parstat 4000 - İmaj Teknik
PARSTAT 4000
potentiostat/galvanostat/
EIS Analyzer
For leading researchers in electrochemistry
whose field of study demands performance,
reliability, and versatility, the PARSTAT 4000 is
a high-end electrochemical system that allows
them to meet their present and future needs
unlike any other system on the market today.
With its wide-ranging specifications backed by
a brand with a 50+ year history as the leader
and most referenced line of research-grade
potentiostats/galvanostats in the world, save a
spot in the “Materials and Methods” section
for the PARSTAT 4000... it’s ready for your
next project.
The PARSTAT 4000 builds on the
performance-oriented PARSTAT series of
systems with improved key specifications and
much improved functionality and flexibility
via the VersaStudio software interface. An
impressive combination of performance and
versatility, the PARSTAT 4000 is perfect for
the majority of electrochemical applications
and techniques carried out in the foremost
laboratories throughout the world today.
•
High current booster option for research
in energy storage devices such as Li-ion
batteries or supercapacitors.
•
Low current sensitivity for DC and AC
corrosion measurements on corrosion
resistant materials such as bio-implant
devices or new coatings technology.
•
Fast data acquisition rate for capturing
fast transients, applying fast pulse trains,
or fast scans on microelectrodes.
•
Built-in calibration components and
circuits for any-time-calibrations assuring
highly accurate measurements.
•
Capable of “floating” for operation with
grounded cells and electrodes.
•
Front panel LCD with customer
selectable parameters and custom text
input
•
Universal Serial Bus Interface (USB)
•
VersaStudio® Software
4
Data Acquisition
Data acquisition
3x18-bit 1M samples per second ADC’s
synchronized-voltage/current/aux
Time base resolution(min)
1µs (1M samples/second)
Automatic noise filters
enabled/disabled
Power amplifier (CE)
Voltage compliance
± 48V
Current compliance
± 4A (standard)
± 20A (with 20A option)
Potentiostat bandwidth
3.75MHz (typical), 2mA range, 1k Ohm load
Stability settings
high-speed, high-stability
Slew rate
≥ 25V per μs typical (no load)
Rise time (-1.0V to +1.0V)
<100ns typical (no load)
Voltage Control (potentiostatic mode)
Applied voltage range
± 10V
Applied voltage resolution
for ± 10mV signal = 300nV
(technique dependent)
for ± 100mV signal = 3μV
for ± 1V signal = 30μV
for ± 10V signal = 300μV
Applied voltage accuracy
± 0.2% of value ± 2mV
Maximum scan rate
5000Vs-1 with 10mV step
Maximum scan range / resolution
± 10V / 300μV
Current Control (galvanostat mode)
Applied current range
± full scale (depends on range selected)
± 4A (standard)
Applied current resolution
± 1/32,000 x full scale
Applied current accuracy
± 0.2% of reading, ±0.2 % of range, ±2pA
Maximum current range / resolution ± 4A / 123μA
Minimum current range / resolution ± 40pA / 1.5fA
Electrometer
Max input range
± 10V
Bandwidth
≥ 10MHz (3dB)
Input impedance
≥ 1013Ω in parallel with ≤ 2pF (typical)
Leakage current
≤ 2pA at less than 25°C (typical)
Voltage Measurement
Voltage range
± 10V
Voltage resolution
1.5μV (2.5V range, X50 gain applied)
Voltage accuracy
± 0.2% of reading, ± 2mV
Current Measurement
Current ranges (Auto-ranging)
20A to 40pA (13 ranges)
Current resolution
1.5fA (40pA range)
Current accuracy (DC)
2nA to 20A, ±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
40pA to 200pA ± 0.5% range, ±4pA
Bandwidth
>5MHz (signal ≥20mA range typical)
Bandwidth limit filter
Yes, 7 total
IR Compensation
Positive feedback
Yes
Dynamic IR
Yes
Impedance (EIS) Option
Mode
Potentiostatic/Galvanostatic
Frequency range
10µHz to 5MHz
AC amplitude range
0.1 - 1000mV RMS
Sweep
Linear or Logarithmic
PARSTAT 2273
potentiostat/galvanostat
The PARSTAT 2273 is the ultimate
potentiostat/galvanostat/FRA, boasting
superior quality and high reliability. The
2273’s exceptional impedance capability,
resolution, speed, high current, and high
compliance voltage continues to be the
standard against which all other systems are
measured.
The 2273 is designed to be the most
comprehensive potentiostat/galvanostat/FRA
in your laboratory. We have incorporated
customer feedback to provide not only more
internal maximum current but the ability to
boost up to 20A and the ability to interface
all the ancillary equipment customers need
today for their unique research.
The PARSTAT 2273 provides most all the
capabilities you need in your laboratory:
2A current max. (20A boosted)
100V compliance
1.2fA current resolution
>1013 W input impedance
<5pF of capacitance
10µHz to 1MHz built in analyzer for
impedance
The PARSTAT 2273 is designed to support the
following applications:
Research Electrochemistry
Corrosion
Sensors
Batteries/Fuel Cells
Electrodeposition/Plating
Biomedical Applications
OPTIONS:
8A booster option
10A booster option
20A booster option
Power Amplifier
Compliance Voltage
Maximum Current
Rise Time
Slew Rate
System Performance
Minimum Time Base
Minimum Potential Step
Noise and Ripple
Minimum Current Range
Minimum Current Range
Minimum Current Resolution
iR Compensation
Positive Feedback Range
Current interrupt
Current Measurement
Ranges
Accuracy (dc)
Differential Electrometer
Input Bias Current
Max. Voltage Range
Max. Input Voltage Differential
Bandwidth
Common Mode Rejection
Input Impedance
Impedance (EIS)
Mode
Frequency Range
Minimum AC Voltage Amplitude
Sweep
Interface
Digital inputs / Outputs
Interface
Ext In
E Monitor
±100V
±2A
<250ns (No Load)
>15V/µs (No Load)
20μs
2.5µV
<50µV/rms (typical)
2nA (hardware)
40pA (after 50X gain)
1.2fA
2000MW to 2W
(depending on current range)
16 bit DAC Potential Error correction
12 decades, 2A to 40pA (with internal gain applied)
20µA to 2A: <0.4% Full Scale 20nA and 1µA Ranges: <0.5% 2nA < 0.75%
< 5pA at 25°C
± 10V
± 10V
3dB @ >15MHz
>80 dB at 100Hz
>60dB at 100 kHz
>1013 W in parallel with <5pF
Potentiostatic / Galvanostatic
10µHz to 1MHz
0.1mV RMS
Linear or Logarithmic
5 TTL logic outputs, 2 TTL logic inputs
±10V analog input. Input impedance is 4.0 k W
Front panel analog output of current readings.Range ±10V, 50W
output impedance
I Monitor
Front panel analog output of current readings.Range ±10V, 50W output impedance, 0 to ±2V
corresponds to ±full scale current range
Interface
DAC Voltage Output
±10V range
BNC Connector (for stirrers, rotating disk electrodes, etc.)
