2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics

2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
Study Guide
Study Guide
TMT-121131
2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 DiagnosticsTMT-121131
2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10
Diagnostics
©2011 Navistar, Inc.
4201 Winfield Road, Warrenville, IL 60555.
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be duplicated
or stored in an information retrieval system
without the express written permission of
Navistar, Inc.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION.................................................................1
MODULE 1: Hard-Start No-Start Required Test
Procedures..................................................................5
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
1: Overview..............................................................5
2: Initial Key On Check.........................................5
3: Visual Inspection...............................................6
4: EST Connection and Data Recording............7
5: Check For DTCs.................................................8
6: Engine Cranking................................................9
7: Relative Compression Test............................10
MODULE 2: Hard-Start No-Start Diagnostics
Special Test Procedures.........................................13
Section 1: Overview............................................................13
Section 2: Electrical Diagnostics: Inlet Air Heater
Amperage Draw.............................................................13
Section 3: Fuel Delivery Pressure Diagnostics............14
Part 1: Overview...........................................................14
Part 2: Fuel Pump Electrical Check..........................14
Part 3: Aeration Check................................................15
Part 4: Fuel Filter Check.............................................16
Part 5: Alternative Fuel Supply Check..................... 17
Section 4: Injection Control Pressure Diagnostics.....17
Part 1: Overview........................................................... 17
Part 2: ICP Open Loop Test........................................18
Part 3: High-pressure Reservoir Inspection...........18
Part 4: IPR Control Test..............................................19
Part 5: High-pressure Oil Pump Test........................20
Part 6: IPR Block-off Test...........................................20
Part 7: High-Pressure Oil Rail Leak Test.................21
Table of Contents
MODULE 3: Performance Diagnostics........................23
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
1: Overview........................................................... 23
2: KOER Standard Test...................................... 23
3: Fuel Aeration Check...................................... 24
4: Engine Low Idle to High Idle........................ 24
5: Torque Converter Stall Test.......................... 26
6: IPR Circuit Test............................................... 26
7: KOER Air Management Test......................... 27
8: TC2WC Operational Test............................... 28
9: TC2WC Solenoid Test.................................... 28
10: Isolated Actuator Test................................. 29
11: Crankcase Oil Breather Separator Test... 30
12: Crankcase Pressure Test............................ 30
13: Relative Compression Test..........................31
14: Cylinder Cut-Out Test...................................31
15: Road Test....................................................... 32
CONCLUSION...................................................................35
Introduction1
Introduction
Welcome to this engine-training
course, 2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9, and
10 Diagnostics for Technicians. This
course will introduce technicians to the
diagnostic procedures used to solve
starting and performance problems.
Objectives
Upon completion of this
course, you will be able to:
• Identify the steps and
procedures used to diagnose
both starting and engine
performance issues.
•Use ServiceMaxx™ to
perform various engine tests.
This program consists of this
introduction and the following three
modules: Hard-Start No-Start Required
Tests Procedures, Hard-Start NoStart Special Test Procedures,
and Performance Diagnostic Test
Procedures.
Upon completion of this course, you
will be able to identify the steps and
procedures used to diagnose both
starting and engine performance
issues, and use ServiceMaxx™ to
perform various engine tests.
This program refers to Engine
Symptoms Diagnostics, Hard-Start
No-Start Diagnostics, Performance
Diagnostics, Electronic Control
Systems Diagnostics, Performance
Specifications, and the Diagnostic
Trouble Code Index. Each of these
refers to a section of the diagnostic
manual on ISIS®.
The diagnostic manual on ISIS®
includes both Hard-Start No-Start and
Performance Diagnostic procedures.
“Each of these
refers to a section
of the diagnostic
manual on ISIS®.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
This module will cover the required
tests used to diagnose starting issues.
The two forms available when
diagnosing these engines are HardStart No-Start Diagnostics and
Performance Diagnostics. Both forms
are found on ISIS® and can be used
to avoid lost time and unnecessary
repairs.
“There are several
tests used to
identify the cause
of a starting issue.”
