Parks Canada EIA Requirement Checklist

Parks Canada EIA Requirement Checklist
April 2015
Parks Canada EIA Requirement Checklist
Project Title: Kootenay and Banff NP – Hwy 93S and Hwy 93N Corridor Brushing
Project Location: Highway 93S: km 10.0 to km 17.5 and km 40 to km 73
Highway 93N: km 0.4 to km 70.0
Project File #: 2015-064K
Proponent Contact Information:
Zachary Boles (Project Manager)
Highway Service Centre, Parks Canada Box 900 Banff, AB T1L 1K2
[email protected]
Telephone: 403-760-1355
Date of Request: 22/09/15
Section A: No EIA Required
1. The project is exempted from EIA requirements under CEAA 2012 S. 70: (check the appropriate box)
 the project relates to matters of national security;
 the project is being carried out in response to a national emergency for which special temporary
measures are being taken under the Emergencies Act; or
 the project is to be carried out in response to an emergency, and in the interest of preventing
damage to property or the environment or in the interest of public health or safety.
2. The project is exempted from EIA requirements as thee same project was previously assessed: (both
boxes must be checked to apply this option)
 the previous analysis is adequate
 there is no change in information that would alter the results of the analysis.
3. The project is exempted from EIA requirements because an initial analysis has determined there is NO
potential for adverse effects to: (both boxes must be checked to apply this option)
 Natural resources; in particular those targeted in management objectives and ecological integrity
monitoring indicators, and to listed species at risk, their residence or critical habitat; additionally,
the activity is not prohibited in a protection order.
 Cultural resources; in particular those targeted in management objectives and identified in a Parks
Canada cultural resource management document, or any structure, site or thing of historical,
archaeological, paleontological or architectural significance.
Provide a concise explanation to justify the decision.
If you have exempted the project from an EIA requirement by selecting one of the three options
above, Proceed to Section D.
April 2015
Section B: EIA Pathway Decision
The EIA pathway to be applied to the proposed project is:
an approved alternate process (must be approved by VP PAEC)
one or more approved Best Management Practices (BMPs)
a Basic Impact Analysis (indicate if one or more BMPs are also being used)
a Detailed Impact Analysis (indicate if one or more BMPs are also being used)
Parks Canada National Best Management Practices: Roadway, Highway and Parkway Infrastructure (2015)
Section C: Permitting Requirements
Indicate the types of permits that may be required:
□ Development/Building □ Lease/Licence of Occupation □ Water Withdrawal X Business Licence
□ Add others as required (Fisheries Act, Navigation Protection Act, SARA authorization, etc.)
Section D: Recommendation and Approval
Prepared by: Trevor Kinley, Environmental Assessment Scientist
Date: 22/11/06
Recommended by: Trevor Kinley, Environmental Assessment Scientist
Date: 22/11/06
Approved by: Michael den Otter, Environmental Assessment Scientist
Date: 22/11/06
Section E: Additional Comments
April 2015
The following additional mitigation must be adhered to in regards to fuels management:
 Where possible, fuels should not be left to accumulate on site and must be either burned or chipped.
 Chips cannot exceed two inches in depth to maximum coverage of 5% ground cover.
 Where accessible, all stems suitable for firewood should be removed from site
 At inaccessible sites or for trees with little firewood value, no more than 50 stems per linear km may be
left on site. A stem is defined as any tree with a dbh >15cm.
 All retained stems must be limbed and lie flush on the ground.
 Accumulation of fine woody fuels is of greatest concern from both a fire management and vegetation regrowth perspective. Fine fuel accumulation cannot exceed 10% ground cover and must be less than 10
cm in depth. Fine woody fuels have diameter less than 3 cm.
 Medium fuels (3 – 7 cm) may accumulate to a maximum of 20% of ground cover and not exceed 20 cm in
 Mechanical disturbed areas and burn piles must be seeded with an approved native grass seed mix
within 6 months of project completion.
Non-native vegetation must be managed for.
 Equipment must be clean upon arrival.
 Ground disturbance must be kept to a minimum. Off-highway mechanical equipment must have low tire
press (<7 psi) to reduce soil compaction and disturbance.
The current outbreak of orange hawkweed from the Floe Lake trail head to Numa Falls will require special
management considerations. Opening and disturbing this area will likely exacerbate the problem. Funding for
additional contract control work may be required. Limit removing overstory wherever possible in this section.
Parks Canada National Best Management
Roadway, Highway, Parkway and Related
May 2015
Parks Canada National Best Management Practices for Roadway, Highway, Parkway and
Related Infrastructure
Approved by
Mike Wong, Executive Director Natural Resource Conservation Branch
Kalvin Mercer, Associate Vice-President Asset Management and Project Delivery
May 2015
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Scope of Application .......................................................................................................................... 4 Exceptions .......................................................................................................................................... 6 Approved geographic area of application ......................................................................................... 7 Components of the environment that may be affected .................................................................... 7 Mitigation Measures .......................................................................................................................... 8 1. Project Design ............................................................................................................................ 9 2. General Activities Mitigations Module ...................................................................................... 9 3. Asphalt Production and Handling Mitigations Module .......................................................... 11 4. Concrete Handling Mitigations Module .................................................................................. 13 5. Paving, Resurfacing, Grading Mitigations Module ................................................................. 15 6. Barriers and Guardrails Mitigations Module .......................................................................... 16 7. Vegetation Removal Mitigations Module .................................................................................17 8. Excavations, Soil Stripping and Overburden Removal Mitigations Module ......................... 19 9. Slope Stabilization, Drilling and Blasting Mitigations Module .............................................. 21 10. Soil and Vegetation Restoration Mitigations Module ......................................................... 23 11. Drainage Structures Mitigations Module ............................................................................ 27 12. Bridge Maintenance Mitigations Module ............................................................................ 29 13. Water Withdrawal and Dewatering Mitigations Module .................................................... 31 References ........................................................................................................................................ 33 Appendix 1 Regulatory Guidance .................................................................................................... 35 May 2015
The Parks Canada National Best Management Practices for Roadway, Highway, Parkway and
Related Infrastructure will allow an identified suite of project activities to be undertaken in such
a manner that there will not be resulting significant adverse environmental effects.
The Best Management Practice (BMP) pathway is applied when there is a suite of routine,
repetitive projects (e.g. paving) or activities (, with well understood and
predictable effects. This fulfils Park’s Canada’s obligations under the Canadian Environmental
Assessment Act 2012 as a manager of federal land, see the Guide to the Parks Canada EIA
Process. The BMP maximizes efficiency through creation of a pre-approved impact assessment
for the defined suite of projects, to which standard mitigation and environmental management
measures can be applied.
The impact assessment officer (IAO) will review a proposed project and advise the functional
manager of the project if and how this BMP should be applied. The IAO’s advice will be based
on whether the project falls within the scope of the BMP, and whether application of the
mitigation measures in the BMP will adequately address potential adverse effects of the project.
Project Managers are responsible to ensure all mitigation measures applicable to the project are
added to the terms and conditions of any permits or contracts issued for the project.
The Impact Assessment Officers must ensure the project, EIA pathway applied and
determination are recorded in the Parks Canada National Impact Environmental Assessment
Tracking System.
Scope of Application
This BMP outlines the impact assessment of repetitive and routine projects on roadways,
highways and parkways. If a project involves some or all of below activities, and the initial
assessment of site and project indicate “the project is unlikely to result in significant adverse
environmental effects” the BMP can be applied. Projects that this BMP would likely be applied
to include:
The proposed maintenance or repair of an existing sidewalk, or parking lot.
The proposed maintenance or repair of an existing road, including pull-off areas, that
would be carried out on the existing right of way1.
Activities included in the scope of this BMP are:
1. Project Design
2. General Activities
Worksite Conditions/Staging/Laydown
Equipment operations
Fuel storage and refueling
1 Highway Footprint or Right of Way (ROW): The permanent physical intrusion of a highway or freeway, including the road surface,
shoulders, side slopes, drainage ditches and/or storm drainage ponds (Transport Canada, 2008).
