Mastering Autodesk® VIZ 2007

Mastering Autodesk® VIZ 2007
72725book.fm Page i Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
Mastering
®
Autodesk VIZ 2007
George Omura
Scott Onstott
Jon McFarland
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
72725book.fm Page iii Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
72725book.fm Page i Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
Mastering
®
Autodesk VIZ 2007
George Omura
Scott Onstott
Jon McFarland
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
72725book.fm Page ii Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
Acquisitions Editor: Willem Knibbe
Development Editor: Heather O’Connor
Technical Editor: Mark Gerhard
Production Editor: Sarah Groff-Palermo
Copy Editor: Sally Engelfried
Production Manager: Tim Tate
Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley
Vice President and Executive Publisher: Joseph B. Wikert
Vice President and Publisher: Dan Brodnitz
Permissions Editor: Shannon Walters
Media Development Specialist: Kate Jenkins
Book Designers: Maureen Forys and Judy Fung
Compositor: Craig Woods, Happenstance Type-O-Rama
Proofreader: Nancy Riddiough
Indexer: Ted Laux
Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed
Cover Image: © Pete Gardner/Digital Vision/Getty Images
Copyright © 2006 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN-13: 978-0-470-07272-1
ISBN-10: 0-470-07272-5
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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
72725book.fm Page iii Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
Dear Reader
Thank you for choosing Mastering VIZ 2007. This book is part of a family of premium quality
Sybex graphics books, all written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with
a gift for teaching.
Sybex was founded in 1976. Thirty years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently
exceptional books. With each of our graphics titles we’re working hard to set a new standard for the
industry. From the paper we print on, to the writers and CAD professionals we work with, our goal
is to bring you the best books available.
I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get
your feedback on how we’re doing. To let us know what you think about this or any other Sybex book,
please send me an email at: sybex_publisher@wiley.com. Please also visit us at www.sybex.com to
learn more about the rest of our growing graphics line.
Best regards,
Dan Brodnitz
Vice President and Publisher
Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley
72725book.fm Page iv Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
To my children
—George Omura
To my loving partner, Jenn
—Scott Onstott
To my loving wife, Lucy, and my sons, Zach and Jacob
—Jon McFarland
Acknowledgments
This book covers a topic that has always been one of my favorites, so I am glad to have the opportunity
to be involved as the author. But many other people have helped bring this book to you, and they certainly deserve recognition. I’d first like to thank Willem Knibbe for his early efforts in making this book
a reality and helping to keep it alive. I’d like to thank the many members of ELS Architecture and Planning with whom I’ve had the great pleasure to work: Clarence Mamuyac, Ed Noland, Jamie Rusin,
Bruce Bullman, and David Petta all contributed samples from their projects for reproduction in this
book. The 3D modeling work of Jeff Zieba, Chris Jung, and William Gordon appears in a number of
the ELS renderings as well. I would also like to give a special thanks to David Fawcett for including me
in so many great 3D projects. At Autodesk, a special thanks to Jim Quanci for his help and positive
encouragement in the early stages of this book, and to Denis Cadu for his help in obtaining software.
Thanks also goes to Shaan Hurley for keeping me up to date on the beta software.
—George Omura
First off, I would like to thank George Omura and Scott Onstott; revising their book has been an
incredible opportunity and experience. I’d like to thank Willem Knibbe and Sybex for giving me
this opportunity. Thanks to Heather O’Connor for keeping me on track and on schedule throughout the process and to Mark Gerhard for his knowledgeable suggestions and his exacting work
locating my errors and omissions. Thank you also Sarah Groff-Palermo, our trusty Production
Editor, and Craig Woods, our diligent compositor.
This book could not have been done without Denis Cadu, program manager of the Autodesk
Developer Network (ADN), who provided access to the VIZ, AutoCAD, and Architectural Desktop
beta builds.
Finally, and most important, I want to thank my beautiful wife, Lucy, and my sons, Zach and
Jacob, for their support and understanding and for showing me what is truly important.