There are several tests used to identify
the cause of a starting issue. These
tests are divided into required tests and
special system tests.
Always perform the required tests in
sequence, and perform the special
tests only when directed by the results
of a required test.
If the cause of the problem is found
when performing a required test, repair
the fault and retest. If the problem
was corrected, do not complete any
remaining required tests. In addition,
always use the latest service literature
when servicing an engine.
Introduction3
NOTES
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
NOTES
Module 1: Hard-Start No-Start Required Test Procedures
Hard-Start No-Start
Required Test Procedures
Module 1
Overview
This module will explain the required
tests for Hard-Start and No-Start
issues.
There are six required tests for starting
issues. They are:
“This module
will explain the
required tests for
Hard-Start and
No-Start issues.”
• Key-On Check
• Visual Inspection
• EST and Data
• Check for DTC’s
• Engine Cranking
• Relative Compression
Initial Key-ON Check
The first test is the Initial Key-ON
Check.
Start by turning the ignition switch ON.
Now, watch the instrument panel for a
Water-In-Fuel message. The message
will flash for 5 to 10 seconds and turn
off. If the message stays on solid after 5
to 10 seconds, take a fuel sample from
the filter module and check for water.
5
“If the message
stays on solid after
5 to 10 seconds,
take a fuel sample
from the filter
module and check
for water.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
Visual Inspection
The second Required Test procedure is
the Visual Inspection of the engine.
Start by checking the oil level and
quality. If the oil level is low, inspect for
leaks.
“Low oil level or
low oil pressure
can affect the oil
level in the highpressure reservoir
and prevent the
injectors from
operating.”
Low oil level or low oil pressure can
affect the oil level in the high-pressure
reservoir and prevent the injectors from
operating.
Ensure the oil is the proper viscosity
and not contaminated with fuel or
coolant. Contaminated oil will also
prevent the injectors from operating
correctly.
Inspect the fuel system. Check the fuel
level in the tank and inspect the system
for leaks.
Take a fuel sample from the filter
module and check for water, sediment,
gasoline, kerosene, waxing, and icing. If
necessary, take a sample from the tank
to determine if the fuel in the tank is
contaminated.
Check the coolant level in the deaeration tank. A low coolant level could
indicate other engine problems. Also,
check if the coolant is contaminated
with oil. Oil in the coolant may be an
indication of major engine failure.
Module 1: Hard-Start No-Start Required Test Procedures
Check the exhaust system. Leaks
around the Exhaust Aftertreatment
Assembly or dented pipes could be
a sign of a high restriction that could
prevent the engine from starting.
Check the air-filter restriction-indicator.
If the restriction is greater than 25
inches of water, or 6.2 kPa, replace the
air filter and retest.
Inspect the charge-air system for leaks.
Leaks in the charge-air piping will allow
dirt and dust to enter the system.
Check the Electrical System for chaffed
wiring or broken connections.
Inspect the camshaft position sensor,
crankshaft position sensor, and the
injection pressure regulator for proper
electrical connection. When these
components are disconnected, the
engine will not start.
EST Connection and Data
Recording
The third Required test procedure is
EST Connection and Data Recording.
Start by establishing communication
between the Electronic Service Tool, or
EST, and the ECM.
If communication cannot be
established, refer to “J1939 Data
Link” in “Electronic Control System
Diagnostics.”
“Leaks around
the Exhaust
Aftertreatment
Assembly or
dented pipes
could be a sign of
a high restriction
that could prevent
the engine from
starting.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
Now check for biased sensors by
recording their Key-On Engine Off
values.
“Monitor the
sensor values and
record them on the
diagnostic form.”
Monitor the sensor values and record
them on the diagnostic form.
Compare these sensor values to
specifications. Diagnose sensors
that are out of spec by referring
to “Electronic Control Systems
Diagnostics.”
Next, run the high and low output state
test and monitor the EGR Control and
Engine Throttle Position values. If either
value does not meet specifications,
refer to Electronic Control Systems
Diagnostics.
Finally, record the status of the Diesel
Particulate Filter on the diagnostic form.
