Application manual - Controller software IRC5

Application manual - Controller software IRC5
Application manual
Controller software IRC5
Trace back information:
Workspace R16-1 version a6
Checked in 2016-03-01
Skribenta version 4.6.209
Application manual
Controller software IRC5
RobotWare 6.03
Document ID: 3HAC050798-001
Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
The information in this manual is subject to change without notice and should not
be construed as a commitment by ABB. ABB assumes no responsibility for any errors
that may appear in this manual.
Except as may be expressly stated anywhere in this manual, nothing herein shall be
construed as any kind of guarantee or warranty by ABB for losses, damages to
persons or property, fitness for a specific purpose or the like.
In no event shall ABB be liable for incidental or consequential damages arising from
use of this manual and products described herein.
This manual and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without ABB's
written permission.
Additional copies of this manual may be obtained from ABB.
The original language for this publication is English. Any other languages that are
supplied have been translated from English.
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
ABB AB
Robotics Products
Se-721 68 Västerås
Sweden
Table of contents
Table of contents
Overview of this manual ................................................................................................................... 13
1
Introduction to RobotWare
15
2
RobotWare-OS
17
2.1
17
17
18
18
19
20
21
21
22
23
24
24
25
26
27
27
28
29
30
30
31
32
33
33
34
35
37
37
38
39
40
40
41
42
43
44
44
45
46
47
47
48
49
50
51
51
53
54
57
57
59
59
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Advanced RAPID ..............................................................................................
2.1.1 Introduction to Advanced RAPID ................................................................
2.1.2 Bit functionality .......................................................................................
2.1.2.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.2.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.2.3 Bit functionality example ...............................................................
2.1.3 Data search functionality ..........................................................................
2.1.3.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.3.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.3.3 Data search functionality examples .................................................
2.1.4 Alias I/O signals ......................................................................................
2.1.4.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.4.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.4.3 Alias I/O functionality example .......................................................
2.1.5 Configuration functionality ........................................................................
2.1.5.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.5.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.5.3 Configuration functionality example ................................................
2.1.6 Power failure functionality .........................................................................
2.1.6.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters .....................................
2.1.6.3 Power failure functionality example .................................................
2.1.7 Process support functionality ....................................................................
2.1.7.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.7.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.7.3 Process support functionality examples ...........................................
2.1.8 Interrupt functionality ...............................................................................
2.1.8.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.8.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.8.3 Interrupt functionality examples .....................................................
2.1.9 User message functionality .......................................................................
2.1.9.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.9.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.9.3 User message functionality examples ..............................................
2.1.9.4 Text table files ............................................................................
2.1.10 RAPID support functionality ......................................................................
2.1.10.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.1.10.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.1.10.3 RAPID support functionality examples .............................................
Analog Signal Interrupt .......................................................................................
2.2.1 Introduction to Analog Signal Interrupt ........................................................
2.2.2 RAPID components .................................................................................
2.2.3 Code example ........................................................................................
Auto Acknowledge Input .....................................................................................
Cyclic bool .......................................................................................................
2.4.1 Cyclically evaluated logical conditions ........................................................
2.4.2 RAPID components .................................................................................
2.4.3 Cyclic bool examples ...............................................................................
Electronically Linked Motors ................................................................................
2.5.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
2.5.2 Configuration .........................................................................................
2.5.2.1 System parameters ......................................................................
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
5
Table of contents
2.5.2.2 Configuration example ..................................................................
Managing a follower axis ..........................................................................
2.5.3.1 Using the service program ............................................................
2.5.3.2 Calibrate follower axis position .......................................................
2.5.3.3 Reset follower axis ......................................................................
2.5.4 Tuning a torque follower ...........................................................................
2.5.4.1 Torque follower descriptions ..........................................................
2.5.4.2 Using the service program ............................................................
2.5.5 Data setup .............................................................................................
2.5.5.1 Set up data for service program .....................................................
2.5.5.2 Example of data setup ..................................................................
2.6 Fixed Position Events ........................................................................................
2.6.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
2.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters .................................................
2.6.3 Code examples .......................................................................................
2.7 File and Serial Channel Handling .........................................................................
2.7.1 Introduction to File and Serial Channel Handling ...........................................
2.7.2 Binary and character based communication .................................................
2.7.2.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.7.2.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.7.2.3 Code examples ...........................................................................
2.7.3 Raw data communication ..........................................................................
2.7.3.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.7.3.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.7.3.3 Code examples ...........................................................................
2.7.4 File and directory management ..................................................................
2.7.4.1 Overview ...................................................................................
2.7.4.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
2.7.4.3 Code examples ...........................................................................
2.8 Device Command Interface .................................................................................
2.8.1 Introduction to Device Command Interface ...................................................
2.8.2 RAPID components and system parameters .................................................
2.8.3 Code example ........................................................................................
2.9 Logical Cross Connections .................................................................................
2.9.1 Introduction to Logical Cross Connections ...................................................
2.9.2 Configuring Logical Cross Connections .......................................................
2.9.3 Examples ..............................................................................................
2.9.4 Limitations .............................................................................................
2.10 Remote Service Embedded .................................................................................
2.10.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
2.10.2 RSE connectivity .....................................................................................
2.10.3 Configuration - system parameters .............................................................
2.10.4 RSE registration ......................................................................................
2.10.5 Remote Service information ......................................................................
61
62
62
63
65
66
66
67
69
69
71
73
73
74
77
79
79
80
80
81
82
84
84
85
86
88
88
89
90
92
92
93
94
96
96
97
98
100
101
101
103
105
106
108
Motion performance
113
3.1
113
113
115
116
117
119
119
121
122
122
123
125
125
2.5.3
3
6
Absolute Accuracy [603-1, 603-2] .........................................................................
3.1.1 About Absolute Accuracy .........................................................................
3.1.2 When is Absolute Accuracy being used .......................................................
3.1.3 Useful tools ............................................................................................
3.1.4 Configuration .........................................................................................
3.1.5 Maintenance ..........................................................................................
3.1.5.1 Maintenance that affect the accuracy ..............................................
3.1.5.2 Loss of accuracy .........................................................................
3.1.6 Compensation theory ...............................................................................
3.1.6.1 Error sources ..............................................................................
3.1.6.2 Absolute Accuracy compensation ...................................................
3.1.7 Preparation of Absolute Accuracy robot ......................................................
3.1.7.1 ABB calibration process ................................................................
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
Table of contents
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4
3.1.7.2 Birth certificate ............................................................................
3.1.7.3 Compensation parameters ............................................................
3.1.8 Cell alignment ........................................................................................
3.1.8.1 Overview ...................................................................................
3.1.8.2 Measure fixture alignment .............................................................
3.1.8.3 Measure robot alignment ..............................................................
3.1.8.4 Frame relationships .....................................................................
3.1.8.5 Tool calibration ...........................................................................
Advanced robot motion [687-1] ............................................................................
Advanced Shape Tuning [included in 687-1] ...........................................................
3.3.1 About Advanced Shape Tuning ..................................................................
3.3.2 Automatic friction tuning ...........................................................................
3.3.3 Manual friction tuning ..............................................................................
3.3.4 System parameters .................................................................................
3.3.4.1 System parameters ......................................................................
3.3.4.2 Setting tuning system parameters ...................................................
3.3.5 RAPID components .................................................................................
Motion Process Mode [included in 687-1] ...............................................................
3.4.1 About Motion Process Mode .....................................................................
3.4.2 User-defined modes ................................................................................
3.4.3 General information about robot tuning .......................................................
3.4.4 Additional information ..............................................................................
Wrist Move [included in 687-1] .............................................................................
3.5.1 Introduction to Wrist Move ........................................................................
3.5.2 Cut plane frame ......................................................................................
3.5.3 RAPID components .................................................................................
3.5.4 RAPID code, examples .............................................................................
3.5.5 Trouble shooting .....................................................................................
127
128
131
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
137
138
140
142
142
143
144
145
145
147
149
152
153
153
155
157
158
160
Motion coordination
161
4.1
161
161
163
165
166
167
168
168
169
170
171
173
173
174
174
176
177
178
178
180
182
183
184
185
186
187
189
191
191
Machine Synchronization [607-1], [607-2] ...............................................................
4.1.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
4.1.2 What is needed .......................................................................................
4.1.3 Synchronization features ..........................................................................
4.1.4 General description of the synchronization process .......................................
4.1.5 Limitations .............................................................................................
4.1.6 Hardware installation for Sensor Synchronization ..........................................
4.1.6.1 Encoder specification ...................................................................
4.1.6.2 Encoder description .....................................................................
4.1.6.3 Installation recommendations ........................................................
4.1.6.4 Connecting encoder and encoder interface unit .................................
4.1.7 Hardware installation for Analog Synchronization ..........................................
4.1.7.1 Required hardware ......................................................................
4.1.8 Software installation ................................................................................
4.1.8.1 Sensor installation .......................................................................
4.1.8.2 Reloading saved Motion parameters ...............................................
4.1.8.3 Installation of several sensors ........................................................
4.1.9 Programming the synchronization ..............................................................
4.1.9.1 General issues when programming with the synchronization option ......
4.1.9.2 Programming examples ................................................................
4.1.9.3 Entering and exiting coordinated motion in corner zones ....................
4.1.9.4 Use several sensors .....................................................................
4.1.9.5 Finepoint programming .................................................................
4.1.9.6 Drop sensor object ......................................................................
4.1.9.7 Information on the FlexPendant ......................................................
4.1.9.8 Programming considerations .........................................................
4.1.9.9 Modes of operation ......................................................................
4.1.10 Robot to robot synchronization ..................................................................
4.1.10.1 Introduction ................................................................................
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
7
Table of contents
4.1.11
4.1.12
4.1.13
4.1.14
4.1.15
4.1.16
5
6
217
5.1
217
217
219
221
World Zones [608-1] ..........................................................................................
5.1.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
5.1.2 RAPID components .................................................................................
5.1.3 Code examples .......................................................................................
Motion functions
223
6.1
223
223
225
226
227
229
229
230
231
237
244
244
245
246
247
6.3
8
192
193
196
199
201
202
202
203
205
206
206
207
209
210
211
214
215
Motion Events
6.2
7
4.1.10.2 The concept of robot to robot synchronization ..................................
4.1.10.3 Master robot configuration parameters ............................................
4.1.10.4 Slave robot configuration parameters ..............................................
4.1.10.5 Programming example for master robot ...........................................
4.1.10.6 Programming example for slave robot .............................................
Synchronize with hydraulic press using recorded profile .................................
4.1.11.1 Introduction ................................................................................
4.1.11.2 Configuration of system parameters ................................................
4.1.11.3 Program example ........................................................................
Synchronize with molding machine using recorded profile ..............................
4.1.12.1 Introduction ................................................................................
4.1.12.2 Configuration of system parameters ................................................
4.1.12.3 Program example ........................................................................
Supervision ............................................................................................
System parameters .................................................................................
I/O signals .............................................................................................
RAPID components .................................................................................
Independent Axes [610-1] ...................................................................................
6.1.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
6.1.2 System parameters .................................................................................
6.1.3 RAPID components .................................................................................
6.1.4 Code examples .......................................................................................
Path Recovery [611-1] ........................................................................................
6.2.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
6.2.2 RAPID components .................................................................................
6.2.3 Store current path ...................................................................................
6.2.4 Path recorder .........................................................................................
Path Offset [612-1] .............................................................................................
6.3.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
6.3.2 RAPID components .................................................................................
6.3.3 Related RAPID functionality ......................................................................
6.3.4 Code example ........................................................................................
Motion Supervision
249
7.1
249
249
250
251
253
254
254
256
257
258
258
259
260
261
Collision Detection [613-1] ..................................................................................
7.1.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
7.1.2 Limitations .............................................................................................
7.1.3 What happens at a collision .......................................................................
7.1.4 Additional information ..............................................................................
7.1.5 Configuration and programming facilities .....................................................
7.1.5.1 System parameters ......................................................................
7.1.5.2 RAPID components ......................................................................
7.1.5.3 Signals ......................................................................................
7.1.6 How to use Collision Detection ..................................................................
7.1.6.1 Set up system parameters .............................................................
7.1.6.2 Adjust supervision from FlexPendant ..............................................
7.1.6.3 Adjust supervision from RAPID program ..........................................
7.1.6.4 How to avoid false triggering .........................................................
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
Table of contents
8
Communication
263
8.1
263
263
265
266
267
267
269
270
271
271
272
274
275
275
276
277
278
280
282
282
283
287
288
289
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
9
FTP Client [614-1] .............................................................................................
8.1.1 Introduction to FTP Client .........................................................................
8.1.2 System parameters .................................................................................
8.1.3 Examples ..............................................................................................
NFS Client [614-1] .............................................................................................
8.2.1 Introduction to NFS Client .........................................................................
8.2.2 System parameters .................................................................................
8.2.3 Examples ..............................................................................................
PC Interface [616-1] ...........................................................................................
8.3.1 Introduction to PC Interface .......................................................................
8.3.2 Send variable from RAPID ........................................................................
8.3.3 ABB software using PC Interface ...............................................................
Socket Messaging [616-1] ...................................................................................
8.4.1 Introduction to Socket Messaging ..............................................................
8.4.2 Schematic picture of socket communication .................................................
8.4.3 Technical facts about Socket Messaging .....................................................
8.4.4 RAPID components .................................................................................
8.4.5 Code examples .......................................................................................
RAPID Message Queue [included in 616-1, 623-1] ...................................................
8.5.1 Introduction to RAPID Message Queue .......................................................
8.5.2 RAPID Message Queue behavior ...............................................................
8.5.3 System parameters .................................................................................
8.5.4 RAPID components .................................................................................
8.5.5 Code examples .......................................................................................
Engineering tools
293
9.1
293
293
295
297
298
298
300
302
303
305
305
307
309
311
313
313
314
315
316
317
317
318
318
319
320
321
321
324
324
9.2
Multitasking [623-1] ...........................................................................................
9.1.1 Introduction to Multitasking .......................................................................
9.1.2 System parameters .................................................................................
9.1.3 RAPID components .................................................................................
9.1.4 Task configuration ...................................................................................
9.1.4.1 Debug strategies for setting up tasks ..............................................
9.1.4.2 Priorities ....................................................................................
9.1.4.3 Task Panel Settings .....................................................................
9.1.4.4 Select which tasks to start with START button ..................................
9.1.5 Communication between tasks ..................................................................
9.1.5.1 Persistent variables .....................................................................
9.1.5.2 Waiting for other tasks ..................................................................
9.1.5.3 Synchronizing between tasks .........................................................
9.1.5.4 Using a dispatcher .......................................................................
9.1.6 Other programming issues ........................................................................
9.1.6.1 Share resource between tasks .......................................................
9.1.6.2 Test if task controls mechanical unit ................................................
9.1.6.3 taskid ........................................................................................
9.1.6.4 Avoid heavy loops .......................................................................
Sensor Interface [628-1] .....................................................................................
9.2.1 Introduction to Sensor Interface .................................................................
9.2.2 Configuring sensors ................................................................................
9.2.2.1 About the sensors .......................................................................
9.2.2.2 Configuring sensors over serial channels .........................................
9.2.2.3 Configuring sensors over Ethernet channel ......................................
9.2.3 RAPID ...................................................................................................
9.2.3.1 RAPID components ......................................................................
9.2.4 Examples ..............................................................................................
9.2.4.1 Code examples ...........................................................................
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
9
Table of contents
9.3
9.4
Externally Guided Motion [689-1] ..........................................................................
9.3.1 Introduction to EGM .................................................................................
9.3.1.1 Overview ...................................................................................
9.3.1.2 Introduction to EGM Position Guidance ...........................................
9.3.1.3 Introduction to EGM Path Correction ...............................................
9.3.2 Using EGM ............................................................................................
9.3.2.1 Basic approach ...........................................................................
9.3.2.2 Execution states ..........................................................................
9.3.2.3 Input data ...................................................................................
9.3.2.4 Output data ................................................................................
9.3.2.5 Configuration ..............................................................................
9.3.2.6 Frames ......................................................................................
9.3.3 The EGM sensor protocol .........................................................................
9.3.4 System parameters .................................................................................
9.3.5 RAPID components .................................................................................
9.3.6 RAPID code examples .............................................................................
9.3.6.1 Using EGM Position Guidance with an UdpUc device .........................
9.3.6.2 Using EGM Position Guidance with signals as input ...........................
9.3.6.3 Using EGM Path Correction with different protocol types ....................
9.3.7 UdpUc code examples .............................................................................
Robot Reference Interface [included in 689-1] ........................................................
9.4.1 Introduction to Robot Reference Interface ....................................................
9.4.2 Installation .............................................................................................
9.4.2.1 Connecting the communication cable ..............................................
9.4.2.2 Prerequisites ..............................................................................
9.4.2.3 Data orchestration .......................................................................
9.4.2.4 Supported data types ...................................................................
9.4.3 Configuration .........................................................................................
9.4.3.1 Interface configuration ..................................................................
9.4.3.2 Interface settings .........................................................................
9.4.3.3 Device description .......................................................................
9.4.3.4 Device configuration ....................................................................
9.4.4 Configuration examples ............................................................................
9.4.4.1 RAPID programming ....................................................................
9.4.4.2 Example configuration ..................................................................
9.4.5 RAPID components .................................................................................
10 Tool control options
377
10.1 Servo Tool Change [630-1] ..................................................................................
10.1.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
10.1.2 Requirements and limitations ....................................................................
10.1.3 Configuration .........................................................................................
10.1.4 Connection relay .....................................................................................
10.1.5 Tool change procedure ............................................................................
10.1.6 Jogging servo tools with activation disabled .................................................
10.2 Tool Control [1180-1] .........................................................................................
10.2.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
10.2.2 Servo tool movements .............................................................................
10.2.3 Tip management .....................................................................................
10.2.4 Supervision ............................................................................................
10.2.5 RAPID components .................................................................................
10.2.6 System parameters .................................................................................
10.2.7 Commissioning and service ......................................................................
10.2.8 Mechanical unit calibrations ......................................................................
10.2.9 RAPID code example ...............................................................................
10.3 I/O Controlled Axes [included in 1180-1] ................................................................
10.3.1 Overview ...............................................................................................
10.3.2 Contouring error .....................................................................................
10.3.3 Correcting the position .............................................................................
10
326
326
326
328
329
330
330
331
332
335
336
337
339
343
344
346
346
348
352
355
356
356
357
357
358
359
360
361
361
362
363
366
369
369
370
375
377
377
378
380
381
383
384
385
385
386
387
389
390
391
396
398
399
400
400
401
402
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
Table of contents
10.3.4
10.3.5
10.3.6
10.3.7
10.3.8
Tool changing .........................................................................................
Installation .............................................................................................
Configuration .........................................................................................
System parameters .................................................................................
RAPID programming ................................................................................
Index
403
404
405
407
409
411
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
11
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Overview of this manual
Overview of this manual
About this manual
This manual explains the basics of when and how to use various RobotWare options
and functions.
Usage
This manual can be used either as a reference to find out if an option is the right
choice for solving a problem, or as a description of how to use an option. Detailed
information regarding syntax for RAPID routines, and similar, is not described here,
but can be found in the respective reference manual.
Who should read this manual?
This manual is intended for robot programmers.
Prerequisites
The reader should...
•
be familiar with industrial robots and their terminology.
•
be familiar with the RAPID programming language.
•
be familiar with system parameters and how to configure them.
References
Reference
Document ID
Product specification - Controller software IRC5
IRC5 with main computer DSQC1000 and RobotWare 6.
3HAC050945-001
Product specification - Controller IRC5
IRC5 with main computer DSQC1000.
3HAC047400-001
Operating manual - RobotStudio
3HAC032104-001
Operating manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant
3HAC050941-001
Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and 3HAC050917-001
Data types
Technical reference manual - RAPID overview
3HAC050947-001
Technical reference manual - System parameters
3HAC050948-001
Revisions
Revision
Description
-
Released with RobotWare 6.0.
First release.
A
Released with RobotWare 6.01.
• Added Auto Acknowledge Input, see Auto Acknowledge Input on
page 50.
• The functionality of RAPID Message Queue is corrected, see RAPID
Message Queue [included in 616-1, 623-1] on page 282.
• Minor corrections.
Continues on next page
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
13
Overview of this manual
Continued
14
Revision
Description
B
Released with RobotWare 6.02.
• Updated the path to the template files, see UdpUc code examples on
page 355 and Commissioning and service on page 396.
• The TCP ports and protocols are updated for the option Sensor Interface
[628-1], see Configuring sensors over Ethernet channel on page 320.
• Added the functionality EGM Path Correction with corresponding
RAPID instructions, see Externally Guided Motion [689-1] on page 326.
• Bundled options are reordered in the manual according to the parent
option.
• Updated the LTAPP variable list available for optical tracking, see
Constants on page 322.
C
Released with RobotWare 6.03.
• Added the functionality Cyclic bool on page 51.
• Added the functionality Remote Service Embedded on page 101.
• Functionality is added and updated for option Motion Process Mode
[included in 687-1] on page 145.
• The option Servo Tool Control [included in 635-6] is replaced by the
option Tool Control [1180-1] on page 385.
• Added the option I/O Controlled Axes [included in 1180-1] on page 400.
• Minor corrections.
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
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1 Introduction to RobotWare
1 Introduction to RobotWare
Software products
RobotWare is a family of software products from ABB Robotics. The products are
designed to make you more productive and lower your cost of owning and operating
a robot. ABB Robotics has invested many years into the development of these
products and they represent knowledge and experience based on several thousands
of robot installations.
Product classes
Within the RobotWare family, there are different classes of products:
Product classes
Description
RobotWare-OS
This is the operating system of the robot. RobotWare-OS provides
all the necessary features for fundamental robot programming and
operation. It is an inherent part of the robot, but can be provided
separately for upgrading purposes.
For a description of RobotWare-OS, see Product specification - Controller IRC5.
RobotWare options
These products are options that run on top of RobotWare-OS. They
are intended for robot users that need additional functionality for
motion control, communication, system engineering, or applications.
Note
Not all RobotWare options are described in this manual. Some options are more comprehensive and are therefore described in separate manuals. For more information see Product specification - Controller software IRC5.
Process application
options
These are extensive packages for specific process application like
spot welding, arc welding, and dispensing. They are primarily designed to improve the process result and to simplify installation and
programming of the application.
The process application options are all described in separate
manuals. For more information see Product specification - Controller
software IRC5.
RobotWare Add-ins
A RobotWare Add-in is a self-contained package that extends the
functionality of the robot system.
Some software products from ABB Robotics are delivered as Addins. For example track motion IRBT, positioner IRBP, and stand
alone controller. For more information see Product specification - Controller software IRC5.
The purpose of RobotWare Add-ins is also that a robot program
developer outside of ABB can create options for the ABB robot
systems, and sell the options to their customers. For more information on creating RobotWare Add-ins, contact your local ABB Robotics
representative at www.abb.com/contacts.
Continues on next page
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15
1 Introduction to RobotWare
Continued
Option groups
For IRC5, the RobotWare options have been gathered in groups, depending on
the customer benefit. The goal is to make it easier to understand the customer
value of the options. However, all options are purchased individually. The groups
are as follows:
Option groups
Description
Motion performance
Options that optimize the performance of your robot.
Motion coordination
Options that make your robot coordinated with external equipment
or other robots.
Motion Events
Options that supervises the position of the robot.
Motion functions
Options that controls the path of the robot.
Motion Supervision
Options that supervises the movement of the robot.
Communication
Options that make the robot communicate with other equipment.
(External PCs etc.)
Engineering tools
Options for the advanced robot integrator.
Servo motor control
Options that make the robot controller operate external motors, independent of the robot.
Note
Not all RobotWare options are described in this manual. Some options are more
comprehensive and are therefore described in separate manuals. For more
information see Product specification - Controller software IRC5.
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2 RobotWare-OS
2.1.1 Introduction to Advanced RAPID
2 RobotWare-OS
2.1 Advanced RAPID
2.1.1 Introduction to Advanced RAPID
Introduction to Advanced RAPID
The RobotWare base functionality Advanced RAPID is intended for robot
programmers who develop applications that require advanced functionality.
Advanced RAPID includes many different types of functionality, which can be
divided into these groups:
Functionality group
Description
Bit functionality
Bitwise operations on a byte.
Data search functionality
Search and get/set data objects (e.g. variables).
Alias I/O functionality
Give an I/O signal an optional alias name.
Configuration functionality
Get/set system parameters.
Power failure functionality
Restore signals after power failure.
Process support functionality
Useful when creating process applications.
Interrupt functionality
More interrupt functionality than included in RobotWare base functionality.
User message functionality
Error messages and other texts.
RAPID support functionality
Miscellaneous support for the programmer.
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2.1.2.1 Overview
2.1.2 Bit functionality
2.1.2.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of the bit functionality is to be able to make operations on a byte,
seen as 8 digital bits. It is possible to get or set a single bit, or make logical
operations on a byte. These operations are useful, for example, when handling
serial communication or group of digital I/O signals.
What is included
Bit functionality includes:
18
•
The data type byte.
•
Instructions used set a bit value: BitSet and BitClear.
•
Function used to get a bit value: BitCheck.
•
Functions used to make logical operations on a byte: BitAnd, BitOr,
BitXOr, BitNeg, BitLSh, and BitRSh.
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2.1.2.2 RAPID components
2.1.2.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type used for the bit functionality. For more
information, see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
byte
The data type byte represent a decimal value between 0 and 255.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for the bit functionality. For more
information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
BitSet
BitSet is used to set a specified bit to 1 in a defined byte data.
BitClear
BitClear is used to clear (set to 0) a specified bit in a defined byte data.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for the bit functionality. For more
information, see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
BitAnd
BitAnd is used to execute a logical bitwise AND operation on data types
byte.
BitOr
BitOr is used to execute a logical bitwise OR operation on data types byte.
BitXOr
BitXOr (Bit eXclusive Or) is used to execute a logical bitwise XOR operation
on data types byte.
BitNeg
BitNeg is used to execute a logical bitwise negation operation (one’s
complement) on data types byte.
BitLSh
BitLSh (Bit Left Shift) is used to execute a logical bitwise left shift operation
on data types byte.
BitRSh
BitRSh (Bit Right Shift) is used to execute a logical bitwise right shift operation on data types byte.
BitCheck
BitCheck is used to check if a specified bit in a defined byte data is set to
1.
Tip
Even though not part of the option, the functions for conversion between a byte
and a string, StrToByte and ByteToStr, are often used together with the bit
functionality.
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2.1.2.3 Bit functionality example
2.1.2.3 Bit functionality example
Program code
CONST num parity_bit := 8;
!Set data1 to 00100110
VAR byte data1 := 38;
!Set data2 to 00100010
VAR byte data2 := 34;
VAR byte data3;
!Set data3 to 00100010
data3 := BitAnd(data1, data2);
!Set data3 to 00100110
data3 := BitOr(data1, data2);
!Set data3 to 00000100
data3 := BitXOr(data1, data2);
!Set data3 to 11011001
data3 := BitNeg(data1);
!Set data3 to 10011000
data3 := BitLSh(data1, 2);
!Set data3 to 00010011
data3 := BitRSh(data1, 1);
!Set data1 to 10100110
BitSet data1, parity_bit;
!Set data1 to 00100110
BitClear data1, parity_bit;
!If parity_bit is 0, set it to 1
IF BitCheck(data1, parity_bit) = FALSE THEN
BitSet data1, parity_bit;
ENDIF
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2.1.3.1 Overview
2.1.3 Data search functionality
2.1.3.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of the data search functionality is to search and get/set values for
data objects of a certain type.
Here are some examples of applications for the data search functionality:
•
Setting a value to a variable, when the variable name is only available in a
string.
•
List all variables of a certain type.
•
Set a new value for a set of similar variables with similar names.
What is included
Data search functionality includes:
•
The data type datapos.
•
Instructions used to find a set of data objects and get or set their
values:SetDataSearch, GetDataVal, SetDataVal, and SetAllDataVal.
•
A function for traversing the search result: GetNextSym.
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2.1.3.2 RAPID components
2.1.3.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type used for the data search functionality.
For more information, see the respective data type in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
datapos
datapos is the enclosing block to a data object (internal system data)
retrieved with the function GetNextSym.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for the data search functionality.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
SetDataSearch SetDataSearch is used together with GetNextSym to retrieve data objects from the system.
GetDataVal
GetDataVal makes it possible to get a value from a data object that is
specified with a string variable, or from a data object retrieved with
GetNextSym.
SetDataVal
SetDataVal makes it possible to set a value for a data object that is
specified with a string variable, or from a data object retrieved with
GetNextSym.
SetAllDataVal SetAllDataVal make it possible to set a new value to all data objects
of a certain type that match the given grammar.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for the data search functionality.
For more information, see the respective function in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
22
Function
Description
GetNextSym
GetNextSym (Get Next Symbol) is used together with SetDataSearch to
retrieve data objects from the system.
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2.1.3.3 Data search functionality examples
2.1.3.3 Data search functionality examples
Set unknown variable
This is an example of how to set the value of a variable when the name of the
variable is unknown when programming, and only provided in a string.
VAR string my_string;
VAR num my_number;
VAR num new_value:=10;
my_string := "my_number";
!Set value to 10 for variable specified by my_string
SetDataVal my_string,new_value;
Reset a range of variables
This is an example where all numeric variables starting with "my" is reset to 0.
VAR string my_string:="my.*";
VAR num zerovar:=0;
SetAllDataVal "num"\Object:=my_string,zerovar;
List/set certain variables
In this example, all numeric variables in the module "mymod" starting with "my"
are listed on the FlexPendant and then reset to 0.
VAR
VAR
VAR
VAR
datapos block;
string name;
num valuevar;
num zerovar:=0;
!Search for all num variables starting with "my" in the module
"mymod"
SetDataSearch "num"\Object:="my.*"\InMod:="mymod";
!Loop through the search result
WHILE GetNextSym(name,block) DO
!Read the value from each found variable
GetDataVal name\Block:=block,valuevar;
!Write name and value for each found variable
TPWrite name+" = "\Num:=valuevar;
!Set the value to 0 for each found variables
SetDataVal name\Block:=block,zerovar;
ENDWHILE
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2.1.4.1 Overview
2.1.4 Alias I/O signals
2.1.4.1 Overview
Purpose
The Alias I/O functionality gives the programmer the ability to use any name on a
signal and connect that name to a configured I/O signal.
This is useful when a RAPID program is reused between different systems. Instead
of rewriting the code, using a signal name that exist on the new system, the signal
name used in the program can be defined as an alias name.
What is included
Alias I/O functionality consists of the instruction AliasIO.
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2.1.4.2 RAPID components
2.1.4.2 RAPID components
Data types
There are no RAPID data types for the Alias I/O functionality.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for the Alias I/O functionality.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
AliasIO
AliasIO is used to define a signal of any type with an alias name, or to
use signals in built-in task modules. The alias name is connected to a
configured I/O signal.
The instruction AliasIO must be run before any use of the actual signal.
Functions
There are no RAPID functions for the Alias I/O functionality.
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2.1.4.3 Alias I/O functionality example
2.1.4.3 Alias I/O functionality example
Assign alias name to signal
This example shows how to define the digital output signal alias_do to be
connected to the configured digital output I/O signal config_do.
The routine prog_start is connected to the START event.
This will ensure that "alias_do" can be used in the RAPID code even though there
is no configured signal with that name.
VAR signaldo alias_do;
PROC prog_start()
AliasIO config_do, alias_do;
ENDPROC
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2.1.5.1 Overview
2.1.5 Configuration functionality
2.1.5.1 Overview
Purpose
The configuration functionality gives the programmer access to the system
parameters at run time. The parameter values can be read and edited. The controller
can be restarted in order for the new parameter values to take effect.
What is included
Configuration functionality includes the instructions: ReadCfgData, WriteCfgData,
and WarmStart.
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2.1.5.2 RAPID components
2.1.5.2 RAPID components
Data types
There are no RAPID data types for the configuration functionality.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for the configuration functionality.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
ReadCfgData
ReadCfgData is used to read one attribute of a named system parameter
(configuration data).
WriteCfgData WriteCfgData is used to write one attribute of a named system parameter (configuration data).
WarmStart
WarmStart is used to restart the controller at run time.
This is useful after changing system parameters with the instruction
WriteCfgData.
Functions
There are no RAPID functions for the configuration functionality.
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2.1.5.3 Configuration functionality example
2.1.5.3 Configuration functionality example
Configure system parameters
This is an example where the system parameter cal_offset for rob1_1 is read,
increased by 0.2 mm and then written back. To make this change take effect, the
controller is restarted.
VAR num old_offset;
VAR num new_offset;
ReadCfgData "/MOC/MOTOR_CALIB/rob1_1", "cal_offset",old_offset;
new_offset := old_offset + (0.2/1000);
WriteCfgData "/MOC/MOTOR_CALIB/rob1_1", "cal_offset",new_offset;
WarmStart;
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2.1.6.1 Overview
2.1.6 Power failure functionality
2.1.6.1 Overview
Purpose
If the robot was in the middle of a path movement when the power fail occurred,
some extra actions may need to be taken when the robot motion is resumed. The
power failure functionality helps you detect if the power fail occurred during a path
movement.
Note
For more information see the type Signal Safe Level, which belongs to the topic
I/O System, in Technical reference manual - System parameters.
What is included
The power failure functionality includes a function that checks for interrupted path:
PFRestart
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2.1.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters
2.1.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters
Data types
There are no RAPID data types in the power failure functionality.
Instructions
There are no RAPID instructions in the power failure functionality.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in the power failure functionality. For
more information, see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
PFRestart
PFRestart (Power Failure Restart) is used to check if the path was interrupted at power failure. If so it might be necessary to make some specific
actions. The function checks the path on current level, base level or on interrupt level.
System parameters
There are no system parameters in the power failure functionality. However,
regardless of whether you have any options installed, you can use the parameter
Store signal at power fail.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - System parameters.
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2.1.6.3 Power failure functionality example
2.1.6.3 Power failure functionality example
Test for interrupted path
When resuming work after a power failure, this example tests if the power failure
occurred during a path (i.e. when the robot was moving).
!Test if path was interrupted
IF PFRestart() = TRUE THEN
SetDO do5,1;
ELSE
SetDO do5,0;
ENDIF
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2.1.7.1 Overview
2.1.7 Process support functionality
2.1.7.1 Overview
Purpose
Process support functionality provides some RAPID instructions that can be useful
when creating process applications. Examples of its use are:
•
Analog output signals, used in continuous process application, can be set
to be proportional to the robot TCP speed.
•
A continuous process application that is stopped with program stop or
emergency stop can be continued from where it stopped.
What is included
The process support functionality includes:
•
The data type restartdata.
•
Instruction for setting analog output signal: TriggSpeed.
•
Instructions used in connection with restart: TriggStopProc and
StepBwdPath.
Limitations
The instruction TriggSpeed can only be used if you have the base functionality
Fixed Position Events.
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2.1.7.2 RAPID components
2.1.7.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type used for the process support
functionality. For more information, see the respective data type in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
restartdata
restartdata can contain the pre- and post-values of specified I/O signals (process signals) at the stop sequence of the robot movements.
restartdata, together with the instruction TriggStopProc is used to
preserve data for the restart after program stop or emergency stop of
self-developed process instructions.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for the process support
functionality. For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
TriggSpeed
TriggSpeed is used to define the setting of an analog output to a value
proportional to the TCP speed.
TriggSpeed can only be used together with the option Fixed Position
Events.
TriggStopProc TriggStopProc is used to store the pre- and post-values of all used
process signals.
TriggStopProc and the data type restartdata are used to preserve
data for the restart after program stop or emergency stop of self-developed process instructions.
StepBwdPath
StepBwdPath is used to move the TCP backwards on the robot path
from a RESTART event routine.
Functions
There are no RAPID functions for the process support functionality.
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2.1.7.3 Process support functionality examples
2.1.7.3 Process support functionality examples
Signal proportional to speed
In this example, the analog output signal that controls the amount of glue is set to
be proportional to the speed.
Any speed dip by the robot is time compensated in such a way that the analog
output signal glue_ao is affected 0.04 s before the TCP speed dip occurs. If
overflow of the calculated logical analog output value in glue_ao, the digital output
signal glue_err is set.
VAR triggdata glueflow;
!The glue flow is set to scale value 0.8 0.05 s before point p1
TriggSpeed glueflow, 0, 0.05, glue_ao, 0.8 \DipLag=:0.04,
\ErrDO:=glue_err;
TriggL p1, v500, glueflow, z50, gun1;
!The glue flow is set to scale value 1 10 mm plus 0.05 s before
point p2
TriggSpeed glueflow, 10, 0.05, glue_ao, 1;
TriggL p2, v500, glueflow, z10, gun1;
!The glue flow ends (scale value 0) 0.05 s before point p3
TriggSpeed glueflow, 0, 0.05, glue_ao, 0;
TriggL p3, v500, glueflow, z50, gun1;
Tip
Note that it is also possible to create self-developed process instructions with
TriggSpeed using the NOSTEPIN routine concept.
Resume signals after stop
In this example, an output signal resumes its value after a program stop or
emergency stop.
The procedure supervise is defined as a POWER ON event routine and
resume_signals as a RESTART event routine.
PERS restartdata myproc_data :=
[FALSE,FALSE,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0];
...
PROC myproc()
MoveJ p1, vmax, fine, my_gun;
SetDO do_close_gun, 1;
MoveL p2,v1000,z50,my_gun;
MoveL p3,v1000,fine,my_gun;
SetDO do_close_gun, 0;
ENDPROC
...
PROC supervise()
TriggStopProc myproc_data \DO1:=do_close_gun, do_close_gun;
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2.1.7.3 Process support functionality examples
Continued
ENDPROC
PROC resume_signals()
IF myproc_data.preshadowval = 1 THEN
SetDO do_close_gun,1;
ELSE
SetDO do_close_gun,0;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
Move TCP backwards
In this example, the TCP is moved backwards 30 mm in 1 second, along the same
path as before the restart.
The procedure move_backward is defined as a RESTART event routine.
PROC move_backward()
StepBwdPath 30, 1;
ENDPROC
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2.1.8.1 Overview
2.1.8 Interrupt functionality
2.1.8.1 Overview
Purpose
The interrupt functionality in Advanced RAPID has some extra features, in addition
to the interrupt features always included in RAPID. For more information on the
basic interrupt functionality, see Technical reference manual - RAPID overview.
Here are some examples of interrupt applications that Advanced RAPID facilitates:
•
Generate an interrupt when a persistent variable change value.
•
Generate an interrupt when an error occurs, and find out more about the
error.
What is included
The interrupt functionality in Advanced RAPID includes:
•
Data types for error interrupts: trapdata, errdomain, and errtype .
•
Instructions for generating interrupts: IPers and IError.
•
Instructions for finding out more about an error interrupt: GetTrapData and
ReadErrData.
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2.1.8.2 RAPID components
2.1.8.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in the interrupt functionality. For more
information, see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
trapdata
trapdata represents internal information related to the interrupt that caused
the current trap routine to be executed.
errdomain
errdomain is used to specify an error domain. Depending on the nature
of the error, it is logged in different domains.
errtype
errtype is used to specify an error type (error, warning, state change).
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in the interrupt functionality. For more
information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
IPers
IPers (Interrupt Persistent) is used to order an interrupt to be generated
each time the value of a persistent variable is changed.
IError
IError (Interrupt Errors) is used to order an interrupt to be generated each
time an error occurs.
GetTrapData GetTrapData is used in trap routines generated by the instruction IError.
GetTrapData obtains all information about the interrupt that caused the
trap routine to be executed.
ReadErrData ReadErrData is used in trap routines generated by the instruction IError.
ReadErrData read the information obtained by GetTrapData.
ErrRaise
ErrRaise is used to create an error in the program and the call the error
handler of the routine.ErrRaise can also be used in the error handler to
propagate the current error to the error handler of the calling routine.
Functions
There are no RAPID functions for the interrupt functionality.
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2.1.8.3 Interrupt functionality examples
2.1.8.3 Interrupt functionality examples
Interrupt when persistent variable changes
In this example, a trap routine is called when the value of the persistent variable
counter changes.
VAR intnum int1;
PERS num counter := 0;
PROC main()
CONNECT int1 WITH iroutine1;
IPers counter, int1;
...
counter := counter + 1;
...
Idelete int1;
ENDPROC
TRAP iroutine1
TPWrite "Current value of counter = " \Num:=counter;
ENDTRAP
Error interrupt
In this example, a trap routine is called when an error occurs. The trap routine
determines the error domain and the error number and communicates them via
output signals.
VAR
VAR
VAR
VAR
VAR
intnum err_interrupt;
trapdata err_data;
errdomain err_domain;
num err_number;
errtype err_type;
PROC main()
CONNECT err_interrupt WITH trap_err;
IError COMMON_ERR, TYPE_ERR, err_interrupt;
...
a:=3;
b:=0;
c:=a/b;
...
IDelete err_interrupt;
ENDPROC
TRAP trap_err
GetTrapData err_data;
ReadErrData err_data, err_domain, err_number, err_type;
SetGO go_err1, err_domain;
SetGO go_err2, err_number;
ENDTRAP
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2.1.9.1 Overview
2.1.9 User message functionality
2.1.9.1 Overview
Purpose
The user message functionality is used to set up event numbers and facilitate the
handling of event messages and other texts to be presented in the user interface.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Get user messages from a text table file, which simplifies updates and
translations.
•
Add system error number to be used as error recovery constants in RAISE
instructions and for test in ERROR handlers.
What is included
The user message functionality includes:
40
•
Text table operating instruction TextTabInstall.
•
Text table operating functions: TextTabFreeToUse, TextTabGet, and
TextGet.
•
Instruction for error number handling: BookErrNo.
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2.1.9.2 RAPID components
2.1.9.2 RAPID components
Data types
There are no RAPID data types for the user message functionality.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for the user message
functionality. For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
BookErrNo
BookErrNo is used to define a new RAPID system error number.
TextTabInstall TextTabInstall is used to install a text table in the system.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for the user message functionality.
For more information, see the respective function in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
TextTabFreeToUse TextTabFreeToUse is used to test whether the text table name is free
to use (not already installed in the system).
TextTabGet
TextTabGet is used to get the text table number of a user defined text
table.
TextGet
TextGet is used to get a text string from the system text tables.
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2.1.9.3 User message functionality examples
2.1.9.3 User message functionality examples
Book error number
This example shows how to add a new error number.
VAR intnum sig1int;
!Introduce
!Note: The
value
VAR errnum
a new error number in a glue system.
new error variable must be declared with the initial
-1
ERR_GLUEFLOW := -1;
PROC main()
!Book the new RAPID system error number
BookErrNo ERR_GLUEFLOW;
!Raise glue flow error if di1=1
IF di1=1 THEN
RAISE ERR_GLUEFLOW;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
!Error handling
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_GLUEFLOW THEN
ErrWrite "Glue error", "There is a problem with the glue flow";
ENDIF
Error message from text table file
This example shows how to get user messages from a text table file.
There is a text table named text_table_name in a file named
HOME:/language/en/text_file.xml. This table contains error messages in english.
The procedure install_text is executed at event POWER ON. The first time it
is executed, the text table file text_file.xml is installed. The next time it is executed,
the function TextTabFreeToUse returns FALSE and the installation is not repeated.
The table is then used for getting user interface messages.
VAR num text_res_no;
PROC install_text()
!Test if text_table_name is already installed
IF TextTabFreeToUse("text_table_name") THEN
!Install the table from the file HOME:/language/en/text_file.xml
TextTabInstall "HOME:/language/en/text_file.xml";
ENDIF
!Assign the text table number for text_table_name to text_res_no
text_res_no := TextTabGet("text_table_name");
ENDPROC
...
!Write error message with two strings from the table text_res_no
ErrWrite TextGet(text_res_no, 1), TextGet(text_res_no, 2);
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2.1.9.4 Text table files
2.1.9.4 Text table files
Overview
A text table is stored in an XML file (each file can contain one table in one language).
This table can contain any number of text strings.
Explanation of the text table file
This is a description of the XML tags and arguments used in the text table file.
Tag
Argument
Resource
Description
Represents a text table. A file can only contain one instance of
Resource.
Name
The name of the text table. Used by the RAPID instruction
TextTabGet.
Language
Language code for the language of the text strings.
Currently this argument is not being used. The RAPID instruction
TextTabInstall can only handle English texts.
Text
Represents a text string.
Name
The text string’s number in the table.
Value
The text string to be used.
Comment
Comments about the text string and its usage.
Example of text table file
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" ?>
<Resource Name="text_table_name" Language="en">
<Text Name="1">
<Value>This is a text that is </Value>
<Comment>The first part of my text</Comment>
</Text>
<Text Name="2">
<Value>displayed in the user interface.</Value>
<Comment>The second part of my text</Comment>
</Text>
</Resource>
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2.1.10.1 Overview
2.1.10 RAPID support functionality
2.1.10.1 Overview
Purpose
The RAPID support functionality consists of miscellaneous routines that might be
helpful for an advanced robot programmer.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Activate a new tool, work object or payload.
•
Find out what an argument is called outside the current routine.
•
Test if the program pointer has been moved during the last program stop.
What is included
RAPID support functionality includes:
44
•
Instruction for activating specified system data: SetSysData.
•
Function that gets original data object name: ArgName.
•
Function for information about program pointer movement:
IsStopStateEvent.
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2.1.10.2 RAPID components
2.1.10.2 RAPID components
Data types
There are no data types for RAPID support functionality.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for RAPID support functionality.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
SetSysData
SetSysData activates (or changes the current active) tool, work object,
or payload for the robot.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for RAPID support functionality.
For more information, see the respective function in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
ArgName
ArgName is used to get the name of the original data object for the
current argument or the current data.
IsStopStateEvent IsStopStateEvent returns information about the movement of the
program pointer.
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2.1.10.3 RAPID support functionality examples
2.1.10.3 RAPID support functionality examples
Activate tool
This is an example of how to activate a known tool:
!Activate tool1
SetSysData tool1;
This is an example of how to activate a tool when the name of the tool is only
available in a string:
VAR string tool_string := "tool2";
!Activate the tool specified in tool_string
SetSysData tool0 \ObjectName := tool_string;
Get argument name
In this example, the original name of par1 is fetched. The output will be "Argument
name my_nbr with value 5".
VAR num my_nbr :=5;
proc1 my_nbr;
PROC proc1 (num par1)
VAR string name;
name:=ArgName(par1);
TPWrite "Argument name "+name+" with value " \Num:=par1;
ENDPROC
Test if program pointer has been moved
This example tests if the program pointer was moved during the last program stop.
IF IsStopStateEvent (\PPMoved) = TRUE THEN
TPWrite "The program pointer has been moved.";
ENDIF
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2.2.1 Introduction to Analog Signal Interrupt
2.2 Analog Signal Interrupt
2.2.1 Introduction to Analog Signal Interrupt
Purpose
The purpose of Analog Signal Interrupt is to supervise an analog signal and
generate an interrupt when a specified value is reached.
Analog Signal Interrupt is faster, easier to implement, and require less computer
capacity than polling methods.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Save cycle time with better timing (start robot movement exactly when a
signal reach the specified value, instead of waiting for polling).
•
Show warning or error messages if a signal value is outside its allowed range.
•
Stop the robot if a signal value reaches a dangerous level.
What is included
The RobotWare base functionality Analog Signal Interrupt gives you access to the
instructions:
•
ISignalAI
•
ISignalAO
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using Analog Signal Interrupt. For a more detailed
example of how this is done, see Code example on page 49.
1 Create a trap routine.
2 Connect the trap routine using the instruction CONNECT.
3 Define the interrupt conditions with the instruction ISignalAI or ISignalAO.
Limitations
Analog signals can only be used if you have an industrial network option (for
example DeviceNet or PROFIBUS).
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2.2.2 RAPID components
2.2.2 RAPID components
Data types
Analog Signal Interrupt includes no data types.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Analog Signal Interrupt. For more
information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
ISignalAI
Defines the values of an analog input signal, for which an interrupt routine
shall be called.
An interrupt can be set to occur when the signal value is above or below a
specified value, or inside or outside a specified range. It can also be specified if the interrupt shall occur once or repeatedly.
ISignalAO
Defines the values of an analog output signal, for which an interrupt routine
shall be called.
An interrupt can be set to occur when the signal value is above or below a
specified value, or inside or outside a specified range. It can also be specified if the interrupt shall occur once or repeatedly.
Functions
Analog Signal Interrupt includes no RAPID functions.
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2.2.3 Code example
2.2.3 Code example
Temperature surveillance
In this example a temperature sensor is connected to the signal ai1.
An interrupt routine with a warning is set to execute every time the temperature
rises 0.5 degrees in the range 120-130 degrees. Another trap routine, stopping the
robot, is set to execute as soon as the temperature rise above 130 degrees.
VAR intnum ai1_warning;
VAR intnum ai1_exeeded;
PROC main()
CONNECT ai1_warning WITH temp_warning;
CONNECT ai1_exeeded WITH temp_exeeded;
ISignalAI ai1, AIO_BETWEEN, 130, 120, 0.5, \DPos, ai1_warning;
ISignalAI \Single, ai1, AIO_ABOVE_HIGH, 130, 120, 0, ai1_exeeded;
...
IDelete ai1_warning;
IDelete ai1_exeeded;
ENDPROC
TRAP temp_warning
TPWrite "Warning: Temperature is "\Num:=ai1;
ENDTRAP
TRAP temp_exeeded
TPWrite "Temperature is too high";
Stop;
ENDTRAP
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2.3 Auto Acknowledge Input
2.3 Auto Acknowledge Input
Description
Auto Acknowledge Input is a system input which will acknowledge the dialog
presented on the FlexPendant when switching from operator mode manual to auto
with the key switch on the robot controller.
WARNING
Note that using such an input will be contrary to the regulations in the safety
standard ISO 10218-1 chapter 5.3.5 Single point of control with following text:
"The robot control system shall be designed and constructed so that when the
robot is placed under local pendant control or other teaching device control,
initiation of robot motion or change of local control selection from any other
source shall be prevented."
Thus it is absolutely necessary to use other means of safety to maintain the
requirements of the standard and the machinery directive and also to make a
risk assessment of the completed cell. Such additional arrangements and risk
assessment is the responsibility of the system integrator and the system must
not be put into service until these actions have been completed
Limitations
The system parameter cannot be defined using the FlexPendant or RobotStudio,
only with a text string in the I/O configuration file.
Activate Auto Acknowledge Input
Use the following procedure to activate the system input for Auto Acknowledge
Input.
Action
1
Save a copy of the I/O configuration file, eio.cfg, using the FlexPendant or RobotStudio.
2
Edit the I/O configuration file, eio.cfg, using a text editor. Add the following line in the
group SYSSIG_IN:
-Signal "my_signal_name" -Action "AckAutoMode"
my_signal_name is the name of the configured digital input signal that should be
used as the system input.
50
3
Save the file and reload it to the controller.
4
Restart the system to activate the signal.
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2.4.1 Cyclically evaluated logical conditions
2.4 Cyclic bool
2.4.1 Cyclically evaluated logical conditions
Purpose
The purpose of cyclically evaluated logical conditions, Cyclic bool, is to allow a
RAPID programmer to connect a logical condition to a persistent boolean variable.
The logical condition will be evaluated every 12 ms and the result will be written
to the connected variable.
What is included
The RobotWare base functionality Cyclic bool includes:
•
instructions for setting up Cyclic bool: SetupCyclicBool,
RemoveCyclicBool, RemoveAllCyclicBool
•
functions for retrieving the status of Cyclic bool:
GetMaxNumberOfCyclicBool, GetNextCyclicBool,
GetNumberOfCyclicBool.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using Cyclic bool. For more detailed examples of
how this is done, see Cyclic bool examples on page 54.
1 Declare a persistent boolean variable, for example:
PERS bool cyclicbool1;
2 Connect a logical condition to the variable, for example:
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool1, doSafetyIsOk = 1;
3 Use the variable when programming, for example:
WHILE cyclicbool1 = 1 DO
! Do what’s only allowed when all safety is ok
...
ENDWHILE
4 Remove connection when no longer useful, for example:
RemoveCyclicBool cyclicbool1;
Syntax
SetupCyclicBool Flag Cond
Flag shall be of:
•
Data type: bool
-
Object type: PERS or TASK PERS
Cond shall be a bool expression that may consist of:
•
Data types: num, dnum and bool
-
•
Object type: PERS, TASK PERS, or CONST
Data types: signaldi, signaldo or physical di and do
-
Object type: VAR
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2.4.1 Cyclically evaluated logical conditions
Continued
•
Operands: 'NOT', 'AND', 'OR', 'XOR', '=', '(', ')'
RemoveCyclicBool Flag
Flag shall be of:
•
Data type: bool
-
Object type: PERS or TASK PERS
Limitations
52
•
Records and arrays are not allowed in the logical condition.
•
A maximum of 60 conditions can be connected at the same time.
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2.4.2 RAPID components
2.4.2 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is an overview of all RAPID instructions, functions, and data types in Cyclic
bool.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instruction
Description
SetupCyclicBool
SetupCyclicBool connects a logical condition to a boolean
variable.
RemoveCyclicBool
RemoveCyclicBool removes a specific connected logical condition.
RemoveAllCyclicBool RemoveAllCyclicBool removes all connected logical conditions.
Functions
Function
Description
GetMaxNumberOfCyclicBool
GetMaxNumberOfCyclicBool retrieves the maximum
number of cyclically evaluated logical condition that can
be connected at the same time.
GetNextCyclicBool
GetNextCyclicBool retrieves the name of a connected
cyclically evaluated logical condition.
GetNumberOfCyclicBool
GetNumberOfCyclicBool retrieves the number of a
connected cyclically evaluated logical condition.
Data types
Cyclic bool includes no data types.
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2.4.3 Cyclic bool examples
2.4.3 Cyclic bool examples
Using digital input and output signals
! Wait until all signals are set
PERS bool cyclicbool1 := FALSE;
PROC main()
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool1, di1=1 AND do2=1;
WaitUntil cyclicbool1=TRUE;
! All is ok
...
! Remove connection when no longer in use
RemoveCyclicBool cyclicbool1;
ENDPROC
Using bool variables
! Wait until all flags are TRUE
PERS bool cyclicbool1 := FALSE;
TASK PERS bool flag1 := FALSE;
PERS bool flag2 := FALSE;
PROC main()
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool1, flag1=TRUE AND flag2=TRUE;
WaitUntil cyclicbool1=TRUE;
! All is ok
...
! Remove connection when no longer in use
RemoveCyclicBool cyclicbool1;
ENDPROC
Using num and dnum variables
! Wait until all conditions are met
PERS bool cyclicbool1 := FALSE;
PERS bool cyclicbool2 := FALSE;
PERS num num1 := 0;
PERS dnum1 := 0;
PROC main()
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool1, num1=7 OR dnum1=10000000;
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool2, num1=8 OR dnum1=11000000;
WaitUntil cyclicbool1=TRUE;
...
WaitUntil cyclicbool2=TRUE;
...
! Remove all connections when no longer in use
RemoveAllCyclicBool;
ENDPROC
Continues on next page
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2.4.3 Cyclic bool examples
Continued
Using alias variables
! Wait until all conditions are met
ALIAS bool aliasBool;
ALIAS num aliasNum;
ALIAS dnum aliasDnum;
PERS
PERS
PERS
PERS
bool cyclicbool1 := FALSE;
aliasBool flag1 := FALSE;
aliasNum num1 := 0;
aliasDnum dnum1 := 0;
PROC main()
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool1, flag1=TRUE AND (num1=7 OR
dnum1=10000000);
WaitUntil cyclicbool1=TRUE;
! All is ok
...
! Remove connection when no longer in use
RemoveCyclicBool cyclicbool1;
ENDPROC
Using user defined constants for comparison
! Wait until all conditions are met
PERS bool cyclicbool1;
PERS bool flag1 := FALSE;
PERS num num1 := 0;
PERS dnum dnum1 := 0;
CONST bool MYTRUE := TRUE;
CONST num NUMLIMIT := 10;
CONST dnum DNUMLIMIT := 10000000;
PROC main()
SetupCyclicBool cyclicbool1, flag1=MYTRUE AND num1=NUMLIMIT AND
dnum1=DNUMLIMIT;
WaitUntil cyclicbool1=TRUE;
! All is ok
...
! Remove connection when no longer in use
RemoveCyclicBool cyclicbool1;
ENDPROC
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2.4.3 Cyclic bool examples
Continued
Handing over arguments by reference
If the instruction SetupCyclicBool is used inside a called procedure, it is possible
to hand over conditions as arguments to that procedure.
Using conditions passed by reference works only for SetupCyclicBool. Conditions
passed by reference has the same restrictions as conditions for SetupCyclicBool.
This functionality works regardless if the modules are Nostepin or has any other
module attributes.
MODULE MainModule
CONST robtarget p10 := [[600,500,225.3], [1,0,0,0], [1,1,0,0],
[11,12.3,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9]];
PERS bool m1;
PERS bool Flag2 := FALSE;
PROC main()
! The Expression (di_1 = 1) OR Flag2 = TRUE shall be used by
SetupCyclicBool
my_routine (di_1 = 1) OR Flag2 = TRUE;
ENDPROC
PROC my_routine(bool X)
! It is possible to pass arguments between several procedures
MySetCyclicBool X;
ENDPROC
PROC MySetCyclicBool (bool Y)
RemoveCyclicBool m1;
! Only SetupCyclicBool can pass arguments
SetupCyclicBool m1, Y;
! If conditions passed by reference shall be used by any other
instruction, the condition must be setup with
SetupCyclicBool before it can be used.
WaitUntil m1;
MoveL p10, v1000, z30, tool2;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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2.5.1 Overview
2.5 Electronically Linked Motors
2.5.1 Overview
Description
Electronically Linked Motors makes a master/follower configuration of motors (for
example two additional axes). The follower axis will continuously follow the master
axis in terms of position, velocity, and acceleration.
For stiff mechanical connection between the master and followers, the torque
follower function can be used. Instead of regulating to exactly the same position
for the master and follower, the torque is distributed between the axes. A small
position error between master and follower will occur depending on backlash and
mechanical misalignment.
Purpose
The primary purpose of Electronically Linked Motors is to replace driving shafts
of gantry machines, but the base functionality can be used to control any other set
of motors as well.
What is included
The RobotWare base functionality Electronically Linked Motors gives you access
to:
•
a service program for defining linked motor groups and trimming the axis
positions
•
system parameters used to configure a follower axis
Basic approach
This is the general approach for setting up Electronically Linked Motors. For a
more detailed description of how this is done, see the respective section.
1 Configure the additional axes that you want to use. See Application
manual - Additional axes and stand alone controller.