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Site Clean Up/Waste Disposal
3. Asphalt Production and Handling
 Asphalt Plant Operation
 Gravel Crushing and Washing
 Oiling of Truck Boxes
 Clean Up and Disposal of Waste Products
Concrete Handling
 Operation, maintenance and inspection of Onsite Temporary Concrete Washout Facility
 Removal of Temporary Concrete Washout Facilities
 Onsite concrete management
Paving, Resurfacing and Grading
 Grading
 Paving and Resurfacing
 Pavement Marking and Barrier and Guardrail Reinstatement
Barriers and Guardrails
 Repair, replacement and upgrades of barriers and guardrails
Vegetation Removal
 Vegetation Removal
 Grubbing
 Brushing
 Disposal of Vegetation Debris
 Integrated Pest Management
Excavation, Soil Stripping and Overburden Removal
 Excavation
 Soil Stripping
 Topsoil Salvage
 Excavated Material Storage
 Excess Material and Waste (overburden removal)
Slope Stabilization, Drilling and Blasting
 Slope stabilization-scaling, hydraulic hammers
 Drilling and blasting for Slope Stabilization and Geotechnical Investigations
Soil and Vegetation Restoration
 Topsoil Replacement
 Soil Amendments
 Seedbed Preparation
 Species Selection
 Seed Lot Selection
 Seed Mixture Composition
 Seeding
 Alternatives to Seeding
 Reclamation Standards
 Reclamation Plot Evaluation
 Time Limits
May 2015
10. Drainage Structures
 Drainage structures
 Culverts
11. Bridge Maintenance
 Bridge Cleaning
 Bridge Repairs Using Treated Wood Products
 Bridge and Structure Painting
12. Water Withdrawal and Dewatering
 Water Withdrawal
 Pump Screens
 Dewatering
This BMP is not suitable for the following project activities as they would require supplemental
assessment and/or mitigations:
Work that may impact aquatic or terrestrial wildlife habitat connectivity, such as
fences or culverts;
Elongation of culverts; realigning water courses; dredging; or work below the high
water mark of a fish bearing water body;
Bridge projects needing work to occur below the High-Water Mark2, with permanent;
alteration to the water course, such as replacement of piers/abutments or permanent
installation of structures on the bed of a water body;
Greater than 10% increase in land use footprint (e.g. gravel pit expansion); and,
Work which might adversely impact any potential or established Aboriginal and
Treaty rights or traditional use3.
If the project has the potential to have an adverse effect on the critical habitat of a species at risk
(with endangered, threatened, or extirpated status) this BMP does NOT apply. The project will
require a separate environmental impact analysis.
If the project has the potential for residual adverse effects on a listed species at risk (including
effects to individuals and residence of the individuals) this BMP does NOT apply, the project will
require a separate environmental impact analysis.
Note: If there is any uncertainty regarding potential adverse effects to species at risk, consult a
member of the National Office Species Conservation team.
2 High-water Mark is the usual or average level to which a body of water rises at its highest point and remains for a sufficient time so
as to leave a mark on the land. (Fisheries and Oceans, 2015). Upper Controlled Water Elevation (UCWE) is used as definition of
High-water Mark in managed waterways.
3 Parks Canada must engage in additional and separate consultations with Aboriginal groups if there is a possibility of a project
adversely affecting established or potential Aboriginal or Treaty rights. This is required to fulfill federal government responsibilities
in upholding the honour of the crown. If there is uncertainty regarding the need for Aboriginal consultation with respect to a project,
refer the matter to Parks Canada Legal Services for advice. Guidance on consultation may be sought from the Aboriginal Affairs
Secretariat and from the guidance document “A Handbook for Parks Canada Employees on Consultation with Aboriginal Peoples”.
May 2015
Approved geographic area of
This BMP is intended for use in all Parks Canada administered protected heritage places with
roadways, highways and parkways.
Components of the environment that may
be affected
Potential effects from projects of this type are well understood and predictable. They include:
Water Resources:
Adverse modifications to surface drainage patterns
Reduced water quality due to increased erosion, sedimentation, transportation of
debris and contamination (i.e. from leaks and accidental spills, etc.)
Soil/Land Resources:
Change in slopes, landforms, and landscape
Soil compaction and rutting
Slope instability, due to increased soil exposure and improper excavation and storage
Soil contamination
Air quality:
Decreased ambient air quality (i.e. from dust, equipment emissions, etc.)
Increased ambient noise levels
Temporary increased levels of CO2 and other pollutants
Temporary increased localized temperatures from paving and equipment operation.
Flora and Fauna:
Damage to and/or removal of vegetation in immediate or adjacent areas
Introduction of non-native species populations, or expansion of existing populations
Wildlife sensory disturbance causing displacement/preferred habitat avoidance
Wildlife habituation/attraction to artificial food sources
Impeded/altered wildlife movement
Damage to nests/disruption of nesting animals
Mortality from project activities
Cultural Resources:
May 2015
Adverse effects on the heritage value or character-defining elements of a cultural
Impacts to archaeological resources (known or potential)
Mitigation Measures
To use the document efficiently, keep the activity mitigation lists that apply to the project
expanded and collapse the other activities by clicking on the section titles, print this as a pdf or
paper document and include with the EIA determination record. This will reduce the overall size
and scope of the mitigations to present to contractors and project managers.
Choose all that apply to project. Each title is hyperlinked to the related section.
May 2015
Project Design
General Activities
Asphalt Production and Handling
Concrete Handling
Paving, Resurfacing, Grading
Barriers and Guardrails
Vegetation Removal
Excavations, Soil Stripping and Overburden Removal
Slope Stabilization, Drilling and Blasting
Soil and Vegetation Restoration
Drainage Structures
Bridge Maintenance
Water Withdrawal and Dewatering
1. Project Design
When upgrades to infrastructure are planned opportunities to decrease the environmental
impacts of long term operation should be considered in the engineering design. Some examples
are: directing runoff into vegetated areas rather than directly into surface waters to decrease
pollution in surface waters, increasing the span length of bridges during replacements to allow
for terrestrial wildlife passage underneath and converting smaller culverts to larger culverts or
clear span bridges to allow for better fish passage and less restricted flows.
2. General Activities Mitigations
Construction activities involve the use of laydown/staging areas, equipment operations, storage
and handling of hazardous materials. Potential adverse effects include: destruction of
vegetation, erosion and sedimentation, constriction for wildlife movements and
introduction/spread of non-native vegetation.
Work Site Conditions/Staging/Laydown
2.1. All employees must attend a briefing with an Impact Assessment Officer (IAO) or
Surveillance Officer (SO) before beginning work at the site review and explain the
mitigations that are conditions of the project approvals.
2.2. Minimize vegetation-clearing activities and ground disturbance by staging on existing
hardened areas wherever possible.
2.3. Avoid or terminate activities on site that attract or disturb wildlife. Vacate the area and
stay away from the immediate location if wildlife display aggressive behaviour or
persistent intrusion.
2.4. Control materials that might attract wildlife (e.g. petroleum products, human food and
2.5. Notify the SO immediately about dens, litters, nests, carcasses (road kills), wildlife
activity or encounters on or around the site or crew accommodation. Other wildliferelated encounters are to be reported to SO within 24 hours.
2.6. Delineate the work zone; clearly mark the limits to active construction and the access
and egress locations.
2.7. When work involves the disturbance of soils or the use of erodible materials (e.g. sands,
topsoil), prevent the transport of sediment by the installing of appropriate erosion and
sediment control.
2.8. An Erosion and Sedimentation Management Plan shall be prepared for the components
of the work undertaken in proximity to watercourses, wetlands or riparian
environments. If sediment ponds are required, they shall be designed to settle all
sediment particles 0.02 mm or larger. The ponds shall also be designed to handle 1:5
year storm events, with overflow spill capacity for 1:10 year storm events and emergency
spillway capacity for 1:100 year storm events. All components require regular
maintenance to ensure effectiveness.
Equipment Operations
2.9. Equipment movements and workers’ private vehicles shall be restricted to the ‘footprint’
of the construction area.
May 2015
Ensure machinery arrives on site in a clean condition and is maintained free of fluid
leaks, invasive species, noxious weeds and soils from off-site.
Operate machinery on land above the high water mark, on ice, or in another manner
that minimizes disturbance to the banks and bed of any water body.
Limit machinery crossing (fording) a stream or watercourse to a one‐time event (i.e.,
over and back), and only if no alternative crossing method is available. If repeated
crossings of the watercourse are required, construct a temporary crossing structure in
compliance with the Fisheries Act.
For fording equipment without a temporary crossing structure, use stream bank and
bed protection methods (e.g., swamp mats, pads) if minor rutting is likely to occur
during fording.
Use temporary crossing structures or other practices to cross streams or water bodies
with steep and highly erodible (e.g., dominated by organic materials and silts) banks
and beds.
Fuel Storage and Refueling/Emergency Plans
2.15. A Spill Response Plan will be prepared and detail the containment and storage,
security, handling, use and disposal of empty containers, surplus product or waste
generated in the application of these products in accordance with all applicable
federal and provincial legislation. The Plan shall include a list of products and
materials to be used or brought to the construction site that are considered or defined
as hazardous or toxic to the environment. Such products include, but are not limited
to, waterproofing agents, grout, cement, concrete finishing agents, hot poured rubber
membrane materials, asphalt cement and sand blasting agents.
2.16. Spill kits shall be provided at re-fuelling, lubrication, and repair locations that are
capable of dealing with 110% of the largest potential spill and shall be maintained in
good working order. Site staff shall be informed of the location of the spill response
kit(s) and be trained in its use.
2.17. If potentially hazardous materials (e.g. cement-based products, sealants or paints) are
used on site ensure raw material, mixed compounds and wash water are not released
to any watercourse or soils. Measures such as collection/drip trays and berms lined
with occlusive material such as plastic and a layer of sand, and double-lined fuel tanks
can prevent spills into the environment.
