N7830G Floatplane Rating Add-On Training Syllabus

N7830G Floatplane Rating Add-On Training Syllabus
 N7830G Floatplane Rating Add‐On Training Syllabus
1971 Cessna 172L Floatplane N7830G AIRCRAFTSPECIFICATIONS
Airspeeds Vs0 40 Vs1 45 Vx 65 Vy 85 Vfe 90 Va 96 Vno 127 Vne 140 Best Glide 80 *All speeds in MPH Engine Specs Lycoming O‐320 (4 cylinder) 160 HP at 2700 RPM Max RPM 2700 RPM Oil Type: Aeroshell W 100 (cold WX use Aeroshell 15 w 50) Max oil Capacity: 8 U.S. Quarts Normal Operations: 6 U.S. Quarts Add 1 quart when at 5 1/2 quarts 2 Propeller Specs Manufacturer: McCaulley Prop Type: Fixed Pitch Number Blades: 2 Prop Diameter: 80 Inches Prop Pitch: 42 Note: Floatplane props are longer and have a flatter pitch than a land plane of similar type Fuel Capacity: Usable: Fuel Burn: Fuel Type: 52 U.S. gallons 48 U.S. gallons (24 per side) 8 Gallons per Hour (average) 100LL (Blue) AVGAS Foats Manufacturer: Baumann Floats Model: BF2550 100% Buoyancy per Float: 2550 lbs. Weight: 275# Storage Lockers (2) 50 # max per side Minimum Draft 12” Copyright Adventure Seaplanes WEIGHTANDBALANCE
Gross Weight: 2350 lbs. Empty Weight: 1558 lbs. Useful Load: 792 lbs. Float Storage Lockers: 50 lbs. max each side Arm: 20 Fill in Weight and Balance for your Check ride Empty Floatplane Front Seats Rear Seats Baggage Area 1 Float Compartments Fuel Totals Weight
1558 30 Arm 37.5 73.5 20.0 48.8 Moment
58611 15,000 3000 3 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes 4 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes FLOATDESIGNANDREGULATIONS
Baumann 2550
FAA Regulations 
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Each float must have 4 compartments minimum Each float must support 90% of gross weight (both floats support 180%) Must be able to support the aircraft with two compartments flooded 5 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes FLOATDESIGNANDREGUATIONS
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The preflight inspection of the floatplane itself is accomplished same as the land‐plane as described in the pilot’s operating handbook for that aircraft (usually involving a walk around inspection checking fuel, oil, lights, control operation, etc.) o Carefully inspect the propeller for damage as water picked up under power is very harmful to a floatplane prop (appearance is similar to gravel damage from a soft runway.) The floats should also be looked over carefully during a walk around inspection of the aircraft. o Visually check the floats for any sign of damage that may have occurred while docking, beaching, ramping, or moving the aircraft in or out of the water using a floatplane dolly. o Visually check the aircraft fuselage around float attach points and the firewall for any indication of damage from events such as a hard landing o Check water rudder(s) and cables for damage and proper operation. Inspect all float attach points to the main fuselage as well as spreader bars and flying wires. o Check each water tight compartment for water using the bilge pump supplied with the aircraft. Be sure to reinstall all pump‐out plugs tightly as these can pop out on rough water. PASSANGERBRIEF
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Additional passenger briefing items may include: o Location and use of PFD’s. Do not inflate PFD’s until clear from the aircraft o Brief passengers the strategy to exit a capsized aircraft. The cabin may have to fill with water for pressure to equalize and doors to open. Occupants should locate a known reference point in the aircraft prior to releasing seatbelts. O Brief passengers on any assistance required departing the dock. IN NO EVENT SHOULD A PASSENGER OR DOCK HELPER BE ALLOWED IN FRONT OF THE STRUT. ENGINESTARTINGANDTAXI
MASTER – MIXTURE – MAGS – WATER RUDDERS DOWN ‐ START 
For startup, it is important that all seatbelts, shoulder harnesses, headsets, etc. are off and out of the way. These items can prohibit the quick exit from the floatplane if it becomes necessary to save the floatplane from drifting into something. Although this may seem like a violation of a FAR, it’s not. FAA regulations allow the pilot and/or required crew members to leave seatbelts off for the purpose of docking and undocking a floatplane.  When departing from a dock the wind conditions must be carefully taken into consideration. Remember that a floatplane on the water always tends to “weathervane” into the wind. Leave the dock facing into the wind if possible. Water rudders should be lowered prior to startup. Since floatplanes have no brakes, it is important that the pilot complete the preflight and prepare the engine for startup before the floatplane is untied from the dock, not after. Utilize a dock helper if available. If not, usually a gentle 6 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes shove away from the dock prior to starting the engine is satisfactory. Holding a dock line while starting the engine is generally discouraged by Adventure Seaplanes staff; damage to water rudders, etc. can result if the line is not thrown clear of the floatplane after startup. Rubbing up against the dock while taxiing away should be avoided as damage to sides of the floats may result.  When departing from a beach with the heels against the shore, be sure that the floatplane is floating enough to allow the floatplane to power itself off the sand. Do not use high power to free the floatplane from shore. Be considerate of persons and property on shore.  Use caution when departing the dock to not hit any dock hands or dock posts with the horizontal stabilizer. A gradual turn away from the dock will prevent this AND will prevent the back of the floats from either hitting the dock or going underneath it. Run‐Up 