PC / Software
Communications Interface
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
SoftwarePowerSUITE
5
VersaSTAT Series
potentiostat/galvanostat
TheVersaSTAT series is our most popular
brand of potentiostats/galvanostats, combining
over fifty years of Princeton Applied Research
knowledge and expertise in the development
of world leading electrochemical test products
with advanced performance from the very
latest measurement technology.
The versatility and power of the VersaSTAT
systems are evident in every aspect of the
system from the flexible, included VersaStudio
software to the ability of the VersaSTAT’s three
high speed (500ksamples / second) analog to
digital converters providing fully synchronized
measurements of the cell voltage, cell
current, and auxiliary voltage input. An
optional built-in frequency response analyzer
(FRA) is able to characterize a wide range
of electrochemical cells. Since the FRA is
fully integrated into the system, it allows for
high speed switching between DC and EIS
measurements.
The VersaSTAT series is designed to support
the following applications and more:
Research Electrochemistry
Batteries/Fuel Cells/ Super Capacitors
Electrodeposition/Plating
Sensors
Biomedical Applications
Corrosion
OPTIONS:
Built-in 1 MHz Frequency Response
Analyzer (FRA)
Built-in 2A High Current Booster
External 8A, 10A, or 20A Power Booster
Low Current Interface (LCI)
Advanced Auxiliary Interface (AA)
The impressive combination of the
performance and versatility makes the
VersaSTAT series a tremendous value for
researchers and scientists.
6
VersaSTAT 3
potentiostat/galvanostat
Data Acquisition
Data Acquisition
3 x 16 bit 500k samples per secondADCs synchronized- voltage/current/auxiliary
Time Base Resolution (minimum)
10µs (100k samples/second)
Automatic Noise Filters
enabled/disabled
Power Amplifier
Voltage Compliance
± 12V
Current Compliance
± 650mA (standard)
±2A (with 2A option)
Potentiostat Bandwidth
1 MHz
Stability Settings
high speed, high-stability
Slew Rate
> 8V per µs typical (no load)
Rise Time (-1.0V to +1.0V)
<350ns typical (no load)
Voltage Control (potentiostat mode)
Applied Voltage Range
± 10V
Applied Voltage Resolution
for ±10mV signal = 300nV
for ±100mV signal = 3µV
for ±1V signal = 30µV
for ±10V signal = 300µV
Applied Voltage Accuracy
±0.2% of value ±2mV
Maximum Scan Rate
5000Vs-1 with 50mV step
Maximum Scan Range ±10V / 300µV
Current Control (galvanostat mode)
Applied Current Range
±full scale(depends on range selected)
±650mA (standard),±2A (with option)
Applied Current Resolution
±1/32,000 x full scale
Applied Current Accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
Max. Current Range/Resolution
±650mA /60µA
Min. Current Range/Resolution
±200nA /60pA
Electrometer
Max. Input Range
±10V
Bandwidth
≥ 10MHz (-3dB)
Input impedance
≥ 1012Ω in parallel with ≤ 5pF (typical)
Leakage current
≤ 5pA at less than 25°C
CMRR
60dB at 100kHz (typical)
Voltage Measurement
Voltage range
±10V
Minimum resolution
6μV
Voltage accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±2mV
Current Measurement
Current ranges
Auto-ranging (8 ranges)
650mA to 200nA (8 ranges)
2A to 200nA (with option)
Current resolution
6pA (200nA range)
Current accuracy (DC)
±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
Bandwidth
1MHz (signal ≥ 2mA range typical)
Bandwidth limit filter
Yes
Impedance (EIS) Option
Mode
Potentiostatic / Galvanostatic
Frequency range
10μHz to 1MHz
AC amplitude range 0.1 - 1000mV RMS
Sweep
Linear or Logarithmic
PC / Software
Communication Interface
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
SoftwareVersaStudio®
VersaSTAT 4
potentiostat/galvanostat
Data Acquisition
Data Acquisition
3 x 16 bit 500k samples per secondADCs synchronized- voltage/current/auxiliary
Time Base Resolution (minimum)
2µs (500k samples/second)
Automatic Noise Filters
enabled/disabled
Power Amplifier
Voltage Compliance
± 12V
Current Compliance
± 1A (standard)
±2A (with 2A option)
Potentiostat Bandwidth
1MHz
Stability Settings
6 settings; high stability, 1Mhz-100 Hz
Slew Rate
> 8V per µs typical (no load)
Rise Time (-1.0V to +1.0V)
<350 ns typical (no load)
Voltage Control (potentiostat mode)
Applied Voltage Range
± 10V
Applied Voltage Resolution
for ±10mV signal = 300nV
for ±100mV signal = 3µV
for ±1V signal = 30µV
for ±10V signal = 300µV
Applied Voltage Accuracy
±0.2% of value ±2mV