2.18. Hazardous or toxic products shall be stored no closer than 100 metres from streams,
wetlands, water bodies or waterways.
2.19. Timely and effective action shall be taken to stop, contain and clean-up all spills as
long as the site is safe to enter. The SO shall be notified immediately of any spill. In
the event of a major spill, all other work shall be stopped and all personnel devoted to
spill containment and clean-up.
2.20. The costs involved in a spill incident (the control, clean up, disposal of contaminants
and site remediation to pre-spill conditions), shall be the responsibility of the
proponent. The site will be inspected to ensure completion to the expected standard
and to the satisfaction of Parks Canada.
Site Clean Up/Waste Disposal
2.21. Clean tools and equipment off-site to prevent the release of wash water that may
contain deleterious substances.
May 2015
2.22. Where possible, sweep up loose material or debris. Any material thought to pose a risk
of contamination to soils, surface water or groundwater should be disposed of
appropriately off-site.
2.23. Construction, trade, hazardous waste and domestic waste materials shall not be
burned, buried or discarded at the construction site or elsewhere in Parks Canada
protected heritage places. These wastes shall be contained and removed in a timely
and approved manner and disposed at an appropriate waste landfill site located
outside the Parks Canada protected heritage place. Construction waste storage
containers, shall be emptied when 90% full. Waste containers will have lids, be
wildlife proof if there attractants and waste loads shall be covered while being
2.24. Sanitary facilities, such as a portable container toilet, shall be provided and
maintained in a clean condition.
3. Asphalt Production and Handling
Mitigations Module
Asphalt is a common building material for transportation infrastructure. Its production requires
the use of gravel, water, and petroleum products, and associated project activities include
transportation, storage and handling of these materials. Installation of asphalt plants is common
within the larger parks where gravel extraction is undertaken.
Timing of Works
Asphalt works are preferably undertaken during periods of dry weather as this allows
easier control of contaminated runoff and sediment.
If the work schedule requires working in the rain, the area of work must be isolated
and appropriate sediment controls must be installed to prevent the release of
sediment-laden water or any other deleterious substances into surface waters,
particularly for surface repair works requiring the application of patching and sealing
compounds, tar, asphalt, and chemical surface sealants.
Operation of Asphalt Plants
3.3. Asphalt plant operation must comply with all environmental pollution control
regulations, including provincial regulations, and the plant operational plan.
3.4. Spoil piles and stock piles will be at least 30 meters from the edge of any water body.
3.5. There must be enough room between the stockpiles and the asphalt plant for a loader in
the event of a spill at the asphalt plant.
3.6. A containment berm with an associated liner made of occlusive material (e.g. plastic of a
thickness approved by the SO) and covered with absorbent sand or clay shall be
installed under the asphalt storage tank to ensure containment of 110% of the tank’s
3.7. The proponent shall be responsible for the purchase and safe delivery/storage/handling
of asphalt cement and emulsions to the asphalt plant site.
3.8. Excess hot mix or reject new asphalt shall be temporarily in stored in the containment
area sufficient to prevent runoff of petroleum into soils or surface waters as directed by
May 2015
the SO, and removed from the Parks Canada protected heritage place, prior to project
3.9. Every effort will be made to recycle waste asphalt, either as a base course, or by
recycling waste asphalt through the asphalt plant according to engineering
specifications.Old cured ground asphalt material shall be removed, recycled, or stored
for future recycling at an approved operational gravel pit or asphalt plant site.
Stockpiles must be further than 30 metres from any surface waters.
3.10. Remaining stockpiles will be removed or incorporated into reclamation plans for the
gravel pits or asphalt plant sites.
3.11. Asphalt to be removed must be sampled and analyzed to determine possible lead
contamination. Contaminated asphalt will be transported to an approved waste
disposal facility. A receipt of delivery is to be provided to the SO.
3.12. Proponent should protect containment/catchment areas and drip trays at the asphalt
plant from rainfall since, if contaminated, all of the collected water will require
disposal of at an approved disposal facility at the expense of the Proponent.
3.13. Dyking and ponding will be required to control the rate and quality of runoff from the
plant site.
3.14. Ensure that the water in the settling ponds remains clean of petroleum products. Any
contaminated water will require disposal at an approved disposal facility at the
expense of the Proponent.
Gravel Crushing and Washing
3.15. Where possible within engineering constraints, asphalt materials should be recycled
to reduce the need for new gravel.
3.16. Gravel will be obtained from an approved operational borrow pit only. For gravel
obtained from a borrow pit within a protected heritage place or borrow pit, gravel
extraction within the footprint of the disturbed area of the approved operational
borrow pit is permitted.
3.17. Gravel will not be crushed within 30 meters of any water body.
3.18. If water for cleaning is extracted from a watercourse, refer to water withdrawal section
of this BMP.
3.19. If gravel requires washing, the water used will not be returned directly to any
3.20. Water free from chemical contaminants will be discharged into ground where further
erosion and runoff into surface water is prevented. Discharging into well vegetated
ground surface, at a rate which prevents erosion can often provide increased
absorption and reduction of sediment load.
3.21. Contaminated water must be treated to meet CCME guidelines or transported outside
of the Parks Canada protected heritage place for disposal at an approved facility.
3.22. For waste removed from the park a detailed receipt of delivery to an approved facility
will be provided to the SO.
Oiling of Truck Boxes
Trucks for hauling asphalt mixture shall have tight, clean, smooth metal beds that have been
sprayed with a minimum amount of thin fuel oil to prevent the mixture from adhering and
causing waste asphalt.
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3.23. Truck boxes may be oiled only when absolutely necessary.
3.24. Oiling will take place in a bermed area, consisting of a plastic underlay with 15
centimetres overlay of clean gravel. Oil contaminated gravel will be hand collected (so
as to prevent tearing of the plastic) from the bermed area daily, and put through the
asphalt plant.
3.25. Vehicle covers shall be securely fastened.
Air Quality Mitigations
3.26. Asphalt plants should be 500 meters from buildings with human habitation.
3.27. Emissions from the asphalt plant and paving project equipment will comply with End
Product Specifications (EPS) emission control standards and other provincial
emissions regulations. Stack test results provided to the ESO by the operator or
surveillance contractor may be required when the asphalt plant is at full capacity to
ensure the plant is operating within the required standards. If the plant is not
operating within the appropriate levels, production will cease until the requirements
are met.
3.28. Sludge removed from the clarifier that is free of chemical contamination will be
contained to prevent fine dust particles from becoming airborne during windy
3.29. Unannounced stack tests will be conducted throughout the project. If the plant does
not meet requirements, operation will cease until the requirements can be met.
Disposal and Clean Up of Other Waste Products
3.30. To ensure regular clean-up of waste asphalt and petroleum spills, a defined clean up
schedule will be established during the preconstruction meeting.
3.31. Leaks will be collected in drip-trays, the collected material will either be removed
from the park, or recycled back through the Asphalt Plant. For any material removed
outside the park to an approved facility, a detailed receipt will be provided to the ESO.
3.32. Used oil, filters, grease cartridges, oil cans and other waste products of plant servicing
will be collected and disposed of at the nearest industrial waste facility.
4. Concrete Handling Mitigations
Concrete is a common construction material used in transportation infrastructure. Its use
ensures longevity of the infrastructure and safety for public use. One litre of concrete wash water
or leachate in 1000L of water will kill fish. Cement-based products including grouts and
concrete are lethal to fish and many other aquatic organisms. Raw product or leachate entering
a watercourse will alter water chemistry, making it more basic or alkaline.
Onsite Temporary Concrete Washout Facility
4.1. Temporary concrete washout facilities shall be located a minimum of 30m from storm
drain inlets, open drainage facilities, and watercourses.
4.2. Temporary concrete washout facilities shall be temporary pit or bermed areas
constructed and maintained in sufficient quantity and size to contain all liquid and
concrete waste generated by washout operations.
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4.3. Straw bales, wood stakes, and sandbag materials can be used to construct temporary
containment walls or “barriers”.
4.4. Plastic lining material shall be a minimum of 10-mil polyethylene sheeting and shall
be free of holes, tears or other defects that compromise the impermeability of the
4.5. The soil base shall be prepared free of rocks or other debris that may cause tears or
holes in the plastic lining material.
4.6. Perform washout of concrete mixer trucks in designated areas only.
4.7. Wash concrete from mixer truck chutes into approved concrete washout facility or
collect in an impermeable bag for disposal.
4.8. Pump excess concrete in concrete pump bin back into concrete mixer truck.
4.9. Concrete washout from concrete pumper bins can be washed into concrete pumper
trucks and discharged into designated washout area or properly disposed offsite.
4.10. Once concrete wastes are washed into the designated area and allowed to harden, the
concrete shall be broken up, removed, and disposed of per federal and provincial
Maintenance and Inspection of Temporary Concrete
Washout Facilities
Temporary concrete washout facilities shall be maintained to provide adequate
holding capacity with a minimum freeboard of 100 mm (4 inches) for above grade
facilities and 300 mm (12 inches) for below grade facilities.