—Jon McFarland
72725book.fm Page v Monday, August 21, 2006 9:52 AM
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Chapter 1 • Getting to Know VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introducing VIZ 2007 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Touring the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Main Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Main Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Docked and Floating Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Toolbar Flyouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Tool Palettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
The Viewport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Tools for Working with the Viewport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Tools for Working with Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Getting to Know the Command Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Understanding VIZ’s Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Working with Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Selecting and Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Rotating and Scaling Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Copying an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Selecting Multiple Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Naming Selection Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Editing Named Selection Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Getting the View You Want . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Understanding the Perspective Viewing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Using Multiple Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Changing the Viewport Display and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Working with the Custom UI and Defaults Switcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Chapter 2 • Introducing VIZ Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Understanding Standard Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting an Object’s Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introducing the Standard Primitive Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modeling Standard Primitives with Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Modifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Modifier Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Modifiers Where You Want Them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Modifier Stack Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How VIZ Sees Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
58
64
64
68
68
71
74
76
78
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vi
CONTENTS
Making Clones That Share Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Creating an Instance Clone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Creating a Reference Clone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Scaling and Rotating Objects with Transform Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Making a Clone Unique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Cloning a Modifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Introducing Extended Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Modeling a Couch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Working with Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Grouping the Components of the Couch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Working within Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Disassembling Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 3 • Creating Shapes with Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Drawing with Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Straight-Line Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constraining Lines Vertically and Horizontally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lathing a Spline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying a Shape Using Subobject Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Lathe Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flipping Surface Normals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing Spline Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Tangent Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Thickness with a Spline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outlining and Extruding Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Accurate Line Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Giving Walls Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Grids and Snaps to Align Objects Accurately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting a Wall Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combining and Extruding Primitive Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combining Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joining Closed Splines with Boolean Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Solid Form with Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introducing the Spline Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placing and Beveling Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
106
107
108
109
111
112
113
115
116
120
123
127
127
130
131
138
140
141
146
150
153
157
158
163
Chapter 4 • Editing Meshes and Creating Complex Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Creating Openings in a Wall with Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hiding Shapes That Get in the Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating the Shape of the Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtracting the Opening from the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Multiple Openings in a Single Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Changes to the Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
165
166
168
169
171
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CONTENTS
Tracing over a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a Bitmap Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scaling the Image to the Model’s Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracing Over the Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building Objects from Traced Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Tapered Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting the Spline to a Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving a Single Mesh Vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tapering the Top of the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Instance Clones to Create Symmetric Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a User Grid to Aid Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building the Tower Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding the Vaulted Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating the Smaller Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing the Remaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attaching Objects to a Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing within a Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Smooth Modifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Clones with Array and Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Column Grid With Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Multitransform Polar Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Multiple Clones Using Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
174
175
177
179
182
191
191
194
198
204
206
206
207
211
217
220
224
227
227
230
231
231
234
236
238
Chapter 5 • Creating AEC and Entourage Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Using AEC Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Parametric Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Doors and Windows to Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Elevations with Stairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Boundaries with Railings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Foliage to a Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Trees with the EASYnat Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an EASYnat Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying an EASYnat Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Content with the RPC Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Static RPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding an Animated RPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
239
239
242
246
249
253
255
255
258
260
261
263
266
Chapter 6 • Organizing and Editing Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Naming Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organizing Objects by Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Objects to Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Color to Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Object Visibility through Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
267
270
272
273
274
276
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Lofting the Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up the Shapes to Form the Roof Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lofting an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Loft Profile in Relation to the Loft Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fine-Tuning a Loft Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Different Shapes along the Loft Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Third Shape to the Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Path Clone to Edit the Loft Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Surfaces from Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building the Spline Armature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deforming the Armature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Shells from Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Completing the Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracing the Border . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Putting the Roofs Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extruding with the Sweep Modifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aligning Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
279
280
285
287
289
291
295
298
301
302
304
309
310
310
312
314
316
319
322
Chapter 7 • Light and Shadow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Lighting Your Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Types of Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Spotlight to Simulate the Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving a Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing a Spotlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Light Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rendering a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ambient Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Faking Radiosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Highlight with an Omni Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looking at Omni Light Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Shadow Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Softening Shadow Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Shadow Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Ray Traced Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Advanced Ray Traced Shadows and Area Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing in the Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Two Suns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Second Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Invisible Objects to Cast Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Clone to Cast Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Light Lister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Scene States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
323
323
325
326
328
329
331
334
336
340
342
346
348
349
352
354
357
357
359
361
363
365
367
370
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Chapter 8 • Enhancing Models with Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Understanding Bitmap Texture Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diffuse Color Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Materials to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Map Path to Help VIZ Find Bitmaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fine-Tuning Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Material Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Material Mapping Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Mapping Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Happens When You Add the Mapping Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the UVW Map Gizmo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Bitmap Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Material Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Color Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Shaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Scalar Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Bump Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Entourage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hiding Unwanted Surfaces with Opacity Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting an Object to a Bitmap Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ray Tracing Reflection and Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Materials to Parts of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Multi/Sub-Object Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying a Sub-Material to an Object’s Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Architectural Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Physical Qualities Rollout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Special Effects Rollout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Material Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
371
372
376
376
377
384
386
386
392
392
394
401
401
404
405
406
407
410
413
413
420
421
423
423
424
427
430
432
434
434
438
Chapter 9 • Staging Your Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Understanding the VIZ Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing the Camera Location with the Viewport Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up an Interior View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Adjustments to the Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersive Environments for Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Credible Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Texture Map and Hemisphere for the Sky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Render Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Render Elements for Compositing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
439
440
443
448
449
452
458
458
460
463
466
468
ix
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Chapter 10 • Working with Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Gaining Access to Materials and Objects from Other Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arranging Furniture with XRefs and the Asset Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing Objects with Objects from an External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Substituting Objects for Faster Viewport Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Files with the Asset Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arranging Furniture with XRef Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Rendered Frame Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening Multiple Rendered Frame Windows for Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zooming, Panning, and Controlling Channels in the Rendered Frame Window .
