Cakewalk SONAR User`s Guide

Cakewalk SONAR User`s Guide
Cakewalk SONAR
User’s Guide
©
™
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. The software described in
this document is furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement.
The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement.
It is against the law to copy this software on any medium except as specifically allowed
in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
for any purpose without the express written permission of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc.
Copyright © 2005 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright © 2005 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
ACID is a trademark of Sonic Foundry, Inc.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. SONAR and the
Cakewalk logo are trademarks of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Visit Cakewalk on the World Wide Web at www.cakewalk.com.
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Registering SONAR Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiii
Conventions Used in this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music Composition and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Game Sound Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Production and Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film and Video Scoring and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computers, Sound, and Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working on a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Taskbar Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen Colors and Wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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26
26
27
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30
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47
48
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Starting to Use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2 Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Tutorial 1—The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Opening a Project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Preparing for Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Playing the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Restarting the Project Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Changing the Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Muting and Soloing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Changing a Track's Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Playing Music on a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Recording a MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Punch-In Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Setting the Sampling Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Setting the Audio Driver Bit Depth and Recording Bit Depth . . . . . 71
Open a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Setting Up an Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Checking the Input Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Listening to the Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Recording Another Take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Loop and Punch-In Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Recording Multiple Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Transposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Slip Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Drawing MIDI Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Tutorial 5—Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Opening the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Importing a Wave File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Moving and Looping the Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Slip Editing a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Automatic Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
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Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Adding Groove Clips to a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Looping Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Changing the Pitch of Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Changing the Tempo of Your Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Creating Your Own Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Tutorial 7—Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Adding Real-time Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Automating an Individual Effect’s Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Grouping Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Automating Your Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Exporting an MP3 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Playing MIDI Tracks through a Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Create a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Creating a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Create a Drum Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Map Drum Notes to Different Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3 Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
The Now Time and How to Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Now Time Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Now Time in Large Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Ways to Set the Now Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Time Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling Stuck Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track-by-Track Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Playback State Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silencing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soloing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverting the Phase of a Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Tracks’ Mono/Stereo Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Track Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Output Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Tracks to Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing the Instrument Sound (Bank and Patch) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Volume and Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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107
107
108
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110
112
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113
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114
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123
125
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127
127
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Configurable Panning Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Adjusting Volume Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Adjusting the Key/Transposing a Track (Key+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Adjusting the Note Velocity (Vel+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Adjusting the Time Alignment of a MIDI Track (Time+) . . . . . . . . 130
Other MIDI Playback Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Playing Files in Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
The Play List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Video Playback, Import, and Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Inserting and Playing Back Videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Exporting Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Optimizing Video Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Using the Video Thumbnails Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Exporting a Project to a FireWire DV Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Synchronizing External Video Playback to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Locating Missing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
The Find Missing Audio File Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Restoring Missing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Managing Shared and External Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4 Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Using Per-Project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Creating a New Project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Setting the Meter and Key Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Setting the Metronome and Tempo Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Setting the Audio Sampling Rate and Bit Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Preparing to Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Recording Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Choosing an Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Arming Tracks for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Auto Arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Tuning an Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
viii
The Audio Engine Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Pattern Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Music and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing OMF Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling Your Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5 Arranging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Arranging Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Order of Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erasing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Navigator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double-clicking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving and Copying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nudge Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markers and the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing Gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining and Using the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Using Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Take Management and Comping Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Clip Muting with the Default Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Audition (Selection Playback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Changing Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Using the Tempo Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Using the Tempo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Using the Tempo View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
6 Using Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Loop Construction Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
The Loop Explorer View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Folders Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Contents List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Working with Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Working with Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Creating and Editing Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Editing Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files . . . . . . . 238
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Importing Project5 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
7 Editing MIDI Events and Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Event Inspector Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
The Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Notes Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Controller Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Track List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Opening the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . 246
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Note Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only) . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The MIDI Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View . .
Selecting and Editing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying and Pasting MIDI Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifting Events in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretching and Shrinking Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reversing Notes in a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip Editing MIDI (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip Editing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Slip Editing for MIDI Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing Multiple MIDI Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Timing of a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Searching for Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List Buttons and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Events in the Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List Display Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Events and Event Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Event Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Effects Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Echo/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Filtering Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Adding Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Analyzing Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect . . . . . . . 300
8 Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Creating and Editing a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
The Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Working in the Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
The Map Properties Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Saving a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Opening a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Velocity Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Editing Note Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Previewing a Mapped Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
The Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Changing Mapped-note Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Grid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Creating Custom Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
9 Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Digital Audio Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Basic Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Example—A Guitar String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Recording a Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
The Decibel Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Managing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Editing Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Audio Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Splitting Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Bouncing to Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
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Scrubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Normalize and Gain Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reversing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extracting Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Slip-editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing Multiple Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fades and Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directly Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifting Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretching Time and Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10 Working with Software Synthesizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-port Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a Soft Synth’s Property Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muting and Soloing Soft Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating a Soft Synth’s Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a ReWire Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stand-alone Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11 Mixing and Effects Patching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
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Preparing to Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Configuring the Console and Track Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Mixing a MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Signal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Stereo Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Surround Buses (Producer Edition Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Main Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
What the Meters Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Hiding and Showing Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Changing the Meters’ Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Segmented and Non-segmented Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Changing the Meters’ Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Using Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
How to Use Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Effects on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Using V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Playing Back V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Pitch Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Editing Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Editing Formants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Editing Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Context Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Using the Per-track EQ (Producer Edition Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Applying MIDI Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
The VST Configuration Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Quick Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Using Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Using the Learn Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
xiv
Preparing to Create an Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting OMF Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dithering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
413
413
418
419
12 Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Surround Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Surround Format Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Surround Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Downmixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joystick Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bass Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The SurroundBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect Property Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
422
422
422
424
425
426
426
428
429
432
432
434
434
435
435
435
435
435
437
438
13 Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Automation Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Individual Fader or Knob Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing Audio Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing MIDI Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dotted Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Envelope Draw Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Envelopes on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing or Hiding Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying and Pasting Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or Neutral Values . . .
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
440
441
441
441
442
444
445
446
447
447
448
448
449
449
xv
Converting MIDI Envelopes to Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Adding Nodes at a Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Automating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Automating Individual Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Recording Groups of Faders and/or Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Recording Automation Data from an External Controller . . . . . . . 454
Reassigning Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Automated Muting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
14 Layouts, Templates
and Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Template Example: Three MIDI Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Importing Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Exporting Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
15 Working with Notation and Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
The Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Opening the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Staff Pane Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
The Staff Pane Right-Click Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
The Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Fretboard Popup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Basic Musical Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Inserting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Inserting Notes with the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Moving Notes from within the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Auditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Changing Note Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Deglitch Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Working with Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Beaming of Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Using Enharmonic Spellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
xvi
Chords and Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Chord Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Expression Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Hairpin Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Pedal Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Fretboard Texture and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regenerate TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . .
Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Percussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a Percussion Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ghost Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is Meter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is Key? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Meter/Key Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music Notation for Non-concert-key
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
482
482
485
486
486
488
488
489
489
489
490
490
491
491
492
492
493
494
494
495
495
495
496
496
498
498
499
500
500
16 Using Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Assigning Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing Patch Name and Other Lists . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Name Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning the Bank Select Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Patch Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Note Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Controller, RPN, and NRPN Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Definition Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Use Instrument Definitions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
504
505
506
508
509
509
510
511
512
513
513
xvii
What Can They Do and Not Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Where Do Instrument Definitions Come From? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Start of Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
17 Using System Exclusive Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
What Is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Sysx Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Using the System Exclusive View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Sending Sysx Banks at Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Importing, Creating, and Dumping Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
More about Dump Request Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Editing Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Sysx View Buttons 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Send All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Clear Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Edit Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Load Bank and Save Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Transmitting Banks During Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Real-time Recording of System Exclusive Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Sysx Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Sysx .INI File Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
18 Synchronizing Your Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Synchronization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Choosing Clock Sources When SONAR is the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
MIDI Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
SONAR as the Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
SONAR as the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Using MIDI Sync with Drum Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Troubleshooting MIDI Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Playing Digital Audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
SMPTE/MTC Sync and Full Chase Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Troubleshooting SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
xviii
19 Audio File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
The Project Files Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Files and Bundle Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Per-project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imported Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up Projects with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Unused Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
540
541
542
542
542
544
544
546
20 Improving Audio Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Wave Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and Disabling Audio Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sampling Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths, and Float Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Importing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Exporting Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Rendering Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Higher-quality Audio for CD Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improving Performance with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting the Most Out of Your PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIO Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Queue Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
548
548
548
549
550
550
551
551
551
552
552
553
553
555
555
555
555
21 Appendix A:
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
When I Play a File, I Don’t Hear Anything . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
I Can’t Record from My MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
When I Play a File Containing Audio, the Audio Portion Doesn’t Play 560
I Can’t Record Any Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
My Track or Bus Fader is Maximized, But There’s No Sound or Level 561
The Music Is Playing Back with the Wrong Instrument Sounds . . . . . 561
How Do I Use SONAR to Access All the Sounds on My MIDI Instrument? 562
My Keyboard Doubles Every Note I Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
I Don’t See the Clips Pane in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
xix
Why Can’t SONAR Find My Audio Files? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
I Get an a Error Message When I Change a Project to 24-bit Audio . . . 563
Bouncing Tracks Takes a Long Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Why Do I Get Errors from the Wave Profiler? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
I Hear an Echo When I Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
Audio Distorts at Greater than 16 Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
No Sound from My Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
My Pro Audio 9 Files Sound Louder/Softer When I Open Them in SONAR
565
I Can’t Open My Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
SONAR Can’t Find the Wavetable Synth or MPU401 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
22 Appendix B: Hardware Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Connect Your MIDI Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Set Up to Record Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
23 Appendix C: New Features in SONAR 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Integrated VST Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Streamlined Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Improved MIDI Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
64-bit Audio Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Video Output to FireWire Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Grouping Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Per/Clip Effects Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Float File Support and Multiple Bit Depths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Track Layer Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Audio Scaling in Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Cloning Multiple Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Fade Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
OMF Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Lock Track Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Insert Multiple Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Automation Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Snap to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Remove DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
xx
New Normalize and Gain Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Scale/Zoom Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Meter Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enhanced Preset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interleave Indicator in FX Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tabbed Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Nodes at Selection Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Round Envelope Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
578
578
579
579
579
579
579
579
579
579
24 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
xxi
xxii
The SONAR User’s Guide is designed to help you learn and use SONAR. This Guide explains
how SONAR works and how to use it to create, edit, produce, and perform. The SONAR
User’s Guide is task-oriented, with lots of cross-references, so that you can find the
information you need. The User’s Guide also includes a comprehensive index that you can
use to find information on any specific topic.
About This Book
The SONAR User’s Guide is organized as follows:
Chapter 1, Introduction, provides an overview of SONAR, installation instructions and basic
equipment setup options.
Chapter 2, Getting Started, contains tutorials that cover many of the features of SONAR.
The remaining chapters cover all the basic and advanced skills you need to use SONAR to
play, record, edit, arrange, and mix your projects.
The appendices contain additional information you can use for troubleshooting, setting up
SONAR for use with audio hardware, and SONAR’s new features.
Registering SONAR Today
New Cakewalk products will require product registration. When you register your product,
you provide some information including your name and email address, as well as the serial
number for your product.
Product registration can be done quickly on the internet or by phone.
To register anytime log onto http://www.cakewalk.com/register, or call 888-CAKEWALK
(U.S.) or +(617)-423-9004 (outside the U.S.) between 9 AM and 8 PM Eastern Standard Time.
If you live outside of North America, please visit our distributor’s page at
www.cakewalk.com/Dealers/International.asp to get the telephone number of your local
distributor.
You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid email address. In return for
this information, we’ll email you a registration code that will allow you to keep using the
software forever. We recommend you write this registration code on the serial number sticker
for safekeeping.
English
Preface
Conventions Used in this Book
The following table describes the text conventions in this book:
Convention...
Meaning...
Bold Italics
Text that appears in bold italics is a command in SONAR.
hyphen (File-Open)
A hyphen represents a level in the menu hierarchy. For example, FileOpen means to click on the File menu and select the Open command.
SMALL CAPS
Small caps are used for file extensions (.MID) and file names (AUD.INI).
Getting Help
In addition to this User’s Guide, SONAR includes online help that can provide you with quick
reference information whenever you need it. Simply press F1 or click the Help button in any
dialog box to find the information you need. If you are new to recording and editing music on
your PC, see the online help topic “Beginner’s Guide to Cakewalk Software” for an
introduction.
If you need more information than you can find in the User’s Guide or the online help, here
are two great places to look:
•
Check the Support page of our Web site (www.cakewalk.com) for updated technical
information and answers to frequently asked questions.
•
Post messages to the SONAR user community using one of the Cakewalk forums. For
more information about the newsgroups, visit www.cakewalk.com.
You can also get technical support directly from Cakewalk. In order to obtain technical
support, you must register your product. You can obtain technical support for this product in
the following ways:
•
Visit http://www.cakewalk.com/Support/SONAR/SR5.asp.
•
Call Cakewalk Technical Support at +1 (617) 423-9021 on weekdays, 10:00 AM to 6:00
PM, Eastern time. Be sure to have your serial number ready when you call.
Technical support hours, policies, and procedures are subject to change at any time. Check
our Web site for the latest support information.
xxiv
Introduction
SONAR is a professional tool for authoring sound and music on your personal computer. It’s
designed for musicians, composers, arrangers, audio and production engineers, multimedia
and game developers, and recording engineers. SONAR supports Wave, MP3, ACIDized
waves, WMA, AIFF and other popular formats, providing all the tools you need to do
professional-quality work rapidly and efficiently.
SONAR is more than an integrated MIDI and digital audio authoring software package—it’s
an expandable platform that can function as the central nervous system of your recording
studio. With drivers for common high-end audio hardware, full support for audio plug-ins,
software synthesizers, MFX MIDI plug-ins, and MIDI Machine Control (MMC) of external
MIDI gear, SONAR can handle your most demanding projects.
In This Chapter
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Computers, Sound, and Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Starting SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
SONAR Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Windows Taskbar Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Screen Colors and Wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Starting to Use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
English
1
:
About SONAR
SONAR is the flagship product of the Cakewalk line of integrated MIDI and digital audio sequencers for
the Windows platform. SONAR has a comprehensive feature set that makes it the single most
productive tool for sound and music authoring. Here are some of the ways you can use SONAR.
Music Composition and Exploration
SONAR is a powerful music-composition application, providing tools to record your own musical
performances; enhance or improve the quality of those performances; and edit, arrange, and experiment
with the music. With a few simple clicks of the mouse, you can arrange, orchestrate, and audition your
composition. Fully integrated sequencing allows you to combine the convenience and flexibility of MIDI
composition with the high-quality sound and subtlety of digital audio sound recording and
reproduction. Change the feel of a piece by locking it to a musical groove, or add delicate delays,
anticipations, or echoes that add richness to the music.
SONAR displays and lets you edit your music using standard musical notation and guitar tablature, so
you can adjust individual notes, add performance markings, and print individual parts or full scores.
You can graphically draw tempo and volume changes, or add lyrics to display on-screen or to include
with printed scores.
Remixing
SONAR’s Groove clips allow you to import, create, export and edit loops, making it possible to quickly
change tempos and keys for an entire project. The Loop Explorer view lets you preview loops in the
project’s tempo and key before dragging and dropping them onto a track.
Game Sound Development
There’s no better tool than SONAR for composing music for electronic games. Clip-based sequencing
lets you create and reuse musical themes freely, so you can associate musical sections with game
characters, locations, objects, and actions. Your creations can be saved and replayed using the compact
MIDI file format, which adapts its sound automatically to the target hardware for the best possible
sound reproduction.
Sound Production and Engineering
If you want to produce music CDs or master tapes, SONAR has virtually everything you need from
recording to mixing and mastering. Multichannel recording lets you capture studio or live performances
track by track. Reconfigurable buses provide full control over your mix. Real-time stereo effects like
chorus, flange, reverb, and delay/echo can be applied as track inserts, in effects loops, or to the master
mix. SONAR supports 44.1 KHz sampling for CD-quality sound, 24-bit/96 kHz sound for DVD-quality
sound, and lets you choose from lower or higher sample rates as well. All audio effects are 32-bit
floating point for faster processing and high-quality sound reproduction. Many effects now support 64bit processing for pristine quality.
Web Authoring
SONAR is the ideal tool for developing and producing music and sound for the World Wide Web, because
it lets you save your work in the formats that are most commonly used on web sites: MIDI, MP3, and
Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format. Any SONAR project—musical composition, audio clip,
commercial spot, jingle with voice-over—can be stored in a web-compatible format with a few simple
mouse clicks.
Film and Video Scoring and Production
SONAR has many of the tools you need to execute audio post-production projects quickly and
efficiently. SONAR provides chase lock sync to time code for frame-by-frame accuracy when
26
synchronizing audio or MIDI to film or video. Or, you can turn chase lock off to conserve CPU power.
SONAR provides high-quality time stretching and sample-accurate editing with zero-crossing
detection so you can make the fine adjustments you need in record time. In addition, SONAR’s support
for video files gives you convenient synchronized access to digitized video, making film and video
scoring easier than ever.
Flexibility
SONAR works the way you want to work—you can customize screen layouts, toolbars, and audio and
MIDI system configurations to make your work more efficient. SONAR integrates with other sound
editing tools so you can access them in an instant without leaving SONAR.
Computers, Sound, and Music
MIDI
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the way computers communicate with most
sound cards, keyboards, and other electronic instruments. MIDI refers to both the type of cables and
plugs used to connect the computers and instruments, and to the language those computers and
instruments use to talk to each other. The MIDI standard is accepted and used worldwide. Almost any
electronic instrument you buy today will have MIDI connectors and can be used with other MIDI
instruments and with your computer’s MIDI interface.
The MIDI language conveys information and instructions, both from the computer to the instrument
and from the instrument to the computer. For example, if your computer wants your keyboard to play a
note, it sends a MIDI “Note On” message and tells the keyboard which note to play. When your
computer wants the keyboard to stop playing that note, it sends another message that stops the note
from playing.
The MIDI language has many other instructions, such as messages to change the sound that is used to
play the notes (the bank and patch), messages used to work the sustain pedal and the pitch-bend wheel,
and others. By sending the right messages at the right times, your computer can control your electronic
instrument and make it play music.
MIDI information can be sent on 16 different channels. You can set up your MIDI equipment to listen
for messages on all channels or on only a few.
MIDI files contain all the MIDI messages and timing information that are needed to play a song. MIDI
files can be read and played by many different programs, including SONAR, and can even be played by
programs on other types of computers. MIDI files have the extension .MID.
There are several important advantages of the MIDI format:
•
Large amounts of music can be stored in a very compact form
•
Different parts of a piece can easily be assigned to any instrument you can imagine
•
The music contains information on notes, tempos, and key signatures that makes it possible to
display and edit the piece using standard musical notation
The primary disadvantage of MIDI is that the quality of the music a listener hears will vary depending
on the MIDI equipment the listener is using. For example, MIDI usually sounds much better on an
expensive synthesizer than it does on an inexpensive sound card.
27
English
This section provides some background on the different ways that computers store and play sound and
music. Computers work with sound and music in two different forms: MIDI and digital audio.
:
Digital Audio
Digital audio is a simple way to record and play sounds of any type. It works like a tape recorder—you
record something, then later play it back. Digital audio stores the sound as a long series of numbers.
Sound Waves
Sound waves are vibrations in the air. Sound waves are generated by anything that vibrates; a
vibrating object causes the air next to it to vibrate, and the vibration is passed through the air in all
directions. When the vibrating air enters your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a
sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send
electrical signals to whatever it's connected to.
These vibrations are very fast. The slowest vibration frequency you can hear is about 20 vibrations per
second, and the fastest is around 16,000 to 20,000 vibrations per second.
Recording Digital Audio
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by a microphone, an
electric guitar, or another source. At equal intervals of time (for CD-quality sound, this means 44,100
times a second), the computer measures and saves the strength of the electrical signal from the
microphone, on a scale from 0 to 65,535.
That's it. Digital audio data is just a long series of numbers. The computer sends these numbers, in the
form of electrical signals, to a speaker. The speaker then vibrates and generates the same sound that
was recorded.
The primary advantage of digital audio is the quality of the sound. Unlike MIDI, a digital audio
recording is very rich, capturing all the nuances, overtones, and other characteristics of the sound
exactly as performed. The main drawback of digital audio is that it takes up a lot of disk space. To
record a 1-minute segment of stereo, CD-quality digital audio, you need about 10 megabytes of disk
space.
On the PC, digital audio is usually stored in Wave files (extension .wav). There are many programs
available that let you create, play, and edit these files. SONAR reads, writes, and lets you edit Wave
files.
Installing SONAR
SONAR is easy to install. All you need to do is choose the folder where the program and sample project
files should be stored.Before you start, make sure you have your serial number handy. Your serial
number is located on the back of your CD case.
Installation note: If you choose to not install the Sample files, you will not have the necessary content
to use the tutorials in Chapter 2.
28
To Install SONAR
1.
Start your computer.
2.
Close any open programs you have running.
3.
Place the SONAR CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive.
If you have autorun enabled, the SONAR AutoRun menu opens automatically, showing you a
dialog box with several buttons. If autorun is not enabled, you can open the SONAR AutoRun
menu by selecting Start-Run and entering d:\AutoRun.exe (where d:\ is your CD-ROM drive).
4.
Click the Install SONAR button.
Note:
5.
English
If you exit Setup without completing the installation, choose Start-Run, type
D:\AutoRun.exe (where D:\ is your CD-ROM drive), and click OK. This will
reopen the AutoRun window, and you can click Install SONAR to start
installation again.
Follow the installation instructions on the screen.
You can also install SONAR by choosing Start-Run and running the application named SETUP.EXE
from the CD.
Uninstalling SONAR
When you installed SONAR, the setup program placed an Uninstall icon in the Start menu. To
uninstall SONAR, click the Start button and choose Programs-Cakewalk-SONAR 5 (Studio Edition
or Producer Edition)-Uninstall SONAR 5.
Setup
You can install SONAR on any computer that runs Windows XP or x64 and has a sound card or built-in
sound module. If you want to hook up other devices, like a MIDI keyboard, an electric guitar, or a
microphone, you need the right cables, and you need to find the right connectors on your computer.
Before you install SONAR, take a minute to register the software so we can let you know when updates
become available and provide you with technical support. To register anytime log onto http://
www.cakewalk.com/register, or call 888-CAKEWALK (U.S.) or +(617)-423-9004 (outside the U.S.)
between 9 AM and 8 PM Eastern Standard Time. If you live outside of North America, please visit our
distributor’s page at www.cakewalk.com/Dealers/International.asp to get the telephone number of your
local distributor. You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid email address.
To connect a MIDI keyboard to your computer, you need standard MIDI cables or a MIDI adapter cable,
such as the one available in Cakewalk’s PC Music Pack. One end of the adapter cable should have two 5pin DIN connectors that connect to your keyboard or other MIDI device. At the other end, you need a
15-pin connector to connect to a sound card through its MIDI/joystick port.
If you have a dedicated MIDI interface, lots of electronic music gear, or work with many different music
software packages,see
Before you attach or detach any cables from your computer, you should shut down your computer and
turn off the power to all your equipment. This greatly reduces the chance of electrical damage to your
equipment while plugging and unplugging cables.
29
:
Audio Connections
There are several types of audio interfaces (soundcards). CardBus (PCI), USB/USB2 and FireWire are
the most common. Laptops can use an audio PCMCIA card. Many audio interfaces also have MIDI
inputs and some have built in MIDI synthesizers as well. This section covers the various audio
connection options.
Analog and Digital Inputs
There are two basic types of audio inputs, analog and digital. Analog inputs allow you to connect a
guitar, mic or other instrument to your computer directly. The audio interface converts the analog input
to digital. Digital inputs allow other digital devices to connect directly to your computer. Common
digital inputs include external analog to digital converters, popular guitar processors like the Line6
Pod, and other digital recording systems like the ADAT decks. Analog inputs are very common, and are
standard in virtually all consumer sound cards (the ones that come with your PC). Digital inputs are
becoming more popular and are very common on professional and mid-level, “prosumer” interfaces.
Analog inputs allow you to record a mono or stereo signal (assuming you have a stereo input) while
digital inputs allow you to record 1 to 8 signals depending on the type of digital connection.
The following table describes the various analog inputs and outputs:
Type of Analog Input/Output…
Description...
Balanced (XLR, phono or RCA)
a mono input/output
Unbalanced (TRS)
a stereo or mono input/output
The following table describes the various digital inputs and outputs:
Type of Digital Input/Output…
Description...
S/PDIF
Sony/Philips Digital Interface—capable of carrying a stereo signal, S/
PDIF is transmitted via RCA, Toslink or more rarely BNC jacks (singlepin cable-TV connections)
ADAT Lightpipe
Up to 8 channels of simultaneous transfer. If you want to import your
old ADAT material without any signal degradation, this is the
connection you should use.
TDIF
Tascam Digital Interface—up to 8 channels of simultaneous transfer.
AES/EBU
Often referred to as simply AES, this type of digital connection uses a
modified XLR cable to transfer a stereo signal.
Read your hardware documentation carefully to determine what kind of digital connections, if any, you
have on your audio interface.
To Connect an Electric Guitar to Your Computer
30
•
If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack, plug your 1/4” mono guitar cable into a 1/8” stereo
adapter, and then plug the 1/8” adapter into the microphone input or line input jack on your
computer sound card.
•
If you use a professional or “pro-sumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your guitar cable into.
To Connect a Microphone to Your Computer
•
If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack, and your microphone cable has a 1/4” plug on the end,
plug the mic cable into a 1/8” stereo adapter, and then plug the 1/8” adapter into the microphone
input jack on your computer sound card.
•
If you use a professional or “pro-sumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your mic cable into.
•
If your mic has a cable with an XLR plug on the end, and your sound card or audio hardware
interface has a 1/4 inch input jack, plug the mic cable into an XLR-to-quarter inch adapter, and
then plug your mic cable into your audio hardware. If your audio hardware has an XLR input, of
course it’s better to use that.
•
You can also plug your mic into a mixer or pre-amp, and connect the mixer or pre-amp to an input
jack on your audio hardware. This is usually the best method.
English
That's it! Now that your instruments are all set to go, you can restart your computer and turn on your
keyboard, guitar, and microphone.
For a complete description of audio input options, see the online help topic Hardware Setup.
MIDI Connections
Use the following procedure to connect a MIDI instrument to your computer.
To Connect a MIDI Keyboard to Your Computer
1.
One of the 5-pin connectors on the MIDI cable is labeled Out. Plug this connector into the MIDI In
jack on your electronic keyboard.
2.
The other 5-pin connector on the MIDI cable is labeled In. Plug this connector into the MIDI Out
jack on your electronic keyboard.
3.
If you are using a MIDI adaptor cable, plug the 15-pin connector on the MIDI cable into the MIDI/
joystick port on your sound card. If you have a joystick, unplug it, plug in the MIDI cable, and plug
the joystick into the pass-through connector on the MIDI cable.
Or
If you are using standard MIDI cables, plug the cable connected to the MIDI Out on your MIDI
instrument into the MIDI In of your sound card or MIDI interface. Plug the cable connected to the
MIDI In on your MIDI instrument into the MIDI Out of your sound card or MIDI interface.
Starting SONAR
There are many different ways to start SONAR. Here are a few:
•
Double-click the SONAR icon on your desktop.
•
Click the Start button, and choose Programs-Cakewalk-SONAR 5 (Studio Edition or
Producer Edition)-SONAR 5 (Studio Edition or Producer Edition).
•
Click the Start button, point to Documents, and choose a SONAR project from the menu.
•
Double-click the SONAR program or any SONAR document from the Windows Explorer or the
Find menu.
When you start SONAR, you see the Quick Start dialog box.
31
:
The Quick Start dialog box has several options:
Option…
How to use it…
Open a Project
Choose a project from the Open File dialog box to
open it
Open a Recent Project
Select a project from the list, and click this button
to open it
Create a New Project
Click here to create a new project.
Getting Started
Click here to view the Getting Started topic in the
help file. This topic has links to a glossary of
terms, as well as some basic procedures.
If you don’t want to see the Quick Start dialog box in the future, uncheck the box at the bottom of the
dialog box, and click Close. You can see the Quick Start dialog box later by choosing Help-Quick Start.
Migrating Preferences
If you have a previous version of Cakewalk installed, SONAR will detect it and give you the option of
migrating certain preferences from a single earlier version.
When you choose to migrate preferences, SONAR migrates the following settings from an earlier
Cakewalk version:
32
Setting…
Description...
Global Options
Settings in the Global Options dialog. Open by
selecting Options-Global.
Key Bindings
Your customized key bindings for controlling
SONAR using your MIDI keyboard or computer
keyboard.
Instrument Definitions
Files used to control specific MIDI instruments.
Setting…
Description...
Audio data directory (WaveData folder) and
Picture Cache directory locations
SONAR uses the Data directory and Picture
Cache directories from the previous Cakewalk
version for storing project wave files and their
waveform image files.
Running Wave Profiler
Wave Profiler detects the make and model of your sound card, which determine the card’s audio
characteristics. If Wave Profiler finds a card that has a WDM driver, it only profiles that card. If you
want to use more than one sound card at a time, and they don’t both have WDM drivers, you must force
the one with the WDM driver to use that driver as an older, MME driver. It is not necessary to run the
Wave Profiler for a sound card using an ASIO driver. For more information about Wave Profiler, WDM,
and MME, see the online help topic “The Wave Profiler.” When Wave Profiler determines the kind of
card you have, always accept the default settings.
Note:
You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if you install
a new sound card or driver) by choosing the Options-Audio General tab
command and clicking Wave Profiler.
Setting Up the MIDI In and MIDI Out Devices
When you start SONAR for the first time, it checks your computer to find all the MIDI input and output
devices you have installed (such as sound cards and MIDI interfaces). However, sometimes you need to
tell SONAR exactly which devices you want it to use. If you’re not getting sound from your sound card
or MIDI keyboard, or if you just want to change the MIDI outputs and devices that you are using, follow
the steps in this section.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open a dialog box in which you select the MIDI In and MIDI Out
devices that SONAR will use. Each item in the list is a MIDI Input or MIDI Output from drivers
installed using the Windows Control Panel.
33
English
The first time you start SONAR, it automatically runs the Wave Profiler utility. Wave Profiler
determines the proper MIDI and Audio timings for your sound card and writes them to a file that
SONAR refers to when using the card. Wave Profiler does not change the sound card’s DMA, IRQ, or
port address settings.
:
1.
Select Options-MIDI Devices. You will see the MIDI Devices dialog box, which lets you choose
instruments on MIDI inputs and outputs.
Device selected for MIDI input
Devices selected for MIDI output
Device not
selected for MIDI
output
Click here to
change order of
MIDI devices
2.
Look at the left window. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Inputs; make sure that all devices in
this window are highlighted. If a device isn’t highlighted, click on it once to select it for MIDI
Input.
3.
Look at the window on the right. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Outputs. SONAR numbers
its MIDI Outputs by the order of the devices in this window. The device on top is on Output 1, the
one below it is on Output 2, and so on.
4.
Highlight one device at a time in the Outputs window and click Move Selected Devices to Top to
change its order. Then highlight all the devices that appear in the window to select them for
output.
Tip!
Be sure to enable (highlight) MIDI output devices in the MIDI Devices dialog
(use the Options-MIDI Devices command). If you don’t do this, you won’t
hear any of your MIDI instruments when you play songs in SONAR.
Using MIDI Devices After Making Driver Changes
If you later add or remove drivers using the Drivers icon of the Windows Control Panel, SONAR reacts
in the following way:
34
•
If you remove a Control Panel driver, SONAR will not use the device it belongs to the next time you
run the program. Any other devices you had selected using the Options-MIDI Devices command
will remain selected.
•
If you add a driver through the Control Panel, SONAR does not automatically use it. You must use
the Options-MIDI Devices command to enable the new driver in SONAR’s list.
Note:
After you add or remove a driver with the Drivers icon in the Windows
Control Panel, you must restart Windows for the change to take effect.
Defining Your MIDI Instrument or Sound Card
SONAR Basics
SONAR’s menus and toolbars give you quick access to all the features of SONAR. Some menu choices
and tools display dialog boxes that let you choose among various options, or type in the values you
want. If you click in most views, in time rulers, or on certain other items with the right mouse button,
you see a popup menu that provides quick access to many common operations.
The project is the center of your work in SONAR. If you’re a musician, a project might contain a song,
a jingle, or a movement of a symphony. If you’re a post-production engineer, a project might contain a
30-second radio commercial or a lengthy soundtrack for a film or videotape production. By default,
every project is stored in a file (known as a project file). The normal file extension for a SONAR work
file is .CWP.
SONAR organizes the sound and music in your project into tracks, clips, and events.
Tracks are used to store the sound or music made by each instrument or voice in a project. For
example, a song that is arranged for four instruments and one vocalist may have 5 tracks—one for each
instrument and one for the vocals. Each project can have an unlimited number of tracks. Some of these
tracks may be used in your finished project, while others can hold alternate takes, backup tracks, and
variations that you might want to keep for future use. Each track can be made up of one or many clips.
Clips are the pieces of sound and music that make up your tracks. A clip might contain a horn solo, a
drum break, a bass or guitar riff, a voice-over, a sound effect like the hoot of an owl, or an entire
keyboard performance. A track can contain a single clip or dozens of different clips, and you can easily
move clips from one track to another.
Groove clips are audio clips which have tempo and pitch information embedded within them, allowing
them to follow changes to the project tempo or project pitch. You can click on either edge of a Groove clip
and drag out repetitions in the track.
Events are MIDI data (in MIDI tracks) or automation data.
SONAR File Types
Projects in SONAR can be saved as a project file with the extension .CWP or as a Bundle file with the
extension .CWB.
For a complete description of the differences between project files and bundle files, see the online help
topic Project Files and Bundle Files.
35
English
Once you have selected your MIDI Input and Output devices, SONAR, by default, plays back MIDI
sequences using a General MIDI instrument definition. If you are using a synthesizer or sound card
that does not adhere to the General MIDI standard, you may want to define that instrument.
:
Other Types of Files
SONAR lets you create and work with several other types of files, in addition to project (.CWP) and
bundle (.CWB) files that store your projects:
File type…
Description…
MIDI files (extension .MID)
Standard MIDI files.
Template files (extension .TPL)
Templates for new files you create
StudioWare (extension
.CAKEWALKSTUDIOWARE)
To control external MIDI devices from SONAR
OMF (extension .OMF)
Open Media Framework format files.
Opening a File
Use the following procedure to open a file.
To Open a File in SONAR
1.
If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2.
Choose File-Open.
3.
In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory where the project you want to open is located and
select it.
4.
Click the Open button.
5.
If you are opening an OMF file, the Unpack OMF dialog appears. Set the initial tempo and specify
the directory where you want to save the file and its audio. For more information about opening
OMF files, see Unpack OMF dialog in the online help.
SONAR loads the project.
Views
SONAR displays your project in windows on the screen that are known as views. You can have many
views open at once, all showing the same project. When you edit a project in one view, the other related
views are updated automatically.
The Track View
The Track view is the main window that you use to create, display, and work with a project. When you
open a project file, SONAR displays the Track view for the project. When you close the Track view for a
project, SONAR closes the file.
The Track view is divided into several sections: toolbars (at the top), the Navigator pane, the Video
Thumbnails pane (Producer Edition only), the Track pane, the Track/Bus Inspector, the Clips
36
pane, and the Bus pane. You can change the size of the panes by dragging the vertical or horizontal
splitter bars that separate them.
The Track pane
The Clips pane
Expanded
track
Clips
English
Minimized
tracks
Track icon
Track/Bus Inspector
Show/Hide Bus pane
Splitter bars
The Bus pane
All of the current track’s controls, plus a few that are only available in the Console view, are contained
in the Track/Bus Inspector which is an expanded version of the current track’s controls located on the
far left side of the Track view. You can hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector by pressing i on your
keyboard (see “Track/Bus Inspector” on page 38, for more information).
The Track pane lets you see and change the initial settings for each track. By default, the current track
is displayed in gold. To change the current track, move the highlight using the mouse or the keyboard as
follows:
Key…
What it does…
Left/Right Arrow
Moves the highlight to the next or previous
control.
Up/Down Arrow
Moves to the same control in the adjacent track,
or the next track of the same type if the control
only applies to a specific track type (for example,
the Patch control only applies to MIDI tracks).
Page Down
Displays the next page of tracks.
Page Up
Displays the previous page of tracks.
Home
Moves the focus to the first track.
End
Moves the focus to the last track.
37
:
The current track’s controls are contained in the Track/Bus Inspector.
The Clips pane shows the clips in your project on a horizontal timeline called the Time Ruler that helps
you visualize how your project is organized. Clips contain markings that indicate their contents. The
Clips pane lets you select, move, cut and copy clips from place to place to change the arrangement of
music and sound in your project.
The Bus pane shows the buses in the project, and also shows any editing views that are in tabbed
(docked) format. The Show/Hide Bus pane button
allows you to show or hide the Bus pane at the
bottom of the Track view.
The Navigator pane displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song. The
Navigator pane displays all of your project’s tracks.
The Track view makes it easy to select tracks, clips, and ranges of time in a project. These are the most
common selection methods:
To…
Do this…
Select tracks
Click on the track number, or drag over several
track numbers
Select clips
Click on the clip, or drag a rectangle around
several clips
Select time ranges
Drag in the Time Ruler, or click between two
markers
Select partial clips
Hold down the Alt key while dragging over a clip
As with most other Windows programs, you can also use the Shift-click and Ctrl-click combinations
when selecting tracks and clips. Holding the Shift key while you click adds tracks or clips to the current
selection. Holding the Ctrl key while you click lets you toggle the selection status of tracks or clips.
Track/Bus Inspector
The Track/Bus Inspector makes it easy to adjust the current track’s (or bus’s) controls, because it’s a
greatly expanded version of the current track’s controls that is located on the left side of the Track pane.
You can hide or show any one or all of the controls in the Track/Bus Inspector by clicking the four
buttons at the bottom of the Track/Bus Inspector.
The following graphic shows most of the Track/Bus Inspector’s controls (there may not be room to
display all of a track’s controls on the Track/Bus Inspector, depending on the resolution of your
monitor):
38
Track/Bus Inspector for an Audio Track
Track/Bus Inspector for a MIDI Track
Input menu
Trim
Fx bin: large view
with assignable
sliders
Send controls: MIDI ch.,
Bank, Patch
Phase, Mono,
Input Echo
English
Input Echo
Mute, Solo, Arm
Mute, Solo, Arm
Pan
Pan
Volume fader
Volume meter
Volume fader
Icon
Icon
Output menu
Output menu
Choose track or
bus menu
Click to select the Track/Bus
Inspector controls you want to
display
39
:
You can hide or show any of the Track/Bus Inspector’s controls, and use it to display the controls from
any track or bus. The following table shows you how:
To do this…
Do this…
Hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector
Press i on your keyboard.
Display a certain track’s or bus’s controls in the
Track/Bus Inspector
Click the track or bus to make it current, or choose the
track or bus in the track/bus dropdown menu that’s at the
bottom of the Track/Bus Inspector.
Hide or show any of the Track/Bus Inspector’s
controls
Click any of the four buttons at the bottom of the Track
Inspector (these are 3-position buttons, except for the
Volume button):
•
Send button
—when yellow, displays
send controls for audio tracks and busses;
and channel, bank, and patch controls for
MIDI tracks. When blue, shows as many
sends as possible. When grey, hides the
send controls.
•
Volume button
—hides or shows the
volume fader in MIDI tracks, audio tracks,
and busses.
•
EQ button
—in audio tracks and busses
shows the built-in EQ controls. When yellow,
shows band 1; when blue, shows all 4
bands. In MIDI tracks it has no function.
•
FX button
—when yellow, shows the FX
bin in audio tracks and busses. When blue,
also shows the first 4 parameters of the
selected effect (if it’s an automatable effect).
In MIDI tracks, shows the FX bin when
yellow. When blue, shows sliders for 4
assignable MIDI continuous controllers.
Note: you can not display a MIDI track’s Time + or Key +
controls in the Track/Bus Inspector.
40
Reassign MIDI controller sliders in a MIDI
Track’s Fx bin
Right-click the slider you want to reassign and choose
Reassign Control from the popup menu, choose the
new parameter, and click OK.
Display the parameters of a different
automatable effect
Click the name of the effect you want to select.
Assign a control to a group, arm it for
automation, take an automation snapshot, or
set up remote control
Right-click the control and choose options from the
popup menu.
Narrow the Track Inspector
Right-click a blank area and choose Narrow Strip from
the popup menu.
Bypass the FX bin
Right-click the FX bin and choose Bypass Bin from the
popup menu.
The Console View
The Console view is where you can mix the sounds on all the different tracks to create the final mix of
your project. While the Track view provides most of the same controls, you may want to use the more
familiar interface of the Console view for mixing.
You use the Console view to adjust the levels of sound for the different tracks in your project, to change
the stereo panning, and to apply real-time effects to an individual track, combinations of tracks, or the
final mix.
The Console view contains several groups of controls. There is one module for each track in your project,
and one module for each bus. You can use bus sends to direct certain tracks to special modules that are
known as buses.
MIDI module
Bus
Main Out
English
Audio module
Bus Send Enable
Stereo/Mono button
Pan control
Volume fader
for each track
Show/Hide
controls buttons
Icon
Mute, Solo, and Track Arming buttons
As in the Track view, you can change track settings or record new music or sound in the Console view.
You may choose to use one view or the other, or the choice you make may depend on which project you
are working on.
41
:
Other Views
SONAR has a number of other views you can use to display and work on your project. To display these
views, select one or more tracks, by Ctrl-clicking their track numbers and:
•
Click the icon for the view in the Views toolbar
Or
•
Choose the view you want from the View menu
The Piano Roll view
: shows the notes from a MIDI track or tracks as they would appear on a
player-piano roll. You can move the notes around, make them longer or shorter, and change their
pitches by just dragging them with the mouse. You can also use the Piano Roll view to display and edit
MIDI velocity, controllers, and other types of information. The Piano Roll view also contains the Drum
Editor, which allows you to “paint” drum patterns using the Pattern Brush tool and play different drum
modules from a single track.
The Console View
42
English
The Staff view
: displays the notes from one or more MIDI tracks using standard music notation,
similar to the way the notation would appear on a printed page. You can add, edit, or delete notes;
create percussion parts; add guitar chords and other notation markings; display guitar tablature;
display the Fretboard pane; and print whole scores or individual parts to share with other musicians.
The Loop Construction view
: allows you to create and edit Groove clips (SONAR loops that
“know” the tempo and key in which they were recorded), and export these clips as ACIDized files.
43
:
The Loop Explorer view
drop them into your project.
The Event List view
a very detailed level.
: allows you to preview ACIDized files and other Wave files; and drag and
: displays the events in a project individually, so that you can make changes at
SONAR has several other views that are used for very specific purposes:
44
View…
How you use it…
Meter/Key
To change the meter (time signature) or key
signature, or to insert changes in the meter or key
signature at specific times in a project.
Big Time
To display the Now time in a large, resizable font
that you can read more easily.
Markers
To add, move, rename, or delete labels for parts of
your project that make it easier to move from one
point to another.
Lyrics
To add and display lyrics for a track.
Video
To display a loaded video file.
Sysx
To create, display, store, and edit System
Exclusive MIDI messages used to control
instruments and other gear that are MIDI capable.
Tempo
To view and edit the project's tempo changes.
Zoom Controls
Many of the views contain Zoom tools that let you change the horizontal and vertical scale of the view:
Zoom Clips pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane
Zoom Clips pane in vertically
Zoom Bus pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane
Zoom in horizontally
Zoom out horizontally
Horizontal zoom fader
English
The Track view toolbar contains the Zoom tool:
The zoom tools are used as described in the following table:
Tool…
How you use it…
Zoom out (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom out incrementally, or press Shift and
click to zoom all the way out
Zoom in (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom in incrementally, or press Shift and
click to zoom all the way in
Zoom fader
Click and drag to zoom continuously
Zoom tool
Click to arm, then click and drag in the view to
select the zoom area. Click the dropdown arrow to
display a menu of zoom and view options.
You can also zoom with the keyboard:
Key…
What it does…
Ctrl+up arrow
Zoom out vertically
Ctrl+down arrow
Zoom in vertically
Ctrl+right arrow
Zoom in horizontally
Ctrl+left arrow
Zoom out horizontally
G
Go to (center) the Now time, without zooming
45
:
Hold down Z
Arm the Zoom tool
U
Undo the current zoom
F
Fit tracks to window
A
Show all tracks
Shift+F
Fit project to window
Shift+Double Click a clip
Maximize track height
Docking Views
You can dock any view other than the Console view in the lower-right corner of the Track view by
enabling a view’s Enable Tabbed option. You can have as many views open in tabbed format as you
want. You can toggle through the different views by clicking the tab of the view you want to see (or use
the Ctrl+Shift+Left/Right Arrow shortcut). You can also maximize the pane to do detailed work in a
view, or drag the splitter bar at the top of the view to enlarge the tabbed view area. For step-by-step
instructions, see the procedures below.
Scroll left or right to
view tabs
Active view
Tabs
Maximize pane
46
To do this…
Do this…
Display a view in tabbed
format
Click the upper left corner of a view, and choose
Enable Tabbed from the popup menu
Disable tabbed format for a
view
Right-click the view’s tab, and choose Disable
Tabbed from the popup menu.
Enable or disable tabbed
format for all open views
Use the View-Enable Tabbing for Open Views
command.
Maximize a tabbed view
Click the Maximize/Restore button
to the left of the tabs.
Restore tabbed view
Click the Restore button
that’s in the lower
left corner of the view that you’re restoring.
Close a View that is in Tabbed
Format
Right-click the view’s tab, and choose Close
from the popup menu
that’s just
Locking Views
By default SONAR allows only one instance of each view, but you can lock the contents of most views,
preserving the current view by forcing a new instance of the view to appear if necessary. Locking views
is the only way you can have multiple instances of the same view open. Only the Track and Console
views cannot be locked.
To lock a view, just click the lock button at the top right of the view. An unlocked view looks like this
,
and a locked view looks like this
. A view can be locked automatically by pressing the Ctrl key when
opening the view.
Floating Views
When a view is float enabled, you can move it outside of the confines of SONAR. This is particularly
useful if you take advantage of SONAR’s dual monitor support. Using dual monitor support, you can
keep the Track or Console view on one monitor and “float” other views to the other monitor by dragging
them to the second screen.
For more information, see the online help topic “Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support.”
You may spend a lot of time making sure that all the views are laid out on the screen just the way you
want. When you save your work, you can save the screen layout along with it. You can also save the
layout by itself and then use the layout with other projects. For more information, see the online help
topic “Layouts.”
Working on a Project
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it develops. The
Transport toolbar, shown below, contains the most important tools and other pieces of information you’ll
need to record and play back your project.
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time. As you record or play back a project, the
Now time shows your current location in the project. When you create a project, the Now time is set to
the beginning of the project. The current Now time is saved with your project.
You control recording and playback using tools on the Transport toolbar, which work a lot like the ones
on your tape deck or CD player:
Stop
Go to Beginning
Go to End
Play
Record automation
Record
Reset
As you work with a project, you can use SONAR’s mute and solo features to choose which tracks are
played, or you can create loops to play a particular section over and over again. You can also create
markers, which are named time points you add to your project to make it easy to jump to a particular
location.
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English
Layouts
:
Windows Taskbar Indicators
When SONAR is running, you’ll normally see two indicators in your Windows Taskbar, right next to the
clock.
The MIDI activity monitor
contains two lights that indicate MIDI input and output. When you play
your MIDI keyboard, the first light flashes when each note is pressed, and it flashes again when each
note is released. When you play back a project that contains MIDI, the second indicator lights up.
The volume control
is used to control the playback and record volumes on your sound card. Doubleclick on this indicator to open a dialog box that lets you control the levels for audio, MIDI, CD playback,
and record.
The volume control is available only if your sound card is using a native Windows driver. If your sound
card does not use a native Windows driver, no volume control will be displayed in the taskbar. In this
case, your sound card probably came with a separate program to control input and output levels. See
your sound card documentation for more information.
Screen Colors and Wallpaper
SONAR lets you customize the colors that are used for virtually all parts of the program using the
Options-Colors command. This command also lets you change the background bitmap that is
displayed in the SONAR window.
For any SONAR screen element, you can assign a color in two ways:
•
Choose one of the colors that is part of your Windows color scheme.
•
Assign a custom color.
To Assign Custom Colors
1.
Choose Options-Colors to display the Colors dialog box.
2.
Choose the screen element whose color you want to change from the Screen Element list.
3.
Assign a color to the screen element in one of two ways:
•
To use a color from the Windows color scheme, choose one of the options in the Follow System
Color list
•
To use a custom color, check Use Specific Color, click the Choose Color button, and select the
color you want
4.
To save these changes from session to session, check the Save Changes for Next Session box.
5.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR uses the colors you have chosen.
To Restore the Default Colors
1.
Choose Options-Colors to display the Colors dialog box.
2.
Click the Defaults button.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR uses the default colors for all screen elements.
To Change the Wallpaper
1.
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Choose Options-Colors to display the Colors dialog box.
2.
3.
Choose the desired wallpaper according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Use the default wallpaper
Check Default in the Wallpaper list
Not use any wallpaper
Check None in the Wallpaper list
Use a custom bitmap
Check Custom, choose a bitmap, and click Open
Click OK when you are done.
This chapter has provided you with an overview of SONAR and basic information on how to install the
software and configure your system. To get started with SONAR, try the Tutorials in Chapter 2.
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Starting to Use SONAR
:
50
2
Tutorials
Note:
If, during installation, you chose in the Select Components dialog not to install
the Tutorials folder (part of the Sample files), you will not have access to the
sample tutorial files needed to follow the tutorials in this chapter. If you didn’t
install these files, insert your product CD and copy the files to your hard drive.
In This Chapter
Tutorial 1—The Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Tutorial 5—Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Tutorial 7—Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
English
Now that you’ve learned some of the basics, it’s time to put that knowledge to work. These
tutorials will give you some hands-on practice in playing, recording, and mixing your
projects.
:
Tutorial 1—The Basics
The first tutorial teaches you the basics of SONAR. You'll learn how to:
•
Open and play a project file
•
Make the project repeat automatically
•
Use markers
•
Speed or slow the tempo
•
Mute a track and play a track solo
•
Change a track's instrument
•
Play a track on a MIDI instrument
If you have not already done so, please read Chapter 1, Introduction, for basic background information
about projects, tracks, clips, the Track view, and the Console view.
Opening a Project File
As you learned in Chapter 1, SONAR stores MIDI and digital audio data in project files. The first
thing you need to do is load a project file.
To Open a Project File
1.
If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2.
Choose File-Open.
3.
In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory in which you installed SONAR, double-click the
Tutorial folder to open it and select the file TUTORIAL1.CWP.
4.
Click the Open button.
SONAR loads the project and opens the Track view. Feel free to move and resize the Track view to
better fit your screen.
Preparing for Playback
Before you can play a project, you must choose the outputs for both MIDI sounds and audio sounds. By
choosing the outputs, you are telling SONAR from which outputs you want to hear the sounds.
You may have a soundcard with a built-in synthesizer, or a MIDI keyboard that produces sounds. We
will discuss using these with a project later on in the tutorial. First we will explore using a software
synthesizer to hear a project’s MIDI tracks. A software synthesizer is a software program that produces
various sounds through your audio interface when the soft synth program receives MIDI data from a
MIDI controller or sequencer program. When you insert a software synth, you need to assign the output
of the MIDI track to that software synth.
The software synthesizer itself must be routed to one of your audio outputs in order for you to hear it.
Your project might also contain audio data, perhaps vocals, that you have recorded. To hear the audio
data playing back, you need to choose an output for the audio track that contains the audio data. The
output you choose for both the software synthesizer and the audio data will be the one on your sound
card that you have connected to an amplifier and speakers, or to headphones.
Let’s insert a software synthesizer, Cakewalk TTS-1, to the tutorial project file.
To Insert Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
1.
Use the Insert-Soft Synths command and click Cakewalk TTS-1 on the popup menu.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
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2.
In the Create These Tracks fields, deselect MIDI Source, because we want to patch the pre-existing
MIDI tracks into Cakewalk TTS-1.
3.
Verify that the First Synth Audio Output option is checked. We’ll need this track to route
Cakewalk TTS-1 to our chosen audio output. The new synth track will have Cakewalk TTS-1
already patched as an audio input.
4.
In the Open These Windows fields, select only the Synth Property Page. This option opens
Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page (interface).
5.
Click OK.
SONAR opens the TTS-1 interface, and inserts a synth track that has the Cakewalk TTS-1’s output 1 as
an input. Feel free to look over the Cakewalk TTS-1’s interface, but we will not be making any
adjustments here in this tutorial. Close the TTS-1 property page (interface) by clicking X in the upperright corner of the window.
To Choose MIDI Outputs for Your Project’s Tracks
1.
In the Track view, click the dropdown arrow in the Output dropdown menu in a MIDI track to
display the track’s Output menu. MIDI tracks display a MIDI icon just to the right of the track
number:
MIDI icon
Restore Stip Size button
You may need to enlarge the track to show the Output control: In Track 1, click the Restore Strip
Size button to expand the track. Also, you may have to click the All tab control that’s at the bottom
of the Track pane to display all the controls in the track.
Output menu
Dropdown arrow to
display menu
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Now that you have a software synthesizer available for use, you can continue preparing the project for
playback. We now need to direct our MIDI tracks to the Cakewalk TTS-1.
:
All tab control—click this to display all the track controls. Click the other tabs
to display smaller groups of controls.
After you click the dropdown arrow in a track’s Output menu, a dropdown menu appears,
containing a list of enabled MIDI outputs.
2.
Select the output you want to use for that track—select “Cakewalk TTS-1 1 Output 1.”
3.
For all the other MIDI tracks, you’ll also want to choose the “Cakewalk TTS-1 1 Output 1” option:
press the down arrow on your computer keyboard to move the “focus rectangle” to the Output field
for the next track, press Enter to display the track’s Output menu, and choose the Cakwalk TTS-1
again.
4.
Repeat step 3 for each track.
Each MIDI track is now routed to the Cakewalk TTS-1. Next we need to enable the audio output we’ll
use to hear the sounds the software synthesizer produces.
To Enable Audio Outputs
1.
Select Options-Audio from the menu.
2.
Click the Drivers tab in the Audio Options dialog box.
3.
In the Output Drivers field, select the drivers you want enabled. All enabled drivers appear
highlighted. Be sure to enable the driver of the audio device connected to your speakers or
headphones.
4.
Click OK.
The Audio Options dialog box appears.
Your desired audio output will now be available for selection in your synth track’s Output menu.
To Choose an Audio Output for your Synth Track
1.
In the Track view, click the Output dropdown arrow in the Cakewalk TTS-1 synth track. Synth
tracks are distinguished by the synth icon to the right of the track number.
Output dropdown arrow
2.
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From the Output dropdown menu, select the audio output that is connected to your speakers or
headphones.
Note: TUTORIAL1.CWP does not contain audio data or audio tracks, but if you need to choose an audio
output for an audio track, each audio track also has an Output menu. Audio tracks display an audio
icon just to the right of the track number:
Audio icon
Audio output menu in an
audio track
To Use Other Sound Sources for MIDI Tracks
1.
Select Options-MIDI Devices from the menu to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
In the MIDI Devices dialog in the Outputs field, arrange the outputs by doing the following:
3.
To do this…
Do this…
Enable or disable a device
Click on it—an enabled device appears highlighted; a disabled
device does not appear highlighted.
Move a device to the top of the
list
Highlight it, temporarily deselect all other highlighted devices,
and click the Move Selected Devices to Top button.
Click OK.
Note: If you have a large number of MIDI outputs enabled, you may occasionally get MIDI
transmission errors or an out-of-memory message. You can try either deselecting some outputs, or
lowering the number of Sysx buffers by using the Options-Global command to open the Global
Options dialog box: on the MIDI tab, lower the value in the Number of Buffers field to 16.
4.
Return to the Track view and reassign the Output menu setting on any MIDI tracks you wish to
hear through something other than Cakewalk TTS-1.
•
If using a soundcard synthesizer, you need to select the name of that synthesizer (for example,
SB Live! Synth A for the synthesizer in a SoundBlaster Live sound card) in the Output menu.
•
If you’ve connected a keyboard or MIDI sound module to a MIDI interface, you need to select
the name of the MIDI interface, and set the correct output MIDI channel in the same track
(the MIDI channel that your keyboard is set to receive on).
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This tutorial has so far focused on using a software synthesizer as a sound source for your MIDI tracks.
If you have built-in synthesizer on your soundcard, or a MIDI keyboard that produces sounds (that
you’ve connected to your computer through a MIDI interface of some kind), you might want to use these
devices instead. The following optional procedure describes how to configure your project to use these
MIDI outputs.. If you’re happy using Cakewalk TTS-1, feel free to skip ahead to the next section.
:
Dropdown arrow to
display menu
MIDI Channel menu for
track 1
Let's play the project!
Playing the Project
Buttons in the Large Transport toolbar, shown in the following picture, can control most of SONAR’s
basic playback functions.
If you don’t see the Large Transport toolbar, then choose View-Toolbars and check Transport
(Large).
Rewind
Go to End
Run/Stop Audio Engine
Meter/Key
Stop
Play
Record
Record Automation
Auto-punch Reset
To Start Playback
•
To play the project, click the Play button
, or press the Spacebar.
Do you hear music? If you don't hear anything, see the online help topic called Troubleshooting for some
troubleshooting tips.
The Now Time
The Now time is the current time in the project—the time where playback is occurring, or where
playback will start up again if playback is stopped. The Now time is indicated in the Clips pane by a
vertical black line, which moves as your project plays to indicate what part of your project is playing.
When playback is stopped, at the top of the black line you will see a green triangle. This triangle, known
as the Now time marker, represents the point at which the Now time will snap back to after you stop
playback or recording (you can change this behavior in the Global Options dialog—select OptionsGlobal, click the General tab in the Global Options dialog, and uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now
Marker option).
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Now time marker
Now time
The Now time is also shown in the Transport toolbar, both in MBT (measure/beat/tick) format and in
time code format (hour/minute/second/frame). During playback, the Now time increases in accordance
with the progress of the project.
While you are playing the project, you may want to keep an eye on the Now time. The Big Time view
displays the Now time in a large font so you can more easily see it from a distance. To open this view,
choose View-Big Time. You can change the time format displayed in the Big Time window by clicking
on it. You can change its font by right-clicking on it.
To Restart the Project
When SONAR gets to the end of the project, it stops. By default SONAR will rewind to the Now Time
marker after you stop playback or recording. To play the project again, do the following:
1.
If the Now time marker is at a measure other than the first, click the Rewind button
w to go back to the first measure.
2.
Click the Play button, or press the Spacebar.
, or press
To Pause Playback
•
To temporarily pause playback, hit Ctrl-Spacebar. By default, hitting just the Spacebar or Stop
or Play
will rewind the project to the Now time marker rather than pausing at the current
Now time. However, you can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to
the current Now time when playback or recording is stopped (use the Options-Global command;
on the General tab uncheck On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker).
Certain SONAR functions can only be used when the project is paused. If a function or command does
not seem to work, try pausing the project
For more information on the Now time and Now Time marker, see the online help topic “The Now Time
and How to Use It”.
Starting from a Marker
Markers make it easier to find certain points within the project. You may want to set markers at the
beginning of each section of your project or at times with which some event must be synchronized. The
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You can set the Now time of the project by clicking in the Time Ruler in the Clips pane, or (when
playback is stopped) by dragging the Now time slider in the Large Transport toolbar.
:
Markers toolbar lets you move the Now time to a marker, add a new marker at the Now time, and edit
the marker list. If you don’t see the Markers toolbar, then choose View-Toolbars and check Markers.
Open Markers view
Markers list
Previous
marker
Next
marker
Insert
marker
Default Groove clip pitch
The current project contains several markers. Let’s try starting playback from the marker labeled C:
1.
If the project is playing, pause playback by clicking the Stop button
.
2.
In the Current Marker dropdown menu in the Markers toolbar (the larger dropdown menu, on the
left), select the marker labeled C. The Now time moves to the start of measure 17.
3.
Click the Play button
.
You can jump to the next or previous marker by pressing Ctrl+Shift+ Page Down or Ctrl+Shift+Page
Up.
For more information on markers, see the online help topic “Creating and Using Markers.”
Restarting the Project Automatically
Wouldn’t it be easier to practice your solo if you didn't have to restart the project each time it ended?
Rather than manually rewinding and restarting the project, you can make SONAR automatically jump
back to the beginning and keep playing.
Looping Over the Entire Project
To control looping, use the tools in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar. If you don’t see this toolbar, choose
View-Toolbars and check Loop.
Loop properties
Loop On/Off
Loop end time
Loop start time
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Set loop to selection time
To loop over the entire project, do the following:
1.
In the Loop toolbar, click the Loop Start time. The time display changes to an edit box with spin
controls.
2.
To loop over the entire project, the loop must start at 1:01:000. If the Loop Start time is not already
set to 1:01:000, use the keyboard or spin controls to enter this value. To set it to 1:01:000, click the
Loop Start time, enter 1 and press Enter.
3.
In the Loop toolbar, click the Loop End time.
4.
Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
5.
Select the marker named <End> and click OK. The Loop End time is set to the end of the project.
6.
Click the Loop On/Off button
7.
Click Play.
to enable looping.
Loop Start
English
When looping is enabled, the Time Ruler displays special flag markers that indicate the loop start and
end times. You can drag these markers to change the loop start and end times.
Loop End
To turn looping off, click the Loop button again.
Looping Over a Section of the Project
Maybe you would like to practice one section of the project over and over. Or, maybe you'd like one
section played repeatedly so you can practice an extended solo. In either case, you need to set the start
and end times of the loop section. Let's have SONAR loop over the section between markers C and D:
1.
In the Loop toolbar, click on the Loop Start time.
2.
Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
3.
In the Markers dialog box, select marker C and click OK. The loop start time is set to the marker
time.
4.
In the Loop toolbar, click on the Loop End time.
5.
Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
6.
In the Markers dialog box, select marker D and click OK.
7.
Click the Loop On/Off button
to enable looping.
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:
8.
Click Rewind. The project rewinds to the Loop Start time.
9.
Click Play.
A quicker way of selecting the loop times in the preceding example would be to simply click in the area
between the markers at the top of the Clips pane, then click
to copy the selection start and end
times to the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar.
Click here to select the portion of the project between markers C and D
Changing the Tempo
If the project is having trouble keeping up with you (or if you're having trouble keeping up with the
project!), you can easily speed up or slow down the project since it contains only MIDI data. There are
two ways to do this: you can change the tempo, or you can change the tempo ratio, which determines the
tempo by multiplying it by a user-defined amount. The controls for either method are found on the
Tempo toolbar. If you don’t see this toolbar, choose View-Toolbars and check Tempo.
Drag here to move toolbar to new location
Tempo ratio 3
Insert tempo
Tempo
Tempo ratio 2
Tempo ratio 1
Setting the Tempo
Let’s pick up the pace a little. Do the following:
1.
With the project playing, click on the tempo value in the Tempo toolbar. The tempo will be
highlighted and spin controls will appear.
2.
Use the spin controls to increase the tempo to 100 beats per minute.
3.
Press Enter. The project will play a little faster.
Changing the Tempo with the Tempo Ratio Buttons
By default, the Tempo Ratio buttons let you play the project at half or double tempo. Try this:
1.
Click Button 1
. The project slows to half its normal tempo. Note that the displayed project
tempo has not changed.
2.
Click Button 3
. The project speeds to twice its normal tempo.
3.
Click Button 2
. The project returns to its normal tempo.
Note: The Tempo Ratio buttons do not function in projects containing audio clips. Also, the clock source
setting on the Clock tab of the Project Options dialog (Options-Project command) must be set to
Internal.
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Setting the Tempo Ratios
Tempo ratios can be changed by Shift-clicking on them in the Tempo toolbar and entering a new number
in the dialog box. By default, tempo ratios are set to 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00, respectively.
Advanced Tempo Control
This project is a special case in that it has only one tempo for the entire project. If you need to vary the
project’s tempo, SONAR lets you insert tempo changes. Tempo changes can be inserted individually so
that different sections can be played at different tempos, or they can be inserted graphically in the
Tempo view. For more information, see the online help topic 'Changing Tempos.”
Tempo ratios affect the entire project, even if there are tempo changes. SONAR always multiplies the
current tempo in the project by the tempo ratio to determine the playback tempo.
Muting and Soloing Tracks
Muting a track causes it not to sound when you play your project. Soloing a track mutes all the tracks
except the ones that are soloed.
Muting a Track
Frequently you will want to temporarily turn off one or more instruments in your ensemble. SONAR
makes it easy to mute the parts you don’t want to hear.
For example, suppose that you are practicing the piano part for this project and want to hear only the
other instruments. Let’s mute the piano part. With the project playing, do the following:
1.
In the Track pane, click the Mute button
and the piano part drops out of the project.
in the Piano track (track 1). The button turns yellow,
2.
To turn the piano back on, click the Mute button again.
Note that the yellow MUTE indicator lights up in the Status bar whenever a track is muted (the Status
bar is located at the bottom of the SONAR window). This can be very helpful if there are muted tracks
that aren’t visible.
Let's try using a different method to mute two tracks simultaneously:
1.
In the Track pane, click the track number (the left-most column) of the Piano track. The track is
selected.
2.
While pressing Ctrl, click the track number in the Sax track. The Piano and Sax tracks are
selected.
3.
Choose Track-Mute. Both tracks are muted.
You can also mute or unmute tracks by using the popup menu:
1.
In the Track pane, click the track number of the Piano track.
2.
While pressing Ctrl, click the track number of the Sax track. The piano and sax tracks are selected.
3.
Right-click on either track to bring up the popup menu.
4.
Choose Mute (which should have a check mark beside it).
SONAR unmutes the tracks. You can also unmute all tracks by clicking the Mute indicator on the
Status bar.
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You can change a track’s mute or solo status while your project is playing.
:
Playing a Track Solo
If you want to hear one track by itself, you could mute all other tracks. But there’s a quicker way to do
it—the Solo button. For example, to play the drum part by itself, do the following:
1.
Click the Solo button
in the Drum track (track 5). Voila, a percussion solo!
2.
To let the other instruments back into the project, click the Drum track's Solo button again.
Solo is not exclusive—you can let as many instruments as you like into the solo. Notice that the green
SOLO indicator lights up in the Status bar (located at the bottom of the screen) whenever a track is
soloed.
Let’s use a different method to solo all three percussion tracks:
1.
In the Track pane, click the track number in the Drums track. The track becomes selected.
2.
While pressing Shift, click the track numbers in the Shaker and Triangle tracks. All three
percussion tracks become selected.
3.
Choose Track-Solo.
When you want to let the entire ensemble back into the project, click the Solo indicator on the Status
bar to unsolo all the tracks, or select all soloed tracks and choose Track-Solo. As a third option, rightclick, bring up the popup menu, and turn off the solo from there.
Note that Mute takes priority over Solo. If both buttons are enabled in a track, the track does not play.
Mute and Solo in the Console View
The Console view contains Mute and Solo buttons identical to those in the Track view. The two sets of
buttons are synchronized. To see this, do the following:
1.
In the Console view, mute the Bass, Sax, and Drums tracks.
2.
Solo the Piano track.
3.
In the Track view, check that the first track is soloed and that tracks 2, 3, and 5 are muted. Click
the enabled Solo and Mute buttons to return the tracks to normal.
Changing a Track's Instrument
If the sound card synthesizer or software synthesizer you are using is like most, it is capable of
producing at least 128 different instrument sounds, plus several dozen percussion sounds. Now you'll
find out how to get some of those other instruments into the act. Let’s try changing the instrument
playing the piano line.
Changing the Patch in the Track View
With the project playing, do the following:
1.
Solo the Piano track so you can hear the piano part more clearly. To do this, click the Solo button
in the Piano track (track 1).
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2.
Loop the project, or a part of the project and click Play.
3.
In the Piano track in the Track pane, find the Patch control (it’s the field just after the Bank
control). Click the down arrow that is at the end of the patch name (the patch name should be
something like Acoustic Grand Piano).
4.
To change the patch, select a new patch from the menu that appears. SONAR closes the menu and
immediately starts playing the piano part with that new instrument.
5.
Have fun trying all the different patches!
6.
Click the Solo button in track 1 again to unsolo the Piano track.
You can change the patch at other times in the project besides the beginning by using the Insert-Bank/
Patch Change command:
1.
Stop playback.
2.
Select the track in which you want to insert a patch change by clicking on its track number.
3.
Move the Now time to the place where you want to insert the patch change.
4.
Use the Insert-Bank/Patch Change command.
5.
Choose a patch from the Patch field and click OK.
The Bank/Patch Change dialog box appears.
6.
Move the Now time to a place before the patch change and play the project so that the Now time
moves through the place where you put the patch change. You may want to solo the track to hear it
clearly.
7.
Listen to the sound change when the Now time reaches the patch change.
You may want to experiment with changing all the instruments used by the project. One thing you
should know: Changing the instrument on a percussion track (such as the Drum, Shaker, and Triangle
tracks in this project) may have no effect. Percussion instruments are played on MIDI channel 10,
which in General MIDI is dedicated to percussion. The note determines the instrument, and the patch
is irrelevant.
Changing the Patch in the Track/Bus Inspector
You can also change a track’s patch in the Track/Bus Inspector, which is a vertically expanded version of
the current track’s controls at the far left side of the Track view. The current track is the one with the
gold title bar. Whichever track’s controls that you click becomes the current track. For example, to
change the Piano track’s patch, click the Patch button in the Piano track’s Track/Bus Inspector and
choose a new patch from the menu. The Patch button is just below the Bank button. You can hide or
show the Track/Bus Inspector by pressing i on your computer keyboard.
Playing Music on a Keyboard
If you've connected a MIDI keyboard (or another instrument) to your external MIDI interface or the
MIDI interface of your sound card, you can play one or more parts of the project on the keyboard instead
of the sound card’s internal synthesizer. For instructions on connecting a keyboard to your computer, see
“To Connect a MIDI Keyboard to Your Computer” on page 31. For this section, we assume that you want
to connect the keyboard to the MIDI In and MIDI Out of your sound card.
Checking Your MIDI Device Settings
First, let’s make sure that SONAR is set up to send MIDI output to your keyboard.
1.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
In the Outputs field, two devices should be selected. The first should be your sound card
synthesizer device; the second should be the MIDI output your MIDI device is connected to (it
should say something like “SB Live MIDI Out”). The uppermost selected device will correspond to
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English
SONAR inserts the patch change that you selected at the Now time.
:
Output 1, the second device to Output 2, and so on. For help with these settings, see the online help
topic “Setting Up Output Devices.”
3.
Click OK.
Routing MIDI Data to the Keyboard
Let’s play back the Piano track through your MIDI keyboard. First, turn your keyboard on and make
sure it is set up to receive MIDI input on channel one. Then, do the following:
1.
In the Track view, in the Piano track (track 1), click the Output field to open the menu of outputs.
2.
Select the output that your keyboard is attached to.
3.
Click the Play button or press the Spacebar to play your project.
SONAR plays the piano part through your keyboard.
Or, if you prefer, the procedure is similar in the Console view:
1.
In the Console view (to display, use the View-Console command), click the Output button in the
Piano module to open the menu of outputs. The Output button is just below the volume fader.
2.
Select the output that your keyboard is attached to.
3.
Play your project.
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI
This tutorial teaches you how to record MIDI data with SONAR. You’ll learn how to:
•
Set up the metronome
•
Record MIDI tracks
•
Use loop recording
•
Use punch recording
Creating a New Project
If you haven’t already done so, the first thing you need to do is create a project file:
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1.
Start SONAR.
2.
Choose File-New.
3.
In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial2 in the Name field.
4.
Select the MIDI tracks template from the template list.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR opens a new project named Tutorial2, containing only MIDI tracks.
Recording a MIDI Track
Let’s record a new MIDI track in the project.
Setting Up the Metronome
Musicians often use a metronome to keep track of the beat. SONAR’s metronome is more versatile than
most real metronomes. You can configure it to sound on playback or recording; it can count off any
number of lead-in measures or beats; and it can use audio clips or MIDI notes to produce sounds. It also
quickly and accurately follows any tempo changes that happen in the project.
You can set up the metronome with the Metronome toolbar. If you don’t see the Metronome toolbar,
choose View-Toolbars and select Metronome.
Use Audio Metronome
English
Accent first beat
Metronome settings
Metronome during
record
Measures
Count-in
Use MIDI metronome
Beats
Metronome during playback
Let’s set up the metronome to play audio for two count-in measures when recording. Here's what to do:
1.
In the Metronome toolbar, click in the Count-in box.
2.
Use the + or - buttons to set the count-in value to 2.
3.
Click the Count-in Measures option
4.
Deselect the Metronome During Record option
5.
Select the Use Audio Metronome option
to select it.
.
.
By disabling the Metronome During Record option, you cause the metronome to turn off after the countin measures. If you would prefer to hear the metronome during the entire project while recording,
enable this option instead.
In this example, the metronome counts in for recording, not for playback.
Setting MIDI Inputs
Let's make sure that SONAR is set up to receive MIDI data from your instrument.
1.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
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:
2.
In the Inputs column, select your sound card's MIDI In device or the MIDI In for your external
MIDI interface. For help with these settings, seethe online help topic “Setting Up the MIDI In and
MIDI Out Devices.”
3.
Click OK.
Setting Up Playback
During recording, SONAR will play the rest of a project as usual. Depending on what instrumental part
of the project you are going to record, you may want to mute one or more tracks, or solo certain tracks.
For example, if you are going to record a new piano part, you might want to mute the old piano part so
that you're not competing with it while recording (you can also record over the old piano part—arm the
piano track and make sure Overwrite is the selected mode in the Record Options dialog box, which you
open with the Transport-Record Options command). To mute any track, click the track's Mute button
.
Since this is a new project, there is no need to mute or solo any track.
You can also set other playback options, such as the tempo ratio, to make your recording session easier.
Recording MIDI
Now you'll record a track in the project. Do the following:
1.
Make sure your instrument is turned on and set up to transmit MIDI data.
2.
If you don’t have an unused MIDI track in the project, create a new MIDI track by right-clicking in
the Track pane and selecting Insert MIDI Track from the menu that appears.
3.
In a MIDI track, click the Arm button
(arming a track automatically sets the Input field to
MIDI Omni, meaning that this track will record incoming MIDI data from any channel).
4.
On the Transport toolbar, click Record
, or press r.
The metronome counts off two measures, then SONAR starts recording.
5.
Play your MIDI instrument.
6.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button
, or press the Spacebar.
If you've played any notes, a new clip appears in the Clips pane in the track you recorded on. If no new
clip appears, see “I Can’t Record from My MIDI Instrument” in the Troubleshooting section of the
online help for some troubleshooting hints.
Listening to the Recording
Let’s play back your performance on your sound card. For an added dimension, we’ll open a few other
views in the process. Do the following:
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Display the controls of the track you recorded by clicking its Restore Strip Size button
, or by
dragging the Vertical Zoom control that’s located at the lower right corner of the Clips pane. You
may need to click the All tab at the bottom of the Track pane to display all the controls.
2.
Click the Output dropdown arrow to display the menu of available outputs.
3.
Select your sound card’s MIDI synthesizer (if you don’t see the outputs you expect to see, use the
Options-MIDI Devices command and enable the correct outputs—see “Preparing for Playback”
on page 52).
4.
In the Ch field, click the dropdown arrow to select a MIDI channel, and select an unused channel.
5.
In the Patch field, select any patch.
6.
Choose View-Piano Roll to open the Piano Roll view.
7.
Choose View-Staff to open the Staff view.
8.
Choose View-Event List to open the Event List view.
9.
Choose Window-Tile in Rows to tile the views.
10. To return to the start of the project, click the Rewind button, or press w.
11. Click Play
or press the Spacebar.
It’s almost as easy to listen to your performance on your MIDI instrument. For instructions on how to
play a track on a MIDI keyboard, refer to Tutorial 1.
The Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views all show the same basic information—the notes that you
recorded. The Piano Roll view displays the track as a player-piano roll. The Staff view shows notes in
traditional music notation. The Event List view lists all MIDI events for the track. When you need to
edit a track, you can work in any of these views. On different occasions you may have reason to use
different views. More information about the Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views can be found in later
chapters of this manual or in the online help.
When you're ready to continue, close the Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views.
Recording Another Take
Maybe your first attempt at recording resulted in a perfect performance, but maybe not. If you'd like to
remove your first take and try again, do the following:
1.
Choose Edit-Undo Recording or press Ctrl+Z to undo your recording.
2.
Click Rewind
3.
Click Record
4.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button in the Transport toolbar or press the Spacebar.
, or press w. The track is still armed for recording, so you don't need to re-arm it.
, or press r.
Alternatively, you could record your next attempt on a new track. That way you can keep all the takes
and select the best one later (or combine the best parts of each!). If you record on a new track, be sure to
arm the new track for recording and to disarm the previous track. See “Loop Recording” on page 68 for
a convenient way to record multiple takes.
Saving Your Work
When you have something you’d like to keep, you can save the project by doing the following:
1.
Choose File-Save As.
2.
In the File Name box, type a new file name, such as my project.
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English
1.
:
3.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the project under the new name. From now on, you can click the Save button
this project.
to save
Loop Recording
If you'd like to record several takes successively, you can set up SONAR to loop over the entire project,
or just some section of it. SONAR will record a new take during each loop, storing that take in a new
clip. You can set SONAR to place each clip in a new track or to pile all clips in one track.
Let's try recording a few takes of the first four measures of a project, placing each take in a new track.
Setting Up Looping
First, let's set up SONAR to loop over the first four measures:
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
to open the Snap to Grid dialog box. If
the Snap to Grid button is not visible in the Track view toolbar, use your mouse to drag the vertical
splitter between the Track pane and the Clips pane to the right.
2.
In the Snap to Grid dialog box, click the Musical Time button and select Measure from the list of
durations. In the Mode field, select Move To, and click OK to close the dialog box.
Now you can only select exact one-measure blocks of time in the Time Ruler, which is located at the
top of the Clips pane.
3.
In the Time Ruler, drag through the first four measures to select them.
4.
In the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, click the Set Loop to Selection button
and Loop End times.
Clicking
to set the Loop Start
enables looping automatically.
Setting Up the Tracks
Now let's set up the first of the tracks where the takes will be stored:
1.
Arm a MIDI track by making sure its Arm button
2.
Click the track’s Output field to set its output to your sound card's MIDI synthesizer.
is red.
3.
Use the track’s Ch field to set its Channel to an unused channel.
4.
Use the track’s Patch field to select any patch.
As usual, you could set the tracks to play back on your MIDI keyboard instead by specifying the
appropriate output and channel.
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Loop Recording
1.
Choose Transport-Record Options to display the Record Options dialog box.
2.
Choose the Store Takes in Separate Tracks option to store each new take in a separate track. Each
time a new take starts, the settings from the first track will be copied to the new track.
3.
Click OK.
4.
Click Rewind
5.
Click Record
.
.
SONAR loops over the designated section and records your takes to successive tracks. If you want
to erase the most recent take during loop recording, choose Transport-Reject Loop Take.
6.
To stop recording, click Stop
, or press the Spacebar.
Now you can listen to each take individually by muting the other ones.
Alternatively, you could set your loop recording options to Store Takes in a Single Track and display
them all within one track. After you finish recording several takes, press the Track Layers button
on the track strip. The track will then expand to show all clips on separate layers that can be muted and
soloed indivdiually.
For more information on Track Layers, see the online help topic “ Take Management and Comping
Takes.”
Punch-In Recording
Imagine that one of your takes was close to ideal, except for one or two notes in one measure. Rather
than recording another full take, you'd prefer to keep the take but replace that measure.
Punch-in recording lets you replace a section of a track. The way it works is this: first, you set the start
and end times of the punch to the section you want to replace, and turn on punch recording. Then, you
arm the track and start recording. You can play along with the original take to get the rhythm and
feeling. However, nothing will be recorded until the Now time reaches the punch start time. During the
punch, the material already in the track will be replaced with what you record. When the punch ends,
the project will continue to play, but recording will stop.
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Finally, let's record our takes:
:
Let's try it. Suppose you want to replace several measures in the recording you made earlier in this
tutorial.
1.
Display the Record toolbar by choosing View-Toolbars-Record.
Auto-punch on/off
Record mode Step record
Click to open the Record
Options dialog box
Punch In
Time
Click here to set punch
times to the selection start
and end times
Punch Out
Time
2.
In the Record toolbar, click the Punch In Time.
3.
Type the number of the measure at which you want to begin punch recording and press Enter.
4.
Click the Punch Out Time.
5.
Type the number of the measure at which you want to end punch recording and press Enter.
6.
Click the Auto-Punch On/Off button to enable punch recording.
7.
Select Overwrite from the Record Mode dropdown menu.
8.
Arm the track in which you want to punch record.
9.
If looping is still on, click the Loop button
10. Click Rewind
11. Click Record
to turn it off.
.
.
Play along until you are past the punch end time, then click Stop
difference. If it's still not right, try again!
. Replay your take to hear the
An alternative method is to select measures by dragging in the Time Ruler. Then right-click the Time
Ruler and choose Set Punch Points. This automatically enables punch recording.
You can combine loop recording with punch recording; see the online help topic “Punch Recording” for
details.
When Auto Punch is enabled, the Time Ruler displays special markers that indicate the punch in and
punch out times. You can drag these markers to change the punch in and punch out times.
Punch In
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Punch Out
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio
To record digital audio, you need some sort of device hooked up to your sound card's line or mic input—
an electric guitar, a preamp, or a mixer, for example. If nothing else, try playing or singing into a
microphone!
If you have never connected an instrument to your sound card, see “To Connect an Electric Guitar to
Your Computer” on page 30.
•
Setting the sampling rate
•
Setting the audio driver bit depth and recording bit depth
•
Opening a new project
•
Setting up an audio track
•
Checking the input levels
•
Recording digital audio
•
Listening to the recording
•
Recording another take
•
Input monitoring
•
Loop and punch-in recording
•
Recording multiple channels
English
This tutorial covers these procedures:
Setting the Sampling Rate
Each SONAR project has a parameter that specifies the sampling resolution for all digital audio data in
the project. You should set this rate before recording any digital audio.
To set the sampling rate:
1.
Choose Options-Audio to open the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
Click the General tab.
3.
Under Default Settings for New Projects, select a Sampling Rate. For CD-quality sound, use 44100
Hz.
4.
Click OK.
Lower sampling rates will save disk space but will result in lower-quality audio. Before embarking on
any major project, consider what media your project will eventually be stored on, and what sampling
rate is best for that media.
Setting the Audio Driver Bit Depth and Recording Bit Depth
The drivers for most sound cards use anywhere from 16 to 24 bits to play back recorded data. CD’s use
16 bits. You can possibly get better sound quality by recording at a higher bit depth and converting to 16
bits when it’s time to master your project, but keep in mind that 24 bit audio takes 50% more memory
than 16 bit audio, possibly straining your computer’s storage capability and speed of operation. Your
sound card’s documentation could have some advice on choosing an audio driver bit depth.
You can record audio data at 16 bits or 24 bits. It usually makes sense to record and play back at the
same bit depth.
To set the audio driver bit depth:
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:
1.
Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
On the General tab, find the Audio Driver Bit Depth field and select one of the options.
3.
Click OK.
For more information about audio driver bit depth, see the online help topic “Bit Depths for Playback.”
To set the record bit depth:
1.
Use the Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog box.
2.
On the Audio Data tab, find the Record Bit Depth field and select one of the options.
3.
Click OK.
Open a New Project
Let’s open a new project for this tutorial.
1.
Select File-New from the menu.
2.
In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial3 in the Name field.
3.
Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
Note: In the New Project File dialog you can also confirm where your project and project audio will be
stored when you save a new project. Do so by adjusting the paths in the Location and Audio Path fields.
For the purpose of these tutorials, however, the default locations should be acceptable.
Setting Up an Audio Track
Let’s set up a track for digital audio:
1.
Insert a new track by doing the following: in the Track pane, right-click below the last track, or
wherever you want to insert a track, and choose Insert Audio Track from the popup menu.
SONAR inserts a new audio track.
2.
In the track’s Output field, click the dropdown arrow and select an audio output from the menu.
3.
In the track’s Input field, choose an audio input. Usually you select the left channel of one of your
sound card’s inputs to record a mono track, or the stereo input to record a stereo track.
The Normal template has several audio tracks in it already, which you could use to record with. You
don’t have to insert a new audio track to record with if your project already has one or more empty
audio tracks.
Checking the Input Levels
Before trying to record, you need to check and adjust the audio input levels. If your audio input is too
low, it will be lost in the background noise. If it is too high, it will overload the input channel and be
distorted/clipped. Before you check input levels, make sure that the Record Meters are set to be
displayed in the Track view. Click the right arrow next to the Show/Hide Meters button
and in the
menu that appears, select the Record Meters command if it is not already checked.
You may need to drag the splitter bar that separates the Track pane from the Clips pane to the right to
see all the buttons in the Track view toolbar.
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar, which you
click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop somewhere in your mixer setup.
Whenever you play a project, SONAR automatically enables the audio engine, which you can tell by
watching the Status bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the Audio Running indicator in the
Status bar lights up. The Status bar is located at the bottom of the SONAR window.
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To check the audio input levels:
1.
Click the Arm button
2.
Perform as you would during recording. Watch the meter respond to the sounds you produce. If the
meter does not respond, you may need to raise the volume of your plugged-in instrument. Also,
in your new audio track. The track’s meter becomes a record meter.
make sure that the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar is depressed.
If you still don't see any movement of the audio meters, you may have an audio input problem.
3.
If the meter never comes even close to the maximum, increase the input level by using the
Windows mixer or your sound card’s software mixer (or if you are recording your instrument
through an amplifier or mic preamp, turn up the amp or preamp).
4.
If the meters even occasionally reach the maximum, decrease the input level.
SONAR’s meters are extremely adjustable for the kind and range of data they display. For more
information, see the online help topic “Metering.”
Recording Digital Audio
It's time to record!
1.
If you haven’t already set up the metronome, follow the directions in “Setting Up the Metronome”
on page 65 to set the metronome for a two-measure count-in.
2.
The track is already armed for recording.
3.
In the Transport toolbar, click Record
, or press r on your computer keyboard.
You’ll hear two measures counted in by the metronome, then playback and recording begin.
4.
Go ahead and perform!
5.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button
, or press the Spacebar.
A new clip appears in the Clips pane. Also, right-click in the Clips pane and choose View-Options to
open the Track View Options dialog box—make sure Display Clip Names and Display Clip Contents are
checked.
Listening to the Recording
Let's play back your performance. Do the following:
1.
In the track’s Output field, click the dropdown arrow to display the menu of available outputs, and
select a pair of your sound card’s stereo outputs (if your sound card only has two outputs, just
select the name of your sound card).
2.
To return to the start of the project, click the Rewind button.
3.
Disarm your audio track by clicking its Arm button again—this changes the track’s meter to a
playback meter. The track is disarmed when its Arm button is not red.
4.
Click Play
5.
Watch the track’s meter. If the level is not what you want, record your track again.
.
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The idea is to try to get the input level to rise as high as possible, but without ever reaching the
maximum. That way, you get the strongest possible signal without distortion.
:
Recording Another Take
If you'd like to delete your performance and try again, do the following:
1.
Choose Edit-Undo Recording to undo your recording, or press Ctrl+Z (Undo).
2.
If necessary, click Rewind
3.
Make sure the track is still armed for recording.
4.
Click Record
5.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button
or press w.
.
, or press the Spacebar.
Alternatively, you could record your next attempt on a new track, or in the same track. If you enable a
track’s Track Layers button
, you can display alternate takes in different “lanes” in a single track.
To avoid erasing each take, enable Sound on Sound (Blend) mode in the Record Options dialog
(Transport-Record Options command), and make sure that Create New Layers On Overlap is
enabled in the same dialog.
Input Monitoring
SONAR has a feature called input monitoring, which allows you to hear any instrument that is
plugged into your sound card whether you are currently recording the instrument or not. You can hear
your instrument, including any plug-in effects, whenever input monitoring is enabled and the Audio
Engine button
in the Transport toolbar is depressed. You can enable or disable input monitoring on
an individual track by clicking the track’s Input Echo button
, and you can enable or disable input
monitoring on all tracks at once by clicking the Input Echo button that’s on the Playback State toolbar
(to display, use the View-Toolbars-Playback State command).
Caution: If you have any kind of a loop in your mixer setup that causes the output of your sound card
to be fed back into the input, you can get feedback. Input monitoring can make it very intense because
both the direct signal and the processed signal are coming out of your sound card. Turn your speakers
off whenever you enable input monitoring, and then try turning them up very gradually to try it out. If
you hear feedback, click the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar to turn input
monitoring off.
For more information on Input Monitoring, see the online help topic “Input Monitoring.”
Loop and Punch-In Recording
Loop and Punch-in work the same for digital audio recording as they did for MIDI recording. For more
information, see the online help topics “Loop Recording” or “Punch Recording.”
Recording Multiple Channels
If you can gather the entire band around your computer, and if you have the proper equipment, you can
record a full multiple-instrument performance all at once. If you have several MIDI instruments, you
can route their input into your sound card through a MIDI merger—data that arrives on different MIDI
channels can be routed to different tracks. Likewise, a typical sound card can record audio on both right
and left channels—each can be recorded on a different track by choosing the right channel as an input
for one track, and the left channel as an input for another. Multiple sound cards and multi-I/O sound
cards can expand the number of possible inputs. For more information, see the online help topic
“System Configuration.”
That completes the audio recording tutorial. Now you’ve learned the basics of playing and recording
material for your projects. In the following tutorials you'll learn about basic editing techniques for both
MIDI and audio.
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Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI
SONAR has too many powerful MIDI features to look at in one tutorial, so let’s look at some of the most
basic features and also cover some exciting new ones, such as slip editing and MIDI envelopes.
•
Transposing
•
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop
•
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
•
Slip Editing
•
Drawing MIDI Envelopes
•
Converting MIDI to Audio
Transposing
Here are two ways to transpose MIDI data in SONAR:
•
You can apply the Transpose command to selected data (see the procedure below).
•
You can use the Key+ control for a specific track—the Key+ control is located with the other track
parameter controls in the Track pane. This method causes a track to play higher or lower by the
number of half steps you enter in the Key+ control. This is a non-destructive form of editing that
leaves the pitch of the original data unchanged, but adds an “offset” when the track plays back.
To Transpose our Tutorial File
1.
Select all the notes in the bass track by clicking the bass track’s track number. The track number
should appear highlighted when it is selected.
2.
Select all the notes in the organ track by Ctrl-clicking (holding down the Ctrl key while you click)
the organ track’s track number. Ctrl-clicking allows you to make multiple selections.
3.
Use the Process-Transpose command to open the Transpose dialog box.
4.
Enter -2 (negative 2) in the Amount field and click OK.
5.
Ctrl-click both track numbers again to deselect them.
SONAR transposes the selected data down a whole step (2 half steps). Choose MIDI outputs for your
tracks and play the project. You can undo the transposition by pressing Ctrl+Z, and redo the
transposition by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Z.
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop
The first clip in the bass track is two measures long; we can easily drag-copy it to make it eight
measures long. When we drag-copy some of the clips, we can make them into linked clips. When you
edit a linked clip, SONAR performs the exact same edits on all other clips that the clip is linked to.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1.
In the Track view toolbar, click the Snap to Grid button’s down arrow to open the Snap to Grid
dialog box.
2.
Make sure that the Musical Time radio button is selected, and in the list to the right of it, select
Measure.
3.
In the Mode field, select Move By and click OK. Now we can only move clips in the Clips pane by
distances of an exact measure or measures.
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English
In this tutorial, start by opening the file TUTORIAL4.CWP in the Tutorial folder where SONAR is
installed. We will be doing the following tasks:
:
4.
While holding down the Ctrl key, drag the first clip in the bass track to the right and release the
mouse when the start of the clip is at measure three. The Drag and Drop Options dialog box
appears. Click OK—SONAR places a copy of the clip in measures three through four. Ctrl-dragging
a clip copies and moves it, while dragging without holding down any extra keys moves a clip
without making a copy of it.
5.
Now let’s make a linked clip copy of the new clip in measure three: Ctrl-drag the clip from measure
three to measure five. When the Drag and Drop Options dialog box appears, click the Copy Entire
Clips as Linked Clips checkbox and click OK. SONAR places a linked clip copy into measures five
and six. The two linked clips have dotted outlines to show they are linked.
6.
Make another linked copy of one of the linked clips and place it in measures seven and eight.
Because this copy overlaps the clip that’s in measure 9, make sure that the Blend Old and New
option is checked in the Drag and Drop dialog box. Because none of the notes in the two clips
overlap, blending the two clips does not change any of their data.
