Manual for the Michigan Test Methods - State of Michigan

Manual for the Michigan Test Methods - State of Michigan
MANUAL FOR THE
MICHIGAN TEST METHODS
(MTM’S)
Revised April 2007
CONSTRUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY
DIVISION
FOREWORD
This manual has been prepared by the Michigan Department of Transportation to describe the
procedures used in testing certain materials, equipment, or operations. The Department generally
uses test methods developed by national organizations, such as AASHTO or ASTM. In some
cases, no method promulgated by a national organization has been found suitable, so a Michigan
Test Method (MTM) has been written in its entirety. In other cases, certain provisions of a national
method have been modified by an MTM to meet Department needs.
Each Michigan Test Method has a unique designation shown in the bottom right corner of each
page. General classification is indicated by the first digit of the sequential number (1, Aggregates;
2, Concrete; 3, Hot Mix Asphalt; 4, Soils; 5, Metals and Welds; 6, Chemicals and Coatings; 7,
Miscellaneous). The number following the dash indicates the year of original adoption, or, in the
case of revision, the year of the last revision. Thus, an MTM adopted or revised in 2004 will have
as its final number, 04. A letter following this number indicates that an editorial change has been
made since the last revision; 04a for the first change, 04b for the second change, etc. Editorial
changes include corrections of typographical errors, changes in contact information, business unit
names, or formatting changes.
PROCEDURES FOR WRITING AND ADOPTING TEST METHODS
Any appropriate unit in the Department may prepare a test method. In general, the format should
conform to that used by AASHTO for test methods and recommended practices, although
substantial abbreviation is permissible when the method is only to provide limited modifications to
a national standard. The test method must start with a paragraph on the scope to define the use
of the method.
Each new or revised test method is reviewed and approved by individuals knowledgeable in the
subject matter who are selected by the head of the originating unit. New test method designations
will be assigned by the Engineer of Specifications.
All MDOT quality assurance procedures will be reviewed and revised annually. Revisions will be
distributed through the MDOT Publications Office. This manual is formatted to allow revised
pages to be easily substituted. It may be necessary to retain superseded pages for reference on
projects which have been advertised prior to the date revisions are implemented.
The values stated in either inch-pound units (English) or SI units (metric) are to be regarded as the
standard; within the text and tables, metric units are shown in parentheses. The values stated in
each system may not be exactly equivalent; therefore, each system must be used independently
of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the
specification.
MDOT MISSION STATEMENT:
Provide the highest quality transportation services for economic benefit and improved quality of
life.
(Rev 2007)
For copies of this manual, contact the MDOT Publications Office
Telephone: (517) 322-1676
Fax: (517) 322-1095
E-Mail: [email protected]
or visit our website at
www.michigan.gov/mappub
(Rev 2007)
______________________________
MICHIGAN TEST METHODS
______________________________
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part 1. AGGREGATES
MTM 101
Michigan Test Method for Water Asphalt Preferential Test
MTM 102
Michigan Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Aggregate by the Los Angeles
Machine
MTM 103
Michigan Test Method for Determination of Insoluble Residue in Carbonate
Aggregates
MTM 104
Michigan Test Method for Petrographic Analysis of Aggregates
MTM 105
Michigan Test Method for Determining Specific Gravity and Absorption of
Coarse Aggregates in Petrographic Analysis Samples
MTM 106
Michigan Test Method for Determining Adsorption of Coarse Aggregates in
Petrographic Analysis Samples
MTM 107
Michigan Test Method for Sampling Aggregates
MTM 108
Michigan Test Method for Materials Finer than No. 75 Ојm (No. 200) Sieve in
Mineral Aggregates by Washing
MTM 109
Michigan Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine, Dense Graded, Open Graded
and Coarse Aggregates in the Field
MTM 110
Michigan Test Method for Determining Deleterious and Objectionable Particles
in Aggregates
MTM 111
Michigan Test Method for Determining an Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) by Wear
Track Polishing Tests
MTM 112
Michigan Test Method for Determining An Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) From
Sample Petrographic Composition and Wear Track AWI Factors
MTM 113
Michigan Test Method for Selection and Preparation of Coarse Aggregate
Samples for Freeze-Thaw Testing
MTM 114
Michigan Test Method for Making Concrete Specimens for Freeze-Thaw Testing
of Concrete Coarse Aggregate
(2007)
MTM 115
Michigan Test Method for Testing Concrete for Durability by Rapid Freezing in
Air and Thawing in Water
MTM 116
Michigan Test Method for Identifying Aggregates That Produce Calcium
Carbonate Precipitate
MTM 117
Michigan Test Method for Determining Percentage of Crushed Particles in
Aggregates
MTM 118
Michigan Test Method for Measuring Fine Aggregate Angularity
MTM 119
Michigan Test Method for Sampling Open-Graded Drainage Course (OGDC)
Compacted In Place
MTM 120
Michigan Test Method for Preparing Concrete Pavement Cores to Be Tested
For Durability by Rapid Freezing in Air and Thawing in Water
MTM 121
Michigan Test Method for Testing Concrete Pavement Cores For Durability by
Rapid Freezing in Air and Thawing in Water
MTM 122E
(English) Michigan Test Method for Determination of the Drainability
Characteristics of Granular Materials
MTM 122M
(Metric) Michigan Test Method for Determination of the Drainability
Characteristics of Granular Materials
MTM 123
Michigan Test Method for Field Determination of the Dry Unit Weight (Loose
Measure) of Coarse Aggregates
MTM 124
Michigan Test Method for Determining Aggregate Freeze-Thaw Durability by
Unconfined Freeze-Thaw Testing
MTM 128
Michigan Test Method for Determination of Iowa Pore Index of Coarse
Aggregates
MTM 129
Michigan Test Method for Leachate Determination of Iron Blast Furnace Slag
Used for Lightweight Aggregate Fill
(2007)
Part 2. CONCRETE
MTM 201
Michigan Test Method for Determination of Pavement Thickness and Depth of
Steel Reinforcement in Concrete Pavement by the Coring Method
MTM 203
Michigan Test Method for Testing Concrete Blocks Used for Precast Concrete
Slope Paving
MTM 205
Michigan Test Method for Consolidation Method of Concrete Cylinder Test
Specimens
MTM 206
Michigan Test Method for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of
Compressive Strength of Hardened Concrete Cylinders
MTM 207
Michigan Test Method for Testing Concrete
(2007)
Part 3. HOT MIX ASPHALT
MTM 306
Michigan Test Method for Air and Water Method of Determining the Actual
Specific Gravity by Single Operator for a HMA Mixture
MTM 308
Michigan Test Method for the Asphalt Immersion Method (Beaker Method) for
Determining the Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity of HMA Paving
Mixtures
MTM 309
Michigan Test Method for HMA Marshall Mix Design Procedure
MTM 311
Michigan Test Method for Determining Aggregate Gradation for HMA Mixture
MTM 313
Michigan Test Method for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures
MTM 314
Michigan Test Method for Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of
HMA Paving Mixtures
MTM 315
Michigan Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted
HMA Mixtures Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens
MTM 319
Michigan Test Method for Determination of Asphalt Content From Asphalt
Paving Mixtures By the Ignition Method
MTM 320
Michigan Test Method for Determining Specific Gravity and Absorption of
Coarse Aggregates
MTM 321
Michigan Test Method for Determining Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine
Aggregates
MTM 322
Michigan Test Method for HMA Mix Design Procedure
MTM 324
Michigan Test Method for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures Behind the Paver
MTM 325
Michigan Test Method for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from HMA Paving
Mixtures
(2007)
Part 4. SOILS
MTM 401
Michigan Test Method for Transverse Shearing Resistance of Cohesive Soils
MTM 403
Michigan Test Method for Determining the Liquid Limit of Soils
MTM 404
Michigan Test Method for The Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 5.5
pound (2.5 kg) Rammer and a 12 inch (305 mm) Drop
MTM 405
Michigan Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
MTM 406
Michigan Test Method for Natural Moisture-Density Determination of
Undisturbed Liner Samples
MTM 407
Michigan Test Method for Natural Moisture Content Determination of Disturbed
Soil Samples
MTM 409
Michigan Test Method for Magnetic Particle Determination for Soils or
Aggregates
MTM 410
Michigan Test Method for Electrochemical Testing for Mechanically Stabilized
Embankments
MTM 411
Michigan Test Method for Compressive Properties of Prefabricated Drainage
Systems
MTM 412
Michigan Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Nonwoven Geotextile
Fabrics - Diaphragm Bursting Strength Tester Method
MTM 413
Michigan Test Method for the Moisture-Density Relations of Recycled Mixtures
Using a 10.0 Pound (4.5 kg) Rammer and an 18 Inch (457 mm) Drop
(2007)
Part 5. METALS AND WELDS
(2007)
Part 6. CHEMICALS AND COATINGS
MTM 601
Michigan Test Method for Epoxy Coated Dowel Bars for Load Transfer in
Concrete Pavement Joints
MTM 605
Michigan Test Method for Determination of Chloride Ion Content in Hardened
Concrete
MTM 613
Michigan Test Method for Determining the Amount of Zinc and Clear Coat on a
Fence Post with a Multi-Coated System
MTM 614
Michigan Test Method for Bond Release Agents for Epoxy Coated Dowel Bars
(2007)
Part 7. MISCELLANEOUS
MTM 704
Michigan Test Method for Wiping Cloths for Laboratory and General Use
MTM 707
Michigan Test Method for Minimum Soil Resistivity
MTM 709
Michigan Test Method for Plastic Traffic Cones
MTM 711
Michigan Test Method for Glass Beads for Pavement Marking
MTM 712
Michigan Test Method for Physical Tests of Paint for Pavement Marking
MTM 713
Michigan Test Method for Sampling Timber Guardrail Posts, Blocks and Sign
Posts to Test for Retention and Penetration of Chemical Treatment
MTM 716
Michigan Test Method for Inspection and Pull Testing of Temporary Concrete
Barrier Loops
MTM 717
Michigan Test Method for Sign Post Driving Heads
MTM 718
Michigan Test Method for Testing Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe and
Corrugated Polyethylene Tubing
MTM 719
Michigan Test Method for Tungsten Carbide Inserts in Underbody Blades
MTM 720
Michigan Test Method for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe (Bell and Spigot
Fused Couplings)
MTM 721
Michigan Test Method for Soil Anchor Driving Heads
MTM 722
Michigan Test Method for Surface Smoothness
MTM 723
Michigan Test Method for Watertightness Testing of Culvert and Sewer Joints
Up to 24 Inches (600 mm) in Diameter
MTM 724
Michigan Test Method for Smooth-Wall Coilable Polyethylene (PE) Conduit
and Pipe
MTM 725
Michigan Test Method for Determining Ride Quality Using a California Type
Profilograph
MTM 726
Michigan Test Method for Determining Ride Quality Using a GM Type Rapid
Travel Profiler
MTM 727
Michigan Test Method for Manual Analysis of California Type Profilograms
MTM 728
Michigan Test Method for Corrugated Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe - AASHTO
M 304
(2007)
MTM 729
Michigan Test Method for Certification of California Type Profilographs.
MTM 730
Michigan Test Method for Certification of Profilers
(Rev 2004)
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
WATER ASPHALT PREFERENTIAL TEST
1. Scope
1.1
This test covers the determination of the water-resisting properties of mineral filler to be
used in HMA mixtures.
2. Applicable Document
AASHTO T-88
3. Equipment
3.1
Stirring Apparatus - A mechanically operated stirring apparatus consisting of an electric
motor suitably mounted to turn a vertical shaft at a speed not less than 10,000 rpm
without load and a replaceable stirring paddle made of metal, plastic, or hard rubber
(equipment similar to that in AASHTO T-88).
3.2
Water Bath - A water bath that can be maintained at a temperature of 140О•F (60О•C).
3.3
Glass Bottles - Two 236 mL wide mouth, round, glass bottles with screw caps.
4. Procedures
4.1
Place 50 mL of liquid asphalt, SC -250, in a loosely covered sample bottle and heat in
an oven at 140О•F (60oC) for approximately one hour. Add a 10-gram sample of mineral
filler, passing the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve, to the bottle and place it in a water bath having
a temperature of 140О•F (60oC). While still in the bath, mix the materials in the bottle by
use of a mechanical mixer for a period of 5 minutes. Add 100 mL of distilled water at a
temperature of 140О•F (60oC) and continue mixing for an additional period of 5 minutes.
