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France ‘40
France ‘40
Sickle Cut: Guderian’s Drive to the Coast
Dynamo: Retreat to Victory
1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. Sequence of Play Outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4. Stacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5. Zones of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
6. ZOC Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
7. Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
8. Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9. Combat Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
10. Combat Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
11. Determined Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
12. Retreats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
13. Disruption and Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
14. Advance After Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
15. Overruns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
16. Fortifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
17. Allied HQs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
18. Supply and Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
19. Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
20. Special Rules Common to All Scenarios. . . . . . 15
21. Sickle Cut Scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
22. Dynamo Scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Counter Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Extended Example of Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Designer’s Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Historical Situation Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Counter Scans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Charts and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC • P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308 •
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
“...even if the operation were to have only a 10% chance of success, I would stick with it. For only this can lead to the defeat of
the enemy.”
—General Halder, Chief of General Staff
France ’40 is a game covering the first three weeks of the German
May 1940 attack against the French, British and Belgian armies,
and includes two separate, single-map scenarios. Sickle’s Cut deals
with the crucial week in May 1940 when the German army broke the
French line on the Meuse and raced to the sea at Abbeville. Dynamo
deals with the British withdrawal to Dunkirk and the evacuation.
2.1 Inventory
A complete game of France ‘40 contains the following:
(2.2.2) Rivers Inside Hexes: Ignore rivers that flow through the
middle of a City, Wooded Rough or Marsh hex. The importance of
the river as a barrier to movement and an aid to defense has been
mitigated by the surrounding terrain.
2.3 The Counters
2 maps
2 counter sheets
This rule booklet
Two 6-sided dice
Three player aid cards
(2.3.1) There are two general types of counters: combat units
(“units”) and information markers (“markers”). Units represent the
combat formations involved in the campaign. Markers are used to
track game information, unit status and other assets.
(2.3.2) How to Read the Combat Units
2.2 The Map
(2.2.1) Each hex represents approximately 4 miles (6.4 kilometers).
Consult the Terrain Effects Chart (TEC) for a complete list of the
map’s terrain features and how they affect movement and combat.
A hexagonal grid overprints the map and regulates movement.
Attack Strength: The strength of the unit when attacking.
Defense Strength: The strength of the unit when defending.
Movement Allowance (MA): The maximum number of Movement
Points (MPs) the unit may expend for movement and still attack in
the Combat Phase.
Sample Combat Unit
Unit Size
Tank silhouette indicates the unit is eligible for the Armor Shift (9.2)
Turn and Entry Hex
An Attack Strength in a yellow box indicates the unit is heavy tanks (9.2.4).
Stacking Points
Unit I.D.
French flag highlights de Gaulle’s division
which is immune to the French GQG
Marker rule (21.2.3).
Allowance (MA)
Strength in red
box indicates
Elite Troop
Quality (TQ)
Defense Strength
in white box indicates Low Troop
Out of Supply Out of Supply
(1st turn)
(2nd turn)
Dyle Line
Defense Strength in yellow indicates the
unit is eligible for the Reconnaissance rule
Units that start the game on their reduced
side are indicated with a triangle.
French North African units are indicated
with a black unit type box. This has no
effect on play.
Air Unit
Think this
(2.2.3) Underground Canals: A dashed blue
line through the middle of a hex indicates an
underground canal. It is shown for interest only
and has no effect.
See this
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
Units that have a Low TQ (2.3.2) have the
added visual reminder of a light yellow
unit type box.
Range (17.1.1).
Box around edge indicates unit has no
ZOC (5.1).
MA in parenthesis indicates unit may not
use Extended Movement (7.3).
Movement Allowance in a black box
indicates the unit may not move until
released (21.6).
France ‘40
Stacking Points: A value ranging from 0 to 3 that indicates how
much space the unit takes up inside a hex.
Troop Quality (TQ): Units with their Defense Strength in a red
box are Elite. Those with their Defense Strength in a white box are
of Low quality. All others are normal. This rating is used for the
following purposes:
For the TQ Shift on the Combat Result Table (9.5).
As a DRM on the Determined Defense Table (11.0).
As a DRM in an Isolation Attrition die roll (18.5).
As a DRM in a Combat Zone Recovery die roll (13.3.2)
Unit I.D.: The actual name or number of the unit.
2.German Movement Phase
All units are either Mechanized or Non-Mechanized. This is important for determining the cost to move into each hex.
Motorized Infantry*
*Infantry-class unit types.
(2.3.5) Unit Colors
The background color of a unit’s counter denotes its nationality or
branch of service.
• Beige: British
• Gray: German Wehrmacht
• Green: Belgian
• Black: German Waffen SS
• Blue: French
• Dark Blue: French Colonial
• Orange: Dutch
• Blue with black NATO symbol: French North African
Units have either 1, 2 or 3 steps. 2-step units have a front and back
side. Three step units are indicated with a thin stripe across the reverse side of their counter (units on their last step are indicated with
a much thicker stripe). When a 3-step unit takes a second step loss it
is replaced with a Remnant (10.3) of the appropriate type.
2.4 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in these rules:
CRT: Combat Result Table
DRM: Die Roll Modifier
EZOC: Enemy Zone of Control
GQG: Grand Quartier Général
LOS: Line of Supply
MA: Movement Allowance
France ‘40 is played in a series of Game Turns each representing
one day of the campaign. A Game Turn is composed of two Player
Turns. Each Player Turn is subdivided into several Phases. Every
Game Turn is played in the following order:
The German player flips all Air units from their Used side to their
Ready side.
(2.3.4) Unit Type Summary
(2.3.6) Steps
1. German Initial Phase
II = Battalion
XX = Division
III = Regiment XXXX = Army
X = Brigade
GP = Group
(+) = with added elements, (-) = without some elements
MPs: Movement Points
OOS: Out of Supply
TEC: Terrain Effects Chart
TQ: Troop Quality
(2.3.3) Unit Size
Fortress Infantry*
Mountain Infantry*
Fort (may not move)
The German player may move all, some or none of his units. German
Reinforcements enter at this time (19.0).
3.German Combat Phase
The German player conducts all his attacks (8.0).
4.German Recovery Phase
The German player removes or attempts to remove Disruption
markers from his units (13.3).
5.German Supply Phase
a. Check the supply status of all German units (18.0).
b. Roll for Attrition (18.5) of all German units that are:
• Isolated and marked with a red Out of Supply marker (including
those just marked), and
• adjacent to an enemy unit.
6. GQG Phase —Sickle Cut Scenario only
The German player places the GQG markers currently in the GQG
marker Holding Box on Allied stacks containing at least one French
unit. He then rolls two dice and removes the GQG markers with
those numbers (21.2.4). Any GQG markers schedule to be removed
are removed at this time (21.2.6).
1. Allied Initial Phase
The Allied player flips all non-Disrupted HQs from their Used side
to their Ready side (Sickle Cut scenario only—see 17.2.1). The Allied player flips all RAF units from their Used side to their Ready
side (Dynamo scenario only [22.6]).
2.Allied Movement Phase
3.Allied Combat Phase
4.Allied Recovery Phase
5.Allied Supply Phase
NOTE: The Allied Movement, Combat, Recovery and Supply Phases
are identical to the German like phases except switch the term German with Allied.
Record the completion of a Game Turn (by advancing the Game
Turn marker one box) and proceed to the next turn.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
4.1 Stacking Limits
5.1 General Rule
Stacking occurs when multiple units are in one hex. The stacking
limit for both sides is 7 Stacking Points.
The six hexes immediately surrounding a hex occupied by one or
more units constitute the Zone of Control (ZOC) of those units. ZOCs
extend across all hexsides except All Sea hexsides. HQs
and static Fort units do not have ZOCs—units without
a ZOC are indicated with a line around the edge of their
4.2 Stacking Points
Stacking Point values are printed on all units and generally follow
these guidelines:
5.2 ZOCs and Movement
All units must stop upon entering an enemy Zone of Control (EZOC).
It costs no additional MPs to enter an EZOC; however, units must
pay two additional MPs to exit an EZOC. A unit that starts its move
in an EZOC may move directly into another EZOC and stop, as long
as it does not cross or enter an enemy ZOC Bond (6.0).
HQs, Fort units and all markers have no stacking value and may
freely stack in a hex without limit.
4.3 Stacking Exceptions
(4.3.1) Divisional Stacking: Units of the same division stacked
together are never valued at more than three Stacking Points.
5.3 Other Effects of ZOCs
• EZOCs and Retreats: see Rules 12.2-12.4.
• EZOCs and Advance After Combat: see Rule 14.4.
• EZOCs and Lines of Supply: see Rule 18.3.
EXAMPLE: The three units of a
German Panzer division each have
a stacking value of 2, but if stacked
together count as only three Stacking Points total. The German player
can stack up to two Panzer divisions
in a hex (6 Stacking Points).
6.1 How to form
a ZOC Bond
(4.3.2) Tank Support: Every stack is allowed to have one tank
unit with a stacking value of 2 or less, even if it would exceed the
stacking limit. A stack with two tank units that exceeds the 7 point
stacking limit is prohibited.
Any unit or stack that
exerts a ZOC can
form a ZOC Bond.
When two such units
(or stacks) are two
hexes apart (with one
vacant intervening hex) they create a bond between them that no
enemy unit may enter or cross. Due to the pattern of a hex grid, there
are two types of ZOC Bonds—Hex Bonds and Hexside Bonds.
DESIGN NOTE: This rule allows the British tank brigade or a
French DLM remnant to stack in a hex with two Allied infantry
4.4 Stacking Restrictions
The stacking limit can never be exceeded except during the course
of Movement, Retreat, and Advance After Combat. The stacking
limit must be strictly observed at the completion of each Movement
Phase and after an Advance After Combat. The owning player must
correct all stacking violations at these times by eliminating enough
units from the hex to satisfy the stacking limit.
Major River
• Units may not enter an enemy Hex Bond or cross an enemy
Hexside Bond during the Movement Phase.
• Units forced to Retreat into an enemy Hex Bond or across an
enemy Hexside Bond are eliminated.
• Units may not Advance After Combat into an enemy Hex Bond
6.2 Effects of ZOC Bonds:
EXAMPLES OF ZOC BONDS: Black lines indicate friendly ZOC
Bonds, red solid lines indicate enemy ZOC Bonds. Note that there
is no Hexside Bond between units D and E—it has been negated;
likewise the Hex Bond between units E and F. Note that units F
and G still have a ZOC Bond even though it is intersected by the
enemy ZOC Bond. Note how unit H has Hexside Bonds with the
map edge and the coast.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
or across an enemy Hexside Bond, unless they are entering the
defender’s vacated hex.
• Supply can never be traced into an enemy Hex Bond or across an
enemy Hexside Bond.
6.3 Negating ZOC Bonds
A Hexside Bond is negated when enemy units are located on each
side of the intervening hexside (note how there is no bond between
units D and E in the diagram on page 4). A Hex Bond is negated
when the intervening hex contains an enemy unit (as between units
E and F in the same diagram).
6.4 Intersecting ZOC Bonds
If both players have intersecting ZOC Bonds, then neither player
may cross or enter the other’s ZOC Bond until it is negated.
6.5 Hexside Bonds with the Map Edge and the Coast
A unit can form a ZOC Hexside Bond (but not a Hex Bond) with the
boundary of the play area. The boundary is the mask that surrounds
the hex-grid or a non-playable water hex.
EXAMPLE: Unit H in the diagram on the previous page has a ZOC
Hexside Bond with the map edge, the sea, and the non-playable hex
on the coast.
6.6 ZOC Bonds and Terrain
Terrain has no effect on ZOC Bonds. ZOC Bonds can cross Major
Rivers and pass through City hexes.
7.1 The Basics
(7.1.1) During a friendly Movement Phase, the player may move
all, some, or none of his units as desired. Each unit has a Movement
Allowance (MA) that is the number of Movement Points (MPs) it
may expend for movement. Each hex entered costs a certain number of MPs as determined on the TEC. Movement may be made
by individual units or by stack. If units are moved as a stack, they
move at the rate of the slowest unit in the stack. A stack may drop
off units as it moves, but the units dropped off may not move further
that Movement Phase. A unit or stack may not enter a hex occupied
by an enemy unit. You must complete the movement of one unit or
stack before starting to move another. All unused MPs are lost, they
may not be accumulated.
(7.1.2) Minimum Movement: A unit that is allowed to move can
always move at least one hex, even if it does not have sufficient
MPs to do so. However, it still may not enter or cross enemy ZOC
Bonds or enter prohibited terrain.
7.2 Exiting the Map
Units that exit the map during the Movement Phase are permanently
out of play (but not counted as being eliminated). A unit that is forced
off the map by a retreat is considered eliminated.
7.3 Extended Movement
Units may use Extended Movement to increase their MA by 2 MPs.