Checking for DTCs
The fourth required test Procedure is to
Check for DTCs.
“Start by
checking the
engine for active
and previously
active diagnostic
trouble codes.”
Start by checking the engine for active
and previously active diagnostic trouble
codes.
2010 engines now use Suspect
Parameter Number, or SPN, and a
Failure Mode Indicator, or FMI to
identify failure codes.
Refer to the “Diagnostic Trouble
Code Index” to diagnose any active
Module 1: Hard-Start No-Start Required Test Procedures
codes before continuing. Evaluate any
previously active DTCs that would have
an effect on starting.
Engine Cranking
The fifth required test procedure is
Engine Cranking. This test allows you
to analyze the engine’s systems by
monitoring specific sensor values while
cranking.
Start by using an appropriate adapter to
connect the fuel pressure gauge to the
intake manifold.
Open the hard-start no-start session
in ServiceMaxx™. Then, press the
record button and crank the engine
for a maximum of 10 seconds while
monitoring the fuel pressure gauge.
After cranking the engine, look at
the following values in the recorded
snapshot: Switch Battery, Engine
Speed, Injection Control Pressure, and
Exhaust Back Pressure.
If Switch Battery drops below
specification, see “ECM Power”
in “Electronic Control Systems
Diagnostics.”
If the engine speed remains at 0 RPM,
see “CKP and CMP” in “Electronic
Control Systems Diagnostics.”
“The Engine
Cranking test
allows you to
analyze the
engine’s systems
by monitoring
specific sensor
values while
cranking.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
“If engine-cranking
speed is below
spec, check the
starting and
charging systems.”
If engine-cranking speed is below
spec, check the starting and charging
systems.
If fuel delivery pressure is below
specification, refer to the fuel system
special test procedures.
If injection control pressure is below
specification, perform the ICP Open
Loop test in Special Test Procedures.
If EBP is above spec, check the
position of the exhaust brake valve. The
valve should be open while cranking
the engine. If the valve is open, drop
the exhaust before the Pre-DOC and
monitor EBP during cranking. If the
EBP is now within spec, check the
exhaust system for restrictions.
Relative Compression Test
“The Relative
Compression
Test is used to
determine if each
cylinder is in
good mechanical
condition.”
The sixth required test procedure is the
Relative Compression Test. This test is
used to determine if each cylinder is in
good mechanical condition.
During this test, the ECM looks at the
speed of each piston’s approach to
top-dead-center compression and then
the speed of each piston’s down-stroke
after passing top-dead-center. The
ECM compares the two speeds and
calculates the difference.
Start by opening the Relative
Compression Test in ServiceMaxx™.
Module 1: Hard-Start No-Start Required Test Procedures
A window will appear to guide you
through the test procedure.
The test will begin and you’ll be
instructed to crank the engine. After
several seconds, the on-screen
instructions will tell you to stop
cranking. ServiceMaxx™ will now gather
the information from the test and tell
you to review the results.
A graph of the results will appear once
the test is complete. A cylinder with
low compression is represented by a
shorter bar on the graph. In this case,
the speeds of the piston’s approach
and down-stroke have little difference.
Repeat this test a total of three times
and compare the results from each test.
This concludes the Hard-Start No-Start
Required Test Procedures.
“A cylinder with
low compression
is represented
by a shorter bar
on the graph.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
NOTES
Module 2: Hard-Start No-Start Diagnostics Special Test Procedures
Hard-Start No-Start
Special Test Procedures
13
Module 2
Overview
This module explains the special test
procedures for electrical diagnostics,
fuel delivery diagnostics, and injectioncontrol-pressure diagnostics.
Only perform these special procedures
if directed by one of the six required
tests.
Electrical Diagnostics: Inlet
Air Heater Amperage Draw
This section covers the amperage draw
test used when diagnosing the Inlet Air
Heater.
Start by installing an amp clamp around
the Inlet Air Heater relay battery positive
circuit.
Turn the ignition switch ON.
Now, use ServiceMaxx™ to perform the
Intake Air Heater Test.