Maximum Scan Rate
5000Vs-1 with 10mV step
Maximum Scan Range
±10V / 300µV
Current Control (galvanostat mode)
Applied Current Range
±full scale(depends on range selected)
±1A (standard),±2A (with option)
Applied Current Resolution
±1/32,000 x full scale
Applied Current Accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
±200pA
Max. Current Range/Resolution
±1A / 60µA
Min. Current Range/Resolution
±4nA / 120fA
Electrometer
Max. Input Range
±10V
Bandwidth
≥ 10MHz (-3dB)
Input impedance
≥ 1012 Ω in parallel with ≤ 5pF (typical)
Leakage current
≤ 5pA at less than 25°C
CMRR
60dB at 100kHz (typical)
Voltage Measurement
Voltage range
± 10V
Minimum resolution
6μV
Voltage accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±2 mV
Current Measurement
Current ranges
Auto-ranging (10 ranges)
1A to 4nA (10 ranges)
2A to 4nA (with option)
Current resolution
120 fA (4nA range)
Current accuracy (DC)
20nA to 2A ±0.2% of reading,
±0.2% of range
4nA <0.5% ± 20pA
Bandwidth
1MHz (signal ≥2mA range typical)
Bandwidth limit filter
Yes, five total
Impedance (EIS) Option
Mode
Potentiostatic / Galvanostatic
Frequency range
10μHz to 1MHz
AC amplitude range
0.1 - 1000mV RMS
Sweep
Linear or Logarithmic
PC / Software
Communication Interface
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
SoftwareVersaStudio®
Superior to the VersaSTAT 3
VersaSTAT 3F
potentiostat/galvanostat
Data Acquisition
Data Acquisition
3 x 16 bit 500k samples per secondADCs synchronized- voltage/current/auxiliary
Time Base Resolution (minimum)
10µs (500k samples/second)
Automatic Noise Filters
enabled/disabled
Power Amplifier
Voltage Compliance
± 12V
Current Compliance
± 650mA (standard)
±2A (with 2A option)
Potentiostat Bandwidth
1 MHz
Stability Settings
6 settings; high stability, 1MHz-100Hz
Slew Rate
> 8V per µs typical (no load)
Rise Time (-1.0V to +1.0V)
<350ns typical (no load)
Voltage Control (potentiostat mode)
Applied Voltage Range
± 10V
Applied Voltage Resolution
for ±10mV signal = 300nV
for ±100mV signal = 3µV
for ±1V signal = 30µV
for ±10V signal = 300µV
Applied Voltage Accuracy
±0.2% of value ±2mV
Maximum Scan Rate
5000Vs-1 with 10mV step
Maximum Scan Range
±10V / 300µV
Current Control (galvanostat mode)
Applied Current Range
±full scale(depends on range selected)
±650mA (standard),±2A (with option)
Applied Current Resolution
±1/32,000 x full scale
Applied Current Accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
±200pA
Max. Current Range/Resolution
±650mA / 60µA
Min. Current Range/Resolution
±4nA / 120fA
Electrometer
Max. Input Range
±10V
Bandwidth
≥ 10MHz (-3dB)
Input impedance
≥ 1012 Ω in parallel with ≤ 5pF (typical)
Leakage current
≤ 5pA at less than 25°C
CMRR
60dB at 100kHz (typical)
Voltage Measurement
Voltage range
± 10V
Minimum resolution
6μV
Voltage accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±2mV
Current Measurement
Current ranges
Auto-ranging (10 ranges)
1A to 4nA (10 ranges)
2A to 4nA (with option)
Current resolution
120fA (4 nA range)
Current accuracy (DC)
20nA to 2A ±0.2% of reading,
±0.2% of range
4nA <0.5% ± 20pA
Bandwidth
1MHz (signal ≥ 2mA range typical)
Bandwidth limit filter
Yes, five total
Impedance (EIS) Option
Mode
Potentiostatic / Galvanostatic
Frequency range
10μHz to 1MHz
AC amplitude range
0.1 - 1000 mV RMS
Sweep
Linear or Logarithmic
PC / Software
Communication Interface
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
SoftwareVersaStudio®
Superior to the VersaSTAT 3
7
VersaSTAT MC
mulit-channel
potentiostat/galvanostat
Princeton Applied Research recognizes that
traditional single channel systems do not always
satisfy the demands for economy and throughput,
yet many multi-channel systems are designed to
satisfy only specific markets and/or applications.
The VersaSTAT MC was designed to have the broad
capabilities of a research-grade single-channel
electrochemical system along with the value and
increased throughput provided by multi-channel
systems.
Each VersaSTAT MC can be equipped with up to
four (4) channels. The system can be ordered
fully loaded, or for those with limited budgets, the
VersaSTAT MC can be purchased initially with only a
single channel then upgraded later to add additional
channels or options as needed or budget permits. If
more than four channels are needed, multiple units
can interface to the same computer with all channels
controlled independently from the VersaStudio
software.
