cargo tank may be parked and left unattended at any safe location while
the operator is obtaining assistance.
2707.9.2.1 Restricted areas. It shall be unlawful to:
1. Leave a cargo tank unattended at any time on a public street, or any off street
location within 250 feet (76 200 mm) of an occupied building, or any other
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restricted location designated by the commissioner by rule or as a condition of a
permit.
2. Park cargo tanks indoors.
2707.9.2.2 Approved parking. Cargo tanks temporarily parked during working hours
shall be parked at an approved off street location not less than 250 feet (76 200mm) from
an occupied building. Cargo tanks shall be parked during non-working hours on the
grounds of a bulk plant or terminal, not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the nearest lot
line; or at other approved location, not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any building.
2707.9.3 Portable fire extinguishers. Cargo tanks shall be equipped with a portable fire
extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 and having a minimum rating
of 2-A:20-B:C. During unloading of the cargo tank, the portable fire extinguisher shall be
outside of the vehicle and shall be readily available, but at a distance of at least 15 feet (4572
mm) from the unloading valves.
2707.9.4 Unloading of cargo. Flammable liquids being transported by vehicle other than a
cargo tank shall not be dispensed from a container prior to removal of the container from the
vehicle.
2707.9.5 Emergency transfers between vehicles. Department representatives may authorize
a transfer from one cargo tank directly into a permitted or other approved cargo tank in the
interest of public safety, such as when a cargo tank has been involved in a vehicular accident
or has otherwise been damaged.
2707.10 Transportation of compressed gases by cargo tank. Transportation of compressed
gases by cargo tank shall additionally comply with the requirements of Section 2707.10.1.
2707.10.1 Prohibited compressed gases. It shall be unlawful to transport the following
compressed gases in a cargo tank:
1. Acetylene.
2. Liquefied carbon monoxide.
3. Liquefied chlorine.
4. Cyanogen.
5. Cyclopropane.
6. Diborane.
7. Di-, mono-, and tri-methylamines.
8. Dimethyl ether.
9. Ethylene.
10. Fluorine.
11. Liquefied hydrogen.
12. Hydrogen cyanide.
13. Hydrogen sulfide.
14. Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG).
15. Liquefied natural gas (LNG).
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16. Methylacetylene propadiene mixture-stabilized, including propyns, mapp gas or
apache gas.
17. Methyl chloride.
18. Methyl mercaptan.
19. Phosgene.
20. Phosphine.
21. Vinyl chloride.
22. Vinyl fluoride.
23. Vinyl methyl ether.
24. Any gas mixtures of the foregoing.
25. Any gas that contains:
25.1 Bromacetone.
25.2 Cyanogen chloride containing less than 0.9 percent water.
25.3 Diphosgene.
25.4 Ethyldichlorarsine.
25.5 Methyldichlorarsine.
25.6 Nitrogen peroxide (tetroxide).
25.7 Nitrogen tetroxide-nitric oxide mixtures containing up to 33.2 percent weight
nitric oxide.
2707.11 Route and time requirements. Vehicles transporting hazardous materials shall comply
with such route and time requirements as the commissioner may promulgate by rule, except that
vehicles for which a permit has been issued for the transportation of hazardous materials may
transport such hazardous materials, including delivery, without having to comply with such route
and time requirements.
2707.12 Escort requirements for vehicles transporting explosives and fireworks. Vehicles
transporting explosives and fireworks shall additionally comply with the requirements of
Sections 2707.12.1 and 2707.12.2.
2707.12.1 Vehicles transporting explosives. Vehicles transporting in or through the city any
amount of Division 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 or 1.5 explosives, or more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of
Division 1.4 or 1.6 explosives, including vehicles in continuous transit or transporting such
explosives on approved routes at approved times, shall be escorted by department firefighting
apparatus unless such explosives are transported in a vehicle permitted for such explosives.
2707.12.2 Vehicles transporting fireworks. Vehicles transporting any amount of fireworks,
1.3, or more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of fireworks, 1.4, whether in continuous transit
through the city or to or from a fireworks display in the city, shall be escorted by department
firefighting apparatus, in accordance with approved routes and times.
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CHAPTER 28
AEROSOLS
SECTION FC 2801
GENERAL
2801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the manufacture, storage, handling and use of
combustible Level 1, 2 and 3 aerosol products, including the display of such products in any
building, structure or premises.
2801.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2801.3 Reserved.
2801.4 General. Combustible Level 1, 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be manufactured, stored,
handled and used in accordance with this chapter, the construction codes, including the Building
Code, and NFPA 30B.
2801.5 Manufacturing prohibited. It shall be unlawful to manufacture Level 1, 2 or 3 aerosol
products.
2801.6 Aerosol container size limitations. It shall be unlawful to store, handle or use Level 1, 2
or 3 aerosol products in metal cans exceeding 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml), or in glass or plastic
bottles exceeding 4 fluid ounces (118 ml).
Exceptions:
1. Level 3 aerosol products shall be stored, handled and used in containers with a
maximum capacity of 24 fluid ounces (708 ml).
2. Pressurized ether shall be stored, handled or used only in metal containers with a
maximum capacity of 8 fluid ounces (236 ml).
3. Level 1, 2 and 3 oven cleaning aerosol products shall be stored, handled or used in
containers with a maximum capacity of 16 fluid ounces (472 ml).