2 Configure tolerance limits in the system parameters, in the types Linked M
Process, Process, and Joint.
3 Restart the controller for the changes to take effect.
4 Set values to data variables, defining the linked motor group and connecting
follower and master axes.
5 Use the service program to trim positions or reset follower after position
error.
Limitations
There can be up to 5 follower axes. The follower axes can be configured to follow
one master each, or several followers can follow one master, but the total number
of follower axes cannot be more than 5.
The follower axis cannot be an ABB robot (IRB robot). The master axis can be
either an additional axis or a robot axis.
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2.5.1 Overview
Continued
The torque follower function can only be used if the follower axis is connected to
the same drive module as the master axis.
Using the torque follower functionality might reduce the number of follower axes
depending on the number of axes that are available in the drive module where
master axis is configured.
The RAPID instruction IndReset (Independent Reset) cannot be used in
combination with Electronically Linked Motors.
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2.5.2.1 System parameters
2.5.2 Configuration
2.5.2.1 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter used for Electronically Linked Motors.
For more information, see the respective parameter in Technical reference
manual - System parameters.
Joint
These parameters belong to the topic Motion and the type Joint.
Parameter
Description
Follower to Joint Specifies which master axis this axis shall follow. Refers to the parameter
Name in the type Joint. Robot axes are referred to as rob1 followed by
underscore and the axis number (for example rob1_6).
Use Process
Id name of the process that is called. Refers to the parameter Name in
the type Process.
Lock Joint in Ipol A flag that locks the axis so it is not used in the path interpolation.
This parameter must be set to TRUE when the axis is electronically linked
to another axis.
Process
These parameters belong to the topic Motion and the type Process.
Parameter
Description
Name
Id name of the process.
Use Linked Motor Id name of electronically linked motor process. Refers to the parameter
Process
Name in the type Linked M Process.
Linked M Process
These parameters belong to the topic Motion and the type Linked M Process.
Parameter
Description
Name
Id name for the linked motor process.
Offset Adjust Delay
Time
Time delay from control on until the follower starts to follow the
master.
This can be used to give the master time to stabilize before the
follower starts following.
Max Follower Offset
The maximum allowed difference in distance (in radians or meters)
between master and follower.
If Max Follower Offset is exceeded, emergency stop is activated.
Max Offset Speed
The maximum allowed difference in speed (in rad/s or m/s) between
master and follower.
If Max Offset Speed is exceeded, emergency stop is activated.
Offset Speed Ratio
Defines how large part of the Max Offset Speed that can be used
to compensate for position error.
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2.5.2.1 System parameters
Continued
Parameter
Description
Ramp Time
Time for acceleration up to Max Offset Speed.
The proportion constant for position regulation is ramped from zero
up to its final value (Master Follower kp) during Ramp Time.
Master Follower kp
The proportion constant for position regulation. Determines how
fast the position error is compensated.
Torque follower
Set to True if the follower and master should share torque instead
of regulating on exact position.
This can only be used if the follower axis is connected to the same
drive module as the master axis.
Torque distribution
The ratio (of the total torque) that should be applied to the follower
(for example 0.3 result in 30% on follower and 70% on master). If
drive and motors are equal this is normally set to 0.5.
Follower axis pos. acc. This value is set to reduce the accuracy of the follower position
reduction
loop. This is needed in cases where the mechanical structure gives
high torques between the motors due to large position mismatch
in a stiff mechanical connection etc.
• 0: accuracy reduction not active
• 10-30 typical values
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2.5.2.2 Configuration example
2.5.2.2 Configuration example
About this example
This is an example of how to configure the additional axis M8DM1 to be a follower
to the axis M7DM1 and axis M9DM1 to be a follower to robot axis 6.
Joint
Name
Follower to Joint
Use Process
Lock Joint in Ipol
M8DM1
M7DM1
ELM_1
True
M9DM1
rob1_6
ELM_2
True
M7DM1
Process
Name
Use Linked Motor Process
ELM_1
Linked_m_1
ELM_2
Linked_m_2
Linked M Process
Name
Offset Adjust Max Follow- Max Offset Offset
Ramp
Delay Time
er Offset
Speed
Speed Ra- Time
tio
Master Follower kp
Linked_m_1
0.2
0.05
0.05
0.33
1
0.05
Linked_m_2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
1.5
0.08
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2.5.3.1 Using the service program
2.5.3 Managing a follower axis
2.5.3.1 Using the service program
About the service program
The service program is used when you need to:
•
calibrate the follower axis
•
reset follower after a position error
•
tune a torque follower axis, see Tuning a torque follower on page 66.
Data variables
At start up the service routine will read values from system parameters and set
the values for a set of data variables used by the service routine. These variables
only need to be set manually if something goes wrong, see Data setup on page 69.
Start service program
Note
The controller must be in manual or auto mode to run this service program.
Step
Action
1
In the program view, tap Debug and select Call Routine....
2
Select Linked_m and tap Go to.
3
Press the RUN button to start the service program.
The service program is shown on the screen.
4
Tap Menu 1.
The follower axes that are set up in the system are shown in the task bar.
5
Tap the follower axis you want to use the service program for.
The main menu of the service program is now shown.
Menu buttons
Button
Description
AUTO
Automatically moves the follower axis to the position corresponding to the
master axis, see Reset follower automatically on page 65.
STOP
Stops the movement of the follower axis. Can be used when jogging or using
AUTO and the movement must be stopped immediately.
JOG
Manual stepwise movement of the follower axis, see Jog follower axis on page 63.
If the follower axis is synchronized with the master axis, it will resume its position
when you tap AUTO or when you exit the service program.
UNSYNC Used to suspend the synchronization between follower axis and master axis,
see Unsynchronize on page 63.
HELP
62
Show some help for how to use the service program. The button Next shows
the next help subject.
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2.5.3.2 Calibrate follower axis position
2.5.3.2 Calibrate follower axis position
Overview
Before the follower axis can follow the master axis, you must define the calibration
positions for both master and follower.
Master axis
calibrate position
Follower
position
Desired
follower
position
en0400000963
This calibration is done by following the procedures below:
1 Jog the master axis to its calibration position.
2 Unsynchronize the follower and master axes. See Unsynchronize on page 63.
3 Jog the follower to the desired position. See Jog follower axis on page 63.
4 Fine calibrate follower axis. See Fine calibrate on page 64.
Unsynchronize
Step
Action
1
In the main menu of the service program, tap UNSYNC.
2
Confirm that you want to unsynchronize the axes by tapping YES.
3
Restart the controller when an information text tells you to do it.
After the restart the follower axis is no longer synchronized with the master axis.
Step
Action
1
In the main menu of the service program, tap JOG.
2
Select the speed with which the follower axis should move when you jog it.
3
Select the step size with which the follower axis should move for each step you
jog it.
4
Tap on Positive or Negative, depending on in which direction you want to move
the follower axis.
Jog the follower axis until it is exactly in the calibration position (the position that
corresponds to the master axis calibration position).
Jog follower axis
Continues on next page
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2.5.3.2 Calibrate follower axis position
Continued
Fine calibrate
64
Step
Action
1
In the ABB menu, select Calibration.
2
Select the mechanical unit that the follower axis belongs to.
3
Tap the button Calib. Parameters.
4
Tap Fine Calibration....
5
In the warning dialog that appears, tap Yes.
6
Select the axis that is used as follower axis and tap Calibrate.
7
In the warning dialog that appears, tap Calibrate.
The follower axis is now calibrated. As soon as the follower is calibrated, it is also
synchronized with the master again.
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2.5.3.3 Reset follower axis
2.5.3.3 Reset follower axis
Overview
If the follower offset exceeds its tolerance limits (configured with the system
parameter Max follower offset), the service program must be used to move the
follower back within the tolerance limits. This can be done automatically in the
service program if the follower is within the AUTO range. Otherwise the follower
must be manually jogged.
The range where AUTO can be used is determined by the system parameter Max
Follower Offset multiplied with the data variable offset_ratio.
Range where AUTO in service program can be used
Range where follower
automatically follow master
Desired
follower
position
Master axis
position
Max Follower
Offset
Max Follower Offset * offset_ratio
en0400000962
Reset follower automatically
Step
Action
1
In the main menu of the service program, tap AUTO.
2
Select the speed with which the follower axis should move to its desired position.
Reset follower by manual jogging
Step
Action
1
In the main menu of the service program, tap JOG.
2
Select the speed with which the follower axis should move when you jog it.
3
Select the step size with which the follower axis should move for each step you
jog it.
4
Tap on Positive or Negative, depending on which direction you want to move the
follower axis.
Jog the follower until it is within the tolerance of Max Follower Offset (or use AUTO
when you are close enough).
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2.5.4.1 Torque follower descriptions
2.5.4 Tuning a torque follower
2.5.4.1 Torque follower descriptions
About torque followers
The follower axis can be setup so the torque is shared between the master and
the follower. This is only allowed if the follower axis is connected to the same drive
module as the master axis.
Below is a simplified picture of the control loop of the follower axis.
en0900000679
Torque distribution
The sharing of torque will be done on the integral part of the control loops. By
setting torque distribution to 0.5, the master and follower will have equal part of
the integral part of the total torque. A value of 0.3 will make the follower axis have
30% of the integral torque and the master axis 70%.
Position accuracy reduction
If the mechanical structure is very stiff and has a mechanical misalignment or a
large backlash, the proportional part will be a major part of the total torque. If this
becomes a problem with too high torque difference between the master and the
follower the position accuracy reduction function (PAR in the illustration) can be
used. This will make the follower axis less accurate when it comes in to a position.
This will make the follower act more like a true torque follower.
Test signals that can be useful to check the behavior of this is:
66
Test signal
Test signal number
Integral part of torque
37
Proportional part of torque
36
Total torque ref (also including any feed forward torque)
9
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2.5.4.2 Using the service program
2.5.4.2 Using the service program
About the service program for torque follower
The part of the service program for torque follower is used to find the suitable
values of some parameters. Once the values are found, system parameters are
updated and a new fine calibration is made. After that, there is no need for any
tuning of the torque follower.
Opening the tune torque follower menu
Action
Illustration
1
Start the service program (as described
by the first steps in Start service program
on page 62.
2
Tap Menu 2.
3
Tap on the name of the follower axis to
tune.
4
Use the tune torque follower menu as
described below.
Tuning the torque distribution
Use this procedure to change the distribution of torque between the master and
the follower axis.
Action
Illustration
1
Tap Torque distribution.
2
Type a number (between 0 and 1) for the
follower’s share of the total torque.
For example, 0.3 will result in 30% of the
torque on the follower and 70% on the
master.
3
To update the system parameters using
the new value, tap Store to cfg.
If not saved to cfg, the new value will be
used until the robot controller is restarted, but the value will be lost at restart.
Tuning the position accuracy reduction
Use this procedure to set the position accuracy reduction of the torque follower
axis.
Action
Illustration
1
Tap Position accuracy reduction.
2
Type a number for reduced position accuracy.
0 means no position accuracy reduction.
10 -30 is typically used for a torque follower to reduce the torque tension
between the master and the follower.
Continues on next page
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2.5.4.2 Using the service program
Continued
Action
3
Illustration
To update the system parameters using
the new value, tap Store to cfg.
If not saved to cfg, the new value will be
used until the robot controller is restarted, but the value will be lost at restart.
Tuning the temporary position delta
Use this procedure to tune the position delta of the torque follower axis. This delta
value is then used to adjust the fine calibration of the follower axis.
Action
68
Illustration
1
Tap Temp. position delta.
2
Type a number (degrees on motor side)
that will be added to the position reference for the follower axis.
3
Test which value results in the lowest
torque tension and make a fine calibration of the master axis. This will update
the follower axis with the current position
delta.
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2.5.5.1 Set up data for service program
2.5.5 Data setup
2.5.5.1 Set up data for service program
Overview
At start of the service routine for Electronically Linked Motors, some data variables
are read from the linked motor configuration. These variables are used by the
service program. If they are not read correctly, the variables need to be edited in
the service program.
Data descriptions
Data variable
Description
l_f_axis_name
A name for the follower axis that will be displayed on the FlexPendant.
String array with 5 elements, one for each follower axis. If you only have
one linked motor, use only the first element.
l_f_mecunt_n
The name of the mechanical unit for the follower axis. Refers to the system
parameter Name in the type Mechanical Unit.
String array with 5 elements, one for each follower axis. If you only have
one linked motor, use only the first element.
l_f_axis_no
Defines which axis in the mechanical unit (l_f_mecunt_n) is the follower
axis.
Num array with 5 elements, one for each follower axis. If you only have
one linked motor, use only the first element.
l_m_mecunt_n The name of the mechanical unit for the master axis. Refers to the system
parameter Name in the type Mechanical Unit.
String array with 5 elements, one for each master axis. If you only have
one linked motor, use only the first element.
l_m_axis_no
Defines which axis in the mechanical unit (l_m_mecunt_n) is the master
axis.
Num array with 5 elements, one for each master axis. If you only have
one linked motor, use only the first element.
offset_ratio
Defines the range where the AUTO function in the service program reset
the follower axis. offset_ratio defines this range as a multiple of the
range where the follower automatically follow the master (defined with
the parameter Max Follow Offset).
If the follower has a position error that is larger than Max Follower Offset
* offset_ratio, the follower must be reset manually. For more information, see Reset follower axis on page 65.
speed_ratio
Defines the speed of the follower axis when controlled by the service
program. The values are given as a part of the maximum allowed manual
speed (that is, the value 0.5 means half the max manual speed).
Num array with 20 elements. Elements 1-5 define the speed "very slow"
for each follower axis. Elements 6-10 define "slow", elements 11-15 define
"normal" and elements 16-20 define "fast". If you only have one linked
motor, use only elements 1, 6, 11 and 16.
Continues on next page
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2.5.5.1 Set up data for service program
Continued
Data variable
Description
displacement
Defines the distance the follower axis will move for each tap on Positive
or Negative when jogging the follower axis from the service program. The
values are given in degrees or meters, depending on if the follower axis
is circular or linear.
Num array with 20 elements. Elements 1-5 define the displacement "very
short" for each follower axis. Elements 6-10 define "short", elements 1115 define "normal" and elements 16-20 define "long". If you only have one
linked motor, use only elements 1, 6, 11 and 16.
Edit data variables
This is a description of how to set values for the data variables from the
FlexPendant.
70
Step
Action
1
In the ABB menu, select Program Data.
2
Select string and tap Show Data.
3
Select l_f_axis_name and tap Edit Value.
4
Tap the first element.
5
Tap the line to edit it.
6
Enter the name you want to give your first follower axis.
7
If you have more than one follower axis, repeat step 4-6 for the next elements.
8
Repeat step 3-7 for l_f_mecunt_n and l_m_mecunt_n.
9
In the Program Data menu, select num and repeat step 3-7 for l_f_axis_no,
l_m_axis_no, offset_ratio, speed_ratio and displacement.
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2.5.5.2 Example of data setup
2.5.5.2 Example of data setup
About this example
This is an example of how to set up the data variables for two follower axis. The
first follower axis is M8C1B1, which is a follower to the additional axis M7C1B1.
The second follower axis is M9C1B1, which is a follower to robot axis 6.
l_f_axis_name
Represented axis
Element and value in l_f_axis_name
Follower 1
{1}: "follow_external"
Follower 2
{2}: "follow_axis6"
Follower 3
{3}: ""
Follower 4
{4}: ""
Follower 5
{5}: ""
Represented axis
Element and value in l_f_mecunt_n
Follower 1
{1}: "M8DM1"
Follower 2
{2}: "M9DM1"
Follower 3
{3}: ""
Follower 4
{4}: ""
Follower 5
{5}: ""
Represented axis
Element and value in l_f_axis_no
Follower 1
{1}: 1
Follower 2
{2}: 1
Follower 3
{3}: 0
Follower 4
{4}: 0
Follower 5
{5}: 0
Represented axis
Element and value in l_m_mecunt_n
Master 1
{1}: "M7DM1"
Master 2
{2}: "rob1"
Master 3
{3}: ""
Master 4
{4}: ""
Master 5
{5}: ""
l_f_mecunt_n
l_f_axis_no
l_m_mecunt_n
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2.5.5.2 Example of data setup
Continued
l_m_axis_no
Represented axis
Element and value in l_m_axis_no
Master 1
{1}: 1
Master 2
{2}: 6
Master 3
{3}: 0
Master 4
{4}: 0
Master 5
{5}: 0
Represented axis
Element and value in offset_ratio
Follower 1
{1}: 10
Follower 2
{2}: 15
Follower 3
{3}: 0
Follower 4
{4}: 0
Follower 5
{5}: 0
Represented axis
very slow
slow
normal
fast
Follower 1
{1}: 0.01
{6}: 0.05
{11}: 0.2
{16}: 1
Follower 2
{2}: 0.01
{7}: 0.05
{12}: 0.2
{17}: 1
Follower 3
{3}: 0
{8}: 0
{13}: 0
{18}: 0
Follower 4
{4}: 0
{9}: 0
{14}: 0
{19}: 0
Follower 5
{5}: 0
{10}: 0
{15}: 0
{20}: 0
offset_ratio
speed_ratio
displacement
72
Represented axis
very short
short
normal
long
Follower 1
{1}: 0.001
{6}: 0.005
{11}: 0.02
{16}: 0.1
Follower 2
{2}: 0.01
{7}: 0.1
{12}: 1
{17}: 10
Follower 3
{3}: 0
{8}: 0
{13}: 0
{18}: 0
Follower 4
{4}: 0
{9}: 0
{14}: 0
{19}: 0
Follower 5
{5}: 0
{10}: 0
{15}: 0
{20}: 0
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2.6.1 Overview
2.6 Fixed Position Events
2.6.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of Fixed Position Events is to make sure a program routine is executed
when the position of the TCP is well defined.
If a move instruction is called with the zone argument set to fine, the next routine
is always executed once the TCP has reached its target. If a move instruction is
called with the zone argument set to a distance (for example z20), the next routine
may be executed before the TCP is even close to the target. This is because there
is always a delay between the execution of RAPID instructions and the robot
movements.
Calling the move instruction with zone set to fine will slow down the movements.
With Fixed Position Events, a routine can be executed when the TCP is at a
specified position anywhere on the TCP path without slowing down the movement.
What is included
The RobotWare base functionality Fixed Position Events gives you access to:
•
instructions used to define a position event
•
instructions for moving the robot and executing the position event at the
same time
•
instructions for moving the robot and calling a procedure while passing the
target, without first defining a position event
Basic approach
Fixed Position Events can either be used with one simplified instruction calling a
procedure or it can be set up following these general steps. For more detailed
examples of how this is done, see Code examples on page 77.
1 Declare the position event.
2 Define the position event:
•
when it shall occur, compared to the target position
•
what it shall do
3 Call a move instruction that uses the position event. When the TCP is as
close to the target as defined, the event will occur.
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2.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters
2.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in Fixed Position Events. For more
information, see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
triggdata
triggdata is used to store data about a position event.
A position event can take the form of setting an output signal or running an interrupt routine at a specific position along the movement
path of the robot.
triggdata also contains information on when the action shall occur,
for example when the TCP is at a defined distance from the target.
triggdata is a non-value data type.
triggios
triggios is used to store data about a position event used by the
instruction TriggLIOs.
triggios sets the value of an output signal using a num value.
triggiosdnum
triggiosdnum is used to store data about a position event used by
the instruction TriggLIOs.
triggiosdnum sets the value of an output signal using a dnum value.
triggstrgo
triggstrgo is used to store data about a position event used by the
instruction TriggLIOs.
triggstrgo sets the value of an output signal using a stringdig
value (string containing a number).
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Fixed Position Events. For more
information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
TriggIO
TriggIO defines the setting of an output signal and when to set that
signal. The definition is stored in a variable of type triggdata.
TriggIO can define the setting of the signal to occur at a certain
distance (in mm) from the target, or a certain time from the target. It
is also possible to set the signal at a defined distance or time from
the starting position.
By setting the distance to 0 (zero), the signal will be set when the TCP
is as close to the target as it gets (the middle of the corner path).
TriggEquip
TriggEquip works like TriggIO, with the difference that TriggEquip
can compensate for the internal delay of the external equipment.
For example, the signal to a glue gun must be set a short time before
the glue is pressed out and the gluing begins.
TriggInt
TriggInt defines when to run an interrupt routine. The definition is
stored in a variable of type triggdata.
TriggInt defines at what distance (in mm) from the target (or from
the starting position) the interrupt routine shall be called. By setting
the distance to 0 (zero), the interrupt will occur when the TCP is as
close to the target as it gets (the middle of the corner path).
Continues on next page
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2.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters
Continued
Instruction
Description
TriggCheckIO
TriggCheckIO defines a test of an input or output signal, and when
to perform that test. The definition is stored in a variable of type
triggdata.
TriggCheckIO defines a test, comparing an input or output signal
with a value. If the test fails, an interrupt routine is called. As an option
the robot movement can be stopped when the interrupt occurs.
TriggCheckIO can define the test to occur at a certain distance (in
mm) from the target, or a certain time from the target. It is also possible
to perform the test at a defined distance or time from the starting position.
By setting the distance to 0 (zero), the interrupt routine will be called
when the TCP is as close to the target as it gets (the middle of the
corner path).
TriggRampAO
TriggRampAO defines the ramping up or down of an analog output
signal and when this ramping is performed. The definition is stored
in a variable of type triggdata.
TriggRampIO defines where the ramping of the signal is to start and
the length of the ramping.
TriggL
TriggL is a move instruction, similar to MoveL. In addition to the
movement the TriggL instruction can set output signals, run interrupt
routines and check input or output signals at fixed positions.
TriggL executes up to 8 position events stored as triggdata. These
must be defined before calling TriggL.
TriggC
TriggC is a move instruction, similar to MoveC. In addition to the
movement the TriggC instruction can set output signals, run interrupt
routines and check input or output signals at fixed positions.
TriggC executes up to 8 position events stored as triggdata. These
must be defined before calling TriggC.
TriggJ
TriggJ is a move instruction, similar to MoveJ. In addition to the
movement the TriggJ instruction can set output signals, run interrupt
routines and check input or output signals at fixed positions.
TriggJ executes up to 8 position events stored as triggdata. These
must be defined before calling TriggJ.
TriggLIOs
TriggLIOs is a move instruction, similar to MoveL. In addition to the
movement the TriggLIOs instruction can set output signals at fixed
positions.
TriggLIOs is similar to the combination of TriggEquip and TriggL.
The difference is that TriggLIOs can handle up to 50 position events
stored as an array of datatype triggios, triggiosdnum, or
triggstrgo.
MoveLSync
MoveLSync is a linear move instruction that calls a procedure in the
middle of the corner path.
MoveCSync
MoveCSync is a circular move instruction that calls a procedure in
the middle of the corner path.
MoveJSync
MoveJSync is a joint move instruction that calls a procedure in the
middle of the corner path.
Functions
Fixed Position Events includes no RAPID functions.
Continues on next page
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2.6.2 RAPID components and system parameters
Continued
System parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter in Fixed Position Events. For more
information, see the respective parameter in Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
76
Parameter
Description
Event Preset Time
TriggEquip takes advantage of the delay between the RAPID execution and the robot movement, which is about 70 ms. If the delay of
the equipment is longer than 70 ms, then the delay of the robot
movement can be increased by configuring Event preset time.
Event preset time belongs to the type Motion System in the topic
Motion.
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2.6.3 Code examples
2.6.3 Code examples
Example without Fixed Position Events
Without the use of Fixed Position Events, the code can look like this:
MoveJ
MoveL
SetDO
MoveL
p1, vmax, fine, tool1;
p2, v1000, z20, tool1;
do1, 1;
p3, v1000, fine, tool1;
Result
The code specifies that the TCP should reach p2 before setting do1. Because the
robot path is delayed compared to instruction execution, do1 is set when the TCP
is at the position marked with X (see illustration).
xx0300000151
Example with TriggIO and TriggL instructions
Setting the output signal 30 mm from the target can be arranged by defining the
position event and then moving the robot while the system is executing the position
event.
VAR triggdata do_set;
!Define that do1 shall be set when 30 mm from target
TriggIO do_set, 30 \DOp:=do1, 1;
MoveJ p1, vmax, fine, tool1;
!Move to p2 and let system execute do_set
TriggL p2, v1000, do_set, z20, tool1;
MoveL p3, v1000, fine, tool1;
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2.6.3 Code examples
Continued
Result
The signal do1 will be set when the TCP is 30 mm from p2. do1 is set when the
TCP is at the position marked with X (see illustration).
xx0300000158
Example with MoveLSync instruction
Calling a procedure when the robot path is as close to the target as possible can
be done with one instruction call.
MoveJ p1, vmax, fine, tool1;
!Move to p2 while calling a procedure
MoveLSync p2, v1000, z20, tool1, "proc1";
MoveL p3, v1000, fine, tool1;
Result
The procedure will be called when the TCP is at the position marked with X (see
illustration).
xx0300000165
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2.7.1 Introduction to File and Serial Channel Handling
2.7 File and Serial Channel Handling
2.7.1 Introduction to File and Serial Channel Handling
About File and Serial Channel Handling
The RobotWare base functionality File and Serial Channel Handling gives the robot
programmer control of files, fieldbuses, and serial channels from the RAPID code.
This can, for example, be useful for:
•
Reading from a bar code reader.
•
Writing production statistics to a log file or to a printer.
•
Transferring data between the robot and a PC.
The functionality included in File and Serial Channel Handling can be divided into
groups:
Functionality group
Description
Binary and character based commu- Basic communication functionality. Communication
nication
with binary or character based files or serial channels.
Raw data communication
Data packed in a container. Especially intended for
fieldbus communication.
File and directory management
Browsing and editing of file structures.
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2.7.2.1 Overview
2.7.2 Binary and character based communication
2.7.2.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of binary and character based communication is to:
•
store information in a remote memory or on a remote disk
•
let the robot communicate with other devices
What is included
To handle binary and character based communication, the RobotWare base
functionality File and Serial Channel Handling gives you access to:
•
instructions for manipulations of a file or serial channel
•
instructions for writing to file or serial channel
•
instruction for reading from file or serial channel
•
functions for reading from file or serial channel.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using binary and character based communication.
For a more detailed example of how this is done, see Code examples on page 82.
1 Open a file or serial channel.
2 Read or write to the file or serial channel.
3 Close the file or serial channel.
Limitations
Access to files, serial channels and field busses cannot be performed from different
RAPID tasks simultaneously. Such an access is performed by all instruction in
binary and character based communication, as well as WriteRawBytes and
ReadRawBytes. E.g. if a ReadBin instruction is executed in one task, it must be
ready before a WriteRawBytes can execute in another task.
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2.7.2.2 RAPID components
2.7.2.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type used for binary and character based
communication. For more information, see the respective data type in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
iodev
iodev contains a reference to a file or serial channel. It can be linked to
the physical unit with the instruction Open and then used for reading and
writing.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for binary and character based
communication. For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
Open
Open is used to open a file or serial channel for reading or writing.
Close
Close is used to close a file or serial channel.
Rewind
Rewind sets the file position to the beginning of the file.
ClearIOBuff
ClearIOBuff is used to clear the input buffer of a serial channel. All
buffered characters from the input serial channel are discarded.
Write
Write is used to write to a character based file or serial channel.
WriteBin
WriteBin is used to write a number of bytes to a binary serial channel
or file.
WriteStrBin
WriteStrBin is used to write a string to a binary serial channel or file.
WriteAnyBin
WriteAnyBin is used to write any type of data to a binary serial channel
or file.
ReadAnyBin
ReadAnyBin is used to read any type of data from a binary serial channel
or file.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for binary and character based
communication. For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
ReadNum
ReadNum is used to read a number from a character based file or serial
channel.
ReadStr
ReadStr is used to read a string from a character based file or serial channel.
ReadBin
ReadBin is used to read a byte (8 bits) from a file or serial channel. This
function works on both binary and character based files or serial channels.
ReadStrBin ReadStrBin is used to read a string from a binary serial channel or file.
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2.7.2.3 Code examples
2.7.2.3 Code examples
Communication with character based file
This example show writing and reading to and from a character based file. The line
"The number is :8" is written to FILE1.DOC. The contents of FILE1.DOC is then
read and the output to the FlexPendant is "The number is :8" followed by "The
number is 8".
PROC write_to_file()
VAR iodev file;
VAR num number:= 8;
Open "HOME:" \File:= "FILE1.DOC", file;
Write file, "The number is :"\Num:=number;
Close file;
ENDPROC
PROC read_from_file()
VAR iodev file;
VAR num number;
VAR string text;
Open "HOME:" \File:= "FILE1.DOC", file \Read;
TPWrite ReadStr(file);
Rewind file;
text := ReadStr(file\Delim:=":");
number := ReadNum(file);
Close file;
TPWrite text \Num:=number;
ENDPROC
Communication with binary serial channel
In this example, the string "Hello", the current robot position and the string "Hi" is
written to the binary serial channel com1.
PROC write_bin_chan()
VAR iodev channel;
VAR num out_buffer{20};
VAR num input;
VAR robtarget target;
Open "com1:", channel\Bin;
! Write control character enq
out_buffer{1} := 5;
WriteBin channel, out_buffer, 1;
! Wait for control character ack
input := ReadBin (channel \Time:= 0.1);
IF input = 6 THEN
! Write "Hello" followed by new line
WriteStrBin channel, "Hello\0A";
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2.7.2.3 Code examples
Continued
! Write current robot position
target := CRobT(\Tool:= tool1\WObj:= wobj1);
WriteAnyBin channel, target;
! Set start text character (2=start text)
out_buffer{1} := 2;
! Set character "H" (72="H")
out_buffer{2} := 72;
! Set character "i"
out_buffer{3} := StrToByte("i"\Char);
! Set new line character (10=new line)
out_buffer{4} := 10;
! Set end text character (3=end text)
out_buffer{5} := 3;
! Write the buffer with the line "Hi"
! to the channel
WriteBin channel, out_buffer, 5;
ENDIF
Close channel;
ENDPROC
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2.7.3.1 Overview
2.7.3 Raw data communication
2.7.3.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of raw data communication is to pack different type of data into a
container and send it to a file or serial channel, and to read and unpack data. This
is particularly useful when communicating via a fieldbus, such as DeviceNet or
Profibus.
What is included
To handle raw data communication, the RobotWare base functionality File and
Serial Channel Handling gives you access to:
•
instructions used for handling the contents of a rawbytes variable
•
instructions for reading and writing raw data
•
a function to get the valid data length of a rawbytes variable.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for raw data communication. For a more detailed
example of how this is done, see Write and read rawbytes on page 86.
1 Pack data into a rawbytes variable (data of type num, byte or string).
2 Write the rawbytes variable to a file or serial channel.
3 Read a rawbytes variable from a file or serial channel.
4 Unpack the rawbytes variable to num, byte or string.
Limitations
Device command communication also require the base functionality Device
Command Interface and the option for the industrial network in question.
Access to files, serial channels and field busses cannot be performed from different
RAPID tasks simultaneously. Such an access is performed by all instruction in
binary and character based communication, as well as WriteRawBytes and
ReadRawBytes. For example, if a ReadBin instruction is executed in one task,
then it must be ready before a WriteRawBytes instruction can execute in another
task.
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2.7.3.2 RAPID components
2.7.3.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type used for raw data communication. For
more information, see the respective data type in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
rawbytes
rawbytes is used as a general data container. It can be filled with any
data of type num, byte, or string. It also store the length of the valid
data (in bytes).
rawbytes can contain up to 1024 bytes of data. The supported data
formats are:
• Hex (1 byte)
• long (4 bytes)
• float (4 bytes)
• ASCII (1-80 characters)
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for raw data communication.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
ClearRawBytes
ClearRawBytes is used to set all the contents of a rawbytes variable
to 0. The length of the valid data in the rawbytes variable is set to 0.
ClearRawBytes can also be used to clear only the last part of a
rawbytes variable.
PackRawBytes
PackRawBytes is used to pack the contents of variables of type num,
byte or string into a variable of type rawbytes.
UnpackRawBytes UnpackRawBytes is used to unpack the contents of a variable of type
rawbytes to variables of type byte, num or string.
CopyRawBytes
CopyRawBytes is used to copy all or part of the contents from one
rawbytes variable to another.
WriteRawBytes
WriteRawBytes is used to write data of type rawbytes to any binary
file, serial channel or fieldbus.
ReadRawBytes
ReadRawBytes is used to read data of type rawbytes from any binary
file, serial channel or fieldbus.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for raw data communication. For
more information, see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
RawBytesLen
RawBytesLen is used to get the valid data length in a rawbytes variable.
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2.7.3.3 Code examples
2.7.3.3 Code examples
About the examples
These examples are simplified demonstrations of how to use rawbytes. For a
more realistic example of how to use rawbytes in DeviceNet communication, see
Write rawbytes to DeviceNet on page 94.
Write and read rawbytes
This example shows how to pack data into a rawbytes variable and write it to a
device. It also shows how to read and unpack a rawbytes variable.
VAR iodev io_device;
VAR rawbytes raw_data;
PROC write_rawbytes()
VAR num length := 0.2;
VAR string length_unit := "meters";
! Empty contents of raw_data
ClearRawBytes raw_data;
! Add contents of length as a 4 byte float
PackRawBytes length, raw_data,(RawBytesLen(raw_data)+1) \Float4;
! Add the string length_unit
PackRawBytes length_unit, raw_data,(RawBytesLen(raw_data)+1)
\ASCII;
Open "HOME:" \File:= "FILE1.DOC", io_device \Bin;
! Write the contents of raw_data to io_device
WriteRawBytes io_device, raw_data;
Close io_device;
ENDPROC
PROC read_rawbytes()
VAR string answer;
! Empty contents of raw_data
ClearRawBytes raw_data;
Open "HOME:" \File:= "FILE1.DOC", io_device \Bin;
! Read from io_device into raw_data
ReadRawBytes io_device, raw_data \Time:=1;
Close io_device;
! Unpack raw_data to the string answer
Continues on next page
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2.7.3.3 Code examples
Continued
UnpackRawBytes raw_data, 1, answer \ASCII:=10;
ENDPROC
Copy rawbytes
In this example, all data from raw_data_1 and raw_data_2 is copied to
raw_data_3.
VAR
VAR
VAR
VAR
VAR
rawbytes raw_data_1;
rawbytes raw_data_2;
rawbytes raw_data_3;
num my_length:=0.2;
string my_unit:=" meters";
PackRawBytes my_length, raw_data_1, 1 \Float4;
PackRawBytes my_unit, raw_data_2, 1 \ASCII;
! Copy all data from raw_data_1 to raw_data_3
CopyRawBytes raw_data_1, 1, raw_data_3, 1;
! Append all data from raw_data_2 to raw_data_3
CopyRawBytes raw_data_2, 1, raw_data_3,(RawBytesLen(raw_data_3)+1);
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2.7.4.1 Overview
2.7.4 File and directory management
2.7.4.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of the file and directory management is to be able to browse and edit
file structures (directories and files).
What is included
To handle file and directory management, the RobotWare base functionality File
and Serial Channel Handling gives you access to:
•
instructions for handling directories
•
a function for reading directories
•
instructions for handling files on a file structure level
•
functions to retrieve size and type information.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for file and directory management. For more detailed
examples of how this is done, see Code examples on page 90.
1 Open a directory.
2 Read from the directory and search until you find what you are looking for.
3 Close the directory.
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2.7.4.2 RAPID components
2.7.4.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type used for file and directory management.
For more information, see the respective data type in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
dir
dir contains a reference to a directory on disk or network. It can be linked
to the physical directory with the instruction OpenDir.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction used for file and directory management.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
OpenDir
OpenDir is used to open a directory.
CloseDir
CloseDir is used to close a directory.
MakeDir
MakeDir is used to create a new directory.
RemoveDir
RemoveDir is used to remove an empty directory.
CopyFile
CopyFile is used to make a copy of an existing file.
RenameFile RenameFile is used to give a new name to an existing file. It can also be
used to move a file from one place to another in the directory structure.
RemoveFile RemoveFile is used to remove a file.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function used for file and directory management.
For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
ReadDir
ReadDir is used to retrieve the name of the next file or subdirectory under
a directory that has been opened with the instruction OpenDir.
Note that the first items read by ReadDir are . (full stop character) and ..
(double full stop characters) symbolizing the current directory and its parent
directory.
FileSize
FileSize is used to retrieve the size (in bytes) of the specified file.
FSSize
FSSize (File System Size) is used to retrieve the size (in bytes) of the file
system in which a specified file resides.FSSize can either retrieve the total
size or the free size of the system.
IsFile
IsFile test if the specified file is of the specified type. It can also be used
to test if the file exist at all.
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2.7.4.3 Code examples
2.7.4.3 Code examples
List files
This example shows how to list the files in a directory, excluding the directory itself
and its parent directory (. and ..).
PROC lsdir(string dirname)
VAR dir directory;
VAR string filename;
! Check that dirname really is a directory
IF IsFile(dirname \Directory) THEN
! Open the directory
OpenDir directory, dirname;
! Loop though the files in the directory
WHILE ReadDir(directory, filename) DO
IF (filename <> "." AND filename <> ".." THEN
TPWrite filename;
ENDIF
ENDWHILE
! Close the directory
CloseDir directory;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
Move file to new directory
This is an example where a new directory is created, a file renamed and moved to
the new directory and the old directory is removed.
VAR dir directory;
VAR string filename;
! Create the directory newdir
MakeDir "HOME:/newdir";
! Rename and move the file
RenameFile "HOME:/olddir/myfile", "HOME:/newdir/yourfile";
! Remove all files in olddir
OpenDir directory, "HOME:/olddir";
WHILE ReadDir(directory, filename) DO
IF (filename <> "." AND filename <> ".." THEN
RemoveFile "HOME:/olddir/" + filename;
ENDIF
ENDWHILE
CloseDir directory;
! Remove the directory olddir (which must be empty)
RemoveDir "HOME:/olddir";
Continues on next page
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2.7.4.3 Code examples
Continued
Check sizes
In this example, the size of the file is compared with the remaining free space on
the file system. If there is enough space, the file is copied.
VAR num freefsyssize;
VAR num f_size;
! Get the size of the file
f_size := FileSize("HOME:/myfile");
! Get the free size on the file system
freefsyssize := FSSize("HOME:/myfile" \Free);
! Copy file if enough space free
IF f_size < freefsyssize THEN
CopyFile "HOME:/myfile", "HOME:/yourfile";
ENDIF
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2.8.1 Introduction to Device Command Interface
2.8 Device Command Interface
2.8.1 Introduction to Device Command Interface
Purpose
Device Command Interface provides an interface to communicate with I/O devices
on industrial networks.
This interface is used together with raw data communication, see Raw data
communication on page 84.
What is included
The RobotWare base functionality Device Command Interface gives you access
to:
•
Instruction used to create a DeviceNet header.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using Device Command Interface. For a more
detailed example of how this is done, see Write rawbytes to DeviceNet on page 94.
1 Add a DeviceNet header to a rawbytes variable.
2 Add the data to the rawbytes variable.
3 Write the rawbytes variable to the DeviceNet I/O.
4 Read data from the DeviceNet I/O to a rawbytes variable.
5 Extract the data from the rawbytes variable.
Limitations
Device command communication also require the base functionality File and Serial
Channel Handling and the option for the industrial network in question.
Device Command Interface is supported by the following type of industrial networks:
92
•
DeviceNet
•
EtherNet/IP
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2.8.2 RAPID components and system parameters
2.8.2 RAPID components and system parameters
Data types
There are no RAPID data types for Device Command Interface.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Device Command Interface. For
more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
PackDNHeader
PackDNHeader adds a DeviceNet header to a rawbytes variable. The
header specifies a service to be done (e.g. set or get) and a parameter
on a DeviceNet I/O device.
Functions
There are no RAPID functions for Device Command Interface.
System parameters
There are no specific system parameters in Device Command Interface. For
information on system parameters in general, see Technical reference
manual - System parameters.
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2.8.3 Code example
2.8.3 Code example
Write rawbytes to DeviceNet
In this example, data packed as a rawbytes variable is written to a DeviceNet I/O
device. For more details regarding rawbytes, see Raw data communication on
page 84.
PROC set_filter_value()
VAR iodev dev;
VAR rawbytes rawdata_out;
VAR rawbytes rawdata_in;
VAR num input_int;
VAR byte return_status;
VAR byte return_info;
VAR byte return_errcode;
VAR byte return_errcode2;
! Empty contents of rawdata_out and rawdata_in
ClearRawBytes rawdata_out;
ClearRawBytes rawdata_in;
! Add DeviceNet header to rawdata_out with service
"SET_ATTRIBUTE_SINGLE" and path to filter attribute on
DeviceNet I/O device
PackDNHeader "10", "6,20 1D 24 01 30 64,8,1", rawdata_out;
! Add filter value to send to DeviceNet I/O device
input_int:= 5;
PackRawBytes input_int, rawdata_out,(RawBytesLen(rawdata_out) +
1) \IntX := USINT;
! Open I/O device
Open "/FCI1:" \File:="board328", dev \Bin;
! Write the contents of rawdata_out to the I/O device
WriteRawBytes dev, rawdata_out \NoOfBytes :=
RawBytesLen(rawdata_out);
! Read the answer from the I/O device
ReadRawBytes dev, rawdata_in;
! Close the I/O device
Close dev;
! Unpack rawdata_in to the variable return_status
UnpackRawBytes rawdata_in, 1, return_status \Hex1;
IF return_status = 144 THEN
TPWrite "Status OK from device. Status code:
"\Num:=return_status;
Continues on next page
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2.8.3 Code example
Continued
ELSE
! Unpack error codes from device answer
UnpackRawBytes rawdata_in, 2, return_errcode \Hex1;
UnpackRawBytes rawdata_in, 3, return_errcode2 \Hex1;
TPWrite "Error code from device: " \Num:=return_errcode;
TPWrite "Additional error code from device: "
\Num:=return_errcode2;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
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2.9.1 Introduction to Logical Cross Connections
2.9 Logical Cross Connections
2.9.1 Introduction to Logical Cross Connections
Purpose
The purpose of Logical Cross Connections is to check and affect combinations of
digital I/O signals (DO, DI) or group I/O signals (GO, GI). This can be used to verify
or control process equipment that are external to the robot. The functionality can
be compared to the one of a simple PLC.
By letting the I/O system handle logical operations with I/O signals, a lot of RAPID
code execution can be avoided. Logical Cross Connections can replace the process
of reading I/O signal values, calculate new values and writing the values to I/O
signals.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Interrupt program execution when either of three input signals is set to 1.
•
Set an output signal to 1 when both of two input signals are set to 1.
Description
Logical Cross Connections are used to define the dependencies of an I/O signal
to other I/O signals. The logical operators AND, OR, and inverted signal values
can be used to configure more complex dependencies.
The I/O signals that constitute the logical expression (actor I/O signals) and the
I/O signal that is the result of the expression (resultant I/O signal) can be either
digital I/O signals (DO, DI) or group I/O signals (GO, GI).
What is included
Logical Cross Connections allows you to build logical expressions with up to 5
actor I/O signals and the logical operations AND, OR, and inverted signal values.
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2.9.2 Configuring Logical Cross Connections
2.9.2 Configuring Logical Cross Connections
System parameters
This is a brief description of the parameters for cross connections. For more
information, see the respective parameter in Configuring Logical Cross Connections
on page 97.
These parameters belong to the type Cross Connection in the topic I/O System.
Parameter
Description
Name
Specifies the name of the cross connection.
Resultant
The I/O signal that receive the result of the cross connection as its new
value.
Actor 1
The first I/O signal to be used in the evaluation of the Resultant.
Invert actor 1 If Invert actor 1 is set to Yes, then the inverted value of Actor 1 is used in
the evaluation of the Resultant.
Operator 1
Operand between Actor 1 and Actor 2.
Can be either of the operands:
• AND - Results in the value 1 if both input values are 1.
• OR - Results in the value 1 if at least one of the input values are 1.
Note
The operators are calculated left to right (Operator 1 first and Operator 4
last).
Actor 2
The second I/O signal (if more than one) to be used in the evaluation of the
Resultant.
Invert actor 2 If Invert actor 2 is set to Yes, then the inverted value of Actor 2 is used in
the evaluation of the Resultant.
Operator 2
Operand between Actor 2 and Actor 3.
See Operator 1.
Actor 3
The third I/O signal (if more than two) to be used in the evaluation of the
Resultant.
Invert actor 3 If Invert actor 3 is set to Yes, then the inverted value of Actor 3 is used in
the evaluation of the Resultant.
Operator 3
Operand between Actor 3 and Actor 4.
See Operator 1.
Actor 4
The fourth I/O signal (if more than three) to be used in the evaluation of the
Resultant.
Invert actor 4 If Invert actor 4 is set to Yes, then the inverted value of Actor 4 is used in
the evaluation of the Resultant.
Operator 4
Operand between Actor 4 and Actor 5.
See Operator 1.
Actor 5
The fifth I/O signal (if all five are used) to be used in the evaluation of the
Resultant.
Invert actor 5 If Invert actor 5 is set to Yes, then the inverted value of Actor 5 is used in
the evaluation of the Resultant.
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2.9.3 Examples
2.9.3 Examples
Logical AND
The following logical structure...
xx0300000457
... is created as shown below.
Resultant
Actor 1 Invert
actor 1
Operator 1 Actor Invert
2
actor 2
Operator 2 Actor Invert
3
actor 3
do26
di1
AND
AND
No
do2
No
do10
No
Logical OR
The following logical structure...
xx0300000459
... is created as shown below.
Resultant
Actor Invert
1
actor 1
Operator 1 Actor Invert
2
actor 2
Operator 2 Actor Invert
3
actor 3
do26
di1
OR
OR
No
do2
No
do10
No
Inverted signals
The following logical structure (where a ring symbolize an inverted signal)...
xx0300000460
... is created as shown below.
Resultant
Actor Invert
1
actor 1
Operator 1 Actor Invert
2
actor 2
Operator 2 Actor Invert
3
actor 3
do26
di1
OR
OR
Yes
do2
No
do10
Yes
Several resultants
The following logical structure can not be implemented with one cross connection...
xx0300000462
Continues on next page
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2.9.3 Examples
Continued
... but with three cross connections it can be implemented as shown below.
Resultant
Actor 1
Invert actor 1
Operator 1
Actor 2
Invert actor 2
di17
di1
No
AND
do2
No
do26
di1
No
AND
do2
No
do13
di1
No
AND
do2
No
Complex conditions
The following logical structure...
xx0300000461
... is created as shown below.
Resultant
Actor Invert
1
actor 1
Operator 1 Actor 2 Invert
actor 2
do11
di2
No
AND
do3
No
do14
di12
No
AND
do3
Yes
di11
di13
No
AND
do3
No
do23
di13
No
AND
do3
No
do17
di13
No
AND
do3
No
do15
do11
No
OR
do14
No
do33
di11
No
AND
do23
No
do61
do17
No
AND
do3
No
do54
do15
No
OR
do33
Yes
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Operator 2 Actor Invert
3
actor 3
OR
di11
Yes
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2.9.4 Limitations
2.9.4 Limitations
Evaluation order
If more than two actor I/O signals are used in one cross connection, the evaluation
is made from left to right. This means that the operation between Actor 1 and Actor
2 is evaluated first and the result from that is used in the operation with Actor 3.
If all operators in one cross connection are of the same type (only AND or only
OR) the evaluation order has no significance. However, mixing AND and OR
operators, without considering the evaluation order, may give an unexpected result.
Tip
Use several cross connections instead of mixing AND and OR in the same cross
connection.
Maximum number of actor I/O signals
A cross connection may not have more than five actor I/O signals. If more actor
I/O signals are required, use several cross connections.
Maximum number of cross connections
The maximum number of cross connections handled by the robot system is 300.
Maximum depth
The maximum allowed depth of cross connection evaluations is 20.
A resultant from one cross connection can be used as an actor in another cross
connection. The resultant from that cross connection can in its turn be used as an
actor in the next cross connection. However, this type of chain of dependent cross
connections cannot be deeper than 20 steps.
Do not create a loop
Cross connections must not form closed chains since that would cause infinite
evaluation and oscillation. A closed chain appears when cross connections are
interlinked so that the chain of cross connections forms a circle.
Do not have the same resultant more than once
Ambiguous resultant I/O signals are not allowed since the outcome would depend
on the order of evaluation (which cannot be controlled). Ambiguous resultant I/O
signals occur when the same I/O signal is resultant in several cross connections.
Overlapping device maps
The resultant I/O signal in a cross connection must not have an overlapping device
map with any inverted actor I/O signals defined in the cross connection. Using I/O
signals with overlapping device map in a cross connection can cause infinity signal
setting loops.
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2 RobotWare-OS
2.10.1 Overview
2.10 Remote Service Embedded
2.10.1 Overview
Description
Remote Service is a functionality available for ABB robot controllers that connects
to ABB Remote Service Centre on the cloud.
Earlier the Remote Service functionality had been implemented on an external
hardware (Remote Service Box) connected to the Service port of the controller.
Remote Service Box had provided service data collection and the external
connectivity (Wireless GPRS, 3G, or wired).
Remote Service Embedded or RSE is the software version of Remote Service
inside RobotWare.
Purpose
The primary purpose of Remote Service Embedded is to remove the need of
external hardware if the robot controller are connected to Internet by the customer
on its WAN port.
Remote Service Embedded is then available natively in RobotWare with the
principles of plug and connect to:
•
Provide internet connectivity to the controller.
•
Enable and register the connected controller to Remote Service.
An ABB 3G/4G/Wifi gateway will be made available in the future to use wireless
connectivity.
What is included
The RobotWare base functionality Remote Service Embedded gives you access
to:
•
an RSE Agent software to manage the connectivity and the Service data
collection.
•
System Parameters used to enable RSE and configure the connectivity.
•
dedicated event logs for key events of Remote Service.
•
status and information pages available in System Info.
Prerequisites
The Remote Service function requires the controller to be defined in a Remote
Service Agreement. Contact the local ABB Service to create a Remote Service
Agreement and get access to MyRobot website to perform the registration after
the connection.
Note
MyRobot is the ABB website which gives access to the Service information of a
Robot Controller under a Remote Service Agreement.
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2.10.1 Overview
Continued
Basic workflow
Following is the basic workflow for setting up Remote Service Embedded.
1 Configure Internet connectivity to the robot controller.
2 Enable Remote Service Embedded and startup connection.
3 Register the controller through MyRobot registration page.
Once the RSE is connected and registered, the service data collection will run
transparently in the background.
Note
Use System Info Remote Service pages for information and local registration.
Use MyRobot website for all Remote Service features and remote side registration
Limitations
Following are the limitations of Remote Service Embedded:
102
•
The controller identification is done using the controller serial number and
must match the serial number defined in the Remote Service Agreement.
•
The customer must also provide for the robot controller the connectivity to
public internet or use the ABB wireless gateway when available.
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2 RobotWare-OS
2.10.2 RSE connectivity
2.10.2 RSE connectivity
RSE connection concept
The concept of Remote Service Embedded is that a virtual RSE Agent is
implemented inside the controller and it communicates securely with the ABB
Remote Service Centre through Internet. The communication is secured and
encrypted using HTTPS (Secure HTTP) and only from the controller to ABB RSC
connector to keep the customer network isolated from any external Internet access.
The following figure describes these concepts:
xx1500003224
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2.10.2 RSE connectivity
Continued
Troubleshooting
You can verify the connectivity from the controller to the RSE server from your
location. This is done by connecting a PC (instead of the controller) with the same
network configuration (WAN IP/Mask, DNS, Route), and open the path to the root
of the server (https://rseprod.abb.com) in a browser. The connectivity is validated
if the DNS name has been resolved, the browser presents a page indicating the
RSE server, and secured with an ABB certificate as shown in the following figure.
xx1500003225
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2 RobotWare-OS
2.10.3 Configuration - system parameters
2.10.3 Configuration - system parameters
Introduction
This section provides a brief description of system parameters used for the Remote
Service Embedded. For more information see Technical reference manual - System
parameters - Remote Service Connection.
Remote Service Connection
The following parameters belong to the topic Communication and the type Remote
Service Connection. For more information, see the respective parameter in
Technical reference manual - System parameters - Remote Service Connection.
Parameter
Description
Enabled
Enable or disable RSE. If RSE is disabled there will be no communication from the Controller.
Connection Type
Indicates if the communication is done on Customer Network or by
using ABB Mobile Gateway Solution (to be implemented in future
deliveries).
Connection Cost
Adapt the polling rates and traffic volume to the type of connectivity
available:
• Command polling (low) 1 min, (medium) 10 min, (high) 1 hour.
• Register polling (low) 10 min, (medium) 30 min, (high) 2 hour.
Proxy Used, Name,
Port
Indicates if a proxy is required to access Internet and its name and
port.
Gateway IP Address IP address of the ABB Mobile Gateway Solution if used (to come in
future deliveries).
WAN configuration
The WAN IP/Mask/Gateway configuration is done in the Boot Application, Settings.
The WAN Ethernet port configuration which gives access to the Internet needs to
be done on the controller. The port is defined by its IP, Mask, and possible Gateway.
For details about WAN configuration, see Hardware overview in the Application
manual - EtherNet/IP Scanner/Adapter.
DNS configuration
These parameters belong to the topic Communication and the type DNS Client. A
DNS server need to be defined to resolve the name of the ABB RSE Connector
(rseprod.abb.com) to its IP address if ABB Mobile Gateway is not used. For more
details, see Type DNS Client in Technical reference manual - System parameters.
IP Routing configuration
These parameters belong to the topic Communication and the type IP Routing. In
some cases it is necessary to define some routing parameters to indicate which
specific external device is used as a gateway to access the Internet on customer
network. By default, an IP route is created based on the gateway defined on the
WAN Port. But it is possible to add a specific route if the default gateway should
not be used. For more details, see Type IP Route in Technical reference
manual - System parameters.
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2.10.4 RSE registration
2.10.4 RSE registration
RSE startup
The RSE startup is based on the following steps:
•
(0) RSE preparation
•
(1) RSE configuration
•
(2) RSE connectivity
•
(3) RSE registration
•
(4) RSE connected and registered
When these steps are done, the RSE Agent is securely connected and identified
with an ABB certificate installed in the robot controller like an external Remote
Service Box. The following figure describes these concepts:
xx1500003226
RSE preparation
•
Verify the controller serial number with the serial number found in the
controller module cabinet.
•
Verify and provide Internet connectivity to the robot controller.
•
Verify that the service agreement for this controller is available with ABB
Robotics Service.
•
Configure the connectivity parameters.
•
Enable Remote Service
•
RSE Agent connects to the ABB Remote Service Center.
RSE configuration
RSE connectivity
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2.10.4 RSE registration
Continued
•
An initial registration process starts at low polling rate.
•
The initial registration is incomplete and not yet fully trusted.
•
A registration code is received to finalize the trust relation.
•
The registration code is made available on the Remote Service registration
page.
•
The customer/ABB on site provides the controller serial number and
registration code to the Remote Service Administrator for registration.
•
The Remote Service Administrator validates this registration code in MyRobot
on its service agreement.
•
The registration trust starts and implements a client certificate in the
controller.
RSE registration
RSE connected and registered
• The controller is connected, registered, and identified in the service
agreement.
•
The connection is trusted with an ABB certificate.
•
Remote Service is now actively running on the robot controller.
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2.10.5 Remote Service information
2.10.5 Remote Service information
Remote Service pages
Introduction
The RSE information pages are available under System Info > Software resources
> Communication > Remote Service. The following are the 4 RSE information
pages:
•
Overview
•
Server Connection
•
Registration
•
Advanced
Note
The information on a page can be refreshed by changing the page or by pressing
the Refresh button. The Refresh button also forces a connection with the server
if the RSE agent is waiting. (for example, wait for registration acknowledgement
from MyRobot). This is useful in case of slow polling when connection cost is
set to High.
Overview page
The Overview page provides a summary of the RSE status and information. If the
status is not active then the other pages provide more detailed information.
Field
Description
Possible values Example
Enabled
Displays the value of the master
Yes/No
configuration switch for turning the
RSE on/off.
Status
Displays the current status to see "-"
Active
whether there is a need to navigate Failed
to the Server connection page or
Initializing
Registration page.
Shutdown
Registration in
progress
Trying to connect
Active
Serial number
Displays the identifier that is used Controller Serial 12-45678
to identify the controller in Remote number
Service.
Yes
RobotWare ver- Displays the RobotWare version that RobotWare ver- 6.03.0088
sion
is sent to the server.
sion name
Restart counter Displays the number of times the 0-N
RSE Agent been auto-restarted.
If not Enabled,
This is used to see if watchdog has then display: 0
restarted the RSE agent.
2
Script version
0116/ROBOTWARE6.02.0000+/5196
Displays the downloaded data col- "Data Collector
lector code version.
Script name"
"-"
Continues on next page
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2.10.5 Remote Service information
Continued
Field
Description
Possible values Example
Service Agreement
To verify that the controller is asso- "Name of the ser- SA_FR12_16
ciated to the expected service
vice agreement"
agreement.
"-"
Customer name To verify that the controller is asso- "Customer Name ABB Robotics
ciated to the expected service
of the service
agreement.
agreement"
"-"
Country
To verify that the controller is asso- "Country of the
ciated to the expected service
service agreeagreement.
ment"
"-"
Refresh button
On refresh, the RSE Agent replies
with the current data and breaks the
waiting state (if waiting) to contact
the server and refreshes the information.
France
Server Connection page
The Server Connection page provides a summary of the RSE connectivity to the
server.
Field
Description
Possible values Example
Status
Displays the current status to see "-"
Active
whether there is a need to to navig- Failed
ate to the Server connection page
Initializing
or Registration page.
Shutdown
Registration in
progress
Trying to connect
Active
Connection
Status
Displays the status of of communic- Initializing
Connected
ation with the server and the type Server not reachof error.
able
Server not authenticated
Server error (HTTP xxxx)
Connected
Last updated
Displays the relative time since the
information on the Server connection page has been generated.
"HH:MM:SS ago"
Server name
Displays the name of the server that ""
RSE Agent is configured with.
Server name
rseprod.abb.com
Server IP
Displays the IP address of the serv- ""
er and the port number used for
Server IP
connection. The IP address is the
result of DNS name resolution done
by RSE Agent.
138.227.175.43
Server certificate name
Displays the certificate name inform- ""
rseprod.abb.com
ation.
Server name
Untrusted (Server)
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2.10.5 Remote Service information
Continued
Field
Description
Possible values Example
Server certificate issuer
Displays the name of the certificate ""
issuer.
Issuer
Untrusted (Issuer)
ABB issuing CA
6
Server certificate valid until
Display the certificate date.
Nov 21 07:09:28
2017 GMT
Controller time
Displays the controller date and
time details.