Obtaining Colors from External Bitmap Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Asset Browser on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracking and Locating Scene’s Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
469
476
478
480
481
485
489
490
491
491
492
493
496
497
Chapter 11 • Using Radiosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Adding Daylight to Your Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Radiosity Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refining Your Radiosity Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Material Reflectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Radiosity Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Finished Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Artificial Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Photometric Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Shortcut to Generic Light Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing the Photometric Lights Using XRefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Shadows for Photometric Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Photometric Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Points Are Bulbs, Linears Are Tubes, and Areas Are Rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Direction of Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Web Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the Color Temperature and Light Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Linear and Area Light Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Dynamic Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembling an Articulated Luminaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transforming Pivot Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aligning the Light Source with the Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Schematic View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
499
504
504
506
510
516
523
524
528
528
530
535
535
536
536
538
540
540
544
544
546
546
561
Chapter 12 • Using mental ray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Understanding mental ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up mental ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Material Editor and mental ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Photon Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the Photon Map Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
563
565
567
570
572
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Final Gathering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing the Basic mental ray Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour Renderings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skylight Global Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image-Based Lighting and Skylight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using High Dynamic Range Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
583
585
586
588
592
593
596
Chapter 13 • Understanding Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Understanding the World of Video Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Quick Study Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Camera Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Camera Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the Camera Trajectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Camera Trajectory Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Preview Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Keyframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Increasing the Number of Frames in an Animation Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerating and Decelerating the Camera Motion Smoothly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Keyframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding More Frames for Additional Camera Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Frames to the End of a Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Camera Motion through a Keyframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compressing and Expanding Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Camera Trajectory Using the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Increasing the Number of Frames between Selected Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speeding Up the Preview Rendering Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Frames to the Beginning of a Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Options for Previewing Your Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving the Camera Target over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Lights over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
597
598
599
602
604
605
606
608
610
612
615
618
618
621
625
630
635
637
637
639
641
642
646
Chapter 14 • Creating Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
Rendering the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Study Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Quick Overall Study Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Moving Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating Output of Multiple Still Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a Camera for Elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up the Four Elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rendering a Shadow Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting for True North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing from IES Sun to a Standard Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Walkthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Animation File Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
True Color versus 256 Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Naming in Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
647
648
651
652
656
657
658
662
662
664
665
669
672
672
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Choosing an Image Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
The AVI Codecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Chapter 15 • Using Photoshop with VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
The Photoshop Interface and VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Tree Map in Photoshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Areas in an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Areas with the Lasso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Specific Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an Opacity Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Quick Mask to Fine-Tune Your Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transferring a Selection to a New File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Color to Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Softening the Edges with the Airbrush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Images with Alpha Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Alpha Channel Images in VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Photoshop to Create a Montage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Tree in the Foreground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Bump Maps for Elaborate Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using AutoCAD for the Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building Textures in Photoshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the Image in VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Irregularity and Color to the Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Color through Photoshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modeling with Displacement Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Displace Modifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Material Editor to Create Displaced Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting a Displacement Map into an Editable Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an Editable Mesh from a Displacement Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
675
676
677
681
682
684
685
686
687
688
690
691
694
697
699
700
703
708
710
712
716
717
720
724
725
727
Chapter 16 • Combining Photographs with VIZ Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
Mesh Editing with a Photograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Establishing the Basic Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing the Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Detail with Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Material for the Car Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding the UVW Map Modifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding the Front to the Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matching Your Design to a Background Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up the Model and the Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding the Background Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding the Camera Match Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aligning the Camera Match Points to the Background Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
729
730
733
736
744
745
745
747
749
754
756
757
758
759
762
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Fine-Tuning a Camera-Matched View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
Matching the Design Image Quality to the Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
Chapter 17 • Using AutoCAD-Based Applications with VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
Creating Topography with Splines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating Changes from an AutoCAD File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring Terrain Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up an AutoCAD Plan for VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing AutoCAD Plans into VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extruding the Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extruding Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extruding the Mullions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Floor with Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring the File Link Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Linked AutoCAD Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Block Node Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the File Link Manager Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding File Link Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Substitute Modifier with Linked Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a Truss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
770
774
775
778
783
785
786
787
787
789
794
796
797
800
801
806
808
811
Chapter 18 • Exporting to the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813
Creating Panoramas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Virtual Reality Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a VRML Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building a Virtual World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting the VRML File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Shockwave 3D Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Render to Texture for Real-Time Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating Advanced Lighting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baking Lighting into Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examining the Baked Materials and Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
814
819
820
820
822
830
831
835
837
837
840
843
846
Appendix A • Installation Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
Installing VIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
Moving VIZ to Another Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
Visit the Autodesk Website Often . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
Appendix B • Modifiers and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
Selection Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
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World-Space Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Object-Space Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials and Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials (Blue Sphere) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maps (Green Parallelogram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
854
856
871
872
875
Appendix C • Patches and NURBS Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
Understanding Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting a Plane into an Editable Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting Other Standard Primitives to Editable Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding NURBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looking at NURBS Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating NURBS Surfaces from Standard Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying a NURBS Deformation to an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
879
879
880
882
882
884
885
Appendix D • Helpers and Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
Helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atmospheric Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camera Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembly Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VRML97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RPC Helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atmospheric Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rendering Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
887
887
891
891
891
891
891
891
892
896
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
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Introduction
Much of your work as a designer involves sketches and drawings throughout the design process. Such graphic representations of designs not only help convey your ideas to others, they
also help you see problems with a design and help you refine your ideas. 3D computer modeling
and animation take design visualization way beyond hand-drawn sketches by allowing you to
create a complete replica of your design and look at it from virtually any point of view.