SECTION FC 2802
DEFINITIONS
2802.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from a container by a propellant, classified as follows:
Level 1. Aerosol products with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 0 and
less than or equal to 8,600 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g).
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Level 2. Aerosol products with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600
Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).
Level 3. Aerosol products with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than
13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).
AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can, or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an
aerosol.
AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. A Group H or S occupancy used exclusively for the non-retail
storage of aerosol products.
PROPELLANT. The liquefied or compressed gas in an aerosol container that expels the
contents from an aerosol container when the valve is actuated. A propellant is considered
flammable if it forms a flammable mixture with air, or if a flame is self-propagating in a mixture
with air.
RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. The area of a Group M occupancy open for the purpose of viewing
or purchasing merchandise offered for sale. Individuals in such establishments are free to
circulate among the items offered for sale which are typically displayed on shelves, racks or the
floor.
SECTION FC 2803
CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS
2803.1 Classification levels. Aerosol products shall be classified as Level 1, 2 or 3 in
accordance with Section 2802.1. Aerosol products in cartons which are not identified shall be
classified as Level 3.
2803.2 Identification. Cartons shall be identified on at least one side with the classification level
of the aerosol products contained within the carton as follows:
LEVEL ________ AEROSOLS
SECTION FC 2804
INDOOR STORAGE OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS
2804.1 General. Indoor storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall comply with the
requirements of Sections 2804.2 through 2804.7 and NFPA 30B. Level I aerosol products shall
be considered equivalent to a Class III commodity and shall comply with the requirements for
palletized or rack storage set forth in NFPA 13.
2804.2 Storage in Groups A, B, E, F, I and R. Except as otherwise provided in Section
2804.2.1, it shall be unlawful to store Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in Group A, B, E, F, I and
R occupancies in excess of the following amounts:
1. A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.
2. A net weight of 500 pounds (227 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.
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3. A combined net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.
2804.2.1 Excess storage. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products exceeding the maximum quantities
set forth in Section 2804.2 may be lawfully stored in accordance with Sections 2804.2.1.1
and 2804.2.1.2.
2804.2.1.1 Storage cabinets. Aerosol products in a quantity not to exceed 100 percent of
the maximum storage limitation may be stored in storage cabinets in accordance with
Section 3404.3.2.
2804.2.1.2 Storage rooms. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in a quantity exceeding that
set forth in Section 2804.2 may be lawfully stored indoors in a flammable liquid storage
room in accordance with Section 2804.5.
2804.3 Storage in general purpose warehouses. Storage of aerosol products in general purpose
warehouses, as defined in NFPA 30B, utilized only for warehousing-type operations involving
mixed commodities shall comply with the requirements of Section 2804.3.1 or 2804.3.2.
2804.3.1 Nonsegregated storage. Storage consisting of solid pile, palletized or rack storage
of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products not segregated into areas utilized exclusively for the
storage of aerosols shall comply with the requirements of Table 2804.3.1.
TABLE 2804.3.1
b
NONSEGREGATED STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES
b
AEROSOL LEVEL
2
3
Combination 2 and 3
MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
Palletized or solid-pile storage
Rack storage
Unprotected
Protecteda
Unprotected
2,500
1,000
2,500
12,000
12,000
12,000
2,500
1,000
2,500
Protecteda
24,000
24,000
24,000
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Sprinkler system protection and storage arrangements shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 30B. Sprinkler system protection shall
extend 20 feet beyond the storage area containing the aerosol products.
b. Storage quantities indicated are the maximum permitted in any 50,000-square-foot area.
2804.3.2 Segregated storage. Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products segregated into
areas utilized exclusively for the storage of aerosols shall be in accordance with Table
2804.3.2 and Sections 2804.3.2.1 and 2804.3.2.2.
2804.3.2.1 Chain-link fence enclosures. Chain-link fence enclosures required by Table
2804.3.2 shall comply with the following requirements:
1. The fence shall not be less than No. 9 gage steel wire, woven into a maximum 2inch (51 mm) diamond mesh.
2. The fence shall be installed from the floor to the underside of the roof or ceiling
above.
3. Class III, IV and high-hazard commodities shall be stored outside of the aerosol
storage area and a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) from the fence.
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4. Access openings in the fence shall be provided with either self-closing or
automatic-closing devices or a labyrinth opening arrangement preventing aerosol
containers from rocketing through the access openings.
5. Not less than two means of egress shall be provided from the fenced enclosure.
2804.3.2.2 Aisles. The minimum aisle requirements for segregated storage in general
purpose warehouses shall be in accordance with Table 2804.3.2.2.
2804.4 Storage in aerosol warehouses. The total quantity of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in a
warehouse exclusively utilized for the storage, shipping and receiving of aerosol products shall
not be restricted in structures complying with the requirements of Sections 2804.4.1 through
2804.4.4.