DNS server
Displays the DNS information.
Refresh button
On refresh, the RSE Agent replies
with the current data and breaks the
waiting state (if waiting) to contact
the server and refreshes the information.
""
Issuer
Expired (Date)
16-01-08
13:52:33
Not Available
DNS value
10.0.23.45
Registration page
The Registration page provides a summary of the RSE registration.
Field
Description
Possible values Example
Status
Displays the current status to see "-"
Active
whether there is a need to navigate Failed
to the Server connection page or
Initializing
Registration page.
Shutdown
Registration in
progress
Trying to connect
Active
Registration
Status
Displays the registration status and Register with
Register with
code.
code in MyRobot code in MyRobot
Registration in
progress
Registered
Failed
Registration
code
Displays the registration code. This "-"
code can be used to login to MyRo- Code value
bot.
Refresh button
On refresh, the RSE Agent replies
with the current data and breaks the
waiting state (if waiting) to contact
the server and refreshes the information.
456735
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2.10.5 Remote Service information
Continued
Advanced page
The Advanced page provides advanced information about the dialog between RSE
Agent and server.
Field
Description
Last HTTP mes- Displays the last message sent.
sage
Possible values Example
Register
CheckRegister
GetLoginInfo
GetMessage
...
Last HTTP date Displays the date and time when the
last message was sent.
GetMessage
Sent hh:mm:ss
ago
Last HTTP error Displays the HTTP error when the Not Available
Not Available
last message was sent and the
Error HTTP XXX
message ID if 4XX.
+ Message
Next message
Displays the next message to send
and the date to send the message.
GetMessage in
70 seconds
Last command
Displays the last command received Not Available
from server.
Reboot
Reset
Ping
Diagnostic
...
Not Available
Refresh button
On refresh, the RSE Agent replies
with the current data and breaks the
waiting state (if waiting) to contact
the server and refreshes the information.
Remote Service logs
The RSE Agent generates some event logs in the central controller event log. Event
logs are generated during starting, registering, unregistering, loosing connectivity,
and during other key events.
The events logs are in the range of 170XXX and are described with all the others
controller event logs documentation. For more details, see Operating
manual - Trouble shooting IRC5.
Force a reset of the RSE agent
It is possible to reset the RSE agent. When you reset, the RSE agent erases all its
internal information including the registration information, the data collector script,
and all the locally stored service information. The configuration will not be reset,
but a new registration is required to reactivate the Remote Service.
Use the following procedure to reset the RSE agent:
Action
1
Tap the ABB button to display the ABB menu.
Process applications are listed in the menu.
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2.10.5 Remote Service information
Continued
Action
2
Tap Program Editor -> Debug -> Call Routine.
Note
Tap PP to Main if Debug is disabled.
112
3
Tap RemoteServiceReset -> Go to. Press the Motors on button on the controller.
4
Press the Play button to execute the reset routine - > tap Reset.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.1 About Absolute Accuracy
3 Motion performance
3.1 Absolute Accuracy [603-1, 603-2]
3.1.1 About Absolute Accuracy
Purpose
Absolute Accuracy is a calibration concept that ensures that the TCP accuracy in
most cases is better than ±1 mm in the entire working range.
The difference between an ideal robot and a real robot can be several millimeters,
resulting from mechanical tolerances and deflection in the robot structure. Absolute
Accuracy compensate for these differences, ensuring that the given coordinates
coincide with the actual robot position.
Here are some examples of when this accuracy is important:
•
Off-line programming with minimum touch-up.
•
Exchangeability of robots
•
On-line programming with accurate reorientation of tool
•
Re-use of programs between applications
What is included
Every Absolute Accuracy robot is delivered with:
•
compensation parameters saved on the robot’s serial measurement board
•
a birth certificate representing the Absolute Accuracy measurement protocol
for the calibration and verification sequence.
Recognizing an Absolute Accuracy robot
A robot with Absolute Accuracy calibration is marked with a sign on the manipulator
(close to the identification plate) that looks like this:
xx0300000314
Basic approach
These are the basic steps to set up Absolute Accuracy on your robot. For a more
detailed description, see Activate Absolute Accuracy on page 117.
1 Activate Absolute Accuracy.
2 Restart the controller.
Limitations
Absolute Accuracy works on a robot target in Cartesian coordinates, not on the
individual joints. Therefore, joint based movements (e.g. MoveAbsJ) will not be
affected. See When is Absolute Accuracy being used on page 115.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.1 About Absolute Accuracy
Continued
If the robot is suspended, the Absolute Accuracy calibration must be performed
when the robot is suspended. The compensation parameters differ depending on
if the robot is floor mounted or suspended.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.2 When is Absolute Accuracy being used
3.1.2 When is Absolute Accuracy being used
General
When Absolute Accuracy is activated the robot is used as normal, but with Absolute
Accuracy active. However, Absolute Accuracy is only used in connection with
Cartesian coordinates (i.e. robtargets). Joint based movement (i.e. jointtargets) is
not affected by Absolute Accuracy.
The list below for Absolute Accuracy active defines when it is active. To further
explain it is followed by some examples of when it is not active.
Absolute Accuracy active
Absolute Accuracy will be active in the following cases:
•
Any motion function based on robtargets (e.g. MoveL) and ModPos on
robtargets
•
Reorientation jogging
•
Linear jogging
•
Tool definition (4, 5, 6 point tool definition, room fixed TCP, stationary tool)
•
Work object definition
Absolute Accuracy not active
The following are examples of when Absolute Accuracy is not active:
•
Any motion function based on a jointtarget (MoveAbsJ)
•
Independent joint
•
Joint based jogging
•
Additional axes
•
Track motion
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115
3 Motion performance
3.1.3 Useful tools
3.1.3 Useful tools
Overview
The following products are recommended for operation and maintenance of
Absolute Accurate robots:
•
Load Identification
•
Calibration Pendulum (standard robot calibration tool)
•
CalibWare (Absolute Accuracy calibration tool)
Load Identification
Absolute Accuracy calculates the robot's deflection depending on payload. It is
very important to have an accurate description of the load.
Load Identification is a tool that determines the mass, center of gravity, and inertia
of the payload.
For more information, see Operating manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant.
Calibration Pendulum
Calibration Pendulum is used to calibrate the robot's resolver offset. This means
that the robot is in its home position (all axes angels set to zero) and the resolver
angles are calibrated.
There are different recommended resolver offset calibration tools, depending on
the robot model. The most commonly used is Calibration Pendulum. Information
about calibration for a specific robot is found in the product manual for the
respective robot, and in Operating manual - Calibration Pendulum.
Calibration Pendulum is used at initial calibration and when servicing the robot.
CalibWare
CalibWare, provided by ABB, is a tool for calibrating Absolute Accuracy. The
documentation to CalibWare describes the Absolute Accuracy calibration procedure
in detail.
CalibWare is used at initial calibration and when servicing the robot.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.4 Configuration
3.1.4 Configuration
Activate Absolute Accuracy
Use RobotStudio and follow these steps (see Operating manual - RobotStudio for
more information):
Action
1
If you do not already have write access, click Request Write Access and wait for
grant from the FlexPendant.
2
Click Configuration Editor and select Motion.
3
Click the type Robot.
4
Configure the parameter Use Robot Calibration and change the value to "r1_calib".
5
For a MultiMove system, repeat step 3 and 4 for each robot. Use Robot Calibration
is then set to "r2_calib" for robot 2, "r3_calib" for robot 3 and "r4_calib" for robot
4.
6
Restart the controller for the changes to take effect.
Tip
To verify that Absolute Accuracy is active, look at the Jogging window on the
FlexPendant. When Absolute Accuracy is active, the text "Absolute Accuracy
On" is shown in the left window. In a MultiMove system, check this status for all
mechanical units.
Deactivate Absolute Accuracy
Use RobotStudio and follow these steps (see Operating manual - RobotStudio for
more information):
Action
1
If you do not already have write access, click Request Write Access and wait for
grant from the FlexPendant.
2
Click Configuration Editor and select the topic Motion.
3
Click the type Robot.
4
Configure the parameter Use Robot Calibration and change the value to "r1_uncalib".
5
For a MultiMove system, repeat step 3 and 4 for each robot. Use Robot Calibration
is then set to "r2_uncalib" for robot 2, "r3_uncalib" for robot 3 and "r4_uncalib" for
robot 4.
6
Restart the controller for the changes to take effect.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.4 Configuration
Continued
Change calibration data
If you exchange the manipulator, the calibration data for the new manipulator must
be loaded. This is done by copying the calibration data from the robot’s serial
measurement board to the robot controller.
Use the FlexPendant and follow these steps (for more information, see Operating
manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant):
Action
118
1
Tap the ABB menu and then Calibration.
2
Tap on the robot you wish to update.
3
Tap the tab Robot Memory.
4
Tap Advanced.
5
Tap Clear Controller Memory.
6
Tap Clear and then confirm by tapping Yes.
7
Tap Close.
8
Tap Update.
9
Tap Cabinet or robot has been exchanged and confirm by tapping Yes.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.5.1 Maintenance that affect the accuracy
3.1.5 Maintenance
3.1.5.1 Maintenance that affect the accuracy
Overview
This section will focus on those maintenance activities that directly affect the
accuracy of the robot, summarized as follows:
•
Tool recalibration
•
Motor replacement
•
Wrist replacement (large robots)
•
Arm replacement (lower arm, upper arm, gearbox, foot)
•
Manipulator replacement
•
Loss of accuracy
Tool recalibration
For information about tool recalibration, see Tool calibration on page 135.
Motor replacement
Replacement of all motors on small robots and motors for axes 1 through 4 on
large robots (for example IRB 6700) requires a re-calibration of the corresponding
resolver offset parameter using Calibration Pendulum.
For description of the calibration process, see the product manual for the respective
robot.
Wrist replacement
Replacement of the wrist unit on large robots (for example IRB 6700) requires a
re-calibration of the resolver offsets for axes 5 and 6 using Calibration Pendulum.
For description of the calibration process, see the product manual for the respective
robot.
Arm replacement
Replacement of any of the robot arms, or other mechanical structure (excluding
wrist), changes the structure of the robot to the extent that a robot recalibration is
required. It is recommended that, after an arm replacement, the entire robot should
be recalibrated to ensure optimal Absolute Accuracy functionality. This is typically
performed with CalibWare and a separate measurement system. CalibWare can
be used together with any generic 3Dmeasurement system.
For more information about the calibration process, see documentation for
CalibWare.
A summary of the calibration process is presented as follows:
Action
1
Replace the affected component.
2
Perform a resolver offset calibration for all axes. See the product manual for the
respective robot.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.5.1 Maintenance that affect the accuracy
Continued
Action
3
Recalibrate the TCP.
4
Check the accuracy by comparison to a fixed reference point in the cell.
5
Check the accuracy of the work objects.
Note
An update of the defined work objects will make the deviation less in positioning.
6
Check the accuracy of the positions in the current application.
7
If the accuracy still is unsatisfactory, perform an Absolute Accuracy calibration of
the entire robot. See documentation for CalibWare.
Manipulator replacement
When a robot manipulator is replaced without replacing the controller cabinet, it
is necessary to update the Absolute Accuracy parameters in the controller cabinet
and realign the robot to the cell. The Absolute Accuracy parameters are updated
by loading the replacement robot’s calibration parameters into the controller as
described in Change calibration data on page 118. Ensure that the calibration data
is loaded and that Absolute Accuracy is activated.
The alignment of the replacement robot to the cell depends on the robot alignment
technique chosen at installation. If the robot mounting pins are aligned to the cell
then the robot need only be placed on the pins - no further alignment is necessary.
If the robot was aligned using a robot program then it is necessary to measure the
cell fixture(s) and measure the robot in several positions (for best results use the
same program as the original robot). See Measure robot alignment on page 133.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.5.2 Loss of accuracy
3.1.5.2 Loss of accuracy
Cause and action
Loss of accuracy usually occur after robot collision or large temperature variations.
It is necessary to determine the cause of the errors, and take adequate action.
If...
...then...
the tool is not prop- recalibrate if the TCP has changed.
erly calibrated
the tool load is not run Load Identification to ensure correct mass, centre of gravity and
correctly defined inertia for the active tool.
the resolver offsets
are no longer valid
1
2
3
the robot’s relationship to the fixture(s) has
changed
1
the robot structure
has changed
1
2
2
3
Check that the axis scales show that the robot stands correctly
in the home position.
If the indicators are not aligned, move the robot to correct position and update the revolution counters.
If the indicators are close to aligned but not correct, re-calibrate
with Calibration Pendulum.
Check by moving the robot to a predefined position on the fixture(s).
Visually assessing whether the deviation is excessive.
If excessive, realign robot to fixture(s).
Visually assess whether the robot is damaged.
If damaged then replace entire manipulator -or- replace affected
arm(s) -or- recalibrate affected arm(s).
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3 Motion performance
3.1.6.1 Error sources
3.1.6 Compensation theory
3.1.6.1 Error sources
Types of errors
The errors compensated for in the controller derive from the mechanical tolerances
of the constituent robot parts. A subset of these are detailed in the illustration
below.
Compliance errors are due to the effect of the robot’s own weight together with the
weight of the current payload. These errors depend on gravity and the
characteristics of the load. The compensation of these errors is most efficient if
you use Load Identification (see Operating manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant).
Kinematic errors are caused by position or orientational deviations in the robot
axes. These are independent of the load.
Illustration
There are several types of errors that can occur in each joint.
en0300000232
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3 Motion performance
3.1.6.2 Absolute Accuracy compensation
3.1.6.2 Absolute Accuracy compensation
Introduction
Both compliance and kinematic errors are compensated for with "fake targets".
Knowing the deflection of the robot (i.e. deviation from ordered position), Absolute
Accuracy can compensate by ordering the robot to a fake target.
The compensation works on a robot target in cartesian coordinates, not on the
individual joints. This means that it is the position of the TCP (marked with an arrow
in the following illustrations) that is correctly compensated.
Desired position
The following illustration shows the position you want the robot to have.
xx0300000225
Position due to deflection
The following illustration shows the position the robot will get without Absolute
Accuracy. The weight of the robot arms and the load will make a deflection on the
robot. Note that the deflection is exaggerated.
xx0300000227
Fake target
In order to get the desired position, Absolute Accuracy calculates a fake target.
When you enter a desired position, the system recalculates it to a fake target that
after the deflection will result in the desired position.
xx0300000226
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3 Motion performance
3.1.6.2 Absolute Accuracy compensation
Continued
Compensated position
The actual position will be the same as your desired position. As a user you will
not notice the fake target or the deflection. The robot will behave as if it had no
deflection.
xx0300000224
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3 Motion performance
3.1.7.1 ABB calibration process
3.1.7 Preparation of Absolute Accuracy robot
3.1.7.1 ABB calibration process
Overview
This section describes the calibration process that ABB performs on each Absolute
Accuracy robot, regardless of robot type or family, before it is delivered.
The process can be divided in four steps:
1 Resolver offset calibration
2 Absolute Accuracy calibration
3 Calibration data stored on the serial measurement board
4 Absolute Accuracy verification
5 Generation of a birth certificate
Resolver offset calibration
The resolver offset calibration process is used to calibrate the resolver offset
parameters.
For information on how to do this, see the product manual for the respective robot.
Absolute Accuracy calibration
The Absolute Accuracy calibration is performed on top of the resolver offset
calibration, hence the importance of having repeatable methods for both processes.
Each robot is calibrated with maximum load to ensure that the correct compensation
parameters are detected (calibration at lower load might not result in a correct
determination of the robot flexibility parameters.) The process runs the robot to
100 jointtarget poses and measures each corresponding measurement point
coordinate. The list of poses and measurements are fed into the CalibWare
calibration core and a set of robot compensation parameters are created.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.7.1 ABB calibration process
Continued
For information on how to do this, see documentation for CalibWare.
en0300000248
Absolute Accuracy verification
The parameters are loaded onto the controller and activated. The robot is then run
to a set of 50 robtarget poses. Each pose is measured and the deviation from
nominal determined.
For information on how to do this, see documentation for CalibWare.
The requirements for acceptance vary between robot types, but typically 90% of
the poses (all non-singular) have to show an absolute deviation of less than 1 mm.
Compensation parameters and birth certificate
The compensation parameters are saved on the robot’s serial measurement board
(see Compensation parameters on page 128).
A birth certificate is created representing the Absolute Accuracy measurement
protocol for the calibration and verification sequence (see Birth certificate on
page 127).
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3 Motion performance
3.1.7.2 Birth certificate
3.1.7.2 Birth certificate
About the birth certificate
All Absolute Accuracy robots are shipped with a birth certificate. It represents the
Absolute Accuracy measurement protocol for the calibration and verification
sequence.
The birth certificate comprises the following key information:
•
Robot information (robot type, serial number)
•
Accuracy information (maximum, average and standard deviation for finepoint
error distribution)
•
Tool information (TCP, mass, center of gravity)
•
Description of measurement protocol (measurement and calibration system,
number of points, measurement point location)
Example of birth certificate
xx0300000230
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3 Motion performance
3.1.7.3 Compensation parameters
3.1.7.3 Compensation parameters
About the compensation parameters
All Absolute Accuracy robots are shipped with a set of compensation parameters.
As the resolver offset calibration is integral in the Absolute Accuracy calibration,
the resolver offset parameters are also stored on the robot’s serial measurement
board.
The compensation parameters
The compensation parameters contains the following sections:
•
ROBOT_CALIB
•
ARM_CALIB
•
JOINT_CALIB
•
PARALLEL_ARM_CALIB
•
TOOL_INTERFACE
•
MOTOR_CALIB
The ROBOT_CALIB section defines the top level of the calibration structure. Default
for the system is "uncalib", which results in Absolute Accuracy being deactivated.
The "r1_calib" instance activates the Absolute Accuracy functionality by specifying
the "-absacc" flag. Furthermore, a tool interface is chosen, in this case "r1_tool".
Note that Absolute Accuracy must be activated manually, see Activate Absolute
Accuracy on page 117.
The sections ARM_CALIB, JOINT_CALIB, PARALLEL_ARM_CALIB and
MOTOR_CALIB are reserved by the system and are chosen automatically when
the Absolute Accuracy functionality is activated. The parameter values can be
changed by importing a new configuration file, however the keywords must remain
as stated. Alteration of the keywords will result in a corrupted configuration file.
The compensation parameters can be viewed by creating a backup and reading
the moc.cfg file.
Example of compensation parameters (as found in the backup moc.cfg)
MOC:CFG_1.0::
# ROBOT_CALIB - ?
ROBOT_CALIB:
-name "r1_calib"
-use_tool_interface "r1_tool" -absacc
# ARM_CALIB - ?
ARM_CALIB:
-name "rob1_1"
-error_offset_x 0.0000000 -error_offset_y 0.0000000 -error_offset_z
0.0000000 \
-error_roll 0.0000000 -error_pitch 0.0000000 -error_jaw 0.0000000
-arm_compliance_y 0.0000000
-name "rob1_2" \
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3 Motion performance
3.1.7.3 Compensation parameters
Continued
-error_offset_x 0.0002967 -error_offset_y 0.0000000 -error_offset_z
0.0000000 \
-error_roll 0.0001903 -error_pitch -0.0003469 -error_jaw 0.0000000
-name "rob1_3" \
-error_offset_x 0.0000000 -error_offset_y 0.0000000 -error_offset_z
0.0005485 \
-error_roll 0.0000537 -error_pitch 0.0006959 -error_jaw 0.0003361
-arm_compliance_x 0.0000000 -arm_compliance_z 0.0000000
-name "rob1_4" \
-error_offset_x 0.0000000 -error_offset_y -0.0003586 -error_offset_z
0.0004580 \
-error_roll 0.0000965 -error_pitch 0.0000000 -error_jaw -0.0002578
-name "rob1_5" \
-error_offset_x -0.0005467 -error_offset_y 0.0000000 -error_offset_z
0.0000032 \
-error_roll 0.0000000 -error_pitch 0.0009360 -error_jaw -0.0002367
-name "rob1_6" \
-error_offset_x 0.0000000 -error_offset_y -0.0000449 -error_offset_z
-0.0000365 \
-error_roll 0.0000000 -error_pitch 0.0000000 -error_jaw -0.0002168
# JOINT_CALIB - ?
JOINT_CALIB:
-name "rob1_1" -compl
-name "rob1_2" -compl
-name "rob1_3" -compl
-name "rob1_4" -compl
-name "rob1_5" -compl
-name "rob1_6" -compl
0.00000000
0.00000004
0.00000107
0.00000257
0.00000490
0.00000941
# PARALLEL_ARM_CALIB - ?
PARALLEL_ARM_CALIB:
-name "rob1_2" -error_length 0.0004324
-name "rob1_3" -error_length -0.0000744
# TOOL_INTERFACE - ?
TOOL_INTERFACE:
-name "r1_tool" -compl 0.0 -mass 0.0 -mass_centre_x 0.0 \
-offset_x -0.0000465 -offset_y 0.0011064 -offset_z -0.0005255 \
-orient_u0 1.0 -orient_u1 0.0 -orient_u2 0.0 -orient_u3 0.0
# MOTOR_CALIB - ?
MOTOR_CALIB:
-name "rob1_1" -valid_com_offset -cal_offset 1.301100
-valid_cal_offset
-name "rob1_2" -valid_com_offset -cal_offset 3.422110
-valid_cal_offset
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3 Motion performance
3.1.7.3 Compensation parameters
Continued
-name "rob1_3" -valid_com_offset
-valid_cal_offset
-name "rob1_4" -valid_com_offset
-valid_cal_offset
-name "rob1_5" -valid_com_offset
-valid_cal_offset
-name "rob1_6" -valid_com_offset
-valid_cal_offset
130
-cal_offset 5.057730
-cal_offset 3.584140
-cal_offset 3.556740
-cal_offset 4.180770
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3 Motion performance
3.1.8.1 Overview
3.1.8 Cell alignment
3.1.8.1 Overview
About cell alignment
The compensation parameters for the Absolute Accuracy robot are determined
from the physical base plate to the robot tool. For many applications this is enough,
the robot can be used as any other robot. However, it is common that Absolute
Accuracy robots are aligned to the coordinates in their cells. This section describes
this alignment procedure. For a more detailed description, see documentation for
CalibWare.
Alignment procedure
In order for the robot to be accurate with respect to the entire robot cell, it is
necessary to install the robot correctly. In summary, this involves:
Action
Description
1
Measure fixture alignment
Determine the relationship between the measurement
system and the fixture. See Measure fixture alignment
on page 132.
2
Measure robot alignment
Determine the relationship between the measurement
system and the robot. See Measure robot alignment
on page 133.
3
Calculate frame relationships
Determine the relationship between, for example, the
robot and the fixture. See Frame relationships on
page 134.
4
Calibrate tool
Determine the relationship between the robot tool and
other cell components. See Tool calibration on
page 135.
Illustration
en0300000239
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3 Motion performance
3.1.8.2 Measure fixture alignment
3.1.8.2 Measure fixture alignment
About fixture alignment
A fixture is defined as a cell component that is associated with a particular
coordinate system. The interaction between the robot and the fixture requires an
accurate relationship in order to ensure Absolute Accuracy.
Absolute Accuracy fixtures must be equipped with at least three (preferably four)
reference points, each with clearly marked position information.
Fixture measurement procedure
The alignment of the fixture is done in the following steps:
1 Enter the reference point names and positions into the alignment software
(e.g. CalibWare).
2 Measure the reference points and assign the same names.
3 Use the alignment software to match the reference to measured points and
determine the relationship frame. All measurement systems support this
form of transformation.
Illustration
en0300000237
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3 Motion performance
3.1.8.3 Measure robot alignment
3.1.8.3 Measure robot alignment
Select method
The relationship between the measurement system and the robot can be determined
in two separate ways:
Alignment procedure
Description
Alignment to physical base
The equivalent to the fixture alignment in which the physical
base pins are measured and aligned with respect to the reference positions detailed in that particular robot’s User
Manual.
Alignment to theoretical base Measuring several robot poses and letting the alignment
software determine the robot alignment.
Alignment to physical base
The advantage of aligning the robot as a fixture is in its simplicity - the robot is
treated as another fixture in the cell and its base points measured accordingly.
The disadvantage is that small errors in the subsequent placement of the robot on
the pins can result is large TCP errors due to the reach of the robot (i.e. the
placement of the robot is not calibrated.)
In order to determine the reference point coordinates, it is necessary to consult
the product manual for that robot type.
Once the correct point have been measured, the alignment software is used to
determine the frame relationship between the measurement system and robot
base.
Alignment to theoretical base
The advantage of aligning the robot to a theoretical base is that any errors resulting
from mounting the robot can be eliminated. Furthermore, the alignment process
details the robot accuracy at the measured points, confirming correct Absolute
Accuracy functionality. The disadvantage is that a robot program must be created
(either manually or automatically from CalibWare) and the robot measured (ideally
with correct tool however the TCP can also be calibrated as a part of this procedure.)
Once the correct point is measured, the alignment software is used to determine
the frame relationship between the measurement system and robot base.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.8.4 Frame relationships
3.1.8.4 Frame relationships
About frame relationships
Once the relationships between the measurement system and all other cell
components are measured, the relationships between cell components can be
determined.
The relationship between the world coordinate system and the robot shall be stored
in the robot base. The relationship between the robot and the fixture shall be stored
in the workobject data type.
The measurement system is initially the active coordinate system as both world
and robot are measured relative to the measurement system.
Determine robot base
Use a standard measurement system software to determine the robot base in world
coordinates:
1 Set the world coordinate system to be active (the origin).
2 Read the coordinates of the robot base frame (now relative to the world).
The fixture relationship is similarly determined by setting the robot to be
active and reading the coordinates of the fixture frame.
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3 Motion performance
3.1.8.5 Tool calibration
3.1.8.5 Tool calibration
About tool calibration
The Absolute Accuracy robot compensation parameters are calculated to be tool
independent. This allows any tool with a correctly pre-defined TCP to be connected
to the robot flange and used without requiring a tool re-calibration. In practice,
however, it is difficult to perform a correct TCP calibration with, for example, a
Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) as this does not take into account the
connection of the tool to the robot nor the tool flexibility.
Each tool should be calibrated on a regular basis to ensure optimal robot accuracy.
Tool calibration procedures
Suggested tool recalibration procedures are detailed as follows:
•
SBCU (Single Beam Calibration Unit) such as the ABB BullsEye for
arc-welding or spot-welding applications.
•
Geometry calibration such as the 4, 5 or 6 Point tool center point calibration
routine available in the controller. A measurement system can be used to
ensure that the single point used is accurate.
•
RAPID tool calibration routines: MToolTCPCalib (calibration of TCP for moving
tool), SToolTCPCalib (calibration of TCP for stationary tool), MToolRotCalib
(calibration of rotation for moving tool), SToolRotCalib (calibration of TCP
and rotation for stationary tool.)
•
Using theoretical data, for example from a CAD model.
Tip
As the tool load characteristics are used in the Absolute Accuracy models, it is
essential that all parameters be as accurate as possible. Use of Load Identification
is an efficient method of determining tool load characteristics.
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3 Motion performance
3.2 Advanced robot motion [687-1]
3.2 Advanced robot motion [687-1]
About Advanced robot motion
The option Advanced robot motion gives you access to:
136
•
Advanced Shape Tuning, see Advanced Shape Tuning [included in 687-1]
on page 137.
•
Changing Motion Process Mode from RAPID, see Motion Process Mode
[included in 687-1] on page 145.
•
Wrist Move, see Wrist Move [included in 687-1] on page 153.
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3 Motion performance
3.3.1 About Advanced Shape Tuning
3.3 Advanced Shape Tuning [included in 687-1]
3.3.1 About Advanced Shape Tuning
Purpose
The purpose of Advanced Shape Tuning is to reduce the path deviation caused
by joint friction of the robot.
Advanced Shape Tuning is useful for low speed cutting (10-100 mm/s) of, for
example, small circles. Effects of robot joint friction can cause path deviation of
typically 0.5 mm in these cases. By tuning parameters of a friction model in the
controller, the path deviation can be reduced to the repeatability level of the robot,
for example, 0.1 mm for a medium sized robot.
What is included
Advanced Shape Tuning is included in the RobotWare option Advanced robot
motion and gives you access to:
•
Instructions FricIdInit, FricIdEvaluate and FricIdSetFricLevels
that automatically optimize the joint friction model parameters for a
programmed path.
•
The system parameters Friction FFW On, Friction FFW level and Friction
FFW Ramp for manual tuning of the joint friction parameters.
•
The tune types tune_fric_lev and tune_fric_ramp that can be used
with the instruction TuneServo.
Basic approach
This is a brief description of how Advanced Shape Tuning is most commonly used:
1 Set system parameter Friction FFW On to TRUE. See System parameters
on page 142.
2 Perform automatic tuning of the joint friction levels using the instructions
FricIdInit and FricIdEvaluate. See Automatic friction tuning on
page 138.
3 Compensate for the friction using the instruction FricIdSetFricLevels.
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3 Motion performance
3.3.2 Automatic friction tuning
3.3.2 Automatic friction tuning
About automatic friction tuning
A robot’s joint friction levels are automatically tuned with the instructions
FricIdInit and FricIdEvaluate. These instructions will tune each joint’s
friction level for a specific sequence of movements.
The automatically tuned levels are applied for friction compensation with the
instruction FricIdSetFricLevels.
Program execution
To perform automatic tuning for a sequence of movements, the sequence must
begin with the instruction FricIdInit and end with the instruction
FricIdEvaluate. When program execution reaches FricIdEvaluate, the robot
will repeat the movement sequence until the best friction level for each joint axis
is found. Each iteration consists of a backward and a forward motion, both following
the programmed path. Typically the sequence has to be repeated approximately
20-30 times, in order to iterate to correct joint friction levels.
If the program execution is stopped in any way while the program pointer is on the
instruction FricIdEvaluate and then restarted, the results will be invalid. After
a stop, friction identification must therefore be restarted from the beginning.
Once the correct friction levels are found they have to be set with the instruction
FricIdSetFricLevels, otherwise they will not be used. Note that the friction
levels are tuned for the particular movement between FricIdInit and
FricIdEvaluate. For movements in another region in the robot’s working area,
a new tuning is needed to obtain the correct friction levels.
For a detailed description of the instructions, see Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Limitations
There are the following limitations for friction tuning:
•
Friction tuning cannot be combined with synchronized movement. That is,
SyncMoveOn is not allowed between FricIdInit and FricIdEvaluate.
•
The movement sequence for which friction tuning is done must begin and
end with a finepoint. If not, finepoints will automatically be inserted during
the tuning process.
•
Automatic friction tuning works only for TCP robots.
•
Automatic joint friction tuning can only be done for one robot at a time.
•
Tuning can be made to a maximum of 500%. If that is not enough, set a higher
value for the parameter Friction FFW Level, see Starting with an estimated
value on page 143.
•
It is not possible to view any test signals with Test Signal Viewer during
automatic friction tuning.
•
The movement sequence between FricIdInit and FricIdEvaluate
cannot be longer than 10 seconds.
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3 Motion performance
3.3.2 Automatic friction tuning
Continued
Note
To use Advanced Shape Tuning, the parameter Friction FFW On must be set to
TRUE.
Example
This example shows how to program a cutting instruction that encapsulates the
friction tuning. When the instruction is run the first time, without calculated friction
parameters, the friction tuning is done. During the tuning process, the robot will
repeatedly move back and forth along the programmed path. Approximately 25
iterations are needed.
At all subsequent runs the friction levels are set to the tuned values identified in
the first run. By using the instruction CutHole, the friction can be tuned individually
for each hole.
PERS num friction_levels1{6} := [9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9];
PERS num friction_levels2{6} := [9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9];
CutHole p1,20,v50,tool1,friction_levels1;
CutHole p2,15,v50,tool1,friction_levels2;
PROC CutHole(robtarget Center, num Radius, speeddata Speed, PERS
tooldata Tool, PERS num FricLevels{*})
VAR bool DoTuning := FALSE;
IF (FricLevels{1} >= 9E9) THEN
! Variable is uninitialized, do tuning
DoTuning := TRUE;
FricIdInit;
ELSE
FricIdSetFricLevels FricLevels;
ENDIF
! Execute the move sequence
MoveC p10, p20, Speed, z0, Tool;
MoveC p30, p40, Speed, z0, Tool;
IF DoTuning THEN
FricIdEvaluate FricLevels;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
Note
A real program would include deactivating the cutting equipment before the
tuning phase.
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3 Motion performance
3.3.3 Manual friction tuning
3.3.3 Manual friction tuning
Overview
It is possible to make a manual tuning of a robot's joint friction (instead of automatic
friction tuning). The friction level for each joint can be tuned using the instruction
TuneServo. How to do this is described in this section.
There is usually no need to make changes to the friction ramp.
Note
To use Advanced Shape Tuning, the parameter Friction FFW On must be set to
TRUE.
Tune types
A tune type is used as an argument to the instruction TuneServo. For more
information, see tunetype in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
There are two tune types that are used expressly for Advanced Shape Tuning:
Tune type
Description
TUNE_FRIC_LEV
By calling the instruction TuneServo with the argument
TUNE_FRIC_LEV the friction level for a robot joint can be adjusted
during program execution. A value is given in percent (between 1
and 500) of the friction level defined by the parameter Friction FFW
Level.
TUNE_FRIC_RAMP By calling the instruction TuneServo with the argument
TUNE_FRIC_RAMP the motor shaft speed at which full friction compensation is reached can be adjusted during program execution. A
value is given in percent (between 1 and 500) of the friction ramp
defined by the parameter Friction FFW Ramp.
There is normally no need to tune the friction ramp.
Configure friction level
The friction level is set for each robot joint. Perform the following steps for one
joint at a time:
Action
1
Test the robot by running it through the most demanding parts of its tasks (the most
advanced shapes). If the robot shall be used for cutting, then test it by cutting with the
same tool as at manufacturing.
Observe the path deviations and test if the joint friction levels need to be increased
or decreased.
2
Tune the friction level with the RAPID instruction TuneServo and the tune type
TUNE_FRIC_LEV. The level is given in percent of the Friction FFW Level value.
Example: The instruction for increasing the friction level with 20% looks like this:
TuneServo MHA160R1, 1, 120 \Type:= TUNE_FRIC_LEV;
3
Repeat step 1 and 2 until you are satisfied with the path deviation.
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3 Motion performance
3.3.3 Manual friction tuning
Continued
Action
4
The final tuning values can be transferred to the system parameters.
Example: The Friction FFW Level is 0.5 and the final tune value (TUNE_FRIC_LEV) is
120%. Set Friction FFW Level to 0.6 and tune value to 100% (default value), which is
equivalent.
Tip
Tuning can be made to a maximum of 500%. If that is not enough, set a higher
value for the parameter Friction FFW Level, see Setting tuning system parameters
on page 143.
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3 Motion performance
3.3.4.1 System parameters
3.3.4 System parameters
3.3.4.1 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter in Advanced Shape Tuning. For more
information, see the respective parameter in Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
Friction Compensation / Control Parameters
These parameters belong to the type Friction Compensation in the topic Motion,
except for the robots IRB 1400 and IRB 1410 where they belong to the type Control
Parameters in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Friction FFW On
Advanced Shape Tuning is active when Friction FFW On is set to
TRUE.
Friction FFW Level Friction FFW Level is the friction level for the robot joint. See illustration below.
Friction FFW Ramp Friction FFW Ramp is the speed of the robot motor shaft, at which
the friction has reached the friction level defined by Friction FFW
Level. See illustration below.
There is normally no need to make changes to Friction FFW Ramp.
Illustration
en0900000117
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3 Motion performance
3.3.4.2 Setting tuning system parameters
3.3.4.2 Setting tuning system parameters
Automatic tuning rarely requires changes in system parameters
For automatic tuning, if the friction levels are saved in a persistent array, the tuning
is maintained after a power failure. The automatic tuning can also be used to set
different tuning levels for different robot movement sequences, which cannot be
achieved with system parameters. When using automatic tuning, there is no need
to change the system parameters unless the default values are very much off, see
Starting with an estimated value on page 143.
Transfer tuning to system parameters
When using manual tuning, the tuning values are reset to default (100%) at power
failure. System parameter settings are, however, permanent.
If a temporary tuning is made, that is only valid for a part of the program execution,
it should not be transferred.
To transfer the friction level tuning value (TUNE_FRIC_LEV) to the parameter
Friction FFW Level follow these steps:
Action
1
In RobotStudio, open the Configuration Editor, Motion topic, and select the type
Friction comp (except for the robots IRB 1400 and IRB 1410 where they belong to the
type Control parameters).
2
Multiply Friction FFW Level with the tuning value. Set this value as the new Friction
FFW Level and set the tuning value (TUNE_FRIC_LEV) to 100%.
Example: The Friction FFW Level is 0.5 and the final tune value (TUNE_FRIC_LEV) is
120%. Set Friction FFW Level to 0.6 (1.20x0.5) and the tuning value to 100% (default
value), which is equivalent.
3
Restart the controller for the changes to take effect.
Starting with an estimated value
The parameter Friction FFW Level will be the starting value for the tuning. If this
value is very far from the correct value, tuning to the correct value might be
impossible. This is unlikely to happen, since Friction FFW Level is by default set
to a value approximately correct for most situations.
If the Friction FFW Level value, for some reason, is too far from the correct value,
it can be changed to an new estimated value.
Action
1
In RobotStudio, open the Configuration Editor, Motion topic, and select the type
Friction comp (except for the robots IRB 1400 and IRB 1410 where they belong to the
type Control parameters).
2
Set the parameter Friction FFW Level to an estimated value. Do not set the value 0
(zero), because that will make tuning impossible.
3
Restart the controller for the changes to take effect.
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3.3.5 RAPID components
3.3.5 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is an overview of all instructions, functions, and data types in Advanced Shape
Tuning.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instructions
Description
FricIdInit
Initiate friction identification
FricIdEvaluate
Evaluate friction identification
FricIdSetFricLevels
Set friction levels after friction identification
Functions
Advanced Shape Tuning includes no functions.
Data types
Advanced Shape Tuning includes no data types.
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3 Motion performance
3.4.1 About Motion Process Mode
3.4 Motion Process Mode [included in 687-1]
3.4.1 About Motion Process Mode
Purpose
The purpose of Motion Process Mode is to simplify application specific tuning, i.e.
to optimize the performance of the robot for a specific application.
For most applications the default mode is the best choice.
Available motion process modes
A motion process mode consists of a specific set of tuning parameters for a robot.
Each tuning parameter set, that is each mode, optimizes the robot tuning for a
specific class of applications.
There following modes are predefined:
•
Optimal cycle time mode – this mode gives the shortest possible cycle time
and is normally the default mode.
•
Accuracy mode – this mode improves path accuracy. The cycle time will be
slightly increased compared to Optimal cycle time mode. This is the
recommended choice for improving path accuracy on small and medium size
robots, for example IRB 2400 and IRB 2600.
•
Low speed accuracy mode – this mode improves path accuracy. The cycle
time will be slightly increased compared to Accuracy mode. This is the
recommended choice for improving path accuracy on large size robots, for
example IRB 4600.
•
Low speed stiff mode - this mode is recommended for contact applications
where maximum servo stiffness is important. Could also be used in some
low speed applications, where a minimum of path vibrations is desired. The
cycle time will be increased compared to Low speed accuracy mode.
There are also four modes available for application specific user tuning:
•
MPM User mode 1 – 4
Selection of mode
The default mode is automatically selected and can be changed by changing the
system parameter Use Motion Process Mode for type Robot.
Changing the Motion Process Mode from RAPID is only possible if the option
Advanced Robot Motion is installed. The mode can only be changed when the
robot is standing still, otherwise a fine point is enforced.
The following example shows a typical use of the RAPID instruction
MotionProcessModeSet.
MotionProcessModeSet OPTIMAL_CYCLE_TIME_MODE;
! Do cycle-time critical movement
MoveL *, vmax, ...;
...
MotionProcessModeSet ACCURACY_MODE;
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3.4.1 About Motion Process Mode
Continued
! Do cutting with high accuracy
MoveL *, v50, ...;
...
Limitations
•
The Motion Process Mode concept is currently available for all six- and
seven-axes robots except paint robots.
•
The Mounting Stiffness Factor parameters are only available for the following
robots:
IRB 120, IRB 140, IRB 1200, IRB 1520, IRB 1600, IRB 2600, IRB 4600, IRB
6620 (not LX), IRB 6640, IRB 6700.
•
For IRB 1410, only the Accset and the geometric accuracy parameters are
available.
•
The following robot models do not support the use of World Acc Factor (i.e.
only World Acc Factor = -1 is allowed):
IRB 340, IRB 360, IRB 540, IRB 1400, IRB 1410
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3 Motion performance
3.4.2 User-defined modes
3.4.2 User-defined modes
Available tune parameters
If a more specific tuning is needed, some tuning parameters can be modified in
each motion process mode. The four predefined modes and the four user modes
can all be modified. In this way, the user can create a specific tuning for a specific
application.
The following list contains a short description of the available tune parameters.
•
Use Motion Process Mode Type - selects predefined parameters for a user
mode.
•
Accset Acc Factor – changes acceleration
•
Accset Ramp Factor – changes acceleration ramp
•
Accset Fine Point Ramp Factor – changes deceleration ramp in fine points
•
Joint Acc Factor - changes acceleration for a specific joint.
•
World Acc Factor - activates dynamic world acceleration limitation if positive,
typical value is 1, deactivated if -1.
•
Geometric Accuracy Factor - improves geometric accuracy if reduced.
•
Dh Factor – changes path smoothness (effective system bandwidth)
•
Df Factor – changes the predicted resonance frequency for a particular axis
•
Kp Factor – changes the equivalent gain of the position controller for a
particular axis
•
Kv Factor – changes the equivalent gain of the speed controller for a particular
axis
•
Ti Factor – changes the integral time of the controller for a particular axis
•
Mounting Stiffness Factor X – describes the stiffness of the robot foundation
in x direction
•
Mounting Stiffness Factor Y – describes the stiffness of the robot foundation
in y direction
•
Mounting Stiffness Factor Z – describes the stiffness of the robot foundation
in z direction
For a detailed description, see Motion Process Mode in Technical reference
manual - System parameters.
Tuning parameters from RAPID
Most parameters can also be changed using the TuneServo and AccSet
instructions.
Note
All parameter settings are relative adjustments of the predefined parameter
values. Although it is possible to combine the use of motion process modes and
TuneServo/Accset instructions, it is recommended to choose either motion
process modes or TuneServo/AccSet.
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3.4.2 User-defined modes
Continued
Example 1
Relative adjustment of acceleration = [Predefined AccSet Acc Factor] * [AccSet
Acc Factor] * [AccSet instruction acceleration factor / 100]
Example 2
Relative adjustment of Kv = [Predefined Kv Factor] * [Kv Factor] * [Tune value of
TuneServo(TYPE_KV) instruction / 100]
Predefined parameter values
The predefined parameter values for each mode varies for different robot types.
Generally, all predefined parameters are set to 1.0 for Optimal cycle time mode.
For Low speed accuracy mode and Low speed stiff mode, the AccSet and Dh
parameters are lowered for a smoother movement and a more accurate path, and
the Kv Factor, Kp Factor, and Ti Factor are changed for higher servo stiffness.
For some robots, it might not be possible to increase the Kv Factor in Low speed
accuracy mode and Low speed stiff mode. Always be careful and be observant for
increased motor noise level when adjusting Kv Factor and do not use higher values
than needed for fulfilling the application requirement. A Kp Factor which is too
high, or a Ti Factor which is too low, can also increase vibrations due to mechanical
resonances.
Accuracy Mode uses a dynamic world acceleration limitation (World Acc Factor)
and increased geometric accuracy (Geometric Accuracy Factor) to improve the
path accuracy.
The Df Factor and the Mounting Stiffness Factors are always set to 1.0 in the
predefined modes, since the optimal values of these parameters depends the
specific installation, for example, the stiffness of the foundation on which the robot
is mounted. These parameters can be optimized using TuneMaster. More
information can be found in the TuneMaster application. Also note the limitations
of Mounting Stiffness Factor.
WARNING
Incorrect setting of the Motion Process Mode parameters can cause oscillating
movements or torques that can damage the robot.
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3 Motion performance
3.4.3 General information about robot tuning
3.4.3 General information about robot tuning
Minimizing cycle time
For best possible cycle time, the motion process mode Optimal cycle time mode
should be used. This mode is normally the default mode. The user only needs to
define the tool load, payload, and arm loads if any. Once the robot path has been
programmed, the ABB QuickMove motion technology automatically computes the
optimal accelerations and speeds along the path. This results in a time-optimal
path with the shortest possible cycle time. Hence, no tuning of acceleration is
needed. The only way to improve the cycle time is to change the geometry of the
path or to work in another region of the work space. This type of optimization, if
needed, can be performed by simulation in RobotStudio.
Increasing path accuracy and reducing vibrations
For most applications, the Optimal cycle time mode will result in a satisfactory
behavior in terms of path accuracy and vibrations. This is due to the ABB TrueMove
motion technology. However, there are applications where the accuracy needs to
be improved by modifying the tuning of the robot. This tuning has previously been
performed by using the TuneServo and AccSet instructions in the RAPID program.
The concept of motion process modes will simplify this application specific tuning
and the four predefined modes should be useful in many cases with no further
adjustments needed.
Here follows some general advice for solving accuracy problems, assuming that
the default choice Optimal cycle time mode has been tested and that accuracy
problems have been noticed:
1 Verify that tool load, payload, and arm loads are properly defined.
2 Inspect tool and process equipment attached to the robot arms. Make sure
that everything is properly fastened and that rigidity of the tool is adequate.
3 Inspect the foundation on which the robot is mounted, see Compensating
for foundation flexibility on page 149.
Compensating for foundation flexibility
If the foundation does not fulfill the stiffness requirement of the robot product
manual, then the foundation flexibility should be compensated for. See section
Requirements on foundation, Minimum resonance frequency in the robot product
manual.
This is performed by Df Factor for axis 1 and 2 or Mounting Stiffness Factor
depending on robot type, see Limitations on page 152.
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3.4.3 General information about robot tuning
Continued
TuneMaster is used for finding the optimal value of Df Factor / Mounting Stiffness
Factor. The obtained Df Factor / Mounting Stiffness Factor is then defined for the
Motion Process Modes used.
Note
A foundation that does not fulfill the requirements always impairs the accuracy
to some extent, even if the described compensation is used. If the foundation
rigidity is very low, there might not be possible to solve the problem using Df
Factor / Mounting Stiffness Factor.
In this case, the foundation must be improved or any of the solutions below used,
for example, Optimal cycle time mode with a low Dh Factor, Accset Acc Factor,
or Accset Fine Point Ramp Factor depending on the application.
If accuracy still needs to be improved
• For applications with high demands on path accuracy, for example cutting,
Advanced Shape Tuning and Accuracy mode/Low speed accuracy mode
should be used. The choice of motion mode depends both on the robot type
and the specific application. In general, Accuracy mode is recommended for
small and medium size robots (up to IRB 2400/2600) and Low speed accuracy
mode is recommended for larger robots.
•
If the path accuracy still needs improvement, the accuracy modes can be
adjusted with the tune parameters, some examples:
-
Tuning of Accuracy mode for improved accuracy:
1) Reduce World Acc Factor, for example from 1 to 0.5.
2) Reduce Dh Factor to 0.5 or lower. Note that a low value of Dh factor
can change the corner zones at high speed.
-
Tuning of Low speed accuracy mode for improved accuracy:
1) Set World Acc Factor to 1, and set Geometric Accuracy Factor to
0.1.
2) Reduce Dh Factor to 0.5 or lower.
•
The programmed speed must sometimes be reduced for best possible
accuracy, e.g. in cutting applications. For example, a circle with radius 1 mm
should not be programmed with a higher speed than 20 mm/s.
•
For contact applications, for example milling and pre-machining, Low speed
stiff mode is recommended. This mode can also be useful for large robots
in some low speed applications (up to 100 mm/s) where a minimum of path
vibrations is required, for example below 0.1 mm. Note that this mode has a
very stiff servo tuning and that there may be cases where the Kv Factor
needs to be reduced due to motor vibrations and noise.
•
If overshoots and vibrations in fine points needs to be reduced. Use Optimal
cycle time mode and decrease the value of Accset Fine Point Ramp Factor
or Dh Factor until the problem is solved.
•
If accuracy problems occur when starting or ending reorientation. Define a
new zone with increased pzone_ori and pzone_eax. These should always
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3.4.3 General information about robot tuning
Continued
have the same value, even if there are no external axes in the system. Also
increase zone_ori. Always strive for smooth reorientations when
programming.
•
Finally, if the cycle time needs to be reduced after the tuning for accuracy is
finished. Use different motion process modes in different sections of the
RAPID program.
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3.4.4 Additional information
3.4.4 Additional information
Motion Process Mode compared to TuneServo and AccSet
Motion process modes simplifies application specific tuning and makes it possible
to define the tuning by system parameters instead of the RAPID program.
In general, motion process modes should be the first choice for solving accuracy
problems. However, application specific tuning can still be performed using the
TuneServo and AccSet instructions in the RAPID program.
There are a few situations where TuneServo and AccSet might be a better choice.
One example of this is if an acceleration reduction in a section of the RAPID
program solves the accuracy problem and the cycle time is to be optimized. In this
case it might be better to use AccSet which can be changed without fine point
whereas change of motion process mode requires a fine point.
Limitations
•
The Motion Process Mode concept is currently available for all six- and
seven-axes robots except paint robots.
•
The Mounting Stiffness Factor parameters are only available for the following
robots:
IRB 120, IRB 140, IRB 1200, IRB 1520, IRB 1600, IRB 2600, IRB 4600, IRB
6620 (not LX), IRB 6640, IRB 6700.
•
For IRB 1410, only the Accset and the geometric accuracy parameters are
available.
•
The following robot models do not support the use of World Acc Factor (i.e.
only World Acc Factor = -1 is allowed):
IRB 340, IRB 360, IRB 540, IRB 1400, IRB 1410
Related information
For information about
See
Configuration of Motion Process Mode
parameters.
Technical reference manual - System parameters
RAPID instructions:
Technical reference manual - RAPID Instruc• AccSet - Reduces the acceleration tions, Functions and Data types
• MotionProcessModeSet - Set motion process mode
• TuneServo - Tuning servos
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3 Motion performance
3.5.1 Introduction to Wrist Move
3.5 Wrist Move [included in 687-1]
3.5.1 Introduction to Wrist Move
Purpose
The purpose of Wrist Move is to improve the path accuracy when cutting geometries
with small dimensions. For geometrical shapes like small holes, friction effects
from the main axes (1-3) of the robot often degrade the visual appearance of the
shape. The key idea is that instead of controlling the robot's TCP, a wrist movement
controls the point of intersection between the laser beam (or water jet or routing
spindle, etc) and the cutting plane. For controlling the point of intersection, only
two wrist axes are needed. Instead of using all axes of the robot, only two wrist
axes are used, thereby minimizing the friction effects on the path. Which wrist axis
pair to be used is decided by the programmer.
Using Wrist Move
Wrist Move is included in the RobotWare option Advanced robot motion.
Wrist Move is used together with the RAPID instruction CirPathMode and
movement instructions for circular arcs, that is, MoveC, TrigC, CapC etc. The wrist
movement mode is activated by the instruction CirPathMode together with one
of the flags Wrist45, Wrist46, or Wrist56. With this mode activated, all
subsequent MoveC instructions will result in a wrist movement. To go back to
normal MoveC behavior, then CirPathMode has to be set with a flag other than
Wrist45, Wrist46, and Wrist56, for example, PathFrame.
Note
During a wrist movement, the TCP height above the surface will vary. This is an
unavoidable consequence of using only two axes. The height variation will depend
on the robot position, the tool definition, and the radius of the circular arc. The
larger the radius, the larger the height variation will be. Due to the height variation
it is recommended that the movement is run at a very low speed the first time to
verify that the height variation does not become too large. Otherwise it is possible
that the cutting tool collides with the surface being cut.
Limitations
The Wrist Move option cannot be used if:
•
The work object is moving
•
The robot is mounted on a track or another manipulator that is moving
The Wrist Move option is only supported for robots running QuickMove, second
generation.
The tool will not remain at right angle against the surface during the cutting. As a
consequence, the holes cut with this method will be slightly conical. Usually this
will not be a problem for thin plates, but for thick plates the conicity will become
apparent.
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3.5.1 Introduction to Wrist Move
Continued
The height of the TCP above the surface will vary during the cut. The height variation
will increase with the size of the shape being cut. What limits the possible size of
the shape are therefore, beside risk of collision, process characteristics like focal
length of the laser beam or the water jet.
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3 Motion performance
3.5.2 Cut plane frame
3.5.2 Cut plane frame
Defining the cut plane frame
Crucial to the wrist movement concept is the definition of the cut plane frame. This
frame provides information about position and orientation of the object surface.
The cut plane frame is defined by the robot's starting position when executing a
MoveC instruction. The frame is defined to be equal to the tool frame at the starting
position. Note that for a sequence of MoveC instructions, the cut plane frame stays
the same during the whole sequence.
Illustration, cut plane
The left illustration shows how the cut plane is defined, and the right illustration
shows the tool- and cut plane frames during cutting.
en0900000118
Prerequisites
Due to the way the cut plane frame is defined, the following must be fulfilled at the
starting position:
•
The tool must be at right angle to the surface
•
The z-axis of the tool must coincide with the laser beam or water jet
•
The TCP must be as close to the surface as possible
If the first two requirements are not fulfilled, then the shape of the cut contour will
be affected. For example, a circular hole would look more like an ellipse. The third
requirement is normally easy to fulfill as the TCP is often defined to be a few mm
in front of, for example, the nozzle of a water jet. However, if the third requirement
is not fulfilled, then it will only affect the radius of the resulting circle arc. That is,
the radius of the cut arc will not agree with the programmed radius. For a linear
segment, the length will be affected.
Tip
In the jog window of the FlexPendant there is a button for automatic alignment
of the tool against a chosen coordinate frame. This functionality can be used to
ensure that the tool is at a right angle against the surface when starting the wrist
movement.
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3.5.2 Cut plane frame
Continued
Tip
Wrist movement is not limited to circular arcs only: If the targets of MoveC are
collinear, then a straight line will be achieved.
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3 Motion performance
3.5.3 RAPID components
3.5.3 RAPID components
Instruction
This is a brief description of the instruction used in Wrist Move. For more
information, see the description of the instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Descriptions
CirPathMode
CirPathMode makes it possible to select different modes to
reorientate the tool during circular movements.
The arguments Wrist45, Wrist46, and Wrist56 are used
specifically for the Wrist Move option.
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3 Motion performance
3.5.4 RAPID code, examples
3.5.4 RAPID code, examples
Basic example
This example shows how to do two circular arcs, first using axes 4 and 5, and then
using axes 5 and 6. After the two arcs, wrist movement is deactivated by
CirPathMode.
! This position will define the cut plane frame
MoveJ p10, v100, fine, tWaterJet;
CirPathMode \Wrist45;
MoveC p20, p30, v50, z0, tWaterJet;
! The cut-plane frame remains the same in a sequence of MoveC
CirPathMode \Wrist56;
MoveC p40, p50, v50, fine, tWaterJet;
! Deactivate Wrist Movement, could use \ObjectFrame or \CirPointOri
as well
CirPathMode \PathFrame;
Advanced example
This example shows how to cut a slot with end radius R and length L+2R, using
wrist movement. See Illustration, pSlot and wSlot on page 159. The slot both
begins and ends at the position pSlot, which is the center of the left semi-circle.
To avoid introducing oscillations in the robot, the cut begins and ends with
semi-circular lead-in and lead-out paths that connect smoothly to the slot contour.
All coordinates are given relative the work object wSlot.
! Set the dimensions of the slot
R := 5;
L := 30;
! This position defines the cut plane frame, it must be normal to
the surface
MoveJ pSlot, v100, z1, tLaser, \wobj := wSlot;
CirPathMode \Wrist45;
! Lead-in curve
MoveC Offs(pSlot, R/2, R/2, 0), Offs(pSlot, 0, R, 0), v50, z0,
tLaser, \wobj := wSlot;
! Left semi-circle
MoveC Offs(pSlot, -R, 0, 0), Offs(pSlot, 0, -R, 0), v50, z0, tLaser,
\wobj := wSlot;
! Lower straight line, circle point passes through the mid-point
of the line
MoveC Offs(pSlot, L/2, -R, 0), Offs(pSlot, L, -R, 0), v50, z0,
tLaser, \wobj := wSlot;
! Right semi-circle
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3 Motion performance
3.5.4 RAPID code, examples
Continued
MoveC Offs(pSlot, L+R, 0, 0), Offs(pSlot, L, R, 0), v50, z0, tLaser,
\wobj := wSlot;
! Upper straight line, circle point passes through the mid-point
of the line
MoveC Offs(pSlot, L/2, R, 0), Offs(pSlot, 0, R, 0), v50, z0, tLaser,
\wobj := wSlot;
! Lead-out curve back to the starting point
MoveC Offs(pSlot, -R/2, R/2, 0), pSlot, v50, z1, tLaser, \wobj :=
wSlot;
Deactivate Wrist Movement
CirPathMode \ObjectFrame;
Illustration, pSlot and wSlot
wSlot
pSlot
xx0900000111
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3.5.5 Trouble shooting
3.5.5 Trouble shooting
Unexpected cut shape
If the cut shape is not the expected, then check the following:
•
The tool z-axis coincides with the laser beam or the water jet
•
The tool z-axis is at right angle to the surface at the starting position of the
first MoveC
•
If you have the option Advanced Shape Tuning, then try tuning the friction
for the involved wrist axes.
Mismatching radius
If the radius of the circular arc does not agree with the programmed radius, then
check that the TCP is as close to the surface as possible at the starting position.
Impossible movement with chosen axis pair
If the movement is not possible with the selected axis pair, then try activating
another pair by using one of the flags Wrist45, Wrist46, or Wrist56. As a last
resort, try reaching the starting position with another robot configuration.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.1 Overview
4 Motion coordination
4.1 Machine Synchronization [607-1], [607-2]
4.1.1 Overview
Two options
Machine Synchronization consists of two options, Sensor Synchronization and
Analog Synchronization. The functionality is very similar for both these options, it
is the hardware and configuration that differs.
The difference between the two options is that:
•
Analog Synchronization is used together with a sensor that shows the position
of the external mechanical unit as an analog signal.
•
Sensor Synchronization requires an encoder that counts pulses as the
external mechanical unit move, and an encoder interface unit which
transforms the pulses into a sensor position.
All information in this chapter refers to both options, unless something else is
specified. The term synchronization option refers to both options. Information that
is only valid for one of the options is said to be specific for Sensor Synchronization
or Analog Synchronization.