With Autodesk VIZ 2007, you can apply color, texture, and lighting to see how variations of
these elements affect your design. You get a realistic view of your design so that you can make
better decisions as you progress through the design process.
Mastering Autodesk VIZ 2007 is intended to help architects and designers visualize and present
their designs through images, 3D models, and animations. This book focuses on the use of Autodesk
VIZ 2007 as a modeling and presentation tool. Because Mastering Autodesk VIZ 2007 is focused on
design issues, you won’t find an in-depth study of character animation or animated special effects;
nor will you find a book that describes every single tool and function that’s available.
You will find step-by-step tutorials covering the major functions that you’ll need as a
designer. These tutorials are based on years of experience using earlier versions of VIZ and
its precursor, 3D Studio MAX (now known as 3ds Max), on real projects with real deadlines
and requirements. You’ll learn how to construct complex geometric forms and how to apply
lighting and materials to study a design. You’ll also learn how to create effects to emphasize
parts of your design for presentations.
How to Use This Book
The goal of this book is to give you the appropriate skills to produce professional-level
presentations of your ideas, from conceptual designs to finished renderings and animated
walkthroughs. Once you’ve mastered those skills, you’ll be equipped to confidently explore
Autodesk VIZ 2007 and its rich set of tools and options on your own.
To get the most from this book, you’ll want to read the chapters sequentially from front to
back, doing the tutorial exercises as you go along. Each chapter builds on the skills you learned
from the previous chapters, so you can think of this book as your personal, self-paced course on
Autodesk VIZ 2007.
The first three chapters help you to become familiar with the way Autodesk VIZ 2007 works
and how it is organized. If you are already familiar with VIZ, you may want to skim through
these chapters to become familiar with some of the new features. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 show you
how to build a fairly complex building, using a variety of tools. These chapters introduce you to
some of the more common methods of construction in VIZ. Chapters 7 through 10 show you
how to use lighting and materials. Chapters 11 and 12 show you advanced rendering techniques
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INTRODUCTION
using radiosity and mental ray. Chapters 13 and 14 cover animation, and Chapters 15 through 17
delve into some of the finer points of modeling and rendering. Chapter 18 shows you techniques
for generating interactive content for the World Wide Web.
At the back of the book, you’ll find a set of appendixes that offer general reference information
on some of the more commonly used tools in VIZ. Once you’ve worked through the first half of the
book, you can use the appendixes as an aid in your own exploration of VIZ. In fact, you may find
it useful to skim over the appendixes once you’ve completed the first three or four chapters so that
you’ll have some understanding of their content. You can then refer to the appendixes as you work
through the rest of the book.
Finally, before you get started with the tutorials, make sure you’ve installed the sample files
from the companion CD. You’ll need those files to complete many of the exercises. See Appendix A
for details on installing the sample files.
NOTE
It is important that you set up VIZ to recognize the location of the sample files from the
companion CD. Make sure you perform the instructions given in the section titled “Adding a Map
Path to Help VIZ Find Bitmaps” in Chapter 8. If you like, you can set up VIZ as described in that
section right after you’ve installed the samples.
What You’ll Find
To give you a better idea of what you’ll find in this book, here is a summary of the chapters and
their contents.
In Chapter 1, you’ll get an introduction to the VIZ interface, and you’ll get your first look at VIZ
objects and how they are created. You’ll also learn how to perform some basic editing operations,
such as moving, scaling, and copying objects. Toward the end of Chapter 1, you’ll be introduced to
the different ways you can view your designs in VIZ.
Chapter 2 delves deeper into the workings of VIZ objects. You’ll learn about the different types
of objects available in VIZ and how you can use them to create the shapes you want. You’ll learn
how to manipulate VIZ’s core set of shapes, called primitives, into more complex shapes. You’ll
also learn about the different ways you can duplicate shapes, and why these different duplication
methods can help you quickly build your design.
Chapter 3 looks at how you can create complex forms from simple lines. Here you’ll learn how
to manipulate a basic type of object called a spline shape and to turn it into a wineglass. You’ll look
at creating walls and doors as well.
Chapter 4 introduces you to object and editing methods that are common to architectural projects.
You’ll begin to model a well-known building, using a hand-drawn sketch as a background. You’ll
also focus on drawing objects that have unusual shapes.
