# RULE BOOK - GMT Games

```R ULE BOOK
[0.0] USING THESE RULES.......................................... 2
[1.0] INTRODUCTION................................................... 2
[2.0] GAME EQUIPMENT............................................. 2
[3.0] SETTING UP THE GAME..................................... 2
[4.0] SEQUENCE OF PLAY........................................... 2
[5.0] RANDOM EVENTS............................................... 3
[6.0] MOVEMENT.......................................................... 3
[7.0] ZONES OF CONTROL.......................................... 4
[8.0] THE REACTION PHASE...................................... 5
[9.0] COMBAT................................................................ 5
[10.0] RALLYING........................................................... 10
[11.0] REINFORCEMENTS........................................... 10
[12.0] ARMY MORALE................................................. 11
[13.0] PASSING (“LULLS”)........................................... 12
[14.0] NIGHT TURNS.................................................... 12
[15.0] HOW TO WIN...................................................... 12
[16.0] OPTIONAL RULES............................................. 12
GMT Games, LLC • P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
www.GMTGames.com
2
[0.0] USING THESE RULES
The instructions for this game are organized into major “Rules”
sections as shown in large CAPS font, and represented by the
number to the left of the decimal point (e.g., Rule 4.0 is the
fourth Rule). These Rules generally explain the game’s subject
matter, its components, the procedures for play, the game’s core
systems, how to set it up, and how to win.
With each Rule, there can be “Cases” that further explain a Rule’s
general concept or basic procedure. Cases might also restrict the application of a Rule by denoting exceptions to it. Cases (and Sub cases)
are an extension of a Rule shown in the way that they are numbered.
For example, Rule 4.1 is the first Case of the fourth Rule; and Rule
4.1.2 is the second Sub case of the first Case of the fourth Rule.
The following abbreviations are used in the body of these rules:
CRT = Combat Results Table
EZOC = Enemy Zone of Control
LOC = Line of Communications
MP = Movement Point
ZOC = Zone of Control
Game Charts, Tables, and Tracks: These appear on both the
map and the separate Player Aid Mat.
• The Game Turn Track shows time passing, measured in
Game Turns.
• The Morale Track indicates the current number of Morale
Points available to each army.
• You use the Combat Results Table (CRT) when resolving
Battles.
• The Terrain Effects Chart explains how the features on the
map impact movement and combat during play.
[3.0] SETTING UP THE GAME
Players determine which side they will play. The French Player
controls all of the French units, the Anti-French Player (a.k.a.,
the “Allied Player”) controls the other (i.e., opposing) units.
Locate the 12 specific Event cards for
the game being played (note specific
game name at top of each card), and
shuffle just those Event cards together
to form the Draw Pile, and then follow
the game’s Exclusive Rules (in the
Playbook) for the remainder of the set
up instructions.
[1.0] INTRODUCTION
Napoleonic 20 is a wargame system for recreating operational
level campaigns during the Napoleonic Wars using about 20
pieces (often less) per side per game. This Standard Rules section applies to all games in the series, each of which also has its
own Exclusive Rules section at the end.
Game Scale: Each unit represents a division to a corps of troops
(roughly 8,000 to 20,000 men and their equipment). Each space
on the map is approximately one-half to one mile across.
[2.0] GAME EQUIPMENT
The Game Map: The game board features a map portraying the
area where that battle or campaign took place. Superimposed
over it is a hexagonal grid that regularizes the pieces’ movement
and positioning.
Designation
(I Corps)
Front
Combat Strength
General Rule
Play proceeds in successive Game Turns, composed of alternating Player Turns. During each Game Turn, players maneuver
their units and resolve Battles strictly in accordance with this
Sequence of Play and within the limits provided by these Rules.
At the conclusion of the final Game Turn, consult the Victory
Conditions and determine the winner.
The Game Turn
Back
Hidden Unit
(French)
Type
(Infantry)
[4.0] SEQUENCE OF PLAY
Movement Allowance
The Playing Pieces: The cardboard game pieces represent the
actual military units that participated in the campaign. These
playing pieces are called ‘units’ and the information on each is
• Combat Strength is the value of that unit when engaging
in combat.
• Movement Allowance is the speed and endurance of
that unit; basically, it is the maximum number of Open
terrain hexes that unit can move through during a single
Movement Phase.
Each Game Turn consists of two Player Turns, a First Player Turn
and a Second Player Turn, with the Exclusive Rules specifying
who the First Player is. Player Turns consist of segments called
‘Phases.’
The term ‘Phasing Player’ describes the player who is currently
the protagonist conducting activities during that Phase.
The First Player Turn
1. First Player Random Events Phase: The First Player
reveals and enacts the top Event card’s single event for
that player only (5.0).
2.First Player Movement Phase: The First Player may
move all, some or none of his units as desired within the
limits of the Rules for Movement (6.0), Zones of Control
(7.0), and Terrain Effects. That side’s reinforcements might
also enter the map, if available (11.0).
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3.Second Player Reaction Phase: The Second Player
may have some, none or all of his Cavalry units conduct
Reaction Movement (8.0).
[6.0] MOVEMENT
4.First Player Combat Phase: In any order the First Player
desires, his units can attack enemy units (9.0).
During your Movement Phase, you may move as many or as few
of your units as you desire. You can move units in any direction
or combination of directions.
Afterward, all eligible units recover from Rout (9.6.3) and
Fatigue (16.8).
If he did not Force March (12.3) during his Movement
Phase, and was not involved in any Battles during the
Reaction or Combat Phases, the First Player can, if eligible,
receive a Morale Point from resting this Turn during a
“Lull” (13.0).
5. First Player Night Operations: Only if it is a Night
Game Turn, the First Player may Rally eliminated units
(10.0), adjust his side’s Morale based upon captured Line
of Communication (‘LOC’) and Objective hexes; recover
one Morale Point (14.0), then reconceal all of his units and
add his Dummy units to the map when using the Fog of
War Optional Rule (16.1).
The Second Player Turn
6. Repeat Phases 1 through 5, reversing the roles of the
First and Second Players. If it is a Night Turn, afterward,
reshuffle all the Event cards to form a new Draw Pile.
[5.0] RANDOM EVENTS
General Rule
Procedure
Move units one at a time, tracing a path of contiguous spaces
along the map. As each unit enters a space (called a “hex”), the
unit pays one or more Movement Points (MPs) from its Movement Allowance to do so.
Restrictions and Prohibitions
[6.1] Strict Sequence: Movement never takes place out of sequence. You can only voluntarily move your units during your
own (i.e., your ‘friendly’) Movement or Reaction Phases (see
8.0 for the latter).
[6.2] Speed Limit: A unit cannot exceed its Movement Allowance during a friendly Movement Phase, with the exception that a
unit can always move 1 hex per friendly Movement Phase, even
if it does not have sufficient MPs to pay the entire cost to enter
that hex (as long as it is not into prohibited terrain or across a
prohibited hexside). A unit can expend all, some or none of its
MPs during its friendly Movement Phase. Unused MPs do not
accumulate from Turn to Turn, nor are they transferable from
unit to unit. Unused MPs are lost.
[6.3] Enemies: A friendly unit cannot enter a hex containing
an enemy unit.
General Rule
Random events are the imponderables of war.
At the beginning of each Player Turn,
the Phasing Player reveals the top Event
card from the Draw Pile and immediately applies that side’s event. When
there are two events on a card, the top
Player’s and the bottom (non-blue
Player’s.