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FLOW or T CHECK FUEL on BOTH STICK BACK MAG CHECK 1000 RPM CARB HEAT CHECK POWER 800 RPM Trim Set Flaps 15‐20 Area Clear Rudders Up Stick Back Taxiing There are three ways to taxi a floatplane: 
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Idle (displacement) Taxi Plow Taxi Step Taxi Water rudders are down for a displacement and plow taxi only. 7 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Idle Taxi In most cases idle taxi is the preferred taxi method. It generally allows the easiest maneuvering of the floatplane in tight areas, around docks, boats, other floatplanes etc. For idle taxi: 
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Fuel………………………………………………check Trim………………………………………………set Flaps……………………………………………..up Carb Heat………………………………….….off Area………………………………………….….clear Rudders………………………………………..down Stick…………………………….……………….full aft Throttle………………………………………..800 RPM Plow Taxi Plow taxi is considered to be the least desirable taxi method and is rarely used. Plow taxi is only used to conduct a “plowing turn” to turn the floatplane downwind in high wind conditions when it becomes difficult to overcome the weathervane tendency of the floatplane. Plow taxi creates spray which could quickly cause damage to the prop. Plow taxi also provides insufficient engine cooling and poor visibility due to the nose up attitude during plow taxi. Always consider power‐off sailing as a better alternative to plowing turns. If it becomes necessary to perform a plowing turn: 
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Fuel……………………………………………….check Trim………………………………………………set Flaps……………………………………………..up Carb Heat……………………………………..off Area……………………………………………..clear Rudders………………………………………..down Stick……………………………………………..full aft Throttle………………………………………..Full Power Rudder………………………………………….full left Aileron………………………………………… Yoke opposite of turn Throttle……………………………………….. 2200 RPM to complete turn Throttle…………………………………………800 RPM when downwind *Note: Always perform plowing turns to the left due to torque and p‐factor. 8 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Example of a plowing turn initiated by a slight turn off the wind in the opposite direction. 9 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Step Taxi Step taxi is used under ideal wind and water conditions to cover long distances across the water. There is little or no spray problem when the floats are planing or “on the step,” and the attitude of the floatplane provides adequate engine cooling and good visibility. Speed – 35‐40 mph When the floatplane is on the step the elevator control is used to find the “sweet spot” which is the optimum planning angle [5 degrees nose up] at which the water drag on the floats is at a minimum. An experienced floatplane pilot can easily locate this position by feel, but beginning floatplane pilots may find it easier to note the position of the top of the engine cowling in relation to the horizon when demonstrated to them. The floatplane should always be facing into the wind before beginning step taxi. Also, step taxiing should not be used on rough water or in high wind situations, boat wake must be avoided during step taxi. 
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Fuel……………………………………………….check Trim………………………………………………set Flaps……………………………………………..up Carb Heat……………………………………..off Area……………………………………………..clear Rudders………………………………………..up Stick……………………………………………..full aft Throttle………………………………………..full then 2000‐ 2200 RPM when on step Stick……………………………………………..adjust for “sweet spot” Step taxi turns require a much larger turning radius then idle taxi turns and should be done with caution. Avoid making step taxi turns from downwind to upwind. The reason for this is the centrifugal force of the turn and the wind are both acting in the same direction making the floatplane very unstable and more likely to capsize. Turning from upwind to downwind these forces act in opposing directions and tend to cancel each other out, making the floatplane more stable. Utilize the ailerons to maintain the cowl level to the horizon during the turn, i.e. yoke left for left turn and right for a right turn. This helps keep the floatplane level and reduces the risk of capsizing. It will require more power [2200 rpm] when entering from crosswind to downwind turns to maintain the ideal 35‐40 mph speed and 5 degrees nose up attitude 10 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Sailing Power‐off sailing is a technique that should be used when high wind conditions prevent maneuvering the floatplane in idle taxi. In most cases, this is much more favorable than performing a plowing turn which can result in costly damage to the floatplane. Flaps can be put down to get a faster wind drift backwards. 