TABLE 2804.3.2
SEGREGATED STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES
MAXIMUM SEGREGATED STORAGE AREAa
Percentage of building area
Area limitation (square feet)
(percent)
STORAGESEPARATION
Separation areae, f
Chain-link fence
enclosure d
1-hour
fire-resistance-rated
interior walls
2-hour
fire-resistance-rated
interior walls
3-hour
fire-resistance-rated
interior walls
SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS
15
20,000
Notes b, c
20
20,000
Notes b, c
20
30,000
Note b
25
40,000
Note b
30
50,000
Note b
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. The maximum segregated storage area shall be limited to the smaller of the two areas resulting from the percentage of building area limitation
and the area limitation.
b. Sprinkler system protection in aerosol product storage areas shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 30B and be approved. Other building
areas not containing aerosol product storage shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system in accordance with the construction codes,
including the Building Code.
c. Sprinkler system protection in aerosol product storage areas shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 30B and be approved. Sprinkler
system protection shall extend a minimum 20 feet beyond the aerosol storage area.
d. Chain-link fence enclosures shall comply with the requirements of Section 2804.3.2.1.
e. A separation area shall be defined as an area extending outward from the periphery of the segregated aerosol product storage area as follows.
1. The limits of the aerosol product storage shall be clearly marked on the floor.
2. The separation distance shall be a minimum of 25 feet and maintained clear of all materials with a commodity classification greater than
Class Ill in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
f. Separation areas shall be allowed when approved.
TABLE 2804.3.2.2
SEGREGATED STORAGE AISLE WIDTHS AND DISTANCE TO AISLES IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES
STORAGE CONDITION
MINIMUM AISLE WIDTH (feet)
a
Solid pile or palletized
a
Racks with ESFR sprinklers
Racks without ESFR sprinklersa
4 feet between piles
4 feet between racks and adjacent Level
2 and 3 aerosol product storage
8 feet between racks and adjacent Level
2 and 3 aerosol product storage
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Sprinklers shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 30B.
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MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM STORAGE
TO AISLE (feet)
25
25
25
2804.4.1 Sprinkler system. Aerosol warehouses shall be protected throughout by a wet-pipe
sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 30B. Sprinkler protection shall be designed based
on the highest classification level of aerosol product present.
2804.4.2 Pile and palletized storage aisles. Solid pile and palletized storage shall be
arranged so the maximum travel distance to an aisle is 25 feet (7620 mm). Aisles shall have a
minimum width of 4 feet (1219 mm).
2804.4.3 Rack storage aisles. Rack storage shall be arranged with a minimum aisle width of
8 feet (2438 mm) between rows of racks and 8 feet (2438 mm) between racks and adjacent
solid pile or palletized storage. Where early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers
provide sprinkler protection, the minimum aisle width shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
2804.4.4 Combustible commodities. Combustible commodities other than flammable and
combustible liquids may be stored in an aerosol warehouse.
Exception: Flammable and combustible liquids in 1-quart (0.95 L) metal containers and
smaller may be stored in an aerosol warehouse.
2804.5 Storage in indoor flammable liquid storage rooms. Indoor flammable liquid storage
rooms shall comply with the requirements of Section 3404.3.7. The maximum quantities of
aerosol products shall comply with the requirements of Section 2804.5.1 or 2804.5.2.
2804.5.1 Storage rooms of 500 square feet or less. The storage of aerosol products in
flammable liquid storage rooms less than or equal to 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall not
exceed the following quantities:
1. A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.
2. A net weight of 500 pounds (227 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.
3. A combined net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.
2804.5.2 Storage rooms greater than 500 square feet. The storage of aerosol products in
flammable liquid storage rooms greater than 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall not exceed
the following quantities:
1. A net weight of 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.
2. A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.
3. A combined net weight of 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.
The maximum aggregate storage quantity of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products permitted
in separate indoor storage rooms protected by a sprinkler system in accordance with
NFPA 30B shall be 5,000 pounds (2270 kg).
2804.6 Storage in liquid warehouses. The storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in liquid
warehouses, as defined in NFPA 30B, shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 30B. The
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storage shall be located within segregated storage areas in accordance with Section 2804.3.2 and
Sections 2804.6.1 through 2804.6.3.
2804.6.1 Containment. Spill control or drainage shall be provided to prevent the flow of
liquid to within 8 feet (2438 mm) of the segregated storage area.
2804.6.2 Sprinkler design. Sprinkler protection shall be designed based on the highest level
of aerosol product present.
2804.6.3 Opening protection into segregated storage areas. Fire doors or gates opening
into the segregated storage area shall either be self-closing or provided with automaticclosing devices activated by sprinkler water flow or an approved fire detection system.
2804.7 Storage in Group M occupancies. Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in
occupancies in Group M shall comply with the requirements of Table 2804.7. Retail display shall
comply with the requirements of Section 2806.
TABLE 2804.7
MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL
PRODUCTS IN RETAIL STORAGE AREAS
MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
Segregated storage
Storage cabinetsb
Separated from retail areac
Floor
Nonsegregated storagea, b
Basement, cellar or other area
below grade
Ground floor
Upper floors
Not permitted
Not permitted
Not permitted
2,500
500
5,000
1,000
Note d
Note d
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. The total aggregate quantity on display and in storage shall not exceed the maximum retail display quantity indicated in Section 2806.3.
b. Storage quantities indicated are the maximum permitted in any 50,000-square-foot area.
c. The storage area shall be separated from the retail area with a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly.
d. See Table 2804.3.2.