Procedure
In addition to specific event instructions, reshuffle the deck at the
end of each Night Game Turn. Unless otherwise specified in the
event itself, a specific event can occur multiple times per game.
[6.4] No ‘Take Backs:’ All movement is final once a player’s
hand is withdrawn from the unit he is moving. Players may not
change their minds and retrace a unit’s movement after releasing it.
DESIGN NOTE: Strictly enforce this Rule! During these
campaigns, units often went in the wrong direction at decisive
moments with disastrous results.
Terrain Effects
Normally, units pay 1 MP to enter each hex, regardless of its
terrain type. However, the following Cases apply to define this
further:
[6.5] Rugged Terrain: A unit that enters a Forest, Rough or
Marsh hex must stop immediately and forfeit its unspent MPs
(even those awarded through Forced March; see 12.3).
It can freely leave that hex at its next opportunity, but if it enters
another such hex, it must again immediately stop.
one road hex to another, connected road hex) does not have to
stop in Rugged Terrain (see 6.5).
A unit which conducts its entire move along connected road hexes
EXAMPLE: A cavalry unit moving entirely along connected
road hexes could spend up to 4 MPs that Turn.
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Zone of Control Effects
[6.7] Stop: A unit that enters an EZOC (see 7.0, below) must stop
immediately and forfeit its unspent MPs (even those awarded
through Forced March; see 12.3). A friendly unit’s Zone of
Control does not affect the movement of other friendly units.
types of hexsides except Major Rivers (even at bridges and
fords). Important: units separated by Major River hexes
(even at bridges and fords) are not considered ‘adjacent.’
[6.8] Stuck: Units may voluntarily leave an EZOC only through
Disengagement (see 8.3) or at Night (see 7.6). The usual way
to leave an EZOC is by Retreating or Advancing After Combat
(see 9.7, 9.8 and 9.9).
Effects of Other Friendly Units
[6.9] No Stacking: A friendly unit can move through hexes
occupied by other friendly units (at no extra MP cost). They
cannot end the Movement Phase stacked in the same hex with
another friendly unit.
[7.0] ZONES OF CONTROL
The six hexes immediately surrounding a unit constitutes its
‘Zone of Control’ (abbreviated ‘ZOC’) as illustrated here.
EXAMPLE: The ZOC of the French unit in La Haye Sainte
does not extend into Mont St. Jean (where the British unit is),
nor into Hougomont. It does extend out from its town into other
[7.1] Multiple Zones of Control: Both friendly and enemy units
can exert their ZOCs upon the same hex. There is no additional
effect if multiple units cast their ZOCs over the same hex. Thus,
if a given unit is in an enemy-controlled hex, the enemy unit is
also in its controlled hex. The two units are equally and mutually
affected and ‘locked’ into each other’s ZOCs.
[7.2] Movement Cost: Units do not pay any additional MPs to
enter or exit an EZOC.
Effects on Combat
Those hexes adjacent to an enemy unit where its ZOC extends are
said to be in an ‘Enemy Zone of Control’ (abbreviated ‘EZOC’).
General Rule
During Day Turns, units that begin their Movement Phase in
an EZOC cannot move that Turn, and units that enter an EZOC
during their Movement Phase must immediately stop moving
(see 6.7).
• All units exert a ZOC at all times, regardless of the current
Phase or Player Turn.
• The presence of ZOCs is never affected by other units,
enemy or friendly.
• ZOCs extend into all types of terrain except Fortified,
Redoubt, and between adjacent Town / Fortified / Redoubt
hexes (i.e., in a “built-up” area). They also extend across all
[7.3] Combat Obligation: The Phasing Player’s units must attack all enemy units exerting EZOCs on them during the Combat
Phase. All friendly units in an EZOC must attack an enemy unit
(see 9.1).
[7.4] Retreat Effect: Units can Retreat into a hex containing an
EZOC, but in doing so they run the risk of Breaking for each
such hex entered (see 9.8.3).
[7.5] Advance After Combat Effect: EZOCs never affect Advance After Combat (see 9.9). Units that Advance After Combat
can freely enter EZOCs.
Night Game Turns
[7.6] Night ZOC Effects: At night, EZOCs work
opposite to how they do during Day Turns. That is,
units cannot enter hexes in an EZOC (such hexes
are prohibited), but they can freely exit hexes in an
EZOC—consequently, those units are no longer stuck (as per
6.8) during a Night Turn.
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[8.0] THE REACTION PHASE
General Rule
The friendly Reaction Phase takes place during the opposing
can Countercharge, Disengage -OR- Penetrate (see Optional
Rule 16.2).
[8.3.4] Non-Retreat: Disengagement is not ‘Retreat After Combat’ (9.8). Thus, the enemy cannot Advance After Combat (9.9)
to pursue a unit that uses Disengagement.
Cavalry Penetration
[8.4] Cavalry Penetration: See Optional Rule 16.2
for this interesting additional Reaction Phase option.
Countercharge
[8.1] Seizing the Initiative: Cavalry units may make a special
‘Countercharge Attack’ during the Reaction Phase (only; not
during your normal Combat Phase). The Reacting Player is the
“Attacker” in such Battles.
[8.2] Unhinging the Enemy: A Countercharge Attack follows
the normal Rules of combat in most ways (see 9.0), but because
they are used to throw off the enemy’s timing and coordination
before Battle, they receive the following modifications:
[8.2.1] Selective Attacks: Unlike during regular combat (9.1
and 9.2), units conducting a Countercharge do not have to attack
every unit whose EZOC they are in. Instead, they may attack
some, none or all such adjacent enemy units, and thus can make
‘Selective Attacks.’
• Multiple Cavalry units can combine to conduct a Selective
Attack against a single enemy unit if they are all adjacent
to it.
• Normal Advance After Combat (9.9) follows a
Countercharge Attack.
• Normal combat occurs between the Countercharging unit
and any enemy unit(s) to which it is adjacent during the
ensuing enemy Combat Phase.
[8.2.2] Strength Bonus: The Combat Strength of units conducting a Countercharge is doubled except when Countercharging
enemy Cavalry units.
[8.2.3] Holding Fast: In a Countercharge Battle, victorious defending units cannot Advance After Combat (9.9). They are too
busy protecting their lives by taking cover or forming squares.
Disengagement
[8.3] Cavalry ‘Retreat Before Combat:’ A Cavalry unit that
starts its Reaction Phase adjacent to an enemy unit can move
away via ‘Disengagement.’
[9.0] COMBAT
General Rule
The Phasing Player is called the ‘attacker’ and the Non-Phasing
Player is the called the ‘defender’ at a ‘Battle’ (i.e., the resolution
of a single attack) regardless of the overall strategic situation.
You must declare all your Battles for that Phase before conducting any of them. Then, each individual Battle is resolved, one at
a time, in any order you choose, by rolling a die and consulting
the CRT to determine its outcome.
Procedure
At each Battle, follow these Steps in order:
enemy unit(s).
B.Total the Combat Strength of all your attacking units in
that Battle. You may now spend a Morale Point to ‘commit
Reserve troops’ to that Battle and increase your total
strength by one (+1).
C.Total the Combat Strength of all the defending units that
are the target of the attack. Add in the single best Terrain
Effect for the defender’s location. The defender may now
spend a Morale Point to commit his Reserves and increase
his total strength by one (+1).
D.Subtract the total defending strength from the total
attacking strength. The result is the ‘Combat Differential,’
expressed as either a positive or negative number (or 0).