Maintaining temporary concrete washout facilities shall include removing and
disposing of hardened concrete and returning the facilities to a functional condition.
Existing facilities must be cleaned, or new facilities must be constructed and ready for
use once the washout is 75% full.
Temporary concrete washout facilities shall be inspected for damage (i.e. tears in PVC
liner, missing sand bags, etc.).
Onsite concrete waste storage and disposal procedures should be monitored at least
weekly or as directed by the ESO.
Removal of Temporary Concrete Washout Facilities
4.16. Holes, depressions or other ground disturbance caused by the removal of the
temporary concrete washout facilities shall be backfilled and restored.
Onsite Concrete Management
4.17. Rolling concrete mixers with surplus concrete in amounts less than one cubic metre of
wet concrete may waste this concrete in the grade right-of-way as directed by the
Parks Canada Representative in areas that drain well away from watercourses.
Surplus amounts in excess of one cubic metre are to be returned to the batching yard.
4.18. Water contaminated in the placing of cement and curing of concrete shall be
contained and removed from the site to an approved disposal facility.
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4.19. The concrete batching plant must be operated pursuant to applicable dust, air
emission, and water quality control regulations.
4.20. Waste, solidified concrete from rolling concrete mixers in amounts less than 1 cubic
meter and waste solidified concrete from construction pour shall be buried in the
grade within 48 hours of the pour, subject to approval and direction from the
Departmental Representative
5. Paving, Resurfacing, Grading
Mitigations Module
Highway surface management activities are undertaken to ensure public safety on Parks Canada
Agency highways by maintaining clean, level, and unbroken road surface conditions through
activities such as pavement cleaning, patching, application of surface treatments, and pavement
crack sealing. Grading is used to address drainage issues, vegetation encroachment, potholes
and rough surfaces.
Timing of Works
5.1. Works are preferably undertaken during periods of dry weather (e.g., summer) as this
allows easier control of contaminated runoff and sediment.
5.2. If the work schedule requires working in the rain, the area of work must be isolated and
appropriate sediment controls must be installed to prevent the release of sedimentladen water or any other deleterious substances into surface waters, particularly for
surface repair works requiring the application of patching and sealing compounds, tar,
asphalt, and chemical surface sealants.
5.3. During grade construction conducted close to any watercourse, water body or wetland
ensure materials are not pushed, fall or are eroded into the water or wetlands.
5.4. No grade building shall occur outside of the delineated work area or within 1 metre of
the drip line of existing forest. Any material inadvertently falling outside the work limits
will be removed promptly in a manner that does not damage trees or vegetation.
5.5. Materials shall be placed at storage sites or on the grade without spillage outside the
work limits. Any material inadvertently falling outside the work limits will be removed
promptly in a manner that does not damage trees or vegetation.
5.6. Retain a 30 metre vegetated buffer around water bodies or install runoff management
5.7. If possible grade roads early in the spring before vegetation develops seed heads or late
in season after vegetation has set seed and is dormant to minimize non-native
vegetation propagation.
5.8. Ensure gravel or road bed material is free of weeds and comes from an approved
operational gravel source free of other contaminates.
Paving and Resurfacing
5.9. Minimize changes to the surface that could affect infiltration and runoff characteristics
and maintain effective surface drainage to limit direct runoff into surface waters.
May 2015
5.10. Minimize application of seal coats in wet conditions. Attempt to apply only to dry
surfaces and not prior to (within 24 hrs.) or during rainfall. If unforeseen rain arrives
ensure runoff from recently seal coated surfaces are prevented from entering surface
5.11. For asphalt handling and management see the Asphalt Mitigation Module of the BMP.
Pavement Marking and Barrier and Guardrail
Minimize changes to the surface that could affect infiltration and runoff
characteristics and maintain effective surface drainage to limit direct runoff into
surface water Pavement marking shall be undertaken pursuant to standard methods
applied in National Parks for control of paint products, both in transport and
handling. The Contractor shall present a description of methods to be employed for
transporting and controlling paint and hazardous products, application of paint,
cleaning of equipment, containment and disposal of waste paint and cleaning
products, etc. the satisfaction of the Parks Canada Representative.
Where concrete barriers or guard rails are temporarily removed, for highway
improvements, temporary glow posts shall be installed, at 20.0 m intervals on straight
sections and at 10.0 m intervals on curves and shall remain in place until permanent
barrier system has been installed.
6. Barriers and Guardrails Mitigations
Repair, installation and upgrade of barriers and guardrails involves laydown/staging areas,
equipment operations, minor excavation (e.g., for barrier post holes) and use of concrete.
Potential adverse effects include destruction of vegetation and erosion and sedimentation.
Timing of Works
Where excavation is required, schedule work to avoid wet, windy and rainy periods
that may increase erosion and sedimentation.
If the work schedule requires working in the rain, appropriate sediment controls must
be installed to prevent the release of sediment-laden water or any other deleterious
substances into surface waters.
Repairs, Replacement and Upgrades
May 2015
An Erosion and Sedimentation Management Plan shall be prepared for the
components of the work undertaken within 100m of watercourses, wetlands or
riparian environments. If sediment ponds are required, they shall be designed to
settle all sediment particles 0.02 mm or larger.
Where use of concrete is required for guardrail post holes, Concrete Handling
Mitigations apply.
If vegetation removal is required for barrier or guardrail works, Vegetation Removal
Mitigations apply.
Where concrete barriers or guardrails are temporarily removed, temporary glow posts
shall be installed, at 20.0 m intervals on straight sections and at 10.0 m intervals on
curves and shall remain in place until permanent barrier system has been installed.
7. Vegetation Removal Mitigations
Roadside vegetation management activities include mowing, brushing, and landscape
maintenance activities undertaken to maintain clear sight lines for highway users, control
noxious weeds, facilitate effective drainage, and reduce possible fire hazards. Mature timber
may need to be removed for improving road alignments, improving sight linesor replacing or
repairing associated infrastructure. Grubbing (stump and root removal) may be required to
prepare the ground surface for other activities.
Timing Windows
Vegetation clearing can negatively impact nesting birds and/or bats in spring and
summer. Avoid all vegetation removal during this time. If vegetation removal is
scheduled to occur within these times a qualified professional biologist/ecologist
should further clarify the species presence and timing particular to the work site and
any occupied bird nests, eggs, or nests of species protected under the Migratory Bird
Convention Act (MBCA). See appendix on regulatory guidance for further detail on
the MBCA and SARA.
7.2. If a nest is found during the pre-work surveys, the vegetated area will be left intact
with a suitable sized buffer of shrubs/trees around it until the young have fledged and
left the nest. Size of buffer species dependent, to be determined in consultation with
professional biologist or park ecologist.
7.3. Grass mowing and trimming should not occur during peak spring or fall
reptile/amphibian migrations and hatching. Consult a local biologist/ecologist for site
and species specific timing windows.
Vegetation Removal Mitigations
7.4. Vegetation removal should be limited to the minimum Clear Zone Distance4
dependent on type and size of road and maximum height needed to meet the road
safety objectives.
7.5. Minimize full removal and retain vegetation when possible to reduce erosion.
7.6. Prior to the commencement of any vegetation removal, the worksite must be surveyed
for species at risk. If species at risk are found, work must be stopped until site-specific
mitigations to address potential adverse effects are developed.
7.7. Survey vegetation for non-native species, clear vegetation areas with non-native
vegetation in spring and early summer to avoid further spread and development of the
non-native seed bank.
A clear zone is an unobstructed, traversable roadside area designed to enable a driver to stop safely or regain control of a vehicle
that has accidentally left the roadway. The selection and design of appropriate clear zone dimensions is project-specific and should
be the responsibility of professionals trained in roadside design.
May 2015
7.8. Clearing activities shall be avoided during nesting seasons for birds, reptiles and
amphibian species in the project area.
7.9. If wildlife is observed during work, if possible, give animals the opportunity to escape
the work area to the surrounding forest or elsewhere to seek new shelter.
7.10. Avoid ground vegetation removal during dry, windy periods to prevent erosion of
topsoil and reduction of air quality with dirt/dust.
7.11. Retain 30 metre vegetated buffer around water bodies, where disturbance is necessary
and unavoidable restoration is required.
7.12. Debris will not be deposited in water bodies.
7.13. Ensure tree limbs/stumps are flush cut as close to the ground or stem as possible.
7.14. Logs and other salvage materials are to be conveyed to and placed at a storage site
without spread of debris or damage to other standing trees or landscape resources
outside the marked clearing or storage limits. They shall not be skidded through
wetlands, waterways or water bodies.
7.15. During the grubbing component, stumps, roots, imbedded logs and other non-soil
debris shall be pulled and shaken free of loose soil and rocks before transport to a
designated pit.
7.16. Where possible preserve identified wildlife trees by limbing or topping if they are not
assessed as hazard trees.
Disposal of Vegetation Debris
7.17. All vegetation debris must be removed as soon as possible from the right-of-way,
either by transporting off-site for disposal or piling and burning on-site.