Now you have linked clip copies in measures three through eight: when you edit any of these three clips,
SONAR performs the exact same edits on the other two.
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
SONAR’s Piano Roll view gives you complete control of individual note properties. Let’s edit a couple of
notes.
To Edit Notes in the Piano Roll View
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1.
Open the Piano Roll view of the first bass clip by double-clicking the clip. In the Piano Roll view,
you may have to use the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys on your computer keyboard to display the
note data (the Right and Left Arrow keys scroll the display in the horizontal direction).
2.
Drag the Piano Roll’s Horizontal Zoom control in the lower right corner of the Notes pane to make
the note data large enough for easy editing (see following picture).
3.
In the Piano Roll toolbar, right-click the Snap to Grid button
to open the Snap to Grid dialog
box (Snap to Grid settings in each view are independent of each other).
4.
Make sure the Musical Time radio button is selected, and in the window to the right of it, select
Eighth.
5.
In the Mode field, make sure that the Move By radio button is selected and click OK. Now we can
only move data in the Piano Roll view by exact distances of one or more eighth notes.
6.
In the Piano Roll toolbar, click the Draw tool
to activate it.
7.
Find the note that starts at the beginning of measure three and move the cursor over the
beginning of the note so that the cursor becomes a cross. Drag the beginning of the note to the left
by a half beat, and release the mouse.
English
Beat 1 of Measure 3
Drag note from here
Drag Horizontal Zoom control
SONAR moves the note to the left by a half beat and lengthens the note by a half beat, and also
performs the same edits on the identical notes that are at the beginnings of the other two linked
clips.
8.
Close the Piano Roll view when you finish editing.
If you want to unlink clips when you’re through editing them, select the clips you want to unlink (in
the Track view), right-click one of them, and choose Unlink from the Clips pane popup menu. Select
Independent, Not Linked At All in the Unlink Clips dialog box and click OK.
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:
When you move the Draw tool over a note, it changes into one of 3 different editing tools, depending on
what part of the note you move it over:
•
If you move the Draw tool over the beginning or end of a note, the Draw tool changes into a cross.
When you drag one end of a note with the cross icon, the other end of the note stays put, thereby
changing the duration of the note as you move the opposite end.
•
If you move the Draw tool just inside the beginning of a note, the Draw tool changes into a
horizontal, double-ended arrow. When you drag the beginning of a note with this icon, the other
end of the note moves with the beginning of the note, thereby keeping the duration of the note
constant.
•
If you move the Draw tool over the middle of a note, the Draw tool changes into a vertical, doubleended arrow. Use this tool to drag the note up or down in pitch.
Slip Editing
Now let’s take advantage of one of the most convenient features of SONAR: slip editing. Slip editing lets
you drag the beginning or ending borders of a clip to hide the notes or other MIDI data that are in the
area that you drag through (slip editing also works on audio clips). SONAR does not delete these notes
or data, but does not play them either. As soon as you drag the clip borders to display the data again,
SONAR plays them again. Slip editing is a very fast and convenient way to try out different sounds
without destroying any data. You can also leave the clip borders unchanged and only drag the data
that’s within the clip, which is called scroll-trimming. Scroll-trimming changes the rhythmic placement
of data without changing the clip’s borders.
To Slip Edit TUTORIAL4.CWP
1.
Drag the horizontal zoom controls in the Clips pane so that a space of about 2 measures fills up the
Clips pane.
2.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button to open the Snap to Grid dialog box, change
the Musical Time resolution to Eighth, make sure Move By is selected in the Mode field, and click
OK. Now we can only drag the borders of clips by units of eighth notes.
3.
In the organ track in the Clips pane, move the cursor over the right end of the first clip until the
cursor changes to a square. Drag the right border to the left until the MIDI data at the end of the
clip is hidden.
Hide this region
Now you can’t hear those notes.
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Like this
4.
Drag the end of the second clip to the left until just the “tail” or glissando of the data is hidden.
Hide this region
5.
Like this
In the third clip, hold down both the Alt and Shift keys and drag only the data inside the clip to the
left by about one eighth note.
Drawing MIDI Envelopes
MIDI envelopes are lines and curves you can draw on MIDI data in the Clips pane. Each envelope
produces continuous control over one of the following track parameters: volume, pan, chorus, reverb,
automated mute, or a MIDI controller. You can show or hide any envelope you create, but the envelope
still functions when it is hidden. For our tutorial, let’s create a MIDI volume envelope.
To Draw and Edit a MIDI Volume Envelope
1.
In the Clips pane in the organ track, right-click and choose Envelopes-Create Track EnvelopeVolume (default Ch. 1) from the Clips pane popup menu.
SONAR creates a blue line through the organ track, with a small round dot (a node) at the
beginning of the line. The line shows the initial volume of the track, if it has an initial volume.
Otherwise, it shows a default value.
2.
Scroll the Now Time to the next marker by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Page Down; the marker is called
Verse, and is located just before measure nine. Drag the Horizontal zoom control so that the beat
markers are visible in the Time Ruler.
3.
At the fourth beat of measure eight, add a node to the envelope by moving the cursor over it until a
double-ended, vertical arrow appears under it, right-clicking to open the Envelope Editing menu,
and choosing Add Node from the menu. A shortcut to add a node is to double-click the line.
4.
At the start of measure nine, add another node.
5.
Move the cursor over the newest node until a cross appears under it, and drag the node downwards
until it’s just below the MIDI data that’s at the start of the clip.
Drag second node to here
6.
At the fourth beat of measure twelve, add another node and drag it up to the top of the track. Now
you have a gradual volume increase in the organ track for almost four measures.
7.
At the start of measure thirteen, add another node and drag it downward just below the MIDI data
at the start of the measure.
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English
You can experiment as much as you want with slip editing, all without destroying any data! For more
information about Slip Editing, see the online help topic “Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive Editing).”
:
8.
Right-click the line that’s between the last two nodes, and choose Slow Curve from the Envelope
Editing menu. SONAR changes the line to a curve. Now the drop in volume is a little more gradual.
Now you have some interesting dynamics in your track. You can add a lot more to your envelope, and
add more envelopes if you wish. You can also copy and paste envelopes. For more information, see the
online help topic “Automation Methods.”
Converting MIDI to Audio
When you finally get your MIDI project into the shape you want, you can convert the MIDI tracks to
audio for export as Wave, MP3, or other file formats. If you are using external MIDI modules, just
record the outputs of your modules into your sound card. If you are using soft synths, use the FileExport-Audio command, or the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command. If you are using the built-in
synthesizer in your sound card to produce MIDI sounds, you can use your sound card’s “What You Hear”
or wave capture function to convert the MIDI tracks, if your sound card can function this way. See the
following procedure:
To Convert MIDI to Audio
1.
Pick a destination audio track (or create a new one) and set the Input field to Stereo (name of
your sound card).
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one that has the built-in synth
that your MIDI tracks use.
2.
Arm the destination track. Make sure its Input Echo button is off, so you won’t hear an echo when
you’re recording.
3.
Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination track.
4.
If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a click, disable the metronome
during recording option in the Project Options dialog box. To do this, select Options-Project to
open the Project Options dialog box, select the Metronome tab and uncheck Recording in the
General section. Alternatively, you could set the metronome to use the audio metronome and not
use a MIDI note.
5.
Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by double-clicking the speaker icon on
your Windows taskbar, or by choosing Start-Programs-Accessories-Entertainment-Volume
Control-Options-Properties.
6.
If you’re using the Windows mixer, use its Options-Properties command to open the Properties
dialog box, click Recording (in the Adjust Volume For field), and make sure all boxes in the Show
the Following Volume Controls field are checked.
7.
Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or What You Hear. Check the
Select box at the bottom, then close the window.
8.
In SONAR, rewind to the beginning of your project, click the Record button, and click the Stop
button when you’re done recording.
Note: Some sound cards have their own proprietary mixer. If yours has one, please use it instead.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to your sound card synth as a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so you don’t hear them and the
new audio track at the same time.
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Tutorial 5—Editing Audio
In this tutorial we will be editing a bundle file with drums, bass, guitar and organ. We will add some
additional percussion, and edit some of the existing tracks. This tutorial covers the following:
•
Importing wave files
•
Dragging and looping clips
•
Slip editing
•
Using automatic crossfades
•
Bouncing tracks
1.
In SONAR select File-Open from the menu.
2.
In the Open dialog, select TUTORIAL5.CWB and click OK.
3.
The Unpack Bundle dialog now appears. This dialog lets you specify where the project and project
audio will be stored if you Save the file. For the purpose of this tutorial, the defaults should be
acceptable: click OK.
The audio data is loaded into SONAR and TUTORIAL5.CWB opens.
Importing a Wave File
Now that you have the file open, click the Play button to hear the project. The project contains drums,
bass, and two guitar tracks. Let’s import an organ track:
To Import a Wave File
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button located in the Track view toolbar.
2.
In the Snap to Grid dialog, click the Musical Time radio button, select Measure from the list of
durations and click OK.
The Snap to Grid dialog appears.
3.
Make sure the Snap to Grid button is depressed (on).
4.
In the Track pane, right-click below the bottom track and select Insert Audio Track from the
menu that appears.
5.
Click the track number of the new track to select it.
6.
We want to insert the new part at measure 18, so click in the Time Ruler at measure 18. The Time
Ruler is at the top of the Clips pane above the drum track.
7.
Select File-Import-Audio from the File menu.
The Open dialog appears.
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Opening the Project
:
8.
Open the Tutorials folder located in the directory where SONAR is installed.
9.
Select ORGAN.WAV and click Open.
A new clip appears in the selected track at the specified Now Time—measure 18.
10. Double-click the track name, and type in a new name: “Organ,” and press Enter.
11. Move the Now time to the beginning, insert another audio track, import the file MARACAS.WAV, and
name the track.
After you import MARACAS.WAV, notice that the clip has beveled or rounded corners instead of sharp
ones. That means it’s a Groove clip, and contains tempo and pitch information. We’ll learn more
about Groove clips in the next tutorial.
12. Insert another audio track, import the file CONGAS.WAV (which is also a Groove clip) and name the
track.
Moving and Looping the Clips
When you drag and drop clips in the Clips pane, the Snap to Grid setting determines the resolution to
which the clips “snap to.” If your Snap to Grid setting is Measures and you drop a clip between two
measures, the clip appears aligned to the closest measure.
We have just dropped two percussion clips into our project, and we could have dropped them where we
wanted, but then we wouldn’t get a lesson on how to move clips in SONAR.
Let’s move both clips to the 18th measure of the project.
1.
Click and drag the maracas clip to measure 18 (the Snap Grid is still set to Measure).
2.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears. The Drag and Drop Options dialog box has options for
how the clip you are dragging affects existing clips. Since the clip we are dragging is not being
moved onto an existing clip, we can just accept the default setting. Click OK to accept the default
settings.
The clip now appears at the 18th measure.
3.
Now move the congas clip to the 18th measure by using the same method.
Now let’s loop the two percussion clips to make copies of them by using their Groove clip characteristics:
1.
Move the cursor over the end of the maracas clip until the cursor looks like this
.
2.
When the cursor changes, click the end of the clip and drag it to the right until you have created
repetitions of the clip through the end of measure 28.
3.
Copy the congas clip the same way until it reaches the end of measure 28.
Slip Editing a Clip
Solo the two guitar tracks and listen to the project. We are going to combine these two tracks and create
an automatic crossfade between them. Before we do, we have to hide the beginning of the second guitar
part so it doesn’t affect the crossfade. We’ll do this using slip editing.
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1.
Click the Snap to Grid button to turn off Snap to Grid. The Snap to Grid settings control slip
editing as well as drag and drop.
2.
Move the cursor over the beginning of the second guitar clip.
3.
When the cursor turns into a rectangle, click and drag the beginning of the clip until you have
reached the beginning of the waveform.
Drag to here
The beginning of the clip is now hidden. The data is not lost, as you will see if you drag the
beginning to where it was originally. slip edited data is still in the project, but it is not seen or
heard.
Automatic Crossfades
1.
Enable automatic crossfades by clicking (depressing) the
Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button
on the Track view toolbar.
located next to the Snap to Grid button
2.
Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button, select Default
Crossfade Curves and select a crossfade curve.
3.
Make sure no clips are currently selected by clicking in the Clips pane outside of any clips.
4.
Hold down the Shift key and drag the second guitar clip on top of the first guitar track and drop it
there; make sure that Blend Old and New is selected in the Drag and Drop dialog box before you
click OK. Shift-dragging ensures that a clip can only move vertically and not horizontally, so you
don’t need to enable the Snap to Grid button to keep the same exact rhythmic placement of a
dragged clip.
The two clips appear on the same track with a crossfade marker on the overlapping data. The first
guitar track fades out as the second guitar fades in. For more information about crossfades, see the
online help topic “Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time.”
Bouncing Tracks
When you finish editing a certain number of audio tracks, you can conserve memory and simplify your
mix by bouncing (combining) some tracks down to one or two tracks. You can choose to include any
effects and automation in the new track that are on the tracks that you want to combine, greatly
reducing the load on your CPU.
Let’s bounce, or combine our two percussion tracks together:
1.
Make sure no time range is selected by clicking in the Clips pane outside of any clips.
2.
Select the tracks that you want to combine: in this case, Maracas and Congas. To select multiple
tracks, hold down the Ctrl key while you click each track’s track number. You can also solo tracks
instead of selecting them.
3.
Click the Snap to Grid button to turn it on (the Snap to Grid setting is still set to Measure).
4.
In the Time Ruler, select measures 18 through 28.
5.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command to open the Bounce to Track(s) dialog box.
6.
In the Destination field, choose <8> New Track.
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English
Let’s combine these two tracks and create a crossfade.
:
7.
In the Source Category field, choose Entire Mix.
8.
In the Channel Format field, since our two original percussion tracks are in stereo, choose Stereo.
This way we preserve their stereo quality.
9.
In the Source Bus(es) field, make sure the name of the sound card that the relevant tracks use to
play back on is highlighted.
10. In the Mix Enables field, make sure everything is checked. By checking the Track Mute/Solo
option, you make sure that SONAR only mixes down the unmuted tracks. If any tracks are soloed,
this option causes SONAR to mix down only the soloed tracks.
11. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new, stereo track that combines both percussion tracks. Now you can archive the old
percussion tracks so that they don’t consume memory. Do this by right-clicking each track number and
choosing Archive from the popup menu.
Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are audio clips that “know” their tempo and root note pitch. SONAR uses this information
to stretch the clips to match changes in tempo and to transpose the root note pitch to match the project’s
pitch and pitch changes. SONAR also has MIDI Groove clips that work much the same as audio Groove
clips.
You can create repetitions, or loops of Groove clips simply by dragging their ends in the Track view,
creating as many repetitions as you want.
You can change the pitch of your Groove clips by inserting pitch markers in the Time Ruler. The default
project pitch for Groove clips in a new project is C. The root note of your Groove clips is transposed to
the default for any part of the Groove clips that come before the first pitch marker, or if you do not have
pitch markers in your project. You can change the default pitch of the current project in the Markers
toolbar.
You can create and edit Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
This tutorial covers the following:
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•
Adding Groove clips to a project
•
Looping Groove clips
•
Changing the pitch of Groove clips
•
Making Groove clips follow the project tempo
Adding Groove Clips to a Project
There are two ways to add a Groove clip to your project. Let’s use both.
To Import a Groove Clip
1.
Select File-New to create a new project.
2.
In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial6 in the Name field.
3.
Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
4.
Set the default pitch to E by clicking the dropdown arrow in the Markers toolbar and choosing E (if
you don’t see the Markers toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command and check Markers).
Click here
Click the Rewind button in the Transport toolbar to move the Now Time to the beginning of the
project.
6.
Select track 1 by clicking its track number.
7.
Select File-Import-Audio from the menu.
English
5.
The Open dialog appears.
8.
Navigate to the Tutorial folder in the directory where you installed SONAR.
9.
Select 100FX.WAV and click Open.
The clip appears on the track at the beginning of your project—the clip’s corners are beveled instead of
sharp, indicating that it is a Groove clip.
Before we import another loop, let’s give this track a name. In the track titlebar, double-click on the
track name and enter the name Sound Effect and press Enter.
Let’s add some more Groove clips:
To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip into a Project
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button located in the Track view toolbar.
2.
In the Snap to Grid dialog, on the Clips tab, select the Musical Time radio button and the duration
Measure.
3.
In the mode section, select the Move To radio button.
4.
Click OK to close the Snap to Grid dialog.
5.
Make sure Snap to Grid is on. When Snap to Grid is on, the button appears blue.
6.
Open the Loop Explorer view by clicking the Loop Explorer icon in the Views toolbar
The Snap to Grid dialog appears.
.
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:
7.
Navigate to the Tutorial folder in the directory where you installed SONAR.
8.
Select 100ONETWO.WAV and drag it into the Clips pane below the Sound Effect track at measure 3.
Repeat step 8 by dragging 100BEAT2.WAV below Track 2 at measure 7 and 100ORGAN.WAV below Track 3
at measure 1, and close the Loop Explorer view. SONAR automatically creates any necessary audio
tracks when you import audio data.
You now have a four track project. If you haven’t done so yet, click the play button to take a listen to
your project before we begin to arrange the clips.
Your project should look something like this:
Looping Groove Clips
Here’s where Groove clips get real fun. You need only drag the beginning or end of a Groove clip to
create repetitions or loops.
First, though, lets copy the Groove clip in Track 2.
To Copy a Groove Clip
1.
Press the Ctrl key and click and drag the clip until the beginning is at measure 8 and release.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
2.
Make sure the Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips option is not checked and click OK.
A copy of the Groove clip now appears on the same track at measure 8.
To Loop a Groove Clip
1.
Move the cursor over the end of the first Groove clip in Track 2 until the cursor looks like this
2.
When the cursor changes, click the end of the clip and drag it to the right until you have created
one repetition of the clip (through the end of measure 6).
.
You can also create a partial loop of a Groove clip if the Snap to Grid setting is set to less than one
measure. You can create a partial loop as small as the Snap to Grid setting allows. For example, if your
Snap to Grid setting is set to quarter notes, you can create partial repetitions as small as a quarter of a
measure.
Now lets edit the clip we copied on Track 2.
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To Crop a Groove Clip
1.
Click the dropdown arrow on the Snap to Grid button to open its dialog box, set the Musical Time
duration to Quarter, and click OK to close the dialog box.
2.
Move your cursor over the beginning of the second clip in Track 2 until it looks like this
3.
“Crop” the beginning of the clip one and a quarter measure (you may want to expand the Clips
pane a little by dragging the Horizontal Zoom slider that’s in the lower right corner).
.
4.
English
Like this:
Crop the end of the clip by one quarter measure.
Like this:
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:
5.
Click on the clip and drag it one measure to the left.
Like this:
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
6.
In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, click Blend Old and New and click OK.
You have added Groove clips and edited them. Your project should look like this:
Let’s take a listen to what we have. Click the Play button in the Transport toolbar.
Changing the Pitch of Groove Clips
Now that you have heard what your project sounds like, let’s change some pitch settings.
To Set a Groove Clip to Not Follow the Project Pitch
1.
Double-click on the Groove clip in Track 4.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2.
Deselect the Follow Project Pitch button
.
3.
Close the Loop Construction view and listen to your project again.
It sounds different because the Groove clip on Track 4 is no longer following the default project
pitch of E, instead it follows its own root note of C.
Next, let’s add some pitch markers.
To Add Pitch Markers
1.
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Click the Solo button
in Track 4 to solo the track.
2.
Right-click in the Time Ruler at the beginning of measure 1 and select Insert Marker from the
menu.
3.
In the Groove Clip Pitch dropdown, select C and click OK.
4.
Create another pitch marker at the beginning of measure 2, this time selecting F from the Groove
Clip Pitch Change dropdown.
5.
Double-click on the clip in track 4 to open the Loop Construction view.
6.
In the Loop Construction view, click the Follow Project Pitch button to enable it.
The Marker dialog appears.
Listen to the project. Because the default pitch of the project is now C at measure 1, the clip in
track 4 sounds at its original pitch, because its original root note is C. When the Now time reaches
measure 2, the project pitch changes to F, which forces the clip to transpose all of its data up a
perfect 4th, from a root note of C to a root note of F.
Changing the Tempo of Your Project
Groove clips follow the project’s tempo, so we can change the tempo, either for the entire project or just
one part, and still have all our clips playing in time with each other.
To Change the Project Tempo
1.
Select Insert-Tempo Change from the menu.
2.
In the Tempo field, enter 110 and click OK.
The project’s tempo is now 110.
Play your project. Do you hear the difference? Try other tempos.
Now that we have created a project that uses existing Groove clips, let’s take the next step and learn
how to create our own Groove clips.
Creating Your Own Groove Clips
Any audio clip (of a reasonable size) can be a Groove clip.
We are going to take a clip, slip edit it so that it contains just the parts we want, and open it in the Loop
Construction view to add tempo and pitch information to it.
To Create a Groove Clip (example 1)
In this example we will import a short clip of a bass guitar, slip edit it and convert it to a Groove clip.
1.
Select File-New to create a new project.
2.
In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial6B in the Name field.
3.
Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
4.
Right-click the Snap to Grid button to open its dialog box, set the Musical Time duration to
Measure, and click OK to close the dialog box.
5.
Click
6.
In the Explorer view, navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory where you installed SONAR.
in the Views toolbar to open the Loop Explorer view.
7.
Drag and drop the BASS.WAV file into the new project at measure 1.
8.
Double-click the clip.
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Now let’s change the tempo of the project.
:
The Loop Construction view appears. You see that there is silence at both the beginning and end of
the clip. We are going to slip edit the clip so that the clip begins with the attack of the first note and
ends as the last note tails off.
9.
Move you cursor to the beginning of the clip.
10. When the cursor changes to look like this
, drag the beginning of the clip until you reach the
edge of the first rise in the waveform and release the mouse.
11. Slip edit the end of the clip until you reach the end of the last note’s decay. You may need to scroll
the scrollbar at the bottom of the Loop Construction view a little to the right to see the end of the
loop.
Note: You can not slip edit a clip that has its Groove clip characteristics enabled. You can turn a
clip’s Groove clip characteristics on or off either in the Loop Construction view, or in the Clips pane.
In the Clips pane, right-click the clip and choose Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu.
Your clip should look something like this:
12. Click the Enable Looping button
Groove clip characteristics.
on the Loop Construction view toolbar to enable the clip’s
SONAR automatically slices the clip and assigns in a number of beats. Notice that SONAR has
sliced this clip at eighth note intervals. This is a clip with a waveform that does not have dramatic
transients (sharp rises in volume). For clips like this, markers at beat intervals work best.
The clip is now a Groove clip, and it looks like this:
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The bass track is now a Groove clip, so you can move it where you want and create repetitions by
dragging it out.
Let’s create another Groove clip.
To Create a Groove Clip (example 2)
For this example we are going to use a clip that does not need to be slip edited.
1.
In the Explorer view, navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory where you installed SONAR.
2.
Drag and drop the DRUMS.WAV file into the new project below your bass track at measure 1.
3.
Double-click the clip.
4.
Click the Enable Looping button
.
The clip is now a Groove clip, and it looks like the following picture. You can click the zoom buttons
in the lower right corner to get a better view.
The markers in the Loop Construction view are used to tell SONAR where to preserve timing. The idea
is to preserve the clip while being able to change the tempo. When a clip has a lot of transients, as this
one does, it is a good idea to make sure that the slicing markers fall at the beginning of the transients,
thus preserving their timing. This clip has several markers which can be fine tuned to give better
results. Let’s move some markers to better preserve the timing of this clip.
To Fine Tune the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
1.
Identify the markers which are close to the beginning of a transient.
An example of transients that should be moved:
Slicing marker
Slicing marker which
should be moved
Transients
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SONAR automatically slices the clip and assigns in a number of beats. Notice that SONAR has
sliced this clip at eighth notes and at the beginning of some transients. This has dramatic
transients. For clips like this, transient markers work best.
:
2.
Click the Select tool
3.
Click and drag the slicing markers that need to be fine tuned so that they are at the very beginning
of the transient.
.
Like this:
Slicing markers which
have been edited. Edited
slicing markers appear in
blue.
Slicing markers now appear right next
to the beginning of the transients
Use the two projects you have created to experiment with Groove clips further. Try new loops, change
tempos, add pitch markers, record clips and use them to create your own loops. For more information
about Groove clips, see the online help topic “Using Loops.”
Tutorial 7—Mixing
SONAR has an almost unlimited number of tools to help you mix down. You can automate almost any
knob, fader, or button by using any of several methods. You can even automate the internal settings of
some effects—not just the bus controls, but the controls of some individual effects. When your project
sounds the way you want, you can save it and export it in Wave, MP3, or Windows Media Advanced
Streaming format.
Let’s do some more work on TUTORIAL5.CWB, and explore the following tasks:
•
Adding real-time audio effects
•
Automating an individual effect’s settings
•
Grouping controls
•
Automating your mix
•
Exporting an MP3 file
Adding Real-time Audio Effects
Let's add some flanging to the first guitar track in TUTORIAL5.CWB:
1.
Add the flange effect to a guitar track by right-clicking its FX field, and choosing Audio EffectsCakewalk-FxFlange from the popup menu.
The effect’s dialog box appears.
2.
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Choose a preset flange setting from the Presets field.
3.
Play the project to hear what it sounds like. You can continue to adjust the effect while the project
plays; there is a slight delay before your adjustments are audible.
Close the dialog box. You can add effects to buses with the same method (right-click the FX field in a
bus, and choose an effect from the popup menu).
You can delete an effect from an FX field by right-clicking the effect’s name and choosing Delete from
the popup menu. Instead of moving the controls manually, let’s automate them by drawing an envelope
in the Clips pane.
Automating an Individual Effect’s Settings
Let’s draw an envelope to automate one of the flanger’s controls:
1.
In the Clips pane, right-click in the first guitar track (the track you added the FxFlange effect to)
and choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-FxFlange 1 from the popup menu.
2.
Let’s create only one envelope, even though we could create many: in the Envelope Exists field,
check the Voice 1 Feedback option to create an envelope that controls the level of feedback on voice
1 of the FxFlange effect.
3.
Click OK (you could choose a color for the envelope before you click OK by clicking the Choose
Color button).
A solid line with 2 nodes (round dots) appears on top of the guitar clip, one node at the beginning
and one at the end of the last clip in the project. The dotted line after the project ends means there
is no automation data in that area of a track—only nodes and solid lines represent actual values.
4.
Let’s add a node at measure 17 of the guitar track: move the cursor over the line at measure 17
until a vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it, and right-click the line.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
5.
Choose Add Node from the menu.
A new node appears on the envelope at measure 17.
6.
Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag the node up to the top of the
track. Now you have a gradual increase in the level of Voice 1 Feedback. Notice that the line
between the two nodes is solid, indicating that there is automation data everywhere between the
two nodes.
7.
Change the straight line between the two nodes, which is called a Linear shape, into a Slow
Curve shape, by moving the cursor over the straight line until the vertical, double-ended arrow
appears, then right-clicking the line and choosing Slow Curve from the Envelope Editing menu.
Node
Node
Slow curve
Now you have a gradual, but not linear increase in the Voice 1 Feedback level of your flange effect. You
can drag linear and curve shapes vertically, but not horizontally. To change their horizontal positions,
drag the node at either end of a shape. You can drag a node in any direction.
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The FxFlange1 dialog box appears.
:
Grouping Controls
To assist in manipulating the controls, you can tie faders to one another. For example, if you want to
increase the volume level on several tracks at the same time, you can assign them to a group. Then,
when you move one volume fader, you move them all. You can even have the controls move in opposite
directions. For example, you can fade one track in and another out.
To group faders:
1.
In the Track view (you can use the Console view if you want), right-click the volume fader for track
2 (bass).
2.
In the popup menu, choose Group and select A from the dropdown list. This assigns the fader to
group A. A red marker appears next to the volume fader, indicating that it belongs to group A,
whose color is red.You could also create your own customized group name and color by choosing
New.
3.
Repeat steps 1 and 2 for tracks 3 and 4.
Now you’ve grouped the volume faders of three tracks. When you move one fader, all of the others follow.
If you want to move a single fader independently of the others, hold the Ctrl key while moving the fader.
To ungroup a fader, right-click it and choose Remove From Group from the popup menu.
Automating Your Mix
You can record the fader movements of the mix, which is called automating them. To do so:
1.
Rewind to the beginning of the project.
2.
Move the faders, pans, and any other controls to the initial settings you desire. You should set up a
good balance between the tracks.
3.
Arm the volume fader for track 4 by right-clicking it and choosing Arm for Automation from the
popup menu. A highlighted rectangle appears around the armed fader.
4.
Display the Automation toolbar by using the View-Toolbars-Automation command.
5.
Make sure that the Enable Automation Playback button
depressed position and lit blue.
6.
To start recording the automation, click the Record Automation button
in the Transport
toolbar, and move the armed fader as needed so that the balance between the guitar and other
instruments is optimized throughout the project. You can see a preview of your automation is
drawn as you record.
7.
Stop recording by clicking the Stop button or by pressing the Spacebar.
in the Automation toolbar is in the
You’ve now automated the volume fader of track 4 of your project—SONAR draws a graph (an envelope)
of the automation in the Clips pane of track 4. You can hide or show envelopes by using the dropdown
arrow located on the side of the Envelope tool button
in the Track view toolbar, or by using the
Clips pane popup menu, or the Envelope Editing menu. Now let’s listen to the project again and watch
the fader move automatically:
1.
Rewind to the beginning.
2.
Press the Spacebar to start playing the project.
You’ll see the fader move just the way it moved when you recorded its movements. You can compare this
mix to a mix with no automation by clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
and playing
your project again. Clicking the Enable Automation Playback button toggles the automation off and on.
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When you’re done tweaking the mix, to make sure you don’t accidentally erase any automation data,
you can disarm any armed controls by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls button
in the
Automation toolbar, or the red AUTO indicator that’s in the Status bar.
Exporting an MP3 File
When your project finally sounds the way you want, you can export it in any or all of several file
formats, including:
•
Wave (CD format)
•
MP3
•
Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format
When you export a file from SONAR, you can choose to include any or all of the effects, automation, and
mute and solo settings that your project contains.
1.
Make sure all the tracks you want to export are unmuted and unarchived. If you only want to
export one or two tracks, it’s easier to solo these tracks instead of muting all the others.
2.
Make a time selection, if necessary. If any tracks use real-time effects such as reverb or delay,
select your whole project plus an extra measure or two at the end so you won’t cut off the reverb
“tail.”
3.
Choose File-Export-Audio to display the Export Audio dialog box.
4.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
5.
Enter a file name.
6.
Choose MP3 from the Files of type dropdown list.
7.
In the Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Export to Stereo File(s)—All exported tracks are mixed down to a single stereo file.
•
Export to Separate Left and Right Files—All exported tracks are mixed down to two mono
files, left and right.
•
Export to Mono File(s)—All exported tracks are mixed down to a single mono file.
8.
In the Bit Depth field, select the bit depth that you want your exported file to use. For MP3s use
16.
9.
In the Source Bus(es) field, select a sound card or sound cards from the list. If you select more than
one, you can select the Each Source to Separate Submix checkbox to create separate files for each
device selected in the Source Bus(es) field.
10. If the Outputs of the tracks you are combining are the same (if they have the same thing listed in
their Output fields—they should in this tutorial example), you can ignore this step. Otherwise, in
the Separation field, choose from these options:
•
Each Bus to Separate Submix—if the tracks you are combining use different buses in their
Output fields, choose this option if you want to create separate files for each different output
that the tracks use.
•
Each Main Out to Separate Submix—if the Outputs of the tracks you are combining go to
different Main Outs, choose this option to create separate files for each different Main Out
that the tracks use.
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Let’s export our project as an MP3:
:
•
All Main Outs to Single Mix—if the Outputs of the tracks you are combining go to different
Main Outs, choose this option to create a single new file that combines the output data from
all the Main Outs.
11. In the Mix Enables field, select the effects you want to include in your new file—usually, you select
all the listed options.
Note: Selecting the Track Mute/Solo option causes muted tracks to be left out of the exported mix,
and soloed tracks to be the only tracks exported.
12. Click Export.
The Cakewalk MP3 Export Options (Trial Version) dialog box appears.
13. Choose the options you want for your new MP3 file—for help choosing options click the Help
button in the dialog box.
14. When you finish choosing options, click the OK button.
SONAR compresses and mixes your project to a file with the extension .MP3 that is located in the folder
you chose in the Look In field of the Export Audio dialog box.
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths
A software synthesizer is a software program that produces various sounds through your audio
interface when the soft synth program receives MIDI data from a MIDI controller or sequencer
program. SONAR supports all major varieties of software synthesizers, including DXi, ReWire, and VST
Instruments (you can use VST instruments by running SONAR’s included VST Configuration Wizard to
configure the VST instruments). SONAR has a Synth Rack view to make inserting a soft synth a onestep process.
Cakewalk TTS-1 is a great example of a soft synth, so let’s use it for our tutorial. Because this soft synth
supports the mult-output format, it has multiple outputs (4), and you can record the movement of some
of its controls as automation. You probably installed Cakewalk TTS-1 when you installed SONAR. To
make sure, open a project that has at least one audio track, right-click the FX field of an audio track to
open the plug-in popup menu, and look under Soft Synths. You should see Cakewalk TTS-1 listed. If
you don’t, insert your SONAR CD into your CD drive, install the software synthesizers including
Cakewalk TTS-1 to your hard drive, and restart SONAR.
This tutorial covers the following:
•
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a project
•
Playing MIDI tracks through a soft synth
•
Converting soft synth tracks to audio
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
Inserting a soft synth into a project means that the name of the soft synth appears in the dropdown
menus of MIDI track Output fields and audio track Input fields.
To Insert Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
1.
Open a MIDI project—for this tutorial use TUTORIAL8.CWP.
2.
Use the Insert-Soft Synths command and click Cakewalk TTS-1 on the popup menu.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
3.
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In the Create These Tracks fields, deselect MIDI Source, because we want to patch some preexisting tracks into Cakewalk TTS-1.
4.
Select All Synth Audio Outputs because we’re going to use a different synth track for each of
Cakewalk TTS-1’s 4 outputs. The new synth tracks have Cakewalk TTS-1 already patched to them
as audio inputs.
5.
In the Open These Windows fields, select both Synth Property Page and Synth Rack view. These
two options open Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page (interface), and the Synth Rack view,
respectively.
6.
Click OK.
Notice that the Output field of the MIDI track is labeled Cakewalk TTS-1 1. The “1” means that this is
the first instance of Cakewalk TTS-1 that you have inserted into this project. If you use the Insert-Soft
Synths command to insert another instance or copy of Cakewalk TTS-1 into this project, its label will
be Cakewalk TTS-1 2, and it will function as a totally separate synth. MIDI data in tracks that use
Cakewalk TTS-1 1 as an output will have no effect on MIDI tracks that have Cakewalk TTS-1 2 as an
output.
Playing MIDI Tracks through a Soft Synth
Now that you have verified that Cakewalk TTS-1 is installed, let’s try some of its sounds on some prerecorded MIDI data.
To Play MIDI Tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1
1.
Drag the Cakewalk TTS-1 property page out of the way for now, and in the first MIDI track (Guitar
1), click the dropdown arrow in the track’s Output field, and choose Cakewalk TTS-1 as an output.
Notice that when you choose Cakewalk TTS-1 as a track’s output, the patch for that track’s MIDI
channel in Cakewalk TTS-1 interface changes to the same one that the track displays.
2.
Set the Output fields in all the other MIDI tracks to Cakewalk TTS-1. Note: When the cursor is in
the Output field of one track, pressing the Up or Down arrow key moves the cursor to the same
field in the next track.
3.
Let’s insert a patch change in track 1: click the track number of the Guitar 1 track to select it, and
move the Now time to the Verse 1 marker by clicking the Next Marker button
once (the Next
Marker button is in the Markers toolbar; if you don’t see it, use the View-Toolbars command and
check Markers).
4.
Use the Insert-Patch/Bank Change command to open the Bank/Patch Change dialog box.
5.
In the Bank field, select 15488-Preset Normal 0, and in the Patch field, select Overdrive Gt, and
click OK.
Now you’ve routed your MIDI tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1, and inserted a patch change. Rewind
the project and play it to hear the project through Cakewalk TTS-1.
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio
Once your project sounds the way you want it, it’s extremely easy to convert your soft synth MIDI tracks
to either new audio tracks, or Wave, MP3, or other exportable files.
To Convert Your Soft Synth Tracks to New Audio Tracks
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to convert; make sure you don’t mute the synth track(s) that
the soft synth is patched into, or the MIDI track(s) that you are using as a source.
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SONAR inserts 4 synth tracks that each have one of Cakewalk TTS-1’s outputs as an input (notice that
these tracks have the soft synth label next to their track numbers), opens the Synth Rack view with
Cakewalk TTS-1 displayed in the first row, and opens Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page.
:
2.
Let’s set our MIDI tracks to use different outputs on the TTS-1: in the TTS-1 interface, click the
System button to open the System Settings panel, and click the Option button in System Settings
to open the Options dialog.
3.
On the Output Assign tab look in the Tone Name column, and click one of the four Output buttons
next to each name in the Tone Name column. This assigns your individual MIDI instruments to
different audio outputs from the TTS-1. Click the Close button.
4.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
5.
In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
6.
In the Channel Format field, choose mono if you want mono tracks, and stereo if you want stereo
tracks.
7.
In the Source/Buses field, make sure all 4 outputs are selected. This will create a separate audio
track for each selected output. If you wanted to combine your MIDI tracks into just one audio
tracks, send all the MIDI tracks through just one output (Step 3), and select only that output in the
Source/Buses field.
8.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
9.
Click OK.
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog box appears.
SONAR creates new audio tracks from the outputs you selected. When you’re through converting, don’t
forget to mute your MIDI tracks so you won’t hear them and the new audio track(s) at the same time.
To Export Your Soft Synth Tracks as Wave, MP3, or Other Type Files
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to export; make sure you don’t mute the synth track(s) that the
soft synth is patched into, or the MIDI track(s) that you are using as a source.
2.
Use the File-Export-Audio command.
The Export Audio dialog box appears.
3.
In the Look in field, choose the location where you want the exported file to be.
4.
Type a file name in the File name field.
5.
In the Files of Type field, choose the kind or file you want to create.
6.
In the Source Category field, choose Tracks if you want to create separate files for each MIDI track,
or choose Entire Mix if you want to create one file.
7.
Choose a channel format, sample rate, and bit depth that are appropriate for the new file(s) you
are creating. Don’t choose Split Mono in the Channel Format field if you want to export a single
file.
8.
In the Source/Buses field, select all outputs if you chose Tracks in Step 6, or accept the default if
you chose Entire Mix.
9.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
10. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new audio file or files of the type you specified. Find the file(s) in the folder you
specified, and double-click each file to listen to it.
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Tutorial 9—Drum Maps
In SONAR drum maps allow you to assign a single MIDI track to multiple outputs. MIDI drum tracks
appear in the Piano Roll view’s Drum Grid pane. In the Note Map pane you can map pitches to notes in
any number of software or hardware outputs.
In this tutorial we are going to create a drum map, create a MIDI drum track using the Pattern Brush,
and use the drum map to map drum notes to several different outputs.
Create a New Project
1.
Select File-New from the menu.
2.
In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial9 in the Name field.
3.
Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK..
Creating a Drum Map
Drum maps allow you to map note pitches from the same track to different output devices, either
hardware or software.
Note: Before you begin, make sure you have some MIDI devices selected. To check, select OptionsMIDI Devices.
To Create a New Drum Map
1.
In a MIDI track, click the Output dropdown menu and choose Drum Map Manager from the
menu that appears.
The Drum Map Manager dialog appears.
2.
Click the Create New Drum Map button
.
3.
Click the Presets dropdown arrow and select GM Drums (Complete Kit).
4.
In the Out Port column, click one of the down arrows, hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys, and click
the name of the port or instrument that you want to hear drums on.
A new drum map appears in the Drum Maps Used in Current Project field.
All the Out Port entries change to the port or instrument you selected. Later, we’ll start sending
individual notes to different outputs.
5.
In the Chn column, make sure all entries are set to 10, or whatever MIDI channel your drum
sounds are on.
6.
Close the Drum Map Manager.
Create a Drum Track
You can use any blank MIDI track for your drums. If you don’t have a MIDI track, create using the
Insert-MIDI Track command.
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1.
Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2.
In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output dropdown and select DM1GM
Drums (Complete Kit) from the options in the menu that appears.
To Create a Drum Track Using the Pattern Brush
1.
Select the track you have assigned to a drum map and select View-Piano Roll.
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First, we need to create a new project.
:
The blank drum track appears in the Drum Grid pane of the Piano Roll view.
2.
In the Piano Roll view, click on the down arrow to the right of the Pattern Brush tool
select Kick+Snare Patterns (R-T)-Stacy 7.
and
3.
Click the down arrow again and select Use Pattern Polyphony. This option tells SONAR to use
the original pitch values when “painting” notes in the Drum Grid pane.
4.
Click on the Pattern Brush to select it.
5.
Starting at the beginning of your track, click and drag the Pattern Brush tool for a few measures in
the Drum Grid pane.
A series of notes, at different pitch values appears in the Drum Grid pane. If you don’t see any
notes, scroll down in the Drum Grid to see the notes.
6.
Click the Pattern Brush down arrow again and select Cymbal Patterns (C-F)-Fill 4.
7.
Repeat step 5.
8.
Listen to your drum track. Make a mental note of the drum sounds your hear, because they are
about to change.
Now it is time to mix things up a bit. Lets send some of your drum sounds to a different output.
Map Drum Notes to Different Outputs
First, we need to create an output to use, so let’s open Cakewalk TTS-1 and use that soft synth for this
part of the tutorial.
To Open Cakewalk TTS-1
1.
Select View-Synth Rack from the menu.
2.
Click the Insert Synth button
in the Synth Rack toolbar and select Soft Synths-Cakewalk
TTS-1 from the menu that appears.
3.
Make sure that the MIDI Source option in the Create These Tracks section is unchecked.
4.
In the Create These Tracks section, check the First Synth Audio Output option. This option creates
a single synth output track.
5.
In the Open These Windows section, check the Synth Property Page option. This option opens
Cakewalk TTS-1 when we close the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
6.
Click OK.
7.
An synth output track for the Cakewalk TTS-1 appears in the Track view and the Cakewalk TTS-1
appears. If you don’t see the track, scroll down in the Track pane to find it.
Now, we can map notes to different outputs.
To Map a Note to a New Output
1.
Select your drum track and open the Piano Roll view by selecting View-Piano Roll from the
menu.
2.
Right-click in the Note Map pane (the list of drum names on the far left of the Piano Roll view) and
select Drum Map Manager from the right-click menu.
The Drum Map Manager appears.
3.
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In the Drum Map Manager, change the Out Port for the In Note 46 (Bb3) to Cakewalk TTS-1.
The new Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 10 appears in the Port and Channels field at the
bottom of the Drum Map Manager.
4.
In the Bank column for the Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 1 select 15360-Preset Rhythm.
5.
In the Patch column for the Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 1 select Standard Set.
6.
In the Drum Map Manager, change the Out Port setting for In Note 38 (D3) to Cakewalk TTS-1.
7.
Close the Drum Map Manager and play your project to listen to the different drum sounds.
To Change Other Drum Map Settings
You can open the Drum Map Manager from either a MIDI track’s Output menu, or with the OptionsDrum Map Manager command.
Change map settings in the Drum Map Manager as described in the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a row (a mapped pitch)
Click the Add New Drum Map Entry button
Change In Note value
Double-click in the appropriate cell and enter a new
value, or click on the right side of the cell, and when
the cursor changes to an up and down arrow, drag it
up to increase the value or down to lower the value.
Change the Name setting
Double click on the appropriate cell and enter a new
name.
Change the Channel setting
Click the appsropriate channel cell’s down arrow and
select a channel from the menu that appears.
Change the Out Port setting
Click the appropriate Out Port cell’s down arrow and
select an output port from the menu that appears.
Change the Vel+ setting
Double-click in the appropriate cell and enter a new
value, or click on the right side of the cell, and when
the cursor changes to an up and down arrow, drag it
up to increase the value or down to lower the value.
Change the V Scale setting
Double-click in the appropriate cell and enter a new
value, or click on the right side of the cell, and when
the cursor changes to an up and down arrow, drag it
up to increase the value or down to lower the value.
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.
When you are happy with the drum sounds you have mapped, you can mixdown to an audio file.
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3
Controlling Playback
SONAR’s multi-MIDI enhancements give you the ability to play multiple synths or tracks
from a single keyboard or controller, or let multiple performers play the same or different
tracks. You have total control over MIDI echo (MIDI echo refers to where MIDI input signals
are sent once SONAR receives them).
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar
which you click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop somewhere in your
mixer setup. Whenever you play a project, SONAR automatically enables the audio engine,
which you can tell by watching the Status bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the
Audio Running indicator in the Status bar lights up.
In This Chapter
The Now Time and How to Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Track-by-Track Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Changing Track Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Video Playback, Import, and Export. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Locating Missing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
English
When you play your SONAR project, you have full control over the tempo or speed of
playback, which tracks are played, which sound cards or other devices are used to produce
the sound, and what the tracks sound like.
:
The Now Time and How to Use It
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time, which keeps track of where you are in a
project. The Now time appears as a vertical line in the Track view and is displayed in both the Large
Transport toolbar and the Position toolbar, in two formats:
The measure, beat, and tick number (MBT) identifies the Now time in musical time units. Ticks are
subdivisions of quarter notes and indicate the timebase of the project. For more information about the
timebase, see “Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution” on page 152. The other time format is the SMPTE
format, expressed in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
The current measure, beat, and tick
The current time in hours,
minutes, seconds, and frames
Meter, Key Signature
display
Here are some examples of times expressed in measure, beat, and tick (MBT) format:
Time...
What it means...
1:01:000
First beat of the first measure
9:04:000
Fourth beat of the ninth measure
4:02:060
The 60th tick of the second beat of the fourth
measure
The hours-minutes-seconds-frames format is commonly referred to as the SMPTE time. SMPTE is the
acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. In this format, time is measured in
hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. It’s not necessary for a project to begin at time zero in this
format—any time can be used to represent the start of a project. If you are synchronizing SONAR with
an external device whose start time is not 0, you must offset SONAR to match the external device’s
start time. For more information, see Chapter 18, Synchronizing Your Gear.
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Here are some examples of times expressed in this format (assuming that zero is the start time):
Time...
What it means...
00:00:00:00
The beginning of the project
00:05:10:00
Five minutes and ten seconds from the beginning
of the project
01:30:00:00
One hour and thirty minutes into the project
00:00:00:05
Five frames into the project
SONAR provides many ways to set the Now time. Here are just a few:
•
Click the desired time on the Time Ruler in the Track view, Piano Roll view, or Staff view
•
In the Navigator pane, click anywhere in the view while holding down the Ctrl key to change the
Now Time to that location
•
Click on the Now time in the Large Transport toolbar, enter the desired time, and press Enter
•
Choose Go-Time or press F5, enter the desired time, and click OK
•
Click on an event in the Event List view
You can also set the Now time by right-clicking in the Clips pane if you enable the Right Click Sets Now
option in the Track View Properties dialog. Right-click a an empty area of the Clips pane, and select
View Options from the menu that appears to open the Clip View Properties dialog.
When entering a time in MBT format, the beat and tick values are optional. You can use a colon, space,
decimal point, or vertical bar to separate the parts of the Now time:
You enter…
The Now time is set to…
2
2:01:000
420
4:02:000
9
9:01:000
5|1:30
5:01:030
When entering a time in SMPTE format, you can enter a single number (hour), two numbers (hour and
minutes), three numbers (hour, minutes, and seconds), or all four numbers.
If you click in the Time Ruler while the snap grid is enabled, the Now time will be snapped to the
nearest point in the grid. By setting the grid size to a whole note or quarter note, you can easily set the
Now time to a measure or beat boundary.
You can also use the buttons and the scroll bar in either the Transport toolbar or Large Transport
toolbar (shown below) to adjust the time.
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English
To Change the Now Time
:
Click to jump to the end
Click to jump to the beginning
Click to back up one
Meter/Key
Signature display
Click to move ahead one measure
Drag to any desired position
The Large Transport toolbar differs from the Transport toolbar because it displays the Now time (which
you can set by entering numbers into the display fields in either MBT or SMPTE time) and the Meter/
Key Signature display. The Meter/Key Signature display shows the current meter, key signature, and
tempo. You can edit the meter and key signature by clicking the display to open the Meter/Key
Signature dialog box. You can display the Large Transport toolbar by selecting the View-Toolbars
command to open the Toolbars dialog box, and checking Transport (Large).
When playback or recording is stopped, the Now Time either remains at the point where the project
stopped or snaps back to the Now Time Marker. This behavior is controlled in the General tab of the
Global Options dialog.
The Now Time Marker
In the Track view, the Now time appears as a black vertical line. When you set the Now time in the
Track view a green triangle called the Now time marker appears in the Time Ruler. This marker
represents the point at which the Now time will snap back to after you stop playback or recording. You
can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to the current Now time when
playback or recording is stopped (use the Options-Global command; on the General tab uncheck On
Stop, Rewind to Now Marker).
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To Change the Now Time Marker Behavior
1.
Select Options-Global from the SONAR menu.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2.
Click the General tab.
3.
Uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time marker move to follow
the current Now time when you stop playback.
Or
Check the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time snap back to the Now time
marker when you stop playback.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR can display the Now time in large print so that it’s easier to see when you are far from your
monitor (for example, when you’re at your keyboard or another instrument) or when several people
need to read the Now time from a distance. Here’s how:
To Display the Big Time View
1.
Choose View-Big Time to display the Big Time view.
2.
Change the settings according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Switch time format
Click on the view to toggle between MBT and
SMPTE time
Change font or color
Right-click on the view, choose the font and color
you want, and click OK
Change the size of the view
Drag any corner of the view to change its size
Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and underline.
Other Ways to Set the Now Time
There are a variety of commands and keyboard shortcuts you can use to set the Now time:
Command...
Shortcut...
What it does...
Go-Time
F5
Lets you enter the Now time in the
Position toolbar or in a dialog box
Go-From
F7
Sets the Now time to the From time (the
start time of the current time selection)
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English
Displaying the Now Time in Large Print
:
Go-Thru
F8
Sets the Now time to the Thru time (the
end time of the current time selection)
Go-Beginning
Ctrl+Home
Sets the Now time to the beginning of the
project
Go-End
Ctrl+End
Sets the Now time to the end of the
project
Go-Previous Measure
Ctrl+PgUp
Sets the Now time to the start of the
current measure if the Now time is not on
a barline, or to the start of the previous
measure if the Now time is on a barline.
Go-Next Measure
Ctrl+PgDn
Sets the Now time to the start of the next
measure
If your project has markers, you can use the Marker toolbar to set the Now time:
To do this…
Do this…
Skip to the next marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or press
Ctrl+Shift+PgDn).
Skip to the previous marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or press
Ctrl+Shift+PgUp).
Jump to any marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar to open the
Markers view. Click on the marker you want to
jump to in the Markers view.
For more information about markers, see “Creating and Using Markers” on page 203.
The Time Ruler
The Time Ruler appears in the Track view, Tempo view, Staff view and Piano Roll view. It has several
functions, including:
•
Making a Time Selection
The Time Ruler follows the Snap to Grid settings, if enabled. For more information about using the
Snap to Grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 201.
•
Changing the Now time
•
Adding loop, punch, and pitch markers
For more information about the Now time, see “The Now Time and How to Use It” on page 104.
You can right-click in the Time Ruler to add markers. For more information, see “Creating and
Using Markers” on page 203 and “Using Pitch Markers in the Track View” on page 238.
In the Track view, the Time Ruler has the following time display options or formats:
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•
Measures, Beats and Ticks (M:B:T)
•
Hours, Minutes, Seconds and Frames (H:M:S:F—also called SMPTE)
•
Samples
The M:B:T setting follows your settings in the Meter/Key view. If you project is set to 4/4 time, you have
four beats in the Time Ruler for each measure. If your project is set to 6/8 time, you have six beats in the
Time Ruler for each measure.
To Set the Time Ruler Format to M:B:T
1.
Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2.
In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-M:B:T.
To Set the Time Ruler Format to H:M:S:F (SMPTE)
1.
Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2.
In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-H:M:S:F.
1.
Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2.
In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-Samples.
English
To Set the Time Ruler Format to Samples
Note:
The Display All Times as SMPTE checkbox in the General tab of the Global
Options dialog forces all times in the project to be displayed in SMPTE time,
regardless of your setting in the Time Ruler.
Controlling Playback
To control playback, you have your choice of tools, menu commands, and shortcut keys for most common
operations.
When you start playback, the Now time updates continuously to show the current time. When you stop
playback, the Now time rewinds to the Now Time Marker. When you start playback again, it continues
from the same point.
If the Now time is advancing but you don’t hear any sound, see Appendix A: Troubleshooting. If you are
using MIDI sync or syncing to MIDI time code, SONAR waits to receive external timing data before it
begins playing. If the various views are not updating during playback, make sure the Scroll Lock key on
your computer keyboard is not enabled. For more information, see Chapter 18, Synchronizing Your
Gear..
Note: If your Windows setup uses any system sounds that are associated with any typical activity, such
as minimizing a window, etc., you should disable these sounds. They can sound extremely loud through
your monitors, and also interrupt playback and recording, if you open any dialog boxes or do anything
that has a system sound attached to it while a project plays. The quickest way to disable all system
sounds is to open the Control Panel (Start-Settings-Control Panel), double-click the Sounds icon to
open the Sounds Properties dialog box, and in the Schemes field select No Sounds. Click Apply, and then
click OK.
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:
To Start and Stop Playback
To do this…
Do this…
Start playback
Press the Spacebar, click
, or choose
Transport-Play, or double-click in the Time
Ruler
Stop playback
Press the Spacebar, click
Transport-Stop
Rewind to the start of the project
Click
, press the w key, or choose
Transport-Rewind
Skip to the end of the project
Click
, or choose
Note:
The default behavior for the Now time when you click the Stop button is for it to return to the Now time
marker where playback began. If you want the Now time to remain where it is when you stop playback,
you can use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Spacebar. If you want to change the default behavior, select
Options-Global and click the General tab. In the General tab, uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now
Marker option.
Handling Stuck Notes
Under MIDI, the events that turn notes on are separate from the events that stop notes from playing.
Normally, when you stop playback, SONAR attempts to turn off all notes that are still playing.
Depending on how your equipment is configured, it’s possible for notes to get stuck in the “on” position.
The Transport-Reset command is used to stop all notes from playing. The Transport-Reset command
also stops feedback from input monitoring.
Note:
You can control the MIDI messages that are sent by the Transport-Reset
command by changing the Panic Strength variable in the CAKEWALK.INI file.
To Clear Stuck Notes
•
Choose Transport-Reset, or click
on the Large Transport toolbar.
Looping
Sometimes you want to listen to one portion of a project over and over, either so you can play along and
rehearse or because you want to edit that section of the project while it is playing and hear the results
as you make changes. SONAR has a playback looping feature that makes this simple.
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Looping is defined in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, as shown here:
Click to turn looping on or off
Click to copy the
selection (From and Thru)
Click to open the Loop/Auto
Shuttle dialog box
Loop Start time
Loop End time
To set up a loop, you do three things:
•
Set the start time of the loop
•
Set the end time of the loop
•
Enable looping
When looping is enabled, the loop times are indicated by special markers in the Time Ruler.
Loop Thru
Loop From
The Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box, which appears when you use the Transport-Loop and Auto
Shuttle command or click the Loop and Auto Shuttle button
in the Loop toolbar, contains two
additional settings that affect the details of how looping operates:
Option...
How it works...
Stop at the end time
Playback does not proceed beyond the end of the
loop
Loop continuously
When playback reaches the end of the loop and
rewinds to the start, playback continues
automatically (this option is on by default)
With the default option settings, SONAR will play the loop over and over again, continuously.
If you start playback before the loop start time, SONAR will play until the loop end time is reached,
then jump back to the loop start time.
Note: If you stop playback while looping is enabled, the Now time jumps to the Now time marker. If you
disable the On Stop Rewind to Now Marker option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog, the
Now time stays wherever you stopped playback.
The Rewind command operates slightly differently when looping is in effect. The first time you rewind,
the Now time is set to the start of the loop. If the Now time is already at the start of the loop, Rewind
takes you to the beginning of the project. From then on, Rewind switches back and forth between the
loop start time and the start of measure 1.
To Set Up a Playback Loop
1.
Set the loop start and end times in one of the following ways:
•
Drag the mouse between two points in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff, or Piano Roll
view to select a range of times, then click
selection time to the loop time.
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy the
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English
From then on, SONAR will automatically jump back to the start of the loop when it reaches the end.
:
•
Click between two markers in the Track, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times,
then click
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy the selection time to the loop time.
•
Type the loop start and end times directly into the toolbar.
•
Select a range of times, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set Loop Points (this
method makes the second option unnecessary).
Looping is automatically turned on when you use the Set Loop to Selection command.
To Change the Loop Settings
1.
Click
box.
, or choose Transport-Loop and Auto Shuttle to display the Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog
2.
Check the options you want to use.
3.
Click OK.
To Cancel a Playback Loop
•
Click
on the toolbar to disable looping.
Track-by-Track Playback
SONAR lets you play back any combination of tracks at one time by changing each track’s status. You
can control the status of each track with the individual controls that are on every track, or with the
global controls on the Playback State toolbar or the Status bar that’s at the bottom of the SONAR
window. For more information on the Status bar, see “Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter” on page 555.
For more information on the Playback State toolbar, see “The Playback State Toolbar” on page 113.
There are several different status settings for each track:
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Status...
What it means...
Normal
The track plays unless one or more of your other
tracks is soloed.
Muted
The track is not played, but you can turn it on
while playback is in progress.
Archived
The track is not played, and you must stop
playback to re-enable it. Archived tracks do not tax
your CPU during playback so they can be used to
store alternate takes.
Soloed
Only those tracks that are designated as solo
tracks are played; all others are muted.
Armed
The track is armed for recording.
Mono/Stereo
The track plays back in either mono or stereo,
depending on what the individual track setting is,
and whether the Play in Mono button in the
Playback State toolbar is depressed.
Phase normal or inverted
If a track was accidentally recorded out of phase
with another track, the Phase button lets you
reverse the phase of a track.
While playback is in progress, you can mute and unmute tracks in any combination, which means you
can hear only the tracks that you want. You can change the status of a track in the Track view, the
Console view, the Track menu, or the Playback State toolbar.
If a track is both muted and soloed, it does not play. Mute has precedence.
The track status is saved with the SONAR project file. If you save a SONAR project as a Standard MIDI
File, however, all tracks are saved without mute, solo, or archive indicators.
The Playback State Toolbar
English
To display the Playback State toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog
box, and make sure Playback State is checked. The Playback State toolbar is a global control that allows
you to mute or unmute, solo or unsolo, arm or disarm, and toggle the input echo status of all tracks.
Drag to reposition
Input echo or MIDI echo
Mute
Solo
Arm
Silencing Tracks
When a track is muted, SONAR processes the track while playback is in progress so that you can
unmute the track without stopping playback. If you have lots of muted tracks, this can place a heavy
load on your computer. Archived tracks, on the other hand, don’t place any load on your computer.
Therefore, if there are tracks you want to keep but don’t need to play, you should archive them instead.
Archived tracks are indicated by the letter A in the Mute button that is displayed in the Track and
Console views.
When you mute or unmute a track while playback is in progress, there may be a slight delay before you
hear the effect of the change. This is to be expected and does not indicate a hardware or software
problem.
To Mute or Unmute Individual Tracks
•
To mute or unmute a track, click its M button in the Track or Console view.
•
To mute or unmute several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose Track-Mute, or select the
tracks, right-click, and choose Mute from the popup menu.
To Unmute All Tracks
•
Click the M button in the Playback State toolbar or the Mute label in the Status bar.
To Mute All Tracks
•
If no tracks are currently muted, click the M button in the Playback State toolbar.
Or
•
Select all tracks, and then use the Track-Mute command.
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:
To Archive or Unarchive Tracks
1.
Select one or more tracks in the Track view.
2.
Choose Track-Archive, or right-click and choose Archive from the menu to toggle the archive
status of the selected tracks.
Soloing Tracks
Sometimes you want to hear a single track, or a few tracks at once, without having to mute all the other
tracks. You can do this by soloing the tracks you want to hear.
As soon as any track is marked as a solo track, SONAR ignores all mute settings (unless a soloed track
is also muted—mute takes precedence over solo) and plays only the track or tracks that are set to solo.
Any number of tracks at one time can be marked as solo. All these tracks will play together. As soon as
the solo status of the final solo track is turned off, SONAR once again plays back tracks based on their
mute settings.
To Solo or Unsolo Individual Tracks
•
To solo or unsolo a track, click the Solo button in the Track or Console view
•
To solo or unsolo several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose Track-Solo, or right-click,
and choose Solo from the popup menu.
To Unsolo All Tracks
•
Click the S button in the Playback State toolbar or the Solo label in the Status bar.
To Solo All Tracks
•
If no tracks are currently soloed, click the S button in the Playback State toolbar.
Or
•
Select all tracks, and then use the Track-Solo command.
Inverting the Phase of a Track
A waveform’s exact opposite is called an inversion. It is a shift of 180 degrees. A waveform and its
inversion cancel each other out completely, so it is usually not desirable to have two track recordings of
the same source if one is phase inverted. It can lead to reduced volume, lowered or distorted response in
certain frequencies, or even silence in the case of two tracks which are exactly identical (i.e. cloned
tracks).
Occasionally, for example when recording a source using two microphones, one of the microphones may
be recording an inversion of the other, the resulting tracks may, to some degree, be cancelling each other
out. SONAR allows you to invert the phase of a track to match another.
To Invert the Phase of a Track
1.
Open the Track view or Console view.
2.
In the track you want to invert the phase, click the phase inversion button
.
Changing Tracks’ Mono/Stereo Status
SONAR has a mono/stereo button in each track module in the Track and Console views. The buttons in
the track modules force each track to play in either stereo or mono, but preserve the tracks’ pan
positions in the stereo mix.
The Mono/Stereo button in each track forces the track’s audio signal to enter any patched plug-ins as
either mono or stereo, whether or not the tracks are mono or stereo. This allows you to use either mono
effects on a stereo track or stereo effects on a mono track.
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Note: You may lose important stereo data by using mono effects with stereo tracks because your stereo
tracks are summed to mono in order to pass through the effect. If you never want your stereo data to be
summed to mono, select stereo.
To Use a Track’s Stereo/Mono Button
1.
Display the Track view or Console view.
2.
In the track you want to force to either mono or stereo for processing effects, click the Stereo/Mono
button
to the desired position:
•
Speaker icon pointing left—This choice means that you manually selected mono for this track.
•
Speaker icon pointing left and right (as pictured above)—This choice means that you
manually selected stereo for this track.
Each track in a project contains MIDI or audio information and has a variety of settings (also called
parameters) that determine how the track sounds. By changing these parameters, you can change the
sound of your project. For audio tracks, you control parameters such as volume, stereo panning, and the
output device that is used to produce the sound. For MIDI tracks, you control many additional
parameters, including the type of instrument sound that is used to play the notes stored in the track.
Audio Track Parameters
The following pictures illustrate the parameters that audio tracks have. The pictures are of an audio
track that is located in the Track view, however most of these parameters can also be adjusted in the
Console view:
An audio track
Audio track titlebar controls
Strip selector
Header icon Track name
Input Echo button
Show layers button
Maximize track
Track number
Mute, Solo and Arm buttons
Peak value
Minimize track
115
English
Changing Track Settings
:
Audio track interior
controls
Volume slider
Pan slider
Mono/stereo switch
Trim
Input
Output
Phase button
Send destination
Send enable
Send level
Send pre-post
Audio track FX bin, meter,
and track scale
Send pan
Meter (shown in vertical position)
Track scale
FX interleave
indicator
FX bin
Here is a summary table of the different audio track parameters and how they are used.
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Parameter...
What it means...
Strip selector
Click this to add a track to a Quick Group, which means that certain
controls in tracks that are in the Quick Group are grouped.
Number
A sequential track number used for reference
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if
you do not assign a name to a track, the default name is the
track number. This track number will change if you change the
order of your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
Peak value
Displays the Peak value, which is the amplitude of the latest audio
peak in the track.
Show Layers
button
Hides or shows track layers.
Minimize/restore
track button
Collapses track to minumum possible height, or restores it to the size
it was before it was minimized.
Maximize/restore
track button
Expands track to maximum possible height, or restores it to the size
it was before it was maximized.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from -INF (silent) to
+6 dB (maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard
left) to 100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is
centered left-to-right. On stereo tracks, pan acts as balance.
Trim (volume trim)
Volume Trim is a pre-fader control which allows the fine tuning of a
single track’s volume.
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output bus through which the track is played
Send Enable
Activates a send module, which sends a copy of the track signal to a
bus.
Send Level
Controls volume of audio data sent by this send module..
Send Pan
Adjusts the send pan setting.
Send Pre/Post
switch
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal goes to the bus prior to
the track’s volume fader; post means the Send signal goes to the
bus after the volume fader.
Send destination
Displays name of bus that the Send is sending data to.
Mono/Stereo
A switch that determines whether a track’s signal enters an effect or
chain of effects as mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of the
track.
Phase In/Out
A switch that inverts the phase of the track.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft synths.
Meters
The recording and playback levels are displayed in the Playback and
Record meters.
English
For example, let’s say you have four tracks, three tracks have their
volume fader set to 0 dB while the fourth track’s fader is set to +10
dB. You want to group the faders and do a slow fade out, but the
slightly higher level of the fourth track causes its volume to be higher
in relation to the other tracks towards the end of the fade out. To
balance the fader levels, reduce the fader level for the fourth track to
0 dB and raise the Volume Trim value for that track to +10 dB. The
resulting volume levels for the project are the same, but now you can
group the faders and perform a fade out with no track standing out
disproportionately at the end of the fade out.
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:
MIDI Track Parameters
The following pictures illustrate MIDI track parameters:
A MIDI track
MIDI track titlebar controls
Input Echo button
Strip selector
Show layers button
Track name
Maximize track
Header icon
PRV Mode button
Mute, Solo and Arm buttons
Minimize track
Track number
MIDI track interior
controls
Volume slider
Pan slider
Trim
Input
Output
Channel
Bank
Key +
Patch
MIDI reverb
Time +
MIDI chorus
Snap to Scale On/Off
Snap to Scale
root note
118
Snap to Scale scale
type
MIDI track FX bin and track
scale
Track scale
MIDI FX bin
Parameter...
What it means...
Strip selector
Click this to add a track to a Quick Group, which means that certain
controls in tracks that are in the Quick Group are grouped.
Track number
A sequential track number used for reference
Track name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you
do not assign a name to a track, the default name is the track
number. This track number will change if you change the order of
your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or not.
PRV Mode button
When enabled, displays a track in Inline Piano Roll view mode.
Show Layers button
Hides or shows track layers.
Minimize/restore track
button
Collapses track to minumum possible height, or restores it to the size it
was before it was minimized.
Maximize/restore track
button
Expands track to maximum possible height, or restores it to the size it
was before it was maximized.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from 0 (silent) to 127
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left)
to 100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is
centered left-to-right.
English
Here is a summary table of the different MIDI track parameters and how they are used:
119
:
Velocity trim
The change in velocity (volume) that will be applied to notes in this
track on playback; ranges from –127 to +127
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output device through which the track is played
Ch (channel)
The MIDI channel through which the notes will be played
Bank
The set of patch names available for the track
Patch
The instrument sound that will be used for playback.
Time+
An offset applied to the start time of the events in the track
Key+
The number of steps by which the notes in the track are transposed on
playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
Chorus
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track
Reverb
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track
Snap to Scale scale
type
Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature
Snap to Scale root note
Displays root note of current Snap to Scale scale
Snap to Scale on/off
Turns Snap to Scale feature on or off
To Change a Track Name
1.
Double-click on the current track name.
2.
Enter the new track name.
3.
Click Enter.
The default track names (Track 1, Track 2, etc.) are not actually names, but placeholders until you
name a track. If you reorder the tracks these placeholders change.
You can rearrange and resize the panes in the Track view as shown in the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Change the width of the Track pane and
Bus pane
Drag the divider that separates the Track pane
from the Clips panes to the left or right
Change the height of the Mains/Buses pane
Drag the divider that separates the Track and Clip
panes from the Bus pane up or down
You can customize which tracks are displayed or not displayed, and enlarge or maximize individual
tracks while other tracks remain minimized. You can also manually set the exact size of a track’s
display. The following table shows how to customize the appearance of tracks in the Track pane:
To do this...
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Do this...
Open the Track Manager dialog (press M), and
check or uncheck a track’s checkbox in the dialog.
Maximize a track
Click the Maximize button in the track
Restore a track to its original size (before it
was minimized or maximized)
Click the Restore button in the track
Minimize a track
Click the Minimize button in the track
Change the height of a track using splitter
bars
Move the cursor over the gap below a track until
the cursor looks like this
. Click and drag until
the track is the size you want.
Lock or unlock the height of a track
Right-click an empty area in the track’s controls
and choose Lock Height from the menu.
You can display subsets of the Track pane’s interior controls (the titlebar controls are always displayed)
by selecting one of the tabs located at the bottom of the Track view. The following table lists the controls
displayed when each tab is selected:
Tab
Controls displayed when selected
All
•
All controls are displayed
Mix
•
Volume
FX
I/O
•
Pan
•
Volume Trim
•
Phase (audio tracks only)
•
Key+ (MIDI tracks only)
•
Time+ (MIDI tracks only)
•
Snap to Scale controls (MIDI tracks only)
•
FX bin
•
Send controls (if a track has a Send module)
•
Mono/Stereo (audio tracks only)
•
Chorus (MIDI tracks only)
•
Reverb (MIDI tracks only)
•
Input
•
Output
•
Channel (MIDI tracks only)
•
Bank (MIDI tracks only)
•
Patch (MIDI tracks only)
•
Snap to Scale controls (MIDI tracks only)
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English
Hide or show a track
:
Changing Audio Track Settings in the Track Pane
You can change the values in the Track pane in a number of ways:
Control
How to change the setting
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim, Send Output
Level, and Send Pan
Click on the control and move your cursor left or
right to adjust values, or press Enter and type a
value.
Input and Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control
and select a driver from the menu that appears, or
double-click on the control and select a driver from
the menu.
Changing MIDI Track Settings in the Track Pane
Control
How to change the value
Channel
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select
a channel from the menu that appears, or double-click on the
control and enter a value.
Bank
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select
a bank from the menu that appears, or double-click on the
control and enter a value.
Patch
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select
a patch from the menu that appears, or double-click on the
control and enter a value.
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim,
Chorus and Reverb
Click on control and move your cursor left or right to adjust
values, or double-click on the control and enter a value.
Key+ and Time+
Double-click the control or click on the black arrow on the
right of the control and enter a new value, or double-click on
the control and enter a value.
Input
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select
a MIDI channel from the menu that appears, or double-click
on the control and select a driver from the menu.
Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select
a driver from the menu that appears, or double-click on the
control and select a driver from the menu.
You can change numeric values in MIDI tracks as shown in the following table:
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To do this...
Do this...
Change the value by 1
Press the - or + key on your numeric keypad, or
click on the spinner control
Change the value by 10 (for Key+, by 12)
Press the [ or ] key, or right-click on the spinner
control
Enter a new value
Press Enter and type the new value using the
keyboard, and press Enter
For numeric fields, you can press and hold both mouse buttons to change the value by increments of 10
(12, a full octave, for Key+).
English
You can also edit Track properties in the Track Properties dialog box. To open this dialog box, right-click
on the Track bar and select Track Properties.
You can change the value of a track parameter for several tracks at once using commands on the TrackProperty menu. For example, to assign a group of tracks to the same output, select the tracks you want
to assign, then choose Track-Property-Output. These menu commands can also be used to change the
settings for individual tracks.
All track parameters are saved with a SONAR project. However, if you export a project to a Standard
MIDI File, several of the parameters (Key+, Vel+, Time+, and Chan) are applied to the MIDI data as the
file is being exported. Other parameters, including Input, Output, Mute, Solo, and Archive, are lost
when you export the project to a MIDI file.
The following sections contain more information about many of the parameters in the Track view. For
more information on the track inputs and the track Arm button, see “Preparing to Record” on page 152.
Setting Up Output Devices
The output setting for a track determines which piece of hardware or software synthesizer will be used
to produce the sound stored in your project. In a very simple equipment setup, you might have only a
computer equipped with a basic sound card. In this case, you want to play all MIDI and audio output
through the sound card on your computer.
If your equipment setup also includes a MIDI keyboard attached to the MIDI port on your sound card,
you can choose to route MIDI data directly to the sound card or through the sound card MIDI port to the
keyboard. If you choose the former, the music will play from your computer speakers. If you choose the
latter, the sound will play from the speaker attached to your keyboard. You can even choose to send
some MIDI information to each of these devices so that they both play at once.
You can purchase MIDI interfaces that plug into your parallel, serial, or USB port to add MIDI ports to
your computer. For more information on complex system configurations, see Appendix B: Hardware
Setup.
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:
If your computer has several MIDI outs, choose the ones you want to use and put them in a particular
order using the Options-MIDI Devices command. The order in which your MIDI devices appear in the
Output menus in the Track and Console views is based solely on the order in which the selected outs
appear in the MIDI Devices dialog box. As a result, the order in which your devices appear in a track’s
output control may not match the port numbers that appear on your external multiport MIDI device.
These
devices are
not selected
When you first run SONAR it asks you to select MIDI devices. You may want to change these selections
in the future. You can do so by selecting different devices in the MIDI Devices dialog box.
Your computer is usually equipped with at least one audio device—your computer sound card. Your
setup may have several different audio output devices, or you may have a multichannel sound card that
presents itself to your computer as though it were several different devices, one for each stereo pair. In
SONAR, audio tracks are assigned to main outs or buses. Each main out represents a hardware device.
You use the Output control to assign a track in a project to the main or bus you want to use.
While you need to choose the MIDI output devices you want to use before you assign them to tracks, all
of your audio devices can be assigned to tracks freely. You do not need to configure them the way you do
MIDI devices. If you have a voice modem or speakerphone in your computer, however, you might want to
set up SONAR so that it won’t use those devices. Also, note that some dedicated audio equipment has
specific setup requirements. For more information, see Chapter 20, Improving Audio Performance.
To Choose MIDI Devices
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1.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
Click on any MIDI device in the Outputs list.
3.
To move any device to the top of the list, deselect all other devices and click Move to Top to move
the selected device to the top of the list.
4.
When all devices are selected in the order you want, click OK.
Assigning Tracks to Outputs
You assign each track to a MIDI or an audio output using the Output dropdown in the Track view. From
then on, material on that track will be sent to the appropriate output device.
Note:
English
If you rearrange your MIDI output devices after making output assignments,
you may find MIDI information being sent to different instruments than you
expect. Also, SONAR allows you to define instruments that are associated
with certain outputs and channels. If you use this feature, the name of the
output will change to reflect the instrument you have chosen. For more
information about instrument definitions, see Chapter 16, Using Instrument
Definitions.
To Assign a Track to an Output
1.
Click the Output dropdown of the track you want to assign.
2.
Select the output you want to use.
To change the output setting for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Track-Property-Output.
Choosing the Instrument Sound (Bank and Patch)
Electronic keyboards and synthesizers often contain hundreds or thousands of different sounds. Each
sound is known as a patch. The name comes from the early days of synthesizers, for which you
physically rewired (using patch cords) the oscillators and modulators to produce different sounds.
Patches are normally organized into groups of 128, called banks. Most instruments have between 1 and
8 banks, but MIDI supports up to 16,384 banks of 128 patches each (that’s over 2 million patches).
The bank and patch settings in the Track view control the initial bank and patch of a track during
playback. Every time SONAR starts playback at the beginning of a project, the bank and patch settings
for the track are set to these initial values.
Many instruments have descriptive names for their banks and patches. SONAR stores these names in
an instrument definition. For more information about instrument definitions, see Chapter 16, Using
Instrument Definitions. If you are using an instrument that supports General MIDI, your patch list will
contain the 128 sounds that are defined by the General MIDI specification.
Note to Experts:
Different MIDI instruments use different types of commands to change banks.
SONAR supports four common methods for changing banks. For information
about the bank selection method you should use with your MIDI gear, see your
MIDI equipment’s documentation.
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:
Tip:
If your bank name is too long to fit in the bank field, hold your cursor over the
bank name. A tooltip appears with the complete bank name.
Note that a single MIDI channel can only play one patch at a time on each instrument assigned to that
channel. Therefore, if two or more MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have
different bank and patch settings, the patch of the highest-numbered track will be used for all the
tracks.
In some projects you want the sound played by a track to change while playback is in progress. You can
accomplish this using the Insert-Bank/Patch Change command. When you start playback in the
middle of a project, SONAR searches back through the track to find the correct patch to use—either the
initial bank and patch or the most recent bank/patch change. Note that the Track view only shows the
initial bank and patch, even while a different bank and patch are being played back. The only way to
see and edit a bank/patch change is in the Event List view. For more information, see “The Event List
View” on page 289.
To Assign an Initial Bank and Patch to a Track
1.
Right-click on the Track titlebar (the top of the track which contains the track name) and select
Track Properties.
2.
In the Track Properties dialog box, choose the desired bank and patch from the dropdown lists.
3.
To search for a patch containing specific text, click the Patch Browser button to the right of the
dropdown lists. You can also open the Patch Browser by right-clicking a bank or patch control in
the Track or Console views.
4.
Click OK.
The Track Properties dialog box appears.
Another Way to Assign a Patch to a Track
1.
Select the patch you want from the Patch dropdown.
To change the bank and patch settings for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to
change and choose Track-Property-Bank or Track-Property-Patch.
To Insert a Bank/Patch Change
1.
Highlight the track whose bank and patch you want to change by clicking on the track number.
2.
Set the Now time to the time at which you want the change to occur.
3.
Choose Insert-Bank/Patch Change to display the Bank/Patch Change dialog box.
4.
Choose a bank and patch from the lists.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR inserts a change in bank and patch. When you play back the project, the initial bank and patch
shown in the Track view will be used to the point at which the bank/patch change takes place. You can
remove a bank/patch change in the Event List view.
To Choose Patches with the Patch Browser
1.
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In the Track view or Console view, right-click the patch name in the track module you want to
change patches in.
The Patch browser dialog box appears, displaying a list of all the Instrument patch names that
have been installed.
2.
Search for a patch name, if desired, by filling in text in the search field at the top of the dialog box.
3.
When you find the right patch, click its name and click OK.
SONAR changes the patch of the track you selected.
Adding Effects
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To Add an Audio Effect in the Track Pane
•
In an audio track, right-click in the FX field, choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk, and select an effect
from the menu that appears.
The Volume and Pan settings control the initial volume and pan of a track during playback. Every time
SONAR starts playback, the Volume and Pan settings for the track are set to these initial levels.
SONAR allows you to choose different panning laws if you want (see“Configurable Panning Laws” on
page 128).
In some projects you want the volume or panning of a track to change while playback is in progress. You
can accomplish this by drawing a volume or pan envelope in the Track view, or by recording automation.
For more information, see Chapter 13, Automation, Chapter 11, Mixing and Effects Patching, and
Chapter 7, Editing MIDI Events and Controllers.
Note to Experts:
SONAR processes the volume and pan settings by transmitting MIDI volume
and pan events (controllers 7 and 10, respectively) when playback starts. If
two or more MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have
different volume or pan settings, the settings for the highest-numbered track
will prevail.
Note also that not all keyboards and synthesizers respond to these events.
Check your instrument’s manual for more information.
To Set the Initial Volume Setting
1.
Move your cursor to the Volume control of the track you want to change.
2.
Click and drag to the left to lower the volume or the right to raise the volume.
You can also change the volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described on page 122. To change
the volume settings for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and choose
Track-Property-Volume.
To Set the Initial Pan Setting
1.
Move your cursor to the Pan control of the track you want to change.
2.
Click and drag to the left to adjust the pan to the left or to the right to adjust the pan to the right.
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English
Adjusting Volume and Pan
:
Hard left is 100% left. Hard right is 100% right. Pan is centered at C.
You can also change the pan and volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described on page 122.
To change the pan settings for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Track-Property-Pan.
Configurable Panning Laws
You can choose from six different panning laws, if you want. A panning law is the mathematical formula
that a sequencer or mixer uses to control panning.
To Change Panning Laws
1.
Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog.
2.
On the General tab, in the Stereo Panning Law field, choose one of these options:
3.
•
(Default) 0 dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power—this choice causes a 3 dB boost in a
signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
•
-3dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power——this choice causes no boost in a signal that’s
panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
•
0dB center, square-root taper, constant power—this choice causes a 3 dB boost in a signal
that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
•
-3dB center, square root taper, constant power——this choice causes no boost in a signal that’s
panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
•
-6dB center, linear taper——this choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or
right, and 6dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
•
0 dB center, balance control——this choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left
or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
Click OK.
Adjusting Volume Trim
Volume Trim acts like the trim control on a mixer, raising or lower the level prior to the volume fader.
Volume Trim is useful for calibrating your faders to match a dB reference level or for aligning your
faders for grouping. The Volume Trim control has a range of -18dB to +18dB. Raising or lowering the
Volume Trim raises or lowers the apparent volume of the track by that amount without affecting the
actual fader level.
To Set the Volume Trim Level
1.
Move your cursor to the Volume Trim control of the track you want to change.
2.
Click and drag to the left to lower Volume Trim level or to the right to raise Volume Trim level.
Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn)
MIDI transmits information on 16 channels, numbered 1 through 16. Every MIDI event is assigned to a
particular channel. Some MIDI equipment can accept MIDI information on only a single channel. This
channel may be preassigned, or you may be able to change it. Other MIDI equipment, including many
electronic keyboards and synthesizers, can accept information on several different MIDI channels at
once. Usually, these devices use a different instrument sound for each channel.
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On playback, the channel number is used to direct the MIDI information to a particular piece of
equipment.
The Chn parameter in the Track view redirects all events in the track to the specified channel, ignoring
the channel number stored with each event. If this parameter is left blank, all events in the track are
sent to their original channels.
This parameter does not affect the channel information that is stored with each MIDI event. When the
track is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll or Event List view, you will see the original channel
that is stored in the file. You can edit the channel values in those views or use the Process-Interpolate
command.
To Set the Channel for a Track
1.
In the track you want to change, click on the black arrow to the right of the Chn field and select the
channel you want to use.
Adjusting the Key/Transposing a Track (Key+)
Each MIDI note event has a key number, or pitch. On playback, the key offset (Key+) parameter
transposes all notes in the track by the designated number of half-steps. The value can range from -127
to +127. A value of 12 indicates that notes will be played back one octave higher than they are written.
This parameter does not affect the note number that is stored for each note event. When the clip is
displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original notes as
they are stored in the file. To permanently change the pitches, you can edit them individually or use the
Process-Transpose command.
If the key offset value transposes the key number (MIDI note) outside the allowable MIDI range (0–
127), the key number will be transposed to the lowest or highest octave within that range.
You can use the Key+ parameter to assist in preparing scores for instruments whose music is written in
something other than “concert” key (such as Bb trumpet). For more information, see “Music Notation for
Non-concert-key Instruments” on page 498.
When you edit the Key+ parameter, pressing [ or ] changes the value by 12 instead of by 10. This makes
it easy to transpose by octaves.
To Set the Key Offset for a Track
1.
In the track you want to change, click on the Key+ control.
2.
Enter a value (1 = a semitone), or press the + or – key to change the key by a single semitone. Use
the [ or ] key to change the key by 12 semitones (one octave).
To change the key offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Track-Property-Key+.
Adjusting the Note Velocity (Vel+)
Each MIDI note event has a velocity, which represents how fast the key was struck when the track was
recorded. On playback, the velocity offset parameter adjusts the velocity data for all notes in the track
by the designated amount. The value can range from -127 to +127. The effect of changing velocities
depends on the synthesizer. Some synthesizers do not respond to velocity information. For others, the
effect varies depending on the sound or patch you have chosen. Normally, higher velocities result in
louder and/or brighter-sounding notes.
This parameter does not affect the velocity that is stored for each note event. When the clip is displayed
in other views, like the Piano Roll view, Staff view, or Event List view, you will see the original velocities
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English
To change the channel assignment for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to
change and choose Track-Property-Channel.
:
as they are stored in the file. You can edit the velocity values in those views, or use the Process-Scale
Velocity or Process-Interpolate command.
Velocity is different from volume in that it is an attribute of each event, rather than a controller that
affects an entire MIDI channel. Here’s an example of where this distinction might be important.
Suppose you have several tracks containing different drum parts. All of these parts would probably be
assigned to MIDI channel 10 (that’s the default channel for percussion in General MIDI). If you change
the volume setting for any track that uses channel 10, all the different drum parts—regardless of what
track they’re in—would be affected. If you change the note velocity for one drum track, it will be the
only one whose volume is affected.
To Set the Velocity Offset for a Track
•
In the track you want to change, click and drag the Vel+ control to the desired setting.
To change the velocity offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Track-Property-Vel+.
Adjusting the Time Alignment of a MIDI Track (Time+)
Each event takes place at a known point in the project. On playback, the time offset (Time+)
parameter adjusts the times for MIDI events in the track by the designated amount. The value can be
as small as a single clock tick or as large as you want.
This parameter can be used to make a part play behind the beat or in front of it or to compensate for
tracks that sound rushed or late. The time shift can be used to create a chorus or slap-back echo effect
by making a copy of a track and then applying a small offset to the copy. You can use larger time offsets
to shift a track earlier or later by several beats or measures.
Note that you cannot shift any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if the first event in the track
starts at 2:01:000, you cannot shift its start time earlier by more than one measure.
This parameter does not affect the time that is stored for each note event. When the clip is displayed in
other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original times as they are
stored in the file.
To Set the Time Offset for a Track
1.
In the track you want to change, click on the Time+ control.
2.
Enter a value, or press the + or – key until you reach the value you want.
To change the time offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Track-Property-Time+.
Other MIDI Playback Settings
Two other MIDI settings can affect what happens when you play back your project, as described in the
following table:
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Option…
How it works…
Zero Controllers When Play
Stops
If this option is enabled, SONAR zeroes (resets) the pitch wheel, the
pedal Controller, and the modulation wheel Controller on all 16 MIDI
channels whenever playback is stopped. It also sends a “Zero All
Continuous Controllers” MIDI message, which turns off other continuous
Controllers on newer synthesizers. If you experience frequent stuck notes
when playback stops, try checking this option.
Patch/Controller Searchback
Before Play Starts
If this option is enabled, SONAR searches for and sends the most recent
patch change, wheel, and pedal events on each output and MIDI channel
before starting playback. This ensures that all these settings are correct,
even if you start playback at an arbitrary point in your project.
To set these options, choose Options-Project and click the MIDI Out tab. If you have set up a playback
loop, enabling either of these options can cause an audible delay when the loop is restarted.
When you play your MIDI keyboard or controller, the sound that SONAR produces is determined by
what hardware or software synth SONAR sends the incoming MIDI data to after SONAR receives the
data. This is called MIDI echo. By default, SONAR sends the data to the MIDI output or software synth
listed in the Output field of the current track. The current track is the one whose titlebar has the golden
color—press the up and down arrows on your computer keyboard and watch each track turn golden in
succession as you change different tracks into the current track (you can also click any of a track’s
controls to make it current).
However, you can echo MIDI data to much more than just the current track, or turn echoing off on the
current track if you want. With a single keyboard or controller, you can echo MIDI data to as many
MIDI tracks as you want, meaning that you can simultaneously play as many hardware and software
synths as you can hook up to your MIDI interface or run on your computer. You can also have multiple
performers on different controllers sending MIDI data to either the same synth or multiple synths.
Each SONAR track allows you to select what MIDI input ports and channels the track will respond to.
The Output field of the track determines what instrument will sound when the track receives the data.
Each track’s Input Echo button determines whether the track echoes MIDI data.
The Input Echo Button
Each MIDI track has an Input Echo button, which controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or
not. The button has three states: on
, dimmed
, and off
. When the button is on, the track
echoes MIDI data. When the button is dimmed, the track echoes MIDI data because the track is the
current track. When the button is off, the track does not echo any data, even if it is the current track.
The off position on a current MIDI track is only available if you disable the Always Echo Current MIDI
Track option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command). The dimmed
position becomes unavailable with this setting.
There are several ways to turn Input Echoing on:
•
Click a track’s Input Echo button so that it is on.
•
Click a track to make the track the current track (if the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option
on the General tab of the Global Options dialog is enabled). In this situation (which is the default),
if the track’s Input Echo button is not on, it appears dimmed, to show that this track echoes data
because it is the current track.
•
If the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option on the General tab of the Global Options dialog is
disabled, make a track the current track, and use the Track-Input Monitor/Echo command (or
click the track’s Input Echo button).
Storing Favorite Configurations
If you want a track to respond to more than one port or channel, you must create a preset input
configuration. If you create some favorite configurations of MIDI input options, not only will they be
stored with the project you created them in, but you can save each one as a preset to load in any MIDI
track in any project you want. Clicking the dropdown arrow in a track’s Input field displays the Inputs
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English
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo
:
dropdown menu, which has the Manage Presets choice that allows you to create and store your
favorite combinations of MIDI input choices.
To Play One Synth at a Time from One or More MIDI Keyboards
•
Since this is SONAR’s default behavior, simply use the Up or Down arrow keys on your computer
keyboard to choose the current track (the current track has a gold titlebar), and choose the synth
you want to play by using the track’s Output, Bank, Patch, and Channel fields. With the default
behavior, all MIDI input from all ports and channels is merged and sent through the current track.
Notice that the track’s Input field says Omni.
•
If you’ve disabled the default behavior (see next procedure), you must make sure that the current
track’s Input Echo button is lit up (on) before you can play the synth that the track is patched to.
To Disable the Default MIDI Echo Setting
•
If you want to turn off the automatic MIDI echoing of the current track, disable the Always Echo
Current MIDI Track option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global
command). If you then turn off the current track’s Input Echo button and play your keyboard,
SONAR will not produce sound.
To Play Multiple Synths from a MIDI Keyboard
1.
Choose a synth for each track that you want to play by using each track’s Output, Channel, Bank,
and Patch fields.
2.
In the Input field of each track that you want to play, click the dropdown arrow and choose the
MIDI input port and channel that you want the track to respond to from the following options:
3.
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting the track will
respond to any MIDI input coming in on any port (MIDI interface input driver) on any
channel.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-MIDI Omni—choosing this option causes the track to respond
to any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-MIDI ch 1-16—choosing this option causes the track to
respond ONLY to whatever MIDI channel you choose coming from the named MIDI interface
input driver.
•
Preset—if you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
Make sure that the Input Echo button on each track that you want to play is turned on.
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1.
In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the dropdown arrow and choose
Manage Presets from the dropdown menu.
2.
In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3.
To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port.
4.
Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5.
If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog, and
click the disk icon to save it.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
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Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input dropdown menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a preset,
select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
To Use Multiple Performers on Multiple Tracks
1.
For performer number 1, click the Input dropdown menu(s) of the track(s) you want that performer
to play, and choose the port and MIDI channel that performer 1’s keyboard is sending data to
SONAR on.
2.
Repeat step 1 for all other performers.
3.
If there is any track that you want more than one performer to play, create a preset of the input
ports and channels that you want that track to respond to (see previous procedure).
4.
Make sure the Input Echo button is on for each track you want to play.
To Turn MIDI Echo (and Input Monitoring) On or Off for All Tracks
In the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the View-Toolbars-Playback State command), click
the Input Monitor button (last one on the right).
Local Control
You should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master keyboard to prevent notes from
being doubled when you play your keyboard. If you disable Local Control, your keyboard sends notes
that you play to SONAR, which echoes them to the synthesizer, which plays them only once.
When SONAR starts, you can have it send a special MIDI message that attempts to disable Local
Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers respond to this message. If yours does not, you will
need to disable Local Control every time you turn it on for use with SONAR.
If your synthesizer does not let you disable Local Control (this is rare), you can use the Local On Port
setting in the Input tab of the Project Options dialog box to indicate the number of the output port
connected to your synthesizer. SONAR will then refrain from sending MIDI echo data to that port. In
this configuration, you may need to turn your synthesizer’s volume control up and down from time to
time to avoid hearing it play along with your other modules. If this situation doesn’t apply to you, the
Local On Port should be set to 0.