Observe the meter reading and record
this information on the diagnostic form.
If the amperage draw does not meet
specifications, refer to the Inlet Air
Heater System in “Electronic Control
System Diagnostics.”
“Start by installing
an amp clamp
around the Inlet
Air Heater relay
battery positive
circuit.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
If the amperage draw meets
specifications, the Inlet Air Heater is
working correctly.
Fuel Delivery Pressure
Diagnostics
Overview
This section covers the four tests used
when diagnosing the Fuel Delivery
System. These four tests will check for
a faulty fuel pump, fuel aeration, high
fuel inlet restriction, and a clogged filter.
Fuel Pump Electrical Check
The first test is the Fuel Pump Electrical
Check. This test verifies that the fuel
pump is receiving the correct voltage.
“The Fuel Pump
Electrical Check
verifies that the
fuel pump is Start by connecting Breakout Harness
receiving the 6023 between the engine harness and
correct voltage.” the fuel pump. Turn the ignition switch
ON. Measure the voltage between pins
1 and 4, then between 1 and 6. Record
the measurement.
The fuel pump times out after 10
seconds unless engine speed is
present. Wait 10 seconds between
ignition switch cycles to reset the timer.
If the voltage does not fall between
9-12 volts, go to FPC in “Electronic
Control System Diagnostics.”
Module 2: Hard-Start No-Start Diagnostics Special Test Procedures
15
Aeration Check
The second test is the Aeration Test.
This test will determine the cause of
fuel aeration.
Start by connecting the Fuel Pressure
Gauge to the test port on the front
of the intake manifold. Route the end
of the clear hose into a diesel fuel
container.
Now turn the ignition switch ON.
While the pump is running, open the
gauge shut-off valve briefly to check for
aeration.
If the fuel is not aerated, continue to the
Fuel Filter Test.
If the fuel is aerated, continue to the
next step.
Use the appropriate adapter to connect
the clean fuel tank to the fuel filterhousing inlet, and then connect a fuel
pressure gauge to the front of the
intake manifold.
Now, turn the ignition switch ON. Open
the shut-off valve to check for aeration.
If the fuel is still aerated with the clean
fuel tank attached, replace the fuel filter
housing.
If the fuel is not aerated, inspect
and repair the fuel tank and lines as
necessary.
“Use the
appropriate
adapter to connect
the clean fuel tank
to the fuel filterhousing inlet.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
Fuel Filter Check
The third test is the Fuel Filter Check.
This test allows you to determine if the
fuel filter is restricted.
Connect the Fuel/Oil Pressure Test
Coupler and the Fuel Pressure Gauge
to the filter housing test port.
Turn the ignition switch ON. Record the
gauge reading.
“If the fuel
pressure was
below spec at the
intake manifold
test port, and is
now within spec
at the fuel filter
housing test
port, the filter
is restricted.”
If the fuel pressure was below spec at
the intake manifold test port, and is now
within spec at the fuel filter housing test
port, the filter is restricted. Replace the
filter and clean the strainer.
If the pressure is below specification
at both test ports, the fuel pressure
regulator may be the cause. To check
this, disconnect the fuel return line from
the Fuel Filter housing. With the return
line disconnected, the check valve in
the return fitting closes and deadheads
the system. Turn the ignition switch On,
and measure the fuel pressure.
If fuel pressure is now above
specification, replace the Fuel Pressure
Regulator.
If fuel pressure is still below
specification, go to the Alternative Fuel
Supply Test.
Module 2: Hard-Start No-Start Diagnostics Special Test Procedures
Alternative Fuel Supply Test
The fourth test is the Alternative Fuel
Supply test. This test is used to verify
that the fuel supply is not restricted.
Connect the fuel pressure gauge to
the filter housing test port. Use the
appropriate adapter to connect the
clean fuel tank to the filter-housing inlet.
Turn the ignition switch ON. Measure
and record the fuel pressure.
“The Alternative
Fuel Supply test is
used to verify that
the fuel supply is
not restricted.”
If the fuel pressure is now within
specification, the system was restricted.