7.18. All vegetation containing non-native species will be piled and burnt or bagged and
removed off site to disposal facility.
7.19. Piles will be made where trees are felled, piles will be 1.2-1.8 (4 to 6 feet) in diameter
and no more than 1.2 m (4 feet) high (approximately 1 to 3 trees per pile) or as
instructed by local fire and vegetation specialists.
7.20. Piles are to be located so that they do not scorch surrounding live trees and measures
must be in place to ensure that fires do not spread (i.e., conduct burning on snow or
on mineral soil).
7.21. Piles will be left until fall for burning to allow for curing of green fuels.
7.22. Provincial regulations for air quality must be met.
7.23. Where fire fuel loading is not a concern vegetation debris of limited amounts will be
dragged in the forest to mimic natural tree fall.
7.24. If removal or burning are not feasible a chipper may be used for less than 50 boles per
hectare. Chip depth is to be a maximum of 5 cm (2 inches), spread over area no
greater of 5m x 5m per hectare so as to not cover underlying vegetation, prevent new
native seedlings from sprouting, and cause soil/seed bank sterilization. Spreading of
chips may extend beyond these parameters with permission from Parks Canada.
7.25. To facilitate chipping of woody debris, all trees/shrubs/vines can be left temporarily
along the road shoulders and laid facing the same direction.
7.26. In some cases, logs from newly cut trees may be set aside for use elsewhere as directed
by local park site managers and the ESO.
May 2015
7.27. Store removed vegetation on already disturbed areas to minimize disturbance area.
7.28. In appropriate areas re-establish native vegetation where it has been completely
Integrated Pest Management
7.29. A Field Unit Integrated Pest Management Plan (IPMP) must be completed and
approved prior to the use of herbicides to ensure the most effective and least harmful
substances are properly used.
8. Excavations, Soil Stripping and
Overburden Removal Mitigations Module
Construction projects often involve excavations. To successfully complete reclamation of
disturbed areas, and protect areas from erosion proper soil handling and backfilling procedures
must be followed. Post excavation and stripping soil and vegetation restoration mitigations
should be applied. See section of this BMP for Soil and Vegetation Restoration.
Timing of Works
Schedule work to avoid wet, windy and rainy periods that may increase erosion and
If the work schedule requires working in the rain, appropriate sediment controls must
be installed to prevent the release of sediment-laden water or any other deleterious
substances into surface waters.
May 2015
Materials shall be placed at storage sites or on the grade without spillage outside the
working limits. Any material inadvertently falling outside the work limits is to be
removed promptly in a manner that does not damage trees or vegetation.
All sediment control measures must be in place before starting work in the vicinity of
rivers, water bodies, watercourses, and wetlands.
Special precautions may have to be taken during excavation in the vicinity of
intermittent or active drainage channels.
Excavation plans must be compared to local archaeological resource inventories, if
available. If no archaeological information is available for the work area, an
Archaeological Overview Assessment (AOA) may be required to determine the
archaeological potential of the work area. Based on the results from the AOA, an
Archaeological Impact Assessment might be required. It would be time and cost
efficient to refer the plan to Parks Canada’s Terrestrial Archaeology section before
conducting any excavation to determine the appropriate course of action.
If cultural resources (eg. archaeological resources) are discovered, immediately cease
work, and alert SO.
Minimize changes to the ground surface that affects its infiltration and runoff
characteristics and maintain/re-establish effective surface drainage on completion of
the project
Backfill and compact excavations as soon as possible. Optimize degree of compaction
to minimize erosion and allow for re-vegetation.
8.10. All trenches or ditches left unattended overnight must be fenced or covered to prevent
wildlife entrapment.
Soil Stripping
Strip topsoil under dry conditions, whenever possible.
No stripping shall occur outside of the delineated work area or within 1 metre of the
drip line of existing forest.
In the event of a work program shutdown during inclement weather (e.g. winter
conditions unfavourable for construction, heavy rain events, construction delays,
etc.) erosion control of bared soils or excavated material stockpiles is required.
Stripping close to any watercourse, water body or wetland shall employ methods to
ensure materials are not pushed, do not fall or erode into the water or wetlands.
Work within a 100 metre buffer from the high water mark of waterways or wetlands
will require a site specific sediment and erosion control plan.
An erosion control plan is also needed to control dust generated from the
construction site.
Topsoil Salvage
Salvage topsoil at all excavation sites for reclamation purposes.
Usually the upper 15 cm of soil, below the sod layer if present, is considered topsoil,
where depths exceed 15cm salvage the entire depth of topsoil.
Remove stumps and woody debris from topsoil, wherever possible.
Excavated Material Storage
Allow space for separate storage of topsoil and spoil; where space is available
separate stored topsoil from spoil by at least 1 m. Use appropriate material (e.g., geotextile) to separate soil components where space is limited.
Topsoil may be stored on hardened surfaces, geo-textile material or directly on
undisturbed vegetation. If storage occurs on vegetation, material recovery by hand
may be required.
Cover all stockpiled material with heavy-duty plastic or filter cloth to prevent erosion
during precipitation events.
Topsoil should be stockpiled on the uphill side of the disturbance on sloped terrain.
Construct barricades to prevent losses on steep terrain (>18°, 3:1) and within 100m
of watercourses.
Excess Materials and Waste (Overburden Removal)
May 2015
Remove excess excavated material from site where it cannot be used for the final
grading of the area. Site specific arrangements must be made for disposal locations
and procedures of overburden.
Surplus excavated material may be used to fill depressions around the project site
providing topsoil is stripped before filling, with approval from SO.
9. Slope Stabilization, Drilling and
Blasting Mitigations Module
Where standard excavation is not sufficient, scaling, hydraulic hammers, drilling units or trim
blasting are used to break up rock or soil for removal. Accumulations of debris in ditches reduce
their effectiveness at trapping rock fall and reduce public safety. Ditches will be cleaned using a
loader and back hoe. Guardrails and rock fences may be temporarily removed to permit this
Timing of Works
Time any vegetation removal work should adhere to the Migratory Bird windows for
the area.
9.2. Time work to reduce impact to mammals, amphibians and reptiles using rock faces
during sensitive life stages such as birthing and rearing of young. This often occurs
during the spring. Confirm timing windows with local wildlife ecologists.
9.3. Avoid ditch clearing during wet periods and wait until ditches are dry to reduce
impacts to amphibians and reptiles and limit sedimentation.
Slope Stabilization-Scaling, Hydraulic Hammers
The use of hydraulic hammers attached to excavators is considered the ideal solution for rock
disintegration. It avoids rock blasting where the parent rock is no longer rippable by the
excavator's bucket but still has enough planes of weakness for economical operation and
effective use of the hydraulic hammer. Scaling is the manual removal of loose material on rock
slopes using pry bars, hydraulic press, brooms, shovels and power equipment operated by
personnel using roped access to a rock face.
9.4. For vegetation clearing refer to the vegetation removal mitigation module of this
9.5. For slope-stabilization in soils, please refer to the Excavation section.
9.6. Survey the work site for cultural resources such as rock art (ex. pictographs,
petroglyphs, etc. prior to the work commencing, establish site specific mitigations for
their protection.
9.7. Measures shall be taken to control dust as much as possible during the removal and
falling of rock materials down slope.
9.8. Placement of rip rap and backfill on shorelines shall be undertaken without contacting
the watercourse, wetted margins and must not be below the High Water Mark.
9.9. If replacement rock reinforcement/armouring is required to stabilize eroding or
exposed areas, then ensure that appropriately‐ sized, clean rock is used, and rock
is installed at a similar slope to maintain a uniform bank.
9.10. Direct concentrated surface water (runoff) away from cut and fill slopes.
9.11. Immediately stabilize banks disturbed by any activity associated with the project
to prevent erosion and/or sedimentation, preferably through vegetation
r e s t o r a t i o n with native species suitable for the site-refer to soil and
vegetation restoration section of BMP.
May 2015
Drilling and Blasting for Slope Stabilization
and Geotechnical Investigations
Trim blasting is used for controlled blasts in which explosive charges are placed in
predetermined pattern of holes drilled into the rock face and then detonated. Potentially
unstable masses of rock can sometimes be stabilized using rock bolts and long steel rods drilled
into the rock to bind it together. Drilling is a common method of investigation to obtain
geotechnical reports required for engineering design.
9.12. Debris from drilling will be contained (screened or settle out) so it will not cover the
surrounding area or enter any water course. All debris will be removed, see section on
overburden removal for further mitigations.
9.13. The cuttings from all drilling will be contained so they can be removed entirely from
the site. If contaminated, the cuttings are to be disposed at an approved waste
disposal facility.
9.14. Control of spoil and sediment loaded water is required on the drill site. Dyking will be
required to retain the deposit on non-vegetated surfaces. If contaminated, the spoil
pile must be disposed at an approved waste disposal facility.
9.15. During aquifer tests, the water must be piped so it does not erode any soil or any part
of the ground. If the water from the tests is piped to a creek, stream, or river, the pipe
is to be situated so that there is no erosion of the stream bank or bed. If any sand or
similar material is discharged during the aquifer test, care must be taken that the sand
does not cover any vegetation.