Purpose
The synchronization option adjusts the robot speed to an external moving device
(for example a press or conveyor) with the help of a sensor. It can also be used to
synchronize two robots with each other.
Description
For the synchronization, a sensor is used to detect the movements of a press door,
conveyor, turn table or similar device. The speed of the robot TCP will be adjusted
in correlation to the sensor output, so that the robot will reach its programmed
target at the same time as the external device reaches its programmed position.
The synchronization with the external device does not affect the path of the robot
TCP, but it affects the speed at which the robot moves along this path.
Functionality
The external device connected to the sensor cannot be controlled by the robot
controller. However, in some ways it has similarities with a mechanical unit
controlled by the robot controller:
•
the sensor positions appears in the Jogging Window on the FlexPendant
•
the sensor positions appears in the robtarget when a MODPOS operation
is performed
•
the mechanical unit may be activated, and deactivated
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.1 Overview
Continued
Basic approach
This is the general approach for setting up the synchronization option. For a more
detailed description of how this is done, see the respective section.
162
•
Install and connect hardware.
•
Install the synchronization software.
•
Configure the system parameters.
•
Write a program that connects to the sensor and uses synchronization for
robot movements (or a program for a master/slave robot application).
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.2 What is needed
4.1.2 What is needed
Sensor Synchronisation
The Sensor Synchronization application consist of the following components:
A
B
F
C
D
E
en0400000655
A
External device that dictates the robot speed, e.g. a press door
B
Synchronization switch
C
Encoder
D
Encoder interface unit (DSQC 377)
E
Controller
F
Robot
B+C+D
Act as a sensor, giving input to the controller
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.2 What is needed
Continued
Analog Synchronization
The Analog Synchronization application consist of the following components:
xx0700000431
164
A
Mold press that dictates the robot speed
B
Analog sensor for press position
C
Controller
D
Robot
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.3 Synchronization features
4.1.3 Synchronization features
Features
The synchronization option provides the following features:
Feature
Description
Accuracy
In Auto operation at constant sensor speed, the Tool Center Point (TCP)
of the robot will stay within the programmed position corresponding to
the sensor, with an error margin of:
• +/- 50 ms for Sensor Synchronization
• +/- 100 ms for Analog Synchronization
This is valid as long as the robot is within its dynamic limits with the added
sensor motion. This figure depends on the calibration of the robot and
sensor and is applicable for linear synchronization only.
Object queue
Only for Sensor Synchronization:
Each time the external device trigger the synchronization switch, a sensor
object is created in the object queue. The encoder interface unit will
maintain the object queue, although for Sensor Synchronization the queue
normally does not contain more than one object.
RAPID access
to sensor data
A RAPID program has access to the current position and speed of the
external device, via the sensor.
Multiple
sensors
Up to 2 sensors are supported.
For Sensor Synchronization, each sensor must have a DSQC 377.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.4 General description of the synchronization process
4.1.4 General description of the synchronization process
Example with a press
This example shows the very basic steps when synchronization is used for material
handling for a press.
When...
Then...
the press is closed and
ready to start
a signal from the robot controller (or PLC) orders the press to
start.
the press starts open
For Sensor Synchronization, the synchronization switch is
triggered and a sensor object is created in the object queue.
The robot connects to the object.
For both Sensor Synchronization and Analog Synchronization,
the robot moves, synchronized with the press, towards the
press and reaches it when the press is open enough.
the press is open enough the robot places (or removes) a work piece in the press. The
for the robot to enter
synchronization is ended.
For Sensor Synchronization, the sensor object is then dropped
(removed from the object queue).
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.5 Limitations
4.1.5 Limitations
Limitations on additional axes
Each sensor is considered an additional axis. Thus the system limitation of 6 active
additional axes must be reduced by the number of active and installed sensors.
The first installed sensor will use measurement node 6 and the second sensor will
use measurement node 5. These measurement nodes are not available for additional
axes and no resolvers should be connected to these nodes on any additional axes
measurement boards.
Object queue lost on warm start or power failure
Only for Sensor Synchronization:
The object queue is kept on the encoder interface unit (DSQC 377). If the system
is restarted or if the power supply to either the controller or the encoder interface
unit fails, then the object queue will be lost.
Minimum speed
In order to maintain a smooth and accurate motion, there is a minimum speed of
the external device that is detected. The device is considered to be still if its
movement is slower than the minimum speed. This speed depends on the selection
of encoder. It can vary from 4mm/s - 8mm/s.
Maximum speed
There is no determined maximum speed for the external device. Accuracy will
decrease at speeds over those specified, and the robot will no longer be able to
follow the sensor at very high sensor speeds (>1000mm/s) or with robot dynamic
limitations.
Compatibility with the option Conveyor Tracking
If both Machine Synchronization and Conveyor Tracking options are installed, only
one of the mechanical units SSYNC1 and CNV2 should be active at the same time.
For Machine Synchronization (Sensor Synchronization or Analog Synchronization),
CNV2 must be deactivated.
For Conveyor Tracking, SSYNC1 must be deactivated.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.6.1 Encoder specification
4.1.6 Hardware installation for Sensor Synchronization
4.1.6.1 Encoder specification
Two phase type
The encoder must be of two phase type for quadrature pulses, to enable registration
of reverse sensor motion, and to avoid false counts due to vibration etc. when the
sensor is not moving.
Technical data
Output signal:
Open collector PNP output
Voltage:
10 - 30 V (normally supplied by 24 VDC from encoder interface unit)
Current:
50 - 100 mA
Phase:
2 phase with 90 degree phase shift
Duty cycle:
50%
Max. frequency:
20 kHz
Example encoder
An example of an encoder that fills these criteria, is the Lenord & Bauer GEL 262.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.6.2 Encoder description
4.1.6.2 Encoder description
Overview
The encoder provides a series of pulses indicating the motion detected by the
sensor. This is used to synchronize the motion between the robot and the external
device.
Pulse channels
The encoder has two pulse channels, A and B which differ in phase by 90°. Each
channel will send a fixed number of pulses per revolution depending on the
construction of the encoder.
•
The number of pulses per revolution for the encoder must be selected in
relation to the gear reduction between the moving devices.
•
The pulse ratio from the encoder should be in the range of 1250 - 2500 pulses
per meter of sensor motion.
•
The pulses from channel A and B are used in quadrature to multiply the pulse
ratio by four to get counts.
This means that the control software will measure 5000 - 10000 counts per meter
for an encoder with the pulse ratio 1250 - 2500.
en0300000556
Synchronization
To get an accurate synchronization, the movements of the external device must
remain within some limits relative to robot movements. For every meter the robot
moves, the external device movement must be between 0.2 and 5 meters (or
radians).
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.6.3 Installation recommendations
4.1.6.3 Installation recommendations
Overview
The encoder must be installed in such a way that it gives precise feedback of the
sensor output (reflects the true motion of the external device). This means that the
encoder should be installed as close to the robot as practically possible, no further
away than 30 meters.
The encoder is normally installed on the drive unit of the external device. The
encoder may be connected to an output shaft on the drive unit, directly or via a
gear belt arrangement.
Note
The encoder is a sensitive measuring device and for that reason it is important
that no other forces than the shaft rotation are transferred from the sensor to the
encoder and that the encoder is mounted using shock absorbers etc. to prevent
damage from vibration.
Placement
The following is to be considered before start-up
If...
Then...
the drive unit includes a
clutch arrangement
the encoder must be connected on the sensor side of the
clutch.
the encoder is connected
it is important to install a specially designed flexible coupling
directly to a drive unit shaft to prevent applying mechanical forces to the encoder rotor..
the drive unit of the external the moving device itself may be a source of inaccuracy as
device is located far away the moving device will stretch or flex over the distance from
from the encoder
the drive unit to the encoder cell. In such a case it may be
better to mount the encoder closer to the drive unit with a
different coupling arrangement.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.6.4 Connecting encoder and encoder interface unit
4.1.6.4 Connecting encoder and encoder interface unit
Overview
If the cable from the robot to the encoder is too long, the inductance in the cable
will produce spike pulses on the encoder signal. This signal will over a period of
time damage the opto couplers in the encoder interface unit.
See Product manual - IRC5 for details on connecting to the encoder interface unit.
Reduce noise
To reduce noise, connect the encoder with a screened cable.
Reduce spike pulses
To reduce spike pulses, install a capacitor between the signal wire and ground for
each of the two phases. The correct capacitance value can be determined by
viewing the encoder signal on an oscilloscope.
The capacitor:
•
should be connected on the terminal board where the encoder is connected.
•
values are 100 nF - 1 µF, depending on the length of the cable.
Encoder power supply
The encoder is normally supplied with 24 VDC from the encoder interface unit.
When connecting two encoder interface units to the same encoder, let only one of
the encoder interface units supply power to the encoder. If both encoder interface
units supply power, a diode must be installed on each of the 24 V DC connections
to make sure the power supplies do not interfere with each other.
Connecting encoder and the synchronization switch
The following procedure describes how to install the encoder and the
synchronization switch to the encoder interface unit.
•
One encoder can be connected to several encoder interface units.
•
each controller must have an encoder interface unit if more than one robot
is to use the sensor.
Action
1
Illustration
Connect the encoder to the encoder interface
unit (DSQC 377) on the controller.
en0300000611
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.6.4 Connecting encoder and encoder interface unit
Continued
Action
2
Illustration
Connect the synchronization switch to the encoder interface unit (DSQC 377) on the controller.
Finding the Encoder rotating direction
The following procedure describes how to find the encoder rotating direction.
Action
Illustration
1
On the FlexPendant, tap Inputs and Outputs.
2
Tap View and select I/O Units
3
Scroll down and selected Qtrack - d377
4
Scroll down to c1position
5
Run the encoder in forward direction while
checking the value for C1Position.
If the number counts up:
• No action is required.
If the number counts down:
• the connection of the two encoder faces
(0° and 90°) must be interchanged.
24VDC
0V
A (0°)
B (90°)
Encoder 1
19
20
21
22
24VDC
0V
30
18
A (0°)
23
24
25
26
B (90°)
Encoder 2
+2-AX12
29
+24 VDC
17
0 Volt
P_ENC1_A+
P_ENC1_A–
P_ENC1_B+
P_ENC1_B–
+24 VDC
0 Volt
P_ENC2_A+
P_ENC2_A–
P_ENC2_B+
P_ENC2_B–
Connection for PNP encoder
en0300000584
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.7.1 Required hardware
4.1.7 Hardware installation for Analog Synchronization
4.1.7.1 Required hardware
Analog input board
An analog input board is required, for example DSQC355A. See Application
manual - DeviceNet Master/Slave.
Analog linear sensor
An analog linear sensor is required, with analog signal input between 0 and 10 V.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.8.1 Sensor installation
4.1.8 Software installation
4.1.8.1 Sensor installation
Overview
Normally the synchronization option and the DeviceNet option are preloaded at
ABB, and do not need to be re-installed. For more information on how to add options
to the system, see Operating manual - RobotStudio.
The synchronization option automatically installs one sensor into the system
parameters. To add more than one sensor, see Installation of several sensors on
page 177.
About the installation
The options will install three additional configurations:
•
I/O for the encoder interface unit (only for Sensor Synchronization)
•
Sensor process description
•
Motion mechanical description
Configuration of the default installation for Sensor Synchronization
This procedure describes how to configure system parameters for Sensor
Synchronization in the configuration editor in RobotStudio.
Action
1
Change the parameter Connected to Bus for the unit from "Virtual1" to the correct
bus, for example "DeviceNet1".
2
Specify the correct address for the unit, parameter DeviceNet Address.
3
If the parameter DeviceNet Master Address (in topic I/O, type Bus) is changed, then
the parameter Default Value (in topic I/O, type Fieldbus Command Type) for the instance
TimeKeeperInit must be changed to the same value.
Configuration of the default installation for Analog Synchronization
This procedure describes how to configure system parameters for Analog
Synchronization in the configuration editor in RobotStudio.
Action
1
Change the unit type, parameter Type of Unit, for the unit from "Virtual" to the correct
unit type, for example "d355A".
2
Change the parameter Connected to Bus for the unit from "Virtual1" to the correct
bus, for example "DeviceNet1".
3
Specify the correct address for the unit, parameter DeviceNet Address.
4
Change the communication interval for the unit type (e.g d355A) from 50 to 20 ms,
parameter Connection 1 Interval.
For more information about this parameter, see Application manual - DeviceNet Master/Slave.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.8.1 Sensor installation
Continued
How to add a sensor manually for Sensor Synchronization
Use the following procedure to add a sensor manually.
Action
1
Connect the encoder interface unit to the CAN bus. Note the address on the CAN bus.
2
In RobotStudio, click Load Parameters.
3
Select: Load Parameters if no duplicates and click Open.
4
Installation of a master sensor, connected to DeviceNet1 (first board).
Load the following files one by one from the OPTIONS/CNV directory:
• syvm1_eio.cfg
• syvm1_prc.cfg
• syvm1_moc.cfg
5
Installation of a slave sensor, connected to DeviceNet2 (second board).
Load the following files one by one from the OPTIONS/CNV directory:
• syvs1_eio.cfg
• syvs1_prc.cfg
• syvs1_moc.cfg
6
Restart the system.
7
If necessary, correct the address for the new encoder interface units. The default addresses in the file syvxx_eio.cfg should be replaced by the actual address of the
board.
How to add a sensor manually for Analog Synchronization
There are no prepared files for adding a sensor for Analog Synchronization. It can
be accomplished by copying the following files and edit them for the second sensor:
•
synvaileio.cfg
•
synvailprc.cfg
•
syim1.moc
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4.1.8.2 Reloading saved Motion parameters
4.1.8.2 Reloading saved Motion parameters
Overview
During installation of the synchronization option, a specific sensor configuration
for additional axes will be loaded into the Motion system parameters.
Note
If these parameters were loaded before the synchronization option, then the
mechanical unit SSYNC1 will not appear on the FlexPendant under the Jogging
window.
Reloading the SSYNC1 parameter
Use RobotStudio and follow these steps (see Operating manual - RobotStudio for
more information):
Action
1
Open the Configuration Editor and select the topic Motion.
2
Select the type File.
3
Click Load parameters and select mode.
4
Click Open and select the file syn1_moc from the RobotWare installation.
5
Restart the controller for the changes to take effect.
Result
The mechanical unit SSYNC1 should now be available on the FlexPendant under
the Jogging window.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.8.3 Installation of several sensors
4.1.8.3 Installation of several sensors
About the installation
Normally the synchronization option and the DeviceNet option are preloaded at
ABB, and do not need to be re-installed. For more information how to add options
to the system, see Operating manual - RobotStudio.
The synchronization option automatically installs one sensor into the system
parameters.
DeviceNet Dual option
When DeviceNet Dual is included, the following three sensors will be installed in
the system:
•
One sensor with "Robot to press syncro type": SSYNC1
•
One virtual master sensor: SSYNM1
•
One virtual slave sensor: SSYNCS1
Adding sensors manually
Up to four sensors can be used with the same controller, but the parameters for
the three extra sensors must be loaded manually.
Use the following procedure to load the sensors manually.
Action
1
For Sensor Synchronization, connect the encoder interface unit to the CAN bus. Note
the address on the CAN bus.
2
Use RobotStudio to add new parameters.
3
Click Load Parameters.
4
Select: Load Parameters if no duplicates and click Open.
5
Installation of a master sensor, connected to DeviceNet1 (first board).
Load the following files one by one from the OPTION/CNV directory:
• for second sensor: syvm2_eio.cfg, syvm2_prc and syvm2_moc.cfg
• for third sensor: syvm3_eio.cfg, syvm3_prc.cfg and syvm3_moc.cfg
• for fourth sensor: syvm4_eio.cfg, syvm4_prc.cfg and syvm4_moc.cfg
6
Installation of a slave sensor, connected to DeviceNet2 (second board).
Load the following files one by one from the OPTION/CNV directory:
• for second sensor: syvs2_eio.cfg, syvs2_prc.cfg and syvs2_moc.cfg
• for third sensor: syvs3_eio.cfg, syvs3_prc.cfg and syvs3_moc.cfg
• for fourth sensor: syvs4_eio.cfg, syvs4_prc.cfg and syvs4_moc.cfg
7
Restart the system.
8
For Sensor Synchronization: If necessary, correct the address for the new encoder
interface units. Find the respective encoder interface unit in the system parameters
under the topic I/O. The default addresses in the file syvxx_eio.cfg should be replaced
by the actual address of the board.
Available sensors
The second and third sensor (SSYNC2, SSYNC3) should now appear in
Motion/mechanical unit and in the Jogging window on the FlexPendant.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.1 General issues when programming with the synchronization option
4.1.9 Programming the synchronization
4.1.9.1 General issues when programming with the synchronization option
Activate sensor
The sensor must be activated before it may be used for work object coordination,
just like any other mechanical unit. The usual ActUnit instruction is used to
activate the sensor and DeactUnit is used to deactivate the sensor.
By default, the sensor is installed inactive on start. If desired, the sensor may be
configured to always be active upon start. See Mechanical unit on page 213.
Automatic connection
Only for Sensor Synchronization:
When a sensor mechanical unit is activated, it first checks the state of the encoder
interface unit to see whether the sensor was previously connected. If the encoder
interface unit, via the I/O signal c1Connected, indicates connection, then the sensor
will automatically be connected upon activation. The purpose of this feature is to
automatically reconnect in case of a power failure with power backup on the encoder
interface unit.
Connection via WaitSensor instruction
Motions that are to be synchronized with the external device cannot be programmed
until an object has been connected to the sensor with a WaitSensor instruction.
If the object is already connected with a previous WaitSensor instruction, or if
connection was established during activation, then execution of a second
WaitSensor instruction will cause an error.
After connection to an object with a WaitSensor instruction the synchronized
motion is started using SyncToSensor\On instruction.
For details about the instructions WaitSensor and SyncToSensor\On, see
Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Programming Sensor Synchronization
In the following instructions, there are references to programming examples.
Action
Information
1
Create a program with the following instructions:
ActUnit SSYNC1;
MoveL waitp, v1000, fine, tool;
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
2
Single-step the program past the WaitSensor instruc- The instruction will return if
there is an object in the object
tion.
queue. If the is no object, the
execution will stop while waiting for an object (i.e. a sync
signal).
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.1 General issues when programming with the synchronization option
Continued
Action
Information
3
Run the external device until a sync signal is generated The program should exit the
by the synchronization switch.
WaitSensor and is now
“connected” to the object.
4
Stop the external device in the position that should
correspond to the robot target you are about to program.
5
Start the synchronized motion with a SyncToSensor
SSYNC1\On instruction. See Programming examples
on page 180.
6
Program move instructions.
For every time you modify a position, run the external
device to the position that should correspond to the
robot target.
7
End the synchronized motion with a SyncToSensor
SSYNC1\Off instruction. See Programming examples
on page 180.
8
Only for Sensor Synchronization:
Program a DropSensor SSYNC1; instruction. See
Programming examples on page 180.
9
Program a DeactUnit SSYNC1; instruction if this is
the end of the program, or if the sensor is no longer
needed. See Programming examples on page 180.
Use corner zones for the
move instructions, see
Finepoint programming on
page 184.
Synchronize the sensor
If it is not possible to move the external device to the desired position, modify the
position first and then edit the sensor value in the robtarget (as for any additional
axis).
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.2 Programming examples
4.1.9.2 Programming examples
Sensor Synchronization program
MoveJ p0, vmax, fine, tool1;
!Activate sensor
ActUnit SSYNC1;
!Connect to the object
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
!Start the Synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\On;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveL p10, v1000, z20, tool1;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool1;
MoveL p30, v1000, z20, tool1;
!Stop the synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
!Exit coordinated motion
MoveL p40, v1000, fine, tool1;
!Disconnect from current object
DropSensor SSYNC1;
MoveL p0, v1000, fine;
!Deactivate sensor
DeactUnit SSYNC1;
Analog Synchronization program
VAR num startdist := 600;
MoveJ p0, vmax, fine, tool1;
!Activate sensor
ActUnit SSYNC1;
WaitSensor SSYNC1 \RelDist:=startdist;
!Start the Synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\On;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveL p10, v1000, z20, tool1;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool1;
MoveL p30, v1000, z20, tool1;
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.2 Programming examples
Continued
!Exit coordinated motion
MoveL p40, v1000, fine, tool1;
!Stop the synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
MoveL p0, v1000, fine;
!Deactivate sensor
DeactUnit SSYNC1;
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4.1.9.3 Entering and exiting coordinated motion in corner zones
4.1.9.3 Entering and exiting coordinated motion in corner zones
Corner zones can be used
Once a WaitSensor instruction is connected to an object it is possible to enter
and exit synchronized motion with the sensor via corner zones.
Dropping object after corner zone
If an instruction using a corner zone is used to exit coordinated motion, it cannot
be followed directly by the DropSensor instruction. This would cause the object
to be dropped before the robot has left the corner zone, when the motion still
requires the conveyor coordinated work object.
If the work object is dropped when motion still requires its position, then a stop
will occur.
To avoid this, either call a finepoint instruction or at least two corner zone
instructions before dropping the work object.
Correct example
This is an example of how to enter and exit coordinated motion via corner zones.
MoveL p10, v1000, fine, tool1;
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
MoveL p20, v500, z50, tool1;
!start synchronization after zone around p20
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\On
MoveL p30, v500, z20, tool1;
MoveL p40, v500, z20, tool1;
MoveL p50, v500, z20, tool1;
MoveL p60, v500, z50, tool1;
!Exit synchronization after zone around p60
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
MoveL p70, v500, fine, tool1;
DropSensor SSYNC1;
MoveL p10, v500, fine, tool1;
Incorrect example
This is an incorrect example of exiting coordination in corner zones. This will cause
the program to stop with an error.
MoveL p50, v500, z20, tool1;
MoveL p60, v500, z50, tool1;
!Exit coordination in zone
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
DropSensor SSYNC1;
If coordinated motion is ended in a corner zone, another move instruction must be
executed before the sensor is dropped.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.4 Use several sensors
4.1.9.4 Use several sensors
Overview
When several sensors are used the program must have at least one move
instruction without any synchronization between parts of the path that are
synchronized with two different sensors.
Program example
!Connect to the object
WaitSensor SSYNC1\RelDist:=Pickdist;
!Start the Synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\MaxSync:=1653\On;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveL p30, v400, z20, currtool;
!Stop the synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveL p31, v400, z20, currtool;
!Connect to the object
WaitSensor SSYNC2\RelDist:=1720;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveL p32, v400, z50, currtool;
!Start the Synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC2\MaxSync:=2090\On;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveL p33, v400, z20, currtool;
!Stop the synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC2\Off;
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.5 Finepoint programming
4.1.9.5 Finepoint programming
Overview
Avoid the use of fine points when using synchronized motion. The robot will stop
and lose the synchronization with the sensor for 100 ms. Then the RAPID execution
will continue.
Finepoint programming can be used on the last synchronized move instruction if
the synchronization does not need to be accurate at the last target.
Program example
The following program example shows how synchronized motion may be stopped.
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
SyncToSensor SSYNC1 \On;
MoveL p1, v500, z20, tool1;
MoveL p2, v500, fine, tool1;
SyncToSensor SSYNC1 \Off;
MoveL p3, v500, z20, tool1;
MoveL p4, v500, fine, tool1;
DropSensor SSYNC1;
At p4 the robot is no longer synchronized with the external device, and there are
no restrictions for using fine points.
At p2 the synchronization will end and a fine point can be used, but the accuracy
of the synchronization will be reduced.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.6 Drop sensor object
4.1.9.6 Drop sensor object
Overview
For Sensor Synchronization, a connected object may be dropped, with a
DropSensor instruction, once the synchronized motion has ended.
Example: DropSensor SSYNC1;
For Analog Synchronization, the instruction DropSensor must not be used.
Considerations
The following considerations must be considered when dropping an object:
•
It is important to make sure that the robot motion is no longer using the
sensor position when the object is dropped. If robot motion still requires the
sensor position then a stop will occur when the object is dropped.
•
As long as the SyncToSensor \Off instruction has not been issued, the
robot motion will be synchronized with the sensor.
•
It is not necessary to be connected in order to execute a DropSensor
instruction. No error will be returned if there was no connected object.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.7 Information on the FlexPendant
4.1.9.7 Information on the FlexPendant
Overview
The user has access to the sensor position and speed via the FlexPendant
Jogging window
The position (in millimeters) of the sensor object is shown in the Jogging window.
This value will be negative if a Queue Tracking Distance is defined. When the
synchronization switch is triggered, the position will automatically be updated in
the Jogging window.
I/O window
Sensor Synchronization
From the I/O window the user has access to all the signals that are defined on the
encoder interface unit. From this window it is possible to view the sensor object
position (in meters) and the sensor object speed (in m/s). The speed will be 0 m/s
until the synchronization switch registers a sensor object.
Analog Synchronization
For Analog Synchronization, only the sensor position is shown in the I/O window.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.8 Programming considerations
4.1.9.8 Programming considerations
Performance limits
The synchronization will be lost if joint speed limits are reached, particularly in
singularities. It is the responsibility of the programmer to ensure that the path
during synchronized movement does not exceed the speed and motion capabilities
of the robot.
Motion commands
All motion commands are allowed during synchronization.
Manual mode
The synchronization is not active in manual mode.
Speed reduction % button
The synchronization works only with 100% speed. As the robot speed is adjusted
to sensor movements the defined robot speed percentage will be overridden.
Programmed speed
The best performance of the synchronization will be obtained if the programmed
speed is near the real execution speed. The programmed speed should be chosen
as the most probable execution speed. Large changes in speed between two move
instructions should be avoided.
Finepoints
Finepoints are allowed during synchronization motion, but the robot will stop at
the fine point and the synchronization will be lost if the external device is still
moving. See Finepoint programming on page 184.
Position warnings
If robot_to_sensor position ratio is higher than 10 or lower than 0.1 a warning
will appear. The user should modify the robtarget position or the sensor value
in the robtarget according to the warning text.
Speed warnings
If programmed sensor_speed is higher than:
•
(max_sync_speed*sensor_nominal_speed)/robot_tcp_speed
then a speed warning will appear and the user should modify robot speed or
sensor_nominal_speed or max_sync_speed according to the warning text.
If the programmed sensor_speed is lower than:
•
(min_sync_speed*sensor_nominal_speed)/robot_tcp_speed
a similar warning will appear:
•
Programmed_sensor_speed equals sensor_distance/robot_interpolation_time.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.8 Programming considerations
Continued
Change of tools
Changing the tool is not allowed during synchronization if corvec is used.
Instructions that will deactivate the synchronization
The instructions ActUnit, DeactUnit, and ClearPath will deactivate any
SyncToSensor or SupSyncSensorOn instruction. So the instructions ActUnit,
DeactUnit, and ClearPath should not be used between SyncToSensor or
SupSyncSensorOn instruction and the move instructions related to synchronized
path or supervised path.
The correct order is:
ActUnit SSYNC1;
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\On;
! move instructions
...
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
Other RAPID limitations
•
The commands, StorePath, RestoPath do not work during synchronization.
•
EoffsSet, EoffsOn, EoffsOff have an effect on the sensor taught position.
•
Power fail restart is not possible with the synchronization option.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.9 Modes of operation
4.1.9.9 Modes of operation
Operation in manual reduced speed mode (< 250 mm/s)
The forward and backward hard buttons can be used to step through the program.
New instructions may be added and MODPOS may be used to modify programmed
positions.
The robot will recover as normal if the enabling device is released during motion.
The robot will not perform synchronized motions to the sensor while in Manual
Reduced Speed mode.
Operation in automatic mode
Once a SyncToSensor instruction has been executed, then it is no longer possible
to step through the program with the forward and backward buttons while the
sensor is moving.
Start/Stop
The robot will stop and loose synchronization with the sensor if the STOP button
is pressed or if RAPID instruction Stop or StopMove is executed between the
SyncToSensor and DropSensor instructions.
The sensor object will not be lost but if the sensor is moving then the object will
quickly move out of the max dist. Restart synchronization from the current
instruction is not allowed if sensor is moving. The program must be restarted from
MAIN. If a restart is forced the robot will stop with max_dist error where the sensor
has stopped.
Emergency Stop/Restart
When the emergency stop is pressed the robot will stop immediately. If the program
was stopped after a SyncToSensor then the sensor object will not be lost but if
the sensor is moving then the object will quickly move out of the max distance.
Restart synchronization from the current instruction is not possible and the program
must be restarted from MAIN. If a restart is forced after the question “Do you want
to regain“, the robot will move unsynchronized to the sensor at programmed speed.
Operation under manual full speed mode (100%)
Operation in manual full speed mode is similar to operation in automatic mode.
The program may be run by pressing and holding the start button, but once a
SyncToSensor instruction has been executed then it is no longer possible to step
through the program with the forward or backward buttons while the sensor is
moving.
Hold to run button
Pressing and releasing the hold to run button will make the robot stop and restart.
The synchronization is lost at robot stop. At restart the robot will try to regain
synchronization at max_adjustment_speed.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.9.9 Modes of operation
Continued
Stop/Restart
When the stop button is pressed, or emergency stop is pressed, the robot will stop
immediately. If the program was stopped after a SyncToSensor then the
synchronized object will not be lost but if the sensor is moving then the object will
quickly move out of the max distance. Restart from the current instruction is not
possible and the program must be restarted from MAIN.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.1 Introduction
4.1.10 Robot to robot synchronization
4.1.10.1 Introduction
Overview
It is possible to synchronize two robot systems in a synchronization application.
This is done with a master and a slave robot setup.
Requirements
For cable connection and setup, see Application manual - DeviceNet Master/Slave.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.2 The concept of robot to robot synchronization
4.1.10.2 The concept of robot to robot synchronization
Description
The basic idea of robot to robot synchronization is that two robot should use a
common virtual sensor. The master robot controls the virtual motion of this sensor.
The slave robot uses the sensor’s virtual position and speed to adjust its speed.
The synchronization is achieved by defining positions where the two robots should
be at the same time, and assigning a sensor value for each of these points.
Illustration
1
0
2
C
3
200
400
4
600
1000
800
1
1
4
2
3
2
3
4
B
A
xx0400001145
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.3 Master robot configuration parameters
4.1.10.3 Master robot configuration parameters
Overview
Use the following parameters to set up the master robot.
Use RobotStudio to change the parameters.
Topic: Motion
SINGLE_TYPE/Parameter
Value
Name
SSYNC2
mechanics
SS_LIN
process_name
SSYNC2
use_path
PSSYNC
SENSOR_SYSTEM/Parameter
Value
Name
SSYNC1
sensor_type
CAN
use_sensor
CAN1
adjustment_speed
1000
min_dist
600
max_dist
20000
correction_vector_ramp_length
10
EIO_UNIT/Parameter
Value
Name
MASTER1
UnitType
DN_SLAVE
Bus
DeviceNet1
DN_Address
1
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameter
Value
Name
ao1Position
SignalType
AO
Unit
MASTER1
UnitMap
0-15
MaxLog
10.0
MaxPhys
1
MaxPhysLimit
1
Topic: Process
Topic: I/O
EIO_UNIT
EIO_SIGNAL
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.3 Master robot configuration parameters
Continued
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameter
Value
MaxBitVal
32767
MinLog
-10.0
MinPhys
-1
MinPhysLimit
-1
MinBitVal
-32767
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
ao1Speed
SignalType
AO
Unit
MASTER1
UnitMap
16-31
MaxLog
10.0
MaxPhys
1
MaxPhysLimit
1
MaxBitVal
32767
MinLog
-10.0
MinPhys
-1
MinPhysLimit
-1
MinBitVal
-32767
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
ao1PredTime
SignalType
AO
Unit
MASTER1
UnitMap
32-47
MaxLog
10.0
MaxPhys
1
MaxPhysLimit
1
MaxBitVal
32767
MinLog
-10.0
MinPhys
-1
MinPhysLimit
-1
MinBitVal
-32767
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
do1Dready
SignalType
DO
Unit
MASTER1
UnitMap
48
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.3 Master robot configuration parameters
Continued
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
do1Sync2
SignalType
DO
Unit
MASTER1
UnitMap
50
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.4 Slave robot configuration parameters
4.1.10.4 Slave robot configuration parameters
Overview
For default configuration, see System parameters on page 211.
Use RobotStudio to change the parameters and to set up the slave robot.
Description
To make the slave robot stop and restart synchronized with the master robot:
•
Set the parameter value min_sync_speed to 0.0
The slave robot will also stop if a fine point is defined in the master robot path.
Topic: Process
SENSOR_SYSTEM
SENSOR_SYSTEM/Parameter
Value
Name
SSYNCS1
sensor_type
CAN
use_sensor
CAN1
adjustment_speed
1000
min_dist
600
max_dist
20000
correction_vector_ramp_length
10
nominal_speed
1000
CAN_INTERFACE/Parameters
Value
Name
CAN1
Signal delay
34
Connected signal
c1Connected
Position signal
c1Position
Velocity signal
c1Speed
Null speed signal
c1NullSpeed
CAN_INTERFACE
Data ready signal
Waitwobj signal
c1WaitWObj
Dropwobj signal
c1DropWobj
Data Time stamp
c1DTimestamp
RemAllPObj signal
c1RemAllPObj
Virtual sensor
NO
Sensor Speed filter
0,33
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.4 Slave robot configuration parameters
Continued
Topic: I/O
EIO_UNIT
EIO_UNIT/Parameters
Value
Name
SLAVE1
UnitType
DN_SLAVE
Bus
DeviceNet2
DN_Address
1
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
ai1Position
SignalType
AI
Unit
SLAVE1
UnitMap
0-15
MaxLog
10.0
MaxPhys
1
MaxPhysLimit
1
MaxBitVal
32767
MinLog
-10.0
MinPhys
-1
MinPhysLimit
-1
MinBitVal
-32767
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
ai1Speed
SignalType
AI
Unit
SLAVE1
UnitMap
16-31
MaxLog
10.0
MaxPhys
1
MaxPhysLimit
1
MaxBitVal
32767
MinLog
-10.0
MinPhys
-1
MinPhysLimit
-1
MinBitVal
-32767
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
ai1PredTime
SignalType
AI
EIO_SIGNAL
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.4 Slave robot configuration parameters
Continued
198
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Unit
SLAVE1
UnitMap
32-47
MaxLog
10.0
MaxPhys
1
MaxPhysLimit
1
MaxBitVal
32767
MinLog
-10.0
MinPhys
-1
MinPhysLimit
-1
MinBitVal
-32767
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
di1Dready
SignalType
DI
Unit
SLAVE1
UnitMap
48
EIO_SIGNAL/Parameters
Value
Name
di1Sync2
SignalType
DI
Unit
SLAVE1
UnitMap
50
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.5 Programming example for master robot
4.1.10.5 Programming example for master robot
Overview
The following program is an example of how to program a master robot.
Master robot programming
syncstart:=20;
Syncpos1:=300;
Syncpos2:=600;
Syncpos3:=900;
Syncpos4:=1200;
!Synchronized motion between master and slave
robpos1.extax.eax_e:=syncpos1;
robpos2.extax.eax_e:=syncpos2;
robpos3.extax.eax_e:=syncpos3;
robpos4.extax.eax_e:=syncpos4;
robpos5.extax.eax_e:=syncstart;
!Init of external axis
pOutsideNext.extax.eax_e:=syncstart;
!Activate sensor
ActUnit SSYNC1;
!Instruction with coordinated robot targets
MoveJ pOutsideNext, v1000, fine, tool1;
!Init of external axis
robposstart.extax.eax_e:=syncstart;
!Set digital output
SetDO Dosync 1,0
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveJ robposstart, v2000, z50, tool1;
!Set digital output
PulseDO\PLength:= 0.1, doSync1;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveJ robpos1, v2000, z10, tool1;
MoveJ robpos2, v2000, z10, tool1;
MoveJ robpos3, v2000, z10, tool1;
MoveJ robpos4, v2000, z10, tool1;
MoveJ robpos5, v2000, z10, tool1;
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.5 Programming example for master robot
Continued
Considerations
The following is to be considered
200
•
The values of extax.eax_e should increase for every robtarget during
synchronization. The first move instruction of the master robot, after the
synchronization, should also have a higher extax.eax_e value than the
previous instruction. Otherwise the value of extax.eax_e may decrease,
and the synchronization end, before the slave robot has reached its target.
•
The movement back to syncstart (move instruction to robpos5 in the
example) may be slower than the ordered speed (v2000). If this robot
movement is short and the value of extax.eax_e is large, the maximum
speed will be limited by the virtual sensor speed.
•
Do not use WaitSensor or DropSensor.
•
Verify that the virtual sensor max speed (speed_out) is less than 1m/s.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.10.6 Programming example for slave robot
4.1.10.6 Programming example for slave robot
Overview
The following program is an example of how to program a slave robot.
Slave robot programming
syncstart:=20;
Syncpos1:=300;
Syncpos2:=600;
Syncpos3:=900;
!Synchronized motion between master and slave
robpos1.extax.eax_e:=syncpos1;
robpos2.extax.eax_e:=syncpos2;
robpos3.extax.eax_e:=syncpos3;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveJ posstart, v500, z50, tool1;
!Wait for digital input
WaitDI diSync1; 1;
!Connect to the object
WaitSensor SSYNC1;\RelDist:=100;
!Start the Synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\On;
!Instructions with coordinated robot targets
MoveJ robpos1, v2000, z10, tool1;
MoveJ robpos2, v2000, z10, tool1;
MoveJ robpos3, v2000, z10, tool1;
!Stop the synchronized motion
SyncToSensor SSYNC1\Off;
Considerations
The following is to be considered:
•
Do not use DropSensor.
•
Do not use any corvecs.
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4.1.11.1 Introduction
4.1.11 Synchronize with hydraulic press using recorded profile
4.1.11.1 Introduction
Overview
This section describes how to use a recorded machine profile to improve the
accuracy of robot’s synchronization with a hydraulic press. This profile is used for
modeling of press path. Not using a recorded profile will require a bigger distance
between robot and press model when teaching the path.
Principles of hydraulic press synchronization
1 Record the movement of the hydraulic press.
2 Activate the record to be used in the next cycle.
3 Activate the sensor synchronization with the RAPID instruction
SyncToSensor.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.11.2 Configuration of system parameters
4.1.11.2 Configuration of system parameters
Introduction
This section describes how to configure the parameters to get the best result when
using recorded sensor profiles with a hydraulic press. Start the tuning with the
general settings. If the system is not using a DSQC377A encoder, see Settings for
analog input with no DSQC377A encoder on page 203 If the sensor is using group
input, see Settings for sensor using Group input on page 204. Descriptions of the
system parameters are found in System parameters on page 211.
General settings
This parameter belong to the configuration type Fieldbus Command in the topic
I/O.
Parameter
Value
Parameter Value for the in- 10-15 Hz, Change this value to get good accuracy during start
stance where Type of
and stop.
Fieldbus Command is
IIRFFP.
This parameter belong to the configuration type Path Sensor Synchronization in
the topic Motion.
Parameter
Value
Synchronization Type
ROBOT_TO_HPRES
The parameters belong to the configuration type Sensor systems in the topic
Process.
Parameter
Value
Sensor start signal
Type the name of the I/O signal
Stop press signal
Type the name of the I/O signal
Sync Alarm signal
Type the name of the I/O signal
Settings for analog input with no DSQC377A encoder
The parameters belong to the configuration type Can Interface in the topic Process.
Parameter
Value
Virtual sensor
Yes
Position signal
Type the name of the analog input.
Note
All other signals except Position signal should be empty (i.e. "").
Tip
WaitSensor and DropSensor are not needed in the RAPID program.
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4.1.11.2 Configuration of system parameters
Continued
Settings for sensor using Group input
The parameters belong to the configuration type Sensor systems in the topic
Process.
Parameter
Value
Pos Group IO scale
Define the number of input data per meter, the default value is
set to 10000.
The parameters belong to the configuration type Can Interface in the topic Process.
Parameter
Value
Virtual sensor
Yes
Position signal
Type the name of the used group input.
Note
All other signals except Position signal should be empty (i.e. "")
Tip
WaitSensor and DropSensor are not needed in the RAPID program.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.11.3 Program example
4.1.11.3 Program example
Overview
This section describes the programming cycles that are typical for programming
a hydraulic press.
Program example
First press cycle
A pulse on sensor_start_signal will start storing position in a record array.
During this cycle the robot is not synchronized with press.
ActUnit SSYNC1;
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
! Set up a recording for 2 seconds
PrxStartRecord SSYNC1, 2, PRX_HPRESS_PROF;
! Process waiting for sensor_start_signal
! then waiting for press movement and record it during 2 sec.
Second press cycle
A pulse on sensor_start_signal is needed to synchronize readings of record and
actual positions for each cycle.
During press opening the robot moves synchronized with press.
PrxActivAndStoreRecord SSYNC1, 0, "profile.log";
WaitSensor Ssync1;
MoveL p10, v1000, z10, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\On;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p30, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\Off;
Third press cycle
No special instruction is needed, but a pulse on sensor_start_signal is needed to
synchronize readings of record and actual positions for each cycle. A new record
can also be started.
During press opening the robot moves synchronized with press.
WaitSensor Ssync1;
MoveL p10, v1000, z10, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\On;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p30, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\Off;
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.12.1 Introduction
4.1.12 Synchronize with molding machine using recorded profile
4.1.12.1 Introduction
Overview
This section describes how to use a recorded machine profile to improve the
accuracy of a robot’s synchronization with a molding machine. This profile is used
for modeling of mold path. Not using a recorded profile will require a bigger distance
between robot and machine model when teaching the path.
Principles of mold synchronization
1 Record the movement of the Molding machine.
2 Activate the record to be used in the next cycle.
3 Activate the sensor synchronization with the RAPID instruction
SynctoSensor.
Tip
When the molding machine is closing, supervision can be used instead of
synchronization. For more information, see Supervision on page 210.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.12.2 Configuration of system parameters
4.1.12.2 Configuration of system parameters
Introduction
This section describes how to configure the parameters to get the best result when
using recorded sensor profiles with a molding machine. Start the tuning with the
general settings. If the system is not using a DSQC377A encoder, see Settings for
analog input with no DSQC377A encoder on page 207 If the sensor is using group
input, see Settings for sensor using Group input on page 208. Descriptions of the
system parameters are found in System parameters on page 211.
General settings
This parameter belong to the configuration type Fieldbus Command in the topic
I/O.
Parameter
Value
Parameter Value for the in- 10-15 Hz, Change this value to get good accuracy during start
stance where Type of
and stop.
Fieldbus Command is
IIRFFP.
This parameter belong to the configuration type Path Sensor Synchronization in
the topic Motion.
Parameter
Value
Synchronization Type
SYNC_TO_IMM
The parameters belong to the configuration type Sensor systems in the topic
Process.
Parameter
Value
Sensor start signal
Type the name of the I/O signal
Stop press signal
Type the name of the I/O signal
Sync Alarm signal
Type the name of the I/O signal
Settings for analog input with no DSQC377A encoder
The parameters belong to the configuration type Can Interface in the topic Process.
Parameter
Value
Virtual sensor
Yes
Position signal
Type the name of the analog input.
Note
All other signals except Position signal should be empty (i.e. "").
Tip
WaitSensor and DropSensor are not needed in the RAPID program.
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4.1.12.2 Configuration of system parameters
Continued
Settings for sensor using Group input
The parameters belong to the configuration type Sensor systems in the topic
Process.
Parameter
Value
Pos Group IO scale
Define the number of increments per meter for the group input.
The default value is set to 10000.
The parameters belong to the configuration type Can Interface in the topic Process.
Parameter
Value
Virtual sensor
Yes
Position signal
Type the name of the used group input.
Note
All other signals except Position signal should be empty (i.e. "")
Tip
WaitSensor and DropSensor are not needed in the RAPID program.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.12.3 Program example
4.1.12.3 Program example
Overview
This section describes the programming cycles that are typical for programming
a molding machine.
Program example
First press cycle
A pulse on sensor_start_signal will start storing position in a record array.
During this cycle the robot is not synchronized with press.
ActUnit SSYNC1;
WaitSensor SSYNC1;
! Set up a recording for 2 seconds
PrxStartRecord SSYNC1, 2, PRX_PROFILE_T1;
! Process waiting for sensor_start_signal
! then waiting for press movement and record it during 2 sec.
Second press cycle
A pulse on sensor_start_signal is needed to synchronize readings of record and
actual positions for each cycle.
During press opening the robot moves synchronized with press.
PrxActivAndStoreRecord SSYNC1, 0, "profile.log";
WaitSensor Ssync1;
MoveL p10, v1000, z10, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\On;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p30, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\Off;
Third press cycle
No special instruction is needed, but a pulse on sensor_start_signal is needed to
synchronize readings of record and actual positions for each cycle. A new record
can also be started.
During press opening the robot moves synchronized with press.
WaitSensor Ssync1;
MoveL p10, v1000, z10, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\On;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p30, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SyncToSensor Ssync1\Off;
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.13 Supervision
4.1.13 Supervision
Introduction
The supervision can be used to save cycle time when robot moves outside the
mold or press. Instead of waiting to be outside the machine to enable close mold
the robot enable close mold when it starts to move outside the mold after picking
the part.
The supervision can stop the mold if it comes too near the robot by setting the
output signal defined by the system parameter Sync Alarm signal.
SupSyncSensorOn is used to supervise the movement of the robot with the mold
or press. Usually supervision is used until the robot is moved outside the mold or
press. With supervision it is possible to turn off the synchronization and turn on
supervision when a workpiece is dropped or collected in the molding machine.
SupSyncSensorOn protects the robot and machine from damaging.
Supervision does not deactivate the synchronization.
Example
For the case you cannot move the sensor to defined position you have to set the
external axis value in your rapid program
p10.extax.eax_f:=sens10;
p20.extax.eax_f:=sens20;
p30.extax.eax_f:=sens30;
WaitSensor Ssync1;
MoveL p10, v1000, fine, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SupSyncSensorOn Ssync1, 150, -100, 650\SafetyDelay:=0;;
MoveL p20, v1000, z20, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p30, v1000, fine, tool, \WObj:=wobj0;
SupSyncSensorOff Ssync1;
Sens10 is the expected position of the machine (model of the machine movement
related to robot movement) when robot will be at p10 and sens20 is the expected
position of the machine when robot will be at p20.
The supervision will be done between the sensor position 650 and 150 mm and
triggers the output if the distance between the robot and the mould is smaller than
100 mm.
Safetydist (in this case -100) is the limit of the difference between expected
machine position and the real machine position. It must be negative, i.e. the model
should always be moving in advance of the real machine. In the case of decreasing
machine positions the limit must be negative corresponding to maximum negative
position difference (and minimum advance distance). In the case of increasing
machine positions the limit must be positive corresponding to minimum positive
position difference (and minimum advance distance).
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.14 System parameters
4.1.14 System parameters
About system parameters
This section describes the system parameters in a general way. For more
information about the parameters, see Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
Fieldbus Command
Only for Sensor Synchronization.
These are different instances of the type Fieldbus Command in the topic I/O.
Type of Fieldbus
Command
Description
Counts Per Meter
The number of counts per meter of the external device motion.
Sync Separation
Defines the minimum distance that the external device must move
after a sync signal before a new sync signal is accepted as a valid
object.
For Sensor Synchronization, there is no need to change the default
value.
Queue Tracking Dis- Defines the placement of the synchronization switch relative to the
tance
0.0 meter point on the sensor.
For Sensor Synchronization, there is no need to change the default
value.
Start Window Width Defines the size of the start window. It is possible to connect to objects within this window with the instruction WaitSensor.
For Sensor Synchronization, there is no need to change the default
value.
IIRFFP
Specifies the location of the real part of the poles in the left-half plane
(in Hz).
Sensor systems
These parameters belong to the topic Process and the type Sensor System.
Parameter
Description
Adjustment speed When entering sensor synchronization, the robot speed must be adjusted to the speed of the external device. The speed (in mm/s) at which
the robot‘ catches up’ to this speed for the first motion is defined by
Adjustment Speed.
Min dist
The minimum distance (in millimeters) that a connected object may
have before being automatically dropped.
For Sensor Synchronization, there is no need to change the default
value.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Max dist
The maximum distance (in millimeters) that a connected object may
have before being automatically dropped.
For Sensor Synchronization, there is no need to change the default
value.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Sensor nominal
speed
The nominal work speed of the external device. If the speed of the
device exceeds 200 mm/s this parameter must be increased.
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4.1.14 System parameters
Continued
Parameter
Description
Stop press signal Name of the digital input signal telling that press is stopping. This signal
is needed for safe stop of robot.
Sensor start signal
Name of the digital input signal to synchronize recorded profile and
new machine movement. The signal must be set before start of machine
movement. The signal must be triggered 100 ms before the press moves.
Start ramp
Defines for how many calculation steps the position error may exceed
Max Advance Distance. During this ramping period, the position error
may be 5 times Max Advance Distance.
Sync Alarm signal Name of the digital output signal to stop the synchronized machine.This
signal may be set during supervision of sync sensor.
CAN Interface
These parameters belong to the topic Process and the type CAN Interface.
Parameter
Description
Connected signal
Name of the digital input signal for connection.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Position signal
Name of the analog input signal for sensor position.
Velocity signal
Name of the analog input signal for sensor speed.
Null speed signal
Name of the digital input signal indicating zero speed on the sensor.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Data ready signal
Name of the digital input signal indicating a poll of the encoder unit.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Waitwobj signal
Name of the digital output signal to indicate that a connection is desired
to an object in the queue.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Dropwobj signal
Name of the digital output signal to drop a connected object on the
encoder unit
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
PassStartW signal Name of the digital output signal to indicate that an object has gone
past the start window without being connected.
Not used for Analog Synchronization.
Pos Update time
Time (in ms) at which the synchronization process read the sensor
position.
Motion Planner
These parameters belong to the topic Motion and the type Motion planner.
Parameter
Description
Path resolution
The period at which steps along the path are calculated.
Process update time
The time (in seconds) at which the sensor process updates the
robot kinematics on the sensor position.
CPU load equalization
CPU load equalization needs to be lowered for the synchronization
option. The default value is 2 but for the synchronization option
it should be set equal to 1 to have a stable synchronization speed.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.14 System parameters
Continued
Mechanical unit
These parameters belong to the topic Motion and the type Mechanical unit.
Parameter
Description
Name
The name of the unit (max. 7 characters).
Activate at start up
The sensor is to be activated automatically at start up.
Deactivate Forbidden
The sensor cannot be deactivated.
Single type
This parameter belongs to the topic Motion and the type Single type.
Parameter
Description
Mechanics
Specifies the mechanical structure of the sensor.
Transmission
This parameter belong to the topic Motion and the type Transmission.
Parameter
Description
Rotating move
Specifies if the sensor is rotating (Yes) or linear (No).
Path Sensor Synchronization
These parameters belong to the topic Motion and the type Path Sensor
Synchronization. They are used to set allowed deviation between calculated and
actual position of the external device, and minimum/maximum TCP speed for the
robot.
Parameter
Description
Max Advance Distance The max advance distance allowed from calculated position to actual position of the external device.
Max Delay Distance
The max delay distance allowed from calculated position to actual
position of the external device.
Max Synchronization The max robot TCP speed allowed in m/s.
Speed
Min Synchronization
Speed
The min robot TCP speed allowed in m/s.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.15 I/O signals
4.1.15 I/O signals
Overview
Sensor Synchronization provides several I/O signals which allow a user or RAPID
program to monitor and control the object queue on the encoder interface unit.
The object queue is designed for the option Conveyor Tracking and has more
functionality than required by Sensor Synchronization. Since each closing of a
press is considered an object in the object queue, signals for the object queue
may occasionally be useful.
Object queue signals
The following table shows the I/O signals in the encoder unit DSQC 354 which
impact the object queue.
214
Instruction
Description
c1ObjectsInQ
Group input showing the number of objects in the object queue. These
objects are registered by the synchronization switch and have not been
dropped.
c1Rem1PObj
Digital output that removes the first pending object from the object queue.
Pending objects are objects that are in the queue but are not connected
to a work object.
c1RemAllPObj
Digital output that removes all pending objects. If an object is connected,
then it is not removed.
c1DropWObj
Digital output that will cause the encoder interface unit to drop the tracked
object and disconnect it. The object is removed from the queue.
Do not use c1DropWObj in RAPID code. Use the DropWobj instruction
instead.
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4 Motion coordination
4.1.16 RAPID components
4.1.16 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is an overview of all instructions, functions, and data types in Machine
Synchronization.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instructions
Description
DropSensor
Drop object on sensor
PrxActivAndStoreRecord Activate and store the recorded profile data
PrxActivRecord
Activate the recorded profile data
PrxDbgStoreRecord
Store and debug the recorded profile data
PrxDeactRecord
Deactivate a record
PrxResetPos
Reset the zero position of the sensor
PrxResetRecords
Reset and deactivate all records
PrxSetPosOffset
Set a reference position for the sensor
PrxSetRecordSampleTime Set the sample time for recording a profile
PrxSetSyncalarm
Set sync alarm behavior
PrxStartRecord
Record a new profile
PrxStopRecord
Stop recording a profile
PrxStoreRecord
Store the recorded profile data
PrxUseFileRecord
Use the recorded profile data
SupSyncSensorOff
Stop synchronized sensor supervision
SupSyncSensorOn
Start synchronized sensor supervision
SyncToSensor
Sync to sensor
WaitSensor
Wait for connection on sensor
Functions
Description
PrxGetMaxRecordpos
Get the maximum sensor position
Functions
Data types
Machine Synchronization includes no data types.
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5 Motion Events
5.1.1 Overview
5 Motion Events
5.1 World Zones [608-1]
5.1.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of World Zones is to stop the robot or set an output signal if the robot
is inside a special user-defined zone. Here are some examples of applications:
•
When two robots share a part of their respective work areas. The possibility
of the two robots colliding can be safely eliminated by World Zones
supervision.
•
When a permanent obstacle or some temporary external equipment is located
inside the robot’s work area. A forbidden zone can be created to prevent the
robot from colliding with this equipment.
•
Indication that the robot is at a position where it is permissible to start program
execution from a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).
A world zone is supervised during robot movements both during program execution
and jogging. If the robot’s TCP reaches the world zone or if the axes reaches the
world zone in joints, the movement is stopped or a digital output signal is set.
WARNING
For safety reasons, this software shall not be used for protection of personnel.
Use hardware protection equipment for that.
What is included
The RobotWare option World Zones gives you access to:
•
instructions used to define volumes of various shapes
•
instructions used to define joint zones in coordinates for axes
•
instructions used to define and enable world zones
Basic approach
This is the general approach for setting up World Zones. For a more detailed
example of how this is done, see Code examples on page 221.
1 Declare the world zone as stationary or temporary.
2 Declare the shape variable.
3 Define the shape that the world zone shall have.
4 Define the world zone (that the robot shall stop or that an output signal shall
be set when reaching the volume).
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5.1.1 Overview
Continued
Limitations
Supervision of a volume only works for the TCP. Any other part of the robot may
pass through the volume undetected. To be certain to prevent this, you can
supervise a joint world zone (defined byWZLimJointDef or WZHomeJointDef).
A variable of type wzstationary or wztemporary can not be redefined. They
can only be defined once (with WZLimSup or WZDOSet).
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5 Motion Events
5.1.2 RAPID components
5.1.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in World Zones. For more information,
see respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
wztemporary
wztemporary is used to identify a temporary world zone and can be
used anywhere in the RAPID program.
Temporary world zones can be disabled, enabled again, or erased
via RAPID instructions. Temporary world zones are automatically
erased when a new program is loaded or when program execution
start from the beginning in the MAIN routine.
wzstationary
wzstationary is used to identify a stationary world zone and can
only be used in an event routine connected to the event POWER ON.
For information on defining event routines, see Operating manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant.
A stationary world zone is always active and is reactivated by a restart
(switch power off then on, or change system parameters). It is not
possible to disable, enable or erase a stationary world zone via
RAPID instructions.
Stationary world zones shall be used if security is involved.
shapedata
shapedata is used to describe the geometry of a world zone.
World zones can be defined in 4 different geometrical shapes:
• a straight box, with all sides parallel to the world coordinate
system
• a cylinder, parallel to the z axis of the world coordinate system
• a sphere
• a joint angle area for the robot axes and/or external axes
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in World Zones. For more information,
see respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
WZBoxDef
WZBoxDef is used to define a volume that has the shape of a straight
box with all its sides parallel to the axes of the world coordinate system. The definition is stored in a variable of type shapedata.
The volume can also be defined as the inverse of the box (all volume
outside the box).
WZCylDef
WZCylDef is used to define a volume that has the shape of a cylinder
with the cylinder axis parallel to the z-axis of the world coordinate
system. The definition is stored in a variable of type shapedata.
The volume can also be defined as the inverse of the cylinder (all
volume outside the cylinder).
WZSphDef
WZSphDef is used to define a volume that has the shape of a sphere.
The definition is stored in a variable of type shapedata.
The volume can also be defined as the inverse of the sphere (all
volume outside the sphere).
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5.1.2 RAPID components
Continued
Instruction
Description
WZLimJointDef
WZLimJointDef is used to define joint coordinate for axes, to be
used for limitation of the working area. Coordinate limits can be set
for both the robot axes and external axes.
For each axis WZLimJointDef defines an upper and lower limit. For
rotational axes the limits are given in degrees and for linear axes the
limits are given in mm.
The definition is stored in a variable of type shapedata.
WZHomeJointDef
WZHomeJointDef is used to define joint coordinates for axes, to be
used to identify a position in the joint space. Coordinate limits can be
set for both the robot axes and external axes.
For each axis WZHomeJointDef defines a joint coordinate for the
middle of the zone and the zones delta deviation from the middle. For
rotational axes the coordinates are given in degrees and for linear
axes the coordinates are given in mm.
The definition is stored in a variable of type shapedata.
WZLimSup
WZLimSup is used to define, and enable, stopping the robot with an
error message when the TCP reaches the world zone. This supervision
is active both during program execution and when jogging.
When calling WZLimSup you specify whether it is a stationary world
zone, stored in a wzstationary variable, or a temporary world zone,
stored in a wztemporary variable.
WZDOSet
WZDOSet is used to define, and enable, setting a digital output signal
when the TCP reaches the world zone.
When callingWZDOSet you specify whether it is a stationary world
zone, stored in a wzstationary variable, or a temporary world zone,
stored in a wztemporary variable.
WZDisable
WZDisable is used to disable the supervision of a temporary world
zone.
WZEnable
WZEnable is used to re-enable the supervision of a temporary world
zone.
A world zone is automatically enabled on creation. Enabling is only
necessary after it has been disabled with WZDisable.