In Chapter 5, you’ll explore the parametric AEC (Architectural, Engineering, Construction)
objects included in VIZ including walls, windows, doors, stairs, railings, and foliage. You will also
gain experience with two plug-ins that ship with VIZ 2007: EASYnat for creating plants and RPC
for creating people and plants.
In Chapter 6, you’ll continue working on the building you started in Chapter 4 by exploring ways
to organize parts of the design. You’ll learn how to use object names and layers to help identify parts
of the design. You’ll also continue your exploration of modeling complex forms by building a
complex roof form.
Chapter 7 uses another well-known building as a vehicle for introducing you to digital light and
rendering. You’ll also learn about the different types of lighting and shadow and how to use them
together. In addition, you’ll learn how you can create a more realistic effect in your renderings by
placing lights in strategic locations.
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WHAT YOU’LL FIND
In Chapter 8, you’ll build on the work you will have done in Chapter 7 while exploring materials. You’ll read about the many different properties of materials, such as color and bump map
textures. You’ll also learn how to align a texture to a surface, and you’ll be introduced to methods
for adding entourage, such as trees and foliage, to a design.
Chapter 9 continues with placing cameras in the model and setting the model in an environment. You’ll learn how to control the background to affect the mood of your renderings. You’ll also
see how to selectively render parts of your model to save time.
Chapter 10 shows you different ways of using VIZ files. You’ll learn how to combine files efficiently to allow distribution of work among other members of a design team. You’ll also discover
ways to share data between files. The latter part of the chapter shows how you can share models on
the Internet.
Chapter 11 gives you an introduction to the ins and outs of radiosity rendering. Radiosity is a
rendering method that accurately simulates the way light bounces off materials and surfaces, and
it produces some of the most lifelike views available in a computer simulation.
Chapter 12 shows you how to get started rendering with mental ray. This renderer offers the
highest level of realism and you will learn how to simulate global illumination and caustic optical
phenomena in a step-by-step tutorial. The latter part of the chapter shows you how to light a scene
using the soft light of a skylight in conjunction with image-based lighting and high dynamic range
images (HDRI).
Chapter 13 introduces you to animation. You’ll learn how to create and control the animation of
a camera to produce an animated flyby of the building you worked on in earlier chapters. You’ll also
see how to edit an animated object’s motion, preview your animation, and control lights over time.
Chapter 14 continues your look at animation by exploring the options for file animation output,
backgrounds and props, and other walkthrough animation tools.
Chapter 15 explains how you can utilize Photoshop and other image-editing programs to enhance
your use of VIZ. You’ll learn how to quickly convert your own scanned images into custom-made
props for your VIZ design, such as trees or foliage. You’ll also learn how to use bitmap images to
create geometric forms in VIZ.
Chapter 16 continues your look at Photoshop and VIZ by showing how you can convert a
scanned image of a car into a 3D model of a car. Here you’ll learn methods for editing meshes to
shape them into smooth forms. In the second half of the chapter, you’ll learn how to match a design
to a background image to create a montage.
Chapter 17 shows you how you can use AutoCAD-based files with VIZ. You’ll learn the different ways that you can combine both 2D and 3D AutoCAD data with VIZ design files. You’ll learn
the best ways to prepare an AutoCAD drawing for import into VIZ, and you’ll learn how you can
use a single AutoCAD file as a shared data source for both AutoCAD and VIZ designs.
Finally, Chapter 18 shows you how to export interactive content to the Internet including panoramas, virtual reality worlds, and Shockwave 3D. You will also learn how to bake scene lighting
into textures for use in real-time simulation engines.
In addition to the chapters, this book contains four appendixes. Appendix A has important installation notes, Appendix B is a reference for all the modifiers and materials available in VIZ 2007, and
Appendix C has information about patches and NURBS surfaces, which are optional modeling tools.
Finally, Appendix D contains reference material on helper objects and rendering effects.
You’ll also find a bonus chapter on the companion CD that covers some of the more technical
issues you’ll face when you’re ready to distribute your animations. You’ll learn about the different
video storage options that are available and how they work. You’ll also learn methods for getting
the best quality from your animations.
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INTRODUCTION
System Requirements
This book assumes that you already have Autodesk VIZ 2007 and a PC on which to run the software. In addition, you should perform a full installation of Autodesk VIZ 2007, including the
optional tutorials and plug-ins. (See Appendix A for more on the installation of VIZ for this book.)
The following list shows you the minimum system requirements to run VIZ; you should exceed
these values whenever possible for better system performance:
◆
Intel- or AMD-based processor at 500MHz
◆
512MB RAM
◆
500MB swap space
◆
3GB free disk space before VIZ software installation
◆
Graphics card supporting 1024 × 768 32-bit color display.