Units that use Extended Movement may not move adjacent to an
enemy unit. A unit is allowed to start adjacent to an enemy unit and
still use Extended Movement as long as the first hex entered is not
adjacent to that enemy unit.
7.4 Movement and Rivers
Crossing a non-bridged Major River hexside costs Mechanized
units two additional MPs (+2 MPs) and Non-Mechanized units one
additional MP (+1 MP). There is no cost to cross Minor Rivers for
all unit types.
7.5 Roads and Bridges
A unit that follows the path of a road may use the reduced rate of
the road. Whenever a road enters a Town or City hex, units are assumed to be utilizing the road movement rate if following the path
of the road.
BRIDGES: Whenever a road or rail line crosses a river, a bridge is
assumed to exist. However, all bridges on the Sickle Cut map that
cross the Meuse River are considered destroyed and may not be
used for the entire length of the game.
DESIGN NOTE: Even after pontoon bridges have been built, it is
assumed traffic jams at such sites will slow movement.
7.6 Restricted Hexes
Wooded Rough and Marsh hexes are collectively called Restricted
Hexes. Mechanized units are prohibited from entering these hexes
except along roads and non-Mechanized units must stop upon entering unless they entered the hex along a road. See also 2.2.2.
7.7 Rail Movement
This type of movement is helpful in bringing Non-Mechanized units
to the front.
(7.7.1) The Allied player may move three friendly units (of any type,
including HQs) per turn by rail. The chosen units must be either
reinforcements or a unit with a Train marker on it from a previous
turn. The units moved by rail may move up to 15 contiguous rail
hexes. All rail hexes traversed must be 4 hexes or more from all
German units. An entrained unit that finds itself within 4 hexes of
an enemy unit at the start of its move must immediately detrain. A
unit may not combine rail movement with off rail movement in a
single Player Turn.
(7.7.2) Train Marker Effects: A unit under a Train marker has its
Defense Strength reduced to 1, receives no Terrain benefits if defending by itself, has no ZOC, and may not be used as a Lead Unit in a
Determined Defense. The unit’s TQ is not affected, but tank units
under Train markers may not gain or deny the Armor Shift.
(7.7.3) Entraining: Only non-Disrupted units in a Town or City hex
that are at least 4 hexes from the nearest enemy unit may entrain;
place a Train marker on each such unit that entrains. On the turn
a unit entrains it may move up to two hexes to reach the Town or
City hex, but it may not move by rail in the same Player Turn it
entrains. It may move by rail in the following friendly Movement
Phase. Reinforcements may be considered already entrained and
may enter the map using rail movement.
(7.7.4) Detraining: To detrain, simply remove the Train marker at
the start of the Allied Movement Phase and replace it with a Disrupted marker. The Disrupted marker will be removed at the end
of the turn but serves to limit the unit’s movement to two hexes,
prevent it from entering an EZOC and from attacking. A unit may
detrain in any rail hex—it does not need to be in a Town or City.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
A unit may not move by rail in the same player turn it detrains.
Detraining is voluntary—a Train marker can remain on a unit if the
Allied player wishes to move the unit again by train. Detraining
also occurs immediately if the unit is forced to retreat in combat.
A Train marker removed from one unit may be used immediately
on a different unit.
PLAY NOTE: See rule 19.3.3 for Strategic Rail Movement of Allied
7.8 Automatic DS
Defending units can suffer an Automatic Defender Shattered result
during a Movement Phase when the phasing player has moved
enough units adjacent to the defender’s hex to ensure 10-1 odds
against it. Armor and TQ Shifts may be used but not Air or HQ Shifts
(which are only allocated in the Combat Phase). At that point the
defending unit(s) immediately suffer a DS result and survivors are retreated 2 or 3 hexes by the defender abiding by the Retreat guidelines
(12.1.3). All units that made the 10-1 possible are marked with “Auto
DS” markers—they cannot move any further that Movement Phase
nor take part in regular combat in the upcoming Combat Phase. The
phasing player can move other units into and through the hex where
the Automatic Defender Shattered result occurred. The units marked
with Auto DS markers may, at any time in the subsequent Combat
Phase, conduct their Advance After Combat (at the appropriate DS
rate), at which time the markers are removed.
EXAMPLES OF MOVEMENT: Numbers in blue circles indicate
Extended Movement, numbers in yellow ovals indicate additional
movement cost. Unit A must stop upon entering a Restricted Hex.
Mechanized Units B and C must pay +2 MPs to cross the Major
EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATIC DS: At A the German player has
brought up enough factors to achieve 10-1 against unit X (8-1
odds plus CRT column shifts for TQ and Armor). The unit is
immediately removed from play and the units have an Auto DS
marker placed on them. With that unit gone, the Panzer unit at
B can now move through and achieve an Auto DS against unit
Y (8-1 odds plus two shifts for TQ). The French unit is removed
and the German Panzer unit have an Auto DS marker placed on
it. The units at C are now free to move into the French rear.
River and 2 MPs per non-road Woods hex. Unit D must pay +2
MPs to exit an EZOC and must stop upon entering an EZOC. Unit
E (non-Mechanized) must pay +1 MP to cross the Major River and
does not pay extra MPs for Minor Rivers and Forest.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
8.1 Basic Rules of Combat
9.1 Halving & Doubling
Phasing units may attack adjacent enemy units in the Combat Phase.
Attacking is voluntary; no unit is forced to attack. No unit may attack or be attacked more than once per Combat Phase. All defending
units in a hex must be attacked as one combined Defense Strength.
The attacker may conduct his attacks in any order and need not predesignate them. A unit may not attack into a hex or across a hexside
it is prohibited from entering or crossing in the Movement Phase.
8.2 Multi-Hex Combat
• The attacker may attack only one hex
at a time; he may not target two hexes
in a single combat.
• A defending unit or stack can be
attacked from up to six different
adjacent hexes.
• Units in the same hex may attack
adjacent defenders in different hexes
as long as each attack is conducted
• No unit may split its Attack Strength
to attack a second hex in a separate
Each attacking unit can never be halved more than once and each
defending unit can never be doubled more than once. When halving,
always halve by individual unit (not stack) and round any fractions up
to the next higher whole number. A factor of 1 that is halved always
rounds back up to 1. Units are halved for the following reasons:
• Attacking across a Major River or Maginot Line hexside.
• Attacking out of a Restricted Hex or from one Restricted Hex to
another (units are not halved attacking into such hexes).
• Attacking when marked Out of Supply.
EXAMPLES: Two units with an Attack Strength of 5 would have a
combined strength of 6 after halving [3 + 3 = 6]). A defender in a
City hex defending behind a river is only doubled—not tripled or
9.2 The Armor Shift
Unlike some other game systems, attacking units are not required
to attack all adjacent defending units.
8.3 Combat Procedure
Follow these steps for each combat:
STEP 1: Compare the combined Attack Strength of the participating
attacking units against the total Defense Strength of the involved
defending units and express the comparison as a numerical odds
ratio (attacker to defender). Round off the odds ratio downward
to conform to one of the odds ratio columns found on the Combat
Result Table (CRT).
EXAMPLE: A 15 to 4 would be a 3-1. 11 to 12 would be a 1-2.
STEP 2: The attacker must declare whether he will apply Air (9.3)
or HQ (9.4) Support to the combat. He also determines if he receives
an Armor (9.2) or TQ (9.5) Shift.
STEP 3: After taking column shifts into account, a 6-sided die is
rolled, and the results are implemented. Players immediately remove
any step losses (10.2), perform Retreats (12.0), and Advance After
Combat (14.0). If allowed by the combat result the defender may
perform a Determined Defense (11.0) to try to cancel the retreat.
8.4 Minimum and Maximum Odds
Attacks at odds less than 1-3 are not allowed. Combat at odds 10-1
or greater is considered an automatic Defender Shattered (DS). Attacker and defender column shifts are applied before the minimum
and maximum restriction.
EXAMPLES: 10-1 odds with one shift left would use the 7-1 column.
12-1 odds with one shift left would be a 10-1.
(9.2.1) Attacker Shift: Terrain permitting, the attacker gains a column shift right on the CRT if he has a tank unit participating in the
attack and the defender’s hex contains no tank unit.
(9.2.2) Defender Shift: In Clear terrain (including Clear hexes with
Towns), the attacker suffers a column shift left if he has no tank unit
participating and the defender does.
(9.2.3) Where the Armor Shift is Prohibited: The Armor Shift
cannot be gained if the defender is in a Woods, Wooded Rough,
Marsh, City, or any hex containing a Fortification (16.0). Tank units
attacking across a River hexside (major or minor), a Marsh hexside
or out of a Restricted Hex cannot be used to gain the Armor Shift but
their presence is enough to prevent the defender getting the Armor
Shift (unless the defender has Heavy Tanks).
(9.2.4) Allied Heavy Tanks: Allied heavy tank units are indicated
with their Attack Strength in a yellow box. Terrain permitting, if an
Allied heavy tank unit is involved in a combat (attack or defense),
the Allied player always receives the Armor Shift—regardless of
the presence of German tank units in the combat. Allied heavy tank
units must still abide by the terrain restrictions of 9.2.3.
DESIGN NOTE: The British 1st Army Tank Brigade had only a few
Matilda IIs in the brigade, so only the front side of the British tank
brigade is classified as heavy tanks.
EXAMPLES: In the three French attacks shown above the French
player would earn the Armor Shift in A and B. Neither player would
earn the Armor Shift in C.
9.3 Air Support
Adding an Air unit to a combat gives the attacker a favorable
shift of one column to the right on the CRT. No more than one
Air unit may be used in each attack with the exception of Turn 1
of the Sickle Cut scenario (see below). After the Air unit is used it
is flipped to its Used side. All Air units are returned to their Ready
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
side at the start of each friendly Player Turn. Only Air units on their
Ready side may provide support. There are no terrain, range, or other
restraints upon the use of an Air unit in an attack—it may be placed
anywhere on the map.
of those hexsides, the defender is not doubled.
SPECIAL: On Turn 1 of the Sickle Cut scenario, the German player
may use up to three Air units in a single combat (which would shift
the odds three columns), on all following turns the maximum is 1.
(9.6.3) Marsh Hexsides: Treat Marsh hexsides the same as Major
Rivers. Marsh terrain around a Minor River upgrades the hexside
to a Major River hexside.
9.4 Allied HQ Support
9.7 Restricted Hexes in Combat
9.5 The Troop Quality (TQ) Shift
9.8 Miscellaneous Modifiers
Only the Allied player has HQs. Each HQ may be used once per
Allied Combat Phase to provide one shift right on the CRT; see
17.1.1 for full details.
In each combat compare the best TQ rating in the attacker’s force,
against the best TQ rating in the defending stack. If the attacker has
the better rating, then the attacker receives a favorable shift of one
column right on the CRT. If the defender has the better TQ rating,
then the attacker suffers a column shift left. Award two shifts if one
side has one or more Elite units and the other side has only Low
TQ units.
(9.6.2) Major Rivers: All units are halved attacking across a Major
River hexside, and this combat effect is cumulative with 9.6.1.
Units are halved attacking out of a Restricted Hex or from one
Restricted Hex to another. Units are not halved attacking into such
hexes. Also see 9.6.1 on how the defender can be doubled.
• See TEC
• Defender Disrupted (13.1)
• Attacker is Out of Supply (18.4)
10.1 Explanation of Combat Results
The words “attacker” and “defender” refer only to the units participating in the combat in question—not to the strategic situation.
EXAMPLES: In the three German attacks above the German player
would receive one shift for TQ in A (Elite vs. Regular), two shifts
for TQ in B (Elite vs. Low), and no shifts in C.
9.6 River and Marsh Hexsides
(9.6.1) Defender Doubled: The defender is doubled if all participating attacking units are attacking across a River hexside (major or
minor), a Marsh hexside, out of a Restricted Hex, or any combination
of those three. If just one attacking unit is not attacking across one
Retreats: Most results call for the defender to Retreat. When a Retreat occurs the defender Retreats 2 or 3 hexes (his choice) following
the restrictions and guidelines set forth in 12.0. In some situations
the defender need only retreat 1 hex (12.4).
DS = DEFENDER SHATTERED: Each unit in the defender’s stack
loses one step. Surviving defenders must Retreat and are marked
in Full Retreat—no Determined Defense (11.0) is possible. The
attacker receives a Breakthrough Advance (14.2).
DRM = Defender Retreat Mandatory. The defender must Retreat
and becomes Disrupted—no Determined Defense possible. The
attacker receives a Bonus Advance (14.2).
D1 = The defender loses one step. Surviving defenders must either
Retreat and become Disrupted or conduct a Determined Defense. If
the defender Retreats, the attacker receives a Bonus Advance.