To Automatically Disable All Local Control Whenever You Launch SONAR
1.
In the directory where SONAR is installed, double-click on the TTSEQ.INI file to open it.
2.
In the Options section, add the line:
SendLocalOff=1
3.
Save the file and close it.
4.
When you launch SONAR, it automatically sends a Local Off message to your keyboard.
Note: Not all keyboards respond to this message.
Playing Files in Batch Mode
SONAR allows you to play several files in sequence automatically using the Play List view. You can use
this feature in live performance applications or just for fun.
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•
:
SONAR’s Play List view lets you create and work with a series of project, MIDI, and bundle files. As
each file plays, SONAR loads it and displays it in the Track view and other views like any other project
file.
The Play List View
The Play List view lets you create, edit, and save a play list (or set) of up to 999 SONAR projects. Once
you’ve created the list, you can play back the entire sequence automatically. You can even program the
list to pause between songs for a fixed amount of time or to wait for a keystroke before proceeding.
The Play List view looks like this:
Switch to the next song
Repeat the list
Add a song
Set a delay
Drop a song
Display full
path
Enable the play list
List of songs
Play lists can be saved for future use. Play list files have the extension .SET.
To Create and Edit a Play List
To create and edit a play list in the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table:
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To do this…
Do this…
Open an existing play list
Choose File-Open, choose Play List from the
Files of Type list, choose the file you want
and click Open
Create a new play list
Choose File-New, choose Play List Set from
the list, and click OK
Add songs to the play list
Click
or press Insert, choose a file from
the Add Song to Play List dialog box, and
click Open
Set the delay after a song
Click on the song in the play list, click
enter the delay you want, and click OK
Change the order of songs
Drag the file to a new location in the play list
Copy a song to another location in
the play list
Ctrl-drag the file to a new location in the play
list
Remove a song from the play list
Select the song and click
Delete key
Save the play list
Choose File-Save; or choose File-Save As,
enter a file name, and click Save
,
or press the
To Play Files from the Play List View
To do this…
Do this…
Activate the play list
Click
in the Play List view toolbar so that the
button is pressed. If this button is not pressed, only a
single file will play when you start playback.
Choose the starting song
Double-click the file you want to start with. The project
is opened and displayed as usual.
Start playback
Click
, choose Transport-Play, or press the
Spacebar.
Stop playback
Choose Transport-Stop, or press the Spacebar.
Skip to the next file
Click
Loop continuously over the play
list
Click the
button in the Play List view toolbar.
Show or hide file name
extensions and folder names
(path)
Click the
folders.
button to enable or disable the display of
English
To play back files from the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table.
in the Play List view toolbar.
Video Playback, Import, and Export
Video files play in the Video view in real time as your project plays. You can also view your video on an
external DV device connected to an IEEE 1394 port (“FireWire”).
The File-Import-Video command lets you include the following video file types in your project:
•
AVI (also called Video for Windows)
•
MPEG
•
Windows Media Video
•
QuickTime (.MOV files only)
Note: some .MOV and .AVI files contain no video. You can’t import these files with the File-ImportVideo command. You must use the File-Import-Audio command instead, and set the Files of Type
field to All Files.
The File-Export-Video command lets you export your audio tracks and your imported video as the
following file types:
•
AVI (also called Video for Windows)
•
Windows Media Video
•
QuickTime
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:
SONAR Producer also has a Video Thumbnails pane at the top of the Track view, which shows
individual frames of your video at different places in your project (See below for more information).
You open the Video view by using the View-Video command. The Video view displays the Now time (as
in the Big Time view) and the video itself. The display in the Video view is synchronized with the Now
time, giving you convenient random access to the video stream. This makes it easy to align music and
digitized sound to the video.
Commands in the Video view’s right-click popup menu let you set the time display format, the size and
stretch options for the video display, the video start and trim times, and other options.
Inserting and Playing Back Videos
Here are step-by-step procedures for inserting and playing back videos:
To Load a Video File Into a Project
1.
Choose File-Import-Video, or choose Insert from the Video view’s popup menu.
The Import Video dialog appears.
2.
In the Files of Type field, select the kind of video file you’re looking for.
3.
Select a file.
4.
Check the Show File Info option to display information about the file in the File Info section of the
dialog.
5.
Check the Import Audio Stream option if you want to load the file’s audio data.
6.
Check the Import As Mono Tracks option if you want to import the file’s audio data as one or more
mono tracks.
7.
Click Open.
SONAR loads the video file and displays it in the Video view. If you choose to import audio data,
SONAR inserts a new track above the currently selected track, and puts the audio data in a clip or clips
on the new track.
Note 1: when you save a project that contains video, SONAR saves the project’s video file by reference
only; the actual video data remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in bundle files, so it must
be backed up on its own.
Note 2: after you load a video file into a project, you can play it back either in the Video view, or on an
external DV device through a FireWire port. See “Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device” on page 141
for more information.
To Play a Video File in the Video View
1.
Open the Video view by choosing View-Video.
2.
Press the Spacebar to play or stop video playback.
3.
To change the display size of the video, right-click in the Video view and choose Stretch Options[desired size] from the popup menu.
Note: When you play a video file that has high temporal compression, such as movies optimized for web
delivery, playback may not be smooth unless you disable video thumbnails (found in SONAR Producer
only), (see “Using the Video Thumbnails Pane” on page 139 for more information).
To Delete the Video From the Project
1.
Open the Video view by choosing View-Video.
2.
Right-click in the Video view and choose Delete.
SONAR removes the video from the project. Note that imported audio data is not deleted.
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To Enable or Disable Video Playback
1.
Open the Video view by choosing View-Video.
2.
Right-click in the Video view and choose Animate.
If your computer is not fast enough to play back video efficiently, you can get better performance by
temporarily disabling video animation during playback.
To Set the Time Display Format
•
Click the time display to cycle between MBT, SMPTE, Frames and None
Or
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Time Display Format menu:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a time format
Choose MBT, SMPTE, Frames or None
Change font or font color
Choose Font and select new font characteristics
Turn off the time display
Choose None
English
•
To Adjust the SMPTE Time
1.
Move the Now time to the place where you want SMPTE time to be either 00:00:00:00, or a number
you can enter.
2.
Use the Transport-Set Timecode At Now command to open the Set Timecode At Now TIme
dialog.
3.
If you want to set SMPTE time to 00:00:00:00 (the dialog’s default value) at the current Now time,
click OK to close the dialog. If you want to set SMPTE time to some other value at the current Now
time, type that value into the SMPTE/MTC Time field, and click OK to close the dialog.
To Choose a Frame Rate
1.
Use the Options-Project command to open the Project Options dialog.
2.
On the Clock tab, under Timecode Format, choose the frame rate you want from the six choices,
and then click OK (for more information, see SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization“SMPTE/
MIDI Time Code Synchronization” on page 532).
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:
To Set the Video Display Format
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Stretch Options menu:
To do this…
Do this…
Display the video in its original size
Choose Original Size
Stretch the video to fill the Video view
Choose Stretch to Window
Stretch the video as much as possible
while preserving the original aspect
ratio
Choose Preserve Aspect Ratio
Make the video display as large as
possible, but only enlarge by integral
multiples
Choose Integral Stretch
Display the video in full screen mode
Choose Full Screen
SONAR adjusts the video display according to the selected option. The stretch option is used to
recalculate the video display size whenever you resize the Video view.
To Set the Background Color
•
Right-click in the Video view and choose a color option from the Background Color menu.
To Set the Start and Trim Times
1.
Right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties.
2.
Set options as described in the table:
Option…
What it means…
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to
start playing
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop
SONAR synchronizes the video to the project according to the specified Start and Trim times.
Exporting Video
After you’ve mixed your audio tracks the way you want them, you can export the inserted video file
together with your audio tracks to create a new video file.
When you export a video, any changes you’ve made to the Start, Trim-In, or Trim-Out times determine
how long your new exported video is compared to the original video that you inserted into your SONAR
project.
Note: if you’re exporting an AVI file, the No Compression option in the Video Codec field of the AVI
Encoder Options dialog is a good choice. This choice does not change or compress your source video
material. If you want your exported AVI file to be compressed, the Cinepak option will create an AVI
file that plays back smoothly with decent quality. The MJPEG option will create an AVI file that does
not play back as smoothly, but is a high quality format to archive a file in.
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To Export a Video
1.
Make sure your audio tracks are completely mixed, and your video Start time, Trim-In time, and
Trim-Out time are set the way you want them.
2.
Use the File-Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
3.
In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
4.
In the Files of Type field, choose the kind of video file you want the exported file to be.
5.
Click the Encoding Options button to open a dialog of encoding options for the kind of file you’re
creating. Some codecs do not work: click the Help button in the dialog for help choosing options.
6.
Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown options. Click the Help
button in the dialog for help choosing options.
7.
Click Save to export your video.
Optimizing Video Performance
Here are a few tips to optimize video performance:
•
Viewing your video in on an external DV device will significantly decrease the processor load on
your computer if the video stream is a DV AVI file. See “Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device”
on page 141 for more information.
•
If you intend to do a lot of seeking around or looping and editing while a video file is loaded, make
sure that your video file has sufficient keyframes. Since each frame has to be computed from the
last keyframe encountered, if you have very few keyframes in the video, performance may be slow.
To change the number of keyframes, you may recompress the file using the File-Export Video
command and specify more frequent keyframes. Choose a suitable video compressor such as
Cinepak and change the KeyFrame Rate parameter to a number between 1-5. A value of 1 makes
every frame a keyframe, and higher numbers insert a keyframe after that many frames.
•
Changing the video properties of an AVI file, such as Trim and Start time, can make realtime
performance slightly slower. You can make these changes permanent (and thereby reduce the load
on your CPU) by using the File-Export Video command, and then re-importing the file.
•
Playing videos at a resolution (video size) of 320x240 is usually a high enough resolution to
monitor the video while you’re composing a soundtrack. You can still choose to stretch the video to
full screen at this resolution. You set the video size on the Render Quality tab of the Video
Properties dialog. Using a higher resolution can bog down your computer if you’re processing audio
tracks at the same time.
Using the Video Thumbnails Pane
At the top of the Track view in SONAR Producer is the Video Thumbnails pane, which displays
individual frames of your video at certain time intervals of your project. The time interval between
displayed frames is determined by the zoom level you choose. If you zoom in far enough, you can view
each individual frame of your video.
Note 1: if you’re playing back a highly compressed movie (not many keyframes in the file), it can take
about a minute to redraw video thumbnails when you’re playing the movie or resizing a window.
Note 2: some Windows Media videos do not report their frame rate to SONAR. SONAR can play these
files, but cannot create thumbnails from them, so no thumbnails appear in the thumbnail pane.
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Note: if you’re exporting an AVI file to either a 24-bit audio format or to a multi-channel (surround
sound) format, set the Audio Codec in the AVI Encoding Options dialog to No Compression.
:
Video Thumbnails pane
Show/hide
video pane
button
Show/hide frame numbers
button
Show/hide thumbnails button
Splitter bar
Video track strip
Frame number
Here are the various commands and functions of the Video Thumbnails pane:
•
You can show or hide the pane.
•
You can show or hide the video thumbnails.
•
You can display absolute frame numbers.
•
You can resize the thumbnails while preserving the aspect ratio by dragging the splitter bar.
•
The video track strip at the top of the Track pane has display fields for Video File Name, Start
Time, Trim-In Time, Trim-Out Time, Duration, and Current Frame, as well as a toggle buttons to
show/hide the thumbnails (without hiding the Video Thumbnails pane), and to show/hide frame
numbers on individual frames. You can edit the Start Time, Trim-in Time, and Trim-Out time
fields.
•
SONAR saves the size and state of the Video Thumbnails pane on a per/project basis.
•
The Video Thumbnails pane zooms horizontally when you use the standard Track view commands
for horizontal zooming. You control the height of the Video Thumbnails pane by dragging the
splitter bar up or down that’s at the bottom of the Video Thumbnails pane.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Hide or Show the Video Thumbnails Pane
•
Drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnails pane from the Clips pane.
Or
•
Use the View-Video Thumbnails menu command.
Or
•
Click the Show/Hide Video button
in the Track view toolbar.
To Turn Video Thumbnails On or Off
1.
Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2.
Choose Show/Hide Thumbnails from the popup menu that appears.
Or
•
140
Click the Show/Hide Thumbnails button
in the Track view toolbar.
To Hide or Show Frame Numbers on Frames
•
In the video track strip, click the Show/Hide Frame Numbers button
.
To Open the Video Properties Dialog
•
Double-click the video track strip.
To Open the Video View
•
Double-click the Video Thumbnails pane.
To Move the Now Time to a Thumbnail
•
Click the thumbnail.
To Change the Start Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Start field, type a new number in Measure/Beat/Tick format, and
press Enter. The start time is the time in your SONAR project at which your video starts to play.
•
In the video track strip, click the Trim-In field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
Enter (you can press the Spacebar instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type single
zeros instead of double zeros). The trim-in time is the time in your video file at which you want to
start video playback.
To Change the Trim-Out Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Trim-Out field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
Enter (you can press the Spacebar instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type single
zeros instead of double zeros). The trim-out time is the time in your video file at which you want to
stop video playback.
To Use the Video Thumbnails Context Menu
1.
Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2.
Choose any of these options from the popup menu that appears:
•
Show/Hide Thumbnails
•
Display Absolute Frames
•
Open Video View
•
Insert Video
•
Delete Video
•
Export Video
•
Video Properties
Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device
You can view your video projects on an external FireWire DV device.
Note: this feature will decrease the processor load to your computer if the video stream is a DV AVI file.
If the stream is not DV AVI, the CPU load will significantly increase, compared to playing back
onscreen with SONAR’s Video view.
To Convert a Video Project to DV AVI Format
1.
Use the File-Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
2.
In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
3.
In the Save as Type field, choose Video for Windows.
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English
To Change the Trim-In Time
:
4.
Click the Encoding Options button to open the AVI Encoder options dialog, and choose DV Video
Encoder in the Video Codec field. Click OK.
5.
Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown options. Choose the
audio options you want, but remember that if you plan to save the project to DV tape, choose the
following audio format:
6.
•
Channel Format—choose Stereo.
•
Sample Rate—choose 48000.
•
Bit Depth—choose 16.
Click Save to export your video.
Once you save the video file, it can be re-inserted into a project (see “Inserting and Playing Back Videos”
on page 136). If the project will ultimately be exported to tape, that project will need to have an audio
sample rate of 48 KHz playing back at 16 bits.
To Play Video on an External DV Device
1.
Connect your external FireWire device. Make sure Windows recognizes the device, and displays
the device’s icon on the Windows taskbar.
2.
Launch SONAR and open your video project.
3.
In SONAR’s video view (View-Video command), right-click the Video view and choose External
DV Output-[name of external DV device] from the popup menu.
4.
Play your SONAR project.
The video disappears from the Video view and appears on your external monitor or camcorder.
Leave the Video view open so that you can move the Now Time frame-by-frame with the Video
view keyboard shortcuts.
If the Video view is the active window, you can use keyboard shortcuts to advance by a frame or a frame
increment. The +/-, and left/right arrow keys move forward/backwards by a single frame. If you hold
down the Ctrl key, then the frame increment value is used (default = 5 frames). You can also use the [
and ] keys to seek by the frame increment.
Exporting a Project to a FireWire DV Device
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, you can export the video and audio together to an
external FireWire DV device. This is called “printing to tape,” if your external device uses tape.
To Export a Project to an External DV Device
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1.
Use the File-Export-Video command to open the Export Video dialog.
2.
In the Save as Type field, choose AVC Compliant Device. You might see a different name in the
dropdown menu, depending on what type of external device you are using.
3.
Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open the Audio Mixdown Options dialog.
4.
In the Audio Mixdown Options dialog, choose the following options, and then click OK:
•
Channel Format—choose Stereo.
•
Sample Rate—choose 48000.
•
Bit Depth—choose 16.
5.
In the Export Video dialog, click the Encoding Options button to open the property page of your
external device.
6.
In the property page, use the transport controls to position the tape in your external device to a
blank area for recording.
7.
Close the property page, and click the Save button in the Export Video dialog to start exporting. If
you’re printing to a device that uses tape, the tape stops rolling when the export process is
finished.
Synchronizing External Video Playback to Audio
Because there is more latency in FireWire video playback than in PC digital audio playback, video
playback on an external device will probably be playing back later than the audio tracks in SONAR.
1.
Right-click the Video view and choose Video Properties from the popup menu to open the Video
Properties dialog.
2.
On the Render Quality tab of the dialog, under External DV Output, enter an offset number in the
Video Sync Offset field. The number you enter here causes the Video to start playing sooner than
the audio. It’s helpful if your video has some pre-roll footage that contains a visual sync point.
Note: the offset is accurate to 3 decimal places, e.g. 1 ms (a thousandth of a second). One frame of
video is approximately 33 ms long for NTSC and 40 ms for PAL; the offset will typically be less
than 1 second.
3.
Click OK to close the dialog. Play your video, and readjust the Video Sync Offset number as
needed.
Locating Missing Audio
If you try to open a project and SONAR is unable to locate all the audio files that the project references,
the Find Missing Audio dialog appears. The Find Missing Audio dialog helps you find any missing audio
in your project.
The Find Missing Audio File Dialog
Use the Locate Missing Audio File dialog to find missing audio in your project. The following is a brief
description of the options you have in this dialog:
•
Open—Click this button once you have searched for and found the missing audio file.
•
Skip—Click this button to move to the next missing file. When you skip and audio file your project
opens without that piece of missing audio.
•
Skip All—Click this button to skip all missing audio files. When you skip all missing audio files,
you project opens without those pieces of missing audio
•
Search—Click this button to begin a search of all available hard drives for your missing audio file.
•
After locating the file Options—You can choose to either move an audio file to the project’s
audio data folder, copy an audio file to the project’s audio data folder, or leave an audio file in its
current folder.
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To Sync External Video to Audio
:
Restoring Missing Audio Files
When you open a project file that references audio files which SONAR can not find, the Locate Missing
Audio dialog appears. Use the following procedure to restore the missing audio files to your project.
To Restore Missing Audio Files
1.
In the Locate Missing Audio dialog, click the Search button.
The Search for Missing Audio dialog appears and SONAR begins searching all available hard
drives for the missing file or files.
2.
When SONAR is finished searching, the files that it has found appear in the dialog.
3.
Select the file or files that SONAR has found and click OK.
The Locate Missing Audio dialog appears.
4.
5.
Select one of the following options:
•
Move file to Project Audio Folder—Use this option if you are sure that no other projects
are referencing this file in its present location.
•
Copy file to Project Audio Folder—Use this option if the missing file is shared with
another project and you want to keep all of your project’s audio files together.
•
Reference file from present location—Use this option if you want to leave the missing file
in its current location now that SONAR knows where it is.
Click Open.
SONAR moves, copies or references the missing file or files as you instructed.
Managing Shared and External Files
You may want to share files between projects. The files you want to share may be frequently used sound
effects or drum loops. SONAR allows you to choose whether to copy imported audio files to your project’s
audio data directory or to link to them in their current (external) location.
Note: External files are defined as any file not in the project’s audio data folder (or a subfolder within
the project’s audio data folder).
To Configure SONAR to Always Copy Files to the Project Audio Data Folder
Use this procedure if you want to keep all of your project’s audio in one folder (your project’s audio data
directory).
1.
Select Options-Global and click on the Audio Data tab.
2.
In the All Projects section, click the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option.
To Configure SONAR to Share External Files
SONAR allows you to share external files (files not in the project’s audio data directory). There are some
exceptions, however. Files that have a different sampling rate or bit depth are always copied to the
project’s audio data directory. Also, if the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the Audio Data
tab of the Global Options dialog is checked, imported audio is always copied to your project’s audio data
directory.
Do the following to ensure that you are sharing files:
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1.
Uncheck the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the Global Options dialog.
2.
In the Open dialog, when importing audio, make sure the Copy Audio to Project Folder option is
unchecked.
Recording
You can add sound or music to a SONAR™ project in many different ways. You can record
your own material using a MIDI-equipped instrument, use a microphone or another audio
input to record digital audio information, or import sound or music data from an existing
digital data file. With the input monitoring feature, you can hear your audio instruments
exactly they sound in SONAR, including any plug-in effects (effects are not recorded,
however). When you record audio or MIDI tracks, SONAR displays a wave preview of your
recorded data as you record it.
You can also input new material using your computer keyboard or mouse using the Piano
Roll view, the Staff view, or the Event List view. For more information on entering music
using these views, see Chapter 15, Working with Notation and Lyrics, “The Piano Roll View”
on page 244, and “The Event List View” on page 289.
In This Chapter
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Preparing to Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
The Audio Engine Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Punch Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Importing Music and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
English
4
:
Creating a New Project
You can add music and sound to an existing project or to a new project. Just as in any Windows
program, you open an existing project file using the File-Open command, and create a new project file
using the File-New command.
When you create a new SONAR project, there are some additional parameters you can set to make it
easier to work on your project. These include:
•
Meter and key signature
•
Metronome and tempo settings
•
Audio sampling rate
•
MIDI timing resolution
Using Per-Project Audio Folders
For ease of backing up your audio files in a project, SONAR allows you to use a separate audio folder for
each project. This feature is off by default.
To Enable Per-Project Audio
1.
Select Options-Global.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2.
Click the Audio Data tab.
3.
In the Audio Data tab, click the Use Per-Project Audio Folders option.
4.
Click OK.
Note: If you use the default project that is created when you open SONAR, you are not using per-project
audio. You must use the Copy All Audio with Project option in the Save As dialog to create a per-project
audio folder. For more information, see “To Save an Existing Project Using Per-project Audio” on page
543.
Creating a New Project File
When you create a new project you are asked to choose a template to use for your new file. If you have
per-project audio folders enabled (for more information, see the online help topic Using Per-Project
Audio Folders), you are also asked to specify a file name, the folder where you want to store the file, and
the folder where you want to store the file’s audio. You can override per-project audio by unchecking the
Store Project Audio in its Own Folder option.
SONAR includes a set of templates you can use to create a new project. These templates include
common types of ensembles, such as rock quartets, jazz trios, and classical full orchestras. When you
create a new project using one of these templates, SONAR creates a project that has MIDI settings
predefined so that one track is set up for each of the instruments in the ensemble. SONAR also includes
a template with two MIDI and two audio tracks (called the Normal template). If you are creating a new
project that will contain only audio material, use the Audio Only template. If you are creating a new
project that will contain only MIDI material, use the MIDI Only template.
You can create your own template files and use them as the basis for other new projects. For more
information, see “Templates” on page 461.
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1.
Choose File-New to display the New Project File dialog box.
2.
If you have the per-project audio folders option enabled, enter a file name, set the folder where you
want to store the new file, and set the folder where you want to store the new file’s audio.
3.
Choose a template from the list.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project file and displays it with the Track view open.
Setting the Meter and Key Signatures
By default, a new SONAR project is in 4/4 time and the key of C major. You can change these settings to
any desired meter or key. These settings apply to all the tracks in a project. You cannot set different
meter or key signatures for different tracks.
The meter or key signature of a project can change at any measure boundary. To insert changes in the
meter or key signature, use the View-Meter/Key command to display the Meter/Key view, or use the
Insert-Meter/Key Change command.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only audio material (no MIDI material), you do not
need to set the meter and key signature.
Note:
Groove clips do not follow your project’s key. Groove clips follow the project
pitch in the Markers toolbar and pitch markers in the Time Ruler. For more
information, see “Working with Groove Clips” on page 234.
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes in the Staff view, the Event List view, and
elsewhere. The meter tells SONAR the number of beats per measure and the note value of each beat.
Common meters include:
•
2/4 (two beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
4/4 (four beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
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English
To Create a New Project File
:
•
3/4 (three beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
6/8 (six beats per measure, each eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter, the number of beats per measure, can be from 1 through 99. The bottom
number of a meter is the value of each beat. You can pick from a list of values ranging from a whole note
to a thirty-second note.
The meter determines the following:
•
Where the metronome accents are placed
•
How the Now time is displayed
•
How the Staff view is drawn
•
How grid lines are displayed in the Piano Roll view
To Set the Meter and Key Signature
1.
Display the Views toolbar by choosing View-Toolbars-Views.
2.
Select Insert-Meter/Key Change.
3.
Click
4.
Select the first (and only) meter/key change in the list.
5.
Click
on the View toolbar to open the Meter/Key view.
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
6.
Enter the top and bottom meter values in the Beats per Measure and Beat Value fields.
7.
Choose the key signature from the Key Signature list.
8.
Click OK.
You can also set the meter and key signature in the Large Transport toolbar display.
Setting the Metronome and Tempo Settings
The metronome counts off each beat in a measure, so you can hear the tempo of your project. You can
choose to have the metronome sound during recording, during playback, or both. When you start
recording, SONAR can play any number of beats or measures of metronome clicks before recording
begins. This can help you “get in the groove” before you start performing. These beats or measures are
called the count-in.
When you create a new project, you should set the metronome to play during the count-in and while
recording. If you are adding material to an existing project, you might only need the metronome for the
count-in.
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You can customize the metronome sound to use audio or any note on a MIDI instrument. By default,
SONAR uses a hi-hat cymbal sound from a General MIDI drum kit for the MIDI metronome, but you
can change this setting to anything you like by changing the MIDI output, MIDI channel, and duration.
You can also choose the note and velocity (volume) to use for the first beat of each measure and for all
other beats. The metronome settings are stored separately with each project, so you can use different
settings for each one.
Most metronome options can be set in the Metronome toolbar:
Accent first beat
Use Audio Metronome
Metronome settings
Measures
Metronome during
record
Use MIDI note
Metronome during
playback
Beats
If you don’t see the Metronome toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog
box, and check the Metronome checkbox. The metronome MIDI note parameters must be set in the
Metronome Settings dialog box.
Note:
If you are synchronized to an external clock source, you cannot use the countin feature. For more information, see “Synchronizing Your Gear” on page 527.
To Set the Tempo and Metronome for a New Project
1.
In the Metronome toolbar, select the Metronome during Recording
Playback
2.
and Metronome during
options.
If you want to hear a count-in before recording begins, set the count-in to 1 or more. Select Countin Measures
or Count-in Beats
.
3.
Select Use Audio Metronome
and/or Use MIDI Metronome
.
4.
Arm at least one track.
5.
Press r or click
advance.
6.
If necessary, stop playback and adjust the tempo using the tempo controls in the toolbar and
restart playback. Repeat until the metronome plays the tempo you want.
7.
Press the Spacebar or click
to start recording. The count-in will play, and the Now time will start to
to stop recording.
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English
Count-in
:
8.
Press w, or click
to rewind to the beginning of the piece.
Your tempo and metronome settings are now ready. When you save the project file, the metronome and
tempo settings will be saved as well.
To Change Your Metronome Settings
1.
2.
3.
Open the Metronome Settings dialog box in one of the following ways:
•
Click Metronome Settings
in the Metronome toolbar.
•
Choose Options-Project and click the Metronome tab.
Change the metronome settings as indicated in the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Enable the metronome during
playback
Check Playback
Enable the metronome during
recording
Check Recording
Enable the count-in
Enter the number of clicks for the count-in in
the Count-in box, and select Measures or
Beats
Use the audio
Check Use Audio Metronome
Use a MIDI note as the sound
Check Use MIDI Note and choose the output,
channel, and other settings
Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
To Set the MIDI Metronome Sounds from your MIDI Instrument
1.
Select a track in the Track view that is assigned to the MIDI device you want to use for the
metronome sound.
2.
Click Metronome Settings
3.
Make sure that the settings in the Output and Channel fields match those for the track in the
Track view.
4.
Click on the Key box in the First Beat or the Other Beats section.
5.
Play a note on your MIDI instrument. The note number is entered automatically. The velocity is
not updated.
6.
Click OK.
in the Metronome toolbar to open the Project Options dialog box.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
Setting the Audio Sampling Rate and Bit Depth
EachSONAR project has an audio sampling rate and an audio driver bit depth that indicate the level
of accuracy with which audio data are sampled and processed. The same parameters are used for all the
digital audio in a project. When you create a new project, if you do not want to use the default setting,
you must choose a sampling rate before you start recording audio.
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SONAR lets you choose from several different sampling rates: 11025 Hz, 22050 Hz, 44100 Hz, 48000
Hz, 88200 Hz, 96000 Hz, 176400Hz, and 192000 Hz. The default used by SONAR is 44100 Hz, the same
rate as audio CDs. However, you may choose a higher rate and later mixdown to 44100. You can also
enter any hardware-supported value in the Sampling Rate field. Consult your hardware documentation
for supported sampling rates.
Note: For most sound cards, all digital audio in the same song must be at the same sampling rate. Some
dedicated audio systems let you mix different sampling rates in the same song; SONAR only lets you do
this if the audio system supports it. This feature is meant primarily for sound cards that use different
Windows drivers for input and output; SONAR treats such cards as two different programs.
A higher sampling rate produces better quality sound. However, a higher sampling rate also means that
each audio clip takes up more memory and disk space and requires more intensive processing by your
computer. If you have an older computer, or a slow hard drive, you might be better off with a lower
sampling rate. For more information, see “Improving Performance with Digital Audio” on page 553.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material (no audio), you do not need to set
the audio sampling rate or bit depth. If you import audio from a Wave file or another digital audio file,
the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth of the wave file are converted to your default setting, if
necessary.
Note:
If you are planning to move your project to a Digital Audio Tape (DAT) or to
some other media via a digital transfer, set your sampling rate and bit depth
to match the target unit. For example, use 44100Hz/16 bit for a project that
will be mastered to a CD, so that no sample rate conversion is required.
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English
By default, the audio driver bit depth of audio data is 16 bits. If your sound card supports 18, 20, 22, or
24 bit audio, you can choose to take advantage of these higher resolutions.
:
To Set the Sampling Rate and Audio Driver Bit Depth for New Projects
1.
Choose Options-Audio to display the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
On the General tab of the dialog, select a value in the Sampling Rate dropdown menu, and a value
from the Audio Driver Bit Depth dropdown menu.
3.
Click OK.
The sampling rate and audio driver bit depth are saved with the project file.
Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution
Each SONAR project has a setting for the timing resolution, or timebase, that indicates the resolution
of MIDI data. This resolution is measured in ticks or pulses per quarter note and is often abbreviated as
PPQ. The default resolution is 960PPQ, which is accurate enough for most applications. In this
timebase, each quarter note is represented by 960 ticks, each eighth note by 480 ticks, each eighth-note
triplet by 320 ticks, and so on.
In some projects you may need a different timebase. For example, if you wanted to use eighth-note
septuplets (7 eighth notes per quarter note) and represent them accurately, you would need to have a
timebase that is divisible by 7, such as 168PPQ. SONAR uses the timebase you choose for a project to
determine the range of tick values in the Now time.
To Set the Timebase for a Project
1.
Choose Options-Project and click the Clock tab.
2.
Choose the timebase you want from the Ticks per Quarter Note list.
3.
Click OK.
The timebase will be saved with the project file.
Preparing to Record
To prepare for recording, you need to do the following:
•
Set the recording mode.
•
Choose your input(s).
•
Arm one or more tracks for recording.
•
Check your recording levels (audio only).
•
Tune your instrument if necessary (audio only).
•
Set the Now time to the point where recording should start.
•
Start recording.
After you record, you can use the Edit-Undo command to erase the most recently recorded material.
You can use the Edit-Redo command to restore the recording and toggle between Undo and Redo as
many times as you like.
If you are using MIDI Sync or time code sync for the clock source, SONAR waits to receive external
timing data before it begins recording. For more information see Chapter 18, Synchronizing Your Gear.
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Recording Modes
Recording mode…
How it works…
Sound on Sound
The new material is merged with any existing material. This means that
any existing clips on the track are left unchanged and all newly recorded
material is stored in new clips. While recording, you will be able to hear
material from existing clips.
Overwrite
The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing material. This means
that portions of existing clips may be “wiped clean” to make room for
newly recorded material. While recording, you will not be able to hear
material from existing clips.
Auto Punch
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and punch-out times.
You can use Auto Punch in either Sound on Sound or Overwrite mode.
English
Any material you record is stored in a new clip. If you record into several tracks at once, one clip is
created in each track. If you record into a track that already contains clips, you can choose one of three
recording modes to determine what happens to those clips. When you save your project, you also save
whatever recording mode you choose together with that project:
To Choose a Recording Mode
•
Select a mode from the dropdown list in the Record toolbar.
Or
•
Choose Transport-Record Options or click
select the desired mode.
to display the Record Options dialog box, then
SONAR saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a different recording mode with
each of your projects.
Choosing an Input
To record into a track, you must choose an input for the music or sound to be recorded. Usually, you
choose All Inputs - Omni to record material from a MIDI instrument, or the left or right channel of a
digital audio device (such as a sound card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record
stereo audio in a single track. The input for each track is displayed in the track’s Input field and at the
top of each module in the Console view.
When you choose All Inputs - Omni as the input for a track, SONAR merges material from all MIDI
inputs and instruments. This means you don’t have to worry about input, channel, or other MIDI
settings. Sometimes, you may want to record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn
how to do this, see “Recording Specific Ports and Channels” on page 173.
While each track can have a different input, it is also possible for several tracks to have the same input.
To Choose a MIDI Input in the Track View
1.
Click the dropdown arrow of an Input field of a MIDI track (an Input field has this icon to the left
of it:
).
A dropdown menu of MIDI inputs appears.
2.
Choose an input from the following:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
153
:
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver,
unless you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
•
Preset—if you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on
page 174).
To Choose an Audio Input in the Track View
1.
Click the dropdown arrow of the Input field of an audio track (an Input field has this icon to the left
of it:
).
A dropdown menu of audio drivers appears.
2.
Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
•
None—This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question.
•
Left (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
channel of your sound card.
•
Right (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the right
channel of your sound card.
•
Stereo (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of each
audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
To Choose an Audio Input in the Console View
1.
At the top of an audio track module, click the Input button.
A popup menu of audio drivers appears.
2.
Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
•
None—This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question. It also turns off
input monitoring for this track.
•
Left (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
channel of your sound card.
•
Right (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the right
channel of your sound card.
•
Stereo (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of each
audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
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To Choose a MIDI Input in the Console View
1.
At the top of a MIDI track module, click the Input button.
A popup menu of MIDI channels appears.
Choose an input from the following:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver,
unless you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
•
Preset—if you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on
page 174).
Arming Tracks for Recording
SONAR lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the tracks you want to record by
arming the tracks. You can arm a single track or several tracks at one time. Each track records
material received though its selected input. Whenever a track is armed, not only does the track’s R
button turn red, but the Clips pane that’s to the right of that track’s controls turns a reddish hue.
To Arm One or More Tracks for Recording
•
To arm a track in the Track view, click
.
Or
•
To arm a track in the Console view, click
(to see the Arm button in the Console view, the MSR
button on the left side of the Console view must be depressed).
Or
•
To arm several tracks at the same time, select one or more tracks in the Track view, then rightclick and choose Arm from the popup menu.
A track’s Arm button turns red to indicate that the track is armed for recording.
To Disarm All Tracks at Once
•
Click the red Arm label that’s located in the Status bar at the bottom of the SONAR window.
Or
•
Click the red Arm button in the Playback State toolbar, which you can display by using the ViewToolbars command and checking Playback State in the Toolbars dialog box.
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English
2.
:
Auto Arming
You must arm tracks in order to record. To safeguard your data, there is no automatic arming of any
tracks.
If you want to record MIDI tracks without arming a track, choose Options-Global, and select the
General tab. Click the Allow MIDI Recording without an Armed Track checkbox.
This feature lets you start recording a new track simply by making it the current track and pressing R
or clicking the Record button in the toolbar. Auto-arming makes it possible to inadvertently record over
existing material in the current track, however.
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument
Once you have set your tempo and metronome, and armed one or more tracks, you are ready to start
recording.
To Record MIDI
1.
Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
2.
Click
, press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in.
3.
Play or perform the material you want to record. As you record, SONAR displays a clip containing
the new material in the Clips pane (unless you’ve turned off this option on the General tab of the
Global Options dialog—Options-Global command).
4.
Click
, press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop recording.
To listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the Spacebar or click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use Edit-Undo or press Ctrl+Z to erase the new material.
When you stop recording, if you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with
MIDI input. See Appendix A: Troubleshooting for more information.
Recording Audio
Before you record audio, you should check your input levels. If the levels are too low, you may end up
with too much hiss and background noise in your recording. If the levels are too high, your recording
will be inaccurate or distorted. To check your audio levels, use the audio meters in the either the Track
view or Console view. To adjust the input levels, you must use your sound card’s software mixer
program (or the Windows XP mixer) or an external hardware mixer for certain sound cards.
The audio meters indicate the volume at which the audio will be recorded, in units called decibels (dB).
The meter values range from -INF (silent) to 0dB (maximum volume). You can change many options in
the way SONAR’s meters display data: see “Metering” on page 378. To maximize the dynamic range of
your recording, you want to set the levels as high as possible without clipping.
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Volume Fader
Clipping indicator
Meter
English
When the audio level exceeds 0dB, some of the audio information is lost. This is known as overload.
Many sound cards use clipping to deal with an overloaded signal, but clipping can distort the audio
signal. As a result, you should avoid letting the meter level exceed 0dB.
Note to Experts:
Because SONAR is a digital recorder, a level of 0dB indicates digital zero.
Digital distortion will occur at 0dB. You will not get analog compression or
warmth from pushing the input levels. If you are transferring data from a
DAT or another device, you may want to calibrate the input levels of your
sound card with the output levels of other devices in your studio. This will
ensure that 0dB on one unit will appear as 0dB in SONAR.
To Check the Input Levels
1.
In the Track view, choose the inputs for the tracks you want to record, and arm the tracks for
recording. Make sure that the Show/Hide All Meters button at the top of the Track view is enabled.
2.
The default meter range is from 0 dB to -60 dB. To change the range, right-click on the meter and
choose a new range from the menu.
3.
Perform at the loudest level at which you plan to record.
Watch the meters respond. Increase the input volume as high as possible without ever letting the
meters move all the way to 0dB, even for an instant, or letting the Clipping indicator turn red. If
either of these things happen, reduce the input volume just enough to avoid them during the entire
performance. Note that some kinds of audio, such as percussive or plucked musical instruments,
can produce very short, high-level “transients” when struck or plucked aggressively, which can lead
to clipping if the input volume is set too high. Consider the possibility of these transients when
examining the meters and setting your record level.
Note: If the Clipping indicator is illuminated, click on it to reset.
Once you have set your sampling rate and input levels, you are ready to start recording. If the meters do
not move, check your sound card software’s mixer program and make sure that you have the proper
input enabled for recording.
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:
When you record audio, SONAR stores each audio clip in a separate file. These files have the same
format as a Wave (.WAV) file, but they have special names and are stored in a separate directory on your
hard disk. SONAR automatically manages these audio files for you, making it easier for you to manage
your projects. If you want to work with these files directly, or to learn more about how SONAR stores
audio data, see “System Configuration” on page 548.
Tuning an Instrument
SONAR Chromatic Tuner analyzes any input signal from the sound card and displays the intonation (in
cents) on the meter. The tuner automatically determines which string/pitch you are trying to tune, so
that you can keep both hands on the instrument while tuning. The VU Meter shows how loud your
input signal is–a strong signal is essential for accurate tuning.
The Tuner works just like an effect and each track can have its own instance.
With a microphone, you can also tune acoustic instruments.
To Tune an Instrument
1.
In the track you want to record your instrument on, right-click in the Effects bin.
2.
From the menu that appears, select Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Tuner.
3.
Click the track’s Input Monitor button. If you don’t click the Input Monitor button on the track
the Tuner is patched into, you will not be able to use the tuner.
4.
With your instrument plugged into your sound card and turned up, play a note.
The Tuner displays the intonation reading on the cents meter and the name of the note you played
between the three arrows. One of the three arrows lights up, indicating one of the following:
5.
•
Up arrow indicates the note is in tune.
•
Right arrow indicates the note is sharp.
•
Left arrow indicates the note is flat.
Adjust the pitch if necessary and repeat for the rest of the pitches you need to tune.
To Record Audio
1.
Choose the audio inputs for the track(s) you want to record.
2.
Arm the tracks for recording. The Clips pane next to each armed track turns a reddish hue when
the track is armed.
3.
Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
4.
Click
, press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in measures or beats.
5.
Play or perform the material you want to record.
As you record, SONAR displays a waveform preview of the new material in the Clips pane, unless
you’ve turned off the Display Waveform Preview option on the General tab of the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command). If you’ve turned off the option, SONAR displays a red swath
along the area of the Clips pane where you’re recording.
6.
Click
, press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop recording.
SONAR displays a clip containing the new material in the Track window. To listen to the new material,
set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the Spacebar or click
. If you’re not happy with
the recording, use Edit-Undo to erase the new material.
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If you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with audio input. See Appendix
A: Troubleshooting for more information.
Important: Make sure you have enough space on your hard disk when recording digital audio.
Running out of hard disk space when recording can lead to unpredictable results.
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview
When you’re recording audio or MIDI data, SONAR gives you many visual cues that tracks are armed
and that SONAR is recording data.
•
The R button in each armed track turns red.
•
The Clips pane next to each armed track gets a reddish hue.
•
The R button in the Playback State toolbar is depressed (to display the toolbar, use the ViewToolbars-Playback State command).
•
The Status bar displays the red Arm message.
While you’re recording, SONAR displays these cues:
•
Audio tracks display a waveform preview in the area in the Clips pane where you’re recording.
This is actually a visual record of the record meter’s progress. When you stop recording, SONAR
displays the actual waveform, which is slightly different from the preview. The preview is a
snapshot taken at certain time intervals, while the actual waveform represents all the data that is
recorded.
•
MIDI tracks display the actual data that they record, both in the Clips pane and the Piano Roll
view (not the Staff view).
•
Automation data appears as a red block. When you finish recording, the actual envelopes are
shown.
If you want to turn off the real-time display of audio clips, see the following procedure.
To Turn Off Waveform Preview for Audio Recording
1.
Use the Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog.
2.
On the General tab, uncheck the Display Waveform Preview While Recording option, and click OK.
Now when you record audio tracks, a red swath appears in the Clips pane in the area you’re recording.
Input Monitoring
Being able to hear plug-in audio effects applied to a live signal is an exciting feature of SONAR.
However, there are two issues that users commonly stumble upon when using the input monitoring
feature. The first is that the monitored signal seems to have an echo associated with it. The second is
that live input monitoring can lead to nasty feedback problems, particularly if you have an outboard
audio mixer, or you record from a different sound card from the one you are playing back with.
SONAR has several buttons to control input monitoring:
•
Per-track Input Echo button
—each audio track has an Input Echo button that turn’s that
track’s input monitoring on or off.
•
Global Input Monitor button—the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the View-ToolbarsPlayback State command) has the Input Monitor button on the right end, which turns input
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When one or more tracks are armed:
:
monitoring on or off on all audio tracks with one click.
•
Audio Engine button
—clicking this button so that it’s in its up position turns all audio activity
in SONAR off, which includes input monitoring.
Note: When you use input monitoring, make sure that the track you’re playing through uses the same
audio interface (sound card) for both input and output. Using different audio interfaces for a track’s
input and output can produce distortion during input monitoring.
To understand the echo and feedback problems, let’s look at how audio signals travel through your
sound card, the drivers, and SONAR. The following diagram depicts a simplified version of this signal
flow.
The bottom block of the picture represents the sound card. The shaded area above it represents the
audio drivers. The unshaded area at the top represents the main environment of the operating system.
As the diagram shows, analog audio flows into the card's line input (on the left), and is immediately
split in two. One branch goes up through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), where the audio is
digitized, buffered and fed to the driver (labeled Wave In in the diagram).
The digital audio data buffers are read by SONAR from the Wave In driver, processed, and then sent out
to the Wave Out driver. The driver passes the digital audio buffers through a digital-to-analog converter
(DAC), where the audio data is converted back to an analog signal.
Finally, this analog output signal is mixed with the original branch of the input analog signal, and the
summed result is presented to the sound card's line output.
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With this information in hand, let's follow a simple audio signal through the system to understand how
echoes get introduced into the input monitor path.
Suppose you are counting "1, 2, 3" into your sound card very quickly. When you say the first "1," this
sound immediately appears in all the places indicated in the illustration above. In other words, the
analog audio signal is pure electrical signal traveling at the speed of light, so it is immediately present
across all analog audio paths inside the sound card.
say “2”
Next, you say "2." In the time it takes you do that, the ADC has converted the "1" to digital form and the
Wave In driver has fed it to SONAR for processing. SONAR processes the buffer right away and passes
the processed data right back to the Wave Out driver.
say “3”
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say “1”
:
Finally, you say "3." By this time the original "1" has been converted back to analog audio by the DAC,
and that analog signal is mixed in with the "3" you have just said. The ultimate result is that you hear a
"1" and "3" mixed together at the line output of card—seemingly sounding like an echo, but actually just
an artifact of the signal flow through the system.
You can eliminate the echo by muting the line-in from playing back (see “To Eliminate the Echo from
Input Monitoring” on page 162); you’ll send only the processed signal to the sound card outputs. This
technique introduces a little extra latency to what you hear coming out of your sound card, but if you
use WDM or ASIO drivers with your sound cards, the latency is negligible.
The feedback problem results whenever you have a loop in your mixer path: the output of your mixer is
patched into the input of your sound card. Feedback can happen with or without input monitoring, but
since input monitoring can add several levels of gain to the signal flow, it’s of greater concern when you
have input monitoring enabled. Input monitoring is disabled by default when you install SONAR, and
you enable it with the following procedure.
To Enable Input Monitoring
•
Turn your speakers down, and on an audio track that you want to monitor, click the Input Echo
button so that it’s lit up (on)
. To disable monitoring for this track, click the button off.
Or
•
Turn your speakers down, and on the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the View-ToolbarsPlayback State command), click the Input Monitor button so that it’s lit up—this enables input
monitoring on all tracks. To disable monitoring for all tracks, click the button off.
Now you can hear your instrument in real time with any plug-in effects that you want to patch into the
current track. You might also hear an echo, because the dry signal is coming out of your sound card
slightly ahead of the processed signal. To eliminate the dry signal, see the next procedure.
To Eliminate the Echo from Input Monitoring
1.
Open the software mixer that controls your sound card. If your sound card uses the Windows
mixer, open the mixer by using the Start-Programs-Accessories-Entertainment-Volume
Control command, or double-clicking the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar.
2.
In the Play Control window of the mixer, check the Mute checkbox in the Line-In column, or in the
column of whatever jack your instrument is plugged into, and close the mixer window.
Now you can hear only the processed sound when you use input monitoring. Using WDM or ASIO
drivers for your sound card keeps latency to a negligible amount.
Note: This procedure does not eliminate feedback from you system, only the echo. If you experience
feedback, you have a feedback loop somewhere in your mixer setup.
The Audio Engine Button
SONAR has a button in the Transport toolbar called the Audio Engine button
. This button lets you
turn SONAR’s audio engine off if you’re getting distortion or feedback and want to cut the sound off.
When playback or recording are in progress, SONAR enables the button automatically—however, the
button appears greyed-out during playback or recording because you can’t control the button at that
time. Whenever the button is enabled, the Audio Running message lights up on the Status bar that’s at
the bottom of the SONAR window.
If you experience feedback during input monitoring, you can click the Audio Engine button to turn off
the audio engine. However, if playback or recording are in progress, the button is unavailable, and you
should click the Reset button
that’s just to the right of it instead, or else stop recording or playback
first and then click the Audio Engine button.
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You may experience slightly better playback and recording performance by turning the Audio Engine
button off before you press the Play or Record buttons. This happens if your computer’s resources are
already stretched to the limit. When you start recording or playback with the audio engine already
functioning, there is still some processing that SONAR has to do that’s left over when you start the
transport. This places an extra load on your system that can cause dropouts if your system is already
stretched thin. A more effective solution than disabling the audio engine before starting the transport is
to reduce the load on your system by hiding some meters, increasing latency slightly, reducing the
number of plug-ins and/or tracks, etc.
Loop Recording
Normally, to record each take you would have to arm a track, start recording, perform the take, and
then stop recording. You can record multiple takes more easily using a feature called loop recording.
Loop recording lets you start recording and record as many takes as you like, all in a single step.
SONAR loops between the loop start and loop end time, allowing you to record one take on each pass.
SONAR creates a clip for each take. You have three choices for where these clips are stored:
•
All clips can be recorded in Sound on Sound mode and stored in a single track, where they are
stacked on top of one another.
•
All clips can be recorded in Overwrite mode in a single track, where each take is successively
muted except the last one.
•
Each clip can be recorded to a different track. SONAR automatically places each take into a new,
empty track. No existing tracks are changed in any way.
When you stack takes, using the Sound on Sound record mode, you hear all the previous takes as you
record each new take. When you store takes in different tracks, each take is automatically muted as you
record the next one. You choose the option you want from the Record Options dialog.
When you finish recording, you can use the Edit-Undo command to erase all your takes in a single
step.
To Use Loop Recording
1.
Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2.
Set the loop start and end times in either the Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box or in the Loop toolbar.
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English
When recording a vocal or an instrumental section, you might want to record several different takes so
that you can choose the one you like best. You might even want to record several takes to double a part
or merge the best parts of each.
:
3.
Choose Transport-Record Options, or click
Options dialog box.
on the Record toolbar, to display the Record
4.
Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
5.
If you choose to stack all takes in a single track, choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite mode.
6.
Click OK to close the Record Options dialog, and set the Now time to the point in the project where
you want to start recording.
7.
Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in measure.
8.
Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9.
If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is underway, choose TransportReject Loop Take.
10. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop when you want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Punch Recording
Suppose you are happy with most of a track but want to replace some sound or add new material in one
small section—perhaps as small as a couple of notes. This is where punch recording comes in handy,
because it lets you record new material only within a specified range of times.
For example, suppose you recorded a 32-bar keyboard solo but made some mistakes in the 24th and 25th
bars. With punch recording, you can play the entire solo again, so you make sure you can get the feel
you want. However, only the bars you want to correct are actually recorded. That way, you don’t have to
worry about introducing new mistakes elsewhere in the recording.
To use punch recording, follow these steps:
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•
Enable punch recording.
•
Set the start and end times of the punch.
•
Choose Sound on Sound mode or Overwrite mode.
•
Start recording by pressing r or clicking the
button on the Transport toolbar.
The Record toolbar shows the punch settings, as shown here:
Record mode
Step record
Enable punch recording
Click to open the Record
Options dialog box
Punch In
Time
Punch
Out Time
Click here to set punch
times to the selection start
and end times
Punch Out
Punch In
After you punch record, choosing Edit-Undo both discards any new material you recorded and restores
the original material that had been deleted.
You can also combine loop and punch recording to record several takes of a punch. Say you are working
on that perfect take of a guitar solo and you need to hear a couple of bars of the project as “pre-roll”
before you punch in. By combining looping with punch, you can have each take begin before you start to
play and still have the solo cut in at the appropriate instant.
In the example mentioned previously, you could loop from bar 17 to bar 26 but record only bars 24 and
25. Here’s what this looks like:
The loop starts and ends here
The punch starts and ends here
To Punch Record
1.
Choose the input(s) for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2.
Enable the Auto Punch button in the Record toolbar (the button is red when enabled).
3.
Set the start and end times in one of the following ways:
•
Enter the times directly on the toolbar
•
Select a range of time and click
•
Select a range of time, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set Punch Points
on the Record toolbar
4.
Choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite from the Record toolbar (or in the Record Options
dialog—use the Transport-Record Options command to open the dialog).
5.
Set the Now time to a point where you want to start playback.
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English
When punch recording is enabled, the punch times are indicated by special markers in the Time Ruler,
which is at the top of the Clips pane:
:
6.
Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in measures or beats.
7.
Play or perform the material you want to record.
8.
Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop recording.
The material you play during the punch time is recorded in the chosen track, either replacing any
existing material (Overwrite mode) or blending with it (Sound on Sound mode).
To Use Punch While Looping
1.
Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2.
Set the loop start and end times.
3.
Set the punch start and end times, as described previously.
4.
Choose Transport-Record Options, or click
Options dialog box.
on the Record toolbar, to display the Record
5.
Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
6.
Set the Now time to the beginning of the loop.
7.
Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in measures.
8.
Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9.
If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is underway, choose TransportReject Loop Take.
10. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop when you want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Step Recording
Step recording is a method of recording MIDI notes one note or chord at a time. It’s a very easy and
precise way to record, but can sound mechanical if used in the wrong situation. You use step recording
in its typical form by choosing a step size, such as a quarter note, and then playing a note on your MIDI
keyboard. When you play the note, SONAR records the note, and moves the insertion point forward by
the distance of the step size (moving the insertion point every time you press a note is the default
behavior). You can then record more notes of the same duration by playing notes on your keyboard, or
you can change the step size while you’re recording and record different size notes. You can also choose
how long the notes you play will sound, as a percentage of the step size. For example, even though you
record some notes that have a step size of a quarter note, if you set the Duration field to 50%, the notes
will be recorded and displayed as a series of eighth notes, each followed by an eighth rest. The insertion
point for each recorded note in this example moves by a quarter note (the step size) each time you record
a note. If the duration is longer than the step size, the notes will overlap with the notes recorded at the
next step.
SONAR displays your step-recorded notes in the Staff view, Piano Roll view, Event List, and Clips pane
in real time as you step record them. SONAR also lets you:
•
Use other commands while step recording
Note: SONAR doesn't respond to sync signals while the Step Record dialog is open and enabled.
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Change tracks while recording
•
Add step sizes together by Ctrl-clicking additional step sizes, or by pressing the + key between each
step size selection
•
Delete as many step-recorded notes as you want, while moving the insertion point back through
the steps you delete
•
Configure step recording key bindings
•
Make any kind of tuplet
•
Create a custom step size lasting any number of ticks (ticks are divisions of a beat—SONAR uses
960 by default); SONAR will remember the custom step size until you change it
•
Move the insertion point by beats, measures, or step size
•
Link the position of the Now Time to the insertion point
•
Offset the insertion point by the number of ticks that you specify
•
Randomize duration
•
Record notes with constant pitch, and/or velocity, and/or channel
•
Hold notes across steps
Tip: with the new keyboard shortcuts, you can leave your left hand on your MIDI keyboard to enter
notes with, and control most step recording functions with your right hand on the Num Pad.
MIDI data is recorded using step record even if the track is not armed. Loop markers are ignored. And
step recording always uses the Sound on Sound (blend) record mode, regardless of the current
record mode.
With Auto Advance disabled, you must click Advance each time you want to advance to the next step.
While this requires more effort, it also provides you with more flexibility. For example, with Auto
Advance disabled, you do not even need to play the notes at a single step at the same time! You can play
any number of notes one at a time, and they will all be recorded at the same step until you click the
Advance button. You can even record notes of different durations at the same step—simply record the
notes of one duration, change the duration, and play more notes, without clicking Advance.
The Step Record dialog has two modes: Basic (smaller with fewer options), and Advanced (larger, more
options). To use Basic mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Adv. button is displayed. To use
Advanced mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Bas. button is displayed.
Here’s a picture of Basic mode:
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English
•
:
Custom tick size field
Total step size display
fClick to move insertion point by step
size.
Step Record Toggle button to enable/
disable step recording
Insertion point location
Position slider
Basic/Advanced button
Here’s a picture of Advanced mode:
Randomize
durations field
Click to move
insertion point by
single measure
Step pattern
recording field
Click to move insertion point
by single beat
To Use Basic Step Recording
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1.
Open the Step Record dialog by using the Transport-Step Record command, or by clicking
the Record toolbar to display the Step Record dialog box, or press Shift+F4.
2.
Make sure that the Basic mode of the Step Record dialog is displayed (the Adv. button will be
showing if the Basic mode is displayed; if the Bas. button is showing, click it).
in
3.
Set the insertion point by doing one or more of the following:
•
Click the Step Advance button
to move the insertion point forward by the current step
size, or click the Step Backwards button
to move the insertion point backward by the
current step size. SONAR displays the insertion point location in the insertion point location
field (see Basic mode picture above).
Drag the position slider left or right to move the insertion point one measure at a time.
•
Type a location in MBT (Measure-Beat-Tick) format in the insertion point location field.
Choose a step size by doing one of the following:
•
For common step sizes, click one of the notehead icons to choose a step size as large as a whole
note
or as small as a 64th note
. You can increase the step size you choose by 50% or
75% by clicking the dot icon
, or double-dot icon
, respectively. You can add different
step sizes together by holding down the Ctrl key while you click extra icons, or by pressing the
+ key on the Num Pad.
•
For a tuplet step size, click a notehead icon to choose the “tuplet unit” (for example, for eighthnote triplets, choose an eighth note). Then enable the Tuplet checkbox and fill in the “n” in
time of “n” fields. For example, if you want quarter-note triplets, click the quarter-note icon
, enable the Tuplet checkbox, and fill in 3 in the time of 2, which means 3 quarter notes in
the time of 2 quarter notes. If you want eighth-note triplets, click the eighth-note icon
,
enable the Tuplet checkbox, and fill in 3 in the time of 2. If you wanted 5 notes in one beat,
click the quarter-note icon, enable the Tuplet checkbox, and fill in 5 in the time of 1.
•
5.
If you want to create a custom step size, click the N button
in the ticks field.
, and fill in the number of ticks
Choose a duration by doing one of the following:
•
If you want duration and step size to be the same, enable the Follow Step Size checkbox.
•
If you want duration and step size to be different, disable the Follow Step Size checkbox and
fill in a percentage value in the % of Note Value field.
6.
Choose a destination track for your recording in the Destination Track field.
7.
If you want the insertion point to advance automatically when you play your MIDI controller,
enable the Auto Advance checkbox.
8.
Play a note or chord on your MIDI controller. When you release the note(s), the insertion point
moves by the step size, if the Auto Advance checkbox is enabled. If Auto Advance is not enabled,
you can release the notes and record more notes, or you can use the Navigation controls to advance
the insertion point. If you are still holding down a note or notes when you advance the insertion
point, the step size of the held notes is extended by the current step size.
9.
Continue recording notes of the same step size and duration to the same track, or change any of
those parameters and continue recording. To create a rest, advance the insertion point without
playing any notes. To delete notes on previous steps, you can press Ctrl+Z for each recorded step.
If you want to delete previous steps and move the insertion point back at the same time, check the
Delete on Back Step Checkbox, and click the Step Backward button.
10. When you’re finished recording, close the dialog by clicking the X icon in the upper right corner, or
by pressing Shift+F4.
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English
4.
•
:
You can press Ctrl+Z during or after recording to undo your recording one step at a time.
Note: options that you choose in Advanced mode, such as Link to Now Time, are still in force when you
use Basic mode.
To Use Advanced Step Recording
The procedure for Advanced step recording is the same as for Basic, but with these extra options, which
become available when you click the Bas./Adv. button in the Step Record dialog so that it displays Bas.:
To do this…
Do this…
Randomize the note duration
Disable the Follow Step Size checkbox,
enter a number into the % of Note Value
field (leave it at 100 if you want to follow
step size), and enter the maximum
duration that the step size should be
randomized in the Randomize By field.
Choose a constant pitch and/or
velocity and/or MIDI channel for
the recorded note(s)
To choose a constant value for pitch,
velocity, or channel, disable the Use
Input checkbox next to the desired field,
and fill in the value you want to use for
that particular parameter.
Link the insertion point to the
Now TIme
Enable the Link to Now Time checkbox.
Enter notes at an offset distance
from the displayed insertion
point.
Enter a positive or negative number of
ticks in the Offset field.
Move the insertion point back or
forward by one beat.
Click the Beat Backward button
the Beat Advance
Move the insertion point back or
forward by one measure.
button.
Click the Measure Backward button
or the Measure Advance
Use step pattern recording.
•
or
button.
See “Step Pattern Recording” on page
172.
Use the mouse to click the command you want to use.
or
•
Click the Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog so that the button is not
red. This disables step recording, allowing you to use both the mouse, and any keyboard shortcuts
that the Step Record dialog uses, for other commands.
By default, opening the Step Record window will automatically enable step recording. Shift+R is the
default shortcut to open the Step Record dialog. Once the Step Record window is open, you can enable/
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disable step recording at will without closing the Step Record window: just click the Activate Step
Recording button
in the Step Record dialog, or press Shift+R.
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts
The default keyboard shortcuts for step recording are on the Num Pad, so that you can keep one hand
on your MIDI keyboard to play notes with, and use the other hand on the Num Pad to use shortcuts.
Default setting or option…
Default shortcut…
Whole note
Num Pad 1
Half note
Num Pad 2
Quarter note
Num Pad 4
Eighth note
Num Pad 8
16th note
Num Pad 6
32nd note
Num Pad 3
64th note
Num Pad 7
Custom step size
Num Pad 9
Tuplet
Num Pad /
Dot
Num Pad *
Double dot
Shift+Num Pad *
Add next step size to previous
step size
Num Pad plus key “+”
Toggle the Delete on Back Step
option
Num Pad minus key “-”
Follow step size
Ctrl+Num Lock (does not change Num
Lock state)
Step backward
Num Pad 0
Step advance
Num Pad Enter
Beat backward
Shift+Num Pad 0
Beat advance
Shift+Num Pad Enter
Measure backward
Ctrl+Num Pad 0
English
To configure your own shortcut, use the Options-Key Bindings command to open the Key Bindings
dialog, choose Step Record in the Bind Context field, select a key and a function you want to bind, and
click the Bind button to bind them together. Bind additional keys and commands as needed.
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:
Measure advance
Ctrl+Num Pad Enter
Auto Advance
Num Pad .
Toggle step recording
Shift+ R
Step Pattern Recording
The Pattern option lets you define a repeating rhythmic pattern of notes and rests so that you can use
step recording more efficiently. For example, suppose your project is in 4/4 time, and one track has a
pattern that is two measures long: quarter notes in the first measure and on the first two beats of the
second measure, followed by a half-note rest on the last two beats. This pattern has six quarter notes
followed by two quarter-note rests.
When you use step recording with Auto Advance, you can play the six quarter notes and SONAR will
automatically advance to the next step. However, to skip over the rests, you need to click the Advance
button two times.
With pattern recording, you define a pattern that indicates where the rests appear in the pattern.
SONAR will then skip over the rests automatically, so you don’t need to click the Advance button at all.
SONAR displays patterns as a combination of digits (which represent beats that contain notes) and dots
(which represent beats that contain rests). The pattern described previously looks like this:
123456..
Here is another example:
12.4
This pattern automatically skips over every third beat; SONAR interprets this pattern as “one, two,
rest, four.”
Here is one final example based on 4/4 time, with a step size of eighth-note triplets (twelve steps per
measure):
1234.67.90.2
No matter how you enter a pattern, SONAR displays the digits in sequence, with periods replacing
digits at each step where a rest would occur. You can create patterns with up to 64 steps.
To Use Pattern-Based Step Recording
1.
Choose Transport-Step Record to display the Step Record dialog box.
2.
Set the insertion point where you want to start recording.
3.
Click in the Pattern field.
4.
Press any number key to indicate a beat at which notes will be played.
5.
Press the Spacebar, period, or the letter r to indicate a beat on which there is a rest.
6.
When the pattern is complete, click elsewhere in the dialog box.
7.
Step record as before.
From now on, after you record each step, SONAR automatically advances past all rests to the next step
on which notes will be played. If you change step sizes while recording, the size of each rest changes
also. To stop pattern-based step recording, simply delete the pattern from the Pattern box. SONAR
stores up to 10 patterns in the Pattern field.
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Recording Specific Ports and Channels
•
There are several performers, each playing a different MIDI instrument. By setting each
instrument to transmit MIDI on a different channel and/or port, you can record each player’s
performance into a separate track, even though they are all playing at the same time.
•
You are using a MIDI guitar controller and want to record the notes played on each string on a
separate track.
•
Your electronic keyboard has a built-in auto accompaniment feature that plays a drum part and an
accompaniment while you play lead. You want to record each of these three parts into a different
track in a SONAR project.
•
You have a MIDI sequence stored on your synthesizer’s built-in sequencer, and you want to record
each channel onto a different track. Note: You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate
the process of loading multichannel sequences from other MIDI devices. For more information, see
Synchronizing Your Gear.
You can choose MIDI inputs for a track by using either the Inputs field on each individual track, or by
using the Track-Property-Inputs command to display the Track Inputs dialog box.
SONAR allows you to filter MIDI input so that you can record only certain kinds of MIDI data (see
“Input Filtering” on page 174), and also allows you to automatically turn off the Local On setting of your
master keyboard.
To Assign Input Ports and Channels to MIDI Tracks
1.
Click the dropdown arrow on an individual track’s Input field to display the Input dropdown menu
(jump to step 4, below).
Or
1.
Use the Track-Property-Inputs command to display the Track Inputs dialog box.
2.
In the Track column, select a MIDI track or tracks that you want to choose inputs for.
3.
Click the MIDI Inputs button that’s at the bottom of the dialog to open the MIDI inputs dropdown
menu.
4.
Choose track inputs from these choices:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver,
unless you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
•
Preset—if you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
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English
Most MIDI instruments are capable of sending information on several different channels at once. By
default, SONAR merges all incoming MIDI data and records it on whatever MIDI tracks are armed.
However, SONAR also allows you to control which MIDI input ports and channels each track will
record. Here are some examples of when this feature might be useful:
:
•
5.
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
Click OK.
SONAR shows new track inputs in the Input fields in the Track pane.
Note:
You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate the process of loading
multichannel sequences from other MIDI devices. For more information, see
“Synchronizing Your Gear” on page 527.
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1.
In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the dropdown arrow and choose
Manage Presets from the dropdown menu (this menu is also available from the MIDI Inputs
button in the Track Inputs dialog).
2.
In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3.
To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port. Clicking the OMNI button in this row of MIDI channels clears or fills all the
checkboxes in this row.
4.
Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5.
If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog, and
click the disk icon to save it.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input dropdown menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a preset,
select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
Input Filtering
SONAR lets you filter out specific types of MIDI messages or filter the MIDI input stream channel by
channel. Any MIDI information that is filtered out is neither recorded nor echoed to any other MIDI
devices.
You can use the message type filter to screen out resource-intensive MIDI messages like key and
channel aftertouch. By default, SONAR records all types of events except these two.
You can use message-type filtering to record short System Exclusive (Sysx) messages in real-time.
These will end up in the track as Sysx data events, which can hold System Exclusive messages up to
255 bytes. Leave the Buffers setting at 128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For more
information about Sysx, see Chapter 17, Using System Exclusive Data.
To Filter Event Types
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1.
Choose Options-Global and click the MIDI tab.
2.
Check the message types you want recorded.
3.
Click OK.
From now on, SONAR records only the types of events you have chosen.
Importing Music and Sound
While recording is perhaps the most common way of adding material to a SONAR project, there are
several other methods you can also use. SONAR lets you import music into a project from several
different types of digital data files, including MIDI files; audio files in Wave, MP3, AIFF, and other
formats; and other SONAR project files.
Importing Audio Files
SONAR lets you insert digital audio information into any track of a project. If the audio file you are
importing is in stereo, then it can be imported into a single stereo track, a pair of mono tracks or a
single mono track.
The File-Import-Audio command supports the following digital audio file types:
Wave (extension .wav)
•
MPEG (extensions .MPEG, .MPG, .MP2, and .MP3)
•
Apple AIFF (extensions .AIF and .AIFF)
•
Active Streaming (extension .ASF)
•
Next/Sun (extensions .AU and .SND)
English
•
The sampling rate and bit depth for a project is set based on your default settings in the Audio Options
dialog. If the sampling rate from the Wave file does not match the sampling rate in your project, then it
will be converted to the current project’s sampling rate and bit depth.
To Import an Audio File
1.
Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2.
Choose File-Import-Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3.
Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the bottom
of the dialog box.
4.
Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5.
If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two separate
tracks.
6.
Click Open.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio file and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
Broadcast Wave Files
Broadcast Wave files are wave files with some additional information stored in them. Broadcast Wave
files have the following information:
•
Description—A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave. Limited to 256 characters.
•
Originator—The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from the Author field in
the File Info dialog.
•
Originator Reference—A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
•
Origination Date—The date the file was created.
•
Origination Time—The time the file was created.
•
Time Reference—The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast wave.
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:
To import a Broadcast Wave file:
1.
If you want SONAR to import Broadcast Wave files always at their timestamped location, select
Options-Global, click the Audio Data tab and check the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their
Timestamp option. Otherwise, set the Now Time and current track to indicate where the audio
should be placed.
2.
Choose File-Import-Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3.
Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the bottom
of the dialog box.
4.
Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5.
If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two separate
tracks.
6.
Click Open.
If the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option is selected in the Global Options
dialog, the imported Broadcast Wave file appears at its timestamp on the selected track. Otherwise, the
file appears at the Now Time on the selected track.
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project
You use the Edit-Copy and Edit-Paste commands to import material from one project to another using
the Windows clipboard. The project that contains the material you want to import is the source
project. The project into which the material is imported is the target project.
Normally, if you copy material from several different tracks to the Windows clipboard, the information
will be pasted back into separate tracks. You can choose to paste all the material from the clipboard into
a single destination track in the target project.
You can also copy material from one project to another by displaying the Track view for both projects
side by side, then using drag-and-drop editing.
To Import Material from Another Project
1.
Open the source project, or click in the Track view for that project.
2.
In the Track view, select the material you want to import.
3.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4.
Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/key
changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5.
Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6.
Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8.
Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track (not
recommended if you’re importing both MIDI and audio data).
9.
Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing OMF Projects
With OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange) support & Broadcast WAVE support SONAR lets
you collaborate and exchange project files with users of other programs and platforms. Support for
OMFI and Broadcast Wave files provides cross-platform compatibility with OMFI host applications
176
such as Pro Tools, Avid and Logic systems. SONAR also exports projects as OMF files that you can open
in Pro Tools and other audio software.
SONAR now allows you to select sample rate and bit depth during OMF import.
A few general guidelines for preparing OMF files for import into SONAR:
•
OMF version 2 is preferred.
•
AIFC can take slightly longer to open, as the data must be converted to WAVE on read, so WAVE is
the best choice.
•
If exporting from Avid Xpress DV, select "embed" (not "link") when exporting the OMF file, and
don't include any video.
OMF Explained
•
Audio and/or video files, referred to as media
•
Information needed to put the media data in sequence—known as the Composition
English
The OMF format, or OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange, means the same as OMF), is a file
format that can be read by many professional-level audio programs. OMF files contain two basic types
of information:
The OMF file supplies the following data and information:
•
Tracks
•
Clip positions—an OMF file's EDL edit resolution can be either frame accurate or sample accurate.
SONAR can read either, but always writes sample accurate. The clip position is specified in
absolute samples.
•
Slip edits
•
Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)—SONAR renders any fades when it writes OMFs,
creating separate clips for any fade-ins or fade-outs. SONAR slip-edits the original clip to make
room for the fade-in and fade-out clips. If you export to an audio program that supports slip
editing, the user can delete the fade clips and roll out the original clip to return to the original raw
audio (without fades) if desired.
•
Sample rate and audio bit depth, but only if the media are embedded in the OMF
The OMF file does NOT supply the following data and information:
•
Volume and pan envelopes—OMF does actually support limited automation. However, as with
Nuendo and most other OMF host programs, gains and pans are ignored (on both read and write)
in SONAR as they are only supported on MONO tracks (OMF limitation).
•
Plug-in effects.
•
MIDI data
•
Tempo
Whoever supplies the OMF file that you want to open in SONAR should also send along a text file
containing all pertinent information about the project, especially tempo.
To Open OMF Files in SONAR
1.
Use the File-Open command, which opens the Open dialog.
2.
In the Files Of Type field, select OMF File.
3.
Navigate to the folder that contains your OMF files, select the OMF file you want to open, and then
click the Open button, which opens the Unpack OMF dialog.
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:
4.
If you know the exact tempo of the file, enter it into the Initial Tempo field. It is always preferable
to know and enter the project tempo at this point. If you don't know the project tempo you can open
the file at the default tempo and then change the file's tempo later, but this will cause the clips to
move.
5.
The Sample Rate field displays the sample rate of the imported audio (if the audio is embedded in
the OMF). Use this field to change the sample rate, if you need to.
6.
The Bit Depth field displays the bit depth of the imported audio if the audio is embedded. If the
audio is external, the Bit Depth field defaults to the Original menu option, which will import the
audio at the bit depth the audio is currently using. If you want to import the audio at a different bit
depth, you can choose the bit depth in this field.
7.
If you have previously enabled SONAR's Use Per-Project Audio Folders option, which is located in
SONAR's Global Options dialog, then the Store Project Audio In Its Own Folder checkbox is
already enabled, and the fields under it are available. If you want to use this option, fill out the
fields below the checkbox; otherwise, disable the checkbox.
6. Click OK.
7. SONAR opens the OMF file.
You can also export SONAR projects as OMF files (File-Export-OMF command).
See “Exporting OMF Files” on page 418.
Importing MIDI Files
You can create a new SONAR project from a MIDI file simply by opening the file. SONAR takes
material from the file and places it into one or more tracks in the Track view.
To Import Data from a MIDI File into a Project
1.
Open the MIDI file as a new, separate project.
2.
Choose Edit-Select-All.
3.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4.
Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/key
changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5.
Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6.
Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8.
Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track.
9.
Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Saving Your Work
Like most Windows programs, SONAR has a File-Save command and a File-Save As command to save
your work. Normally, you save your projects in the standard project file format, with a file extension of
.CWP. This file contains all your MIDI data and all your project settings. Any digital audio that is part of
your project is stored in a separate file, as described in “System Configuration” on page 548.
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File type...
Format...
Explanation...
Standard MIDI
.MID
Used to transfer MIDI-only projects to other software
products that support Standard MIDI files.
Bundle
.CWB
A single file that includes all the material in your
project: MIDI data, project settings, and audio data.
This format is used for projects that contain digital
audio, when you want to back up your work or
transfer a project to a different computer. See
“Backing Up Projects with Digital Audio” on page 544
for more information. Note: Bundle files do not
save video data.
Template
.CWT
A file that is used as a pattern to create another.
Templates make it easy to create and configure new
projects. See Chapter 14, Layouts, Templates and
Key Bindings for more information.
If you have made changes to a project and then attempt to close the project, either by closing the Track
view or by choosing File-Close, SONAR asks if you want to save the changes you have made. This
prevents you from accidentally losing your work. You can tell whether changes have been made to a
project by looking for an asterisk (*) after the project name in the SONAR title bar.
SONAR has an Auto Save feature that periodically saves your work into a special backup file. You can
request automatic backups at fixed time intervals or every time a certain number of changes have been
made to the file. When the limit is reached, the file is saved automatically. If your original project is
called MYPROJECT.CWP, the Auto Save version is called AUTO SAVE VERSION OF MYPROJECT.CWP.
If there is a power failure or if you make a significant mistake, you can recover the last-saved version of
your project by opening this file. You should then save your project under a different name by using the
File-Save As command.
To Save a Project
1.
Choose File-Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
2.
Choose the type of file you want to save from the Save as Type list.
3.
Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file.
To Change the Auto Save Settings
1.
Choose Options-Global and click the General tab.
2.
To enable Auto Save, set either the number of minutes or the number of changes between saves.
3.
To disable Auto Save, set both values to zero.
4.
Click OK.
From now on, your projects are saved automatically according to the settings you entered.
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English
SONAR also lets you save files in several other formats, as described in the table:
:
Labeling Your Projects
SONAR lets you attach subtitles, composer credits, copyright, and other information to your projects, as
shown in the following table:
Title
The title for your project; prints automatically at the top of a Staff
view printout.
Subtitle
For a subtitle or dedication; prints directly below the title in a
Staff view printout.
Instructions
Use for performance instructions; prints flush left in a Staff view
printout.
Author
Put your name here if you are the composer. Prints flush right in
a Staff view printout.
Copyright
Copyright information prints flush right, under the author name,
in a Staff view printout.
Keywords
Put keywords describing the project here for future reference.
Comments
Free text comments. Type as much as you like. You can enter
approximately the same amount of text as you can in Windows
Notepad.
This information is shown in the File Info dialog box, which is displayed using the File-Info command.
If the File Info window is open when you save a file, then this window is displayed automatically the
next time the file is opened. This is useful if you:
•
Share files with others and want them to see special instructions when they open the file
•
Want your copyright information to be displayed automatically
If the File Info window is closed when you save the file, it will not be automatically displayed the next
time the file is opened.
Although you cannot use Edit menu commands while working in the File Info window, standard
Windows hot keys like Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste text.
180
1.
Choose File-Info to display the File Info window.
2.
Edit the information as desired.
3.
If you want the File Info window to display automatically, save the file.
4.
Click Stats to see statistics about the contents of the file.
5.
Choose File-Print Preview if you want to print the project information
6.
Close the File Info window.
English
To Display and Edit Project Information
File Statistics
To open the File Statistics dialog, select File-Info and click the Stats button in the File Info dialog. The
File Statistics dialog box displays the following information about the contents of the project file:
Statistic...
What it means...
Created
The date the project was first saved.
Editing time
The total time you’ve had the project open, from
the time it was created to the last time it was
saved. This does not include time spent editing
the project since you last saved it. If you want to
update this value, save the project.
Revision
Each time you save a file that has been changed,
this number is incremented. If you open a project,
make no changes, then save it, the revision
number is not changed.
Events
The total number of events in the project.
Sample rate
The sample rate for digital audio.
Bit depth
The audio driver bit depth of digital audio.
File version
The SONAR version number.
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:
182
Arranging
The Track view makes it easy to arrange and mix your projects from a single view. From one
location, you can select, copy, move, mix, and rearrange the parts of your project, using menu
commands or drag-and-drop tools. You can add real-time audio and MIDI effects from the
Effects bin and buses. Markers provide easy-to-use reference points and labels for the
different parts of your project, and the Snap Grid makes it easy to align your clips to the
desired time points. Slip Editing allows you to non-destructively change the start and/or end
time of a clip, just by dragging its borders. With Slip Editing, you can easily create
repetitions of your clips using your mouse. Both the Track view and Console view have a full
set of record and playback meters, which you can configure in several ways. SONAR™ also
has a variety of tools and commands for changing the tempo of your project. Composite
tracks allow you to keep all your takes in one track if you want, and selectively mute and solo
the various clips in the track. Track folders let you edit multiple tracks at once and conserve
screen space.
In This Chapter
Arranging Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Markers and the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Take Management and Comping Takes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Changing Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
English
5
:
Arranging Tracks
SONAR provides a variety of commands that let you work with the tracks in your project.
Here are some of the things you can do:
You can…
Here’s why…
Rearrange the tracks in the Track view
so that they appear in a different order
This makes it easier to see and work with a subset of tracks,
like the rhythm section, or the vocals and vocal backing tracks,
or all muted tracks.
Hide individual tracks
This makes it easier to work in a large project. You can display
only the tracks you want to see at a given time.
Move tracks into a track folder
Lets you group tracks by function, edit several tracks at once,
hide groups of tracks easily, and mute, solo, archive, arm, or
input monitor a group or tracks with one click. See “Track
Folders” on page 216 for more information.
Make copies of a track
Copying a track and then adding a time offset or changing the
patch is an easy way to double a part. You can also copy and
then transpose a track to add harmony.
Erase or delete a track
Tracks and clips that you are no longer using in your project
are distracting and take up space in your project file.
All the commands you use to arrange tracks work on selected tracks. The current track (the
one with the gold titlebar) is always selected. You can select additional tracks as shown in
the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a track
Click the track number (click the right side of the track
number; the upper left corner of the track number is for
grouping tracks) in the Track view. The track is selected,
and all other tracks—except the current track—are
deselected.
When a track is selected, both the track number and all the
data in the track appear highlighted.
Select several adjacent tracks
Click the track number for the first track in the group, drag
the mouse to the last track number in the group, and
release the mouse button.
Select/deselect all tracks
Double-click a track number.
Add or remove a single track from the
selection
Hold the Shift key and click the track number to add it to the
selection; hold the Ctrl key and click the track number to
toggle its selection status.
Changing the Order of Tracks
There are several ways you can change the order of tracks in the Track view:
•
184
Drag a track to a new position in the Track view.
•
Use the Track-Sort command to rearrange the tracks in order based on the track
name, status, or other setting.
To Drag a Track to a New Position
1.
Position the mouse just to the right of the track number, over the track icon of the track
you want to move.
The cursor changes to an up/down arrow.
2.
Drag the track to its new location, and release the mouse button.
SONAR rearranges and renumbers the tracks.
Sort by…
What happens…
Name
Ascending puts track in alphabetic order,
descending puts them in reverse order
Size, output, or channel
Ascending puts them in increasing numeric order,
descending puts them in decreasing numeric order
Muted, archived, selected
Ascending puts qualifying tracks at the end,
descending puts them at the beginning
English
You can sort the tracks in a project based on several parameters, in either ascending or
descending order:
No matter how you sort, blank tracks always go to the end of the list.
Note that track numbers are used for reference only. When you re-arrange the order of
tracks, they are automatically assigned sequential numbers based on the order in which they
are displayed in the Track view.
To Sort the Tracks
1.
Choose Track-Sort to display the Sort Tracks dialog box.
2.
Choose the attribute by which to sort from the Sort By list:
Attribute…
How it works…
Name
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks into
alphabetical order, either ascending or descending, depending
on what you choose in the Order list.
Muted
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the muted tracks at
either the top or bottom of the Tracks window, depending on
whether you choose descending (top) or ascending (bottom) in
the Order list.
Archived
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the archived tracks
at either the top or bottom of the Tracks window, depending on
whether you choose descending (top) or ascending (bottom) in
the Order list.
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:
Selected
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the selected tracks
at either the top or bottom of the Tracks window, depending on
whether you choose descending (top) or ascending (bottom) in
the Order list.
Size
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks in order by
size, either in descending or ascending order.
Output
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by output
number, either in descending or ascending order. SONAR
considers non-numbered outputs to have lower numbers than
numbered outputs.
Channel
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by channel
number, either in descending or ascending order:
•
If you choose ascending order, SONAR puts all
MIDI tracks at the bottom of the Tracks window,
with the lower channel numbers first.
•
If you choose descending order, SONAR puts all
MIDI tracks at the top of the Tracks window, with
the higher channel numbers first.
3.
Choose the order in which to sort from the Order list.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR sorts the tracks according to the settings you chose.
Inserting Tracks
You can insert new tracks by a variety of methods. When you insert multiple tracks, you can
set track output properties at the same time. If you want new audio tracks to always use the
same output bus, you can set that bus as the default bus.
For step-by-step instructions, follow these procedures:
To Insert a Single Track
•
Click the Insert New Tracks or Buses button
choose options from the popup menu.
that’s in the Track View toolbar, and
Or
•
Right-click in the Track pane at the place where you want to insert a track, and select
Insert Audio Track to add an audio track or Insert MIDI Track to add a MIDI track.
Or
•
Press Insert to add a track of the same type (audio or MIDI) as the current track.
SONAR shifts the current track and all tracks below it down by one, and inserts a blank, new
track at the location of the highlight.
To Insert Multiple Tracks
1.
Use the Insert-Multiple Tracks command to open the Insert Tracks dialog.
2.
If you want to insert audio tracks, do the following:
•
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Fill in the number of audio tracks you want to insert in the Audio section’s Track
Count field.
3.
4.
•
Pick a main audio output for the tracks in the Main Destination field.
•
If you want the main output that you chose to be the default output for new audio
tracks, enable the Set as Default Bus checkbox. You can also choose the default bus
by right-clicking a bus, and choosing Set as Default Bus from the popup menu.
•
If you want your new audio tracks to contain a Send module that outputs to a
specific bus, choose the bus in the Send field. If you choose None, the new audio
tracks will not contain a Send module.
If you want to insert MIDI tracks, do the following:
•
Fill in the number of MIDI tracks you want to insert in the MIDI section’s Track
Count field.
•
Pick a MIDI output for the tracks in the Port field.
•
Pick a MIDI output channel for the tracks in the Channel field.
Click OK to insert your tracks, or click Cancel to cancel the operation.
English
Your new tracks appear below any pre-existing tracks, with new audio tracks appearing
above new MIDI tracks.
Note: you can also choose the default output bus for new audio tracks by right-clicking a
bus, and choosing Set as Default Bus from the popup menu.
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View
There are several commands in the Zoom tool dropdown menu that allow you to configure the
appearance of your tracks in the Track view. You can use these commands to zoom in or out,
show or hide any combination of tracks, and revert back to previous display settings. The
following table lists each of these commands and provides an explanation of each:
Command…
Description…
Shortcut…
Show and Fit Selection
This command hides all tracks which are not selected.
The remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically and
horizontally to fit in the Track view, without scrolling if
possible. All track selections are lost after this command is
executed.
Shift+S
Fit Tracks to Window
All currently displayed tracks are adjusted in size vertically
to fit in the Track view, without scrolling if possible.
F
Fit Project to Window
This command resizes all tracks both vertically and
horizontally to fit in the Tracks view.
Shift+F
Lock Height
This command maintains the track’s height when you use
a zoom or fit command. See “To Lock or Unlock the Height
of a Track” on page 188.
Show Only Selected
Tracks
This command hides all tracks which are not selected.
The remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically.
H
Hide Selected Tracks
Hides all selected tracks.
Shift+H
Show All Tracks
Shows all tracks in your project, including these hidden
using the Track Manager.
A
Track Manager
Opens the Track manager dialog. For more information
about the Track Manager dialog, see Track Manager
dialog.
M
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Undo View Change
This command restores the view to its previous state.
There are up to 16 levels of undo.
U
Redo View Change
This command restores the view to the state prior to the
Undo View Change command.
Shift+U
Vertical FX Bins
Changes track FX bins from vertical position into
horizontal FX fields located with other track property
fields.
To Lock or Unlock the Height of a Track
1.
Right-click an empty area in one of the desired track’s controls to display the Track
Pane context menu.
2.
Choose Lock Height from the menu.
When a track is locked, the Maximize Strip button in the track appears filled-in:
Maximize Strip button
When you lock the height of a track, its height does not change when you use a Zoom or Fit
command. When a track’s height is locked, you can still drag the track strip’s lower border to
adjust the track’s height. After you drag the border, the altered track height becomes the
track’s locked height.
Copying Tracks
When you copy one or more tracks using the Track-Clone command, you can choose any of
the following options:
•
What to copy: events, properties, effects, sends
•
Repetitions: how many copies of each selected track
•
Starting track: where you want the first new track to appear
To Copy Tracks
1.
Select the tracks that you want to copy.
2.
Choose Track-Clone to display the Clone Track(s) dialog.
3.
Check the Clone Events, Clone Properties, Clone Effects, , and/or Clone Sends boxes to
indicate which items you want to copy.
4.
If you want copied events to become linked clips, check the Link to Original Clips
checkbox.
5.
Select the number of repetitions of each selected track that you want to create.
6.
Select the track number where you want the first new track to appear. The other new
tracks appear right after it.
7.
Click OK.
SONAR copies the tracks and pastes the selected tracks, with the first new track appearing
at the track number you selected. All tracks appear consecutively.
Erasing Tracks
You can easily delete an entire track, including all of the track properties and all of its clips
and events. Sometimes, you only want to erase, or wipe, the contents of a track, leaving the
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track properties as they are. If you delete or wipe a track by mistake, you can use Edit-Undo
to restore the deleted material.
When you delete or wipe a track, the track information is not placed on the SONAR
clipboard. To remove material from a track and place it on the clipboard, use the Edit-Cut
command instead.
To Delete Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to delete.
2.
Choose Track-Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tracks. You can also right-click individual tracks and choose
Delete Track from the popup menu.
To Wipe Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to wipe.
2.
Choose Track-Wipe.
English
SONAR deletes all clips and events from the selected tracks, but leaves the track properties
intact.
Track Templates
You can create an unlimited number of track templates for quickly recalling your most often
used track settings including the following:
•
Track type (MIDI or Audio)
•
Mute, Solo and Record state
•
Hardware input
•
Output destination
•
Bus send settings
•
Track parameters
•
Track icons
•
Effects and their settings
•
Instrument and Bank/Patch
•
Track name
To Create a Track Template
1.
Select the track or tracks you want to save as a preset.
2.
Select File-Export-Track Template from the main menu.
3.
Enter a name for the template and click Save.
The Save As dialog appears.
To Insert a Track or Tracks from a Template
•
Select Insert-Insert From Track Template-[track template name] or select More
Track Templates if you don’t see the one you want on the menu.
Or
•
Right-click in the Tracks pane and select Insert From Track Template-[track
template name] or select More Track Templates.
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:
This inserts tracks that are exactly like the template. If you don’t want to use all of the track
characteristics that are in the template, you can filter the characteristics that you don’t want
by selecting Import Filter from the popup menu. This opens the Track Template Import
Options dialog, which allows you to specify what track characteristics you want to import.
Track Icons
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a track’s contents by instrument. You can assign a
new track icon, create your own track icons and save an icon as part of a track template.
To Show or Hide Track Icons
•
To show or hide Track Icons in all views, use the Options-Icons-Show Icons command.
•
To show or hide Track Icons in a specific view, use the Options-Icons-Show Icons[name of desired view] command.
Or
•
Right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Show Icons from the popup
menu.
To Configure Track View Icons
•
To show standard track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the
Options-Icons-Track View-Show in Header command.
•
To show custom track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the
Options-Icons-Track View-Show Custom In Header command.
•
To show track icons on the left side of the track controls of each track in the Track view,
use the Options-Icons-Track View-Show In Strip command.
To Change the Size of Track Icons
•
Right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Small Icons or Large Icons
from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select Options-Icons-[name of desired view]-Small Icons or Large Icons from the
main menu
4.
Select Small Icons or Large Icons from the menu that appears.
To Change a Track Icon
1.
Right-click on the icon you want to change.
2.
Select Load Track Icon from the menu that appears.
3.
The Open dialog appears.
4.
Select an icon and click Open.
To Reset a Track Icon to its Original Icon
1.
Right-click on the icon you want to reset.
2.
Select Reset Track Icon from the menu that appears.
To Create a Track Icon
1.
Create or edit a graphics file in .bmp format, preferably 128 by 128 pixels.
You can use any image as a track icon. You can use any size image, but for best results
scale the image to 128 pixels square. Images must be in the .bmp format.
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2.
Save the image as a .bmp file in the Track Icons directory in your SONAR program
folder.
Arranging Clips
The Track view provides many ways for you to rearrange, copy, and paste clips to arrange
your music the way you want. The easiest is to select the clips or portions of clips you want to
arrange and then drag and drop them wherever you want. You can drag and drop clips in the
Track view even while playback is in progress. You can also arrange clips via the clipboard
using the Edit-Cut, Edit-Copy, and Edit-Paste commands, which work like those in almost
all Windows programs.
The Snap Grid enables you to move clips to or by an exact amount of time, such as a quarter
note or whole measure. See “To Change the Snap Options” on page 202.
Displaying Clips
•
English
Clips are displayed as rectangles in the Clips pane. Their position and length show you at a
glance their starting times and lengths. You can control four aspects of their appearance:
Color—By default, each track’s clips are drawn in a different color. The clip colors
restart at the tenth track. You can customize the default colors of clips in the Colors
dialog or change the color of any individual clip in the Clip Properties dialog.
Note: In audio clips, the waveform changes color, unless no clip contents are displayed.
In MIDI clips, the clip background changes color.
•
Name—You can also assign each clip a descriptive name, which is displayed in the
upper-left corner of the clip.
•
Contents—At your option, clips can be displayed with a graphical representation of the
events in the clip. The effect is slightly different for MIDI and audio information as
shown below:
A MIDI clip shows each event; by looking at the
clips, you can “see” the notes that are being
played
An audio clip shows
the actual waveform
Controller or automation
data are also displayed
To inspect the clip contents more closely, use the zoom tools to increase the size in which clips
are displayed. Note that displaying the contents of each clip makes your computer work a
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:
little harder. As a result, if your computer has an older, slower CPU you may want to turn off
the display of clip contents.:
Zoom Clips pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane
Zoom Clips pane in vertically
Zoom Bus pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane
Zoom out horizontally
Zoom in horizontally
Horizontal zoom fader
The Track view toolbar contains the Zoom tool:
To Zoom Horizontally
•
Click the horizontal zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you
click.
Or
•
Drag the horizontal zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
•
Hold down the Ctrl key and press the right arrow key (to zoom in) or the left arrow key
(to zoom out).
To Zoom Vertically
•
Click the vertical zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you
click.
Or
•
Drag the vertical zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
•
Hold down the Ctrl key and press the up arrow key (to zoom out) or the down arrow key
(to zoom in).