E.Consult the CRT and resolve the Battle using the
‘Differential Column’ from Step D.
F. Roll one die. Cross index the die roll with the Differential
Column to determine the result of that Battle.
[8.3.1] Timing: Disengagement occurs only in your Reaction
Phase.
G.Apply this Combat Result immediately, including Retreats
[8.3.2] Pinned: A Cavalry unit cannot Disengage if it is in the
ZOC of an enemy Cavalry unit.
[9.1] Mandatory Combat: All phasing units in an EZOC must
make an attack. If you choose to have a unit which is not in an
EZOC (e.g., a unit in a Redoubt hex) attack, then all non-phasing
units in your unit’s ZOC must be attacked.
[8.3.3] Procedure: A Cavalry unit Disengages by moving one
hex to an adjacent, vacant, non-prohibited, non-enemy-controlled
hex (but see optional exception, 16.2). It then ceases its Disengagement movement.
If no other route is available, it may move through friendlyoccupied hexes not in an EZOC to reach a vacant hex. If it does
so, it goes one additional hex at a time until it is no longer stacked
with a friendly unit.
[9.1.1] Attacker’s Prerogative: You must determine which of
your attacking units will attack which defending enemy units, in
any combination you desire, as long as: A) all your friendly units
in an EZOC participate in an attack, and B) all enemy units in
your friendly ZOCs are, themselves, attacked (see 9.2.1).
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[9.1.2] Pushing Too Hard: No unit can attack more than once
per Friendly Combat Phase, and no enemy unit can be attacked
more than once per Friendly Combat Phase.
[9.2] Declaring All Battles First: During your Combat Phase,
you must declare which of your friendly units will be attacking
which adjacent enemy units at the beginning of each Combat
Phase (to ensure that all adjacent units are attacked according to
the Sub cases below) before conducting any individual Battles.
[9.2.1] Multiple Unit and Multi-Hex Battles: When one of
your units is in the ZOCs of more than one enemy unit, it must
attack all of those enemy units that are not designated to battle
some other friendly unit during that Combat Phase.
EXAMPLE: You have a lone unit adjacent to two enemy units;
it must fight them both!
[9.2.2] Multi-Unit Battles: Attacking units in two or more
hexes can combine their Combat Strengths in a single Battle
providing all of the attacking units are adjacent to all of the defending units. Battles can thus involve multiple attacking and/
or defending units.
Diversionary Attacks: As you organize a series of Battles, you
may allocate your attacking units in such a way so as to conduct
some Battles at sacrificially poor differentials (a wargaming
technique called ‘soaking off’) so that you can conduct other,
[9.3] Combat Strength Unity: A given unit’s Combat Strength is
always unitary; it is not divisible among multiple Battles during
a single Phase, either for attack or defense.
[9.3.1] Artillery Bonus
Artillery units, when included in a game, represent
large, unwieldy parks of cannons that were concentrated into Grand Batteries to blast a hole in the
enemy’s line.
• Always double the Combat Strength of attacking Artillery
units. Artillery units use their normal (printed) Combat
Strength when being attacked.
• Artillery units can never Advance After Combat (see 9.9).
Terrain Effects on Combat
Defending units benefit from the terrain in the hex they occupy
and/or that hex’s perimeter hexside(s) it is attacked through.
[9.4] Defender’s Benefit: Add the Combat Strength of the
defender’s hex or hexside to the defender’s strength total as
indicated on the Terrain Effects Chart.
[9.4.1] A Single Benefit: The terrain benefits for combat are not
cumulative. The defender in a Battle receives only the single most
advantageous terrain benefit (for the defender) available for the
defender’s hex or through a hexside.
[9.4.2] Multiple Benefits: When two or more defending units
are involved in a single Battle, and they receive different terrain
benefits (i.e., different effects on the Combat Differential), then
modify the entire attack by the single most favorable benefit to
the defender.
EXAMPLE: In this illustration, the single French Infantry
unit must attack the Prussian Cavalry unit, and may attack the
Prussian Infantry unit (9.1, the Prussian Infantry unit’s ZOC
does not extend across the bridged Major River hexside, so the
Phasing French unit is not obligated to attack it). The French
situation is desperate, so the French Player declares that he
will attack both units, initiating a single Battle against them.
The Prussian Cavalry unit is in Clear terrain, so the Prussian
Infantry unit’s benefits will apply for the defender (9.4.2).
The Prussian Infantry is in Wavre, a Town hex located across
the Dyle River at a Bridge hexside. Each of these terrain
advantages for the defender (Town and Bridge) is worth one
additional (+1) Combat Strength, but their benefits are noncumulative (9.4.1), so only the single best (i.e., +1) is added.
Prior to commitment of Reserves by either side, this Battle
stands at 4 vs. 4 (2 + 1 + 1) and will be resolved on the ‘0’
Differential column of the CRT.
[9.4.3] Attacker’s Terrain: Terrain in hexes occupied by the
attacking unit(s) has no effect on combat. Note that Fortified,
Redoubt, and adjacent Town/Fortified/Redoubt hexes do not
allow EZOCs to extend into them, nor do ZOCs extend across
Major River hex-sides (even at bridges or fords). Thus, units in
these hexes or across these hexsides are not obliged to attack out
/ across (9.1; however, if they do, Rule 9.1 fully applies), nor are
they stuck when moving (6.8).
[9.4.4] Garrison Forces: Some Napoleonic 20 games feature
hexes containing intrinsic Garrison forces. These positions, typically indicated on the map by a small flag of the side controlling
the Garrison, resist enemy efforts to enter them.
Garrison forces have an intrinsic Combat Strength of zero (0),
and that is modified by the terrain in the hex that force occupies.
Garrison forces function as listed below when their hex is unoccupied, but they are ignored completely while their hex is
occupied by a friendly unit.
Garrison Force Abilities
•
•
•
•
Garrison forces exert a normal ZOC.
Garrison forces cannot attack.
Garrison forces do not move or Retreat.
You cannot commit Reserves (12.5) to Battles which
• Your units can freely move through and/or occupy the
same hex as your Garrison forces. Thus, friendly units can
freely “stack” with their Garrisons.
• Enemy units cannot enter your garrisoned hexes except
through Advancing After Combat when those enemy units
are the attacker.
Important: When your attacking unit is displaced from a garrisoned hex, the victorious defending unit(s) cannot Advance
After Combat if you have an intact Garrison force present.
This overrides the usual Advance After Combat Rules as the
Garrison force is, in effect, ‘covering’ for your Retreating unit
after its failed attack.
Falling to an Enemy Attack
When a garrisoned hex has a friendly unit in it, and that unit
is Broken or Routed by an enemy’s attack, those victorious
enemy units can Advance After Combat normally into that
garrisoned hex.
The Garrison is considered to be subsumed into the defending
unit and suffers that unit’s fate.
If, for any reason, a victorious attacking enemy unit does not then
Advance into that garrisoned hex, the Garrison force remains
unaffected and intact.
Elimination of Garrison Forces
Unless otherwise noted in the Exclusive Rules, Garrison forces
are permanently destroyed the instant an enemy unit occupies
their hex.
[9.5] Voluntary Differential Reduction: When attacking, you
may reduce the Combat Differential of any given Battle during
Step E in the Battle Procedure, resolving it at a lower differential.
Explanation of Combat Results
Once determined, apply the Combat Result immediately, including any Retreat and /or Advance After Combat, before resolving
the next Battle in that Phase.