DR = The defender must either Retreat and become Disrupted or
conduct a Determined Defense. If the defender Retreats, the attacker
may Advance After Combat at the normal rate.
A1/D1 = Each side loses 1 step. Surviving defenders must either
Retreat and become Disrupted or conduct a Determined Defense.
If the defender Retreats, the attacker may Advance After Combat
at the normal rate.
DRX = Each side loses 1 step—the unit selected is determined by
the opposing player. The defender must either Retreat and become
Disrupted or conduct a Determined Defense. If the defender retreats,
the attacker may Advance After Combat at the normal rate.
EXAMPLES: Units A, B and C attack unit X. Units A and B are
halved for attacking across a Major River hexside, while the units
in hex C attack at full strength. Unit X is doubled because all attacking units are attacking across river hexsides. Odds are 14 to 14 + a
TQ Shift = 2-1. Next, units D, E and F attack unit Y. Units D and E
are halved attacking across a Major River hexside. Unit Y is NOT
doubled because stack F is not attacking across a river hexside.
Odds are 14 to 7 + Armor Shift + TQ Shift = 4-1.
EX = Exchange: Each side loses 1 step—the unit selected is determined by the opposing player. No retreat for the defender. If the
defender had only 1 step involved, then the attacker may enter the
vacated hex and stop (a normal Advance is not permitted).
A1/DR = The attacker loses 1 step. The defender must either Retreat and become Disrupted or conduct a Determined Defense. If
the defender Retreats, the attacker may Advance After Combat at
the normal rate.
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France ‘40
A1 = The attacker loses 1 step. No Retreat or Advance.
D1*, A1/D1*, and DRX* = Same as D1, A1/D1 and DRX respectively (including the Advance After Combat rate) except no
Determined Defense is possible.
10.2 Selecting Step Losses
The owning player selects the unit that will take the step loss unless he is mandated to take a step loss from his Lead Unit during a
Determined Defense (11.0), or if an EX or DRX was rolled. When
an EX or DRX result is rolled the opposing player selects the step
loss. Whether the owning or opposing player selects the step loss,
both must abide by the following two restrictions:
• Infantry Remnants may not be selected for a step loss unless there
are no other units remaining. This restriction does not apply to
the defender in a DS result when all defending units lose 1 step.
• Within a German Panzer or Motorized division, a full strength
unit must be selected over a reduced unit.
EXAMPLES: When selecting a step loss in the four examples above,
the units marked with a red “No” cannot be selected. All other
units in each group may. At A, the full strength motorized infantry
unit protects the two reduced units within the division. In B, the full
strength unit in the Motorized division protects its reduced unit, but
does not protect any of the units in the Panzer division. In C, only
the Remnant is protected. In D, note that the tank Remnant is not
protected—only infantry Remnants are protected.
10.3 Indicating Step Losses and Remnants
Flipping a unit over indicates the unit has suffered a step loss. If
it is a 1-step unit, or a 2-step unit that is already flipped, then it is
eliminated. Any 3-step unit on its reduced side forms a Remnant
when it takes its second step loss. Remove the division from the map
and replace it with a Remnant of the appropriate type. All French
infantry-class units (Infantry, Mountain, Motorized, Colonial and
North African) use the 1-2-3 infantry Remnant. The Remnant unit
must abide by any Retreats of the CRT result. If there is no Remnant
unit available when a division takes a second step loss, then none is
created (the step is forfeited).
PROPERTIES: Remnants have a stacking value of 2 and function
like any other unit. See also 10.2, 1st bullet.
A Determined Defense represents a hold-at-all-cost order.
11.1 In General
(11.1.1) The defender may attempt to cancel the retreat portion of a
DR, A1/D1, D1, DRX and A1/DR CRT result by using the Determined Defense Table provided at least one step survived the combat.
A Determined Defense is not allowed on a DS, DRM or a result with
an asterisk (*). Step losses from the CRT are implemented before
resolving the Determined Defense. A successful result on this table
allows the unit or stack to ignore the Retreat, the Disruption, and
the attacker’s advance is cancelled. If there are two or more surviving units in the defending stack, the defender picks one as the Lead
Unit. If there is only one unit, then that unit must be the Lead Unit.
The Lead Unit determines any DRMs and will be the unit to suffer
the step loss if one is called for.
(11.1.2) Ineligible Units: Disrupted units, entrained units, and HQs
may not be the Lead Unit in a Determined Defense.
(11.1.3) Determine Column to Use: The terrain of the defender’s
hex determines the column to use on the table unless the hex contains
a static Fort unit and the defender uses that unit as his Lead Unit.
Using the Fort unit allows the defender to use the City/Fort column.
Use the “Clear” column for units in Clear hexes without Towns. Use
the “Other” column for all other hexes, including Towns, Fortified
Hexes, Woods, Marsh and Polder.
(11.1.4) Summary of Die Roll Modifiers:
+1 Lead Unit’s TQ is Elite
–1 Lead Unit’s TQ is Low
–1 French Collapse (11.1.5)
+1 Defensive Air Support (11.1.6)
All modifiers are cumulative.
(11.1.5) French Collapse: The Allied player suffers a –1 to his Determined Defense die roll if the Lead Unit is French and the unit is
Out of Supply at the moment of the Determined Defense. Determine
supply at the moment of the die roll and disregard the presence or
absence of an Out of Supply marker on the unit.
(11.1.6) Defensive Air Support: The Determined Defense die
roll can be modified by Air Support which must be declared before the Determined Defense die is rolled. Only Air units on their
ready side may be used. No more than one Air unit may be used
in each Determined Defense, so the maximum modifier is +1 for
Air Support. After using the Air unit, it must be flipped over. Due
to German air superiority, Allied HQs may not be used to provide
this +1 modifier.
11.2 Explanation of Results
– = The Determined Defense fails, the Retreat and Advance After
Combat are not cancelled. However, if this is a “critical” hex the
defender may conduct a Desperation Defense (11.3).
• = The Determined Defense is successful—the Retreat is cancelled.
–1 = Defender’s Lead Unit loses one step.
1/1 = Defender’s Lead Unit takes a step loss and any one attacking
unit takes a step loss. The attacker selects his own step loss.
SINGLE STEP DEFENDERS: If the defender had only one step, and
that step was lost in a successful Determined Defense, the attacker
may advance into the defender’s vacated hex (only) and stop.
11.3 Desperation Defense of Critical Hexes
(11.3.1) Purpose: A Desperation Defense allows the defender to use
the Determined Defense table multiple times after he has failed his
first Determined Defense. The cost to the defender for the Desperation Defense is one step loss from any unit in the hex (his choice)
for each attempt. The defender can continue to do a Desperation
Defense (paying the extra step loss for each attempt) until he succeeds or all defending units have been eliminated.
(11.3.2) Critical Hexes: A Desperation Defense is only allowed if
all defending units in the hex face elimination if forced to retreat.
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France ‘40
(11.3.3) Procedure: The step removed to conduct the Desperation
Defense is removed before the Lead Unit is selected (hence, the
defender must have two steps to start with). A Desperation Defense
is resolved in the same way as a regular Determined Defense.
EXAMPLE: A defending stack without a retreat route suffers a D1
result. The defender first removes a step for the D1 and then selects
a Lead Unit for the Determined Defense. The attempt fails. He then
declares he is making a Desperation Defense and removes a step
for the opportunity to use the Determined Defense Table again. The
second attempt also fails, so he removes yet another step and tries
again. The third attempt is successful but the result is a •–1, which
reduces the Lead Unit by one step. The defender lost a total of four
steps (one for the D1, two for the two Desperation Defense attempts,
and one for the • –1 result).
(11.3.4) Restrictions: Only units that are allowed to do a Determined
Defense can do a Desperation Defense. Units that suffer a DS, DRM,
or a result with an asterisk (*) may not do a Desperation Defense.
12.1 Retreat Procedure
(12.1.1) The Basics: Retreat results are generated from the CRT
and the Overrun Table (15.3). The defender retreats his own units
in CRT results; the attacker retreats defending units on successful
Overrun results. When the defender retreats his own units, he is
allowed to retreat them between 2 or 3 hexes (his choice). Any
unit that retreats becomes Disrupted (13.0). A retreat can stop after
one hex in some situations (12.4).
(12.1.2) Stacks: A stack of retreating units may split up and retreat
to different hexes. Units can retreat through friendly units without
disturbing the non-retreating units.
(12.1.3) Retreat Direction Guidelines: All retreats must follow
these guidelines. The guidelines are listed in order of priority (#1
takes priority over #2, etc.):
1.If possible, a unit retreated 2 hexes must end 2 hexes away from
the battle hex and if retreated 3 hexes it must end the retreat 3
hexes away. This rule can only be violated to avoid elimination.
2. If possible, the first hex of the retreat should be clear of EZOCs.
Friendly units that have not retreated in the current combat negate
EZOCs in the hex they occupy for purposes of this restriction.
3. If possible, retreat to a hex that can trace a LOS (18.3).
4. If possible, avoid ending the retreat in a hex that contains friendly
units that are adjacent to enemy units.
5. If possible, avoid ending the retreat in violation of stacking
restrictions (see 12.1.4 for more details).
6. Retreat to any hex that does not cause elimination (12.2).
(12.1.4) Over-Stacking: If there is no other hex to retreat to, then
units may end their retreat in violation of stacking restrictions.
However, the overstacking must be corrected before the end of the
owning player’s next Movement Phase when all units in excess
of the limit must be eliminated (4.4). See 12.6 if the overstacked
hex is attacked again. If the hex is the target of an Overrun (15.0)
then all units in excess of the stacking limit (defender’s choice)
contribute no Defense Strength but must still retreat if the Overrun
is successful.
(12.1.5) Attacker Retreats: The attacker never retreats unless he
has conducted a successful Disengagement (20.4).
12.2 Elimination Due to a Retreat
Units are eliminated if they retreat:
• off the map or into a hex occupied by an enemy unit.
• across or into an enemy ZOC Bond.
• into a vacant hex in an EZOC other than the first hex of their
• into a hex or across a hexside they are prohibited from entering
or crossing in the Movement Phase.
Important: Units facing elimination if they retreat are eligible for
Desperation Defense (11.3).
12.3 Retreating into an Enemy Zone of Control
Units are eliminated if they retreat into an EZOC after the first hex
of their retreat. Friendly units that have not retreated in the current
combat negate EZOCs in the hex they occupy for purposes of other
friendly units retreating.
12.4 One Hex Retreats
A retreat can end after one hex if the following conditions are met:
• The units retreat into a City or a friendly Fortified hex.
• The units do not end their retreat in an EZOC unless a friendly
non-Disrupted unit is already in that hex.
12.5 Elimination has No Effect on Advance
EXAMPLES OF RETREAT: Both units A and B must retreat two
hexes. They cannot retreat across an enemy ZOC Bond nor enter
an EZOC after their first hex. Unit A has only one retreat path—into
the hex containing unit “c”. This is allowed since unit “c” cancels
EZOCs in the hex it occupies for purposes of retreats. In the case of
unit B, retreating into a vacant hex must take priority over retreating
into the hexes containing unit’s “d” and “e” since those two units
are adjacent to enemy units.
If the defender is eliminated by the combat result or eliminated
during his retreat, the attacker still receives his full Advance After
12.6 Combat Against Previously Retreated Units
If a unit or stack is retreated into a friendly occupied hex and that
hex undergoes an attack (not Overrun) in the same Combat Phase,
the retreated units do not add their Defense Strength to the combat,
may not be selected to satisfy a step loss from the CRT, may not
be used in a Determined Defense and if required to retreat again
are eliminated.
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France ‘40
13.1 Disruption
14.1 The Basics
Any unit that retreats becomes Disrupted—place a
Disrupted marker on the unit or stack. If a unit is Disrupted again it goes into Full Retreat (13.2). Disrupted
units are penalized in the following ways:
• MOVEMENT: They may move a maximum of two hexes and
may not enter an EZOC. If they start their move in an EZOC, they
must move away, if possible. If not possible, they may remain in
their hex or move to another hex in an EZOC.
• COMBAT: They may not attack or be the Lead Unit in a
Determined Defense (11.1). Disrupted units have their Defense
Strength halved (total all Disrupted units before halving and then
round factors up, so 1 factor always rounds back up to 1).
ABILITIES: Disrupted units retain their TQ, ZOC and Armor Shift
abilities. Other units may enter or pass through friendly Disrupted
units without becoming Disrupted.
13.2 Full Retreat
(13.2.1) Full Retreat is a form of Disruption that allows
units to move their full MA. Units in Full Retreat suffer all the penalties of Disruption with the following
• They may ignore the 2-hex movement restriction and move their
full MA (including Extended Movement).