Versatile performance in choice of 1-4 channels
at an affordable price – the ideal choice for
performance, productivity, and value
±650mA / ±10V polarization range as standard
– ideal for most electrochemical applications
including corrosion, sensors, and biomedical
Impedance measurement capability standard on
all channels simultaneously and/or independently
from 10µHz to 1MHz with no separate analyzer
required
Options for each channel include ± 2A high
current option and boosters up to 20A for battery,
fuel cell, or electroplating applications
High speed DC measurement and experiment
sequencing (e.g. for step / pulse analysis)
VersaStudio software designed for versatility and
ease of use
OPTIONS:
2A high current option
20A Current Booster
Advanced Auxiliary Interface
8
Data Acquisition
Data Acquisition
3 x 16 bit 500k samples per secondADCs synchronized- voltage/current/auxiliary
Time Base Resolution (minimum)
10µs (100 k samples/second)
Automatic Noise Filters
enabled/disabled
Power Amplifier
Voltage Compliance
± 12V
Current Compliance
± 650mA (standard)
±2A (with 2A option)
Potentiostat Bandwidth
1MHz
Stability Settings
high speed, high-stability
Slew Rate
> 8V per µs typical (no load)
Rise Time (-1.0V to +1.0V)
<350 ns (no load)
Voltage Control (potentiostat mode)
Applied Voltage Range
± 10V
Applied Voltage Resolution
for ±10mV signal = 300nV
for ±100mV signal = 3µV
for ±1V signal = 30µV
for ±10V signal = 300µV
Applied Voltage Accuracy
±0.2% of value ±2 mV
Maximum Scan Rate
5000Vs-1 (50 mV step)
Maximum Scan Range / Resolution ±10V / 300µV
Current Control (galvanostat mode)
Applied Current Range
±full scale(depends on range selected)
±650mA (standard),±2A (with option)
Applied Current Resolution
±1/32,000 x full scale
Applied Current Accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
Max. Current Range/Resolution
±650mA / 60µA
Min. Current Range/Resolution
±200nA / 60pA
Electrometer
Max. Input Range
±10V
Bandwidth
≥ 10MHz (-3dB)
Input impedance
≥ 1012 Ω in parallel with ≤ 5pF (typical)
Leakage current
≤ 5pA at less than 25°C
CMRR
60dB at 100kHz (typical)
Voltage Measurement
Voltage range
± 10V
Minimum resolution
6μV
Voltage accuracy
±0.2% of reading, ±2mV
Current Measurement
Current ranges
Auto-ranging (8 ranges)
650mA to 200nA (8 ranges)
2A to 200nA (with option)
Current resolution
6pA (200nA range)
Current accuracy (DC)
±0.2% of reading, ±0.2% of range
Bandwidth
1MHz (signal ≥ 2mA range typical)
Bandwidth limit filter
Yes
Impedance (EIS) Option
Mode
Potentiostatic / Galvanostatic
Frequency range
10μHz to 1MHz
AC amplitude range
0.1 - 1000mV RMS
Sweep
Linear or Logarithmic
PC / Software
Communication Interface
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
SoftwareVersaStudio®
Model 263A
potentiostat/galvanostat
The 263A potentiostat/galvanostat is the
ideal system for many laboratories. Perfect
for the budget conscious researcher who
demands high performance. The 263A may
be upgraded with many different options.
This impressive combination of price and
performance makes it a tremendous value for
today’s electrochemist or corrosion specialist.
The 263A provides all the capabilities you
need in your laboratory:
Computer controlled potentiostat and
galvanostat operation
20V compliance and 200mA current output
±8V scan range
Fast data acquisition (30µs)
Optional full front panel control
Impedance capable (requires external analyzer)
Optional float capability (263A/99)
Optional 2A current module (2A/263A)
Optional auxillary input (263A/98)
Use the 263A in the following market
segments:
Research Electrochemistry
Corrosion
Sensors
Batteries/Fuel Cells
Electrodeposition/Plating
Biomedical Applications
Power Amplifier
Compliance Voltage
Maximum Current
Rise Time
Slew Time
±20V
±200mA
<1µs (no Load)
>1V/µs (No Load)
System Performance
Minimum Time Base
Minimum Potential Step
Noise and Ripple
Minimum Current Range
Minimum Current Range
Minimum Current Resolution
30μs
250µV
<50mV/rms (typical)
100nA (hardware)
1nA*
2pA
iR Compensation
Positive Feedback Range
Current interrupt
20MW to 20W
(depending on current range)
12 bit DAC Potential Error Correction
Current Measurement
Ranges
Accuracy (dc)
7 decades, 100mA to 100nA
10µA to 100µA: <0.4% Full Scale 100nA and 1µA Ranges: <0.5% ±5nA
Full Scale i
Differential Electrometer
Input Bias Current
Max. Voltage Range
Max. Input Voltage Differential
Bandwidth
Offset Voltage
Offset Temperature Stability
Common Mode Rejection
Input Impedance
<50pA at 25°C
± 10V
± 10V
-3dB @ >4MHz
<100mV
<50mV°C
>70dB at 100Hz
>60dB at 100kHz
>1012 W in parallel with 20pf
General
Power
90 - 130V ac or 200 - 260V ac, 50 - 60Hz
Dimensions
17.5” W x 18.5” D x 5.5” H
Weight
16 kg (35 lbs)
Temperature
0 - 50° C
Humidity
95% maximum relative humidity, non-
condensing
Altitude
Up to 2,000 m
* This sensitivity is achieved through our proprietary application software
9
VersaSTAT
MC
PARSTAT
4
VersaSTAT
3F
±12V
±12V
±12V
±12V
Max Current Output
±650mA
±1A
±650mA
Rise Time
typical (no load)
<350ns
<350ns
Slew Rate (no load)
Current Measurement
Max Current Range
>8V/µs
VersaSTAT
VersaSTAT
Model
PARSTAT
3
263A
4000
Compliance Voltage
±100V
±20V
±48V
±650mA
±2A
±200mA
±4A
<350ns
<350ns
<250ns
<1µs
<100ns
>8V/µs
>8V/µs
>8V/µs
>15V/µs
>1V/µs
>25V/µs
±2A
±2A
±2A
±2A
±2A
±100mA
±20A
Min Current Range
±200nA
±4nA
±4nA
±200nA
±2nA
±100nA
±40pA
Accuracy / Range
±0.2%
±0.2%
±0.2%
±0.2%
±0.4%
±0.4%
±0.2%
2273
Specification Summary
Specification
Min Resolution
Differential Electrometer
Max Voltage Range
6pA
120fA
120fA
6pA
1.2fA
2pA
1.5fA
±10V
±10V
±10V
±10V
±10V
±10V
±10V
Input Impedance (typical)
>1012
>1012
>1012
>1012
>1013
>1011
>1013
Input Capacitance
<5pF
<5pF
<5pF
<5pF
<10pF
<50pF
<2pF
Input Bias Current
System Performance
Max Scan Range
<5pA
<5pA
<5pA
<5pA
<5pA
<20pA
<2pA
20V
20V
20V
20V
20V
16V
20V
ADC
16 bit
16 bit
16 bit
16 bit
16 bit
12 bit
18 bit
EIS Capable
Option
Option
Option
Yes
Yes
Option
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Option
Yes
2A - 20A
2A - 20A
2A - 20A
2A - 20A
8A - 20A
2A - 20A
20A
Versa
Studio®
Versa
Studio®
Versa
Studio®
Versa
Studio®
Power
SUITE®
Power
SUITE®
Versa
Studio®
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
GPIB
USB
Floating Capabilities
Current Booster Option
Computer Control
Software
Communications
Interface
Please refer to individual product brochures for more detailed specifications
10
VersaSTAT LC
Low Current Interface
The VersaSTAT LC Low Current Interface is a plug-in,
research grade option for the VersaSTAT Series of
potentiostats/galvanostats, along with the PARSTAT
4000, designed for the measurement of ultra-low
currents with greater accuracy and resolution than
the base system. With the addition of a VersaSTAT
LC option, any VersaSTAT Series system will acquire
a lowest current range of 4pA and current resolution
as small as 122aA.