[9.6] Combat Results: Listed below are the different Battle
outcomes and their effects upon the units participating:
[A] AB: Attacker Breaks. Break all attacking units in this
Battle. The defender conducts any Advance after Combat
(9.9). See Optional Rule 16.5.
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a Routed marker on it on the appropriate side (see 9.6.3). The
defender conducts any Advance After Combat (9.9).
[C] AW: Attacker Withdraws. All attacking units in this
Battle are Retreated one hex (9.8) by the attacker. The defender
conducts any Advance After Combat (9.9).
[D] DB: Defender Breaks. Break all defending units in this
Battle. The attacker conducts any Advance After Combat (9.9).
[E] DR: Defender Routed. The attacker rolls one die for
each Routed unit, one at a time, and the defender Retreats that
Routed unit a number of hexes equal to its die roll and places
a Routed marker on it on the appropriate side (see 9.6.3).
The attacker conducts any Advance After Combat (9.9). See
Optional Rule 16.5.
[F] DW: Defender Withdraws. All defending units in this
battle are Retreated one hex (9.8) by the defender. The attacker
conducts any Advance After Combat (9.9).
[G] EX: Exchange. First, Break all defending units, and
then the attacker must Break from among his units in that
Battle an amount of Combat Strength Points at least equal to
the defender’s Combat Strength total. Use only the printed
Combat Strength values on the units, unmodified by terrain,
Events, etc.
Note that if the defending side’s Morale was not reduced to
‘0’ (i.e., the attacker won the game, as per 15.0), the attacker
may be forced to Break units whose strength is greater than the
defender’s if there is no other alternative, i.e., you can’t ‘make
change’. The attacker may also choose to Break a stronger unit
than necessary if he so desires—this might occur if a weaker
unit is deemed more valuable to the attacker for some reason.
Afterward, if there are any surviving attacking units, the attacker conducts any Advance After Combat (9.9).
[H] N: Engaged. There is no effect. Neither side Breaks any
units, Retreats or Advances as a result of this Battle.
Combat Results Sub-cases
[9.6.1] Broken Units: Remove Broken units from the map and
set them aside (because they can be Rallied; see 10.0).
[9.6.2] Elite Unit Routing: When an Elite unit (i.e.,
one with a red Combat Strength) Routs, subtract two
(–2) from the Rout die roll. If the modified result is
less than one (<1), the outcome is changed to ‘Withdraws’ (i.e., the unit must still conduct a 1-hex Retreat, but suffers no Rout effects).
[9.6.3] Routing Units: After surviving
their Retreat movement, a Routed unit
receives a Routed marker showing the
color around its edge matching the side
whose Player Turn it currently isn’t; i.e., a blue-edged Routed
marker would be placed in the French enemy’s turn; a whiteedged Routed marker would be placed during the French turn.
[B] AR: Attacker Routed. The defender rolls one die for
each Routed unit, one at a time, and the attacker Retreats that
Routed unit a number of hexes equal to its die roll and places
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EXAMPLE: During the Anti-French Player’s Turn (i.e.,
during the Anti-French Player’s Events and Combat Phases,
and the French Player’s Reaction Phase), all Routed markers placed on units from both sides would have the French
(blue-edged) color-side up. Conversely, during the French
Player’s Turn, all Routed markers placed would show their
Anti-French (white-edged) color-side.
Effects: While a unit has a Routed marker on it, apply all of
these effects:
• It can only move in such a way as to continue its Retreat
(denoted by the ‘R’ on the marker). That is, any MPs it
spends must be in accordance with Rule 9.8. It can always
not move and remain in place.
• It loses its ZOC.
• Its Combat Strength is reduced by 50% (round fractions
up), both when attacking and defending. This does not
modify any defender’s terrain effect benefits.
• If all of your units participating in a Battle have Routed
markers, you cannot spend a Morale Point to commit
Reserves to that Battle (12.5).
• It cannot Advance After Combat.
• It will Retreat and Rout again normally, if compelled to
do so.
EXAMPLE: You are the French Player and, on your Turn,
one of your units and two of your opponent’s units are Routed.
They each receive a white-bordered (i.e., opponent’s colored)
Routed marker after surviving their Retreat.
Recovery: At the end of your Combat Phase, remove all Routed
markers in play whose borders match your side’s color (bluebordered if you are the French Player or white-bordered if you
are not), and are not in an EZOC.
At the end of your opponent’s Combat Phase, those Routed
markers are removed from each of these units, but only if it is
not in an EZOC. Otherwise, they remain on those Routed units,
with full effect, and are checked again for removal at the end of
[9.7] No Movement Cost: Retreat is not regular movement.
Retreating units simply count the hexes Retreated through, one
at a time, regardless of terrain (including Rough, Forest, etc.
where Retreating units do not stop during a Retreat).
[9.8] Retreat Restrictions: If a unit is unable to Retreat within
the following restrictions, that unit is Broken instead:
[9.8.1] Terrain Effects: Units cannot Retreat off the map, into
prohibited hexes or across Major Rivers (except across bridge
or ford hexsides).
Fortified hex
Redoubt hex
Units in a Fortified or Redoubt hex may always Retreat one fewer
hex, at the owning player’s option.
Thus, a unit in such a hex can ignore a “Withdraws” result that it
suffers, and Retreat one hex fewer if it Routs; on a Rout die roll
of 1, such a unit is still technically Routed and suffers normal
Rout effects, but it may opt to ‘hold its ground.’
For Elite Forces, apply the Elite effects first (subtracting two from
the Rout die roll) and then adjust for defending in a Fortified or
Redoubt hex. Thus, if an Elite Force suffered a 1 or 2 Rout result
while defending in a Fortified or Redoubt hex, it would be the
equivalent of an Engaged result; on a 3 the unit would be Routed
but could choose to ‘hold its ground.’
[9.8.2] Retreat Hex Priority: Whenever and wherever possible, you must Retreat units into and through vacant hexes not
containing an EZOC.
[9.8.3] Hazardous Retreat Path #1 - Enemy ZOCs: If the
above (9.8.2) is not possible, you can Retreat a unit into/through
an EZOC and even end its Retreat in an EZOC. If you do so,
however, you must roll one die for each EZOC hex entered. On
a roll of 1, 2, or 3, the unit Breaks in that hex; on a roll of 4, 5,
or 6, it Retreats normally.
Friendly units do not negate EZOCs for purposes of Retreat.
EXAMPLE: At the end of the French Player’s turn, all bluebordered Routed markers in play are removed, regardless of
whether they are on French or Anti-French units.
Retreating After Combat
‘Retreat After Combat’ is when a Combat Result requires a
player’s unit(s) to Retreat (either by Withdrawal or Rout). The
owning player must immediately move each such unit the indicated number of hexes away from the hex it occupied during the
Battle (i.e., its ‘Battle hex’).
[9.8.4] Hazardous Retreat Path #2 - Crossing Rivers: When
Retreating anywhere across a Minor River, or across a Major
River via a bridge or ford hexside, your unit must roll one die.
On a roll of 1, 2, or 3, the unit Breaks in the hex before crossing
that River; on a roll of 4, 5, or 6, it Retreats normally across it.
When Retreating into/across multiple hazards at a single hex,
you must make a separate die roll for each of them!
[9.8.5] Friendly Units: If no other route is available, a Retreating
unit may move through friendly occupied hexes. If its Retreat
would end in a friendly-occupied hex, it Retreats one additional
hex at a time until it is no longer stacked with a friendly unit.