• They have a Defense Strength of 0. If stacked with other units
they contribute nothing to the defense (TQ, Armor or Defense
Strength). If not stacked with other units they must immediately
Retreat 2 hexes if an enemy unit moves or advances adjacent to
it. Follow all retreat guidelines of 12.1.3.
• They take longer to recover (13.3.1).
(13.2.2) Voluntary Full Retreat: During a friendly Movement Phase
(except Turn 1 of the Sickle Cut scenario), a player may replace any
number of Disrupted or GQG markers on his units with Full Retreat
markers in order to move those units their full MA. The German
player may not replace Halt! markers with Full Retreat markers.
(13.2.3) Involuntary Full Retreat: Units are involuntarily put into
Full Retreat for the following reasons:
• They suffer a DS result.
• They are forced to retreat again while already Disrupted.
If the defender is eliminated or retreats, then all the units that participated in the attack may Advance After Combat. Advance After
Combat expends no MPs, you just count the hexes. Stacking limits
must be observed at the end of each advance.
14.2 Advance Rate
The basic Advance After Combat rate is determined by the CRT
result as listed below:
• Normal Advance: Reconnaissance and German tank units may
advance 3 hexes, all other units may advance 2 hexes.
• Bonus Advance: The advance rate of Non-Mechanized infantry
class units remains at 2 hexes; but the rate of all other unit types
goes up by 1 hex (cavalry, mot. inf, and Allied tank = 3 hexes,
reconnaissance and German tank = 4 hexes.
• Breakthrough Advance: All Mechanized units may advance 4
hexes. Non-Mechanized infantry class remains at 2 hexes, cavalry
remains at 3 hexes.
Limited Advance: If all defending units are eliminated in an EX
result or a successful Determined Defense, then the attacking units
may only advance into the defender’s vacated hex and stop.
14.3 Advance in Any Direction
Units may advance in any direction and are not required to enter the
defender’s vacated hex. However, entering the defender’s vacated
hex allows advancing units to ignore EZOCs (see 14.4.2).
14.4 Advance and Enemy ZOCs
(14.4.1) Enemy ZOC Bonds: These may never be entered or
crossed during an Advance After Combat except when entering the
defender’s vacated hex.
(14.4.2) EZOCs: Follow these three important cases regarding
EZOCs and advancing:
• CASE 1: Units that do not enter the defender’s vacated hex must
stop their advance upon entering any EZOC.
• CASE 2: Advancing from one EZOC directly into another EZOC
of the same enemy unit is only allowed in the first hex of a unit’s
13.3 The Recovery Phase
(13.3.1) Removing Disrupted Markers: During the phasing player’s
Recovery Phase all friendly Disrupted units that are not adjacent to
an enemy unit automatically recover one level—Disrupted markers
are removed and markers on their Full Retreat side are flipped to
their Disrupted side.
(13.3.2) Combat Zone Recovery: If a Disrupted unit is adjacent
to an enemy unit (remember, a unit must move away if possible),
then the unit must make a Recovery Die Roll. On a modified die
roll of 4-6 the unit recovers. On a modified die roll of 1-3 it remains
Disrupted. The die roll is modified by the unit’s TQ:
+1 for Elite TQ units
–1 for Low TQ units
EXAMPLE: The black arrows indicate legal advance paths, the
dashed red arrows show illegal paths. Units that enter the defender’s
vacated hex do not have to stop when they enter an EZOC.
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France ‘40
(15.2.2) Road Congestion: Units may not conduct an Overrun from
a hex containing other friendly units that have already advanced or
have yet to advance.
(15.2.3) Restrictions: Only units that enter the defender’s vacated
hex may Overrun. Overruns are prohibited across any terrain or
into any hex that the units could not normally advance across or
at A and B both resulted in the elimination of the defending unit
and an advance of 4 hexes. Arrows indicate possible advance
paths and green arrows are shown as a reminder that units
can advance in any direction. Note that advancing from one
EZOC directly into another EZOC of the same enemy unit is
prohibited in the cases marked “No.” At X the advancing unit
has to stop since it did not enter the defender’s vacated hex
and entered an EZOC.
• CASE 3: Units that enter the defender’s vacated hex may ignore
EZOCs throughout their advance as long as Case 2 is observed.
This rule allows units to bounce off enemy units—see example
EXAMPLES OF OVERRUN: In both A and B the result is a DS
which allows the attacker to advance 4 hexes. Stack A could
conduct up to three Overruns during its advance. If stack B
Overruns into hex Z and does not advanced into the hex, it can
only advance 3 hexes (an Overrun cost 1 hex of an advance
whether the stack advances or not).
14.5 Terrain and Advance
• No unit may advance into a hex or across a hexside that is
prohibited to it in normal movement.
• Units may only cross a Major River hexside during the first hex
of their advance and must stop after crossing even if a bridge
is present.
• Advancing units must stop if they enter a Restricted Hex.
NO EFFECT: Minor Rivers, Woods, Cities and Towns, have no
effect on an Advance After Combat.
15.1 Purpose
Overruns allow units that are advancing after combat to push weak
defending units out of the way.
DESIGN NOTE: This rule is to discourage players using weak units
to block Advance After Combat.
15.2 Procedure
(15.2.1) Overruns may only be conducted during Advance After
Combat with no more than one stack, and the units must have started
their Advance After Combat stacked together. An Overrun attempt
costs the advancing units one hex of their advance. If there was more
than one attacking stack then each stack may conduct Overruns. Finish advancing one stack before advancing another. Other advancing
units may attempt to Overrun the same defending hex. Overruns can
target the units that retreated in the regular combat.
hexes A and B have just forced the retreat of unit Y and can now
advance. All German non-Panzer units may advance 2 hexes,
the panzer brigade can advance 3 hexes.
A) Stack A tries to Overrun unit W at 12-2 odds = 6-1. A die roll
of 4 results in success—unit W is retreated 2 hexes, becomes
Disrupted and stack A may enter the hex.
B) Stack B advances one hex and Overruns unit X at 12 to 1
odds (the Overrun costs stack B one hex of its advance). The
Overrun is automatically successful and the French tank battalion is retreated 2 hexes and becomes Disrupted. The German
stack advances into the vacated hex. The two motorized units
have now advanced their limit (2 hexes), but the Panzer brigade
can advance a third hex so performs another Overrun against
unit Y (the unit that was retreated in the original attack). The
odds are 8-2 = 4-1 (note that Disrupted units have their Defense
Strength halved). Three shifts for Armor and TQ bring it to a
7-1. A die roll of 5 results in success and forces unit Z to retreat
again (pushing it into Full Retreat) and the Panzer brigade can
finish its advance into the hex.
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France ‘40
into (this includes Major Rivers). Units that advance across a Major
River hexside must stop, so may NOT conduct an Overrun after
(15.2.4) Multiple Overruns: A stack that successfully Overruns
can Overrun again if it has hexes remaining in its advance. Its conceivable that a stack with an Advance After Combat rate of 4 hexes
could Overrun three times.
15.3 The Overrun Table
(15.3.1) Procedure: To determine if the Overrun is successful,
calculate the odds as you would in a normal combat, except Air and
HQ Shifts are not allowed; then roll one die and consult the Overrun Table. Overruns where the final odds are less than 4-1 are not
allowed. Overruns at odds 10-1 or greater are automatically successful. Note that, with the exception of Air and HQ Shifts, all Combat
Modifiers apply (including Terrain, TQ and Armor Shifts).
(15.3.2) Failed Overruns: If the result is “–” then the Overrun fails
and the units must stop and end their advance.
(15.3.3) Combat Result: If the result is [3-1], [4-1], etc., then the
attacker immediately rolls on the CRT using the indicated odds
column—no column shifts are allowed for either side. Losses are
applied normally. If a retreat is called for then the defender may
conduct a Determined Defense in the usual way. If the defender
retreats, the attacker may enter the defender’s vacated hex and stop,
or stop in the hex it attacked from—either way, no further advance
is allowed. If the defender does not retreat, then the attacker must
stop in the hex it attacked from.
(15.3.4) Successful Overruns: If the result is “Yes” then the defending units are retreated two hexes by the defender abiding by
all rules of Retreat including becoming Disrupted. The defender
may not conduct a Determined Defense. The attacker in a successful Overrun may continue its advance. Units may continue their
advance from the hex they conducted the Overrun from, or enter
the defender’s vacated hex at no cost (for free) and continue the
advance from there.
15.4 Overruns Against Previously Retreated Units
Unlike retreats from Combat (12.6), units are not eliminated if forced
to retreat again from an Overrun. Any unit that retreats a second time
goes into Full Retreat (13.2.3). Once in Full Retreat it may never be
attacked and is only eliminated if it has no retreat path.
16.1 Fort Units (or Forts)
Fort units have the following effects:
• They are considered normal units with an MA of 0.
They are eliminated if forced to retreat. They may
be selected for a step loss by the German player on
an EX or DRX result and may be selected for a step loss by the
Allied player whenever a step loss is required.
• If a Fort unit is the Lead Unit in a Determined Defense then the
Allied player may use the City/Fort column of the Determined
Defense Table.
• Fort units always receive the benefits (1L) of the Fortified Hex
underneath (16.2).
• Isolated Allied units that can trace a LOS to a Fort unit receive
the +2 DRM to their Isolation Attrition die roll (18.5).
16.2 Fortified Hexes
Allied units defending in a Fortified Hex (including Fort units)
receive the following benefits:
• The attacker suffers a column shift left (1L) on the CRT.
• The attacker may not gain the Armor Shift (9.2).
• Use the “Other” column when conducting a Determined Defense.
Exception: If a Fort unit is the Lead Unit, then use the Fort/City
Allied units receive these benefits even after the Fort unit (if one
was present) has been eliminated. German units never benefit from
Allied Fortified Hexes.
16.3 Maginot Line Hexsides
German units attacking across a Maginot Line hexside have their Attack Strength halved. Maginot Line hexsides are ignored (considered
destroyed) when the Fort unit in the hex is eliminated.
17.1 Properties
(17.1.1) Combat Benefit: Each HQ may be used once
per Turn to provide one shift right on the CRT in an attack. Flip it to its Used side once it has provided this
benefit. It may not be used again until it is flipped back
to its Ready side in the Allied Initial Phase. No more than one HQ
Shift may be used in each combat—two HQs may not be used to
provide two shifts in a single battle. The HQ must be within 7 hexes
of at least one Allied unit participating in the attack (and that one
unit must be the same nationality as the HQ). The path can traverse
any type of terrain and pass through enemy units and EZOCs.
DESIGN NOTE: Besides reflecting the French superiority in artillery, these HQs are also representing the air assets that were
assigned to each Allied Army (and the inflexibility of transferring
these air assets to other armies).
(17.1.2) Movement: To move an HQ more than two hexes it must
be flipped to its “Used” side. Allied HQs are considered Mechanized units and may only use Extended Movement when on their
Used side.
(17.1.3) Combat Situations: Allied HQ units have no Attack or
Defense Strength and when alone in a hex they do not stop or slow
enemy movement in any way. If an enemy unit moves adjacent
(including when advancing after combat) to an HQ that is alone in
a hex the HQ is immediately flipped to its Used side (if not already),
retreated two hexes by the Allied player and becomes Disrupted. If
already Disrupted, it goes into Full Retreat. If the HQ cannot retreat
two hexes it is eliminated. The enemy unit that displaced the HQ
may continue moving. An HQ cannot be used as the Lead Unit in
a Determined Defense.
17.2 Allied HQs and Supply
(17.2.1) During the Allied Initial Phase in the Sickle Cut scenario,
all eligible Allied HQs on their Used side may be flipped to their
Ready side. Only Allied HQs that are not Disrupted and are able to
trace a LOS to a W, S, SE or E Entry Hex may be flipped. HQs may
not use an N or X Entry Hex for flipping.
DESIGN NOTE: This represents the lack of munitions depots between Lille and the coast. Historically, the Allies trapped in Picardy
suffered supply shortages after the Germans reached Abbeville.
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France ‘40
(17.2.2) Attrition: Allied HQs never roll for Isolation Attrition.
Instead they are immediately eliminated in any Allied Supply Phase
if they cannot trace a LOS to another Allied non-HQ unit (in supply or not). In other words, once all non-HQ units are gone, they
are removed.
adjacent to the City hex (assume the city is garrisoned by friendly
units not represented by a counter). All City hexes are controlled
(friendly) to the Allied player unless a German unit occupies it or
was the last to pass through the City hex. Indicate German controlled
Cities with a German control marker.
PLAY NOTE: All other vacant hexes free of ZOCs are friendly to
both players when tracing a Line of Supply.