Remove from the bath and allow the mixture to stand until the uncoated particles settle
to the bottom and the water becomes clear.
5. Measure of Results
5.1
The percentage of uncoated particles in the bottom of the bottle is determined by
visually comparing the depth of mineral filler with a reference bottle containing 25
percent by weight of the same material in clear water. Test results are satisfactory if not
more than an estimated 25 percent of the mineral filler in the sample has separated from
the HMA material and settled to the bottom of the bottle.
6. Precaution
6.1
If readings are delayed for a period longer than 3 hours, a portion of all of the mixture of
HMA material and mineral filler may settle and obscure the reading.
1 of 1
MTM 101-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
ABRASION RESISTANCE OF AGGREGATE
BY THE LOS ANGELES MACHINE
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers a procedure for testing aggregates for resistance to abrasion using
the Los Angeles machine.
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with AASHTO Method T
96. This modification of T 96 is to provide additional standard gradations of aggregate,
which more nearly conform to the coarse fraction of dense-graded aggregates and
some coarse aggregates for HMA mixtures used by the Michigan Department of
Transportation.
2. Abrasive Charge
2.1
The tabulation of abrasive charges shown in T 96 will be extended as follows:
Grading
E
F
Number of Spheres
10
10
Weight of Charge, g
4166 в€Ђ 25
4166 в€Ђ 25
3. Test Sample
3.1
Table 1 of T 96, Gradings of Test Samples, will be revised as follows to include "E" and
"F" gradings.
(SEE NEXT PAGE)
1 of 2
MTM 102-01
TABLE 1
Gradings of Test Sample
Sieve Size
Passing
Weight of Indicated Sizes, g, Grading
Retained On
A
B
C
D
E
F
1.5 (37.5)
1.0 (25.0)
1250 в€Ђ 25
---
---
---
---
---
1.0 (25.0)
3/4 (19.0)
1250 в€Ђ 25
---
---
---
---
---
3/4 (19.0)
2 (12.5)
1250 в€Ђ 10
2500 в€Ђ 10
---
---
---
2 (12.5)
3/8 (9.5)
1250 в€Ђ 10
2500 в€Ђ 10
---
---
3/8 (9.5)
No. 3 (6.3)
---
---
2500 в€Ђ 10
---
No. (6.3)
No. 4 (4.75)
---
---
2500 в€Ђ 10
---
No. 4 (4.75)
No. 8 (2.36)
---
---
---
5000 в€Ђ 10
2500 в€Ђ 10 2500 в€Ђ 10
C
---
5000 в€Ђ 10
5000 в€Ђ 10
5000 в€Ђ 10
5000 в€Ђ 10
5000 в€Ђ 10 5000 в€Ђ 10
inches (mm)
TOTAL
2500 в€Ђ 10 1250 в€Ђ 10
---
1250 в€Ђ 10
4. Retests
4.1
4.2
One retest will be conducted on a sample when the initial test result is 41 or 42 percent
loss for a specification limit of 40 percent loss.
4.1.1
When the specification limit is 45 percent loss, one retest will be conducted if
the initial test result is 46, 47 or 48 percent loss.
4.1.2
If the initial test result is 51, 52 or 53 percent loss, one retest will be done when
the specification limit is 50 percent loss.
Both L.A. Abrasion tests will be averaged and rounded off to the nearest whole
percent. The average must be less than or equal to the specific specification limit.
2 of 2
MTM 102-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUE IN CARBONATE AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the quantity of insoluble residue present in
carbonate aggregates using hydrochloric acid solution to react the carbonate material.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 294 Standard Descriptive Nomenclature for Constituents of Natural Mineral
aggregate.
C 702 Standard Practice for Reducing Field Sample of Aggregates to Testing Size
E 11 Standard Specification for Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
3. Apparatus and Supplies
3.1
Balance with capacity of 150 g or more, accurate to 0.1 g.
3.2
Oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110oC + 5oC.
3.3
Fume hood.
3.4
Sieves conforming to ASTM E 11, having a diameter of 3 inches (75 mm), including
the No. 100 (150 Ојm) and No. 200 (75 Ојm) sizes.
3.5
Glassware (or plasticware) - 2000 mL beaker, 2000 mL filtering flask, 111 mm Buchner
funnel, and miscellaneous supplies, including blue litmus paper or other pH sensitive
indicator, sample containers, and hot plate.
3.6
Aspirator or other vacuum filtration apparatus.
3.7
Filter paper, Whatman No.40 or equivalent with 110 mm diameter.
3.8
De-ionized water.
3.9
Hydrochloric acid (1 + 1) - Mix a quantity of concentrated hydrochloric acid (sp gr 1.19)
with an equal volume of de-ionized water. When mixing fresh one to one solution,
allow it to cool to room temperature before use. (Follow OSHA precautions for
hazardous materials).
3.10
Trichloroethylene (follow OSHA precautions for hazardous chemicals.)
1 of 5
MTM 103-01
4. Sample
4.1
The sample shall be representative of the source. Unless otherwise provided, reduce the
sample to an appropriate quantity according to ASTM C702. Grade the sample into aggregate
particles passing the d inch (9.5 mm) sieve and retained on the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve, using
sieves per ASTM E 11. Using de-ionized water, rinse the sample to remove surface coatings,
then oven-dry at 110oC + 5oC to constant weight.
4.2
If the aggregate contains exposures of HMA material, place the sample in a 2000 mL glass
beaker and immerse with 600 mL of trichloroethylene. Allow to soak for two hours, stirring
occasionally. After the soak period, decant the trichloroethylene, taking care to avoid loss of
any solids, then oven-dry at 110oC + 5oC to constant weight. Follow OSHA procedures for
handling and disposal of the trichloroethylene. (Trichloroethylene treatment must be done
under a fume hood).
4.3
Prepare a sample quantity of approximately 100 g, following ASTM C702.
5. Procedure
5.1
Weigh the sample to 0.1 g and place in a 2000 mL beaker. Add 300 mL of 1:1 hydrochloric
acid in small amounts, stirring occasionally to prevent evolved foam from over-filling the
beaker. Let stand until effervescence ceases. (Acid treatment must be performed under a
fume hood.)
5.2
Add an additional 100 mL of 1:1 hydrochloric acid, then stir. If effervescence recurs, add an
additional 100 mL of acid. Continue acid treatment until no further effervescence occurs.
Gentle heating on a hot plate will aid in dissolving dolomitic materials that may be slow to
react. Allow insoluble residue to settle, then decant clear solute, taking care to avoid loss of
residue. Refill beaker with water. Stir, then allow insoluble residue to settle. Test rinse water
for pH. Repeat rinsing process until pH of approximately 7 indicates that acid has been
removed from the sample.
5.3
Decant excess rinse water, then pour the insoluble residue onto a No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve
protected by a No. 100 (150 Ојm) sieve over a clean beaker, taking care to avoid loss of
insoluble residue. Using de-ionized water, rinse until all insoluble residue finer than the No.
200 (75 Ојm) sieve is collected in the beaker. Transfer the insoluble residue collected on the
No. 100 (150 Ојm) and No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieves into a container, then oven-dry at 110oC + 5oC
to constant weight.
5.4
Record the weight of a filter paper, then place in a Buchner funnel or other filtration apparatus.
Filter the rinse water and insoluble residue finer than the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve. Transfer the
filter paper and insoluble residue to a container, then oven-dry at 110oC + 5oC to constant
weight.
5.5
Weigh and record the weights of the insoluble residue fractions to the nearest 0.1g. If desired,
grade the insoluble residue retained on the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve into sieve fractions for
examination.
2 of 5
MTM 103-01
5.6
Examine the insoluble residue fractions, retained and passing the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve, by
stereomicroscope to identify the insoluble residue constituents, according to ASTM C294.
6. Calculations
6.1
Calculate the percent insoluble residue retained on the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve, as follows:
Insoluble Residue Retained No. 200 (75 Ојm), % = (W2/W1) x 100
Where:
W1 = Wt. of original sample, g
W2 = Wt. of insoluble residue retained on No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve, g
6.2
Calculate the percent insoluble residue passing the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve, as follows:
Insoluble Residue Passing No. 200 (75 Ојm), % =[(W3 - W4) / W1] x 100
Where:
W3 = Wt. of insoluble residue passing No. 200 (75 Ојm) + filter paper, g
W4 = Wt. of filter paper
6.3
Calculate the total insoluble residue as the sum of the percentages determined in 6.1 and 6.2.
7. Report
7.1
Report the percentages of insoluble residue calculated in 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3, and composition of
the insoluble residue.
3 of 5
MTM 103-01
Figure 1.
WORKSHEET FOR DETERMINATION OF
INSOLUBLE RESIDUE IN CARBONATE AGGREGATES
Sample No.
94A-3297
Sample Source Ozark Pit 49-98
Sample Type Quarried Ledgerock
Initial Oven-dry Wt., g 103.1
Filter Paper Tare Wt.,g 0.9
<No. 200 Can Wt., g
33.1
Date Analyzed 10-05-94
Gradation of Insoluble Residue
Sieve No.
I.R. + Tare, g
Tare, g
I.R. - Tare, g
I.R., %
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
--.-
--.-
--.-
--.-
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
33.2
33.2
TR
TR
No. 16 (1.18 mm)
33.4
33.4
TR
TR
No. 30 (600 mm)
33.0
33.0
TR
TR
No. 50 (300mm)
32.8
32.8
TR
TR
No. 100 (150 mm)
33.1
33.1
TR
TR
No. 200 (75 Ојm)
33.0
33.0
TR
TR
<No. 200 (75 Ојm)
34.1
34.0
0.1
0.1
Total Insoluble Residue > No. 200 (75 Ојm).............
Total Sample Insoluble Residue..............................
TR
0.1
Composition of Insoluble Residue > No. 200 (75 Ојm) :
Insoluble residue coarser than No. 200 (75 Ојm) is composed of trace amounts (less than 0.1
percent) of white quartz grain clusters and grains, rounded, frosted quartz grains, and few pyrite
grains.
Composition of Insoluble Residue < No. 200 (75 Ојm):
Insoluble residue finer than No. 200 (75 Ојm) is composed of gray argillaceous material, quartz
grains, and pyrite fragments.
4 of 5
MTM 103-01
Research Laboratory Section
Secondary Governmental Complex
P.O. Box 30049
Lansing, Michigan 48909
0373
File 300
Job Number
Control Section
Laboratory
Number
Date
MR 94-19A
REPORT OF TEST
Report on Sample of:
COARSE AGGREGATE (Crushed Rock)
Date Sampled:
Source of Material:
9/30/94
Ozark Pit No. 49-98
Date Received:
Sampled From:
Stockpile at Source
Quantity Represented:
Submitted By:
Intended Use:
J. Dierck, Dist. Materials Supervisor
HMA Mixtures
Specification:
10/4/94
40,000 Tons
2003 MDOT Standard Specifications
TEST RESULTS
Testing Laboratory Sample No.
94A-3297
Insoluble Residue, percent Ret. No. 200 (75 Ојm)
Insoluble Residue, percent Pass No. 200 (75 Ојm)
Total Insoluble Residue, percent
Trace
0.1
0.1
REMARKS:
Tested for Information
Insoluble residue coarser than No. 200 (75 Ојm) is composed of white quartz grain
clusters and fragments, few rounded, frosted quartz grains, and few pyrite fragments.
Insoluble residue finer than No. 200 (75 Ојm) is composed of gray argillaceous material,
quartz grains, and pyrite fragments.
cc: J. Dierck - District 2
A. Robords
Signed: ____________________________________
Supervisor - Chemical Technology Unit
For questions concerning analytical results, please contact David Long at (517)322-6138.
5 of 5
MTM 103-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This practice outlines procedures for the petrographic examination of samples of
aggregates. The samples examined may have been taken from (1) construction projects;
(2) hauling units; (3) stockpiles at sources; (4) exposed faces at non-producing quarries or
sand and gravel deposits; and (5) undeveloped sand and gravel deposits.
1.2
The petrographic procedures outlined herein are applicable to the examination of all types
of coarse and fine aggregates including quarried material, natural sand and gravel, blast
furnace, steel furnace and reverberatory furnace slags and other synthetic aggregate
materials.