SIMPLE RULE FOR SAILING TO SAIL LEFT – CONTROL YOKE LEFT & APPLY RIGHT RUDDER (Hint: “Left, Left, Right”) TO SAIL RIGHT – CONTROL YOKE RIGHT & APPLY LEFT RUDDER (Hint: “Right, Right, Left) WATER RUDDERS ALWAYS UP FOR SAILING TO PREVENT DAMAGE 11 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes TAKEOFFS
3H’s “HEADSETS, HARNESSES AND HATCHES” A final pre‐takeoff check should be completed immediately prior to any takeoff 
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Trim Set Flaps 15 Carb Heat Off Area Clear Rudders Up Stick Back Normal Takeoff and Climb 
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Fuel………………………………………….selector on BOTH Trim…………………………………..…….set Flaps………………………………………..15 degrees Carb Heat………………………....…….off Area…………………………………………clear Rudders………………………….…..……up Stick……………………………..……..……full aft Throttle…………………………………..…full open Stick………………………………………..…adjust for sweet spot after nose “peaks” Airspeed…………………………………...Lower nose ‐ accelerate to 70 MPH after airborne Flaps………………………………………… retract slowly Airspeed……………………………………. 85 MPH 12 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Rough Water Takeoff and Climb Rough water operations are conducted similar to soft field techniques used in land‐planes. The objective of a rough water takeoff is to get the floatplane off the water at a lower airspeed, then remain in ground effect while accelerating to Vx. 
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13 Fuel……………………………………………….check quantity and selector Trim………………………………………………set Flaps……………………………………………..20 degrees Carb Heat………………………………………off Area………………………………………………clear Rudders…………………………………………up Stick………………………………………………full aft Throttle…………………………………………full open Stick………………………………………………sweet spot or slightly nose high Airspeed………………………………………..accelerate to 60 after airborne Flaps………………………………………………retract to 10 degrees Airspeed………………………………………..70 MPH Flaps………………………………………………up slowly Airspeed………………………………………… 85 MPH Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb Glassy water makes it more difficult to unstick the floatplane from the water due to maximum surface friction between the floats and the water. Using aileron rolling the aircraft up onto one float can be an effective technique for getting airborne in this situation. Once you are on step and have found your sweet spot on the floats turn your yoke to the left at about a 60 degree angle, once you feel the right float starting to rise increase back pressure on the yoke and use right rudder to keep the nose of the aircraft going straight ahead, it will want to go into a left turn. Once you lift off the water you will need to level the wings and lower your nose to maintain a 5 degree nose up attitude for climb out making sure you do not contact the water again. In true glassy water it is like looking in a mirror and you cannot tell where the water surface is. 
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Fuel……………………………………………….selector on BOTH Trim………………………………………………set Flaps……………………………………………..15 degrees Carb Heat………………………………………off Area………………………………………………clear Rudders…………………………………………up Stick………………………………………………full aft Throttle…………………………………………full open Stick………………………………………………sweet spot Aileron…………………………………………..raise one float Airspeed………………………………………..accelerate to 70 MPH after airborne  Flaps………………………………………………retract slowly  Airspeed………………………………………..85 MPH 14 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Confined Area Takeoff and Climb Confined area takeoffs can be performed in one of two ways. If significant wind is present, the best technique is to taxi the floatplane to the end of the longest suitable portion of the lake that favors the wind. Takeoff using the maximum recommended flap setting for takeoff (20 degrees for our floatplane) and establish maximum rate climb after liftoff to clear any obstacles. The other technique for getting the floatplane out of a confined area is to place the aircraft on the step with full power traveling crosswind with aileron into the wind, then entering a step turn into the wind as your airspeed increases and flying off one float, followed by leveling your wings and lowering your nose high attitude. This should only be attempted in light wind conditions. Cross wind Takeoff and Climb Narrow lakes and rivers may necessitate the use of a cross wind take off. Use aileron into the wind to counter the effects of wind lifting the upwind wing and creating drag on the downwind float. It may be necessary to establish a “lead angle” to account for drift that will occur before the flight controls become effective. To limit drift and premature turning during the initial acceleration water rudders may be left down briefly until air rudder authority is achieved by adding power to 1800 RPM, then you can lift your water rudders and applying enough rudder to keep your nose straight. It does help if you pick an object on the far shoreline as a reference point, this will help you with directional control. As you accelerate you can decrease your aileron input and allow a few mph of airspeed before becoming airborne. The aircraft will also fly better with some extra airspeed as you are climbing out. 15 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes LANDINGS