9.16. All test wells will be filled in after the testing is completed. The proponent will be
responsible for rectifying any future problems associated with any of the wells or test
9.17. The Parks Canada Representative will identify a magazine location for explosives
should a factory site or "ready-to-use" explosives storage site be required
9.18. The blasting supervisor will ensure no damage to infrastructure, people, surrounding
vegetation or wildlife by mitigating risk of fly rock.
9.19. Avoid using explosives in or near water. Use of explosives in or near water
produces shock waves that can damage a fish swim bladder and rupture internal
organs. Blasting vibrations may also kill or damage fish eggs or larvae.
9.20. If explosives are required as part of a project (e.g., removal of structures such as
piers, pilings, footings; removal of obstructions such as beaver dams; or
preparation of a river or lake bottom for installation of a structure such as a
bridge or culvert), the potential for impacts to fish and fish habitat will be
minimized by implementing the following measures:
o Time in water work requiring the use of explosives to prevent disruption of
vulnerable fish life stages, including eggs and larvae, by adhering to
appropriate fisheries timing windows.
o Isolate the work site to exclude fish from within the blast area by using
bubble/air curtains (i.e., a column of bubbled water extending from the
May 2015
substrate to the water surface as generated by forcing large volumes of air
through a perforated pipe/hose), cofferdams or aquadams.
Remove any fish trapped within the isolated area and release unharmed
beyond the blast area prior to initiating blasting.
Minimize blast charge weights used and subdivide each charge into a series
of smaller charges in blast holes (i.e. Decking) with a minimum 25
millisecond (1/1000 seconds) delay between charge detonations (see Figure
Back‐fill blast holes (stemmed) with sand or gravel to grade or to
streambed/water interface to confine the blast.
Place blasting mats over top of holes to minimize scattering of blast debris
around the area.
Do not use ammonium nitrate based explosives in or near water due to the
production of toxic by‐products. Remove all blasting debris and other
associated equipment/products from the blast area.
Figure 1: Sample Blasting Arrangement
Per Fig. 1: 20 kg total weight of charge; 25 msecs delay between charges and blast holes and
decking of charges within holes. (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2015)
Soil and Vegetation Restoration
Mitigations Module
Almost all projects activities included in this BMP will require some ecological restoration- the
process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or
May 2015
destroyed. The restoration plan can be a simple application of the following mitigations and can
be at the site or both at the site and in concert with another site designated to offset the
permanent impact of a project. For disturbance areas greater than a hectare a restoration plan is
required. The restoration works can be often be considered projects in and of themselves. Soil
and vegetation restoration must apply the principles of effective, efficient and engaging
Timing Windows
Develop restoration plan as part of the project scoping and specifications prior to
project approvals.
Vegetation restoration is most effective if seeded in the fall, this allows for full
scarification of the seed over the winter and adequate moisture available. Spring and
early summer will also work, consider using seed that requires shorter scarification
times for these applications. Transplants will do best in the spring and summer and
will require adequate watering.
Topsoil Replacement
Implement restoration plan for the disturbed area immediately following completion
of construction.
Replace topsoil to all areas immediately following fine grading.
Do not compact topsoil.
Where insufficient topsoil is available imported soil may be used as a last resort.
Imported topsoil must be certified completely free of non-native seeds and compost
developed from sewage treatment plants. Methods of improving vegetation
succession using locally sourced, weed and contaminant free materials are preferred.
Slopes to be seeded should be no steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical (2:1) and
covered with a minimum of 5 cm (2 inch) of topsoil. Finish grading should always
follow top soil placement.
Where remaining soils are unstable due to steepness or soil characteristics,
immediate installation of sod or erosion control blanket is required.
Methods of bioengineering such as terracing, willow staking, live pole drain systems
should be assessed as solutions where soils are steeper or remain unstable.
Soil Amendments
Fertilizer Application 10.10. Avoid use of fertilizer to limit non-native vegetation growth and allow for local
species to use available nutrients.
10.11. If needed use locally sourced mycorrhizae compost teas to improve vegetative
Topsoil substitute 10.12. Apply an organic cellulose only amendment as a soil substitute if reclamation
standards are not being met within the defined time frame.
10.13. Determine the type of organic amendment based on the site-specific requirements
(e.g., peat moss, compost).
May 2015
Seedbed Preparation
10.14. The seedbed will be scarified by hand or, with the approval of the SO, by machine on
large areas (i.e., roadbeds) where it is accessible and appropriate.
10.15. The seedbed will be scarified if seeding takes place more than 7 days after final grading
or if there has been a rainfall between final grading and the seeding date.
10.16. The cleats of a tracked vehicle or a harrow device will be used, where possible, to
prepare an adequate seedbed with seedling safe-sites (microsites) substantially free
of soil crusts.
10.17. Align cleat marks at right angles on slopes to trap seed and sediment and reduce
Species Selection
When selecting species and varieties:
Use species of local native plant communities.
Species viability in proposed environment and climatic conditions.
Capability to effectively control erosion, where required.
Adaptation to the variable site conditions of undulating topography.
Consider palatability of some species to herbivores and avoid growing attractants
in areas of increased risk to wildlife and visitors.
Variable life expectancy to produce variable, delayed die-out of seeded species and
replacement with indigenous native plants.
Seed Lot Selection
Select seed lots based on indigenous species variety and quality (guaranteed weed
seed free content and highest purity and germination), consult with vegetation
restoration specialist or fire/vegetation ecologist.
Reject any seed lots containing any seed of undesirable crop or weed species.
Seed Mixture Composition
The proportion of each species should be calculated to provide an adequate
quantity of pure live seed (PLS) per unit area of each key component.
Aim for density of about 140 seedlings/m2 at the end of the first growing season to
provide adequate ground cover and allow native species to re-colonize the site over
Consider that parameters such as seed lot purity, seed germination, seedling
establishment, seed size and seeding method affect the final stand composition.
May 2015
Use approved native seed mixes developed for site-specific conditions for various
Seed and stabilize (e.g. mulch/tackifier) bare areas as soon as possible after
disturbance, preferably as soon as a significant area is graded and finished and
before the next rain event. If there is a risk of seedling mortality as a result of fall
frost stabilize until appropriate growing conditions exist.
Use sod in high traffic areas or places that need extra erosion control. Source sod
grown from native species (often called fescue sod) and ensure adequate anchoring
and watering is in place.
Use temporary seeding when outside the seeding dates for permanent vegetation
Apply a seed mixture which is appropriate for the climate, soil, and drainage
conditions of the site.
Apply seed at a rate appropriate to the seed mixture, seeding method and existing
vegetation conditions.
Conduct broadcast seeding under calm wind conditions. Hydro-seeding is
acceptable where access is available.
Do not exceed 30 kg/ha for the broadcast method, ensure seed is integrated with
the soil by light rake or harrow. Broadcast method seeding rate is 25 kg/ha
(2.5g/m2) (e.g., 1x25 kg bag will cover 10,000m2 or 1 hectare).
For hydro-seeding do not exceed 75 kg/ha with light mulch rates (500 kg/ha- of
mulch with hydro-seeding) and 150 kg/ha with heavy mulch rates (1500 kg/ha of
mulch with hydro-seeding).
Do not increase the seeding rate to compensate for poor seedbed conditions.
Monitor temporary erosion control measures to prevent seed loss.
Some seeding procedures may have to be completed or repeated in subsequent
Alternatives to Seeding
Use topsoil seed bank in small areas when there is no risk of erosion or competition
from invasive species (i.e., natural regeneration).
Use native transplants in areas where conventional seeding applications are not
applicable or where slope stability is an issue.
Use conventional forestry planting methods for container grown transplants, see
website for guidance.
Reclamation Standards
Minimum standard for plant density is 25 plants/m2, with 90% frequency.
Minimum standard for plant cover is 80% ground cover, with 90% frequency.
Minimum standard for plant community composition standard is 50% cover and
90% frequency of native species.
Exclude species designated as weeds in the work sites from the plant density
standard consult local vegetation ecologist for current site specific non-native
vegetation management program.
Rock, plant litter and non-vascular species are included in the cover standard.
Remaining plant cover of seeded native species is acceptable.
Reclamation Plot Evaluation
May 2015
Select any site within reclamation area measuring 10 x 10 m, providing 100 plots of
1 square meter.
Measure the plant density, cover and composition in each of the 100 square meter
The reclamation standard will have been met if 90 of the 100 plots match or exceed
the criteria.
No fertilizer will be applied one year before the reclamation standard is evaluated.
Time Limits
Inspect site annually during the growing season.
Minimum reclamation standard, as above, to be met within one season post
Apply amendments annually, depending on reclamation progress.
Re-seed site if the plant density standard is not expected to be achievable within 5
A new restoration plan will be prepared and implemented when reclamation
standards have not been met after 5 years.