◆
DirectX 9.0c (included in the VIZ 2007 CD package)
◆
CD-ROM drive
◆
Microsoft Windows 2000 with SP4 or XP, Professional or Home Edition, with SP2
Autodesk does not support VIZ on Windows Me, NT, 98, 95, or 3.1.
The 3GB of free disk space includes space for sample files and general work space for your
projects. For later chapters, you may want to have a copy of AutoCAD version 2007 or earlier and
Photoshop CS2, CS, or 7. You can obtain a trial version of Photoshop from the Adobe website. As
of this writing, you can order a trial version of AutoCAD 2007 from Autodesk’s website. It’s not
essential to have these other programs, but you may find them useful companions to VIZ.
What’s on the Companion CD?
As mentioned earlier, you’ll want to make sure that you’ve installed the sample files from the companion CD that’s included with this book. They are needed for many of the exercises that you’ll encounter.
You’ll find installation instructions for the sample files in Appendix A. The companion CD also contains
a VIZ trial version and a bonus chapter on distributing VIZ animations on videotape.
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Chapter 1
Getting to Know VIZ
Welcome to Mastering Autodesk VIZ 2007. Once again, Autodesk VIZ 2007 benefits from the development of its sister product, 3ds Max, to give architects and other design professionals an indispensable design tool. VIZ 2007 gives designers cutting edge rendering technology, easier-to-use
architectural materials, improved communication with other software, enhancements to modeling
and animation tools, and improvements in the user interface.
This chapter introduces some of VIZ 2007’s special features and then gets you started working
with the VIZ 2007 interface.
◆ Introducing VIZ 2007 Features
◆ Getting Started
◆ Touring the Interface
◆ Working with Objects
◆ Getting the View You Want
◆ Working with the Custom UI and Defaults Switcher
Introducing VIZ 2007 Features
With each new version of VIZ, Autodesk inevitably adds some cool bells and whistles that old and
new users will certainly appreciate. VIZ 2007 is no exception to that new-feature rule. Autodesk has
smoothed out some old rough edges when it comes to using multiple files on a project, asset and
support searches, the implementing of XRefs, DWG importing/exporting, and more still. Take a
look at the features in the Asset Tracking System, the improvements to XRefs, and other features
listed next.
Asset Tracking System You’ve probably noticed when you are working with complex
projects using many file assets acquired from several sources that keeping track of all the
required files is an arduous task. Any files that you can’t locate when a file is opened or rendered
can trigger a warning dialog box to appear and cause the rendered output to be inaccurate. VIZ
2007’s new Asset Tracking System simplifies this issue by presenting a dialog box for display
and repathing of scene assets including image maps used in materials, external references,
linked AutoCAD files, and output files. Figure 1.1 shows the new Asset Tracking dialog box.
User Paths, which define the program’s asset and support search parameters, can now be exported
into text files. You can distribute these files to other project contributors to ensure that all users
access the file assets from the same location. This ensures that any changes to files used in a project
are updated in all instances in which they were used. These text files can also be utilized to help
migrate the VIZ 2007 settings when you set up a new PC.
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GETTING TO KNOW VIZ
Figure 1.1
The new Asset
Tracking dialog box
XRefs Autodesk has made improvements to the implementation of externally referenced
files (XRefs) including the new Overlay feature to reduce to occurrences of circular references.
You can now XRef materials without referencing geometry in a scene. XRef’d cameras are now
properly saved in the new scenes. Autodesk has revised the layout of the tools in the XRef
Objects dialog box to make the tools easier to access. They’ve also improved the overall
performance of the XRef system.
DWG Import/Export The DWG import and export functionality and the DWG File Linking
has been updated to coincide with the 2007 family of Autodesk products.
Mental Ray Rendering Autodesk has upgraded the mental ray renderer that ships with
VIZ 2007 to version 3.4 of the high-level, production-quality rendering system. This version
includes faster final gathering for smoother light distribution and more accurate raytrace rendering. You can now use the Distributed Bucket Rendering feature to allow up to eight systems running Autodesk VIZ to each contribute the mental ray rendering of a single project.
OpenEXR VIZ now supports the OpenEXR file format. OpenEXR is an HDRI file format used
by Industrial Light & Magic in the production of major motion pictures. The new HDR Data and
Luminance HDR Data Render elements output High Dynamic Range information as separate
image files from the Render Scene dialog box. These can be used to analyze a scene’s lighting
information.
Getting Started
Although many of VIZ’s components are typical for a Windows program, quite a few are unique.
To begin exploring the VIZ 2007 interface, start the program by doing one of the following:
◆
Double-click the Autodesk VIZ 2007 icon on the Desktop.
◆
Choose Start Programs Autodesk Autodesk VIZ 2007 Autodesk VIZ 2007.
You’ll see a variety of components in the VIZ window (see Figure 1.2)—some that are familiar
and others that are not.