Landing attitude‐ [5 degrees nose up] will be the same attitude that is seen when on the “sweet spot” during the step taxi. DO NOT relax back pressure on the stick during touchdown. This is a common habit of pilots who learned in tricycle gear land‐planes. This action causes the bows of the floats to submerge and can even flip the floatplane onto its back if done aggressivey. Normal Approach and Landing A good landing checklist to use in a floatplane is GUMPS: 
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Gas………………………………………………………………selector on both Undercarriage (water rudders)……………………check up Mixture……………………………………………………….full rich Prop……………………………………………………………. Seatbelts……………………………………………………..check passengers Downwind 
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Throttle……………………2300 RPM –90 MPH GUMPS Check Carb Heat…………………on if cold temps, otherwise check then off Trim ………………………...as required Abeam intended Touchdown Point 
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Throttle……………………2000 RPM Flaps………………………..10 degrees Airspeed………………….85 MPH Trim…………………………as required 
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Throttle……………………1700 RPM Flaps………………… ……20 degrees Airspeed……………… ….80 MPH Trim………………………..as required Base Leg 16 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Final 
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Throttle…………………….1200 ‐ 1400 RPM Airspeed………….……….70 MPH Trim………………….……..as required Nose UP 5 degrees to landing attitude 10 feet above water and add power to 1400 RPM, carry power until touchdown. After Touchdown 
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Throttle…………………….close Stick………………………….slowly aft as floatplane falls off step Note: DO NOT relax back pressure on the stick during touchdown. This is a common habit of pilots who learned in tricycle gear land‐planes. This action causes the bows of the floats to submerge and can even flip the floatplane onto its back if done aggressively enough. Rough Water Approach and Landing The objective of the rough water landing is to minimize the stress on the aircraft by touching down smoothly and avoid being bounced back into the air. Downwind 
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2300 RPM – 90 MPH GUMPS check Carb Heat…………………on if cold temps, otherwise check then off Trim…………………………as required Abeam intended Touchdown Point 
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Throttle……………………2000 RPM Flaps………………………..10 degrees Airspeed…………………..85 MPH Trim…………………………as required 
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Throttle……………………1700 RPM Flaps…………………………20 degrees Airspeed…………………..80 MPH Trim…………………………as required Base Leg 17 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Final 
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Throttle…………………….1200 ‐ 1400 RPM Flaps…………………………30 degrees Airspeed……………………65 MPH Trim………………………….as required Nose UP 5 degrees to landing attitude 10 feet above water and add power to 1600 RPM, carry power until touchdown. After Touchdown 
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Throttle…………………….close immediately Stick………………………….aft Glassy Water Approach and Landing Glassy water can be one of the most dangerous situations facing a floatplane pilot. Even though it may look quite inviting, depth perception fails over the mirror‐like surface of glassy water and has resulted in many accidents. Because of this problem, we have a special technique for landing on glassy water. When glassy water conditions exist, it is safe to assume that there is little or no wind to affect the landing. The pilot should therefore select a long shoreline and land parallel to it using it as a height reference for the landing. As this floatplane reaches the shoreline or object that the pilot has selected as a last visual reference, the floatplane is pitched up to 60 MPH (approximately 5 degrees pitch up) and power set to 1800 RPM. This airspeed and power setting will place the floatplane in slightly nose‐up attitude in which it will settle onto the water on it’s own at a rate of approximately 100‐150 feet per minute. The trick is to not change the pitch attitude after the floatplane is set up at the appropriate airspeed and power setting. Using both the horizon and the angle of the wing in relation to the shore (while looking out the side) this proper pitch attitude can be maintained. This is not an instrument landing. Do not become fixated on the airspeed indicator or VSI. Also it is important not to change the power setting once set up on a glassy water approach. Downwind 
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GUMPS check Carb Heat…………………on if cold temps, otherwise check then off Trim………………………….as required Abeam intended Touchdown Point 
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Throttle……………………2000 RPM Flaps………………………..10 degrees Airspeed………………… 85 MPH Trim…………………………as required 18 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Base Leg 
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Throttle……………………1700 RPM Airspeed…………………..80 MPH Trim…………………………as required 
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Throttle…………as necessary to allow low approach over LVR – Last Visual Reference Airspeed……………………65 MPH Trim………………………….as required Final After Shoreline or LVR ‐ Last Visual Reference 
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Nose up 5 degrees to landing flare attitude at 60 MPH Throttle…………………….1800 RPM This will give you a 100‐150 feet per minute descent to the water After Touchdown 