18.4 Out of Supply Penalties
18.1 The Supply Phase
Units are checked for supply during the owning player’s Supply Phase. Units able to trace
a Line of Supply (LOS) to a Supply Source
(18.2) are ‘In Supply.’ If any unit or stack
cannot trace a LOS, it receives an Out of Supply marker. If the unit
was already marked Out of Supply from the previous turn, and still
cannot trace a LOS, flip the Out of Supply marker over to its red
side. If any friendly unit or stack bearing an Out of Supply marker
can now trace a LOS, the marker is removed.
18.2 Supply Sources
Supply is available at certain map edge hexsides; see each scenario
for a listing of the Supply Sources available in the scenario.
SPECIAL: Any Allied unit that can trace to three friendly controlled
City hexes is also considered to be in supply.
See the Dynamo Scenario instructions for the Supply Sources for
that scenario.
18.3 Line Of Supply
(18.3.1) Definition: A Line of Supply (LOS) is a path of contiguous hexes traced from a unit to a Supply Source. The path can be
of any length, but it may not go off road more than 8 hexes. No part
of the path may:
• cross an all-Sea hexside,
• enter a Restricted Hex unless it is occupied by a friendly unit,
• enter an enemy occupied hex,
• enter a vacant hex in an EZOC (a LOS may enter an EZOC if the
hex is occupied by a friendly unit), or
• enter an enemy controlled City hex or a vacant hex adjacent to
an enemy controlled City hex (18.3.2).
(18.3.2) City Hexes and Supply Paths: An unoccupied City hex
blocks an enemy LOS through the city hex plus all vacant hexes
A unit bearing an Out of Supply marker suffers the following
• COMBAT: The unit’s Attack Strength is halved. Fractions are
rounded up so 1 halved is still 1.
• MOVEMENT: The unit may move a maximum of two hexes.
(The restriction applies to hexes and not its MA.)
EXAMPLE: An Out of Supply Mechanized unit could move through
two Clear hexes (2 MPs) or two Woods hexes (4 MPs).
ABILITIES: Out of Supply units retain their full Defense Strength,
ZOCs, TQ and Armor effects.
18.5 Isolation Attrition
(18.5.1) All units with a red Out of Supply marker roll for Isolation
Attrition except the following units:
• HQ units (17.2.2)
• Units that are not adjacent to an enemy unit.
(18.5.2) Procedure: Roll one die for each applicable unit. If the
modified die roll is 1-4 the unit is reduced one step. A modified
result of 5 or 6 has no effect. A unit can lose its last remaining step
due to Isolation Attrition.
(18.5.3) Die Roll Modifiers:
+2 if the unit can trace a LOS (of any length) to a friendly Fort unit
or a friendly controlled City hex (these are not cumulative).
+1 if the unit does not qualify for the +2 above, but can trace a
LOS of any length to a friendly controlled HQ or Town hex.
+1 the unit’s TQ is Elite
–1 the unit’s TQ is Low.
EXAMPLE: A German Elite unit (+1) that can trace a LOS to a
friendly controlled City hex (+2) would modify its Attrition roll by
+3 and so would only lose a step on a die roll of 1.
18.6 Fort Units and Attrition
Fort units are exempt from Isolation Attrition as long as they are
stacked with or adjacent to a non-Fort friendly unit. Once this is no
longer applicable, then the Fort unit must roll for Attrition. Forts
automatically qualify for the +2 for being able to trace a LOS to
a Fort (i.e. to themselves).
19.1 The Basics
EXAMPLE OF LINE OF SUPPLY: Units A, B and C can trace a
LOS to a Supply Source. Unit D cannot. Enemy ZOCs block LOS
except in hexes containing friendly units.
Reinforcements enter play during the Movement Phase through
Entry Hexes by paying the terrain cost of the first hex entered. They
may use their full MA on the turn of arrival. Reinforcements may
enter the map by moving into an enemy ZOC but must stop and move
no farther. If entry is impossible due to the presence of enemy units
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France ‘40
or ZOC Bonds, then the unit’s arrival is delayed until the following
turn. This can be repeated indefinitely until the unit can arrive.
19.2 Allied Reinforcements (Sickle Cut scenario only)
(19.2.1) Random Entry: All Allied reinforcements, except those
listed in 19.2.4, are placed in an opaque cup at the start of the game
and are drawn randomly. Starting on Turn 2, the Allied player draws
units from the cup for his reinforcements. The number of units drawn
is printed on the Turn Record Track.
(19.2.2) Arrival Location: Allied reinforcements arrive at one of
five areas (W, N, S, E or SE) as indicated on their counter. They may
be placed at any of the Entry Hexes with that code. No more than
one unit may be placed on each Entry Hex per turn.
(19.2.3) Strategic Rail Movement: Allied reinforcements that are
scheduled to arrive at W, S, SE or E may have their arrival delayed
one turn to arrive at any Entry Hex on the West or South map edge
(not North or East).
(19.2.4) Scheduled Reinforcements: The following units do not
arrive randomly:
• The 1st NA and the 43rd Division. They arrive on Turn 1 at the S
Entry Hexes listed on the map. They may use Rail Movement.
• The four French reconnaissance units listed on Turns 7-10.
• The 4th DCR arrives on Turn 4 at any S Entry Hex.
19.3 German Reinforcements
(19.3.1) Arrival Location: German reinforcements arrive at one of
four areas (A, B, C, D) as indicated on their counter. They may be
placed at any Entry Hex with that code. No more than one division
may be placed on each Entry Hex per turn. A German Mechanized
division consisting of 2 or 3 units counts as one division.
(19.3.2) North Edge Entry: The “A” Entry Hexes along the north
map edge become available for German “A” reinforcements on the
turn indicated in the hex. Before that time those Entry Hexes may
not be used.
19.4 Entry Hexes
(19.4.1) In General: Entry Hexes are not playable. Reinforcements
may not remain in those hexes or attack from them. Reinforcements
are placed in the Entry Hex and must move onto the map during
that Movement Phase or are returned to the Reinforcement Display
to enter the following turn. Units that move or retreat into an Entry
Hex are out of play for the rest of the game—but are not considered
(19.4.2) Closing an Entry Hex: If one or more enemy units exit the
map through an Entry Hex then that Entry Hex is closed for the remainder of the game—no reinforcements may enter the map through
that Entry Hex. Keep the enemy unit on the Entry Hex to indicate
that the Entry Hex is closed. Once all Entry Hexes in a particular
entry area are closed, all further reinforcements scheduled to arrive
are forfeited or must use Strategic Rail Movement (19.2.3).
(19.4.3) Insufficient Entry Hexes: If there are not enough Entry
Hexes to accommodate all the reinforcements, then those that can’t
be placed are returned to the Reinforcement Display (or placed on
the Turn Record Track) to arrive in the next turn.
20.1 Allied Cooperation
French, British and Belgian units may stack and defend together but
may not participate together in the same attack.
20.2 Rommel and Montgomery
These two generals, who would later rise to high command, took
part in this campaign as division commanders. Rommel commanded
the 7th Panzer Division and was extremely energetic in leading his
division—often by accompanying the lead tank units. Montgomery
commanded the 3rd British Division and ably led his division in the
retreat to Dunkirk.
Rommel: Rommel is considered to be with the Panzer brigade of
the 7th Panzer Division at all times. If this unit is attacking, participating in an Overrun or conducting a Determined Defense, the
German player is allowed one re-roll. When the Panzer brigade is
eliminated Rommel is no longer available.
Montgomery: If this unit is the Lead Unit in a Determined Defense,
the Allied player is allowed one re-roll.
Restrictions on re-rolls: If a re-roll is used, it must be taken—the
player cannot choose between the two die rolls. Each type of re-roll
(combat, Overrun or Determined Defense) is allowed once per turn.
Rommel may use all three types in each turn.
20.3 Reconnaissance Units
Reconnaissance units alone in a hex and attacked ignore the step
loss requirement (but not the Retreat portion) on a D1, D1* or DS
result. EX, DRX, and A1/D1 results are applied normally.
20.4 Disengagement (Optional)
(20.4.1) During the Combat Phase an attacking unit can do a special
type of attack called a Disengagement Attempt. If successful, the
unit may be retreated one or two hexes in any direction, following
all rules of Retreat with the following two exceptions:
• It may not enter an EZOC (hexes occupied by non-retreating
friendly units negate EZOCs in the hex they occupy).
• It may end its retreat out of supply.
(20.4.2) Procedure: Any non-Disrupted unit that does not attack in
the Combat Phase can attempt Disengagement. Disengagement can
be resolved at any time in the friendly Combat Phase (before or after
any number of combats). To resolve the attempt, roll one 6-sided
die for each unit and consult the Disengagement Table. Odds and
shifts are ignored. There are only three modifiers:
+1 the unit’s TQ is Elite
–1 the unit’s TQ is Low
+1 the unit is tank or reconnaissance
(20.4.3) Results: If the modified die roll is 1, the unit loses a step
and does not retreat. A “-” result is also a failure, but no step is lost.
A “Yes” result allows the unit to retreat one or two hexes in any
direction. If the unit retreats it becomes Disrupted, but recovers
normally in the upcoming Recovery Phase.
PLAY NOTE: This rule is helpful for units attempting to escape a
closing pocket—they can try to retreat forward or out of the pocket.
It can also be used by advancing units to wiggle by enemy units.
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France ‘40
20.5 Reserves (Optional)
Any unit that uses no more than 2 MPs in the Movement Phase
may be placed in Reserve. Place a Reserve marker on the unit to
indicate this. A unit that starts the Movement Phase in an EZOC
may be placed in Reserve, however, it will not be able to move since
exiting an EZOC cost +2 MPs. A unit in Reserve cannot attack but
can Advance After Combat in the subsequent Combat Phase as if
it achieved a Breakthrough Advance (DS result). The advance can
occur at any time in the Combat Phase. Remove all Reserve markers
at the end of each Combat Phase.
RESTRICTIONS: The number of friendly stacks that may be placed
into reserve each turn is three. A unit that is Out of Supply, Disrupted,
or under a GQG marker may not be placed in Reserve.
PLAY NOTE: This rule allows units behind the lines to follow
up another Advance After Combat. If these units pass through a
defender’s vacated hex created in that Combat Phase, they can
conduct Overruns.
“German triumph in this campaign have caused their military
recklessness to be hailed as genius, their dangerous gambles to be
thought of as miracles.”
—Len Deighton, Blitzkrieg
21.1 Setup and Scenario Data
• Game Length: 10 turns. Starts on May 13th and ends on the End
Phase of May 22nd (Turn 10).
• First Player: German
• Map: Sickle Cut map
• Setup: Use the Sickle Cut At Start Cards
• Supply Sources: German units trace to any of the Entry Hexes on
the north or east map edge labeled A, B, C or D. Allied units trace
supply to all other Entry Hexes (W, S, SE, E, N and X). Belgian
units may trace to Allied Entry Hexes or Namur (Hex 5304).”
21.2 GQG Markers
This rule is an attempt to reflect the sluggish French reaction and
the often puzzling lack of counterattacks. All blame is not meant to
be directed on the French high command—these markers are also
representing Luftwaffe strafing, fog-of-war, harassment bombing
and logistic problems.
(21.2.1) Purpose and Effect: The GQG (Grand Quartier Général)
markers are placed on Allied units or stacks in an attempt to slow them
down and prevent them from attacking. There are six GQG markers.
Allied units with a GQG marker suffer the following effects:
• May move a maximum of two hexes and may not stop in a hex
containing another GQG marker.
Note that the 2-hex limit does not allow units to move 2 hexes
when they normally could not.
• May not attack or use the Disengagement Table.
• Must remain stacked together and may not split up.
• At the end of any Phase (friendly or enemy) any Allied units
stacked with a GQG marker are placed under the GQG marker
and suffer all its effects. A unit may pass through a GQG marker
without negative effects.
(21.2.2) Abilities: Units under a GQG marker may enter an EZOC,
retain their ZOC, TQ and Armor abilities, defend at full strength,
and can be the Lead Unit in a Determined Defense.
(21.2.3) Units Exempt: Allied HQ units and the 4th DCR commanded by Charles de Gaulle are immune to GQG markers and
may freely exit and pass through hexes containing the markers
without effect. De Gaulle’s DCR is marked with a French flag for
easy recognition.
(21.2.4) The GQG Phase: The GQG markers are placed during this
phase. On Turn 1 all six are placed; on the following turns only those
markers in the GQG Holding Box are placed. The markers may be
placed, a maximum of one per hex, on any stack of Allied units anywhere on the map containing at least one French unit. After placement
the German player rolls two dice and removes the GQG markers with
the ID of those die rolls (for example, if a 2 and a 4 were rolled, he
would remove GQG markers numbered 2 and 4). If doubles are rolled,
then only one marker is removed. Place the removed GQG marker(s)
back into the GQG Marker Holding Box for the next turn.