1.3
Petrographic examinations are made to (1) describe and classify the constituents of the
sample; (2) determine the relative amounts of the sample constituents; and (3) determine
the physical and chemical properties of the constituents of the sample that have a bearing
on the quality of the material for its intended use. These may include specific gravities,
absorption, adsorption, mohs hardness, insoluble residue, and calcite-dolomite ratio.
NOTE:
This practice is based on ASTM C 295, to which the user may refer for additional
information. Reference should also be made to ASTM C 294 for proper nomenclature.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standard Test for:
C 117 Material Finer than No. 200 (75Ојm) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing
C 127 Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregates
C 136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 294 Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Natural Mineral Aggregates
C 295 Practice for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete
C 702 Reducing Field Samples of Aggregates to Testing Size
2.2
MTM Standards:
MTM 103 Test Method for Determination of Insoluble Residue in Carbonate Aggregate
Materials
MTM 105 Practice for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregates in
1 of 9
MTM 104-01
Petrographic Analysis Samples
MTM 106 Practice for Adsorption of Coarse Aggregates in Petrographic Analysis
Samples
3. Apparatus and Supplies
3.1
The items listed below are recommended for the proper analysis of materials to be
examined. The list is not intended to exclude other items which would serve a similar
function or to require that all items must be available. The selection of apparatus and
supplies to be used is left to the judgment of the petrographer doing the analyses.
3.1.1
Apparatus and supplies for sample preparation:
- Rock cutting saw.
- Horizontal grinding wheel.
- Polishing wheel.
- Abrasives.
- Microscope slides and accessories.
3.1.2
Apparatus and supplies for examination of specimens:
- Polarizing microscope.
- Stereoscopic microscope.
- Microscope lamps.
- Immersion media.
- Photo-micro-graphic camera and accessories.
- Assorted bottles for acid, water and other reagents.
- Assorted forceps, needle holders and points.
NATURAL SAND AND GRAVEL
4. Selection of Samples For Examination
4.1
Samples of gravel and sand for petrographic examination should be sieved in accordance
with ASTM C 136, including washing as described in ASTM C 117, to provide samples of
each sieve size. An additional portion of fine aggregate should then be sieved without
washing to provide a sample of the material finer than the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve. Each
sieve fraction should be examined separately, starting with the largest size available, as
rocks are more easily recognized in larger pieces.
4.2
The number of particles examined, identified, and counted in each sieve fraction will
depend on the required accuracy of the estimate of constituents present in small
quantities. At least 300 particles of each sieve fraction should be identified and counted in
order to obtain reliable results. Precise determinations of small quantities of important
constituents will require counts of larger number of particles. Rock particles are to be
identified in a surface wet condition which enhances the color and structure of the particles
making identification easier.
5. Examination of Natural Gravel
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MTM 104-01
5.1
Coatings - The particles should be examined to determine if exterior coatings are present.
If present, the coating material is to be identified to determine if it may be deleterious
(opal, gypsum, easily soluble salts, organic matter). The firmness of bond also should be
determined.
5.2
Rock Types - Each sieve fraction should be sorted into individual types by visual
examination. If all the rock groups present are identifiable by examination of a natural or
broken surface, and by scratch or acid tests, no further identification is needed. Fine
grained rocks that cannot be identified megascopically or that may contain constituents
known to be deleterious should be examined with a stereo-microscope. If they cannot be
identified by that means, they should be identified by means of a petrographic microscope.
In some instances petrographic methods such as X-ray diffraction may be required to
identify fine grained rock materials.
5.2.1
5.3
The separated groups belonging to each rock type should be examined to
determine whether a further separation by physical condition is necessary.
Frequently particles in several degrees of weathering will be found in a group.
They should be sorted into categories based on condition. The types of categories
intended are: (1) fresh, dense; (2) moderately weathered; (3) severely weathered;
or (1) dense; (2) porous (or porous and friable). It usually is not practicable to
recognize more than three conditions per rock type and one or two may be
sufficient. An important constituent present in larger quantities may sometimes
require separation into four groups by condition. The conspicuous example is
chert when it may be an important constituent of the sample. It may be present as
dense, unfractured chert; as vuggy chert; as porous chert; as dense but highly
fractured chert; or as any combination of the above.
Record - Notes should be taken during the examination. Each rock type should be
described. The relevant features may include the following:
- Particle shape.
- Particle surface.
- Grain size.
- Texture and structure, including packing and cementation of grains.
- Color.
- Mineral composition.
- General physical condition of the rock type.
- Presence of constituents known to cause deleterious chemical reaction in concrete.
- Mohs hardness, if applicable.
5.4
Particle counts should be recorded so that tables can be made for inclusion in the report.
Tables should be prepared showing the composition and condition of the sample by sieve
fraction, and the weighted average composition based on the identification of at least 300
particles on each sieve fraction. Descriptions of constituent groups should be prepared
containing the relevant features among those enumerated above and should include any
additional pertinent data.
5.5
Specific gravities and absorptions shall be determined on all constituent groups. The
adsorption of the material shall be determined on a representative portion of the sample.
These tests shall be conducted in accordance with Michigan Test Methods and will be
included in the report (See 12.6).
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MTM 104-01
6. Examination of Natural Sand
6.1
The procedure for the examination of natural sand is similar to that for the examination of
gravel, with the modification necessitated by the differences in particle size.
6.2
Sizes coarser than No. 30 (600 Ојm) - Each sieve fraction present that is coarser than the
No. 30 (600 Ојm) sieve should be reduced in a sample splitter (ASTM C 702) until a split or
splits containing at least 300 particles are obtained. The reduced sample of each sieve
fraction should be examined, and its constituents identified and counted, using the
stereoscopic microscope. It is convenient to spread out the sample in a flat bottom glass
dish such as a Petri dish and manipulate the grains with a forceps and dissecting needle.
The identification of grains in the coarser sand sizes is often easier when the grains are
just submerged in water. The submergence generally lessens reflection from the outer
surfaces and may show diagnostic features that cannot be seen when the grains are dry.
6.3
Sizes finer than No. 30 (600 Ојm) - The sieve fractions finer than the 600 Ојm (No. 30) sieve
should be reduced in a sample splitter to about 4 or 5 grams. These splits should be
further reduced on a miniature splitter or by coning and quartering with a spatula on a
clean sheet of paper. A representative portion of each reduced split should be mounted in
immersion oil on a clean glass slide and covered with a clean cover glass. No entirely
satisfactory method of reducing a split to about 300 grains is known. The reduced split
can be sampled by spreading it in a thin layer on glass or clean paper, dragging the end of
a dissecting needle moistened in immersion oil through the sample and transferring the
grains that adhere to the needle to a drop of immersion oil on a clean slide. If the
dissecting needle is made of magnetized steel, a concentration of magnetic minerals may
result. It is usually necessary to make several mounts on the No. 50 (300 Ојm) and No.
100 (150 Ојm) sieve fractions to obtain at least 300 grains of each. The index of the
immersion oil should be selected to make the identification of the important constituents as
easy and as definite as possible.
The use of an immersion oil with an index of or just below the lower index of quartz (1.544)
is recommended. The slide should be mounted on a petrographic microscope equipped
with a mechanical stage. Several traverses should be made, and each grain that passes
under the cross hairs should be identified and counted. Care should be taken to move the
slide on the north-south adjustment between traverses so that no grain will be counted
twice. Each sieve fraction passing the No. 30 (600 Ојm) sieve and retained on the No. 200
(75 Ојm) sieve should be examined in this way. Ordinarily the material passing the No. 200
(75 Ојm) sieve is mounted on a glass slide following the procedure described above,
examined by means of the petrographic microscope, and its composition estimated.
DRILLED CORE, LEDGE ROCK, CRUSHED STONE AND MANUFACTURED SAND
7. Examination of Drilled Core
7.1
Each core should be examined and a log prepared showing the following: (1) footage of
core recovered, core loss and location; (2) location and spacing of fractures and parting
planes; (3) lithologic type or types; (4) alteration of types; (5) physical condition and
variations in condition; (6) hardness; (7) obvious porosity; (8) grain size, variations in grain
size and texture; and (9) the presence of constituents capable of deleterious reaction in
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MTM 104-01
concrete. If the surface of the core being examined is wetted, it is usually easier to
recognize significant features and changes in lithology. Most of the information usually
required can be obtained by careful visual examination and scratch and acid tests. In case
of fine-grained rocks, it may be necessary to examine parts of the core, using the
stereoscopic microscope, or to prepare thin sections of selected portions. Some
considerations and procedures are more applicable to particular rock types than to others.
Ordinarily, the layered rocks considered for concrete aggregate will be carbonates. One
of the most important questions arising in the examination of carbonates is that of the
presence and distribution of chert and argillaceous impurities. Where argillaceous
impurities are present, it should be determined whether they actually consist of clay
minerals or of other minerals in clay sizes. X-ray diffraction analysis is especially valuable
in identification and quantitative determination of clay minerals. If sand grains are present
in the carbonate, they should be described as to percent of sample, size, shape of grains,
mineralogy and any other feature deemed necessary.
8. Examination of Ledge Rock
8.1
The procedure used in examination should be the same as for core samples to the extent
that the spacing of samples and size of the individual pieces allow. If the sample consists
of a relatively large quantity of broken stone produced by blasting, it is desirable to inspect
the whole sample, estimate the relative abundance of rock types or varieties present, and
sample each type before further processing. Subsequent procedure should be the same
as given in Section 9 for crushed stone.
9. Examination of Crushed Stone
9.1
The procedure for examination of crushed stone should be similar to that for natural
gravel, except that necessary quantitative date should be obtained by particle counts of
the separate sieve fractions.
9.2
When called for, the percentage of insoluble residue shall be determined on quarried
carbonate aggregates in accordance with Michigan Test Method 103.
10. Examination of Manufactured Sand
10.1
If no samples of the rock from which the sand was produced are available, the
examination procedure should be similar to that for natural sand, with particular emphasis
on the amount and extent of fracturing developed by the milling operations.
11. Examination of Synthetic Aggregates
11.1
The procedure for examination of synthetic aggregates should be similar to that for
examination of natural gravels. The particles should be sorted into categories such as
(1) porous; (2) dense; (3) glassy.
CALCULATIONS AND REPORT
12. Calculations
12.1
Calculate the composition of each sieve fraction of a heterogeneous sample and the
weighted average composition of the whole sample.
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MTM 104-01
12.2
Express the composition of each sieve fraction by summing the total number of
particles of that fraction counted, and calculating each constituent in each condition as
a percentage of that total amount (as number of particles in percent, in each sieve
fraction). It is convenient to calculate and record the percentages to tenths at this
stage. An example of these calculations is given in the upper half of Table 1.
12.3
Obtain the weighted percent of the sieve fraction in the whole sample (individual
percentages retrained on consecutive sieves) from the gradation of the sample as
determined by ASTM C 136, but in the case of coarse aggregates ignoring any
material finer than a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve (or other sieve designated as the nominal
minimum size for the aggregate).
12.4
By adding the weighted percentages of each constituent in each sieve fraction, obtain
the weighted percentage of each constituent in the whole sample (see under Weighted
Composition of Sample in Table 1).
12.5
Construct a table to show the composition of each sieve fraction. Report values to the
nearest whole number. Report constituents amount to 0.5 percent or less of a sieve
fraction or of the whole sample as traces. Table 2 is an example constructed from the
data obtained in Table 1. As a convention, the total in each sieve fraction and the total
in the whole sample shall each be 100 percent without the traces. Difficulties in
abiding by this convention can usually be avoided by grouping minor constituents of
little engineering importance. It is preferable to tabulate constituents known to react
deleteriously in concrete so that their distribution will be apparent from inspection of
the table, even though the amount in the whole sample or in any fraction is very small.
12.6
Construct a table to show the Specific Gravity and Absorption data on each constituent
group and the average values for the total sample. The table also shall show the
adsorption value of a representative portion of the sample. Table 3 is an example of
this data. 1 Table 3 also shall contain a "Calculated Aggregate Wear Index Number"
based on the computed composition of the sample. 2
13. Report
13.1
The report of the petrographic examination should consist of two principal parts, the
summary report and the detailed report. The summary report customarily consists of
two paragraphs which summarize, respectively, (1) the essential data needed to
identify the sample as to source, type of treatment or production processing prior to
sampling, and proposed use, (2) a brief description, including the essential data on
composition and properties of the material as revealed by the examination. The
1
See MTM 105 for the procedure for calculating specific gravity and absorption.