SECTION FC 2805
OUTDOOR STORAGE
2805.1 General. The outdoor storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products, including storage in
temporary storage trailers, shall be separated from exposures in accordance with Table 2805.1.
TABLE 2805.1
DISTANCE TO EXPOSURES FOR OUTDOOR STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS
MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM AEROSOL STORAGE (feet) a
EXPOSURE
Public streets or private roads
Buildings
Exit discharge to a public street or private road
Lot lines
Other outdoor hazardous material storage
20
50
50
20
50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. The minimum separation distance indicated is not required where exterior walls having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating without penetrations
separate the storage from the exposure. The walls shall extend not less than 30 inches above and to the sides of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.
SECTION FC 2806
RETAIL DISPLAY
2806.1 General. This section shall apply to the retail display of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.
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2806.2 Maximum quantities in retail display areas. Aerosol products in retail display areas
shall not exceed quantities needed for display and normal merchandising and shall not exceed the
quantities in Table 2806.2.
TABLE 2806.2
MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN RETAIL DISPLAY AREAS
MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)a, b
Unprotectedc
Protectedc,d
FLOOR
Basement, cellar or other area below
grade
Ground
Upper
Not allowed
500
2,500
500
10,000
2,000
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. The total quantity shall not exceed 1,000 pounds net weight in any one 100-square-foot retail display area.
b. When packaged, stored and protected in accordance with NFPA 30B, quantity limits shall be limited to those specified in NFPA 30B.
c. Per 25,000-square-foot retail display area.
d. Minimum Ordinary Hazard Group 2 wet-pipe sprinkler system throughout the retail sales occupancy.
2806.3 Maximum quantities in storage areas. Aerosol products in storage areas adjacent to
retail display areas shall not exceed the quantities in Table 2806.3.
TABLE 2806.3
MAXIMUM STORAGE QUANTITIES FOR STORAGE AREAS ADJACENT TO RETAIL DISPLAY OF LEVEL 2 AND LEVEL 3
AEROSOLS
MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
Floor
Basement, cellar or other area
below grade
Ground
Separated
Unseparateda, b
Storage cabinets
1-hour occupancy
separation
Not allowed
Not allowed
Not allowed
2,500
5,000
500
1,000
b
Upper
In accordance with NFPA
30B, Sections 4-3.4.2 and 43.4.3
In accordance with NFPA
30B, Sections 4-3.4.2 and 43.4.3
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. The aggregate quantity in storage and retail display shall not exceed the quantity limits for retail display.
b. In any 50,000-square-foot area.
2806.4 Display of containers. Aerosol containers shall not be stacked more than 6 feet (1829
mm) high from the base of the aerosol array to the top of the aerosol array unless the containers
are placed on fixed shelving or otherwise secured in an approved manner. When storage or retail
display is on shelves, the height of such storage or retail display to the top of aerosol containers
shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) from the floor.
Exception: Storage or display protected in accordance with Sections 2806.2 and 2806.3.
2806.5 Combustible cartons. Aerosol products located in retail display areas shall be removed
from combustible cartons.
Exceptions:
1. Display areas that use a portion of combustible cartons, which consist of only the
bottom panel and not more than 2 inches (51 mm) of side panel are allowed.
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2. When the display area is protected in accordance with Table 4-3 of NFPA 30B, storage
of aerosol products in combustible cartons is allowed.
2806.6 Aisles. Aisles not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides
of a retail display area containing aerosol products.
Exception: An approved aggregate quantity of aerosol product in the occupancy of less than
100 pounds (45.4 kg).
2806.7 Retail display sprinkler system. When a sprinkler system is required for the protected
retail display of aerosol products, the wet-pipe sprinkler system shall be in accordance with this
code, and the construction codes, including the Building Code. The minimum system design
shall be for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 occupancy. The system shall be provided throughout
the retail display area.
2806.8 Storage fire extinguishing system. When the height of any stored or displayed aerosol
products exceeds the height limitations set forth in Section 2806.4, the design of the sprinkler
system shall be in accordance with NFPA 30B.
CHAPTER 29
COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS
SECTION FC 2901
GENERAL
2901.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the storage and handling of combustible fibers.
2901.2 General. Combustible fibers shall be stored and handled in accordance with this chapter.
2901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
2901.4 Approved facility or location. Combustible fibers in quantities requiring a permit shall
be stored in an approved facility or other approved location.
2901.5 Prohibition. It shall be unlawful to store combustible fibers in a quantity that covers
more than two-thirds of the floor area of any floor or in a quantity that is to a height greater than
two-thirds of the distance from the floor to the ceiling.
SECTION FC 2902
DEFINITIONS
2902.1 Definition. The following term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning fibers, such as cocoa fiber,
cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, sisal, Spanish moss, straw,
tow, wastepaper, or other natural or synthetic fibers that possess similar qualities.
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SECTION FC 2903
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2903.1 Combustible waste. Ashes, rubbish or other combustible waste shall not be placed in
wooden or other combustible containers and shall be removed daily from the facility.
2903.2 Vegetation. Grass, vines, weeds, brush or other combustible vegetation shall not be
allowed to accumulate within 15 feet (4570 mm) of any combustible fiber storage location.
2903.3 Clearances. A minimum clearance of 3 feet (914 mm) shall be maintained between
sprinkler heads and the top of piles.