DESIGN NOTE: For those familiar with Ardennes ‘44, the placement and removal works exactly like Traffic Markers.
(21.2.5) GQG Marker Removal: Besides the random removal in
the GQG Phase, if a stack under a GQG marker is eliminated, Disrupted, or sent into Full Retreat the marker is removed and placed
back in the Holding Box. The Allied player cannot voluntarily put
GQG units into Full Retreat (13.2.2) on Turn 1.
(21.2.6) Scheduled Removals: Starting on Turn 3, one GQG marker
is removed permanently from play every other turn. Removal occurs
during the GQG Phase. Markers must be removed in numerical order
(i.e., #1 first, #2 second, and so on).
21.3 Hitler’s Halt Order
Once per game, the Allied player may use the Halt! markers against
German Mechanized units. The markers reflect the “halt orders”
that Rundstedt issued on May 16th in response to Hitler’s fear that
the Panzer divisions were too far ahead of the infantry divisions.
(21.3.1) When: The Allied player may declare the Halt Order on
any turn on or after Turn 5. He may only do it once.
(21.3.2) How: During the Allied player’s Supply Phase he takes the
six Halt! markers and places them (one per hex) on any German
stack containing one or more Mechanized units. Every unit or stack
selected must be further west than all German Non-Mechanized
divisions. Additionally, hexes adjacent to such division may not
be selected. After placement, the German player rolls two dice and
removes those two markers with the ID of those die rolls.
(21.3.3) Effect: The Halt Order last for only one German Player Turn
and then the markers are removed from play. A Halt! marker has the
same effect on German Mechanized units as the GQG markers has
on Allied units—2 hex max and may not attack. A Halt! marker has
no effect on German Non-Mechanized units.
21.4 The Dyle Line
The Dyle Line is represented by the three Improved Position (IP)
markers that start the game near Namur. The three markers start
the game under construction, but can be completed at the end of
the Allied Movement Phase of Turn 1 if at least one Infantry-class
unit remains in the hex.
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France ‘40
EFFECTS: These three IP markers have the same effects as a Fortified Hex—they provide one column shift left on the CRT, prevent the
Armor Shift, allow 1-hex retreats, and units conducting a Determined
Defense use the “Other” column.
REMOVAL: An IP marker (whether face-up or under construction)
is immediately removed under the following conditions:
• All units in the hex are eliminated or forced to retreat, or
• The hex contains no friendly units at the end of the owning player’s
Supply Phase.
21.5 Victory Conditions
The player with the most Victory Points (VPs) at the end of the
game wins.
(21.5.1) Allied VPs: At game’s end, the Allied player earns VPs for
the following reasons:
•1 VP per eliminated German unit (unit size does not matter). For
3-step units, the Remnant must be eliminated before the division
can be counted as eliminated.
•1 VP per “isolated” German Mechanized unit. Isolated in this case
is defined as having no LOS of any length.
•10 VPs if the Allied player can trace a contiguous rail line from one
X or N Entry Hexes to an S or W Entry Hex. All rail hexes must
be free of German units and German ZOCs. An Allied unit does
cancel German ZOCs in the hex it occupies for this purpose.
• 5 VPs if the Allied player is unable to trace a contiguous rail line
as described above, but can trace a Supply Line from one X or N
Entry Hexes to an S or W Entry Hex. All hexes must be free of
German units and German ZOCs, but an Allied unit does cancel
German ZOCs in the hex it occupies for this purpose. The path
may not pass through, or pass adjacent to, a German controlled
City hex.
(21.5.2) German VPs: At game’s end, the German player scores
the following VPs:
•1 VP for each Allied Entry Hex closed (19.4.2). The S/SE Entry
Hex south of Reims counts as 2 VPs. The German player must be
able to trace a LOS from the Entry Hex (at the end of the game)
to receive the VP.
•10 VPs to the German player if the Allied player is unable to earn
his 10 VPs for the contiguous rail path. Note, it is possible for both
the German player to earn these 10 VPs and the Allied player to
earn the 5 VPs for the overland path of hexes.
•1 VP per German unit exited off the north map edge through an
X Entry Hex. The unit must be able to trace a LOS to a German
Supply Source the instant the unit exits the map. This represents
German units moving on Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk.
DESIGN NOTE: The easiest way for the German player to win is
to drive across the map to Abbeville to prevent the Allied player
from earning his 10 VP award. If he does this and hasn’t lost many
Mechanized units, he has a good chance of winning the game.
• The German player has cut all rail lines to the south (10 VPs).
The Allied player still has a land connection to a S Entry Hex (5
VPs) plus has eliminated five German units (5 VPs). The game
is a tie (10 to 10).
• The German player has cut all rail and land connections to the
south (10 VPs) plus has closed three Allied Entry Hexes (3 VPs).
The Allied player has eliminated 5 German units. 13 to 5 German
• The German player concentrates on the Allied Entry Hexes and
has closed eight (8 VPs). The Allied player still has a rail connection to the south (10 VPs) and has eliminated two German units
(2 VPs). 12 to 8 Allied victory.
21.6 Fortress Infantry
The three units with a black box around their MA may not move
until a German unit moves within 2 hexes of their location (i.e., one
intervening hex).
21.7 The Extended Game
If both players agree the game can be extended another four turns to
May 26th. In this case, victory is determined twice—once at the end
of Turn 10 and again at the end of Turn 14. If the player that wins at
the end of Turn 14 is different than the player that won at the end of
Turn 10, then the composite game is considered a draw.
DESIGN NOTE: This might be an option if one player barely wins
the 10-turn game or the player that lost is one or two turns away
from turning things around. Players should set the conditions before
hand what can trigger extending the game.
This scenario covers the British withdrawal to Dunkirk and the
evacuation. One player controls the Allied forces (British, French
and Belgian) while the other player controls the German forces. The
Allied player tries to evacuate as many British and French units out
to sea, while the German player tries to prevent that.
22.1 Setup and Scenario Data
• Game Length: 12 turns. Starts on May 24th and ends on the End
Phase of June 4th (Turn 12).
• First Player: German
• Map: Dynamo map
• Setup: Use the Dynamo At Start Cards
• Halt! Markers: The Allied player places all 6 markers before the
game begins and rolls two dice to remove 2.
• German Supply Sources: Any East or South map edge hex.
• Allied Supply Sources: Brugge or any Allied controlled Port.
• City Control: The German player controls all City hexes outside
the Allied pocket.
22.2 German May 24th Halt Order
DESIGN NOTE: By May 24th the Panzer divisions had fought for
two straight weeks and were exhausted and at approximately half
strength in tanks. Rundstedt and Hitler ordered a halt to the Panzer
forces in order for them to refit for the coming second phase of the
campaign—Case Red. By the third day of the halt it became evident
that the Panzer divisions had to be released in order to prevent the
British from escaping. In this game, each turn up to two Panzer
divisions can disobey the Halt Order and attack.
RULE: Use the Sickle Cut Halt rules (21.3) with the following
• The Halt Order is in effect on Turns 1-3.
• The markers may only be placed on Panzer divisions. The two
Panzer divisions under May Not Move markers may not be
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France ‘40
targeted and the 1st Panzer Division may not be targeted until it
has cleared Calais of Allied units. Other German units stacked
with a Panzer division under a Halt! marker are not effected.
• At the start of the game, before the German player moves, the
Allied player places all six markers and then rolls to remove up
to two. This is repeated during the Allied Supply Phases of Turn
1 and Turn 2, but the Allied player may only place those Halt!
markers that were removed—he may not reposition those already
on the map.
• Important: During the three turns of the Halt Order the component
parts of all German Panzer divisions must remain stacked together,
even those with no Halt! markers.
• A Panzer division under a Halt! marker that retreats, has its Halt!
marker replaced with an appropriate Disruption marker.
22.3 German Replacements
During the German Supply Phase of Turns 1-3 each German Panzer division under a Halt! marker receives one replacement. The
German player may select any reduced unit in the hex and return it
to full strength. If all units are already at full strength, the replacement is forfeited. Eliminated and Disrupted units may not receive
22.4 Belgian Units
(22.4.1) Belgian Surrender: Belgium surrenders during any Allied
Initial Phase where Brugge (hex 3210) is German controlled, or automatically during the Allied Initial Phase of Turn 5. When Belgium
surrenders, immediately remove all Belgian units from the map.
(22.4.2) Belgian Movement Restrictions: Belgian units may not
enter France and if forced to retreat into France are eliminated.
Belgian units may operate in border hexes containing both Belgian
and French territory.
22.5 Allied Evacuations
Starting on Turn 4 (May 27th), during the Initial Phase of each Allied
Player Turn, the Allied player may evacuate units from Dunkirk. On
Turn 4, evacuation is only allowed through the port. Evacuation from
the beach hexes begins on Turn 5. Although there are two beach
evacuation hexes, only one die roll is made—the units evacuated
across the beaches may come from either of those two hexes.
PROCEDURE: To be evacuated, a unit must be on the Dunkirk
port hex or one of the two Beach hexes to the east of Dunkirk at the
start of the Allied player turn. Size and Disruption (including Full
Retreat) has no effect. The number of units that can evacuate each
turn is variable, and is determined by a die roll. The Allied player
rolls one die for Dunkirk and one die for the Beaches.
The Evacuation Table
Die Roll
Explanation of Results:
+2 No evacuation but apply a +2 DRM to the next evacuation attempt die roll for that unit. Place an EVAC +2 marker on the
unit to indicate this.
1 One unit is evacuated.
2 Two units are evacuated.
DESIGN NOTE: Remnants, brigades, battalions and HQs evacuate
the same way as a division—size has no effect. It is assumed that
each of those smaller units evacuated is accompanied by essential
non-combat units not represented by a counter. Therefore, every unit
is important and the weak units should be evacuated first.
EVAC +2 Marker Effects: A unit with this marker defends at full
strength, but may not attack. If the unit moves or retreats from the
hex the marker is removed. The marker cannot be transferred to a
different unit.
German Harassment Fire: If a German unit is adjacent to the Allied
unit being evacuated, then the Allied player rolls two dice for the
evacuation roll and uses the lower of the two results for that hex.
22.6 The RAF
The Allied player may use the two RAF Air units each turn to provide
Offensive (9.3) or Defensive Air Support (11.1.6) in the same way
as the German player uses his Air units. The RAF Air units may
only support British attacks but may be used for British or French
unit when defending. Flip RAF units to their Used side as they are
used—they may only perform one mission per turn. All RAF units
are flipped back to their Ready side in the Allied Initial Phase.
22.7 Miscellaneous Special Rules
• ALLIED HQs: These units start the scenario on their used side
and may not be flipped back over due to the supply shortage inside
the pocket. Each counts as 1 VP when evacuated.
• REINFORCEMENTS: Only the German player has reinforcements,
they arrive on the south map edge on the turn indicated on the Turn
Record Track. Use any half-hex as an Entry Hex (the units are
placed in the half hex and may move their full MA from there).
• AIR UNITS: The German player has only 3 Air units per turn,
instead of 5. The Air units may not be used with any German
attack involving a Panzer division on the first three turns (during
the Halt Order). The Allied player receives 2 Air units per turn
as described in 22.6.
Panzer Divisions did not take part in the battle—they cannot move
or attack but do defend at full strength. The 1st Panzer Division
may not move from its hex until Calais is cleared of enemy units.
It may attack Calais each turn and may advance into Calais when
cleared of enemy units. It operates normally after that.
• RAIL MOVEMENT: Rule 7.7 is not used in this scenario.
• GERMAN WITHDRAWALS: Starting on Turn 6, the German
player must withdraw the units listed on the Turn Record Track.
The units are removed from play during the German Initial Phase
regardless of their position on the map. If the unit was eliminated
then ignore the withdrawal.
• The GQG markers are not used in this scenario.
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France ‘40
22.8 Terrain Found only on the Dynamo Map
• POLDER: The Armor Shift is prohibited if the defender is in a
Polder hex. Polder cost all units 1 MP to enter.
• MARSH HEXSIDES: Treat the same as a Major River hexside.
• ALL SEA HEXSIDES: No units may move or attack across all
sea hexsides.
• FERRY HEXSIDES: Units that spend their entire MA may cross
a Ferry hexside. No combat is allowed across a Ferry hexside.
• CAUSEWAY HEX: Cost 1 MP for all units. Units are doubled
when defending in the Causeway hex.
• TIDAL RIVER BRIDGES: Units must spend +1 MP to cross a
Tidal River Bridge. Attacking across is prohibited.
22.9 Zero-Strength Remnant Units
All British units have one additional “0-0-3” step in the Dynamo
scenario. For example, a 1-step unit or a “1-3-6” Remnant would be
replaced with a 0-0-3 unit if it took a step loss. 0-strength Remnants
have the following properties:
• They have a Stacking Point value of 1. British units may
voluntarily shed steps in order to become a 0-0-3 unit, but may
never gain the steps back. Play Note: An Allied player might do
this to fit more units in a shrinking pocket.