2
The Calculated Aggregate Wear Index Number is computed from values obtained on the Department's Wear Track for typical
rock types as reported in Research Report No. R-1228 and the computed sample composition. See MTM 112.
6 of 9
MTM 104-01
complete report records the test procedures employed, the data developed on the
composition of the material, and a description of the nature and features of each
important constituent of the sample, accompanied by such tables and photographs as
may be required to adequately present the findings of the examination. Petrographic
data in the summary should be expressed in terms likely to be intelligible to the
Engineer who must make the ultimate decision as to the suitability of a material for its
intended use.
13.2
The petrographic report should be a statement of the findings of the examination.
When the sample has been found to possess properties or constituents that are known
to have specific unfavorable effects for the aggregate's intended use, those properties
or constituents should be described qualitatively and, to the extent practicable,
quantitatively. The unfavorable effects that may be expected to ensue should be
mentioned also. When appropriate, it should be stated that a given sample was not
found to contain any undesirable features. The report should not, however, contain a
general statement of opinion by the petrographer concerning the quality of the
material. The petrographer should avoid such general statements of opinion, since
they are subjective and therefore not properly a part of a report of objective findings,
and since they can properly be made only when data on different materials can be
compared in connection with the requirements for a specific use.
13.3
The petrographic report should include recommendations regarding any additional
petrographic, chemical, physical, or geologic investigations that may be required to
evaluate adverse properties that are indicated by the petrographic examination that
has been performed. Supplementary petrographic investigations might include
qualitative or quantitative analysis of the aggregate or of selected portions thereof by
X-ray diffraction, differential thermal methods, or other procedure that are directed to
identification and description of the constituents of the aggregate.
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MTM 104-01
TABLE 1
Calculation of Results of Particle Count
Testing Laboratory Sample No. 00A-000
Composition of Fractions Retained on Sieves Shown Below
2 inch
(12.5 mm)
3/4 inch
(19.0 mm)
Rock Type
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
3/8 inch
(9.5 mm)
Number
of
Particle
s
percent
Number
of
Particle
s
percent
Number
of
Particle
s
percent
Number
of
Particle
s
percent
A
186
62
210
70
210
70
150
50
B
111
37
87
29
75
25
129
43
C
3
1
3
1
15
5
21
7
Totals
300
100
300
100
300
100
300
100
Individual
Percentage
retained
on sieve
20.5
29.5
32.6
17.4
Weighted Percentages of Constituents in Each Sieve Fraction
3/4 inch
(19.0 mm)
2 inch
(12.5 mm)
3/8 inch
(9.5 mm)
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
Weighted
Composition
of Sample
A
10.8
22.8
20.7
10.3
64.6
B
6.3
9.4
7.3
8.8
31.8
C
0.3
0.4
1.5
1.4
3.6
Total in
Sieve
17.4
32.6
29.5
20.5
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Fraction
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MTM 104-01
TABLE 2
Petrographic Composition
Testing Laboratory Sample No. 00A-000
Sieve Fraction Analyzed
Rock
Type
3/4 inch
(19.0 mm)
2 inch
(12.5 mm)
3/8 inch
(9.5 mm)
No. 4
(4.75 mm)
Computed Sample
Composition
A
62
70
70
50
65
B
37
29
25
43
32
C
1
1
5
7
3
Total
100
100
100
100
100
NOTE: Computed sample composition is based upon counts of 300 particles contained in each
of the sieve fractions noted.
TABLE 3
Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Adsorption Data
Testing Laboratory Sample No. 00A-000
Rock
Type
Specific Gravity
Adsorption
Percent
Composition
Percent
By Weight
Bulk
Dry
Bulk
SSD
Apparent
Absorption
Percent
A
2.64
2.66
2.70
0.68
65
B
2.52
2.59
2.69
2.47
32
C
2.72
2.75
2.82
1.31
3
Total
Sample
2.68
2.72
2.74
1.07
100
NOTE: Values are computed from determinations made on all sample material contained in the
categories noted.
Calculated
Aggregate
Wear
Index
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Number
-
XXX
MTM 104-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION OF COARSE AGGREGATES
IN PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS SAMPLES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of bulk and apparent specific gravities and
absorption of individual petrographic rock types obtained from petrographic analysis
samples.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C127 Standard Test for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
2.2
MDOT Standards:
MTM 104 Practice for Petrographic Analysis of Aggregates
3. Apparatus
3.1
Balance - A weighing device with a 2000 gram capacity, which meets the requirements
of ASTM C127 for sensitivity, readability, and accuracy. The balance shall be
equipped for suspending the sample container from the center of the scale pan or
balance. The suspension wire shall be of the smallest practical diameter.
3.2
Container - A bucket or wire basket of approximately equal breadth and height with
drain holes smaller than the finest materials to be weighed, and of a large enough
capacity to accommodate the sample.
3.3
Oven - An oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110oC + 5oC.
4. Sample
4.1
The sample shall be the individual petrographic rock fractions of the sample as
separated in the petrographic examination, according to MTM 104.
4.2
Each petrographic rock fraction for specific gravity and absorption shall contain all rock
particles from all sieve fractions analyzed.
4.3
Specific gravity and absorption values shall not be determined on petrographic rock
types identified as present in trace amounts.
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MTM 105-01
5. Procedure
5.1
The petrographic rock types to be tested shall be clean and free of dust before being
dried to a constant weight in an oven at a temperature of 110oC + 5oC. Allow sample
to cool to room temperature, then weigh to obtain the oven-dry weight. This weighing
yields A (below). Immerse the sample in water for a period of 24 + 4 hours.
5.2
Remove the sample from water after the 24 + 4 hour soak period and dry to a
saturated, surface-dry condition by rolling the particles on an absorbent material to
remove any visible water film. Weigh the sample immediately to avoid evaporation of
absorbed water. This weighing yields B (below).
5.3
Immediately after obtaining the saturated, surface-dry weight, place the sample in the
sample container, and obtain the weight in water. This weighing yields C (below).
6. Calculations
6.1
Calculate values for specific gravity and absorption from the following terms:
A = Weight of oven-dry sample fractions in air, g
B = Weight of saturated surface dry (ssd) sample fractions in air, g
C = Weight of saturated sample fractions in water, g
∋A = Combined weights of oven dry sample fractions in air, g
∋B = Combined weights of ssd sample fractions in air, g
∋C = Combined weights of saturated sample fractions in water, g
6.1.1
6.1.2
Bulk Specific Gravity (Dry Basis)
Rock Type Fraction =
A
B–C
Total Sample =
∋A
B-C
Bulk Specific Gravity (Saturated Surface Dry Basis)
Rock Type Fraction =
B
B-C
Total Sample =
∋B
B-C
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MTM 105-01
6.1.3
6.1.4
Apparent Specific Gravity
Rock Type Fraction =
A
A-C
Total Sample =
∋A
A-C
Absorption, %
Rock Type Fraction =
Total Sample =
6.2
B-A
A
X 100
∋B - ∋A
∋A
X 100
As an alternative to the above procedure for calculation of the specific gravity and
absorption of the total sample, the methods in ASTM C127 for calculation of average
values may be used.
7. Report
7.1
The specific gravity and absorption values shall be incorporated into the Petrographic
Analysis report described in MTM 104. The tabulation shall include the specific gravity
and absorption values for all petrographic rock types identified, except trace amounts.
The tabulation shall also include the total sample specific gravity and absorption
values.
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MTM 105-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING ADSORPTION OF COARSE AGGREGATES
IN PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS SAMPLES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of adsorption of coarse aggregates. The
sample tested may consist of rock types obtained from petrographic analyses or may
be produced aggregate submitted for laboratory tests. Only material coarser than the
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve is to be utilized.
1.2
This practice describes the procedure for determining the ability of an aggregate to
adsorb water at two levels of relative humidity, 45% and 95%, giving an indication of
the material's pore size, pore size distribution and internal surface area.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards:
MTM 104 Standard Practice for Petrographic Analysis of Aggregates
3. Apparatus and Supplies
3.1
Balance - a weighing device with a 2000 gram capacity, accurate to the nearest 0.01 g.
3.2
Sample containers - Glass jars with a capacity of 1000 g and covers fitting tight
enough to prevent possible loss or contamination and rapid change in humidity in the
containers.
3.3
Humidity cabinet - A specially designed cabinet sealed against air flow in or out and
capable of holding 36 sample jars. The cabinet will be maintained at a temperature of
25 oC + 2 oC and be equipped with a fan to circulate air. Mechanical humidity controls
will be permitted in lieu of salts.
3.4
Oven - The oven must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 110oC + 5oC.
3.5
Salts - The following salts will be used to maintain the stated relative humidities:
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3.2H2O) for R. H. 45%
Sodium sulfite (Na2SO3.7H2O) for R. H. 95%
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MTM 106-01
4. Sample
4.1
The sample may consist of rock types separated from a petrographic analysis sample
(as described in MTM 104) or may be a split of a representative sample submitted for
routine laboratory tests or mix design, and weigh approximately 100 g.
4.2
Each sample for adsorption determination will contain all rock particles from all sieve
fractions analyzed.
4.3
Adsorption determinations will not be made on petrographic rock types identified as
present in trace amounts.
5. Procedure
5.1
If using an automatically controlled humidity cabinet, set controls to maintain a relative
humidity of 45 percent. Allow humidity to stabilize before use.
5.2
If maintaining humidity by use of salts, place a tray containing a supersaturated
solution of potassium carbonate in the humidity cabinet, using a sufficient quantity to
maintain a relative humidity of 45 percent.
5.3
Prepare approximately 100 g of representative sample, using only material coarser
than a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve. The test specimens (see 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3) will be clean
and free of surface dust (washed, if necessary). Place the specimens in sample jars
and dry for 24 hours in a forced draft oven at a temperature of 100oC + 5oC.
5.4
When dried, remove the sample jars from the oven, place in a desiccator with sample
covers loosened, and allow to cool to room temperature.
5.5
Remove sample containers from the desiccator, immediately cap securely, and weigh
the samples in the covered jars to the nearest 0.01 g to determine the dry mass.
5.6
Uncap the sample jars, then place the uncapped jars on a tray in the humidity cabinet.
Allow to remain for 3 days.
5.7
Remove the tray of sample jars from the humidity cabinet, immediately recap the
specimen jars, and weigh to determine the water adsorbed at relative humidity of 45
percent.
5.8
Replace the tray containing the potassium carbonate with a tray of similar size
containing sodium sulfate, using a sufficient quantity to maintain a relative humidity of
95 percent in the cabinet. Repeat steps 5.5 and 5.6.
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MTM 106-01
6. Calculations
6.1
Calculate the adsorptions from the following terms:
A = Weight of oven dry sample, g
B = Weight of sample at equilibrium in 45 % R. H., g
C = Weight of sample at equilibrium in 95 % R. H., g
6.1.1
Adsorption, % at 45 % R. H. = 100(B-A)/A
6.1.2
Adsorption, % at 95 % R. H. = 100(C-A)/A
7. Report
7.1
Incorporate the adsorption values in the Petrographic Analysis report described in
MTM 104 or include on a laboratory test report.
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MTM 106-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SAMPLING AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers procedures for obtaining aggregate samples for physical property
evaluation and for acceptance testing.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
MDOT Procedures for Aggregate Inspection
2.2
Michigan Test Methods:
MTM 113 Selection and Preparation of Coarse Aggregate Samples for Freeze-Thaw
Testing
MTM 119 Sampling Open-Graded Drainage Course (OGDC) Compacted in Place
2.3
AASHTO T96 Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by
Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
3. Significance and Use
3.1
Sampling is equally as important as the testing, and the sampler shall use every
precaution to obtain samples that will show the nature and condition of the materials
which they represent.
4. Equipment
4.1
Obtain the following tools prior to sampling:
- Square nosed shovel
- Square nosed scoop
- Sample thief - 1.25 inches (30 mm) to 1.5 inches (40 mm) diameter thin wall conduit
approximately 30 inches (750 mm) long.
- Bucket auger
- Template(s) - Conforming to the shape of the conveyor belts to be sampled
- Sample container or containers capable of holding approximately 50 pounds (25 kg).