This means additional die rolls if these hexes are also hazardous!
[9.8.6] Retreat Direction Priority: While always yielding to
Rule 9.8.2, whenever and wherever possible, you must Retreat
your units in such a way that, with each hex they Retreat, they
move closer to a friendly LOC hex (see the Exclusive Rules)
than the hex Retreated from.
You have the choice of which LOC hex to Retreat each unit
toward if more than one is available (regardless of proximity to
the Retreating unit).
[9.8.7] Going the Distance: A Retreat path can zig-zag only to
avoid self-destruction, but it must strive to maintain Rule 9.8.6.
The length of the Retreat path must be the full indicated number
of hexes. If the unit reaches the LOC before reaching the full
required distance, it Breaks in the LOC hex (i.e., it is Retreated
‘off the map’).
Victorious attacking or defending units can usually Advance
After Combat.
following Cases when conducting Advance After Combat:
[9.9.1] The Retreat Path: When an enemy unit Retreats as a
result of combat, it will leave a specific path of vacant hexes
behind it called the ‘Retreat Path.’ If this path went through a hex
containing another unit friendly to the Retreating unit (9.8.5), the
Retreat Path ends at the hex the unit Retreated through.
If a unit Breaks, then the hex it occupied at the instant of Breaking is the termination point for its Retreat Path.
9
[9.9.2] Who is Eligible to Advance? Any or all surviving victorious non-Artillery, non-Routed units (and see 16.8.3, “Spent”)
that participated in the Battle can Advance After Combat by their
owner along the enemy Retreat Path (only). Units cannot stray
from the Retreat Path while Advancing.
[9.9.3] Which Units Must and Cannot Advance: Normally, an
Advance is made at the discretion of the victorious player, but if
there are one or more victorious Cavalry units involved in that
Battle, the victorious player must roll a die on the Controlled
Advance Table (subtracting one if any are ‘Heavy’ Cavalry units
of 2 or more Combat Strength).
• If control of the Advance is kept, there is no effect and
those units Advance normally as their owner sees fit.
• If control of the Advance is lost by the Cavalry, then at
least one victorious Cavalry unit must Advance.
After any mandatory Cavalry unit Advance After Combat is
conducted, if the defeated unit’s hex is still vacant, then one
other attacking unit involved in that Battle may (at the owning
player’s discretion) Advance After Combat into that hex (only),
if otherwise allowed.
[9.9.4] Enemy ZOCs: Advancing units always ignore enemy
Zones of Control.
[9.9.5] Advance Limit: Artillery and Routed units can never
the hex occupied by the defender at the start of that Battle, and
a Cavalry unit cannot Advance a number of hexes greater than
its printed Movement Allowance.
As when Retreating, Advancing units don’t spend MPs nor stop
for Rugged Terrain (9.7). Advance After Combat is, essentially,
a ‘free move.’
[9.9.6] Terrain Effects: Units may not Advance After Combat
into prohibited hexes (i.e., hexes that they could not enter through
normal movement) or across Major Rivers (except across bridge
or ford hexsides).
[9.9.7] Immediacy: You must immediately exercise your option
to Advance After Combat before the next activity is resolved.
If not exercised immediately, this Advance opportunity is lost.
[9.9.8] Exhaustion: Advancing units can neither attack, nor be
attacked, again during that same Combat Phase, even if their
Advance places them next to enemy units whose Battles are yet
to be resolved, or who were not involved in a Battle.
10
[10.0] RALLYING
General Rule
At certain times (e.g., Night Turns), you can attempt to ‘Rally’
Procedure
For each Broken unit attempting to Rally, roll one die and apply
all appropriate die roll modifiers as listed on the Rally Table on
the Player Aid Mat. Note that the decision to spend a Morale
the die, but applies to all Rally attempt rolls made at that time
(e.g., night time or event-driven rally opportunities). Consult the
Rally Table and apply the result immediately. Also see the Unit
Reduction Optional Rule, 16.5.
Placement of Rallied Units
EXAMPLE: Three French units (the 4-strength Imperial
Guard, 2-strength III Corps, and 1-strength IV Cavalry Corps)
attack one Prussian unit (the 3-strength I Corps) which is
defending in a Forest hex.
Place your newly Rallied unit on an empty friendly LOC hex. If
none are available, or you do not desire to place it there at this
time, then that unit simply remains Broken; it is possible to try to
Rally it again at a later time. (Also see Rule 16.4 for additional
Rally locations.)
The attacker (French) has a total of 7 Strength Points, and the
French Player declines to spend a Morale Point to increase
his strength.
[11.0] REINFORCEMENTS
The defender (Prussian) has a total of 4 Strength Points (3 for
the unit plus 1 for the Forest hex it is defending in), and opts
to spend 1 Morale Point to increase his total to 5.
Therefore, the Combat Differential is 7 – 5 = +2. The French
Player rolls a die. Looking at the CRT, the French Player’s
die roll of 6 is cross-indexed with the +2 column to yield a
result of DR (Defender Routs).
This requires a roll to determine the Rout distance. A result
of 2 isn’t bad, requiring the unit to Retreat only two hexes
back toward its LOC off to the right—and no loss of Morale
for Routing more hexes than its Movement Allowance (see
Morale Chart)!
Unfortunately, the first hex it must Retreat through is in an
EZOC (i.e., “hazardous”), so another die roll must be made to
see if the Retreating Prussian unit Breaks (as per 9.8.3). This
time, the die roll is a 5, and the Prussian unit survives and
continues its Retreat along its Retreat Path, as shown above.
Now the French consider their Advance After Combat options.
With a victorious French Cavalry unit among the attackers,
a die roll is required on the Controlled Advanced Table, but
a result of 3 means that Cavalry unit is ‘off to the races’ and
must Advance into the Forest hex. The French Player then
exercises his option to continue to Advance his Cavalry unit
along the Retreat Path and takes a second hex (which is where
the Retreat Path ends).
Finally, the French Player also exercises his option to Advance
an Infantry unit into the defender’s vacated hex, moving the
2-strength III Corps into the Forest.
General Rule
‘reinforcements.’
Game Turn indicated by the set up instructions in the Exclusive
Rules in the Playbook.
Variable Reinforcements: Some games list ‘Variable Reinforcements’ in their set up instructions or reinforcements that enter
play via Event cards. Each of your Variable Reinforcement units
requires you to make a separate die roll for them on the Turn
they are scheduled to arrive. If your die roll succeeds, it enters
play that Turn normally. If it fails, that unit is advanced ahead
one turn on the Game Turn Track, where you can roll for it again
Procedure
When they arrive, place your reinforcement units next to the
colored map edge hexsides indicated in the Exclusive Rules
portion of the Playbook.
Important: The notion of reinforcements being poised directly
at the map edge is strictly a concept. Until they enter the map,
reinforcements have no effect on game play. Off map units have
no ZOCs, cannot attack enemy units, etc.
[11.1] Initial Movement: Arriving reinforcements are poised
next to the map edge. When entering its first hex, a reinforcing
unit expends its MPs normally according to the Terrain Effects
[11.2] March Order: When you have more than one reinforcement unit appear at the same hex during the same Movement
Phase, line them up off map, one behind the other, with the ‘lead’
unit poised next to the map entry hex itself. To simulate a ‘march
order’ column of troops, each such unit spends one more MP than
its predecessor did to enter the map.