The VersaSTAT LC is ideal for applications requiring
low current accuracy and resolution. Applications
such as ultra micro electrodes, coatings research,
corrosion testing of bio-implants, and sensor
research are all areas where greater current
sensitivity may be needed.
The VersaSTAT LC option can be purchased at any
time as a plug-in option. It consists of an interface
cable to connect to the VersaSTAT or PARSTAT 4000,
a main body containing the high input impedance
electrometer and additional current ranges, and
the cell leads. Once attached to the VersaSTAT
or PARSTAT 4000 system and calibrated with the
built-in DC Calibration routine, additional bandwidth
stabilization filters are provided with the VersaSTAT
LC option to provide maximum stability over a wide
range of experimental conditions and applications.
Femtoampere accuracy and attoampere
resolution for both DC and AC (EIS)
measurements
System Performance
Minimum Current Range
Minimum Current Resolution
Data acquisition
Power Amplifier
Maximum Current
4pA (4 x 10 -12 A)
122 aA (122 x 10 -18 A)
± 200mA
Differential Electrometer
Input Bias Current
Maximum Voltage Range
Input Voltage Differential
Bandwidth
Common Mode Rejection
Input Impedance
<200 fA at 25°C
± 10V maximum
± 10V
700kHz (-3dB)
>60dB @ 100Hz, >50dB @ 100kHz
>1014 Ω in parallel with <200fF, typical
Current Measurement
Ranges
Accuracy (dc)
12 decades, 200mA to 4pA
2µ to 200mA < 0.2% full scale
20nA and 200nA ranges < 0.5% full scale
200pA - 4pA ranges < 1.0% full scale ± 500fA
full scale
Current Control
Applied Current Range
Applied Current Resolution
Applied Current Accuracy
Max. Current Range/Resolution
Min. Current Range/Resolution
± full scale per range
± 1/32,000 x full scale
± 0.5% of range, ±0.5% of reading
± 200mA / 10µA
± 4pA / 122aA
All other specifications not listed default to the connected
potentiostat. Specifications subject to change.
Expands E and I filter selection for VersaSTAT 3
and VMC Systems
Plug-in add-on for VersaSTAT Series potentiostats/
galvanostats
Auto-current ranging capability from 200mA - 4pA
Power Boosters
The Princeton Applied Research Power
Boosters are designed to boost the current
measuring / applying capabilities of our
potentiostats. Each power booster consists
of an external power supply interfaced to
additional internal circuitry on the rear panel
of the potentiostat. A simple cable connection
and switch setting converts the potentiostat
from normal to boosted mode. The boosters
are compatible with both our PowerSUITE
and VersaStudio software packages. These
boosters can be supplied as a complete system
at the time of original potentiostat purchase or
can be added (factory installation required) at
a later time.
8, 10, and 20 Amp Options
Operates in boosted or normal mode - Simple cable
connection converts potentiostat from normal to boosted
operation
Compatible with PowerSUITE or VersaStudio software
Internal 2A booster options for VersaSTAT 3, VersaSTAT 3F,
VersaSTAT 4, VersaSTAT MC, and 263A
11
PowerSUITE® software
Available for PARSTAT 2263/2273 & GPIB 273A/263A Systems (purchase modules individually or as a package)
PowerSTEP®
PowerCV®
One Step Chronoamperometry
Two Step Chronoamperometry
Chronopotentiometry
PowerCORR®
Linear Scan Voltammetry
Tafel Plot
Ramp Cyclic Voltammetry
Anodic Polarization
One Vertex
Linear Polarization
Two Vertex
Potentiostatic
One Vertex/Multi Cycle
Galvanostatic
Two Vertex Multi Cycle
Ecorr versus Time
Stair Case Cyclic Voltammetry
Galvanic Corrosion
One Vertex
Cyclic Polarization
Two Vertex
Cyclic Polarization (no reverse)
One Vertex/Multi Cycle
Zero Resistance Ammeter
Two Vertex Multi Cycle
Galvanodynamic
Galvanodynamic (no reverse)
PowerSINE®
PowerPULSE®
Potentiostatic EIS
Recurrent Potential Pulsing
Multi-Sine EIS
Recurrent Galvanic Pulsing
Galvanostatic EIS
Square Wave Voltammetry
Potentiostatic Impedance versus Time
Cyclic Square Wave Voltammetry
Galvanostatic Impedance versus Time
Differential Pulse Voltammetry
Mott-Shottky
Cyclic Differential Pulse Voltammetry
Normal Pulse Voltammetry
Reverse Normal Pulse Voltammetry
PC Requirements
Communication Interface:
Operating System:
Compatibility:
12
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Windows XP Professional (preferred)
Windows 2000/VISTA/Windows 7
32-bit only
PARSTAT
2273
PARSTAT
2263
Model
273A
Model
263A
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Y
Y
Y
PowerCV®
Linear Sweep Voltammetry
Cyclic Voltammetry - Single Vertex
Cyclic Voltammetry - Double Vertex
Uncompensated Resistance
Determination
PowerSTEP®
Chronoamperometry - One Step
Software Summary - PowerSUITE®
Chronoamperometry - Double Step
Chronopotentiometry
Chronocoulometry - One Step
Chronocoulometry - Double Step
PowerPULSE®
Recurrent Potential Pulse - Two Step
Recurrent Potential Pulse - Three
Step
Recurrent Potential Pulse - Four Step
Recurrent Galvanic Pulse - Two Step
Reccurent Galvanic Pulse - Three
Step
Recurrent Galvanic Pulse - Four Step
SquareWave Voltammetry
Cyclic SquareWave Voltammetry
Differential Pulse Voltammetry
Cyclic Differential Pulse Voltammetry
Normal Pulse Voltammetry
Reverse Normal Pulse Voltammetry
PowerCORR®
Linear Polarization
Tafel
Potentiodynamic
Cyclic Polarization
Ecorr vs. Time
Galvanic Corrosion
ZRA Mode
Potential Step
Galvanic Step
Galvanic Sweep
PowerSINE®
Potential Single Sine
Potential Multi Sine
Y - Models 273A and 263A require additional analyzer hardware
13
VersaStudio® software
The complete VersaStudio software provides full
access to the capabilities of the instrument, including
the high current option and power booster when
present. Various systems combining hardware and
the VersaStudio software are provided to focus on
particular application areas and to minimize cost.