Inspect and repair the fuel tank and
lines as necessary.
If fuel pressure is still below
specification, replace the fuel pump.
Injection Control Pressure
Diagnostics
Overview
This section covers the six tests used
when diagnosing the Injection Control
Pressure, or ICP System. These six
tests will check for a Biased ICP
Sensor, empty reservoir, Injection
pressure regulator circuit faults, failed
high-pressure oil pump, failed Injection
Pressure Regulator valve, and under
valve cover leaks.
“If fuel pressure
is still below
specification,
replace the
fuel pump.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
ICP Open Loop Test
The first test is the ICP Open Loop
test. This test checks for a biased ICP
sensor or circuit.
“The ICP Open
Loop Test chaecks
for a biased ICP
sensor or circuit.” Start by disconnect the gray Under
Valve Cover connector, or UVC 1, and
then crank the engine for a maximum
of 20 seconds. This test will set an ICP
code. Ignore the code and clear it after
UVC 1 is reconnected.
If the engine starts, see ICP Sensor
in “Electronic Control System
Diagnostics.”
If the engine does not start, perform
the High-Pressure Pump Reservoir
Inspection.
High-Pressure Pump Reservoir
Inspection
The second test is the High-Pressure
Pump Reservoir Inspection. This test
checks the level of the oil in the highpressure pump reservoir.
“The High-Pressure
Pump Reservoir
Inspection checks
the level of the
oil in the high- Loosen the Engine Oil Temperature
pressure pump sensor. Watch for oil leaking around the
reservoir.” sensor’s threads.
If oil does not leak from around
the threads, the reservoir is empty.
See Lubrication System in “Engine
Symptoms Diagnostics.”
Module 2: Hard-Start No-Start Diagnostics Special Test Procedures
If the reservoir is full, perform the IPR
Control Test.
IPR Control Test
The third test is the IPR Control Test.
This test checks the Injection Pressure
Regulator, or IPR, circuit.
Start by disconnecting the IPR
connector and inspect it for damage
or corrosion. Fix the connection if
necessary.
Next, connect breakout harness ZTSE4484 to the IPR valve, and leave the
engine harness disconnected.
Now, energize the IPR valve by
connecting battery positive and ground
to the breakout harness.
Use ServiceMaxx™ to monitor ICP while
cranking the engine.
If the ICP builds above 28 MPa, or
4000 psi, refer to IPR in “Electronic
Control System Diagnostics.”
If the ICP does not build to 28 MPa, or
4000 psi, perform the High-Pressure
Oil Pump Test.
!
Caution
Do not connect the
test harness directly
to the engine harness.
Doing so will result in
a blown fuse.
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
High-Pressure Oil Pump Test
The fourth test is High-Pressure Oil
Pump Test. This test determines if the
high-pressure oil-pump can provide
maximum ICP.
Note
This test retains
Breakout Harness
ZTSE-4484 with
B+ and ground
connections from the
IPR Control test.
Start by removing the high-pressure
hose from the cylinder head fitting.
Install the Mechanical Gauge to the
high-pressure hose. Now monitor the
gauge while cranking the engine.
If ICP goes above 28 MPa, or 4000
psi, perform the High-Pressure Rail
Leak Test.
If ICP does not go above 28 MPa, or
4000 psi, perform the IPR Block-Off
Test.
IPR Block-Off Test
The fifth test is the IPR Block-off Test.
This test determines which of the
following has failed: the high-pressure
pump or the IPR valve.
Note
This test retains the
mechanical gauge
from the HighPressure Oil Pump
Test.
Start by removing the IPR valve from
the high-pressure oil pump. Install
the IPR Plug Tester. Now monitor the
gauge while cranking the engine.
If ICP goes above 28 MPa, or 4000
psi, replace the IPR valve.
If ICP does not go above 28 MPa, or
4000 psi, replace the high-pressure
pump.
Module 2: Hard-Start No-Start Diagnostics Special Test Procedures
High-Pressure Oil Rail Leak Test
The sixth test is the High-Pressure Oil
Rail Leak Test. This test locates the
cause of oil leaks under the valve cover.