[11.3] Timing: Reinforcements can arrive at any time during
your Movement Phase that Turn. Once on the map, reinforcement
units are treated as normal units for all purposes.
[11.4] Blocked Entry: A reinforcement unit cannot enter a hex
occupied by an enemy unit; it can enter a hex in an EZOC, but
must then cease movement normally.
[11.5] Delaying Arrival: You may voluntarily delay your reinforcements from Game Turn to Game Turn, bringing them into
play on some later Turn (if at all). This is what a player must do
when a reinforcement’s entry area is blocked by enemy units.
Whenever a reinforcement is brought into play, it must appear
at its scheduled entry area.
[12.0] ARMY MORALE
General Rule
Each side begins with a number of Morale Points
as indicated in the Exclusive Rules’ set up instructions. Morale Points represent that side’s level of
motivation and command skill during the campaign.
Players expend Morale Points to enhance their Movement,
Combat and Rally operations.
Keeping Track of Morale Points
Use the Morale markers to record Morale Points on the Morale
Track.
[12.1] Gaining / Losing Morale Points: See the Morale Chart
(next to the Morale Track on the Player Aid Mat) for specific ingame actions that raise and lower Morale Points. If two or more
Morale-changing events occur simultaneously, first add and then
subtract all the Morale Point changes that apply.
[12.1.1] Maximum Morale: A side’s Morale Value may never
exceed ten (10), with any excess being lost.
[12.1.2] Morale Destroyed: If a side’s Morale Value ever reaches
zero (0), then that side immediately loses the game. If this occurs
to both sides simultaneously, the game is a draw.
11
Exceptions:
• There is no cost to commit a Guard unit if either side has
only 1 Morale Point remaining. The Guard was expected
to join the fray at such a critical moment.
• There is no Morale cost for a Guard unit to Advance After
Combat (9.9).
At that point, that Guard unit is already committed.
[12.2.2] Le Garde Recule: If an attacking Guard unit in a Battle
could not conceivably Advance After Combat (9.9.2), i.e., it was
not victorious or did not survive an EX outcome, that side loses
one (–1) Morale Point. That Guard unit does not have to actually
Advance, it simply must be victorious and capable of doing so.
EXAMPLE: The French Guard unit pays 1 Morale Point
(MP) to move adjacent to an enemy unit that is across a bridge
hexside, setting up a very important attack. It Routs (DR) that
enemy unit 6 hexes. The enemy = –1 MP for Routing more
hexes than that unit’s Movement Allowance (and the attacking Guard unit avoids the Le Garde Recule penalty; 12.2.2).
That Routing unit then Breaks when it reaches a prohibited
hex and can’t complete its Retreat. The French = +1 Morale
(for Breaking the enemy unit).
When the Routed unit Breaks, there is no additional MP loss
to its side.
Spending Morale Points
You can only ever spend a single Morale Point at a time for
these purposes:
[12.3] Forced Marching: During your Movement Phase, you
may spend one Morale Point to increase the Movement Allowances of all your units by one (+1).
[12.4] To Rally: When you attempt to Rally units, you may spend
one Morale Point for a plus one (+1) die roll modifier to all your
Rally die rolls conducted at that time.
[12.5] Committing Reserve Troops to Battle: During a Battle’s
Steps B and C, the attacker and defender, respectively, may each
spend one Morale Point to add one (+1) to their side’s total
strength in that particular Battle.
[12.2] Committing the Guard: Certain units, often
referred to as ‘Guards’ (i.e., ones with a red Movement Allowance, as shown here) were typically held
back and committed only at critical times.
[12.2.1] Forward: During your Movement Phase, before moving
your Guard unit into a hex from which it can attack an adjacent
enemy unit (i.e., ‘committing the Guard’), you must spend a
Morale Point.
12
[13.0] PASSING (“LULLS”)
[15.0] HOW TO WIN
General Rule
General Rule
After the first Night Game Turn occurs, during any subsequent
Day Turn where both players have units on the map, if you do
not Force March your army, nor make any Battle die rolls (9.0)
Phase, then your side gains one (+1) Morale Point at the end of
your Player Turn if either one of these applies:
Each side has its own Victory Conditions based upon Morale
Values:
A. Your side has fewer than 6 Morale Points,
- OR B. Your side does not have more Morale Points than your
opponent.
[14.0] NIGHT TURNS
General Rule
During Night Game Turns, the following Rules
apply:
• Speed Limit: Reduce all Movement Allowances to 1 MP.
You can increase this, as usual, by using Roads and/or
Forced Marching, but units can always move at least one hex
regardless of other adjustments (e.g., Event cards, Fatigue;
see 16.8) unless specifically prohibited from doing so.
• ZOC Effects: At night, EZOCs work opposite to how they
do during Day Turns. That is, units cannot enter hexes in an
EZOC (such hexes are prohibited), but they can freely exit
hexes in an EZOC—consequently, those units are no longer
stuck (as per 6.8) during a Night Turn. This is a way to exit
EZOCs. In effect, all units can Disengage at night.
• No Battles: Skip the Reaction Phase, and no combat occurs
during a Night Turn’s Combat Phase.
The following ‘Night Operations’ are skipped during Day (i.e.,
non-Night) Turns. You only perform them, in order, during the
Night Operations Phase of your Night Turn.
1. Rally: You may attempt to Rally your Broken units (see
10.0).
2. Enemy Morale Loss due to Captured Terrain: If you
have units physically occupying enemy LOC and / or
Objective hexes (i.e., one in the opposing side’s color),
apply their morale loss effect at this time according to the
Morale Chart.
3. Morale Recovery from Rest: Your side increases its
Morale Value by one (+1) point from a night’s recuperation.
4. Re-concealment: When using the Fog of War Optional
Rule (16.1), you now reconceal (i.e., flip face-down) and
place your side’s Dummy units on the map.
5. Reshuffle: At the end of the Second Player’s Night Turn,
reshuffle the Event cards to refresh the Draw Pile.
• The French Player wins a Decisive Victory if, at any time,
the Anti-French side’s Morale is reduced to zero (0) and
French Morale is one (1) or more.
• The Anti-French Player wins a Decisive Victory if, at any
time, the French side’s Morale is reduced to zero (0) and
Anti-French Morale is one (1) or more.
• The Anti-French Player wins a Marginal Victory if, at the
end of the game (i.e., at the conclusion of the last Game
Turn), the Anti-French side’s Morale Value is at least 1
higher than the French side’s Morale Value.
• A Draw occurs with any other result.
[16.0] OPTIONAL RULES
Players can use these Optional Rules in any combination desired.
[16.1] Fog of War: Hidden Units
Players place their units face-down at all times (including during set up). You can freely inspect your own units, but not your
opponent’s pieces until they are ‘revealed.’ Face-down units
function normally in all other respects.
[16.1.1] Revealing Hidden Units: You reveal a
face-down unit:
• Whenever the opposing player desires to reveal his own
units.
• When you pay a Morale Point to ‘Commit the Guard’
(12.2); at that time, that Guard unit, if hidden, must be
revealed.
• At the end of each non-Night Turn’s Movement Phase,
if you have a face-up Cavalry unit adjacent to hexes
containing face-down enemy units, reveal all of those
face-down units.
• When an enemy Cavalry unit attempts to move during its
Reaction Phase via Disengagement (8.3) or Penetration
(16.2), and you wish to prevent that maneuver with a
hidden friendly Cavalry unit, that hidden friendly Cavalry
unit is revealed.