• They have no ZOC, no combat ability, may not be the Lead Unit
in a Determined Defense, and do not slow the movement of enemy
units in any way. If alone in a hex and a German unit moves or
advances adjacent to it, the Allied player must immediately retreat
it two hexes (or 1 hex if illegible). If a safe retreat is impossible,
it is eliminated.
• If after resolving combat and Determined Defense the only units
remaining in the hex are 0-0-3 Remnants, then they must be
immediately retreated two hexes by the Allied player. If the 0-03 units were defending, then any involved attacking units may
advance into the defender’s vacated hex and stop (in the same
way that an attacker may advance in an EX result that clears out
the defender). Defending German units may not advance if all
attacking Allied units become 0-0-3 Remnants.
• They move as Non-Mechanized units and may use Extended
• No need to place Disrupted markers on these units if they retreat,
as they are in a permanent state of Full Retreat.
• They count as 1 VP if evacuated.
22.10 Victory Conditions
(22.10.1) Allied Automatic Victory: The Allied player wins the
game immediately if he evacuates or moves off the west or south map
edge, 15 or more units. At least 10 of the units must be British.
(22.10.2) End Game Victory: If the Allied player does not win an
Automatic Victory then calculate VPs at the end of the game.
1 VP for each British or French unit (regardless of size) evacuated
or moved off the west or south map edge.
1 VP for each French unit still on the map that is in supply.
1 VP for each German unit eliminated. German infantry divisions
are considered eliminated only if the Remnant is eliminated.
GD = Großdeutschland (Greater Germany)
Geb = Gebirgsjäger (Mountain Riflemen)
K = Kradschützen (Motorcycle Infantry)
LAH = Leibstandarte (Bodyguard) Adolf Hitler
M = Motorisierte (Motorized)
Pol = Polizei (Police)
Sch = Schnelle (Mobile)
Tot = Totenkopf (Dead Man’s Head)
Verf = Verfügungstruppe (Dispositional Troops)
ChasAr = Chasseurs Ardennais (Hunters from the Ardenne)
PFN = Position Fortifiée de Namur (Namur Fortified Position)
Col = Coloniale (Colonial)
DCR = Division Cuirassée de Réserve (Reserve Armored Div.)
DLI = Division Légère d’Infanterie (Light Infantry Division)
DLM = Division Légère Mécanique (Light Motorized Division)
Lest = Lestoquoi (commander’s name)
Mor = Marocaine (Moraccan)
NA = Nord-Africaine (North African)
SFE = Secteur Fortifié de l’Escaut (Scheldt Fortified Sector)
SFF = Secteur Fortifié des Flandres (Flanders Fortified Sector)
SFM = Secteur Fortifié de Montmédy (Montmédy Fortified
Spahi = Light cavalry recruited from indigenous population
of North Africa
BEF = British Expeditionary Force
G = Guards
L = Lancers
T = Tank
Design and Development: Mark Simonitch
Special Assistance: Vincent Lefavrais and Ivano Rosa
O.B. Research: Tony Curtis and Mark Simonitch
Playtesters: Clayton Baisch, Rob Bottos, Krzysztof Chadaj, John
Charbonneau, John Leggatt, Jim Lauffenburger, Brian Moore, Jim
Thomas, Preston McMurry, Henrik Reschreiter, David Rohde,
Daniel Thorpe, and Dick Whitaker.
Art Director, Cover Art & Package Design: Rodger B. MacGowan
Map, Counters & Rulebook: Mark Simonitch
Proofreading: Vincent Lefavrais and Hans Korting
Production Coordination: Tony Curtis
Producers: Tony Curtis, Rodger MacGowan, Andy Lewis, Gene
Billingsley and Mark Simonitch
–1 VP for each British unit eliminated or still on the map.
If the Allied VP total is 15 or more, then the Allied player wins. The
German player wins if he prevents that.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
The game starts with the German player’s Movement Phase. All his
units may move their full Movement Allowance. The Panzer divisions are color coded to indicate the Panzer corps they are attached
to, but there are no restrictions on their movement.
Air unit to bring it to a 2-1. The Armor Shift is not allowed across
river hexsides. A die roll of 3, results in an EX. The German player
decides to use the Rommel re-roll and rolls again and gets a 4 which
is a DR. The French unit’s Determined Defense roll is a 3 which fails.
It is retreated 2 hexes and the German units may advance. Note that
units that advance across a Major River hexside must stop.
The illustrations below show the German units after the Movement
Phase is completed and before combat.
The situation after the Retreat and Advance After Combat.
COMBAT A: The two Panzer divisions gang up and attack the 3rd
DLM. The odds are 24 to 8 = 3-1. The German player gets a shift
for TQ. A die roll of 3 results in a DR. The French player elects not
to do a Determined Defense and retreats his unit 2 hexes and marks
it with a Disrupted marker. The German units may Advance After
Combat—2 hexes for the mechanized infantry and 3 hexes for the
Panzer brigades.
The situation after the Retreat and Advance After Combat.
COMBAT B: Both Panzer divisions of Hoth’s corps attempt to cross
the Meuse near Dinant. All German units are halved and the French
unit is doubled. The odds are 13 to 14 (1-2). Elite units attacking a
regular unit provides a TQ shift. The German player commits one
COMBAT C: The 6th Panzer Division attacks the 2-4-2 Fortress
Infantry unit. Each unit in the Panzer division is halved and the
French unit is doubled because of the river. The odds are 6 to 8 (1-2).
The German player gets a shift for TQ and uses an Air unit to bring
it to a 2-1. A die roll of 4 results in a DR result. The Allied player
elects to roll on the Determined Defense Table using the “Other”
column and rolls a 5. The result is •1/1, the retreat is cancelled but
the Fortress unit and one German unit take a step loss.
COMBAT D: The German player brings all three Panzer divisions
plus the Grossdeutschland Regiment to attack the French 55th Reserve Division (4-6-3). All German units are halved and the French
division is doubled. The odds are 20 to 12 (1-1). The German player
receives 2 shifts for TQ (Elite vs. Low) and to ensure that he crosses
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
the river in this attack uses three Air units to bring the odds to a
6-1. A die roll of 5 is a DS result. The Allied unit loses one step, is
retreated 3 hexes and marked with a Full Retreat marker. The German player may advance after combat but must stop after crossing
the Major River hexside.
“We can always recover ground, but never lost time.”
—Field-Marshal Graf von Gneisenau
Sickle Cut Scenario
Why? The genesis of this game is the extraordinary book The Blitzkrieg Legend by Karl-Heinz Frieser. Richly detailed it opened the
door for me on what an interesting campaign the battle for France
was. What stood out was how uncertain the crossing of the Meuse
River was and the risk Guderian took in his dash to the coast. These
risks seemed to me were the key elements of the 1940 campaign and
there was no other game that concentrated on them.
While I’m mentioning books, I would also highly recommend
Alistair Horne’s To Lose a Battle and Len Deighton’s Blitzkrieg—
these two books and the one mentioned above are an excellent way
to learn about the campaign.
The situation after the Retreat and Advance After Combat. The GD
Regiment is moved north to help slow down reinforcements coming
from Charleville.
Since there are no German units Disrupted the Recovery Phase is
skipped. Likewise, the Supply Phase can be skipped since all German units can easily trace 8 hexes to a road and then along the road
to a friendly Entry Hex.
The last phase is the GQG Phase. The German player has six GQG
markers to place. The German player targets some non-Disrupted
French DLM and DCR divisions plus a few other stacks he would
like to have a slow reaction (see the two illustrations below). He
then rolls two dice and removes those two GQG markers.
Game Scale: The game was preferably to have only one map and
be easy to play. After testing what could fit on a 22x34 map sheet,
a 4-km per hex map scale was decided upon. Most units would be
divisions and each turn would represent one day. Holland and the
south of France had to be cropped out.
Focus of the Design: The game starts on the 4th day of the offensive
with the Germans on the Meuse. Cropping out the Ardennes and the
first three days solved a huge problem—that of having to write rules
to force the Allied player to rush up to the Dyle Line and to ignore
all those German units moving through the Ardennes for three turns.
Cropping out the BEF and French 7th Army sector to the north helped
solve the problem of needing rules to force them to remain in their
positions and not react to what was happening in the south.
The Order of Battle: Another goal of the design was to show the
forces in an unbiased manner. We now know that the German Panzer
divisions did amazingly well but nobody on either side expected
that. Hitler and Rundstedt were scared to death of French counterattacks so that had to be part of the design. I tried to avoid making
the Panzer divisions so powerful that the German player had little
to fear of Allied forces.
The Battle at the Meuse: The French expected the Germans to
halt at the Meuse for 3-8 days and bring up their artillery and support units. The immediate attack was a surprise and a big risk for
the Germans. That is why on Turn 1 many of the attacks across the
Meuse will be low-odds attacks. Be prepared for a few of them not
to work. But make sure you cross at least in one spot—Sedan. Attacking at 6-1 odds at Sedan guarantees getting across, attacking at
less than 6-1 is too big a risk.
The target hexes of the six GQG markers are marked in blue.
This ends the German Player Turn and the extended example. Now
the French Player Turn begins and he has plenty to contend with.
How he responds will be largely based on which stacks were spared
the GQG markers.
German Reinforcements: It was interesting to discover how many
German infantry divisions followed behind the Panzer divisions.
The general staff that planned all those maneuvers and march routes
deserve as much credit as the commanders of the Panzer formations
in the victory. The population of the Ardennes in that week probably
saw a non-stop line of German infantry march through their towns
24 hours a day.
No Exploitation Phase: If each turn represented more than one day
I would have considered an Exploitation Phase, but with one day
turns, I thought it would be more realistic not to have such a phase.
The German breakthrough occurred because the French line was
stretched too thin and then collapsed. The historical breakthrough
occurred on Turn 3, but unless an experienced German player is
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
pitted against an unexperienced Allied player it may take a few
more turns in this game. Nonetheless, a late breakthrough can still
reach the coast since it will have the benefit of having more German
infantry on hand to guard the flanks.
Tank Forces: The Allies had more tanks (and better armored tanks)
than the Germans. To help reflect that I included all the French
independent tank battalions except those composed of the obsolete
FT-17. Most of the German tanks were Pz Is and Pz IIs which were
of little value. The high strength of the Panzer brigades is because
each brigade, except the 9th, had four tank battalions instead of the
two they would have in 1941.
Allied Reaction: The historical Allied reaction was quite slow
which is why I included the GQG markers. But even with these
markers the typical Allied player (after he has played the game
once) will react better than the historical commanders did. That is
fine, I want the Allied player to have a chance to instill fear into
the German player—a group of 2 or 3 DLMs and/or DCRs can be
a very strong force.
Retreat 2 or 3 Hexes: The Retreat rules allow the defender the
choice of retreating 2 or 3 hexes—they are written this way so the
Allied player has some leeway when it comes time to retreat in a
shrinking Dynamo pocket. But it is often best to retreat Allied units
3 hexes when being pursued by Panzer divisions with a Bonus
Advance—so as to avoid the German units catching up and Overrunning the Disrupted units.
Advance After Combat: Although not always obvious, the way the
Advance After Combat rules are written allows the attacker to wiggle
through gaps of 2 hexes. If a unit enters the defender’s vacated hex,
he can then bounce off enemy units and keep moving. Just make sure
you don’t move from one EZOC directly into another EZOC of the
same enemy unit. “The same enemy unit” is the key phrase—units
can move from EZOC to EZOC as long as those EZOCs belong to
different units.
The Determined Defense Table: Oh what trouble this rule caused
me! It worked fine in Normandy ‘44 and so I wanted it to be in this
game. But cases of valiant French defenders holding up huge Panzer
spearheads was occurring way too often. A simple alteration, late in
testing, was to add the asterisks in the high odds CRT column.
5 HQs and 5 Air Units: For this game I wanted the two opposing
sides to appear to be equal. If the German player was going to get 5
Air units then the Allied player was going to have the potential of 5
shifts too. Since the Allies had almost twice as much artillery than
the German army I decided to put the shifts in the HQs. They can be
very useful in a static battle, but not so much in a mobile battle.
The Entry Hexes: The French high command did not know that the
Germans were heading for the coast until May 18th (Turn 6). Up until
then they were concerned at protecting Paris (the S Entry Hexes)
and the rear of the Maginot Line (SE and E Entry Hexes). Putting
a VP value to these Entry Hexes insures that Allied player guards
those important areas. The German player can win the game without
reaching the coast as long as he can grab enough Entry Hexes.