WZFree
WZFree is used to disable and erase a temporary world zone.
Functions
World Zones does not include any RAPID functions.
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5 Motion Events
5.1.3 Code examples
5.1.3 Code examples
Create protected box
To prevent the robot TCP from moving into stationary equipment, set up a stationary
world zone around the equipment.
The routine my_power_on should then be connected to the event POWER ON.
For information on how to do this, read about defining event routines in Operating
manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant.
xx0300000178
VAR wzstationary obstacle;
PROC my_power_on()
VAR shapedata volume;
CONST pos p1 := [200, 100, 100];
CONST pos p2 := [600, 400, 400];
!Define a box between the corners p1 and p2
WZBoxDef \Inside, volume, p1, p2;
!Define and enable supervision of the box
WZLimSup \Stat, obstacle, volume;
ENDPROC
Signal when robot is in position
When two robots share a work area it is important to know when a robot is out of
the way, letting the other robot move freely.
This example defines a home position where the robot is in a safe position and
sets an output signal when the robot is in its home position. The robot is standing
on a travel track, handled as external axis 1. No other external axes are active.
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5.1.3 Code examples
Continued
The shadowed area in the illustration shows the world zone.
xx0300000206
VAR wztemporary home;
PROC zone_output()
VAR shapedata joint_space;
!Define the home position
CONST jointtarget home_pos := [[0, -20, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 9E9,
9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9]];
!Define accepted deviation from the home position
CONST jointtarget delta_pos := [[2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2], [10, 9E9,
9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9]];
!Define the shape of the world zone
WZHomeJointDef \Inside, joint_space, home_pos, delta_pos;
!Define the world zone, setting the
!signal do_home to 1 when in zone
WZDOSet \Temp, home \Inside, joint_space, do_home, 1;
ENDPROC
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6 Motion functions
6.1.1 Overview
6 Motion functions
6.1 Independent Axes [610-1]
6.1.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of Independent Axes is to move an axis independently of other axes
in the robot system. Some examples of applications are:
•
Move an external axis holding an object (for example rotating an object while
the robot is spray painting it).
•
Save cycle time by performing a robot task at the same time as an external
axis performs another.
•
Continuously rotate robot axis 6 (for polishing or similar tasks).
•
Reset the measurement system after an axis has rotated multiple revolutions
in the same direction. Saves cycle time compared to physically winding back.
An axis can move independently if it is set to independent mode. An axis can be
changed to independent mode and later back to normal mode again.
What is included
The RobotWare option Independent Axes gives you access to:
•
instructions used to set independent mode and specify the movement for an
axis
•
an instruction for changing back to normal mode and/or reset the
measurement system
•
functions used to verify the status of an independent axis
•
system parameters for configuration.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for moving an axis independently. For detailed
examples of how this is done, see Code examples on page 227.
1 Call an independent move instruction to set the axis to independent mode
and move it.
2 Let the robot execute another instruction at the same time as the independent
axis moves.
3 When both robot and independent axis has stopped, reset the independent
axis to normal mode.
Reset axis
Even without being in independent mode, an axis might rotate only in one direction
and eventually loose precision. The measurement system can then be reset with
the instruction IndReset.
The recommendation is to reset the measurement system for an axis before its
motor has rotated 10000 revolutions in the same direction.
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6 Motion functions
6.1.1 Overview
Continued
Limitations
A mechanical unit may not be deactivated when one of its axes is in independent
mode.
Axes in independent mode cannot be jogged.
The only robot axis that can be used as an independent axis is axis number 6. On
IRB 1600, 2600 and 4600 models (except ID version), the instruction IndReset
can also be used for axis 4.
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6 Motion functions
6.1.2 System parameters
6.1.2 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter in Independent Axes. For more
information, see the respective parameter in Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
Arm
These parameters belongs to the type Arm in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Independent Joint
Flag that determines if independent mode is allowed for the axis.
Independent Upper Defines the upper limit of the working area for the joint when operating
Joint Bound
in independent mode.
Independent Lower Defines the lower limit of the working area for the joint when operating
Joint Bound
in independent mode.
Transmission
These parameters belong to the type Transmission in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Transmission Gear Independent Axes requires high resolution in transmission gear ratio,
High
which is therefore defined as Transmission Gear High divided by
Transmission Gear Low. If no smaller number can be used, the
transmission gear ratio will be correct if Transmission Gear High is
set to the number of cogs on the robot axis side, and Transmission
Gear Low is set to the number of cogs on the motor side.
Transmission Gear See Transmission Gear High.
Low
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6.1.3 RAPID components
6.1.3 RAPID components
Data types
There are no data types for Independent Axes.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Independent Axes. For more
information, see respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
An independent move instruction is executed immediately, even if the axis is being
moved at the time. If a new independent move instruction is executed before the
last one is finished, the new instruction immediately overrides the old one.
Instruction
Description
IndAMove
IndAMove (Independent Absolute position Movement) change an
axis to independent mode and move the axis to a specified position.
IndCMove
IndCMove (Independent Continuous Movement) change an axis to
independent mode and start moving the axis continuously at a specified speed.
IndDMove
IndDMove (Independent Delta position Movement) change an axis to
independent mode and move the axis a specified distance.
IndRMove
IndRMove (Independent Relative position Movement) change a rotational axis to independent mode and move the axis to a specific position within one revolution.
Because the revolution information in the position is omitted,
IndRMove never rotates more than one axis revolution.
IndReset
IndReset is used to change an independent axis back to normal
mode.
IndReset can move the measurement system for a rotational axis a
number of axis revolutions. The resolution of positions is decreased
when moving away from logical position 0, and winding the axis back
would take time. By moving the measurement system the resolution
is maintained without physically winding the axis back.
Both the independent axis and the robot must stand still when calling
IndReset.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in Independent Axes. For more
information, see respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
226
Function
Description
IndInpos
IndInposindicates whether an axis has reached the selected position.
IndSpeed
IndSpeed indicates whether an axis has reached the selected speed.
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6 Motion functions
6.1.4 Code examples
6.1.4 Code examples
Save cycle time
An object in station A needs welding in two places. The external axis for station A
can turn the object in position for the second welding while the robot is welding
on another object. This saves cycle time compared to letting the robot wait while
the external axis moves.
!Perform first welding in station A
!Call subroutine for welding
weld_stationA_1;
!Move the object in station A, axis 1, with
!independent movement to position 90 degrees
!at the speed 20 degrees/second
IndAMove Station_A,1\ToAbsNum:=90,20;
!Let the robot perform another task while waiting
!Call subroutine for welding
weld_stationB_1;
!Wait until the independent axis is in position
WaitUntil IndInpos(Station_A,1 ) = TRUE;
WaitTime 0.2;
!Perform second welding in station A
!Call subroutine for welding
weld_stationA_2;
Polish by rotating axis 6
To polish an object the robot axis 6 can be set to continuously rotate.
Set robot axis 6 to independent mode and continuously rotate it. Move the robot
over the area you want to polish. Stop movement for both robot and independent
axis before changing back to normal mode. After rotating the axis many revolutions,
reset the measurement system to maintain the resolution.
Note that, for this example to work, the parameter Independent Joint for rob1_6
must be set to Yes.
PROC Polish()
!Change axis 6 of ROB_1 to independent mode and
!rotate it with 180 degrees/second
IndCMove ROB_1, 6, 180;
!Wait until axis 6 is up to speed
WaitUntil IndSpeed(ROB_1,6\InSpeed);
WaitTime 0.2;
!Move robot where you want to polish
MoveL p1,v10, z50, tool1;
MoveL p2,v10, fine, tool1;
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6.1.4 Code examples
Continued
!Stop axis 6 and wait until it's still
IndCMove ROB_1, 6, 0;
WaitUntil IndSpeed(ROB_1,6\ZeroSpeed);
WaitTime 0.2;
!Change axis 6 back to normal mode and
!reset measurement system (close to 0)
IndReset ROB_1, 6 \RefNum:=0 \Short;
ENDPROC
Reset an axis
This is an example of how to reset the measurement system for axis 1 in station
A. The measurement system will change a whole number of revolutions, so it is
close to zero (±180°).
IndReset Station_A, 1 \RefNum:=0 \Short;
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6 Motion functions
6.2.1 Overview
6.2 Path Recovery [611-1]
6.2.1 Overview
Purpose
Path Recovery is used to store the current movement path, perform some robot
movements and then restore the interrupted path. This is useful when an error or
interrupt occurs during the path movement. An error handler or interrupt routine
can perform a task and then recreate the path.
For applications like arc welding and gluing, it is important to continue the work
from the point where the robot left off. If the robot started over from the beginning,
then the work piece would have to be scrapped.
If a process error occurs when the robot is inside a work piece, moving the robot
straight out might cause a collision. By using the path recorder, the robot can
instead move out along the same path it came in.
What is included
The RobotWare option Path Recovery gives you access to:
•
instructions to suspend and resume the coordinated synchronized movement
mode on the error or interrupt level.
•
a path recorder, with the ability to move the TCP out from a position along
the same path it came.
Limitations
The instructions StorePath and RestoPath only handles movement path data.
The stop position must also be stored.
Movements using the path recorder has to be performed on trap-level, i.e.
StorePath has to be executed prior to PathRecMoveBwd.
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6.2.2 RAPID components
6.2.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in Path Recovery. For more information,
see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
pathrecid
pathrecid is used to identify a breakpoint for the path recorder.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Path Recovery. For more
information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
StorePath
StorePath is used to store the movement path being executed when
an error or interrupt occurs.
StorePath is included in RobotWare base.
RestoPath
RestoPath is used to restore the path that was stored by StorePath.
RestoPath is included in RobotWare base.
PathRecStart
PathRecStart is used to start recording the robot’s path. The path
recorder will store path information during execution of the robot
program.
PathRecStop
PathRecStop is used to stop recording the robot's path.
PathRecMoveBwd
PathRecMoveBwd is used to move the robot backwards along a recorded path.
PathRecMoveFwd
PathRecMoveFwd is used to move the robot back to the position
where PathRecMoveBwd was executed.
It is also possible to move the robot partly forward by supplying an
identifier that has been passed during the backward movement.
SyncMoveSuspend SyncMoveSuspend is used to suspend synchronized movements
mode and set the system to independent movement mode.
SyncMoveResume SyncmoveResume is used to go back to synchronized movements
from independent movement mode.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in Path Recovery. For more information,
see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
230
Function
Description
PathRecValidBwd
PathRecValidBwd is used to check if the path recorder is active and
if a recorded backward path is available.
PathRecValidFwd
PathRecValidFwd is used to check if the path recorder can be used
to move forward. The ability to move forward with the path recorder
implies that the path recorder must have been ordered to move
backwards earlier.
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6 Motion functions
6.2.3 Store current path
6.2.3 Store current path
Why store the path?
The simplest way to use Path Recovery is to only store the current path to be able
to restore it after resolving an error or similar action.
Let's say that an error occur during arc welding. To resolve the error the robot
might have to be moved away from the part. When the error is resolved, the welding
should be continued from the point it left off. This is solved by storing the path
information and the position of the robot before moving away from the path. The
path can then be restored and the welding resumed after the error has been
handled.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for storing the current path:
1 At the start of an error handler or interrupt routine:
stop the movement
store the movement path
store the stop position
2 At the end of the error handler or interrupt routine:
move to the stored stop position
restore the movement path
start the movement
Example
This is an example of how to use Path Recovery in error handling. First the path
and position is stored, the error is corrected and then the robot is moved back in
position and the path is restored.
MoveL p100, v100, z10, gun1;
...
ERROR
IF ERRNO=MY_GUN_ERR THEN
gun_cleaning();
ENDIF
...
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR robtarget p1;
!Stop the robot movement, if not already stopped.
StopMove;
!Store the movement path and current position
StorePath;
p1 := CRobT(\Tool:=gun1\WObj:=wobj0);
!Correct the error
MoveL pclean, v100, fine, gun1;
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6 Motion functions
6.2.3 Store current path
Continued
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position
MoveL p1, v100, fine, gun1;
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
Store path in a MultiMove system
In a MultiMove system the robots can keep the synchronized movement mode
after StorePath with the argument KeepSync. However the robots can’t switch
from independent mode to synchronized mode, only the other way around.
After a Multimove system is set with the argument KeepSync, the system can
change between synchronized, semi coordinated and independent mode on the
StorePath level. The changes are made with the instructions SyncMoveResume
and SyncMoveSuspend.
“SyncArc” example with coordinated synchronized movement
This is an example on how to use Path Recovery and keep synchronized mode in
the error handler for a MultiMove system. Two robots perform arc welding on the
same work piece. To make the example simple and general, we use move
instructions instead of weld instructions. The work object is rotated by a positioner.
For more information on the SyncArc example, see Application manual - MultiMove.
T_ROB1 task program
MODULE module1
VAR syncident sync1;
VAR syncident sync2;
VAR syncident sync3;
PERS tasks all_tasks{3} := [["T_ROB1"],["T_ROB2"],["T_STN1"]];
PERS wobjdata wobj_stn1 := [ FALSE, FALSE, "STN_1", [ [0, 0, 0],
[1, 0, 0 ,0] ], [ [0, 0, 250], [1, 0, 0, 0] ] ];
TASK PERS tooldata tool1 := ...
CONST robtarget p100 := ...
CONST robtarget p199 := ...
PROC main()
...
SyncMove;
ENDPROC
PROC SyncMove()
MoveJ p100, v1000, z50, tool1;
WaitSyncTask sync1, all_tasks;
MoveL p101, v500, fine, tool1;
SyncMoveOn sync2, all_tasks;
MoveL p102\ID:=10, v300, z10, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveC p103, p104\ID:=20, v300, z10, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveL p105\ID:=30, v300, z10, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
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6 Motion functions
6.2.3 Store current path
Continued
MoveC p106, p101\ID:=40, v300, fine, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
SyncMoveOff sync3;
MoveL p199, v1000, fine, tool1;
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_PATH_STOP THEN
gun_cleaning();
ENDIF
UNDO
SyncMoveUndo;
ENDPROC
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR robtarget p1;
!Store the movement path and current position
! and keep syncronized mode.
StorePath \KeepSync;
p1 := CRobT(\Tool:=tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1);
!Correct the error
MoveL pclean1 \ID:=50, v100, fine, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position
MoveL p1 \ID:=60, v100, fine, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
T_ROB2 task program
MODULE module2
VAR syncident sync1;
VAR syncident sync2;
VAR syncident sync3;
PERS tasks all_tasks{3};
PERS wobjdata wobj_stn1;
TASK PERS tooldata tool2 := ...
CONST robtarget p200 := ...
CONST robtarget p299 := ...
PROC main()
...
SyncMove;
ENDPROC
PROC SyncMove()
MoveJ p200, v1000, z50, tool2;
WaitSyncTask sync1, all_tasks;
MoveL p201, v500, fine, tool2;
SyncMoveOn sync2, all_tasks;
MoveL p202\ID:=10, v300, z10, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveC p203, p204\ID:=20, v300, z10, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveL p205\ID:=30, v300, z10, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
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6.2.3 Store current path
Continued
MoveC p206, p201\ID:=40, v300, fine, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
SyncMoveOff sync3;
MoveL p299, v1000, fine, tool2;
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_PATH_STOP THEN
gun_cleaning();
ENDIF
UNDO
SyncMoveUndo;
ENDPROC
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR robtarget p2;
!Store the movement path and current position.
StorePath \KeepSync;
p2 := CRobT(\Tool:=tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1);
!Correct the error
MoveL pclean2 \ID:=50, v100, fine, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position.
MoveL p2 \ID:=60, v100, fine, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
T_STN1 task program
MODULE module3
VAR syncident sync1;
VAR syncident sync2;
VAR syncident sync3;
PERS tasks all_tasks{3};
CONST jointtarget angle_neg20 :=[ [ 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9,
9E9], [ -20, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9] ];
...
CONST jointtarget angle_340 :=[ [ 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9],[
340, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9] ];
PROC main()
...
SyncMove;
...
ENDPROC
PROC SyncMove()
MoveExtJ angle_neg20, vrot50, fine;
WaitSyncTask sync1, all_tasks;
! Wait for the robots
SyncMoveOn sync2, all_tasks;
MoveExtJ angle_20\ID:=10, vrot100, z10;
MoveExtJ angle_160\ID:=20, vrot100, z10;
MoveExtJ angle_200\ID:=30, vrot100, z10;
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6 Motion functions
6.2.3 Store current path
Continued
MoveExtJ angle_340\ID:=40, vrot100, fine;
SyncMoveOff sync3;
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_PATH_STOP THEN
gun_cleaning();
ENDIF
UNDO
SyncMoveUndo;
ENDPROC
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR jointtarget resume_angle;
!Store the movement path and current angle.
StorePath \KeepSync;
resume_angle := CJointT();
!Correct the error
MoveExtJ clean_angle \ID:=50, vrot100, fine;
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position.
MoveExtJ resume_angle \ID:=60, vrot100, fine;
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Suspend and resume synchronized movements in the “SyncArc” example
SyncMoveSuspend is used to suspend synchronized movements mode and set
the system to independent or semi coordinated movement mode.
SyncMoveResume is used to go back once more to synchronized movements.
These instructions can only be used after StorePath\KeepSync has been
executed.
T_ROB1
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR robtarget p1;
!Store the movement path and current position
! and keep syncronized mode.
StorePath \KeepSync;
p1 := CRobT(\Tool:=tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1);
!Move in synchronized motion mode
MoveL p104 \ID:=50, v100, fine, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
SyncMoveSuspend;
!Move in independent mode
MoveL pclean1, v100, fine, tool1;
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position
SyncMoveResume;
MoveL p1 \ID:=60, v100, fine, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
!Restore the path and start the movement
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6.2.3 Store current path
Continued
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
T_ROB2
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR robtarget p2;
!Store the movement path and current position.
StorePath \KeepSync;
p2 := CRobT(\Tool:=tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1);
!Move in synchronized motion mode
MoveL p104 \ID:=50, v100, fine, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
SyncMoveSuspend;
!Move in independent mode
MoveL pclean2 v100, fine, tool2;
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position.
SyncMoveResume;
!Move in synchronized motion mode
MoveL p2 \ID:=60, v100, fine, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
T_STN1
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR jointtarget resume_angle;
!Store the movement path and current angle.
StorePath \KeepSync;
resume_angle := CJointT();
!Move in synchronized motion mode
MoveExtJ p1clean_angle \ID:=50, vrot100, fine;
SyncMoveSuspend;
! Move in independent mode
MoveExtJ p2clean_angle,vrot, fine;
...
!Move the robot back to the stored position.
SyncMoveResume;
! Move in synchronized motion mode
MoveExtJ resume_angle \ID:=60, vrot100, fine;
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
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6 Motion functions
6.2.4 Path recorder
6.2.4 Path recorder
What is the path recorder
The path recorder can memorize a number of move instructions. This memory can
then be used to move the robot backwards along that same path.
How to use the path recorder
This is the general approach for using the path recorder:
1 Start the path recorder
2 Move the robot with regular move, or process, instructions
3 Store the current path
4 Move backwards along the recorded path
5 Resolve the error
6 Move forward along the recorded path
7 Restore the interrupted path
Lift the tool
When the robot moves backward in its own track, you may want to avoid scraping
the tool against the work piece. For a process like arc welding, you want to stay
clear of the welding seam.
By using the argument ToolOffs in the instructions PathRecMoveBwd and
PathRecMoveFwd, you can set an offset for the TCP. This offset is set in tool
coordinates, which means that if it is set to [0,0,10] the tool will be 10mm from the
work object when it moves back along the recorded path.
xx0400000828
Note
When a MultiMove system is in synchronized mode all tasks must use ToolOffs
if a tool is going to be lifted.
However if you only want to lift one tool, set ToolOffs=[0,0,0] in the other
tasks.
Simple example
If an error occurs between p1 and p4, the robot will return to p1 where the error
can be resolved. When the error has been resolved, the robot continues from where
the error occurred.
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6.2.4 Path recorder
Continued
When p4 is reached without any error, the path recorder is switched off. The robot
then moves from p4 to p5 without the path recorder.
...
VAR pathrecid start_id;
...
MoveL p1, vmax, fine, tool1;
PathRecStart start_id;
MoveL p2, vmax, z50, tool1;
MoveL p3, vmax, z50, tool1;
MoveL p4, vmax, fine, tool1;
PathRecStop \Clear;
MoveL p5, vmax, fine, tool1;
ERROR
StorePath;
PathRecMoveBwd;
! Fix the problem
PathRecMoveFwd;
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDIF
...
Complex example
In this example, the path recorder is used for two purposes:
•
If an error occurs, the operator can choose to back up to p1 or to p2. When
the error has been resolved, the interrupted movement is resumed.
•
Even if no error occurs, the path recorder is used to move the robot from p4
to p1. This technique is useful when the robot is in a narrow position that is
difficult to move out of.
Note that if an error occurs during the first move instruction, between p1 and p2,
it is not possible to go backwards to p2. If the operator choose to go back to p2,
PathRecValidBwd is used to see if it is possible. Before the robot is moved forward
to the position where it was interrupted, PathRecValidFwd is used to see if it is
possible (if the robot never backed up it is already in position).
...
VAR pathrecid origin_id;
VAR pathrecid corner_id;
VAR num choice;
...
MoveJ p1, vmax, z50, tool1;
PathRecStart origin_id;
MoveJ p2, vmax, z50, tool1;
PathRecStart corner_id;
MoveL p3, vmax, z50, tool1;
MoveL p4, vmax, fine, tool1;
! Use path record to move safely to p1
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6 Motion functions
6.2.4 Path recorder
Continued
StorePath;
PathRecMoveBwd \ID:=origin_id
\ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
RestoPath;
PathRecStop \Clear;
Clear Path;
Start Move;
ERROR
StorePath;
! Ask operator how far to back up
TPReadFK choice,"Extract to:", stEmpty, stEmpty,
stEmpty, "Origin", "Corner";
IF choice=4 THEN
! Back up to p1
PathRecMoveBwd \ID:=origin_id
\ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
ELSEIF choice=5 THEN
! Verify that it is possible to back to p2,
IF PathRecValidBwd(\ID:=corner_id) THEN
! Back up to p2
PathRecMoveBwd \ID:=corner_id
\ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
ENDIF
ENDIF
! Fix the problem
! Verify that there is a path record forward
IF PathRecValidFwd() THEN
! Return to where the path was interrupted
PathRecMoveFwd \ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
ENDIF
! Restore the path and resume movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
...
Resume path recorder
If the path recorder is stopped, it can be started again from the same position
without loosing its history.
In the example below, the PathRecMoveBwd instruction will back the robot to p1.
If the robot had been in any other position than p2 when the path recorder was
restarted, this would not have been possible.
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6.2.4 Path recorder
Continued
For more information, see the section about PathRecStop in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
...
MoveL p1, vmax, z50, tool1;
PathRecStart id1;
MoveL p2, vmax, z50, tool1;
PathRecStop;
MoveL p3, vmax, z50, tool1;
MoveL p4, vmax, z50, tool1;
MoveL p2, vmax, z50, tool1;
PathRecStart id2;
MoveL p5, vmax, z50, tool1;
StorePath;
PathRecMoveBwd \ID:=id1;
RestoPath;
...
"SyncArc" example with coordinated synchronized movement
This is an example on how to use Path Recorder in error handling for a MultiMove
system.
In this example two robots perform arc welding on the same work piece. To make
the example simple and general, we use move instructions instead of weld
instructions. The work object is rotated by a positioner.
For more information on the SyncArc example, see Application manual - MultiMove.
T_ROB1 task program
MODULE module1
VAR syncident sync1;
VAR syncident sync2;
VAR syncident sync3;
PERS tasks all_tasks{3} := [["T_ROB1"],["T_ROB2"],["T_STN1"]];
PERS wobjdata wobj_stn1 := [ FALSE, FALSE, "STN_1",[ [0, 0, 0],
[1, 0, 0 ,0] ], [ [0, 0,250], [1, 0, 0, 0] ] ];
TASK PERS tooldata tool1 := ...
CONST robtarget p100 := ...
CONST robtarget p199 := ...
PROC main()
...
SyncMove;
ENDPROC
PROC SyncMove()
WaitSyncTask sync1, all_tasks;
MoveJ p100, v1000, z50, tool1;
! Start recording
PathRecStart HomeROB1;
MoveL p101, v500, fine, tool1;
SyncMoveOn sync2, all_tasks;
MoveL p102\ID:=10, v300, z10, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveC p103, p104\ID:=20, v300, z10, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
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6 Motion functions
6.2.4 Path recorder
Continued
MoveL p105\ID:=30, v300, z10, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveC p106, p101\ID:=40, v300, fine, tool1 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
!Stop recording
PathRecStop \Clear;
SyncMoveOff sync3;
MoveL p199, v1000, fine, tool1;
ERROR
! Weld error in this program task
IF ERRNO = AW_WELD_ERR THEN
gun_cleaning();
ENDIF
UNDO
SyncMoveUndo;
ENDPROC
PROC gun_cleaning()
VAR robtarget p1;
!Store the movement path
IF IsSyncMoveOn() THEN
StorePath \KeepSync;
ELSE
StorePath;
ENDIF
!Move this robot backward to p100.
PathRecMoveBwd \ID:=HomeROB1 \ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
!Correct the error
MoveJ pclean1 ,v100, fine, tool1;
...
!Move the robot back to p100
MoveJ p100, v100, fine, tool1;
PathRecMoveFwd \ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
T_ROB2 task program
MODULE module2
VAR syncident sync1;
VAR syncident sync2;
VAR syncident sync3;
PERS tasks all_tasks{3};
PERS wobjdata wobj_stn1;
TASK PERS tooldata tool2 := ...
CONST robtarget p200 := ...
CONST robtarget p299 := ...
PROC main()
...
SyncMove;
ENDPROC
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6.2.4 Path recorder
Continued
PROC SyncMove()
WaitSyncTask sync1, all_tasks;
MoveJ p200, v1000, z50, tool2;
PathRecStart HomeROB2;
MoveL p201, v500, fine, tool2;
SyncMoveOn sync2, all_tasks;
MoveL p202\ID:=10, v300, z10, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveC p203, p204\ID:=20, v300, z10, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveL p205\ID:=30, v300, z10, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
MoveC p206, p201\ID:=40, v300, fine, tool2 \WObj:=wobj_stn1;
PathRecStop \Clear;
SyncMoveOff sync3;
MoveL p299, v1000, fine, tool2;
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_PATH_STOP THEN
gun_move_out();
ENDIF
UNDO
SyncMoveUndo;
ENDPROC
PROC gun_move_out()
IF IsSyncMoveOn() THEN
StorePath \KeepSync;
ELSE
StorePath;
ENDIF
! Move this robot backward to p201
PathRecMoveBwd \ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
! Wait for the other gun to get clean
PathRecMoveFwd \ToolOffs:=[0,0,10];
!Restore the path and start the movement
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
T_STN1 task program
MODULE module3
VAR syncident sync1;
VAR syncident sync2;
VAR syncident sync3;
PERS tasks all_tasks{3};
CONST jointtarget angle_neg20 :=[ [ 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9,
9E9], [ -20, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9] ];
...
CONST jointtarget angle_340 :=[ [ 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9],[
340, 9E9, 9E9, 9E9,9E9, 9E9] ];
PROC main()
...
SyncMove;
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6 Motion functions
6.2.4 Path recorder
Continued
...
ENDPROC
PROC SyncMove()
WaitSyncTask sync1, all_tasks;
MoveExtJ angle_neg20, vrot50, fine;
PathRecStart HomeSTN1;
SyncMoveOn sync2, all_tasks;
MoveExtJ angle_20\ID:=10, vrot100, z10;
MoveExtJ angle_160\ID:=20, vrot100, z10;
MoveExtJ angle_200\ID:=30, vrot100, z10;
MoveExtJ angle_340\ID:=40, vrot100, fine;
PathRecStop \Clear;
SyncMoveOff sync3;
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_PATH_STOP THEN
gun_move_out();
ENDIF
UNDO
SyncMoveUndo;
ENDPROC
PROC gun_move_out()
!Store the movement
IF IsSyncMoveOn() THEN
StorePath \KeepSync;
ELSE
StorePath;
ENDIF
!Move the manipulator backward to angle_neg 20
PathRecMoveBwd \ToolOffs:=[0,0,0];
...
!Wait for the gun to get clean
PathRecMoveFwd \ToolOffs:=[0,0,0];
RestoPath;
StartMove;
RETRY;
ENDPROC
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6 Motion functions
6.3.1 Overview
6.3 Path Offset [612-1]
6.3.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of Path Offset is to be able to make online adjustments of the robot
path according to input from sensors. With the set of instructions that Path Offset
offers, the robot path can be compared and adjusted with the input from sensors.
What is included
The RobotWare option Path Offset gives you access to:
•
the data type corrdescr
•
the instructions CorrCon, CorrDiscon, CorrClear and CorrWrite
•
the function CorrRead
Basic approach
This is the general approach for setting up Path Offset. For a detailed example of
how this is done, see Code example on page 247.
1 Declare the correction generator.
2 Connect the correction generator.
3 Define a trap routine that determines the offset and writes it to the correction
generator.
4 Define an interrupt to frequently call the trap routine.
5 Call a move instruction using the correction. The path will be repeatedly
corrected.
Note
If two or more move instructions are called after each other with the\Corr switch
it is important to know that all \Corr offsets are reset each time the robot starts
from a finepoint. So ,when using finepoints, on the second move instruction the
controller does not know that the path already has an offset. To avoid any strange
behavior it is recommended only to use zones together with the \Corr switch
and avoid finepoints.
Limitations
It is possible to connect several correction generators at the same time (for instance
one for corrections along the Z axis and one for corrections along the Y axis).
However, it is not possible to connect more than 5 correction generators at the
same time.
After a controller restart, the correction generators have to be defined once again.
The definitions and connections do not survive a controller restart.
The instructions can only be used in motion tasks.
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6 Motion functions
6.3.2 RAPID components
6.3.2 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in Path Offset. For more information,
see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
corrdescr
corrdescr is a correction generator descriptor that is used as the
reference to the correction generator.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Path Offset. For more information,
see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
CorrCon
CorrCon activates path correction. Calling CorrCon will connect a
correction generator. Once this connection is made, the path can be
continuously corrected with new offset inputs (for instance from a
sensor).
CorrDiscon
CorrDiscon deactivates path correction. Calling CorrDiscon will
disconnect a correction generator.
CorrClear
CorrClear deactivate path correction. Calling CorrClear will disconnect all correction generators.
CorrWrite
CorrWrite sets the path correction values. Calling CorrWrite will
set the offset values to a correction generator.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in Path Offset. For more information,
see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
CorrRead
CorrRead reads the total correction made by a correction generator.
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6 Motion functions
6.3.3 Related RAPID functionality
6.3.3 Related RAPID functionality
The argument \Corr
The optional argument\Corrcan be set for some move instructions. This will enable
path corrections while the move instruction is executed.
The following instructions have the optional argument\Corr:
•
MoveL
•
MoveC
•
SearchL
•
SearchC
•
TriggL (only if the controller is equipped with the base functionality Fixed
Position Events)
•
TriggC (only if the controller is equipped with the base functionality Fixed
Position Events)
•
CapL (only if the controller is equipped with the option Continuous Application
Platform)
•
CapC (only if the controller is equipped with the option Continuous Application
Platform)
•
ArcL (only if the controller is equipped with the option RobotWare Arc)
•
ArcC (only if the controller is equipped with the option RobotWare Arc)
For more information on these instructions, see respective instruction in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Interrupts
To create programs using Path Offset, you need to be able to handle interrupts.
For more information on interrupts, see Technical reference manual - RAPID
overview.
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6 Motion functions
6.3.4 Code example
6.3.4 Code example
Linear movement with correction
This is a simple example of how to program a linear path with online path correction.
This is done by having an interrupt 5 times per second, calling a trap routine which
makes the offset correction.
Program code
VAR intnum int_no1;
VAR corrdescr id;
VAR pos sens_val;
PROC PathRoutine()
!Connect to the correction generator
CorrCon id;
!Setup a 5 Hz timer interrupt.
CONNECT int_no1 WITH UpdateCorr;
ITimer\Single, 0.2, int_no1
!Position for start of contour tracking
MoveJ p10,v100,z10,tool1;
!Run MoveL with correction.
MoveL p20,v100,z10,tool1\Corr;
!Remove the correction generator.
CorrDiscon id;
!Remove the timer interrupt.
IDelete int_no1;
ENDPROC
TRAP UpdateCorr
!Call a routine that read the sensor
ReadSensor sens_val.x, sens_val.y, sens_val.z;
!Execute correction
CorrWrite id, sens_val;
!Setup interrupt again
IDelete int_no1;
CONNECT int_no1 WITH UpdateCorr;
ITimer\Single, 0.2, int_no1;
ENDTRAP
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.1 Overview
7 Motion Supervision
7.1 Collision Detection [613-1]
7.1.1 Overview
Purpose
Collision Detection is a software option that reduces collision impact forces on the
robot. This helps protecting the robot and external equipment from severe damage.
WARNING
Collision Detection cannot protect equipment from damage at a full speed
collision.
Description
The software option Collision Detection identifies a collision by high sensitivity,
model based supervision of the robot. Depending on what forces you deliberately
apply on the robot, the sensitivity can be tuned as well as turned on and off.
Because the forces on the robot can vary during program execution, the sensitivity
can be set on-line in the program code.
Collision detection is more sensitive than the ordinary supervision and has extra
features. When a collision is detected, the robot will immediately stop and relieve
the residual forces by moving in reversed direction a short distance along its path.
After a collision error message has been acknowledged, the movement can continue
without having to press Motors on on the controller.
What is included
The RobotWare option Collision Detection gives you access to:
•
system parameters for defining if Collision Detection should be active and
how sensitive it should be (without the option you can only turn detection on
and off for Auto mode)
•
instruction for on-line changes of the sensitivity:MotionSup
Basic approach
Collision Detection is by default always active when the robot is moving. In many
cases this means that you can use Collision Detection without having to take any
active measures.
If necessary, you can turn Collision Detection on and off or change its sensitivity
in two ways:
•
temporary changes can be made on-line with the RAPID instruction
MotionSup
•
permanent changes are made through the system parameters.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.2 Limitations
7.1.2 Limitations
Load definition
In order to detect collisions properly, the payload of the robot must be correctly
defined.
Tip
Use Load Identification to define the payload. For more information, see Operating
manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant.
Robot axes only
Collision Detection is only available for the robot axes. It is not available for track
motions, orbit stations, or any other external axes.
Independent joint
The collision detection is deactivated when at least one axis is run in independent
joint mode. This is also the case even when it is an external axis that is run as an
independent joint.
Soft servo
The collision detection may trigger without a collision when the robot is used in
soft servo mode. Therefore, it is recommended to turn the collision detection off
when the robot is in soft servo mode.
No change until the robot moves
If the RAPID instruction MotionSup is used to turn off the collision detection, this
will only take effect once the robot starts to move. As a result, the digital output
MotSupOn may temporarily have an unexpected value at program start before the
robot starts to move.
Reversed movement distance
The distance the robot is reversed after a collision is proportional to the speed of
the motion before the collision. If repeated low speed collisions occur, the robot
may not be reversed sufficiently to relieve the stress of the collision. As a result,
it may not be possible to jog the robot without the supervision triggering. In this
case, turn Collision Detection off temporarily and jog the robot away from the
obstacle.
Delay before reversed movement
In the event of a stiff collision during program execution, it may take a few seconds
before the robot starts the reversed movement.
Robot on track motion
If the robot is mounted on a track motion the collision detection should be
deactivated when the track motion is moving. If it is not deactivated, the collision
detection may trigger when the track moves, even if there is no collision.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.3 What happens at a collision
7.1.3 What happens at a collision
Overview
When the collision detection is triggered, the robot will stop as quickly as possible.
Then it will move in the reverse direction to remove residual forces. The program
execution will stop with an error message. The robot remains in the state motors
on so that program execution can be resumed after the collision error message
has been acknowledged.
A typical collision is illustrated below.
Collision illustration
xx0300000361
Robot behavior after a collision
This list shows the order of events after a collision. For an illustration of the
sequence, see the diagram below.
When ...
then ...
the collision is detected
the motor torques are reversed and the mechanical brakes
applied in order to stop the robot
the robot has stopped
the robot moves in reversed direction a short distance along
the path in order to remove any residual forces which may
be present if a collision or jam occurred
the residual forces are removed
the robot stops again and remains in the motors on state
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.3 What happens at a collision
Continued
Speed and torque diagram
en0300000360
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.4 Additional information
7.1.4 Additional information
Motion error handling
For more information regarding error handling for a collision, see Technical
reference manual - RAPID kernel.
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253
7 Motion Supervision
7.1.5.1 System parameters
7.1.5 Configuration and programming facilities
7.1.5.1 System parameters
About system parameters
The parameters for Collision Detection do not require a restart to take effect.
For more information about the parameters, see Technical reference
manual - System parameters.
Motion Supervision
These parameters belong to the type Motion Supervision in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Path Collision Detection
Turn the collision detection On or Off for program execution.
Path Collision Detection is by default set to On.
Jog Collision Detection
Turn the collision detection On or Off for jogging.
Jog Collision Detection is by default set to On.
Path Collision Detection
Level
Modifies the Collision Detection supervision level for program
execution by the specified percentage value. A large percentage value makes the function less sensitive.
Path Collision Detection Level is by default set to 100%.
Jog Collision Detection Level Modifies the Collision Detection supervision level for jogging
by the specified percentage value. A large percentage value
makes the function less sensitive.
Jog Collision Detection Level is by default set to 100%.
Collision Detection Memory Defines how much the robot moves in reversed direction on
the path after a collision, specified in seconds. If the robot
moved fast before the collision it will move away a larger
distance than if the speed was slow.
Collision Detection Memory is by default set to 75 ms.
Manipulator Supervision
Turns the supervision for the loose arm detection on or off
for IRB 340 and IRB 360. A loose arm will stop the robot and
cause an error message.
Manipulator Supervision is by default set to On.
Manipulator Supervision
Level
Modifies the supervision level for the loose arm detection for
the manipulators IRB 340 and IRB 360. A large value makes
the function less sensitive.
Manipulator Supervision Level is by default value set to 100%.
Motion Planner
These parameters belong to the type Motion Planner in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Motion Supervision Max
Level
Set the maximum level to which the total collision detection
tune level can be changed. It is by default set to 300%.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.5.1 System parameters
Continued
General RAPID
These parameters belong to the type General RAPID in the topic Controller.
Parameter
Description
Collision Error Handler
Enables RAPID error handling for collision. Collision Error
Handler is default set to Off.
For more information regarding error handling for a collision,
see Technical reference manual - RAPID kernel
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.5.2 RAPID components
7.1.5.2 RAPID components
Instructions
This is a brief description of the instructions in Collision Detection. For more
information, see respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
256
Instruction
Description
MotionSup
MotionSup is used to:
• activate or deactivate Collision Detection. This can only be done
if the parameter Path Collision Detection is set to On.
• modify the supervision level with a specified percentage value
(1-300%). A large percentage value makes the function less
sensitive.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.5.3 Signals
7.1.5.3 Signals
Digital outputs
This is a brief description of the digital outputs in Collision Detection. For more
information, see respective digital output in Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
Digital output
Description
MotSupOn
MotSupOn is high when Collision Detection is active and low when it
is not active.
Note that a change in the state takes effect when a motion starts. Thus,
if Collision Detection is active and the robot is moving, MotSupOn is
high. If the robot is stopped and Collision Detection turned off, MotSupOn is still high. When the robot starts to move, MotSupOn switches
to low.
MotSupTrigg
MotSupTrigg goes high when the collision detection triggers. It stays
high until the error code is acknowledged from the FlexPendant.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.6.1 Set up system parameters
7.1.6 How to use Collision Detection
7.1.6.1 Set up system parameters
Activate supervision
To be able to use Collision Detection during program execution, the parameter
Path Collision Detection must be set to On.
To be able to use Collision Detection during jogging, the parameter Jog Collision
Detection must be set to On.
Define supervision levels
Set the parameter Path Collision Detection Level to the percentage value you want
as default during program execution.
Set the parameter Jog Collision Detection Level to the percentage value you want
as default during jogging.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.6.2 Adjust supervision from FlexPendant
7.1.6.2 Adjust supervision from FlexPendant
Speed adjusted supervision level
Collision Detection uses a variable supervision level. At low speeds it is more
sensitive than at high speeds. For this reason, no tuning of the function should be
required by the user during normal operating conditions. However, it is possible
to turn the function on and off and to tune the supervision levels.
Separate tuning parameters are available for jogging and program execution. These
parameters are described in System parameters on page 254.
Set jog supervision on FlexPendant
On the FlexPendant, select Control Panel from the ABB menu and then tap
Supervision.
Supervision can be turned on or off and the sensitivity can be adjusted for both
programmed paths and jogging. The sensitivity level is set in percentage. A large
value makes the function less sensitive.
If the motion supervision for jogging is turned off in the dialog box and a program
is executed, Collision Detection can still be active during execution of the program.
Note
The supervision settings correspond to system parameters of the type Motion
Supervision. These can be set using the supervision settings on the FlexPendant,
as described above. They can also be changed using RobotStudio or FlexPendant
configuration editor or Quickset Mechanical unit menu.
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.6.3 Adjust supervision from RAPID program
7.1.6.3 Adjust supervision from RAPID program
Default values
If Collision Detection is activated with the system parameters, it is by default active
during program execution with the tune value 100%. These values are set
automatically:
•
when using the restart mode Reset system.
•
when a new program is loaded.
•
when starting program execution from the beginning.
Note
If tune values are set in the system parameters and in the RAPID instruction,
both values are taken into consideration.
Example: If the tune value in the system parameters is set to 150% and the tune
value is set to 200% in the RAPID instruction the resulting tune level will be 300%.
Temporarily deactivate supervision
If external forces will affect the robot during a part of the program execution,
temporarily deactivate the supervision with the following instruction:
MotionSup \Off;
Reactivate supervision
If the supervision has been temporarily deactivated, it can be activated with the
following instruction:
MotionSup \On;
Note
If the supervision is deactivated with the system parameters, it cannot be activated
with RAPID instructions.
Tuning
The supervision level can be tuned during program execution with the instruction
MotionSup. The tune values are set in percent of the basic tuning where 100%
corresponds to the basic values. A higher percentage gives a less sensitive system.
This is an example of an instruction that increase the supervision level to 200%:
MotionSup \On \TuneValue:=200;
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7 Motion Supervision
7.1.6.4 How to avoid false triggering
7.1.6.4 How to avoid false triggering
About false triggering
Because the supervision is designed to be very sensitive, it may trigger if the load
data is incorrect or if there are large process forces acting on the robot.
Actions to take
If ...
then ...
the payload is incorrectly
defined
use Load Identification to define it. For more information, see
Operating manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant.
the payload has large mass increase supervision level
or inertia
the arm load (cables or simil- manually define the arm load or increase supervision level
ar) cause trigger
the application involves
many external process
forces
increase the supervision level for jogging and program execution in steps of 30 percent until you no longer receive the
error code.
the external process forces use the instruction MotionSup to raise the supervision level
are only temporary
or turn the function off temporarily.
everything else fails
turn off Collision Detection.
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8 Communication
8.1.1 Introduction to FTP Client
8 Communication
8.1 FTP Client [614-1]
8.1.1 Introduction to FTP Client
Purpose
The purpose of FTP Client is to enable the robot to access remote mounted disks,
for example a hard disk drive on a PC.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Backup to a remote computer.
•
Load programs from a remote computer.
Network illustration
en0300000505
Description
Several robots can access the same computer over an Ethernet network.
Once the FTP application protocol is configured, the remote computer can be
accessed in the same way as the controller's internal hard disk.
What is included
The RobotWare option FTP Client gives you access to the system parameter type
Application protocol and its parameters: Name, Type, Transmission protocol, Server
address, Trusted, Local path, Server path, Username, and Password
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using FTP Client. For more detailed examples of
how this is done, see Examples on page 266.
1 Configure an Application protocol to point out a disk or directory on a remote
computer that will be accessible from the robot.
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8 Communication
8.1.1 Introduction to FTP Client
Continued
2 Read and write to the remote computer in the same way as with the
controller's internal hard disk.
Requirements
The external computer must have:
•
TCP/IP stack
•
FTP Server
Limitations
When using the FTP Client the maximum length for a file name is 99 characters.
When using the FTP Client the maximum length for a file path including the file
name is 200 characters. The whole path is included in the 200 characters, not only
the server path. When ordering a backup towards a mounted disk all the directories
created by the backup has to be included in the max path.
Example
Parameter
Value
Local path
pc:
Server path
C:\robot_1
•
A backup is saved to pc:/Backups/Backup_20130109
(27 characters)
•
The path on the PC will be C:\robot_1\Backups\Backup_20130109
(34 characters)
•
The longest file path inside this backup is
C:\robot_1\Backups\Backup_20130109\RAPID\TASK1\PROGMOD\myprogram.mod
(54+13 characters)
The maximum path length for this example first looks like 27 characters but is
actually 67 characters.
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8 Communication
8.1.2 System parameters
8.1.2 System parameters
Application protocol
This is a brief description of the parameters used to configure an application
protocol. For more information, see the respective parameter in System parameters
on page 265.
These parameters belongs to the type Application protocol in the topic
Communication.
Parameter
Description
Name
Name of the application protocol.
Type
Type of application protocol.
Set this to "FTP".
Transmission protocol Name of the transmission protocol the protocol should use.
For FTP, this is always "TCP/IP".
Server address
The IP address of the computer with the FTP server.
Trusted
This flag decides if this computer should be trusted, i.e. if losing the
connection should make the program stop.
Local path
Defines what the shared unit will be called on the robot. The parameter value must end with a colon (:).
If, for example the unit is named "pc:", the name of the test.prg on
this unit would be pc:test.prg
Server path
The name of the disk or folder to connect to, on the remote computer.
If not specified, the application protocol will reference the directory
that is shared by the FTP server.
Note: The exported path should not be specified if communicating
with an FTP server of type Distinct FTP, FileZilla or MS IIS.
Username
The user name used by the robot when it logs on to the remote
computer.
The user account must be set up on the FTP server.
Password
The password used by the robot when it logs on to the remote
computer.
Note that the password written here will be visible to all who has
access to the system parameters.
Transmission protocol
There is a configured transmission protocol called TCP/IP, but no changes can be
made to it. This is used by the FTP application protocol.
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8 Communication
8.1.3 Examples
8.1.3 Examples
Example configuration
This is an example of how an application protocol can be configured for FTP.
Parameter
Value
Name
my FTP protocol
Type
FTP
Transmission protocol
TCPIP1
Server address
100.100.100.100
Trusted
No
Local path
pc:
Server path
C:\robot_1
Username
Robot1
Password
robot1
Note: The value of Server path should exclude the exported path if communicating
with an FTP server of type Distinct FTP, FileZilla or MS IIS.
Example with FlexPendant
This example shows how to use the FlexPendant to make a backup to the remote
PC. We assume that the configuration is done according to the example
configuration shown above.
1 Tap ABB and select Backup and Restore.
2 Tap on Backup Current System.
3 Save the backup to pc:/Backup/Backup_20031008 (the path on the PC will
be C:\robot_1\Backup\Backup_20031008).
Example with RAPID code
This example shows how to open the file C:\robot_1\files\file1.doc on the remote
PC from a RAPID program on the controller. We assume that the configuration is
done according to the example configuration shown above.
Open "HOME:" \File:= "pc:/files/file1.doc", file;
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8 Communication
8.2.1 Introduction to NFS Client
8.2 NFS Client [614-1]
8.2.1 Introduction to NFS Client
Purpose
The purpose of NFS Client is to enable the robot to access remote mounted disks,
for example a hard disk drive on a PC.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Backup to a remote computer.
•
Load programs from a remote computer.
Description
Several robots can access the same computer over an Ethernet network.
Once the NFS application protocol is configured, the remote computer can be
accessed in the same way as the controller's internal hard disk.
What is included
The RobotWare option NFS Client gives you access to the system parameter type
Application protocol and its parameters: Name, Type, Transmission protocol, Server
address, Trusted, Local path, Server path, User ID, and Group ID.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using NFS Client. For more detailed examples of
how this is done, see Examples on page 266.
1 Configure an Application protocol to point out a disk or directory on a remote
computer that will be accessible from the robot.
2 Read and write to the remote computer in the same way as with the
controller's internal hard disk.
Prerequisites
The external computer must have:
•
TCP/IP stack
•
NFS Server
Limitations
When using the NFS Client the maximum length for a file name is 99 characters.
When using the NFS Client the maximum length for a file path including the file
name is also 99 characters. The whole path is included in the 99 characters, not
only the server path. When ordering a backup towards a mounted disk all the
directories created by the backup has to be included in the max path.
Example
Parameter
Value
Local path
pc:
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8 Communication
8.2.1 Introduction to NFS Client
Continued
Parameter
Value
Server path
C:\robot_1
•
A backup is saved to pc:/Backups/Backup_20130109
(27 characters)
•
The path on the PC will be C:\robot_1\Backups\Backup_20130109
(34 characters)
•
The longest file path inside this backup is
C:\robot_1\Backups\Backup_20130109\RAPID\TASK1\PROGMOD\myprogram.mod
(54+13 characters)
The maximum path length for this example first looks like 27 characters but is
actually 67 characters.
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8 Communication
8.2.2 System parameters
8.2.2 System parameters
Application protocol
This is a brief description of the parameters used to configure an application
protocol. For more information, see the respective parameter in System parameters
on page 269
These parameters belongs to the type Application protocolin the topic
Communication.
Parameter
Description
Name
Name of the application protocol.
Type
Type of application protocol.
Set this to "NFS".
Transmission protocol Name of the transmission protocol the protocol should use.
For NFS, this is always "TCP/IP".
Server address
The IP address of the computer with the NFS server.
Trusted
This flag decides if this computer should be trusted, i.e. if losing
the connection should make the program stop.
Local path
Defines what the shared unit will be called on the robot. The
parameter value must end with a colon (:).
If, for example the unit is named "pc:", the name of the test.prg on
this unit would be pc:test.prg
Server path
The name of the exported disk or folder on the remote computer.
For NFS, Server Path must be specified.
User ID
Used by the NFS protocol as a way of authorizing the user to access a specific server.
If this parameter is not used, which is usually the case on a PC,
set it to the default value 0.
Note that User ID must be the same for all mountings on one robot
controller.
Group ID
Used by the NFS protocol as a way of authorizing the user to access a specific server.
If this parameter is not used, which is usually the case on a PC,
set it to the default value 0.
Note that Group ID must be the same for all mountings on one
robot controller.
Transmission protocol
There is a configured transmission protocol called TCP/IP, but no changes can be
made to it. This is used by the NFS application protocol.
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8 Communication
8.2.3 Examples
8.2.3 Examples
Example configuration
This is an example of how an application protocol can be configured for NFS.
Parameter
Value
Name
my NFS protocol
Type
NFS
Transmission protocol
TCP/IP
Server address
100.100.100.100
Trusted
No
Local path
pc:
Server path
C:\robot_1
User ID
Robot1
Group ID
robot1
Example with FlexPendant
This example shows how to use the FlexPendant to make a backup to the remote
PC. We assume that the configuration is done according to the example
configuration shown above.
1 Tap ABB and select Backup and Restore.
2 Tap on Backup Current System.
3 Save the backup to pc:/Backup/Backup_20031008 (the path on the PC will
be C:\robot_1\Backup\Backup_20031008).
Example with RAPID code
This example shows how to open the file C:\robot_1\files\file1.doc on the remote
PC from a RAPID program on the controller. We assume that the configuration is
done according to the example configuration shown above.
Open "HOME:" \File:= "pc:/files/file1.doc", file;
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8 Communication
8.3.1 Introduction to PC Interface
8.3 PC Interface [616-1]
8.3.1 Introduction to PC Interface
Purpose
PC Interface is used for communication between the controller and a PC.
The option PC Interface is required when connecting to a controller over LAN with
RobotStudio.
With PC Interface, data can be sent to and from a PC. This is, for example, used
for:
•
Backup.
•
Production statistics logging.
•
Operator information presented on a PC.
•
Send command to the robot from a PC operator interface.
•
RobotStudio add-in that performs operations on the controller.
Note
If connecting over the service port, then the functionality is available without the
option PC Interface.
What is included
The RobotWare option PC Interface gives you access to:
•
An Ethernet communication interface, which is used by some ABB software
products.
Basic approach
The general approach for using PC Interface is the same as setting up a PC SDK
client application on a PC. For more information, see http://developercenter.robotstudio.com.
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8 Communication
8.3.2 Send variable from RAPID
8.3.2 Send variable from RAPID
SCWrite instruction
The instruction SCWrite (Superior Computer Write) can be used to send persistent
variables to a client application on a PC. For more information, see Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
The PC must have a client application that can subscribe to the information that
is sent to or from the controller.
Code example
In this example the robot moves objects to a position where they can be treated
by a process that is controlled by the PC. When the object is ready the robot moves
it to its next station.
The program uses SCWrite to inform the PC when the object is in position and
when it has been moved to the next station. It also sends a message to the PC
about how many objects that have been handled.
RAPID module for the sender
VAR rmqslot destination_slot;
VAR user_def
RMQFindSlot destination_slot,"RMQ_Task2";
WHILE TRUE DO
! Wait for next object
WaitDI di1,1;
! Call first routine
move_obj_to_pos();
! Send message to PC that object is in position
user_def = 0;
in_position:=TRUE;
RMQSendMessage destination_slot, in_position \UserDef:=user_def;
! Wait for object to be ready
WaitDI di2,1;
! Call second routine
move_obj_to_next();
! Send message to PC that object is gone
in_position:=FALSE;
RMQSendMessage destination_slot, in_position \UserDef:=user_def;
! Inform PC how many object has been handled
nbr_objects:= nbr_objects+1;
user_def = 1;
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8 Communication
8.3.2 Send variable from RAPID
Continued
RMQSendMessage destination_slot, nbr_objects \UserDef:=user_def;
ENDWHILE
PC SDK for the receiver
public void ReceiveObjectPosition()
{
const string destination_slot = "RMQ_Task2";
IpcQueue queue = Controller.Ipc.CreateQueue(destination_slot,
16, Ipc.MaxMessageSize);
// Until application is closed
while (uiclose)
{
IpcMessage message = new IpcMessage();
IpcReturnType retValue = IpcReturnType.Timeout;
retValue = queue.Receive(1000, message);
if (IpcReturnType.OK == retValue)
{
string receivemessage = message.Data.ToString().ToLower();
// if message.UserDef is 0 means Object position data else
number of objects
if (message.UserDef == 0)
{
if (receivemessage == "true")
{
// Object is in position
}
else
{
// Object is not in position
}
}
else
{
// number of objects in receivemessage
}
}
}
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8 Communication
8.3.3 ABB software using PC Interface
8.3.3 ABB software using PC Interface
Overview
PC Interface provides a communication interface between the controller and a PC
connected to an Ethernet network.
This functionality can be used by different software applications from ABB. Note
that the products mentioned below are examples of applications using PC Interface,
not a complete list.
RobotStudio
RobotStudio is a software product delivered with the robot. Some of the functionality
requires PC Interface when connecting over the LAN port.
The following table shows some examples of RobotStudio functionality that is only
available if you have PC Interface:
Functionality
Description
Event recorder
Error messages and similar events can be shown or logged on the PC.
RAPID editor
Allows on-line editing against the controller from the PC.
For more information, see Operating manual - RobotStudio.
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8 Communication
8.4.1 Introduction to Socket Messaging
8.4 Socket Messaging [616-1]
8.4.1 Introduction to Socket Messaging
Purpose
The purpose of Socket Messaging is to allow a RAPID programmer to transmit
application data between computers, using the TCP/IP network protocol. A socket
represents a general communication channel, independent of the network protocol
being used.
Socket communication is a standard that has its origin in Berkeley Software
Distribution Unix. Besides Unix, it is supported by, for example, Microsoft Windows.
With Socket Messaging, a RAPID program on a robot controller can, for example,
communicate with a C/C++ program on another computer.
What is included
The RobotWare option Socket Messaging gives you access to RAPID data types,
instructions and functions for socket communication between computers.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using Socket Messaging. For a more detailed
example of how this is done, see Code examples on page 280.
1 Create a socket, both on client and server. A robot controller can be either
client or server.
2 Use SocketBind and SocketListen on the server, to prepare it for a
connection request.
3 Order the server to accept incoming socket connection requests.
4 Request socket connection from the client.
5 Send and receive data between client and server.
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8 Communication
8.4.2 Schematic picture of socket communication
8.4.2 Schematic picture of socket communication
Illustration of socket communication
en0600003224
Tip
Do not create and close sockets more than necessary. Keep the socket open
until the communication is completed. The socket is not really closed until a
certain time after SocketClose (due to TCP/IP functionality).
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8 Communication
8.4.3 Technical facts about Socket Messaging
8.4.3 Technical facts about Socket Messaging
Overview
When using RAPID functionality Socket Messaging to communicate with a client
or server that is not a RAPID task, it can be useful to know how some of the
implementation is done.
No string termination
When sending a data message, no string termination sign is sent in the message.
The number of bytes sent is equal to the return value of the function strlen(str)
in the programming language C.
Unintended merge of messages
If sending two messages with no delay between the sendings, the result can be
that the second message is appended to the first. The result is one big message
instead of two messages. To avoid this, use acknowledge messages from the
receiver of the data, if the client/server is just receiving messages.
Non printable characters
If a client that is not a RAPID task needs to receive non printable characters (binary
data) in a string from a RAPID task, this can be done by RAPID as shown in the
example below.
SocketSend socket1 \Str:="\0D\0A";
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID kernel, section
String literals.
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8 Communication
8.4.4 RAPID components
8.4.4 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in Socket Messaging. For more
information, see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
socketdev
A socket device used to communicate with other computers on a network.
socketstatus
Can contain status information from a socketdev variable.
Instructions for client
This is a brief description of each instruction used by the a Socket Messaging
client. For more information, see the respective instruction in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
SocketCreate
Creates a new socket and assigns it to a socketdev variable.
SocketConnect
Makes a connection request to a remote computer. Used by the client
to connect to the server.
SocketSend
Sends data via a socket connection to a remote computer. The data
can be a string or rawbytes variable, or a byte array.
SocketReceive
Receives data and stores it in a string or rawbytes variable, or in
a byte array.
SocketClose
Closes a socket and release all resources.
Tip
Do not use SocketClose directly after SocketSend. Wait for acknowledgement
before closing the socket.
Instructions for server
A Socket Messaging server use the same instructions as the client, except for
SocketConnect. In addition, the server use the following instructions:
Instruction
Description
SocketBind
Binds the socket to a specified port number on the server.