- All necessary personal safety equipment required by MDOT Bureau of Highways
Personal Protective Equipment Policy, OSHA and MIOSHA for construction sites and
MSHA requirements for mining operations.
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MTM 107-01
5. Sampling
5.1
General - Where practical, samples to be tested for quality shall be obtained from the
finished product. The inspector shall notify the person in charge upon arrival at the
sample location. The company representative shall make the necessary arrangements
to assist the inspector in obtaining a sample. The company representative should be
encouraged to accompany the inspector to the site where the sample is to be obtained.
5.2
Visual Inspection - Before sampling, the methods used to build the stockpile and the
loader operator's load out procedures should be noted because they determine the
sample pattern. Look around the stockpile, making careful note of the size and
distribution of the aggregate particles. When more than fifty percent of the aggregate
pieces, within a randomly selected five lineal foot section of the loading or stockpile
face appear to be of the same size, that face shall be considered segregated. If the
material is determined to be segregated, the "Mini" Stockpile Method (Section 5.4.1.2)
of sampling shall be used.
5.3
Los Angeles Abrasion Samples - Samples from the finished product to be tested for
abrasion loss shall not be subject to further crushing or manual reduction in particle
size in preparation for the abrasion test unless the size of the finished product is larger
than the maximum size allowed to be tested using ASHTO T96.
5.4
Stockpile Sampling
5.4.1
Sampling from Radial Stacker or Fixed Stacker Built Stockpiles - There are four
approved methods for obtaining representative samples from these stockpiles.
5.4.1.1
Back Blading Method - This method may be used if it is necessary
to acquire a sample after the stockpile has been built, but prior to
shipping. The front-end loader operator back blades the surface of
the stockpile at each location until the pile's upper portion can be
blended with the materials previously pulled down by the back
blading process. Several different locations from the side farthest
away from the stacker around to the side closest are prepared in
this manner. Each location is then sampled with a squared nosed
shovel or square nosed scoop and sample container by digging into
the pile about one foot and then bringing the shovel up the vertical
face, obtaining one sample increment. This procedure is repeated
at several randomly selected sites until a field sample is obtained
whose mass equals or exceeds the amount stated in section 5.4.
Field samples procured in this manner tend to be coarser than
those obtained from the shipping face.
5.4.1.2
"Mini" Stockpile Method - This is the preferred method for obtaining
a field sample from any type of stockpile. This method provides the
highest probability of getting a representative sample. The front
end loader operator takes several scoops of aggregate across the
stockpile's shipping face. These are placed in a small pile
separated from the main stockpile. This material is then thoroughly
mixed. When the mixing is done, the operator back blades the
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MTM 107-01
"mini" stockpile, exposing more of the material. Randomly select at
least six sample sites to make up the composite field sample. At
the first site, dig about one foot into the "mini" stockpile and bring
the shovel or square-nosed scoop up the vertical face, acquiring a
shovel or scoop full of aggregate. If the aggregate exposed in the
hole appears uniform, the inspector may elect to finish acquiring the
field sample by shoving the sampling tool into the pile and removing
one portion. This process is repeated until a composite sample of
at least 50 pounds (25 kg) is obtained. If the sample is from a new
shipping face, the aggregate may be coarser than material from
deeper in the stockpile and it would be a good idea to re-sample
after a few loads of aggregate have been shipped.
5.4.1.3
Modified "Mini" Stockpile Method - This method may also be used if
it is necessary to obtain a sample after the stockpile has been built,
but prior to shipping. The front end loader operator sets aside the
first bucket full of aggregate from at least three locations, beginning
with the side farthest from the stacker to the side closest. The
operator goes back to each original sample site and obtains a
second bucket full of aggregate. This material is placed in a small
separate pile which is thoroughly mixed and back bladed to expose
more of the aggregate prior to sampling. At least six random sites
are selected from this small pile for sampling. Dig approximately
one foot into the "mini" stockpile and bring the shovel or scoop up
the vertical face obtaining one sample increment. After the first
sample site has been prepared, and the aggregate exposed in the
hole appears uniform, the inspector may opt to finish obtaining the
composite field sample by simply pushing the shovel or scoop into
the "mini" stockpile and extracting a sample increment. A
composite field sample of at least the quantity stated in section 6.1
should be acquired.
5.4.1.4
Hand Sampling - If it is safe to scale the stockpile's shipping face,
and there is no power equipment available, a sample may be
obtained by hand, using a square nosed shovel or squared nosed
scoop and a sample container capable of holding at least the
quantity of aggregate stated in section 6.1. At least six sample
sites are selected so that they are distributed over the shipping face
in proportion to the volume of materials in the top, middle and
bottom thirds of the stockpile. For example, approximately 11
percent of the stockpile volume is in the top third, 33 percent of the
volume of the stockpile is in the middle third and 56 percent in the
bottom third. Therefore, 11 percent of the sample sites should be
located in the top third of the shipping face, 33 percent in the
middle third and 56 percent from the bottom third. At each sample
site, dig into the stockpile about one foot. Bring the square-nosed
shovel or scoop up the vertical face. If the aggregate is very loose,
it will not be possible to develop a vertical face. When this occurs,
push the shovel or scoop into the stockpile as far as possible and
lift the sampling tool upward, obtaining one sample increment.
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5.4.2. Sampling from Truck Dump, Front End Loader, and Dumpster Built Stockpiles There are four approved methods for acquiring representative field samples
from these stockpiles.
5.4.3
5.4.2.1
Hand Sampling During Stockpile Construction - During the
construction of the stockpile, a composite field sample may be
obtained by hand using a square nosed shovel or square nosed
scoop. Randomly choose at least five individual aggregate dumps.
Select a sample site from each dump. These sites should be
located on the front, right side, back, left side, and top of the
randomly chosen individual aggregate dumps. Dig into each pile
about one foot, forming a vertical face to remove the segregated or
dried surface material. The shovel or scoop is brought up the entire
vertical face. Whenever dumps are placed so closely that portions
of samples may not be obtained from the front, sides, and back of
the piles, the inspector should wait until these are bladed flat.
5.4.2.2
Modified Channel Sample - The stockpile will be bladed flat after
each layer is completed. A modified channel sample is procured
from at least six sites by traversing diagonally across the full width
and trend of all the dumps. At each site, dig down approximately
one foot and form a vertical face. Bring the shovel or scoop up the
vertical face, obtaining one sample increment. The final field
sample should always equal or exceed the mass stated in section
6.1.
5.4.2.3
Shipping Face Samples - Use the "Mini" Stockpile Method as
described in section 5.4.1.2, except in the case of large stockpiles,
the representative sample may be obtained from the area equal to
that required to fill one truck.
5.4.2.4
Hand Sampling of Shipping Face - If it safe to approach the
shipping face of the stockpile, a hand sample may be procured.
Randomly select at least six sample sites. Some of these sites
may be located in the sluff at the base of the stockpile. To sample
the sluff, dig down approximately one foot to form a vertical face.
Bring the shovel or scoop up the vertical face. To sample the main
portion of the vertical shipping face, shave or scrape the pile's
surface until approximately three shovels full of material is scraped
loose. One shovel or scoop full is then scooped up and placed in
the sample container.
Sampling from a Bottom Dump or Pan Built Stockpile - There are four
approved ways to procure a representative field sample from this type of
stockpile.
5.4.3.1
Modified Channel Sample - The field sample will consist of at least
six sample locations randomly distributed diagonally across the full
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length and width of the stockpile. Each sample increment will be
obtained as described in section 5.4.2.2.
5.4.3.2
5.4.3.3
5.4.3.4
5.5
5.6
Bucket Auger Method - The sample sites are distributed the same
as the modified channel method. However, more individual sample
sites will normally be required to obtain the quantity of material
stated in section 6.1, due to the smaller capacity of the bucket
auger.
Shipping Face Samples - Use the "Mini" Stockpile Method as
described in section 5.4.1.2, except in the case of large stockpiles,
the representative field sample may be obtained from the area
required to fill one truck.
Hand Sampling of Shipping Face - Use the hand sample method
described in 5.4.2.4 to procure the field sample.
Stockpile Sampling of Fine Aggregate - The following ways to get a representative field
sample are used regardless of the stockpiling method.
5.5.1
Sample Thief - A sample thief can only be used to sample fine aggregate. A
composite sample of 25 to 30 randomly selected locations is procured by
moving up and down and across the shipping face of the stockpile while
pushing the thief into the fine aggregate. The entrapped material is emptied
into the sample container. If the surface of the stockpile has dried, the dry
material should be removed before inserting the sample thief. The field sample
should equal or exceed the mass stated in Section 6.
5.5.2
Sample Scoop - Remove the dry surface material plus some of the damp
material to form a vertical face. Bring the scoop up the vertical face. Repeat
this process in at least six randomly selected locations across the face of the
stockpile, until the quantity stated in Section 6.1 is obtained.
5.5.3
"Mini" Stockpile - It is permissible to build a "mini" stockpile and sample it as
described in Section 5.4.1.2.
Conveyor Belt Sampling - There are four ways to obtain a representative field sample
from a conveyor belt.
5.6.1
Sampling Directly from a Conveyor Belt - Obtain a least three approximately
equal increments, selected at random, from the conveyor belt and combine to
form a field sample whose mass equals or exceeds the minimum
recommended in paragraph 6.1. Stop the conveyor belt for sampling. A
template conforming to the shape of the belt should be used if the aggregate
will roll down the belt. Press the template completely through the aggregate on
the belt. The material immediately below the template is gathered and placed
in the sample container. Move the template approximately one foot down the
belt. After pressing the template through the aggregate, remove the material
immediately above it. After sampling, the amount of fines remaining on the
belt's surface should be about the same as the material clinging to the
underside of the belt.
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5.7
5.8
5.6.2
Sampling the Flowing Aggregate Stream - The use of a specially constructed
sample pan to catch the aggregate is required to safely obtain a sample. Pass
the sample pan through the entire aggregate stream where one belt discharges
onto another or into a hopper. At least three randomly selected, approximately
equal weight, sample increments are combined to form the field sample whose
mass shall equal or exceed the quantity stated in section 6.1. In addition,
conveyor belts may be equipped with commercially available automatic
sampling devices.
5.6.3
Slinger Belt Sampling - Some HMA plants are equipped with a slinger belt at
the inlet to the drum mixer. This belt can be reversed and discharge material
into a container, such as a wheelbarrow. Place the wheelbarrow underneath
the slinger belt. Step away from the wheelbarrow. Signal the HMA plant
operator to discharge the aggregate. Enough material should be discharged to
form a field sample of the proper size.
5.6.4
Front End Loader Sampling - If it is possible to position the bucket of a front
end loader into the aggregate stream where it is discharged from one belt to
another or into a bin, this method may be used. Position the bucket under the
aggregate stream so that all the material being discharged is caught. When
the bucket is full, but not overflowing, remove the bucket. Empty the bucket
away from the stockpile and using a squared nosed shovel, proceed to sample
the material as if it were a "mini" stockpile. At least six sample sites are
required to form a field sample.
Hauling Units - Hauling units consist of rail cars, trucks, and barges. There are two
ways to sample from a hauling unit.
5.7.1
Inside the Hauling Unit - Randomly select at least six sites, or one site in each
of the following quadrants - front half, back half, right side, left side and middle
- for building the composite field sample. Dig down about one foot at each
location. Bring the shovel or scoop up the vertical face, collecting one sample
increment. Sampling coarse and open-graded aggregates from inside hauling
units may produce test results with coarser gradations than samples obtained
at the aggregate source.
5.7.2
After Unloading of Hauling Unit - Randomly select a hauling unit for sampling.
Have the unit discharge its aggregate load separate from any other aggregate
loads. Sample the individual dump as if it was a "mini" stockpile, provided at
least one sample increment is located in each of the following quadrants front, back, right side, left side and middle. Another option would be to sample
six different loads after they were discharged, using the same distribution of
sample locations as stated earlier.
Job Site Sampling - Sampling from the job site can consist of either sampling from a
temporary stockpile or in place on the grade.
5.8.1
Temporary Stockpiles - Usually this stockpile will be a truck dump stockpile.
However, the type of stockpile should be observed prior to sampling. Follow
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the stated sampling procedure in 5.4 or 5.5 for the type of stockpile
encountered.