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TOURING THE INTERFACE
Figure 1.2
The standard
Autodesk VIZ 2007
window
At the top, you see a typical menu bar and toolbar. You may also see up to five floating toolbars
containing additional VIZ tools. In the center, you see the viewport area, which currently shows a
Perspective viewport. At the lower right corner of the screen, you see the viewport navigation tools
for adjusting your views in the current viewport. You also see the time controls for creating animations, the prompt line and status bar, and the MAXScript Mini Listener (for creating macros). On
the right side, you see the Command Panels, which contains nearly all the tools you’ll use to create
and edit objects in VIZ. Let’s take a closer look at each of these components. VIZ often offers several
methods including toolbars, Command Panels, menus, shortcuts, and so on for accomplishing
many tasks.
Touring the Interface
VIZ offers a wealth of tools, and their sheer number can be overwhelming. To get a basic understanding of the VIZ window, let’s look at each of the window components individually, starting
with the menu bar.
The Main Menu Bar
At the top of the screen is the main menu bar. Here, you find the typical Windows commands for
file maintenance, as well as commands specifically for Autodesk VIZ 2007.
The options in the menu bar are organized in the same way as they are in most other Windows
applications. Clicking an option issues a command, and you’re expected to take some action. An
option that’s followed by three periods, called an ellipsis, opens a dialog box, usually to allow you
3
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GETTING TO KNOW VIZ
to make changes to settings related to the option. An option with a right-pointing arrow displays
more options in what is called a cascading menu.
Try out the menu bar by taking a look at the Units Setup dialog box.
1. Choose Customize Units Setup. The Units Setup dialog box displays.
2. Select the US Standard radio button, and make sure that Feet w/Decimal Inches is selected
below it and that the Inches radio button is selected for Default Units.
3. Click the System Unit Setup button and you will see another small dialog box. Make sure 1
Unit is set equal to 1 inch. Do not change anything else in the System Unit Setup dialog box
and click OK twice to close both dialog boxes.
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TOURING THE INTERFACE
By setting the Units Setup dialog box, you ensure that in future exercises, you’ll be working with
the same units that are discussed in this book.
NOTE
Autodesk VIZ 2007 is something of a chameleon. It can change its appearance, depending
on the focus of your modeling needs. If your VIZ 2007 window doesn’t look the way it does in the
figures in this book, choose Customize Revert to Startup Layout. You’ll see a warning message
telling you that any user interface (UI) changes you have made will be lost. Click OK to set up your
VIZ windows to match the interface you see in this book.
The Main Toolbar
Just below the menu bar is the Main toolbar. The tool icons on this toolbar offer tooltips to help you
remember their purpose.
To the far left of the toolbar are the Undo and Redo options. Left-click to step backwards or
forwards through your recent steps or right-click to see the history of your recent steps.
Next is a set of tools for selecting objects. These selection tools let you select objects by clicking
them or by selecting them by name. You can also set the method for selecting objects by using a
selection window, which provides a way of indicating a selection by placing a rectangle, circle, or
other border around the objects.
To the right of the selection tools are the transform tools. This set of tools lets you move, rotate,
and scale objects. You can also choose the reference coordinate system, set the center of the transform using the pivot options, use different snap options, work with named selection sets, and use
tools to mirror and align objects.
The next group of tools to the right include the layer and graph editor tools and the materials and
rendering tools. The graph editor tools display your scene information as graphs or wiring diagrams
to indicate the functionality or relationships of scene objects. The materials tools give you control over
the appearance of objects. With these tools, you can create color, texture, opacity, and other material
characteristics, and then apply these characteristics to objects in your model. You can also open the
new render dialog, select the render type, and perform a quick render with these buttons.
The rendering tools give you control over the output of your Autodesk VIZ 2007 scene. Unlike
output from most applications, output from VIZ 2007 is most likely to be image or animation files.
The rendering tools let you set the type and size of output, from single, large format stills to videoready animations.
If you’re working with a screen resolution of 1024 × 768 or less, you won’t see all the tools on the
Main toolbar. Some of the tools are off the screen to the far right. To access these tools, place the cursor on the toolbar so that a hand icon appears, and then click and drag the toolbar to the right. The
hidden tools will emerge. You can also click the Rendering menu item to access all the rendering
tools. The smallest supported resolution in VIZ 2007 is 1024 × 768, but the recommended resolution
is 1280 × 1024 or higher.
TIP
5
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Docked and Floating Toolbars
In addition to the Main toolbar, you see several “floating” toolbars sitting on top of the viewport
(see Figure 1.2). There are also five toolbars that are hidden. You can open hidden toolbars by rightclicking a blank part of any toolbar. A context menu will appear listing the available toolbars. Let’s
take a quick look at the floating toolbars.
1. Right-click a blank area of the main toolbar and click any of the toolbar items that do not
have a checkmark next to them.