Drainage Structures Mitigations
Drainage structures on roadway, highway and parkways are structures such as culverts, ditches
and drains. Drainage structure management activities are undertaken to ensure that surfaces
are safe and efficiently drained, water is efficiently channeled to ditches and watercourses, and
erosion of highways and adjacent properties is prevented. These mitigations include the
cleaning and maintenance of drainage structures and related hardware, as well as the repair or
replacement of existing and installation of new drainage structures.
Timing of Works
Time work in water to respect timing windows to protect fish, including their
eggs, juveniles, spawning adults and/or the organisms upon which they feed.
Contact your local aquatics specialists and DFO offices for further information on
timing windows in your region.
Conduct in-stream work during periods of low flow, or at low tide, to further reduce
the risk to fish and their habitat or to allow work in water to be isolated from flows.
Schedule work to avoid wet, windy and rainy periods that may increase erosion and
If the work schedule requires working in the rain, the area of work must be isolated
and appropriate sediment controls installed to prevent the release of sediment-laden
water or any other deleterious substances into surface waters.
Drainage Structures
May 2015
Isolate your work area from any flowing water that may be present. Ensure any flows
are temporarily diverted around the portion of the ditch or watercourse where you
are working.
Select appropriate equipment and work access routes to reduce damage to riparian
vegetation and watercourse banks when using earth-moving equipment.
For smaller scale debris and sediment removal activities, remove materials by hand.
To assist with bank stability and invasive plant prevention, leave topsoil and root
systems intact on channel banks surrounding your work area.
Ensure any works to repair damaged structures retain the pre-repair channel
conditions (e.g., streambed profile, substrate, channel cross section) and do not
constrict the stream width.
Maintain effective sediment and erosion control measures until complete revegetation of disturbed areas is achieved.
If a proposed culvert crosses a stream where fish are present, the crossing should be designed or
upgraded to provide fish passage and avoid interference with fish habitat. To mitigate the
impact of culverts on fish movement technical assessment of the water flows and fish species is
required to establish a culvert design that will allow for passage of fish. Often there are regional
or provincial best practices available online and qualified professionals can assist with designs.
Some best management practices for installation or replacement of culverts follows.
Culvert Design and Alternatives Utilize alternative crossing structures (e.g. clear span bridges, lock blocks and concrete decks) as
a replacement for culverts, where possible.
May 2015
Ideally, crossings should have natural streambed material through them to allow
continuous substrate that matches the streambed below and above the crossing.
Open bottom crossings are ideal for maintaining natural substrate.
Utilize a single large culvert design over a multiple culverts design (i.e. several
smaller culverts) to reduce debris blockage and increased fish and wildlife passage,
where hydrologically feasible
Design culvert bottoms to be placed at least 30cm below the stream bed elevation to
ensure culverts remain passable by fish and wildlife by preventing culverts from
becoming perched.
A minimum water depth of 200 mm should be provided throughout the culvert
length. To maintain this water depth at low flow periods an entrance/downstream
pool can be constructed. In some cases, an upstream pool may also be necessary.
The culvert slope should follow the existing streambed slope where possible.
The culvert, inlet(s) and outlet(s) should be adequately protected with rip-rap to
prevent erosion and scour around the culvert during high runoff events. The
following measures should be incorporated when using replacement rock to stabilize
the culvert:
Place appropriately-sized, clean rocks into the eroding bank area by hand or
machinery operating outside the water course.
Do not obtain rocks from below the ordinary high water mark of any water body.
Where possible, install rock at a slope similar to the stream bank to maintain a
uniform stream profile and natural stream alignment. Otherwise, install the rock at
the closest slope required to ensure it is stable.
Ensure rock does not interfere with fish passage or constrict the channel width.
Trash racks should not be used near the culvert inlet. Accumulated debris may lead
to severely restricted fish passage and potential injuries to fish. Where trash racks
cannot be avoided in culvert installations, they must only be installed above the
water surface indicated by bank full flow. A minimum of 9 inches clear spacing
should be provided between trash rack vertical members. If trash racks are used, a
long term maintenance plan must be provided along with the design, to allow for
timely clearing of debris.
Natural or artificial supplemental lighting should be considered in new or
replacement culverts that are over 150 feet in length.
Ensure designs locate culvert structures in areas that minimize impacts to riparian
vegetation and associated wildlife.
Culvert Installation 11.20. It may be necessary to exclude fish from the immediate construction site while a
culvert is being installed. If this practice is necessary, fish shall be salvaged by a
qualified aquatics professional from within the exclusion area.
11.21. If dewatering is required refer to the dewatering mitigation module of this BMP for
appropriate mitigations.
11.22. Maintain effective sediment and erosion control measures until complete revegetation of disturbed areas is achieved.
11.23. Remove any old structures to a suitable upland disposal facility away from the
riparian area and floodplain to avoid waste material from re-entering the
Wildlife Considerations for Culverts At times, culverts are placed along portions of highways that bisect wetlands or specific habitats
that support an abundance of wildlife. Consider building natural rock ledges through culverts to
allow for small and medium-sized animals to walk on during periods of high flow.
Bridge Maintenance Mitigations
Bridge structure management activities include the cleaning and painting of bridge structures as
well as the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of bridge elements including decks, railings,
abutments, and bearings. Works may include asphalt, concrete works, chipping, painting,
grouting, timber truss, abutment and piling maintenance. These activities help ensure bridge
structures remain structurally sound and safe for public use.
Timing of Works
May 2015
Time work in water to respect timing windows to protect fish, including their
eggs, juveniles, spawning adults and/or the organisms upon which they feed.
Contact your local aquatics ecologists, provincial jurisdictions and DFO offices for
further information on timing windows in your region.
Conduct in-stream work during periods of low flow, or at low tide, to further reduce
the risk to fish and their habitat or to allow work in water to be isolated from flows.
Schedule work to avoid wet, windy and rainy periods that may increase erosion and
Cover or otherwise contain stockpiled materials during heavy rain events or
extended absences.
If the work schedule requires working in the rain, the area of work must be isolated
with appropriate sediment controls installed to prevent the release of sedimentladen water or any other deleterious substances into surface waters.
Bridge Cleaning
Schedule bridge-cleaning activities to coincide with the watercourse’s spring freshet
when possible. At freshet or during periods of high flow a large watercourse will
often have its highest background levels of sediment. At this time, the introduction
of a small amount of sediment to a watercourse (from bridge cleaning) will have a
lower risk of potential impact when considered against those high natural
background levels.
12.7. If works are planned outside the freshet or if your region does not experience a
freshet, discuss the protocol and timing of these works with your local aquatics
ecologist and/or DFO Officer.
12.8. Dry sweep and collect loose material off bridge surfaces before washing the bridge.
Adequately seal drains and any open joints on the bridge deck before sweeping or
washing to prevent material or sediment-laden wash water from entering any
12.9. If dry sweeping and preventing direct runoff to waterway is not a feasible way to
clean the surface, discussion and planning with local aquatic ecologists will be
12.10. Use water alone. If your cleaning activities require degreasers or any other chemical,
approval for use must be obtained from local aquatics specialists and/or DFO.
12.11. Contain any wash water or runoff to the bridge deck. Direct wash water towards the
bridge approaches and away from the watercourse, then to a vegetated area or
contained settling area (e.g., dry ditch channel unconnected to a watercourse) where
it can infiltrate.
12.12. If superstructure cleaning is undertaken above or on the bridge deck level, prevent
potentially harmful materials from entering into road drains. Block deck drains with
suitable barriers (e.g., polyethylene or drain blocks) to prevent direct discharge to a
watercourse, or re-route runoff through temporary piping onto adjacent settling
pond or structure, using a hydro vacuum would be another option.
12.13. If water for cleaning is extracted from a watercourse, refer to water withdrawal
section of this BMP.
Repairs Using Treated Wood Products
Untreated wood products are recommended, if treated wood is to be used, ensure it
has been treated with a wood preservative appropriate for the project. Refer to the
Parks Canada Guide for the Use, Handling and Disposal of Pressure Treated Wood
2009 and any further updates from Parks Canada Real Property – Environmental
12.15. If treated timber must be cut to size, ensure cutting takes place away from the bridge
and watercourse. Sawdust from treated wood is harmful to aquatic organisms and
must be prevented from entering any watercourse.
12.16. Wood preservatives should be applied in a contained area and not be applied over or
within 200m of water.
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Bridge and Structure Painting
Ensure paint flakes, abrasive grits and abrasive/paint flake mixtures do not enter the
watercourse as they may leach toxic heavy metals into receiving waters and/or be
ingested by fish.
Install ground covers and/or vertical drapes such as sheets of plastic or airpermeable cloth (e.g., burlap or canvas) prior to removal activities to capture falling
debris. Floating barges may be deployed in watercourses to capture falling debris,
such as paint flakes and dust.
Waste materials collected during removal and application of protective coating
operations (e.g., blasting abrasives, paint particles, rust and grease) should be
collected and retained for disposal at appropriate locations. Waste materials must
not be deposited into watercourses or riparian areas.