The Trains are Slow: Yes, 15 hexes is not much, but this is not
strategic rail movement far behind the lines, but rail movement in
the combat zone. The modest rate reflects the effects of the Luftwaffe on the trains and rail yards, plus accounts for delays caused
by fog of war.
GERMAN PLAYER: Don’t be dismayed if a few of your Meuse
River crossings initially fail. The 6th Army’s assault on the Dyle
Line and Hoth’s Panzer corps are just diversions. Guderian’s crossing at Sedan is where the game is won or lost. Once across, keep
stretching the French line until it snaps. Around Turn 4 or 5 the
Allied line should be thinning, at that time look for a hex you can
get an Automatic DS against and push through.
ALLIED PLAYER: You have plenty of units in the north and can
probably spare to send some to the south. I would also recommend
counterattacking when you can—disrupting a Panzer division will
put it out of action for a turn.
Dynamo Scenario
The Dynamo scenario came about due to a suggestion off the Consim
folder. I only vaguely remember the statement, but the gentlemen
felt that seeing a larger section of France on the map would help
put the Sickle Cut scenario in better context. And, if one expanded
the map one could include the retreat to Dunkirk operations. Well,
he was right, and I did have a desire to see how the forces were
positioned for the Dunkirk operation and a strong desire to see if
the game system worked in a grinding battle as well as a blitzkrieg.
So it was done.
Time Frame: The game starts on May 24th, the day the British high
command decided that it was best to abandon the fight in France
and head for Dunkirk. The game ends on June 4th—the last day of
the evacuation.
The Map: I know including eastern Belgium and part of Holland
is unnecessary for the battle of Dunkirk, but I included it anyway
to provide even more context for the Sickle Cut campaign. This is
the area the British BEF and French 7th Army operated in the initial
days of the campaign—the area they thought was the decisive area
of the battle. As much as I wanted a scenario to use this area of the
map, I could not come up with anything that would work. The British
and French forces move up and then they move back—it would take
too many “You Must Do This” rules to make it work. I’ve included
an image of the starting position of the units on May 13th (and the
extra units necessary) for those who want to study it.
The Halt! Markers: Letting the German player move up to two
Panzer divisions each turn during the Halt Order is a little generous
but its extremely important that the Allied player feels the threat of
the Panzer divisions on his flank. Historically, the Allies had no idea
that the Panzer divisions had been halted and made their movements
assuming the Panzer divisions would attack at any moment.
0-0-3 Remnants: The British left behind all their equipment in the
evacuation and these zero strength remnants reflect that. They also
help to make the escape of every unit important.
Hints on Play:
ALLIED PLAYER: On the first turn you can relax and enjoy your
strong defense line, but you better start your retreat by Turn 2 or you
might not make it to the beach. When the Panzer divisions wake up
on Turn 4 it will get scary. Note that the Panzer divisions withdraw
pretty quickly so its not as bad as it looks.
GERMAN PLAYER: For the first three turns try to make some
headway against the Belgians at the hinge between the Belgian and
British lines. Try to expand your bridgehead across the canal at StOmer, but be careful of British counterattacks.
Hints on Play
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
The situation maps on the following pages are presented for historical interest only.
German Lage West Map for May 13th (Sickle Cut, Turn 1). The
Germans have reached the Meuse. The image is showing the position of units probably in the late afternoon or end of the day. The
German map indicates only the Allied units that have been identified
and those positions may not be accurate. Note all the question marks
on German units whose location is also uncertain.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
German Lage West Map for May 15th (Sickle Cut, Turn 3).
Note that 10th Panzer holds the southern flank at Stonne while
the 1st and 2nd Panzer head west. The 6th Panzer has broken out
and is heading towards Montcornet. The 5th and 7th Panzer are at
Philippeville. North of Namur, the 6th Army has hit the Dyle Line
in the Gembloux Gap.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
A French Army map for May 16th (Sickle Cut, Turn 4). The French
government fear the Germans are moving on Paris and contemplate
evacuation. Churchill flies to Paris on this day and finds out the
French have no strategic reserves. Note the broken line west of
Montcornet and how the Germans are through the Dyle Line in the
north. The French 9th Army is showing signs of falling apart.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
German Lage West Map for May 18th (Sickle Cut, Turn 6). At this
point the Allied line has collapsed everywhere except at the hinge in
the south. Guderian’s and Hoth’s Panzer divisions are across the final
river/canal line at St-Quentin—there are no further river obstacles
between there and the coast. Note Rommel’s 7th Panzer heading for
Arras and 3rd and 4th Panzer’s movement south.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
German Lage West Map for May 24th (Dynamo, Turn 1). The
Germans have reached the coast and no French counterattack from
the south or north is materializing. The Belgians have lost their
capital and are contemplating surrender. It is on this day that the
British decide to head for Dunkerque. From viewing the map you
would think it was too late. However, the bulk of the British and
French divisions inside the pocket are in fairly good shape and the
Panzer divisions are exhausted. And most fortunate of all, Hitler
decides to let the infantry divisions of Army Group B reduce the
pocket so the Panzer divisions can be refitted for the upcoming Case
Red on June 5th. Note how weak the German line is southwest of
Amiens, but there really is nothing to oppose them there except a
few French reconnaissance battalions. Also note the German infantry
divisions that marched through the Ardennes are now manning the
southern line.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
German Lage West Map for May 31st (Dynamo, Turn 8). The
end is near at Dunkerque. The Panzer divisions are heading south
leaving the Dunkerque battle to the infantry divisions. In the next
four days another 100,000 additional French and British troops will
be evacuated. The French line in the south has begun to firm up but a
larger number of German divisions face them to the north. Belgium
has surrendered. Case Red will start in six days.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
May 13th on the Dynamo Map. This map is provided for those
curious about what was happening to the north of the Sickle Cut
map on Turn 1. The optional counters provided allow players to
set units up in their approximate positions and experiment with the
situation. The German units shown are those that enter from the east
map edge on Turn 1. It’s interesting to see that although this is the
third day of the campaign, the British are just beginning to move
into their positions around Leuven and that half of their army is still
back around Lille. The French 7th Army has a few reconnaissance
elements on the Belgium-Netherlands border but the bulk of their
forces are still approaching Antwerpen. The Belgians are retreating
from their initial defense line along the Albert Canal and the Eben
Emael-Liege fortification line. The goal of the French 7th Army is to
link up with the Dutch around Breda, but the Dutch have abandoned
this area of their country (Noord-Brabant) to concentrate in their
Fortress Holland positions north of the Waal River. There are a few
Dutch units guarding Walcheren Island and Zuid-Beveland.
Historically, the 9th Panzer Division will enter the map and link
up with the paratroopers holding the Moerdijk Bridge and reach
Rotterdam (just off the north edge of the map) on Turn 1. The SS
Verfügungstruppe, SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler and the infantry
divisions of 4th Army will push the Belgian army back to their
Antwerpen-Leuven position.
1. The French 68th Division is provided as three regiments because
it was split up to guard the coast of Belgium and Vlissingen (on Walcheren Island). One regiment is shown on the map, place the second
in Ostende and the third anywhere between those two.
2. The British 4th, 5th, 42nd, 48th, 50th divisions can be placed
within three hexes of Lille. The British 12th and 23rd Divisions are
along the supply line back to Cherbourg—place one on each side of
Amiens. The 46th Division has not yet arrived.
WHAT IF: Gamelin’s decision to send the 7th Army into Holland is
often criticized as a factor in the French defeat, and rightly so. To see
what would have happened if this army had been kept as a reserve,
place all its units from that army (except the 60th and 68th Divisions
which were needed along the coast and in the Scheldt) within 5 hexes
of Reims and/or St-Quentin at the start of the Sickle Cut scenario.
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
Advance After Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.0
Length of Advance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2
Advance in any Direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3
Advance and Enemy ZOCs. . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4
Terrain and Advance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5
Air Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3
Allied Cooperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
Allied Evacuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5
Allied Heavy Tanks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.4
Allied HQs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4, 17.0
Armor Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2
Automatic DS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8
Belgian Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1, 22.4
Belgian Surrender. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4.1
British Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
see also Zero-Strength Remnants . . . . . . . 22.9
Causeway Hex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.8
Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0
Combat Against Previously Retreated Units. . . 12.6
Combat Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0
Combat Zone Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3.2
Critical Hexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2
Defensive Air Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.6
Desperation Defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Determined Defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.0
Disengagement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4
Disruption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Dyle Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4
Entry Hexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4
Exiting the Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Extended Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.7
Extended Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Ferry Hexsides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.8
Fortifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.0
Fortified Hexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2
Fort Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1, 18.6
Fortress Infantry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6
French Collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.5
Full Retreat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2
GQG Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2
Halt markers
Sickle Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3
Dynamo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2
Halving and Doubling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Heavy Tanks (see Allied Heavy Tanks: 9.2.4)
HQs (see Allied HQs: 17.0)
Line of Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3
Maginot Line Hexsides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3
Minimum and Maximum Odds. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4
Montgomery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Movement Allowance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2
Movement and Rivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
Multi-hex Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Offensive Air and HQ Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3
Out of Supply Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4
Overruns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.0
Overrun Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3
Polder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.6
Rail Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7
Reconnaissance Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Recovery Phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3
Reinforcements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.0
Allied Reinforcements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2
German Reinforcements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3
Remnants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Replacements (German). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3
Reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5
Restricted Hexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6, 9.7
Retreats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.0
Retreat Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.3
Elimination Due to Retreat. . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2
Overstacking in a Retreat . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.4
Rivers Inside Hexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2
River and Marsh Hexsides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6
Road Congestion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2.2
Roads and Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5
Rommel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Sequence of Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0
Stacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0
Limits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Stacking Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
Stacking Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Stacking Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6
Selecting Step Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2
Indicating Step Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Supply and Isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.0
Supply Phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Supply Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2, 22.1
Belgium Supply Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4.3
Tidal River Bridges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.8
Troop Quality (TQ) Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Unit Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3
Unit Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4
Underground Canals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3
Zero-Strength Remnant Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.9
ZOC BONDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0, 14.4.1
Zones of Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0
ZOCs and Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
ZOCs and Advance After Combat. . . . . . . 14.4
ZOCs and Supply Paths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3.1
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
France ‘40
1. German Initial Phase
The German player flips all Air units from their Used side to their
Ready side.
2.German Movement Phase (7.0)
The German player places his Reinforcements on the appropriate
Entry Hexes (19.0). He may then move all, some or none of his
units. Automatic DS (10-1) can occur at this time (7.8)
3.German Combat Phase (8.0 - 15.0)
The German player conducts all his attacks. Overruns (15.0) and
Disengagement Attempts (20.4) occur at this time.
4.German Recovery Phase (13.3)
All German units that are Disrupted may recover one level—those
that are Disrupted have the marker removed, and those that are in
Full Retreat have their marker flipped to the Disrupted side. Units
adjacent to enemy units must roll for Recovery (13.3.2).
— Type of Advance —
A1/DR, DR,
Unit Type
A1/D1, DRX D1, DRM
Non-Mechanized Infantry*
All Mot. Inf. & Allied Tank
Recon & German Tank
*Includes Fortress Infantry and Mountain Infantry.
Special Units
Allows one reroll in an attack,
Overrun and Determined Defense
per turn.
The Supply Phase has two segments:
De Gaulle
Ignores GQG markers.
b. Roll for Attrition (18.5) of all German units that are:
• marked with a red Out of Supply marker (including those just
marked), and
• adjacent to an enemy unit.
Montgomery May reroll one Determined Defense roll per turn.
5.German Supply Phase
a. Check the supply status of all German units (18.1).
6. GQG Phase —Sickle Cut Scenario only
The German player places the GQG markers currently in the GQG
Marker Holding Box on Allied stacks containing at least one French
unit. He then rolls two dice and removes the GQG markers with those
numbers (21.2.4). Any GQG markers scheduled to be removed are
removed at this time (21.2.6).
Ignores Step Losses in D1, D1* and
DS results when alone.
Provides an Armor Shift even if
defender has tanks (assuming terrain allows shift).
Air Unit
Provides 1 shift right in an attack;
provides DRM to Determined Defense roll in Defense.
Allied HQ
Provides 1 shift right in an attack.
1. Allied Initial Phase
The Allied player flips all eligible non-Disrupted HQs from their
Used side to their Ready side (Sickle Cut Scenario only—see 17.2.1).
The Allied player flips all RAF units from their Used side to their
Ready side (Dynamo scenario only—see 22.6).
2.Allied Movement Phase
3.Allied Combat Phase
4.Allied Recovery Phase
5.Allied Supply Phase
The Allied Movement, Combat, Recovery and Supply Phases are
identical to the German phases except switch the term German
with Allied.
Record the completion of a Game Turn by advancing the Game Turn
marker one box and proceed to the next turn.
GMT Games, LLC
P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
© 2013 GMT Games, LLC
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