Start by reconnecting the high-pressure
hose. Remove the valve cover and
disconnect the injector connectors.
Connect the breakout harness ZTSE4484 to the IPR valve. Next, energize
the IPR valve by connecting battery
positive and ground to the breakout
harness.
Now, inspect the high-pressure oil rail
for leaks while cranking the engine.
If oil is leaking from the Engine
Compression Brake valve, replace the
valve.
If oil is leaking from the o-ring between
the cylinder head and rail, remove the
rail and replace the O-ring.
If any of the oil inlet adapters are
leaking excessively, remove the rail and
replace the failed inlet adapter.
If the ICP sensor is leaking, replace the
sensor and o-ring.
This concludes the Hard-Start No-Start
Special Test Procedures.
Note
Perform this test only
if directed here from
the High-pressure Oil
Pump Test.
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
NOTES
Module 3: Performance Diagnostics
Performance Diagnostics
Module 3
Overview
This module explains the test
procedures for diagnosing a
performance issue.
The 18 tests in Performance
diagnostics are shown here. Five of
those are identical to tests covered in
Hard-Start No-Start required tests.
“This module
explains the
test procedures
for diagnosing
a performance
issue.”
In this module, we will only cover
the thirteen tests that are unique to
Performance Diagnostics.
KOER Standard Test
Tests one through four, Initial KeyOn Check, Visual Inspection, EST
Connection and Data Recording, and
Checking for DTCs were covered in
Hard-Start No-Start required tests.
The fifth test is the Key On Engine
Running Standard Test. This test
checks the ability of the ICP system to
create the proper pressure.
Start by selecting the KOER Standard
Test in ServiceMaxx™.
The ECM controls the engine speed
while commanding maximum ICP
pressure. The Test then returns the
engine to idle and lowers ICP to the
normal pressure.
23
“The KOER
Standard Test
checks the ability
of the ICP system
to create the
proper pressure.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
If a code sets during the test, go to
“Diagnostic Trouble Code Index.”
Fuel Aeration Check
“The Fuel Aeration The sixth test is the Fuel Aeration
Check checks for Check. This test checks for aerated
aerated fuel.” fuel.
Start by connecting the Fuel Pressure
Gauge to the intake manifold test port.
Route the clear hose of the gauge into
a clean fuel container.
Now, turn the ignition switch ON and
open the gauge shut-off valve. Watch
the clear hose to check for aeration.
If the fuel is aerated, perform the fuel
delivery system procedures in HardStart No-Start Special Tests.
If the fuel is not aerated, perform the
engine low idle to high idle test.
Engine Low Idle to High Idle
Test
“The Engine
Low Idle to
High Idle Test
monitors engine
performance
throughout the
RPM range.”
The seventh test is the Engine Low Idle
to High Idle Test. This test monitors
engine performance throughout the
RPM range.
Start by selecting the Performance
Session in ServiceMaxx™. Press the
record button and wait five seconds.
Now, monitor the Accelerator Pedal
Position signal, as you press the
Module 3: Performance Diagnostics
accelerator pedal fully to the floor. If the
signal does not go from 0% to 99.6%
see APP in the “Electronic Control
Systems Diagnostics.”
Next, start the engine and idle for 20
seconds. Then press the accelerator
pedal completely to the floor for 20
seconds. Now, return to low idle.
Open the snapshot file and compare
Fuel Delivery Pressure, Injection
Control Pressure, Exhaust Back
Pressure, Diesel Particulate filter
differential pressure, and Intake
Manifold Pressure to both high idle and
low idle specifications.
If Fuel Delivery pressure is out of spec,
see fuel system in Hard-Start No-Start
Diagnostics.
If the engine does not accelerate
smoothly or feels like it is misfiring,
perform the relative compression and
cylinder cut out tests.
If ICP is below spec, perform the
ICP tests in Hard-Start No-Start
Diagnostics.
If EBP is above specification, inspect
for turbocharger damage.
If the Diesel Particulate Filter Differential
Pressure is above spec, refer to the
Aftertreatment system in “Electronic
Control System Diagnostics.”