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Throttle…………………….close slowly when settled on water Stick………………………….slowly aft as floatplane falls off step The glassy water landing attitude is the same as your step taxi and normal landing attitude, which is approximately 5 degrees nose up. The consequences can be misjudging the height above the water. Three simple steps for a good glassy water landing are PITCH –Up 5° POWER – 1800 RPM PATIENCE – wait till touchdown and hold some back pressure on yoke 19 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Confined Area Approach and Landing Downwind 
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GUMPS check Carb Heat…………………on if cold temps, otherwise check then off Trim…………………………as required Abeam intended Touchdown Point 
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Throttle……………………2000 RPM Flaps………………………..10 degrees Airspeed…………..……..90 MPH Trim…………………………as required 
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Throttle……………………1700 RPM Flaps…………………………20 degrees Airspeed…………………..80 MPH Trim…………………………as required 
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Throttle…………………….as necessary to approach low over obstacle Flaps…………………………30 degrees Airspeed……………………65 MPH Trim………………………….as required Nose UP 5 degrees to landing attitude 10 feet above water and add power to 1300 RPM, carry power until touchdown Base Leg Final 20 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Forced Landing At first sign of an engine failure attempt to troubleshoot the problem using the memory items from the emergency checklist (carb heat, fuel quantity, fuel selector, mixture, primer handle, mags, etc.) If a restart is unsuccessful, an emergency landing site must be selected. Remember: Floatplanes have more drag than most land planes; therefore they do not glide as far. Water Landing 
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Best Glide…………………. 80 MPH Flaps……………………………UP until you have made it to the water, then 10‐20° Trim……………………………as required Be careful not to flare too high!!! ‐ 10 Feet! Turf Landing 
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Best Glide…………………...75 MPH Flaps……………………………30 degrees when landing is assured Trim……………………………as required  Stick…………………………….full aft on touchdown Emergency Descent In the event an emergency descent is required a standard emergency descent is suggested. Emergency Descent 
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21 Airspeed…………………. 80 MPH (Top of the white arc in an actual emergency) Flaps……………………… 30 degrees Bank…………………………45 degrees Trim………………………….as required Copyright Adventure Seaplanes FLOATPLANEPARKING
There are several ways we can secure the floatplane on the water: 
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Docking Beaching Mooring/Anchoring Ramping Remember to remove seatbelts, headsets, and unlatch cabin doors before docking/beaching. It is up to you to catch the floatplane! Parking Checklist:  3H’s “Headsets, Harnesses and Hatches”  Radios off  Master Switch off  Passenger brief Note: It takes about 5 seconds for the engine to shut down after the mixture is pulled. As long as the prop is turning, it is providing thrust. Plan accordingly. Based on wind conditions sailing can be used to approach a dock or a beach. When approaching the dock, be extremely careful the back of the floats (and rudders) do NOT hit the dock. 22 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes Docking When possible, the floatplane should always be docked into the wind. Docking with a crosswind must be done with extreme caution. The worst scenario is crosswind docking with the wind coming from the dock side because the floatplane tends to turn (weathervane) into the dock rather than blow away from it. Think of docking like flying a traffic pattern (downwind, base, final). This allows you to get the floatplane lined up with the dock long before you get to it. A floatplane is not a boat. It is far less maneuverable than most boats and approaching the dock at too much of an angle can cause damage to the bow of the float if you ram the dock nose first. Take your time and use plenty of room. Beaching Before attempting to beach the aircraft, be sure of the shoreline. Rocks can cause serious damage to the floats. Approach the beach straight on as slowly as possible. Cut the mixture before reaching shore depending upon wind conditions. Don’t forget to turn the master switch and mags off before stepping out. Turn the aircraft tail‐in towards shore and secure with ropes to at least two points. Mooring/Anchoring In some cases where floatplane docks are not available and the shoreline is not suitable for beaching. It may be necessary to moor the floatplane offshore. The line from the mooring buoy should be attached to the front cleats of both floats or to the hub of the prop. Ensure that there is plenty of room for the plane to swing freely 360 degrees and won’t hit anything in case the wind shifts. RAMPING Idle taxi the aircraft to the wooden ramp at 800 RPM until it comes to a stop, then mixture, mags, master off and water rudders up. Most floatplane ramps will be at 5‐10 degree incline on the shoreline and offers good protection for the floats with a rocky or unfavorable bottom. *AFTERENGINESHUTDOWN*
MASTER–MIXTURE–MAGS–RUDDERSUP
23 Copyright Adventure Seaplanes 
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