5.8.2
On the Grade Sampling - When aggregate is delivered to the job site, it is
either dumped directly on the grade and then spread out by a road grader, or it
is dumped from the trucks into a spreader. For certain aggregate classes,
particularly 21AA, the act of spreading generates segregation. This must be
accounted for when sampling. If the aggregate has been placed on the grade,
Michigan Test Method 119 may be used to obtain the field sample. If a
geotextile fabric separator is used, be careful not to puncture the fabric.
6. Field Sample Size
6.1
The field sample mass, which is predicated on the type and number of tests to which
the material is to be subjected, shall be as follows:
6.1.1
Fine aggregates and Granular Material
Class IIIA for independent assurance or
acceptance tests
25 pounds (11 kg) minimum
6.1.2
Coarse, Dense Graded, Open Graded
aggregates
and Granular Materials (except Class
IIIA) for independent assurance or
acceptance tests
50 pounds (25 kg) minimum
(one full bag)
6.1.3
Aggregates for abrasion tests
(As produced)
100 pounds (50 kg) minimum
(two full bags)
6.1.4
Aggregates for mix design
50 pounds (25 kg) minimum
(one full bag)
6.1.5
For both abrasion and mix design
100 pounds (50 kg) minimum
(two full bags)
6.1.6
Aggregates for freeze thaw tests
See Michigan Test Method 113
6.1.7
Aggregates for wear track tests
(Material passing 3/8 in (9.5 mm) sieve
and retained on No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve)
50 pounds (25 kg) minimum
(one full bag)
(Material not pre-screened)
100 pounds (50 kg) minimum
(two full bags)
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MTM 107-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
MATERIALS FINER THAN No. 200 (75-Ојm) SIEVE
IN MINERAL AGGREGATES BY WASHING
1. Scope
1.1
This test method covers determination of the amount of unbound material finer than a
No. 200 (75Ојm) sieve in aggregates by washing.
1.2
Except as described herein, the testing will be in conformance with ASTM C 117.
Procedure A of ASTM C 117 will be followed for all aggregates except crushed concrete
and those which are sampled after passing through a HMA plant dryer, or extracted from a
HMA mixture. Procedure B of ASTM C 117 will be followed when testing crushed
concrete. Loss by Washing of extracted HMA aggregates will follow ASTM C 117,
Procedure B, and applicable HMA Michigan Test Methods. This modification of ASTM C
117 provides a method for mechanical washing of aggregates and the substitution of open
stoves or microwave ovens for conventional ovens, and minimum test sample weights.
1.2.1
The use of a mechanical washer to perform the washing operation is not
precluded, provided the results are consistent with those obtained using manual
operations.
NOTE: If Loss by Wash results using a mechanical washer are either just within
specification or on the low side or out of specification on the high side, a hand wash should
be conducted on the other half of the saved final sample split.
1.3
The paragraph numbering conforms to the numbering in ASTM C 117. Only those
sections containing modifications are printed in this MTM.
5. Apparatus
5.4
Drying Device - A conventional oven of appropriate size capable of maintaining a minimum
temperature of 220 В°F (105 В°C), a microwave oven, or a gas or electric stove, or hot plate.
5.6
Mechanical Washer - A mechanical washer with a rotating container of sufficient capacity
to hold the largest size sample required which permits flushing with water without loss of
any part of the sample or water except that portion directed through a No. 200 (75Ојm)
sieve.
6. Sampling
6.2
Coarse, dense-graded, open-graded and granular material field samples may be reduced
to testing size using a sample splitter or the quartering method. Damp-fine aggregate field
samples may be reduced to testing size using the quartering or miniature stockpile
methods. Dry fine aggregate samples will be reduced using a sample splitter. The
minimum weight of the test sample will be the same as the weights used for sieve
analysis, as listed in 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 of Michigan Test Method 109.
8. Procedure
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MTM 108-07
8.1
The completeness of drying when using a stove, microwave oven or hot plate may be
determined by placing a slip of paper on the sample. Curling of the paper indicates the
presence of moisture. Drying is to be continued until the paper placed on the sample
remains flat. Using the curling of a piece of paper is not reliable for some aggregates with
large stones such as coarse and open-graded limestone, slags and crushed concrete.
Drying to constant weight is recommended for these aggregates. When using a gas or
electric stove, hot plate or microwave oven, the temperature of the aggregate particles will
not exceed 400 В°F. (Some particles will degrade or may fracture due to steam pressure
developed if the aggregate is dried at too high a temperature). Weigh the sample after
drying to the nearest gram.
8.3
After drying and determining the mass, place the test sample in the container and add
sufficient water to cover it. Agitate the sample with just enough vigor to result in complete
separation of the unbound particles finer than the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve from the coarser
particles, and to bring the fine material into suspension. Particles composed of material
finer than the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieves that do not degrade during the normal agitation of
the wash will be considered aggregate. Immediately pour the wash water containing the
suspended and dissolved solids over the nested sieves, arranged with the coarser sieve
on top. Take care to avoid, as much as feasible, the decantation of coarser particles of the
sample.
8.4
Add a second charge of water to the sample in the container, agitate, and decant as
before. Repeat this operation until the wash water is clear. The wash water is considered
clear if the suspended sediment settles to the bottom in approximately ten (10) seconds.
8.5
Carefully wash the fine material retained on the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve to ensure all
particles have had a chance to pass through the sieve. Return all material retained on the
nested sieves by flushing back to the washed sample. Dry the washed aggregate to
constant mass. Determine the mass to the nearest gram.
8.6
ASTM C 117 does not adequately consider the fact that some aggregates are degraded by
the action of the mechanical washer. Place the test specimen in the tilted container, start
the wash water, and rotate the container. After a predetermined time, turn off the motor
and wash water 3 . The mechanical washing operation is complete if the suspended
sediment settles to the bottom in approximately ten (10) seconds. Continue washing if the
water is still cloudy. If no improvement in water clarity is observed after additional wash
time, stop the mechanical wash process. Excessive mechanical wash time may result in
increased Loss by Wash values. All wash water discharged from the tilted container must
pass through the No. 200 (75Ојm) sieve.
8.7
Upon completion of washing, the rotating container is tilted downward to discharge the test
specimen into a pan. The container is flushed with water to remove any remaining
material. Discharge excess water from the pan through the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve. Add
sufficient water to cover the sample and agitate to bring any fines into suspension. If the
suspended sediment settles to the bottom in approximately 10 seconds, the wash will be
considered complete. Carefully wash the fine material retained on the No. 200 (75 Ојm)
sieve to ensure all particles have had a chance to pass through the sieve. Return all
materials retained on the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve by rinsing it back into the washed
3
The predetermined time will be less for coarse, open-graded and fine aggregates compared to densegraded aggregates.
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MTM 108-07
specimen. Dry the washed aggregate as noted in 8.1 above and weigh to the nearest
gram.
10. Calculation
10.1
Calculate the amount of material lost by washing finer than No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve as
described in 10.1 of ASTM C 117.
11. Report
11.1
Report the loss by washing to the nearest 0.1 percent for fine, coarse and open-graded
aggregates, and to the nearest whole number for dense-graded aggregates and granular
materials.
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MTM 108-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SIEVE ANALYSIS OF
FINE, COARSE, DENSE GRADED, OPEN GRADED AND GRANULAR MATERIAL
AGGREGATE IN THE FIELD
1. Scope
6.2
This method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine, coarse, dense
graded, open graded and granular material aggregates by sieving.
1.2
Except as described herein, the testing will be in conformance with ASTM C 136. This
modification of C 136, for use in the field or district laboratory, specifies the minimum test
sample weights for acceptance and independent assurance testing, the specified method
of sieve agitation and drying methods. It also deletes the requirement of separation of
coarse and fine aggregates in dense graded and granular material aggregates prior to
sieving.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 125 Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
2.2
Michigan Test Methods:
MTM 108 Materials Finer than No. 200 (75 Ојm) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing
3. Apparatus
3.1
Drying devices - A conventional oven of appropriate size capable of maintaining a
minimum temperature of 220 О•F (105В°C), a microwave oven, a gas or electric stove or hot
plate.
4. Test Sample
4.1
Coarse, Dense Graded, Open Graded and Granular Material aggregate field samples may
be reduced to testing size using a sample splitter or the quartering method. Damp fine
aggregate field samples may be reduced to testing size using the quartering or miniature
stockpile methods. Dry fine aggregate samples will be reduced using a sample splitter.
4.2
Fine Aggregate and Granular Material IIIA test samples will weigh, after drying, between
500 and 700 g.
4.3
The weight of Granular Material class II, IIA and III test samples will be determined by the
actual nominal maximum size. The actual nominal size is ascertained by reducing the
aggregate sample to a minimum initial damp weight of 5000 g. The material is passed
through all the sieves from the specification maximum down to the No. 4 (4.75 mm). If
more than 10 percent of the initial sample weight is retained on any sieve greater than the
No.4 (4.75 mm), the nominal size will be the largest sieve on which10 percent of the
material is retained. Use this sieve size to determine the sample weight from the table in
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MTM 109-01
paragraph 4.4. However, note in the remarks if a single rock larger than two inches is
found in the sample and do not use the single rock to determine the sample=s nominal
maximum size.
4.4
Coarse, Dense Graded, Open Graded Aggregates and Granular Material test sample
weights will conform to the following:
Nominal Maximum Size,
Square Openings
Minimum Weight of
Test Sample, g.
No. 4 (4.75mm)
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
2 inch (12.5 mm)
3/4 inch (19.0 mm)
1inch (25.0 mm)
1 2 inch (37.5 mm)
500
1,000
2,000
2,500
3,500
5,000
*The nominal maximum size of aggregate is the largest sieve size listed in the applicable
specification upon which any material is permitted to be retained.
4.5
In the case of mixtures of fine and coarse aggregates (Dense-Graded Aggregates and/or
Granular Materials), the fine and coarse aggregates will not be separated on the No. 4
(4.75 mm) sieve for the sieve analysis.
5. Procedure
5.1
The completeness of drying when using a stove with an open flame or microwave oven will
be determined by placing a slip of paper on the sample. Curling of the paper indicates the
presence of moisture. Drying is to be continued until the paper placed on the sample
remains flat. Temperatures used for drying will not be so high as to cause degradation of
the particles. (Some particles may fracture due to steam pressure developed if the
aggregate is dried at too high a temperature.) Weigh the sample after drying to the
nearest one gram.
5.2
Continue sieving for a sufficient period of time and in such manner that, after completion,
not more than 1 percent by weight of the residue on any individual sieve will pass that
sieve during one minute of continuous hand sieving. The method of agitating the sieve is
not specified, but should include both vertical and lateral motion.
5.3
The determination of the material finer than the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve is done according to
Michigan Test Method 108 for coarse and fine aggregates. Fine aggregate sieve analysis
is completed using dry washed material and all sieves specified for the gradation. Coarse
aggregate sieve analysis may be completed on aggregates which have not been washed
and dried. However, the sieve analysis on coarse aggregate independent assurance
samples must always be done on washed and dried material.
6. Report
6.1
The report will include the total percentage of material passing each sieve. The
percentages will be reported to the nearest whole number, except that the percentages
passing the No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve (Loss by Washing) for coarse, fine, open-graded and
2 of 2
MTM 109-01
aggregates for HMA mixtures will be reported to the nearest tenth of a percent.
3 of 2
MTM 109-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR DETERMINING
DELETERIOUS AND OBJECTIONABLE PARTICLES IN AGGREGATE
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers procedures for the identification of deleterious and objectionable
particles in coarse aggregates for Portland cement concrete and HMA mixtures, and in the
coarse fraction of dense-graded aggregates used in HMA mixtures. Special procedures
are included for use when the aggregate has been produced by crushing Portland cement
concrete.
1.2
Only the type of deleterious or objectionable particles for which there are limiting values in
the specifications, for the series and class of aggregate being tested, should be
determined on a given sample of material.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards:
Standard Specifications for Construction
2.2
ASTM Standard:
E 11
Specification for Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
3. Terminology
3.1
Crushed Concrete Aggregates - Aggregate produced by crushing salvaged Portland
cement concrete.
3.2
Deleterious Particles - Aggregate particles which are non-durable in freezing and thawing,
and are detrimental to the quality of the product in which they are used.
3.3
Objectionable Particles - Aggregate particles which are detrimental to the quality of the
product in which they are used, but for reasons other than weathering.