To Zoom into a Selected Area
•
Use the Zoom tool to drag-select an area of a clip or clips that you want to zoom to. When
you release the mouse, the area you selected expands to fill the Clips pane window.
Zoom command keyboard shortcuts:
192
To do this…
Use this shortcut…
Zoom in vertically
Ctrl+down arrow
Zoom in horizontally
Ctrl+right arrow
Zoom out vertically
Ctrl+up arrow
Zoom out horizontally
Ctrl+left arrow
Undo Zoom
U
Redo Zoom
Shift+U
Turn On Zoom tool (use the Zoom tool
to select the area to zoom to)
Hold down Z
Display Now Time in Center of Clips
Pane
G
Fit project to window
Shift+F
Fit tracks and buses to window
F
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View Options from the menu.
2.
Check the Display Clip Names option to show clip names, or leave it unchecked to hide
them.
3.
Check the Display Clip Contents option to show clip contents, or leave it unchecked to
hide them.
4.
Click OK.
English
To Display Clip Names and Contents
SONAR modifies the clips pane to show the information you want.
To Change Clip Names
1.
Select the clips you want to rename.
2.
Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the
Clip Properties dialog box.
3.
Enter a name for the selected clips, and click OK.
SONAR renames the selected clips.
To Change Clip Colors
1.
Select the clips whose color you want to change.
2.
Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the
Clip Properties dialog box.
3.
Choose a color as follows:
To do this…
Do this…
Use the default color
Check the Default Color box
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:
Use a custom color
4.
Click the Choose Color button and pick a
color from the Color dialog box
Click OK.
SONAR changes the color of the selected clips.
Using the Navigator View
The Navigator view displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your
song. The Navigator view is a floating version of the Navigator pane found at the top of the
Track view.
Track Rectangle
The Track Rectangle appears as a green rectangle within the Navigator view. The Track
Rectangle indicates the section of your project which appears in the Clips pane of the Track
view. You can move the Track Rectangle or change its size.
To Move the Track Rectangle
1.
Position your cursor inside the Track Rectangle until the icon changes to look like this:
2.
Click and drag the rectangle where you want and release.
.
To Change the Size of the Track Rectangle
1.
Click one of the nodes on the rectangle border.
2.
Drag to change the rectangle size.
To Change the Now Time in the Navigator view
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key.
2.
Click where you want the Now Time to be.
Double-clicking Clips
By default, double-clicking a MIDI clip in the Clips pane opens a Piano Roll view for that
track, and double-clicking an Audio clip opens the Loop Construction view for that track. You
can set the type of view opened when a clip is double-clicked. For example, you may want to
open MIDI tracks in a Staff view rather than in a Piano Roll view.
To Set the View Opened by Double-clicking
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane and choose View Options.
2.
Select the types of view opened by double-clicking MIDI and audio clips.
3.
Click OK.
Selecting Clips
Before you move, copy, edit, or delete clips you need to select them. There are several ways to
select whole clips, as shown in the table:
194
To do this…
Do this…
Select a single clip
Click on the clip in the Clips pane.
Select several clips at once
Drag a rectangle around the clips.
Select all the clips in a track
Click on the track number in the Track view.
Select a portion of one or more clips
Press and hold the Alt key and drag across the clips.
The Snap to Grid setting determines the size portion
you can select.
Add clips to the selection
Hold the Shift key and either click on the clips or drag a
rectangle around the clips.
Add or remove clips from the selection
Hold the Ctrl key and either click on the clips or drag a
rectangle around the clips.
Add or remove all clips in a track from the
selection
Hold the Ctrl key and click on the track number.
Moving and Copying Clips
English
You can copy or move clips using drag-and-drop editing or the Cut, Copy, and Paste
commands. If you copy or move clips into tracks that contain existing material, you need to
let SONAR know how to combine the two.
You have these options:
Option…
How it works…
Blend Old and New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip that
overlaps with the existing clip. This is the same effect as soundon-sound recording.
Replace Old with New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip,
and any overlapping events in the existing clip are erased. This is
the same effect as overwrite recording.
Slide Over to Make Room
The existing clips are shifted in time to make room for the new
clips, so they will not overlap. If you check the Align to Measures
option, shifted clips are always aligned to measure boundaries;
otherwise, the clips are placed end to end.
When you use the Edit-Paste command to add information to a track that contains existing
material, there is one final option you can choose.
Option…
What it means…
Paste as New Clips
New clips are created containing the events on the
clipboard, exactly as described in the preceding
table.
Paste into Existing Clips (MIDI clips only)
The events on the clipboard are merged into any
existing clips that occupy the same region of time.
This means you will never end up with clips that
overlap.
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:
Note that if you copy or move clips to new, empty tracks, you don’t have to worry
about these settings. In this case, the track properties that go with the clips are
automatically applied to the new track.
When you use drag-and-drop editing:
•
You can set the above options every time you perform an edit, or you can set
them once and have the same settings carry over automatically. Check or
uncheck the Ask This Every Time box in the Drag and Drop Options dialog
to indicate your preference. Open the Drag and Drop Options dialog by rightclicking in the Clips pane and choosing Drag and Drop Options from the
popup menu.
•
If you drag to the edge of the Clips pane, it will scroll automatically in the
direction you drag.
•
If you change your mind while dragging clips, press the Escape key to cancel
the operation.
SONAR also lets you move and copy clips between projects.
To Move Clips Using Drag and Drop
196
1.
Select the clips you want to move.
2.
If you want to move the clips by an exact amount of time, enable the Snap
Grid (see “To Change the Snap Options” on page 202).
3.
Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4.
Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around
the selected clips.
5.
Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
6.
If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options
dialog box (use Options-Global and open the Editing tab, or right-click in
the Clips Pane and select Drag & Drop Options from the menu that
appears), and click OK.
SONAR moves the clips to their new location.
Note:
Moving an audio clip (other than a Groove clip) to a part of your project that
has a different tempo changes the size of the clip.
To Move Clips Using Cut and Paste
Select the clips you want to move.
2.
Choose Edit-Cut to display the Cut dialog box.
3.
Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR cuts the clips from the project and
places them on the Windows clipboard.
4.
Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be
pasted.
English
1.
5.
Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7.
Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR places the clips in their new location.
To Move a Clip to a Specific Start Time
1.
Select the clip you want to move.
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:
2.
Right-click on the selected clip and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the Clip
Properties dialog box.
3.
Enter a new start time, or use the spinners or keyboard to change the start time.
4.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR moves the clip to the start time you chose.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1.
Select the clips you want to copy.
2.
Enable the Snap Grid, if desired.
3.
Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4.
Press and hold the Ctrl key and click and hold the left mouse button. A rectangle is
displayed around the selected clips.
5.
Drag the clips to the new location, and release the mouse button.
6.
If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box,
and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To Copy Clips Using Copy and Paste
1.
Select the clips you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3.
Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Windows
clipboard.
4.
Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be
pasted.
5.
Set the Now time to be the time the clips should be pasted.
6.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7.
Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To Delete Clips
1.
Select the clips you want to delete.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
Choose Edit-Delete, which brings up a dialog box—choose options and click OK.
•
Press the Delete key.
SONAR deletes the selected clips.
Nudge
Nudging is moving a clip or a MIDI note by a small amount to the left or right or up and
down. There are three customizable settings for the Nudge feature. You can also nudge clips
(in the Track view) or notes (in the Piano Roll view) up or down, and you can use keyboard
shortcuts (see “To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 200).
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Nudge Settings
The Nudge tab in the Global Options dialog allows you to set the three Nudge settings.
To Nudge a Clip Left or Right
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip.
1.
Select the clip you want to nudge.
2.
Select Process-Nudge Left(1-3) from the menu to move the clip left or Process-Nudge
Right(1-3) to move the clip right.
The amount the clip or note moves is determined by the settings in the Nudge tab of the
Global Options dialog.
To Nudge a Clip Up and Down
1.
Select the clip or note you want to nudge.
2.
Select Process-Nudge-Up to move the clip or note up or Process-Nudge-Down to
move a clip or note down.
English
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip (in the Track view) or MIDI note (in the Piano
Roll view) up or down.
Clips move up or down one track at a time. Notes move up or down one pitch at a time.
To Change Nudge Settings
1.
Select Process-Nudge-Settings to open the Nudge tab in the Global Options dialog
box.
2.
In one of the three Nudge groups, select one of the following:
•
Musical Time—Select a note length setting.
•
Absolute Time—Select one of the following absolute time options and a number in
the first field
•
Absolute time setting…
Description…
Seconds
Whole seconds.
Milliseconds
Thousands of a second.
Frames
Number of frames. The default frame count is 30
frames per second. The number of frames varies
depending on the setting in the Project Options
dialog’s clock tab.
Samples
A very small amount of time. For CD-quality audio
there are 44,100 samples per second, so a value of 1
here would not move a clip by a perceptible amount.
Ticks
The number of ticks per quarter note varies depending
on the setting in the Project Options dialog’s clock tab.
The default setting is 960.
Follow Snap Settings—Moves the clip or note by the current snap setting.
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To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts
1.
Select the clip you want to nudge.
2.
If necessary, turn on Num Lock (press the Num Lock key on your keyboard).
3.
Press the appropriate Num Key.
•
Left 1—NumPad 1
•
Right 1—NumPad 3
•
Left 2—NumPad 4
•
Right 2—NumPad 6
•
Left 3—NumPad 7
•
Right 3—NumPad 9
•
Up—NumPad 8
•
Down—NumPad 2
Working with Partial Clips
SONAR lets you select, copy, move, and delete portions of a project even if they do not match
clip boundaries. There are two ways to do this:
•
Directly select portions of one or more clips.
•
Select a range of times and one or more tracks. SONAR automatically selects the
portions of clips that are in both the selected time range and the selected tracks.
You can then copy, move, or delete the material the same way you do with whole clips.
When you select portions of a clip, SONAR may round off the start and end times of your
selection based on the Snap Grid. For more information, see “Defining and Using the Snap
Grid” on page 201.
To Select a Portion of a Clip
1.
Press and hold the Alt key.
2.
Drag the mouse across part of a clip.
SONAR highlights the selected portion of the clip. You can edit this portion of the clip using
all the normal editing commands.
To Select a Portion of Several Clips
1.
Press and hold the Alt key.
2.
Drag the mouse across part of several clips in adjacent tracks.
SONAR highlights the selected portions of all the clips. You can edit these portions of clips
using all the normal editing commands.
To Select Partial Clips Using Time Ranges and Tracks
1.
Select a range of time in one of the following ways:
•
200
Drag the mouse in the Time Ruler.
•
Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
•
Use the F9 and F10 keys to set the beginning and end selection times.
•
Select a clip (SONAR selects the range of time covered by the clip).
•
Choose Edit-Select-By Time, enter the start and end time, and click OK.
2.
Select one or more tracks by clicking, Shift-clicking, or Ctrl-clicking on the track
numbers in the Track view.
3.
To adjust the start and end time of the selection, hold the Shift key while clicking on the
Time Ruler.
The relevant portions of clips in the selected tracks are highlighted. You can edit these
portions of clips using all the normal editing commands.
To Clear the Partial Clip Selection
You can clear the time-restricted selection in any of the following ways:
•
Click in an empty area of the Clips pane to completely clear the selection.
•
Choose Edit-Select-None or press Ctrl+Shift+A to completely clear the selection.
•
Click on a single clip in the Clips pane to clear the time selection and select the clip.
English
Markers and the Snap Grid
SONAR has a collection of features you can use to simplify and speed the work you do
arranging your projects. Here are a few of the most important things you can do:
•
Show gridlines on measure boundaries in the Track view.
•
Define and use the Snap Grid to make drag-and-drop editing more accurate.
•
Create markers to identify and work with key time points in your project.
Showing Gridlines
Displaying gridlines, or vertical rules, in the Clips pane of the Track view makes it easy to
see at a glance how clips align with each other, how they align with measure boundaries, and
when they start and end.
To Show or Hide Gridlines
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane and choose View-Options from the popup menu.
2.
To show gridlines, check the Display Vertical Rules box. To hide gridlines, make sure the
Display Vertical Rules box is not checked.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR displays the Track view as you requested.
Defining and Using the Snap Grid
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips, select time ranges,
and control envelope shape drawing. To use the Snap Grid, enable the snap feature and set
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an interval, such as a whole note, half note, or quarter note; a marker; an event; the start or
end of a clip; or a user-defined number of frames, seconds or samples. From then on, when
you move or copy clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the Snap
Grid. The Musical Time and Absolute Time options also apply when you perform a selection
using the Time Ruler,
You can also use the Snap Grid to move clips by a certain interval, rather than snap them to
the interval. Moving by an interval can be useful during drag-and-drop operations, if your
events are not exactly aligned with measure or note boundaries.
The Snap Grid in each view is independent. For example, you can enable the Snap Grid in
the Track view without enabling it in the Piano Roll or Staff views. You can also enable the
Snap Grid in several different views, with different grid intervals in each one.
In the Clips pane, the Snap Grid in the Inline Piano Roll view is independent from the Snap
Grid in Clips view. When you open the Snap To Grid dialog in the Clips pane, the dialog has
separate tabs for Clips view and Inline Piano Roll view (called PRV mode in the dialog).
To Enable or Disable the Snap Grid
1.
Press N to toggle the Snap to Grid button
on or off.
Or
1.
To enable the Snap to Grid, click the Snap to Grid combo button
.
2.
To disable the Snap to Grid, click the Snap to Grid combo button once again.
To Change the Snap Options
202
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
or right-click on the Time
Ruler and select Snap Properties from the popup menu to display the Snap to Grid
dialog box.
2.
If you want to set the Snap Grid in the Inline Piano Roll view, click the PRV Mode tab; if
you want to set the Snap Grid in Clips view, click the Clips tab.
3.
Select one of the following options:
•
Musical Time—note intervals (whole, half, etc.)
•
Events—any data in a clip
•
Markers—any marker in a project
•
Clip Boundaries—the start or end of any clip
•
Absolute Time—a number of samples, frames, or seconds set by you
4.
If you selected Musical Time or Absolute Time, select Move To to align selections and
clips to the grid, or Move By to move clips by the grid interval.
5.
Click OK.
All time selections and drag-and-drop editing operations use the new Snap Grid interval.
Snap Offsets
Snap offsets allow you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the “snap” point
used by the Snap to Grid. A snap offset is the number of samples from the beginning of the
clip. Snap offsets affect all edits that obey the Snap to Grid setting. Once the snap offset is
added, you can set the Timer Ruler to SMPTE or MBT time.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
Creating a Snap Offset
1.
Locate the place in the clip where you want to put the snap offset, and set the Now Time
to that location. Use the Scrub tool if necessary.
2.
Right-click on the clip and select Set Snap Offset to Now Time from the menu that
appears.
English
Use the following to add a snap offset to a clip:
Edits to that clip, when the Snap to Grid button is depressed, now snap to the snap offset
rather than the beginning of the clip.
Deleting a Snap Offset
1.
Right-click on the clip and select Clip Properties from the menu that appears.
2.
In the Snap Offset field enter 0 (zero) and click OK.
Creating and Using Markers
Markers are a way of associating a name with a time point in your project. You use markers
to name sections of a project, to mark hit points in a film score, or simply to provide a
shortcut for working with any time point in a project. Markers make it easy to:
•
Jump to a specific time point in a project
•
Select a portion of a project
•
Enter a time in any dialog box, by pressing F5 and choosing the marker you want
You can see and work with markers in four ways:
•
They are displayed in the Time Ruler at the top of the Track, Staff, and Piano Roll view.
•
The Markers toolbar lets you add markers and jump to specific marker locations.
•
The Markers view displays all markers and lets you add, edit, and delete markers.
•
You can press F11 while playback is in progress to add a marker on the fly.
The time associated with a marker can be expressed in musical time or as a locked SMPTE
time. If a marker has a musical time (measures, beats, and ticks), the marker stays at that
musical time regardless of changes in tempo. If a marker has a locked SMPTE time (hours,
minutes, seconds, and frames), the marker stays at the same time even when the tempo is
changed. Locked markers are useful for projects that require you to sync the music or sound
with film scores or multimedia presentations. See “To Add a Marker” on page 204.
SONAR takes the current Snap Grid settings into account when you move or copy markers.
For example, if the Snap Grid is set to even measure boundaries, any time you move or copy
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a marker, the marker will be snapped to the beginning of the nearest measure. You are
allowed to have any number of markers at a single time point.
To display the Markers view, choose View-Markers or click
on the Views toolbar. From
the Markers view, you can use the File-Print and File-Print Preview commands to print a
listing of markers.
You can add markers while playback is stopped or while playback is in progress (on the fly).
When you add a marker while playback is stopped, you can enter a name for the marker and
either use the Now time or enter a different time. When you add a marker on the fly, the
marker is named automatically and assigned the Now time. Using the Markers view, you can
edit the names and times whenever you want.
To Add a Marker
1.
Open the Markers dialog in one of the following ways:
•
Click
in the Markers toolbar.
•
Press F11.
•
Choose Insert-Marker.
•
Click
•
Ctrl-click in the marker section of the Time Ruler.
•
Right-click in the Time Ruler and select Insert Marker.
in the Markers view.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2.
Enter a name for the marker in the Name box.
3.
The time is set to the Now time. If you want, use the spinners to change the time or type
in a new marker time.
4.
Check the Locked to SMPTE box if you want to lock the marker to the SMPTE time.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR adds the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the
Markers toolbar.
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To Add a Marker on the Fly
•
Click
in the Markers toolbar, or Press F11.
SONAR adds a marker at the Now time and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view,
and the Markers toolbar.
To Edit a Marker
1.
Either right-click on the marker in the Time Ruler, or choose a marker in the Markers
view and click
. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2.
Change the marker name, time, or other settings as desired.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR updates the marker in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
1.
Press and hold the Ctrl key.
2.
Drag a marker in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff view, Tempo view, or Piano
Roll view. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
3.
Enter the desired marker settings and click OK.
English
To Copy a Marker
SONAR copies the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler and the Markers view. You can
also cut and paste markers directly from the Markers view.
To Lock or Unlock Several Markers
1.
In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the Ctrl and Shift keys if
necessary to modify the selection.
2.
Select or deselect
.
SONAR updates the markers.
To Move a Marker
•
Drag the marker in the Time Ruler.
SONAR updates the marker time and shows it at the new location.
To Delete a Marker
1.
Press and hold the left mouse button while pointing to a marker in the Time Ruler.
2.
Press Delete, and release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes the marker. You can use Edit-Undo if you make a mistake.
To Delete Markers from the Markers View
1.
In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the Ctrl and Shift keys if
necessary to modify the selection.
2.
Click
or press Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected markers. You can use Undo if you make a mistake.
To Jump to a Marker
There are many different ways to jump to a specific marker:
•
Choose a marker from the dropdown list in the Markers toolbar to jump to that marker.
•
Click the Now time in the Position toolbar, press F5 to display a list of markers, choose
the marker you want, and click OK.
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:
•
Press F5 twice to display a list of markers, choose the marker you want, and click OK.
•
Click on a marker in the Markers view to set the Now time to that marker.
•
Click
•
Choose Go-Next Marker or Go-Previous Marker to jump to the next or previous
marker.
or
in the Markers toolbar to jump to the next or previous marker.
To Select a Time Range Using Markers
You can select a range of times by clicking in the marker section of the Time Ruler:
•
Click to the left of the first marker to select the time between the start of the project and
the first marker.
•
Click to the right of the last marker to select the time between the marker and the end
of the project.
•
Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
•
If looping is enabled, click to the right of the Loop Start marker to select the loop region
•
If punch recording is enabled, click to the right of the Punch In marker to select the
punch region
Tip:
If you press Tab or right-click while holding down the left mouse button over
the markers, you can toggle through which of the overlaid markers you'd like
to move.
For example, if the Now Time marker, a regular Marker, a Loop point, and a
Punch point are all at measure 5, pressing Tab (while holding down the left
mouse button) toggles through T (Now Time), M (regular), L (Loop), and P
(Punch). If you want to change the regular marker, simply drag the mouse
when M is displayed; if you want to adjust the position of the Loop point, tab
through to L, and so on.
Working with Linked Clips
SONAR makes it easy to repeat a pattern over and over using a feature called linked clips.
Linked clips always have the same contents, name, and display color. Any change you make
to the internal contents of one of the clips, such as adding or editing notes or effects,
automatically applies to all of them. Any number of clips may be linked with each other.
To create linked clips, copy the clips and when pasting, check the linked clips option in the
Paste dialog box or the Drag and Drop Options dialog box. Linked clips are displayed with a
dotted border, so they are easy to spot. You can also identify linked clips using the Clip
Properties dialog box or the Select All Siblings (available in the Clips pane popup menu)
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command.You can easily unlink linked clips, and then edit them individually. You have two
options when unlinking linked clips:
Option…
How it works…
New linked group
The clips you selected will still be linked to each
other, but won’t be linked to any clips that are not
selected
Independent
Every selected clip will be completely independent
Once you have unlinked linked clips, you cannot re-link them except by using Edit-Undo.
English
If you attempt to copy only a portion of a linked clip, the copy will not be linked to the
original. Copies of a clip can be linked to the original only when you select and copy the
entire clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Drag and Drop
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane and choose Drag & Drop Options to display the Drag and
Drop Options dialog box.
2.
Check the option labeled Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips.
3.
Click OK.
4.
Select the clips you want to copy.
5.
Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
6.
Press and hold down the Ctrl key.
7.
Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected
clips.
8.
Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
9.
If necessary, confirm the options in the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked to the originals. Any change you
make to one of the clips is applied to all linked clips, including the original clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Copy and Paste
1.
Select the clips you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3.
Choose options as desired and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Windows
clipboard.
4.
Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be
pasted.
5.
Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7.
In the Paste dialog, choose one of two options:
•
Linked Repetitions—If you choose this option, only the new copies of the original
clip are linked together. Edits you make to the new copies do not affect the original,
and vice versa.
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:
•
8.
Link to Original Clip(s)—If you choose this option, the new copies and the original
clip are linked together. Edits you make to any of the linked clips, including the
original, affect all other linked clips in the group.
Choose the other options you want and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked in the way you chose.
To Unlink Linked Clips
1.
In the Clips pane, select the clips you want to unlink.
2.
Right-click on any selected clip and choose Unlink from the popup menu. SONAR
displays the Unlink Clips dialog box.
3.
Choose the unlink option you want, and click OK.
SONAR unlinks the clips and updates the Clips pane accordingly. From now on, any changes
you make to one of the clips are applied only to remaining linked clips, if any.
To Select the Clips That Are Linked to Another Clip
1.
Select one or more clips in the Track view.
2.
Right-click on any selected clip and choose Select All Siblings from the popup menu.
SONAR selects any clip that is linked to one of the currently selected clips.
Splitting and Combining Clips
SONAR provides several commands that are used to split and combine clips. Specifically, you
can:
•
Split a clip into several smaller clips
•
Create a new clip from a selected portion of an existing clip
•
Combine adjacent or overlapping clips into a single, longer clip
The following table summarizes the commands you can use:
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To do this…
Use this command…
Notes…
Split clips into parts
Edit-Split
Works on all selected clips. You
can also press the s key to split all
selected clips at the Now Time.
Combine several clips into
one
Edit-Bounce to Clip(s)
If the selected clips are in
separate tracks, one clip is
created for each track. All clip
automation is applied destructively
to the new clip.
Note:
Combining a stereo and mono clip always produces a stereo clip.
Option…
How it works…
Split at Time
Splits selected clips at a specific point in time. By
default, the split occurs at the Now time, but you
can choose any time you want.
Split Repeatedly
Splits selected clips at regular intervals, beginning
at a specified time, with a specified duration. For
example, you could split a long clip into 4-bar clips
starting at measure 5.
Split at Markers
Splits selected clips at any marker location. This
option is available only if your project has markers.
Split when Silent
Removes “silent” stretches of one measure or
more from selected clips. The presence in a
measure of any event—including those that make
no sound, such as a patch change or lyric event—
will cause that measure to be retained.
English
The Split command lets you split clips four different ways:
While the Split command works for both MIDI and audio clips, for audio clips, the Split
command provides sample accurate editing and snap-to-zero capability.
Note that the Edit-Undo and Edit-Redo commands work with all three of these editing
commands.
To Split Clips into Smaller Clips
1.
Select the clips you want to split.
2.
Right-click on any selected clip, and choose Split from the popup menu. SONAR shows
the Split dialog box or press the S key to split the clip(s) at the Now Time.
3.
Choose the Split option you want to use, and enter the settings you want to use.
4.
Click OK.
Or
1.
Select the clips you want to split.
2.
Set the Now Time to the time you want to split the clips.
3.
Press the s key.
SONAR splits the selected clips according to your instructions.
To Combine Clips
1.
Select the clips you want to combine (the clips must be on the same track).
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:
2.
Right-click on of the clips and select Bounce to Clip(s) from the popup
menu.
SONAR combines the selected clips into a single, new clip.
Take Management and Comping Takes
By default, SONAR stacks any overlapping clips on top of each other, but you can
choose to display them in separate layers (lanes) in the same track. When you
store clips in separate layers, it’s easy to mute and solo them individually and
eventually come up with a composite take, with only the best clips playing back.
You can also mute and solo whole layers.
When you use loop recording, you can store all your takes in the same track, and
then use the Mute tool or Audition (Selection Playback) to hear only the ones you
want.
If you enable a track’s Show Layers option, SONAR stores the track’s clips in
separate layers whenever any of the following happens:
•
You use loop recording in Sound on Sound mode, and choose to store takes in
a single track.
•
You record over some pre-existing data while in Sound on Sound mode.
•
You enable the Track-Show Layers menu option for a track that contains at
least one overlapping clip.
Note 1: you can create as many layers as you want.
Note 2: a multi-layer layer track has only one set of track automation envelopes.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Enable or Disable the Multi-layer Option
•
For single tracks, you can right-click the Track Scale, and choose Show
Layers from the popup menu, or use the Layers-Show Layers command on
the Track pane right-click menu, or click the Track Layers On/Off button.
Track Layers On/Off button
Track Scale before showing
layers
•
For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to configure by Ctrl-clicking
the track number of each track, and use the Track-Layers-Show Layers
menu option.
When the option is first enabled, SONAR moves all overlapping clips in the
affected tracks to separate layers, and displays mute and solo buttons on the
Track Scale for each layer.
210
Mute and solo buttons
for layers
After the option is enabled, you can move clips on top of each other without creating new
layers. To move overlapping clips back into separate layers, use the Rebuild command (see
below).
Note 1: if you want to move a clip to the exact same time placement in an adjacent layer,
hold the Shift key down while you drag.
Note 2: if the Automatic Crossfades button is enabled, SONAR adds a crossfade between any
newly overlapped clips that are on the same layer.
To Mute or Unmute One or More Layers
On the Track Scale, click the M button that’s at the same vertical level as the layer you
want to mute or unmute. You can drag across mutiple mute buttons to mute or unmute
multiple layers.
English
•
Note: if you mute a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the Track Scale displays
a small blue indicator to show that a hidden layer is muted:
Hidden layer mute
indicator
To Solo or Unsolo a Layer
•
On the Track Scale, click the S button that’s at the same vertical level as the layer you
want to solo. You can solo one layer at a time.
Note: if you solo a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the Track Scale displays
a small yellow indicator to show that a hidden layer is soloed:
Hidden layer solo
indicator
To Rebuild Layers
•
To rebuild layers (move overlapping clips to separate layers) in a single-track, rightclick the Track Scale and choose Rebuild Layers from the popup menu.
•
For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to rebuild, and use the Track-LayersRebuild Layers command.
To Remove Empty Layers
•
To remove empty layers in a single-track, right-click the Track Scale and choose
Remove Empty Layers from the popup menu.
•
For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to compact, and use the Track-Layers-
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:
Remove Empty Layers command.
To Add an Empty Layer to a Track
•
Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want the new layer, and choose
Insert Layer from the popup menu.
To Delete a Layer from a Track
•
Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want to delete a layer, and choose
Delete Layer from the popup menu.
To Select a Layer
•
Right-click the Track Scale at the same vertical position where the desired layer is, and
choose Select Layer from the popup menu. You can de-select the layer by clicking an
empty area of the Clips pane.
To Loop Record Multiple Takes into Separate Track Layers
1.
Use the Transport-Record Options command to open the Record Options dialog.
2.
Under the Recording Mode options, choose Sound on Sound (Blend).
3.
Under Loop Recording, choose Store Takes in a Single Track, and click OK.
4.
Make sure that the armed track has its Show Layers option enabled.
5.
Set your loop boundaries and start recording multiple passes through the looped area.
6.
Stop recording.
When you finish recording, SONAR displays all your takes in separate layers in the
recording track.
To Crop Overlapping Clips to Eliminate Overlap
1.
In a multi-layer track, move either the Select tool or the Mute tool between two
overlapping clips until the cursor turns into the overlap cropping tool.
Overlap
cropping
tool
2.
In the space between the clips, click the spot where you want the first clip to end and the
second one to begin. SONAR crops both clips so that they no longer overlap.
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Together with multi-layer tracks, clip muting and isolating (clip soloing) make it easy to
build a composite take from multiple takes.
With the new Mute tool
clip muting:
•
212
, that’s in the Track view toolbar, SONAR offers two styles of
Default style—after you activate the Mute tool, you can drag through time ranges to
mute all or part of a clip: dragging through the bottom half of a clip mutes the time
range you drag through; dragging through the top half of a clip unmutes the range you
drag through. The default setting in the Mute tool dropdown menu produces this
behavior (you’ll see a checkmark next to Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag
Behavior). If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style (see below), hold
down the Alt key while you click.
•
Alternate style—use the Mute tool to mute or unmute entire clips by clicking clips
instead of dragging through time regions. A clip that is completely muted displays the
Mute icon
in its upper left corner. You can choose this behavior by choosing Mute
Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool dropdown menu. If you
decide you want to temporarily switch to the Default style, hold down the Alt key while
you drag.
In addition, you can also play back only selected data if you want by pressing the Shift key
and the Spacebar at the same time.
Clip Muting with the Default Style
When you choose Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all or parts of clips. This is the
default behavior.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
•
Click the tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue when it is enabled.
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button and set its
menu to an appropriate value.
3.
Using the Mute tool, drag inside the lower half of a clip.
English
To Mute a Time Range Using Default Style
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or MIDI
data as a dotted line.
Muted area of clip
To Unmute a Time Range Using Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted area.
To Mute or Unumute an Entire Clip Using Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, Alt-click anywhere in the clip (hold down the Alt key while you
click).
When a clip is currently muted, SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of the
clip.
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:
Mute icon
Note: if the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one or more muted
time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you Alt-click the clip, so you don’t lose
any precise mute edits you’ve performed. To completely unmute the clip in the picture
below, first Alt-click the clip to remove the Mute icon, and then drag through the upper half
of the clip in the muted area(s).
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style
When you choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all or parts of clips. This is the
alternate style.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
•
Click the Mute tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue when it is
enabled.
To Mute or Unumute an Entire Clip Using Alternate Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, click anywhere in the clip.
SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of a muted clip.
Note: if the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one or more muted
time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you Alt-click the clip, so you don’t lose
any precise mute edits you’ve performed.
To Mute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button and set its
menu to an appropriate value.
3.
Using the Mute tool, Alt-drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or MIDI data
as a dotted line.
To Unmute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1.
214
Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, Alt-click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted area.
You can mute or unmute a clip without using the Mute tool if you want. Pressing Q on your
keyboard toggles the mute status of all selected clips. Any muted time ranges remain muted.
Audition (Selection Playback)
The Transport-Audition command plays back only selected clips and/or time ranges.
To use the command, hold down the Shift key and then press the Spacebar. Only the selected
data plays back.
Isolating (Clip Soloing)
•
Default style—after you activate the Mute tool, you can Ctrl-drag through time ranges
to isolate all or part of a clip. The default setting in the Mute tool dropdown menu
produces this behavior (you’ll see a checkmark next to Mute Time Ranges under
Click+Drag Behavior). If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style (see
below), hold down the Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and click whole clips instead of
dragging through regions.
•
Alternate style—use the Mute tool to isolate entire clips by Ctrl-clicking clips instead of
dragging through time regions. You can choose this behavior by choosing Mute Entire
Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool dropdown menu. If you decide you
want to temporarily switch to the Default style, hold down the Alt key along with the
Ctrl key, and drag through the regions you want isolated.
English
Isolating works by muting all the clips in a track in the same time region except the ones
that you want to hear. Just like clip muting, isolating has two styles:
To Isolate a Region with the Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, hold down the Ctrl key and drag through the region of a clip or
clips that you want isolated (soloed).
Any overlapping regions become muted. To de-isolate the isolated region, release the Ctrl
key, and drag through the upper half of any muted regions.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style of isolating (see procedure below),
hold down the Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and click whole clips instead of dragging
through regions.
To Isolate Clips with the Alternate Style
1.
Choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool dropdown
menu.
2.
Using the Mute tool, hold down the Ctrl key and click the clips that you want isolated.
Any overlapping clips become muted. To de-isolate the isolated clips, release the Ctrl key, and
click any muted clips.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Default style of isolating, hold down the Alt key
along with the Ctrl key, and drag through the regions you want isolated.
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Track Folders
A track folder contains tracks in the Track pane of the Track view. Track folders make larger
projects much easier to manage—you can group different types of tracks in their own folder:
vocals, soft synths, ReWire instruments, drums, etc.
The main characteristics of a track folder are:
•
You can edit all the tracks in the folder as if you were editing a single track—especially
valuable for drum tracks. The track folder displays a composite clip in the Clips pane of
all the clips in the folder. Selecting a time range in the composite clip selects data in all
the enclosed tracks in the same time range; now you can edit all the tracks in the folder
by editing the selected area of the composite clip.
•
You can hide tracks in a folder, freeing up space on your screen.
•
A folder can contain any type of track—you can put MIDI, audio, and synth tracks in the
same folder.
•
You can archive, mute, solo, arm, or input monitor all the tracks in a folder with one
click—just click the A, M, S, R, or Input Echo button on the track folder.
Track folder—click here to select all A, M, S, R, and Input Echo buttons
data in track folder
Open/Close
folder
Track folder info
Description box
Selected area of
composite clip
Composite
clip
The tracks in a
track folder are
indented
To Create a Track Folder
•
Right-click in the Track pane of the Track view, and choose Insert Track Folder from
the popup menu.
Or
•
Use the Insert-Track Folder menu command.
Or
•
Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder-New Track
Folder from the popup menu.
A new track folder appears in the Track pane.
To Add a Track to a Track Folder
•
In the Track view, move the mouse cursor just to the right of the track number of a preexisting track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click
and drag the track’s titlebar onto the track folder. Release the mouse.
Or
•
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Insert a track when a track within a track folder has focus.
Or
•
Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder-Track Folder
“n” from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select the tracks you want to add to the folder, right-click on the folder and select Add
Track(s) to Folder from the menu that appears.
The added track appears in the track folder, and is indented a little to show that it’s inside
the track folder.
To Remove a Track from a Track Folder
•
In the Track view, move the cursor just to the right of the track number of a track until
the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s
titlebar out of the Track Folder. Release the mouse.
Or
Right-click the track and select Remove From Folder from the popup menu.
English
•
To Add Multiple Tracks to a Track Folder
1.
Select the tracks you want to add.
2.
Right-click a selected track and choose Move to Folder-Track Folder “n” from the
popup menu.
To Remove Multiple Tracks from a Track Folder
1.
Select the tracks you want to remove.
2.
Right-click a selected track and choose Remove From Folder from the popup menu.
To Delete a Track Folder
1.
In the Track view, right-click and select Delete Track Folder from the menu that
appears.
2.
SONAR asks you if you want to delete all the tracks in the folder along with the track
folder—click Yes or No.
SONAR deletes the track folder. If you didn’t choose to delete the tracks in the track folders,
SONAR moves these tracks to the top level.
To Open or Close a Track Folder
•
Click the folder icon that’s just left of the track folder’s name.
To Select or Deselect all the Tracks in a Track Folder
•
Click just to the left of the folder icon.
To Rename a Track Folder
•
Double-click the track folder’s name, type a new name, and press Enter.
Or
•
Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the popup menu, type a
name in the Name field of the Folder Properties dialog, and click OK.
To Add a Description to a Track Folder
•
Double-click the Description box, type a description, and press Enter.
Or
•
Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the popup menu, type a
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description in the Description field of the Folder Properties dialog, and click OK.
To Select all Clips in a Time Range
•
Hold down the Alt key while dragging a selection on the composite clip.
Now you can edit, move, cut and paste all the selected clips by editing the selected part of the
composite clip.
Adding Effects in the Track View
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these
effects in real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To Add Effects in the Track View
1.
Right-click in the FX bin of the track you want to add effects to. You may have to click
the FX tab or the All tab that’s at the bottom of the Track pane to display the FX bin,
and also expand the track pane a little.
Right-click here to add an effect.
An effects popup menu appears. SONAR displays MIDI effects if you are editing a MIDI
track, and audio effects for an audio track.
2.
Select an effect from the menu.
The name of the effect appears in the Effects bin and the effect’s property page appears.
To delete the effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from the popup menu.
3.
Set the effects parameters or choose a preset.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Note:
If you use the same effects for more than one track, it’s more efficient to add
the effects to a bus. See “To Patch a Track Through a Bus” on page 377
Changing Tempos
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step changes from one
tempo to another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or decreases (ritardandos), and almost
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any other type of change you can imagine. The tempo changes you add to your project become
part of the project and are saved with the project file.
You can add tempo changes to your project in the following ways:
•
Using the Tempo toolbar
•
Using the Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos commands
•
By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view
•
Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo view’s Tempo List pane
The Process-Fit to Time and Process-Fit Improvisation commands can also be used to
introduce tempo changes into your work file. For more information, see “Stretching and
Shrinking Events” on page 265 and “Fit Improvisation” on page 278.
English
When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, SONAR allows you to stretch or
shrink audio clips when you have converted them to Groove clips and have enabled the
Follow Project Pitch option in the Loop Construction view. Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will
speed up or slow down while the audio tracks will play at the same speed. For more
information about Groove clips, see “Working with Groove Clips” on page 234. Audio clips
that are not Groove clips change in size when moved to a part of your project that has a
different tempo.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are some examples:
•
If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change
the tempo of the background music without altering the voice-over.
•
If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum
groove, you want to leave the audio unchanged.
When you change the tempo of your project, clips having stretching enabled change tempo
along with the project, while those that do not have stretching enabled do not. For more
information on stretch-enabling clips, see “Enable Stretching” on page 228.
Tempos set when the clock source is set to MIDI Sync do not have any effect, because SONAR
follows the external tempo. For more information, see Chapter 18, Synchronizing Your Gear.
Using the Tempo Toolbar
The Tempo toolbar displays the current tempo and lets you change the tempo as shown
below:
Click to insert a tempo change
Click to enter a new
tempo
Tempo ratio
buttons
When you enter a new tempo directly in the toolbar, you change the most recent tempo
setting in the project.
The tempo ratio buttons temporarily change the speed of playback, without affecting the
actual tempo that is stored with your project (see Note, below). During playback, the tempo is
multiplied by the current tempo ratio. By default, the three tempo ratios are 0.50 (half
speed), 1.00 (normal speed), and 2.00 (double speed). You can change the tempo ratios that
are associated with each button.
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Note: Tempo ratios can only be used in projects that contain no audio tracks and cannot be
used when using any form of synchronization. For more information, see Chapter 18,
Synchronizing Your Gear.
To Change the Current Tempo in the Tempo Toolbar
1.
Enable Groove clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the current tempo in the Tempo toolbar.
3.
Type a new value and press Enter, or use the spinners to change the tempo value.
SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.
To Set the Tempo Ratio
You can set the tempo ratio in several ways (remember, this function is not available if you
have audio clips in your project):
•
Click one of the tempo ratio buttons.
•
Choose Transport-Tempo Ratio 1, 2, or 3.
•
Press Ctrl+1, Ctrl+2, or Ctrl+3.
SONAR changes the speed of playback.
To Change the Tempo Ratio
1.
Shift-click one of the tempo ratio buttons to display the Tempo Ratio dialog box.
2.
Enter a new value for the tempo ratio.
3.
Click OK.
From now on, that tempo ratio button uses the ratio you entered.
Using the Tempo Commands
The Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos commands can be used to change
the existing tempo of a project or to introduce one or more tempo changes at various points in
a project. You can enter tempo values directly, introduce smooth increase or decreases in
tempo, or even use your mouse to tap out the tempo you want for some portion of a project.
To Insert a Tempo Change
1.
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Enable Groove clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled.
Click
box.
in the toolbar or choose Insert-Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog
3.
Check the Insert a New Tempo box.
4.
Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
•
Type a value in the Tempo field.
•
Click the arrows to change the value.
•
Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5.
Enter a starting time for the new tempo.
6.
Click OK.
English
2.
SONAR inserts a tempo change at the designated time.
To Insert a Series of Tempos
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove clip
looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Choose Insert-Series of Tempos to display the Insert Series of Tempos dialog box.
3.
Enter a starting tempo, ending tempo, and step size.
4.
Enter a starting and ending time for the series of tempo changes.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR erases any existing tempo changes between the starting and ending time, and
inserts a series of tempo changes that change smoothly between the starting and ending
time. This command never inserts more than one tempo change on the same clock tick. Audio
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clips which you want to follow tempo changes can also be converted to Groove clips in the
Loop Construction view.
To Modify the Most Recent Tempo Change
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Choose Insert-Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
3.
Check the Change the Most Recent Tempo box.
4.
Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
5.
•
Type a value in the Tempo field.
•
Click the arrows to change the value.
•
Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
Click OK.
SONAR changes the most recent tempo to the new value.
Using the Tempo View
The Tempo view provides a graphic display of the tempo. In the Tempo view you can use your
mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the graph. Choose View-Tempo or click
on
the toolbar to display the Tempo view
The Tempo view provides both a graphic display of the tempo and a list of all tempo changes
in your project. In the graphical display you can use your mouse to draw tempo changes
directly onto the graph. In the tempo list, you can insert, edit, and delete individual tempo
changes. Choose View-Tempo or click
on the toolbar to display the Tempo view. Click the
Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
If an entire project has a single tempo, the graph shows a straight horizontal line, and a
single tempo in the list.
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Tool…
Name…
What it’s for…
Select
Drat the Select tool in either the Tempo list or graphic display to
select tempos to edit
Draw
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in tempo
Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase or decrease in
tempo
Erase
Eliminate tempo changes already in place for some portion of a
project
Snap Grid
Controls how often you can insert tempo changes—for
example, every measure, every eighth note, every 3 samples,
etc.
English
The graph has several tools you can use to add or modify tempo changes:
If you make a mistake using any of these tools, you can use Edit-Undo to correct the error.
When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines the
density of tempo events. To insert a larger number of relatively small tempo changes, move
the mouse slowly. To insert a smaller number of relatively large tempo changes, drag the
mouse quickly.
The Tempo List Pane has its own tools for editing tempo changes:
Tool…
Name…
What it’s for…
Insert Tempo
Insert a new tempo change
Delete Tempo
Delete a tempo change
Tempo Properties
Edit a tempo change
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Click in the Tempo view at any desired time point and tempo level.
or the
tool.
SONAR introduces a tempo change at the indicated point.
To Steadily Increase or Decrease the Tempo in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
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2.
Select the
tool.
3.
Drag a line in the graph from the starting time and tempo to the ending time and
tempo.
SONAR introduces a linear series of tempo changes.
To Draw a Series of Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Drag the cursor across the graph, adjusting the tempo level as you move left to right.
tool.
SONAR introduces a series of tempo changes.
To Erase Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Drag the mouse over the graph to highlight the region you want to erase.
4.
Release the mouse button.
tool.
SONAR deletes all tempo changes in the area you marked. The last tempo setting prior to
the erased region is now in effect in that region.
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo List in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the Tempo List button
3.
Select any tempo change in the list.
4.
Click Insert Tempo
5.
Set the tempo, time, and other properties.
6.
Click OK.
to display or hide the tempo list.
to open the Tempo dialog box.
SONAR inserts the new tempo into the list.
To Edit a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1.
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Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the Tempo List button
3.
In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be edited.
to display or hide the tempo list.
4.
Click Tempo Properties
box.
5.
Edit the tempo properties as desired.
6.
Click OK.
or double-click the tempo change to open the Tempo dialog
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo
changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and
choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip
Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command
disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the Tempo List button
3.
In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be deleted.
4.
Click Delete Tempo
English
To Delete a Tempo Change from the Tempo List in the Tempo View
to display or hide the tempo list.
, or press Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tempo change. You cannot delete the first tempo in the list.
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History
SONAR provides very powerful Undo and Redo commands that let you move forward or
backward through any portion of an editing session. Every project has its own independent
undo history. This means you can return to any open project and use the Undo and Redo
commands, even if you’ve spent the last hour working on a different project. The undo history
of a project is lost when you close the project.
Remembering everything that is necessary to undo the changes you have made can use a lot
of memory. If a change you are about to make requires too much memory and cannot be
undone, you will be advised that the operation is too big to undo later and asked if you want
to go ahead anyway. If you do choose to perform the operation, you will not be able to undo it.
Therefore, you may want to save your project first.
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The Edit-History command displays a complete history of the commands and actions you
can undo for the current project. The Undo History dialog box looks like this:
Most recent change
Earliest change
Click to clear the undo
history
Adjust the number of
steps you can undo
The History command is grayed out until you make a change to the current project that can
be undone.
The History list is updated every time you make a change to a project. For example, if you
insert a new note into a project using the Piano Roll view, that action is added to the History
list. This entry remains on the list—even if you undo the change—so that you can redo the
change later on. If you delete the note, this change is added to the History list.
You can click the Clear button in the Undo History dialog box to erase the undo history for
the current project and free up some memory. If SONAR is low on memory, it may offer to
erase the History list.
To revert to an earlier version of a project, highlight the entry in the History list that
represents the point to which you’d like to return, and click OK. SONAR performs the
necessary undo or redo actions to take you to that point. Once you edit the project (for
example, by inserting a note), the History list is truncated at that point. Then, as you do
further work, the History list grows again. Any events occurring before the event you
highlighted remain on the list.
By default, SONAR keeps a history of up to 128 editing actions for each open project. Once
that limit is reached, each new action pushes out the oldest item from the History list. You
can raise or lower that number in the Undo History dialog box.
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Using Loops
Loops are short digital audio clips which are often designed to be repeated over and over or
“looped,” although some loops, called one-shots, are intended to play just once. Groove clips,
often used as loops, are digital audio clips that “know” their tempo and pitch information.
Groove clips automatically respond to changes in a project’s tempo and can have their root
note pitch adjusted using pitch markers. In SONAR, you can import ACID™ loops, or digital
audio clips and convert them to Groove clips. You can also record your own audio and create
Groove clips. To download more Groove clips and loops, visit www.cakewalk.com.
Note:
Groove clips and ACIDized loops are loaded into RAM, and can take up a lot of
memory. Once they’re loaded though, copying them does not increase the
amount of memory they take up.
In This Chapter
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
The Loop Explorer View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Working with Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Working with Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Importing Project5 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
English
6
:
The Loop Construction View
The Loop Construction view is where you create and edit Groove clips.
The Loop Construction view toolbar has tools for editing slicing markers and controls for previewing
loops.
Loop Construction Controls
The following is a list of the tools and controls in the Loop Construction view, followed by a description:
Save Loop as WAV
This button opens the Save As dialog. The clip in the Loop Construction view is saved as a Groove Clip/
Wave file that has tempo and pitch information stored in it, and can be opened in SONAR or ACID™.
For more information, see “Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files” on page 238.
Enable Looping
The Enable Looping button allows a clip to be looped by dragging in the Track view. Loop-enabled clips
follow changes in the project tempo. Click the Enable Looping button to loop clips in the Track view by
dragging the left or right side of a clip with your mouse. When you loop-enable a clip it automatically
snaps to the nearest beat boundary (at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc. beats). SONAR calculates the appropriate beat
number. Change the number in the Beats in Clip field if you want to change the total number of beats in
the clip.
Enable Stretching
The Enable Stretching button allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it changes. It instructs SONAR
to stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s tempo. SONAR uses the Original BPM parameters to
make the change.
Beats in Clip
The number of beats in the clip.
Original BPM
The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
Follow Project Pitch
The Follow Project Pitch option transposes the loop, if necessary, to the project pitch which you can set
in the Markers toolbar. A loop recorded in the key of C, used in a project with a default project pitch of
A, would be transposed down three semitones if the Follow Project Pitch checkbox was checked. You can
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also insert markers in the Time Ruler which change the project pitch. These markers, called pitch
markers affect only Groove clips with Follow Project Pitch enabled.
Root Note
The Root Note represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded. The Follow Project Pitch
feature uses this information, when checked, to transpose the loop to match the project’s default project
pitch and pitch markers.
Pitch (coarse)
You can set the transposition of a clip, independent from the project pitch, using the Pitch (Coarse) field.
A positive number transposes the clip up by that number of semitones. A negative number transposes
the clip down by that number of semitones. Remember that, if the Follow Project Pitch option is
checked, the clip follows the project’s pitch. Any transposition changes to the pitch with this option
checked are changes to the project pitch, not the clip pitch.
Another example: The clip pitch is E. The desired clip pitch is D. If the Follow Project Pitch option is not
enabled, and a value of “-2” is entered in the Pitch (coarse) field, the clip is transposed down two
semitones to D from the original pitch of E.
Pitch (fine)
The Pitch (fine) field allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose the pitch of a clip up to 50
cents. There are 100 cents in one semi tone. A Pitch (fine) setting of “1” adjusts the pitch up one
hundredth of a semi tone. The Pitch (fine) option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so that it is in
pitch with the remaining clips in a project.
Slices Menu
The Slices menu sets the resolution for the creation of markers, or the “slicing” of the looped clip. This
menu uses note lengths, so the settings are:
•
Whole notes
•
Half notes
•
Quarter notes
•
Eighth notes
•
Sixteenth notes
•
Thirty-second notes
The automatic markers appear at the note resolutions according to the slider setting. At the eighth note
setting, there are eight markers per measure.
This control works well for slicing audio that has more subtle changes in volume with few dramatic
transients.
The markers in a loop clip preserve the timing of the audio at that moment. Too few or too many
markers can cause unwanted “artifacts” when a loop clip is stretched.
Trans Detect (%)
The Trans Detect control senses transients in your audio clip and assigns a marker at the beginning
and end of each one it finds. As the you increase the sensitivity (by using larger numbers) smaller
transients are detected and the number of markers increases.
Stop Preview
Stops loop preview playback.
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English
An example: The project key is C. The clip key is D. If the Follow Project Pitch is enabled, the clip is
transposed down by two semitones. A value entered into the Pitch (coarse) field adjusts the pitch from
C. If you enter “-1” the pitch would be transposed down by one additional semi tone to B.
:
Preview Loops
Plays the current loop repeatedly. Use the Stop Preview control to stop playback.
Enable Slice Auto-Preview
Plays a slice when you click on it.
Click Auto-Preview Loop
Repeatedly plays a selected slice.
Preview Bus
Select the main out through which you want to listen to the clip.
Properties
The Properties button opens the Clip Properties dialog.
Select
Use the Select tool to move markers in the Markers bar.
Erase
Use the Erase tool to delete markers in the Markers bar.
Default All Markers
The Default All Markers tool restores all automatically generated markers to the original position and
enables all those that were disabled. Manually created markers remain as is.
Previous Slice
Moves slice selection to the previous slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Next Slice
Moves slice selection to the next slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Show/Hide Gain Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s gain envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own segment of
the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pan Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pan envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own segment of
the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pitch Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pitch envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own segment
of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Slice Gain
Changes the selected slice’s gain.
Slice Pan
Adjusts the selected slice’s pan. Negative is left and positive is right.
Slice Pitch
Adjusts the selected slice’s pitch. The first field is in half steps, the second field is in cents.
Slicing Markers
There are two types of slicing markers in the Loop Construction view: automatic and manual.
Automatic markers appear in red and are automatically generated by SONAR when you loop enable a
clip. The one exception to this is if you import an ACIDized wave file into SONAR. ACIDized files
always appear with manual slicing markers. Manual markers appear in purple. If you add a marker or
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move an automatic marker, it turns purple to show you that it has been edited. For information on
editing slicing markers, see “To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip” on page 237.
Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the waveform in clip. Audio scaling allows
you to make detailed edits by zooming in on the parts of the waveform closest to the zero crossing
(silence) while preserving the track size. By showing just the quietest parts of a clip, you can make very
precise edits.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located on the far left of the Loop Construction view.
Audio Scale Ruler
English
Clip
There are three right-click display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
•
Percentage—shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the highest percentage in the
Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the parts of the waveform which are within 2% of the zero
crossing appear in the clip.
•
dB—shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the Audio Scaling Ruler reads 36, then only the parts of the waveform which are 36 dB below 0 dB appear in the clip.
•
Zoom Factor—shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the Zoom Factor reads 10, then the
waveform is zoomed in by a factor of 10.
The Loop Explorer View
SONAR’s Loop Explorer view allows you to preview your Wave files before you drag and drop them into
the Track view. If you preview a Groove clip, it plays back at tempo and in the key of your current
project.
You can open the Loop Explorer view in any of the following methods:
•
Select View-Loop Explorer from the menu.
•
Click the Loop Explorer icon
•
Press Alt+1
on the Views toolbar.
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:
The Loop Explorer view toolbar has the following controls:
Tool...
Name...
What It Does...
Move Up
Opens the folder one level above the active folder.
Refresh
Refreshes the active folder.
Windows Explorer
Opens Windows Explorer at the same directory
being viewed in the Loop Explorer view.
Play
Plays the selected media file.
Stop
Stops the playback of the selected file.
Auto Preview
Automatically preview files when you click on them
in the Loop Explorer view. If the selected file is a
Groove clip, it plays back in the project tempo and
key.
Views
Allows you to change the way the files are viewed in
the list view:
Preview Bus
•
Large icons
•
Small icons
•
List
•
Details—displays the file size, date and
when the file was created and last
modified
Select the main out through which you want to listen
to the loop.
Folders Pane
The Folders pane shows all of the available files and folders in the selected drive.
Contents List Pane
The Contents List pane displays the folders and files contained in the active folder.
To Preview a Groove Clip
1.
Click the Auto-preview button in the Loop Explorer toolbar.
2.
Click on a Wave file in the Content List pane.
Each successive Wave file you select is previewed. You can also select multiple files and play them
simultaneously.
Or
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1.
Select a Wave file in the Content List pane.
2.
Click the Play button in the Loop Explorer toolbar.
3.
Click the Stop button to stop playing the selected Wave file.
When you preview a Groove clip in the Loop Explorer view, the clip plays in the project key and at the
project tempo.
To Drag a Loop into a Project
1.
Click and drag the Wave file from the Loop Explorer view to the Track view.
2.
Drop the Wave file in the track and at the time in which you want it in your project. If you drop the
file after the last track in your project, a new track is created for the file.
To Drag Multiple Loops into a Project
1.
Select a Wave file and select additional by holding down the Ctrl key and selecting them.
2.
Drag the Wave files from the Loop Explorer view to the Track view.
3.
Drop the Wave files into the Track view at the time in which you want them in your project.
The Wave files appear on consecutive tracks in the Track view at the time selected.
You can make any audio clip into a loop by checking the Enable Looping checkbox in the Clip Properties
dialog. Once looping is enabled, you can drag out loops to create multiple repetitions. There are several
other ways to enable looping:
To Enable or Disable a Clip for Looping
1.
Double-click on the clip you want to loop.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2.
In the Loop Construction view, click the Enable Looping button
.
Or
In the Track view, select a clip and press Ctrl+L or select Edit-Groove Clip Looping.
To Create Repetitions of a Loop
1.
Set the Snap value if you want the loop to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2.
Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks like this
3.
When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are
dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
.
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Create Partial Repetitions of a Loop
1.
Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks like this
2.
When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are
dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
.
If the Snap to Grid button is on, you can create a partial loop as small as the Snap to Grid setting
allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is set to quarter notes, you can create partial
repetitions as small as a quarter of a measure.
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Working with Loops
:
Working with Groove Clips
Groove clips are .WAV files that behave similarly to Sonic Foundry’s ACIDized loops (SONAR also has
MIDI Groove clips—see “MIDI Groove Clips” on page 239). Groove clips contain information about the
audio content, including the original tempo, original reference pitch, number of beats in the loop, and
audio transient information.
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR
Groove clips have information saved within them which allow them to adjust to changes in tempo and
pitch. Groove clips can read a project’s tempo and tempo changes, and can adjust their root note pitch
when they read pitch markers. You can add pitch markers in the Track view’s Time Ruler to transpose
the Groove clip. As your project passes over a pitch marker, SONAR transposes your Groove clips based
on the clip’s root note reference pitch. If you insert no pitch markers in your project, there are no pitch
changes in your Groove clips. The default project pitch is C.
Note:
When working with Groove clips, it is important to know the difference
between key and pitch. Your project’s key signature has no effect on Groove
clips. The pitch of your Follow Project Pitch-enabled Groove clips is dictated by
pitch markers in the Time Ruler. If there are no pitch markers in your project,
these Groove clips play at the pitch set in the Markers toolbar (the default is
C).
Note:
Groove clips must be at least one beat in length. If you try to loop-enable a clip
of a shorter duration you may experience distortion or artifacts.
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Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are easy to use because they automatically adjust to your project’s pitch markers and
tempo. You can import existing loops or create your own, using the Loop Construction view.
To Import a Groove Clip into Your Project
1.
Select a Track in the Track view.
2.
Set the Now Time to the place you want the clip to begin.
3.
Select File-Import-Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
4.
Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips and select one.
5.
Click Open.
1.
Open the Loop Explorer view.
2.
Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips.
3.
Drag and drop a clip into the Track view, or double-click it to insert it at the Now Time.
4.
The clip appears on the track and at the time in your project where you drop it, so if you want the
clip on a new track, drop it after the last track in your project.
By default, Groove clips are loop-enabled and transposed to match the project’s pitch.
Setting the Default Project Pitch
1.
If necessary display the Markers toolbar by selecting View-Toolbars to open the Toolbars dialog.
In the toolbar dialog click Markers and OK.
2.
In the Markers toolbar, click the Default Groove Clip Pitch dropdown menu and select a pitch.
Your project now uses the root note of your clips to transpose to the project pitch. Use Pitch markers at
different points in your project to change the pitch. For more information on Pitch markers, see “Using
Pitch Markers in the Track View” on page 238.
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
Any audio clip can be converted to a Groove clip. Groove clips contain tempo, beat, and pitch
information which SONAR uses to stretch and transpose the clips to match the project. Most Groove
clips are loop-enabled, meaning that you can use the mouse to drag clip repetitions in the Track view.
Groove clips can be either loop-enabled or not, although they usually are. When a Groove clip is loopenabled, its edges appear beveled. It is sometimes desirable to create clips that follow the project’s
tempo and key, but are not intended to loop. The following is a list of the attributes contained in a
Groove clip:
•
Beats in clip—The number of quarter notes in a clip. A four measure clip in 4/4 time should have
16 beats. When you enable looping for a clip, SONAR calculates the number of beats in the clip
using an algorithm. This calculation is very often accurate, but in some cases, for instance when
the clip has a very slow or very fast tempo or if the clip has an unusual number of beats, then the
number of beats in a clip may have to be edited manually in the Beats in clip field.
•
Original tempo—The original tempo of the recording. SONAR uses the original tempo to adjust to
your project’s tempo. The original tempo must be specified for stretching clips.
Note: When you loop-enable a clip, SONAR calculates the original tempo of the clip, and unless the
clip’s length is in exact beat or measure increments, the original tempo that SONAR calculates
may vary from the recorded tempo. These fluctuations are usually quite small and do not affect the
quality of the Groove clip you create.
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English
Or
:
•
Reference note—The original key of the recorded clip. SONAR uses the Reference note when it
transposes Groove clips to match your project’s pitch.
These attributes can be edited in the Loop Construction view.
To Set the Number of Beats in a Groove Clip
When you open a clip in the Loop Construction view, SONAR determines the number of beats in the
clip. In some cases the beat value may not be correct. The beats in clip value can only be changed if the
clip is loop enabled.
Do the following to change value in the Beats in Clip field.
•
Click the plus or minus button to the right of the Beats in clip field until the correct value is
displayed.
To Change the Loop Construction View Time Ruler Display
You can display the Loop Construction view Time Ruler in measures or in samples. To toggle between
the two modes, double click the Time Ruler.
To Set the Tempo of a Groove Clip
When creating a new Groove clip, SONAR sets the clip’s tempo to the current project tempo. To ensure
proper stretching behavior you must set the value in the Original BPM field to the tempo at which you
recorded the clip. The tempo value of a clip can only be changed if the clip is stretch-enabled.
Do the following to change the value in the Original BPM field.
•
Click the plus or minus button to the right of the Original BPM field until the correct value is
displayed. For more precise tempos you can double-click in the Original BPM field and enter a
tempo.
To Slice a Clip
1.
Double-click on a clip in the Clips pane.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2.
3.
Slice the clip using one or all of the following methods:
To do this…
Do this…
Slice the clip on note divisions
Move the Basic Slicing slider to the note
resolution you want. The Basic Slicing slider’s
settings range from whole notes to 64th notes.
Selecting quarter notes, for example, would
create four markers per measure.
Slice the clip at transient peaks
Move the Transient Detection slider to the right
until the larger transients in the clip are flanked
by markers.
Slice the clip manually
Move your mouse to the space above the Time
Ruler and double-click to add a marker. Click
and drag the marker, if necessary, so it aligns
with the beginning or end of a transient.
Play your project and adjust the slicing of your clip as necessary.
Note: You can use any or all of these methods to slice a clip. If you adjust both the Slices and Trans
Detect menus, two markers may be placed right next to each other. If these markers are too close, the
markers will automatically merge. Manual markers will not automatically merge.
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To Transpose a Groove Clip to Match Your Project’s Pitch
Follow this procedure to force the Groove clip to follow the project’s default pitch.
1.
Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
2.
Click the Follow Project Pitch button.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
To Transpose a Groove Clip by Semitones
Follow this procedure to transpose a Groove clip by any number of semitones.
1.
Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
2.
If the Follow Project Pitch button is enabled, click it to disable it.
3.
In the Pitch (semitones) field, enter the number of semitones you want to transpose the clip by. A
negative number in the Pitch (semitones) field transposes a clip down. A positive number in the
Pitch (semitones) field transposes the clip up.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
English
To “Fine Tune” a Groove Clip
Follow this procedure to make slight pitch changes to a clip.
1.
Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2.
In the Fine Pitch (cents) field, enter the number of cents you want to adjust the pitch. You can
enter a number from -50 (transpose the pitch down by a quarter tone) to 50 (transpose the pitch up
by a quarter tone).
To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
The table below describes how to create and edit the slicing markers in the Loop Construction view.
To do this…
Do this…
Add a slicing marker
Move the mouse cursor to the Markers bar, at the
beginning of a transient and double-click.
Delete a slicing marker
Select the Eraser tool
Move a slicing marker
Click and drag a marker
Reset slicing markers to original positions
Click the Default All Markers button
and click on a marker.
.
For more information on slicing markers, see “Slicing Markers” on page 230.
Editing Slices
Each slice (space between the slicing markers) can be adjusted in the Loop Construction view. You can
adjust the following slice attributes:
•
Gain
•
Pan
•
Pitch
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:
To Preview a Groove Clip Slice
1.
Double-click on a clip to open the Loop Construction view.
2.
Click the Enable Slice Auto-preview button.
3.
Click a slice to hear it.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Gain
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the gain.
2.
In the Slice Gain field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the gain value.
Or
Click between the plus and minus keys until the cursor becomes a double arrow and drag up to
increase the value or down to decrease the value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pan
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the pan.
2.
In the Slice Pan field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the pan value. Negative is Left pan
and positive is right pan.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Half Steps)
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the pitch.
2.
In the first Slice Pitch field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the pitch value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Cents)
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the pitch.
2.
In the second Slice Pitch field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the pitch value.
To Adjust Slice Gain, Pan and Pitch Using Slice Envelopes
You can change an envelope’s gain, pan and/or pitch settings by dragging the envelope up or down in
that slice.
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files
Once you have created a Groove clip in SONAR, you can save the clip as a Groove Clip/Wave file,
compatible with ACIDized wave files.
To Save a Groove Clip as a Riff Wave File/ACIDized Wave File
1.
If you have not already done so, create a Groove clip. In the Loop Construction view, click the Save
icon.
The Save As dialog appears.
2.
Use the toolbar in the Save As dialog to navigate to the location where you want to save the file.
3.
In the File name field, enter a name for the file.
4.
Click the Save button.
To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip Into Another Application
You can drag and drop clips from SONAR to another application or to a directory in Windows. When you
drag a file from SONAR, the source file is copied and the copy is placed in the new directory or
application.
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View
Pitch markers change the pitch at which Groove clips sound. All Groove clips in SONAR that have the
Follow Project Pitch option enabled adjust their pitch as they encounter pitch markers in SONAR. If
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there are no pitch markers, all Groove clips play at the default project pitch, unless the Follow Project
Pitch parameter is disabled.
Pitch marker: Groove
clips with Follow
Project Pitch enabled
play with the Root
Note transposed to C
Time Ruler
Pitch marker: Groove
clips with Follow
Project Pitch enabled
play with the Root
Note transposed to D
To Enable a Clip’s Follow Project Pitch Option
1.
Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu.
2.
On the Groove Clips tab, check the Follow Project Pitch checkbox.
3.
Make sure that the Reference Note field is correct. When your project reaches a pitch marker,
SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow Project Pitch option enabled by the
difference between the clip’s Reference Note and the current Project Pitch.
4.
Click OK to close the dialog.
To Change Your Project’s Default Pitch
1.
Display the Markers toolbar, if it’s not already displayed, by using the View-Toolbars-Markers
command.
2.
In the Default Groove-Clip Pitch dropdown menu at the right end of the toolbar, choose your
project’s default pitch.
SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow Project Pitch option enabled by the difference
between the clip’s Reference Note and the current Project Pitch. Your project’s pitch changes wherever
you insert a pitch marker. If you don’t insert any pitch markers, your project stays at its default pitch.
To Create a Pitch Marker
1.
In the Track view, right-click in the Time Ruler.
2.
Select Create a Marker from the menu that appears.
3.
The Marker dialog appears.
4.
In the Groove Clip Pitch dropdown, select a pitch.
5.
Click OK.
To Move a Pitch Marker
•
Click and drag a pitch marker to a new location on the Time Ruler.
MIDI Groove Clips
MIDI Groove clips are MIDI clips that you can roll out like audio Groove clips, and you can also choose
to have SONAR transpose MIDI Groove clips when your project reaches a pitch marker.
You can change any MIDI clip into a MIDI Groove clip (or back into a regular MIDI clip) by selecting the
clip and using the Edit-Groove Clip Looping command. A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature
activated appears with beveled edges in the Clips pane.
Here are some other features of MIDI Groove clips:
•
You can roll out copies in either direction (just like audio Groove clips). The Snap-to-Grid setting
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English
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
:
determines what beat boundaries (if any) you can roll to.
•
You can edit individual repetitions without altering any other copies (unlike audio Groove clips).
Note: If you then roll the edge of your MIDI Groove clip back over the area you edited, you will lose
your edits.
•
All new repetitions are based on the first clip (just like audio Groove clips). However, if you split a
repetition from its original source clip, the repetition becomes independent: if you copy this clip,
SONAR treats it as an original clip.
•
You can import MIDI Groove clips from the Import MIDI dialog, the Loop Explorer view, and by
dragging and dropping from the Windows Explorer.
•
You can preview MIDI Groove clips in the Import MIDI dialog.
•
You can edit MIDI Groove clips wherever you can edit regular MIDI clips.
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures, and also “Exporting, and Importing MIDI
Groove Clips” on page 241.
To Enable or Disable a MIDI Clip’s Groove Clip Function
•
Select the clip and press Ctrl+L.
Or
•
Select the clip and use the Edit-Groove Clip Looping command.
Or
•
Right-click the clip and choose Groove Clip Looping from the popup menu.
A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature activated appears with beveled edges in the Clips pane.
To Create Repetitions of a MIDI Groove Clip
1.
Set the Snap value if you want the clip to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2.
Move the cursor over the end or beginning of the clip until the cursor looks like this
.When the
cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are dragging
out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip
1.
Select the MIDI Groove clip.
2.
Hold down the Alt key, and press the + or - key on your computer keyboard to raise or lower the
clip’s pitches a half-step at a time. You don’t have to stop playback.
Or
1.
Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu.
2.
On the Groove Clips tab, in the Pitch (semitones) field, choose the number of half-steps you want to
transpose the clip by: choose negative numbers to transpose down, or positive numbers to
transpose up.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
Either method transposes the original clip and all repetitions. The original clip displays a positive or
negative number in parentheses showing any transposition value you’ve added to the clip.
If you use pitch markers to transpose a clip, any transposition value you add to the clip by the above two
methods changes the final pitch by whatever transposition value you’ve added.
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To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip with Pitch Markers
Use the same method you use for audio Groove clips: see “Using Pitch Markers in the Track View” on
page 238.
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips
You can not export MIDI Groove clips by saving your project as a Standard MIDI File—Standard MIDI
Files do not contain MIDI Groove clip data, such as transposition value, etc. When you import MIDI
Groove clips, you can preview them in the Import MIDI dialog.
There are two methods for exporting MIDI Groove clips:
•
Using the File-Export-MIDI Groove Clip command
•
Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from SONAR to the Windows Explorer
•
Using the File-Import-MIDI command
•
Using the Loop Explorer view
•
Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from the Windows Explorer to a MIDI track in SONAR
English
There are three methods for importing MIDI Groove clips:
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures:
To Export MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1.
Highlight the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export.
2.
Use the File-Export-MIDI Groove Clip command.
The Export MIDI dialog appears.
3.
Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4.
Type a name for the clip in the File Name field.
5.
Click the Save button.
SONAR exports the MIDI Groove clip, which contains the information displayed in the Clip Properties
dialog, on the Groove-Clips tab, except for the Pitch (semitones) field, which does not get exported.
To Export a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
•
Drag the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export to the folder in the Windows Explorer where
you want to keep it.
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:
To Import MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1.
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the clip.
2.
Highlight the track you want to import the clip into.
3.
Use the File-Import-MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4.
Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips. Make sure that the Files of Type field is
set to MIDI File.
5.
Highlight the file you want to import—the File Info field displays the file’s MIDI Groove clip data,
if any.
6.
If you want to preview (listen to) the highlighted file, click the Play button in the Import MIDI
dialog. When you decide to import the highlighted file, click the Open button.
To Import MIDI Groove Clips from the Loop Explorer View
1.
Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you want to do.
2.
If the Loop Explorer view is not open, use the View-Loop Explorer command to display it.
3.
Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4.
Do either of the following:
•
Drag the file you want to the track and time where you want it.
•
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the file, highlight the track you
want to import the file into, and double-click the file.
To Import a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
1.
Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you want to do.
2.
In the Windows Explorer, navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
3.
Drag the MIDI Groove clip to the track and time where you want it to go.
Importing Project5 Patterns
Project5 is Cakewalk’s pattern-based soft synth work station that has its own library (pattern bin) full
of MIDI and audio patterns, stored on disk. If you have Project5 MIDI patterns on your hard disk, you
can import them directly into SONAR.
To Import a Project5 Pattern
1.
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the pattern.
2.
Highlight the track you want to import the pattern into.
3.
Use the File-Import-MIDI command.
4.
Change the Files of Type field to P5 Pattern.
5.
Navigate to a folder where you store Project5 MIDI patterns.
6.
Highlight the file you want to import.
7.
To import the highlighted file, click the Open button.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
SONAR imports the pattern to the selected track at the Now Time.
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SONAR lets you edit the events in your projects in dozens of different ways. The Piano Roll
view lets you add and edit notes, controllers, and automation data interactively, using a
graphic display. SONAR’s many editing commands can improve the quality of recorded
performances, filter out certain types of events, and modify the tempos and dynamics of your
projects. The Event List view lets you see and modify every detail of your project. Finally, you
can apply a variety of effects and filters to enhance your MIDI data.
SONAR has many additional commands and features for working with audio. For more
information, see “Editing Audio” on page 315.
In This Chapter
Event Inspector Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
The Piano Roll View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Selecting and Editing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Slip Editing MIDI (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Changing the Timing of a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Searching for Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
The Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
English
7
Editing MIDI Events and
Controllers
:
Event Inspector Toolbar
The Event Inspector toolbar is available from the View menu by selecting View-Toolbars and checking
Event Inspector in the Toolbars dialog. The Event Inspector has the following:
•
Time
•
Pitch
•
Velocity
•
Duration
•
Channel
To Display a Note’s Properties in the Event Inspector Toolbar
•
Select a note.
If you select multiple notes, the Event Inspector toolbar displays the note value if all selected note
values are the same. If the note values are different, the Event Inspector does not display
anything.
To Change a Note’s Properties Using the Event Inspector Toolbar
1.
Select a note.
2.
In the appropriate Event Inspector toolbar field, change the value. See the table below for a
description of valid value entries for each field in the Event Inspector toolbar.
Event Inspector
Field…
Valid Values…
Time
Any valid M:B:T time value. Separate values with a colon or a space. For
example, measure 2, Beat 3, Tick 720 would be written as 2:3:720.
Pitch
Note names (C0 through G10) and note numbers (0 through 127) are valid
in this field. Also, you can use a modifier to raise or lower the value by a
number of half-steps. To raise the pitch by 2 half-steps, type +2 and press
enter. To lower the pitch by 2 half-steps, type -2 and press enter.
Velocity
A velocity value or modifier value are valid in this field. Valid velocity
values are 0 through 127. Valid modifier values are +/- 0 through 127.
Duration
A PPQ value.
Channel
1 through 16.
The Piano Roll View
The Piano Roll view displays all notes and other events from one or more MIDI tracks in a grid format
that looks much like a player piano roll. Notes are displayed as horizontal bars, and drum notes as
diamonds. Pitch runs from bottom to top, with the left vertical margin indicating the pitches as piano
keys or note names. Time is displayed running left to right with vertical measure and beat boundaries.
The Piano Roll view makes it easy to add, edit, and delete notes from a track.
A single-track version of the Piano Roll view is available in each track in the Track view. This view is
called the Inline Piano Roll view, and replaces the Clips pane in any track that you choose to display in
Inline Piano Roll mode.
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The Piano Roll view consists of the Note Map pane, the Drum Grid pane, the Notes pane, the Controller
pane, the Piano Roll view toolbar, and the Track List pane.
Toolbar
Show/Hide MIDI
Events menu
Edit MIDI Event Type
menu
Note Map pane
English
Drum Grid pane
Notes pane
Controller pane
Tooltip shows cursor position
and editing data while you edit
an event
Track List pane
Selected track
Note Map Pane
This pane displays your drum map settings. You can mute or solo individual pitches, and preview
individual pitch sounds. For more information about the Note Map Pane, see “The Note Map Pane” on
page 310.
Drum Grid Pane
In the Drum Grid pane you can add, delete, and edit notes and note properties in any MIDI track(s)
assigned to a drum map. You can also edit controllers in this pane if you choose to hide the Controller
pane.
For more information, see “The Drum Grid Pane” on page 311“Adding and Editing Controllers in the
Piano Roll View” on page 254.
Notes Pane
In this pane you can add, edit, and delete notes in any MIDI track(s) not assigned to a drum map. You
can also edit controllers in this pane if you choose to hide the Controller pane.
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:
Controller Pane
This pane displays controller events, which you can edit. You can show or hide this pane by clicking the
Use Controller Pane button
that is in the Piano Roll view toolbar, or by pressing C. When the
Controller pane is hidden, all controller events appear in the Notes pane.
Track List Pane
The Track List pane is home to a list of all tracks currently displayed in the Piano Roll view. In this
pane you can enable and disable editing of a track’s data; mute, solo and arm a track; and show or hide
the track’s data in the Notes pane or Drum Grid pane. Track numbers, names and output ports appear
in the Track List pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/Hide Track Pane
button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
If you see an error message saying that you have masked the active track, it means that the active track
is not visible at the moment. To unmask the track click the track’s Show/Hide Track button
in the
Track List pane so that the button appears in color.
Opening the View
There are several ways to open the Piano Roll view:
•
In the Track view, select the track you want to see, then choose View-Piano Roll or press Alt+5
•
In the Track view, right-click on a track and choose View-Piano Roll from the popup menu
•
Double-click on a MIDI clip in the Clips pane
Each selected track is displayed. You can always switch to a different track or tracks—simply click the
button (or press T) and choose the track you want.
The Piano Roll view lets you edit notes and controllers during playback or recording, in real time. This
means you can loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on the next loop. The
Piano Roll view also shows notes on-screen as you record them.
Like the Track view, the Piano Roll view includes zoom tools that let you change the vertical and
horizontal scale of the view. The Piano Roll view also has a Snap to Grid
button. For more
information on this feature, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 201.
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
You can view as many tracks as you want in the Piano Roll view. When you display several tracks at the
same time in the Piano Roll view, you control which track(s) you can see and/or edit by using the
buttons in the Track List pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/Hide
Track Pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
If you want to edit the data in a track, you must make the track you want to edit the current track. The
name of the current track appears highlighted in the Track List pane. To display the Track List pane in
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the Piano Roll view, click the Show/Hide Track List pane button
in the Track List pane:
. The following shows three tracks
Track disabled for track editing
Track’s data shown in
Notes pane
Output
Track’s data hidden in Notes pane
Current track
Mute
Arm
Solo
To make a track the current track in the Track List pane, click on the track. When a thin dotted line
surrounds the track, it is the current track.
Tip: Clicking a note will make the note’s parent track the current track.
The following is a list of ways to optimize the multiple track functionality in the Piano Roll view.
Selecting Tracks to View
Use the Pick Tracks combo button
to assign tracks to the Track List pane. Click on the left side of
the Pick Tracks combo button to open the Pick Tracks dialog box. Click on a track name to select it.
Hold down the Ctrl key and click more track names to select additional tracks. Click on the right side of
the Pick Tracks combo button to show the Show Previous/Next Tracks popup menu. Selecting Show
Previous Track(s) moves the track or range of tracks down by one track number. Selecting Show Next
Track(s) moves the track or range of tracks up by one track number. For example, if you have tracks 2, 3
and 7 displayed in the Track List pane and you select Show Previous Track(s), the Track List pane
displays tracks 1, 2, and 6.
Display
If the notes of two tracks overlap, the notes of the topmost track in the Track List pane appear over the
notes of the other track. You can move a track up or down by in the Track List pane by clicking and
holding on the track and moving the track to the desired position.
All tracks ending in the same digit (2, 12, 22, etc.) share the same color. The default colors can be
changed using Options-Colors.
The Enable/Disable Track Editing Button
The Enable/Disable Track Editing button
sets whether or not you can edit the notes of a track in
the Piano Roll view. When the button appears white, editing is enabled and the track appears in color.
When the button appears gray, editing is disabled and the track appears in gray.
Note: The Enable/Disable Track Editing button only disables the Piano Roll view tools; other editing
commands are still operational.
The Show/Hide Track Button
The Show/Hide Track button
controls whether or not a track appears in the Notes pane. The button
appears in color when toggled on, white when off.
The Invert Tracks Button
If you use the Show/Hide Track button to hide any tracks in the Track List pane, you can show all these
tracks and hide the ones that are currently displayed by clicking the Invert Tracks button.
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English
Track enabled for track editing
:
Note Names
You can change the instrument definition for the active track in the Piano Roll view. Right-click the
piano keys in the Notes pane to open the Note Names dialog where you can use note names that are
defined as part of any instrument definition. For more information about instrument definitions, see
Chapter 16, Using Instrument Definitions.
To Change the Active Track’s Instrument Definition
1.
Right-click the left side of the Notes pane (where the piano keys or note names are displayed) to
display the Note Names dialog box.
2.
To use the note names from the assigned instrument (the default), click Use the Assigned
Instrument Settings. Click Configure to change the instrument definitions.
3.
To override the default setting, click Use These Settings Instead, and choose the note names and
mode you want to work with.
4.
Click OK when you are done
The Piano Roll view is updated with the settings you request.
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View
Only)
The Show/Hide MIDI Events button
in the Piano Roll view lets you quickly hide or show any
combination of the data in a MIDI track or in multiple MIDI tracks. This button is independent of the
Show/Hide MIDI Events button in a track’s Inline Piano Roll view (see also “Displaying Notes and
Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View” on page 260)).
The Show/Hide MIDI Events button is located in the upper left corner of the Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show Data in the Piano Roll View
248
1.
If you want to display the data from multiple MIDI tracks, first choose and configure the tracks
from which you want to display data (see “Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View” on
page 246).
2.
Click the dropdown arrow on the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
to display the menu of
MIDI data in the current track (the track that is highlighted in the Track List pane, or in the Track
view).
3.
Choose from the following menu options:
•
To hide or show notes for all displayed tracks, click Show Notes.
•
To display the notes’ velocity columns in either wide or narrow mode, click Full Width
Velocity.
•
To hide or show the outline(s) of the clip(s) you’re looking at, choose Show Clip Outlines.
•
To hide or show a controller type for all displayed tracks, click the name of the controller.
•
To show all controllers in all displayed tracks, click Add All Existing Value Types.
4.
After you choose an option, the menu closes. You can repeat steps 2 and 3 to choose more options.
5.
To hide or show all controllers in all tracks, click the left side of the Edit MIDI Event Type button.
The button turns white when all controllers are hidden, and blue when all controllers are showing.
You add notes in the Piano Roll view or Inline Piano Roll view by first choosing a note duration in the
Piano Roll toolbar (or in the current track’s Note Duration menu if you’re using the Inline Piano Roll
view), and then clicking in the view with the Draw tool at the pitch location and time location where you
want the note to go. The pitch locations are marked by grey rows for the sharps or flats, and white rows
for naturals. Octaves are labeled on the keyboard display on the left side of the Piano Roll view, and by
the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. You can display different octaves by dragging the vertical
scroll bar that’s on the right side of the Piano Roll view, or by dragging the MIDI Scale in the Inline
Piano Roll view. The time locations are marked by the measure numbers in the horizontal time ruler
that’s at the top of the view, and by the vertical grid lines that mark the beats in the measure. The Snap
to Grid menu determines how precisely you can place your notes in time.
You can edit notes by a variety of methods:
•
Select notes, and then use editing commands from the Edit menu, the Process menu, or the Event
Inspector toolbar
•
Move single or groups of selected notes with the Select tool
•
Edit the pitch, location, duration, start time, and velocity of individual or groups of selected notes
with the Draw tool
For step-by-step procedures, see the following topics:
Selecting Notes
There are several ways to select notes in the Piano Roll view and Inline Piano Roll view:
•
Click and drag in the Piano Roll view’s Time Ruler to select notes (and other MIDI events) that
start playing within the time range that you select.
•
In the Inline Piano Roll view, click and drag in the Track view’s Time Ruler to select notes (and
other MIDI events) that start playing within the time range that you select. This selects data in
the current track, or all selected tracks.
•
Click notes or drag around them with the Select tool
•
In the Piano Roll view only (not the Inline Piano Roll view): click or drag the piano keys to the left
of the Notes pane or the drum map rows in Note Map pane to select all notes of the desired
pitch(es).
•
In the Inline Piano Roll view: Shift-click or Shift-drag the piano keys on the MIDI Scale to select
all notes of the desired pitch(es).
.
To Select Notes with the Select Tool
1.
Activate the Select tool by clicking it in either the Piano Roll view toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar (depending on which view you’re working in).
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English
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
:
2.
Select notes as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a single note
Click on the note
Select several notes at once
Drag a rectangle around the notes you want
to select
Add to the selection
Hold the Shift key while selecting notes
Toggle the selection
Hold the Ctrl key while selecting notes
Select notes in a certain time range.
Set the desired Snap to Grid value in either
the Piano Roll view or the Inline Piano Roll
view (depending on which view you’re
working in), and drag in the Time Ruler of the
appropriate view.
Selected notes are highlighted (50% gray mask).
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches (Piano Roll View Only)
Click the piano keys on the left side of the Notes pane or the drum map rows in the Note Map pane as
shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select all notes of a single pitch
Click on the piano key or drum map row
Select all notes of several pitches
Drag across the keys or drum map rows
Add to the selection
Hold the Shift key while clicking on a piano key or
drum map row
Toggle the selection
Hold the Ctrl key while clicking on a piano key or
drum map row
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches (Inline Piano Roll View Only)
1.
Zoom the MIDI Scale in far enough to see the keys clearly (left-click and drag on the MIDI Scale).
2.
Shift-click a piano key to select all the notes of that pitch, or Shift-drag through multiple notes to
select them.
Ctrl-clicking to select multiple non-adjacent notes is not possible in the MIDI Scale.
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
You can edit notes in the Piano Roll view and the Inline Piano Roll view with the same methods. The
Draw tool and the Select tool are useful for quick note editing. You can do the same edits with
commands in the Process menu (Length, Slide, Transpose). If you want to edit multiple notes at the
same time, first select them with the Select tool.
MIDI notes display their velocity value as a wide or narrow column. You can drag the column up or
down to edit the note’s velocity. Holding the Draw tool over the middle of the note in the upper third of
the note displays a small velocity column on the Draw tool to show that the tool is in the target zone.
250
Draw tool in velocity-edit mode
Tooltip showing cursor position
Velocity column
Tooltips give you a constant readout of the cursor position, how much you’ve edited the selection, and
how many notes you’re editing.
English
In the picture below, the tooltip lists the current location of the cursor, how far the selection has moved
from its original location (1252 ticks to the right), the current pitch level and MIDI note number of the
cursor (E8 100), how far from the note’s original pitch the cursor has moved (1 half-step higher), and
how many notes are in the selection.
When you drag multiple notes, the Piano Roll view “auditions” them, so you can hear all of them as they
pass through different pitch levels.
To Edit Notes with the Draw Tool
1.
If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the Select tool. Editing any of
the notes in the selection edits all the selected notes in the same way.
2.
Click
to select the Draw tool. (make sure that the Auto-Erase button is not enabled, unless you
want to delete notes).
3.
Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline Piano Roll view, make sure
you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid dialog).
4.
Edit notes as described in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Change the start time, but not the
duration
Drag the left edge of the note in either direction.
The start time of the note is moved to the new location.
Change the pitch
Drag the middle of the note up or down.
Move the note horizontally
Move the cursor just inside the left edge of the note until it
looks like this:
Then drag left or right.
251
:
Change the duration
Drag the right edge of the note in either direction.
Copy and paste notes
Hold the Ctrl key down, and drag notes so as to either move
them horizontally or change the pitch (see above), and
release the mouse at the desired location.
Add a note
See “To Draw Notes” on page 252.
Edit velocity
See “To Edit Velocity” on page 252.
Delete notes
Click the Auto Erase button to enable it, and click each note
that you want to delete, or drag through multiple notes.
When the Auto Erase button is enabled, a small eraser icon
appears at the bottom of the Draw tool when the Draw tool
approaches notes from below.
Tip: press Alt to invoke Auto-mute.
To Draw Notes
1.
In the Edit MIDI Event Type menu in the Piano Roll view, or the Inline Piano Roll view (depending
on which view you’re working in), select Notes/Velocity.
2.
Enable the Draw tool in the Piano Roll toolbar, or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
3.
Choose a duration for the note by clicking a note-head button in the Piano Roll toolbar, or the Note
Duration menu in the track controls if you’re using the Inline Piano Roll view.
4.
Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline Piano Roll view, make sure
you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid dialog).
5.
Click in the Notes pane at the pitch and location where you want the note: pitch locations are
marked by grey rows for the sharps or flats, and white rows for naturals. Octaves are labeled on
the keyboard display on the left side of the view (this is called the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano
Roll view). You can display different octaves by dragging the vertical scroll bar that’s on the right
side of the Piano Roll view, or by dragging the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. The time
locations are marked by the measure numbers in the horizontal time ruler that’s at the top of each
view. You can display vertical grid lines that mark the beats in the measure by clicking the Show/
Hide Grid button
in the Piano Roll view, or by right-clicking the Clips pane (not the Inline
Piano Roll view), choosing View Options from the popup menu, and checking the Display Vertical
Rules checkbox.
To Edit Velocity
1.
If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the Select tool. Editing any of
the notes in the selection edits all the selected notes in the same way.
2.
Make sure Velocity has a checkmark next to it in the Show/Hide MIDI Events menu.
3.
Enable the Draw tool.
4.
Move the cursor over the upper third of the middle of the note. When you reach the target area, the
Draw tool displays a small velocity column to show that you have enabled velocity editing.
5.
Drag up or down to edit velocity. The tooltip shows you the velocity value that the cursor is passing
through, the difference from the original value, and how many notes you’re editing.
Note: instead of moving the cursor over the upper third of the note to activate velocity editing, you can
hold down the Ctrl key instead. This allows you to drag the Draw tool horizontally to draw the desired
veloctiy level(s).
252
To Edit Notes with the Select Tool
If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the Select tool. Editing any of
the notes in the selection edits all the selected notes in the same way.
2.
Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline Piano Roll view, make sure
you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid dialog).
3.
Edit notes as described in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Change the start time, but not the
duration
Drag the note left or right
Change the pitch
Drag the note up or down.
Copy and paste notes
Hold the Ctrl key down, and drag notes horizontally and/or
vertically, and release the mouse at the desired location.
Delete notes
Press the Delete key.
English
1.
To Change Note Properties
1.
Right-click a single note to display the Note Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit the desired start time, pitch, duration, velocity, or channel.
3.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR updates the note event accordingly. Note that you can also edit note velocity in the Notes pane
and the Event Inspector toolbar. For information on changing note velocities in the Drum Grid Editor,
see “Editing Note Velocities” on page 309. For more information, see “Velocity, Pitch Wheel, and
Aftertouch” on page 288.
To Temporarily Turn off the Auto Erase Button
1.
Hold down the Alt key.
2.
Make the desired edits.
3.
Release the Alt key.
To Scrub the Project
1.
Click
or press B to select the Scrub tool.
2.
Press and hold the left mouse button in the Piano Roll view. SONAR displays a vertical line and
plays any notes that are underneath the line.
3.
Drag the line to the left or right, at any desired speed.
Note that the Mute, Solo and Arm buttons do not affect Scrub. If the track is hidden, however, you do
not hear notes in that track.
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:
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
View
Controller events (MIDI continuous controllers, pitch wheel, NRPN’s, and RPN’s) appear in either the
Notes Pane or the Controller pane, depending on whether you choose to display the Controller pane or
not. Each controller event has an edit handle at the top, which you can drag to edit, and a tail under the
edit handle, which graphically demonstrates the controller event’s current value. The tail changes
colors to show whether you can edit a particular type of controller, and also turns dark to show that the
controller event is selected. Controller events appear in different colors so you can differentiate them
when you’re displaying multiple controller events, possibly in multiple tracks.
Note: only the current track and current events appear in a solid color. All other tracks and events
appear in de-saturated colors.
A single controller event
Edit handle
Controller tail
To show which events belong to which track, and which ones are the “current” events (the ones you can
edit), and which events are selected, controller events use the following color patterns:
•
Controller tail—uses the same color as the edit handle when the controller can be edited (in other
words, when the controller is selected in the Edit MIDI Event Type menu). You can automatically
enable a controller type for editing by clicking its edit handle with the Draw tool.
•
Selected—if a controller event is selected, both the edit handle and the tail darken in shade the
way that selected notes do.
Adding Controllers
When you add a new controller type to a track, the controller type is automatically chosen in the Show/
Hide MIDI Events menu, so that you can see it. For help showing and hiding all the other MIDI data
you may have in your track or tracks, see “Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll
View” on page 260, “Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)” on page 248, and
“Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View” on page 246.
To Add Controller Data with the Draw Tool
1.
Click the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
menu.
2.
Choose options from the following fields:
, and choose New Value Type from the popup
The MIDI Event Type dialog appears.
•
254
Type—choose the type of controller you want to add (for example, choose Control if you want
to edit volume).
•
Value—this field is greyed-out if you choose Wheel or ChanAft in the Type field. If you choose
Control, RPN, or NRPN in the Type field, choose which Control, RPN, or NRPN you want to
add. For example, to edit volume, choose 7-Volume in this field if you chose Control in the
Type field.
•
Channel—choose a MIDI channel for the controller if you want. If your track has a MIDI
channel listed in the Ch field, all MIDI data in your track uses the listed MIDI channel.
3.
Click OK to close the dialog.
4.