2. Repeat the process until all five floating toolbars are exposed.
All five toolbars float over the Perspective viewport: the Layers, Render Shortcuts, Snaps, Axis
Constraints and the Extras toolbar. As with most toolbars, you can move these floating toolbars to
the side or hide them altogether to gain better access to objects in the viewport.
TIP
In VIZ and many other graphics programs, screen space is always at a premium. Using a twomonitor system allows for a lessening of screen clutter by moving items such as floating toolbars,
the Material Editor, graph editors, and so on to the second monitor, freeing up as much screen
real estate as possible.
Let’s preview these toolbars briefly in the section below:
Layers Layers are like overlays that help you organize the objects in your model. If you are an
AutoCAD or Photoshop user, you should have an idea of how layers work. You’ll learn more
about layers in Chapter 6.
Render Shortcuts Render shortcuts contain predefined render settings, such as resolution and
output file type, used to create content from your VIZ scenes. The Render Shortcuts toolbar is
where you will find the tools for saving and storing your preset values. You’ll learn about rendering in Chapters 10 and 11.
Snaps Snaps are features that control where the cursor jumps to, adding a degree of precision
to your scene, when it is near a characteristic in the scene. Using snaps you can easily move the
corner of one object to the midpoint of another or nearly any other characteristic combination.
Snaps are important in producing accurate architectural models.
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TOURING THE INTERFACE
Axis Constraints Transforming objects (moving, rotating, or scaling) is often done along a
particular axis, or direction, relative to the object or the scene. This functionality is usually
utilized through the Transform gizmo, an on-screen tool used to facilitate the transforms; the
Axis Constraints toolbar also contains these tools.
Extras The Extras toolbar contains tools that don’t fit cleanly into other categories. You can
override existing shortcuts and turn on a creation grid relative to the surface of any scene object
with the tools on this toolbar. You can also create numerous, precise clones of objects in matrices,
along a path, or at equal intervals.
You can dock the floating toolbars or float the docked toolbars. Try the following exercise to see
how to change the location of toolbars:
1. Click and drag the title bar of the Layers toolbar so that the toolbar is below the Main toolbar
(see Figure 1.3). The Layers toolbar appears ghosted as a horizontal outline just before you
release the mouse button.
Figure 1.3
Docking the Layers
toolbar under the
Main toolbar
2. When the outline is in the position shown in Figure 1.3, release the mouse button. The Layers
toolbar is now in a docked position.
3. Dock the Extras toolbar just to the right of the Layers toolbar (also just under the Main toolbar).
7
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GETTING TO KNOW VIZ
4. Right-click the two vertical lines (called the toolbar handle) on the left side of the Extras toolbar to open the shortcut menu.
5. Select Float from the shortcut menu. The Extras toolbar returns to its floating position.
Another way to do this is to drag the toolbar by its handle down into the viewport.
6. Select the Snaps toolbar and dock it to the left side of the user interface. (Toolbars can be
docked on either side of the viewports.)
7. Select the remaining floating toolbars and dock them on the top of left edge of the viewport.
Your screen should look similar to the VIZ window shown in Figure 1.4.
In this brief exercise, you learned how to dock and float toolbars, and how to access the shortcut
menu where you can toggle the toolbars on and off. Hide, dock, or float the toolbars however you wish.
Toolbar Flyouts
You may have noticed that some of the tools in the Main toolbar show a small arrow in the lower
right corner of the tool icon.
That arrow indicates that the tool is one of several offered in a flyout. A flyout is like a graphical
version of options in a menu bar. If you click and hold a tool that’s part of a flyout, you see a set of
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TOURING THE INTERFACE
other tools appear. For example, if you click and hold the Select and Uniform Scale tool, two additional tools appear.
Once you select an option from a flyout, it becomes the default button that you see in the toolbar.
Tool Palettes
Tool palettes are collapsible boxes containing materials and tools for quick on-screen access. The
palettes are collapsed by default, taking up a minimum of screen space, but they expand whenever the cursor rolls over them. Clicking any of the named tabs switches the visible category of
tools or materials.
Figure 1.4
All toolbars docked
around the viewport
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To constantly view the tools, right-click the palette’s title bar and uncheck the Auto-hide option
in the context menu that appears.
You can change the visible palette by right-clicking the title bar and choosing the palette that you
want from the bottom of the context menu. The All Palettes option display a single palette with all
categories available. To access the contents of a specific palette, right-click below the last visible tab
and choose the palette from the menu that appears.
The Viewport
At the center of the window is the viewport (see Figure 1.5). This is where you’ll be doing most of
your modeling work. In a blank file, the viewport shows a grid that you can use as a reference for
orientation and size. The grid is labeled with distances in the current, default unit setting. The labels
also indicate the X and Y axes.
If you look in the lower left corner of the viewport, you see the world axis tripod hat indicates
the orientation of the X, Y, and Z axes. The world axis tripod helps you get your bearings when
looking at other types of views. This is similar to the UCS icon in AutoCAD.
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