• After all Battles are declared during a Combat Phase
(i.e., which friendly units are designated to attack which
other, possibly hidden, enemy units), all units involved are
revealed.
No Advance After Combat is permitted when only a hidden
Dummy unit is revealed in Battle. (There was no combat, so
13
[16.1.2] Reconcealing Units: Face-up units remain revealed until
the end of your Night Turn, at which time all of your face-up
units are turned face-down to begin the new day.
[16.1.3] Dummy Units: Each side’s mix of pieces
includes one or more ‘Dummy’ units.
• Unless specified, do not set up any Dummy units on the
map.
• You may add one hidden friendly Dummy unit per Turn, if
available, to the map with the arrival of either your newly
Rallied or Reinforcement unit (also hidden). They arrive
stacked together (like a ‘shell game’) and you must move
at least one of them during your Movement Phase (6.9)
so that they do not remain stacked.
• You can also place in play all of your available (i.e., those
not currently hidden on the map) Dummy units when your
units are reconcealed (usually at Night, see 14.0). Place
them in hexes containing a friendly unit that is not adjacent
to an enemy unit and then immediately relocate one of
those two stacked units (real or Dummy) to an adjacent
hex that is also not adjacent to an enemy unit.
• A Dummy moves like a Cavalry unit (with a Movement
Allowance of 3). But moving them only 2 will help conceal
them among Infantry units!
• The instant your Dummy unit is revealed, it is removed
from the map (at no Morale cost). It can return during your
next opportunity for re-concealment.
• When declaring Battles (9.2), include hidden Dummy
units! Their declared Battles do fulfill the attacker’s
mandatory combat requirement (9.1). That is, you can use
unrevealed Dummy units as ‘feints’ to create diversionary
attacks!
• When revealing units as per 16.1.1, Dummy units do
cause enemy units to be revealed. In this capacity, they
are ‘scouting.’
• Until revealed, a Dummy unit functions in all ways as a
normal unit and does control the hex it occupies (e.g., an
enemy Objective or LOC hex).
[16.2] Cavalry Penetration
During your Reaction Phase, friendly Cavalry units
may move through EZOCs under certain circumstances.
Procedure
Cavalry Penetration occurs during your Reaction Phase (only) as
that Cavalry unit’s single action. Your Cavalry unit must begin
its Reaction Phase adjacent to an enemy unit. It can then move
into another hex that is also adjacent to an enemy unit (even
moving from one hex in an EZOC to another), but it must then
cease its movement for that Phase and cannot also conduct a
Countercharge attack.
• The Penetrating Cavalry unit cannot begin in, or enter an,
enemy Cavalry unit’s EZOC.
DESIGN NOTE: This move is, in effect, the opposite of
Disengagement (8.3).
[16.3] Artillery Support
Individual artillery batteries were often detached
from ‘parks’ for nearby formations to help shore up
threatened parts of the line.
[16.3.1] Defensive Support: If no attack has been declared
(9.2) against an Artillery unit, it adds one (+1) to the strength of
all friendly defending units in its ZOC (if it currently has one).
This benefit has no Morale Point cost and applies during both
the enemy’s Combat and Reaction Phases.
[16.3.2] Bombardment: Artillery units can attack across a Major
River or other prohibited terrain hexside by Bombardment. A
bombarding Artillery unit can attack, either alone or combined
with other friendly attacking units, using its normal (printed; not
doubled as per 9.3) Combat Strength.
When bombarding, Artillery units enjoy a limited immunity to
adverse combat results: Treat all AB or AR results as AW. If an
EX result occurs, a bombarding Artillery unit cannot be Broken
to satisfy Case 9.6.G; if the Artillery unit is attacking alone via
Bombardment, treat EX results as Engaged instead.
14
In addition to vacant LOC hexes, you can also place Rallied
units (10.0) in a ‘Rally hex’ that meets all of these conditions:
• It must be an empty Town, Fortified or Redoubt hex or your
side’s Objective hex. That is, a ‘natural rallying point’.
• It must be ‘a safe distance’ of at least 4 hexes away from
the nearest enemy unit and closer to your nearest LOC
hex than the nearest enemy unit is to that same LOC hex.
That is, it must be ‘safely behind your lines.’
• It must be able to trace a path of hexes to your closest
LOC hex that is not occupied by an enemy unit. This
path can be of any length, but cannot pass through
any hex containing or adjacent to an enemy unit, or
across impassable (unbridged / unforded) Major River
hexsides. In other words, that hex is not ‘isolated behind
enemy lines.’
[16.5] Unit Reduction
[16.5.1] Partial Rallying: When you conduct a Rally Check for
an Infantry unit (only) and roll a ‘Cadre?’ result, you have the
option to partially Rally that unit thus:
• Eliminate the Infantry unit you were rolling for (i.e., it is
permanently removed from play), and
[16.5.2] Cadre Units: Cadre units function as normal Infantry units except, if they are ever Broken,
they themselves cannot be Rallied. When Broken,
[16.6] Unit Breakdown and Buildup
Before it moves during your Movement
Phase, your ‘large’ (i.e., having a Combat
Strength of 2 or more) Infantry-type unit
(only; other types are not eligible) can be
exchanged for (i.e., ‘broken down into’) two
Cadre units, if available, at the cost of 1
Morale Point.
Conversely, at the end of your Movement Phase, you can stack
two Cadre units together and exchange them for (i.e., ‘combine
them into’) an eliminated large Infantry unit and recover 1
Morale Point.
[16.6.1] Breaking Down: A player must have two available
Cadre units in order to break down a large Infantry unit.
Remove the large Infantry-type unit being broken down from the
map and place it among your eliminated units (i.e., it cannot be
Rallied). Replace it in its hex with two Cadre units. These newly
placed Cadre units are free to move and engage in combat this Turn.
• There is a minus one (–1) Morale Point cost to break down
a unit thus.
• If an unrevealed large Infantry unit breaks down, one
Dummy unit, if available and Rule 16.1 is in effect, can
units when it is formed.
[16.6.2] Combining: Any two Cadre units of the same nationality can end their owner’s Movement Phase stacked together (an
exception to Rule 6.9). When they do so, remove them from the
map and replace them in that hex with your weakest eliminated
large Infantry unit of that same nationality; that unit is then free
to participate in combat that Turn.
• There is a plus one (+1) Morale Point gain when building
up a large Infantry unit thus.
[16.7] Special Unit Types
Some games include special unit types with unique capabilities
identifiable by their Combat Strength and/or Movement Allowance in a different (non-black) color.
As a reminder, the Standard Rules:
• Infantry units with their Combat Strength in red are Elite
units (–2 for Rout rolls, and +1 for Rally rolls).
• All units with their Movement Allowance in red are Guard
units (they must be ‘committed’ to attack with them, see
12.2).
[16.7.1] Light Infantry: Infantry units with their
Movement Allowance in green are Light Infantry.
They function as normal Infantry units in all respects
except as follows:
• They can also Disengage, exactly as per Case 8.3 (i.e., not
if in an enemy Cavalry unit’s ZOC).
• As an exception to Case 6.5, Light Infantry units need
not stop in Rugged Terrain hexes (e.g., Forest, Rough and
Marsh). Instead, they may simply spend 1 MP to enter that
hex and continue moving.
[16.7.2] Cossacks: Cavalry units with their Movement Allowance in green are Cossacks. They function as normal Cavalry units except as follows:
• As an exception to Case 6.5, Cossack units need not stop
in Rugged Terrain hexes (e.g., Forest, Rough and Marsh).