Activate the Draw tool in either the Piano Roll view toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar
(depending on which view you’re working in), and add your controller values by using one of the
following methods:
Depress the mouse at the point where you want your controller messages to start, and drag
the Draw tool to draw the kind of curve you want your controller messages to follow. A tooltip
appears when you depress the mouse, and constantly reports the controller name, channel,
value, and location of the controller value that you are entering. Release the mouse where you
want your curve to end.
Tip: to draw a straight line, hold the Shift key down while you draw.
•
To add one controller event at a time, click each place that you want to add a controller value.
A tooltip appears when you click, and reports the controller name, channel, value, and
location of the controller value that you are entering.
The controller events you added appear as vertical lines, each with an edit handle at the top that you
can drag. Each different type of controller event appears with a different color.
When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines the density of
controller events. To insert a larger number of controller events with relatively small changes in value,
move the mouse slowly. To insert a smaller number of controller events with relatively large changes in
value, drag the mouse quickly.
To Insert a Series of Controllers
1.
Choose Insert-Series of Controllers to display the Insert Series of Controllers dialog box.
2.
Choose the controller type from the Insert list.
3.
Choose the controller number or type from the Number list.
4.
Use the spinners or enter the desired MIDI channel.
5.
Enter a starting and ending value in the Begin and End boxes.
6.
Enter a starting and ending time in the From and Thru boxes.
7.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts a series of controller events with values that change smoothly over time from the
starting to the ending value indicated in the dialog box. This command never inserts more than one
event on the same clock tick. If any controllers of the type you have selected already exist in the time
region, SONAR deletes these before inserting the new ones.
Selecting Controllers
To perform many editing procedures on controllers, you first need to select the controller events you
want to edit. A selected controller event turns dark when it is selected. You can select a single controller
event, multiple controller events of the same type, or all controller events.
255
English
•
:
To Select Controller Events of the Same Type
1.
Click the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
from the popup menu.
, choose the type of event you want to select
2.
Activate the Select tool in the Piano Roll toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar (depending on
which view you’re working in), and select one or more controller events by usint the following
techniques:
•
Drag a rectangle around the edit handles of the controller events that you want to select.
•
Shift-click or Shift-drag to add other controllers to the selection.
•
Ctrl-click to or Ctrl-drag toggle the selection state of a controller.
•
Click and drag in the Time Ruler.
Editing Controllers
Each controller value appears with a handle at the top of it, which you can drag vertically with the
Select tool or the Draw tool, or horizontally (Select tool only).
Activate the Select tool or the Draw tool by clicking their respective icons in either the Piano Roll view
toolbar, or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, depending on which view you’re working in.
Tip: you can assign the Inline Piano Roll view tools to key bindings.
To Edit or Delete Controller Events with the Select Tool
1.
Select the type of controller events you want to edit by clicking the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
, and choosing the controller type from the popup menu.
The controller events you chose change shade to show that you can edit them.
2.
Drag the edit handle of each controller event that you want to edit vertically and/or horizontally. A
tooltip appears when you depress the mouse, and constantly reports the controller name, channel,
value, and location of the controller value that you are editing. Release the mouse where you want
your controller value to be.
3.
To delete controller events, select them, and press the Delete key.
To Edit or Delete Controller Events with the Draw Tool
1.
Select the type of controller events you want to edit by clicking the Edit MIDI Event Type menu,
and choosing the controller type from the popup menu.
Or
1.
Click an edit handle on the type of controller events you want to edit. This automatically chooses
the controller in the Edit MIDI Event Type menu.
The tails of the controller events you choose change to the same color as their edit handles to show
that you can edit them.
2.
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Edit the controller by using any of the following methods:
•
To edit a single event, drag an edit handle vertically.
•
Redraw a series of controller events by dragging a new curve through the events.
•
Delete a single controller event by activating the Auto Erase button, and clicking a
controller’s edit handle. You can override the Auto Erase button (temporarily reverse its
current state) by holding down the Alt key while you click.
The Inline Piano Roll View
The Inline Piano Roll view lets you edit note and continuous controller events for a single track directly
in the Track view. Clicking the PRV Mode button in a track changes the Clips pane for that track into a
single-track Piano Roll view which displays all the track’s MIDI data, including data from all track
layers. If a track uses a Drum Map, the Inline Piano Roll view for that track displays the Drum Map’s
note names on the track’s MIDI Scale (see “The MIDI Scale” on page 258 for more information).
•
Edit notes and controller events
•
Edit multiple notes or events
•
Display multiple controller types simultaneously
•
Choose which MIDI events you want to display
•
Use separate Snap to Grid settings in the Clips pane mode and Inline Piano Roll mode
You control the Inline Piano Roll view with controls in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, the MIDI Scale, and
four buttons found in the Track strip controls of each track: the PRV Mode button, the Show/Hide MIDI
Events button, the Edit MIDI Event Type button, and the Note Duration button. These three buttons
appear when you enable the PRV Mode button.
To display the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command, and check the Inline Piano
Roll Toolbar checkbox.
See the following two figures:
Track strip in PRV mode
Show/Hide MIDI Events button
PRV Mode button
Note Duration menu
Edit MIDI Event Type
menu
MIDI Scale
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English
In this view, you can:
:
Inline Piano Roll toolbar
Show/Hide Notes
Draw tool
Show/Hide Velocity Tails (on
drum-mapped tracks)
Select tool
PRV Mode
Auto Erase button
Show/Hide
Controllers
Fit Content
To draw and edit notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view, see “Adding and Editing Notes in
the Piano Roll View” on page 249 and “Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View” on page
254
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View
Use the following methods to hide or show the Inline Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show an Individual Track’s Inline Piano Roll View
•
In the Track pane, click the PRV mode button of the track that you want to display in Inline Piano
Roll view mode.
or
•
Double-click a MIDI clip in the Clips pane, if Inline Piano Roll Mode is selected in the MIDI Clips
field of the Clip View Options dialog. To open the Clips View Options dialog, right-click in the Clips
pane, and select View Options from the popup menu.
To Hide or Show All Tracks’ Inline Piano Roll Views
•
In the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, click the PRV mode button. To display the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog, and check the Inline Piano
Roll checkbox.
or
•
Use the Track-In-line PRV-PRV Mode command.
The MIDI Scale
MIDI tracks have a control called the MIDI Scale. This control displays a vertical ruler labeled with
MIDI values (in 7bit Values mode) or MIDI notes (in Notes mode), giving you a visual guide for editing
notes and controllers. The MIDI Scale is also a vertical zoom control. If a track uses a Drum Map, the
MIDI Scale for that track displays the Drum Map’s note names on the track’s MIDI Scale (in Notes
mode).
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MIDI Scale in Notes mode
To Zoom Vertically with the MIDI Scale
1.
Put the MIDI Scale into notes mode by right-clicking the MIDI Scale and choosing Notes from the
popup menu.
2.
Hold the mouse over the MIDI Scale so that the cursor changes to a small vertical keyboard, and
drag upward to zoom in. The Inline Piano Roll view zooms in.
Note: in Notes mode, if the track is zoomed-out too far, there is not enough room in the MIDI Scale
to display the keyboard. To see the keyboard, you need to zoom in far enough to display the
keyboard.
3.
To zoom out, drag downward on the keyboard display.
You can also zoom by using the Track view zoom controls.
To Scroll Vertically with the MIDI Scale
•
Right-click the MIDI Scale and drag up or down to scroll.
To Fit a Single Track’s Content into its Inline Piano Roll View
•
Right-click the MIDI Scale and choose Fit Content from the popup menu.
Or
•
Ctrl-double-click the MIDI Scale.
To Audition and Select Notes
•
To audition and select a note, Shift-click the note’s pitch in the MIDI Scale.
•
To audition and select all notes within a certain range, Shift-drag through the notes’ range of
pitches in the MIDI Scale.
To Fit All Tracks’ Contents into their Inline Piano Roll Views
1.
If you only want to use this command on certain tracks, select the tracks first. If no MIDI tracks
are selected, or if all MIDI tracks are selected, the command works on all MIDI tracks.
2.
Do one of the following:
Use the Track-In-line PRV-Fit Content command.
Or
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English
MIDI Scale
:
Click the Fit Content button on the Inline Piano Roll toolbar. To display the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog, and check the Inline Piano
Roll checkbox.
To Change the MIDI Scale’s Display Mode
•
Right-click the MIDI Scale to display the popup menu, and choose either 7bit Values (this
displays MIDI values), or Notes (this displays the keyboard).
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View
Every MIDI track in the Track pane displays a Show/Hide MIDI Events button when the track is in
Inline Piano Roll mode. These buttons work independently in each track, and are also independent from
the Show/Hide MIDI Events button in the Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show Data in Individual Tracks
1.
Click the dropdown arrow on the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
MIDI data in the track.
2.
Choose from the following menu options:
to display the menu of
•
To hide or show notes, click Show Notes.
•
To display the notes’ velocity columns in either wide or narrow mode, click Full Width
Velocity.
•
To hide or show a controller, click the name of the controller (for example, click CC: 1Modulation (Chan: 2)).
•
To show all MIDI data in the current track, click Add All Existing Value Types.
•
To show or hide all the outlines of any clips in the track, click Show Clip Outlines.
3.
After you choose an option, the menu closes. You can repeat steps 1 and 2 to choose more options.
4.
To hide or show all controllers, click the left side of the Show/Hide MIDI Events button. The
button turns white when all controllers are hidden, and blue when all controllers are showing.
To Hide or Show Notes in All Tracks
•
Click the Show/Hide Notes button in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
or
•
Use the Track-Show/Hide Notes command.
Both of these commands override the Show/Hide MIDI Events buttons in individual tracks.
To Hide or Show Controllers in All Tracks
•
Click the Show/Hide Continuous button in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
or
•
Use the Track-In-line PRV-Show/Hide Continuous Events command.
Both of these commands override the Show/Hide MIDI Events buttons in individual tracks.
Drawing and editing notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view is the same in the Piano Roll
view, with a few minor exceptions (noted in the appropriate topics). To draw and edit notes and
controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view, see “Selecting Notes” on page 249, “Editing Notes with the
Draw Tool and the Select Tool” on page 250, “Selecting Notes” on page 249, “Editing Notes with the
Draw Tool and the Select Tool” on page 250, “Adding Controllers” on page 254, “Selecting Controllers”
on page 255, and “Editing Controllers” on page 256.
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Selecting and Editing Events
SONAR has many editing commands that you can use to modify the events that make up your project.
Here are some of the things you can do:
•
Transpose events, clips, tracks, or an entire project to a different key
•
Shift events to an earlier or later time
•
Stretch or shrink material to a different length
•
Reverse the notes in a clip to create new arrangements
•
Modify the note velocities
The following sections describe these editing commands and how to use them. SONAR also has some
special commands you can use to modify or clean up a performance or to search for or select events that
meet certain criteria. For more information, see the following sections of this chapter.
English
Copying and Pasting MIDI Data
You can copy and paste both notes and controller data in SONAR.
To Copy and Paste MIDI Data with the Copy/Paste Commands
1.
Select the data you want to copy.
2.
Use the Edit-Copy command, or press Ctrl+C.
3.
Use the Edit-Paste command, or press Ctrl+V.
The Paste dialog appears.
4.
Fill in options, and click OK. Click the Help button in the dialog for an explanation of each option.
SONAR pastes the copied data to the desired location.
Transposing
The Process-Transpose command transposes the pitches of selected note events up or down by a fixed
number of steps. It does so by changing the MIDI key numbers of note events. Simply enter the number
of half-steps—a negative number to transpose down, a positive number to transpose up.
SONAR can also perform diatonic transposition, which shifts all the notes up and down the major scale
of the current signature by the designated number of steps. For instance, if you specify an amount of +1
and the key signature is C-major, a C becomes a D (up a whole step), an E becomes an F (up a half step),
and so on. Diatonic transposition assures you that the transposed notes fit with the original key
signature.
As an option, you can choose to transpose selected audio clips along with any selected MIDI clips.
SONAR uses pitch-shifting (a plug in for changing audio pitch) to perform the transposition. You can
transpose audio only a single octave in either direction (-12 to +12), and you cannot transpose audio
when you are using diatonic transposition.
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:
To Transpose Selected Events
1.
Select the tracks, clips, or events you want to transpose.
2.
Choose Process-Transpose to display the Transpose dialog box.
3.
Use the spinners or enter the number of semi-tones to transpose.
Or
Use the + and - keys on your keypad to go up or down by one or [ and ] to go up or down by octaves.
4.
Check Diatonic Math if you want to transpose along the major scale of the current key.
5.
Choose Transpose Audio if you want to pitch-shift selected audio clips. If you check this checkbox.
SONAR transposes any selected audio data up or down, but only by halfsteps, not diatonically. When this
checkbox is enabled, the following two options become available:
6.
•
Type—choose the type of audio data you're transposing. Choose options based on the source
material: single voice or instrument versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic),
and how long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a long time if
you're processing several tracks.
•
Formant scaling—possible values range from 2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give a voice its
characteristic sound. You can use the Formant Scaling value to offset the pitch transposition you're applying.
For example, if you're transposing the pitch down, you can raise the formant to try and maintain the
characteristics of the sound..
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR transposes the selected events.
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Shifting Events in Time
The Track view lets you move entire clips forward or backward in time by using drag and drop editing
or by changing the start time of selected clips. The Process-Slide command is slightly more flexible—
you can use it to shift individual events and markers (or selected events and markers) either forward or
backward in time. This has an effect that is similar to the Time+ parameter in the Track view. However,
the Process-Slide command modifies the time stored with each event, while the Time+ parameter
simply applies a temporary change during playback.
You can also use the Process-Slide command to move markers located within the selection. If you have
selected any locked markers, SONAR will ask whether they should slide, too.
1.
Select the events and/or markers you want to shift.
2.
Choose Process-Slide to display the Slide dialog box.
3.
Check the types of event you want to slide (events and/or
markers).
4.
Enter the number of measures, ticks, seconds, frames or samples to slide. Enter a negative number
to shift material earlier. Note that you cannot slide any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if
the current selection starts at 2:01:000, you cannot slide events earlier by more than one measure.
5.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR shifts the selected events and/or markers. You can also use the Process-Nudge command to
move events. See “Nudge” on page 198 for more information.
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project
The Insert-Time/Measures command lets you insert any number of blank measures, ticks, seconds, or
frames into a project. You can insert the blank measures (or other period of time) into all tracks or into
one or more selected tracks. If you insert the blank time into the entire project, all events in each
track—markers, meter and key settings, and tempo changes—are shifted automatically by default. If
you insert the blank time into one or more selected tracks, only the events in those tracks are shifted by
default. You can always choose which types of events should be shifted.
To Insert a Single Blank Measure into a Project
1.
Press Ctrl+Shift+A or select Edit-Select-None to make sure that no track or time range is
selected.
2.
Set the Now time to the place where you want to insert the measure.
3.
Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog box.
4.
Verify that the settings are correct and click OK.
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English
To Shift Events in Time
:
SONAR inserts a blank measure at the Now time.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into a Project
1.
Select Edit-Select-None to make sure that no track or time range is selected.
2.
Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time Ruler.
3.
Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog box.
4.
If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5.
If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number and choosing the units you
want from the list.
6.
Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from the Slide list.
7.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into Selected Tracks
1.
Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time Ruler.
2.
Select one or more tracks by Ctrl-clicking on the track numbers.
3.
Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog box.
4.
If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5.
If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number and choosing the units you
want from the list.
6.
Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from the Slide list.
7.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
Deleting Measures or Time from One or More Tracks
There are two methods for deleting time or measures:
•
If there is any audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete, you can use the Edit-Delete
command to delete the area that you select. Portions of MIDI clips may have no data in them: they
have boundaries but no dark lines inside—if that’s the case, use the following method.
•
If there is no data in the area you want to delete, you can simply drag any clips that come after the
empty area to their proper destinations. You can also use this method if there is data in the area
you want to delete—you just have to choose whether you want to replace the data in the deleted
area, blend it with the data you’re moving, or slide it over to make room.
To delete time when there is audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete:
1.
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In the Track view, select the track(s) you want to delete measures or time from by doing one of the
following:
•
Select a single track by clicking the track number.
•
Select multiple tracks by Ctrl-clicking the track numbers.
2.
Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For example, if you want to delete
whole measures, set the Snap to Grid value to a whole measure.
3.
In the Clips pane, select the measures or time you want to delete by dragging in the Time Ruler
located just above the first track.
4.
Select Edit-Delete.
The Delete dialog box appears.
5.
Click the following checkboxes:
•
Events in Tracks
•
Delete Hole—if you want the data that comes after the hole to retain its same placement in a
measure, check the Shift by Whole Measures option.
6.
Click any of the other options you want to delete.
7.
Click OK.
SONAR deletes the time or measures you selected.
To delete time when there is no audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete (or if there is data,
but you like to drag and drop):
Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For example, if you want to delete
whole measures, set the Snap to Grid value to a whole measure.
2.
In the Track view, select the clips you want to move.
3.
Drag one of the selected clips to its proper destination—the Drag and Drop Options dialog box
appears.
4.
Choose options and click OK.
All the selected clips move by the amount that you dragged the mouse.
Stretching and Shrinking Events
The Process-Length and Process-Fit to Time commands can be used to stretch or shrink a portion of
a project. Process-Length lets you stretch or shrink the selection by a fixed percentage and makes the
adjustment by altering the individual events. A value of 200 percent, for example, stretches the
selection to twice its original length, while a value of 50 percent shrinks the selection to half its original
length.
Process-Fit to Time stretches or shrinks the selection so that it ends at a specific time, expressed in
either measure:beat:tick (MBT) or hours:minutes:seconds:frames (SMPTE) format. This command
gives you a choice of modifying the events or modifying the underlying tempo. This is useful when you
want a portion of a project to have an exact length. The start time of the selection does not change, but
the end time is altered as necessary to fit the required time interval.
Both of these commands offer the option to stretch audio clips along with the MIDI information.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio.
Here are some examples:
•
If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change the tempo of
the background music without altering the voice-over
•
If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum groove, you
want to leave the audio unchanged
•
If your audio consists solely of sound effects, you most likely do not want to adjust them
Audio can be stretched or condensed up to a factor of 4 (e.g., it can be shrunk to as little as 25 percent of
its original length, or expanded to as much as 400 percent of its original length).
You can also use the Process-Length command to alter only the start times or the durations of notes.
For example, changing the durations of notes to 50 percent of their original length can create a staccato
effect.
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English
1.
:
To Stretch or Shrink Using Percentages
1.
Select the events you want to change.
2.
Choose Process-Length to display the Length dialog box.
3.
Choose to change the Start Times and/or Durations of selected notes by checking the boxes.
4.
If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box. When this checkbox is
enabled, the following two options become available:
•
Type—choose the type of audio data you're stretching. Choose options based on the source
material: single voice or instrument versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic),
and how long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a long time if
you're processing several tracks.
•
Formant scaling—possible values range from 2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give a voice its
characteristic sound. If you find that changing the length of your audio changes the timbre too much, you
can raise or lower the formant to try and maintain the characteristics of the sound
5.
Use the spinners or type in the desired percent change in length.
6.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events.
To Stretch or Shrink to a Specific Length
266
1.
Select the events you want to change.
2.
Choose Process-Fit to Time to display the Fit to Time dialog box.
3.
Enter the desired end time in the New Thru box. Click Format to switch between MBT and
SMPTE format.
4.
Choose one of the following:
•
Tempo Map–Choose this option if you want the tempo to change but not the duration of notes
and events. For example, if your clip contains quarter notes, and you want those notes to stay
quarter notes even though the elapsed time of the clip changes, choose Tempo Map. SONAR
alters the tempo but not the events in the track.
•
Event Times–Choose this option if you want the tempo(s) to remain unchanged while note
durations and event start times change.
Important note: This option is unavailable if your selected data includes any
Groove clips.
6.
If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box. The following options
become available:
•
Type (disabled unless Stretch Audio is checked)—choose options based on the source material:
single voice or instrument versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic), and how
long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a long time if you're
processing several tracks.
•
Formant Scaling (disabled unless Stretch Audio is checked)—the possible values range from 2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give a voice its characteristic sound. If you find that
changing the length of your audio changes the timbre too much, you can raise or lower the
formant to try and maintain the characteristics of the sound
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events or changes the tempo map, as you requested.
Reversing Notes in a Clip
The Process-Retrograde command reverses the order of events in a selection. If one or more clips are
selected, then the events within each clip are reversed. If several clips are selected from the same track,
then the order of the clips is also reversed. You could use this command, for example, to take a scale or
other long run of notes and reverse the order in which they are played. The Process-Retrograde
command does not reverse the contents of audio clips. It only changes their start times. You can use the
Process-Audio-Reverse command to reverse audio clips.
To Reverse the Sequence of Notes or Other Events
1.
Select the notes you want to reverse.
2.
Choose Process-Retrograde.
SONAR reverses the order of the selected events.
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos
The Process-Scale Velocity command lets you create crescendos and decrescendos on those
instruments that respond to MIDI velocity. Most such instruments map changes in velocity to changes
in note loudness. Many synthesizer patches alter the timbre of the sound as well, so that higher
velocities produce brighter, as well as louder, sounds. Changes in velocity also affect the playback of
audio clips.
This command lets you set a starting and ending velocity for the entire time range of the selection.
SONAR scales the velocity of each event to create a smooth linear change in velocity. As an option, you
can enter a starting and ending percentage; existing velocity values are modified by the designated
percentage.
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English
5.
:
You can also edit note velocities in the Notes pane of the Piano Roll view, which lets you draw shapes
other than straight line changes. For more information, see “Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
View” on page 249.
To Scale Velocities
1.
Select the events whose velocity data you want to change.
2.
Choose Process-Scale Velocity to display the Scale Velocity dialog box.
3.
Enter the starting and ending velocity values.
4.
Check the Percentages box if the values are percentages.
5.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR alters the velocity of selected events.
Slip Editing MIDI (Non-destructive Editing)
Slip editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip, the end of a clip, or
both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during playback. All hidden material remains intact
and can be restored. All Slip Editing movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For more
information about the snap to grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 201.
Slip Editing Modes
Slip editing has three modes:
Trimming
As a default, when slip editing a clip, the clip’s contents always remains fixed in time. If the first
measure of a clip is hidden using slip editing, the remaining material does not shift forward in time by a
measure. The first measure of the clip is simply muted during playback. Playback of the clip resumes at
the second measure.
Slide-trimming
If you want the clip’s contents to shift in time, you can move the material in a slip edited clip by using
modifier keys, clicking on the middle of the clip and moving it either right or left.
Scroll-trimming
You can also shift the clip’s contents in time, in relation to either the beginning or end of the clip itself,
by scroll-trimming.
Using Slip Editing for MIDI Clips
When Slip Editing the beginning of a MIDI clip, if you drag the start of the clip past the beginning of a
note (Note On), the entire note is lost even if it extends into the part of the clip which remains visible.
Only notes completely contained in the slip edited clip remain.
When Slip Editing the end of a MIDI clip, if you drag the end of the clip so it covers part of a note, the
note’s duration is trimmed accordingly.
268
If you insert a new MIDI event which does not fall within the boundary of a slip-edited clip, a new MIDI
clip, which contains the new MIDI events, is created.
Important:
Adding controller data beyond the slip-edited boundaries of a slip-edited clip
in the Piano Roll view results in the slip-edited data being displayed in the
Piano Roll view. To avoid this, you can use the Apply Trimming command to
destructively edit the clip before adding the controller data.
To Slip-edit a MIDI Clip
Make edits according to the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Trim the beginning of a clip
Move the cursor over the beginning of a clip.
When the cursor changes in appearance to
look like this
, click and drag the clip to
the right until you have removed the
unwanted information.
Trim the end of a clip
Move the cursor over the beginning of a clip.
When the cursor changes in appearance to
look like this
, click and drag the clip to
the left until you have removed the unwanted
information.
Scroll-trimming a clip (Moving the clip
contents in time while maintaining the clips
start and end time)
Press the Alt+Shift keys while moving the
cursor over the middle of the clip. When the
cursor changes to look like this
, click
and drag the clip to the left or right as
desired. The contents (MIDI data) in the clip
follow the Snap to Grid resolution, i.e. if your
resolution is set to half note, the contents of
your clip moves in half-note intervals.
Slide-trimming the beginning of a clip
(Moving the start time of the clip and the
clip’s contents while preserving the end
time)
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the cursor
over the beginning of the clip. When the
cursor changes to look like this
, click
and drag the beginning to the desired start
time.
Slide-trimming the end of a clip (Moving the
end time of the clip and the clip’s contents
while preserving the clip’s start time)
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the cursor
over the end of the clip. When the cursor
changes to look like this
, click and drag
the end to the desired location.
English
1.
The hidden information in the slip-edited clips remains intact but is not heard during playback
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:
To Permanently Delete Slip-edited MIDI Data
1.
Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2.
Select the Edit-Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
Slip-editing Multiple MIDI Clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To Slip-edit Multiple MIDI Clips at Once
1.
Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
2.
Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until your cursor changes to
look like this:
3.
.
Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
Changing the Timing of a Recording
When you record a performance, there may be problems you’d like to correct. For example, the note
timing may not have been as accurate as you would like. Or, you may have recorded without using a
metronome and strayed from the tempo in one direction or another.
SONAR has two types of commands that you can use to modify the timing of a clip. The Quantize
commands alter the timing of the notes in your recording so that they fit a time grid.
The grid can have fixed time intervals or intervals that are based on some existing note pattern. The
Fit to Improvisation command, on the other hand, sets up a series of tempos that fit the material you
have recorded. Here’s a summary of when to use each type of command:
Use this
command...
To do this...
Quantize
Change the timing of the notes you’ve recorded to fit with the tempo of a project
Fit to Improvisation
Change the tempos of a project to fit with the performance you’ve recorded
These two types of commands are discussed in the following sections.
Quantizing
Quantizing is one of the most important editing functions in SONAR. You use this feature to correct
timing errors you make when recording from a MIDI instrument or to adjust the timing of audio clips.
Very few musicians are capable of performing in perfect time. As you play, you are likely to strike some
notes slightly before or after the beat or to hold some notes slightly longer than you intended. The
Quantize commands can help to correct these types of timing mistakes.
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SONAR has two different quantize commands:
Command...
How it works...
Process-Quantize
Adjusts the start time and duration of selected notes so that they
line up with a fixed size grid
Process-Groove Quantize
Lays a grid over an existing piece of music (the groove pattern),
and then adjusts the start time, duration, and velocity of selected
notes so that they line up with the grid
These commands have quite a few settings, making them very flexible and powerful. In addition, both of
these commands lets you create, save, and re-use presets. This means that once you find the settings
you like, you can save them and then apply them to other projects in a consistent way.
The resolution indicates the spacing of the grid. You can use any value from a whole note down to a
thirty-second note triplet. You can also specify resolution in clock ticks. A rule of thumb is to select a
resolution that matches the smallest note in the region you are quantizing. If you are quantizing a run
of sixteenth notes, use a sixteenth note as the resolution. If you are quantizing a mix of sixteenth and
eighth notes, you should still use a sixteenth note. At the default timebase of 480 PPQ, 480 clock ticks is
equal to quarter-note resolution.
When you use Groove Quantize, SONAR creates a grid at the desired resolution on top of the notes in
the groove. For example, if the groove contains only quarter notes but you choose sixteenth-note
resolution, SONAR builds the grid by dividing the space between each quarter note into four equal
sections. In places where the groove file contains no notes, SONAR builds a fixed grid of the desired
resolution.
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Resolution
:
Offset
Normally, the resolution grid is aligned evenly with the start of measures and beats. As an option, you
can shift the grid earlier or later by any desired number of clock ticks. If the resolution is a quarter note
and you’ve set the offset to +3 ticks, then a note that is originally near 1:01:000 would be moved to
1:01:003—three ticks beyond the beat boundary.
Duration
As an option, SONAR can adjust the duration of note events so that each note ends one clock tick before
the start of the nearest resolution-sized note. This ensures that the notes do not overlap, which can
cause problems on some synthesizers. The adjustment may lengthen the duration of some notes and
shorten the duration of others.
When you use Groove Quantize, the duration adjustment compares the note length to the duration of
the sample note in the groove. If no duration information is available, SONAR uses the distance to the
start of the groove event closest to the end of the note.
Velocity
The velocity adjustment, which is only available with the Groove Quantize command, adjusts the note
velocity to the velocity of the corresponding notes in the groove.
Strength
The human ear is tuned to the slight “imperfections” we hear from most musicians. If you quantize a
project so that all notes are perfectly in position, it may end up sounding mechanical or rigid. To avoid
this, SONAR lets you adjust the strength of the adjustment. A strength of 100 percent indicates that
all notes are moved so that they are in perfect time, while a strength of 50 percent means that all notes
are moved half-way towards the desired position. This lets you “tighten up” the timing as much as you
want, without going too far.
The Groove Quantize command also lets you control the strength of duration and velocity
adjustments. As you work with this command, you will notice that the note start time has a greater
effect than the duration on the rhythmic feel of the track. For this reason, changing the starting times
(time strength close to 100 percent) has a more noticeable effect than changing durations (duration
strength close to 100 percent). However, there are situations in which you might want to change both to
avoid ending up with notes that overlap or with unwanted rests.
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Swing
Many projects do not have notes positioned on a perfectly even time grid. For example, projects with a
swing feel, though they may be written entirely in eighth notes, are often played more like eighth-note
triplets, with the first note extended and the second one shortened. The swing option lets you distort
the timing grid so each pair of notes is spaced unevenly, giving the quantized material a swing feel.
A swing value of 50 percent (the default) means that the grid points are spaced evenly. A value of 66
percent means that the time between the first and second grid points is twice as long as the time
between the second and third points. The figure below illustrates the effect of the swing setting on the
timing grid:
Swing = 50%
English
Swing = 66%
Swing = 33%
Window
When you quantize some portion of a project, you might not want to adjust notes that are very far from
the grid. The window, or sensitivity, setting lets you choose how close to the resolution grid a note
must be located for quantize to move it.
A window of 100 percent includes all notes and guarantees that all notes will be shifted to lie exactly on
the grid. The window extends half the resolution distance before and after the quantization point. A
window of 50 percent extends only a quarter of the way toward the adjacent quantization points.
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:
When you use Groove Quantize, you can also perform adjustments on out-of-window events. There are
four options:
Option...
How it works...
Do Not Change
Notes outside the window are not changed.
Quantize to Resolution
Notes outside the window are snapped to a regular grid of the
specified resolution.
Move to Nearest
The window or sensitivity setting is ignored—all notes are
moved toward the nearest reference event, regardless of how
far off the grid they are located.
Scale Time
SONAR finds the two closest events before and after the event
in question that are within the window sensitivity and adjusts any
bracketed out-of-window events so that their relative timing is
the same. This option can uniformly speed up, slow down, or
shift out-of-window events.
Other Settings
If you want, you can restrict the types of events that are affected by the Quantize commands to only
notes, lyrics, and audio clips. If you choose this option, SONAR will not modify other events, like
controllers.
To Use the Quantize Command
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1.
Select the material you want to quantize using any of the selection tools and commands.
2.
Choose Process-Quantize to display the Quantize dialog box.
Choose one of your own presets from the list, or enter the settings you want according to the table:
Setting…
What to do…
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the number of
clock ticks
Change
Check the event types and characteristics
you want to change
Options
Enter values for Strength, Swing, Window,
and Offset
4.
Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press Stop to stop auditioning
the change.
5.
Make adjustments as necessary.
6.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can use Undo to restore the
material to its original state.
To Use the Groove Quantize Command
1.
Select the track or clip you want to quantize, using any of the selection tools and commands.
2.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
3.
Choose a groove file from the Groove File field.
4.
Choose a groove pattern from the Groove Pattern field.
5.
Use the following fields to configure your pattern:
Setting…
What to do…
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the number of
clock ticks
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English
3.
:
Window Sensitivity
Enter the window sensitivity value
(percentage)
If Outside Window
Choose what should happen to events
outside the window
Only Notes, Lyrics and Audio
Check to prevent MIDI controller, aftertouch,
and xRPN data from being adjusted
Stretch Audio
Check to stretch audio clips to adjust their
duration
Strength
Use the sliders or enter values for Note
strength, Duration strength, and Velocity
strength
6.
Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press Stop to stop auditioning
the change.
7.
Make adjustments as necessary.
8.
Optionally, type a name in the preset field (located at the top of the dialog box) and click the Save
button to save your settings.
9.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can use Undo to restore the
material to its original state. If you saved your settings, you can apply them to any pattern you want by
selecting the pattern and choosing a preset from the preset field. To delete a group of settings, select the
group from the preset field and click the Delete button.
Defining a Groove
To use the groove quantize feature, you must create or choose a small snippet of music—the groove
pattern—for SONAR to use as the timing and accent reference. You can use either of the following:
•
A track, clip, or portion of a clip stored on the Windows clipboard
•
A groove stored in a SONAR groove file
Any MIDI data that you place onto the Windows clipboard can be used as a groove pattern. With a
carefully defined groove pattern, you can give an old project an entirely new feel. If you like the groove
pattern you have created, you can save it to a groove file.
Groove files can store one or more groove patterns. SONAR supports two types of groove files:
•
DNA™ grooves, which contain only timing information but are compatible with some other MIDI
sequencer software products
•
SONAR’s native groove format, which stores timing, duration, and velocity information and can
handle longer patterns and longer gaps between quantization points
You can add groove patterns to these files from the Windows clipboard, edit existing patterns, or delete
patterns you do not want to keep. There is no limit to the number of groove patterns that can be stored
in a single file. You can organize your grooves into several files or keep them all together in a single file.
Groove files have an extension of .GRV.
A groove pattern can be as short or long as you like. If the groove pattern is shorter than the material to
be quantized, the pattern will be repeated as many times as necessary.
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To Define a New Groove
1.
Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools and commands.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
You can now use the Groove Quantize command with the clipboard as the “Groove File.”
To Save a Groove Pattern
Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools and commands.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
3.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
4.
Choose the Clipboard as the groove “Groove File.”
5.
Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
6.
Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
7.
Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
8.
Click OK.
9.
If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing version.
English
1.
10. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
SONAR stores the groove in the file and chooses the new groove as the current groove source.
To Copy an Existing Groove
1.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
2.
Choose the groove file and groove pattern you want to copy.
3.
Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
4.
Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
5.
Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
6.
Click OK.
7.
If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing version.
8.
Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
SONAR stores the groove on the Windows clipboard and chooses the new groove as the current groove
source.
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:
To Delete a Groove
1.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
2.
Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
3.
Select the file containing the groove to delete.
4.
Select the pattern name of the groove.
5.
Click the Delete button, and confirm that you want to delete the groove pattern.
6.
Repeat steps 3 to 5 for each groove you wish to delete.
7.
Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
Groove Quantize Tips
Here are some tips to help you with groove quantizing:
Aligning sloppy tracks with a good one. Select the portion of the “good” track that you want to
apply to the “sloppy” tracks and copy it to the Clipboard. Select the portion of the sloppy tracks you
want to modify. Choose Process-Groove Quantize, choose the Clipboard as the groove source, and click
OK.
Accenting beats in each measure. Create a sample measure containing note events at the desired
accent points. Give the notes on the accented beats a greater velocity and the others a lesser velocity.
Select the measure, copy it to the Clipboard, and then choose Process-Groove Quantize. Set the
velocity strength as high as necessary so that the notes get accented the way you want.
Stealing that feeling. Suppose you have a dry piece that was composed and entered into SONAR with
a rigid sense of timing (for example, using step recording). You’ve recorded a bass line that has exactly
the off-beat rhythmic dynamic you want for the dry piece. You’d like to force your other tracks to share
that feel. Copy the bass track to the Clipboard; from the Groove Quantize dialog box, select the
Clipboard as the groove source; choose a resolution value roughly on the order of the duration of the
bass notes and a window of 100 percent. SONAR aligns the melody note events with the nearest bass
notes.
Synchronizing rhythm and solo tracks. If you want to preserve the unique rhythm of each track
but want to synchronize them together in time, try a larger resolution value and a smaller window. For
example, suppose you have one track with a highly stylized drum beat and another track containing a
jazz solo with some very nice runs in it. The drum beats fall primarily on quarter notes, but the solo
consists of runs of fast notes that aren’t quite sixteenth triplets. Copy the drum track to the Clipboard,
and groove quantize using a quarter-note resolution and a window of perhaps 10 percent. SONAR
aligns the solo notes near the quarter-note drum beats but maintains the feel of the solo during the fast
runs of notes in between.
Correcting off-tempo tracks. Suppose you have both rhythm and melody tracks recorded, but the
melody was played erratically. First, copy the rhythm track to the Windows clipboard. Then use groove
quantize with a whole-note resolution, a window of 25 percent or less, and with the Scale Time option
selected. The Groove Quantize command will synchronize the melody track with the groove source at
roughly measure boundaries, while maintaining the relative timing of the notes in each measure.
Fixing a bad verse. Copy a good verse to the Clipboard. Then change the selected range to cover only
the bad verse. Perform a groove quantize using the Clipboard contents as the groove source. The
rhythms of the two verses then match.
Fit Improvisation
SONAR lets you record music from a MIDI controller without requiring that you use a fixed tempo. In
fact, if you record without using a metronome, you are very likely to end up with a recording that does
not fit onto a fixed tempo grid.
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The Process-Fit Improvisation command lets you take a recording and create a tempo map (with
measure and beat boundaries) that fits what you played. Your performance is not changed in any way,
even though the note start times and durations are adjusted to fit the new tempo map. This is
important if you later want to use any of SONAR’s editing features that depend on a proper tempo map
for best results.
To use this command, you must record a reference track containing a single clip that matches your
original track or tracks but has only a single note on each beat boundary. You should make sure that the
reference track has one event for every single beat, with no extra beats or missing beats. The first beat
of the reference track should be at 1:01:000. You can use any editing command to adjust the reference
track.
Remember that the better the quality of your reference track, the better job the Fit Improvisation
command can do. You want each of your reference track events to be as close as possible to the beat of
the music. Note that some keyboards transmit aftertouch events when you record your reference track.
These extra events will prevent Process-Fit Improvisation from working properly. Therefore, you
should delete these events before using this command, or filter them out when recording the reference
track (using Options-Global-MIDI).
To Fit Tempos to an Improvisation
1.
Record the reference track.
2.
Select the reference track.
3.
If necessary, combine all clips in the reference track into a single clip using the Edit-Bounce to
Clip(s) command.
4.
Choose Process-Fit Improvisation.
SONAR adds tempo changes as necessary to fit the tempo grid to the reference track. When you’re done,
you should mute the reference track, since the reference track events are not rescaled.
Note:
If the resulting tempo grid exceeds 250 beats per minute, you will see an error
message. If this happens, you can shorten the start times of each event using
the Edit-Length command, decrease the tempo to compensate for the change,
and then try again.
Snap to Scale
When Snap to Scale is enabled, any notes that you draw in the Piano Roll view (or Inline Piano Roll
view) stay within the selected scale. Also, any notes that you move with the Select tool stay within the
selected scale. When Snap to Scale is enabled, both Piano Roll views display grey rows at the pitch
levels that are not in the selected scale. Also, both the Select tool and the Draw tool display a tuning
fork icon when you create or modify notes to show that Snap to Scale is enabled.
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If you want, you can use other types of events as markers on the reference track, such as a sustain
pedal. Remember, however, that MIDI sustain pedals generate one event when the pedal is pressed and
another when it is released. So if you want to use the sustain pedal for the reference track, keep this in
mind. Click down, up, down, up, for one, two, three, four.
:
You can create custom scales, modify existing ones, and choose how SONAR handles non-scale notes.
To Enable or Disable Snap to Scale for a Single Track
•
In the Track view, in the track that you want to affect, click the Scale Snap button.
Scale Snap button:
turns blue when
enabled
Scale menu
Root Note menu
Or
•
In the Piano Roll view, in the Track List pane, right-click the track that you want to affect, and
choose Enable Snap to Scale from the popup menu.
To Momentarily Bypass the Snap to Scale Feature
•
Hold down both mouse buttons while you edit.
To Enable or Disable Snap to Scale for Multiple Tracks
1.
Select the tracks in which you want to enable or disable Snap to Scale.
2.
Use the Track-Snap to Scale-Enable/Disable Snap to Scale command.
To Choose a Root Note for a Single Track
•
Do either of the following:
•
In the Track view, click the dropdown arrow in a track’s Root Note menu, and choose a root
note from the menu that appears.
•
In the Piano Roll view, right-click a track’s name in the Track List pane, and choose Root
Note-(name of root note) from the popup menu.
To Choose a Scale for a Single Track
•
Do either or the following:
•
In the Track view, click the dropdown arrow in the track’s Scale menu, and choose a scale from
the menu that appears. The scale options in the menu contain both factory-supplied scales
and ones that you create and/or edit.
•
In the Piano Roll view, right-click a track’s name in the Track List pane, and choose Scales(kind of scale)-(name of scale) from the popup menu.
To Choose a Root Note and/or a Scale for Multiple Tracks
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1.
Select the tracks for which you want to choose root notes and/or scales.
2.
To select a root note for the selected tracks, use the Track-Snap to Scale-Root Note command,
and select the desired root note from the submenu.
3.
To select a scale for the selected tracks, use the Track-Snap to Scale-Scales command, and
select the desired scale from the submenu.
To Create a Scale
1.
Open the Scale Manager dialog by clicking the dropdown arrow in the Scale menu, and choosing
Scale Manager from the menu that appears (you can also use the Track-Snap to Scale-ScalesScale Manager command, or the right-click menu in the Piano Roll view’s Track List pane).
2.
In the Scale Family field, click the scale family that you want your scale to appear under when
your scale appears in the Scale menu.
3.
Click the Create New Scale button
.
The Scale Manager displays a default name (New Scale “n”) for the new scale, and automatically
selects C as the root note of the scale.
Edit the name of the new scale by clicking the default name (New Scale “n”) where it appears at
the very top of the Scale: field, and then typing a new name for the scale.
5.
Include or exclude individual notes for the scale by clicking either the keys in the keyboard display,
or by clicking the scale degree buttons under the Scale Degrees field. Included notes appear as blue
dots in the keyboard display, as depressed scale degree buttons, and as scale degrees in the Scale
Degrees field.
Keyboard display
6.
Scale degree buttons
When you’re through choosing scale degrees, click the Close button to save your changes. If you
want to delete your scale, just highlight it in the Scale: field, and click the Delete button
.
To Edit or Delete a Scale
1.
Open the Scale Manager dialog (click the dropdown arrow in the Scale menu, and choose Scale
Manager from the menu, or use the Track menu command, or the right-click menu in the Track
List pane of the Piano Roll view).
2.
In the Scale Family field, click the scale family that the desired scale is filed under.
3.
Select the desired scale by clicking the scale’s name in the Scale: field. If you want to delete the
scale, click the Delete button
4.
.
Include or exclude individual notes for the scale by clicking either the keys in the keyboard display,
or by clicking the scale degree buttons under the Scale Degrees field. Included notes appear as blue
dots in the keyboard display, as depressed scale degree buttons, and as scale degrees in the Scale
Degrees field.
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Note: all scales in the Scale Manager dialog use C as the root note.
4.
:
Keyboard display
5.
Scale degree buttons
When you’re through choosing scale degrees, click the Close button to save your changes.
To Restore a Scale or Scales to Factory Settings
1.
Open the Scale Manager dialog.
2.
If you want to restore a particular scale to factory settings, select it in the Scale: field, click the
Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore Current Scale (if factory), and
click OK.
3.
If you have deleted a factory-supplied scale and want to replace it with the original version, click
the Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore Any Missing Scales, and click
OK.
4.
If you want to restore all factory-supplied scales to factory settings, click the Defaults button, and
in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore All Factory Scales, and click OK.
To Choose How SONAR Handles Non-scale Notes
1.
Open the Snap Settings dialog by clicking the dropdown arrow in the Scale menu, and choosing
Snap Settings from the menu that appears. You can also use the Track-Snap to Scale-ScalesSnap Settings command, or the right-click menu in the Track List pane of the Piano Roll view.
2.
Choose one of the following options:
•
Adjust to Next, Higher Note—if you choose this option, SONAR moves any non-scale note that
you move to the next higher note in the selected scale.
•
Adjust to Previous, Lower Note—if you choose this option, SONAR moves any non-scale note
that you move to the previous, lower note in the selected scale.
•
Adjust to Nearest Note—if you choose this option, SONAR moves any non-scale note that you
move to the note that is closest in pitch in the selected scale.
Searching for Events
The events in a project have many different parameters. For example, all MIDI notes have a channel,
starting time, pitch, velocity, and duration. Controllers have a controller number and value. SONAR
makes it simple to find, select, and modify events that have certain values for specific attributes.
Here are some of the things you can do and the commands that you would use to do them:
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Action...
Command...
Search through a project to find the first event that has specific
attributes, and then search again to find the next such event
Go-Search, Go-Search Next
Select all the events in a project that have the specified attributes
Edit-Select-By Filter
Modify an existing selection to keep only those events that have the
specified attributes
Edit-Select-By Filter
Replace all events that meet specified attributes with modified
versions of the events
Edit-Interpolate
These capabilities can help you find problem spots or errors in a project or make systematic changes to
events that have particular attributes. All of these capabilities rely on the use of an event filter, which
lets you choose the types of events you want to work with and the range of values in which you are
interested.
When you select individual clips, or select portions of clips by dragging the Time Ruler, you
automatically select all the events that fall within the designated time range. Sometimes you need finer
control over which events are selected. For example, you might want to:
•
Select the notes that are played in a certain octave, so you can copy them to another track
•
Select and boost the velocity of notes that have a velocity below a certain threshold
•
Find the first patch change event on a particular track
•
Select and change the duration of all notes that occur on the third beat of any measure
The Event Filter dialog box looks like this:
Check to include this type of event
Enter the range of values for the events you want
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Event Filters
:
Different types of events have different parameters, as shown in the table:
This event type...
Has these parameters...
Note
Pitch, velocity, and duration
Key Aftertouch
Pitch and pressure value
Controller
Controller number and value
RPN/NRPN
RPN/NRPN number and value
Patch Change
Bank and patch numbers
Channel Aftertouch
Pressure value
Pitch Wheel
Value
The event filter only accepts events that meet all the specified ranges. This means that a note event
must fall within the pitch range, the velocity range, and the duration range in order to be included. The
event filter can also be used to accept events that occur in a range of channel numbers, beats, and clock
ticks.
You can choose either to include or exclude the events that meet the specified criteria. To exclude events
within the designated range and select the ones outside the designated range, check the exc checkbox
for that value range.
The event filter can also be used to identify several special event types: audio, System Exclusive events,
Lyrics, MCI commands, envelope shades, and a few others. You do not enter a range of values for these
special events; SONAR finds all events of the types you choose.
The All and None buttons help you set up the event filter the way you want:
Click this button...
To do this...
All
Set the event filter to include all events. You can then modify the
value ranges to narrow down your search or uncheck the types
of events you want to exclude.
None
Set the event filter to not include any events. Starting from a
blank slate, you can check off the types of events you want to
find or select and enter the desired ranges of values.
In any place in the event filter where you would normally enter a pitch string, you can also enter the
pitch by pressing a key on your MIDI keyboard. Also, you can use the question mark in place of the
octave number as a wild card. This lets the event filter accept a single note, regardless of the octave. For
example, the pitch string C? will match a C in any octave.
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Searching for an Event
The Go-Search command is used to find the next event (searching forward from the Now time) that
meets the criteria you lay out in an event filter. Once you have found the first such event, you can find
the next event that meets the criteria using the Go-Search Again command (or by pressing F3).
To Search for an Event
1.
Choose Go-Search to display the Event Filter dialog box.
2.
Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR finds the next event that meets the criteria and sets the Now time to the start time of that
event. To find the next occurrence, press F3 or choose Go-Search Again.
The Edit-Select-By Filter command is used to refine a selection by applying an event filter to an initial
selection. You can use this command any number of times to refine the selection even further. Before
using this command, use any of the selection commands and tools to create an initial set of selected
event. You can use the Edit-Select-All command to select all events in the current view.
The Track view cannot display individual selected events. As a result, the Edit-Select-By Filter
command will not necessarily change the appearance of the Track view. SONAR applies the event filter
rule, but the change is not visible. However, once you change the selection in any way (for example, by
clicking on a track number or by clicking in the Time Ruler), the effects of the event filter are erased. If
you want to use the filter, you must choose Edit-Select-By Filter again and click OK to use the same
filter values.
Note:
The shading of a clip in the Track view indicates how many of the events in
the clip are selected. If the clip is shown in solid black, all events in the clip are
selected. If a portion of a clip is shown in medium gray, all the events in that
time range are selected. If the clip is shown in light gray, only some of the
events in the shaded time range are selected.
To Select Events Using the Event Filter
1.
First, select an initial set of tracks, clips, or events.
2.
Choose Edit-Select-By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3.
Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR searches the currently selected events and weeds out those that do not meet the requirements
of the event filter.
Example: Splitting Left-Hand and Right-Hand Parts
Suppose you recorded a keyboard riff on Track 1 but want to split the left and right hands apart into
separate tracks so you can edit them separately. Suppose that all the right-hand notes are above C4.
Here’s how to proceed:
1.
Select all of Track 1 by clicking on the track number in the Track view.
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Selecting Events
:
2.
Choose Edit-Select-By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3.
Click the None button to clear the dialog box.
4.
Check the Note checkbox, and enter a minimum value of C4. The maximum should already be set
to C9.
5.
Click OK. SONAR selects all the notes from C4 up.
6.
Choose Edit-Cut to move the selected notes to the clipboard.
7.
Choose Edit-Paste and paste the events to a different track.
Process-Interpolate
The Process-Interpolate command is an extremely flexible way of manipulating the data parameters
of events. It works something like the search-and-replace function in a word processor but with scaling
rather than simple replacement.
This command uses two event filters. The first event filter lets you set up your search criteria. The
second event filter is used to define the replacement value ranges. When an event satisfies the search
criteria, its parameters are scaled between the search ranges and the replacement ranges. This permits
transposition, inversion, key signature changes, and other operations to be accomplished with this one
simple command.
In the second Event Filter dialog box, the checkboxes and value ranges for beats and ticks are ignored.
Only the replacement value ranges for the selected event types are used.
The Process-Interpolate command understands a wild card octave number in the second event filter
to mean, “replace the original note with a different note in the original octave.” Using octave wild cards
for both the search and replacement event filters lets you, for instance, change all E-flats to E-naturals,
preserving the octave of each note.
A few examples will illustrate some of the many uses of the Process-Interpolate command. These
examples apply to the note event type, though the command can be used on any type of event.
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Parameter...
Search
range...
Replacement
range...
Effect...
Pitch (key)
From C2 to C4
From C4 to C6
Transposes all notes in the search
range up two octaves
Pitch
From E2 to E2
From Eb2 to Eb2
Converts all Es in octave 2 to Eb in the
same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From Eb? to Eb?
Converts all Es in all octaves to Eb in
the same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From E? to Eb5
Converts all Es to Eb in octave 5
Pitch
From C1 to C8
From C8 to C1
Inverts all the notes in the specified
range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 80 to 127
Compresses the velocity values into a
narrower range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 127 to 0
Inverts the velocity values (makes
loud notes soft, and soft notes loud)
Duration
From 0:01:00 to
0:02:000
From 0:01:000 to
0:01:000
Converts all notes that are between a
quarter note and half note in length,
and makes them all quarter notes
Channel
From 1 to 1
From 2 to 2
Changes all events on MIDI channel 1
to MIDI channel 2
Channel
From 1 to 16
From 4 to 4
Reassigns all events to MIDI channel
4
SONAR projects contain a lot more information than the notes and digital audio files that are at the
heart of your work. Controllers, RPNs, and NRPNs (xRPNs, for short) are special types of events used
by MIDI software and hardware to control the details of how MIDI music is played. Automation data
are used to adjust volume, pan, and other parameters of MIDI and audio tracks on the fly while
playback is in progress.
SONAR lets you enter or edit controller, xRPN, and automation data in several ways:
•
Using envelopes in the Track view (see Chapter 13, Automation)
•
Using the Piano Roll view and Inline Piano Roll view
•
Using the Insert-Series of Controllers command
•
Editing controller events in the Event List view
Editing data in the Track view’s Clips pane or the Piano Roll view gives you great flexibility. You can
examine the controllers in graphical form and edit them even while recording or playback is in progress.
This means you can loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on the next loop.
Note: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll view and MIDI envelopes you create in the Track
view Clips pane are actually separate envelopes, even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of
envelopes are visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control the same parameter.
You can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to Track view envelopes by selecting the time range and
tracks that the Piano Roll envelopes occupy, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
For more information on automation, see Chapter 13, Automation, and Chapter 11, Mixing and Effects
Patching. For more information about the Event List view, see “The Event List View” on page 289.
Controllers
Controllers are the MIDI events such as volume, sustain pedal, and pan that you use to change the
sound while you're playing. You can enter controller data from within SONAR, or record them from
external devices such as MIDI keyboards.
Controllers let you control the detail and character of your music. Say you’re playing a guitar sound on
your synthesizer, but it sounds lifeless and dull. That’s partly because a guitar player doesn’t just play
notes one after another—he often bends or slides on the strings to put emotion into his playing. You can
use controllers in the same way, creating bends, volume swells, and other effects that make sounds more
realistic and more fun to listen to.
Your computer can work the controllers on your electronic instrument by sending MIDI Controller
messages. The MIDI specification allows for 128 different types of controllers, many of which are used
for standard purposes. For example, controller 7 is normally used for volume events, and controller 10 is
normally used for pan. Every controller can take on a value ranging from 0 to 127.
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Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data
:
The Piano Roll toolbar contains several dropdown lists that let you choose the controller you want to see
and edit. The contents of these lists depend on the output and channel settings and on the instrument
assigned to that output and channel. Different instruments use controllers in different ways. See
Chapter 16, Using Instrument Definitions.
Note:
SONAR has automatic searchback for all continuous controller data to ensure
that the correct controller values are in effect regardless of where you start
playback. Suppose you start playback halfway through a project. SONAR
searches back from that point to find any earlier controller values that should
still apply.
RPNs and NRPNs
RPNs (Registered Parameter Numbers) and NRPNs (Non-Registered Parameter Numbers) are similar
to controllers, except that both the parameter number and data value can be any number between 0 and
16,383.
When RPNs and NRPNs are transmitted via MIDI or stored in a standard MIDI file, they are converted
into four separate controller messages. SONAR detects incoming xRPN messages from MIDI inputs or
files and reassembles them into a single RPN or NRPN event. This provides the convenience of single
RPN or NRPN events in SONAR plus compatibility with existing files, equipment, and software. The
following table shows the controller numbers SONAR uses for RPN and NRPN events:
Message...
Parameter number
MSB Controller...
Parameter number
LSB Controller...
Data value
MSB Controller...
Data value
LSB Controller...
RPN
101
100
6
38
NRPN
99
98
6
38
Automation Data
The Track and Console views allow you to record automation data that define changes in volume, pan
and many other parameters throughout a project. The automation data can include step changes
recorded using the snapshot button or continuous changes recorded while using the knobs, faders, and
buttons.
The Track view allows you to create envelopes to adjust several parameters. For more about
automation, see Chapter 13, Automation.
Velocity, Pitch Wheel, and Aftertouch
SONAR lets you display and edit several other types of data the same way you do controller data. These
data include:
288
•
MIDI pitch wheel or pitch-bend messages
•
MIDI channel aftertouch (ChanAft) values
•
MIDI key aftertouch (KeyAft) values
Remember that note velocity is an attribute of each note and not a completely separate event. You
cannot add or remove velocity events in the Notes pane, but you can use the draw tool to adjust the
velocity values for existing notes. You can also edit velocities with the Edit-Scale Velocities command.
For more information, see “Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos” on page 267. You can edit individual
note velocities in the Note Properties dialog box, described in “Changing Note Properties” on page 476.
The Event List View
The Event List view shows events in a list format. You can insert, delete, or modify any kind of event,
including notes, pitch-wheel data, velocity, MIDI controllers, patch changes, Wave files, lyrics, text
strings, MCI commands, System Exclusive meta-events, and more.
There are three ways to open the Event List view:
•
Select one or more tracks and choose View-Event List
•
Select one or more tracks and click
•
Right-click a clip in the Clips pane and choose View-Event List from the popup menu
English
in the Views toolbar
Toolbar
Track
This event
is selected
Event time
Event type
Event List view
Event channel
Hide different kinds of events buttons
Show events outside slip edit boundary
Event Manager
Event List toolbar
Insert
Delete
Pick Tracks
The events in the selected tracks are listed one per line, from top to bottom. As you move the highlight
through the event list, SONAR updates the Now marker (time display). During playback, the event list
scrolls to display the events at the current time. The current event is centered in the Event List during
playback, and the highlight is on the correct event when playback stops. Any time you change the Now
time, the event list is updated and the highlight is moved to the event that will be played next.
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:
When the Event List view includes more than one track, events are mixed together in chronological
order. For example, if you select tracks 1 and 3 when you open the Event List view, you see a single list
of intermingled events from tracks 1 and 3. You can have any number of Event List views, each
containing any number of tracks, open at the same time. You can change the tracks shown in the Event
List view by clicking the
button and choosing the tracks you want.
Event List Buttons and Overview
Each line of the Event List view shows a single event along with all of its parameters. There are many
different types of events. All share the following parameters:
•
The time of the event, displayed in SMPTE (hours:minutes:seconds:frames) format
•
The time of the event, displayed in MBT (measures:beats:ticks) format
•
The event type, or kind of event
The remaining parameters vary by event type. You can hide or show each kind of event by clicking its
button in the Event List toolbar or by checking its checkbox in the Event Manager dialog box. Here is a
summary listing of the parameters that apply to each type of event.
290
Short name and
display button...
Type of event...
Parameters...
Note
MIDI note
Pitch (MIDI key number), velocity (0-127),
duration (beats:ticks or simply ticks), MIDI
channel (1-16)
KeyAft
MIDI key aftertouch
Pitch (MIDI key number), pressure amount (0127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Control
MIDI controller change
Controller number (0-127), controller value (0127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Patch
MIDI patch change
Bank select method, bank number, number or
name of the patch, MIDI channel (1-16)
ChanAft
MIDI channel aftertouch
Pressure amount (0-127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Wheel
MIDI pitch wheel position
Wheel position (-8192 to 8191, where the center
is 0)
RPN
Registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383), parameter value
(0-16383), MIDI channel (1-16)
NRPN
Non-registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383), parameter value
(0-16383), MIDI channel (1-16)
Sysx Bank
System Exclusive data bank
Sysx bank number (0-8191)
Sysx Data
System Exclusive data
message
Sysx message up to 255 bytes long
Text
Text
Text
Lyric
Lyric
Text (a single word or syllable)
MCIcmd
Windows Media Control
Interface (MCI) command
MCI command text
Wave Audio
Digital audio wave
Name, velocity (0-127), and number of samples
Shape Events
Automation graph segments
made up of a solid line
between two nodes
Change in values, kind of shape, and length in
MBT format.
Expression
Staff view expression marking
Text of expression mark
Hairpin
Staff view dynamics marking
Direction (crescendo or diminuendo) and duration
Chord
Staff view chord symbol
The name of the chord
Event List Manager
Opens Event Manager dialog
box
Shows or hides various kinds of events
Events Out of Slip Edit
Boundaries
Events that are outside of slipedited boundaries
Note, audio, or controller data
Insert Event
Inserts a copy of highlighted
event—double-click the
event’s Kind parameter to
change it to the kind of event
you want
Whatever the highlighted event’s parameters are
Delete Event
Deletes the highlighted event
Whatever the highlighted event’s parameters are
Pick Tracks and Show
Next/Previous Track
Left side of button opens Pick
Tracks dialog; right side of
button opens Next Track/
Previous Track dropdown
menu
Allows you to pick what tracks the Event List
shows events for
English
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only
deleted.
Here are some notes about events and their parameters:
•
The Channel parameter in the Track view can force an event to play on a different MIDI channel
from the one shown in the event list.
•
Pedal marks entered in the Staff view are displayed in the Event List view as controller events
(64).
•
Many keyboards do not support key aftertouch and channel aftertouch. Consult the User’s Guide
for your keyboard for more information.
•
When you double-click the value of a patch event, SONAR displays the Bank/Patch Change dialog
box. For more information about bank and patch changes, “To Insert a Bank/Patch Change” on
page 126.
•
See Chapter 17, Using System Exclusive Data, for more information about System Exclusive
banks.
•
See Chapter 9, Editing Audio, for more information about audio clips.
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:
Selecting Events in the Event List View
The following table describes how to select events in the Event List view:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a single event
Click on the event.
Select multiple, contiguous events
Select the first event, hold the Shift key down and
click the last event.
Select multiple, contiguous events using the
arrow keys
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys while pressing
the up or down arrows.
Select multiple, non-contiguous events
Select an event, hold the Ctrl key while selecting
additional events
Additional information about note events and MCIcmd events appears later in this chapter.
Event List Display Filter
You can configure the Event List view to display different event types, as described in the following
table:
To do this...
Do this...
Hide events of a certain type
Select the event type in the toolbar, in the Event
List view popup menu, or in the Event Manager. To
display a type of event, deselect it.
Open the Event Manager
Choose Event Manager from the popup menu, or
click
.
Show or hide slip-edited events
As a default, if you slip edit the boundaries of a
clip, all events outside those boundaries are
hidden in the Event List view. If you want to see
these events, click this button
.
Note: You can not edit slip-edited material in the
Event List view.
Editing Events and Event Parameters
The Event List view lets you add, delete, or change events one by one. You can also print the list of
events or audition the events one at a time to see how they sound.
You can change the parameters of any event by moving the rectangular highlight to the cell you want to
change and doing one of the following:
292
•
Type a new value and then press Enter
•
Press the - and + keys on the numeric keypad to decrease or increase values by a small amount
•
Press the [ and ] keys to decrease or increase values by a larger amount
•
Click and hold the mouse button, and then drag the mouse up or down to change the value by a
small amount
•
Click and hold both mouse buttons, and then drag the mouse up or down to change the value by a
larger amount
•
Double-click a cell, and then enter or choose a new value
If you change the time of an event, it may also change its position in the event list. The Event List view
follows that event to its new location.
If you try to change the event type (kind of event), SONAR lets you choose the kind of event you want
from a dialog box. When you change one kind of MIDI event into another kind of MIDI event, SONAR
preserves the parameters as fully as possible.
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only deleted.
To Insert a New Event
1.
Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the point at which you want to insert an event.
2.
Press Insert, or click
3.
Change the event to the kind of event you need by double-clicking the name of the event that’s
listed in the Kind column. The Kind of Event dialog box appears.
4.
Choose what kind of event you want and click OK. SONAR changes the highlighted event to the
kind you chose.
5.
Edit the event time and other parameter values as required.
If the Event List is initially empty, pressing the Insert key creates a default note event.
To Delete an Event
1.
Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the event you want to delete.
2.
Press Delete, or click
.
SONAR deletes the event.
To Delete Several Events
1.
Select the events you want to delete by clicking, dragging, or Ctrl or Shift-clicking in the first
column of the Event List view.
2.
Choose Edit-Cut.
SONAR deletes the selected events.
To Print the Event List
1.
Choose File-Print Preview to display a preview of the printed event listing.
2.
Click the Zoom button (or just click the page) to zoom in and out, and use the Page Up and Page
Down keys to review the pages.
3.
Click Print to print the event list, or click Close to close the Preview window without printing.
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English
. SONAR makes a copy of the highlighted event.
:
To Play Events Step by Step
1.
Using the keyboard, hold the Ctrl and Shift keys and press the Spacebar to play the currently
highlighted event. If the event is a note event, it plays until you release the Spacebar.
2.
When you release the Spacebar, the highlight moves to the next event.
3.
Continue pressing the Spacebar to play events one by one.
4.
To edit the last event you heard, release the Shift key.
The highlight moves back to the last event you heard, so you can make changes. You can also audition a
single event using the mouse. Ctrl-click on an event to play the event. If the event is a note or Wave
event, it plays until you release the mouse button.
Additional Event Information
Note Events—There are three values parameters for note events:
•
A pitch, which represents the MIDI key number as a note and an octave.
•
A velocity (0–127), which is how fast the key is struck. Some keyboards don’t transmit or receive
velocity messages.
•
A duration, which is how long the note lasts. This amount is shown in beats:ticks format. (If the
note lasts less then one beat, then only the number of ticks is shown.)
Note names may also represent percussion instruments, and lists of such note names are sometimes
associated with a particular percussion patch. The note C3, for example, may really be “kick drum.” If a
patch is associated with a percussion note name list, the name of the percussion instrument appears in
Event List view rather than a note and an octave from the piano keyboard.
SONAR uses the following notation to display flats and sharps in this and other views:
Character...
Meaning...
b
flat
#
sharp
"
double flat
x
double sharp
MCIcmd Events
Media Control Interface (MCI) commands are special events that let you control other multimedia
hardware and software (e.g., CD-ROM drives, laserdiscs, sound cards, animations, video) during
playback. MCI commands are part of the multimedia extensions in Windows. MCIcmd events have one
parameter—the command line text of the MCI command. Here are some examples:
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This command...
Does this...
PLAY C:\TRAIN.WAV
Plays the Wave file TRAIN.WAV
PLAY C:\VIDEOS\VACATION.AVI
Plays the video file VACATION.AVI from the VIDEOS folder
SET CDAUDIO TIME FORMAT
TMSF PLAY CDAUDIO 3
Plays a specific track from the CD drive
STOP CDAUDIO
Stops the CD from playing
While MCI commands can be used to play Wave files, these files are played at their normal speed and
are not necessarily synchronized with MIDI or other audio data. By contrast, Wave audio clips are
played in lock-step synchronization with MIDI and other audio data.
For complete documentation of Windows MCI commands, search for MCI on the Microsoft World Wide
Web site (www.microsoft.com).
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
•
Select the MIDI data to be affected.
•
Choose the effect you want from the Process-MIDI Effects menu or from the popup menu’s MIDI
Effects menu.
•
Set effect parameters (or select a preset if you’ve made one for this purpose).
•
Click Audition to preview the music with the effect applied.
•
Click OK to apply the effect to the selected MIDI data.
If you're not happy with the result, choose Edit-Undo before doing any additional work.
MIDI effects can be applied to whole or partial clips. For example, you can apply an echo to just one
note.
MIDI effects can also be applied to MIDI tracks in real time (during playback) in the Track and Console
views. Unlike any of the processing described so far, using effects in real time is non-destructive. This
means that the MIDI data itself is not modified. See “Mixing and Effects Patching” on page 363 for more
information on real-time effects.
Note:
Offline effects may cause your MIDI events to grow in size. For example, when
you apply echo, the clip may need to grow to accommodate the tail end of the
echo.
MIDI Effects Presets
The MIDI effects dialogs support the use of presets. For information about presets, see “Presets” on
page 389.
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English
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in MIDI effects. Using plug-in effects is similar to using the
MIDI processing commands off-line. The overall procedure is as follows:
:
Quantizing
The Quantize command moves events to (or towards) an evenly-spaced timing grid. The Quantize
effect is similar to the Process-MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Quantize command. For more
information, see “Other Settings” on page 274.
The quantize effect parameters are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Start Times
Quantize event start times.
Durations
Quantize event durations.
Resolution
The spacing of the grid used for quantization.
Tuplet
Specify the resolution as a tuplet note, for example 5 notes in the
time of 4.
Strength (%)
The strength of the adjustments. 100% indicates perfect
quantization; otherwise, the command moves the notes only part
way towards the desired position.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel. A value of
50% indicates a straight rendition; negative and positive values
produce distortion of the timing grid. For more information about
swing, see “Swing” on page 273.
Window (%)
The sensitivity of quantization. A value of 100% causes all notes
to be quantized. Lower values cause the effect not to quantize
notes that are far from the timing grid.
Offset (Ticks)
The offset of the quantization grid from the start of measure
boundaries. A value of 0 indicates perfect alignment. Values less
than 0 shift the grid points earlier; values greater than 0 shift the
grid later.
Randomize
Causes a random time offset to be added to or subtracted from
each new event time. You must also specify the maximum offset,
as a percentage of the quantization resolution.
To Quantize MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Quantize to open the Quantize dialog box.
3.
Set the quantization parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified quantization to the selected data.
Adding Echo/Delay
The Echo Delay command creates a series of repeating echoes of each note. The echo notes can
decrease or increase in velocity, and can be transposed from the original by regular intervals.
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Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Decay (%)
The reduction in velocity with each echo. A value greater than 100% indicates
an increase in velocity.
No. Echoes
The number of echo notes for each original note. If the velocity reaches 0 before
the specified number of echoes, the effect generates no more echo notes.
Delay
The delay between successive echo notes.
Delay Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in ticks, in
milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Tap
The delay you specify by tapping the control with the mouse.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel to the echo. A value of 0%
indicates a straight rendition; negative and positive values produce distortion of
the timing grid. For more information about swing, see “Swing” on page 273.
Pitch (Steps)
The number of steps to transpose each echo note from the previous. You can
specify a Diatonic or Chromatic scale.
English
The parameters used to specify the echo/delay effect are as follows:
To Apply Echo/Delay to MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Echo Delay from the Process menu or from the popup
menu to open the Echo Delay dialog box.
3.
Set the echo/delay parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified echo effect to the selected data.
Filtering Events
The Event Filter command lets you remove events from the MIDI data, keeping or passing through
only those events that you specify. The Event Filter effect works almost identically to the event filter
used by the Edit-Select-By Filter command. For more information, see “Event Filters” on page 283.
To Apply an Event Filter to MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk-FX MIDI Event Filter from the Process menu or from the
popup menu to open the Event Filter dialog box.
3.
Set the event filter parameters.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified event filter to the selected data, removing all those events that do not
meet the filter criteria.
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:
Adding Arpeggio
The Arpeggiator command applies an arpeggio to its input and plays it back in real time. You can
make it arpeggiate with a swing feel, or straight and staccato or legato, vary its speed and direction,
and specify its range.
The parameters used to specify the arpeggiator effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel. A value of 0%
indicates a straight rendition; negative and positive values produce
distortion of the timing grid. For more information on swing, see
“Swing” on page 273.
Rate
The delay between successive notes.
Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in ticks, in
milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Legato (%)
The smoothness of the notes of the arpeggio. 1 percent plays each
notes and releases it instantly. 99 percent plays each note up to the
start of the next note.
Path
The direction of the arpeggio. Options are Up, Up (arpeggios go up),
Up, Down (arpeggios go up, then down), Down, Down (arpeggios go
down), Down, Up (arpeggios go down, then up).
Play thru
The disposition of the notes you play to specify the arpeggio. Checked
plays the original notes. Unchecked filters out the original notes.
Specify output range
The range over which the arpeggio plays. Checked specifies that the
arpeggiator repeats notes at each octave over the entire specified
range. Unchecked specifies that the arpeggiator includes only the
notes you actually play.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note of the arpeggio. Numbers run
from 0 to 127.
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run from 12 to 127.
Use chord control
The chord you specify. Checked specifies that the arpeggiator infers
the chord from the notes played in the range. It identifies the chord in
the Chord recognized box and uses it to play arpeggios for notes
outside the range.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note the arpeggiator uses for chord
recognition (0 to 126).
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run from 1 to 127.
Chord recognized
The chord the Arpeggiator recognizes and plays.
To Apply the Arpeggiator to MIDI Data
298
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Arpeggiator from the Process menu or from the popup
menu to open the Arpeggiator dialog box.
3.
Set the arpeggiator parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified arpeggio effect to the selected data.
Analyzing Chords
The Chord Analyzer command analyzes chords. You select the notes to be analyzed in one of SONAR’s
windows, then open the Chord analyzer and press the Audition button. The chord appears on the MIDI
display and the staff, and its name with possible alternatives appears in the Chords recognized box.
You can play the notes on your MIDI input device and have the Chord Analyzer identify the chords in
real time. You do not have to set to playback.
You can open the Chord Analyzer in the Track and Console views, press Playback and have the Chord
Analyzer identify the chords in real time
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Analysis window
The frequency with which the Chord Analyzer samples the
chord. Lower numbers (smaller intervals) are more accurate,
but require more computation.
English
The Chord Analyzer has a single parameter:
To Analyze a Chord
1.
Select the notes to be analyzed.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Chord Analyzer from the Process menu or from the popup
menu to open the Transpose dialog box.
3.
Click the Audition key.
SONAR displays the chord and its name.
To clear the display, press the Clear button.
Note: When analyzing chords you may see chords being displayed before you hear them. You can reduce
the amount of time these chords appear ahead of playback. To do so, open the MIDI tab in the Global
Options dialog (Options-Global) and enter a lower value in the Prepare Using “N” Milliseconds Buffer
option. Excessively low values may cause glitches during playback, so it is best to gradually reduce the
value in this option until the desired result is achieved.
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect
The Velocity effect lets you adjust velocities of MIDI notes. You can set velocity values, set scale values,
add specific or random offsets, create smooth transitions, and limit the velocity range.
The velocity effect options are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Set all velocities to X
Sets all velocities to the specified value.
Change velocities by X
Adds a specified increment to all velocities.
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:
Scale velocities to X% of
their current value
Multiplies all velocities by a constant factor.
Change gradually from X to
Y
Creates a smooth velocity change across the selection.
Change gradually from X%
to Y%
Scales velocities by a gradually changing factor.
Limit range from X to Y
Brings all velocities into the specified range.
Randomize by +/- X
Adds or subtracts a random offset from each velocity. You must
also specify the maximum offset. You can select this option in
addition to one of the previous options.
Tendency
The tendency of the random offset to be lower or higher, on a
scale from -10 to 10.
To Change Note Velocities
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Velocity from the Process menu or from the popup menu to
open the Velocity dialog box.
3.
Select options as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR changes note velocities according to the specified options.
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect
The Process-MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Transpose command is a flexible transposition feature. You
can perform simple chromatic or diatonic transpositions, transpose from one key to another, or define
your own custom transposition.
The transpose options are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Interval
Specifies chromatic transposition. Transposes notes by the
specified number of steps.
Diatonic
Specifies diatonic transposition. Transposes notes by the
specified number of scale steps within the specified scale.
Key/Scale
Specifies transposition from one scale and key to another.
Custom Map
Specifies custom transposition as defined by the map.
Offset
For Interval transposition, the number of steps for the
transposition.
For Diatonic Transposition, the number of scale degrees for the
transposition.
For Key/Scale transposition, a number of octaves added to each
note after transposition.
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Key
For Diatonic transposition, the key in which the transposition is
made.
From, To
For Key/Scale transposition, the starting and ending key and
scale.
Transposition Map
A table of pitch mappings for the specified transposition. You can
select to show the pitches as note names or as note numbers.
For Diatonic and Key/Scale transpositions, pitches not in the
starting (from) key are indented.
To Change a pitch mapping, click on a From pitch and select a To
pitch with the popup slider. If you change a pitch mapping, the
transposition type is automatically set to Custom Map.
For Diatonic and Key/Scale transpositions, forces all non-scale
notes to be transposed to the nearest appropriate scale tone.
To Transpose MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Transpose from the Process menu or from the popup menu
to open the Transpose dialog box.
3.
Set the transposition options as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR transposes the selected data according to the options you specified.
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English
Constrain to Scale
:
302
There are several panes in the Piano Roll view designed for use with MIDI drum tracks: the
Note Map pane which lists the original pitch values and the mapped values for each note,
and the Drum Grid pane which displays your drum tracks (any track assigned to a drum
map) and where you can edit your drum tracks.
In This Chapter
The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Creating and Editing a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
The Note Map Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
English
8
Drum Maps and the
Drum Grid Pane
:
The Basics
Drum maps are virtual MIDI ports that you create and edit. Drum maps give you total control over all
the MIDI drum sounds you have access to either in the form of software (soft synths) or hardware
(external MIDI sound modules).
Drum maps in SONAR allow you to do the following:
•
Re-map note events, for example, map a General MIDI drum kit to a non-General MIDI drum kit.
•
Create a custom drum kit from several MIDI devices (soft synths, hardware synths) and play it
from a single MIDI track if desired.
•
Use the Drum Grid Editor to show only the drum sounds you want to see.
•
Sort drum sounds to suit your needs.
•
Mute and solo individual drum sounds
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
You can create a drum map by either modifying an existing drum map or by creating a new drum map.
The Drum Map Manager
In the Drum Map Manager dialog you can create and save drum maps for use with hardware or
software synths and samplers. You can customize drum maps to select specific sounds on any of your
available sound sources.
To Open the Drum Map Manager Dialog
You can open the Drum Map manager in one of the following ways:
•
Select Options-Drum Map Manager from the menu
Or
•
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Click on the Output field of your MIDI drum track and select Drum Map Manager
New Drum
Map button
Delete Drum
Map button
Current Drum Map
Preset list
Click to
create a
new row
English
Rows
Port/Channel
pairs
Drum Maps Used in Current Project
This field displays all the currently available drum maps. click the New button
to create a new
drum map and Delete
to delete a drum map. Select a drum map to display the drum mappings
in the Drum Map Manager. All drum maps in this field are saved with the current project.
Presets
Presets can be used to populate the fields in the Drum Map Manager. This field is also used to save new
drum maps by entering a name in the field and clicking the save button.
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:
Settings
The Settings section is where you map the following for each In Note (source):
•
In Note—The source MIDI note value.
•
Out Note—The MIDI note value that plays on the destination sound source.
•
Name—The user-defined name for the row.
•
Chn—The channel on which the note is transmitted.
•
Out Port—The hardware output port or software virtual output port to which you are sending the
note.
•
Vel+—Apply a velocity offset setting to an individual mapped pitch.
•
V Scale—The V Scale value sets a level of compression or expansion. A value below 100% is
compression. A value above 100% is expansion. The Vel+ setting allows for gain make-up.
Ports and Channels
This section lists each unique Port and Channel pairing. This allows you to make quick global changes
that Port and Channel pairing’s bank and patch settings.
Working in the Drum Map Manager
The following table lists several ways of editing settings in the Drum Map Manager.
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To do this…
Do this…
Audition a row
Select the row and press Shift+Spacebar
Sort rows
Drag and drop a row to a new location
Select multiple rows
Click a row, hold down the Ctrl key while selecting
additional rows
Change the Output Port for all rows with
the same Channel/Port
Press Ctrl+Shift while changing the port.
Undo an edit
Press the Undo button
The Map Properties Dialog
English
The Map Properties dialog lets you change all the settings for an individual mapped note in your drum
map. The settings in the Map Properties dialog are the same as a single row in the Drum Map Manager.
If you want to edit more than one drum note pitch mapping, click the Map Mgr button to open the Drum
Map Manager dialog.
To Open the Map Properties Dialog
•
Double-click on a row in the Note Map pane.
Or
•
Right-click on a row in the Note Map pane and select Map Properties from the menu that
appears.
Saving a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to save a new or modified drum map.
1.
In the Drum Map Manager, enter a name for the new drum map in the Preset field.
2.
Click the Save button
.
Drum map presets are saved and available for all projects. Drum maps are saved on a per-project basis.
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:
Using Drum Maps
The following topics cover using drum-mapped tracks, including how to display drum tracks in the
Drum Grid pane and how to edit note velocities.
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to assign a MIDI track to a drum map:
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1.
Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2.
In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output dropdown and select a drum map
from the options in the menu that appears.
Opening a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to open a drum map in the Drum pane:
To Open a Drum Map
1.
In the Track view, assign the drum map you want to open to a MIDI track. See “Assigning a MIDI
Track to a Drum Map” on page 308.
2.
Select the MIDI track you just assigned the drum map to and select View-Piano Roll.
To Open All Tracks Assigned to a Drum Map
1.
Select a single track assigned to the drum map.
2.
Hold down Ctrl+Shift while selecting View-Piano Roll.
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Use the following procedure to display a drum track or tracks in the Drum Grid pane.
To Display Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
1.
Create a drum map if you have not already done so. See “Creating and Editing a Drum Map” on
page 304.
2.
Change the focus to the Track view.
3.
In the track(s) you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor, select a drum map from the Output
dropdown menu.
4.
Select the tracks you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor and select View-Piano Roll.
The Piano Roll view appears with the selected track’s data appearing in the Drum Grid Editor.
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Velocity Tails
In the Drum Grid pane, you have the option of showing the velocity of each note as a series of bars. The
higher the bars, the higher the velocity value.
Notes with velocity showing
Notes without velocity showing
•
Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
English
To Display Velocity Tails in the Drum Grid Pane
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
Or
•
Press the Y key.
Editing Note Velocities
In the Drum Map Editor you can display note velocities as a series of horizontal bars behind the note.
Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
to display note velocities.
To Edit a Note Velocity in the Drum Grid Pane
1.
Click the Draw tool button
.
2.
Move your cursor over the velocity tail you want to edit until the cursor changes to look like this:
3.
Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag it down to decrease the
velocity.
To Edit Multiple Note Velocities in the Drum Grid Editor
When you edit multiple notes that have different initial velocities, the velocities are adjusted on a
relative basis, so if you reduce a velocity by 50%, all other selected notes have their velocities reduced by
the same percentage. For example: you select three notes. The first has a velocity of 100, the second a
velocity of 50, and the third a velocity of 30. You click and drag the velocity of the first note down to 50.
The second note’s velocity changes from 50 to 25 and the third note’s velocity changes from 30 to 15.
1.
Select the notes you want to change the velocity of.
2.
Click the Draw tool button
3.
Move your cursor over one of the selected notes.
4.
Hold down the Shift key.
5.
Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag it down to decrease the
velocity.
.
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:
Previewing a Mapped Sound
Use the following procedure to hear the drum sound you have mapped a note to.
To Preview a Mapped Sound
•
In the Note Map pane, click on the name of the sound you want to hear.
The Note Map Pane
The Note Map pane displays the current drum map. In the Note Map pane each row represents a pitch.
The Note In pitch is the recorded pitch. You map the recorded pitch to whatever pitch you want using
the Note Out pitch setting. You can also change the name of the mapped note and mute or solo the
mapped note.
Changing Mapped-note Settings
You can change the following settings in the Note Map pane:
•
Mapped-note name
•
Note Out
•
Mute
•
Solo
To Change the Name Setting
The name of a mapped note in the Note Map pane is a user-assigned variable. Make it descriptive for
easy reference. To change the Name setting, use the following procedure:
1.
In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2.
In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new name in the Name field and press the Enter key.
To Change the Note Out Setting
The Note Out setting is the actual note you hear when the Note In value is played. To change the Note
Out setting, use the following procedure:
1.
In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
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2.
In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new value in the Note Out field and press the Enter key, or
use the +/- buttons to change the value and press the Enter key.
To Change Multiple Note Out Settings
1.
Open the Drum Map Manager.
2.
In the Drum Map Manager, select a contiguous range of rows by selecting the first in the range,
and holding down the Shift key while selecting the last in the range.
Or
Select a non-contiguous range by selecting one row and holding down the Ctrl key while selecting
additional rows.
3.
Hold down both the Ctrl and Shift keys while selecting a new Output in the Output column.
To Mute or Solo a Mapped Note
The Mute and Solo controls in the Note Map pane allow you to mute or solo an individual mapped note.
To mute or solo a mapped note, use the following procedure:
In the Note Map pane, click the Mute
or Solo
button in the appropriate row.
Or
•
Right-click on the row you want to mute or solo and select Mute or Solo from the menu that
appears.
To Display the Note In and Note Out Values By Their Pitch Name
You have the option of showing the Note In and Note Out values by their pitch names. To do so, use the
following procedure:
•
Right-click on any row in the Note Map pane and select the Display Pitch Names command from
the menu that appears.
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Use the following procedure to change the order of mapped notes in the Note Map pane.
1.
Move your cursor over the row you want to move in the Note Map pane.
2.
When your cursor changes to look like this
and release the mouse button.
, click and drag the row to the place you want it to be
The Drum Grid Pane
The Drum Grid pane is where you edit your drum tracks. The Drum Grid pane is the top pane in the
Piano Roll view and opens automatically when you open a MIDI drum track.
Grid Lines
The Drum Grid pane is divided into a time grid. You can set the resolution of the grid lines from 1/4 note
to 1/64 note, or to follow the current snap grid setting.
The Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
and sets the grid line resolution.
toggles on and off the grid lines in the Drum Grid pane
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English
•
:
To Turn on Grid Lines in the Drum Map Pane
•
Click the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
Or
•
Press the I key.
To Set the Drum Map Pane Grid Line Resolution
•
Click the down arrow on the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
the menu that appears.
and select an option from
The Pattern Brush Tool
The Pattern Brush tool
, on the Piano Roll View toolbar, allows you to insert multiple notes using
your mouse, either following a pattern used in an existing MIDI file or at the current note duration
setting.
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
When you select the Pattern Brush tool you can click and drag in the Drum Grid pane (also works in the
Note pane) to produce a series of notes. Which notes appear in the Drum Grid depends on the settings
you make in the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu. To open the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown
menu, click the right side of the Pattern Brush tool.
The following table covers the options found in the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu:
Option…
Description…
Velocity
Select this option to open the Pattern Velocity dialog. The value
you enter in this dialog sets the default velocity for all notes
entered using the Pattern Brush tool unless you select Use
Pattern Velocities.
Use Pattern Velocities
Select this option to use the note velocities used in the custom
pattern file you are using. If you are using the Note Duration
option, this option is not available.
Use Pattern Polyphony
Select this option to use the pitch values from the custom pattern
file you are using. If you are using the Note Duration option, this
option is not available. When using this option, the vertical
position of your mouse does not affect the note pitches draw; that
information is read from the pattern.
Note Duration
This option uses the current note duration setting in the Piano Roll
View toolbar as the interval between notes.
To Paint Notes Using the Pattern Brush Tool
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1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane or the Note pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Note Duration.
3.
In the Piano Roll View toolbar, select a note duration. This value is the interval between notes
when using the Pattern Brush tool.
4.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this
when in the Drum Grid pane.
5.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
6.
Release the mouse button.
SONAR creates a series of notes, at equal intervals.
To Paint a Custom Pattern of Notes Using the Pattern Brush Tool
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern you want to use. If you need
to create a custom pattern, see “Creating Custom Patterns” on page 313.
3.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
4.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
5.
Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Note Velocities
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern you want to use. In the
Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Use Pattern Velocities.
3.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
5.
Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Pitch Values
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern you want to use. In the
Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Use Pattern Polyphony.
3.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
5.
Release the mouse button.
Creating Custom Patterns
You can create custom patterns and use the Pattern Brush tool to quickly paint them into the Drum
Grid pane. Use the following procedure to create a custom pattern.
To Create a Custom Pattern
1.
Create a new file, or open an existing MIDI file or pattern file that you want to edit.
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English
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
:
2.
Right-click in the Time Ruler where you want the pattern to start and select Insert Marker from
the menu that appears.
3.
Enter the name you want to use for the first pattern and click OK.
4.
In a MIDI track, enter a pattern of notes.
5.
If you want to create a second pattern, repeat steps 2 through 4.
The Marker dialog appears.
6.
Create as many patterns as you want, ending the last pattern with a marker called “end”.
7.
Save the file as a MIDI file (.MID) in the Pattern Brush Patterns folder in the directory where you
installed SONAR.
Note: You can change the default directory where SONAR looks for patterns in the Folders tab of
the Global Options dialog.
You may need to re-start SONAR to see the new patterns in the dropdown menu next to the Pattern
Brush. The name you gave the file appears with an arrow next to it. Move your mouse over it to see a
subdirectory which contains each of the patterns you created.
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Editing Audio
The Track view lets you edit and arrange audio clips. You can perform basic tasks such as
cut, copy, paste, and move; apply simple audio processing such as gain change, fades, and
equalization; and use sophisticated audio effects such as stereo chorus and reverb. The Track
view lets you see your audio clips on a timeline, arranged by track, to help you visualize the
organization of your project’s audio data.
Most audio processing commands and audio effects can be used from the Event List view as
well, by selecting one or more audio clips, then choosing the desired command from the
Process-Audio or Process-Audio Effects menu. Plug-in effects can also be applied to audio
data non-destructively, in real time, in both the Console and Track views. For more
information, see Chapter 11, Mixing and Effects Patching.
In This Chapter
Digital Audio Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Basic Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Fades and Crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
English
9
:
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Digital audio is a numeric representation of sound; it is sound stored as numbers. In order to
understand what the numbers mean, you need to start with the basic principles of acoustics, the
science of sound.
Basic Acoustics
Sound is produced when molecules in the air are disturbed by some type of motion produced by a
vibrating object. This object, which might be a guitar string, human vocal cord, or a garbage can, is set
into motion because energy is applied to it. The guitar string is struck by a pick or finger, while the
garbage can is hit perhaps by a hammer, but the basic result is the same: they both begin to vibrate.
The rate and amount of vibration is critical to our perception of the sound. If it is not fast enough or
strong enough, we won't hear it. But if the vibration occurs at least twenty times a second and the
molecules in the air are moved enough, then we will hear sound.
Example—A Guitar String
To understand the process better, let's take a closer look at a guitar string.
When a finger picks a guitar string, the entire string starts to move back and forth at a certain rate.
This rate is called the frequency of the vibration. Because a single back and forth motion is called a
cycle, we use a measure of frequency called cycles per second, or cps. This measure is also known as
Hertz, abbreviated Hz. Often the frequency of vibration of an object is very fast, so we can also express
the frequency in thousands of cycles per second, or kilohertz (abbreviated kHz).
The actual distance the string moves is called its displacement. This is proportional to how hard the
string is plucked. A greater displacement results in a louder sound.
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The segment marked “A” represents the string as it is pulled back by the pick; “B” shows it moving back
towards its resting point, “C” represents the string moving through the resting point and onward to its
outer limit; then “D” has it moving back towards the point of rest. This pattern repeats continuously
until the friction of the molecules in the air gradually slows the string to a stop. As the string vibrates,
it causes the molecules of air around it to vibrate as well. The vibrations are passed along through the
air as sound waves. When the vibrations enter your ear, they make your eardrum vibrate, and you
hear a sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and
send out electrical signals.
In order for us humans to hear the sound, the frequency of the vibration must be at least 20 Hz. The
highest frequency sound we can hear is theoretically 20 kHz, but, in reality, it's probably closer to 15 or
17 kHz. Other animals, and microphones, have different hearing ranges.
If the simple back-and-forth motion of the string was the only phenomenon involved in creating a
sound, then all stringed instruments would probably sound much the same. We know this is not true, of
course; the laws of physics are not quite so simple. In fact, the string vibrates not only at its entire
length, but at one-half its length, one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, and so on. These additional vibrations
(overtones) occur at a rate faster than the rate of the original vibration (the fundamental
frequency), but are usually weaker in strength. Our ear doesn't hear each frequency of vibration
individually, however. If it if did, we would hear a multinote chord every time a single string were
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The displacement of the string changes as the string vibrates, as shown here:
:
played. Rather, all these vibrations are added together to form a complex or composite sound that our
ear perceives as a single tone.
Fundamental
frequency (1f)
100% amplitude
2x fundamental (2f)
50% amplitude
3x fundamental (3f)
33% amplitude
4x fundamental (4f)
25% amplitude
5x fundamental (5f)
20% amplitude
This composite waveform still doesn't account for the uniqueness of the sound of different instruments.
For example, stringed instruments usually have a resonator. In the case of the guitar, the resonator is
the big block of hollow wood to which the string is attached (the guitar body). This has a major impact
on the sound we perceive when a guitar is played because it enhances or amplifies some of the
vibrations produced by the string and diminishes or attenuates others. The ultimate effect of all the
vibrations occurring simultaneously, being altered by the resonator, adds up to the sound we know as
guitar.
Waveforms
A sound wave can be represented in many different ways: as a mathematical formula, as a series of
numbers, or graphically as a waveform. A waveform displays the size, or amplitude, of the vibration
as a function of time. For example, the waveform of the sound of the plucked guitar string might look
like this:
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The waveform of a trumpet blast might look like this:
English
And the waveform of a spoken word might look like this:
The three waveforms shown above are quite different from one another, both in appearance and sound.
Each has its own characteristic shape, or envelope, and each has its own complex combination of
frequency components, which can change across the duration of the sound.
The center line of a waveform is the zero line; it corresponds to the rest position (displacement of 0) of
the original vibrating object. (A waveform for perfect silence would be a horizontal line at zero.) Back
and forth motions of the vibrating object translate to upward (positive) and downward (negative)
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excursions of waveform amplitude. For example, a close-up of a portion of the guitar waveform might
look like this:
The waveform crosses the zero line twice during each complete vibration. These zero-crossings are
important in digital audio processing; they are good places to cut waveforms apart and splice them
together. If waveforms are cut or spliced at other locations, clicks and pops can occur. The maximum
amplitude of the waveform in each vibration is also important: it determines the strength of the
vibration, and thus the loudness of the sound.