Systems may be upgraded at any time as budget
becomes available or as requirements change.
An impressive list of corrosion and electrochemical
experiment types are provided that can be run
individually or combined in powerful experiment
sequences.
VersaSTAT100 basic DC voltammetry techniques
VersaSTAT200 advanced DC voltammetry techniques
VersaSTAT300 DC corrosion techniques
VersaSTAT400 complete DC voltammetry and corrosion techniques
VersaSTAT450 energy and voltammetry system
VersaSTAT500 voltammetry, corrosion, and energy system
VersaSTAT MC voltammetry, corrosion, and energy system
PARSTAT 4000 voltammetry, corrosion, and energy system
Impedance facilities may be added to any of these systems as a factory fit option
Impedance
Voltammetry
Energy
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
(EIS) capabilities may be added to any
of the VersaSTAT systems as a factory
fit option. This provides a range of fully
integrated techniques for studying the
impedance of electrochemical cells,
sensors, batteries / fuel cells, corrosion /
coatings etc.
The advanced voltammetry systems
(VersaSTAT-200 and –400) provide a
range of scan, step and pulse techniques
that are of importance in analytical
electrochemistry, microelectrode studies,
sensor research, electrodeposition
and battery/fuel cell analysis. A basic
voltammetry system (-100) is also available
that provides some of the fundamental
techniques as a low cost alternative. The
advanced system includes:
The energy systems (VersaSTAT-450 and
-500) provide techniques designed for
testing and research of energy devices
such as batteries, super capacitors, and
fuel cells. These techniques include:
Potentiostatic EIS - widely used for the
analysis of electrochemical, battery and
corrosion cells providing information on
electrode kinetics, diffusion and mass
transfer
Galvanostatic EIS - particularly useful
for characterizing batteries and fuel
cells under DC current load conditions
EIS analysis of batteries and fuel cells
using the high current (2A) option or
external power boosters
Automatic charge / discharge / EIS
experiment sequencing for battery,
supercapacitor and fuel cell lifetime
investigations
Automatic sequencing of loop, EIS
and delay steps to investigate trends
of impedance over time, (e.g. the
development of corrosion induced
defects in a coating)
Automatic sequencing of EIS and
linear polarization resistance (LPR)
techniques to verify corrosion rate data
and to provide impedance analysis of
corrosion mechanisms
Normal and differential pulse
voltammetry - used in analytical
electrochemistry applications e.g. for
trace metal analysis
Recurrent pulse techniques - used in
battery / fuel cell analysis (including
equivalent series resistance ESR
analysis and GSM / CDMA mobile
phone pulse test applications). Also
used in electrodeposition applications
Chronoamperometry and
chronopotentiometry used in many
electrochemical applications
Automatic sequencing and looping
of techniques for more advanced
applications such as charge / discharge
cycling of batteries for cell-life
investigation
Control of power booster options
for testing high power cells for
electrodeposition and energy storage
applications
Impedance analysis may also be added
(Impedance module)
Static (constant) applied techniques
for current, potential, power, and
resistance aimed at charging/
discharging energy devices
Multi-Vertex Scan technique for
application of a linear ramp voltage with
up to three separate vertices
Cyclic Charge/Discharge (CCD)
techniques which can be easily
modified for addition or subtraction of
different actions including EIS if system
is properly equipped
Data acquisition variables to control the
volume of data acquired, and stop limits
for actions that include Potential (V),
Current (A), and Capacity (Ah)
Corrosion
The corrosion system (VersaSTAT-300
and -400) provides a range of DC
electrochemical measurement techniques
that are of particular importance for the
corrosion scientist investigating coatings,
rebar corrosion, inhibitors, biomedical
implants etc. These techniques include:
Potentiostatic, galvanostatic,
potentiodynamic and galvanodynamic
techniques
Tafel and Rp fitting analysis – providing
the determination of corrosion current
(Icorr), polarization resistance (Rp),
data interpretation and corrosion rate
calculations
IR compensation for minimizing
experimental errors due to solution
resistance (Rs)
Impedance analysis may also be added
(Impedance module)
14
10
Software Summary - VersaStudio®
-100
-200
-300
-400
-450
-500
PARSTAT
4000
Open Circuit
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Linear Scan Voltammetry
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Cyclic Voltammetry (single)
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Cyclic Voltammetry (multi cycles)
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Staircase Linear Scan Voltammetry
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Staircase Cyclic Voltammetry (single)
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Chronoamperometry
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Chronopotentiometry
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Chronocoulometry
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Recurrent Potential Pulses
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Recurrent Galvanic Pulse - Two Step
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SquareWave Voltammetry
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Differentail Pulse Voltammetry
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Normal Pulse Voltammetry
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Reverse Normal Pulse Voltammetry
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Zero Resistance Ammeter (ZRA)
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Galvanic Corrosion
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Cyclic Polarization
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Linear Polarization
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Tafel
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Electrochemical Noise
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Split LPR
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Potentiostatic
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Potentiodynamic
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Galvanostatic
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Galvanodynamic
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Dynamic iR
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Constant Current
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Constant Potential
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Constant Resistance
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Constant Power
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Multi-Vertex Scan
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Current CCDPL
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Power CCD
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Resistance CCD
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Potentiostatic EIS*
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Galvanostatic EIS*
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Time Delay
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Message Prompt
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Measure OC
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Auxiliary Interface
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DAC Output Control
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Condition
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Equilibration
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Purge
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iR Determination
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VersaSCAN
Electrochemical
Scanning System
The VersaSCAN is a single platform capable of
providing spatial resolution to both electrochemical
and materials-based measurements. Traditional
electrochemical experiment measure an average
response over the entire electrode/electrolyte
interface. Rarely is a sample homogenous. Samples
often consist of local sites of passivate/active nature
or sites of anodic/cathodic character. This need
to investigate localized phenomenon led to the
emergence of scanning probe electrochemistry.