Instead, they may simply spend 2 MPs to enter that hex
and continue moving. If it enters a Rugged hex when it
has only 1 MP, it can enter and must stop as usual.
• During their Reaction Phase, Cossack units cannot
Countercharge (8.1) or Penetrate (16.2).
• During the Reaction Phase, Cossack units can Disengage
from the ZOCs of enemy Cavalry units (an exception to
Case 8.3.2).
15
[16.8] Fatigue
Sustained combat exhausts troops and degrades their
performance over time. You can show this using the
round Fatigue markers and this Optional Rule.
Units showing a man’s portrait are Leaders.
Command
Prerogative
(16.9.5.1)
Command
Span
Russian
French
Name
Portrait
Movement
Allowance
Leader units represent the command structure needed to coordinate offensive action on a sprawling battlefield. These units do
not have a Combat Strength; instead the value on the dark blue
dot is called their Command Span rating (but it is located in the
same place where other units’ Combat Strengths are).
Fatigue Levels
Here is the list of the five levels of Fatigue:
0. Fresh (no marker)
2. Tired (yellow marker)
3. Weary (orange marker)
4. Spent (red marker)
Listed in the game’s set up instructions you will find the optional
Procedure
[16.8.1] Exhaustion: Each unit participating in a Battle (attacking and defending), has its Fatigue Level increased by one (e.g.,
from having no Fatigue marker to placing a Ready marker on it; or
flipping a Ready marker over to show its Tired side; or replacing
a Tired marker with a Weary marker; or flipping a Weary marker
to show its Spent side). If the unit is already Spent, there is no
additional effect; it simply remains Spent.
[16.8.2] Recovery: At the end of your own Combat Phase, each
of your units with a Fatigue marker on it that is not adjacent to
an enemy unit has its Fatigue Level reduced by one level (even
during a Night Turn). A unit with a Ready marker on it simply
removes it to symbolize that it is again Fresh.
[16.8.3] Effects of Fatigue: While Fatigued (i.e., marked with
a Fatigue marker), that unit is affected thus:
• Ready: that unit is unaffected.
• Tired: that unit receives no movement benefit if its side
conducts a Forced March (12.3).
• Weary: that unit suffers the Tired penalty and a –1 penalty
to its Movement Allowance (e.g., if it is an Infantry unit,
its Movement Allowance is reduced to ‘1’, and a Cavalry
unit would be reduced to ‘2’).
• Spent: that unit suffers the Tired and Weary penalties, and
is prohibited from voluntarily entering EZOCs, including
[16.9.1] Command Span: A Leader unit’s Command Span is
the radius in hexes over which it exerts control over friendly
attacking units, reflecting its command authority.
Terrain features and/or the presence of enemy units or EZOCs
have no impact on a Leader’s Command Span.
[16.9.1.1] Command Prerogative: Applies to the Smolensk
20 and Borodino 20 games only. See 16.9.5.1 in the Playbook.
units, with the following exceptions:
• Leader units move through all Rugged Terrain (6.5) hexes
as if they were Clear.
• Leader units can voluntarily exit EZOCs (6.8) providing
they do not move directly from one EZOC into another
when doing so.
• A Leader unit can end the Movement Phase stacked in the
same hex with a friendly unit and/or any number of other
are not obligated to attack enemy units (7.3), but if they are in an
EZOC and not stacked with a friendly unit at any point during
the owning player’s Combat Phase or during the enemy Movement Phase, then the Leader must immediately be retreated one
hex by the owning player. If the Leader is still in an EZOC and
not stacked with a friendly unit after such a mandatory retreat,
do not perform Reaction Movement (8.0). A Leader unit can
accompany the friendly unit it is stacked with that performs
Reaction Movement. Leaders do not affect the Combat Strength
of Countercharging Cavalry units.
16
Leader units ‘coordinate attacks’ by providing Command to your
units that are within their Command Span. Units within their
Command Span are ‘In Command,’ while those that are not are
‘Out of Command.’
[16.9.7] ‘Rallying’ Broken Leaders: Unlike other Broken units,
at the beginning of your Movement Phase each Turn, you automatically Rally (i.e., no die roll required) your Broken Leader
units. Place Rallied Leader units in the same way as other units
(see 10.0 and 16.4, if that Rule is used).
Procedure
When calculating the final Combat Differential of an attack
during Step D of the Battle Sequence (9.0), your attacking units
(only) check to see whether or not they are ‘In Command.’
If the Napoleon Leader unit is Broken (for whatever reason), the French Player must roll on this
table:
• The attacking units are In Command, and that Battle is
resolved normally, if any of your attacking units are within
• The attacking units are Out of Command, and that Battle
is resolved with the final Combat Differential reduced by
one (–1), only if none of your attacking units are within
There is no benefit if you have more than one (or even all) of
your attacking units In Command, or having more than one
Leader unit mutually exerting their Command Spans over your
attacking units.
Conversely, Command has no effect on a unit’s ability to defend.
Command only affects the attacking units in a Battle.
Command Cases
• A Leader unit can provide Command to multiple Battles
within its Command Span in the same Combat Phase.
• Whether a unit is In Command or not (i.e., its ‘command
status’) is determined at the instant each Battle is resolved.
Break or Retreat in such a way that its Command Span is
no longer exerted over your unit involved in a subsequent
Battle, then that attack is conducted Out of Command.
After Combat (9.9) may accompany that unit (or not).
• A Leader unit stacked with a friendly unit that is forced
to Retreat must accompany that unit. If that unit Breaks
during that Retreat due to a failed Hazardous Retreat roll
(9.8.3 and 9.8.4) or upon reaching an LOC (9.8.7), then
that Leader unit is also Broken (see below).
[16.9.6] Broken Leader Units: Unlike other units, there is no
Morale penalty when a Leader unit is Broken, with this one
exception: When the French Leader unit Napoleon is Broken
(for whatever reason), the French Player must immediately roll
a die and consult The Emperor’s Fate Table.
1
Napoleon is killed. The game ends in an immediate
Allied Decisive Victory.
2
Napoleon is wounded. The French side immediately loses one Morale Point.
3-6 Napoleon escapes. No effect.
[16.9.8] Rallying on a Leader: Some Event card titles state that
your units are “Rallying on” a specific leader. If you draw that
named in that Event’s title is on the map, then vacant hexes with
or adjacent to that Leader marker and not in an EZOC can serve
as additional Rally locations (without any other restrictions) for
the duration of that Event only.
Napoleonic 20 v3.0 Series
Credits
Game System Design: Joseph Miranda
Series Developer: Lance McMillan
Documentation: Alan Emrich
Counter Art: Tim Allen, Richard Starke and Mark Simonitch
Maps: Knut Grunitz
Cards & Rules layout: Charles Kibler
Playtesting: Mark Beninger, Michael D’Alesandro,
Scott DiBerardino, Joe Donnelly, Andreas Gebhardt, Kim
Meints, David Moody, Stephanie Newland, Joe Oppenheimer, Randall Shaw, Hugh Tracy
Proofreading: Bill Barrett, Hans Korting, Rick Partin,
Jonathan Squibb, Ian Wakeham
Production Coordination: Tony Curtis
Producers: Tony Curtis, Rodger MacGowan, Andy
Lewis, Gene Billingsley & Mark Simonitch
GMT Games, LLC
P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308