Recording a Sound
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by a microphone (or
some other electroacoustical device). Because the signal is caused by a sound, the signal strength varies
in direct proportion to the sound’s waveform. The computer measures and saves the strength of the
electrical signal from the microphone, thus recording the waveform.
There are two important aspects of this measuring process. First is the sampling rate, the rate at
which the computer saves measurements of the signal strength. It is a known fact of physics that you
must measure, or sample, the signal at a rate at least twice that of the highest frequency you wish to
capture. For example, suppose you want to record a moderately high note on a violin—say the A whose
fundamental frequency is 440 Hz and all overtones up to five times the fundamental. The highest
frequency you want to capture is 2,200 Hz, so you need to measure the electrical signal from the
microphone at least 4,400 times per second.
Since humans can hear frequencies well above 10 kHz, most sound cards and digital recording systems
are capable of sampling at much higher rates than that. Typical sampling rates used by modern
musicians and audio engineers are 22 kHz, 44.1 kHz, and 48 kHz. The 44.1 kHz rate is called CDquality, since it is the rate used by audio compact discs.
The other important aspect of the measuring process is the sampling resolution. The sampling
resolution determines how accurately the amplitude of each sample is measured. At present, the music
industry has settled on a system that provides 65,536 different values to assign to the amplitude of a
waveform at any given instant. Thus, each sample saved by your computer requires 2 bytes (16 bits) to
store, since it takes 2 bytes to store a number from –32,768 to 32,767. The scaling of the electrical input
signal level to amplitude value is determined by your audio hardware and by the position of your input
level control.
What if the amplitude of the sampled signal gets too high, such that a 16-bit number is not large
enough to represent it? What typically happens is that the signal is clipped, cut off at the maximum
value.
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Here is what a clipped waveform might look like:
Clipping is not usually desirable and may have unpleasant audible effects. Sudden irregularities in the
waveform of any type can cause clicks, pops, and distortion of the original sound.
The Decibel Scale
In acoustics, the decibel (dB) scale is a scale for measuring the relative loudness of two sounds. For
example, environmental noise is often measured as follows:
where L is the sound pressure level (in dB), p is the sound pressure amplitude, and p0 is a reference
amplitude of 20 micropascals (less than one billionth of atmospheric pressure). On this scale, a barely
audible sound (p = p0) has a sound pressure level of 0 dB, normal conversation (p = 1,000*p0) is at a
level of around 60 dB, and a jet engine at close range (p = 1,000,000*p0) is at a level of around 120 dB.
Similar decibel scales are used in other branches of science and engineering to measure electrical power
levels and other signal levels, always with respect to some reference level.
In SONAR, decibels are used in several places:
•
To indicate volume levels of audio tracks in the Track view and Console view
•
To indicate the effects of filters and equalizers
The reference level (0 dB) usually corresponds to the current loudness of the sound. A positive change in
decibels makes the sound louder; a negative change makes the sound quieter.
Audio Clips
If you have read from the beginning of the chapter, you should have a good idea of what is contained in
a SONAR audio clip. An audio clip contains a long series of numbers, or samples, representing the
fluctuating amplitude of a waveform. Audio clips are typically quite large, hundreds of kilobytes to
many megabytes in size. By comparison, a MIDI event takes only a few bytes to store.
The Track view lets you see your audio waveforms in great detail; you can zoom in until you see the
individual samples.
You should also now be aware of some things to watch out for when editing your audio data. First, if you
cut audio clips apart or splice them together, you should do so at zero-crossings in the waveform (places
where the amplitude is zero), in order to avoid sudden changes in amplitude that may cause clicks and
pops. Second, you should beware of clipping. Clipping of the audio waveform can occur if you record a
signal at too high a record level, or if you apply audio processing or effects that increase the waveform
amplitude too much. If you accidentally cause the waveform to clip, you should undo the command and
try again with different parameters.
Clipping can also occur in other situations, for example, if you try to play or mix several loud audio
tracks together, the aggregate signal strength may at times exceed the clipping limit, and the output
signal will be distorted. To correct the problem, you can create a volume envelope to reduce the level in
loud audio clips or reduce the track volume in the Console or Track views.
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L = 20 log (p/p0)
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Managing Audio Data
Because of the great size of audio data, SONAR uses an intelligent scheme for storing audio clips on
disk to conserve disk space and minimize the time it takes to load and save data. Audio data is not
stored directly in your project file, but rather in separate files in a special directory. For more
information, see “System Configuration” on page 548.
You can export your project in MP3, WMA, or Wave format. You can also convert your project’s MIDI
data to audio and export it to any of the above formats. For more information, see “Preparing Audio for
Distribution” on page 413.
Basic Audio Editing
The Track view lets you perform basic editing tasks such as cut, copy, paste, delete, drag-and-drop, split,
and bounce. You can drag fade-ins and fade-outs onto a clip using your mouse or you can set complex
envelopes on both clips and tracks. You can use envelopes to change settings for gain (volume), pan,
mute, bus send level and bus send pan. The Scrub tool lets you audition portions of audio by dragging
the mouse.
Use the Select tool to make selections.
Here is a summary of the ways in which you can select audio clips:
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To do this...
Do this...
Select a single clip
Click the clip
Select several clips at once
Drag a rectangle around them
Select part of a clip
Press Alt and drag over a portion of the clip
Add clips to the selection
Press Shift and either click the clips or drag a
rectangle around the clips
Add or remove clips from the selection
Press Ctrl and either click the clips or drag a
rectangle around the clips
Add or remove clips in a track from the
selection
Press Ctrl and click the track number
Select clips in a time range
Drag in the Time Ruler
Select clips between two markers
Click between the markers
Remove all selections
Click in an empty area outside of any clip
Editing Clip Properties
Property...
Description...
Name
The name of a clip is used in the Track view and Event List
view. You can assign any name to help you remember the
contents of the clip.
Start
The start determines when the sample is played.
Length
The length indicates the size of the clip.
Snap Offset
A value that represents the number of samples into the clip at
which the clip snaps to.
Display Color
The clip’s color in the Track view.
English
Audio clips have several properties that you can change:
To Change an Audio Clip’s Name
1.
Right-click the audio clip and choose Clip Properties.
2.
Type a new name in the Name box.
3.
Click OK.
The new clip name appears in the upper left corner of the clip.
To Change a Clip’s Start
1.
Right-click an audio clip and choose Clip Properties.
2.
Enter a new starting time in the Start field.
3.
Click OK.
The Track view displays the clip at the new starting time.
Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio Clips
Clips can be cut, copied, pasted, and deleted with Edit menu commands, or moved and copied with
drag-and-drop techniques. For more information, see “Arranging” on page 183.
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Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the waveform in a track or bus. Audio
scaling allows you to make detailed edits by zooming in on the parts of the waveform closest to the zero
crossing (silence) while preserving the track or bus size. By showing just the quietest parts of a clip, you
can make very precise edits. You can also zoom out on the waveform.
You can change the audio scale using keyboard shortcuts or the Audio Scale Ruler.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located in the vertical splitter bar between the Clips pane and the Track pane.
Track pane
Clips pane
Audio Scale Ruler
Note: the Audio Scale Ruler does not appear on multi-layered tracks.
There are three display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
•
Percentage—shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the highest percentage in the
Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the parts of the waveform which are within 2% of the zero
crossing appear in the clip.
•
dB—shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the Audio Scaling Ruler reads 36, then only the parts of the waveform which are 36 dB below 0 dB appear in the clip.
•
Zoom Factor—shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the Zoom Factor reads 10, then the
waveform is zoomed in by a factor of 10.
Note: The Audio Scale Ruler display reflects the type of audio clip directly beneath it. If it is a stereo
waveform, the Audio Scale Ruler appears in stereo (one for each channel). If it is a mono clip it appears
in mono. Also, the Audio Scale Ruler only displays numbers when it is above a certain height. If you
cannot see the Audio Scale Ruler, increase the size of your track or bus.
To Change the Audio Scale Display Option
1.
Right-click on the Audio Scale Ruler in any track.
A menu appears. The current display option is checked.
2.
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Select an option from the menu.
To Scale All Audio Tracks Together
To scale all audio tracks together, follow the instructions in the table below:
To do this...
Increase the scale for all tracks
Do this...
Press Alt+Up Arrow.
Or
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Vertical Zoom In
button. When you hold down the Ctrl key and position
your cursor over the Vertical Zoom In button, your cursor
looks like this:
Press Alt+Down Arrow.
English
Decrease the scale for all tracks
Or
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Vertical Zoom Out
button. When you hold down the Ctrl key and position
your cursor over the Vertical Zoom Out button, your cursor
looks like this:
Increase/Decrease the scale for all
tracks using your mouse
Hold down the Ctrl key, click the Vertical Zoom Fader and
drag the fader up or down. When you hold down the Ctrl
key and position your cursor over the Vertical Zoom fader,
your cursor looks like this:
Increase to maximum scale
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and click the Vertical
Zoom In button. When you hold down the Shift and Ctrl
keys and position your cursor over the Vertical Zoom In
button, your cursor looks like this:
Decrease to minimum scale
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and click the Vertical
Zoom Out button. When you hold down the Shift and Ctrl
keys and position your cursor over the Vertical Zoom Out
button, your cursor looks like this:
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To Scale a Single Track or Bus
To scale a single audio track, follow the instructions in the table below:
To do this...
Do this...
Increase/decrease the scale of
individual stereo or mono tracks
There are several ways to increase or decrease the size of an
individual track’s or bus’s waveform:
•
Press Ctrl+Alt+Up/Down arrows
•
Click and drag vertically in the track’s Audio Scale
Ruler.
When you click and drag in the Audio Scale ruler of a
track, your cursor looks like this:
•
Restore a track to minimum scale
Select the Zoom tool, hold the Shift key and drag
around the clip you want to zoom in on.
Double-click in the track’s Audio Scale Ruler.
To Undo Audio Scaling
•
Press the U key.
To Scale a Single Track or Bus Using the Audio Scale Ruler
•
In the track in which you want to change the audio scale, click in the Audio Scale Ruler and drag.
Drag up to increase the audio scaling. Drag down to decrease the audio scaling.
To Show or Hide the Audio Scale Ruler
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane.
2.
Select View Options from the menu that appears.
3.
In the Track View Options dialog, click the Show Audio Scale checkbox and click OK.
The Track View Options dialog appears.
Splitting Audio Clips
You can split long audio clips into shorter ones. This lets you extract and rearrange individual sounds,
adjust timing and alignment, and apply effects selectively. Audio clips can be split using the Scissors
tool in the Track view or with the Split command.
To Split Clips with the Scissors Tool
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1.
If necessary, zoom-in in the Track view and use the Scrub tool to determine where you want to
make a split.
2.
If you want the split to be made on a note or measure boundary, a marker, or by an event, open the
Snap to Grid dialog, make the appropriate settings and click the Snap to Grid button to turn on the
Snap to Grid.
3.
Click the Scissors tool button on the Track view toolbar.
4.
Click once to make a single split, or to make two splits, click where you want the first split, drag
within a clip and release to make a second split.
To Split Clips with the Split Command
1.
Select the clip you want to split.
2.
Right-click the selected clip and select Split from the menu.
The Split Clips dialog appears.
In the Split Clips dialog, select from the following options.
Option...
Description...
Split At Time
Specify the time at which you want to split the clip and the
time format.
Split Repeatedly
Specify the first measure at which you want to split the
clip in the Starting At Measure field and the intervals at
which you want to split the clip in the And Again Every
field.
Split At Each Marker
Creates a split in the clip at every marker.
Split When Silent For At Least
Creates a split after each period of silence which exceeds
the number of measures specified.
English
3.
SONAR splits the audio clip according to your specifications. Each new clip has the same name as the
original clip.
Note: A shortcut to split a selected clip is to move the Now time to where you want to split it, and press
s on your computer keyboard.
Bouncing to Clips
Individual audio clips in the same track can be combined into a single clip with the Bounce to Clip(s)
command.
Note 1: Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using the Bounce to Clip(s)
command. When a slip-edited clip is combined with another clip, any slip-edited data (audio clips or
MIDI events that are cropped from view) is overwritten.
Note 2: You control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing, freezing, applying effects) on the
Audio Data tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field.
The default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for Rendering Audio” on page
552 for more information.
To Bounce to Clips
1.
Select the clips to be combined in the Track view.
2.
Choose Edit-Bounce to Clip(s).
The clips are combined into a single clip. Empty space between clips is filled with silence in the new clip.
All clip automation from the source clips is applied to the new clip.
To Bounce Multiple Audio Clips to a New Track
1.
Select the clips to be combined in the Track view.
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2.
Choose Edit-Bounce to Track(s).
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog appears.
3.
Select the track you want to bounce to in the Destination field.
4.
Select other options in the Mixdown Audio/Bounce to Track(s) dialog and click OK.
The clips are combined into a single clip on the destination track. Empty space between clips is filled
with silence in the new clip.
Scrubbing
You can use the Scrub tool to locate or audition a particular sound or passage as you drag the mouse.
You can scrub a single audio track by dragging over that track or all tracks by dragging in the Time
Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool is not affected by current Mute and Solo settings of a track.
To Audition Audio with the Scrub Tool
1.
Click the Scrub tool
.
2.
Click and drag the pointer over an audio track.
Tip:
To hear the clips in all audio tracks, drag with the Scrub tool in the horizontal
ruler.
Basic Audio Processing
Audio processing commands let you modify audio data according to some rule or algorithm. The rule can
be as simple as reversing the audio data or boosting it by a certain factor, or as complex as performing a
Fourier analysis and selectively amplifying or attenuating sounds at certain frequencies.
Audio processing commands can work on whole, partial and non-contiguous clips. For example, suppose
you want to make certain words in a vocal passage softer. You can create a volume envelope and use it to
lower the volume, non-destructively in just the section of the track containing those words. You could
also use the Process-Audio-Gain command to lower the volume destructively.
You should listen to the results of your work after each audio processing command. If you don’t like
what you hear, you can use Edit-Undo to restore your audio data to its previous state.
Many of the dialog boxes associated with SONAR’s audio processing and effects commands have two
important features: Audition and Presets.
The Audition button is used to audition the processed audio data. When you click Audition, SONAR
processes the first few seconds of your data, then plays it repeatedly until you click Stop. This helps you
to get an idea of whether the settings in the dialog box are producing the desired effect.
The audition duration is three seconds by default. You can change this value by choosing OptionsGlobal, selecting the General tab and changing Audition Commands for ( ) Seconds.
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Presets are a way to store dialog settings so that you can apply the exact same processing or effect again
in the future. The following table tells you how to use presets in the effects dialog boxes.
To do this...
Do this...
Save the current settings as a preset
Enter a preset name and click the Save button
Use a preset
Select the preset from the dropdown list
Delete a preset
Select the preset, then click the Delete button
Many audio processing and effects presets are supplied with SONAR.
SONAR provides several commands to boost or cut the volume of audio data. The Process-AudioNormalize command, and the Process-Audio-Gain commands are used to control the volume of
selected audio data, in decibels. For more information on the decibel scale, see “The Decibel Scale” on
page 321. The Normalize command “normalizes” the audio data: it boosts the volume until the
maximum amplitude is reached somewhere in the data. By normalizing the data, you achieve the
maximum possible volume without distortion or clipping. The Gain command lets you edit the volume,
phase, and stereo interleave of selected audio data. You can also use this command to remove center
material from a clip (good for removing vocals).
Like all the audio processing commands, these commands work by modifying the waveform data. You
can achieve volume changes non-destructively using automation. For more information, see Chapter 13,
Automation.
When increasing or decreasing the volume of audio clips, you should consider the following points:
•
Normalize raises the noise floor; that is, while it increases the volume of the signal, it also boosts
the noise it contains. (This is true when you raise the volume by other means, too.)
•
Due to the nature and limitations of digital audio, the sum of all audio signals played together
cannot exceed the waveform amplitude limit. Even though no individual clip is clipped, the
combination may cause distortion.
If the selection contains any loud signals, Normalize may not seem to have any effect. This is because
the volume increase is determined by the loudest audio in the selection. If an audio clip contains
segments that are too quiet and others that are loud, you should probably split off the quiet segments
into separate clips and then normalize those.
To Normalize Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Normalize from the menu.
The Normalize dialog appears.
3.
Drag the Normalize Level slider to the approximate level you think is appropriate.
4.
Click OK to process the selected audio.
Listen to the edited data. You can use the Edit-Undo command if you don’t like the results, and then
try a different setting in the Normalize dialog.
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Using the Normalize and Gain Commands
:
To Use the Gain Command
1.
Select the audio data you want to edit.
2.
Use the Process-Audio-Gain command to open the Gain dialog.
3.
If you only want to change the overall volume of the selection, move the New Left Channel-From
Left slider and the New Right Channel-From Right sliders by a similar amount. You can press the
Audition button to try out your edits.
4.
If you want to switch the two channels, reverse all four sliders from their present positions.
5.
If you want to invert the left channel phase, click the Invert left-channel phase button
. If you
want to invert the right-channel phase, click the Invert right-channel phase button in the New
Right Channel section.
6.
If you want to remove center material (usually where the vocal track is), set the New Left ChannelFrom Left slider and the New Right Channel-From Right slider to 100%, and set the New Left
Channel-From Right slider and the New Right Channel-From Left slider to -100% (negative 100%).
7.
Press the Audition button if you want to audition your edits.
8.
Click OK to process the selected audio.
Listen to the edited data in your mix. You can use the Edit-Undo command if you don’t like the results,
and then try different settings in the Gain dialog.
Reversing Audio Data
By reversing audio data, you can make it play backwards. You may wish to do this to obtain unusual
sounds for special effects.
The Reverse command does not reverse the musical position of audio data. Use the ProcessRetrograde command to invert the order of clips in time.
To Reverse Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Reverse from the menu.
SONAR reverses the selected audio data.
Advanced Audio Processing
SONAR provides a number of advanced audio processing commands for power users. Among these are
commands to remove silent sections of audio from the data and to apply fades, and crossfades.
Removing Silence
The Remove Silence command detects sections of audio that fall below a given loudness threshold, and
replaces those sections with absolute silence. Remove Silence gives you the option of actually deleting
the silent sections from the selected audio clips, splitting long audio clips into a greater number of
shorter audio clips.
SONAR treats passages of absolute silence intelligently. It doesn’t store stretches of silence on disk, and
thereby conserves disk space. During a passage of absolute silence, SONAR sends no signal to the
digital output port; this results in cleaner audio playback. Remove Silence is great for cleaning up
your final audio mix, because it can mute all audio tracks in which the live performers were “laying
out.”
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Using Remove Silence to split long audio clips into smaller ones opens a variety of creative
possibilities.
The parameters in the Remove Silence dialog box are used to specify exactly what you mean by silence.
More precisely, Remove Silence employs what is called a digital noise gate. The gate is a type of filter,
it passes data through, or stops it from passing through, according to certain criteria. Parameters in the
dialog box specify the conditions under which the gate is opened and under which it closes again.
Parameter...
Meaning...
Open Level (dB)
The loudness threshold for opening the noise gate. The gate
officially opens when loudness rises above this level, although
it can open earlier because of the Attack Time.
Close Level (dB)
The loudness threshold for closing the noise gate. The gate
officially closes when loudness falls below this level, although
it can stay open later because of the Release Time.
Attack Time (ms)
The value in this field is the interval of time after the volume
reaches the Open Level for the gate to fully open. Opening the
gate gradually produces a fade-in effect instead of an instant
on-off sound.
Hold Time (ms)
The minimum time for the gate to stay open. Hold Time is
useful when you’ve set high open and close levels, for
example, when your source signal is very loud. Noise gates
set this way tend to react to repeated percussive passages
(such as drum rolls) by repeatedly opening and closing; this
can sound unpleasant. By setting a hold time, you can ensure
that the gate stays open long enough during percussive
passages.
Release Time (ms)
The amount of time after the Close Level is reached that the
gate actually closes. This lets the tail end of sounds pass
through without being clipped.
Look Ahead (ms)
The value in this field causes the gate to open slightly before
the sound reaches the Open Level so you don’t lose the
sound’s attack.
English
The digital noise gate parameters are described in the following table.
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To Remove Silence
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Remove Silence to open the Remove Silence dialog box.
3.
Set the digital noise gate parameters as described in the table above.
4.
Check the Split Clips box to delete the silent sections of audio.
5.
Click OK to remove silence from the selected data.
SONAR processes the audio as directed.
Extracting Timing
The Extract Timing command creates MIDI notes and (optionally) tempo changes based on rhythmic
peaks in audio.
The Extract Timing command first analyzes the audio for pulses—sudden percussive changes in
volume. Then, from each pulse's position and intensity, Extract Timing synthesizes new timing
information, in the form of note events or tempo changes.
This command offers exciting ways to get your MIDI data to "groove" along with audio rhythm tracks.
For example, using Extract Timing you can:
•
Generate MIDI notes that play along with a rhythm, retaining all the accents in the rhythm track
•
Create templates for the Process-Groove Quantize command, so that your MIDI tracks play with
the same feel as your audio rhythm track
•
Adjust the tempo and feel of an existing sequence to match that of a new rhythm track
•
Record a new MIDI sequence on top of an audio rhythm track, letting the audio track determine
the tempo map for the song
Extract Timing works in two steps: Pulse Analysis and Timing Synthesis. In the first step, the selected
audio is scanned for sudden percussive attacks. You must adjust the Pulse Analysis parameters, then
click Audition to see the results and decide if the pulses are satisfactory. The Pulse Analysis parameters
are as follows:
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Parameter/Option
Meaning
Preset field
Use this field to choose and enter presets. Click the
Save button to save any group of new settings after
you enter a name in the Preset field. Click the Delete
button to delete any selected group from the Preset
field.
Trigger Level (db)
The loudness of audio needed to trigger a new pulse.
Minimum Length (ms)
The minimum allowable amount of time between
pulses. If you are working with dynamic source
material, and Extract Timing seems to generate
clusters of pulses that seem incorrect, you should
experiment with increasing the value of this parameter.
Find a Steady Rhythm
Tells SONAR to look for a steady rhythm among all the
pulses it finds. For example, if you're analyzing a drum
track that consists of a steady beat on the snare and
kick-drum, but which also has some syncopated
accents, you can use this option to ignore the
syncopation and retain only the backbeat.
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Insert Tempo Changes
Tells SONAR to insert tempo changes in the appropriate places in
your song to ensure that the sequence plays in time with the rhythm
track. Remember to also set the Expected Pulse Duration, because it
defines the metronome markings for all tempo changes.
Expected Pulse Duration
The musical time value for each pulse that was found. For example, if
you're analyzing a drum beat that has steady eighth notes on the highhat, you should set this value to Eighth for the correct tempo changes
to be inserted.
Convert Pulses to MIDI Note
Tells SONAR to create a MIDI note event for each pulse that was
found. The Note Velocities parameter lets you select which velocity
will be used
Note Velocities
The velocity of generated MIDI notes. You can either select Vary With
Pulse Level to adjust velocity to the dynamic structure of the original
source material, or select Set All To Same Value to assign each
inserted MIDI note a specified velocity.
English
In the second step, you set the Timing Synthesis parameters to determine how the pulses are converted
to musically meaningful data. The Timing Synthesis parameters are as follows:
When using Extract Timing, keep in mind the following:
•
It knows nothing about the musical context of the audio.
•
It does not know, and cannot figure out, the approximate tempo of the audio, the feel, or the time
signature.
It only knows how to listen for sudden changes in volume. You must guide it with your own knowledge
about the music.
To Extract Timing from Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be analyzed.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Extract Timing to open the Extract Timing dialog box.
3.
Set the Pulse Analysis parameters as described in the table above, or choose a preset from the
preset field.
4.
Click Audition to get visual feedback in the Clips pane, so you can be sure the pulses are aligned to
your liking. If not, readjust the parameters and try again.
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5.
Set the Timing Synthesis parameters as described in the table above.
6.
Click OK.
The generated events are automatically placed on the Clipboard. You can paste them to a new track, or
use them directly in another command (such as Groove Quantize).
Removing DC Offset
Some models of audio hardware produce a DC offset while recording, which is caused by electrical
mismatches between the audio hardware and the input device or instrument. Although imperceptible,
DC offset may cause problems in further stages of sound processing.
Note: An easy way to spot DC offset is to zoom in to a silent section of your sound file. If the silent
waveform matches the centerline in the waveform display, your file does not contain DC offset.
To Remove DC Offset From Existing Audio
1.
Select the audio data and choose Process-Audio-Remove DC Offset. This launches the Remove
DC Offset dialog.
2.
Choose from the following options, and click OK:
•
DC Offset Threshold (dB)—you can set a minimum dB threshold. If the analyzed DC offset is
below this value, no removal takes place.
•
Analyze Left Channel (dB) and Right Channel (dB)—this field displays the DC offset
separately for the left and right channels. Press the Audition button to update the display.
•
Compute DC Offset from first 5 seconds only—to speed processing, select the Compute DC
offset from first 5 seconds only checkbox. Only the first five seconds of a sound file will be
analyzed when measuring the DC offset. The only time that five seconds is not sufficient is if
a long fade-in or mute has been applied at the beginning of the file.
To Remove DC Offset During Recording
1.
Use the Process-Audio-Remove DC Offset command to open the Remove DC Offset dialog.
2.
In the DC Offset Threshold (dB) field, set a minimum dB threshold, and click OK to close the
dialog. If the analyzed DC offset is below this value, no removal takes place.
3.
Open the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio command), and on the Advanced tab, enable the
Remove DC Offset During Recording checkbox, and click OK.
This option filters out DC Offset according to the threshold value that you set in the Remove DC Offset
dialog.
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Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive Editing)
Slip editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip, the end of a clip, or
both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during playback. All hidden material remains intact
and can be restored. All slip editing movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For more
information about the snap to grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 201.
Important:
English
Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using the
Bounce to Clip(s) command and slip-edited clips in a track can be mixed
down to another track. When a slip-edited clip is combined with another clip or
an effect is applied to a clip using the Edit-Apply Audio Effects command,
any slip-edited data (audio clips or MIDI events that are cropped from view) is
overwritten.
Slip-editing Modes
Slip-editing has three modes:
Trimming
As a default, when slip-editing a clip, the clip’s contents always remains fixed in time. If the first
measure of a clip is hidden using slip-editing, the remaining material does not shift forward in time by
a measure. The first measure of the clip is simply muted during playback. Playback of the clip resumes
at the second measure.
Scroll-trimming
If you want the clip’s contents to shift in time, you can preserve move the material in a slip-edited clip
by using modifier keys, clicking the middle of the clip, and moving it either right or left.
Slide-trimming
You can also shift the clip’s contents in time, in relation to either the beginning or end of the clip itself,
by slide-trimming.
Using Slip-editing
Use the following procedures to slip-edit clips.
To Slip-edit an Audio Clip
1.
Right-click on the clip you want to slip-edit.
2.
Select Clip-Properties from the menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
3.
Select the Action tab.
4.
Make sure the Enable Looping checkbox is unchecked.
5.
Click OK.
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:
6.
Make edits according to the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Trim the beginning of a clip
Move the cursor over the beginning of a
clip. When the cursor changes in
appearance to look like this
, click and
drag the clip to the right until you have
removed the unwanted information.
Clip before slip-editing
Trim the end of a clip
Clip before slip editing
Scroll-trimming a clip (Moving the clip
contents in time while maintaining the clip’s
start and end time)
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The same clip with the
first two beats of the
measure slip-edited
Move the cursor over the beginning of a
clip. When the cursor changes in
appearance to look like this
, click and
drag the clip to the left until you have
removed the unwanted information.
The same clip with the
last quarter measure
slip-edited
Press the Alt+Shift keys while moving the
cursor over the middle of the clip. When the
cursor changes to look like this
, click
and drag the clip to the left or right as
desired. The contents (audio data) in the
clip follow the Snap to Grid resolution, i.e. if
your resolution is set to half note, the
contents of your clip moves in half-note
intervals.
The same clip with the
clip shifted by 3 beats
Clip before scroll-trimming
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the
cursor over the beginning of the clip. When
the cursor changes to look like this
,
click and drag the beginning to the desired
start time.
English
Slide-trimming the beginning of a clip
(Moving the start time of the clip and the
clip’s contents while preserving the end
time)
Clip before slide-trimming
Slide-trimming the end of a clip (Moving the
end time of the clip and the clip’s contents
while preserving the clip’s start time)
Clip before slide-trimming
The same clip with the clip
slide-trimmed by 2 beats
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the
cursor over the end of the clip. When the
cursor changes to look like this
, click
and drag the end to the desired location.
The same clip with the clip shiftcropped by 2 beats
The hidden information in the slip edited clips remains intact but is not heard during playback
To Permanently Delete Slip-edited Data
1.
Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2.
Select the Edit-Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
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:
Slip-editing Multiple Audio Clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To Slip-edit Multiple Clips at Once
1.
Make sure all clips are not loop-enabled.
2.
Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
3.
Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until your cursor changes to
look like this:
4.
.
Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
Fades and Crossfades
Fades are a gradual increase or decrease in volume at the beginning (fade-in) or end (fade-out) of a clip.
A crossfade is when one clip fades out while another fades in. There are two ways to create fades and
crossfades in SONAR: offline (destructive) and real-time (non-destructive).
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time
You can create real-time fades and crossfades in the Track view’s Clips pane. Real-time fades and
crossfades do not change the data in the clip. SONAR reads the fade-in, fade-out or crossfade in the clip
and adjusts the gain accordingly. You can edit the crossfade’s start time and end times.
You can set the type of fade-in or fade-out you want to use as a default:
•
Linear—A straight line, raising or lowering the volume at a steady rate.
•
Slow Curve—A curved fade which starts to change the volume slowly at first and then rapidly
increasing (fade-in) or decreasing (fade-out) the volume.
•
Fast Curve—A curved fade which starts to change the volume quickly at first and then rapidly
decreasing (fade-out) or increasing (fade-in) the volume.
The following crossfade combinations are possible:
Crossfade combination...
Linear out/Linear in
Linear out/Slow Curve in
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Looks like this...
Linear out/Fast Curve in
Slow Curve out/Linear in
English
Slow Curve out/Slow Curve in
Slow Curve out/Fast Curve in
Fast Curve out/Linear in
Fast Curve out/Slow Curve in
Fast Curve out/Fast Curve in
To Create a Real-time Fade-in in an Audio Clip
Use the following procedure to create a fade-in in an audio clip:
1.
In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the beginning of a clip until
the cursor looks like this:
2.
.
When your cursor changes, click and drag to the right until you reach your desired fade-in length.
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:
As you drag your mouse a fade-in appears on your clip.
To Create a Real-time Fade-out in an Audio Clip
Use the following procedure to create a fade-out in an audio clip:
1.
In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the end of a clip until the
cursor looks like this:
2.
.
When your cursor changes, click and drag to the left until you reach your desired fade-out length.
As you drag your mouse a fade-out appears on your clip.
To Create an Automatic Crossfade (Real-time)
Use the following procedure to create a crossfade between two audio clips:
1.
In the Track view, click the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button located next to the
Snap to Grid button or press the x key.
2.
Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button, select Default
Crossfade Curves and select a crossfade curve.
3.
Select and drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. You should overlap the clips by
the length you want the crossfade.
4.
When you have the clip positioned where you want it, release the mouse button to drop the clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
5.
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In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, check the Blend Old With New checkbox and click OK.
6.
The two clips now overlap with a crossfade, looking something like this:
Fade-out
First clip
Fade-in
Second clip
You can edit fade-ins and fade-outs. You can change the start, end and position of a fade. The following
procedures all demonstrate edits to a fade-in, but fade-outs work exactly the same.
To Edit the Start Time of a Fade While Maintaining the End Time of the Fade
Changing the start time of a fade-in is essentially slip editing the beginning of the clip. The beginning of
the fade-in can not be separated from the beginning of the clip. Use this procedure to change the start
time of the fade-in while maintaining the current end time of the fade:
1.
In the Clips pane, move your cursor over the bottom part of the beginning of a clip which has a
fade-in.
2.
When your cursor looks like this
the desired location and release.
, click and drag the beginning of the fade-in (and the clip) to
Fade-in end time unchanged
Fade-in before being edited
Fade-in after being edited
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English
Crossfade
:
To Edit the Start Time of a Fade While Maintaining the Length of the Fade
Use this procedure to change the start time of the fade-in while maintaining the length of the fade:
1.
In the Clips pane, move your cursor over the middle part of the beginning of a clip which has a
fade-in.
2.
When your cursor looks like this
, click and drag the beginning of the fade-in (and the clip) to
the desired location and release.
Fade-in end time changed
Fade-in after being edited
Fade-in before being edited
To Change an Existing Fade
Use the following procedure to change an existing fade on a clip:
1.
Move your cursor over the beginning of a fade-out or the end of a fade-in, until your cursor looks
like this:
2.
.
Right-click to and select the desired fade type from the menu that appears.
To Change an Existing Crossfade
Use the following procedure to change an existing crossfade:
1.
Move your cursor over the region where the crossfade is.
2.
Right-click and select the desired crossfade from the menu that appears.
To Edit or Create Fades from the Process Menu
You can edit the length and type of fade-ins and/or fade-outs on one or more clips using the ProcessFade Selected Clips command, or create fades from scratch.
1.
Select the clip or clips in which you want to create or edit fade-ins and/or fade-outs.
2.
Select Process-Fade Selected Clips.
The Fade Selected Clips dialog appears.
3.
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Adjust parameters according to the following table:
Parameter...
Description...
Fade In (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-in to last.
Fade Out (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-out to last.
Fade In Curve
Choose a fade-in type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Fade Out Curve
Choose a fade-out type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
4.
Alter Existing Times
Select this option if you wish to change the existing fade lengths. You
don’t need to check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Alter Existing Curves
Select this option if you wish to change the existing fade types. You
don’t need to check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Only Show if Pressing
Shift
Select if you want to apply previous dialog settings without opening
the dialog. Hold shift when selecting command to override this
option.
Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR creates or edits the fade(s) according to the options you chose in the dialog.
SONAR provides several commands for applying gradual volume changes to audio data. The first
command, Fade/Envelope, lets you fade-in or fade-out, and lets you choose an envelope, a curve that
governs the rate of the fade. The starting envelope can be linear (straight line), exponential, or inverse
exponential. You can change the shape of the envelope before applying the fade.
The envelope in the Fade/Envelope dialog box is made of one or more connected line segments (the
linear curves are a single segment, the exponential curves consist of nine segments each). Although the
endpoints of the curve are fixed, you can move the intermediate points, and create new intermediate
points, to change the shape of the curve.
To do this...
Do this...
Move a point
Click and drag it to a new location
Insert a new point
Click on the line between existing points
Remove a point
Drag it onto the next point
Restart from the original curve
Click Reset
The second command, Crossfade, lets you create a smooth transition from one audio clip to another, by
fading two overlapping audio clips simultaneously (one fades out, the other fades in). As with Fade/
Envelope, you can choose from three different starting curves and change the shape of the curve.
To Apply a Fade to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Fade/Envelope to open the Fade/Envelope dialog box.
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English
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline
:
3.
Select an envelope from the dropdown list.
4.
If desired, manipulate the curve as described in the table above.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the fade to the selected audio data.
To Crossfade Two Overlapping Clips
1.
Select two overlapping audio clips. They need not be on the same track, but they must overlap in
time for the command to have any effect.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Crossfade to open the Crossfade dialog box.
3.
Select an envelope from the dropdown list.
4.
If desired, manipulate the curve as described in the table above. You can manipulate only the curve
pertaining to the first of the two overlapping clips; the second curve is automatically adjusted so
that the two curves constantly add up to 100%.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the two fades to the selected data.
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Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in audio effects. Some audio plug-in effects are supplied with
SONAR. Others can be purchased from third-party software manufacturers, and appear automatically
in SONAR’s menus once they are installed on your system. If you need help when using a plug-in, press
the F1 key on your computer keyboard to open the plug-in’s help file. Please note that third-party plugins may not have a help file.
This section describes the effects that are included with SONAR.
•
In the Track view, right-click the FX bin and select an effect from the popup menu.
•
Set effect parameters (or select a preset).
•
Listen to the track and adjust parameters based on what you hear.
You can add audio effects, like MIDI effects, to audio tracks in real time (during playback) in the
Console and Track views. Unlike some of the audio processing discussed so far, using effects in real time
is non-destructive. This means that the audio clip data itself is not modified, and no new audio files are
created. See “Mixing and Effects Patching” on page 363, for more information on real-time effects.
Note:
Offline effects may cause your audio clips to grow in size. For example, when
you apply reverb, your clip may need to grow to accommodate the tail end of
an echo.
Applying Audio Effects
From the Console and Track views you can destructively apply audio effects for one or more tracks.
When you are pleased with the audio effects you have patched into a track, you can apply the effects to
the track. Destructively applying effects to a track saves resources, allowing you to include additional
tracks and/or effects.
To Apply Audio Effects
Add one or more audio effects to one or more tracks in either the Track view or the Console view, and
then:
1.
In the Track view, select the tracks you want to be affected.
2.
Select Process-Apply Audio Effects from the menu.
3.
If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
4.
Click OK.
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English
Using plug-in effects is similar to using the audio processing commands off-line. The overall procedure
is as follows:
:
If you do not delete the effects from each track after applying them, they remain active.
Note:
Applying effects can be undone, but the effects are not then re-patched in the FX
bin.
Directly Applying Audio Effects
You can also directly apply an audio effect to an audio clip. Right-click the clip and select an effect from
the Process Effect menu. The dialog box for each plug-in effect has a Mixing tab that provides three
options for processing the data.
Option...
Meaning...
Process In-Place, Mono to Mono
Audio is processed clip-by-clip, in mono format. The
processed output of the plug-in replaces the original clip's
data, in-place. (If the plug-in produces only stereo output,
SONAR automatically converts the audio to mono.)
This option is best for effects like Time/Pitch Stretching.
Process In-Place, Creating
Stereo Output Tracks
Audio is fed into the plug-in, clip-by-clip, in mono format. A
new stereo track is inserted beneath the selected track, and
the stereo output of the plug-in is placed into this stereo
track. (If the plug-in produces only mono output, SONAR
automatically converts it to stereo.)
If you check Keep Original Data, SONAR won't delete the
original audio data. This lets you create stereo wet-only
tracks for finer mixing control. If you leave Keep Original
Data unchecked, the processed data will replace the original
audio clips.
Create a Send Submix
All selected audio tracks are mixed down into a stereo
submix. This stereo submix is fed into the plug-in, in stereo.
The stereo output of the plug-in is placed into a new stereo
track at the destination you choose.
If you check Keep Original Data, SONAR won't delete the
original audio data. If you leave it unchecked, the processed
data will replace the original audio clips.
Shifting Pitch
The Cakewalk-Pitch Shifter raises or lowers the pitch of an audio signal, while leaving the duration
of the audio clip unchanged. The pitch shift parameters are as follows:
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Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Pitch
The amount by which the pitch is changed, in semitones
Dry Mix (%)
The volume of the original, unprocessed signal passed to the
output
Wet Mix (%)
The volume of the processed signal passed to the output
Feedback Mix (%)
The amount of pitch-shifted signal that is fed into a delay line
Delay Time (ms)
The length of the delay in milliseconds
Mod. Depth (ms)
The amount the delay time will vary
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Pitch Shifter to open the Cakewalk FX Pitch Shifter
dialog box.
3.
Set the pitch shift parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the pitch shift to the selected data.
This is a fast pitch shifter that uses minimal computation time. The Cakewalk Time/Pitch Stretch
command, described below, can produce higher quality output, but requires a lot more computational
time.
Stretching Time and Pitch
The Cakewalk-Time/Pitch Stretch command lengthens or shortens audio data, and raises or lowers
pitch. Time and pitch can be stretched independently. You can use this effect to stretch or compress
audio while preserving pitch, or to change pitch while preserving duration, or both. Time/Pitch Stretch
is not available in real-time. For real-time time and pitch stretching, use Groove clips. For more
information, see Chapter 6, Using Loops.
The time/pitch stretch parameters are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Time (%)
The new length of the audio clip, as a percentage of the length
of the original clip.
Pitch
The amount by which the pitch is changed, in semitones.
Source Material
The type of audio data. Selecting an option sets recommended
values for the Block Rate, Overlap Ratio, Crossfade Ratio,
Accuracy, and Algorithm parameters.
Block Rate (Hz)
Used to calculate the size of the data “blocks” processed by
Time/Pitch Stretch. Lower values lead to larger block sizes. If
the material to be processed is generally less percussive or
lower in pitch, using a lower block rate will make the algorithm
operate more efficiently.
Overlap Ratio
The amount of overlap between consecutive blocks.
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English
To Apply Pitch Shift to Audio Data
:
Crossfade Ratio
The crossfade amount for the blocks.
Accuracy
The accuracy of the calculations. Normal is good for most
sounds. High accuracy gives slightly better quality, but takes
longer to process.
Algorithm
The algorithm used for pitch stretching. The MPEX algorithm is
the default. Select Normal if you want to use the same
algorithm used by previous versions of SONAR.
The Time and Pitch parameters can be set by typing numbers in the appropriate boxes, or by dragging
the sliders or the crosshair in the graph. Holding Shift while dragging the crosshair snaps the crosshair
to the nearest axis: X (time), Y (pitch), or the diagonal (equal time and pitch). Diagonal values on the
graph can be processed very quickly and with very high quality, but have the trade-off that changing
pitch does not preserve duration, and vice versa.
For the most natural-sounding results, choose low settings; transpose by no more than a third or a
fourth. Higher values, though, can be used for special effects.
To Apply Time/Pitch Stretch to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Time/Pitch Stretch from the Process menu or from the popup
menu to open the Cakewalk FX Time/Pitch Stretch dialog box.
3.
Set the time/pitch stretch parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the time/pitch stretch to the selected data.
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SONAR’s Synth Rack view makes inserting a soft synth or ReWire instrument a one-step
process, and makes viewing and configuring these instruments simple. SONAR also supports
multi-port synths, which allow you to use different synth tracks and effects for each patch
or group of patches in a multi-timbral, multi-port synth.
SONAR now seamlessly integrates VST plug-ins. The VST Configuration Wizard runs
automatically on startup, registering all your VST plug-ins. See “The VST Configuration
Wizard” on page 403 for more information.
In This Chapter
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Stand-alone Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
English
10
Working with Software
Synthesizers
:
Synth Rack View
Open the Synth Rack view with the View-Synth Rack command. The Synth Rack view lets you view,
insert, delete, and configure your soft synths. You can also mute and solo any or all of them from this
view. Each time you insert a soft synth into your project, a new row appears in the Synth Rack view
with the name of the soft synth and its current preset. You can select different presets from the view.
You can insert as many copies of the same soft synth as you like; each new copy appears in a new row
and has the same name, but has a higher number after the name (ReWire soft synths can only have one
copy open). The new higher-numbered name also appears on the menus of synth track inputs and MIDI
track outputs.
Insert button
Currently inserted
synths
There is much more information about the Synth Rack view in the online help. Press F1 when the
Synth Rack view is open and on top to display the appropriate help topic.
Synth Tracks
Using a soft synth introduces a new kind of track to your project alongside audio and MIDI tracks. A
synth track functions much like an audio track, but with a few differences:
•
A synth track’s input is always a synth or a ReWire device, which means you cannot record audio
or enable input monitoring from another source on that track.
•
A synth track can display a waveform preview of its output. When you enable this display function
by clicking the
button on the track strip, the amplitude of a synth track's audio signal is
graphed in real time as a waveform.
•
Synth tracks are distinguished by the synth icon to the right of the track number.
Synth track icon
Inserting Soft Synths
In order to play a soft synth from a MIDI controller or with recorded MIDI data, you need to have at
least one synth track that lists the soft synth in its Input field, and at least one MIDI track that lists the
soft synth in its Output field. The data from the MIDI track feeds the synth track and plays the soft
synth. If you’re playing the soft synth with a MIDI controller, the MIDI track that’s feeding the synth
track must have the focus (gold or tan color). You can also patch the soft synth into an audio track’s FX
bin instead of a synth track’s Input field.
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To add a soft synth to the audio and synth tracks’ Input menus (drop-downs) and the MIDI tracks’
Output menus, you have to insert each soft synth that you want to use into each project. There are two
basic ways to insert soft synths in SONAR:
1.
You can insert soft synths from the Synth Rack view or with the Insert-Soft Synths command. If
you use this method, you can choose to have SONAR create the necessary synth and MIDI tracks,
and patch them together correctly. If you want to use multiple synth tracks to take advantage of
SONAR’s support for the multi-output soft synth format, you need to create and patch additional
MIDI tracks manually to feed the additional synth tracks.
2.
You can insert soft synths into FX bins of individual audio tracks. If you use this method, you need
to set a MIDI track’s Output field to the name of the soft synth you inserted. Then you can record
MIDI data in the MIDI track to play the soft synth with.
A multi-port soft synth allows you the option of using a different synth track for every output that the
soft synth has. This allows you to use different plug-in effects for each sound (or in some cases, group of
sounds) that a soft synth produces. For example, if a soft synth can produce 16 sounds at the same time,
and has 4 outputs, you can send any of the 16 sounds out through any of 4 different outputs, giving you
a choice of 4 different plug-in configurations for that soft synth. You would use 4 different synth tracks:
one for each output. If a soft synth can produce 8 sounds at the same time, and has 8 outputs, you could
use 8 synth tracks and 8 plug-in configurations. If you need more plug-in configurations or just more
sounds, you can insert more copies of the same soft synth, using new synth tracks for all of the new
copy’s outputs. You can also send all the MIDI tracks out the same output and synth track if you don’t
need separate plug-ins for each sound, or just want to use the soft synth’s internal effects.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog gives you the option of automatically creating a separate synth
track for each audio output that the soft synth has, or creating just one synth track for Output 1 of that
particular soft synth. Each new copy (also called an instance) of a soft synth is considered to be a
separate instrument, and appears in a separate row in the Synth Rack view, with a number after its
name representing which copy it is.
Inserting a Soft Synth
The procedure for inserting multi-output and single-output soft synths is basically the same. There are
just more tracks possibly involved when you insert a multi-output soft synth.
There are several places where you can insert a soft synth into your project:
•
Preferred method 1—You can insert the soft synth into the project from the Synth Rack view. This
method lets you use all of a multi-port soft synth’s outputs, if you want to. This method gives you
the options of automatically creating a matched combination of a synth and MIDI track, creating
just a synth track with the soft synth patched as a track input, creating no new tracks, and
creating separate synth tracks for each of the soft synth’s outputs.
•
Preferred method 2—You can insert the soft synth by using the Insert-Soft Synths command,
which gives you the same insertion and output options as the Synth Rack view.
•
Alternate method—You can insert the soft synth into the FX bin of an audio track or bus. You must
then change the Output field of a MIDI track to the name of the soft synth you inserted in order to
play the audio track or bus with data from the MIDI track. If you insert a multi-output soft synth
with this method, you can only use the first output of the soft synth.
You can insert more than one copy (also called an instance) of the same soft synth. Each new copy has
the same name as the previous copy except for having a higher number after the name. Every copy
appears in a separate row in the drop-down menus of synth and audio track inputs and MIDI track
outputs.
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Multi-port Soft Synths
:
To Insert a Soft Synth from the Synth Rack View or Menu
1.
If you want to use the Synth Rack view, open the Synth Rack view with the View-Synth Rack
command, and click the Insert button
to display the popup menu of installed soft synths.
2.
If you want to use the menu command, use the Insert-Soft Synths command to display the popup
menu of installed soft synths.
3.
In the popup menu, click the name of the soft synth you want to insert.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears, unless you’ve previously unchecked the Ask This
Every Time checkbox that’s in the dialog. If you have, SONAR inserts the soft synth according to
the preferences you set the last time you used the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog. If you need to
open the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog when it’s hidden, click the Insert Soft Synth Options
button
4.
in the Synth Rack view toolbar.
Choose options from the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog according to the following:
•
If you want to create a MIDI track that uses the soft synth as an output, check the Create
These Tracks: MIDI Source checkbox.
•
If you want to create a single synth track that acts as an output for Output 1 of the soft synth,
check the Create These Tracks: First Synth Audio Output checkbox.
•
If you want to create separate synth tracks for each of the soft synth’s outputs, check the
Create These Tracks: All Synth Audio Outputs checkbox.
•
If you want to use existing MIDI and audio tracks to play the soft synth, uncheck all of the
Create These Tracks options. SONAR adds the soft synth to the audio track input and MIDI
track output menus. You need to set an existing MIDI track’s Output field to the soft synth,
and set an existing audio track’s Input field to the soft synth (the audio track will then become
a synth track).
•
If you want to open the soft synth’s interface from this dialog, check the Open These Windows:
Synth Property Page checkbox.
•
If you opened this dialog from the Insert menu and want to open the Synth Rack view, check
the Open These Windows: Synth Rack View checkbox.
•
If you want to open this dialog every time you use the Insert-Soft Synths command, or click
the Insert button in the Synth Rack view and choose a synth from the popup menu, check the
Ask This Every Time option. If you always insert soft synths in the same way, you can
uncheck this option so you don’t have to deal with the dialog each time. To open the dialog
when the option is unchecked, click the Insert Soft Synth Options button
Rack view toolbar.
5.
in the Synth
Click OK, if you haven’t already.
SONAR adds the soft synth to the audio track input and MIDI track output menus, and creates any new
tracks that you requested. The new tracks already have the correct inputs and outputs patched. Now
you can record MIDI data in the soft synth MIDI tracks, and/or play the soft synth from a MIDI
keyboard or controller.
To Insert a Soft Synth in an FX Bin
1.
In either the Track or Console view, right-click the FX bin of an unused audio track or bus.
Note: If you patch a soft synth into a bus that has no audio track assigned to it, the soft synth does
not sound. Always use a bus that has at least one audio track sending data to it.
The plug-in menu appears.
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2.
Under Soft Synths, choose the name of a soft synth.
Two things happen: the soft synth’s interface appears, and the soft synth’s name appears in the
track’s or bus’s FX bin, with a bypass button next to the name.
3.
Set the soft synth’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag its interface out of the way.
4.
Click the Output field of a MIDI track to display the output menu.
5.
Select the name of the soft synth that you patched into the audio track or bus.
6.
If the soft synth is multi-timbral, choose a MIDI channel for the MIDI track.
7.
Also in the MIDI track, select a bank and patch.
Now you can record some MIDI data into the MIDI track to play the soft synth with. See “To Play a Soft
Synth with Recorded MIDI Data” on page 354.
Opening a Soft Synth’s Property Page
There are several different methods to open a soft synth’s property page (interface):
•
When you insert the soft synth from the Insert menu or Synth Rack view, check the Open These
Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox in the Insert soft synth Synth Options dialog.
•
Double-click the name of the soft synth in either a MIDI track’s Output field or a synth track’s
Input field.
•
Double-click the row in the Synth Rack view that displays the soft synth.
•
Double-click the name of the soft synth in an FX bin.
•
Click one of the rows in the Synth Rack view to select it, and then click the Properties button in the
Synth Rack toolbar (or press c).
Playing a Soft Synth
There are several ways to play a soft synth:
•
You can record MIDI data and use the soft synth as a playback device.
Note: WDM or ASIO drivers do not improve performance when you play back recorded MIDI
data—the improvement comes only when you play a soft synth in real time from an external MIDI
controller or keyboard.
•
You can play the soft synth in real time from a MIDI controller or keyboard. To avoid excessive
latency, your sound card must be using a WDM or ASIO driver. Also, you must set mixing latency
to the lowest achievable level (probably less than 10 msec.), which you do by using the OptionsAudio command to open the Audio Options dialog box, and dragging the Buffer Size slider on the
General tab.
•
Some soft synths that use the DXi 2 format can send MIDI data, sometimes including MIDI notes,
from their interfaces to SONAR. For example, some soft synths have MIDI keyboards built into
their interfaces that you can click to send note on/off messages.
Note: By default, SONAR does not echo any MIDI input or automation data that a soft synth
sends to any track, but can record this data in any armed MIDI track whose Output field is set to
that particular soft synth. If you do want to echo soft synth input to any MIDI track that has the
focus, open the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command), and on the MIDI tab, check the
Echo Soft Synth Input to All MIDI Tracks option. This option also makes it possible to move the
controls in one soft synth’s interface and change the settings in some other soft synth’s interface, if
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You can also play the soft synth in real-time from a MIDI controller. See “To Play a Soft Synth from a
MIDI Controller” on page 354.
:
the focus is on the MIDI track that’s patched to the second soft synth. It also makes it possible to
record notes or automation data from the soft synth to any armed MIDI track.
To Play a Soft Synth with Recorded MIDI Data
1.
Insert a soft synth into the project (see “Inserting a Soft Synth” on page 351, if necessary).
2.
In the MIDI track that sends its output to the soft synth, choose a MIDI channel.
3.
Open the soft synth’s interface (if it’s not open already) by clicking the Properties button in the
Synth Rack view, or by double-clicking the name of the soft synth if it’s patched into the FX bin of
an audio track.
4.
Set the soft synth’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag its interface out of the way
(the soft synth’s interface does not have to be open for the soft synth to sound).
5.
If you want to save your soft synth settings, type a name in the Presets field, and click the Disk
icon that’s next to the Presets field.
6.
Record some MIDI data into the MIDI track.
When you play back the recorded MIDI data, you should hear the soft synth through your sound card’s
outputs. If you don’t, make sure your data is in the right range; a bank, patch, and channel are selected;
your monitor speakers or headphones are turned up; and that none of the relevant tracks are muted.
You can add effects to each of the synth tracks. You can also add MIDI effects to your soft synth MIDI
tracks.
To Play a Soft Synth from a MIDI Controller
1.
Make sure your controller is set to local off.
2.
Make sure that the Audio Engine button
3.
Insert a soft synth into your project (see “Inserting a Soft Synth” on page 351, if necessary).
in the Transport toolbar is depressed.
Note: If you patch a soft synth into a bus that has no audio track assigned to it, the soft synth does
not sound. Always use a bus that has at least one audio track sending data to it.
4.
In the MIDI track that sends its output to the soft synth, choose a MIDI channel.
5.
Open the soft synth’s interface (if it’s not open already) by clicking the Properties button in the
Synth Rack view, or by double-clicking the name of the soft synth if it’s patched into the FX bin of
an audio track.
Note: You can also open a soft synth’s interface by double-clicking its name where it appears in a
MIDI track’s Out menu or a synth track’s In menu.
6.
Set the soft synth’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag its interface out of the way.
7.
If you want to save your soft synth settings, type a name in the Presets field, and click the Disk
icon that’s next to the Presets field.
8.
Make sure that the MIDI track has the focus (its titlebar is gold), and play your MIDI controller.
When you play your MIDI controller you should hear the soft synth through your sound card’s outputs.
If you don’t, make sure you’re playing in the right range; a bank, patch, and channel are selected; your
monitor speakers or headphones are turned up; your controller is attached to your MIDI interface; and
that none of the relevant tracks are muted.
To Remove A Soft Synth from a Track or Bus
•
If your soft synth is patched into the FX bin of an audio track or bus, right-click the name of the
soft synth, and choose Delete from the popup menu.
Or
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•
In the synth track that uses the soft synth as an input, choose another input for the track. If you
don’t select another soft synth as an input, the synth track becomes a regular audio track.
To Remove a Soft Synth from a Project
•
If your soft synth is patched into the FX bin of an audio track or bus, right-click the name of the
soft synth, and choose Delete from the popup menu.
•
If your soft synth is patched into the Input field of a synth track, go to the Synth Rack view, click
the name of the soft synth to select it, and then click the Delete button. SONAR deletes the soft
synth strip from the Synth Rack view and sets the inputs and MIDI outputs of all affected tracks to
the next lower-numbered option. SONAR does not delete the affected tracks.
Note: If you’re using a ReWire instrument and not a soft synth, always close the ReWire
instrument’s interface before you delete the instrument from SONAR, or close SONAR.
Muting and Soloing Soft Synth Tracks
•
To mute or solo a MIDI track that is patched to a synth track, simply mute or solo the MIDI
track—SONAR automatically mutes or solos the correct synth track. If another MIDI track uses
the synth track as an output, SONAR leaves the synth track unmuted.
•
To mute or solo all the MIDI tracks that are patched to a specific soft synth, simply mute or solo
the synth track that the MIDI tracks are patched into.—SONAR automatically mutes or solos all
the correct MIDI tracks.
Or
•
Click the M or S buttons (mute and solo, respectively) next to the soft synth’s name in the Synth
Rack view. This mutes or solos all the tracks associated with this instance of the soft synth.
You can use the mute and solo buttons in the Track view, Synth Rack view, or Console view.
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, it’s extremely easy to convert your soft synth MIDI
tracks to either new audio tracks, or Wave, MP3, or other exported files.
To Convert Your Soft Synth Tracks to New Audio Tracks
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to convert.
2.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
3.
In the Destination field, choose a new or pre-existing track to put the new audio data on.
4.
If you’ve saved presets from previous bounce operations, you can choose a preset from the Preset
field.
5.
In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
6.
In the Channel Format field, choose mono if you want a mono track, stereo if you want a stereo
track, and split mono if you want to create separate mono tracks.
7.
In the Source/Buses field, choose the output bus(es) that the soft synth tracks are using (usually
the main outputs).
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog box appears.
8.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
9.
Click OK.
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SONAR automatically places any synth and MIDI tracks that use soft synths into a group that makes
muting and soloing the tracks easy:
:
SONAR creates new audio tracks from the outputs you selected. When you’re through converting, don’t
forget to mute your MIDI tracks so you won’t hear them and the new audio track(s) at the same time.
Note: you control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing, freezing, applying effects) on the
Audio Data tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field.
The default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for Rendering Audio” on page
552 for more information.
To Export Your Soft Synth Tracks as Wave, MP3, or Other Type Files
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to export; make sure you don’t mute the synth track or the
audio track that the soft synth is patched into, or the MIDI track(s) that you are using as a source.
2.
Use the File-Export-Audio command.
The Export Audio dialog box appears.
3.
In the Look in field, choose the location where you want the new, exported file to be.
4.
Type a file name in the File name field.
5.
Choose the type of file, the format, and the bit depth of the new file you’re creating—for MP3 use
16 bits.
6.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
7.
Click OK.
SONAR creates a new audio file of the type you specified. Find the file in the folder you specified, and
double-click it to listen to it.
Automating a Soft Synth’s Controls
Some synths have controls that you can automate by drawing envelopes in either the Track view or
Piano Roll view. Some synths allow you to record the movements of their faders and other control knobs.
Your synth’s manufacturer determines which controls (if any) you can automate.
Note: By default, you can only record MIDI or automation data sent by a synth into a MIDI track whose
Output field is set to that particular synth. If you do want to record synth input to any MIDI track that
is armed, check the Echo Soft Synth Input to All MIDI Tracks option on the MIDI tab of the Global
Options dialog (Options-Global command).
To Record MIDI Input from a Soft Synth’s Interface
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1.
If you want to be able to record on any armed MIDI track, make sure that the Echo Soft Synth
Input to All MIDI Tracks option on the MIDI tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global
command) is enabled. Otherwise, you can only record on a MIDI track whose Output field is set to
the synth you’re recording from.
2.
Arm one or more MIDI tracks.
3.
Set the record mode (Transport-Record Options command). If you want to record different knobs
on different takes, use Sound on Sound mode.
4.
Open the synth’s interface and, if necessary, use its setup menu to enable recording the synth’s
fader movements.
5.
Move the Now time to the place where you want to record.
6.
Click the Record button to start recording.
7.
Move the synth’s controls in the way you want them to move. Some or all of the controls may not be
capable of sending MIDI data to be recorded.
8.
Click the Stop button.
SONAR records the fader or knob movements. Check the Output fields of the MIDI tracks you recorded
into and play back the track.
To Automate a Soft Synth’s Controls in the Track View
1.
In a MIDI track that uses the synth as an output, right-click in the Clips pane and choose
Envelopes-Create-MIDI from the popup menu.
The MIDI Envelope dialog box appears.
2.
In the Type field, select Control, RPN, or NRPN.
3.
In the Value field, click the drop-down arrow to see the menu of automatable controls, RPN’s, or
NRPN’s that this synth has, and select the one you want to automate.
4.
In the Channel field, select the channel of the patch in your synth that you want to control.
5.
Click OK.
To Automate a Soft Synth’s Controls in the Piano Roll View
1.
Select a MIDI track that uses the synth as an output and open the Piano Roll view.
2.
In the Controller pane in the Piano Roll, select Control, RPN, or NRPN.
3.
In the Value menu below the Controller menu, click the drop-down arrow to see the menu of
automatable controls, RPN’s, or NRPN’s that this synth has, and select the one you want to
automate.
4.
In the Controller pane at the bottom of the Piano Roll view, use the Draw tool to draw a graph of
the desired controller values.
Note: MIDI controllers in the Piano Roll Notes pane and MIDI envelopes in the Track view Clips pane
are actually separate data, even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of data are visible in the
Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control the same parameter. You can convert Piano Roll
view controller data to Track view envelopes by selecting the time range and tracks that the Piano Roll
controller data occupies, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
ReWire Instruments
ReWire is a technology for transferring audio data between software applications in real time—the
software equivalent of a multi-channel audio cable. ReWire is built on the following cornerstones:
•
Real-time audio streaming between applications
•
Sample accurate synchronization
•
Common transport functionality
SONAR supports the ReWire 2.0 format, but with some differences. SONAR interacts with ReWire
applications in the following ways:
•
You can insert one instance of a ReWire application into each SONAR project. You can insert as
many different ReWire applications into a project as your computer can handle.
•
You can use a maximum of 16 devices or instruments for each ReWire application.
•
To use a MIDI controller with both SONAR and your ReWire application, you need to enable
separate MIDI In ports in both applications. If your MIDI interface only has one input, decide
which application you want to use your controller in, enable the MIDI In port in that application,
and disable it in the other application.
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SONAR draws an envelope for the parameter that you chose. You can edit the envelope to make the
parameter behave as you want it to. See “To Draw MIDI Envelopes in the Track View” on page 444.
:
•
You can insert ReWire devices into SONAR projects from the Synth Rack view or Insert menu, and
you can tell SONAR to create the necessary synth tracks and one MIDI track at that time. You can
also tell SONAR to open the ReWire application’s property page, because, unlike synths, ReWire
applications must have their property pages (interfaces) open in order to function.
•
SONAR’s tempo, transport, and loop points are linked to the ReWire application. Activating or
changing any of these settings in the ReWire application(s) changes the same setting in SONAR.
and vice versa. If you have several applications open and you make a change in one of them, it may
be necessary to put the focus on the other application(s) to update their interfaces.
•
You cannot send patch or bank changes from SONAR to the ReWire application. All other track
property controls in SONAR control the ReWire device, except the pan controls on MIDI tracks.
The pan controls on SONAR’s synth tracks control the ReWire device’s panning.
•
You can mix down or bounce ReWire tracks in SONAR the same way you mix down or bounce
synth tracks (see “Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio” on page 355).
•
You can use SONAR’s automation functions on both synth and MIDI tracks that the ReWire
application uses.
•
Muting or soloing a synth track that a ReWire device uses automatically mutes or solos the MIDI
track that feeds that synth track. Muting or soloing a MIDI track that a ReWire device uses will
mute or solo the corresponding synth track only if there is only one MIDI track feeding that synth
track.
•
You must always close your ReWire application(s) before you close SONAR. Some ReWire
applications prevent SONAR from closing properly if the ReWire applications are still open.
Inserting a ReWire Instrument
After you install your ReWire applications and reboot your computer, the names of the ReWire
applications appear in SONAR’s Insert menu under ReWire Devices, and also in the Synth Rack view’s
Insert button popup menu.
To Insert a ReWire Instrument
1.
Open a SONAR project. Do not launch your ReWire application.
2.
In the SONAR’s Synth Rack view, click the Insert button, and click ReWire Devices to display the
submenu of installed ReWire devices.
OR
Use the Insert-ReWire Devices command to display the submenu of installed ReWire devices.
3.
Click the name of the ReWire device you want to insert.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
4.
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Choose options from the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog according to the following:
•
If you want to create a MIDI track that uses the ReWire Instrument as an output, check the
Create These Tracks: MIDI Source checkbox.
•
If you want to create a single synth track that acts as an output for Output 1 of the ReWire
Instrument, check the Create These Tracks: First Synth Audio Output checkbox.
•
If you want to create separate synth tracks for each of the ReWire Instrument’s outputs, check
the Create These Tracks: All Synth Audio Outputs checkbox.
•
If you want to use existing MIDI and audio tracks to play the ReWire Instrument, uncheck all
of the Create These Tracks options. SONAR adds the ReWire Instrument to the audio track
input and MIDI track output menus. You need to set an existing audio track’s Input field to
the ReWire Instrument, and set an existing MIDI track’s Output field to the ReWire
Instrument. The existing audio track will then become a synth track.
•
If you want to open the ReWire Instrument’s interface from this dialog, check the Open These
Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox (always check this option: ReWire Instruments
do not sound unless their property pages are open).
•
If you opened this dialog from the Insert menu and want to open the Synth Rack view, check
the Open These Windows: Synth Rack View checkbox.
•
If you want to open this dialog every time you use the Insert-ReWire Instrument command,
or click the Insert button in the Synth Rack view and choose aReWire instrument from the
popup menu, check the Ask This Every Time option. If you always insert ReWire Instruments
in the same way, you can uncheck this option so you don’t have to deal with the dialog each
time. To open the dialog when the option is unchecked, click the Insert Soft Synth Options
button
Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR adds your ReWire devices to the audio and synth track Input menus and the MIDI track
Output and Channel menus, creates any tracks you requested, adds the ReWire instrument to the
Synth Rack view, and opens the ReWire application’s interface.
6.
If you get an error message about a MIDI Input problem from your ReWire application, click OK
and then use SONAR’s Options-MIDI Devices command to open the MIDI Devices dialog and
select the MIDI In port to want to use to record into SONAR. Use your ReWire application’s menus
to choose a different MIDI In port for your ReWire application. If your MIDI interface only has one
input, you have to decide whether you want to use your MIDI controller in SONAR or in your
ReWire application. If you want to use your controller in your ReWire application, deselect your
MIDI In port in SONAR’s MIDI Devices dialog, and select that input in your ReWire application.
7.
In the MIDI track whose output is the ReWire synth track, click the drop-down arrow in the
Channel field to display the names of the available ReWire devices in your ReWire instrument.
8.
Click the name of the device you want to use.
9.
Make sure that the synth track you want to hear the ReWire instrument through has the
appropriate ReWire channel listed in its Input field.
Now you can record MIDI data in the MIDI track and hear it through the synth track. If you want to
use different synth tracks for each ReWire device, see the following procedure.
Note: Always close your ReWire applications before closing a SONAR project.
To Use Separate Synth Tracks for Each ReWire Device
1.
Open SONAR, insert a ReWire instrument, and choose All Synth Audio Outputs option in the
Create These Tracks field of the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog. Make sure you choose to open
the Synth window, and click OK.
SONAR inserts the ReWire instrument and creates multiple synth tracks.
2.
In your ReWire application, assign the devices you want to use to the outputs or channels you want
to use. For example, in Propellerheads Reason, you use the back panel of the mixer to drag cables
from a device to the output channel you want to use for that instrument.
3.
In SONAR, set the Output field of a MIDI track to the name of your ReWire application, and set
the Channel field to the name of the ReWire device you want to play with this track.
4.
Record some MIDI data in the track and play it. Find the synth track whose Input field lists the
output channel you patched your device into—the playback meter lights up as you play the MIDI
track that plays your device.
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5.
in the Synth Rack view toolbar.
:
Now you can use separate effects for each of your ReWire devices.
Note: Always close your ReWire applications before closing SONAR or a SONAR project.
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments
To either mix down or bounce ReWire instruments to new audio tracks, use the same procedures as for
synths.
For more information, see “Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio” on page 355
Automating ReWire Instruments
You can automate audio and MIDI tracks that are patched to ReWire instruments the same ways you
can automate any of SONAR’s audio and MIDI tracks.
For more information, see Chapter 13, Automation.
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide
The following lists some common issues when you use ReWire with SONAR:
•
SONAR Won’t Close Properly—Always close your ReWire applications before closing SONAR or
a SONAR project.
•
Rebirth Won’t Play After I Open Its Property Page—Make sure that the Loop switch in
Rebirth is enabled.
•
My ReWire Project Plays at a Different Tempo when Opened from SONAR—When you
open a ReWire project from SONAR, the ReWire project assumes SONAR’s default tempo, which is
100. Change SONAR’s tempo to match your ReWire project.
•
My MIDI Controller Works in SONAR or my ReWire Application, but not Both—Choose
different MIDI In ports for both SONAR and your ReWire application. Do this in SONAR by using
the Options-MIDI Devices command, and highlighting the MIDI In port you want to use in
SONAR. If you only have one MIDI In port on your MIDI interface or sound card, enable that input
in either SONAR or your ReWire application, and disable that input in the other application.
•
I Get a MIDI Input Error Message When I Open a ReWire Application—If you only have
one MIDI Input port on your MIDI interface, you probably have that one reserved for SONAR,
leaving none for your ReWire application. If you would rather use your MIDI controller in the
ReWire application instead of SONAR, you can deselect your MIDI input port in SONAR’s MIDI
Devices dialog (Options-MIDI Devices command), and then select that MIDI Input from
whatever menu your ReWire application has for that purpose. If you have multiple inputs on your
MIDI interface, simply select different ones for SONAR and your ReWire application.
Stand-alone Synths
Some soft synths can be run independently of SONAR’ and do not need to be inserted to the Synth Rack
or an FX bin to use. After you install this kind of synth and restart your computer, the name of the
synth’s MIDI driver appears in SONAR’s MIDI Devices dialog box under Outputs.
Playing a Stand-alone Synth
SONAR plays this kind of synth by seeing it as additional MIDI outputs in both the MIDI Devices
dialog box and in MIDI tracks’ output fields.
To Play a Stand-alone Synth
1.
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Use the Options-MIDI Devices command to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
In the Outputs field, make sure the name of your stand-alone synth’s MIDI driver is highlighted,
and click OK.
3.
Click the Output field of an unused MIDI track to display the output menu.
4.
Select the name of the stand-alone synth’s MIDI driver.
5.
If your stand-alone synth is multi-timbral, change the track’s MIDI channel to the same one that
the synth uses for the sound you want to hear.
6.
Select a bank and patch on your stand-alone synth, if you haven’t already.
7.
Record some MIDI data in the MIDI track, or play any MIDI controller that’s an input for the
MIDI track.
Recording a Stand-alone Synth
There are several ways to record a stand-alone synth:
•
You can use the synth’s wave capture function, if it has one. See your synth’s documentation for a
procedure. Make a note of where the resulting captured Wave file is stored, and then you can
import the file into SONAR by using the File-Import-Audio command.
•
You can connect your sound card’s outputs to your sound card’s inputs, either internally or
externally, depending on your sound card’s design. After you do this, you need to arm an audio
track in SONAR and select one of your sound card’s wave drivers as an input. Start recording, and
make sure the MIDI track that is routed to the synth is playing back.
•
You can use your sound card’s wave capture or “what-you-hear” option, if it has one. See the
following procedure.
To Record A Stand-alone Synth with your Sound Card’s Wave Capture
Function
1.
Pick a destination audio track and set the Input field to Stereo.
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one that your stand-alone synth
uses as an output.
2.
Arm the destination track.
3.
Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination track.
4.
If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a click, disable the metronome
during recording option in the Project Options dialog box. To do this, select Options-Project to
open the Project Options dialog box, select the Metronome tab and uncheck Recording in the
General section.
5.
Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by double-clicking the speaker icon on
the Windows taskbar, or by choosing Start-Programs-Accessories- Multimedia-Volume
Control-Options-Properties.
Note: Some sound cards, such as the SoundBlaster Live, have their own proprietary mixer. If
yours has one, please use it instead.
6.
Click Adjust Volume For Recording, and make sure all boxes below are checked.
7.
Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or What You Hear. Check the
Select box at the bottom, then close the window.
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English
When you play your MIDI controller or play back the recorded MIDI data, you should hear the standalone synth through your sound card’s outputs. If you don’t, make sure you’re playing in the right range
and that your monitor speakers or headphones are turned up, and that none of the relevant tracks are
muted.
:
8.
In SONAR, click the Record button.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to the stand-alone synth as a stereo audio
track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so you don’t hear them and the
new audio track at the same time.
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11
Mixing and Effects
Patching
The Console view has a 4-band EQ patched to every audio track (Producer Edition only). The
Console view and the Track view support automation, which lets you record and play back
volume and pan changes, and other track parameters. For more information on automation,
see Chapter 13, Automation.
In This Chapter
Preparing to Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Using V-Vocal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Using Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Using Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
English
This chapter describes SONAR™ as a live digital mixer that gives you full track-by-track
control over recording and playback of your project. You can mix in either the Track view or
the Console view.
:
SONAR lets you mix together the digital audio portions of a project, including all real-time effects and
control movements, to a stereo track or stereo pair of audio tracks. You can use the mixed-down tracks
to create a CD master or to publish your work on the internet.
Preparing to Mix
The Console and Track views contain all the controls you need to mix your project. To open the Console
view click the Console view button
or choose View-Console. The Track view is always open.
The Console View
Audio module
MIDI module
Synth module
Mute/Solo/Arm
buttons
Volume fader
Track icon
MIDI, audio and synth modules
364
Bus modules
Main Out module
Module type...
What you can do...
MIDI track
Set the track’s output, channel, bank, and patch; set the input; mute,
solo, and arm the track; set channel volume, panning, chorus, and
reverb levels; add real-time effects
Audio track
Set the track’s output (bus or Main out destination); choose an input;
monitor input levels; mute, solo, and arm the track; set track volume and
panning; add real-time effects; send audio data to buses or main outs.
Synth track
Set the track’s output (bus or Main out destination); set the input; mute
and solo the track; set track volume and panning; add real-time effects;
send audio data to buses or main outs.
Bus
Receive input from one or more audio tracks, add real-time effects, and
send the results to a main out or another bus
Main outs
Monitor output levels using meters and control the stereo volume of
audio to an output on your audio interface. To adjust both the left and
for that
right volume levels at the same time, use the Link button
module.
English
Sound controls in the Console view are grouped in modules. There are several types of modules:
One module’s name is always outlined with a white line. This corresponds to the track with the focus.
You can change the focus by clicking to the right of the module’s volume fader.
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:
The Console view contains several different types of controls. Here’s how they are used:
Click a button to enable/disable it
Drag sliders left and right
Click drop-down menus to select
options
Click and drag up/down on knobs
Drag the
volume fader
up or down
You can adjust Console view controls in the following ways:
•
Click on the center of the knob and drag the mouse up or down to adjust the knob
•
Click and drag a fader up or down
•
Double-click the center of the knob to return it to its snap-to position
Volume and pan faders also have snap-to positions; double-click a fader’s knob to return the fader to its
snap-to value.
The controls and effects patch points all have tool tips associated with them. To see a description of a
particular control or effect, simply rest the cursor over the item for a few seconds.
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The Track View
The Track pane
The Clips pane
Expanded
track
Clips
English
Minimized
tracks
Track icon
Track/Bus Inspector
Show/Hide Bus pane
Splitter bars
The Bus pane
There are four types of modules in the Track view:
Track type...
What you can do...
MIDI track
Set the track’s output, channel, bank, and patch; set the input; mute, solo,
and arm the track; set channel volume, panning, chorus, and reverb levels;
add real-time effects.
Audio track
Set the track’s output; set the input and monitor input levels; mute, solo, and
arm the track; set track volume and panning; add real-time effects; send
audio data to buses or main outs.
Synth track
Set the track’s output; set the input; mute and solo the track; enable a
waveform preview; set track volume and panning; add real-time effects; send
audio data to buses or main outs.
Bus
Receive input from one or more audio tracks, add real-time effects, and send
the results to a main out or another bus.
367
:
The Track view contains several different types of controls. Here’s how they are used:
Click and drag left or right to change values
Right-click and
select from a
menu of effects
Click to
enable or
disable
Click to toggle
from Pre to Post
Click the small white arrow to open a menu of options
For information on using the controls in the Track view, see “Changing Track Settings” on page 115.
Volume, pan, bus send level and bus send pan also have snap-to positions; double-click the control to
return it to its snap-to value.
The controls and effects patch points all have tool tips associated with them. To see a description of a
particular control or effect, simply rest the cursor over the item for a few seconds.
Configuring the Console and Track Views
The Console and Track view can be reconfigured in a variety of ways. You can:
•
Choose the tracks that you want to see
•
Adjust the display of audio meters and clip indicators
•
Change the number of buses
•
Set control snap-to positions
•
Insert new tracks
•
Name tracks and buses
Meters are helpful in determining the relative volumes of your audio tracks and in detecting and
preventing overload. By default, the Console view displays output level meters in main out modules at
all times, and displays record level meters in individual tracks whenever they are armed and have an
audio input. The display of meters, however, can place a considerable load on your computer. Showing
only the peak indicators, or hiding the meters entirely, can reduce the load on your computer. This may
increase the number of audio tracks and real-time effects you can play back at one time.
In the Track view there are several ways to configure which tracks are displayed.
368
To Display All the Tracks in a Project
•
Click the Zoom tool’s
down arrow and select Show All Tracks from the Zoom tool menu.
To Hide Selected Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to hide.
2.
Click the Zoom tool’s down arrow and select Hide Selected Tracks from the Zoom tool menu.
To Display Only Selected Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to display.
2.
Click the Zoom tool’s down arrow and select Show Selected Tracks from the Zoom tool menu.
To Choose the Tracks that are Displayed Using the Track Manager
Click the down arrow next to the Zoom tool and select Track Manager to open the Track Manager
dialog box. You can also press m when in the Track or Console view to access this dialog box.
2.
In the list, check those tracks you would like displayed in the view in which you are working, and
uncheck the rest. You can use Shift-click, Control-click, or the quick select buttons to select
multiple modules; press the Spacebar to check or uncheck all the selected modules at once. Please
note that the track display selections you make in the Track view do not affect those in the Console
view and vice versa.
3.
Click OK.
English
1.
To Hide a Bus or Track
•
Right-click on the module and choose Hide Track or Hide Bus.
To Narrow a Module (Console view only)
1.
Right-click in the space next to the module’s volume fader.
2.
Select Narrow Strip from the menu that appears.
To Narrow or Widen all Modules in the Console View
•
Click the Narrow/Widen All Strips button
.
To Display Meters in the Console View
•
Click the Show Meters button
.
To Customize the Meter Display in the Console View
You can choose which meters you want to display in the Console view. Hiding meters helps to conserve
CPU cycles, potentially giving you more power for real-time plug-ins or simultaneous tracks.
1.
Click the down arrow next to the Show Meters button
.
2.
Select Track Record Meters, Track Playback Meters, Bus Meters or Mains Meters from the
menu that appears.
369
:
To Show or Hide Meters in the Track View
•
Click the Show/Hide Meters button
to display all meters or click on the arrow to the right of
the Show/Hide Meters button to display only the meters you want to see or to customize the
appearance of your meters.
Option…
What it does…
Record meters
Displays record meters for any armed track.
Playback meters
Displays playback meters.
Output bus meters
Displays meters in buses
For more information about metering options, see “Changing the Meters’ Display” on page 380.
To Change a Meter’s Range
•
Right-click on the meter and choose a new range.
To Add a Bus
1.
Right-click in the Bus pane (to add a bus at the end of the current buses) or over an existing bus (to
add a bus before it).
2.
Select Insert Bus from the menu that appears.
A bus appears in the Bus pane.
To Delete a Bus
1.
Right-click in the Bus pane over an existing bus.
2.
Select Delete Bus from the menu that appears.
The bus is deleted from the Bus pane.
Note: If you have any track or bus routed through the bus you delete, the signal will be rerouted to the
deleted bus’s output.
To Create a Bus Send in a Track
1.
Right-click in an empty part of the Track pane (Track view) or a track module (Console view).
2.
Select Insert Send for a list of buses available.
3.
Select a bus from the list.
To Set the Snap-to Position of a Knob or Fader
1.
Set the control to the desired position.
2.
Right-click on the control and choose Set Snap-To=Current.
From now on, the control returns to this position when double-clicked.
To Insert a New Track
1.
Right-click on an empty area in the Console view or on the title bar of a track in the Track view.
2.
Choose Insert Audio Track or Insert MIDI Track.
SONAR adds a new track to the project.
To Rename a Track or Bus
370
1.
In the Console view, click on the module name. In the Track view double-click on the Track name.
2.
Type a new name.
3.
Press Enter.
If you rename a track, the new name is copied to the Track view. If no name has been assigned to a
track, the Console view and Track view display the track’s number.
To Link Left/Right Faders in a Console View Module
1.
In the module whose faders you want to link, adjust the volume of each fader to the appropriate
level.
2.
Click the Link button
.
Mixing MIDI
SONAR gives you many tools to control your MIDI mix. When your MIDI tracks sound the way you
want them to, there are several ways to convert them to audio (see “Converting MIDI to Audio” on page
372).
English
Mixing a MIDI Track
You can control the mixing and playback of a MIDI track as follows:
To do this...
Do this...
Add a real-time MIDI effect to the
track
Right-click in theFX bin and select an effect from the list (for
more information, “Using Real-Time Effects” later in the
chapter)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete or right-click and select
Delete.
Select the output
Click the Output control and choose one from the list
Select the channel
Click the Channel button and choose one from the list
Select the bank
Click the Bank button and choose one from the list
Select the patch
Click the Patch button and choose one from the list
Set the Chorus level
Adjust the Chorus slider
Set the Reverb level
Adjust the Reverb slider
Mute the track
Click the Mute button
Solo the track
Click the Solo button
Arm the track for recording
Click the Arm button
Set the Pan level
Adjust the Pan fader
Set the Volume level
Adjust the Volume fader
Select the input
Click the input button and choose one from the list
371
:
When moving the Volume fader, the Value box in the toolbar displays the level from a scale of 0
(minimum) to 127 (maximum). When you move the Pan slider, the Value box displays the pan value on
a scale that ranges from 100% Left to 100% Right with center represented by a C.
Converting MIDI to Audio
The following options cover three basic MIDI setups:
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through a soft synth, use either the File-Export-Audio or EditBounce to Track(s) commands (see the procedures in “To Export Your Soft Synth Tracks as Wave,
MP3, or Other Type Files” on page 356, and “To Convert Your Soft Synth Tracks to New Audio
Tracks” on page 355).
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through your sound card’s synthesizer, see the procedure below.
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through external MIDI modules, simply connect their analog
outputs to the inputs on your sound card, and record to new audio tracks.
To Convert a Sound Card’s Synth Tracks to a Stereo Audio Track
1.
Pick a destination audio track and set the Input field to Stereo-(name of your sound card).
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one that your synth uses as an
output.
2.
Arm the destination track.
3.
Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination track.
4.
If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a click, disable the metronome
during recording option in the Project Options dialog box. To do this, select Options-Project to
open the Project Options dialog box, select the Metronome tab and uncheck Recording in the
General section.
5.
Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by double-clicking the speaker icon on
the Windows taskbar, or by choosing Start-Programs-Accessories- Multimedia-Volume
Control-Options-Properties.
6.
Open the sound card’s recording control window (the command is probably Options-PropertiesAdjust Volume For Recording) and make sure all boxes below Adjust Volume For Recording
are checked.
7.
Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or What You Hear. Check the
Select box at the bottom, then close the window.
8.
In SONAR, click the Record button.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to the sound card synth as a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so you don’t hear them and the
new audio track at the same time.
372
Signal Flow
The following graphic shows an audio track’s signal flow:
Audio clip
Hardware input
Soft Synth input
Clip mute
V-Vocal
Clip fades
Input meters (record)
English
Clip envelopes
Clip FX bin
Volume Trim
Phase/Interleave
Playback Meter (pre fader/pre FX)
Send level
Pre fader
Send pan
FX bin
Post fader
Volume fader
Playback Meter
(post fader)
Surround or
Stereo Bus
Hardware out
Mute button
Stereo bus
Surround bus
Pan
Playback meter (post fader)
Hardware Outputs
373
:
You control the mixing and playback of an audio track as follows:
To do this...
Do this...
Add a real-time audio effect to
the track
Right-click in the FX bin and select an effect from the list (for
more information, see “Using Real-Time Effects” later in the
chapter)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete or right-click and select
Delete.
Send audio data from the track
to a bus
Insert a send in the track controls by right-clicking in the track
controls and selecting Insert-Send-[name of bus you want
the data to go to]. Click the FX tab at the bottom of the Track
pane, and then click the track’s bus enable button so that it
turns green, and set the Bus Send Level and Bus Send Pan
(for more information, see “Stereo Buses” on page 376”)
Mute the track
Click the Mute button
Solo the track
Click the Solo button
Arm the track for recording
Click the Arm button
Set the Pan level
Adjust the Pan control
Set the Send Pan to be the
same as the bus that the send
feeds into
Right-click the Send Pan control and choose Follow Track
Pan from the popup menu. This setting is only active when the
send has the same interleave as the bus that the send feeds
into, and is set to "Post Fader." If enabled, the Send Pan
control no longer affects the output.
Set the Volume level
Adjust the Volume fader
Select the output
Click the dropdown arrow in the Output field and choose one
from the list
Select the input
Click the dropdown arrow in the Input field and choose one
from the list
SONAR displays volume in dB (decibels). When adjusting the volume or bus send level controls, a value
of 0 dB indicates full signal strength; positive values, up to 6 dB, indicate a signal gain; negative values
indicate an attenuated signal. When you move the Pan control, the Value box displays the pan value on
a scale that ranges from 100%L (hard left) 100%R (hard right).
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio
Audio clips in each track are processed by any real-time audio effects you have patched in place, passed
through the track pan control and volume fader, and then sent to the designated bus and/or main out, in
stereo.
374
This is shown in the picture below:
Bus Send level
Bus send on/off button
Pre/Post fader button
Phase button
Pan control
English
Volume fader
Output
Any audio track can be tapped, before or after the track volume control, and sent to one or more buses.
A bus can tap any number of audio tracks. Each track’s data passes through the track’s send level knob
on its way to the bus. This is shown in the diagram below:
This track is routed to
Bus 1 and 2
Post-fader: track’s volume fader
controls output level to Bus 1
Pre-fader: output level to Bus 2 is
not affected by the track’s volume
fader
375
:
The audio in each bus is processed by the input gain and pan controls (main output buses don’t have
these controls), then processed by any real-time effects you have patched, sent through the bus output
level and pan controls, and then sent to the designated main out, in stereo. You can also insert a send
control on a bus, and send the bus signal to another bus, or route the output of a bus to another bus.
At each main out, all audio data from audio tracks and buses that were routed to that main are mixed
together. Finally, the data passes through each main’s master volume fader
Stereo Buses
Buses are useful for mixing together different audio tracks (in stereo) and applying effects to the mix.
You can mix the tracks at different volume levels by adjusting each track’s bus send level. Buses output
to either other buses or to a main out.
You control the bus as follows:
376
To do this...
Do this...
Send audio data from an audio track to the
bus
In an audio track, press the Bus Send Enable button
corresponding to the bus, or choose the bus as an output for
the track. If the track doesn’t have a Send module, you can
insert one by right-clicking the track and choosing InsertSend-[name of bus you want the data to go to].
Send audio data from a bus to another bus
If the bus doesn’t have a Send module, you can insert one
by right-clicking the bus and choosing Insert-Send-[name
of bus you want the data to go to]. Then click the Bus
Send Enable button so that it’s green, and adjust the Bus
Send Level and Bus Send Pan.
Set the level of the audio data sent to the
bus
In an audio track, set the Bus Send Level corresponding to
the bus, or volume fader if the output is to the bus
Set the pan of the audio data sent to the
bus
Adjust the Bus Send Pan knob
Set the input level to the bus
Adjust the Input gain on the bus itself
Set the input panning to the bus
Adjust the Input pan on the bus itself
Display the waveform of the audio that’s
flowing through the bus
Enable the bus’s Waveform Preview button
Add a real-time audio effect to the bus
Right-click in the FX bin and select an effect from the list (for
more information, see “Using Real-Time Effects” on page
386)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete, or right-click and choose
Delete
Set the output level
Adjust the Output volume
Set the output panning
Adjust the Pan setting
Set the Send Pan to be the same as the
bus that the bus feeds into
Right-click the Send Pan control and choose Follow Bus
Pan from the popup menu. This setting is only active when
the send has the same interleave as the bus it feeds into,
and is set to "Post Fader." If enabled, the Send Pan control
no longer affects the output.
Select the output
Click the Output button and choose one from the list
Surround Buses (Producer Edition Only)
Surround buses are useful for mixing and adding effects to create a surround mix.
To Patch a Track Through a Bus
1.
Open the Console view (View-Console) or the Track view (View-Track).
2.
If you want to add effects to the bus, right-click in the FX bin of a bus (if it is not in use already)
and choose an effect from the effects popup menu. (If you are working in the Track view, you may
located at the
English
first need to display the Bus pane by clicking the Show/Hide Bus Pane button
bottom of the Track view.)
The name of the effect you have chosen appears in the bus FX bin.
3.
Set the effect’s parameters and close it.
4.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for any additional effects you want to use.
5.
In a track module that you want to patch through the bus, do the following:
•
Drag the Bus Send Level control for the bus to the approximate level you want.
•
Drag the Bus Send pan to the approximate setting you want.
•
Click the Bus Enable button for the appropriate bus.
6.
Repeat step 5 for all the tracks you want to patch through the bus.
7.
In the bus, adjust the Input Gain and Output volume controls to the approximate level you want.
8.
In the bus, drag the Input pan and Output pan controls to the approximate positions you want.
9.
Play your tracks and adjust the Send Level controls, the pan controls, etc.
To Mute or Solo a Bus
Each bus has a Mute button and a Solo button. These controls act like the Mute and Solo buttons in a
track, but they affect all the signal routed through the bus.
1.
Open the Track view or the Console view.
2.
Click the Mute or Solo button in the bus you want to mute or solo.
To Display the Audio Waveform of a Bus
•
Enable the bus’s Waveform Preview button
flowing through the bus.
. This displays the waveform of the audio that is
377
:
Main Outs
Each enabled hardware channel has a main out channel strip in the Console view. Main outs are the
final destination for all of your audio in SONAR. Main outs accept input from both tracks and buses.
Main outs contains a left channel and a right channel, but only one volume fader. You control the left/
right balance of each main out with the balance slider.
Here’s what you can do in a main out module:
To do this...
Do this...
Set the output volume
Adjust the Volume control
Adjust the left/right balance
Adjust the pan slider that’s on that output module
Metering
The Console and Track views both have meters to measure playback level, record level, bus output
level, and main output level. The Track view also has bus return meters. You can configure the meters
differently in each view, if you want.
The responsiveness of your record meters (which also measure input monitoring) is dependent upon the
latency setting in the Audio Options dialog and the settings in the Audio Meter Settings dialog. With
higher latency settings the meters may appear sluggish.
There are three basic things you should know about meters:
•
What the meters measure
•
How to show or hide different kinds of meters
•
How to choose display options for each kind of meter
Note: Metering uses significant amounts of your computer’s processing power, especially RMS
metering. If you need to free up resources, turning off metering where you don’t absolutely need it helps.
Using peak metering on tracks and peak plus RMS metering on the main out is a good option. To
disable all metering, turn off metering in both the Track view and Console view.
What the Meters Measure
The following table summarizes what each kind of meter measures:
378
Kind of meter...
What it measures...
Record
The level of the instrument listed as an input for the track you
are monitoring—the track must be armed to enable the meter
Playback
A playback meter measures the playback level of any preexisting data in the track you are monitoring, either before or
after the track faders, depending on what display options you
choose
Main outs
The level of the signal output by each main out.
Buses
The level of the output signal the bus is sending back from the
effects.
Hiding and Showing Meters
The display and configuration of the meters in the Track view is independent of the meters in the
Console view, and vice versa. Buttons in the Track view and Console view toolbars hide or show all the
meters of each kind in each view. To show or hide meters on individual tracks or buses, use the rightclick popup menu that’s available from the title bar of each track or bus.
Note: If you want to conserve the maximum amount of your CPU’s resources, turn off all metering in
both the Track and Console views.
Track view toolbar
Console view Show Meters button and menu
English
Show/Hide All Meters
Meter Options menu
To Show or Hide all Record Meters
•
In the Console view, click the Show Meters button. This button hides or shows all the meters in the
Console view.