2903.4 Agricultural products. Hay, straw or similar agricultural products shall not be stored in
an area adjoining any combustible fiber storage location unless a clear horizontal distance equal
to the height of a pile is maintained between such agricultural products and such storage location.
Storage shall be limited to stacks of 100 tons (91 metric tons) each. Stacks shall be separated by
a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) of clear space.
2903.5 Dust collection. Where located within a building, devices, equipment and systems that
generate or emit combustible fibers shall be provided with an approved dust-collecting and
exhaust system. Such system shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 13 and the
construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
2903.6 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance
with Section 906 governing extra-hazard occupancy protection, as set forth in Table 906.3(1).
SECTION FC 2904
LOOSE FIBER STORAGE
2904.1 Reserved.
2904.2 Storage of 100 cubic feet or less. Loose combustible fibers in quantities of not more
than 100 cubic feet (3 m3) located in a building or structure shall be stored in a metal or metallined bin equipped with a self-closing cover.
2904.3 Storage of more than 100 cubic feet to 500 cubic feet. Loose combustible fibers in
quantities exceeding 100 cubic feet (3 m3) but not exceeding 500 cubic feet (14 m3) shall be
stored in rooms enclosed with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers, with openings protected
by an approved opening protective assembly having a fire protection rating of ¾-hour,
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
2904.4 Storage of more than 500 cubic feet to 1,000 cubic feet. Loose combustible fibers in
quantities exceeding 500 cubic feet (14 m3) but not exceeding 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) shall be
stored in rooms enclosed with 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers, with openings protected
by an approved opening protective assembly having a fire protection rating of 1½-hours, and
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
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2904.5 Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet to 2,500 cubic feet. Loose combustible fibers in
quantities exceeding 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) but not exceeding 2,500 cubic feet (70 m3) shall be
stored in rooms enclosed with 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers, with openings protected
by an approved opening protective assembly having a fire protection rating of 1½-hours, and
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code. The storage
room shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
2904.6 Storage of more than 2,500 cubic feet; detached storage structure. Loose combustible
fibers in quantities exceeding 2,500 cubic feet (70 m3) but not exceeding 10,000 cubic feet (280
m3) shall be stored in a detached structure suitably located, with openings protected against
entrance of sparks. The structure shall not be occupied for any other purpose. Loose combustible
fibers in quantities exceeding 10,000 cubic feet (280 m3) may be stored only with the approval of
the commissioner.
2904.7 Separation from hazardous materials. No hazardous material shall be stored in any
room or detached structure containing loose combustible fibers.
SECTION FC 2905
BALED STORAGE
2905.1 Bale size and separation. Baled combustible fibers shall be limited to single blocks or
piles not more than 25,000 cubic feet (700 m3) in volume, not including aisles or clearances.
Blocks or piles of baled fiber shall be separated from adjacent storage by aisles not less than 5
feet (1524 mm) wide, or by flash-fire barriers constructed of continuous sheets of
noncombustible material extending from the floor to a minimum height of 1 foot (305 mm)
above the highest point of the piles and projecting not less than 1 foot (305 mm) beyond the sides
of the piles.
2905.2 Special baling conditions. Sisal and other fibers in bales bound with combustible tie
ropes, jute and other fibers that swell when wet, shall be stored to allow for expansion in any
direction without affecting building walls, ceilings or columns. A minimum clearance of 3 feet
(914 mm) shall be required between walls and sides of piles, except that where the storage
compartment is not more than 30 feet (9144 mm) wide, the minimum clearance at side walls
shall be 1 foot (305 mm), provided that a center aisle not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) wide is
maintained.
SECTION FC 2906
STORAGE OF COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS ON WATERFRONT STRUCTURES
2906.1 Scope. This section shall govern the storage and handling of combustible fibers on
waterfront structures, including piers, wharfs and bulkheads except when combustible fibers are
stored and handled exclusively in sealed metal shipping containers.
2906.2 General. Combustible fiber shall be stored and handled on waterfront structures in
accordance with this section.
2906.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to:
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1. Unload and store loose combustible fibers on a waterfront structure.
2. Conduct hot work operations on a waterfront structure where combustible fibers are in
storage or being handled.
2906.4 Supervision of standpipe and sprinkler systems. A person holding a certificate of
fitness for a standpipe system and a certificate of fitness for sprinkler system maintenance shall
inspect the standpipe and sprinkler systems not more than 24 hours prior to the delivery of the
combustible fibers. Combustible fibers shall not be unloaded if the standpipe or sprinkler system
is out of service. While combustible fibers are present on the waterfront structure, the certificate
of fitness holder shall inspect the standpipe and sprinkler systems, and portable fire extinguishers
at least once each day. A record of all inspections shall be maintained on the premises and made
available for inspection by any representative of the department.
2906.5 Notification. Before combustible fibers are unloaded to a waterfront structure from any
marine vessel or vehicle, advance notice of at least 48 hours shall be given to the department by
the owner of the waterfront structure.
2906.6 Fire protection. Waterfront structures where combustible fibers are stored or handled
shall be provided with fire protection in accordance with Sections 2209.6.1 through 2209.6.4.
2906.6.1 Superstructure. The superstructure of the waterfront structure shall be protected
throughout by a sprinkler system.