SECM
Scanning Electrochemical Microscope System
The SECM integrates a microelectrode-based tip and a 2-channel
potentiostat with the positioning system. The SECM both controls
and monitors electrochemical reactions at the tip and sample.
The versatility and high spatial resolution of SECM make it
popular.
By making the measurement at a probe placed
just above the surface of the sample, the response
is taken from a subset of the sample. A small
measurement probe positioned very close to the
surface, but non-contact, reduces the sampling
volume and provides a high spatial resolution.
However, these small responses require superior
measurement technology to record the measured
parameter. The VersaSCAN integrates capabilities
of proven models of AMETEK instrumentation, such
as the low-current measurement technology of the
VersaSTAT and the high dynamic reserve of the
Signal Recovery 7230 to extract these data.
SVET
Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique
The positioning system of the VersaSCAN is based
entirely on piezoelectric motors. These motors give
long travel (100-mm) and superior resolution (50nm) in a small footprint.
LEIS
Localized Electrochemical Impedance System
The SVET maps the electric field in solution, which is a result
of local currents at the sample surface. These currents at the
sample can be naturally occurring or controlled by an external
source. Successive experiments provide time-lapse images of
these currents.
The LEIS measures local impedance, phase angle, and currents
by measuring AC response. The ratio of the locally measured
current and the applied AC voltage gives the local impedance.
This provides spatial resolution to applications that traditionally
benefit from the high information content of EIS.
Different auxiliary pieces interface to the positioning
system to provide functionality for several different
scanning probe experiments.
Features
Superior piezo electric motor-based design provides greater resolution, longer travel, better repeatability, and superior accuracy compared to
more commonly used lead screw technology
The most complete and compact multi-
technique workstation on the market today
The best connectivity option providing higher transfer rates, no-fuss setup, and remote operation and data visibility
The most easy-to-use software includes connection diagrams, navigation tree design for experiment setup, and 3-D graphics with rotational ability.
The SKP is a non-destructive capacitance-based measurement
of the relative surface work function difference of the probe and
the local location on the sample. These experiments are typically
performed in ambient conditions, in the absence of electrolyte.
SDC
Scanning Droplet Cell
Integration of AMETEK potentiostats and lock-in amplifiers
Professional on-site installation
SKP
Scanning Kelvin Probe
The SDC confines the electrochemical measurement to a droplet
of electrolyte at the sample surface. The droplet may be flowing
or stagnant. The droplet can remain stationary or scanned
during the experiment. Sections of samples can be investigated
with traditional electrochemical techniques without cutting the
sample.
OSP
Optical Surface Profiling
OSP uses a displacement sensor to measure topography (change
in Z) of the sample. This measurement is fast and accurate.
The resulting topographic maps can be integrated with other
techniques to provide Constant-Distance operation.
16
VersaSCAN Options
VersaSCAN L-Cell
Screws into optical table of VersaSCAN
Approximately 1 Liter in volume
Level adjustment mechanism
Accepts large flat samples and 32mm
diameter mounted samples
Recommended for all techniques, particularly
LEIS, SVET, SKP, SDC, OSP
VersaSCAN mL-Cell
Screws into optical table of VersaSCAN
Approximately 7 mL in volume
Level adjustment mechanism
Accepts a range of samples including 32mm
diameter mounted samples and nonstandard samples
Specifically engineered for low-volume SECM
applications.
VersaCAM
Camera:
Color
Number of Pixels: 795 (H) x 596 (V)
Minimum illumination 0.02 lx. F1.2
Power: 12V DC +/- 10%
CS-mount or C-mount with provided adapter.
Lens:
C-Mount
Manual focus.