3.4
Soft Particles - As defined in the Standard Specifications, includes shale, siltstone, friable
sandstone, ochre, coal, clay-ironstone, and particles which are structurally weak or are
found to be non-durable in service.
3.5
Structurally Weak Particle - A rock particle that can be broken or crumbled with the fingers
of one hand.
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MTM 110-01
4. Apparatus and Supplies
4.1
Balance - A weighing device with a capacity sufficient for the largest sample to be
weighed (5 kilogram for field testing), accurate and readable to 1 gram.
4.2
Sieves - Conforming to ASTM E 11, and including at least the 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) and
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieves and sieve pan.
4.3
Sample Pans - Of sufficient size to hold the sample to be tested (5000 gram maximum
for field testing).
4.4
Rat Tail File - Approximately 1/4 inches (6 mm) in diameter for separating and scratch
testing deleterious and objectionable particles from the sample.
4.5
Water Bottle - With a squirt or spray nozzle attachment.
5. Sample
5.1
The sample for this test is a portion of the aggregate sample used for the sieve
analysis, MTM 109. Save and combine material retained on all sieves down to and
including No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve for:
a. Open Graded Aggregates
b. 26A
c. Aggregates for HMA Mixtures
3/8 inch (9.5 mm) sieve for:
a. Coarse Aggregates for Portland Cement
Concrete (except 26A)
b. Dense Graded Aggregates (except for HMA
mixtures)
NOTE: Remember to include this sieve when testing for gradation. It may not be
required for the sieve analysis.
6. Procedure
6.1
Calculate the sum of the weights retained on all sieves down to and including the sieve
listed in 5.1. This is the test sample weight.
6.2
Use water to wet the surface of the particles to be examined, and maintain them in a
surface wet condition with a light spray as necessary, except when the only particles to
be picked are those with HMA coating.
6.3
Pick from the sample those types of deleterious or objectionable particles that are
restricted by the specification applicable to the sample being tested. Descriptions of
the particles are given in Section 7. Place each type of deleterious or objectionable
particles in a separate pile for later weighing. If the specification limitations is for a
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MTM 110-01
grouping of several types (example: soft particles), all types in the group may be
placed in a common pile. Clay-ironstone has a separate specification limit from the
soft particle requirement.
NOTE: The picking may be performed most expeditiously by using the file to separate
a few particles from the sample pile, quickly examining them and removing the
deleterious and/or objectionable particles, then pushing the acceptable particles into a
container placed under the edge of the examining surface. Some particles may
require rolling or picking up to view all surfaces or to otherwise test the particles for
identification.
6.3.1
6.4
For crushed concrete aggregates, determine by estimation if the deleterious or
objectionable material is more or less than 50 percent of the volume of the
particle. This may occur when mortar adheres to a deleterious particle, or
HMA material coats a particle. Place in separate piles those particles with
greater than 50 percent and those with less than 50 percent of the particular
deleterious or objectionable material. If the deleterious or objectionable
material is of a size that would pass a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, do not classify
the particle as deleterious or objectionable.
Weigh each of the different piles of deleterious and/or objectionable material, and
record on the worksheet.
7. Descriptions of Deleterious and Objectionable Particles
7.1
HMA Particles - In crushed concrete aggregate, particles of aggregate with partial or
complete coating of asphalt (bitumen), or particles of HMA mortar (asphalt and sand)
resulting from incomplete removal of HMA patches or surfacing prior to salvaging the
concrete. For coated particles, do not consider them as objectionable particles, if the
bitumen is a thin coating covering less than one-third of the surface.
7.2
Chert Particles - Chert is present in many aggregate sources in a variety of colors,
varying in appearance from a dull to vitreous (glassy) luster and ranging in porosity
from porous to dense. All varieties are very hard, except chalky chert. Scratching
these particles with a knife or file leaves a gray mark on the chert particle. Chert
particles will scratch glass. All aggregate particles that contain any chert are
considered all chert. Chert particles appear as follows:
7.2.1
White to Light Gray - These particles are light colored, porous, dull and in
general are of low specific gravity.
7.2.2
Mottled - These particles are of mottled coloration, are generally porous and
dull.
7.2.3
Vitreous (Glassy) Lustered and Medium Gray to Black - These particles vary
from vitreous (glassy) to sub-vitreous lustered, are dense and generally are of
higher specific gravity and generally are of darker colors.
3 of 5
MTM 110-01
7.3
Clay Ironstones - These particles are siderite concretions which are derived from
various shale formations. These particles are present in produced aggregates in the
following four forms:
7.3.1
Shells - These particles are the relatively thin exterior portion of the siderite
concretions. They are generally smooth on the exterior and rough on the
interior. The thicker particles often display a laminated structure. The particles
are soft, porous, and are yellowish brown to dark brown in color.
7.3.2
Centers - These particles are the irregularly shaped central portion of some
siderite concretions. Some surfaces are hard while others exhibit a thin, soft,
clay type surface over a hard, dense center. These particles are generally buff
to brown on the surface with a dark gray colored interior.
7.3.3
Fossiliferous - These particles are generally dark brown, soft, porous and
contain traces of fossil shells to particles composed almost entirely of shell
fragments.
7.3.4
Massive - These particles are dark brown, soft, porous and are generally
structureless or may be very finely laminated.
7.4
Coal - Coal particles are black in color, have dull to shiny surfaces, are moderately
soft, brittle, and may have a laminated structure.
7.5
Friable Sandstone - These particles are sandstones from which individual sand grains
may be easily abraded by rubbing the particle between the thumb and finger.
7.6
Non-Durable in Service - This category is for those particles not listed elsewhere in this
section which may be found to be non-durable in service. This category shall be used
only for specific types of particles when directed by the Construction and Technology
Division.
7.7
Ochre - These particles are earthy in texture, extremely soft, porous, vary from
yellowish to brown and red, often disintegrate when wet, and leave distinct color
streaks on hands.
7.8
Shale - Shale particles generally vary from dark brown to black, are very soft,
laminated, and have an earthy texture.
7.9
Siltstone - These particles consist of cemented silt and range in color from whitish to
yellowish-brown, are soft, porous, and have a powdery feel when dry and a slippery
feel when wet.
7.10
Structurally Weak - These particles include those not fitting the descriptions elsewhere
in this section but which may be readily broken apart by hand and those particles
which are severely weathered.
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MTM 110-01
8. Calculations
8.1
Except as described in 8.2, determine the percentage of each type, or combinations of
types, of deleterious or objectionable material by the following formula:
P=
100 x W
S
Where:
P=
W=
S=
8.2
Deleterious or objectionable material in the sample, %
Weight, g, of deleterious or objectionable particles as determined in 6.4
Weight, g, of the sample as determined in 6.1
In the case of crushed concrete aggregate where the deleterious or objectionable
material is separated in portions with particles having more or less than 50%
deleterious or objectionable material, calculate the percentage of each type by the
following formula:
P=
100 x W1 + 0.5 W2
S
Where:
P =
W1 =
W2 =
S =
Reported percentage of deleterious or objectionable material in the
sample, %
Weight, g, of particles having more than 50% deleterious or objectionable
material
Weight, g, of particles having less than 50% deleterious or objectionable
material
Weight, g, of sample from which deleterious or objectionable particles were
picked, as determined in 6.1
9. Report
9.1
Report the percentage of each type, or combinations of types of particles, which are
indicated by the specification as deleterious or objectionable. Report the results to the
nearest 0.1 percent.
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MTM 110-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING AN AGGREGATE WEAR INDEX (AWI)
BY WEAR TRACK POLISHING TESTS
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of an Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) for
aggregates or blends of aggregates proposed to be used in HMA wearing course
mixtures.
1.2
The AWI determined by this method is the result of wear track polishing tests
conducted on the exposed aggregate or blend of aggregates cast into test slabs. The
AWI represents the average initial peak force measurement determined on duplicate
test slabs after four million wheel passes of wear track polishing. Only material finer
than the 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) sieve and coarser than the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve is to be
used in the wear track tests for aggregates to be used in HMA wearing course
mixtures. Sizes of aggregates may be adjusted for special investigations or research
projects.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 136 Test for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
E 29
2.2
Standard Recommended Practice for Indicating Which Places of Figures are to
be Considered Significant in Specific Limiting Values
MDOT Research Reports:
Research Report R-1098
MDOT Circular Wear Track-Results of Preliminary
Aggregate Polishing Tests
3. Significance and Use
3.1
Aggregates that are readily traffic-polished have been shown to contribute to the wetroad slipperiness of HMA pavements. Aggregate Wear Index ratings are used in
conjunction with traffic count data to develop HMA top course mixtures that will resist
the anticipated amount of traffic polishing for the design life of pavements.
3.2
AWI determinations by wear track testing are conducted on quarried carbonates, slags
and other aggregates that cannot be analyzed by MTM 112, Test Method for
Determining an Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) From Sample Petrographic Composition
and Wear Track AWI Factors.
1 of 4
MTM 111-01
4. Apparatus and Supplies
4.1
Double mold and vibratory table for casting test slabs (Figure 1).
4.2
Concrete mixer and assorted tools for casting of test slabs.
4.3
Medium-etch concrete retarding agent for coating the molds to produce an exposedaggregate surface.
4.4
Sand, oven-dry and graded to Michigan Aggregate No. 2NS with material coarser than
the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve removed.
4.5
Portland cement, Type I.
4.6
Molds and vibratory table for casting wear track test slabs, (Figure 1).
4.7
Circular Wear Track Assembly, (Figure 2).
4.8
Static Friction Tester with a load sensor calibrated to detect force impulses up a
maximum of 1000 lbf, and a recording oscillograph or other device with sensitivity and
range to record the friction test measurements, (Figure 3).
.
5. Samples
5.1
A minimum quantity of 60 pounds of aggregate from produced stock from each source
to be evaluated shall be submitted for tests.
5.2
Wash each sample, then sieve according to ASTM C 136, using the 3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
and No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieves.
5.3
Cast duplicate test slabs for each sample, using the sample material finer than the 3/8
inch (9.5 mm) sieve and coarser than the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, following the detailed
procedure outlined in MDOT Research Report R-1098.
6. Procedure
6.1
Test the prepared test slabs, after curing, on the static friction tester to obtain initial
friction values.
6.2
Place a complete set of 16 test slabs on the wear track, and polish for increments of
500,000 wheel passes, with friction testing on the static tester at the end of each
increment, through four million wheel passes, as described in MDOT Research Report
R-1098.
7. Calculations
7.1
Determine the Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) for each aggregate sample by plotting the
average friction values versus wheel passes at the 1.5 million through 4.0 million wheel
pass increments. Report the least-square best fit friction value for each sample at
4.0 million wheel passes as the sample AWI.
2 of 4
MTM 111-01
7.1.1
Computations shall be made according to the rounding off procedure described
in ASTM E 29.
8. Report
8.1 Include the AWI values determined for the submitted aggregates in standard test reports.
Wear track AWI values are also to be entered into the MDOT Aggregate Source AWI
Summary.
3 of 4
MTM 111-01
4 of 4
MTM 111-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING AN AGGREGATE WEAR INDEX (AWI)
FROM SAMPLE PETROGRAPHIC COMPOSITION
AND WEAR TRACK AWI FACTORS
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of an Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) for gravel
aggregates or blends of aggregates proposed to be used in HMA wearing course
mixtures.
1.2
The AWI determined by this method is computed from the petrographic composition of
the aggregate sample and reference AWI factors established for rock types contained
in Michigan glacial gravels. The reference AWI factors were determined on 100
percent crushed particles.
1.3
The final computed AWI is based upon a grading-weighted summation of the
calculated AWI values for the rock type categories present in the sample. In the case
of blended aggregates, the AWI of the composite material is determined from the
grading-weighted AWI of each aggregate and the given blend ratio.
1.4
The final computed AWI of the sample is reduced by a factor of 0.26 percent for each
percent of uncrushed material in the sample, based upon wear track tests comparing
the polishing resistance of crushed versus uncrushed aggregates with similar
composition.