2906.6.2 Substructure. The substructure of the waterfront structure shall be protected by
one of the following methods:
1. Fire stops at intervals of 150 feet (45 720 mm); and
1.1. A sprinkler system arranged for discharge of water to the entire substructure area;
or
1.2. Protected openings through decking for revolving nozzles or other water
discharge equipment, so arranged as to permit water discharge onto the entire
substructure area. Such openings shall be a minimum of 6.5 inches (165.1 mm) in
diameter and spaced at 25 feet (7620 mm) intervals longitudinally and
transversely. No cargo shall be stored on deck openings adjacent to the
substructure fire stops and those in the main and fire hose aisles.
2. A system of water spray nozzles arranged to permit water discharge onto the entire
substructure area and installed in accordance with the Building Code.
3. A system of trenches across the waterfront structure every 100 feet (30 480 mm). Such
trenches shall not exceed 12 inches (304.8 mm) in width, shall be of substantial
construction that conforms to the rest of the waterfront structure, shall extend to within
5 feet (1524 mm) of the sides of the waterfront structure, and shall have openings
protected in sections not to exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) for access or removal in the
event of fire. No cargo shall be placed directly above these openings, and durable signs
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shall be conspicuously posted on the waterfront structure to indicate the location of
these openings.
4. A system of deck openings and under-deck sprinkler protection approved by the
commissioner. Openings shall be spaced at 25 feet (7620 mm) intervals longitudinally
and transversely. No cargo shall be placed directly above these openings, and durable
signs shall be conspicuously posted on the waterfront structure to indicate the location
of these openings.
2906.6.3 LPG or gasoline-fueled equipment. Any LPG or gasoline-fueled devices,
equipment or systems used to handle combustible fibers, or operated in the immediate area of
combustible fiber storage or handling, shall be equipped with exhaust spark arresters and
carburetor traps.
2906.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers. The combustible fiber storage area shall be provided
with portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906 governing extra-high hazards
(Class A fires).
2906.7 Storage and handling. Bales of combustible fibers facing aisles shall be covered on top
and sides with tarpaulins or other suitable covering. Whenever possible, the combustible fibers
shall be stacked on one side of the waterfront structure only, preferably at the water end of
waterfront structure. Combustible fibers shall be tiered no higher than 12 feet (3658 mm) and a
clearance of not less than 18 inches (457.2 mm) between the sprinkler head and the upper level
of the top tier shall be maintained. An aisle space of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) extending to
the side of the waterfront structure shall be provided at right angles to the main aisle at intervals
not exceeding 75 feet (22 860 mm) in the combustible fiber storage area.
2906.8 Operation and maintenance. Waterfront structures upon which combustible fibers are
stored or handled shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 2906.8.1 through
2906.8.3.
2906.8.1 Fire guard. A fire guard shall be required and positioned approximately every 200
feet (60 960 mm) throughout the length of the combustible fiber storage area. Each fire guard
shall be instructed:
1. To keep diligent watch for fires, take prompt measures for extinguishment of fires, and
transmit an alarm to the department at the first sign of fire.
2. As to the location of all fire alarm manual pull stations in the area.
3. As to the location and the use of portable fire extinguishers and standpipe system
valves and hoses.
2906.8.2 Access. Access to combustible fibers and the aisles between the stored combustible
fibers shall be restricted to personnel handling the combustible fibers, fire guards and
representatives of the department.
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2906.8.3 Loading and unloading. When loading and unloading combustible fibers, two
persons shall be assigned to each loading or unloading operation to stand by with the
standpipe hose. These persons shall be instructed as to the location and use of the standpipe
system valves and hoses.
CHAPTER 30
COMPRESSED GASES
SECTION FC 3001
GENERAL
3001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the storage, handling and use of compressed gases in
compressed gas containers and systems, including those gases regulated elsewhere in this code.
Exceptions:
1. Compressed gases used as refrigerants in refrigerating systems in accordance with
Chapter 6.
2. Compressed natural gas (CNG) stored, handled or used as a vehicular fuel in
accordance with Chapter 22, NFPA 52 and the Fuel Gas Code.
3. Compressed gases connected for use in a fire extinguishing system.
3001.2. Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
3001.3 General. Compressed gases shall be stored, handled and used in accordance with this
chapter.
3001.3.1 Cutting and welding gases. Cutting and welding gases shall additionally comply
with the requirements of Chapter 27.
3001.3.2 Cryogenic fluids. Cryogenic fluids shall additionally comply with the requirements
of Chapter 32.
3001.3.3 Hazardous materials. Compressed gases classified as hazardous materials shall
additionally comply with the requirements of Chapter 27 and any other applicable chapters of
this code, including Chapters 35 (Flammable Gases), 37 (Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials),
40 (Oxidizers) and 41 (Pyrophoric), as applicable.
3001.3.4 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). LPG shall additionally comply with the
requirements of Chapter 38 and the Fuel Gas Code.
3001.4 Supervision. The storage, handling, use and compression of compressed gases shall be
supervised as set forth in Sections 3001.4.1 through 3001.4.3.
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3001.4.1 Handling and use. The handling and use of compressed gases in quantities
requiring a permit, including piped medical gas systems, shall be under the personal
supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness.