Display:
8 inch color TFT display
PAL & NTSC auto selection
640 x 480 (307,200 pixels) screen resolution
17
Ancillary Instrumentation
QCM922
Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensitive enough to measure weight changes in a monolayer
Quantify both elastic and viscous changes in your system
Front panel display of resonant frequency and resistance
Analog outputs for frequency and resistance changes
Frequency range of 1MHz to 10MHz
Designed for EQCM with a potentiostat, not included, or stand alone operation
Quartz Crystals
9MHz AT-cut: Gold or Platinum sputtered on Ti (Standard or Mirror Finish)
Electrode Area: 0.2cm2
Electrode Thickness: Au or Pt ~300 nm
5210EC
Dual-Phase Lock-In Amplifier
Provides EIS capabilities for 263A, 273A, and 283 potentiostats up to 100 kHz
Continuous Full-Scale Sensitivity Control
Sinewave or Squarewave Demodulation
Powerful fourth-order signal channel bandpass, low pass or notch filter
Two independent line frequency rejection filters
Up to 130 dB Dynamic Reserve
K0269B
Faraday Cage
Heavy gauge steel enclosure for Low / Ultra-Low Current Measurements
Ideal for use with VersaSTAT LC Low Current Interface
Hinged door with cam latch
Dimensions (L x W X H) 10.75 x 12.00 x 16.00 in (27 x 30 x 41 cm)
18
636A
Rotating Ring-Disk Electrode
Operates in Disk or Ring-Disk configuration
Remote analog speed control (input is summed with front-panel settings)
On/Off and Rotational Rate Control (50 – 10,000 RPM)
Includes Enclosure (L x W x H) 18.8 x 15.5 x 21.0 in (48 x 40 x 54 cm)
Accessory Options
Permanent Disk Electrodes*
Permanent Ring-Disk Electrodes
Platinum Disk - Platinum Ring
Glassy Carbon Disk - Gold Ring
Glassy Carbon Disk - Platinum Ring
Quick-Change Disk and Cylinder Electrodes for Corrosion Studies
Arbor Options
Disk Arbor
Ring-Disk Arbor
616A
Rotating Disk Electrode
Front-panel speed controls (100 – 8,000 RPM)
Remote analog speed control (input is summed with front-panel settings)
Front-panel and remote (TTL) on/off switching (using PAR stir-control signals)
Integral ring-stand for convenient cell mounting
Includes Enclosure (L x W x H) 18.8 x 15.5 x 21.0 in (48 x 40 x 54 cm)
A variety of electrode assemblies for a wide range of experiments, including:
High-precision Corrosion measurements, Ultra-Trace Analytical determinations,
Automated Levich Plots, Hydrodynamically-Modulated Voltammetry, Cyclic
Stripping Voltammetry
Accessory Options
Quick-Change Disk Electrodes
Quick-Change Cylinder Electrodes
Permanent Disk Electrodes
Platinum
Gold
Glassy Carbon
19
Electrochemical
Accessories
potentiostat/galvanostat
Corrosion Cell Kit
Model K0047
The K0047 is ideal for testing and evaluation of metal specimens in corrosive environments.
It is fashioned after a well-known cell configuration and is a standard in some ASTM
methods.
The cell permits a variety of metal specimens and liquid environments to be tested quickly
and uniformly. Most of the common electrochemical techniques for corrosion testing
can be employed under aggressive conditions (except for HF) and at ambient or elevated
temperatures.
The K0047 Kit includes:
Model
Qty.
G0091
2
G0094
1
G0095
1
G0096
1
G0097
1
G0098
2
G0099
1
G0300
1
K0077
1
MP0630
1
MP0631
1
MP0751
1
2806-0043-0 1
2815-0043-0 1
2815-0093-0 1
Description
Graphite Rod
Purge Tube
Reference Electrode Bridge Tube
Corrosion Flask (1 liter flat bottom flask
with ground glass joints)
Electrode Holder
Threaded Adapter for T24/40 Joint
Ball and Socket Clamp
Replacement Porous Glass Frits 4mm (pkg of 5)
Saturated Calomel Reference Electrode
Replacement Teflon Gaskets for Mounting Sample (pkg of 5)
Electrode Mounting Rod
Cylinder Specimen, 430 Stainless Steel
Knurled Thumb Nut
Flat Washer
Flat Teflon Washer
Tait Cell
Model K0307
The Tait Cell was developed to address coatings/corrosion studies on flat specimens
where the electrolyte under study cannot support a standard reference electrode.
The diameter and exposed sample area are approximately 6.35cm and 32cm2,
respectively.
The Tait Cell is offered with counter and reference electrodes made from Hastelloy
steel.
Excellent for coatings studies in difficult media
Designed for long term exposure times
Quick, easy changing of electrodes
Allows electrolyte volumes as small as 80mL
20
Micro-Cell Kit
Model K0264
For routine analytical voltammetry applications, we offer the K0264 Micro-Cell Kit. The
kit includes:
Model
Qty.
G0300
1
K0265
1
K0266
1
SL0070
1
219581
1
219600
1
220196
1
220253
1
220262
1
220325
1
220553
1
230125
1
230197
1
230259
5
231572
1
231573
1
231574
1
231575
1
231576
1
231581
1
2504-0102-0 1
Microelectrodes (10 µm diameter)
G0224
Gold Microelectrode
G0225
Platinum Microelectrode G0226
Glassy Carbon Microelectrode
Description
Porous Glass Frits, 4mm (pkg of 5)
Silver/Silver chloride reference electrode (includes tube, wire, and frit)
Counter Electrode Assembly (includes counter electrode bridge tube, 2 ml. volume, Vycor frit and Platinum 0.3mm diameter counter electrode wire)
3M NaCl/saturated AgCl filling solution for K0265
Cell Top (ring stand mountable which accommodates a variety of microelectrodes)
Glass Cell Bottom
Threaded Blushing (three, used to secure the reference, counter, or optional thermometer)
Threaded Bushing (used to secure the working electrode)
Threaded Plug (to plug thermometer port)
Threaded Plug (to plug sample port)
Cell Support Cap
Knob
Bev A Line Tubing (2 ft)
Ferrule Fitting
Stopcock
Luer Lock Ring
Fitting
Fitting
Fitting
Fitting
Quad Ring, Viton
Milli-electrodes (2 mm diameter)
G0227
Gold Milli-electrode
G0228
Platinum Milli-electrode
G0229
Glassy Carbon Milli-electrode
Flat Cell Kit
Model K0235
The practical design of the Model K0235 Flat Cell makes it simple and easy to
use for corrosion and/or coatings research. It can accommodate a wide range
of electrode sizes, eliminating the need for machining or special mechanical
procedures. It disassembles quickly and easily, operates with a 250mL sample
volume and simplifies electrochemical corrosion measurements. The Kit includes:
2517-1343A
222594
2806-0086
2800-0042
219806
219808
2805-0043
2805-0044
219810
Clamping Screw
Clamping Frame
Nut, Rivnut
Resting Foot
Sample End Cap
Glass Cylinder
Drain Plug
Rubber Well Plug
Counter Electrode
2517-1345A
2811-0280-0
MP1239
800877
OR0142
3100-0094-0
219995
232117
230213
Shoe Assembly
Screw (#10-32) SS
Gasket, TFE
Screw (#4-40) SS x 3/8”
Gasket, Viton
Tubing, Tygon
Reference Electrode
Tubing, TFE
Cap and Silicon Tubing
21
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