“If Fuel Delivery
pressure is out
of spec, see fuel
system in HardStart No-Start
Diagnostics.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
If Intake Manifold Pressure is below
spec, check the charge air cooling
system for leaks and perform the
crankcase pressure test.
If the values are within spec, continue
to the Torque converter stall test.
Torque Converter Stall Test
“The Torque
Converter Stall
Test checks engine
performance
under load when
equipped with
an automatic
transmission.”
The eighth test is the Torque
Converter Stall Test. This test checks
engine performance under load
when equipped with an automatic
transmission.
Start by setting the parking brake
and apply the service brakes. Then
open the Performance Session in
ServiceMaxx™.
Start the engine and shift to drive.
Press the record button. Wait five
seconds and push the accelerator
firmly to the floor. Record the number of
seconds it takes to reach the stall RPM.
If the stall test results are within spec,
there are no performance issues.
If the stall test results are out of spec,
proceed to the IPR Circuit Test.
IPR Circuit Test
The ninth test is the IPR Circuit Test.
This test determines if the Injection
Control Pressure system is producing
stable pressure.
Module 3: Performance Diagnostics
Begin by opening the Performance
Session and starting the engine.
Wiggle the IPR connector while
monitoring the ICP signal. If the engine
stumbles, check the IPR connector and
repair as necessary.
“If the engine
stumbles, check
the IPR connector
and repair as
necessary.”
Next, press the accelerator pedal to the
floor and hold for 30 seconds. If the
injection control pressure surges more
than 1000 psi, stop the engine and
disconnect UVC 1. Restart the engine
and run the test again.
If the surge is still present, replace the
IPR valve.
If the surge is not present, replace the
ICP sensor.
KOER Air Management Test
The tenth test is the Key On Engine
Running Air Management Test. This
test checks the operation of the EGR
system.
Begin by Starting the engine and
selecting the Air Management Test.
During this test, the ECM raises engine
speed and measures mass airflow.
With the airflow calculated, the ECM
commands the EGR valve open, and
looks for a change in mass airflow.
If a DTC sets during the test, refer to
the “Diagnostic Trouble Code Index.”
“The Key On
Engine Running
Air Management
Test checks the
operation of the
EGR system.”
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2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
Turbocharger 2 Wastegate
Control Operational Test
“The Turbocharger
2 Wastegate
Control Operational
test verifies that
the turbocharger
wastegate
is operating
properly.”
The eleventh test is the Turbocharger
2 Wastegate Control Operational test.
This test verifies that the turbocharger
wastegate is operating properly.
Begin by turning the pressure regulator
knob of special tool ZTSE-4409
counterclockwise to the lowest setting.
Connect shop air to the pressure
regulator.
Next, use the proper hose and adapter
to connect the regulated air source to
the solenoid supply hose at the engine
throttle valve.
Now, set the regulator to apply 21.5 psi,
or 148.2 kPa, to the supply hose.
If the actuator rod moves smoothly
through its range, perform the
Turbocharger Wastegate 2 Control
Solenoid Test.
If the rod doesn’t move, or if it sticks,
then perform the Isolated Actuator Test.
Turbocharger 2 Wastegate
Control Solenoid Test
The twelfth test is the Turbocharger
2 Wastegate Control Solenoid Test.
This test determines if the solenoid is
working correctly.
Module 3: Performance Diagnostics
Begin with the set-up from the
operational-test and 21.5 psi or 148.2
kPa applied to the supply hose. Using
ServiceMaxx™, run the KOEO Output
State Tests High and Low.
If the actuator does not move, refer to
TC2WC in “Electronic Control Systems
Diagnostics.”
If the actuator cycles open and closed,
the turbo control is working correctly.
Isolated Actuator Test
The 13th test is the Isolated Actuator
Test. This test checks the operation of
the wastegate actuator.
Begin by applying 21.5 psi or 148.2
kPa directly to the wastegate actuator.
If the actuator rod moves smoothly
through its range, but did not during
the operational test, check for a leak or
blockage in the hose or solenoid.