3001.4.2 Storage. The storage of compressed gases in quantities requiring a permit,
including medical gases that are not piped, shall be under the general supervision of a person
holding a certificate of fitness.
3001.4.3 Compressing. The compressing of gases requiring a permit shall be performed by
or under the personal supervision of a person holding a certificate of fitness.
Exception: Compressing atmospheric air may be under the general supervision of a
person holding a certificate of fitness.
3001.4.4 Filling of containers. The transfer of nonflammable compressed gases between
containers shall be performed by a person holding a certificate of fitness.
SECTION FC 3002
DEFINITIONS
3002.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used
elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials that is a gas at 68oF (20oC) or less at
14.7 psia (101 kPa) of pressure; and has a boiling point of 68oF (20oC) or less at 14.7 psia (101
kPa) that is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution at that temperature and pressure, except
that gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be
compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (28 kPa) at 68oF (20oC).
Compressed gases shall be classified as follows:
Nonliquefied compressed gases. Gases, other than those in solution, that are in a packaging
under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68oF (20oC).
Liquefied compressed gases. Gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are
partially liquid at a temperature of 68oF (20oC).
Compressed gases in solution. Nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
Compressed gas mixtures. A mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a
single packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the
mixture as a whole.
COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. A pressure container designed to hold compressed gases
at pressures greater than one atmosphere at 68oF (20oC).
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COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of components, such as containers, reactors,
pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing, designed to contain, distribute or
transport compressed gases.
NESTING. A method of securing flat-bottomed compressed gas containers upright in a tight
mass using a contiguous three-point contact system whereby all containers within a group have a
minimum of three points of contact with other containers, walls or bracing.
SECTION FC 3003
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3003.1 Containers. Compressed gas containers shall comply with the requirements of this
section. Compressed gas containers shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the
specifications of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or DOTn regulations, or be
otherwise approved. Compressed gas containers that are not designed for refillable use shall not
be refilled after use of the original contents.
3003.1.1 Partially full compressed gas containers. Partially full compressed gas containers
containing residual gases shall be considered as full for the purposes of the controls required.
3003.2 Marking. Stationary and portable compressed gas containers and systems shall be
marked in accordance with Sections 3003.2.1, 3003.2.2 and 3003.2.3.
3003.2.1 Stationary compressed gas containers. Stationary compressed gas containers shall
be marked with the name of the gas and in accordance with Sections 2703.5 and 2703.6.
Markings shall be visible from any direction of approach. All uninsulated stationary outdoor
compressed gas containers shall be of light-reflective design or painted with a light-reflecting
color.
3003.2.2 Portable containers. Portable compressed gas containers shall be marked in
accordance with CGA C-7 and DOTn regulations.
3003.2.3 Piping systems. Piping systems shall be marked in accordance with ANSI A13.1.
Markings used for piping systems shall consist of the name of the contents and include an
arrow indicating direction of flow. Markings shall be provided at each valve; at wall, floor or
ceiling penetrations; at each change of direction; and at a minimum of every 20 feet (6096
mm) or fraction thereof throughout the piping run.
Exceptions:
1. Piping that is designed or intended to carry more than one compressed gas at
various times shall have appropriate signs or markings posted at the manifold, along
the piping and at each point of use to provide clear identification and warning.
2. Piping within gas-manufacturing plants, gas-processing plants and similar
occupancies shall be marked in an approved manner.
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3003.2.4 Out-of-service containers. Out-of-service compressed gas containers shall be
marked to indicate that they are no longer available for service.
3003.3 Container protection. Compressed gas containers and systems shall be secured and
protected against physical damage and tampering in accordance with Sections 2703.9.2, 3003.3.2
and 3003.3.3.
3003.3.1 Reserved.
3003.3.2 Physical protection. Compressed gas containers and systems that could be exposed
to physical damage shall be protected. Posts or other approved means shall be provided to
protect compressed gas containers and systems indoors and outdoors from vehicular damage
and shall comply with the requirements of Section 312.
3003.3.3 Securing compressed gas containers. Compressed gas containers shall be secured
to prevent movement from contact, vibration or seismic activity, utilizing one or more of the
following methods:
1. Securing containers to a fixed object with one or more noncombustible restraints.
Containers shall not be secured to plumbing systems or electrical conduits.
2. Securing containers on a cart or other mobile device designed for the movement of
compressed gas containers.
3. Nesting of compressed gas containers at container filling or servicing facilities or in
seller’s warehouses not accessible to the public. Nesting shall be allowed provided the
nested containers, if dislodged, do not obstruct any required means of egress.
4. Securing of compressed gas containers to or within a rack, framework, cabinet or
similar assembly designed for such use, except when the containers are in the process
of examination, filling, transport or servicing.
5. Securing stationary compressed gas containers to a foundation designed for such use in
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
3003.4 Valve protection. Compressed gas container valves shall be protected from physical
damage by means of protective caps, collars or similar devices, in accordance with Sections
3003.4.1 and 3003.4.2.
3003.4.1 Compressed gas container protective caps or collars. Compressed gas containers
designed to be fitted with protective caps, collars or other protective devices shall have such
caps or devices in place except when the containers are in use or are being serviced or filled.
3003.4.2 Caps and plugs. Valves of compressed gas containers designed to accept
protection caps or other protective devices shall have such caps or devices attached. Outlet
caps or plugs shall be in place except when the compressed gas containers are in use or are
being serviced or filled.