Used by the server to define on which port (on the server) to
listen for a connection.
The IP address defines a physical computer and the port
defines a logical channel to a program on that computer.
SocketListen
Makes the computer act as a server and accept incoming
connections. It will listen for a connection on the port specified
by SocketBind.
SocketAccept
Accepts an incoming connection request. Used by the server
to accept the client’s request.
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8 Communication
8.4.4 RAPID components
Continued
Note
The server application must be started before the client application, so that the
instruction SocketAccept is executed before any client execute
SocketConnect.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in Socket Messaging. For more
information, see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
SocketGetStatus
Returns information about the last instruction performed on the socket
(created, connected, bound, listening, closed).
SocketGetStatus does not detect changes from outside RAPID (such
as a broken connection).
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8 Communication
8.4.5 Code examples
8.4.5 Code examples
Example of client/server communication
This example shows program code for a client and a server, communicating with
each other.
The server will write on the FlexPendant:
Client wrote - Hello server
Client wrote - Shutdown connection
The client will write on its FlexPendant:
Server wrote - Message acknowledged
Server wrote - Shutdown acknowledged
In this example, both the client and the server use RAPID programs. In reality, one
of the programs would often be running on a PC (or similar computer) and be
written in another program language.
Code example for client, contacting server with IP address 192.168.0.2:
! WaitTime to delay start of client.
! Server application should start first.
WaitTime 5;
VAR socketdev socket1;
VAR string received_string;
PROC main()
SocketCreate socket1;
SocketConnect socket1, "192.168.0.2", 1025;
! Communication
SocketSend socket1 \Str:="Hello server";
SocketReceive socket1 \Str:=received_string;
TPWrite "Server wrote - " + received_string;
received_string := "";
! Continue sending and receiving
...
! Shutdown the connection
SocketSend socket1 \Str:="Shutdown connection";
SocketReceive socket1 \Str:=received_string;
TPWrite "Server wrote - " + received_string;
SocketClose socket1;
ENDPROC
Code example for server (with IP address 192.168.0.2):
VAR socketdev temp_socket;
VAR socketdev client_socket;
VAR string received_string;
VAR bool keep_listening := TRUE;
PROC main()
SocketCreate temp_socket;
SocketBind temp_socket, "192.168.0.2", 1025;
SocketListen temp_socket;
WHILE keep_listening DO
! Waiting for a connection request
SocketAccept temp_socket, client_socket;
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8 Communication
8.4.5 Code examples
Continued
! Communication
SocketReceive client_socket \Str:=received_string;
TPWrite "Client wrote - " + received_string;
received_string := "";
SocketSend client_socket \Str:="Message acknowledged";
! Shutdown the connection
SocketReceive client_socket \Str:=received_string;
TPWrite "Client wrote - " + received_string;
SocketSend client_socket \Str:="Shutdown acknowledged";
SocketClose client_socket;
ENDWHILE
SocketClose temp_socket;
ENDPROC
Example of error handler
The following error handlers will take care of power failure or broken connection.
Error handler for client in previous example:
! Error handler to make it possible to handle power fail
ERROR
IF ERRNO=ERR_SOCK_TIMEOUT THEN
RETRY;
ELSEIF ERRNO=ERR_SOCK_CLOSED THEN
SocketClose socket1;
! WaitTime to delay start of client.
! Server application should start first.
WaitTime 10;
SocketCreate socket1;
SocketConnect socket1, "192.168.0.2", 1025;
RETRY;
ELSE
TPWrite "ERRNO = "\Num:=ERRNO;
Stop;
ENDIF
Error handler for server in previous example:
! Error handler for power fail and connection lost
ERROR
IF ERRNO=ERR_SOCK_TIMEOUT THEN
RETRY;
ELSEIF ERRNO=ERR_SOCK_CLOSED THEN
SocketClose temp_socket;
SocketClose client_socket;
SocketCreate temp_socket;
SocketBind temp_socket, "192.168.0.2", 1025;
SocketListen temp_socket;
SocketAccept temp_socket, client_socket;
RETRY;
ELSE
TPWrite "ERRNO = "\Num:=ERRNO;
Stop;
ENDIF
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8 Communication
8.5.1 Introduction to RAPID Message Queue
8.5 RAPID Message Queue [included in 616-1, 623-1]
8.5.1 Introduction to RAPID Message Queue
Purpose
The purpose of RAPID Message Queue is to communicate with another RAPID
task or PC application using PC SDK.
Here are some examples of applications:
•
Sending data between two RAPID tasks.
•
Sending data between a RAPID task and a PC application.
RAPID Message Queue can be defined for interrupt or synchronous mode. Default
setting is interrupt mode.
What is included
The RAPID Message Queue functionality is included in the RobotWare options:
•
PC Interface
•
Multitasking
RAPID Message Queue gives you access to RAPID instructions, functions, and
data types for sending and receiving data.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using RAPID Message Queue. For a more detailed
example of how this is done, see Code examples on page 289.
1 For interrupt mode: The receiver sets up a trap routine that reads a message
and connects an interrupt so the trap routine is called when a new message
appears.
For synchronous mode: The message is handled by a waiting or the next
executed RMQReadWait instruction.
2 The sender looks up the slot identity of the queue in the receiver task.
3 The sender sends the message.
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8 Communication
8.5.2 RAPID Message Queue behavior
8.5.2 RAPID Message Queue behavior
Illustration of communication
The picture below shows various possible senders, receivers, and queues in the
system. Each arrow is an example of a way to post a message to a queue.
PC
PC SDK
Queue
Robot
controller
RAPID
task
Queue
RAPID
task
Queue
en0700000430
Creating a PC SDK client
This manual only describes how to use RAPID Message Queue to make a RAPID
task communicate with other RAPID tasks and PC SDK clients. For information
about how to set up the communication on a PC SDK client, see http://developercenter.robotstudio.com.
What can be sent in a message
The data in a message can be any data type in RAPID, except:
•
non-value
•
semi-value
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8 Communication
8.5.2 RAPID Message Queue behavior
Continued
•
motsetdata
The data in a message can also be an array of a data type.
User defined records are allowed, but both sender and receiver must have identical
declarations of the record.
Tip
To keep backward compatibility, do not change a user defined record once it is
used in a released product. It is better to create a new record. This way, it is
possible to receive messages from both old and new applications.
Queue name
The name of the queue configured for a RAPID task is the same as the name of
the task with the prefix RMQ_, for example RMQ_T_ROB1. This name is used by
the instruction RMQFindSlot.
Queue handling
Messages in queues are handled in the order that they are received. This is known
as FIFO, first in first out. If a message is received while a previous message is
being handled, the new message is placed in the queue. As soon as the first
message handling is completed, the next message in the queue is handled.
Queue modes
The queue mode is defined with the system parameter RMQ Mode. Default behavior
is interrupt mode.
Interrupt mode
In interrupt mode the messages are handled depending on data type. Messages
are only handled for connected data types.
A cyclic interrupt must be set up for each data type that the receiver should handle.
The same trap routine can be called from more than one interrupt, that is for more
than one data type.
Messages of a data type with no connected interrupt will be discarded with only a
warning message in the event log.
Receiving an answer to the instruction RMQSendWait does not result in an interrupt.
No interrupt needs to be set up to receive this answer.
Synchronous mode
In synchronous mode, the task executes an RMQReadWait instruction to receive
a message of any data type. All messages are queued and handled in order they
arrive.
If there is a waiting RMQReadWait instruction, the message is handled immediately.
If there is no waiting RMQReadWait instruction, the next executed RMQReadWait
instruction will handle the message.
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8 Communication
8.5.2 RAPID Message Queue behavior
Continued
Message content
A RAPID Message Queue message consists of a header, containing receiver
identity, and a RAPID message. The RAPID message is a pretty-printed string with
data type name (and array dimensions) followed by the actual data value.
RAPID message examples:
"robtarget;[[930,0,1455],[1,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],
[9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9,9E9]]"
"string;"A message string""
"msgrec;[100,200]"
"bool{2,2};[[TRUE,TRUE],[FALSE,FALSE]]"
RAPID task not executing
It is possible to post messages to a RAPID task queue even though the RAPID
task containing the queue is not currently executing. The interrupt will not be
executed until the RAPID task is executing again.
Message size limitations
Before a message is sent, the maximum size (for the specific data type and
dimension) is calculated. If the size is greater than 5000 bytes, the message will
be discarded and an error will be raised. The sender can get same error if the
receiver is a PC SDK client with a maximum message size smaller than 400 bytes.
Sending a message of a specific data type with specific dimensions will either
always be possible or never possible.
When a message is received (when calling the instruction RMQGetMsgData), the
maximum size (for the specific data type and dimension) is calculated. If the size
is greater than the maximum message size configured for the queue of this task,
the message will be discarded and an error will be logged. Receiving a message
of a specific data type with specific dimensions will either always be possible or
never possible.
Message lost
In interrupt mode, any messages that cannot be received by a RAPID task will be
discarded. The message will be lost and a warning will be placed in the event log.
Example of reasons for discarding a message:
•
The data type that is sent is not supported by the receiving task.
•
The receiving task has not set up an interrupt for the data type that is sent,
and no RMQSendWait instruction is waiting for this data type.
•
The interrupt queue of the receiving task is full
Queue lost
The queue is cleared at power fail.
When the execution context in a RAPID task is lost, for example when the program
pointer is moved to main, the corresponding queue is emptied.
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8 Communication
8.5.2 RAPID Message Queue behavior
Continued
Related information
For more information on queues and messages, see Technical reference
manual - RAPID kernel.
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8 Communication
8.5.3 System parameters
8.5.3 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter in RAPID Message Queue. For more
information, see the respective parameter in Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
Type Task
These parameters belong to the type Task in the topic Controller.
Parameter
Description
RMQ Type
Can have one of the following values:
• None - Disable all communication with RAPID Message
Queue for this RAPID task.
• Internal - Enable the receiving of RAPID Message
Queue messages from other tasks on the controller,
but not from external clients (FlexPendant and PC applications). The task is still able to send messages to
external clients.
• Remote - Enable communication with RAPID Message
Queue for this task, both with other tasks on the controller and external clients (FlexPendant and PC applications).
The default value is None.
RMQ Mode
Defines the mode of the queue.
Can have one of the following values:
• Interrupt - A message can only be received by connecting a trap routine to a specified message type.
• Synchronous - A message can only be received by
executing an RMQReadWait instruction.
Default value is Interrupt.
RMQ Max Message Size
The maximum data size, in bytes, for a message.
The default value is 400.
This value cannot be changed in RobotStudio or on the
FlexPendant. The value can only be changed by editing the
sys.cfg file. The maximum value is 3000.
RMQ Max No Of Messages Maximum number of messages in queue.
Default is 5.
This value cannot be changed in RobotStudio or on the
FlexPendant. The value can only be changed by editing the
sys.cfg file. The maximum value is 10.
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8.5.4 RAPID components
8.5.4 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is a brief description of each instruction, function, and data type in RAPID
Message Queue. For more information, see the respective parameter in Technical
reference manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instruction
Description
RMQFindSlot
Find the slot identity number of the queue configured for a
RAPID task or Robot Application Builder client.
RMQSendMessage
Send data to the queue configured for a RAPID task or Robot
Application Builder client.
IRMQMessage
Order and enable cyclic interrupts for a specific data type.
RMQGetMessage
Get the first message from the queue of this task. Can only
be used if RMQ Mode is defined as Interrupt.
RMQGetMsgHeader
Get the header part from a message.
RMQGetMsgData
Get the data part from a message.
RMQSendWait
Send a message and wait for the answer. Can only be used
if RMQ Mode is defined as Interrupt.
RMQReadWait
Wait for a message. Can only be used if RMQ Mode is defined
as Synchronous.
RMQEmptyQueue
Empty the queue.
Function
Description
RMQGetSlotName
Get the name of the queue configured for a RAPID task or
Robot Application Builder client, given a slot identity number,
i.e. given a rmqslot.
Data type
Description
rmqslot
Slot identity of a RAPID task or Robot Application Builder
client.
rmqmessage
A message used to store data in when communicating with
RAPID Message Queue. It contains information about what
type of data is sent, the slot identity of the sender, and the
actual data.
Note: rmqmessage is a large data type. Declaring too many
variables of this data type can lead to memory problems.
Reuse the same rmqmessage variables as much as possible.
rmqheader
The rmqheader describes the message and can be read by
the RAPID program.
Functions
Data types
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8 Communication
8.5.5 Code examples
8.5.5 Code examples
Example with RMQSendMessage and RMQGetMessage
This is an example where the sender creates data (x and y value) and sends it to
another task. The receiving task gets the message and extract the data to the
variable named data.
Sender
MODULE SenderMod
RECORD msgrec
num x;
num y;
ENDRECORD
PROC main()
VAR rmqslot destinationSlot;
VAR msgrec data;
VAR robtarget p_current;
! Connect to queue in other task
RMQFindSlot destinationSlot "RMQ_OtherTask";
! Perform cycle
WHILE TRUE DO
...
p_current := CRobT(\Tool:=tool1 \WObj:=wobj0);
data.x := p_current.trans.x;
data.y := p_current.trans.y;
! Send message
RMQSendMessage destinationSlot, data;
...
ENDWHILE
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_RMQ_INVALID THEN
WaitTime 1;
! Reconnect to queue in other task
RMQFindSlot destinationSlot "RMQ_OtherTask";
! Avoid execution stop due to retry count exceed
ResetRetryCount;
RETRY;
ELSIF ERRNO = ERR_RMQ_FULL THEN
WaitTime 1;
! Avoid execution stop due to retry count exceed
ResetRetryCount;
RETRY;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
PC SDK client
public void RMQReceiveRecord()
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8 Communication
8.5.5 Code examples
Continued
{
const string destination_slot = "RMQ_OtherTask";
IpcQueue queue = Controller.Ipc.CreateQueue(destination_slot,
16, Ipc.MaxMessageSize);
// Till application is closed
while (uiclose)
{
IpcMessage message = new IpcMessage();
IpcReturnType retValue = IpcReturnType.Timeout;
retValue = queue.Receive(1000, message);
if (IpcReturnType.OK == retValue)
{
// PCSDK App will receive following record
// RECORD msgrec
// num x;
// num y;
// ENDRECORD
// num data type in RAPID is 3 bytes long, hence will receive
6 bytes for x and y
// first byte do left shift by 16,
// second byte do left shift by 8 and OR all three byte to
get x
// do similar for y
Int32 x = (message.Data[0] << 16) | (message.Data[1] << 8)
| message.Data[2];
Int32 y = (message.Data[3] << 16) | (message.Data[4] << 8)
| message.Data[5];
// Display x and y
}
}
if (Controller.Ipc.Exists(destination_slot))
Controller.Ipc.DeleteQueue(Controller.Ipc.GetQueueId(destination_slot));
}
Example with RMQSendWait
This is an example of a RAPID program that sends a message and wait for an
answer before execution continues by getting the answer message.
MODULE SendAndReceiveMod
VAR rmqslot destinationSlot;
VAR rmqmessage recmsg;
VAR string send_data := "How many units should be produced?";
VAR num receive_data;
PROC main()
! Connect to queue in other task
RMQFindSlot destinationSlot "RMQ_OtherTask";
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8 Communication
8.5.5 Code examples
Continued
! Send message and wait for the answer
RMQSendWait destinationSlot, send_data, recmsg, receive_data
\Timeout:=30;
! Handle the received data
RMQGetMsgData recmsg, receive_data;
TPWrite "Units to produce: " \Num:=receive_data;
ERROR
IF ERRNO = ERR_RMQ_INVALID THEN
WaitTime 1;
! Reconnect to queue in other task
RMQFindSlot destinationSlot "RMQ_OtherTask";
! Avoid execution stop due to retry count exceed
ResetRetryCount;
RETRY;
ELSIF ERRNO = ERR_RMQ_FULL THEN
WaitTime 1;
! Avoid execution stop due to retry count exceed
ResetRetryCount;
RETRY;
ELSEIF ERRNO = ERR_RMQ_TIMEOUT THEN
! Avoid execution stop due to retry count exceed
ResetRetyCount;
RETRY;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Example with RMQReceiveSend
public void RMQReceiveSend()
{
const string destination_slot = "RMQ_OtherTask";
IpcQueue queue = Controller.Ipc.CreateQueue(destination_slot,
16, Ipc.MaxMessageSize);
// Till application is closed
while (uiclose)
{
IpcMessage message = new IpcMessage();
IpcReturnType retValue = IpcReturnType.Timeout;
retValue = queue.Receive(1000, message);
if (IpcReturnType.OK == retValue)
{
// Received message "How many units should be produced?"
if (message.ToString() == "How many units should be
produced?")
{
Int32 UnitsToProduce = 100;
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8.5.5 Code examples
Continued
// num data type in Rapid is 3 bytes long, hence will
send 3 bytes to Rapid Module
byte[] @bytes = new byte[3];
bytes[0] = (byte)(UnitsToProduce >> 16);
bytes[1] = (byte)(UnitsToProduce >> 8);
bytes[2] = (byte)UnitsToProduce;
// Send UnitsToProduce to Rapid Module
message.SetData(@bytes);
queue.Send(message);
}
}
}
if (Controller.Ipc.Exists(destination_slot))
Controller.Ipc.DeleteQueue(Controller.Ipc.GetQueueId(destination_slot));
}
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9 Engineering tools
9.1.1 Introduction to Multitasking
9 Engineering tools
9.1 Multitasking [623-1]
9.1.1 Introduction to Multitasking
Purpose
The purpose of the option Multitasking is to be able to execute more than one
program at a time.
Examples of applications to run in parallel with the main program:
•
Continuous supervision of signals, even if the main program has stopped.
This can in some cases take over the job of a PLC. However, the response
time will not match that of a PLC.
•
Operator input from the FlexPendant while the robot is working.
•
Control and activation/deactivation of external equipment.
Basic description
Up to 20 tasks can be run at the same time.
Each task consists of one program (with several program modules) and several
system modules. The modules are local in the respective task.
en0300000517
Variables and constants are local in the respective task, but persistents are not.
Every task has its own trap handling and event routines are triggered only on its
own task system states.
What is included
The RobotWare option Multitasking gives you access to:
•
The possibility to run up to 20 programs in parallel (one per task).
•
The system parameters: The type Task and all its parameters.
•
The data types: taskid, syncident, and tasks.
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9.1.1 Introduction to Multitasking
Continued
•
The instruction: WaitSyncTask.
•
The functions: TestAndSet, TaskRunMec, and TaskRunRob.
Note
TestAndSet, TaskRunMec, and TaskRunRob can be used without the option
Multitasking, but they are much more useful together with Multitasking.
Basic approach
This is the basic approach for setting up Multitasking. For more information, see
Debug strategies for setting up tasks on page 298, and RAPID components on
page 297.
1 Define the tasks you need.
2 Write RAPID code for each task.
3 Specify which modules to load in each task.
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9.1.2 System parameters
9.1.2 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter in Multitasking. For more information,
see the respective parameter in Technical reference manual - System parameters.
Task
These parameters belongs to the type Task in the topic Controller.
Parameter
Description
Task
The name of the task.
Note that the name of the task must be unique. This means that it cannot
have the same name as the mechanical unit, and no variable in the
RAPID program can have the same name.
Note that editing the task entry in the configuration editor and changing
the task name will remove the old task and add a new one. This means
that any program or module in the task will disappear after a restart with
these kind of changes.
Task in foreground
Used to set priorities between tasks.
Task in foreground contains the name of the task that should run in the
foreground of this task. This means that the program of the task, for which
the parameter is set, will only execute if the foreground task program is
idle.
If Task in foreground is set to empty string for a task, it runs at the highest
level.
Type
Controls the start/stop and system restart behavior:
• NORMAL - The task program is manually started and stopped (e.g.
from the FlexPendant). The task stops at emergency stop.
• STATIC - At a restart the task program continues from where the
it was. The task program is normally not stopped by the FlexPendant or by emergency stop.
• SEMISTATIC - The task program restarts from the beginning at
restart. The task program is normally not stopped by the FlexPendant or by emergency stop.
A task that controls a mechanical unit must be of the type NORMAL.
Main entry
The name of the start routine for the task program.
Check unresolved references
This parameter should be set to NO if the system is to accept unsolved
references in the program while linking a module, otherwise set to YES.
TrustLevel
TrustLevel defines the system behavior when a STATIC or SEMISTATIC
task program is stopped (e.g. due to error):
• SysFail - If the program of this task stops, the system will be set
to SYS_FAIL. This will cause the programs of all NORMAL tasks
to stop (STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks will continue execution
if possible). No jogging or program start can be made. A restart is
required.
• SysHalt -If the program of this task stops, the programs of all
NORMAL tasks will be stopped. If "motors on" is set, jogging is
possible, but not program start. A restart is required.
• SysStop - If the program of this task stops, the programs of all
NORMAL tasks will be stopped but are restartable. Jogging is also
possible.
• NoSafety - Only the program of this task will stop.
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9.1.2 System parameters
Continued
296
Parameter
Description
MotionTask
Indicates whether the task program can control robot movement with
RAPID move instructions.
Only one task can have MotionTask set to YES unless the option MultiMove is used.
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9 Engineering tools
9.1.3 RAPID components
9.1.3 RAPID components
Data types
This is a brief description of each data type in Multitasking. For more information,
see the respective data type in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
taskid
taskid identify available tasks in the system.
This identity is defined by the system parameter Task, and cannot be
defined in the RAPID program. However, the data type taskid can be
used as a parameter when declaring a routine.
For code example, see taskid on page 315.
syncident
syncident is used to identify the waiting point in the program, when
using the instruction WaitSyncTask.
The name of the syncident variable must be the same in all task programs.
For code example, see WaitSyncTask example on page 309.
tasks
A variable of the data type tasks contains names of the tasks that will
be synchronized by the instruction WaitSyncTask.
For code example, see WaitSyncTask example on page 309.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Multitasking. For more information,
see the respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
WaitSyncTask
WaitSyncTask is used to synchronize several task programs at a special
point in the program.
A WaitSyncTask instruction will delay program execution and wait for
the other task programs. When all task programs have reached the point,
the respective program will continue its execution.
For code example, seeWaitSyncTask example on page 309.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in Multitasking. For more information,
see the respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
TestAndSet
TestAndSet is used, together with a boolean flag, to ensure that only one
task program at the time use a specific RAPID code area or system resource.
For code example, seeExample with flag and TestAndSet on page 313.
TaskRunMec
Check if the task program controls any mechanical unit (robot or other
unit).
For code example, seeTest if task controls mechanical unit on page 314.
TaskRunRob
Check if the task program controls any robot with TCP.
For code example, seeTest if task controls mechanical unit on page 314.
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9.1.4.1 Debug strategies for setting up tasks
9.1.4 Task configuration
9.1.4.1 Debug strategies for setting up tasks
Tip
The instructions below show the safe way to make updates. By setting the
parameter Type to NORMAL and TrustLevel to NoSafety the task program will
be easier to test and any error that may occur will be easier to correct.
If you are certain that the code you introduce is correct, you can skip changing
values for Type and TrustLevel. If you do not change any system parameters
you may not have to do any restart mode.
Setting up tasks
Follow this instruction when adding a new task to your system.
Action
1
Define the new task by adding an instance of the system parameter type Task, in the
topic Controller.
2
Set the parameter Type to NORMAL.
This will make it easier to create and test the modules in the task.
3
Create the modules that should be in the task, either from the FlexPendant or offline,
and save them.
4
In the system parameters for topic Controller and type Automatic loading of Modules,
specify all modules that should be preloaded to the new task.
For NORMAL tasks the modules can be loaded later, but STATIC or SEMISTATIC
tasks the modules must be preloaded.
5
Stop the controller.
6
In Motors on state, test and debug the modules until the functionality is satisfactory.
7
Change the parameters Type and TrustLevel to desired values (e.g. SEMISTATIC and
SysFail).
8
Restart the system.
Make changes to task program
Follow this instruction when editing a program in an existing task with Type set to
STATIC or SEMISTATIC.
Action
1
Change the system parameter TrustLevel to NoSafety.
This will make it possible to change and test the modules in the task.
2
If the system parameter needed to be changed, restart the controller.
3
On the FlexPendant, start the Control Panel from the ABB menu. Then tap FlexPendant
and Task Panel Settings. Select All tasks and tap OK.
4
In the Quickset menu, select which tasks to start and stop manually. See Select which
tasks to start with START button on page 303.
5
Press the STOP button to stop the selected STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks.
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9.1.4.1 Debug strategies for setting up tasks
Continued
Action
6
Start the Program Editor.
The STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks are now also editable.
7
Change, test, and save the modules.
8
Start the Control Panel again and open the Task Panel Settings. Select Only Normal
tasks and tap OK.
9
Change the parameter TrustLevel back to desired value (e.g. SysFail).
10 Restart the system.
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9.1.4.2 Priorities
9.1.4.2 Priorities
How priorities work
The default behavior is that all task programs run at the same priority, in a Round
Robin way.
It is possible to change the priority of one task by setting it in the background of
another task. Then the program of the background task will only execute when the
foreground task program is idle, waiting for an event, for example. Another situation
when the background task program will execute is when the foreground task
program has executed a move instruction, as the foreground task will then have
to wait until the robot has moved .
To set a task in the background of another task, use the parameter Task in
foreground.
Example of priorities
6 tasks are used, with Task in foreground set as shown in the table below.
Task name
Task in foreground
MAIN
BACK1
MAIN
BACK2
BACK1
BACK3
BACK1
SUP1
SUP2
SUP1
The priority structure will then look like this:
en0300000451
The programs of the tasks MAIN and SUP1 will take turns in executing an instruction
each (Case 1 in figure below).
If the MAIN task program is idle, the programs of BACK1 and SUP1 will take turns
in executing an instruction each (Case 2 in figure below).
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9.1.4.2 Priorities
Continued
If both MAIN and BACK1 task programs are idle, the programs of BACK2, BACK3,
and SUP1 will take turns in executing an instruction each (Case 3 in figure below).
en0300000479
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9.1.4.3 Task Panel Settings
9.1.4.3 Task Panel Settings
Purpose of Task Panel Settings
The default behavior is that only NORMAL tasks are started and stopped with the
START and STOP buttons. In the Task Selection Panel you can select which
NORMAL tasks to start and stop, see Select which tasks to start with START button
on page 303.
In the Task Panel Settings the default behavior can be altered so that STATIC and
SEMISTATIC tasks also can be stepped, started and stopped with the START and
STOP buttons. However, these tasks can only be started and stopped if they have
TrustLevel set to NoSafety and they can only be started and stopped in manual
mode.
Allow selection of STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks in tasks panel
The following procedure details how to make STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks
selectable in the tasks panel.
Action
302
1
On the ABB menu, tap Control Panel, then FlexPendant and then Task Panel Settings.
2
Select All tasks (Normal/Static/Semistatic) with trustlevel nosafety and tap OK.
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9 Engineering tools
9.1.4.4 Select which tasks to start with START button
9.1.4.4 Select which tasks to start with START button
Background
The default behavior is that the programs of all NORMAL tasks are started
simultaneously when pressing the START button. However, not all NORMAL task
programs need to run at the same time. It is possible to select which of the NORMAL
task programs will start when pressing the START button.
If All Tasks is selected in the Task Panel Settings, the programs of all STATIC
and SEMISTATIC tasks with TrustLevel set to NoSafety can be selected to be
started with the START button, forward stepped with the FWD button, backward
stepped with the BWD button, and stopped with the STOP button.
If Task Panel Settings is set to Only Normal tasks, all STATIC and SEMISTATIC
tasks are greyed out and cannot be selected in the task panel, Quickset menu (see
Operating manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant, section Quickset menu). All STATIC
and SEMISTATIC tasks will be started if the start button is pressed.
If Task Panel Settings is set to All tasks, STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks with
TrustLevelNoSafety can be selected in the task panel. All selected STATIC and
SEMISTATIC tasks can be stopped, stepped, and started. .
A STATIC or SEMISTATIC task, not selected in the task panel, can still be executing.
This is not possible for a NORMAL task.
Run Mode is always continuous for STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks. The Run Mode
setting in the Quickset menu is only applicable for NORMAL tasks (see Operating
manual - IRC5 with FlexPendant, section Quickset menu).
This will only work in manual mode, no STATIC or SEMISTATIC task can be started,
stepped, or stopped in auto mode.
Task Panel Settings
To start the Task Panel Settings, tap the ABB menu, and then Control Panel,
FlexPendant and Task Panel Settings.
Selecting tasks
Use this procedure to select which of the tasks are to be started with the START
button.
Action
1
Set the controller to manual mode.
2
On the FlexPendant, tap the QuickSet button and then the tasks panel button to show
all tasks.
If Task Panel Settings is set to Only Normal tasks, all STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks
are greyed out and cannot be selected.
If Task Panel Settings is set to All tasks, STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks with TrustLevelNoSafety can be selected, while STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks with TrustLevel
set to other values are grayed out and cannot be selected.
3
Select the check boxes for the tasks whose program should be started by the START
button.
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9.1.4.4 Select which tasks to start with START button
Continued
Resetting debug settings in manual mode
Use this procedure to resume normal execution manual mode.
Action
1
Select Only Normal tasks in the Task Panel Settings.
2
Press START button.
All STATIC and SEMISTATIC will run continuously and not be stopped by the STOP
button or emergency stop.
Switching to auto mode
When switching to auto mode, all STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks will be deselected
from the tasks panel. The stopped STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks will start next
time any of the START, FWD or BWD button are pressed. These tasks will then
run continuously forward and not be stopped by the STOP button or emergency
stop.
What happens with NORMAL tasks that has been deselected in the tasks panel
depends on the system parameter Reset in type Auto Condition Reset in topic
Controller. If Reset is set to Yes, all NORMAL tasks will be selected in the tasks
panel and be started with the START button. If Reset is set to No, only those
NORMAL tasks selected in tasks panel will be started by the START button.
Note
Note that changing the value of the system parameter Reset will affect all the
debug resettings (for example speed override and simulated I/O). For more
information, see Technical reference manual - System parameters, section Auto
Condition Reset.
Restarting the controller
If the controller is restarted, all NORMAL tasks will keep their status while all
STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks will be deselected from the tasks panel. As the
controller starts up all STATIC and SEMISTATIC tasks will be started and then run
continuously.
Deselect task in synchronized mode
If a task is in a synchronized mode, that is program pointer between SyncMoveOn
and SyncMoveOff, the task can be deselected but not reselected. The task cannot
be selected until the synchronization is terminated. If the execution continues, the
synchronization will eventually be terminated for the other tasks, but not for the
deselected task. The synchronization can be terminated for this task by moving
the program pointer to main or to a routine.
If the system parameter Reset is set to Yes, any attempt to change to Auto mode
will fail while a deselected task is in synchronized mode. Changing to Auto mode
should make all NORMAL tasks selected, and when this is not possible it is not
possible to change to Auto mode.
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9.1.5.1 Persistent variables
9.1.5 Communication between tasks
9.1.5.1 Persistent variables
About persistent variables
To share data between tasks, use persistent variables.
A persistent variable is global in all tasks where it is declared. The persistent
variable must be declared as the same type and size (array dimension) in all tasks.
Otherwise a runtime error will occur.
It is sufficient to specify an initial value for the persistent variable in one task. If
initial values are specified in several tasks, only the initial value of the first module
to load will be used.
Tip
When a program is saved, the current value of a persistent variable will be used
as initial value in the future. If this is not desired, reset the persistent variable
directly after the communication.
Example with persistent variable
In this example the persistent variables startsync and stringtosend are
accessed by both tasks, and can therefore be used for communication between
the task programs.
Main task program:
MODULE module1
PERS bool startsync:=FALSE;
PERS string stringtosend:="";
PROC main()
stringtosend:="this is a test";
startsync:= TRUE
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Background task program:
MODULE module2
PERS bool startsync;
PERS string stringtosend;
PROC main()
WaitUntil startsync;
IF stringtosend = "this is a test" THEN
...
ENDIF
!reset persistent variables
startsync:=FALSE;
stringtosend:="";
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.1.5.1 Persistent variables
Continued
Module for common data
When using persistent variables in several tasks, there should be declarations in
all the tasks. The best way to do this, to avoid type errors or forgetting a declaration
somewhere, is to declare all common variables in a system module. The system
module can then be loaded into all tasks that require the variables.
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9.1.5.2 Waiting for other tasks
9.1.5.2 Waiting for other tasks
Two techniques
Some applications have task programs that execute independently of other tasks,
but often task programs need to know what other tasks are doing.
A task program can be made to wait for another task program. This is accomplished
either by setting a persistent variable that the other task program can poll, or by
setting a signal that the other task program can connect to an interrupt.
Polling
This is the easiest way to make a task program wait for another, but the performance
will be the slowest. Persistent variables are used together with the instructions
WaitUntil or WHILE.
If the instruction WaitUntil is used, it will poll internally every 100 ms.
CAUTION
Do not poll more frequently than every 100 ms. A loop that polls without a wait
instruction can cause overload, resulting in lost contact with the FlexPendant.
Polling example
Main task program:
MODULE module1
PERS bool startsync:=FALSE;
PROC main()
startsync:= TRUE;
...
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Background task program:
MODULE module2
PERS bool startsync:=FALSE;
PROC main()
WaitUntil startsync;
! This is the point where the execution
! continues after startsync is set to TRUE
...
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Interrupt
By setting a signal in one task program and using an interrupt in another task
program, quick response is obtained without the work load caused by polling.
The drawback is that the code executed after the interrupt must be placed in a trap
routine.
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9.1.5.2 Waiting for other tasks
Continued
Interrupt example
Main task program:
MODULE module1
PROC main()
SetDO do1,1;
...
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Background task program:
MODULE module2
VAR intnum intno1;
PROC main()
CONNECT intno1 WITH wait_trap;
ISignalDO do1, 1, intno1;
WHILE TRUE DO
WaitTime 10;
ENDWHILE
ENDPROC
TRAP wait_trap
! This is the point where the execution
! continues after do1 is set in main task
...
IDelete intno1;
ENDTRAP
ENDMODULE
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9.1.5.3 Synchronizing between tasks
9.1.5.3 Synchronizing between tasks
Synchronizing using WaitSyncTask
Synchronization is useful when task programs are depending on each other. No
task program will continue beyond a synchronization point in the program code
until all task programs have reached that point in the respective program code.
The instruction WaitSyncTask is used to synchronize task programs. No task
program will continue its execution until all task programs have reached the same
WaitSyncTask instruction.
WaitSyncTask example
In this example, the background task program calculates the next object's position
while the main task program handles the robots work with the current object.
The background task program may have to wait for operator input or I/O signals,
but the main task program will not continue with the next object until the new
position is calculated. Likewise, the background task program must not start the
next calculation until the main task program is done with one object and ready to
receive the new value.
Main task program:
MODULE module1
PERS pos object_position:=[0,0,0];
PERS tasks task_list{2} := [["MAIN"], ["BACK1"]];
VAR syncident sync1;
PROC main()
VAR pos position;
WHILE TRUE DO
!Wait for calculation of next object_position
WaitSyncTask sync1, task_list;
position:=object_position;
!Call routine to handle object
handle_object(position);
ENDWHILE
ENDPROC
PROC handle_object(pos position)
...
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Background task program:
MODULE module2
PERS pos object_position:=[0,0,0];
PERS tasks task_list{2} := [["MAIN"], ["BACK1"]];
VAR syncident sync1;
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9.1.5.3 Synchronizing between tasks
Continued
PROC main()
WHILE TRUE DO
!Call routine to calculate object_position
calculate_position;
!Wait for handling of current object
WaitSyncTask sync1, task_list;
ENDWHILE
ENDPROC
PROC calculate_position()
...
object_position:= ...
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.1.5.4 Using a dispatcher
9.1.5.4 Using a dispatcher
What is a dispatcher?
A digital signal can be used to indicate when another task should do something.
However, it cannot contain information about what to do.
Instead of using one signal for each routine, a dispatcher can be used to determine
which routine to call. A dispatcher can be a persistent string variable containing
the name of the routine to execute in another task.
Dispatcher example
In this example, the main task program calls routines in the background task by
setting routine_string to the routine name and then setting do5 to 1. In this
way, the main task program initialize that the background task program should
execute the routine clean_gun first and then routine1.
Main task program:
MODULE module1
PERS string routine_string:="";
PROC main()
!Call clean_gun in background task
routine_string:="clean_gun";
SetDO do5,1;
WaitDO do5,0;
!Call routine1 in background task
routine_string:="routine1";
SetDO do5,1;
WaitDO do5,0;
...
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
Background task program:
MODULE module2
PERS string routine_string:="";
PROC main()
WaitDO do5,1;
%routine_string%;
SetDO do5,0;
ENDPROC
PROC clean_gun()
...
ENDPROC
PROC routine1()
...
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9.1.5.4 Using a dispatcher
Continued
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.1.6.1 Share resource between tasks
9.1.6 Other programming issues
9.1.6.1 Share resource between tasks
Flag indicating occupied resource
System resources, such as FlexPendant, file system and I/O signals, are available
from all tasks. However, if several task programs use the same resource, make
sure that they take turns using the resource, rather than using it at the same time.
To avoid having two task programs using the same resource at the same time, use
a flag to indicate that the resource is already in use. A boolean variable can be set
to true while the task program uses the resource.
To facilitate this handling, the instruction TestAndSet is used. It will first test the
flag. If the flag is false, it will set the flag to true and return true. Otherwise, it will
return false.
Example with flag and TestAndSet
In this example, two task programs try to write three lines each to the FlexPendant.
If no flag is used, there is a risk that these lines are mixed with each other. By using
a flag, the task program that first execute the TestAndSet instruction will write all
three lines first. The other task program will wait until the flag is set to false and
then write all its lines.
Main task program:
PERS bool tproutine_inuse := FALSE;
...
WaitUntil TestAndSet(tproutine_inuse);
TPWrite "First line from MAIN";
TPWrite "Second line from MAIN";
TPWrite "Third line from MAIN";
tproutine_inuse := FALSE;
Background task program:
PERS bool tproutine_inuse := FALSE;
...
WaitUntil TestAndSet(tproutine_inuse);
TPWrite "First line from BACK1";
TPWrite "Second line from BACK1";
TPWrite "Third line from BACK1";
tproutine_inuse := FALSE;
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9.1.6.2 Test if task controls mechanical unit
9.1.6.2 Test if task controls mechanical unit
Two functions for inquiring
There are functions for checking if the task program has control of any mechanical
unit, TaskRunMec, or of a robot, TaskRunRob.
TaskRunMec will return true if the task program controls a robot or other mechanical
unit. TaskRunRob will only return true if the task program controls a robot with
TCP.
TaskRunMec and TaskRunRob are useful when using MultiMove. With MultiMove
you can have several tasks controlling mechanical units, see Application
manual - MultiMove.
Note
For a task to have control of a robot, the parameter Type must be set to NORMAL
and MotionTask must be set to YES. See System parameters on page 295.
Example with TaskRunMec and TaskRunRob
In this example, the maximum speed for external equipment is set. If the task
program controls a robot, the maximum speed for external equipment is set to the
same value as the maximum speed for the robot. If the task program controls
external equipment but no robot, the maximum speed is set to 5000 mm/s.
IF TaskRunMec() THEN
IF TaskRunRob() THEN
!If task controls a robot
MaxExtSpeed := MaxRobSpeed();
ELSE
!If task controls other mech unit than robot
MaxExtSpeed := 5000;
ENDIF
ENDIF
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9.1.6.3 taskid
9.1.6.3 taskid
taskid syntax
A task always has a predefined variable of type taskid that consists of the name
of the task and the postfix "Id". For example, the variable name of the MAIN task
is MAINId.
Code example
In this example, the module PART_A is saved in the task BACK1, even though the
Save instruction is executed in another task.
BACK1Id is a variable of type taskid that is automatically declared by the system.
Save \TaskRef:=BACK1Id, "PART_A"
\FilePath:="HOME:/DOORDIR/PART_A.MOD";
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9.1.6.4 Avoid heavy loops
9.1.6.4 Avoid heavy loops
Background tasks loop continuously
A task program is normally executed continuously. This means that a background
task program is in effect an eternal loop. If this program does not have any waiting
instruction, the background task may use too much computer power and make the
controller unable to handle the other tasks.
Example
MODULE background_module
PROC main()
WaitTime 1;
IF di1=1 THEN
...
ENDIF
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
If there was no wait instruction in this example and di1 was 0, then this background
task would use up the computer power with a loop doing nothing.
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9.2.1 Introduction to Sensor Interface
9.2 Sensor Interface [628-1]
9.2.1 Introduction to Sensor Interface
Purpose
The option Sensor Interface is used for communication with external sensors via
a serial channel.
The serial channel may be accessed using a package of RAPID instructions that
provide the ability to read and write sensor data.
An interrupt feature allows subscriptions on changes in sensor data.
Tip
The communication provided by Sensor Interface is integrated in arc welding
instructions for seam tracking and adaptive control of process parameters. These
instructions handle communication and corrections for you, whereas with Sensor
Interface you handle this yourself. For more information, see Application
manual - Arc and Arc Sensor and Application manual - Continuous Application
Platform.
What is included
The RobotWare option Sensor Interface gives you access to:
•
Instruction used to connect to a sensor device: SenDevice.
•
Instruction used to set up interrupt, based on input from the serial sensor
interface:IVarValue.
•
Instructions used to read and write to and from a device connected to the
serial sensor interface:ReadBlock, WriteBlock and WriteVar.
•
Function for reading from a device connected to the serial sensor interface:
ReadVar.
Basic approach
This is the basic approach for using Sensor Interface.
1 Configure the sensor. See Configuring sensors over serial channels on
page 319.
2 Use interrupts in the RAPID code to make adjustments according to the input
from the sensor. For an example, see Interrupt welding to adjust settings on
page 324.
Limitations
Interrupts with IVarValue is only possible to use with the instructions ArcL, ArcC,
CapL, and CapC. The switch Track must be used. That is, the controller must be
equipped with either RobotWare Arc or Continuous Application Platform together
with Optical Tracking, or with the option Weldguide.
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9.2.2.1 About the sensors
9.2.2 Configuring sensors
9.2.2.1 About the sensors
Supported sensors
Sensor Interface supports:
318
•
Sensors connected via serial channels using the RTP1 protocol. For
configuration, see Configuring sensors over serial channels on page 319.
•
Sensors connected to Ethernet using the RoboCom Light protocol from
Servo-Robot Inc or LTAPP protocol from ABB. For configuration, see
Configuring sensors over Ethernet channel on page 320.
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9.2.2.2 Configuring sensors over serial channels
9.2.2.2 Configuring sensors over serial channels
Overview
Sensor Interface communicates with a maximum of two sensors over serial channels
using the RTP1 protocol.
System parameters
This is a brief description of the parameters used when configuring a sensor. For
more information about the parameters, see Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
These parameters belong to the type Transmission Protocol in the topic
Communication.
Parameter
Description
Name
The name of the transmission protocol.
For a sensor the name must end with ":". For example "laser1:" or
"swg:".
Type
The type of transmission protocol.
For a sensor using serial channel, it has to be "RTP1".
Serial Port
The name of the serial port that will be used for the sensor. This refers
to the parameter Name in the type Serial Port.
For information on how to configure a serial port, see Technical reference manual - System parameters.
Configuration example
This is an example of how a transmission protocol can be configured for a sensor.
We assume that there already is a serial port configured with the name "COM1".
Name
Type
Serial Port
laser1:
RTP1
COM1
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9.2.2.3 Configuring sensors over Ethernet channel
9.2.2.3 Configuring sensors over Ethernet channel
Overview
Sensor Interface communicates with a maximum of six sensors over Ethernet
channel using the RoboCom Light protocol version E04 (from Servo-Robot Inc) or
the LTAPP protocol (from ABB). RoboCom Light is an XML based protocol using
TCP/IP.
The sensor acts as a server, the robot controller acts as a client. I.e. the robot
controller initiates the connection to the sensor.
RoboCom Light expects TCP port 6344 on the external sensor side, and LTAPPTCP
expects TCP port 5020.
System parameters
This is a brief description of the parameters used when configuring a sensor. For
more information about the parameters, see Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
These parameters belong to the type Transmission Protocol in the topic
Communication.
Parameter
Description
Name
The name of the transmission protocol.
For a sensor the name must end with ":". For example "laser1:" or
"swg:".
Type
The type of transmission protocol.
For RoboCom Light the protocol type SOCKDEV has to be configured,
and for LTAPPTCP it is LTAPPTCP.
Serial Port
The name of the serial port that will be used for the sensor. This refers
to the parameter Name in the type Serial Port.
For information on how to configure a serial port, see Technical reference manual - System parameters.
For IP based transmission protocols (i.e. Type has value TCP/IP,
SOCKDEV, LTAPPTCP or UDPUC), Serial Port is not used and has
the value N/A.
Remote Address
The IP address of the sensor. This refers to the type Remote Address.
For information on how to configure Remote Address, see Technical
reference manual - System parameters.
Configuration examples
These are examples of how a transmission protocol can be configured for a sensor.
320
Name
Type
Serial Port
Remote Address
laser2:
SOCKDEV
N/A
192.168.125.101
laser3:
LTAPPTCP
N/A
192.168.125.102
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9.2.3.1 RAPID components
9.2.3 RAPID
9.2.3.1 RAPID components
Data types
There are no data types for Sensor Interface.
Instructions
This is a brief description of each instruction in Sensor Interface. For more
information, see respective instruction in Technical reference manual - RAPID
Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
SenDevice
SenDevice is used, to connect to a physical sensor device.
IVarValue
IVarVal (Interrupt Variable Value) is used to order and enable an interrupt
when the value of a variable accessed via the serial sensor interface is
changed.
ReadBlock
ReadBlock is used to read a block of data from a device connected to the
serial sensor interface. The data is stored in a file.
ReadBlock can only be used with a serial channel connected sensor (not
Ethernet connected sensor.)
WriteBlock
WriteBlock is used to write a block of data to a device connected to the
serial sensor interface. The data is fetched from a file.
WriteBlock can only be used with a serial channel connected sensor (not
Ethernet connected sensor.)
WriteVar
WriteVar is used to write a variable to a device connected to the serial
sensor interface.
Functions
This is a brief description of each function in Sensor Interface. For more information,
see respective function in Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Function
Description
ReadVar
ReadVar is used to read a variable from a device connected to the serial
sensor interface.
Modules
The option Sensor Interface includes one system module, LTAPP__Variables. This
module contains the variable numbers defined in the protocol LTAPP. It is
automatically loaded as SHARED and makes the variables (CONST num) available
in all RAPID tasks.
Note! A copy of the module is placed in the robot system directory HOME/LTC,
but the copy is NOT the loaded module.
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9.2.3.1 RAPID components
Continued
Constants
Name
Number
Read/write Description
LTAPP__VERSION
1
R
A value that identifies the sensor software version.
LTAPP__RESET
3
W
Reset the sensor to the initial state,
regardless of what state it is currently
in.
LTAPP__PING
4
W
Sensor returns a response indicating
its status.
LTAPP__CAMCHECK
5
W
Start camera check of the sensor. If
this cannot be done within the time
limit specified in the link protocol a Not
ready yet status will be returned.
LTAPP__POWER_UP
6
RW
Turn power on (1) or off (0) for the
sensor and initialize the filters. (Power
on can take several seconds!)
LTAPP__LASER_OFF
7
RW
Switch the laser beam off (1) or on (0)
and measure.
LTAPP__X
8
R
Measured X value, unsigned word. The
units are determined by the variable
Unit.
LTAPP__Y
9
R
Measured Y value, unsigned word. The
units are determined by the variable
Unit.
LTAPP__Z
10
R
Measured Z value, unsigned word. The
units are determined by the variable
Unit.
LTAPP__GAP
11
R
The gap between two sheets of metal.
The units are determined by the variable Unit, -32768 if not valid.
LTAPP__MISMATCH
12
R
Mismatch, unsigned word. The units
are determined by the variable Unit.
-32768 if not valid.
LTAPP__AREA
13
R
Seam area, units in mm2, -32768 if not
valid.
LTAPP__THICKNESS
14
RW
Plate thickness of sheet that the
sensor should look for, LSB=0.1mm.
LTAPP__STEPDIR
15
RW
Step direction of the joint: Step on left
(1) or right (0) side of path direction.
LTAPP__JOINT_NO
16
RW
Set or get active joint number.
LTAPP__AGE
17
R
Time since profile acquisition (ms),
unsigned word.
LTAPP__ANGLE
18
R
Angle of the normal to the joint relative
sensor coordinate system Z direction
- in 0.1 degrees.
LTAPP__UNIT
19
RW
Units of X, Y, Z, gap, and mismatch.
0= 0.1mm, 1= 0.01mm.
-
20
-
Reserved for internal use.
LTAPP__APM_P1
31
R
Servo robot only! Adaptive parameter
1
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9.2.3.1 RAPID components
Continued
Name
Number
Read/write Description
LTAPP__APM_P2
32
R
Servo robot only! Adaptive parameter
2
LTAPP__APM_P3
33
R
Servo robot only! Adaptive parameter
3
LTAPP__APM_P4
34
R
Servo robot only! Adaptive parameter
4
LTAPP__APM_P5
35
R
Servo robot only! Adaptive parameter
5
LTAPP__APM_P6
36
R
Servo robot only! Adaptive parameter
6
LTAPP__ROT_Y
51
R
Measured angle around sensor Y axis
LTAPP__ROT_Z
52
R
Measured angle around sensor Z axis
A
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9.2.4.1 Code examples
9.2.4 Examples
9.2.4.1 Code examples
Interrupt welding to adjust settings
This is an example of a welding program where a sensor is used. The sensor reads
the gap (in mm) and an interrupt occurs every time the value from the sensor
changes. The new value from the sensor is then used to determine correct settings
for voltage, wire feed and speed.
LOCAL PERS num adptVlt{8}:=
[1,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8,2,2.2,2.5];
LOCAL PERS num adptWfd{8}:=
[2,2.2,2.4,2.6,2.8,3,3.2,3.5];
LOCAL PERS num adptSpd{8}:=
[10,12,14,16,18,20,22,25];
LOCAL CONST num GAP_VARIABLE_NO:=11;
PERS num gap_value:=0;
PERS trackdata track:=[0,FALSE,150,[0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0],
[3,1,5,200,0,0,0]];
VAR intnum IntAdap;
PROC main()
! Setup the interrupt. The trap routine AdapTrap will be called
when the gap variable with number GAP_VARIABLE_NO in the
sensor interface has been changed. The new value will be
available in the gap_value variable.
CONNECT IntAdap WITH AdapTrap;
IVarValue "laser1:", GAP_VARIABLE_NO, gap_value, IntAdap;
! Start welding
ArcLStart p1,v100,adaptSm,adaptWd,fine, tool\j\Track:=track;
ArcLEnd p2,v100,adaptSm,adaptWd,fine, tool\j\Track:=track;
ENDPROC
TRAP AdapTrap
VAR num ArrInd;
! Scale the raw gap value received
ArrInd:=ArrIndx(gap_value);
! Update active weld data variable adaptWd with new data from
the predefined parameter arrays.
! The scaled gap value is used as index in the voltage, wirefeed
and speed arrays.
adaptWd.weld_voltage:=adptVlt{ArrInd};
adaptWd.weld_wirefeed:=adptWfd{ArrInd};
adaptWd.weld_speed:=adptSpd{ArrInd};
! Request a refresh of welding parameters using the new data in
adaptWd
ArcRefresh;
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9.2.4.1 Code examples
Continued
ENDTRAP
FUNC ArrIndx(num
IF value < 0.5
ELSEIF value <
ELSEIF value <
ELSEIF value <
ELSEIF value <
ELSEIF value <
ELSEIF value <
ELSE RETURN 8;
ENDIF
ENDFUNC
value)
THEN RETURN 1;
1.0 THEN RETURN
1.5 THEN RETURN
2.0 THEN RETURN
2.5 THEN RETURN
3.0 THEN RETURN
3.5 THEN RETURN
2;
3;
4;
5;
6;
7;
Reading positions from sensor
In this example, the sensor is turned on and the coordinates are read from the
sensor.
! Define variable numbers
CONST num SensorOn := 6;
CONST num YCoord := 9;
CONST num ZCoord := 10;
! Define the transformation matrix
CONST pose SensorMatrix := [[100,0,0],[1,0,0,0]];
VAR pos SensorPos;
VAR pos RobotPos;
! Request start of sensor measurements
WriteVar SensorOn, 1;
! Read a Cartesian position from the sensor
SensorPos.x := 0;
SensorPos.y := ReadVar (YCoord);
SensorPos.z := ReadVar (ZCoord);
! Stop sensor
WriteVar SensorOn, 0;
! Convert to robot coordinates
RobotPos := PoseVect(SensorMatrix, SensorPos);
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9.3.1.1 Overview
9.3 Externally Guided Motion [689-1]
9.3.1 Introduction to EGM
9.3.1.1 Overview
Purpose
Externally Guided Motion (EGM) offers two different features:
•
EGM Position Guidance:
The robot does not follow a programmed path in RAPID but a path generated
by an external device.
•
EGM Path Correction:
The programmed robot path is modified/corrected using measurements
provided by an external device.
EGM Position Guidance
The purpose of EGM Position Guidance is to use an external device to generate
position data for one or several robots. The robots will be moved to that given
position.
Some examples of applications are:
•
Place an object (for example a car door or a window) at a location (for example
a car body) that was given by an external sensor.
•
Bin picking. Pick objects from a bin using an external sensor to identify the
object and its position.
EGM Path Correction
The purpose of EGM Path Correction is to use external robot mounted devices to
generate path correction data for one or several robots. The robots will be moved
along the corrected path, which is the programmed path with added measured
corrections.
Some examples of applications are:
•
Seam tracking.
•
Tracking of objects moving near a known path.
What is included
The RobotWare option Externally Guided Motion gives you access to:
•
Instructions to set up, activate, and reset EGM Position Guidance.
•
Instructions to set up, activate, and reset EGM Path Correction.
•
Instructions to initiate EGM Position Guidance movements and to stop them.
•
Instructions to perform EGM Path Correction movements.
•
A function to retrieve the current EGM state.
•
System parameters to configure EGM and set default values.
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9.3.1.1 Overview
Continued
Limitations
Limitations for EGM Position Guidance
• It is not possible to perform linear movements using EGM Position Guidance,
since EGM Position Guidance does not contain interpolator functionality.
The actual path of the robot will depend on the robot configuration, the start
position, and the generated position data.
•
EGM Position Guidance does not support MultiMove.
•
It is not possible to use EGM Position Guidance to guide a mechanical unit
in a moving work object.
•
If the robot ends up near a singularity, i.e. when two robot axis are nearly
parallel, the robot movement will be stopped with an error message. In that
situation the only way is to jog the robot out of the singularity.
•
Limitations for EGM Path Correction
• The external device has to be robot mounted.
•
Corrections can only be applied in the path coordinate system.
•
Only position correction in y and z can be performed. It is not possible to
perform orientation corrections, nor corrections in x (which is the path
direction/tangent).
Common limitations for EGM
• EGM can only be used on 6-axis robots.
•
EGM can only be used in RAPID tasks with a robot, i.e. it is not possible to
use it in a task that contains only additional axis, i.e. in robtargets there are
values in the pose portion of the data.
•
An EGM movement has to start in a fine point.
•
Only one external device can be used for each robot to provide correction
data.
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9.3.1.2 Introduction to EGM Position Guidance
9.3.1.2 Introduction to EGM Position Guidance
What is EGM Position Guidance
EGM Position Guidance is designed for advanced users and provides a low level
interface to the robot controller, by by-passing the path planning that can be used
when highly responsive robot movements are needed. EGM Position Guidance
can be used to read positions from and write positions to the motion system at a
high rate. This can be done every 4 ms with a control lag of 10–20 ms depending
on the robot type. The references can either be specified using joint values or a
pose. The pose can be defined in any work object that is not moved during the
EGM Position Guidance movement.
All necessary filtering, supervision of references, and state handling is handled by
EGM Position Guidance. Examples of state handling are program start/stop,
emergency stop, etc.
The main advantage of EGM Position Guidance is the high rate and low
delay/latency compared to other means of external motion control. The time between
writing a new position until that given position starts to affect the actual robot
position, is usually around 20 ms.
EGM handles Absolute Accuracy.
What EGM Position Guidance does not do
EGM goes directly into the motor reference generation, i.e. it does not provide any
path planning. This means that you cannot order a movement to a pose target and
expect a linear movement. It is not possible either to order a movement with a
specified speed or order a movement that is supposed to take a specified time.
For ordering such movements path planning is needed and we refer you to the
standard movement instructions in RAPID, i.e. MoveL, MoveJ, etc.
WARNING
Since the path planning is by-passed by EGM in the robot controller, the robot
path is created directly from user input. It is therefore important to make sure
that the stream of position references sent to the controller is as smooth as
possible. The robot will react quickly to all position references sent to the
controller, also faulty ones.
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9.3.1.3 Introduction to EGM Path Correction
9.3.1.3 Introduction to EGM Path Correction
What is EGM Path Correction
EGM Path Correction gives the user the possibility to correct a programmed robot
path. The device or sensor that is used to measure the actual path has to be
mounted on the tool flange of the robot and it must be possible to calibrate the
sensor frame.
The corrections are performed in the path coordinate system, which gets its x-axis
from the tangent of the path, the y-axis is the cross product of the path tangent,
and the z-direction of the active tool frame and the z-axis is the cross product of
x-axis and y-axis.
EGM Path correction has to start and end in a fine point. The sensor measurements
can be provided at multiples of about 48 ms.
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9.3.2.1 Basic approach
9.3.2 Using EGM
9.3.2.1 Basic approach
Basic approach for EGM Position Guidance
This is the general approach to move/guide a robot using an external device
(sensor) to give the target for the movement.
Action
1
Move the robot to a fine point.
2
Register an EGM client and get an EGM identity. This identity is then used to link
setup, activation, movement, deactivation etc. to a certain EGM usage. The EGM state
is still EGM_STATE_DISCONNECTED.
3
Call an EGM setup instruction to set up the position data source using signals or UdpUc
protocol connection. The EGM state changes to EGM_STATE_CONNECTED.
4
Choose if the position is given as joint values or as a pose and give the position convergence criteria, i.e. when the position is considered to be reached.
5
If pose was chosen, define which frames are used to define the target position and in
which frame the movement is to be applied.
6
Give the stop mode, an optional time-out and perform the movement itself. Now the
EGM state is EGM_STATE_RUNNING. This is when the robot is moving.
7
The EGM movement will stop when the position is considered to be reached, i.e. the
convergence criteria is fulfilled. Now the EGM state has changed back to
EGM_STATE_CONNECTED.