If the actuator rod does not move,
remove the rod from the turbocharger
wastegate arm. Check if the wastegate
valve moves freely.
If the valve moves freely, replace the
actuator.
If the valve does not move freely,
replace the turbocharger.
Note
When checking
wastegate movement,
mark the inner nut so
the wastegate lever
can be reinstalled in
the same position.
29
30
2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
Oil Breather Separator Test
“The Oil Breather
Separator Test
determines if
the separator
is functioning
correctly.”
The 14th test is the Oil Breather
Separator Test. This test determines if
the separator is functioning correctly.
Start the engine and place a
stethoscope on the Separator housing.
Shut the engine off and quickly monitor
for rotational noise.
If no noise is heard, replace the
centrifugal breather.
If noise is heard, the breather is
functioning correctly.
Crankcase Pressure Test
“The Crankcase
Pressure Test
determines
if the engine
has excessive
crankcase
pressure.”
The 15th test is the Crankcase
Pressure Test. This test determines if
the engine has excessive crankcase
pressure.
Begin the test by disconnecting the
breather outlet tube at the oil separator.
Use a bolt to block the tube going to
the turbo inlet duct.
Connect special tool ZTSE-4039 to the
oil separator elbow and connect the
tool to a monometer.
Next, start the engine and hold the
accelerator to the floor. Wait until the
monometer reading stabilizes. Now,
record the pressure.
Module 3: Performance Diagnostics
31
If the pressure is above spec, refer to
Performance Diagnostics for further
steps.
If the pressure is within spec, perform
the relative compression test.
Relative Compression Test
The 16th test is the Relative
Compression Test. This test was
covered earlier in the Hard-Start NoStart Required Test Procedures.
Cylinder Cut Out Test
The 17th test is the Cylinder Cut
Out Test. This procedure pinpoints
an inactive cylinder by disabling one
injector at a time.
Start by opening the Cylinder Cutout
test session and start the engine. Allow
the engine to idle for five seconds.
Now, disable an injector. Monitor the
engine load and fuel rate while listening
for engine tone changes. Repeat this
process for each injector.
Compare the results for a disabled
injector to the baseline values for
engine fuel rate and engine load. If
the engine load and fuel rate did not
increase when an injector was disabled,
that cylinder is not contributing to
engine performance.
“The Cylinder Cut
Out Test pinpoints
an inactive cylinder
by disabling one
injector at a time.”
32
2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
If the engine load and fuel rate did
increase when an injector was disabled,
that cylinder is contributing to engine
performance. No action is required.
Road Test
“The Road Test
checks the engine’s
performance
at full load and
rated speed.”
The last test is the Road Test. This
procedure checks the engine’s
performance at full load and rated
speed.
Start by turning the ignition switch ON
and load the Performance session.
Now, start the engine and drive to an
open stretch of road. When conditions
are safe, start recording.
Select a suitable gear, and press the
accelerator pedal fully to the floor and
accelerate to rated speed at 100%
load.
“When the road
test is complete,
stop recording and
review the results.”
When the road test is complete, stop
recording and review the results.
If Fuel Delivery pressure is out of spec,
see fuel system in Hard-Start No-Start
diagnostics.
If the engine does not accelerate
smoothly or feels like it is misfiring,
perform the relative compression and
cylinder cut out tests.
If ICP is below spec, perform the
ICP tests in Hard-Start No-Start
Diagnostics.
Module 3: Performance Diagnostics
If EBP is above specification, inspect
for turbocharger damage.
If Intake Manifold Pressure is below
spec, check the charge air cooling
system for leaks and perform the
crankcase pressure test.
If the values are within spec, there is no
performance issue.
“If the values are
within spec, there
is no performance
issue.”
33
34
2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
NOTES
Conclusion35
Conclusion
This concludes the 2010 MaxxForce®
DT, 9, and 10 Engine Diagnostics
training program.
Thanks for your participation.
You are now required to take a posttest.
36
2010 MaxxForce® DT, 9 and 10 Diagnostics
NOTES
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