Use hydro blasting or manual techniques, where possible, when removing road dirt,
soluble salts and loose paint to minimize impacts to the watercourse.
Use water without cleaning agent additives if grease film removal is necessary.
Avoid use of toxic liquid paints, primers, solvents, degreasers and rust inhibitors.
Minimize spill potential by storing, mixing and transferring paints and solvents on
Water Withdrawal and Dewatering
Mitigations Module
Construction often requires the use of water, many common methods of excavation and site
isolation require dewatering. Temporary, short term water withdrawal provides an efficient
uncontaminated water source for local project sites. Dewatering can allow sites to be effectively
dry during construction, reducing the impact of sediment laden water entering fish bearing
Timing Windows
As a general guide to prevent taking more water than aquatic system can support,
limit total take of water to less than 5 successive days and less than 10 days in any
period of 30 days.
Avoid water withdrawal during breeding seasons of amphibians and reptiles to avoid
destruction of egg masses, consult local aquatics ecologist for site specific guidance.
Water Withdrawal
May 2015
Water should not be withdrawn from a wetland or stream less than 5 metres wide at
the surface or a lake less than one hectare in area.
Water withdrawal should follow the 10/90 rule which allows for up to 10% of the
stream flow to be withdrawn, as long as the stream flow does not fall below the 90%
exceedence flow (eg.1 in 10 chance in a given year).
No permanent or semi-permanent works for water withdrawal should be placed in
the stream channel.
Screen any water intakes or outlet pipes to prevent entrainment or impingement
of fish, amphibians and/or reptiles. Entrainment occurs when a fish or amphibian
is drawn into a water intake and cannot escape. Impingement occurs when an
entrapped fish, reptile or amphibian is held in contact with the intake screen and
is unable to free itself.
Pump Screens
In freshwater, fish-bearing waters design and installation of intake end-ofpipe fish screens:
o Locate screen in areas and depths of water with low concentrations of fish
throughout the year away from natural or artificial structures that may attract
fish that are migrating, spawning, or in rearing habitat.
o Orient the screen face in the same direction as the flow of water.
o Ensure openings in the guides and seals are less than the opening criteria to
make “fish tight”.
o Screens should be located a minimum of 300 mm (12 in.) above the bottom of
the watercourse to prevent entrainment of sediment and aquatic organisms
associated with the bottom area.
o Provide structural support to the screen panels to prevent sagging and
collapse of the screen. Large cylindrical and box type screens should have a
manifold installed to ensure even water velocity distribution across the screen
surface. The end of the structure should be made of solid materials and the
end of the manifold capped.
o Heavier cages or trash racks can be fabricated out of bar or grating to protect
the finer fish screen, especially where debris loading (woody material, leaves,
algae mats, etc.) is a concern. A 150 mm (6 in.) spacing between bars is
o Provision should be made for the removal, inspection, and cleaning of
o Ensure regular maintenance and repair of cleaning apparatus, seals, and
screens to prevent debris fouling and impingement of fish.
o Pumps must be shut down when fish screens are removed for inspection and
A site specific dewatering plan is required be provided before commencing a pumpout sump to dewater excavation sites with specific details on how and where the
water will be discharge.
13.9. Site specific mitigations may be required depending on the conditions of the
discharge area, freezing conditions operation, overflow avoidance, decanting and
settlement pond reclamation.
13.10. Water containing suspended materials shall not be pumped into watercourses,
drainage systems or on to land, except with the permission of the SO.
13.11. Soil and vegetation erosion protection is required for water pumped on to land.
May 2015
British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. 2010. Environmental best
practices for highway maintenance activities 2nd ed. Government of British Columbia.
British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Environment Lands and Parks. 2000. Provincial
Wildlife Tree Policy and Management Recommendations. Government of British Columbia.
Coordinated Technology Implementation Program. 2011. Current and Innovative Solutions to
Roadside Revegetation Using Native Plants. Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department
of Transportation.
Dane, C. 1978 Culvert Guidelines: Recommendations for the Design and Installation of Culverts
in British Columbia to Avoid Conflict with Anadromous Fish. Fisheries and Marine Service
Technical Report No.811. Department of Fisheries and Environment. Government of Canada.
Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 2005. National Management Measures to
Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Urban Areas. United States Environmental Protection
Agency Office of Water.
Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. 2000. A Guideline for Maintenance and
Service of Unpaved Roads. Choctawhatchee, Pea and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management
Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Measures to Avoid Harm. Accessed February 2015.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Self Assessment Criteria. Accessed February 2015.
Federal Highway Administration. 2011. Clear Zones and Roadside Terrain. United States
Department of Transportation.
Government of British Columbia. 1996. Water Act and Water Regulation. Crown Publications,
Queens Printer.
Parks Canada. 2007. Parks Canada Omnibus Environmental Protection Plan Mitigation
Measures. Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2011. Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada Road Maintenance Guidelines.
Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2012. Minor Repairs to Transportation Infrastructure in Atlantic Canada
National Parks Replacement Class Screening Report. Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2012. Replacement Class Screening Report for Routine In-Water Works Projects
Along the Rideau Canal and the Trent-Severn Waterway.
May 2015
Parks Canada. 2013. Flood 2013 Rehabilitation. Government of Canada
Parks Canada. 2013. Best Management Practice for Roadside Vegetation Maintenance at Point
Pelee National Park. Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2013 Assessment of Highway Nighttime Paving. Jasper National Park,
Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2013. Best Management Practice for Routine Vegetation Trimming and Clearing
Pukaskwa National Park. Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2014. Highway Service Centre Engineering’s Environmental Procedures. Jasper
National Park, Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2015. Parks Canada Directive on Impact Assessment. Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. 2015. Basic Impact Analysis Rock Slope Remediation. Kootenay National Park,
B.C. Government of Canada.
Parks Canada. No Date. Jasper Mitigation Manual. Government of Canada.
Transport Canada. 2008. Replacement Class Screening Report for Minor Transportation
Repairs. June 2008. TC Contract # 8080-07-0061.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.1998 Manual for the Planning, Design and
Construction of Forest Roads in Steep Terrain.
May 2015
Appendix 1 Regulatory Guidance
While all projects on lands managed by Parks Canada must adhere to Federal law and
regulation, it is considered best practice to refer to local community, regional, provincial
regulation and best practices where federal guidance is silent and/or attempt to meet those
targets if it can reduce the overall impact of the project.
Some of the project activities reviewed have potential environmental impacts that are addressed
by various provincial, federal and territorial acts and regulations. All activities must meet
current environmental law and regulations in their design and construction. The following is a
brief description of some of the key federal acts and regulations. Further review, understanding
and application of other federal, provincial and territorial environmental laws are part of a
rigorous approach to project planning and execution.
Canada National Parks Act and Regulations-Parks
All work inside National Parks and Protected Areas must be performed in accordance with the
laws and regulations set out in the Canada National Parks Act and Regulations. This includes
the requirement for most activities described to only be done under a permit such as: business
licence for contractor, disturbance of natural objects, travel in restricted areas, special events or
use of disposal sites.
Fisheries Act - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
If a project is to be conducted near water, it is the proponent’s responsibility to ensure they
avoid causing serious harm to fish in compliance with the Fisheries Act. The advice in on the
Fisheries and Oceans website will help a proponent avoid causing harm and comply with the
If the water body in the project area has fish or is connected to waters at any time that have fish
the project must meet the self assessment criteria on the Fisheries and Oceans website, if not a
project review can be made by Fisheries and Oceans Canada to assess whether the project
requires authorization or authorization can be requested directly. Given the level of detail
required for a review and/or authorization request the EIA officer may need to consider a more
involved EIA pathway in those circumstances.
Migratory Bird Convention Act – Environment
The purpose of this Act is to implement the Convention by protecting and conserving migratory
birds - as populations and individual birds - and their nests. Section 6 - prohibits the
disturbance, destruction, or taking of a nest, egg, or nest shelter of a migratory bird.
In Canada, the general nesting period may start as early as mid-March and may extend until end
of August. This is a general nesting period that covers most federally protected migratory bird
species. This period varies regionally across Canada mainly due to differences in species
May 2015
assemblages, climate, elevation and habitat type. Generally, the nesting period is delayed in
more northerly latitudes, corresponding to vegetation development and food availability.
(Environment Canada, 2014). To help with determining regionally relevant periods where
nesting is likely to occur, Environment Canada is publishing estimated regional nesting periods
within large geographical areas across Canada referred as "nesting zones". These periods are
estimated for each zone and consider the time of first egg-laying until the young have naturally
left the vicinity of the nest. Field Units may wish to refine this section and add their known local
nesting periods.
Species at Risk Act
If a species listed under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) is found within the project area, any
potential adverse effects from the proposed project to the individuals of the species, their
residences and/or their critical habitat must be understood. Species at risk considerations
require specific expertise, due to additional legal requirements under the SARA and CEAA 2012.
If the projects or activities to be addressed by the BMP could affect a listed species or its critical
habitat, the EIA officer may need to consider a more involved EIA pathway in those
May 2015
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