Basic approach for EGM Path Correction
This is the general approach to correct a programmed path with EGM Path
Correction.
Action
1
Move the robot to a fine point.
2
Register an EGM client and get an EGM identity. This identity is then used to link
setup, activation, movement, deactivation etc. to a certain EGM usage. The EGM state
is still EGM_STATE_DISCONNECTED.
3
Call an EGM setup instruction to set up the position data source using signals or UdpUc
protocol connection. The EGM state changes to EGM_STATE_CONNECTED.
4
Define the sensor correction frame, which always is a tool frame.
5
Perform the movement itself. Now the EGM state is EGM_STATE_RUNNING.
At the next fine point EGM will return to the state EGM_STATE_CONNECTED.
6
330
To free an EGM identity for use with another sensor you have to reset EGM, which
returns EGM to the state EGM_STATE_DISCONNECTED.
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9.3.2.2 Execution states
9.3.2.2 Execution states
Description
The EGM process has different states:
Value
Description
EGM_STATE_DISCONNECTED The EGM state of the specific process is undefined.
No setup is active.
EGM_STATE_CONNECTED
The specified EGM process is not activated.
Setup has been made, but no EGM movement is active.
EGM_STATE_RUNNING
The specified EGM process is running.
The EGM movement is active, i.e. the robot is moved.
Transitions between the different states are according to the figure below.
EGM_STATE_DISCONNECTED
SetupAI, or SetupAO, or
SetupGI, or SetupUC
EGMReset
EGM_STATE_CONNECTED
EGMRunJoint and
EGMRunPose finishes,
or EGMStop
EGMRunJoint or
EGMRunPose
EGM_STATE_RUNNING
xx1400001082
The RAPID instructions EGMRunJoint and EGMRunPose start from
EGM_STATE_CONNECTED and change the state to EGM_STATE_RUNNING as long
as the convergence criteria for the target position have not been met or the timeout
time has not expired. When one of these conditions is met, the EGM state is
changed to EGM_STATE_CONNECTED again and the instruction ends, i.e. RAPID
execution continues to the next instruction.
If EGM has the state EGM_STATE_RUNNING and RAPID execution is stopped, EGM
enters the state EGM_STATE_CONNECTED. At program restart, EGM returns to the
state EGM_STATE_RUNNING.
If the program pointer is moved using PP to Main or PP to cursor, the EGM state
is changed to EGM_STATE_CONNECTED, if the state was EGM_STATE_RUNNING.
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9.3.2.3 Input data
9.3.2.3 Input data
Input data for EGM Position Guidance
The source for input data is selected using the EGM setup instructions. The three
first instructions select a signal interface and the last instruction a UdpUc interface
(User Datagram Protocol Unicast Communication).
Instructions
Description
EGMSetupAI
Setup analog input signals for EGM
EGMSetupAO
Setup analog output signals for EGM
EGMSetupGI
Setup group input signals for EGM
EGMSetupUC
Setup the UdpUc protocol for EGM
Input data for EGM contain mainly position data either as joints or as a pose, i.e.
Cartesian position plus orientation.
The data flow for the signal interface is illustrated below:
2) Read new
position values
from the signals
(AI, AO, GI)
Sensor
I/O
AO
GO
AI
GI
1) Request (multiple of 4 ms)
EGM
Motion
control
AO
• Write position
values to signals
(multiple of 4 ms)
Set from
RAPID
3) Write position
xx1400002016
1 Motion control calls EGM.
2 EGM reads the position values from the signals.
3 EGM writes the position data to motion control.
•
The sensor writes position data to the signals.
If signals are used as data source, the input is limited to 6 for the robot, i.e. 6 joint
values or 3 Cartesian position values (x, y, z) plus 3 Euler angle values (rx, ry, rz),
and up to 6 values for additional axes.
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9.3.2.3 Input data
Continued
The data flow for the UdpUc interface is illustrated below:
1) Request (multiple of 4 ms)
4) Check for new
position
Sensor
2) Read feedback
EGM
Motion
control
• Send position
(UDP ≥ 4 ms)
5) Write position
3) Send feedback
xx1400002017
1 Motion control calls EGM.
2 EGM reads feedback data from motion control.
3 EGM sends feedback data to the sensor.
4 EGM checks the UDP queue for messages from the sensor.
5 If there is a message, EGM reads the next message and step 5 writes the
position data to motion control. If no position data had been sent, motion
control continues to use the latest position data previously written by EGM.
•
The sensor sends position data to the controller (EGM). Our recommendation
is to couple this to step 3. Then the sensor will be in phase with the controller.
The control loop is based on the following relation between speed and position:
speed = k * (pos_ref – pos) + speed_ref
k - factor
pos_ref - reference position
pos - desired position
speed_ref - reference speed
For instructions on how to implement the UdpUc protocol for an external device,
see The EGM sensor protocol on page 339. There you will also find a description
of input data.
Input data for EGM Path Correction
The source for input data is selected using the EGM setup instructions. The three
first instructions select a signal interface and the last instruction a UdpUc interface
(User Datagram Protocol Unicast Communication).
Instructions
Description
EGMSetupAI
Setup analog input signals for EGM
EGMSetupAO
Setup analog output signals for EGM
EGMSetupGI
Setup group input signals for EGM
EGMSetupUC
Setup the UdpUc protocol for EGM
Input data for EGM contain mainly position data.
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9.3.2.3 Input data
Continued
The data flow for the signal interface is illustrated below:
2) Read new
position values
from the signals
(AI, AO, GI)
Sensor
I/O
AO
GO
AI
GI
EGM
1) Request (multiple of 48 ms)
Motion
control
AO
• Write position
values to signals
(multiple of 4 ms)
Set from
RAPID
3) Write position
xx1400002016
1 Motion control calls EGM.
2 The measurement data (y- and z-values) are read from the signals or fetched
from the sensor at multiples of about 48 ms.
3 EGM calculates the position correction and writes it to motion control. If the
UdpUc protocol is used, feedback is sent to the sensor.
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9.3.2.4 Output data
9.3.2.4 Output data
Description
Output data is only available for the UdpUc interface.
For instructions on how to implement the UdpUc protocol for an external device,
see The EGM sensor protocol on page 339. There you will also find a description
of output data.
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9.3.2.5 Configuration
9.3.2.5 Configuration
Configuration for EGM Position Guidance
EGM behavior can be influenced using the system parameters of type External
Motion Interface Data topic Motion. For a description of all available EGM
parameters, see System parameters on page 343.
Here follows a closer description of the two parameters that influence the EGM
control loop. The figure shows a simplified view of the EGM control system.
EGM controller
Speed reference
Speed feed-forward
+
Servo
control
LP filter
Robot
Sensor
Position
gain
xx1400001083
Default proportional Position Gain The parameter Position gain in the figure influences
the responsiveness moving to the target position,
given by the sensor, in relation to the current robot
position. The higher the value, the faster the response.
Default Low Pass Filter Bandwith
Time
336
The parameter LP Filter in the figure is the default
value used to filter the speed contribution from EGM.
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9.3.2.6 Frames
9.3.2.6 Frames
Frames for EGM Position Guidance
EGM can be run in two different modes, joint mode and pose mode. The following
section applies to the EGM pose mode only.
For the joint mode there is no need for reference frames, because both sensor
values and position values are axis angles given in degrees relative to the calibration
position of each axis. But for the pose mode reference frames are necessary.
Measurements from the sensor and directions for position change can only be
given relative to reference frames.
The RAPID instruction EGMActPose defines all frames that are available in EGM:
Frame
Description
Tool
The tool data to be used for the EGM process is defined with
the optional \Tool argument.
Work object
The work object data used for the EGM process is defined
with the optional \Wobj argument.
Correction
The frame to be used to give the final movement direction
is defined by the mandatory CorrFrame argument.
Sensor
The frame to be used to interpret the sensor data is defined
by the mandatory SensorFrame argument.
Tools and work objects
The tool and the work object may be defined in two combinations only:
1 If the tool is attached to the robot, the work object has to be fixed.
2 If the tool is fixed, the work object has to be attached to the robot.
Note
It is not possible to use a work object or tool that is attached to any other
mechanical unit than the EGM robot.
Predefined frame types
For the frames CorrFrame and SensorFrame it is also necessary to know what
they are related to. This information is specified using the predefined frame types
in the data type egmframetype:
Value
Description
EGM_FRAME_BASE
The frame is defined relative to the base frame (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_TOOL
The frame is defined relative to tool0 (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_WOBJ
The frame is defined relative to the active work object (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_WORLD
The frame is defined relative to the world frame (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_JOINT
The values are joint values (joint mode).
Frames for EGM Path Correction
EGM can be run in two different modes, joint mode and pose mode. The following
section applies to the EGM pose mode only.
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9.3.2.6 Frames
Continued
For the joint mode there is no need for reference frames, because both sensor
values and position values are axis angles given in degrees relative to the calibration
position of each axis. But for the pose mode reference frames are necessary.
Measurements from the sensor and directions for position change can only be
given relative to reference frames.
The RAPID instruction EGMActPose defines all frames that are available in EGM:
Frame
Description
Tool
The tool data to be used for the EGM process is defined with
the optional \Tool argument.
Work object
The work object data used for the EGM process is defined
with the optional \Wobj argument.
Correction
The frame to be used to give the final movement direction
is defined by the mandatory CorrFrame argument.
Sensor
The frame to be used to interpret the sensor data is defined
by the mandatory SensorFrame argument.
Tools and work objects
The tool and the work object may be defined in two combinations only:
1 If the tool is attached to the robot, the work object has to be fixed.
2 If the tool is fixed, the work object has to be attached to the robot.
Note
It is not possible to use a work object or tool that is attached to any other
mechanical unit than the EGM robot.
Predefined frame types
For the frames CorrFrame and SensorFrame it is also necessary to know what
they are related to. This information is specified using the predefined frame types
in the data type egmframetype:
338
Value
Description
EGM_FRAME_BASE
The frame is defined relative to the base frame (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_TOOL
The frame is defined relative to tool0 (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_WOBJ
The frame is defined relative to the active work object (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_WORLD
The frame is defined relative to the world frame (pose mode).
EGM_FRAME_JOINT
The values are joint values (joint mode).
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9.3.3 The EGM sensor protocol
9.3.3 The EGM sensor protocol
Description
The EGM sensor protocol is designed for high speed communication between a
robot controller and a communication endpoint with minimum overhead.
The communication endpoint is typically a sensor, so sensor will be used from
now on instead of communication endpoint. Sometimes the sensor is connected
to a PC, and the PC then transfers the sensor data to the robot. The purpose of
the sensor protocol is to communicate sensor data frequently between the robot
controller and sensors. The EGM sensor protocol is using Google Protocol Buffers
for encoding and UDP as a transport protocol. Google Protocol Buffers has been
selected due to its speed and its language-neutrality. UDP has been chosen as a
transport protocol since the data sent is real-time data sent with high frequency
and if packets get lost it is useless to re-send the data.
The EGM sensor protocol data structures are defined by the EGM proto file. Sensor
name, IP-address and port number of sensors are configured in the system
parameters. A maximum of eight sensors can be configured.
The sensor is acting as a server and it cannot send anything to the robot before it
has received a first message from the robot controller. Messages can be sent
independently of each other in both directions after that first message. Applications
using the protocol may put restrictions on its usage but the protocol itself has no
built-in synchronization of request responses or supervision of lost messages.
There are no special connect or disconnect messages, only data which can flow
in both directions independently of each other. The first message from the robot
is a data message. One has also to keep in mind, that a sender of an UDP message
continues to send even though the receiver's queue may be full. The receiver has
to make sure, that its queue is emptied.
By default, the robot will send and read data from the sensor every 4 milliseconds,
independently of when data is sent from the sensor. This cycle time can be changed
to a multiple of 4 ms using the optional argument \SampleRate of the RAPID
instructions EGMActJoint or EGMActPose.
Google Protocol Buffers
Google Protocol Buffers or Protobuf, are a way to serialize/de-serialize data in a
very efficient way. Protobuf is in general 10-100 times faster than XML. There is
plenty of information on the Internet about Protobuf and the Google overview is a
good start.
In short, message structures are described in a .proto file. The .proto file is then
compiled. The compiler generates serialized/de-serialized code which is then used
by the application. The application reads a message from the network, runs the
de-serialization, creates a message, calls serialization method, and then sends the
message.
It is possible to use Protobuf in most programming languages since Protobuf is
language neutral. There are many different implementations depending on the
language.
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9.3.3 The EGM sensor protocol
Continued
The main disadvantage with Protobuf is that Protobuf messages are serialized into
a binary format which makes it more difficult to debug packages using a network
analyzer.
Third party tools
Except for the Google C++ tool, we have also verified the following third party tools
and code:
•
Nanopb, generates C-code and it does not require any dynamic memory
allocations.
•
Protobuf-net, a Google Protobuf .NET library.
•
Protobuf-csharp,a Google Protobuf .NET library, the C# API is similar to the
Google C++ API.
Note
Note that the code mentioned above is open source, which means that you have
to check the license that the code is allowed to be used in your product.
EGM sensor protocol description
The EGM sensor protocol is not a request/response protocol, the sensor can send
data at any frequency after the sensor gets the first message from the robot.
The EGM sensor protocol has two main data structures, EgmRobot and EgmSensor.
EgmRobot is sent from the robot and EgmSensor is sent from the sensor. All
message fields in both the data structures are defined as optional which means
that a field may or may not be present in a message. Applications using Google
Protocol Buffers must check if optional fields are present or not.
The EgmHeader is common for both EgmRobot and EgmSensor.
message EgmHeader
{
optional uint32 seqno = 1; // sequence number (to be able to find
lost messages)
optional uint32 tm = 2; // time stamp in milliseconds
enum MessageType {
MSGTYPE_UNDEFINED = 0;
MSGTYPE_COMMAND = 1; // for future use
MSGTYPE_DATA = 2; // sent by robot controller
MSGTYPE_CORRECTION = 3; // sent by sensor
}
optional MessageType mtype = 3 [default = MSGTYPE_UNDEFINED];
}
Variable
Description
seqno
Sequence number.
Applications shall increase the sequence number by one for each message
they send. It makes it possible to check for lost messages in a series of
messages.
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9.3.3 The EGM sensor protocol
Continued
Variable
Description
tm
Timestamp in milliseconds.
(Can be used for monitoring of delays).
mtype
Message type.
Shall be set to MSGTYPE_CORRECTION by the sensor, and is set to
MSGTYPE_DATA by the robot controller.
The Google protobuf data structure can include the repeated element, i.e. a list of
elements of the same type. The repeated element count is a maximum of six
elements in the EGM sensor protocol.
See the egm.proto file for a description of EgmRobot and EgmSensor, UdpUc code
examples on page 355.
How to build an EGM sensor communication endpoint using .Net
This guide assumes that you build and compile using Visual Studio and are familiar
with its operation.
Here is a short description on how to install and create a simple test application
using protobuf-csharp-port.
Action
1
Download protobuf-csharp binaries from:
https://code.google.com/p/protobuf-csharp-port/.
2
Unpack the zip-file.
3
Copy the egm.proto file to a sub catalogue where protobuf-csharp was un-zipped, e.g.
~\protobuf-csharp\tools\egm.
4
Start a Windows console in the tools directory, e.g. ~\protobuf-csharp\tools.
5
Generate an EGM C# file (egm.cs) from the egm.proto file by typing in the Windows
console:
protogen .\egm\egm.proto --proto_path=.\egm
6
Create a C# console application in Visual Studio.
Create a C# Windows console application in Visual Studio, e.g. EgmSensorApp.
7
Install NuGet, in Visual Studio, click Tools and then Extension Manager. Go to Online,
find the NuGet Package Manager extension and click Download.
8
Install protobuf-csharp in the solution for the C# Windows Console application using
NuGet. The solution has to be open in Visual Studio.
9
In Visual Studio select, Tools, Nuget Package Manager, and Package Manager
Console.
Type PM>Install-Package Google.ProtocolBuffers
10 Add the generated file egm.cs to the Visual Studio project (add existing item).
11 Copy the example code into the Visual Studio Windows Console application file
(EgmSensorApp.cpp) and then compile, link and run.
How to build an EGM sensor communication endpoint using C++
When building using C++ there are no other third party libraries needed.
C++ is supported by Google. It can be a bit tricky to build the Google tools in
Windows but here is a guide on how to build protobuf for Windows.
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9.3.3 The EGM sensor protocol
Continued
Use the following procedure when you have built libprotobuf.lib and protoc.exe:
Action
1
Run Google protoc to generate access classes, protoc --cpp_out=. egm.proto
2
Create a win32 console application
3
Add Protobuf source as include directory.
4
Add the generated egm.pb.cc file to the project, exclude the file from precompile
headers.
5
Copy the code from the egm-sensor.cpp file, see UdpUc code examples on page 355.
6
Compile and run.
Configuring UdpUc devices
UdpUc communicates with a maximum of eight devices over Udp. The devices act
as servers, and the robot controller acts as a client. It is the robot controller that
initiates the connection to the sensor.
System parameters
This is a brief description of the parameters used when configuring a device. For
more information about the parameters, see Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
These parameters belong to the type Transmission Protocol in topic Communication.
Parameter
Description
Name
The name of the transmission protocol.
For example EGMsensor.
Type
The type of transmission protocol.
It has to be UDPUC.
Serial Port
The name of the serial port that will be used for the sensor.
This refers to the parameter Name in the type Serial Port.
For IP based transmission protocols (i.e. Type has value
TCP/IP, SOCKDEV, LTAPPTCP or UDPUC), Serial Port is
not used and has the value N/A.
Remote Address
The IP address of the remote device.
Remote Port Number
The IP port number that the remote device has opened.
Configuration example
The device which provides the input data for EGM, has to be configured as an
UdpUc device in the following way:
Name
Type
Serial Port Remote Address Remote Port Number
UCdevice UDPUC N/A
192.168.10.20
6510
After this configuration change, the controller has to be restarted. Now the device
can be used by EGM to guide a robot. For more information, see Using EGM
Position Guidance with an UdpUc device on page 346.
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9.3.4 System parameters
9.3.4 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of the system parameters used by Externally Guided
Motion. For more information about the parameters, see Technical reference
manual - System parameters.
Type External Motion Interface Data
The system parameters used by Externally Guided Motion belong to the type
External Motion Interface Data in topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Name
The name of the external motion interface data. This name
is referenced by the parameter ExtConfigName in the RAPID
instructions EGMSetupAI, EGMSetupAO, EGMSetupGI, and
EGMSetupUC.
Level
External motion interface level determines the system level
at which the corrections are applied.
Level 0 corresponds to raw corrections, added just before
the servo controllers.
Level 1 applies extra filtering on the correction, but also introduces some extra delays and latency.
Level 2 has to be used for path correction.
Do Not Restart After Motors Determines if the external motion interface execution should
Off
automatically restart after the controller has been in the
motors off state, for instance after emergency stop.
Return to Programmed Posi- Determines if axes currently running external motion intertion when Stopped
face should return to the programmed position, when program execution is stopped.
If False, axes will stop in their current position.
If True, axes will move to the programmed finepoint.
Default Ramp Time
Defines the default total time for stopping external motion
interface movements when external motion interface execution is stopped.
The value will be used to determine how fast the speed
contribution from external motion should be ramped to zero
when program execution is stopped, and how fast axes return
to the programmed position if Return to Programmed Position when Stopped is True.
Default Proportional Position Defines the default proportional gain of the external motion
Gain
interface position feedback control. For more information,
see Configuration on page 336.
Default Low Pass Filter
Bandwidth
Defines the default bandwidth of the low-pass filter used to
filter the speed contribution from the external motion interface execution. For more information, see Configuration on
page 336.
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9.3.5 RAPID components
9.3.5 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is an overview of all instructions, functions, and data types in Externally Guided
Motion.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instructions
Description
EGMActJoint
EGMActJoint activates a specific EGM process and defines static
data for the sensor guided joint movement, i.e. data that is not
changed frequently between different EGM movements.
EGMActMove
EGMActMove is used to activate a specific EGM process and defines
static data for the movement with path correction, i.e. data that is
not changed frequently between different EGM path correction
movements.
EGMActPose
EGMActPose activates a specific EGM process and defines static
data for the sensor guided pose movement, i.e. data that is not
changed frequently between different EGM movements.
EGMGetId
EGMGetId is used to reserve an EGM identity (EGMid). That identity
is then used in all other EGM RAPID instructions and functions to
identify a certain EGM process connected to the RAPID motion task
from which it is used.
An egmident is identified by its name, i.e. a second or third call of
EGMGetId with the same egmident will neither reserve a new EGM
process nor change its content.
EGMMoveC
EGMMoveC is used to move the tool center point (TCP) circularly to
a given destination with path correction. During the movement the
orientation normally remains unchanged relative to the circle.
EGMMoveL
EGMMoveL is used to move the tool center point (TCP) linearly to a
given destination with path correction. When the TCP is to remain
stationary then this instruction can also be used to reorient the tool.
EGMReset
EGMReset resets a specific EGM process (EGMid), i.e. the reservation is canceled.
EGMRunJoint
EGMRunJoint performs a sensor guided joint movement from a fine
point for a specific EGM process (EGMid) and defines which joints
will be moved.
EGMRunPose
EGMRunPose performs a sensor guided pose movement from a fine
point for a specific EGM process (EGMid) and defines which directions and orientations will be changed.
EGMSetupAI
EGMSetupAI is used to set up analog input signals for a specific
EGM process (EGMid) as the source for position destination values
to which the robot (plus up to 6 additional axis) is to be guided.
EGMSetupAO
EGMSetupAO is used to set up analog output signals for a specific
EGM process (EGMid) as the source for position destination values
to which the robot, and up to 6 additional axis, is to be guided.
EGMSetupGI
EGMSetupGI is used to set up group input signals for a specific
EGM process (EGMid) as the source for position destination values
to which the robot, and up to 6 additional axis, is to be guided.
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9.3.5 RAPID components
Continued
Instructions
Description
EGMSetupLTAPP
EGMSetupLTAPP is used to set up an LTAPP protocol for a specific
EGM process (EGMid) as the source for path corrections.
EGMSetupUC
EGMSetupUC is used to set up a UdpUc device for a specific EGM
process (EGMid) as the source for position destination values to
which the robot, and up to 6 additional axis, are to be guided. The
position may be given in joints, for EGMRunJoint, or in cartesian
format for EGMRunPose.
EGMStop
EGMStop stops a specific EGM process (EGMid).
Functions
Description
EGMGetState
EGMGetState retrieves the state of an EGM process (EGMid).
Data types
Description
egmframetype
egmframetype is used to define the frame types for corrections
and sensor measurements in EGM.
egmident
egmident identifies a specific EGM process.
egm_minmax
egm_minmax is used to define the convergence criteria for EGM to
finish.
egmstate
egmstate is used to define the state for corrections and sensor
measurements in EGM.
egmstopmode
egmstopmode is used to define the stop modes for corrections and
sensor measurements in EGM.
Functions
Data types
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9.3.6.1 Using EGM Position Guidance with an UdpUc device
9.3.6 RAPID code examples
9.3.6.1 Using EGM Position Guidance with an UdpUc device
Description
The device which provides the input data for EGM, first has to be configured as
an UdpUc device. See Configuring UdpUc devices on page 342.
Now the device can be used by EGM to guide a robot. A simple example is the
following:
Example
MODULE EGM_test
VAR egmident egmID1;
VAR egmstate egmSt1;
! limits for cartesian convergence: +-1 mm
CONST egm_minmax egm_minmax_lin1:=[-1,1];
! limits for orientation convergence: +-2 degrees
CONST egm_minmax egm_minmax_rot1:=[-2,2];
! Start position
CONST jointtarget
jpos10:=[[0,0,0,0,40,0],[9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09]];
! Used tool
TASK PERS tooldata tFroniusCMT:=[TRUE,[[12.3313,-0.108707,416.142],
[0.903899,-0.00320735,0.427666,0.00765917]],
[2.6,[-111.1,24.6,386.6],[1,0,0,0],0,0,0.072]];
! corr-frame: wobj, sens-frame: wobj
TASK PERS wobjdata wobj_EGM1:=[FALSE,TRUE,"",
[[150,1320,1140],[1,0,0,0]], [[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]]];
! Correction frame offset: none
VAR pose corr_frame_offs:=[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]];
PROC main()
! Move to start position. Fine point is demanded.
MoveAbsJ jpos10\NoEOffs, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT;
testuc;
ENDPROC
PROC testuc()
EGMReset egmID1;
EGMGetId egmID1;
egmSt1:=EGMGetState(egmID1);
TPWrite "EGM state: "\Num:=egmSt1;
IF egmSt1 <= EGM_STATE_CONNECTED THEN
! Set up the EGM data source: UdpUc server using device "EGMsensor:"
and
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9.3.6.1 Using EGM Position Guidance with an UdpUc device
Continued
! configuration "default"
EGMSetupUC ROB_1, egmID1, "default", "EGMsensor:"\pose;
ENDIF
! Correction frame is the World coordinate system and the sensor
measurements are relative
! to the tool frame of the used tool (tFroniusCMT)
EGMActPose egmID1\Tool:=tFroniusCMT, corr_frame_offs,
EGM_FRAME_WORLD, tFroniusCMT.tframe, EGM_FRAME_TOOL
\x:=egm_minmax_lin1 \y:=egm_minmax_lin1 \z:=egm_minmax_lin1
\rx:=egm_minmax_rot1 \ry:=egm_minmax_rot1 \rz:=egm_minmax_rot1
\LpFilter:=20;
! Run: the convergence condition has to be fulfilled during 2
seconds before RAPID
! executeion continues to the next instruction
EGMRunPose egmID1, EGM_STOP_HOLD \x \y \z \CondTime:=2
\RampInTime:=0.05;
egmSt1:=EGMGetState(egmID1);
IF egmSt1 = EGM_STATE_CONNECTED THEN
TPWrite "Reset EGM instance egmID1";
EGMReset egmID1;
ENDIF
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.3.6.2 Using EGM Position Guidance with signals as input
9.3.6.2 Using EGM Position Guidance with signals as input
Description
All signals that are used together with EGM has to be defined in the I/O configuration
of the system. I.e. the signals that are set up with EGMSetupAI, EGMSetupAO, or
EGMSetupGI. After that, the signals can be used by EGM to guide a robot.
The following RAPID program example uses analog output signals as input. The
main reason for analog output signals is, that they are easier to simulate than
analog input signals. In a real application group input signals and analog input
signals might be more common.
In the example we also set the analog output signals to a constant value before
the EGMRun instruction just for simplicity. Normally an external device will update
the signal values to give the desired robot positions.
Example
MODULE EGM_test
VAR egmident egmID1;
VAR egmident egmID2;
CONST egm_minmax egm_minmax_lin1:=[-1,1];
CONST egm_minmax egm_minmax_rot1:=[-2,2];
CONST egm_minmax egm_minmax_joint1:=[-0.1,0.1];
CONST robtarget p20:=[[150,1320,1140],
[0.000494947,0.662278,-0.749217,-0.00783173], [0,0,-1,0],
[9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09]];
CONST robtarget p30:=[[114.50,1005.42,1410.38],
[0.322151,-0.601023,0.672381,0.287914], [0,0,-1,0],
[9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09]];
CONST jointtarget
jpos10:=[[0,0,0,0,35,0],[9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09]];
CONST pose posecor:=[[1200,400,900],[1,0,0,0]];
CONST pose posesens:=[[12.3313,-0.108707,416.142],
[0.903899,-0.00320735,0.427666,0.00765917]];
! corr-frame: world, sens-frame: world
VAR pose posecor0:=[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]];
VAR pose posesen0:=[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]];
TASK PERS tooldata tFroniusCMT:=[TRUE,[[12.3313,-0.108707,416.142],
[0.903899,-0.00320735,0.427666,0.00765917]],
[2.6,[-111.1,24.6,386.6],[1,0,0,0],0,0,0.072]];
TASK PERS loaddata load1:=[5,[0,1,0],[1,0,0,0],0,0,0];
! corr-frame: wobj, sens-frame: wobj
TASK PERS wobjdata
wobj_EGM1:=[FALSE,TRUE,"",[[150,1320,1140],[1,0,0,0]],
[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]]];
VAR pose posecor1:=[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]];
VAR pose posesen1:=[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]];
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9.3.6.2 Using EGM Position Guidance with signals as input
Continued
TASK PERS wobjdata
wobj_EGM2:=[FALSE,TRUE,"",[[0,1000,1000],[1,0,0,0]],
[[0,0,0],[1,0,0,0]]];
VAR pose posecor2:=[[150,320,0],[1,0,0,0]];
VAR pose posesen2:=[[150,320,0],[1,0,0,0]];
PROC main()
MoveAbsJ jpos10\NoEOffs, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT;
testAO;
ENDPROC
PROC testAO()
! Get two different EGM identities. They will be used for two
different eGM setups.
EGMGetId egmID1;
EGMGetId egmID2;
! Set up the EGM data source: Analog output signals and
configuration "default"
! One guidance using Pose mode and one using Joint mode
EGMSetupAO ROB_1,egmID1,"default" \Pose \aoR1x:=ao_MoveX
\aoR2y:=ao_MoveY \aoR3z:=ao_MoveZ \aoR5ry:=ao_RotY
\aoR6rz:=ao_RotZ;
EGMSetupAO ROB_1,egmID2,"default" \Joint \aoR1x:=ao_MoveX
\aoR2y:=ao_MoveY \aoR3z:=ao_MoveZ \aoR4rx:=ao_RotX
\aoR5ry:=ao_RotY \aoR6rz:=ao_RotZ;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p30, v1000, fine, tool0;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 150;
SetAO ao_MoveY, 1320;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, 900;
! Correction frame is the World coordinate system and the sensor
measurements are also relative to the world frame
! No offset is defined (posecor0 and posesen0)
EGMActPose egmID1 \Tool:=tFroniusCMT \WObj:=wobj0 \TLoad:=load1,
posecor0, EGM_FRAME_WORLD, posesen0, EGM_FRAME_WORLD
\x:=egm_minmax_lin1 \y:=egm_minmax_lin1 \z:=egm_minmax_lin1
\rx:=egm_minmax_rot1 \ry:=egm_minmax_rot1 \rz:=egm_minmax_rot1
\LpFilter:=20 \SampleRate:=16 \MaxPosDeviation:=1000;
! Run: keep the end position without returning to the start position
EGMRunPose egmID1,
EGM_STOP_HOLD\x\y\z\RampInTime:=0.05\PosCorrGain:=1;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p20, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 150;
SetAO ao_MoveY, 1320;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, 1100;
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9.3.6.2 Using EGM Position Guidance with signals as input
Continued
! Run with the same frame definitions: ramp down to the start
position after having reached
! the EGM end position
EGMRunPose egmID1,
EGM_STOP_RAMP_DOWN\x\y\z\RampInTime:=0.05\PosCorrGain:=1;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p30, v1000, fine, tool0;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 50;
SetAO ao_MoveY, -20;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, -20;
! Correction frame is the Work object wobj_EGM1 and the sensor
measurements are also
! relative to the same work object. No offset is defined (posecor1
and posesen1)
EGMActPose egmID1 \Tool:=tFroniusCMT \WObj:=wobj_EGM1 \TLoad:=load1,
posecor1, EGM_FRAME_WOBJ, posesen1, EGM_FRAME_WOBJ
\x:=egm_minmax_lin1 \y:=egm_minmax_lin1 \z:=egm_minmax_lin1
\rx:=egm_minmax_rot1 \ry:=egm_minmax_rot1 \rz:=egm_minmax_rot1
\LpFilter:=20;
! Run: keep the end position without returning to the start position
EGMRunPose egmID1,
EGM_STOP_HOLD\x\y\z\RampInTime:=0.05\PosCorrGain:=1;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p20, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 0;
SetAO ao_MoveY, 0;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, 0;
! Correction frame is the Work object wobj_EGM2 and the sensor
measurements are also
! relative to the same work object. This time an offset is defined
for the correction frame
! (posecor2), and for the sensor frame (posesen2)
EGMActPose egmID1 \Tool:=tFroniusCMT \WObj:=wobj_EGM2 \TLoad:=load1,
posecor2, EGM_FRAME_WOBJ, posesen2, EGM_FRAME_WOBJ
\x:=egm_minmax_lin1 \y:=egm_minmax_lin1 \z:=egm_minmax_lin1
\rx:=egm_minmax_rot1 \ry:=egm_minmax_rot1 \rz:=egm_minmax_rot1
\LpFilter:=20;
! Run: keep the end position without returning to the start position
EGMRunPose egmID1,
EGM_STOP_HOLD\x\y\z\RampInTime:=0.05\PosCorrGain:=1;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p20, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 0;
SetAO ao_MoveY, 0;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, 0;
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9.3.6.2 Using EGM Position Guidance with signals as input
Continued
! Correction frame is of tool type and the sensor measurements are
relative to the work
! object wobj_EGM2. This time an offset is defined for the
correction frame (posecor2), and
! for the sensor frame (posesen2)
EGMActPose egmID1 \Tool:=tFroniusCMT \WObj:=wobj_EGM2, posecor2,
EGM_FRAME_TOOL, posesen2, EGM_FRAME_WOBJ \x:=egm_minmax_lin1
\y:=egm_minmax_lin1 \z:=egm_minmax_lin1 \rx:=egm_minmax_rot1
\ry:=egm_minmax_rot1 \rz:=egm_minmax_rot1 \LpFilter:=20;
EGMRunPose egmID1,
EGM_STOP_HOLD\x\y\z\RampInTime:=0.05\PosCorrGain:=1;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p20, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT\TLoad:=load1;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 150;
SetAO ao_MoveY, 1320;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, 1100;
! Same as last, but with tool0 and wobj0
EGMActPose egmID1, posecor2, EGM_FRAME_TOOL, posesen2,
EGM_FRAME_WOBJ \x:=egm_minmax_lin1 \y:=egm_minmax_lin1
\z:=egm_minmax_lin1 \rx:=egm_minmax_rot1 \ry:=egm_minmax_rot1
\rz:=egm_minmax_rot1 \LpFilter:=20;
! Run: keep the end position without returning to the start position
EGMRunPose egmID1,
EGM_STOP_HOLD\x\y\z\RampInTime:=0.05\PosCorrGain:=1;
! Move to the starting point - fine point is needed.
MoveJ p20, v1000, fine, tFroniusCMT\TLoad:=load1;
! Set the signals
SetAO ao_MoveX, 70;
SetAO ao_MoveY, -5;
SetAO ao_MoveZ, 0;
SetAO ao_RotX, 0;
SetAO ao_RotY, 0;
SetAO ao_RotZ, 0;
! Joint guidance for joints 2-6
EGMActJoint egmID2 \J2:=egm_minmax_joint1 \J3:=egm_minmax_joint1
\J4:=egm_minmax_joint1 \J5:=egm_minmax_joint1
\J6:=egm_minmax_joint1 \LpFilter:=20;
! Run: keep the end position without returning to the start position
EGMRunJoint egmID2, EGM_STOP_HOLD \J2 \J3 \J4 \J5 \J6 \CondTime:=0.1
\RampInTime:=0.05 \PosCorrGain:=1;
EGMReset egmID1;
EGMReset egmID2;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.3.6.3 Using EGM Path Correction with different protocol types
9.3.6.3 Using EGM Path Correction with different protocol types
Description
This example contains examples for different sensor and protocol types. The basic
RAPID program structure is the same for all of them and they use the same external
motion data configuration.
Example
MODULE EGM_PATHCORR
! Used tool
PERS tooldata tEGM:=[TRUE,[[148.62,0.25,326.31],
[0.833900724,0,0.551914471,0]], [1,[0,0,100],
[1,0,0,0],0,0,0]];
! Sensor tool, has to be calibrated
PERS tooldata
tLaser:=[TRUE,[[148.619609537,50.250017146,326.310337954],
[0.390261856,-0.58965743,-0.58965629,0.390263064]],
[1,[-0.920483747,-0.000000536,-0.390780849],
[1,0,0,0],0,0,0]];
! Displacement used
VAR pose PP:=[[0,-3,2],[1,0,0,0]];
VAR egmident egmId1;
! Protocol: LTAPP
! Example for a look ahead sensor, e.g. Laser Tracker
PROC Part_2_EGM_OT_Pth_1()
EGMGetId egmId1;
! Set up the EGM data source: LTAPP server using device "Optsim",
! configuration "pathCorr", joint type 1 and look ahead sensor.
EGMSetupLTAPP ROB_1, egmId1, "pathCorr", "OptSim", 1\LATR;
! Activate EGM and define the sensor frame.
! Correction frame is always the path frame.
EGMActMove egmId1, tLaser.tframe\SampleRate:=50;
! Move to a suitable approach position.
MoveJ p100,v1000,z10,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p110,v1000,z100,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p120,v1000,z100,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Activate displacement (not necessary but possible)
PDispSet PP;
! Move to the start point. Fine point is demanded.
MoveL p130, v10, fine, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! movements with path corrections.
EGMMoveL egmId1, p140, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
EGMMoveL egmId1, p150, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
EGMMoveC egmId1, p160, p165, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Last path correction movement has to end with a fine point.
EGMMoveL egmId1, p170, v10, fine, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Move to a safe position after path correction.
MoveL p180,v1000,z10,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Release the EGM identity for reuse.
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9.3.6.3 Using EGM Path Correction with different protocol types
Continued
EGMReset egmId1;
ENDPROC
! Protocol: LTAPP
! Example for an at point sensor, e.g. Weldguide
PROC Part_2_EGM_WG_Pth_1()
EGMGetId egmId1;
! Set up the EGM data source: LTAPP server using device "wg1sim",
! configuration "pathCorr", joint type 1 and at point sensor.
EGMSetupLTAPP ROB_1, egmId1, "pathCorr", "wg1sim", 1\APTR;
! Activate EGM and define the sensor frame,
! which is the tool frame for at point trackers.
! Correction frame is always the path frame.
EGMActMove egmId1, tEGM.tframe\SampleRate:=50;
! Move to a suitable approach position.
MoveJ p100,v1000,z10,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p110,v1000,z100,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p120,v1000,fine,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Activate displacement (not necessary but possible)
PDispSet PP;
! Move to the start point. Fine point is demanded.
MoveL p130, v10, fine, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! movements with path corrections.
EGMMoveL egmId1, p140, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
EGMMoveL egmId1, p150, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
EGMMoveC egmId1, p160, p165, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Last path correction movement has to end with a fine point.
EGMMoveL egmId1, p170, v10, fine, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Move to a safe position after path correction.
MoveL p180,v1000,z10,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Release the EGM identity for reuse.
EGMReset egmId1;
ENDPROC
! Protocol: UdpUc
! Example for an at point sensor, e.g. Weldguide
PROC Part_2_EGM_UDPUC_Pth_1()
EGMGetId egmId1;
EGMSetupUC ROB_1, egmId1, "pathCorr", "UCdevice"\PathCorr\APTR;
EGMActMove egmId1, tEGM.tframe\SampleRate:=50;
! Move to a suitable approach position.
MoveJ p100,v1000,z10,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p110,v1000,z100,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
MoveL p120,v1000,fine,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Activate displacement (not necessary but possible)
PDispSet PP;
! Move to the start point. Fine point is demanded.
MoveL p130, v10, fine, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! movements with path corrections.
EGMMoveL egmId1, p140, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
EGMMoveL egmId1, p150, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
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9.3.6.3 Using EGM Path Correction with different protocol types
Continued
EGMMoveC egmId1, p160, p165, v10, z5, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Last path correction movement has to end with a fine point.
EGMMoveL egmId1, p170, v10, fine, tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Move to a safe position after path correction.
MoveL p180,v1000,z10,tEGM\WObj:=wobj0;
! Release the EGM identity for reuse.
EGMReset egmId1;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.3.7 UdpUc code examples
9.3.7 UdpUc code examples
File locations
The following code examples are available in the RobotWare distribution.
File
Description
egm-sensor.cs
Example using protobuf-csharp-port
egm-sensor.cpp
Example using Google protocol buffers C++
egm.proto
The egm.proto file defines the data contract between the
robot and the sensor.
The files can be obtained from the PC or the IRC5 controller.
•
In the RobotWare installation folder in RobotStudio: ...\RobotPackages\
RobotWare_RPK_<version>\utility\Template\EGM\
•
On the IRC5 Controller:
<SystemName>\PRODUCTS\<RobotWare_xx.xx.xxxx>\utility\Template\EGM\
Note
Navigate to the RobotWare installation folder from the RobotStudio Add-Ins tab,
by right-clicking on the installed RobotWare version in the Add-Ins browser and
selecting Open Package Folder.
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9.4.1 Introduction to Robot Reference Interface
9.4 Robot Reference Interface [included in 689-1]
9.4.1 Introduction to Robot Reference Interface
Introduction
Robot Reference Interface is included in the RobotWare option Externally Guided
Motion.
Robot Reference Interface supports data exchange on the cyclic channel. It provides
the possibility to periodically send planned and actual robot position data from the
robot controller, as well as the exchange of other RAPID variables from and to the
robot controller. The message contents are represented in XML format and are
configured using appropriate sensor configuration files.
Robot Reference Interface
The cyclic communication channel (TCP or UDP) can be executed in the high-priority
network environment of the IRC5 Controller which ensures a stable data exchange
up to 250Hz.
Robot
RRI
Sensor
Cyclic channel (TCP or UDP)
Rapid data
read/write
Cabinet status
read only
Motion data
read only
Receive commands,
parameters and
robot data
Return parameters
and sensor data
xx0800000128
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9.4.2.1 Connecting the communication cable
9.4.2 Installation
9.4.2.1 Connecting the communication cable
Overview
This section describes where to connect the communication cable on the controller.
For further instructions, see the corresponding product manual for your robot
system.
Location
A
B
xx1300000609
A
Service port on the computer unit (connected to the service port on the controller)
B
WAN port on the computer unit
Action
1
Note
Use one of these two connections (A or B).
Note
The service connection can only be
used if it is free.
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9.4.2.2 Prerequisites
9.4.2.2 Prerequisites
Overview
This section describes the prerequisites for using Robot Reference Interface.
UDP/IP or TCP IP
Robot Reference Interface supports the communication over the standard IP
protocols UDP or TCP.
Recommendations
The delay in the overall communication mostly depends on the topology of the
employed network. In a switched network the transmission will be delayed due to
buffering of the messages in the switches. In a parallel network collisions with
multiple communication partners will lead to messages being resent.
Therefore we recommended using a dedicated Ethernet link between the external
system and the robot controller to provide the required performance for real-time
applications. Robot Reference Interface can be used to communicate with any
processor-based devices, that support IP via Ethernet and can serialize data into
XML format.
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9.4.2.3 Data orchestration
9.4.2.3 Data orchestration
Overview
The outgoing message can be combined from any data from the RAPID level and
internal data from the cabinet and motion topic. The orchestration of the data is
defined in the device configuration by setting the Link attribute of internally linked
data to Intern.
Illustration
xx0800000178
Data from the Controller topic
Name
Type
Description
Comment
OperationMode OpMode Operation mode The mapping of the members for the Opof the robot.
Mode type can be defined in the configuration file.
Data from the Motion topic
Name
Type
Description
FeedbackTime
Time
Time stamp for the robot posi- There is a delay of approximtion from drive feedback.
ately 8ms.
FeedbackPose
Frame
Robot TCP calculated from
drive feedback.
FeedbackJoints Joints
Robot joint values gathered
from drive feedback.
PredictedTime
Time
Timestamp for planned robot Prediction time from approximTCP position and joint values. ately 24ms to 60ms depending
on robot type.
PlannedPose
Frame
Planned robot TCP.
PlannedJoints
Joints
Planned robot joint values.
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Comment
Current tool and workobject
are used for calculation.
Current tool and workobject
are used for calculation.
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9.4.2.4 Supported data types
9.4.2.4 Supported data types
Overview
This section contains a short description of the Robot Reference Interface supported
data types, for more detailed information about the supported data types see
References on page 13.
Data types
Robot Reference Interface supports the following simple data types:
Data type
Description
RAPID type mapping
bool
Boolean value.
bool
real
Single precision, floating point value.
num
time
Time in seconds expressed as floating point value. num
string
String with max length of 80 characters.
frame
Cartesian position and orientation in Euler Angles pose
(Roll-Pitch-Jaw).
joint
Robot joint values.
string
robjoint
In addition, user-defined records can also be transferred from the external system
to the robot controller, which are composed from the supported simple data types.
User defined record types must be specified in the configuration file of the external
device. See Device configuration on page 366 for a description on how to create
user-defined record types.
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9.4.3.1 Interface configuration
9.4.3 Configuration
9.4.3.1 Interface configuration
Configuration files
The configuration and settings files for the interface must be located in the folder
HOME/GSI. This ensures that the configuration files are included in system backups.
xx0800000177
Related information
For more detailed information of the Settings.xml file see Interface settings on
page 362.
For more detailed information of the Description.xml file see Device description
on page 363.
For more detailed information of the Configuration.xml file see Device configuration
on page 366.
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9.4.3.2 Interface settings
9.4.3.2 Interface settings
Overview
This section describes the use of the xml file Settings.xml.
Settings.xml
The settings file Settings.xml contains the general settings for the GSI interface.
It is located in the folder HOME/GSI. For the option Robot Reference Interface this
file refers to a list of all communication clients for external systems installed in the
controller. The Settings.xml file can be defined according to the XML schema
Settings.xsd.
Example
For each communication client installed on the controller, the file Settings.xml must
contain a Client entry in the Clients section. The Convention attribute identifies the
protocol convention used by the client, for the Robot Reference Interface option
only CDP is supported. The Name attribute identifies the name of the client and
also specifies the folder with the device related configuration files.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Settings>
<Clients>
<Client Convention="CDP" Name="MySensor" />
</Clients>
</Settings>
CDP stands for cyclic data protocol and is the internal name of the protocol, on
which Robot Reference Interface messages are transferred.
An internal client node of the interface module will be created, which is able to
connect to the external system MySensor that runs a data server application and
can communicate via Robot Reference Interface with the robot.
For each sensor system, a subdirectory named with the sensor system identifier,
for example MySensor, contains further settings.
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9.4.3.3 Device description
9.4.3.3 Device description
Overview
This section describes the use of the xml file Description.xml.
Description.xml
The device description file Description.xml is located in the corresponding
subdirectory of the device. It specifies the general device parameters, network
connection and CDP specific communication settings for an installed device. A
device description can be defined according to the XML schema Description.xsd.
Example
This is an example of a device description:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Description>
<Name>AnyDevice</Name>
<Convention>CDP</Convention>
<Type>IntelligentCamera</Type>
<Class>MachineVision</Class>
<Network Address="10.49.65.74" Port="Service">
<Channel Type="Cyclic" Protocol="Udp" Port="3002" />
</Network>
<Settings>
<TimeOut>2000</TimeOut>
<MaxLost>30</MaxLost>
<DryRun>false</DryRun>
</Settings>
</Description>
Name
The first section defines the general device parameters. The Name element
identifies the name of the device and should correspond to the device name
specified in the settings file. It must correspond to the identifier specified for the
device descriptor on the RAPID level, because the descriptor name will be used
initially to refer to the device in the RAPID instructions.
Element
Attribute
Name
Description
Value
Comment
Device identifier
Any string
Maximum 16 characters
Convention
The Convention element identifies the protocol that should be used by the device,
for the Robot Reference Interface option only the Cyclic Data Protocol (CDP) is
supported.
Element
Attribute
Convention
Description
Value
Protocol type
CDP
Comment
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9.4.3.3 Device description
Continued
Type and Class
The Type and Class elements identifies the device type and class and are currently
not validated, therefore they can also contain undefined device types or classes.
Element
Attribute
Description
Value
Comment
Type
Sensor type
Any string
Not validated
Class
Sensor class
Any string
Not validated
Network
The Network section defines the network connection settings for the device. The
Address attribute specifies the IP address or host name of the device on the
network. The optional Port attribute is used to specify the physical Ethernet port
on the controller side that the cable is plugged into. Valid values are WAN and
Service. The attribute can be omitted if the WAN port is used for communication.
Element
Attribute
Network
Description
Value
Comment
Network settings
Address
IP address or host name Any valid IP ad- 10.49.65.249
of the device
dress or host DE-L-0328122
name
Port
Physical Ethernet port on WAN
the controller
Service
Optional. Can be omitted if WAN port is
used.
Channel
The Channel element defines the settings for the communication channel between
the robot controller and the external device. The Type attribute identifies the channel
type, only Cyclic is supported by Robot Reference Interface.
The Protocol attribute identifies the IP protocol used on the channel, for Robot
Reference Interface you can specify to use Tcp or Udp. The Port attribute specifies
the logical port number for the channel on the device side.
Element
Attribute
Channel
Description
Value
Comment
Channel settings
Type
Channel type
Cyclic
Protocol
The IP protocol type
Tcp
Udp
Port
The logical port num- uShort
ber of the channel
Any available port number on the device, maximum 65535.
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9.4.3.3 Device description
Continued
Settings
The Settings section contains communication parameters specific to the CDP
protocol. The TimeOut element defines the timeout for not received messages.
This element identifies the time until the connection is considered broken and is
only needed for bidirectional communication. The MaxLost attribute defines the
maximum number of not acknowledged or lost messages allowed. The DryRun
element identifies, if the acknowledgement of messages is supervised and can be
used to setup an unidirectional communication.
Element
Description
Value
TimeOut
Time out for communication
MaxLost
Maximum loss of
packages allowed
Integer
DryRun
Interface run mode
Bool
Comment
Time in milliseconds, a multiple of 4
ms.
If TRUE, TimeOut and MaxLost will not
be checked.
If the element DryRun in the Description.xml is set to FALSE, communication
supervision is established on the protocol level of the Robot Reference Interface,
using the settings for TimeOut and MaxLost. This supervision requires that each
message that is sent out from the robot controller is answered by the connected
device. The supervision generates a communication error, if the maximum response
time or the maximum number of lost packages is exceeded. Each sent out message
has an ID, which needs to be used for the ID in the reply too, to identify the reply
message and to detect which packages have been lost. See also the example in
section Transmitted XML messages on page 373.
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9.4.3.4 Device configuration
9.4.3.4 Device configuration
Overview
The device configuration file Configuration.xml is located in the corresponding
subdirectory of the device. It defines the enumerated and complex types used by
the device and identifies the available parameters, which can be subscribed for
cyclic transmission. The configuration file can be defined according to the XML
schema Configuration.xsd. The following document shows a simplified device
configuration.
Example
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Configuration>
<Enums>
<Enum Name="opmode" Link="Intern">
<Member Name="ReducedSpeed" Alias="Alias"/>
</Enum>
</Enums>
<Records>
<Record Name="senddata">
<Field Name="PlannedPose" Type="Pose" Link="Intern" />
</Record>
</Records>
<Properties>
<Property Name="DataToSend" Type="senddata" Flag="WriteOnly"
/>
</Properties>
</Configuration>
Enums
In the Enums section each Enum element defines an enumerated type. The Name
attribute of the Enum element specifies the name of the enumerated type, the
optional Link attribute identifies if the members of the enumerated type have internal
linkage.
Element
Attribute
Descriptions
Value
Comment
Enum
Name
Name of enumer- A valid RAPID
ated type
symbol name
Maximum 16 characters.
Link
Linkage of mem- Intern
bers of enumerated type
Optional. Can be omitted if
members only have RAPID
linkage.
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9.4.3.4 Device configuration
Continued
Member
Each Member element defines a member element of the enumerated type. The
Name attribute specifies the name of the member on the controller side (on RAPID
level). The Alias attribute identifies the name of the member on the device side
(and in the transmitted message).
Element
Attribute
Descriptions
Value
Comment
Member
Name
Name of enumer- A valid RAPID
ated type mem- symbol name
ber
Maximum 16 characters.Valid
internal RAPID symbol
names. See Data orchestration on page 359.
Alias
Alias name of
String
enumerated type
member
Optional. The alias name is
used on the device side and
in message
Record
In the Records section each Record element defines a declaration of a complex
type. In RAPID this complex type will be represented as a RECORD declaration.
The Name attribute identifies the name of the complex type on the controller side.
The Alias attribute defines the alias name of the type on the device side and in the
message.
Element
Attribute
Descriptions
Value
Record
Name
Name of the com- A valid RAPID
plex type.
symbol name
Maximum 16 characters.
Alias
Alias name of
complex type.
Optional. The alias name is
used on the device side and
in message.
String
Comment
Field
Each Field element defines a field element of a complex type. The Name attribute
identifies the name of the field. The Type attribute identifies the enumerated,
complex or simple type associated with the field. The Size attribute defines the
size of a multi-dimensional field. The Link attribute identifies if the field has internal
linkage.
Element
Attribute
Descriptions
Value
Field
Name
Name of the com- A valid RAPID
plex type field
symbol name
Maximum 16 characters.Valid
internal RAPID symbol
names. See Data orchestration on page 359.
Type
Data type of the
field
All supported
data types
Described in section Supported data types on page 360.
Size
Dimensions of
the field (size of
array)
Integer
Optional. Only basic types
can be defined as array.
Link
Linkage of com- Intern
plex type field
Optional. Can be omitted if
field has RAPID linkage.
Alias
Alias name of
complex type
field
Optional. The alias name is
used on device side and in
message.
String
Comment
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9.4.3.4 Device configuration
Continued
Properties
In the Properties section each Property element defines a RAPID variable that can
be used in the SiGetCyclic and SiSetCyclic instructions.
368
Element
Attribute
Descriptions
Value
Property
Name
Name of the
property
An valid RAPID Maximum 16 characters.
symbol name
Type
Data type of the
property
All supported
data types
Size
Dimension (Size Integer
of array)
Optional. Only basic types
can be defined as array.
Flag
Access Flag
Optional. Can be omitted if
property is read and write enabled.
Link
Linkage of prop- Intern
erty
Mandatory if field has RAPID
linkage.
Alias
Alias name of the String
property
Optional. The alias name is
used on device side and in
message.
None
ReadOnly
WriteOnly
ReadWrite
Comment
Described in section Supported data types on page 360.
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9.4.4.1 RAPID programming
9.4.4 Configuration examples
9.4.4.1 RAPID programming
RAPID module
A RAPID module containing the corresponding RAPID record declarations and
variable declarations must be created and loaded.
The FlexPendant user interface is not included in RobotWare.
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9.4.4.2 Example configuration
9.4.4.2 Example configuration
Overview
The files Settings.xml, Description.xml, and Configuration.xml are located in the
folder HOME\GSI\
xx0800000177
Note
The name of the folder must correspond to the name of the device. See Device
description on page 363. In this example we have used the name AnyDevice.
The network address used in Description.xml is to the PC running the server,
not the robot controller. See Device description on page 363.
Settings.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Settings>
<Servers>
<Servers/>
<Clients>
<Client Convention="CDP" Name="AnyDevice" />
</Clients>
</Settings
Description.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Description>
<Name>AnyDevice</Name>
<Convention>CDP</Convention>
<Type>IntelligentCamera</Type>
<Class>MachineVision</Class>
<Network Address="10.49.65.74" Port="Service">
<Channel Type="Cyclic" Protocol="Udp" Port="3002" />
</Network>
<Settings>
<TimeOut>2000</TimeOut>
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9.4.4.2 Example configuration
Continued
<MaxLost>30</MaxLost>
<DryRun>false</DryRun>
</Settings>
</Description>
Configuration.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<Configuration>
<Enums>
<Enum Name="OperationMode" Link="Intern">
<Member Name="Automatic" Alias="Auto" />
<Member Name="ReducedSpeed" Alias="ManRS" />
<Member Name="FullSpeed" Alias="ManFS" />
</Enum>
</Enums>
<Records>
<Record Name="RobotData">
<Field Name="OperationMode" Type="OperationMode" Link="Intern"
Alias="RobMode" />
<Field Name="FeedbackTime" Type="Time" Link="Intern"
Alias="Ts_act" />
<Field Name="FeedbackPose" Type="Frame" Link="Intern"
Alias="P_act" />
<Field Name="FeedbackJoints" Type="Joints" Link="Intern"
Alias="J_act" />
<Field Name="PredictedTime" Type="Time" Link="Intern"
Alias="Ts_des" />
<Field Name="PlannedPose" Type="Frame" Link="Intern"
Alias="P_des" />
<Field Name="PlannedJoints" Type="Joints" Link="Intern"
Alias="J_des" />
<Field Name="ApplicationData" Type="Num" Size="18"
Alias="AppData" />
</Record>
<Record Name="SensorData">
<Field Name="ErrorString" Type="String" Alias="EStr" />
<Field Name="ApplicationData" Type="Num" Size="18"
Alias="AppData" />
</Record>
</Records>
<Properties>
<Property Name="RobData" Type="RobotData" Flag="WriteOnly"/>
<Property Name="SensData" Type="SensorData" Flag="ReadOnly"/>
</Properties>
</Configuration>
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9.4.4.2 Example configuration
Continued
RAPID configuration
This is an example for an RRI implementation. The out data uses an array of 18
num (robdata). The in data receives a string and an array of 18 num (sensdata).
This needs to defined according the file configuration.xml.
RECORD applicationdata
num Item1;
num Item2;
num Item3;
num Item4;
num Item5;
num Item6;
num Item7;
num Item8;
num Item9;
num Item10;
num Item11;
num Item12;
num Item13;
num Item14;
num Item15;
num Item16;
num Item17;
num Item18;
ENDRECORD
RECORD robdata
applicationdata AppData;
ENDRECORD
RECORD sensdata
string ErrString;applicationdata AppData;
ENDRECORD
! Sensor Declarations
PERS sensor AnyDevice := [1,4,0];
PERS robdata DataOut := [[0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]];
PERS sensdata DataIn :=
["No",[0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]];
! Setup Interface Procedure
PROC RRI_Open()
SiConnect AnyDevice;
! Send and receive data cyclic with 64 ms rate
SiGetCyclic AnyDevice, DataIn, 64;
SiSetCyclic AnyDevice, DataOut, 64;
ENDPROC
! Close Interface Procedure
PROC RRI_Close()
! Close the connection
SiClose RsMaster;
ENDPROC
ENDMODULE
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9.4.4.2 Example configuration
Continued
Transmitted XML messages
Each XML message has the data variable name as root element with the attributes
Id (the message ID) and Ts (the time stamp of the message). The subelements
are then the record fields. The values of a multiple value field (array or record) are
expressed as attributes.
Message sent out from robot controller
The time unit is second (float) with a resolution of 1 ms. The position (length) unit
is millimeter (float). The position (angle) unit is radians.