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button
Record Meters from the menu that appears.
and select
To Show or Hide Individual Record Meters in the Track View
•
Right-click the title bar of a track to display the track popup menu and click the Show Record
Meter option to show or hide the record meter for that track.
To Show or Hide All Playback Meters
•
In the Console view, click the dropdown menu to the right of the Show Meters button and select
Track Playback Meters from the menu that appears.
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button
Playback Meters from the menu that appears.
and select
To Show or Hide Individual Playback Meters in the Track View
•
Right-click the title bar of a track to display the track popup menu and click the Show Playback
Meter option to show or hide the playback meter for that track.
To Show or Hide All Main and Bus Meters in the Track View
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button
Output Bus Meters from the menu that appears.
and select
To Show or Hide All Bus Meters in the Console View
•
In the Console view, click the dropdown menu to the right of the Show Meters button and select
Bus Meters from the menu that appears.
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To Show or Hide All Main Meters in the Console View
•
In the Console view, click the dropdown menu to the right of the Show Meters button and select
Main Meters from the menu that appears.
To Show or Hide Individual Bus Meters in the Track View
•
In the Track view, right-click the title bar of a main or bus to display the popup menu and click the
Show Meter option to show or hide the meter for that bus.
Changing the Meters’ Display
You control the range and kind of units that the various meters display in the Track and Console views.
The display of meters in each of the two views is independent of the display in the other view. In the
Track view, you can access all meter options from the Show/Hide All Meters button. In the Console
view, you can access all meter options from the Meter Options button.
You also have the option of using segmented or non-segmented meters in the Track and Console views.
The Audio Meter Settings dialog (Options- Audio Meter Settings command) lets you choose
segmented or non-segmented meters for the Track and/or Console views. Meter colors are also now
customizable in the Colors dialog—use the Options-Colors command, and choose VU LO Level, VU HI
Level, or VU Tick Marks.
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Menu option...
What it does...
Peak
Choosing this option causes the meter to display the highest amplitude in
the signal that occurs in a complete cycle of a frequency.
RMS
Choosing this option causes the meter to display more of an average of the
amplitudes that occur in a complete cycle of a frequency. RMS, or RootMean-Square, is a little over seventy percent of peak level.
Peak + RMS
Choosing this option causes the meter to display both the RMS and peak
levels. The RMS level is displayed by the solid bar on the left side of the
meter, and the peak level is displayed as a small line that follows the RMS
level just to the right of it.
Pre Fader/Post Fader (This
option is for playback and bus
meters only)
Choose Pre Fader or Post Fader to measure the playback level either
before or after the track’s or bus’ volume fader.
Pre Fader/Post FX (This option
is for the buses only)
Choose Pre Fader/Post FX to measure the bus volume before the fader, but
after any real-time effects.
-12 dB....-90 dB
Choosing one of these numbers sets the scale of the meter to a certain
range of dB. For example, choosing -90 dB sets the range of measurement
of that meter to 90 dB.
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The dropdown menus give you the following display options:
Note: You can also change the scale of a meter by right-clicking the meter
to display a popup menu and choosing a new dB range.
Show Labels
Clicking this option hides or shows the dB markings on the meter. Hiding
the markings shrinks the meter significantly, saving space.
Hold Peaks
Choosing this option causes the meter to display a small vertical line (the
peak marker) that shows the peak level and then decays until a new peak is
reached.
Lock Peaks
Choosing this option causes the meter to lock the peak marker at the
highest level, until a higher level occurs.
Segmented and Non-segmented Meters
You can display meters as segmented (the default) or non-segmented meters. Non-segmented meters
have the advantage of taking up less room in a track strip.
segmented meter
non-segmented meter
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The Audio Meter Settings dialog (Options- Audio Meter Settings command) lets you choose
segmented or non-segmented meters for the Track and/or Console views.
You can customize the colors of non-segmented meters in the Colors dialog—use the Options-Colors
command, and choose VU LO Level, VU HI Level, or VU Tick Marks.
Changing the Meters’ Performance
There are two major factors that determine the performance of meters in SONAR. One is audio latency
which you can adjust, within the limits of your audio hardware drivers, in the General tab of the Audio
Options dialog. The second is the settings in the Audio Meter Settings dialog.
SONAR has configurable meter ballistics that allow you to adjust the rise and fall times of both the
RMS and Peak Meters. Out of the box, SONAR ships with industry-standard settings that mimic meter
ballistics for common hardware consoles.
The following table covers how to adjust your meter settings to meet your needs.
To do this...
Do this...
Increase or decrease meter refresh rates
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog (select Options-Audio
Meter Settings to open), adjust the Refresh rate field. Valid
values are from 25 to 250 milliseconds.
Change the decay rate (the amount of time
the meter display stays at its peak)
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog, adjust the Decay Rate
value. Valid values are from 1 to 150 milliseconds.
Increase or decrease the amount of time the
meter displays a peak value
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog, adjust the Hold Time value.
Valid values are from 0 to 5000 milliseconds.
Adjust rise and fall times
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog, adjust the Rise or Fall
settings for RMS or Peak. Valid Rise values are from 0 to 1000
milliseconds. Valid Fall values are from 0 to 2500 milliseconds.
Here are the default values for the various settings:
•
Refresh Rate = 40 msec
•
Peak Hold – Decay Rate = 50 msec
•
Peak Hold – Hold Time = 750 msec
•
RMS Rise = 300 msec
•
RMS Fall = 300 msec
•
Peak Rise = 0 msec
•
Peak Fall = 1000 msec
Peak Markers
Buses and audio tracks have a feature called Peak Markers. A Peak Marker in each audio track or bus
moves along in the Clips pane just behind the Now Time cursor displaying the highest peak found
during playback. You can hide or show Peak Markers on a global basis by clicking the Meter Options
dropdown arrow
in the Track view toolbar and clicking Show Track Peak Markers and/or Show
Bus Peak Markers. You can hide or show Peak Markers on an individual track or bus by right-clicking
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the track or bus and clicking Show Peak Marker from the popup menu. Colors for both Peak Markers
and their text fields are configurable in the Colors dialog (Options-Colors command).
Peak marker
Peak Markers appear in two different colors: one color if the peak is below 0 dB, and a different color if
the peak is above 0dB. By default, peaks below 0dB will be green, and peaks above 0dB will be red. The
Peak Marker colors are configurable from the Colors dialog.
Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth Tracks
You can choose to display a waveform for the audio output of a bus or synth track. When you enable the
display function, the amplitude of a bus’s or synth track’s audio signal is graphed in real time as a
waveform. The waveform turns red wherever clipping is occurring. Waveform preview allows you to
visualize a mix and verify levels over the duration of a project, easily detecting peaks and other level
problems that may require attention. You can choose to display Peak Markers if you want to (see “Peak
Markers” on page 382 for more information). If you change the volume of the audio signal and replay
the project, the waveform changes to reflect the new bus or synth track volume.
Each bus or synth track has a Waveform Preview button, which allows you to enable/disable waveforms
display on an individual basis. By default, each button is turned off.
You can change the color of the waveform preview by choosing a color for Waveform Preview in the
Configure Colors dialog (Options-Colors command).
To Enable/Disable Waveform Preview on a Bus or Synth Track
•
For buses, find the desired bus in the Bus pane of the Track view, and click the bus’s Waveform
Preview button
. This button is also in the Bus Inspector.
•
For synth tracks, find the desired synth track in the Track view, and click the track’s Waveform
Preview button
. This button is also in the Track Inspector.
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Because a Peak Marker may be offscreen, you can jump to a peak marker by right-clicking the numeric
peak display in the track/bus header strip and choosing Go To Peak from the context menu (see picture
below). Doing so will center the peak location and Now time in the Clips pane.
:
Waveform Preview button in
Track view
Waveform Preview
Waveform Preview button in Bus Inspector
Freeze Tracks and Synths
The Freeze feature allows you to temporarily bounce your track, including soft synths and effects, to
reduce the amount of CPU power needed. The Freeze feature also works for synths patched in the
Synth Rack.
The following are the available commands for track freezing:
•
Freeze Track—bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips, applies any effects, and
disables the FX bin.
•
Unfreeze Track—discards the bounced audio, restores the original audio to the way it was before
the last freeze or quick freeze command, and enables the FX bin.
•
Quick Unfreeze Track—hides and mutes the bounced audio, restores the original audio to the way
it was before the last freeze or quick freeze command, and enables the FX bin. Bounced audio is
retained, however, and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be
instantaneous.
•
Quick Freeze Track—only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze function redisplays
and unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously and disables the FX bin.
The following are the available commands for synth freezing:
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•
Freeze Synth—audio from a soft synth is bounced and placed on the synth’s track. Output from the
synth is disabled, as is the FX bin on the synth track.
•
Unfreeze Synth—discards bounced audio, enables the synth and track FX bin. Bounced audio is
discarded, and will be re-bounced if you choose Freeze again.
•
Quick Unfreeze Synth—hides and mutes the bounced audio, enables the synth and track FX bin.
Bounced audio is retained, and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be
instantaneous.
•
Quick Freeze Synth—only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze function redisplays
and unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously, disables the synth, and any effects on the synth
track.
Note 1: An Unfreeze or Quick Unfreeze command restores the audio on a track to the way it was before
the last Freeze or Quick Freeze command. Any editing you do to a frozen track is discarded when you
Unfreeze or Quick Unfreeze the track.
Note 2: You control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing, freezing, applying effects) on the
Audio Data tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field.
The default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for Rendering Audio” on page
552 for more information.
1.
Right-click on a track.
2.
Select Freeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips, applies any effects, and disables the
FX bin.
To Unfreeze a Track
1.
Right-click on a track.
2.
Select Unfreeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR discards the bounced audio, restores the original audio, and enables the FX bin. Audio will be
re-bounced if Freeze is chosen again.
To Do a Quick Unfreeze of a Track
1.
Right-click on a frozen track.
2.
Select Quick Unfreeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR hides and mutes the bounced audio, restores the original audio, and enables the FX bin.
Bounced audio is retained, however, and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be
instantaneous.
To Quick Freeze a Track
1.
Right-click on a track that you did a Quick Unfreeze on.
2.
Select Quick Freeze Track from the menu that appears.
Only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze function redisplays and unmutes the bounced
audio instantaneously
To Freeze a Soft Synth
•
Right-click a synth track or a synth’s MIDI track, and choose Freeze Synth from the menu that
appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
.
SONAR bounces the synth’s audio data to the synth track. SONAR disables the synth’s output, and
disables the FX bin on the synth track.
To Unfreeze a Synth
•
Right-click a synth MIDI or audio track, and choose Unfreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
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To Freeze a Track
:
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
the menu that appears.
, and choose Unfreeze Synth from
SONAR discards bounced audio, enables the synth and the synth audio track’s FX bin. SONAR will be
re-bounce the audio if you choose Freeze again.
To Do a Quick Unfreeze of a Synth
•
Right-click a frozen synth MIDI or audio track, and choose Quick Unfreeze Synth from the menu
that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
from the menu that appears.
, and choose Quick Unfreeze Synth
SONAR hides and mutes the bounced audio, enables the synth and track FX bin. Bounced audio is
retained, and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be instantaneous.
To Quick Freeze a Synth
•
Right-click a quick unfrozen synth track or synth MIDI track, and choose Quick Freeze Synth
from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
from the menu that appears.
, and choose Quick Freeze Synth
Only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze command redisplays and unmutes the bounced
audio instantaneously, disables the synth, and any effects on the synth track.
To Set Freeze Options
1.
Right-click an audio or synth track, and choose Freeze Options from the menu that appears.
Or
1.
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
the menu that appears.
, and choose Freeze Options from
2.
Choose options in the Freeze Options dialog. For help choosing options, click the Help button in the
dialog.
Using Real-Time Effects
In the Console view and Track view, you can use plug-in effects non-destructively, in real time. You can
also hear your plug-in effects in real time on any live instruments you are recording—just make sure
Input Monitoring is enabled (see “Input Monitoring” on page 159). You can also insert effects directly on
clips (see
For example, suppose you want to add a reverb effect to an audio track containing a recorded violin solo.
You could do it in two different ways:
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•
Destructive—The digital audio data itself is modified. Although this may be exactly what you
want, it does limit your options. If you want to modify the effect parameters slightly or to remove
the effect and try a different effect, you must use the Undo command, or revert to a saved copy of
the original data.
•
Non-destructive (real-time)—The digital audio data in your track is not changed but simply altered
on the fly during playback. This means you can experiment with effects parameters, bypass effects,
or remove them entirely at any time. Since most effects require complex numeric calculations, realtime effects processing puts a heavy load on your computer’s CPU. If you use too many effects, the
CPU will not be able to keep up and playback will sound choppy and disconnected.
You can also apply real-time audio effects to a submix in a bus. For example, rather than patching
separate reverb effects in each of several guitar tracks, you can mix the guitar tracks together in a bus
and apply a single reverb effect to the submix. This makes much more efficient use of CPU time.
Patching effects on a bus also opens up new creative possibilities.
•
If you want to apply more effects than your CPU can handle, applying some of the effects offline
will reduce CPU usage during playback.
•
If you want to apply effects to an individual audio clip, rather than the whole track, it is simpler to
do so using offline effects.
The File-Export-Audio command, allows you to apply real-time effects when you export, so you do not
need to apply your effects destructively or use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command to prepare the
tracks beforehand. For information about exporting audio, see “Preparing Audio for Distribution” on
page 413.
All plug-in effects and soft synths have a Preset window you can use to save and recall your favorite
settings for those plug-ins.
Effects Parameters
Each effect in an effects patch point has its own independent set of parameter values. For example, you
can apply a short reverb in one track and a long reverb in another track. The dialog boxes for real-time
effects contain the same parameters as the offline effects, though there are a few differences:
•
You can adjust the parameters while playback is in progress, so there is no need for an Audition
button.
•
For Audio effects, because mixing is handled through the Track view or Console view, there is no
Mixing tab.
•
You do not need to click OK for the effect to be applied.
Refer to the sections “MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)” on page 295 and “Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)”
on page 345 for descriptions of the effects and their parameters.
How to Use Real-Time Effects
You can patch effects into the tracks and buses in both the Track view and Console view. After you
patch one or more effects into an FX bin, you can reorder the effects, delete them, or add new ones.
An FX bin in a track in the Track view
An FX bin in a bus in the Track
view
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There are several reasons why you might want to apply effects offline (destructively):
:
An FX bin in a bus in the
Console view
An FX bin in a track in
the Console view
Here’s how to insert and configure effects:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a real-time effect to a MIDI
track, audio track, synth track or
bus.
Right-click in the FX bin of the track or bus you want to add the effect to,
and select an effect from the popup menu.
Change the order in which effects
are used.
Drag an effect up or down in the FX bin.
Edit an effect’s parameters.
Double-click on the effect to open the effect’s dialog box.
Move an effect to a different bin.
Drag the effect to another effects bin.
Copy an effect to a different bin.
Hold down the Ctrl key and drag the effect to another effects bin.
Delete an effect.
Right-click the name of the effect, and choose Delete from the popup
menu.
Use a preset.
See “Presets” on page 389 for more information.
When you place an effect in an FX bin, an abbreviated name is used to describe the effect. Sometimes
the limited space makes it impossible to identify the effect. If this occurs, simply rest the cursor over the
effect for a second or two, and a tooltip will pop up to display the full name of the effect.
Effects in FX bins display “ticks” that tell you whether the effect is outputting a mono, stereo, or
surround signal:
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Mono indicator
Stereo indicator
Surround indicator (in 5.1 mode)
Presets are a way to store property page settings so that you can recall the exact same group of settings
again in the future. Effects and soft synths use presets, and so do some other functions you’ll find in
certain dialogs.
You manage presets with the Presets window, and the buttons to the right of it. To the right of the
Presets window are the Most Recently Used menu, which displays the presets you have used recently,
the Save button, and the Delete button.
Save button
Delete button
Name of current preset
Most Recently Used
preset menu
The following table tells you how to use presets:
To do this...
Do this...
Save the current settings as a preset
Enter a preset name and click the Save button.
Use a preset
Select the preset from the dropdown menu.
Use a recently-used preset
Select the preset from the Most Recently Used
preset menu (holds up to 8 presets; deletes the
oldest when over the limit).
Delete a preset
Select the name of the preset, then click the
Delete button.
The Presets window also has a feature called Preset Dirty Flags. A Preset Dirty Flag is an asterisk that
appears next to the name of the preset. The asterisk tells you that you changed and saved this
particular preset in another project, and the settings in the current project are different from the saved
version. If you re-save the preset in the current project with the current settings, the asterisk
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Presets
:
disappears, but will reappear in the other project, showing you that the displayed settings in that
project are different from the last saved version of the preset. If you want to get rid of the asterisk in all
projects, save the preset in each project with the exact same settings.
Effects on Clips
Both audio and MIDI clips now contain full-featured FX bins. You can insert real-time effects on clips,
in both MIDI and audio tracks. Each clip that you insert an effect on displays its own FX bin, that you
can use to manage the effects on that clip.
The characteristics of clip-based effects are:
•
Splitting a clip copies the effect(s) onto both clips.
•
You can copy or move clip-based effects from one clip to another, and to or from the FX bin on a
track.
•
A clip’s FX bin also appears on the General tab of the clip’s Clip Properties dialog (to open: rightclick the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu).
Note: you cannot drag effects to or from the Clip Properties dialog.
•
You can patch an effect onto multiple clips at the same time by first selecting the clips.
•
Audio effects can be automated by using clip envelopes.
•
The Edit-Bounce to Clip(s) command follows clip boundaries—effects tails are cut off, unless you
slip-edit the end of the clip to leave space.
•
Freezing a track or synth will also freeze the per-clip FX bins.
To Insert an Effect on a Clip or Clips
1.
If you want to insert an effect onto multiple clips, select the clips.
2.
Right-clip a clip that you want to insert an effect onto.
The Clips pane context menu appears.
3.
Choose Insert Effect-[Audio or MIDI]-[name of desired effect].
The FX icon appears on the clip(s) after you insert the effect (see picture, below).
FX icon
To Open or Close the FX Bin on a Clip
•
To open a clip’s FX bin, click the FX icon, or right-click the FX icon and select Open Clip Effects
Bin from the popup menu.
•
To close a clip’s FX bin, click the X icon that’s in the upper left corner of the clip’s FX bin, or click
anywhere outside of the FX bin.
To Delete, Bypass, Move, Copy, or Re-order a Clip Effect
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•
To delete an effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from the popup menu.
•
To bypass or un-bypass all the effects on a clip, right-click in the clips’s FX bin and choose Bypass
Bin from the popup menu.
•
To enable or disable an individual effect, click the effect’s green on/off switch.
•
To move an effect to another FX bin (on a track or a clip), drag the name of the effect to the other
FX bin.
•
To copy an effect to another FX bin (on a track or a clip), hold the Ctrl key down, and then drag the
name of the effect to the other FX bin.
•
To change the order of an effect in an FX bin, drag the name of the effect up or down to the desired
place in the effects chain.
To Apply Inserted Clip Effects
1.
If you want to apply the inserted effects on more than one clip, select them.
2.
If you want to leave room at the end of any clips for effects tails, slip-edit the ends of the clips to
leave some empty space.
3.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Clip(s) command.
V-Vocal Clips
V-Vocal is a vocal processor that integrates Roland’s VariPhrase technology into SONAR Producer.
Designed for monophonic sounds, especially vocals, V-Vocal does pitch correction on notes and phrases,
edits formants, adds vibrato if you want, and can also correct timing.
Access V-Vocal by selecting audio data, and then inserting an instance of V-Vocal. This creates a
monophonic V-Vocal clip, which means that the selected audio data is copied to create the V-Vocal clip,
while the original audio data is muted and left unchanged.
The following procedures explain how to manage V-Vocal clips. For information about using V-Vocal, see
“Using V-Vocal” on page 392.
To Create a V-Vocal Clip
1.
Select the audio data you want to use.
2.
Use the Edit-Create V-Vocal Region command, or right-click the clip and choose Roland VVocal-Create V-Vocal Clip from the Clips pane popup menu.
SONAR copies the selected audio data, inserts an instance of V-Vocal on the copied data, and displays
the new V-Vocal clip (the copied audio data that contains an instance of V-Vocal) where the selected
audio data was, and opens the V-Vocal interface. The V-Vocal icon
appears on the V-Vocal
clip. The original audio data is muted. No track data is moved or otherwise modified by creating a VVocal clip. You can drag the V-Vocal clip away from the original audio data if you want.
To Open a V-Vocal Interface
•
If the V-Vocal interface of the clip you want to edit is not open, right-click the V-Vocal clip and
choose Roland V-Vocal-V-Vocal Editor from the Clips pane popup menu. You can also doubleclick the V-Vocal clip.
To Move, Edit, or Copy a V-Vocal Clip
•
Use standard editing commands (nudge, drag-and-drop, slip-edit, etc.) to move, edit, or copy the
clip. When you move a V-Vocal clip, the original audio clip is revealed underneath it. You can
unmute the original clip by using the Mute tool.
Note: offline processing commands such as Process-Normalize and Process-Gain do not work on a VVocal clip.
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After the progress bar disappears, the bounced clips appear with new waveforms to reflect the effects
processing. The inserted clip effects are removed from the bounced clips automatically.
:
To Bypass or Unbypass a Single V-Vocal Clip
•
Right-click the V-Vocal clip and choose Roland V-Vocal-Bypass/Unbypass from the Clips pane
popup menu.
When you bypass a V-Vocal clip, you hear the original audio data that makes up the V-Vocal clip without
hearing any V-Vocal processing. When Bypass is enabled, the Bypass button in the V-Vocal interface
appears red.
To Bypass or Unbypass All V-Vocal Clips in a Track
•
Right-click a V-Vocal clip and choose Roland V-Vocal-Bypass All V-Vocal Clips from the Clips
pane popup menu.
To Delete a V-Vocal Clip
•
Select a V-Vocal clip (the orange clip with the V-Vocal icon, not the original audio clip) and use the
Edit-Delete command, or press Delete on your keyboard.
Note: V-Vocal commands can also be accessed by clicking the V icon in the V-Vocal clip
Using V-Vocal
V-Vocal is a vocal processor that does pitch correction on notes and phrases, corrects timing, edits
formants and dynamics, and can add vibrato.
The following topics describe using the V-Vocal interface to process audio data. For information about
inserting and managing V-Vocal in SONAR, see “V-Vocal Clips” on page 391.
Here’s a description of the interface:
AutoScroll
Rewind
Bypass
Mute
Solo
Play/Stop
LoopMode
Undo/Redo
Cent indicator
Timeline
Tools
Select pitch
correction key
Spread editing
area
Scroll
Formant
control
Pitch correction
Edit mode
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Zoom
Information view
.
•
Edit mode—select the parameter you want to edit: pitch, time, formant, or dynamics.
•
Zoom—continuous horizontal or vertical zooming by dragging the center vertically or horizontally.
If you drag the center while pressing the Shift key, you can restrict the zoom direction to horizontal
or vertical. Zoom In or Out incrementally by clicking any of the four arrows. Double-clicking the
center shows the overall clip.
•
AutoScroll—the editing display scrolls when you turn on AutoScroll.
•
Formant control—the Pitch Follow knob increases or decreases the formant according to pitch. The
Shift knob increases or decreases the formant for the entire phrase.
•
Pitch Correction
•
Keyboard and Scale buttons—assign the target notes with the keyboard button; each key has
a bypass button (B) located under or over the key. The Scale button lets you assign the target
notes by scale: click the Scale button, click Maj or Min, and click a note on the keyboard
button to choose the root of the scale.
•
Note button—use this button to set the rate of pitch correction. This function can adjust the
pitch to the selected notes’ grids by increasing or decreasing the pitch of the selected region.
•
Vibrato—set the depth of the vibrato. If you choose 100%, vibrato depth is set to zero.
•
Sense—this is a sensitivity control for pitch correction for unstable pitch areas such as
portamento. Pitch correction gets stronger if you increase the value.
•
Cent indicator—this indicator shows the pitch correction amount by cents in realtime (+/- 100
cents).
•
Timeline—this gives a graphical display of the playback time in beats.
•
Select pitch correction key—set the target notes for the pitch correction. Each time you click a note,
the note’s color is changed to red, grey, or blue in turn. Meaning of each color is as follows:
•
Blue: selected
•
Gray: not selected
•
Red: Bypassed
•
Arrow tool
—for selecting the editing region, and for increasing or decreasing the pitch of the
selected region.
•
Line tool
•
Pen tool
•
Vibrato/LFO tool
•
Eraser
•
Hand tool
—for scrolling the display. If you drag in the editing area while pressing the Ctrl key,
you can zoom.
•
Rectangle zoom
—for selecting an area to zoom in to. Drag a border around the area you want
to zoom to. Overall area is displayed by double clicking.
—for drawing Pitch, Formant, and Dynamics with straight lines.
—for drawing Pitch, Formant, and Dynamics freehand.
—for adding and editing Vibrato or LFO at the selected region.
—for resetting the selected region to its initial value.
Playing Back V-Vocal Clips
You can play back V-Vocal clips by clicking the buttons at the top of the V-Vocal interface. Besides
playing the V-Vocal clip, you can mute it, solo it, loop it, and rewind it. Clicking in the time ruler at the
top of the graph moves the playback time.
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English
Description of Interface Components
:
To Play a V-Vocal Clip
•
To play a V-Vocal clip, click the play button in the V-Vocal interface, or press the Spacebar.
•
To stop playback, press the Spacebar, or click the Stop button.
•
To mute the track that the V-Vocal clip is in, click the M button in the V-Vocal interface.
•
To Solo the track that the V-Vocal clip is in, click the S button in the V-Vocal interface.
•
To rewind the V-Vocal clip, click the rewind button in the V-Vocal interface.
•
To loop the V-Vocal clip, click the loop mode button in the V-Vocal interface.
•
To set the playback time for the V-Vocal clip, click in the timeline that’s at the top of the graph.
Pitch Editing
Pitch editing requires that the Pitch button in the edit mode section is enabled. Here’s a description of
the interface in pitch editing mode:
•
The yellow line is the edited Pitch curve and this line is the actual sounding pitch.
•
The red line is the original Pitch curve and this line cannot be edited.
•
The green dot is a Node. Nodes are automatically assigned to the start and end of the edited
region. You can select the specific region between the nodes if you click the yellow line between the
nodes.
•
The white horizontal line is called Center Pitch. Center Pitch is used as a baseline for increasing or
decreasing vibrato or for pitch correction.
To Change the Pitch of a Selected Region
1.
Use the Arrow tool to select the part of the yellow line that you want to transpose (make sure that
the Pitch button in the edit mode section is enabled).
The selected region turns blue to show that it is selected.
2.
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Drag the yellow line up or down.
Nodes appear automatically when you shift pitch.
Tips:
•
Ctrl-dragging snaps the pitch to the pitch correction grid. Shift dragging moves the pitch by 100
cent increments.
•
You can also edit pitch by dragging a node up or down.
•
You can undo each edit you do by pressing Ctrl+Z. You can use this command repeatedly to undo
multiple edits.
About Pitch Correction
The key for making manipulated sound more natural is using the parameters in the Pitch Correction
section: Note, Vibrato and Sense. Functions for each parameter are as follows:
Note—controls the ratio of pitch shifting to the nearest scale note. With a value of 100, each
section is completely shifting to the nearest scale note.
•
Vibrato—as the value increases, the vibrato depth gets narrower. At a value of 100, Vibrato is
completely eliminated.
•
Sense—as the value increases, the range of affecting pitch correction gets wider.
English
•
If you set all of above parameters to a value of 100, you will get a "robot voice”-type sound.
Current default values are:
•
Note: 100
•
Vibrato: 50
•
Sense: 100
This setup is a bit too artifical. If you want to make the sound more natural, we suggest the following
setup:
•
Note: 70-100; be careful of intonation.
•
Vibrato: 0-20; try 0, if you'd like to keep the original.
•
Sense: 20-30; please adjust to fit the data.
The above suggestion is just one example. Different types of audio might require different settings.
In addition, try adjusting the Pitch Follow parameter in the Formant Control section as follows:
•
Set the value close to 100 if you'd like to do subtle pitch correction.
•
Set close to 0 if you'd like drastic rephrasing.
To Draw Freehand Pitch Changes
1.
Click the Pen tool.
2.
Draw a shape on the graph.
To Draw Straight Line Pitch Changes
1.
Click the Line tool.
2.
Draw a line on the graph.
To Correct Pitch
1.
Select the region you want to correct by using the Arrow tool.
2.
Select the notes that you want the selected region to become by clicking notes on the Keyboard
button. The selected notes should be light blue. The deselected notes are dark blue. When you click
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:
the Correct button, the selected area conforms to the light blue notes on the keyboard. You can also
click the note names in the Select Pitch Correction field to select notes. Note that light blue note
names are selected, grey note names are not selected, and red note names are bypassed.
Note: to display different octaves, drag the vertical scroll bar that is at the right side of the graph
up or down.
3.
Set the amount of pitch correction you want by adjusting the Note knob. 100 cents is equal to a
half-step. Between 70 and 100 is a good place to start.
4.
If the selected region has any unstable pitch areas such as portamento, you can adjust the Sense
knob, which adjusts pitch correction sensitivity. Pitch correction gets stronger if you increase the
value. 30 is a good starting point. If the selection has vibrato, try 0 to 30.
5.
Click the Correct button. The pitch in the selected region moves to the target pitches (the light blue
notes on the keyboard).
To Conform Pitches to a Scale
1.
Use the Arrow tool to select the region where you want to correct pitches.
2.
Click the Scale button so that it is enabled (light blue).
3.
Click a Maj or Min button to select a major or minor scale, respectively.
4.
Click a note on the Keyboard button to select the root note of the scale.
5.
Click the Correct button.
The notes of the scale you selected turn light blue on the Keyboard button.
The selected area conforms to the light blue notes on the keyboard.
To Restore Original Pitch
•
Use the Eraser tool to drag over a region. The region you drag over returns to original pitch.
To Add Vibrato
1.
Click the Vibrato/LFO tool.
2.
Move the cursor to the place where you want the vibrato to start.
The cursor displays a vibrato icon when it is ready to add new vibrato:
3.
.
Drag to the right for the length of the vibrato segment that you want to add.
To Edit Vibrato
1.
Move the Vibrato/LFO tool over the vibrato segment that you want to edit.
The cursor displays a double-arrow icon when it is ready to edit vibrato:
2.
.
Drag the vibrato segment vertically to edit amplitude, or horizontally to edit frequency.
Tips:
•
Holding the Ctrl key down while you drag restricts vibrato editing to amplitude only.
•
Holding the Shift key down while you drag restricts vibrato editing to frequency only.
•
You can create a robot voice effect by keeping the amplitude flat.
To Fade-in Vibrato
1.
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Move the Vibrato/LFO tool over the beginning of a vibrato segment.
The cursor displays a fade-in icon when it is ready to add a fade-in:
2.
.
Drag the vibrato segment to the right for the length of the fade-in that you want to add.
Editing Time
To edit timing with V-Vocal, the Time button in the edit mode section must be enabled.
To Edit Time
1.
Make sure the Time button is enabled.
2.
Move the Arrow tool near the vertical center of the graph until the cursor changes to the double
arrow, and click at each point where you want to preserve the original timing. A vertical green line
appears at each point that you click.
3.
Now add new green lines between the existing ones.
4.
Drag the new lines to the left or right to compress or expand each region.
•
Hold down the Ctrl key while you move lines to move all the following lines by an equal amount.
•
To erase lines, drag a region with the eraser. Timing reverts to its original condition in the areas
where you erase lines.
Editing Formants
A rough definition of formants is that they are vowel sounds. To edit formants with V-Vocal, the
Formant button in the edit mode section must be enabled.
Here’s a picture of the V-Vocal interface in formant mode:
The red line in the graph is the formant line. The red dots on the line are nodes.
To Shift the Formant of a Region
1.
Use the Arrow tool to select the region you want to shift.
2.
Drag the red line in the region up or down.
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English
Tips:
:
When you drag the red line, nodes are automatically created at the start and end of the selected region.
You can drag the nodes to create different shapes.
Tips:
•
Double-clicking the red line in a selected region adds nodes to the place where you click, and also to
the start and end of the selected region.
•
You can do freehand editing with the Pen tool.
•
You can add an LFO to a selected region by dragging the red line up or down with the Vibrato tool.
Dragging left or right modifies the LFO frequency.
•
You can reset segments of the red line by dragging with the Eraser.
•
You can increase or decrease the formant for the entire phrase by adjusting the Shift knob.
To Link the Formant Line to the Pitch Line
•
To increase or decrease the formant relative to pitch, adjust the Pitch Follow knob. You can view
pitch at the same time as formants by right-clicking the graph, and choosing View-Pitch from the
context menu.
Editing Dynamics
The basic procedures for editing dynamics with V-Vocal are the same as for formant editing, except that
dynamics are represented by a yellow line, and you must have the Dynamics button enabled in the edit
mode section.
Context Menu
If you right-click the graph, the V-Vocal context menu appears.
The menu has the following commands:
•
Undo—use this command to undo your last editing action. You can use this command repeatedly to
undo a series of editing actions, starting with the latest.
•
Redo—use this command to redo an editing action that was just cancelled by an Undo command.
•
Select All—use this command to select the whole phrase. You can deselect a selection by clicking
away from the waveform.
•
View—use this command and the options in its submenu to hide or show the phrase’s waveform
(Wave option on submenu), the pitch display (Pitch), the formant line (Formant), and the
dynamics line (Dynamics).
•
Group Node—deletes nodes in the selected region.
•
Pitch Detect Mode—method for redetecting center pitch (the white horizontal line) of LFO or
Vibrato. After you select the region you want to redetect, choose the following submenus.
•
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•
Standard 1—standard setting
•
Standard 2—standard setting
•
Enka—for phrases that contain deep vibrato.
•
KeroKero—for vivid detection, although it's difficult to detect the center pitch of deep
vibrato.
LFO Pen Type—select the type of the waves of vibrato added by the vibrato tool.
Keyboard Shortcuts
Command...
Shortcut...
Arrow tool
S
Line tool
L , or hold down Shift while using the Pen tool
Pen tool
D
Vibrato/LFO tool
V
Erase tool
E
Hand tool
H
Zoom tool
Z
Undo zoom
U
Redo zoom
Shift+U
Zoom vertically
Ctrl+Up/Down arrow keys
Zoom horizontally
Ctrl+Left/Right arrow keys
Fit entire region into display
Shift+F
Fit content vertically
F
Pitch edit mode
1
Time edit mode
2
Formant edit mode
3
Dynamics edit mode
4
Cycle through all modes
Shift+Left/Right arrow keys
Play/Stop
Spacebar
Rewind
W
Bypass
B
AutoScroll
A
Loop on/off
\
Undo
Ctrl+Z
English
The following table lists the V-Vocal keyboard shortcuts:
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:
400
Redo
Ctrl+Shift+Z
Cancel drag gesture
Esc
Select All
Ctrl+A
Select None
Ctrl+Shift+A
Return selection to default
settings
Delete
Solo track
/
Show/hide waveform in Pitch
edit mode
Shift+W
Go to/Center cursor
G
Scroll up/down
Up/Down arrow keys; PageUp/PageDown
Scroll left/right
Left/Right arrow keys
Using the Per-track EQ (Producer Edition Only)
Each audio track in the Console view in the Producer version of SONAR has a 4-band EQ patched into
it by default. You can hide the EQ, hide its graph (plot), display only one band, or display all four bands
Here’s a graphic of the EQ and its controls:
Plot
Frequency, Gain, and Q
controls for band “n”
English
Enable band
Choose type of filter
Enable EQ
Show/hide Plot button
Show/hide Bands
Here’s how to use it:
To Hide the EQ in all Audio Tracks
•
In the Console view, click the EQ button so that it’s not lit:
.
To Show One Band’s Controls
•
In the Console view, click the EQ button so that it’s yellow:
.
To Show All Four Bands’ Controls
•
In the Console view, click the EQ button so that it’s blue:
.
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:
To Choose What Band You’re Controlling When Only One Band is Showing
•
Click the Band menu that’s at the bottom of the EQ display, and choose the band number you want
to control.
To Enable or Disable the EQ
•
Click the Enable/Disable button that’s next to the Band menu:
.
To Choose the Filter Type for Each Band
•
Click the filter type menu that’s just above the Band menu, and choose a filter type.
To Enable or Disable a Band
•
Click the Enable/Disable button that’s on the left side of the band type menu.
To Set Frequency, Gain, and Q for Each Band
•
In the band that you want to configure, drag the frequency slider (f icon), gain slider (triangle icon),
or Q slider (Q icon), respectively, to the left or right. The value is displayed just to the right of each
icon, and the plot (graph) changes as you drag.
To Hide or Show the Plot (Graph)
•
Click the Plot button.
To Open the EQ Interface
•
Double-click the Plot.
Applying Audio Effects
You can destructively apply audio effects for one or more tracks. When you are pleased with the audio
effects you have patched into a track, you can apply the effects to the track. Applying effects to a track
saves resources, allowing you to include additional tracks and/or effects
Note:
When applied effects are undone, they are not re-patched in the FX bin(s).
To Apply Multiple Audio Effects Offline
1.
Add one or more audio effects to one or more tracks in either the Track view or the Console view.
2.
In the Track view, select the tracks or clips you want to be affected.
3.
Select Process-Apply Audio Effects.
4.
If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
5.
Click OK.
The Apply Audio Effects dialog appears.
If you do not delete the effects after applying them, they remain active.
CPU Usage of Audio Effects
The number of real-time audio effects that your computer can handle depends on the number of audio
tracks in your project, the number and type of effects you want to use, and the type and speed of your
CPU. Certain effects are more CPU-intensive than others, and enabling certain settings (such as using
equalization within the Stereo Reverb) increases CPU usage for those effects.
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Applying MIDI Effects
You can destructively apply the MIDI effects in a track’s patch point. This makes it easy for you to
experiment with MIDI effects before you commit to them on a more permanent basis.
To Apply MIDI Effects Destructively
1.
In the Track view, select the tracks or clips to be affected.
2.
Select Process-Apply MIDI Effects.
3.
If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
4.
Click OK.
If you don’t delete effects after applying them, they continue to be active during playback, even though
they have already been applied.
SONAR seamlessly integrates VST plug-ins. The VST Configuration Wizard runs automatically on
startup, registering all your VST plug-ins (you can choose to not run the wizard by using the OptionsGlobal command, and unchecking Scan For VST Plug-ins On Startup).
If for any reason, SONAR can’t find a certain plug-in that you want to register, you can run the Wizard
manually, and navigate to the folder where the desired plug-in is. You can also run the Wizard if you
want to edit a plug-in’s properties.
To Run the VST Configuration Wizard
1.
Use the Tools-VST Configuration Wizard command.
The Wizard interface appears.
2.
If the correct folder is not listed in the folder window, click the Add button to navigate to the
folder(s) you want to scan, and click OK to close the Browse for Folder dialog.
3.
If you don’t want to scan any of the listed folders, select them, and click the Remove button.
4.
Select the folder(s) that you want to scan, and click Next.
The Wizard scans the selected folder(s) and lists the VST plug-ins that it finds on the Plug-in
Configuration page.
5.
If you want to edit the Properties of a plug-in, select it and click the Properties button, edit the VST
Plug-in dialog, and click OK to close the dialog. Here’s some information about the options:
•
Enable as plug-in—enable this option if you want to use the plug-in as an audio effect.
•
Configure as synth—enable this option if you want to use the plug-in as a soft synth.
•
Configure as tempo-based effect—if the effect is supposed to respond to tempo information
(for example, a tempo-synced delay), and it is not responding, make sure this box is checked.
•
Force stereo operation—some host applications assign a single, mono track to carry a VST
plug-in's output. Checking this option forces the host to use two mono tracks or a single stereo
track.
•
Enable Delay Compensation—usually, you will leave this checkbox the way you found it. The
VST Configuration Wizard contains a delay compensator, which the Wizard turns on and off
automatically for each individual plug-in (only a few plug-ins need it). If your plug-in needs
extra time to process the audio data, the plug-in sends a message to the VST Configuration
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English
The VST Configuration Wizard
:
Wizard, and the VST Configuration Wizard relays the message to the host program so it can
synchronize playback time to the delayed output from the plug-in.
6.
•
Do not intercept NRPNs—the wizard uses NRPNs to run automation of your VST plug-ins.
However, some instruments have their own implementation of this process, so checking this
box passes the NRPNs directly to the instrument, allowing it to manage its own automation.
•
Editor size—the X field lets you choose the width of the plug-in's property page (in pixels), and
the Y field lets you choose the height of the page.
Click Next to close the dialog, and enjoy your plug-ins.
Using Control Groups
SONAR lets you link faders, knobs, or buttons in the Track and Console views into groups. Groups are
collections of controls whose movements are linked together. For example:
•
Two volume faders or controls can be grouped so that when you increase or decrease the volume of
one track, the volume of the other track changes in exactly the same way.
•
Four mute buttons can be grouped so that when you click on the mute button to mute track 1,
tracks 1 and 2 are muted and tracks 3 and 4 are un-muted.
The Console view and Track view identify controls, knobs and faders that are grouped using a colored
group indicator that is displayed on the controls in each group. The controls in group A are displayed
with a red indicator, the controls in group B with a green indicator, and so on. Controls, faders and
knobs can be grouped together.
When you group buttons together, the way they work is based on their position when you create the
group:
•
Buttons that are in the same position when grouped will turn on and off together at all times.
•
Buttons that are in opposite positions when grouped will always remain in opposite positions.
When you group buttons with knobs or faders, the button turns on/off when the knob or fader reaches
its halfway point.
You have several additional options. There are three general types of groups: absolute, relative, and
custom. Here’s how they work.
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Absolute
The range of motion in all controls in the group is identical. When you move one control in the group, all
other controls in the group move the same amount in the same direction. The controls do not necessarily
need to start at the same level. Here are two examples:
Example 1
The first control’s raised to maximum
The first control is lowered to minimum
The first control is raised to maximum
The fourth control is lowered to minimum
English
The controls are grouped in this position
Example 2
The controls are grouped in this position
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:
Relative
The range of motion for controls in the group is not the same. All controls in the group have the same
value at one point—the lowest level for send, return, and volume levels, and zero for pan controls. Here
are two examples:
Example 1
The volume controls are
grouped in this position
The first control is raised to
maximum volume
The first control is lowered
to zero volume
Example 2
The pan controls are grouped in
this position
The first control is panned to
center
The first control is panned to the
right
Custom
Sometimes you want to define a more complex relationship between the controls in a group. For
example:
•
You want two controls two operate in reverse—when one fader drops, the other increases (cross
fade).
•
You want two volume faders grouped so that they are locked together at maximum level, but drop
at different rates.
•
You want two faders to be locked together with the same range of motion, but a third fader grouped
with them to have a different range of motion.
Custom groups let you set the range of motion for each control in the group by entering a starting and
ending value. As any one control in the group is moved from its starting position to its ending position,
the other controls in the group exercise their full range of motion.
When you have defined a custom group, you can adjust the starting and ending position of each control
using the Group Settings dialog box or using popup menus on the controls in the group.
To Add a Control to a Group
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1.
Right-click on the control.
2.
Choose a group from the Group submenu.
SONAR adds the control to the group. Controls, knobs and faders are highlighted with the group’s color
indicator.
To Remove a Control from Its Group
1.
Right-click on the control.
2.
Choose Remove From Group from the menu.
SONAR removes the control from the group and displays the control with the neutral color indicator.
To Remove All Controls from a Group
•
Right-click a control in the group, and choose Clear Group from the popup menu.
To Override a Control’s Grouping
•
Hold down the Ctrl key while moving the control.
The control remains part of the group and functions as such once the Ctrl key is lifted.
1.
Right-click on any control in the group and choose Group Manager to display the Group Manager
dialog.
2.
Choose Absolute or Relative as the group type and click OK.
SONAR uses the type to determine the range of motion for the group’s controls.
To Create a Custom Group
1.
Right-click on any control in the group and choose Group Manager to display the Group Manager
dialog.
2.
Choose Custom as the group type. The starting and ending values for each control are displayed.
3.
To change the starting or ending value for a control, click on the control in the list and enter new
values in the Start and End box.
4.
To swap the starting and ending value, click the Swap button.
5.
Click Close when you are done.
SONAR uses the type to determine the range of motion for the group’s controls.
To Adjust the Start Value of a Control
1.
Set the control to the desired starting value.
2.
Right-click on the control.
3.
Choose Set Start = Current.
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English
To Set the Group Type to Relative or Absolute
:
SONAR sets the start value of the control.
The Set Start = Current and Set End = Current commands set the range of motion that a grouped
control moves through as the other members of the group move through their starting and ending
values. You don’t have to designate a group as a custom group to create a custom group—just group
some controls and set their starting and ending values.
To Adjust the End Value of a Control
1.
Set the control to the desired ending value.
2.
Right click on the control.
3.
Choose Set End = Current.
SONAR sets the end value of the control.
The Set Start = Current and Set End = Current commands set the range of motion that a grouped
control moves through as the other members of the group move through their starting and ending
values. You don’t have to designate a group as a custom group to create a custom group—just group
some controls and set their starting and ending values.
Quick Groups
You can create a temporary group (a Quick Group) of track or bus controls by clicking the strip selector
on each track or bus that you want to group. Similar or identical controls in the grouped tracks or buses
will then move synchronously when you adjust them. For example, if you made a Quick Group of an
audio track and a MIDI track, and then dragged the volume fader in the MIDI track, the volume fader
in the audio track would move in similar fashion. If you dragged the Velocity Trim fader in the MIDI
track, the Volume Trim fader in the audio track would move also.
Note: not all controls can be Quick Grouped or Grouped. Controls such as Input, Output, and Effects
Send Selector on Audio tracks as well as the Input, Output, Channel, Bank, Patch, Time+ and Key+
controls on MIDI tracks cannot be grouped (they can have identical values set though by using the
Track-Property-[name of property] command).
The additional attributes of Quick Groups are:
•
Only one Quick Group can exist at a time.
•
If a control is part of a Quick Group and a permanent group, the Quick Group takes precedence.
•
Track and bus controls cannot be in the same Quick Group.
Strip selectors are located in the upper left corner of a track or bus number in the Track view, and are
located in the upper left corner of a track or bus name in the Console view. Traditional track selection
(selecting a track and all its recorded MIDI or audio data) is still performed by clicking the track
number, but not in the upper left corner.
A track strip selector in the
Track view
A track selector in the Track view
A bus strip selector in the Track view
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A track strip selector in the
Console view
You can make part of a Quick Group into a permanent group by right-clicking a grouped control, and
using the Group-Save command from the popup menu. This creates a group of whatever kind of
control you right-clicked from all the tracks or buses in the Quick Group. For example, if you have a
Quick Group made of three audio tracks, you could right-click the volume fader of one of the tracks, and
save the group. This would create a permanent group of the volume faders in the three audio tracks.
To Create a Quick Group
•
Highlight the track strip or bus strip selectors of the tracks or buses you want to group by using
any of the following methods:
•
Ctrl-click strip selectors if they are not adjacent.
•
Click one strip selector, then shift-click another strip selector to select all tracks or buses that
are between them.
•
Ctrl-click any strip selector that you want to de-select.
•
Double-click a strip selector to select all tracks or buses.
To Remove all Controls from a Quick Group
•
Click a strip selector that is in or out of the group.
Or
•
Right-click a control in the group, and choose Clear Group from the popup menu.
To Make a Quick Group a Permanent Group
1.
In a pre-exisiting Quick Group, right-click the kind of control that you want to group (for example,
volume) to open the popup menu.
2.
Use the Group-Save command from the popup menu.
The Group Attributes dialog appears.
3.
Choose a Group name and color, and click OK.
If you right-click a control to display the popup menu again, the name of your new group appears in the
Group menu. You can add other controls to the group by right-clicking a control, and choosing the group
from the popup menu.
You can choose the default color for Quick Groups in the Configure Colors dialog (Options-Colors
command).
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English
A bus strip selector in the Console view
:
Using Remote Control
This section explains how to assign knobs or sliders on a MIDI controller to control specific parameters
on specific tracks. If you have a control surface with groups of faders such as a Tascam US-428 or CM
Labs MotorMix, see the online help topic “Working with External Devices.”
SONAR‘s Remote Control function lets you use a MIDI device to remotely control knobs, buttons, and
sliders in the Track and Console views. For example, you can:
•
Use a key on your keyboard to temporarily mute a track
•
Work the send level in a bus with your pitch bend wheel
•
Set the main volume levels with NRPN messages
•
Prevent SONAR from sending any controller messages to your MIDI device.
•
Record automation from an external controller
If you set up remote control for a grouped control, the remote control works all controls in the group.
The type of MIDI message used to work a control is selected in the Remote Control dialog box. The
options are as follows:
Message
option...
Message effect on
buttons...
Message effect on sliders and
knobs...
None
No remote control
No remote control
Note On
The button state is toggled
The slider/knob is alternately maximized and
minimized
Note On/Off
The button state is toggled
when Note On is received,
and toggled again when Note
Off is received
The slider/knob is maximized when Note On is
received, and minimized when Note Off is
received
Controller
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the controller
value
Wheel
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the wheel value,
with the values mapped from their original
range of –8,192 to 8,191 to a range of 0 to 127
RPN
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the RPN value,
with the values mapped from their original
range of 0 to 16,383 to a range of 0 to 127
NRPN
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the NRPN
value, with the values mapped from their
original range of 0 to 16,383 to a range of 0 to
127
To Set Up Remote Control for a Knob, Button, or Fader
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1.
Right-click on the control and choose Remote Control from the popup menu.
2.
Choose the remote control type, as described in the table above.
3.
Set the note or controller number if applicable.
4.
Set the MIDI Channel field to the channel that your controller sends out.
5.
Click OK.
You can now work the control from your MIDI device. If you arm the control for automation and click
the Record Automation button in the SONAR Transport, you can record your external controller’s knob
or fader movements.
To Disable Remote Control
•
Right-click on the control and choose Disable Remote Control from the popup menu.
To Prevent SONAR from Sending Controller Data to Your MIDI Device
•
Right-click each knob or fader in SONAR that is sending unwanted controller data to your MIDI
device and choose Disable Control from the popup menu.
Using the Learn Option
To Bind a Control Using the Learn Option
1.
Right-click on the parameter you want to arm in either the Track view or Console view and select
Remote Control from the popup menu.
2.
Move a knob or fader on your controller.
3.
Click the Learn button in the Remote Control dialog and click OK.
The control in SONAR is now bound to the knob or fader on your controller.
Bouncing Tracks
The Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command lets you combine one or more audio tracks into a submix. A
submix can be a mono track, a stereo track or several mono tracks that contain the mixture of the
original tracks, preserving the volume, pan, and effects for each track. If you’re bouncing tracks that are
routed to a surround bus (SONAR Producer only), you can bounce them to as many mono tracks as you
have surround channels, by choosing the Split Mono option in the Channel Format field of the Bounce to
Tracks dialog, and also choosing a surround bus in the Source Category field. After their creation, the
submix tracks are just like any other tracks—you can edit them, add effects, copy them to another
project, etc. The original, unmixed audio tracks are not deleted, so you can archive them and recover
them later, or continue using them as before.
Note: you control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing, freezing, applying effects) on the
Audio Data tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field.
The default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for Rendering Audio” on page
552 for more information.
The Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command operates completely offline, meaning you can mix down tracks
that may be too complex for your machine to actually play in real time.
Here are some reasons to use Edit-Bounce to Track(s):
•
Your mix is so complex that real-time playback is impossible. Edit-Bounce to Track(s) produces
the correct mix, and store the result in a new track or tracks.
•
You require more CPU time for your real-time effects. With Edit-Bounce to Track(s), you can
premix some of your tracks with real-time effects applied, saving CPU time during playback.
If you mix down to tracks that already have data, the new events are placed in the track, but do not
overwrite existing material.
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The Learn option in the Remote Control dialog allows you to bind a parameter in SONAR to a knob or
fader on your controller.
:
To Mix Down (Bounce) Audio Tracks
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1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
Select the tracks or clips you want to mix down.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this time, select the whole
length of the longest track or clip plus an extra measure for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose Edit-Bounce to Track(s) to open the Bounce to Track(s) dialog.
5.
Select the first destination track for the mixdown.
6.
If you’ve saved a preset configuration for the Bounce to Tracks dialog, select it now in the Preset
window.
7.
In the Source Category field, select the source you want to use for your bounced track(s) from the
following options:
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each track you highlight in the
Source Buses/Tracks field. Each track you highlight will produce a new mono track, stereo
track, or two new mono tracks (the Split Mono option), depending on what you choose in the
Channel Format field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each bus you highlight in the
Source Buses/Tracks field. Each bus you highlight will produce a new mono track, stereo
track, or two to eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono option), depending on whether the bus
is a stereo or surround bus, and depending on what you choose in the Channel Format field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each main output you
highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field. Each main output you highlight will produce a
new mono track, stereo track, or two to eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono option),
depending on whether the output is a stereo output or the Surround Main, and depending on
what you choose in the Channel Format field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option bounces your entire mix down to a new mono track, stereo
track, or two to eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono option), depending on whether the
output is a stereo output or the Surround Main, and depending on what you choose in the
Channel Format field.
8.
Select a channel format: the kind of track(s) you want to create with your bounce.
9.
Select source buses or tracks.
10. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the mixdown. If you want to
exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Make sure Fast Bounce is checked, otherwise the bounce process will take as long as it takes to
play your selected track data in real time.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you check Track FX to include
synths that are patched into tracks, and check Bus FX to include synths that are patched into
buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation, any initial volume and pan settings in an exported
track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be exported at the level that exists in the track,
with pan set to center. If you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export.
11. If you want to save your settings as a preset, type a name for them in the Preset window, and then
click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the Preset window.
12. Click OK.
Preparing to Create an Audio CD
You can create an audio CD from any wave file or files (extension .WAV) of up to either 74 or 80 minutes
(depending on the recordable CD media you have). If your projects are audio only, you can simply mix
down to a stereo wave file. If your projects contain MIDI, you must first convert the MIDI tracks to
audio tracks. Once you have all the stereo wave files you want to include on your CD, you are ready to
burn a CD. Most CD burners come with CD burning software, if yours did not, you will need to buy CD
burning software, like Cakewalk’s Pyro. To download a free demo of Pyro, visit the Cakewalk website.
Preparing Audio for Distribution
The File-Export Audio command exports your project as a new file or files that you can burn to a CD,
or distribute via the Web or e-mail. In addition, SONAR Producer allows you to export surroundencoded files (see “Exporting Surround Mixes” on page 438). The following export formats are
supported:
Format...
Definition...
Wave (surround files in Wave
format are supported by SONAR
Producer only)
The standard digital audio format used under Windows for burning
CDs, with a file extension of .WAV
Windows Media Advanced
Streaming Format (includes
Windows Media Pro; surround
files are supported by SONAR
Producer only)
Compressed digital audio for streaming over the Internet, with the file
extension .WMA.
MP3
Highly compressed digital audio designed for quick downloads via the
Internet, with the file extension .MP3. The MP3 encoder that comes
with SONAR is a trial version which will time-out. The full version is
available for download at www.cakewalk.com.
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SONAR mixes the audio data and a new track or tracks appear in your project.
:
OMF
The Open Media Format, created by AVID Technology, is designed to
port a project to other applications or platforms. OMF files preserve
tracks, clip positions, slip edits and some other project attributes
depending on which application is writing or reading the OMF file.
If your audio hardware is configured for stereo playback, Wave files are created in stereo; if your audio
hardware is configured for monophonic playback, the Wave file is created in mono.
To Export Audio to Wave File Format
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now. If you don’t select anything,
everything’s selected.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this time, select the whole
length of the longest track or clip plus extra time for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose one of the following from the Files of type dropdown list:
8.
9.
•
Riff Wave—choose this if you want to export a standard wave file, or if you’re exporting a
surround project in wave format.
•
Broadcast Wave—choose this if you want to create a Broadcast Wave file (see description
below).
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
•
Tracks—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that you select in the
Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you select in the Source
Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each main output that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—Choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix, unless you’re exporting
a surround mix with Split Mono selected in the Channel Format field.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as a source to create
your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field, only tracks will show up as choices in
this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate mono files.
•
Multichannel—All exported tracks are mixed down to a multichannel wave file or files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source file is 16 and you export to
24, you get more precision for any audio effects in the mix (and a larger file). If your source file is
414
24 and you export to 16, you lose some sound definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering
option is on in the Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering” on page 419 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the mixdown. If you want to
exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you check Track FX to include
synths that are patched into tracks, and check Bus Returns to include synths that are patched into
buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan settings in an exported
track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be exported at the level that exists in the track,
with pan set to center. If you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export. If you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the main outs
are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a name for them in the
Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the window.
The audio is exported to the Wave file or files.
If you chose Broadcast Wave as the export format, the following information is stored in the file(s):
•
Description—A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave. Limited to 256 characters.
•
Originator—The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from the Author field in
the File Info dialog.
•
Originator Reference—A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
•
Origination Date—The date the file was created.
•
Origination Time—The time the file was created.
•
Time Reference—The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast wave.
To Export a Project in Windows Media Format
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this time, select the whole
length of the longest track or clip plus extra time for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format from the Files of type dropdown list.
8.
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that you select in the
Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you select in the Source
Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each main output that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
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15. Click Export.
•
9.
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix, unless you’re exporting a
surround mix with Split Mono selected in the Channel Format field.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as a source to create
your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field, only tracks will show up as choices in
this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate mono files.
•
Multichannel—All exported tracks are mixed down to a multichannel WMA file or files.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source file is 16 and you export to
24, you get more precision for any audio effects in the mix (and a larger file). If your source file is
24 and you export to 16, you lose some sound definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering
option is on in the Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering” on page 419 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the mixdown. If you want to
exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you check Track FX to include
synths that are patched into tracks, and check Bus Returns to include synths that are patched into
buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan settings in an exported
track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be exported at the level that exists in the track,
with pan set to center. If you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export. If you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the main outs
are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a name for them in the
Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The Windows Media Format Encode Options dialog appears.
16. Select options and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to a file or files with the extension .WMA.
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11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this time, select the whole
length of the longest track or clip plus an extra measure for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose MP3 from the Files of type dropdown list.
8.
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
9.
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that you select in the
Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you select in the Source
Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each main output that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as a source to create
your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field, only tracks will show up as choices in
this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate mono files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. In the Bit Depth field, select 16. If your source file is 24 and you export to 16, you lose some sound
definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering option is on in the Audio Options dialog box
(see “Dithering” on page 419 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the mixdown. If you want to
exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you check Track FX to include
synths that are patched into tracks, and check Bus Returns to include synths that are patched into
buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan settings in an exported
track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be exported at the level that exists in the track,
with pan set to center. If you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export. If you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the main outs
are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a name for them in the
Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The Cakewalk MP3 Encoder dialog appears.
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To Export a Project in MP3 Format
16. Choose options and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to a file or files with the extension .MP3.
Exporting OMF Files
OMF (Open Media Format) files are designed for cross-platform compatibility. For more information
about the OMF format, see “Importing OMF Projects” on page 176.
If you plan to export a SONAR project to another program that can read OMF files, it pays to consider
three things before you start your SONAR project:
•
Sample rate and audio bit depth of the target system
•
Number of tracks the target system can handle
•
SONAR and most other audio programs do not include video in the OMF file
To Export a Project as an OMF File
Select File-Export-OMF.
The Export OMF dialog appears.
2.
Enter a File Name (maximum 64 characters—SONAR limits name length for ISO CDR
compatibility), and in the Save As Type field, choose OMF Version 1 or 2. Most applications expect
Version 2, but check with your engineer.
3.
Audio Packaging: usually you should choose Embed Audio Within OMF, which includes the audio
data in the OMF file. But you should check with your engineer.
4.
Split Stereo Tracks Into Dual Mono: see what your engineer wants. If exporting a 24-bit project to
a Pro Tools system, enable "Split Stereo Tracks Into Dual Mono," as some Pro Tools systems do not
support 24-bit interleaved stereo files.
5.
Include Archived Tracks: you can choose to include archived tracks in your exported file.
6.
Mix Each Groove Clip As A Separate Clip: if you have several Groove Clips in a track SONAR
exports them as one clip unless you check this option. If you check this option, SONAR has to do a
separate export operation for each Groove Clip in the track, which is very time-consuming. If you
only have one Groove Clip in a track, and you have rolled out numerous repetitions of the clip,
SONAR exports a single clip that is the length of the original clip and all the repetitions, which is
not a time-consuming operation.
7.
Audio Format: ask your engineer what format the studio uses, Windows (RIFF Wave) or Mac
(AIFC).
8.
Click the Save button.
9.
SONAR exports the project as an OMF file. In the Save as Type field, select the OMF version you
want to save the project as. Version 1 is compatible with older applications. See your target
application’s documentation for information on which version it supports.
Note: OMF files save the following:
•
Tracks
•
Clip positions
•
Slip edits
•
Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)
The following information is discarded:
•
Volume
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1.
•
Pan
•
Automation
•
Effects
Dithering
Dithering is a process you can use when you convert a higher bit-depth file to 16 bits. SONAR features
the Pow-r dithering process, short for Psycho-acoustically Optimized Wordlength Reduction, which can
produce 16-bit files that sound indistinguishable from 24-bit source files. Dithering adds a small
amount of noise to the 16-bit file to approximate the sounds that were lost when the other bits were
removed. When this option is turned on, SONAR uses dithering when you export a higher-bit file at 16
bits, or change the bit depth of a project’s audio files to 16 from a higher bit depth (the Tools-Change
Audio Format command).
•
Rectangular—basically white noise, and the least CPU-intensive, this type of dither
is more audible than the Pow-r dither types, but works well with loud projects, or
ones that use distortion.
•
Pow-r 1—adds a fairly consistent amount of noise below 10k, then quickly
increases. Good for compressed music with few quiet sections.
•
Pow-r 2—adds a little less noise than Pow-r 1 until around 9k, then increases fairly
rapidly. More CPU-intensive than Pow-r 1.
•
Pow-r 3—adds the least amount of noise in the most audible range, then jumps up
at about 8k and again above 10k. Good for classical music or any music that has a
wide range of volume. Most CPU-intensive and transparent of all choices.
To Choose Dithering Options
1.
Open the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio command).
2.
On the Advanced tab, under Playback and Recording, choose the kind of dithering you want in the
Dithering field.
3.
Click OK.
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SONAR offers four kinds of dithering:
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Surround Mixing
SONAR Producer fully supports surround mixing (SONAR Studio can open surround
projects created in Producer, converting them to stereo). SONAR (Producer) can create
finished surround mixes in all popular surround formats, includinfg Windows Media 9 Pro.
You can use a joystick to control surround panning if you want.
Note: it’s always advisable to know the required sampling rate and audio driver bit depth for
the target medium that your surround project will be used in. That way you can work in the
correct format from the start, without having to convert later. You can set these parameters
in the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio command).
To get a complete understanding of SONAR’s surround functions, start with the “Surround
Basics” on page 422.
In This Chapter
Surround Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Joystick Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Surround Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Bass Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Exporting Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
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12
:
Surround Basics
Surround sound is a common name for various techniques for positioning audio in reference to the
listener. Whereas regular stereo is limited to left/right positioning, within a relatively narrow field,
surround sound opens possibilities of positioning an audio source anywhere around the listener.
Surround sound comes in many formats. The differences between the formats are in three areas:
•
The number of speakers—this varies from 3/2 all the way to 10.2 and beyond.
•
The angles of the speakers.
•
The intended final coding format—this depends on the media the audio will be "stored" on: film,
broadcast video or DVD, for example.
The most common format is 5.1, which consists of five full-range channels and a low-frequency effects
(LFE) channel (the “.1” in 5.1 is the LFE or sub channel). The five full-range channels are reproduced by
left, right, and center speakers positioned in front of the listener (L, R, and C for short), and left and
right surround speakers positioned behind the listener (Ls and Rs for short). The LFE channel can be
routed to the main speakers or to a subwoofer that can be positioned almost anywhere.
The center channel is typically used to lock dialog or sounds to a video screen. The LFE channel is
generally routed to a subwoofer to enhance low audio frequencies for effects such as explosions or
crashes. Audio in this channel is limited to a range of approximately 25 Hz to 120 Hz.
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
This section covers setting up SONAR for surround sound.
Using Surround Format Templates
A Surround Format template specifies the number of speakers and the order in which the speakers are
arranged.
There are several different surround formats, including LCRS, 5.1, 6.1, and 7.1, with 5.1 being most
common. The number after the decimal point refers to the number of Low Frequency Effect (LFE)
speakers. However, there are even different flavors of 5.1. The different flavors specify in which order
the speakers are arranged, and the speaker angles. For example:
Surround Format
Speaker Order
5.1 SMPTE/ITU
L, R, C, LFE, Ls, Rs
5.1 Music Alternative
L, R, Ls, Rs, C, LFE
5.1 Film Alternative
L, C, R, Ls, Rs, LFE
The speaker positions, moving clockwise from center, are identified as:
422
Label
Speaker
C
Center (directly in front of listener)
Rc
Right of Center
R
Right (standard Stereo placement)
Sr
Side right—directly to the right of the listener
Rs
Right Surround
Cs
Surround (rear center)
Ls
Left Surround
Sl
Side Left—directly to the left of the listener
L
Left (standard Stereo placement)
Lc
Left of center
LFE
Low Frequency Effect speaker(s)—placed according to
room acoustics
English
To mix in surround sound in SONAR, you must insert at least one surround bus.
A project can include multiple surround buses, but all surround buses in a project use the same
surround format (5.1, 7.1, etc.).
The project’s surround format is based on one of the following Surround Format templates:
•
2.0
•
2.1
•
LCR
•
LRC+LFE
•
LRS
•
LFS+LFE
•
Matrix UHJ
•
QUAD
•
4.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
Quad+LFE
•
PanAmbio 4.1
•
LCRS
•
Surround (SMPTE/ITU)
•
Surround Media
•
LCRS+LFE
•
5.1 (Standard 3/2)
•
5.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
5.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
5.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
6.0 (Hexagon)
•
6.0 (Film/Alternative)
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•
6.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
6.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
6.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
6.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
7.0 (Heptagon)
•
7.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
7.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
7.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
7.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
7.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
8.0 (Octagon)
•
8.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
8.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
8.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
8.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
8.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
5.1 (SMPTE/ITU) is the default template.
The Surround Format templates are hard-coded, and cannot be deleted. However, you can freely assign
any enabled audio output port to any surround channel, and save the configuration as a preset.
Surround settings are per project. Surround speaker assignments default to unique audio output
channels when you choose a new template.
You configure your surround settings in the Project Options dialog on the Surround tab (use the
Options-Project command and click the Surround tab).
Choosing a Surround Format
Using the Options-Project command and clicking the Surround tab displays several fields of surround
options. Choosing a surround format sets the number of speakers your project is using, and lets you
choose a specific sound card output for each speaker. Here you can also choose parameters for bass
management, and for downmixing, which means converting a surround mix into a stereo mix.
The group of sound card outputs that you choose on the Surround tab of the Project Options dialog
make up the “Surround Main.” The Surround Main becomes a choice on the Outputs menus of tracks
and buses as soon as you insert a surround bus into your project. You won’t see a “Surround Main”
output module in the output modules section of the Console view, because it’s just a term for the group
of sound card outputs you choose for surround mixing. The pan control on any track or bus that outputs
to the “Surround Main” controls which hardware outputs receive the signal that the track or bus sends
to the “Surround Main.”
SONAR saves the surround settings you choose on the Surround tab of the Project Options dialog with
your project, including your downmixing parameters. If you have some particular settings you might
use again, you can save a group of settings as a preset (except for downmixing parameters—you can
change these, but they aren’t saved in presets). To save a group of settings as a preset, type a name in
the Presets field and then click the Disk icon that’s to the right of the field. When you want to use this
preset in a project, just choose it from the Presets dropdown menu.
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To Choose a Surround Format and Set Sound Card Outputs
1.
Use the Options-Project command.
The Project Options dialog appears.
2.
Click the Surround tab.
3.
Select a format from the Surround Format dropdown.
The diagram to the right of the Surround Format menu changes to illustrate the speaker
placement of the format that you chose.
4.
In the Output column, assign each channel to a sound card output.
Note: Consumer-grade sound cards, such as Audigy or SoundBlaster, typically reserve output 4 for
the LFE channel. Check your sound card manual for details.
Click OK.
Note: Take a moment to make sure your speakers are correctly hooked up to the corresponding outputs
before you attempt any playback. See the diagram in the Project Options dialog for the speaker setup. If
you are not sure what the abbreviations for the speaker names are, see “Surround Basics” on page 422.
Surround Buses
You have to have at least one surround bus in your project to use surround sound. A surround bus
differs from a stereo bus in that it simply has more channels. For example, if a project is set to 7.1, then
the bus has 8 channels: 7 directional channels and one LFE channel.
To Insert a Surround Bus
1.
In the Bus Pane of the Track view or the Console view, right-click to display a popup menu of bus
options.
2.
Select Insert Surround Bus from the popup menu.
Or
•
Use the Insert-Surround Bus menu command.
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5.
:
Routing in Surround
Tracks can send output to a surround bus, the Surround Main, or a hardware output. If a track is
routed to a surround bus or the Surround Main, it has surround meters and a surround panner. You can
route any track or bus to another bus, the Surround Main or a hardware out. However, you are
prevented from creating a signal loop by routing the signal back into a bus that is already in the signal
flow. The following table lists how each of these routing options affects the signal:
Signal Flow
Result
Track to stereo bus
No change
Mono track to surround bus
Mono signal is routed to both Left and Right
channels of surround format. You can change the
routing to other surround channels by using the
surround panner on the track.
Stereo track to surround bus
Stereo left channel is routed to Left channel of
surround format; stereo right channel is routed to
Right channel of surround format. You can change
the routing to other surround channels by using
the surround panner on the track.
Track to hardware output
No change
Stereo bus to stereo bus
No change
Stereo bus to surround bus or the Surround
Main
Stereo left channel is routed to Left channel of
surround format; stereo right channel is routed to
Right channel of surround format. You can change
the routing to other surround channels by using
the surround panner on the stereo bus.
Stereo bus to hardware output
No change
Surround bus to stereo bus
Surround channels are downmixed to stereo
Surround bus to surround bus or the
Surround Main
No change
To Assign a Track to a Surround Bus or Surround Main
•
Click in the track’s output field and select a surround bus, the Surround Main, or New Surround
Bus as an output.
Downmixing
Downmixing is a way of previewing your surround project in stereo only. There are various cases where
surround is not available and it may be that someone plays your project in stereo only. A radio broadcast
is a good example. Downmixing is a valuable tool for determining if your project will sound good in
stereo. However, you can export your project in stereo, and SONAR uses your downmix settings to
create your exported file.
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Downmixing Setting
Options
Center Downmix Level (dB)
These options determine how much of the center is mixed to the left and
right.
Surround Downmix Level (dB)
LFE Level (dB)
•
-3 dB—Maintains the same level of center channel sound
when you listen in a typically reverberant room
•
-4.5 dB—A compromise level between -3dB and -6 dB
•
-6 dB—Maintains the same level of center channel sound
when you listen to direct sound without typical room
reverberations
•
-INF—Eliminates all of the Center channel signal
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The following table lists the downmixing settings in the Surround tab of the Project Options dialog and
gives a brief description of what the setting does. You can also manually enter other values besides
these preset ones:
The amount of Left Surround and Right Surround mixed into the Left and
Right channels respectively.
•
-3 dB—Maintains the same level of surround
•
-6 dB—Reduces the level of surround so that it doesn’t
compete with center channel sound such as dialog
•
-INF—Eliminates all of the Surround channel signal
The amount of the LFE channel mixed into the Left and Right channels
respectively.
•
-12 (or type in a value)—Lets you choose the level of LFE
in the stereo mix
•
-INF—Eliminates all LFE
To Downmix a Project
1.
If you do not have a stereo bus in your project, create one by right-clicking in the Bus pane in the
Track view or Console view and selecting Insert Stereo Bus from the menu that appears.
2.
Open the Project Options dialog (Options-Project command), select a center downmix level and a
surround downmix level in the Surround tab, and click OK.
3.
In each of the surround buses, assign the output to a stereo bus.
4.
Listen to your project through the stereo bus, and make any final adjustments to the stereo mix by
changing the values in the Surround tab of the Project Options dialog.
5.
If you want to export your stereo mix, use the File-Export Audio command. This command obeys
your downmix settings.
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Panning in Surround
Unlike stereo panning which sends sound to left and right speakers, surround panning means sending
sound to multiple speakers at points along a circle.
When a track/bus/send is assigned to a surround bus, the Pan control turns into a multi-dimensional
surround panner. The surround panner comes in four sizes:
•
Micro—this is found in the Track view.
•
Small—this is found on sends.
•
Medium—this is the surround panner which is displayed in the Track Inspector and Console view.
•
Large—this is a large surround panner (see “Controlling Surround Panning” on page 429) which
has additional controls, and appears when you right-click a surround panner and choose Open
Surround Panner from the popup menu, or double-click outside the surround panner circle, or
press Enter when the panner has focus.
MIcro surround panner in Track view
Six channel output meter
Medium surround panner in Console
view
The small and large panners are always synchronized; the large panner simply provides increased
resolution when you adjust the surround pan position.
Note 1: Surround panning is not available for tracks/sends that are routed to non-surround buses.
Note 2: If the track/bus/send is reassigned to a stereo bus, any surround automation will be orphaned,
but will automatically reconnect if the track/bus/send is later assigned back to a surround bus.
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Controlling Surround Panning
Here are pictures of the large surround panner and medium surround panner:
Large Surround Panner
Angle and focus
marker
Right speaker icon
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Width markers
Medium Surround Panner
The large surround panner has some sliders at the bottom that the medium surround panner doesn’t
have, except for the LFE Send slider, which the medium panner has. Except for the sliders, the large
and medium surround panners have the following controls:
•
Angle and Focus marker—a small sphere that you can drag in any direction to both control and
display the following two parameters:
•
Angle—this is the perceived angle of the sound source as it differs from the position directly
in front of the listener. The scale is 0 to 180 degrees on the listener’s right, and 0 to -180
degrees on the listener’s left. 0 means the sound is coming from directly in front of the listener,
and plus or minus 180 degrees means that the sound is coming from directly behind the
listener.
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•
Focus—this is the perceived distance of the sound source from the center of the circle on a
scale of 0 to 100, 0 meaning the center of the circle, and 100 meaning the perimeter.
•
Width markers—these are two smaller spheres equidistant from the Angle and Focus marker.
Their distance from each other and from the front of the circle shows the Width value (see
definition below). You can also drag the Width markers to control Angle and Focus.
•
Speaker icons/squares—each surround channel is represented by a speaker icon in the large
panner, and a white square in the small panner. The large panner also has a corresponding volume
level in dB directly in front of each icon. The position of each speaker icon shows you each speaker’s
position in the surround mix. Clicking a speaker icon or square mutes the corresponding channel,
causing the icon or square to become grey. Double-clicking the icon solos its channel, turning the
icon green.
•
Angle slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls the angle value.
•
Focus slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls the focus value.
•
Width slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls the width value. Width is
a measure of how wide an area the sound seems to be coming from on a scale of 0 to 360 degrees. At
0 and 360 degrees, the sound seems to all come from a single speaker. At 180 degrees the sound
seems to come from directly opposite sides. The default angle matches the project’s left and right
channel angle. For example, in 5.1 SMPTE/ITU surround, the default width is 60 degrees.
•
Front/Rear Balance slider (large panner only)—abbreviated as FrntRrBl, this slider adjusts the
front and rear balance. Drag it to the left to reduce the level from the front speakers, or drag it to
the right to reduce rear level.
•
LFE slider—this slider both displays and controls the level of sound sent to the LFE channel.
•
LFE Only button (large panner only)—this button mutes all channels except the LFE channel.
To Open the Large Surround Panner
•
Right-click the small surround panner or the pan control in a track, and choose Open Surround
Panner from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select a track, and either use the View-Surround Panner command, or click the Surround
Panner button in the Views toolbar.
Or
•
Double-click outside the Surround Panner circle.
Or
•
Press Enter when the panner has focus.
To Change the Angle
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the Angle and Focus marker to the left or right.
Or
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Angle slider.
To Change the Focus
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the Angle and Focus marker toward or away
from the center.
Or
•
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In the large surround panner, drag the Focus slider.
To Mute a Surround Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, click a speaker icon to mute its output. The speaker icon turns grey
when the speaker is muted.
Or
•
In the small surround panner, click a white square to mute a speaker’s output. The square turns
grey when the speaker is muted.
To Solo a Surround Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, double-click a speaker icon to solo its output. The speaker icon turns
green when the speaker is soloed.
Or
•
In the small surround panner, double-click a white square to solo a speaker’s output. The square
turns green when the speaker is soloed.
To Change the Width
In the large surround panner, drag the Width slider.
To Change the Front/Rear Balance
•
In the large surround panner, drag the FrntRrBl slider left to reduce front level, or right to reduce
rear level.
To Change the LFE Send Level
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the LFE slider.
Note: double-clicking any surround panner control will reset the control to its default value, which for
the LFE control is -INF.
To Solo or Unsolo the LFE Channel
•
In the large surround panner, click the LFE Solo button.
To Isolate a Signal in One Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Width slider to 0, the Focus slider to 100, and then drag the
Angle slider until the sphere icon is directly in front of the correct speaker.
Or
•
Press the desired Numeric Keypad key that represents the speaker position (7=L, 8=C, 9=R, see
“Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 431).
To Group Panner Controls
•
In the large surround panner, right-click each slider that you want to add to the group, and choose
Group-”n” from the popup menu.
Now you can move a single slider, and all sliders in that same group move synchronously.
Note: if you group sliders that are in the same surround panner, you can no longer move the markers
that represent those sliders’ values. You can only move a grouped marker by moving its associated
slider.
Keyboard Shortcuts
The following shortcuts allow you to control a surround panner from the keyboard:
Shortcut...
Function...
Alt+drag
Constrains to angle
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:
Alt+Shift+drag
Constrains to angle at 100% focus
Ctrl+Shift+drag
Constrains to focus only
Shift+click
Sets panner point to the point that you click (large
and medium panners only)
Shift+drag controls (Angle, Width, etc.)
Fine resolution
Up/Down cursor keys
Move to next/previous widget in surround panner
Left/Right cursor keys
Move to next/previous panner in same track
Ctrl+up/down
Move to surround panner in another track
Ctrl+NumPad 0-9
Speaker mutes
NumPad 0-9
Jump to speaker angle at 100% focus
NumPad assignments:
•
0 = n/a
•
1 = Ls
•
2 = Cs
•
3 = Rs
•
4 = Sl
•
5 = centers the panner
•
6 = Sr
•
7=L
•
8=C
•
9=R
•
/ = Lc
•
* = Rc
Automating Surround Panning
You can arm or disarm for automation all the controls in a surround panner by clicking any control in
the surround panner (except LFE Solo), and choosing Arm for Automation from the popup menu.
Joystick Support
SONAR Producer allows you to use a joystick to control surround panning. A force-feedback joystick
such as the Microsoft® SideWinder® Force Feedback 2 joystick can add a tactile element to mixing
sessions, and add button control to some SONAR transport and/or menu commands with the extra
buttons on the joystick module.
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The joystick will grab the current pan position/sphere anytime you pull the trigger button (the "firing"
button under your index finger). When recording automation, you write new automation every time you
pull the trigger button.
Various joystick buttons can be used to:
•
Control SONAR’s transport
•
Switch focus to adjacent tracks/sends
•
Solo/unsolo current channel
•
Open/close the large surround panner window
1.
Use the Options-Control Surfaces command.
2.
In the Control Surfaces dialog, click the Add button
, and choose Joystick Panner in the Control
Surfaces field of the Control Surface Settings dialog; click OK.
3.
Close the Control Surfaces dialog, and display the Control Surfaces toolbar (View-ToolbarsControl Surfaces command).
4.
On the left side of the toolbar, choose Joystick Panner in the dropdown menu, and then click the
5.
In the Joystick Panner dialog, select button 1 in the Buttons field, and then select Engage Pan
Mode in the Button Actions field.
6.
Now select Button 2, and select Engage Pan Nav Mode in the Button Actions field.
7.
Select any other buttons your joystick has (one at a time), and connect them to any transport or
menu commands you want in the Button Actions field; close the Joystick Panner dialog.
Properties button
that’s on the right side of the toolbar.
Now when you hold down button 1 (the “trigger button”), the joystick controls the surround panner on
the current track or send. When the pan/sphere is in the desired position, let button 1 up to hold the
position. When you hold down button 2, move the joystick vertically to change the current track, and
horizontally to change to a different send control. The window on the right side of the Control Surfaces
toolbar displays the names of the current track and send. Use any other buttons you configured to
control other SONAR Producer functions.
You can save your button assignments as a preset by typing a name for the current group of settings in
the Presets window in the Joystick Panner dialog, and then clicking the floppy disk icon that’s next to
the Presets window. Whenever you want to load a preset, just select it in the Presets window.
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To Connect the Joystick to SONAR Producer
:
Surround Metering
Meters in tracks routed to surround buses or the Surround Main, and meters in surround buses work
the same as stereo meters (see “Metering” on page 378), however, surround meters display more
channels. For example, a project in 5.1 would have a six-channel meter.
Six-channel meter
Bass Management
A bass management system takes all the frequencies below a certain frequency (normally 80Hz) from
the main channels, and the signal from the LFE channel, and mixes them together into the speaker
that is best equipped to handle them. This is usually a subwoofer, but sometimes the left and right front
speakers are used if a subwoofer isn’t available. The reason why this is done is to make use of the
subwoofer for more than the occasional low frequency effect, since the subwoofer is there anyway, and to
lower the effective response of the system to about 25 Hz.
When you encode to Dolby Digital, the LFE channel gets a +10dB gain on playback from Dolby's
decoder. This gives you the option of delivering some really powerful deep bass during playback, like in
that earthquake sound effect in your recording. Consider also that this +10 dB of low bass can be added
to any low bass that came out of the other 5 channels from redirection, so you realistically can deliver a
sound from the subwoofer that is more than +20dB above the sound from any other speaker.
What this means during mixing is that you would have to turn the analog gain to your subwoofer up 10
dB relative to the other 5 speakers, so that you hear the sound as it will be played back in home theater
systems that use bass management, and you will get your levels set right in the mix.
SONAR’s bass management system allows you to monitor how a surround project will sound with bass
management, so you don’t have to change the gain to your subwoofer during mixing. SONAR’s bass
management system only applies to monitoring, and is ignored when you export your file.
To Monitor With Bass Management
1.
If necessary, open the project you want to use bass management with.
2.
Select Options-Project from the SONAR menu.
The Project Options dialog appears.
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3.
Click the Surround tab.
4.
Check the Monitor with Bass Management option.
5.
Select an option in the Low Pass Cutoff (Hz) dropdown, and click OK.
Surround Effects
SONAR lets you use your existing stereo or mono effects as surround effects. SONAR does this through
the SurroundBridge, which automatically sets up your existing mono & stereo plug-ins so you can patch
them into surround buses (buses, not tracks).
The SurroundBridge automatically loads enough instances of a plug-in to handle all your surround
channels. For example, if you patch a stereo effect into a surround bus that uses 5.1 SMPTE/ITU
panning, the SurroundBridge automatically assigns the Left and Right channels of the bus to instance 1
of the plug-in, assigns the Left Surround and Right Surround channels to instance 2, the Center
channel to instance 3, and the LFE channel to instance 4. If you patch a mono effect into a surround
bus, the SurroundBridge assigns each channel to a single instance of the mono effect, which would
create six instances of the effect on a 5.1 surround bus. You can view and edit these assignments on the
SurroundBridge tab that’s in the property page of every effect that’s patched into a surround bus. For
example, if you want a certain effect on the Left Surround channel of a surround bus, but not on the
Right Surround channel, you can assign these two channels to different instances of the effect you’re
patching by choosing options on the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page.
The SurroundBridge also links the automatable parameters of each instance so that when you change a
parameter in one instance, you automatically change the same parameter in all the other instances. You
can unlink parameters individually, or per-instance (see “How to Patch and Configure Surround
Effects” on page 435).
Effect Property Pages
A single property page controls all instances of an effect that is patched into a surround bus. The effect’s
property page displays a different tab for each instance of the effect. By default, when you change an
automatable parameter on one tab of the property page, that change is duplicated on all the tabs of the
property page. However, you can “unlink” individual parameters from the other tabs by clicking the
Unlink Controls button in the effect property page, and while the button is enabled (red), move the
parameter you want to unlink, and then click the Unlink Controls button again to disable it. Now you
can change that parameter on one tab without changing the same parameter on the other tabs. You can
also link or unlink all of an instance’s parameters by using the controls on the SurroundBridge tab.
Effect Presets
You can use existing (non-surround) effects presets when you patch an effect to a surround bus—
selecting a non-surround preset sets all of a plug-in’s instances to the settings of the preset; selecting a
surround preset sets each instance’s parameters individually, according to the information stored in the
preset.
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures.
To Patch an Effect Into a Surround Bus
•
Right-click the FX bin of a surround bus and choose a mono or stereo effect from the popup menu.
The SurroundBridge patches multiple instances of the effect you chose into the bus’s FX bin (however,
only one effect appears in the bin), with default assignments of surround channels to plug-in instances.
To Change Channel Assignments for a Patched Effect
1.
If the effect’s property page is not open, display it by double-clicking the name of the effect in the
surround bus’s FX bin.
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The SurroundBridge
:
2.
On the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page, use the dropdown menus in the Left Input
and Right Input columns to assign individual surround channels to instances of the effect.
Your assignments take effect immediately, and the names of the tabs in the property page change to
reflect the new assignments.
To Unlink Individual Effect Parameters from Other Effect Instances
1.
In the property page of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus, click the Unlink Controls
button so that it turns red.
2.
Make some adjustments to the automatable parameters you want to unlink (non-automatable
parameters are not linked together). You can select parameters on any tab. SONAR will
automatically capture which controls you change and unlink them from the corresponding controls
for the other surround channels.
3.
When you’re finished adjusting parameters, click the Unlink Controls button again so that it’s not
red.
Now you can adjust the parameters you adjusted, without automatically adjusting the same
parameters that are on other tabs of the effect’s property page. As long as the Unlink Controls button is
not red, all other controls will remain linked.
A list of the parameters that you unlinked appears in the Unlinked Controls field on the
SurroundBridge tab, with the instance number listed in the Plug-in # column of the Unlinked Controls
field.
If you unlinked some but not all of an instance’s parameters, the instance’s checkbox in the Controls
Linked to Group column appears grey, with a check.
To view a list of the automatable parameters in a particular effect, uncheck one of the Controls Linked
to Group checkboxes on the SurroundBridge tab, and read the list in the Unlinked Controls field.
To Relink Individual Effect Parameters to Other Effect Instances
1.
In the Unlinked Controls field on the SurroundBridge tab, select the parameters you want to
relink—if the parameters you want to select are adjacent, you can Shift-click the first and last ones
in the group. If they’re not adjacent, you can Ctrl-click them individually.
2.
Click the Relink Controls button.
The parameters you relinked are removed from the list.
To Unlink All of an Instance’s Parameters from Other Instances
1.
In the property page of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus, click the SurroundBridge tab.
2.
Find the instance you want to unlink in the Plug-in # column, and uncheck its Controls Linked to
Group checkbox.
The parameters you unlinked appear in the Unlinked Controls field, with the instance number listed in
the Plug-in # column of the Unlinked Controls field.
Note: to relink all of an instance’s parameters, recheck its Controls Linked to Group checkbox.
To Disable an Instance
•
On the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page, uncheck the Enable checkbox of the plugin you want to disable. The instance’s tab becomes greyed-out when you do this. You can re-enable
the instance by rechecking the checkbox.
The Enable checkbox is a separate bypass system from the Bypass button that is on the instance’s
individual property tab. Disabling an instance by using the Enable checkbox lightens the CPU load by
taking the instance out of the processing path. The Bypass button on the instance’s property tab does
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not change color when you click the Enable checkbox, because it is a separate system. The Bypass
button is automatable in some plug-ins.
To Save a Preset
1.
Set the effect’s parameters the way you want them.
2.
In the Presets field of the effect’s property page, type a name for the preset, and click the floppy
disk icon that’s just right of the Presets field.
Saving a preset of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus creates a surround preset, which includes
channel assignments and parameter linkage settings.
Importing Surround Mixes
You can import the following types of multi-channel files:
•
Multi-channel PCM wave files (.WAV)
•
Dolby AC3 encoded files. (.AC3)—these are encoded for Dolby surround. You will need to install an
AC3 decoder filter such as this one: http://ac3filter.sourceforge.net in order to be able to decode
these files in SONAR. Important: After installing the above AC3 codec, go to Control Panel and
launch the "AC3 Filter" control panel applet. From there you can set up the default speaker output
for this filter to 5.1 channels. Until you do this it will only stream in stereo. Also check the sample
rate of the imported file. It’s recommended that you set your project sample rate to whatever the
file uses before importing. Otherwise the import process will go through a time consuming
resampling pass for each channel.
•
Windows Media Pro
To Import a Surround Multi-channel File
1.
Use the File-Import-Audio command to open the Import Audio dialog.
2.
Select a file of a supported file type.
3.
Check Import As Mono Tracks.
4.
Click Open.
SONAR imports each channel to a separate mono track.
Tip: You can also rip the soundtrack from a video file by opening the video file directly from the Import
Audio dialog.
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SONAR imports multi-channel (surround) files as a group of mono files. If the files contain information
that labels the speaker location of each channel in the file, SONAR copies these labels to the clips in
your audio tracks, but does not pan the tracks according to these labels. This is because you may not
have your SONAR project set to the same multi-channel format as the imported project.
:
Exporting Surround Mixes
You can export your surround mixes as multi-channel PCM wave files, or as Windows Media Pro files.
To Export a Surround Multi-channel File
1.
Use the File-Export-Audio command to open the Export Audio dialog.
2.
Type a name for your file.
3.
In the Files of Type field, choose one of the following:
•
If you want to create a multi-channel wave file, choose RIFF Wave.
•
If you want to create a multi-channel Windows Media file, choose Windows Media Advanced
Streaming Format.
4.
In the Source Category field, choose Buses, Main Outputs, or Entire Mix.
5.
Choose the bus or buses in the Source Buses/Tracks field that you want to export your mix from.
6.
Choose Multichannel in the Channel Format field.
7.
Choose any other options you want such as Sample Rate and Bit Depth.
8.
If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a name for them in the
Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the window.
9.
Click Export.
SONAR exports your project in the file format you selected.
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Automation
Automation means to record the movement of a fader, knob, or other control so that the next
time you play your project, that control moves automatically. SONAR allows you to
graphically automate much more than just volume and pan controls—you can automate
individual controls, faders, and knobs that control the main outs, individual tracks, buses,
individual effects’ parameters (including some plug-in synths), and even individual clips. You
can also group several controls together and automate them all by recording only a single
control’s movements. You can draw freehand and geometric automation curves with the
Envelope Draw tool. All automatable controls are in the Console view and the Track view
(including the Clips pane), however, you can also graphically automate MIDI controllers from
the Piano Roll view in addition to the Console and Track views. You can enable or disable all
automation by clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation
toolbar. Display the Automation toolbar by using the View-Toolbars command and making
sure that the Automation checkbox is checked in the Toolbars dialog box.
In This Chapter
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
The Automation Toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Automating Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Reassigning Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
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13
:
Quick Automation Guide
The following table summarizes Console and Track view automation:
What you can
automate...
Parameters you can
automate...
How you can automate
them...
Individual tracks
Gain, pan, mute, bus send
gain, bus send balance, MIDI
controllers, MIDI chorus and
reverb, pitch wheel, channel
aftertouch, RPN and NRPN
Draw envelopes in the Clips pane,
record the fader movements, or
take a snapshot
Buses
Input gain and pan, output gain
and pan
Draw envelopes in the Clips pane,
record the fader movements, or
take a snapshot
Individual effects
Varies with the effect
Draw envelopes in the Clips pane,
record the fader movements, or
take a snapshot
Soft Synth controls
Varies with the synth
See “Automating a Soft Synth’s
Controls” on page 356
Groups of faders or
other controls
Whatever the faders or other
controls in the group control
Record fader movements
Individual clips
Gain and pan for audio clips,
velocity for MIDI clips
Draw envelopes in the Clips pane
In addition, SONAR allows you to copy and paste envelopes between tracks. The only controls that you
can’t automate are the Arm, Solo, Pre/Post, Interleave (Mono/Stereo selector), Bus Enable, and Phase
buttons; and the Trim fader.