401
3003.5 Separation from hazardous conditions. Compressed gas containers and systems in
storage or use shall be separated from materials and conditions that present potential hazards to
them, or to which they present potential hazards. Compressed gas containers and systems in
storage or use shall be separated in accordance with Sections 3003.5.1 through 3003.5.10.
3003.5.1 Incompatible materials. Compressed gas containers shall be separated from each
other based on the hazard class of their contents. Compressed gas containers shall be
separated from incompatible materials in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
3003.5.2 Combustible waste and vegetation. Combustible waste and vegetation shall be
kept a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from compressed gas containers and systems. A
noncombustible partition, without openings or penetrations extending not less than 18 inches
(457 mm) above the height of the tallest container or system piping and not less than 18
inches (457 mm) to the sides of the storage area is allowed in lieu of such distance. The wall
shall either be an independent structure, or the exterior wall of the building adjacent to the
storage area.
3003.5.3 Ledges, platforms and elevators. Compressed gas containers shall not be placed
near elevators, unprotected platform ledges or other areas where the container could drop a
distance exceeding one-half the height of the container.
3003.5.4 Temperature extremes. Compressed gas containers, whether full or partially full,
shall not be exposed to temperatures exceeding 125oF (52oC) or less than mean low
atmospheric temperatures unless designed for use under the exposed conditions.
3003.5.5 Falling objects. Compressed gas containers and systems shall not be placed in
areas where they are exposed to damage from falling objects.
3003.5.6 Heating. Compressed gas containers shall not be heated by devices that could raise
the surface temperature of the container to above 125oF (52oC). Heating devices shall comply
with the requirements of the Mechanical Code and the Electrical Code. Approved heating
methods not capable of producing surface temperatures above 125oF (52oC) are allowed to be
used by trained personnel. Devices designed to maintain individual compressed gas
containers at constant temperature shall be approved and shall be designed to be fail-safe.
3003.5.7 Sources of ignition. Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in
a manner that creates a hazardous condition.
3003.5.8 Exposure to chemicals. Compressed gas containers and systems shall not be
exposed to corrosive chemicals or fumes that could damage containers, valves or valveprotective caps.
3003.5.9 Exhausted enclosures. When exhausted enclosures are provided as a means to
segregate compressed gas containers from exposure hazards, such enclosures shall comply
with the requirements of Section 2703.8.5.
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3003.5.10 Gas cabinets. When gas cabinets are provided as a means to separate compressed
gas containers from exposure hazards, such gas cabinets shall comply with the requirements
of Section 2703.8.6.
3003.6 Wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with the
requirements of the Electrical Code. Compressed gas containers and systems shall not be located
where they could become part of an electrical circuit. Compressed gas containers and systems
shall not be used for electrical grounding.
3003.7 Service and repair. Service, repair, modification or removal of valves, pressure-relief
devices or other compressed gas container appurtenances shall be performed by competent
personnel.
3003.8 Unauthorized use. Compressed gas containers and systems shall not be used for any
purpose other than as a vessel for the materials that they are designed to contain.
3003.9 Exposure to fire. Compressed gas containers that have been exposed to fire shall be
removed from service. Containers so removed shall be handled by qualified persons under the
personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. Containers exposed to fire shall not be used
unless they have been requalified in accordance with the standards set forth in ASME or DOTn
regulations, or otherwise approved by the commissioner.
3003.10 Leaks, damage or corrosion. Leaking, damaged or corroded compressed gas
containers shall be removed from service under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness
holder, and properly repaired or disposed.
3003.11 Protection against corrosion. Except as otherwise provided in this section, compressed
gas containers may be stored or used without being placed under overhead cover. Containers
shall be protected from direct contact with soil or unimproved surfaces to prevent bottom
corrosion. The surface of the area upon which the containers are placed shall be graded to
prevent accumulation of water.
3003.12 Overhead cover. Compressed gas containers in quantities requiring a permit are
allowed to be stored or used in the sun except in locations where extreme temperatures prevail.
When extreme temperatures prevail, overhead covers shall be provided. Overhead covers shall
also be provided to prevent accumulations of ice and snow on the valves of containers connected
for use.
3003.13 Lighting. Areas used for the storage, handling and use of compressed gas containers
and systems shall be provided with approved lighting by natural or artificial means.
SECTION FC 3004
STORAGE OF COMPRESSED GASES
3004.1 Upright storage. Compressed gas containers, except those designed for use in a
horizontal position, and all compressed gas containers containing nonliquefied gases, shall be
stored in an upright position with the valve end up. The axis of the container stored in the upright
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position may be inclined as much as 45 degrees (0.80 rad) from the vertical provided that it is
properly secured.
Exception: Compressed gas containers with an internal volume less than 0.174 ft3 (0.005 m3)
may be stored in a horizontal position.
3004.2 Material-specific regulations. In addition to the requirements of this section, indoor and
outdoor storage of compressed gases shall comply with the material-specific requirements of
Chapters 31, 35 and 37 through 44.
SECTION FC 3005
HANDLING AND USE OF COMPRESSED GASES
3005.1 Compressed gas systems. Compressed gas systems shall be suitable for the use intended
and shall be designed and installed by persons competent in