Name
Data type
Description
Id
Integer
Last received robot data message ID
Ts
Float
Time stamp (message)
RobMode
Operationmode
Operation mode
TS_act
Float
Time stamp (actual position)
P_act
Pose
Actual cartesian position
J_act
Joint
Actual joint position
TS_des
Float
Time stamp (desired position)
P_des
Pose
Desired cartesian position
J_des
Joint
Desired joint position
AppData
Array of 18 Floats
Free defined application data
<RobData Id="111" Ts="1.202" >
<RobMode>Auto</RobMode>
<Ts_act>1.200</Ts_act>
<P_act X="1620.0" Y="1620.0" Z="1620.0" Rx="100.0" Ry="100.0"
Rz="100.0" />
<J_act J1="1.0" J2="1.0" J3="1.0" J4="1.0" J5="1.0" J6="1.0" />
<Ts_des>1.200</Ts_des>
<P_des X="1620.0" Y="1620.0" Z="1620.0" Rx="100.0" Ry="100.0"
Rz="100.0" />
<J_des J1="1.0" J2="1.0" J3="1.0" J4="1.0" J5="1.0" J6="1.0" />
<AppData X1="1" X2="1620.000" X3="1620.000" X4="1620.000"
X5="1620.000" X6="1620.000" X7="1620.000" X8="1620.000"
X9="1620.000" X10="1620.000" X11="1620.000" X12="1620.000"
X13="1620.000" X14="1620.000" X15="1620.000" X16="1620.000"
X17="1620.000" X18="1620.000" />
</RobData>
Message received from robot controller
The time unit is seconds (float).
Name
Data type
Description
Id
Integer
Last received data message ID. This ID
must correspond to the ID sent from the
robot controller.
Ts
Float
Time stamp
EStr
String
Error message
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9.4.4.2 Example configuration
Continued
Name
Data type
Description
AppData
Array of 18 floats
Free defined application data
The corresponding XML message on the network would look like this:
<SensData Id="111" Ts="1.234">
<EStr>xxxx</Estr>
<AppData X1="232.661" X2="1620.293" X3="463.932"
X4="1231.053" X5="735.874" X6="948.263" X7="2103.584"
X8="574.228" X9="65.406" X10="2372.633" X11="20.475"
X12="96.729" X13="884.382" X14="927.954" X15="748.294"
X16="3285.574" X17="583.293" X18="684.338" />
</SensData>
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9.4.5 RAPID components
9.4.5 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is an overview of all instructions, functions, and data types in Robot Reference
Interface.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instructions
Description
SiConnect
Sensor Interface Connect
SiClose
Sensor Interface Close
SiGetCyclic
Sensor Interface Get Cyclic
SiSetCyclic
Sensor Interface Set Cyclic
Functions
Robot Reference Interface includes no functions.
Data types
Data types
Description
sensor
External device descriptor
sensorstate
Communication state of the device
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10 Tool control options
10.1.1 Overview
10 Tool control options
10.1 Servo Tool Change [630-1]
10.1.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of Servo Tool Change is to be able to change tools on-line.
With the option Servo Tool Change it is possible to disconnect the cables to the
motor of an additional axis and connect them to the motor of another additional
axis. This can be done on the run, in production.
This option is designed with servo tools in mind, but can be used for any type of
additional axes.
Examples of advantages are:
•
One robot can handle several tools.
•
Less equipment is needed since one drive-measurement system is shared
by several tools.
What is included
The RobotWare option Servo Tool Change enables you to:
•
change tool on-line
•
have up to 8 different servo tools to change between.
Note that the option Servo Tool Change only provides the software functionality.
Hardware, such as a tool changer is not included.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using Servo Tool Change. For a more detailed
description of how this is done, see Tool change procedure on page 383.
1 Deactivate the first tool.
2 Disconnect the first tool from the cables.
3 Connect the second tool to the cables.
4 Activate the second tool.
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10 Tool control options
10.1.2 Requirements and limitations
10.1.2 Requirements and limitations
Additional Axes
To use Servo Motor Control, you must have the option Additional Axes. All additional
axes used by servo motor control must be configured according to the instructions
in Requirements and limitations on page 378.
Tool changer
To be able to change tools in production with a plug-in mechanism, a mechanical
tool changer interface is required.
en0300000549
All cables are connected to the tool changer. The tool changer interface includes
connections for signals, power, air, water or whatever needs to be transmitted to
and from the tool.
Up to 8 tools
Up to 8 additional axes (servo tools or other axes) can be installed simultaneously
in one robot controller. Some of them (or all) may be servo tools sharing a tool
changer.
Moving deactivated tool
The controller remembers the position of a deactivated tool. When the tool is
reconnected and activated this position is used.
If the servo tool axis is moved during deactivation, the position of the axis might
be wrong after activation, and this will not be detected by the controller.
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10 Tool control options
10.1.2 Requirements and limitations
Continued
The position after activation will be correct if the axis has not been moved, or if
the movement is less than 0.5 motor revolutions.
Tip
If you have the Spot Servo option you can use tool change calibration.
After a tool is activated, call the instruction STCalib to calibrate the tool. This
will adjust any positional error caused by tool movements during deactivation.
Activating wrong tool
It is important not to activate a mechanical unit that is not connected.
An activation of the wrong mechanical unit may cause unexpected movements or
errors. The same errors occur if a tool is activated when no tool at all is connected.
Tip
A connection relay can be configured so that activation of a mechanical unit is
only allowed when it is connected. See Connection relay on page 381.
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10 Tool control options
10.1.3 Configuration
10.1.3 Configuration
Configuration overview
The option Servo Tool Change allows configuration of several tools for the same
additional axis.
One individual set of parameters is installed for each gun tool.
How to configure each tool
Each tool is configured the same way as if it was the only tool. For information on
how to do this, see Configuration on page 380.
The parameter Deactivate PTC superv. at disconnect, in the type Mechanical Unit,
must be set to Yes.
The parameter Disconnect deactivate, in the type Measurement Channel, must be
set to Yes.
The parameter Logical Axis, in the type Joint, can be set to the same number for
several tools. Since the tools are never used at the same time, the tools are allowed
to use the same logical axis.
The parameter allow_activation_from_any_motion_task, in the type Mechanical
Unit, must be set for the specific servo gun. The servo gun .cfg files are created
by the servo gun manufacture.
For a detailed description of the respective parameter, see Configuration on
page 380.
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10 Tool control options
10.1.4 Connection relay
10.1.4 Connection relay
Overview
To make sure a disconnected mechanical unit is not activated, a connection relay
can be used. A connection relay can prevent a mechanical unit from being activated
unless a specified digital signal is set.
Some tool changers support I/O signals that specify which gun is currently
connected. Then a digital input signal from the tool changer is used by the
connection relay.
If the tool changer does not support I/O signals, a similar behavior can be created
with RAPID instructions. Set a digital output signal to 1 with the instruction SetDO
each time the tool is connected, and set the signal to 0 when the tool is
disconnected.
System parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter used to configure a connection relay.
For more information, see the respective parameter in Connection relay on page 381
The following parameters have to be set for the type Mechanical Unit in the topic
Motion:
Parameter
Description
Use Connection The name of the relay to use.
Relay
Corresponds to the name specified in the parameter Name in the type
Relay.
The following parameters must be set for the type Relay in the topic Motion:
Parameter
Description
Name
Name of the relay.
Used by the parameter Use Connection Relay in the type Mechanical Unit.
Input Signal
The name of the digital signal used to indicate if it should be possible to
activate the mechanical unit.
Example of connection relay configuration
This is an example of how to configure connection relays for two gun tools. gun1
can only be activated when signal di1 is 1, and gun2 can only be activated when
di2 is 1.
If the tool changer sets di1 to 1 only when gun1 is connected, and di2 to 1 only
when gun2 is connected, there is no risk of activating the wrong gun.
The following parameter values are set for gun1 and gun2 in the typeMechanical
Unit:
Name
Use Connection Relay
gun1
gun1_relay
gun2
gun2_relay
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10 Tool control options
10.1.4 Connection relay
Continued
The following parameter values are set for gun1 and gun2 in the typeRelay:
382
Name
Input Signal
gun1_relay
di1
gun2_relay
di2
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
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10 Tool control options
10.1.5 Tool change procedure
10.1.5 Tool change procedure
How to change tool
This is a description of how to change from gun1 to gun2.
Step
Action
1
Deactivate gun1 with the instruction: DeactUnit gun1;
2
Disconnect gun1 from the tool changer.
3
Connect gun2 to the tool changer.
4
Activate gun2 with the instruction: ActUnit gun2;
5
Optional but recommended:
Calibrate gun2 with the instruction: STCalib gun1 \ToolChg;
Note that this calibration requires option Servo Tool Control or Spot Servo .
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10 Tool control options
10.1.6 Jogging servo tools with activation disabled
10.1.6 Jogging servo tools with activation disabled
Overview
Only one of the servo tools used by the tool changer may be activated at a time,
the others are set to activation disabled. This is to make sure that the user is jogging
the servo tool presently connected with right configuration.
What to do when Activation disabled appears
Follow these steps when you need to jog a servo tool but cannot activate the unit
because activation is disabled.
384
Step
Action
1.
Make sure that the right servo tool is mounted on the tool changer. If the wrong
tool is mounted, see Tool change procedure on page 383.
2.
If no tool is activated, open the RAPID execution and activate the right tool.
3.
If the right tool is mounted on the tool changer, deactivate the wrong tool and activate the right tool from RAPID execution.
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
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10 Tool control options
10.2.1 Overview
10.2 Tool Control [1180-1]
10.2.1 Overview
Purpose
Tool Control can be used to control a servo tool, for example in a spot weld
application. Tool Control makes it possible to close the tool to a specific plate
thickness and force, and maintain the force during the process until the tool is
requested to be opened.
What is included
Tool Control gives you access to:
•
RAPID instructions to open, close and calibrate servo tools
•
RAPID instructions for tuning system parameter values
•
RAPID functions for checking status of servo tools
•
system parameters to configure servo tools
Basic approach
This is the general approach for using Tool Control.
1 Configure and calibrate the servo tool.
2 Perform a force calibration.
3 Create the RAPID program.
Prerequisites
A servo tool is an additional axis. The option Additional Axes must be present on
the robot system using a servo tool. Required hardware, such as drive module and
measurement board, is specified in Application manual - Additional axes and stand
alone controller.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.2 Servo tool movements
10.2.2 Servo tool movements
Closing and opening of a servo tool
The servo tool can be closed to a predefined thickness and tool force. When the
tool reaches the programmed contact position, the movement is stopped and there
is an immediate switch from position control mode to force control mode. In the
force control mode a motor torque will be applied to achieve the desired tool force.
The force remains constant until an opening is ordered. Opening of the tool will
reduce the tool force to zero and move the tool arm back to the pre-close position.
Synchronous and asynchronous movements
Normally a servo tool axis is moved synchronous with the robot movements in
such a way that both movements will be completed exactly at the same time.
However the servo tool may be closed asynchronously (independent of current
robot movement). The closing will immediately start to run the tool arm to the
expected contact position (thickness). The closing movement will interrupt an
on-going synchronous movement of the tool arm.
The tool opening may also take place while the robot is moving. But it is not possible
if the robot movement includes a synchronized movement of the servo tool axis.
A motion error, "tool opening could not synchronize with robot movement", will
occur.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.3 Tip management
10.2.3 Tip management
About tip management
The tip management functionality will find and calibrate the contact position of the
tool tips automatically. It will also update and monitor the total tip wear of the tool
tips.
The tips can be calibrated by using the RAPID instruction STCalib (see Instructions
on page 390). Typically, two tool closings will be performed during a calibration.
Three different types of calibrations are supported: tip wear, tip change and tool
change. All three will calibrate the contact position of the tips. The total tip wear
will, however, be updated differently by these methods.
Tip wear calibration
As the tips are worn down, for example when spot welding, they need to be dressed.
After the tip dressing, a tip wear calibration is required. The tool contact position
is calibrated and the total tip wear of the tool is updated. The calibration movements
are fast and the switch to force control mode will take place at the zero position.
This method must only be used to make small position adjustments (< 3 mm)
caused by tip wear / tip dressing.
Tip
A variable in your RAPID program can keep track of the tip wear and inform you
when the tips needs to be replaced.
Tip change calibration
The tip change calibration is to be used after mounting a new pair of tips, for
example when spot welding. The tool contact position is calibrated and the total
tip wear of the tool is reset. The first calibration movement is slow in order to find
the unknown contact position and switch to force control. The second calibration
movement is fast. This calibration method will handle big position adjustments of
the servo tool.
This calibration may be followed by a tool closing in order to squeeze the tips in
place. A new tip change calibration is then done to update possible position
differences after the tip squeeze.
Tool change calibration
The tool change calibration is to be used after reconnecting and activating a servo
tool. The tool contact position is calibrated and the total tip wear of the tool remains
unchanged. The first calibration movement is slow in order to find the unknown
tip collision position and switch to force control. The second calibration movement
is fast. This calibration method will handle big position adjustments of the tool.
The method should always be used after reconnecting a tool since the activation
will restore the latest known position of the tool, and that position may be different
from the actual tool position; the tool arm may have been moved when
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10 Tool control options
10.2.3 Tip management
Continued
disconnected. This calibration method will handle big position adjustments of the
tool.
Tip
Tool change calibration is most commonly used together with the RobotWare
option Servo Tool Change.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.4 Supervision
10.2.4 Supervision
Max and min stroke
An out of range supervision will stop the movement if the tool is reaching max
stroke or if it is closed to contact with the tips (reaching min stroke). See Upper
Joint Bound and Lower Joint Bound in Arm on page 393.
Motion supervision
During the position control phase of the closing/opening, motion supervision is
active for the servo tool to detect if the arm collides or gets stuck. A collision will
cause a motion error and the motion will be stopped.
During the force control phase, the motion supervision will supervise the tool arm
position not to exceed a certain distance from the expected contact position. See
parameter Max Force Control Position Error in Supervision Type on page 394.
Maximum torque
There is a maximum motor torque for the servo tool that never will be exceeded
in order to protect the tool from damage. If the force is programmed out of range
according to the tools force-torque table, the output force will be limited to this
maximum allowed motor torque and a motion warning will be logged. See parameter
Max Force Control Motor Torque in SG Process on page 391.
Speed limit
During the force control phase there is a speed limitation. The speed limitation will
give a controlled behavior of the tool even if the force control starts before the tool
is completely closed. See Speed limit 1- 6 in Force Master Control on page 392.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.5 RAPID components
10.2.5 RAPID components
About the RAPID components
This is an overview of all instructions, functions, and data types in Tool Control.
For more information, see Technical reference manual - RAPID Instructions,
Functions and Data types.
Instructions
Instruction
Description
STClose
Close the servo tool with a predefined force and thickness.
STOpen
Open the servo tool.
STCalib
Calibrate the servo tool.
An argument determines which type of calibration will be performed:
• \ToolChg for tool change calibration
• \TipChg for tip change calibration
• \TipWear for tip wear calibration
STTune
Tune motion parameters for the servo tool. A temporary value can be
set for a parameter specified in the instruction.
STTuneReset
Reset tuned motion parameters for the servo tool. Cancel the effect of
all STTune instructions.
Function
Description
STIsClosed
Test if the servo tool is closed.
STIsOpen
Test if the servo tool is open.
STIsCalib
Tests if a servo tool is calibrated.
STCalcTorque
Calculate the motor torque for a servo tool.
STCalcForce
Calculate the force for a servo tool.
Functions
STIsServoTool Tests if a mechanical unit is a servo tool.
STIsIndGun
Tests if servo tool is in independent mode.
Data types
Tool Control includes no RAPID data types.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.6 System parameters
10.2.6 System parameters
About the system parameters
When using a servo tool, a motion parameter file for the tool is normally installed
on the controller. A servo tool is a specific variant of an additional axis and the
description of how to configure the servo tool is found in Application
manual - Additional axes and stand alone controller.
In this section, the parameters used in combination with Tool Control is briefly
described. For more information, see the respective parameter in Technical
reference manual - System parameters.
SG Process
These parameters belong to the type SG Process in the topic Motion.
SG Process is used to configure the behavior of a servo gun (or other servo tool).
Parameter
Description
Close Time Adjust
Adjustment of the ordered minimum close time of the gun.
Close Position Adjust Adjustment of the ordered position (plate thickness) where force
control should start, when closing the gun.
Force Ready Delay
Delays the close ready event after achieving the ordered force.
Max Force Control
Motor Torque
Max allowed motor torque for force control. Commanded force will
be reduced, if the required motor torque is higher than this value.
Post-synchronization Anticipation of the open ready event. This can be used to synchronTime
ize the gun opening with the next robot movement.
Calibration Mode
Defines the number of times the servo gun closes during a tip wear
calibration.
Calibration Force Low The minimum tip force used during a tip wear calibration.
Calibration Force High The maximum tip force used during a tip wear calibration.
Calibration Time
The time that the servo gun waits in closed position during calibration.
Number of Stored
Forces
Defines the number of points in the force-torque relation specified
in Tip Force 1 - 10 and Motor Torque 1 - 10.
Tip Force 1 - 10
Tip Force 1 defines the tip force that corresponds to the motor torque
in Motor Torque 1.
Tip Force 2 corresponds to Motor Torque 2, etc.
Motor Torque 1- 10
Motor Torque 1 defines the motor torque that corresponds to the
tip force in Tip Force 1.
Motor Torque 2 corresponds to Tip Force 2, etc.
Squeeze Position 1 - Defines the joint position at each force level in the force calibration
10
table.
Soft Stop Timeout
Defines how long the force will be maintained if a soft stop occurs
during constant force.
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10.2.6 System parameters
Continued
Force Master
These parameters belong to the type Force Master in the topic Motion.
Force Master is used to define how a servo tool, typically a servo gun, behaves
during force control. The parameters only affect the servo tool when it is in force
control mode.
Parameter
Description
References Bandwidth The frequency limit for the low pass filter for reference values.
Use ramp time
Determines if the ramping of the tip force should use a constant
time or a constant gradient.
Ramp when Increase
Force
Determines how fast force is built up while closing the tool when
Use ramp time is set to No.
Ramp time
Determines how fast force is built up while closing the tool when
Use ramp time is set to Yes.
Collision LP Bandwidth Frequency limit for the low pass filter used for tip wear calibration.
Collision Alarm Torque Determines how hard the tool tips will be pressed together during
the first gun closing of new tips calibrations and tool change calibrations.
Collision Speed
Determines the servo gun speed during the first gun closing of
new tips calibrations and tool change calibrations.
Collision Delta Position Defines the distance the servo tool has gone beyond the contact
position when the motor torque has reached the value specified
in Collision Alarm Torque.
Max pos err. closing
Determines how close to the ordered plate thickness the tool tips
must be before the force control starts.
Delay ramp
Delays the starting of torque ramp when force control is started.
Ramp to real contact
Determines if the feedback position should be used instead of
reference position when deciding the contact position.
Force Master Control
These parameters belong to the type Force Master Control in the topic Motion.
Force Master Control is used to set the speed limit and speed loop gain as functions
of the torque.
Parameter
Description
No. of speed limits The number of points used to define speed limit and speed loop gain
as functions of the torque. Up to 6 points can be defined.
torque 1 - torque 6 The torque levels, corresponding to the ordered tip force, for which
the speed limit and speed loop gain values are defined.
Speed Limit 1 - 6
Speed Limit 1 to Speed Limit 6 are used to define the maximum speed
depending on the ordered tip force.
Kv 1 - 6
Kv 1 to Kv 6 are used to define the speed loop gain for reducing the
speed when the speed limit is exceeded.
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10.2.6 System parameters
Continued
Arm
These parameters belong to the type Arm in the topic Motion.
The type Arm defines the characteristics of an arm.
Parameter
Description
Upper Joint Bound Defines the upper limit of the working area for the joint.
Lower Joint Bound Defines the lower limit of the working area for the joint.
Acceleration Data
These parameters belong to the type Acceleration Data in the topic Motion.
Acceleration Data is used to specify some acceleration characteristics for axes
without any dynamic model.
Parameter
Description
Nominal Acceleration
Worst case motor acceleration.
Nominal Deceleration
Worst case motor deceleration.
Acceleration Derivate Ratio Indicates how fast the acceleration can be increased.
Deceleration Derivate Ratio Indicates how fast the deceleration can be increased.
Motor Type
These parameters belong to the type Motor Type in the topic Motion.
Motor Type is used to describe characteristics for a motor.
Parameter
Description
Pole Pairs
Defines the number of pole pairs for the motor.
Inertia
The inertia of the motor, including the resolver but excluding the
brake.
Stall Torque
The continuous stall torque, i.e. the torque the motor can produce at
no speed and during an infinite time.
ke Phase to Phase
Nominal voltage constant. The induced voltage (phase to phase) that
corresponds to the speed 1 rad/s.
Max Current
Max current without irreversible magnetization.
Phase Resistance
Nominal winding resistance per phase at 20 degrees Celsius.
Phase Inductance
Nominal winding inductance per phase at zero current.
Motor Calibration
These parameters belong to the type Motor Calibration in the topic Motion.
Motor Calibration is used to calibrate a motor.
Parameter
Description
Commutator Offset Defines the position of the motor (resolver) when the rotor is in the
electrical zero position relative to the stator.
Calibration Offset
Defines the position of the motor (resolver) when it is in the calibration
position.
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10.2.6 System parameters
Continued
Stress Duty Cycle
These parameters belong to the type Stress Duty Cycle in the topic Motion.
Stress Duty Cycle is used for protecting axes, gearboxes, etc.
Parameter
Description
Speed Absolute Max
The absolute highest motor speed to be used.
Torque Absolute Max The absolute highest motor torque to be used.
Supervision Type
These parameters belong to the type Supervision Type in the topic Motion.
Supervision Type is used for continuos supervision of position, speed and torque.
Parameter
Description
Max Force Control When a servo gun is in force control mode it is not allowed to move
Position Error
more than the distance specified in Max Force Control Position Error.
This supervision will protect the tool if, for instance, one tip is lost.
Max Force Control Speed error factor during force control.
Speed Limit
If the speed limits, defined in the type Force Master Control, multiplied
with Max Force Control Speed Limit is exceeded, all movement is
stopped.
Transmission
These parameters belong to the type Transmission in the topic Motion.
Transmission is used to define the transmission gear ratio between a motor and
its axis.
Parameter
Description
Rotating Move
Defines if the axis is rotating or linear.
Transmission Gear Ratio
Defines the transmission gear ratio between motor and joint.
Lag Control Master 0
These parameters belong to the type Lag Control Master 0 in the topic Motion.
Lag Control Master 0 is used for regulation of axes without any dynamic model.
Parameter
Description
FFW Mode
Defines if the position regulation should use feed forward of speed
and torque values.
Kp, Gain Position Loop Proportional gain in the position regulation loop.
Kv, Gain Speed Loop
Proportional gain in the speed regulation loop.
Ti Integration Time
Speed Loop
Integration time in the speed regulation loop.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.6 System parameters
Continued
Uncalibrated Control Master 0
These parameters belong to the type Uncalibrated Control Master 0 in the topic
Motion.
Uncalibrated Control Master 0 is used to regulate uncalibrated axes.
Parameter
Description
Kp, Gain Position Loop
Proportional gain in the position regulation loop.
Kv, Gain Speed Loop
Proportional gain in the speed regulation loop.
Ti Integration Time Speed Loop Integration time in the speed regulation loop.
Speed Max Uncalibrated
The maximum allowed speed for an uncalibrated axis.
Acceleration Max Uncalibrated The maximum allowed acceleration for an uncalibrated
axis.
Deceleration Max Uncalibrated The maximum allowed deceleration for an uncalibrated
axis.
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10.2.7 Commissioning and service
10.2.7 Commissioning and service
Commissioning the servo tool
For a new servo tool, follow these steps for installing and commissioning:
Step
Action
1
Install the servo tool according to the description in Application manual - Additional
axes and stand alone controller.
2
Load a .cfg file with the servo tool configuration. For detailed description on how
to do this, see Operating manual - RobotStudio.
If you do not have any .cfg file for the servo tool, you can load a template file and
configure the system parameters with the values of your servo tool. Template files
are found in the RobotWare distribution, see Template file locations on page 396.
3
Use the RAPID instruction STTune and iterate to find the optimal parameter values.
Once found, these optimal values should be written to the system parameters to
be permanent.
4
Fine calibrate the servo tool, see Fine calibration on page 398.
5
Unless force calibration was included in a loaded .cfg file, perform a force calibration.
Template file locations
The template files can be obtained from the PC or the IRC5 controller.
•
In the RobotWare installation folder in RobotStudio: ...\RobotPackages\
RobotWare_RPK_<version>\utility\AdditionalAxis\
•
On the IRC5 Controller:
<SystemName>\PRODUCTS\<RobotWare_xx.xx.xxxx>\utility\AdditionalAxis\
Note
Navigate to the RobotWare installation folder from the RobotStudio Add-Ins tab,
by right-clicking on the installed RobotWare version in the Add-Ins browser and
selecting Open Package Folder.
Disconnect/reconnect a servo tool
If the servo tool is deactivated, using the DeactUnit instruction, it may be
disconnected and removed. The tool position at deactivation will be restored when
the tool is connected and reactivated. Make a tool change calibration to make sure
the tip position is OK.
The whole process of changing a tool can be performed by a RAPID program if
you use the RobotWare option Servo Tool Change and the instruction STCalib.
Recover from accidental disconnection
If the motor cables are disconnected by accident when the servo tool is active, the
system will go into system failure state. After restart of the system the servo tool
must be deactivated in order to jog the robot to a service position.
Deactivation may be performed from the Jogging window. Tap on Activate..., select
the servo tool and tap on Deactivate.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.7 Commissioning and service
Continued
After service / repair the revolution counter must be updated since the position
has been lost, see Update revolution counter on page 398.
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10.2.8 Mechanical unit calibrations
10.2.8 Mechanical unit calibrations
Fine calibration
Fine calibration must be performed when installing a new servo tool or if the servo
tool axis is in state ‘Not Calibrated’.
For this, it is recommended to create a service routine using the following
instructions:
STCalib "ToolName" \TipChg;
STCalib "ToolName" \TipWear;
Update revolution counter
An update of the revolution counter must be performed if the position of the axis
is lost. If this happens, this is indicated by the calibration state ‘Rev. Counter not
updated’.
For this, it is recommended to use the same service routine as for the fine
calibration.
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10 Tool control options
10.2.9 RAPID code example
10.2.9 RAPID code example
How to use the code package
The normal programming technique for Tool Control is to customize shell routines
based on the example code below. These shell routines are then called from your
program.
Using shell routines
This example shows a main routine in combination with a customized routine
(rMoveSpot) that uses the standard servo tool instructions. The external process
(for example a weld timer) is indicated with the routine rWeld.
PROC main()
MoveJ p1, v500, z50, weldtool;
MoveL p2, v1000, z50, weldtool;
! Perform weld process
rMoveSpot weldpos1, v2000, curr_gun_name, 1000, 2, 1,
weldtool\WObj:=weldwobj;
rMoveSpot weldpos2, v2000, curr_gun_name, 1000, 2, 1,
weldtool\WObj:=weldwobj;
rMoveSpot weldpos3, v2000, curr_gun_name, 1500, 3, 1,
weldtool\WObj:=weldwobj;
MoveL p3, v1000, z50, weldtool;
ENDPROC
PROC rMoveSpot (robtarget ToPoint,
speeddata Speed,
gunname Gun,
num Force,
num Thickness,
PERS tooldata Tool
\PERS wobjdata WObj)
! Move the gun to weld position.
! Always use FINE point to prevent too early closing.
MoveL ToPoint, Speed, FINE, weldtool \WOIbj=WObj;
STCloseGun Gun, Thickness;
rWeld;
STOpenGun Gun;
ENDPROC
PROC rWeld()
! Request weld start from weld timer
SetDO doWeldstart,1;
! Wait until weld is performed
WaitDI diWeldready,1;
SetDO doWeldstart,0;
ENDPROC
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10.3.1 Overview
10.3 I/O Controlled Axes [included in 1180-1]
10.3.1 Overview
Purpose
The purpose of I/O Controlled Axes is to control an axis from the robot controller
by using an I/O interface instead of having the axis integrated into the IRC5 drive
system.
For operation and programming, an I/O controlled axis acts just like an integrated
process axis. The difference is that the drive unit of the I/O controlled axis is not
directly connected to the drive system of the robot controller. The motion
configuration provides an I/O interface, which connects the robot controller to an
external servo regulator.
The robot controller can take and release control of the additional axis during
program execution. The additional axis can be moved synchronously to the robot
(while controlled by the robot controller) or independently of the robot (while
controlled by an external PLC).
Some examples of applications are:
•
Servo guns
•
Grippers
What is included
The RobotWare option I/O Controlled Axes gives you access to system parameters
for configuring I/O controlled axes.
Basic approach
This is the general approach for setting up I/O Controlled Axes.
1 Configure the system parameters for the axis to be controlled via I/O. See
Configuration on page 405.
2 Operate the axis (jog, program etc.) just like any additional axis. See RAPID
programming on page 409.
For additional axis in general, also see Operating manual - IRC5 with
FlexPendant and Application manual - Additional axes and stand alone
controller.
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10 Tool control options
10.3.2 Contouring error
10.3.2 Contouring error
What is a contouring error
A contouring error is generated if an I/O controlled axis on the programmed robot
path of the robtarget is not reached based on the bus delay and acceleration. If
this event occurs, the robot’s movement stops on the path. An error entry is made
in the error log.
Possible causes for the occurrence of a contouring error:
•
Robot collisions
•
An external axis that is difficult to move or faulty
•
Incorrect value of system parameter Bus delay time in ms
Error handling
1 Error – acknowledgement at the external process unit.
For that, each application needs to provide a “Reset” button. The process
unit needs to be ready before the program can be started.
2 Motors On / Program start
If automatic movement back to path is allowed, the robot will move back
automatically to path before the program continues with the instruction that
was canceled. In case automatic movement is not allowed, a error message
occurs. A selection menu provides possibilities to accept the movement or
to cancel the start event.
In case the start event is canceled, the operator needs to change the operation
mode to Operation Mode: “Man”
Now the operator can specify a further procedure before the robot program
can be restarted. For example:
•
move the robot manual out of collision area
•
move to a previous move instruction
For more information, see topic Controller, type Path Return Region in Technical
reference manual - System parameters.
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10 Tool control options
10.3.3 Correcting the position
10.3.3 Correcting the position
Correcting the position
Correcting (teaching) a robot position (robtarget) is done using the button Modify
Position in the program editor (as for the robot axes).
For the following states, the modified position of the I/O controlled axis will not be
the current position, but the last valid feedback position:
•
Axis is not referenced
•
Servo regulator is not operative
•
Actual position of the I/O interface invalid
•
Position is outside the operating range
The position correction is adopted for activated axes only. If an available axis is
not activated, this axis is ignored. This means the robtarget substitute symbol
for the axis in question remains unchanged. This state does not lead to an error.
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10 Tool control options
10.3.4 Tool changing
10.3.4 Tool changing
Tool changing
If a tool is deactivated with the instruction DeactUnit, it is necessary to set the
signal unit disable. When the tool is disabled (can be verified with signal
unit_disabled), it is possible to disconnect the power supply to the tool, for example
undock a spotwelding gun.
It is possible to configure the same logical axis number for different tools, but this
requires the RobotWare option Servo Tool Change.
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10 Tool control options
10.3.5 Installation
10.3.5 Installation
Installation
After installation of the robot system, the I/O controlled axes needs to be loaded
in the system parameters.
Each required axis needs to be loaded separately. The specific motion file includes
default motion parameters. Parameterization and adjustments of the loaded axis
is described in more detail in Configuration.
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10 Tool control options
10.3.6 Configuration
10.3.6 Configuration
Default settings
A robot system with the option I/O Controlled Axes will, as default, have one
mechanical unit called EXTCTL1. This will be logical axis number 7.
For EXTCTL1, there will be default signal names defined in the type External Control
Process Data, topic Motion.
Mandatory settings for the I/O controlled axis
The following configuration must be done with data for the mechanical unit that
should be used as an I/O contreolled axis.
1 In type Transmission, set Transmission Gear Ratio. See Type Transmission
on page 408.
2 In type Acceleration Data, set Nominal Acceleration, Nominal Deceleration,
Acceleration Derivate Ratio and Deceleration Derivate Ratio. See Type
Acceleration Data on page 407.
3 In type Arm, set Upper Joint Bound and Lower Joint Bound. See Type Arm
on page 408.
4 In type Stress Duty Cycle, set Speed Absolute Max. See Type Stress Duty
Cycle on page 408.
5 In type Supervision Type, set static_position_limit and dynamic_position_limit.
See Type Supervision Type on page 408.
6 In type External Control Process Data, set Bus delay time in ms. See Type
External Control Process Data on page 407.
Optional customization settings
If other values than the default values are preferred, any of the following settings
can be changed.
•
To use another logical axis than 7, change the value for Logical Axis. See
Type Joint on page 408.
•
To change the names of the signals used to communicate with the I/O
controlled axis, change the settings in the type External Control Process
Data, see Type External Control Process Data on page 407.
•
To use an activation relay, set the parameter Use Activation Relay. See Type
Mechanical Unit on page 408.
Adding another axis
For a second I/O controlled axis, a configuration file must be loaded.
1 Load one of the .cfg files, in RobotStudio or the FlexPendant, from the IRC5
controller <system
name>\PRODUCTS\RobotWare_6.XX.XXXX\options\ioctrlaxis\.
2 Make the same configurations as for the first I/O controlled axis.
Continues on next page
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405
10 Tool control options
10.3.6 Configuration
Continued
Note
Several mechanical units may use the same logical axis number, but this requires
the RobotWare option Servo Tool Change.
Settings for PROFINET
If a PROFINET bus is used, the parameter Reduction ratio should be set to 4 ms
or 2 ms for the I/O controlled unit. See Application manual - PROFINET
Controller/Device.
406
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10 Tool control options
10.3.7 System parameters
10.3.7 System parameters
About the system parameters
This is a brief description of each parameter in I/O Controlled Axes. For more
information, see the respective parameter in Technical reference manual - System
parameters.
Type External Control Process Data
These parameters belongs to the type External Control Process Data in the topic
Motion.
Parameter
Description
Bus delay time in ms
Parameter for bus delay time.
Regulator activation signal
Output signal for activation of the I/O controlled unit.
Ext Controller output signal
Output signal for allowing external control of the unit.
Pos_ref output signal
Output signal with positioning reference for the I/O controlled axis.
Pos_ref sign signal
Output signal with sign (+ or -) of the positioning reference
for the I/O controlled axis.
Pos_ref valid signal
Output signal that signals that the positioning reference is
a valid signal and the axis needs to follow the reference
signal.
Regulator is activated signal
Input signal that indicates if the I/O controlled unit is enabled and ready.
Req pos is out of range input
signal
Input signal that signals if the required positioning reference is out of range.
Pos_fdb input signal
Input signal with position feedback from the I/O controlled
axis.
Pos_fdb sign signal
Input signal with with sign (+ or -) of the position feedback
from the I/O controlled axis.
Pos_fdb_valid signal
Input signal that indicates that the position feedback signal
is valid.
Unit_ready input signal
Input signal from I/O controlled unit indicating that it is
ready.
Ext Controller input signal
Input signal indicating that the external unit is in control
of the movement. The robot controller is not allowed to
move the external unit.
Type Acceleration Data
These parameters belongs to the type Acceleration Data in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Nominal Acceleration
Worst case motor acceleration.
Nominal Deceleration
Worst case motor deceleration.
Acceleration Derivate Ratio
Defines how fast the acceleration can build up, i.e. an indication of the derivative of the acceleration.
Deceleration Derivate Ratio
Defines how fast the deceleration can build up, i.e. an indication of the derivative of the deceleration.
Continues on next page
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10 Tool control options
10.3.7 System parameters
Continued
Type Arm
These parameters belongs to the type Arm in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Upper Joint Bound
Defines the upper limit of the working area for this joint.
Lower Joint Bound
Defines the lower limit of the working area for this joint.
Type Joint
These parameters belongs to the type Joint in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Logical Axis
Defines the axis number as seen by a RAPID program.
Two mechanical units can have the same value set for
Logical Axis, but then they cannot be activated at the same.
Type Mechanical Unit
These parameters belongs to the type Mechanical Unit in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Use Activation Relay
Points out a relay that will be activated or deactivated when
the mechanical unit is activated or deactivated.
Type Stress Duty Cycle
These parameters belongs to the type Stress Duty Cycle in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
Speed Absolute Max
The absolute highest motor speed to be used.
Type Supervision Type
These parameters belongs to the type Supervision Type in the topic Motion.
Parameter
Description
static_position_limit
Position error limit at zero speed, in radians on motor side.
dynamic_position_limit
Position error limit (max lag) at max speed, in radians on
motor side.
Type Transmission
These parameters belongs to the type Transmission in the topic Motion.
408
Parameter
Description
Transmission Gear Ratio
Defines the transmission gear ratio between motor and
joint.
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
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10 Tool control options
10.3.8 RAPID programming
10.3.8 RAPID programming
Data types
This is a brief description of specific considerations regarding RAPID data types
when using I/O Controlled Axes.
General descriptions of the data types are found in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Data type
Description
robtarget
The position of the I/O controlled axis is set as an additional axis in
a robtarget.
Example, where the I/O controlled axis is logical axis 7 and should
be moved to position 100:
p1 := [[20,50,-80], [1,0,0,0], [1,1,0,0],
[100,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09,9E+09]];
Instructions
This is a brief description of specific considerations regarding RAPID instructions
when using I/O Controlled Axes.
General descriptions of the instructions are found in Technical reference
manual - RAPID Instructions, Functions and Data types.
Instruction
Description
MoveL
MoveC
MoveJ
Regular move instructions are used to move an I/O controlled axis.
The position value of the I/O controlled value is included in the
robtarget, see Data types on page 409.
The I/O controlled axis can be moved simultaneously with the robot.
RAPID example
PROC Sequence123()
...
MoveJ pHome, v1500, fine, tGun1;
ActUnit EXTCTL1;
MoveJ p100, v1000, z10, tGun1 \Wobj:=wobj1;
MoveL p101, v1000, fine, tGun1 \Wobj:=wobj1;
...
! Application-specific commands
...
MoveL p102, v1000, z10, tGun1 \Wobj:=wobj1;
MoveJ p100, v1000, fine, tGun1 \Wobj:=wobj1;
DeactUnit EXTCTL1;
MoveJ pHome, v1500, fine, tGun1;
ENDPROC
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Index
Index
Calibration Force High, 391
Calibration Force Low, 391
Calibration Mode, 391
Calibration Offset, 393
Calibration Pendulum, 116
calibration process, 125
Calibration Time, 391
calibration tools, 116
CalibWare, 116
cell alignment, 131
certificate, Absolute Accuary, 127
change calibration data, 118
change of tool, Machine Synchronization, 188
channel, 364
character based communication, 80
Check unresolved references, Task type, 295
CirPathMode, 157
class, 364
ClearIOBuff, 81
ClearRawBytes, 85
Close, 81
CloseDir, 89
Close position adjust, 391
Close time adjust, 391
code example, 399
collision, 251
Collision Alarm Torque, 392
Collision Delta Position, 392
Collision Detection Memory, 254
Collision Error Handler, 255
Collision LP Bandwidth, 392
Collision Speed, 392
commissioning, 396
common data, 306
communication channel, 356
communication client, 362
Commutator Offset, 393
compensation, 123
compensation parameters, 113, 128
compliance errors, 122
comunication cable
connecting, 357
configuration
Absolute Accuracy, 117
configuration.xml, 366
configuration example, 370
configuration files, 361
configuration functionality, 27
configure Collision Detection, 258
configuring
sensors, 318
tasks, 298
Connected signal, 212
connection relay, 381
constants
Sensor Interface, 322
convention, 363
coordinate systems, 131
CopyFile, 89
CopyRawBytes, 85
Corr argument, 246
CorrClear, 245
CorrCon, 245
corrdescr, 245
CorrDiscon, 245
correction generator, 244
A
Absolute Accuracy, 113
Absolute Accuracy calibration, 125
Absolute Accuracy compensation, 123
Absolute Accuracy verification, 126
Acceleration Data, 393, 405, 407
Acceleration Derivate Ratio, 393, 407
Acceleration Max Uncalibrated, 395
accidental disconnection, 396
acknowledge messages, 277
activate Absolute Accuracy, 117
Activate at start up, 213
activate supervision, 260
activation disabled, 384
actor signals, 96–97
additional axes, 385
additional axis, 57
Add or replace parameters, 176
Adjustment Speed, 211
Advanced RAPID, 17
Advanced Shape Tuning, 137
AliasIO, 24–25
alignment, 131
analog signal, 47
Analog Signal Interrupt, 47
Analog Synchronization, 161
AND, 97
Application protocol, 265, 269
ArgName, 45
argument name, 45
Arm, 393, 405, 408
arm replacement, 119
asynchronous movements, 386
Auto acknowledge input, 13, 50
automatic friction tuning, 138
Auto mode, 304
axis, 223
axis reset, 223
B
binary communication, 80
binary data, 277
birth certificate, Absolute Accuracy, 127
BitAnd, 19
BitCheck, 19
BitClear, 19
bit functionality, 18
BitLSh, 19
BitNeg, 19
BitOr, 19
BitRSh, 19
BitSet, 19
BitXOr, 19
BookErrNo, 41
bool, 360
Bus delay time in ms, 407
byte, 19
ByteToStr, 19
C
C# API, 340
calibrate follower axis, 63
calibrate tool, 135
calibration data, 118
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411
Index
CorrRead, 245
CorrWrite, 245
Counts Per Meter, 211
CPU_load_equalization, 212
creating tasks, 298
cross connections, 96
cut plane, 155
cut shape, 160
Cyclic bool, 51
D
data, 283
data exchange, 356
datapos, 22
Data ready signal, 212
data search functionality, 21
data types
Multitasking, 297
supported, 360
data variable example
Electronically Linked Motors, 71
data variables
Electronically Linked Motors, 69
Deactivate PTC superv. at disconnect, 380
deactivate supervision, 260
deactivate tasks, 303
debugging
strategies, 298
Deceleration Derivate Ratio, 393, 407
Deceleration Max Uncalibrated, 395
declarations, 306
deflection, 123
Delay ramp, 392
description.xml, 363
digital I/O signals, 96
dir, 89
directory management, 88
discarded message, 285
Disconnect deactivate, 380
disconnection, 396
dispatcher, 311
displacement, 70
Do not allow deact, 213
dynamic_position_limit , 408
E
EGM, 326
EGM .proto file, 355
EGM execution states, 331
EGM Path Correction, 326
EGM Position Guidance, 326
EGM RAPID components, 344
EGM sensor protocol, 339
EGM system parameters, 343
Electronically Linked Motors, 57
elements
channel, 364
class, 364
convention, 363
enum, 366
field, 367
member, 367
network, 364
property, 368
record, 367
settings, 365
type, 364
412
enums element, 366
errdomain, 38
error interrupts, 37
error sources in accuracy, 122
ErrRaise, 38
errtype, 38
Ethernet, 263, 267
Ethernet link, 358
event messages, 40
event number, 40
Event Preset Time, 76
Event recorder, 274
Ext Controller input signal, 407
Ext Controller output signal, 407
external axes, 250
external axis, 223
External Control Process Data, 405, 407
Externally Guided Motion, 326
External Motion Interface Data, 343
F
fake target, 123
false triggering, 261
FeedbackJoints, 359
FeedbackPose, 359
FeedbackTime, 359
FFW Mode, 394
Fieldbus Command Interface, 92
field element, 367
FIFO, 284
file communication, 79
Fileldbus Command, 211
file management, 88
FileSize, 89
file structures, 88
fine calibration, 398
finepoints, Machine Synchronization, 187
fixed position events, 73
fixture alignment, 132
FlexPendant, 313
follower, 57
Follower to Joint, 59
Force Master, 392
Force Master Control, 392
Force Ready Delay, 391
frame, 360
frame relationships, 134
frames, 131
FricIdEvaluate, 144
FricIdInit, 144
FricIdSetFricLevels, 144
friction compensation, 137
Friction FFW Level, 142
Friction FFW On, 142
Friction FFW Ramp, 142
friction level tuning, 138
FSSize, 89
functions
Advanced RAPID, 45
Multitasking, 297
Sensor Interface, 321
G
General RAPID, 255
GetDataVal, 22
GetMaxNumberOfCyclicBool, 53
GetNextCyclicBool, 53
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Index
GetNextSym, 22
GetNumberOfCyclicBool, 53
GetTrapData, 38
Google C++, 340
Google C++ API, 340
Google overview, 339
Google Protocol Buffers, 339
group I/O signals, 96
Group ID, 269
l_f_axis_no, 69
l_f_mecunt_n, 69
l_m_axis_no, 69
l_m_mecunt_n, 69
Lag Control Master 0, 394
Linked M Process, 59
load calibration data, 118
Load Identification, 116
Local path, 265, 269
Lock Joint in Ipol, 59
logical AND, 98
Logical Axis, 380, 408–409
Logical Cross Connections, 96
logical operations, 96
logical OR, 98
loss of accuracy, 121
lost message, 285
lost queue, 285
Lower Joint Bound, 393, 408
LTAPP, 320
H
hydraulic press, 202
I
I/O Controlled Axes, 400
IError, 38
IIRFFP, 211
IndAMove, 226
IndCMove, 226
IndDMove, 226
Independent Axes, 223
independent joint, 250
Independent Joint, 225
Independent Lower Joint Bound, 225
independent movement, 223
Independent Upper Joint Bound, 225
IndInpos, 226
IndReset, 226
IndRMove, 226
IndSpeed, 226
Inertia, 393
Input Signal, 381
installation, 396
instructions
Advanced RAPID, 45
Multitasking, 297
Sensor Interface, 321
interrupt, 47, 284, 307, 321, 324
interrupt functionality, 37
iodev, 81
IPers, 38
IP protocols, 358
IRMQMessage, 288
IsFile, 89
ISignalAI, 48
ISignalAO, 48
IsStopStateEvent, 45
IVarValue, 321
M
Main entry, Task type, 295
maintenance, 119
MakeDir, 89
manipulator replacement, 120
Manipulator Supervision, 254
Manipulator Supervision Level, 254
manual friction tuning, 140
manual mode, Machine Synchronization, 187, 189
master, 57
Master Follower kp, 60
Max Advance Distence, 212–213
Max Current, 393
Max Delay Distance, 213
Max Follower Offset, 59
Max Force Control Motor Torque, 391
Max Force Control Position Error, 394
Max Force Control Speed Limit, 394
Max Offset Speed, 59
Max pos err. closing, 392
Max Synchronization Speed, 213
measurement system, 226
mechanical unit, 314
Mechanical Unit, 405, 408
Mechanics, 213
member element, 367
merge of messages, 277
messages
outgoing, 359
received, 373
sent, 373
Min Synchronization Speed, 213
modes of operation, Machine Synchronization, 189
modules
Sensor Interface, 321
molding machine, 206
motion commands, Machine Synchronization, 187
Motion Planner, 254
Motion Process Mode, 145
MotionSup, 256, 260
Motion Supervision, 254
Motion Supervision Max Level, 254
MotionTask, Task type, 296
Motor Calibration, 393
motor replacement, 119
Motor Torque 1- 10, 391
J
Jog Collision Detection, 254, 258
Jog Collision Detection Level, 254
Jog Collision Detection Level, 258
joint, 360
Joint, 59, 405, 408
joint zones, 217
K
ke Phase to Phase, 393
kinematic errors, 122
Kp, Gain Position Loop, 394–395
Kv 1 - 6, 392
Kv, Gain Speed Loop, 394
Kv, Gain Speed Loop, 395
L
l_f_axis_name, 69
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413
Index
Motor Type, 393
MotSupOn, 257
MotSupTrigg, 257
MoveC, 409
MoveCSync, 75
MoveJ, 409
MoveJSync, 75
MoveL, 409
MoveLSync, 75
Multitasking, 293
N
Name, 213, 265, 269
Name, Transmission Protocol type, 319–320
Nanopb, 340
network, 364
NFS Client, 267
No. of speed limits, 392
Nominal Acceleration, 393, 407
Nominal Deceleration, 393, 407
Nominal Speed, 211
non printable characters, 277
NORMAL, 295
NoSafety, 295
NOT, 98
Not Calibrated, 398
Null speed signal, 212
num, 360
Number of Stored Forces, 391
O
object queue, 166
offset_ratio, 69
Offset Adjust Delay Time, 59
Offset Speed Ratio, 59
Open, 81
OpenDir, 89
OperationMode, 359
OR, 97
outgoing message, 359
Q
P
PackDNHeader, 93
PackRawBytes, 85
parameters
accuracy compensation, 128
Password, 265
path, 31
Path Collision Detection, 254, 258
Path Collision Detection Level, 254, 258
path correction, 244
path offset, 244
pathrecid, 230
PathRecMoveBwd, 230
PathRecMoveFwd, 230
path recorder, 237
Path Recovery, 229
PathRecStart, 230
PathRecStop, 230
PathRecValidBwd, 230
PathRecValidFwd, 230
Path resolution, 212
PC Interface, 271
PC SDK client, 283
performance limits, Machine Synchronization, 187
persistent variables, 305
PFRestart, 31
414
Phase Inductance, 393
Phase Resistance, 393
pitch, 122
PlannedJoints, 359
PlannedPose, 359
Pole Pairs, 393
polling, 307
Pos_fdb_valid signal, 407
Pos_fdb input signal, 407
Pos_fdb sign signal, 407
Pos_ref output signal, 407
Pos_ref sign signal, 407
Pos_ref valid signal, 407
pose, 360
position accuracy reduction, 66
position event, 73
Position signal, 212
position warnings, Machine Synchronization, 187
Post-synchronization Time, 391
power failure functionality, 31
PredictedTime, 359
prerequisites, 358
priorities, 300
Process, 59
process support functionality, 33
Process update time, 212
programmed speed, Machine Synchronization, 187
program pointer, 45
programs
editing, 298
property element, 368
proportional signal, 34
Protobuf, 339
Protobuf-csharp, 340
Protobuf-net, 340
protocols
Ethernet, 320
serial channels, 319
queue handling, 284
queue name, 284
R
r1_calib, 117
Ramp time, 392
Ramp Time, 60
Ramp to real contact, 392
Ramp when Increase Force, 392
RAPID components
Advanced RAPID, 45
Multitasking, 297
Sensor Interface, 321
RAPID editor, 274
RAPID limitations, Machine Synchronization, 188
RAPID Message Queue, 282
RAPID support functionality, 44
RAPID variables, 356
rawbytes, 85
RawBytesLen, 85
raw data, 84
ReadAnyBin, 81
ReadBin, 81
ReadBlock, 321
ReadCfgData, 28
ReadDir, 89
ReadErrData, 38
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
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© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
Index
ReadNum, 81
ReadRawBytes, 85
ReadStr, 81
ReadStrBin, 81
ReadVar, 321
real, 360
received message, 373
reconnect a servo tool, 396
record, 283
recorded path, 237
recorded profile, 202, 206
record element, 367
recover path, 229
References Bandwidth, 392
Regulator activation signal, 407
Regulator is activated signal, 407
relay, 381
Remote Address, 320
RemoveAllCyclicBool, 53
RemoveCyclicBool, 53
RemoveDir, 89
RemoveFile, 89
RenameFile, 89
replacements, 119
Req pos is out of range input signal, 407
reset, 226
reset axis, 223
reset follower axis, 65
resolver offset calibration, 125
restartdata, 34
RestoPath, 230
resultant signal, 96–97
resume signals, 35
Rev. Counter not updated, 398
reversed movement, 251
Rewind, 81
RMQEmptyQueue, 288
RMQFindSlot, 288
RMQGetMessage, 288
RMQGetMsgData, 288
RMQGetMsgHeader, 288
RMQGetSlotName, 288
rmqheader, 288
RMQ Max Message Size, 287
RMQ Max No Of Messages, 287
rmqmessage, 288
RMQ Mode, 287
RMQReadWait, 288
RMQSendMessage, 288
RMQSendWait, 288
rmqslot, 288
RMQ Type, 287
robjoint, 360
RoboCom Light, 320
robot alignment, 133
RobotStudio, 274
robtarget, 409
roll, 122
Rotating move, 213
Rotating Move, 394
routine call, 311
RTP1 protocol, 319
S
SCWrite, 272
select tasks, 303
SEMISTATIC, 295
SenDevice, 321
send message, 373
sensor, 244, 317
sensor_speed, 187
Sensor Interface, 317
sensor object, 166
sensors
configuring, 318
Sensor Synchronization, 161
Sensor systems, 211
serial channel communication, 79
Serial Port, Transmission Protocol type, 319–320
Server address, 265, 269
Server path, 265, 269
service, 396
service connection, 357
service program, 62
Servo Tool Change, 377
SetAllDataVal, 22
SetDataSearch, 22
SetDataVal, 22
SetSysData, 45
settings.xml, 362
settings element, 365
setting up tasks, 298
set up Collision Detection, 258
SetupCyclicBool, 53
SG Process, 391
shapedata, 219
shared resources, 313
signal, 307, 311
SiTool, 369
SiWobj, 369
SocketAccept, 278
SocketBind, 278
SocketClose, 278
SocketConnect, 278
SocketCreate, 278
socketdev, 278
SocketGetStatus, 279
SocketListen, 278
Socket Messaging, 275
SocketReceive, 278
SocketSend, 278
socketstatus, 278
soft servo, 250
Soft Stop Timeout, 391
speed, 252
speed_ratio, 69
Speed Absolute Max, 394, 408
Speed Limit 1 - 6, 392
Speed Max Uncalibrated, 395
speed reduction % button, Machine
Synchronization, 187
speed warnings, Machine Synchronization, 187
Squeeze Position 1 -10, 391
Stall Torque, 393
STATIC, 295
static_position_limit , 408
stationary world zone, 219
STCalcForce, 390
STCalcTorque, 390
STCalib, 390
STClose, 390
StepBwdPath, 34
STIsCalib, 390
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
415
Index
STIsClosed, 390
STIsIndGun, 390
STIsOpen, 390
STIsServoTool, 390
STOpen, 390
StorePath, 230
Stress Duty Cycle, 394, 405, 408
string, 360
string termination, 277
StrToByte, 19
STTune, 390
STTuneReset, 390
supervision level, 254, 256, 260
Supervision Type, 394, 405, 408
synchronizing tasks, 309
synchronous movements, 386
syncident, 309
syncident, data type, 297
SyncMoveResume, 230
SyncMoveSuspend, 230
SysFail, 295
SysHalt, 295
SysStop, 295
system parameters
configuration functionality, 27
Controller topic, 359
Motion topic, 359
Multitasking, 295
Sensor Interface, 319–320
system resources, 313
T
Task, Task type, 295
Task, type, 295
taskid, 315
taskid, data type, 297
Task in foreground, 300
Task in foreground, Task type, 295
Task Panel Settings, 302
task priorities, 300
TaskRunMec, 314
TaskRunMec, function, 297
TaskRunRob, 314
TaskRunRob, function, 297
tasks, 293, 303, 309
adding, 298
data type, 297
editing programs, 298
setting up, 298
tasks, data type, 297
temporary world zone, 219
TestAndSet, 313
TestAndSet, function, 297
TextGet, 41
TextTabFreeToUse, 41
TextTabGet, 41
TextTabInstall, 41
text table file, 40
Ti Integration Time Speed Loop, 394–395
time, 360
tip change calibration, 387
Tip Force 1 - 10, 391
tip wear calibration, 387
tool, 378
tool calibration, 135
tool change calibration, 387
tool changer, 378
416
tools, 116
torque, 252
torque 1 - torque 6, 392
Torque Absolute Max, 394
torque distribution, 66
torque follower, 66
track motion, 250
Transmission, 394, 405, 408
Transmission Gear High, 225
Transmission Gear Low, 225
Transmission Gear Ratio, 394, 408
Transmission protocol, 265, 269
Transmission protocol, 265, 269
Transmission Protocol, type, 319–320
trapdata, 38
trap routine, 284
TriggC, 75
TriggCheckIO, 75
triggdata, 74
TriggEquip, 74
triggering, 261
TriggInt, 74
TriggIO, 74
triggios, 74
triggiosdnum, 74
TriggJ, 75
TriggL, 75
TriggLIOs, 75
TriggRampAO, 75
TriggSpeed, 34
TriggStopProc, 34
triggstrgo, 74
Trusted, 265, 269
TrustLevel, Task type, 295
TUNE_FRIC_LEV, 140
TUNE_FRIC_RAMP, 140
TuneServo, 140
tuning, 260
tuning, automatic, 138
tuning, manual, 140
type, 364
Type, 265, 269
Type, Task type, 295
Type, Transmission Protocol type, 319–320
U
UDP, 339
UdpUc, 332–333
Udp Unicast Communication, 332–333
uncalib, 117
Uncalibrated Control Master 0, 395
Unit_ready input signal, 407
UnpackRawBytes, 85
unsynchronize, 63
Update revolution counter, 398
Upper Joint Bound, 393, 408
Use Activation Relay, 408
Use Connection Relay, 381
Use Linked Motor Process, 59
Use Process, 59
Use ramp time, 392
User ID, 269
user message functionality, 40
Username, 265
Use Robot Calibration, 117
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
Index
V
WriteStrBin, 81
WriteVar, 321
WZBoxDef, 219
WZCylDef, 219
WZDisable, 220
WZDOSet, 220
WZEnable, 220
WZFree, 220
WZHomeJointDef, 220
WZLimJointDef, 220
WZLimSup, 220
WZSphDef, 219
wzstationary, 219
wztemporary, 219
Velocity signal, 212
verification, 126
W
waiting for tasks, 309
WaitSyncTask, 309
WaitSyncTask, instruction, 297
WaitUntil, 307
WAN port, 357
WarmStart, 28
world zones, 217
Wrist Move, 153
wrist replacement, 119
Write, 81
WriteAnyBin, 81
WriteBin, 81
WriteBlock, 321
WriteCfgData, 28
WriteRawBytes, 85
Y
yaw, 122
Z
zones, 217
Application manual - Controller software IRC5
3HAC050798-001 Revision: C
© Copyright 2016 ABB. All rights reserved.
417
ABB AB
Discrete Automation and Motion
Robotics
S-721 68 VÄSTERÅS, Sweden
Telephone +46 (0) 21 344 400
ABB AS, Robotics
Discrete Automation and Motion
Nordlysvegen 7, N-4340 BRYNE, Norway
Box 265, N-4349 BRYNE, Norway
Telephone: +47 51489000
ABB Engineering (Shanghai) Ltd.
No. 4528 Kangxin Hingway
PuDong District
SHANGHAI 201319, China
Telephone: +86 21 6105 6666
www.abb.com/robotics
3HAC050798-001, Rev C, en
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