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The Automation Toolbar
Display the Automation toolbar by using the View-Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog box,
and making sure that the Automation checkbox is checked. If you slide the cursor over each button or
field in the toolbar, tooltips pop up to tell you each function. The Automation toolbar gives you quick
access to some powerful automation controls:
Snapshot button—Click this button to take a snapshot of all controls at a particular Now time.
When you play back your project, when your project reaches the Now time where you took the
snapshot, all controls snap to the positions they held when you took the snapshot.
•
Disarm All Automation Controls button—Click this button to disarm every control that is
armed for automation recording.
•
Enable Automation Playback button—Click this button to either enable or disable any
automation data the project contains.
•
Envelope/Offset mode button—Click this button to toggle between Envelope mode and Offset
mode.
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•
Automation Methods
There are several ways to automate controls in the Track and Console views:
•
Recording the movements of individual faders, knobs, or controls—this method includes any knob,
slider, or control except the Solo, Arm, Phase, Interleave, Vol Trim, Bus Enable, Pre/Post buttons,
bank, patch, channel, key+, time+, input and output.
•
Drawing envelopes in the Clips pane for audio and/or MIDI data—an envelope is a graph of the
change in level of a particular parameter over time
•
Recording automation data from an external controller
•
Snapshots
Recording Individual Fader or Knob Movements
This method works in both the Track view and Console view. Arming a parameter for automation and
clicking the Record Automation button
starts automation recording and plays your project while
you record automation. You can only record or erase automation data when you click the Record
Automation button. SONAR does not record any automation data until you depress the mouse over the
control that you armed. SONAR stops recording when you release the mouse.
To Record Individual Fader or Knob Movements
1.
Right-click the fader or control you want to automate.
The Automation popup menu appears (if the control is automatable).
2.
Choose Arm for Automation from the popup menu.
SONAR highlights the control with a red outline and turns on the red Auto label in the Status bar
at the bottom of the SONAR window.
3.
Click the Record Automation button
that’s in the Transport toolbar to start recording, and
move the armed control the way you want it to move.
4.
Stop recording by clicking the Stop button, or by pressing the Spacebar.
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:
5.
Make sure that the Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation toolbar is
depressed; rewind the project, play it, and listen to the results.
6.
Do one of the following:
•
Rewind the project and re-record the automation data.
OR
•
If you are happy with the result, right-click the armed control and deselect Arm for
Automation from the menu.
After you record the automation data, SONAR draws a graph of it (an envelope) in the Clips pane,
which you can edit with the mouse (see the rest of this chapter).
You can also group controls, so that automating one control automates all the controls in the group.
Creating and Editing Audio Envelopes
You can create audio envelopes for both audio tracks and buses. Drawing an envelope for audio data
overwrites any preexisting envelope for the same parameter that occurs at the same time in the same
track or bus.
After you create an envelope, you can edit it with the following procedure, but you can also edit by using
the Envelope Draw tool to draw freehand or preset shapes. See “Using the Envelope Draw Tool” on page
446 for more information.
To Create and Edit Audio Envelopes with the Select or Envelope Tools
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane in the track (or bus) you want to automate.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
From the menu, choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-(name of the control you want to
automate). Notice the envelope’s color at the right side of the menu.
The envelope appears in the Clips pane as a straight, dotted line in the envelope’s individual color,
with a node (very small circle) at the beginning. When you move the cursor over the envelope, a
vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it with the name and current value of the envelope in
a box next to the cursor. The envelope’s vertical position reflects the current value of the parameter
you are editing.
Node
Envelope name and current value
Envelope value range
Note: An automated mute envelope changes the track’s mute status whenever the envelope
crosses the middle of its value range.
3.
Using either the Select
or Envelope
tools, move the cursor over the envelope until a
vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it (notice that the name and current value of the
envelope appear in a box next to the cursor), and right-click the envelope. If you use the Envelope
tool, you can’t accidentally edit any other data besides the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
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4.
Choose Add Node from the menu.
A node appears on the envelope.
5.
Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag the node in any direction
you want.
6.
Double-click the envelope to add another node.
7.
Drag the new node in any direction you want and release the mouse.
8.
Move the cursor over the segment of the envelope that lies between the two nodes until the doubleended arrow appears, and right-click the envelope to open the Envelope Editing menu.
9.
Choose one of the following shapes from the Envelope Editing menu:
•
Jump—This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree jump where the envelope
reaches the second node. SONAR displays jumps with a dotted line, meaning that there is
automation data at the nodes where the dotted line begins and ends, but not where the line
itself is.
•
Linear—This choice draws a straight line between the two nodes.
•
Fast Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that changes value rapidly at
first, but more slowly toward the end of the curve.
•
Slow Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that changes value slowly at
first, but more rapidly toward the end of the curve.
SONAR adds a shape between the nodes. You can drag any shape except a jump up or down and it
maintains its curve or angle. To edit a jump, drag the node that’s at either end of the jump.
Play the project and listen to the results. You can undo any step by using the Edit-Undo command
(Ctrl+Z) directly after that step. You can drag the nodes in any direction you want. You can play back
your project with or without the automation data by clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation toolbar.
Note: When you add a “gain” envelope to a track in SONAR, you increase the track’s level post-effects,
or after the effects processors. Some hardware mixers call this level “volume,” because it is post-effects,
but other mixers refer to this as “gain.” Either way, SONAR’s gain envelopes increase a track’s level
after the effects processors in the signal chain.
When you add multiple envelopes to a track or bus, you can choose which envelopes you want to display.
See “Showing or Hiding Envelopes” on page 447.
You can also draw envelopes on MIDI tracks. See “Creating and Editing MIDI Envelopes” on page 444.
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Note: A shortcut to add a node is to double-click the envelope.
:
Creating and Editing MIDI Envelopes
This method is only available in the Clips pane. You can also draw MIDI controller data in the Piano
Roll view, but the technique is different (see “Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View” on
page 254).
Note 1: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll Notes pane and MIDI envelopes you create in the
Track view Clips pane are actually separate envelopes, even if they control the same parameter. Both
kinds of envelopes are visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control the same
parameter. You can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to Track view envelopes by selecting the time
range and tracks that the Piano Roll envelopes occupy, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes
command.
Note 2: After you create an envelope, you can edit it by adding nodes and choosing shapes for the line
segments that are between nodes (see the following procedure), but you can also edit by using the
Envelope Draw tool to draw freehand or preset shapes. See “Using the Envelope Draw Tool” on page 446
for more information.
To Draw MIDI Envelopes in the Track View
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane in the track you want to automate.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
If you want to create an envelope to control volume, pan, chorus, reverb, or automated mute,
choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope and choose one of those items from the menu.
The envelope appears in the Clips pane as a straight, dotted line in the envelope’s individual color,
with a node (very small circle) at the beginning. When you move the cursor over the envelope, a
vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it with the name and current value of the envelope in
a box next to the cursor. The envelope’s vertical position reflects the current value of the parameter
you are editing.
Node
Envelope name and current value
Envelope value range
Note: An automated mute envelope changes the track’s mute status whenever the envelope
crosses the middle of its value range.
3.
If you want to create an envelope to control any other MIDI controller, choose Envelopes-Create
Track Envelope-MIDI....
The MIDI Envelope dialog box appears:
•
In the Type field, choose what kind of MIDI event you want to control with your envelope.
•
In the Value field, choose the name of the controller you want to edit.
•
In the Channel field, choose the MIDI channel that you want the envelope to send data on,
and click OK.
SONAR creates the envelope you chose.
4.
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Move the cursor over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it, and rightclick the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
5.
Choose Add Node from the menu.
A node (very small rectangle) appears on the envelope.
Note: A shortcut to create a node is to double-click the envelope.
6.
Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag the node in any direction
you want.
7.
Double-click the envelope to add another node.
8.
Drag the new node in any direction you want and release the mouse.
9.
Move the cursor over the segment of the envelope that lies between the two nodes until the doubleended arrow appears, and right-click the envelope to open the Envelope Editing menu.
When you release the mouse, the envelope changes to follow the node’s new position.
•
Jump—This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree jump when the envelope
reaches the second node. SONAR displays jumps with a dotted line, meaning that there is
automation data at the nodes where the dotted line begins and ends, but not where the line
itself is.
•
Linear—This choice draws a straight line between the two nodes.
•
Fast Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that changes value rapidly at
first, but more slowly toward the end of the curve.
•
Slow Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that changes value slowly at
first, but more rapidly toward the end of the curve.
SONAR adds a shape between the nodes. You can drag any shape except a jump up or down and it
maintains its curve or angle. To edit a jump, drag the node that’s at either end of the jump.
Play your track and listen to the results. You can undo any step by using the Edit-Undo command
(Ctrl+Z) directly after that step. You can play back your project with or without the automation data by
clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation toolbar.
When you add multiple envelopes to a track, you can choose which envelopes you want to display. See
“Showing or Hiding Envelopes” on page 447.
You can also draw envelopes on audio tracks. See “Creating and Editing Audio Envelopes” on page 442.
Dotted Lines
The dotted line in an envelope shows two things:
•
There is no automation data at the time in a track where the dotted line is.
•
The value of the last piece of automation data that exists before the dotted line is represented by
the vertical level of the dotted line.
You can move an automated control while your project plays, and if you move it during a time where
that control has a dotted line in its envelope, the control will stay where you move it. As soon as the
Now time reaches a node or solid line, the control snaps to the value of the node or solid line.
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10. Choose one of the following shapes from the envelope editing menu:
:
Using the Envelope Draw Tool
The Envelope Draw tool allows you to draw both freehand and preset shapes on an existing envelope.
To Draw Freehand
1.
Activate the envelope you want to edit (click it with the Envelope tool
).
2.
Enable the Envelope Draw tool: click
3.
Click the dropdown arrow on the side of the Envelope Draw tool, and select Freehand from the
menu.
4.
Click and hold the mouse button in the Clips pane at the place where you want to edit the
envelope. Drag to the right or left to draw the desired shape, and release the mouse when you’re
finished.
in the Track view toolbar.
To Draw a Preset Shape
1.
Activate the envelope you want to edit (click it with the Envelope tool
).
2.
Enable the Envelope Draw tool: click
3.
Set the Snap to Grid to the desired length of each cycle of the shape you want to draw. For example,
if you want to draw sine curves, and you want each complete sine curve to last one beat, set the
Snap to Grid to a value of Quarter. If the Snap to Grid is disabled, the default cycle is one measure.
4.
Click the dropdown arrow on the side of the Envelope Draw tool, and select the kind of shape you
want to draw. After you select a shape, both the Envelope Draw tool and the cursor display the
kind of shape you selected.
5.
Click and hold the mouse button in the Clips pane at the place where you want to edit the
envelope. The place where you click also sets the vertical midpoint of the shape you’re creating.
6.
Drag up or down to set the vertical range of the envelope, and then drag to the right or left to set
the length of your edit. As you drag, the cursor’s vertical distance from the midpoint (the point
where you originally clicked) determines the amplitude of the graph. To create a series of identical
shapes, hold the Shift key down while you drag. To gradually increase or decrease the amplitude,
gradually move the cursor farther from or closer to the midpoint.
7.
Release the mouse when you’ve finished editing. The shape you selected appears, repeating
according to the Snap to Grid setting.
in the Track view toolbar.
To Halve or Double the Shape Cycle Frequency
•
To halve the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter note, make each cycle a half
note), hold down the Ctrl key while you draw.
•
To double the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter note, make each cycle an
eighth note), hold down the Alt key while you draw.
To Invert the Phase of a Pattern
•
You can invert the phase of the pattern by dragging the cursor below the zero-line/center (where
you initially clicked to start the pattern).
To Toggle Between the Envelope Tool and the Envelope Draw Tool
•
When the mouse button is NOT pressed, hold down the Alt key to momentarily switch between the
two tools.
To Stretch a Shape
1.
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Select the nodes in the part of the shape that you want to stretch: use the Envelope tool to drag
around the part of the shape you want to select. Nodes turn white when they are selected.
2.
Drag one of the selected nodes in the direction that you want to move the selected area. Stretching
stops if any selected node bumps into an adjacent unselected node.
Drawing Envelopes on Clips
You can also draw envelopes on audio clips, but only for gain, pan, and any automatable effects that are
inserted on the clips. On MIDI clips, you can draw velocity envelopes. If there is already a track-level
envelope on the clip, the clip envelope data merges with the track envelope data.
Note: The Trim value of a track is actually a clip parameter, not a track parameter. SONAR applies clip
volume settings, including Trim, to a clip before the clip’s audio data reaches any plug-in effects. Effects
can sound very different when their incoming data changes volume, even if the final volume is
unchanged.
To Draw Envelopes on Clips
1.
Right-click the clip that you want to draw the envelope on.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
Choose Envelopes-Clip-(Gain or Pan or Velocity) from the menu.
An envelope appears on the clip with a node at each end.
Edit the envelope just as you would a track envelope, using the Select tool, the Envelope tool, and the
Envelope Draw tool.
Showing or Hiding Envelopes
You can choose to show or hide any or all envelopes in a track or bus.
To Show or Hide All Envelopes
1.
In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow
display the Envelope Options menu.
that’s next to the Envelope tool to
2.
Choose either Show All Envelopes or Hide All Envelopes.
To Show All of One Kind of Envelope
1.
In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow
display the Envelope Options menu.
2.
Choose the kind of envelope that you want to show.
that’s next to the Envelope tool to
To Show or Hide Individual Envelopes
1.
Right-click the Clips pane in the track that contains the envelope(s) that you want to show or hide.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
Choose Envelopes-Show Track Envelopes.
A menu of all the envelopes in the track appears. A checkmark appears to the left of each envelope
that is currently showing.
3.
Click the name of one envelope that you want to show (if it’s currently hidden), or hide (if it’s
currently showing).
SONAR hides or displays the envelope.
4.
Repeat steps 1 to 3 for each envelope that you want to show or hide.
You can also hide, but not show, individual envelopes by right-clicking an envelope and choosing Hide
Envelope from the Envelope Editing menu.
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2.
:
Deleting Envelopes
To Delete a Single Envelope
1.
Move the cursor over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it, and rightclick the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
2.
Choose Delete Envelope from the menu.
SONAR deletes the envelope.
To Delete Several or All Envelopes
1.
Select the data that contains the envelopes you want to delete—you can select parts of tracks, one
or more whole tracks, or all tracks.
2.
Use the Edit-Cut command to open the Cut dialog box.
3.
Select Track/Bus Automation if it’s listed.
4.
Select Clip Automation if it’s listed.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR deletes any track and clip envelopes that are in the data you selected.
Copying and Pasting Envelopes
You can copy and paste envelopes or parts of envelopes between tracks and clips. You cannot, however,
copy and paste a clip envelope without also copying and pasting the audio or MIDI data that is in that
clip. If you paste a clip envelope into a track without the clip that it came from, the clip envelope
becomes a track envelope.
To Copy an Envelope
1.
In the Track view or the Clips pane, select the track or clip that has the envelope you want to copy.
If you want to copy all the automation data in the track, select the whole track. If you want to
select only a clip, but want to select any track envelopes in that track, click the dropdown arrow
next to the Select tool
, and make sure that the Select Track Envelopes With Selected
Clips option has a checkmark next to it.
2.
Press Ctrl+C or use the Edit-Copy command.
The Copy dialog box appears.
3.
Choose Clip Automation and/or Track/Bus Automation.
Note: If the Track/Bus Automation field is greyed-out, you must re-select a part of the clip that
contains either a node or a solid line (shape). A dotted line by itself is not an envelope and can not
be copied.
4.
Choose any other kinds of data you want to copy—if you only want to copy the automation data,
choose only Track/Bus Automation and/or Clip Automation.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR copies the data you selected to the clipboard.
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To Paste an Envelope
1.
Select the track(s) and location (Now Time) you want to paste the data to.
2.
Press Ctrl+V or use the Edit-Paste command.
3.
Choose a track and location to paste to, if you haven’t already.
4.
Click OK.
The Paste dialog box appears.
SONAR pastes the automation data and any other types of data you chose in the Copy dialog box into
the track and location you selected.
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or Neutral Values
You can reset an envelope so that it becomes a horizontal line at the current value of the parameter it
controls, which eliminates any curves or jumps from the envelope. You can reset a node so that it jumps
to the neutral value of the parameter it controls. For example, the neutral value of the pan parameter is
C, or 0%.
1.
English
To Reset an Envelope to the Current Value
Move the Now time to where the envelope’s value is to your liking.
2.
Right-click the envelope to display the Envelope Editing menu.
3.
Choose Clear All from the menu.
SONAR resets the envelope to the current value.
To Reset a Node to a Neutral Value
Do either of the following:
•
Double-click the node.
•
Move the cursor over the node until it a cross appears under it, right-click the node, and choose
Reset Node from the popup menu.
The node jumps to the neutral value for the parameter it controls.
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode
There are two modes which control how your volume faders, pan faders, bus send faders, and bus send
pan faders behave during playback. The two modes are Envelope mode and Offset mode.
Envelope mode—In envelope mode, volume and pan faders follow the project’s automation and do not
respond to changes you make in real-time.
Offset mode—In Offset mode, you “offset” the current automation in a track using a parameter’s
controls. For example, if a pan envelope is set to hard left (100% left) and you adjust the pan in offset
mode to 100% right, then the pan parameter is now set to hard right. Setting the pan in offset mode to
50% right would set the pan to the center.
Note: Any position that you set a fader to in Offset mode remains in effect when you switch back to
Envelope mode. For example, if you set a volume fader to -INF while in Offset mode, switch to Envelope
mode and drag the fader to its maximum level, you will not hear anything.
To Turn On Offset Mode
There are several ways to turn on Offset mode in SONAR:
•
In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow that’s next to Envelope Tool
Choose Offset from the menu to enable/disable Offset mode.
•
In the Automation toolbar, click the Offset
button.
button.
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:
•
Press the o key.
In Offset mode, all controls that can be offset appear with a plus sign. For example Vol+.
The following audio controls support both Envelope and Offset modes:
Control
Envelope Mode Range
Offset Mode Range
Volume
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Bus Send Level
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0 dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Bus Send Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Bus Return Level
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Bus Return
Balance
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Main Out Volume
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Main Out Balance
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
The following MIDI controls support both Envelope and Offset modes:
Control
Envelope Mode Range
Offset Mode Range
Volume
0 to 127, default is 101
0 to 127, default is 101
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Chorus
0 to 127, default is 0
-127 to 127, default is 100
Reverb
0 to 127, default is 0
-127 to 127, default is 100
To Open Non-SONAR Envelope Display on a Percentage Scale
You can globally configure the placement of 0 dB for your envelopes in the Clips pane. The default
placement in the Clips pane of 0 dB is roughly 1/3 from the top of the clip. You can change the position
of 0 dB in all envelopes to the middle of the clip.
There are several advantages when using the Envelope Display on a Percentage Scale option:
•
It makes it easier to tell if there have been any changes.
•
There is a finer resolution around 0 dB.
Note: In Envelope mode, newly created volume clips appear at the same dB value as the current Vol
setting. For example, if the Vol setting is +3 dB, a newly created volume envelope appears above the
middle of the clip.
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To Display Envelopes on a Percentage Scale
1.
Select Options-Global to open the Global Options dialog.
2.
In the General tab, click the Display Envelopes on Percentage Scale checkbox.
3.
Click OK.
Converting MIDI Envelopes to Shapes
MIDI controllers you edit in the Piano Roll view and MIDI envelopes you create in the Track view Clips
pane are actually separate data, even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of envelopes are
visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control the same parameter. You can
convert Piano Roll view envelopes to Track view envelopes by selecting the time range and tracks that
the Piano Roll envelopes occupy, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
1.
In the Clips pane, select the time range and track(s) that contain the controller data you want to
convert.
2.
Use the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
3.
In the Type field, select the type of controller you want to convert.
4.
In the Value field, select the controller number of the controller you want to convert. For example,
if you’re converting a volume envelope to a shape, select 7.
5.
In the Channel field, select the channel of the controller you want to convert, and click OK.
The Convert MIDI To Shapes dialog box appears.
SONAR converts the Piano Roll view controller envelope you selected to a Track view shape that
controls the same parameter.
Note: If two clips overlap, the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command converts the controller
envelopes in both clips, in whatever parts of the clips lie in the selected time range.
Snapshots
A snapshot is a group of settings that SONAR’s controls snap to when your project reaches a certain
Now Time. You set all the controls to the values you want, and then create a snapshot of these settings
at a particular Now Time. This approach is useful, for example, when your project contains a variety of
distinct sections and you want to make a sudden change in one or more settings between the sections.
To Create a Snapshoft
1.
Move the Now Time to the location where you want to create the snapshot.
2.
Make sure that the Automation toolbar is visible—use the View-Toolbars command and make
sure that the Automation checkbox is checked.
3.
Set all controls the way you want them to be at this particular location in the project.
4.
Arm the controls whose positions you want to record by right-clicking each one and making sure
the Arm for Automation command has a checkmark next to it in the automation popup menu.
5.
Click the Snapshot button
6.
Play your project and listen to the results. You can undo the snapshot by using the Undo
command, or by taking another snapshot at the same Now Time.
in the Automation toolbar.
SONAR records the positions of all armed controls.
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English
To Convert MIDI Controller Envelopes to Shapes
:
7.
Disarm all controls by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls button
toolbar, or by clicking the red AUTO indicator in the Status bar.
in the Automation
You can play back your project with or without the automation data by clicking the Enable Automation
Playback button
in the Automation toolbar.
Adding Nodes at a Selection
One of the most common automation tasks is to raise or lower an envelope over a specific time range.
The Add Nodes at Selection command simplifies this task: simply make a time selection, right-click
the desired envelope, and choose Add Nodes at Selection. Two pairs of nodes appear—two nodes at
the From time, and two nodes at the Thru time.
Each pair of nodes is only 2 milliseconds apart by default, so each pair looks like a single node, but if
you drag the envelope segment between the two pairs up or down, you can see all four nodes.
To Add Nodes at Selection
1.
Make a time selection.
2.
Right-click the desired envelope within the selected time range.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
3.
Choose Add Nodes at Selection from the menu.
Two pairs of nodes appear on the envelope—one pair at the start of the selected time range, and one
pair at the end. Now you can drag the selected envelope segment up or down, and maintain the
envelope’s shape.
Automating Effects
SONAR allows you to automate plug-ins, giving you real-time control over dozens of effects parameters.
Note: When using automatable effects, the CPU meter may fluctuate rapidly within a few percentage
points. This is normal behavior.
Automating Individual Effects Parameters
You can automate the parameters of some of SONAR’s effects by drawing envelopes, or recording fader
movements, or creating snapshots.
To Record Fader or Knob Movements for an Individual Effect’s Parameters
1.
Patch an automatable effect into the track or bus where you want to use it, and close the effect’s
dialog box when it appears.
2.
In the track or bus where you patched the effect, right-click the name of the effect and select Arm
Parameter from the popup menu (if the effect is not automatable, that choice is greyed-out on the
menu).
The effect’s envelope dialog box appears, listing all the parameters you can arm in the Param
Armed list.
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3.
Check all the parameters you want to automate at this time (caution: it’s difficult to move more
than one control when you are recording) and click OK.
4.
Double-click the effect’s name to open its dialog box; make sure that the dialog box does not block
SONAR’s transport controls.
5.
Start recording by clicking the Record Automation button
that’s in the Transport toolbar, and
move the knobs or faders that control the relevant parameters.
6.
When you finish moving the knobs and faders, click the Stop button in the Transport toolbar.
Play back the track and listen to the result. Then you can either re-record the automation or disarm the
parameters. You can disarm all armed parameters at once by clicking the red AUTO indicator that’s in
the Status bar at the bottom of the SONAR window, or by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls
button
that’s in the Automation toolbar.
To Draw Envelopes for an Individual Effect’s Parameters
1.
Patch an automatable effect into the track or bus where you want to use it, and close the effect’s
dialog box when it appears.
2.
Right-click in the Clips pane in the track (or bus) where you patched the effect.
The Clips pane or Bus pane popup menu appears.
If you opened the Clips pane popup menu, choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-(name of
the effect you patched). If you opened the Bus pane popup menu, choose Create Bus Envelope(name of the effect you patched).
The effect’s envelope dialog box appears, listing all the parameters you can automate in the
Envelope Exists list.
4.
Check all the parameters you want to create envelopes for; as you check each envelope choice, you
can choose a color for the envelope by clicking the Choose Color button that’s in the lower right
corner of the dialog box.
Note: You can change a plug-in envelope’s color whenever you want by highlighting its name in the
effect’s envelope dialog box and clicking the Choose Color button.
5.
Click OK.
All the envelopes that you checked appear in the track or bus you were working in. You can edit them
just like any other envelopes.
Recording Groups of Faders and/or Knobs
You can group various faders, knobs, and other controls together so that when you record the
movements of one fader or knob, all the controls in the group move.
To Record Groups of Faders and/or Knobs
1.
Group the controls (faders, knobs, etc.) that you want to record by right-clicking each control and
choosing Group-(letter name of the group) from the popup menu—make sure you add them to
the same group.
2.
Arm each control in the group by right-clicking each one and choosing Arm for Automation from
the popup menu.
3.
Click the Record Automation button and move one of the controls in the group.
4.
When you’re through recording your automation data, click the Stop button in the Transport
toolbar.
Listen to your project and either re-record the automation, or disarm each armed control by rightclicking each one and choosing Arm for Automation from the popup menu, or by clicking the Disarm
All Automation Controls button in the Automation toolbar.
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English
3.
:
Recording Automation Data from an External Controller
You can record automation data from an external controller or a MIDI keyboard.
To Record Automation Data from an External Controller
1.
In either the Track view or Console view, right-click the control or knob that you want to control
externally, and choose Remote Control from the popup menu.
2.
If your controller sends standard MIDI messages, RPN’s, or NRPN’s, choose a controller (such as
Wheel) with which to control your knob or control. Also choose the MIDI channel your controller
will be sending the automation data on (it doesn’t have to be the same channel that the knob or
control’s track plays back on), and click OK.
3.
If your controller works by sending SysX information instead, choose options in the SysX fields,
and click OK.
4.
In either the Track or Console view, arm the knob or control for automation that you just
configured for remote control.
5.
Click the Record Automation button and move the slider or wheel that you selected on your
external controller.
6.
When you finish recording the automation, click the Stop button in the Transport toolbar.
The Remote Control dialog box appears.
Listen to your project and either re-record the automation, or disarm each armed control by clicking the
Disarm All Automation Controls button in the Automation toolbar. You can disable remote control by
right-clicking the relevant knob or fader and choosing Disable Remote Control from the popup menu.
Reassigning Envelopes
You can reassign an envelope to control a different parameter from the one it originally controlled. For
example, you can reassign a volume envelope to control pan.
To Reassign an Envelope
1.
Move the cursor over the envelope until the cursor changes to a double-ended arrow, and right-click
the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
2.
Choose Assign Envelope-(name of the parameter you want the envelope to control).
The envelope changes color to reflect its new parameter assignment.
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The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus
Menu Option...
What it Does...
Jump (Envelope Editing
menu only)
This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree jump
between two nodes. SONAR displays jumps with a dotted line,
meaning that there is automation data at the nodes where the
dotted line begins and ends, but not where the dotted line itself is.
Linear (Envelope Editing
menu only)
This choice draws a straight line between two nodes.
Fast Curve (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that changes
value rapidly at first, but more slowly toward the end of the curve.
Slow Curve (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice draws a curve between two nodes that changes value
slowly at first, but more rapidly toward the end of the curve
Add Node (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice adds a node, which is a point on the line that you can
drag, to the place on the envelope where you right-clicked.
Add Nodes at Selection
This command creates 2 pairs of envelope nodes, one at the
beginning of the current selection, and one at the end. Each pair of
nodes is only 2 mSec apart. You can easily adjust the selected part
of the envelope by dragging the selected envelope segment up or
down. See “Adding Nodes at a Selection” on page 452.
Hide Envelope
This choice hides the envelope that you right-clicked. You can redisplay the envelope by right-clicking in the same track and
choosing Envelopes-Show Track Envelopes-(name of the
envelope you want to show) from the Clips pane popup menu.
Assign Envelope-(name
of the parameter you
want to control)
This choice reassigns the envelope to control the parameter that
you choose.
Delete Envelope
This choice deletes the envelope.
Clear All
This choice deletes everything from the envelope except the first
node.
Reset Node (Node
Editing menu only)
This choice resets the node to the parameter’s neutral value.
Delete Node (Node
Editing menu only)
This choice deletes the node.
Properties (Node Editing
menu only)
This choice opens the Edit Node dialog box, which allows you to
edit the node’s value and location.
English
The Envelope Editing menu appears when you move the cursor over an envelope until a double-ended
arrow
appears under it, and right-click the envelope. The Node Editing menu is almost identical,
and appears when you move the cursor over a node until a cross
appears under it and right-click.
The menus contain the following options:
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Automated Muting
The Mute buttons in the Track view and Console view work in two ways:
•
You can record or draw automation for each Mute button, and the automation data
controls the buttons.
•
You can click a Mute button while playback is in progress and manually override any
automation data for that button.
A track’s Mute button can display the muted or unmuted status of either the automation
envelope or of manual muting. The Track-Show Automated Mute command causes the
Mute button on a selected track to show whether the track’s mute envelope (if any) is in the
muted or unmuted position (the automated mute status). When the command is disabled, the
track’s Mute button shows whether you have depressed the Mute button manually or not
(the manual mute status). When the command is enabled, the Mute button displays an
armed fader next to the M:
. Besides the Track-Show Automated Mute command, you
can also right-click a Mute button and choose Switch to Automated Mute from the popup
menu.
To Draw a Mute Envelope
1.
In the Clips pane, right-click in the track you want to mute, and choose EnvelopesCreate Track Envelope-Automated Mute from the Clips pane popup menu.
An envelope appears at the bottom of the track.
2.
Add nodes to the envelope and edit it so that the envelope is more than 50% of its
maximum height wherever you want the track muted.
To Record a Mute Button’s Movement
1.
Right-click the Mute button you want to automate and choose Arm for Automation
from the popup menu.
2.
Click the Automation Record button, click the Mute button on and off where
appropriate, and stop recording.
SONAR draws an automated mute envelope in the track you recorded on.
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A layout is the current arrangement of all the views that pertain to a particular project. The
layout of each project is stored automatically as part of every project file. In addition, you can
save the current layout or load any saved layout and apply it to the current project. You
might want to create a layout so you can easily arrange the views in a convenient size and
position on the screen.
A template is a special file that is used as a pattern to create similar project files. You might
create a template file that defines a particular musical ensemble (say, a string quartet) or a
particular studio configuration (MIDI instruments, audio outputs, and so on). Templates
make it fast and easy to create and configure new projects.
Note that toolbars are not part of a file layout or template. The toolbar arrangement you
choose is stored automatically from session to session.
A key binding lets you associate SONAR commands with keys on your MIDI or computer
keyboard. This makes it easy for you to access specific features more quickly and efficiently.
You can even assign saved layouts to key bindings for quick access.
In This Chapter
Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
English
14
Layouts, Templates
and Key Bindings
:
Layouts
The layout of the views that are displayed for a project is stored automatically in the project file when
you save the project. By default, the layout of all the views is restored when the file is opened. You can
automatically arrange all open views so that they are all visible by using the Window-Tile in Rows
command.
In addition, you can save the current layout in a separate list—the global layout list. Once you have
saved the layout in this list, you can apply it to any open project. The global layout list can contain as
many layouts as you want. Layouts in the list can be updated, renamed, and deleted.
Layouts are stored in a folder on your hard disk. To change the default folder for layouts, choose
Options-Global, click the Folders tab, and type the name of a different folder in the Window Layouts
field (or click the browse button that’s at the right end of the Window Layouts field, and select a new
folder).
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Option…
Meaning…
Close Old Windows Before Loading New
Ones
If checked, SONAR will close all the views of the
current project before applying the layout. If you
leave this option unchecked, existing views
remain open and additional views are created
according to the settings in the layout.
When Opening a File, Load Its Layout
If checked, the views of a project are
automatically arranged according to the stored
layout when the project file is opened. If this
option is not checked, only the Track view (and
File Info view, if applicable) are displayed when
the project file is opened.
English
There are two options in Windows Layouts dialog (select View-Layouts to open) that control how
layouts are used, as described in the following table:
To Create or Save a Layout
1.
Arrange the views for the current project the way you want.
2.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
3.
Click Add to display the New Global Layout dialog box.
4.
Enter a name for the layout, and click OK. The layout is added to the list.
5.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Update a Layout
1.
Arrange the views for the current project the way you want.
2.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
3.
Choose the layout you want to update from the list.
4.
Click Add to display the New Global Layout dialog box.
5.
Leave the layout name unchanged, and click OK.
6.
Click OK to confirm that you want to update the layout.
7.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Load a Layout
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Choose the layout you want from the list.
3.
Click Load.
Views of the current project are arranged according to the layout settings.
To Delete a Layout
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Choose the layout you want to delete from the list.
3.
Click Delete.
4.
Click OK to confirm that you want to delete the layout. The layout is removed from the list.
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:
5.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Rename a Layout
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Choose the layout you want to rename from the list.
3.
Click Rename to display the Rename Existing Layout dialog box.
4.
Enter a new name for the layout, and click OK. The layout is renamed in the list.
5.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Set Layout Options
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Check the options you want.
3.
Click Close.
To Load a Layout with a Keyboard Command
1.
Use the Options-Key Bindings command to open the Key Bindings dialog box.
2.
In the Type of Keys field, click either Computer or MIDI. If you click MIDI, also make sure the
Enabled checkbox is checked.
3.
If you selected MIDI in the Type of Keys field, under MIDI Shift Options select either Key or
Controller, and select a value for whichever one you pick.
4.
Under Bindings, scroll through the Key field and select the key that you want to trigger the layout
command with.
5.
In the Function field, scroll down towards the end of the list, and under Global Layouts, click the
name of the layout you want to assign to the key you selected.
6.
When both the Key and the Function are highlighted in their respective fields. click the Bind
button to bind them together.
7.
Click OK.
Now you can load the layout you selected by pressing the MIDI keys or computer keys that you bound to
that particular layout. You can bind as many layouts as you have available key combinations.
Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support
SONAR supports dual monitors and allows you to float most of your views to a second monitor giving
you more options when working and increasing the number of views that you can have open at one time.
Important: Dual monitor support requires that you have a video card that supports dual monitors.
Follow your hardware manufacturers instructions for using dual monitors.
You can float views in SONAR without having a second monitor. Floating a view allows you to move it
out of SONAR, over the SONAR toolbars and menus for example, giving you added flexibility when
using SONAR with other applications. All views except the Track view can be floated.
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To Float a View
1.
Open the view you want to float.
2.
Click the view’s icon located in the upper left corner of the view.
Piano Roll view icon
3.
In the menu that appears, click Enable Floating.
4.
Move the view wherever you want.
Template files make it easy to create new projects with certain predefined settings. To create a template
file, create a new project file and arrange the project settings the way you want, then save the project as
a template file. Template files have a file extension of .CWT. When you create a new project, you can use
the template as the basis for the new project. SONAR looks for template files in a particular folder on
your hard disk. By default, this folder is the program folder. To change the template directory, choose
Options-Global and click the Folders tab.
Every time you start SONAR, a new, empty project is displayed. If you want, you can determine the
settings for this default project by creating and saving a special template file, called NORMAL.CWT. If you
create or update the NORMAL.CWT file, SONAR will display this template automatically when the
program is started.
As a rule, any parameter that is saved in a project file is also saved in a template file. Following are
some useful parameters that are saved in template files:
•
Track configuration and track parameters
•
Timebase
•
Sysx banks
•
File information and comments
•
Tempo settings
•
Meter and key settings
•
Clock and synchronization information
•
MIDI data
•
MIDI In/Out/Thru settings
•
MIDI metronome settings
•
Selection start and end times
•
Record mode and punch-in times
•
Drum maps
•
Audio data
•
Automation
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English
Templates
:
The following parameters are saved globally and are not stored in template or project files:
•
Initialization file parameters
•
Big Time font settings
•
MIDI device settings
•
Instrument definitions
•
Autosave options
•
Key bindings
•
Color settings
To Create a Template
1.
Create a new file using the File-New command.
2.
Add tracks.
3.
Set one or more parameters to be the way you want.
4.
Choose File-Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
5.
Choose Template from the Save as Type list.
6.
Enter a template file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the template file.
To Create a New Project from a Template
1.
Choose File-New to display the New Project File dialog box. The list contains the names of all
existing templates.
2.
Choose a template from the list.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project and displays it in the Track view.
Template Example: Three MIDI Instruments
Suppose that your system has only a single MIDI output but you own three different synthesizers:
•
One synthesizer set to receive on channels 1 through 8
•
A general MIDI synthesizer module set to receive data on all 16 channels
•
A drum machine set to receive on MIDI channel 10
Here’s how you can use a template to make it easy to create new projects that are already configured for
the instruments you own.
To Create the Example Template File
1.
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Choose File-New to create a new project file.
2.
Insert 16 MIDI tracks.
3.
In the Ch dropdown menu of track 10, enter 10. The drum machine responds to channel 10. For
consistency, the drums can be placed on track 10.
4.
The second synthesizer responds to channels 1 through 8. These can be placed on tracks 1 through
8. For each track, enter the corresponding channel number using the Ch dropdown menu for each
track. You should now have tracks 1 through 8 set to channels 1 through 8.
5.
The third synthesizer can respond to 16 MIDI channels, but the only channels left are 9 and 11
through 16. Enter these numbers in the corresponding tracks. You will need to mute the unused
channels on the third synthesizer (1 through 8 and 10) so they won’t play. These are assigned to the
drum machine and the second synthesizer.
6.
Name each track and set any track parameters, such as starting patch, volumes, panning, reverb,
chorus, and transposition.
7.
If you like, configure other parameters needed in your projects, such as auto-send Sysx banks,
tempo settings, window positions, and comments.
8.
Choose File-Save, and save the file as a template named MY3SYNTHS.
Now, each time you want to start working on a new project, you can simply load your template and start
recording.
Key bindings let you associate SONAR commands with keys on both your MIDI keyboard and your
computer keyboard. This makes it easy for you to access specific features more quickly and efficiently.
In addition, SONAR supports:
•
Importing key bindings from other popular sequencer programs (see “Importing Key Bindings” on
page 465)
•
Exporting key bindings from SONAR (see “Exporting Key Bindings” on page 465)
•
Use of any single key as a key binding (number keys on the number pad are separate keys from the
other number keys)
•
Changing the key bindings for commands that were previously hardwired, including hotkey
commands in the various views
Note: The Spacebar is now “globally” bound to the Play/stop button, so that when you have a plug-in
window open, you can still start and stop playback with the Spacebar.
Any one or two of the Ctrl, Alt, and Shift keys can be used in combination with other keys. Preset key
combinations appear in bold, with the command that they’re currently assigned to listed at the bottom
of the Key Bindings dialog.
Rather than tie up all the notes on your MIDI keyboard with key bindings, SONAR lets you define a key
binding shift key on your MIDI keyboard that indicates when you want to use a key binding. For
example, you could designate the lowest note on your MIDI keyboard as the key binding shift key, and
then assign different notes to specific commands (for example, C4 to Process-Quantize, C5 to ProcessGroove Quantize, and so on). If you press the C4 key by itself, the note plays normally. If you press the
C4 key in combination with the lowest key on your keyboard (the key binding shift key), then it’s just as
if you had chosen the Process-Quantize command from the menu.
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English
Key Bindings
:
You can choose one of two options to define the key binding shift key:
•
MIDI key (typically, the very lowest or highest key on your MIDI keyboard)
•
Controller event (typically, one of the pedals)
If you use a MIDI key as the key binding shift key, then you lose the ability to play that note by itself.
When you play the note, SONAR assumes you are about to choose one of the key bindings you have
created and ignores the note. If this is ever a problem, you can disable MIDI key bindings without
canceling the key assignments and then re-enable the MIDI key bindings later on.
You can use a key binding to execute a command only when that command is possible. For example, the
File-Save command is disabled when no projects are open. If you have assigned the Ctrl+F2 key
combination to the File-Save command, it won’t do anything when no projects are open.
You can use MIDI key bindings and computer keyboard key bindings at the same time.
You use the Options-Key Bindings command to set up and manage your key bindings. Here’s how:
To Create a Key Binding Using the Computer Keyboard
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Check Computer in the Type of Keys list.
3.
To quickly scroll to the key or key combination you want, click the Locate Key button, and then
press the key or keys you want to use.
4.
Highlight the key combination you want to use in the Key list. Keys on the number pad appear as
Num “n.” If a key or combination is already bound to a global command by default, the name of the
key appears in bold text, and the command it is bound to appears at the bottom of the Key
Bindings dialog under Global Key Assignment. Binding a key or combination to a command and
clicking OK overwrites any default binding for that key or combination.
5.
In the Bind Context menu, select the context in which you want to use the key binding.
6.
Highlight the command you want to assign from the Function list.
7.
Click Bind to bind the key combination to the command.
SONAR places an asterisk next to the key(s) that you chose, and draws a line from the highlighted
key(s) to the command that the key(s) will trigger. Any keys that are assigned to commands have
asterisks next to them. Any commands that have keys assigned to them list the keys in the
Computer column and/or the MIDI column.
8.
Repeat steps 3 through 7 for all the keys you want to bind.
9.
If you want to save these key bindings for other sessions, make sure that the Save Changes for
Next Session checkbox is checked.
10. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR assigns the key(s) you chose.
To Create a Key Binding Using a MIDI Keyboard
464
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Check MIDI in the Type of Keys list.
3.
Check the Enable box to make sure MIDI key bindings are enabled.
4.
If you haven’t already done so, create a key binding shift key by doing one of the following:
•
Check Key under MIDI Shift Options, and enter the name of the key you want to use.
•
Check Controller under MIDI Shift Options, and choose the controller you want from the list.
5.
Highlight the key you want to bind from the Key list (if you click inside the Key window to put the
focus on it, you can then play a note on your MIDI keyboard, and the note automatically becomes
highlighted in the Key window).
6.
Select the command you want to bind from the Function list.
7.
Click the Bind button.
SONAR places an asterisk next to the Key that you chose, and draws a line from the highlighted
key to the command that it’s bound to. Any keys that are assigned to commands have asterisks
next to them. Any commands that have keys assigned to them list the keys in the Computer
column and/or the MIDI column.
8.
Repeat steps 5 through 7 for all the keys you want to bind.
9.
If you want to save these key bindings for other sessions, make sure that the Save Changes for
Next Session checkbox is checked.
10. Click OK when you are done.
To disable MIDI key bindings, uncheck the Enable box in the Key Bindings dialog.
Importing Key Bindings
SONAR can use key bindings from other sequencer applications. Clicking the Import button in the Key
Bindings dialog allows you to choose a new set of key bindings. After you import new key bindings, you
can edit and save them the way you do with the default key bindings.
To Import Key Bindings
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Click the Import button to open the Import Key Bindings dialog.
3.
Navigate to the SONAR program folder (you don’t have to store them there).
4.
Choose a key bindings file from the choices in the program folder. Key bindings files use the file
extension .KBN.
5.
Click Open.
SONAR loads the key bindings you chose.
Exporting Key Bindings
Clicking the Export button in the Key Bindings dialog allows you to export the current set of key
bindings, so that they are available when you want to switch key bindings.
To Export Key Bindings
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Click the Export button to open the Export Key Bindings dialog.
3.
Navigate to the folder where you want to save the key bindings.
4.
Type a name for the key bindings.
5.
Click Save.
SONAR saves the key bindings, and adds the file extension .KBN to the filename.
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SONAR assigns the key(s) you chose.
:
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15
Working with Notation
and Lyrics
•
SONAR’s Staff view lets you work with your composition in a standard musical staff,
guitar tablature and a virtual guitar fretboard. You can add, move, and delete notes
with your mouse or with your computer keyboard. You can add chord names, guitar
chord grids, expression marks, hairpin symbols, pedal marks, and lyrics. And you can
print professional-quality notation of a complete arrangement or individual parts, with
up to 24 staves per page.
•
The Meter/Key view lets you view, insert, and edit meter and key changes at any
measure boundary in the project.
•
The Lyrics view lets you edit a track’s lyrics, and can be used to cue you with the lyrics
during playback or recording.
In This Chapter
The Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Basic Musical Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Chords and Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
The Meter/Key View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Working with Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
English
This chapter describes three SONAR views that are used to edit the music notation and
lyrics of your project.
:
The Staff View
The Staff view is composed of a Staff pane and a Fretboard.
When you first open the Staff view, you may see only the Staff and not the Fretboard. Resize the Staff
view by dragging its edges until you can see everything easily. When you save your file, whatever size
the Staff view is will be the way it appears the next time you open the file.
The Staff pane displays MIDI note events as musical notation. For some musicians, this may be the
most familiar and comfortable view in which to work. The Staff pane provides many features that make
it easy for you to compose, edit, and print music.
For guitar players who are new to musical notation, the Fretboard represents the notes in the Staff
pane as they would appear on a six-string guitar neck in standard tuning. The number of strings and
the tuning are configurable. All notes that appear in the Staff pane at the Now time are shown in the
Fretboard. If you enter notes in the Staff at the Now time, they appear on the Fretboard. Likewise, you
can enter notes into the Staff at the Now time by clicking the guitar strings on the fretboard. Notes and
chords shown in the Fretboard can be easily edited by dragging them up and down the guitar strings.
Editing tools
Zoom
Fretboard pane
468
Snap grid
Fretboard display button Notehead tools
Dynamics and markings
Time and
pitch locater
Opening the Staff View
There are three ways to open the Staff view:
•
In the Track view, select the MIDI tracks you want to see, then click the Staff View button
•
In the Track view, select the MIDI tracks you want to see, then choose View-Staff.
•
Right-click on a track in the Clips pane and choose Views-Staff from the menu.
You can always change the tracks that are displayed: click the Pick Tracks button
tracks you want. You can display one or more tracks.
.
and select the
The Staff view lets you edit, delete, copy, and move notes during playback or recording, in real time.
This means you can loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on the next loop.
You can freeze the Staff view from automatic scrolling during playback by pressing the Scroll Lock key.
Staff Pane Layout
The Staff pane can display up to 24 staves of standard and percussion notation. When you open the
Staff pane, SONAR automatically picks a clef for each track—bass or treble—by looking at the range of
pitches in the track. If a track has notes that fall into both clefs, or no notes at all, SONAR
automatically splits the track into two staves, treble and bass. You can change the assignment of clefs
with the Staff View Layout dialog box.
When you split a track into treble and bass staves, you must select a split point. Notes at or above the
split are placed into a treble staff, notes below the split are placed into a bass staff.
A wide variety of editing options for notes, layout, and MIDI effects are available from the Staff Pane
Right-Click menu.
Percussion settings are discussed in the section “Setting Up a Percussion Track” on page 492.
The Staff Pane Right-Click Menu
The Staff pane Right-Click menu offers the following editing options:
Menu command
Result
MIDI Effects
Opens the MIDI Effects submenu. See “MIDI Effects (MIDI
Plug-ins)” on page 295 for more information.
Layout
Opens the Staff View Layout dialog box.
Regenerate Tablature
Opens the Regenerate Tablature dialog box. “Regenerate
TAB” on page 489 for more information.
Export to ASCII TAB
Saves the track in TAB format with the extension .TXT.
Quantize
Opens the Quantize dialog box. See “Quantizing” on page
296 for more information.
Groove Quantize
Opens the Groove Quantize dialog box. See “Quantizing” on
page 296 for more information.
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English
Like many other views, the Staff view includes zoom tools that let you change the vertical and
horizontal scale of the view. The Staff view also has a Snap to Grid
button. For more information
on this feature, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 201.
:
Transpose
Opens the Transpose dialog box. See “Transposing” on page
261 for more information.
Slide
Opens the Slide dialog box.
Interpolate
Opens the Event Filter Search dialog box. See “ProcessInterpolate” on page 286 for more information.
Length
Opens the Length dialog box. See “Stretching and Shrinking
Events” on page 265 for more information.
Scale Velocity
Opens the Scale Velocity dialog box. See “Adding
Crescendos and Decrescendos” on page 267 for more
information.
Retrograde
Reverses the order of selected events and clips.
Deglitch
Opens the Deglitch dialog box. See “Deglitch Dialog” on
page 477 for more information.
Fit to Time
Opens the Fit to time dialog box. See “Stretching and
Shrinking Events” on page 265 for more information.
Fit Improvisation
See “Fit Improvisation” on page 278.
To Change the Staff Pane Layout
1.
Click the Staff View Layout button
to open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
2.
Select a track from the list (if the track you want to edit is not in the list, click the Pick Tracks
button in the Staff view toolbar and select it). The Clef option shows the track’s clef.
3.
Select a new clef from the list.
4.
If you select Treble/Bass, select a Split point.
5.
If you select one of the Percussion options, click Percussion Settings to set up the appearance of
percussion notes.
6.
Repeat steps 2-5 for other tracks.
7.
Click Close when you are done.
SONAR displays tracks using the new staff settings.
Tip:
If a piano part’s left-hand and right-hand parts overlap, a split point will not correctly
separate the two parts into treble and bass staves. You may prefer to put the two
parts into two separate tracks.
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The Fretboard
The Fretboard shows you the notes located at the Now time in the Staff pane, laid out on a virtual
guitar fretboard. For example, if the Staff pane shows you this:
The Fretboard stays in sync with the Now Time during playback and recording, and stays in sync with
the scrub time during scrubbing. The color of each note on the Fretboard is the same as the color of the
corresponding clip in the Track view. (See “Arranging Clips” on page 191 for information about setting
clip properties.)
To turn the display of the Fretboard on or off, click
.
Fretboard Popup Menu
When you right-click the Fretboard in the Staff view, the Fretboard popup menu appears, giving you
choices for note editing, Staff view layout, and Fretboard appearance.
Menu command
Result
Select
Changes your cursor to the Select tool.
Draw
Changes your cursor to the Draw tool.
Erase
Changes your cursor to the Erase tool.
Scrub
Changes your cursor to the Scrub tool.
Layout
Opens the Staff View Layout dialog box.
Select Fretboard Track
Controls which of the displayed tracks receive the notes you enter
on the Fretboard.
Export to ASCII TAB
Saves the track in ASCII TAB format with the extension .TXT.
Mirror Fretboard
Inverts Fretboard so highest-sounding string appears at the
bottom.
Rosewood Hi
Fretboard appears in rosewood with high screen resolution.
Rosewood Lo
Fretboard appears in rosewood with low screen resolution.
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English
The Fretboard pane shows you this:
:
Ebony Hi
Fretboard appears in ebony with high screen resolution.
Ebony Lo
Fretboard appears in ebony with low screen resolution.
Maple Hi
Fretboard appears in maple with high screen resolution.
Maple Lo
Fretboard appears in maple with low screen resolution.
Basic Musical Editing
The Staff view's tools let you edit a project by manipulating the elements of standard music notation.
Using these tools, you can create and edit notes, pedal marks, expression marks, hairpins, and lyrics.
Inserting Notes on the Staff
You can add notes to your composition with simple point-and-click techniques. To help with your
composing, SONAR gives you audio feedback as you place each note.
You can insert notes anywhere in the Staff pane, but inserting them at the Now time gives you control
over the exact time you want to insert to. The Shift-Right/Left Arrow command moves the Now Time
forward or backward by the amount of the note duration you choose. Six buttons let you select a note
duration ranging from a whole note to a 32nd note. Buttons to the right of the notehead buttons let you
select dotted note or triplet modifiers. The Ctrl+Right Arrow/Ctrl+Left Arrow commands pages you
through the track, sounding each note as the cursor passes over it. You can also page through the track
by clicking the Play-Next button
or the Play-Previous button
that are in the Staff view toolbar.
Note: You cannot insert notes whose durations are less than the value in the Display Resolution field,
which is located in the top level of the Staff view toolbar.
You may want to pick a different snap-to grid value for a particular note. For example, if you want to
insert a half note in the last quarter note position in a measure (in order to get two tied quarter notes),
you must set the snap resolution to a quarter note. SONAR will automatically convert the half note to
two tied quarter notes. The same method can be used to insert a syncopated note, such as a quarter note
at an eighth note position.
You may also wish to disable the Fill Durations
and Trim Durations
options before you enter
notes on the staff. This will allow you to see the true durations of all the notes you enter. These options
are discussed in “Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed” on page 478.
To Insert a Note on the Staff
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1.
Disable the Fill Durations and Trim Durations buttons in the Staff view toolbar, if desired (this is
usually the best way when you’re entering notes).
2.
Click the Display Resolution button in the Staff view toolbar and choose a resolution that’s as
small or slightly smaller than the smallest note you plan to enter.
3.
Click the Draw tool
4.
In the second row of the Staff view toolbar, select a note duration, and a modifier (dot or triplet) if
desired. You cannot insert a note that’s shorter in length than the note in the Display Resolution
field.
5.
Move the Now time to the location where you want the new note by pressing Shift-Right arrow or
Shift-Left arrow. Notice the vertical line that marks the Now time in the Staff pane. The line
moves by the duration of the note you selected to enter.
.
6.
Click the cursor on the vertical line at the pitch that you want.
7.
To add a sharp or flat, right-click the note to open the Note Properties dialog box—in the Pitch
field, use the + or - buttons to raise or lower the pitch, and click OK. You can type enharmonic
spellings into the Pitch field, such as C#5, E”4. and Fx6. The double quotation mark produces a
double flat, and the x produces a double sharp.
SONAR places the new note in the staff. If desired, drag the note horizontally or vertically to a new time
or pitch.
Inserting Notes with the Fretboard
You can also enter notes onto the staff from the fretboard using the mouse. You always enter notes into
the staff at the Now time.
To Insert Notes on the Fretboard with the Mouse
1.
Click in the Time Ruler to set the Now time.
2.
Click
3.
Select a note duration, and a modifier (dot or triplet) if desired.
4.
Click on the guitar strings in the fretboard to enter notes. You can enter up to six simultaneous
notes (one per string).
5.
Advance the Now Time by the current note duration using the right arrow key while holding down
the shift key. This allows you to quickly enter a series of notes.
Selecting Notes
Use the Selection tool
to make selections. Selection methods in the Staff view are similar to those in
other views. Here is a summary:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a note or other symbol
Click it
Select several symbols at once
Click and drag a rectangle around them
Add symbols to the selection
Press Shift and either click on the symbols or drag a
rectangle around the events
Add or remove symbols from the
selection
Press Ctrl and either click on the symbols or drag a
rectangle around the events
Select symbols in a time range
Click and drag in the Time Ruler
Select symbols between two
markers
Click between the markers
Remove all selections
Click in an empty area
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English
to select the Draw tool.
:
Note:
Tied notes must be selected together, since the series is really just a single
MIDI note. To select tied notes, you must click or drag a rectangle around the
first note of the series.
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Notes on the Staff
Selections can be cut, copied, pasted, and deleted with Edit menu commands. The techniques are
similar to those used in other views. Selections can also be dragged and dropped to copy or move them.
To keep track of your current position while dragging, you can keep an eye on the time and pitch locator
in the upper-right corner of the Staff view.
Notes can be dragged horizontally, to a new time, or vertically, to a new pitch or staff. When you drag a
note up or down to a new pitch, the note normally snaps to the notes in the current key signature
(diatonic scale). This makes it easy to drag notes quickly among pitches that are in the current key.
If you need to transpose more than a few notes, use the Process-Transpose command. For more
information, see “Transposing” on page 261.
To Move a Single Note in the Staff View
1.
Click the Select tool
or the Draw tool
2.
Click the note to be moved.
3.
Drag the note to a new time, pitch, or staff.
.
SONAR moves the note to the new location.
To Move Several Notes in the Staff View
1.
Click the Select tool
.
2.
Select the notes to be moved.
3.
Click one of the selected notes.
4.
Drag the notes to a new time, pitch, or staff.
SONAR moves the notes to the new location.
To Copy One or More Notes in the Staff View
1.
Click the Select tool
2.
Select the notes to be copied.
.
3.
Press and hold the Ctrl key.
4.
Drag the notes to a new time, pitch, or staff.
SONAR inserts copies of the notes at the new location.
To Erase Notes with the Eraser
474
1.
Click the Erase tool
2.
Click any notehead to erase the note.
.
3.
To erase several notes, click and drag the eraser.
Any notes whose notehead is touched by the eraser will be deleted.
Moving Notes from within the Fretboard
You can drag notes displayed in the fretboard horizontally along each string to change their pitch. They
always change in the chromatic scale. You can not drag notes from one string to another.
To Change the Pitch of a Single Note in the Fretboard
1.
Click in the Time Ruler to set the Now time to the time of the note you want to change.
2.
Click the Select tool
3.
Drag the note along the string to a new fret.
or the Draw tool
.
SONAR moves the note to the new pitch.
To Change the Pitch of a Chord in the Fretboard
1.
Click in the Time Ruler to set the Now time to the time of the chord you want to change.
2.
Click the Select tool
3.
While pressing Shift, click each of the notes you would like to change.
4.
While continuing to press Shift, drag the notes along the strings.
English
.
SONAR moves the notes you selected to the new pitches.
Tip:
You can also move the Now time pointer to the exact note by using the Step Play
buttons.
Auditioning
Sometimes it is useful to listen to your music slowly, note-by-note, rather than at full speed. For example, you may need to locate a bad note, or you may be trying to learn the correct fingering for a difficult
passage.
The Staff view has two features that let you audition your composition at reduced speed: Scrub and
Step Play. The Scrub tool lets you drag a vertical bar over the staff, playing the notes as it goes. You can
scrub backward or forward at any speed. Step Play lets you step through the project note by note, in
either direction.
To Audition with the Scrub Tool
1.
Click the Scrub tool
.
2.
Drag the mouse horizontally through the Staff pane to play the notes.
SONAR plays any notes the scrub line passes over.
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:
To Play Notes with Step Play
1.
Set the Now time by clicking in the Time Ruler.
2.
Step through the music as follows:
To do this…
Do this…
Step forward
Click
, or press Ctrl+right arrow
Step backward
Click
, or press Ctrl+left arrow
Changing Note Properties
The Staff view lets you edit all the MIDI parameters for a note, including those not normally portrayed
by standard musical notation. Note properties are as follows:
Property...
Meaning...
Time
The starting time of the note
Pitch
The note’s pitch
Velocity
The note’s velocity (0 to 127)
Duration
The note’s duration, in ticks or in beats and ticks
Channel
The MIDI channel on which the note is played
Fret
The fret at which the note is played on the neck
String
The string on which the note is played
To Edit a Note’s Properties
476
1.
Right-click the note to open the Note Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit the note’s properties, as described in the table.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR changes the note’s parameters and redraws the note if necessary.
Deglitch Dialog
When recording MIDI guitar, even the best players occasionally play unintended notes. The Deglitch
feature allows you to filter out the softest, shortest, and highest notes in the file.
There are three filters in the Deglitch dialog:
Pitch
With the Pitch filter you can set the maximum pitch allowed in the track. If a MIDI event has a higher
pitch than the maximum you set, it is removed.
Velocity
With the Velocity filter you can set a minimum velocity allowed in the track. If a MIDI event has a lower
velocity than the one you set, it is removed.
Duration
English
With the Duration filter you can set a minimum note duration for the track in either ticks or
milliseconds. If a MIDI event has a shorter duration than the one you set, it is removed.
To Use the Deglitch Filter
1.
Select a track or a section of track.
2.
Select Process-Deglitch from the menu.
The Deglitch dialog box appears.
3.
Check each of the filters you want to use.
4.
Enter the parameters (maximum or minimum values) you want for each of the filters you are
using.
5.
Click OK.
If you are not happy with the result, select Edit/Undo from the menu to restore the original MIDI track.
Working with Triplets
The Staff view places certain limitations on the use of triplets. The limitations are:
•
Triplets must occur in full sets of three.
•
All three steps in a triplet must be notes (no rests) of the same basic duration.
•
There can be no ties in or out of, or within the triplet.
In most cases, the Staff view can recognize triplets in MIDI data. However, the slight timing
inaccuracies inherent in live performances can complicate the detection of triplets. If working from
performance data, you may find it useful to quantize the notes closer to exact triplet positions using the
Process-Quantize command. See “Quantizing” on page 296 for details.
To Enter a Triplet
1.
Turn on the Snap to Time option.
2.
Click the Draw tool
3.
Click the appropriate notehead button.
4.
Select the Triplet option
5.
Enter the first note at the desired location in the staff.
.
.
477
:
SONAR inserts all three triplet notes at the same pitch. You can then drag the second and third notes to
their correct pitch locations.
Beaming of Rests
The Staff view supports beaming of rests, a practice that is popular with rhythmically complex music.
Beam lengths are extended to include rests that are integral parts of the beamed group of notes. Short
stems, called stemlets, extend from the beam toward the rest. This makes the rhythms easier to read,
because the beat boundaries are made clear.
To Enable Beaming of Rests
1.
Click Layout button
2.
Select the Beam Rests option.
to open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
3.
Click OK.
Thereafter, the Staff view beams rests as though they were notes.
Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed
Unlike musical notation programs, SONAR uses the MIDI events themselves as the permanent
representation of the music; thus, the Staff view is only an interpretation of a MIDI performance.
MIDI notes do not always correspond exactly to notes on a staff. Whereas a staff defines precise gridlike starting times and durations for notes, a MIDI note can start at any arbitrary time during the
project, and last for any length of time. If you record a performance from a MIDI keyboard, for example,
you’ll find that some notes may start slightly before the beat, and some a little after, and that the notes
end a little late or a little early. Although these slight imperfections are what gives a performance its
“human” quality, you don’t necessarily want to see all these imperfections notated with excruciating
precision.
The Staff view has two options you can select to affect the way MIDI notes are displayed on the staff:
478
Option...
Purpose...
Fill Durations
Visually rounds up note durations to the next beat or the next
note, whichever comes first.
Trim Durations
Visually rounds down note durations if they extend a little way
past the start of the next note.
English
Here’s what the Staff view looks like with and without these options:
Fill and Trim off
Fill and Trim on
On the other hand, if you are entering notes into the Staff view with the mouse, Fill and Trim Durations
may produce confusing results. For example, with Fill Durations, an inserted eighth note in 4/4 time
would look like a quarter note until you insert another eighth note immediately following it. It is
recommended that you turn off the Fill Durations and Trim Durations options when entering notes;
these options are more appropriate for looking at notes you recorded via a performance.
Using Enharmonic Spellings
Any musical note can be referred to by several different names. For example, C#3 and Db3 identify the
same pitch, as do G#4 and Ab4. The most appropriate name depends upon the current key signature,
but can also depend on musical context.
SONAR uses a set of rules to automatically add accidentals (sharps, flats and naturals) to notes based
on the current key signature. These rules cover the most common musical situations and usually lead to
pleasing results. However, there is no guaranteed right way to resolve accidentals. Doing so ultimately
479
:
requires knowledge regarding what key or scale is being evoked—knowledge that only the composer
possesses. For example, if a modulation is being prepared, then the new key signature has not yet been
completely established, and the harmony has already begun to shift. In fact, there may not even be a
scale in a diatonic sense: chromatic scales, for instance, are supposed to sharp on the way up and flat on
the way down. Because no set of rules will suffice for all situations, the composer needs the ability to
override any default choice.
Notes in SONAR normally do not have a forced enharmonic spelling. This means that they will
automatically change to match the default for a new key signature. If you specify spelling that matches
the default choice, SONAR will drop any forced spelling and switch back to default behavior. Otherwise,
the forced spelling is remembered for that note, and will not change to follow the key signature. If you
change the pitch of a note by some other means (for instance, by dragging it up or down), it will lose any
forced spelling, because it very likely no longer applies to the new pitch. Enharmonic spelling overrides
for each note are saved in the project file.
When you type a note’s enharmonic spelling, use the following table as a guide:
480
Accidental...
Character...
Example...
Flat
b
Cb5
Sharp
#
C#5
Double flat
“
C”5
Double sharp
x
Cx5
Displays as...
To Change a Note’s Enharmonic Spelling
1.
Right-click the note to open the Note Properties dialog box.
2.
In the Pitch textbox, type a new spelling for the note.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR displays the note with the new enharmonic spelling.
You can change enharmonic spellings in other views, such as the Event List view, by similarly typing a
new spelling wherever the note pitch is displayed as a text string.
You can also use the Process-Interpolate command to change enharmonic spellings—for example, to
change multiple occurrences of Eb5 to D#5, or even all Ebs to D#s. See “Process-Interpolate” on page
286 for more information.
You can display notes on the fretboard based on the note event’s MIDI channel. (Do not confuse this
with the Track MIDI channel.) A single track can hold events on many different MIDI channels. See
“Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn)” on page 128 for more information. Displaying notes using this
method is 100% accurate because each string is represented by an individual MIDI channel. For
example, String 1 = MIDI channel 11, String 2 = MIDI channel 12, etc.
To Display Notes on the Fretboard Using their MIDI Channels
1.
Set your MIDI Guitar to transmit on 6 consecutive channels. This is often referred to as “MONO”
mode. Refer to your MIDI Guitar device documentation for more information.
2.
Select and Arm a track.
3.
If you want the data from all 6 strings to be recorded to a single track, set the Input to OMNI. If
you want each string on a separate track, you need to set up each individual track to record on the
corresponding MIDI channel. The GT-30 Guitar Synthesizer template is designed to do this, so you
may want to open that from the Quick Start Menu or from the File menu. To use the File menu
method, choose File-Open and choose Cakewalk Template from the Files of type field. Then choose
the Roland GT-30 Guitar Synthesizer template.
4.
Open the Staff view.
5.
Click the Staff View Layout button
6.
Click Define.
7.
In the Method field, click MIDI Channel.
8.
In the 1st Channel field, set SONAR to transmit on the same series of MIDI channels that you
chose in step 1. Select 1 for 1-6, 2 for 2-7, etc.
.
MIDI guitar devices can transmit in MONO using a different series of MIDI channels, but SONAR
needs to be listening to the same channels in order to properly display the MIDI guitar input.
9.
Click Close.
10. Click OK.
SONAR displays notes on the Fretboard based on their MIDI channels.
If you are planning to record or input notes from a MIDI guitar synth or MIDI converter, you need to set
this up on the instrument. In the case of the Roland GT-30, for example, you set it to send on MIDI
Channel 11, MONO. This sends out each corresponding string on channels 11-16.
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MIDI Channels and the Fretboard
:
Chords and Marks
The Staff view lets you add and edit chord symbols, dynamic markings, hairpin symbols, and pedal
events. Like notes, these symbols are placed in the score with the Draw tool. They can be selected, cut,
copied, pasted, deleted, and dragged and dropped. With the exception of pedal marks, though, these
symbols have no audible effect; they serve only to enhance and clarify the printed score.
Adding Chord Symbols
The Staff view lets you enter chord symbols above the staff. You can enter both ordinary chord names
and guitar chord symbols, which display both the chord name and fingering. SONAR has a large
number of predefined chords from which you can choose. You can also define and save your own chords.
If a track is split into treble/bass staves, chords are allowed only above the upper (treble) staff.
SONAR stores its library of chords in the file CHORDS.LIW. The chords in the library are sorted into
groups. You can add and remove chords from the library, create new groups (i.e., for alternative guitar
tunings), and add chords from a different library file.
You edit chords in the Chord Properties dialog box. Chord properties are shown in the following table:
Property...
Meaning...
Time
The time of the chord, in measure, beat, and tick (MBT) format
Name
The name of the chord
Group
The chord group
The Chord Properties dialog box also lets you draw guitar chord grids and manage the chord library.
You can suppress the display of all guitar chord diagrams by deselecting the Show Chord Grids option
in the Staff view's Layout dialog box. With this option disabled, only chord text appears.
To Add a Chord Symbol
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Chord tool
3.
Position the pointer above the staff (the pointer changes to a pencil when you are in a legal
position).
4.
Click to place a chord symbol.
.
SONAR inserts a copy of the most recently added chord (by default, C). You can then edit the symbol to
display the chord you want.
To Move a Chord Symbol
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1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Drag the chord symbol to a new location.
1.
Right-click the symbol to open the Chord Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit information about the chord according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Move a chord in time
Change the Time property.
Give the chord a new name
Select a chord from the dropdown list, or type
a new name. Use # for sharp and b for flat.
Add descriptive text to the chord
name
Type the text in square brackets after the
chord name. The text does not appear in the
Staff view.
See a different set of chords
Select a group from the list. This option only
applies if you have created a custom chord
library.
3.
If desired, select a group from the list and/or create a guitar chord grid.
4.
Click OK.
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To Edit a Chord Symbol
The Staff view displays the chord with the new properties, moving it to a new time if necessary.
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To Add a Guitar Chord Grid
1.
Right-click the chord symbol to open the Chord Properties dialog box.
2.
Follow the instructions in the table:
3.
To do this…
Do this…
Display a blank chord grid
Click New Grid
Place a dot on the grid
Select the finger number (1-4, or T for
Thumb), then click the grid at the appropriate
string and fret location
Assign an open string
Select O, then click on the string
Assign a muted string
Select X, then click on the string
Change the finger assigned to a dot
Click the dot repeatedly to cycle through the
fingers
Insert a fret designation
Click to the right of the grid and enter the
number of the index finger fret in the Chord
Fret Number dialog box
Play the chord (Audition)
Click Play
Remove the chord grid
Click Remove Grid
Click OK.
The Staff view displays the chord with the new guitar chord grid.
To Manage the Chord Library
1.
Right-click the chord symbol to open the Chord Properties dialog box.
2.
Follow the instructions in the table:
3.
To do this…
Do this…
Add a chord to the library
Select a group, enter a name in the Name box,
enter a guitar grid (if desired), and click Save.
Delete a chord from the current group
Select the chord from the list and click Delete.
Add a new group
Type a name for the group in the Group textbox and
click Save.
Delete a group
Select a group from the list and click Delete.
Merge chords from an external chord
library
Click the Import button and select a file. Chord
libraries have the extension .LIW.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the chord library with the changes you made.
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Adding Expression Marks
Expression marks tell a performer how to interpret the notes and durations on the page. They provide a
necessary supplement to simple notation, in which notes have only pitch and duration, but no hint of
how loudly, softly, or smoothly, they are to be played. Dynamic marks—from ppp (pianississimo) for
“very, very softly” through fff (fortississimo) for “very, very forcefully”—allow notation to convey volume
instructions. Expression marks are also needed to specify other aspects of performance, such as
whether a passage is to be played legato or staccato. Finally, expression marks can be used to convey to
the performer the composer's suggestions or requirements as to how a passage should be interpreted. In
such cases the language used can leave much to the imagination, as in with majesty or abrasively.
Expression marks do not change the underlying MIDI data. They only provide information to the reader
on how a piece should be performed.
If the track is split into treble/bass staves, expression marks are allowed only below the treble staff.
When entering an expression mark, you can leave a dangling hyphen at the end of an expression mark
to insert automatic spaced hyphens until the next expression mark. For example:
-
-
-
ff
It is often desirable to terminate such a series of hyphens with a blank expression mark. For example:
accel.
-
-
-
Expression text is italicized in the Staff view. Standard dynamic markings also appear bold.
To Add an Expression Mark
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Expression tool
3.
Position the pointer below the lowest note in the staff. (The pointer changes to a pencil when you
are in a legal position.)
4.
Click to open an insertion box.
5.
Type the expression mark text. Press Esc to abort the operation.
6.
Press Enter, or press Tab or Shift-Tab to move to the next or previous mark, respectively.
.
SONAR inserts the new expression mark below the staff.
To Edit an Expression Mark
1.
Right-click the expression mark to open the Expression Text Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit the time and text of the expression mark as desired.
3.
Click OK.
The Staff view displays the expression mark with the new text, including moving it to a new time if
necessary. You can also use the Draw tool and click on an expression mark directly to change its text.
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cresc.
:
Adding Hairpin Symbols
Some musical phrases vary dynamically, increasing or decreasing in loudness for dramatic effect.
SONAR lets you insert traditional crescendo and diminuendo hairpin symbols that convey this
information to a performer, as shown here:
If the track is split into treble/bass staves, hairpin symbols are allowed only below the treble staff.
To Add a Hairpin Symbol
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Hairpin tool
3.
Position the pointer below the staff (the pointer changes to a pencil when you are in a legal
position).
4.
Click to place a hairpin symbol.
.
SONAR inserts a copy of the most recently added hairpin symbol, which you can edit as desired.
To Edit a Hairpin Symbol
1.
Right-click on the hairpin symbol you want to edit.
The Hairpin Properties dialog appears.
2.
Change any of the following parameters:
•
Time—The beginning time of the hairpin symbol
•
Crescendo or Diminuendo
•
Duration—Enter the number of beats followed by a colon (for example 4: for one measure in 4/
4 time) or a PPQ number value.
Adding Pedal Marks
Pedal marks traditionally indicate where the sustain pedal of a piano is to be pressed and for how long.
With SONAR, you can achieve the same effect by inserting a pair of symbols indicating when the
sustain pedal controller is to be turned on (down) and when it is to be turned off (up). Unlike chord
symbols, expression marks, and hairpin symbols, each pedal symbol corresponds to a MIDI event. The
other symbols are purely ornamental, intended to provide a composer with a way to communicate
suggestions or requirements to performers.
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Pedal event parameters are as follows:
Parameters...
Meaning...
Time
The time of the event, in measures, beats, and ticks (MBT).
Channel
The MIDI channel on which the event will be sent.
Value
The event value. A value of 127 depresses the pedal, a value of 0
raises it. (Some advanced synthesizers support values between 0 and
127 for “partial pedaling.”)
If the track is split into treble/bass staves, pedal marks are allowed only below the bass staff.
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You can suppress the display of all pedal marks by deselecting the Show Pedal Events option in the
Staff view's Layout dialog box.
To Add a Pedal Mark
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Pedal tool
3.
Position the pointer below the staff (the pointer changes to a pencil when you are in a legal
position).
4.
Click to place a pedal mark.
.
SONAR inserts a pair of pedal symbols (a pedal down and a pedal up). You can click and drag either
symbol to a new time.
To Edit a Pedal Event
1.
Right-click the pedal symbol (pedal down or pedal up) to open the Pedal Event Parameters dialog
box.
2.
Edit the pedal event parameters, as described in the table above.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR changes the pedal event parameters, including moving the symbol to a new time if necessary.
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Tablature
The Staff view can display guitar or bass MIDI tracks as tablature. You can generate and edit tablature
or enter notes on either the fretboard or on the tablature staff to create a new track. You can export
tablature to an ASCII file for printing or distribution on the Web.
Tablature Settings
Both the Staff View Layout dialog box and the Tablature Settings dialog box create tablature settings
for a whole track at a time. To modify tablature for selected parts of a track, select part of a track and
use the Regenerate command.
In the Staff View Layout dialog box you can choose a preset style of tablature by choosing from the
Preset popup menu, or you can define your own style by clicking the Define button in the Staff View
Layout dialog box to open the Tablature Settings dialog box.
To Define a Tablature Style
1.
In the Staff View Layout dialog box, click the name of the track you want to define tablature for.
2.
Click the Define button (lower right corner).
The Tablature Settings dialog box appears.
3.
Click the Tablature tab and choose a tablature method from the Method dropdown list. There are
three methods to determine how the TAB is displayed:
•
Floating - which allows the notes to spread over the entire fretboard
•
Fixed - This specifies where on the neck these notes should be played. When Fixed is selected
the Finger span and Lowest fret fields are used together to define the "box" where the notes
are displayed. The Finger span parameter determines how many consecutive frets will be
used to display the note. For example, if Finger span is set to 4, then SONAR will attempt to
place all the notes within those 4 frets. The Lowest Fret then determines where on the
fretboard the notes will be displayed within the Finger span. The red box in the fretboard
display changes to reflect the settings in these two parameters.
•
MIDI Channel - This uses the event's MIDI channel to determine which string the note
should be displayed on. When MIDI Channel is selected, the user chooses which series of
MIDI Channels should be considered. This is useful for MIDI Guitarists that record parts in
MONO mode, where each string transmits on a different MIDI channel. (Values: 1 - 11).
Selecting "1" in the 1st Channel field will cause it to use MIDI channels 1 - 6, selecting 2, 2 - 7,
and so on.)
Note: Select the Skip Channel 10 option if you are using a Yamaha G50 or other device which
reserves channel 10.
4.
Type a number into the Number of Frets field. This determines how many frets the guitar has that
the tab is based on.
5.
In the String Tuning fields, choose the instrument from the dropdown list and number of strings
from the Number of Strings field.
The open string pitches for the instrument you choose automatically appear in the string number
fields below the dropdown list.
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6.
Customize any of the open string pitches by using the "+" or "-" buttons on the string number fields.
7.
Save your settings by typing a name into the Preset field at the top of the dialog box and clicking
the disk icon next to it. You can remove presets from the list by clicking the X button next to the
disk icon.
The next time you want to use these settings for a track, choose your Preset in the Staff View Layout
dialog box from the Presets dropdown list.
Changing Fretboard Texture and Orientation
You can change fretboard texture and orientation (high string on top or bottom of neck) in the Staff
View Layout dialog box, or by right-clicking the Fretboard.
To Change the Fretboard Texture and Orientation
1.
Open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
2.
Click the Define button (lower right corner).
The Tablature Settings dialog box appears.
Click the Fretboard tab.
4.
In the Texture field, choose a texture from the dropdown list.
5.
If you want to reverse the standard string orientation, in the Orientation field click Low String on
Top (Mirror).
6.
Click OK.
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3.
The Fretboard changes to reflect your choices.
Quick TAB
SONAR quickly creates a tablature based on standard fingering patterns. After you try the quick version, you can customize the tablature to your liking.
To Create a Quick TAB
1.
Open a file that contains a MIDI guitar track.
2.
In the Track view, select the track number of the track you want to display tablature for.
3.
Select View-Staff.
The Staff view appears, displaying a fretboard and the notation of your MIDI track. To see
everything, you may need to resize the Staff view by dragging the top border upward a few inches.
4.
From the Staff view toolbar, click the dropdown arrow on the Staff View Layout button to display
the tablature dropdown list.
5.
Choose Quick TAB from the dropdown list.
A tablature grid appears, displaying the fret numbers for all the notes in the track.
6.
From the File menu, choose Save. Saving your file saves TAB settings for each track you generated
TABs for.
Press the Spacebar to play your file. Notice that the Fretboard displays the name of each note above the
string and fret you would play it on as the note plays.
Regenerate TAB
The Regenerate TAB command works on selected regions in a track to modify the fingering according
to the method you choose. The TAB display by default uses the 'floating' algorithm which allows the
notes to spread over the entire fretboard. By choosing the "fixed" algorithm instead, you can designate a
specific finger span and lowest fret which causes the TAB of a selected region to be displayed within this
range. This usually creates a more compact fingering system.
The Regenerate TAB command gives you a third choice for displaying tablature MIDI channel. This
uses the event's MIDI channel to determine which string the note should be displayed on. When MIDI
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Channel is selected, the user chooses which series of MIDI Channels should be considered. This is
useful for MIDI Guitarists that record parts in MONO mode, where each string transmits on a different
MIDI channel.
To Regenerate TAB
1.
In the Staff view, use the Select tool to drag a rectangle around the notes or TAB numbers you
want to change.
2.
In the Staff view toolbar, click the dropdown arrow on the Staff View Layout button to display the
tablature dropdown list.
3.
Choose Regenerate TAB to open the Regenerate Tablature dialog box.
4.
Select Fixed from the Method field and fill in values for Finger Span (usually 4), Lowest Fret, and
Number of Frets (usually 21).
5.
Click OK.
SONAR regenerates a TAB based on your specifications. If notes are out of the range you specified,
SONAR displays them as close to that range as possible.
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff
You can enter notes or chords directly from the TAB staff.
To Enter Notes from the TAB Staff
1.
Open the Staff View, and choose Quick TAB from the tablature dropdown menu.
2.
Press Ctrl+Home to move the Now Time to the start of the project. You may want to display the
Now Time by choosing View-Big Time.
3.
Choose the desired note duration (keyboard shortcut: press 1 for whole note, 2 for half, 3 for a 32nd
note, 4 for quarter, 6 for a 16th note, 8 for an 8th note).
4.
Click the Draw tool.
5.
Enter a note by clicking a line in the TAB staff.
6.
Without letting go of the mouse, click and drag the cursor up to set the fret number.
Tip:
You can move ahead in the track by pressing Shift-Right Arrow, and move back in
the track using the Shift-Left Arrow. The Now Time moves by the amount of the
note duration you choose in the Staff toolbar.
Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff
SONAR enables you to edit single notes from the TAB staff in several ways:
490
•
With the Draw tool selected, drag fret numbers up or down. When you reach the desired fret
number, release the mouse.
•
With the Draw tool selected, move a note to a different string by holding down the Alt key while
you drag the fret number to a different line. If the note you are moving won't play on the string you
are dragging it to, you won't be able to move it.
•
Right-click the fret you want to edit. A list of fret numbers appears. Select the one you want, and
the fret you right-clicked changes to the fret number you selected.
Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff
To edit chords or groups of notes in the TAB staff, first select which notes you want to edit, and then
drag them to new pitches or strings.
To Edit Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff
1.
Click the Select tool in the Staff view toolbar.
2.
In the TAB staff, drag a rectangle around the chord or group of notes you want to edit, and release
the mouse.
3.
Drag the fret numbers you selected up or down by the amount you want.
4.
You can drag the notes to different strings by holding down the Alt button while you drag. If the
notes you are moving won't play on the strings you are dragging them to, you won't be able to move
them.
1.
Select the track you want to export.
2.
Open the Staff view.
3.
In the Staff view, click the Export to ASCII TAB button.
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To Export to an ASCII TAB File
The Save As dialog appears.
4.
Enter a file name in the File name field.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the track with the file extension .TXT.
Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard
You can transpose single notes or chords from the Fretboard.
To Transpose Single Notes
1.
Move the Now Time to the note you want to edit by pressing Shift-Right/Left Arrow. You may need
to change the note duration by clicking one of the note icons in the Staff view toolbar.
2.
Use the Select tool to drag the note left or right on the fretboard.
To Transpose Chords
1.
Move the Now Time to display the chord you want to transpose.
2.
Shift-select all the notes in the chord.
3.
Shift-drag the chord to a new position and release the mouse.
Entering Notes from the Fretboard
If you prefer to work with the Fretboard instead of a musical staff, Cakewalk makes it easy to enter
notes from the Fretboard. You can enter single notes or chords by clicking the string and fret of the note
you want to enter at the Now Time position.
1.
Display the track you want to add notes to in the Staff view.
2.
In the Staff view toolbar, click the Draw tool.
Now the cursor appears as a pencil when you move it over the Staff or Fretboard.
3.
Move the Now Time to where you want to start entering notes by pressing Shift-Right Arrow or
Shift-Left Arrow. Each press of the arrow moves the Now Time by the amount of the note duration,
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which you select by clicking the note icons in the Staff view toolbar. You may want to display the
Now Time by choosing View-Big Time.
4.
Enter a note by clicking the string and fret where you would play the note.
The note appears on the Fretboard, in the Staff, and in the TAB if you have generated one (you can
generate a Quick TAB by choosing Quick TAB from the tablature dropdown menu that you open
by clicking the dropdown arrow on the Staff View Layout button).
5.
If you are entering a chord, continue clicking notes at the same Now Time. To move ahead, press
Shift-Right Arrow and click a new note duration, if desired.
You can delete a note right after you enter it by pressing Ctrl+Z, or at any time by clicking the Eraser
tool and clicking the note in the notation or TAB staffs.
Cakewalk gives you several options to play and hear the notes in your track:
•
Scrubbing enables you to click each note in the Fretboard and hear it play. Select the Scrub tool
and click the note.
•
Scrub strumming enables you to “strum” chords by dragging the Scrub tool through a chord. With
the Scrub tool selected, drag through a chord on the Fretboard from below it or above it and back
and forth.
•
Ctrl+Right Arrow/Ctrl+Left Arrow moves the cursor through the track, playing each note as it
reaches it.
Working with Percussion
The Staff view can display percussion tracks on a five-line percussion staff or on a single percussion
line. The staff usually displays notes for a drum set or multiple percussion instruments; the line is used
to display notes for a single instrument (although it need not be so).
SONAR lets you control the appearance of percussion staffs in considerable detail. You can display
percussion notes using several different types of noteheads and articulation symbols, and you can map
any percussion sound to any position on the percussion staff (in a percussion track, each MIDI note
value designates a different percussion instrument; mapping lets you display any instrument in any
position on the staff, regardless of the underlying MIDI note value). You can save your settings as a
preset, and use them again on other tracks and in other projects. SONAR supplies a standard preset
based on the General MIDI percussion standard and popularly accepted percussion staff positions and
noteheads.
Setting Up a Percussion Track
Before you use the percussion capabilities of the Staff view, your percussion track should be set up
correctly. This will allow you to hear the proper sounds when placing notes and during playback, and
will allow you to see the correct percussion instrument names rather than generic note names in the
Piano Roll view, Event List view, and Percussion Notation dialog box.
To Set Up a Percussion Track
492
1.
Right-click on the track in the Track pane and choose Track Properties to open the Track
Properties dialog box.
2.
Assign the output and channel for your percussion instrument. For example, if the output is
assigned to a sound card that supports General MIDI, use channel 10.
3.
Click Instruments to open the Assign Instruments dialog box.
4.
Make sure that the output/channel combination used by your track is assigned to a percussion
instrument definition. For example, channel 10 of a General MIDI output should be assigned to the
General MIDI Drums instrument definition.
5.
Click OK in both dialog boxes.
SONAR shows the new track output and channel in the Track view, and will use the proper percussion
instrument names in the Piano Roll view, Event List view, and Percussion Notation dialog box.
For more information about instrument definitions, see Chapter 16, Using Instrument Definitions.
Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line
The first time you display a percussion track in the Staff view, SONAR picks a default percussion clef
for the track. Tracks with only one note value are assigned the Percussion Line clef. Tracks with
multiple note values are assigned the Percussion Staff clef.
The lowest and highest lines on the Percussion clef are E5 and F6, respectively. The Percussion Line
represents E5.
By default, percussion staves are given SONAR’s default note bindings and notehead assignments. If
you want to use your own notation, or if you want to set up the appearance of a percussion line, you
need to use the Percussion Notation Key dialog box. In this dialog box, the percussion sounds and staff
positions that are bound have an asterisk near their names. When you select a bound percussion sound,
a line joins the sound to its staff position. Each percussion sound can be bound only to a single position,
but each position may be bound to several sounds. You can use different notehead types and articulation
symbols to visually distinguish the sounds.
To Assign a Percussion Staff or Line to a Track
1.
Click the Staff View Layout button
to open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
2.
Select your percussion track from the list.
3.
Select Percussion Staff or Percussion Line from the Clef dropdown list.
4.
Click Percussion Settings to set up the appearance of percussion notes (see below).
5.
Click Close.
SONAR changes the track’s clef to the selected percussion clef.
To Set Up a Track’s Percussion Notation Key
1.
Click the Staff View Layout button
to open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
2.
Select your percussion track from the list.
3.
Click Percussion Settings to open the Percussion Notation Key dialog box.
4.
Set up the percussion notation key according to the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Map (bind) a percussion sound to a line
or space on the staff
Select the sound (or corresponding MIDI note) in the MIDI
Note list, select the intended position in the percussion staff in
the Display As list, then click Bind.
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If you want to change a Percussion Staff to a Percussion Line or vice versa, or if you want to change
another type of staff to a percussion staff, you can do so in the Staff View Layout dialog box. If you
change a track’s clef to a non-percussion clef, the percussion notation settings will be lost.
:
Set the notehead and articulation mark
for a percussion sound
Select the sound in the MIDI Note list, then select a Notehead
Type and Articulation Symbol. (Only bound sounds can be
assigned a notehead type and articulation symbol other than
the default.)
Control how unbound percussion
sounds display
In the Display As list, click the pitch that you want all unbound
notes to display as. Then select a Notehead Type and
Articulation Symbol, then click the Default note button to
apply your changes.
Remove a binding
Select the percussion sound in the MIDI Note list, then click
Unbind. Unbound notes are displayed in the default position.
Load a preset
Select the preset from the Preset list.
Save your settings as a preset
Click the Save button
Clear all bindings
Click Zap All.
Select notes in the note lists with a MIDI
keyboard
Click in the MIDI Note or Display As list, then strike a key on
your keyboard.
5.
Click OK to close the Percussion Notation Key dialog box.
6.
Click Close to close the Staff View Layout dialog box.
and enter a preset name.
The Staff view shows the percussion clef with the note bindings and noteheads you assigned.
Ghost Strokes
In percussion notation, parentheses around a note mean that it is a ghost stroke, played very lightly
and barely heard. SONAR supports ghost strokes by displaying parentheses around any percussion
note event with velocity less than 32 (a fixed, arbitrary threshold). If necessary, you can adjust the Vel+
parameter of the track and the velocities of the individual notes to effectively move this threshold
without changing the way the note sounds.
Printing
The Staff view provides printing support of standard musical notation in nine staff sizes. The Staff view
prints general project information from the File Info dialog box (see “Labeling Your Projects” on page
180) at the beginning of the score, including the song's title (or file name), subtitle (dedication), playing
instructions, author/composer, and copyright. In addition, SONAR identifies the tracks by number and
name, and numbers each measure and each page.
To Print a Score
1.
Make sure the Staff view is the current window.
2.
Choose File-Print Preview.
3.
If you want, click Zoom, or click in the music, to zoom the view in and out.
4.
Click the Configure button to select a rastral size.
5.
When zoomed out, you can press Page Up and Page Down to navigate between pages.
6.
Click Print.
SONAR displays the Windows Print dialog box, from which you can set up your printer and print the
score.
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Alternatively, you can choose File-Print and skip the print preview window.
The Meter/Key View
The Meter/Key view lets you enter meter and key changes at measure boundaries. Meter and key
changes affect all tracks.
What Is Meter?
•
2/4 (two beats per measure, quarter note gets a beat)
•
4/4 (four beats per measure, quarter note gets a beat)
•
3/4 (three beats per measure, quarter note gets a beat)
•
6/8 (six beats per measure, eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter is the number of beats per measure, and can be from 1 through 99. The
bottom number of a meter is the value of each beat; you can pick from a list of values ranging from a
whole note to a thirty-second note.
The meter affects several things in SONAR:
•
Metronome accents
•
How measure, beat, and tick (MBT) times are calculated and displayed
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How the Staff view is drawn
While SONAR in general allows meters to have up to 99 beats per measure, the Staff view cannot
display such measures. You will receive an error message if you try to use the Staff view with meters
exceeding its limit.
Internally, SONAR stores times as “raw” ticks or clock pulses. The timebase—the number of pulses per
quarter note (PPQ)—is adjustable, from 48 to 960 PPQ. If you are using a timebase of 120 PPQ and the
project file is in 4/4 time, then a whole measure equals 480 ticks. See “Setting the MIDI Timing
Resolution” on page 152 for more information about the timebase.
Usually the easiest approach to working with meter changes is to set all of them up before doing any
recording. Use the Meter/Key view or the Insert-Meter/Key Change command to add meter changes at
the desired measures.
What Is Key?
In musical terms, a key is a system of related notes based on the tonic (the base pitch) of a major or
minor scale. A key signature is a group of sharps or flats placed immediately to the right of the clef sign.
The key signature tells a performer that certain notes are to be systematically raised or lowered.
There are fifteen different key signatures—seven with sharps, seven with flats, and one without either.
The fifteen key signatures correspond to fifteen different major scales, and to fifteen different minor
scales (for example, the key signature for C major is the same as for A minor).
The key signature affects several things in SONAR:
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The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes. In the Event List view and some dialog
boxes, SONAR converts the MIDI pitch number to labels like Db (D-flat in the key of C).
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The Staff view uses the key signature to display notation correctly.
495
English
The meter—also known as the time signature—describes how to divide time into rhythmic pulses.
When you set the meter, you are specifying the number of beats per measure and the note value of each
beat. Common meters include:
:
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How the notes are transposed when the Diatonic option is enabled.
The key signature affects only how SONAR displays pitches for you. Changing the key signature does
not affect the MIDI key number (pitch) stored with each note. To actually transpose pitches, use the
Transpose command or edit notes individually by using the Piano Roll, Event List, or Staff views.
Note: Groove clips are not affected by c