1.5
The AWI is determined for only the sample fraction coarser than a No. 4 (4.75 mm)
sieve. The sample fraction coarser than the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve may be changed
for special investigations or research projects.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 136 Test for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 294 Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Natural Mineral Aggregates
C 95
Practice for Petrographic Examination of Aggregate for Concrete
C 702 Methods for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
E 11
Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
E 29
Standard Recommended Practice for Indication Which Places of Figures Are to
be Considered Significant in Specified Limiting Values
1 of 9
MTM 112-04
2.2
MDOT Standards:
MTM 111 Test Method for Determining an Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) by Wear
Track Polishing Tests
2.3
MDOT References:
Research Report R-1098
MDOT Circular Wear Track-Results of Preliminary
Aggregate Polishing Tests
Research Report R-1232
An Aggregate Wear Index Reduction Factor for
Uncrushed Material in Gravel
3. Significance and Use
3.1
This procedure is used to evaluate the polish resistance of gravel coarse aggregates
for HMA top course mixtures. The evaluation is based on wear track tests of
aggregates tested according to MTM 111 and as reported in Research Report R-1098.
3.2
This procedure was developed as a rapid means for determining the Aggregate Wear
Index of typical gravel aggregates as an alternative to the actual wear track procedure
that requires three months for completion. The procedure may also be used to
determine the Aggregate Wear Index of recycled asphalt and Portland cement
concrete pavement material.
3.3
Wear track testing as reported in Research Report R-1232 indicates that naturally
smooth aggregate particle surfaces polish to a greater extent than the fractured
surfaces of crushed particles. A reduction factor developed from wear track
comparison tests is included to adjust the AWI results for samples with rounded
(uncrushed) particles.
4. Apparatus and Supplies
4.1
The following items are recommended for the proper analysis of the aggregate
samples.
- Sample splitter
- Mechanical sieve shaker
- Sieves conforming to ASTM E 11, with openings of 1 inch (25.0 mm), 3/4 inch
(19.0 mm), 2 inch (12.5 mm), 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) and No. 4 (4.75 mm)
5. Computations
5.1
Computations shall be made according to the rounding-off procedure in ASTM E-29.
6. Samples and Sample Preparation
6.1
Samples submitted for AWI determination shall be accompanied by proper
identification per MDOT procedures.
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MTM 112-04
6.2
minimum of 1500 grams of aggregate coarser than a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve is
required for an AWI determination. A 60-pound sample of dense-graded aggregate
provides adequate material. Approximately 1500 grams of aggregate coarser than a
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve are also required for an AWI determination on material
extracted from HMA pavements.
6.3
A separate sample must be submitted for each aggregate to be combined in an blend.
Sample information must include the blend ratio, the total amounts retained above the
No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, and the percent crushed for each aggregate in the blend.
6.4
Prepare a sieve analysis sample of approximately 1500 grams by reducing the sample
to the required quantity according to ASTM C 702. Samples containing clay lumps
must be washed and dried before sieving.
6.5
Prepare a petrographic analysis sample of 300 representative particles retained in
each of the following sieve fractions:
1 inch (25 mm) to 3/4 inch (19 mm)
3/4 inch (19 mm) to 2 inch (12.5 mm)
2 inch (12.5 mm) to 3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
3/8 inch (9.5 mm) to No. 4 (4.75 mm)
6.5.1
Material from the sieve analysis sample fraction may be incorporated in the
petrographic analysis sample fraction after completion of the sieve analysis.
Use all particles in a size fraction if less than 300 particles are present. If the
sample contains less than 30 particles in a size fraction, that material shall be
combined with the next smaller size fraction before selection of particles for
examination.
7. Sieve Analysis
7.1
Conduct a sieve analysis of the sample portion prepared in 6.4, following ASTM C 136.
Determine the grading on the basis of 100 percent retained on the No. 4 (4.75 mm)
sieve, as shown in Table 1. Since the AWI determination is conducted on the sample
fraction coarser than the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, material passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm)
sieve may be discarded after the sieve analysis if not needed for other tests.
3 of 9
MTM 112-04
TABLE 1:
EXAMPLE DATA SHEET FOR AWI SIEVE ANALYSIS
Sieve Size
Opening
Grading of Sample,
Amount Retained
on Individual Sieve
Grading of AWI Fraction
Amount Retained
on Individual Sieve
Wt., g
Percent
Wt., g.
Percent
1 inch (25 mm)
0
0.0
0
0.0
3/4 inch (19 mm)
0
0.0
0
0.0
2 inch (12.5 mm)
88
3.5
88
5.0
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
620
24.8
620
35.2
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
1052
42.1
1052
59.8
Pan
740
29.6
TOTALS
2500
100.0
1760
100.0
8. Petrographic Analysis
8.1
Determine the petrographic composition of the sample portion prepared in 6.5,
following ASTM C 294 and ASTM C 295, as shown in Table 2, using the rock type
categories indicated.
Additional categories may be used, providing wear track factors are available from
actual wear track tests.
4 of 9
MTM 112-04
TABLE 2:
EXAMPLE DATA SHEET FOR GRADING-WEIGHTED PETROGRAPHIC COMPOSITION
Sieve Fraction Analyzed
Count
Weighted
Percent
Count
Weighted
Percent
Count
Weighted
Percent
Count
Weighted
Percent
GradingWeighted
Petrographic
Sample
Composition,
Percent
0
0.0
60
1.0
57
6.7
67
13.4
21.1
Carbonates
0
0.0
230
3.8
225
26.4
217
43.2
73.4
Sandstone
0
0.0
0
0.0
5
0.6
14
2.8
3.4
Siltstone
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
Shale
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
Clay Ironstone
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
Chert
0
0.0
10
0.2
13
1.5
2
0.4
2.1
59.8
100.0
Rock
Type
Igneous/
Metamorphic
3/4 inch (19.0 mm)
to
2 inch (12.5 mm)
1 inch (25 mm)
to
3/4 inch (19 mm)
2 inch (12.5 mm)
to
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
to
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
Sedimentary
AWI Sample
Grading, %
Particle
Counts
0.0
5.0
0
8.1.2
300
35.2
300
300
Calculate a grading-weighted sample petrographic composition, shown in
Table 2, as follows:
Grading-weighted composition, percent = (P/TP) x F
Where: P =
8.2
Particle count of rock type, from 6.5
TP =
Total particles in sieve fraction, from 6.5
F
AWI sample grading, percent, from 7.1
=
Either use the percent crushed stated on the mix design communication sheet or
calculate the grading-weighted uncrushed particle content in each size fraction of the
sieve analysis sample prepared in 6.4, shown in Table 3, as follows:
Grading-weighted uncrushed content, percent = U x F
Where: U =
F
Uncrushed content in sieve fraction, percent, from 8.1
=
AWI sample grading, percent, from 7.1
5 of 9
MTM 112-04
8.2.1
Uncrushed particles are those which have no fractured faces, except that all
sandstone particles are to be considered as crushed particles. The gradingweighted uncrushed composition is the summation of the weighted percent
values.
8.2.2
Crag, a lime-cemented conglomerate of sand and gravel particles common in
some gravel deposits, presents a special case when determining crushed
content. By convention, when the largest rock fragment in a crag particle
comprises less than 50 percent of the particle, the crag particle is classified as
a crushed particle; when the largest rock fragment comprises greater than 50
percent of the particle, and that fragment, by itself, would be retained on a
No. 4 (4.75 mm) the crag particle is considered as a crushed particle if the rock
fragment has a fractured appearance. When the largest rock fragment would
pass a No. 4 (4.75 mm) the crag particle is included in the sandstone rock type
category.
TABLE 3:
EXAMPLE DATA SHEET FOR GRADING-WEIGHTED UNCRUSHED CONTENT
Sieve Fraction Analyzed
1 inch (25 mm)
to
3/4 inch (19 mm)
Material
in
Sample
3/4 inch (19 mm)
to
2 inch (12.5 mm)
2 inch (12.5 mm)
to
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
to
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
GradingWeighted
Uncrushed
Content,
Percent
Percent
by
Weight
Weighted
Percent
Percent
by
Weight
Weighted
Percent
Percent
by
Weight
Weighted
Percent
Percent
by
Weight
Weighted
Percent
Crushed
0
0.0
80
4.0
70
24.6
62
37.1
65.7
Uncrushed
0
0.0
20
1.0
30
10.6
38
22.7
34.3
59.8
100.0
AWI
Sample
Grading,
percent
Material
Analyzed,
percent
0.0
0
5.0
100
35.2
100
6 of 9
100
MTM 112-04
9. AWI Determination
9.1
Calculate a grading-weighted sample AWI from the results of 7.1 and the wear track
AWI factors for each rock type as shown in Table 4. Note that the calculated AWI
for each rock type category is computed from the sample percent expressed as a
decimal, as follows:
Grading-weighted rock type AWI = RT x AWIF
Where: RT
=
Grading-weighted rock type sample content, percent, from Table
2.
AWIF =
Wear track AWI factor
The grading-weighted sample AWI is the summation of the calculated AWI values
determined for the rock type categories contained in the sample.
9.1.1
The rock types listed in Table 4 are typical of Michigan gravel deposits. If
particles of indeterminate type are encountered in samples, it is appropriate
to classify them with known types with similar texture and hardness for the
purpose of the AWI determination.
9.1.2
Quarried carbonate material of indeterminate origin contained in samples of
recycled asphalt or Portland cement concrete shall be assigned the wear
track control limestone AWI factor of 170.
9.1.3
Sand-cement fragments in samples of recycled Portland cement concrete
shall be assigned the wear track AWI factor of 360. Crag (lime-cemented
sand and gravel) shall be assigned the wear track AWI factor of 435.
TABLE 4:
DATA SHEET FOR DETERMINATION OF GRADING-WEIGHTED AWI
COMPOSITION OF SAMPLE
Rock Type
IGNEOUS/METAMORPHIC
Percent
Wear Track AWI Factor
Calculated AWI
21.1
370
78.1
Carbonates
73.4
250
183.5
Sandstone
3.4
490
16.7
Siltstone
0.0
475
0.0
Shale
0.0
335
0.0
Clay Ironstone
0.0
275
0.0
Chert
2.1
345
7.2
SEDIMENTARY
Grading-Weighted Sample AWI (E) ................................................................285.5
Grading-Weighted Uncrushed Particles, Percent (U) ....................................... 34
7 of 9
MTM 112-04
AWI Reduction Based on Uncrushed Reduction in Percent...............................8.8
Adjusted Sample AWI.....................................................................................260.3
9.2
Calculate an adjusted sample AWI, shown in Table 4, as follows:
Adjusted sample AWI =
E (1 - 0.0026U)
Where: E = Grading-weighted sample AWI, from 9.1
U = Grading-weighted uncrushed content, percent, from Table 3
9.3
Calculate the AWI for a blend, as follows: Refer to Note at the end of this
section.
Blend AWI =
[(AWIA x PA4 x PA x FA) + (AWIB x PB4 x PB x FB)]
[(PA4 x PA x FA) + (PB4 x PB x FB)]
B
B
B
Where: AWIA
B
B
= AWI of Aggregate A
AWIB =
AWI of Aggregate B
PA4
=
percent of Aggregate A > No. 4 (4.75 mm) in blend
PB4
=
percent of Aggregate B > No. 4 (4.75 mm) in blend
PA
=
percent of Aggregate A in blend
PB
=
percent of Aggregate B in blend
FA
=
specific gravity factor of Aggregate A
FB
=
specific gravity factor of Aggregate B
B
B
9.3.1
The percentages of aggregates in the blend are obtained from the blend
ratio and gradation information submitted with the sample.
9.3.2
The use of specific gravity factors is required in AWI computations for blends
since the AWI is related to the surface area of the aggregates exposed on a
pavement surface, which is related to the volumes of the various aggregate
components in the blend. A specific gravity adjustment for blend aggregates
with markedly different specific gravity values is particularly important. In
general, the use of the given specific gravity factors in lieu of actual values
determined for the aggregate components in a blend will result in a blend
AWI that is sufficiently accurate for acceptance/rejection purposes.
However, if the specific gravities of the blend aggregates differ considerably
from those indicated, actual specific gravity factors should be determined.
The following specific gravity factors to be used are based upon averages of
typical samples analyzed in the laboratory:
8 of 9
MTM 112-04
Bulk Specific
Gravity
Specific Gravity
Factor
2.68
2.24
3.24
1.0
1.2
0.8
Natural Aggregates
Blast Furnace Slag
Steel Furnace Slag
Note: Calculate the AWI for the blend using the cumulative percent retained on the
No. 16 sieve for each of the individual aggregates as follows:
Quarried Stone, Mine Rock, and Slag sources will use the AWI number
established by MDOT’s circular wear track testing.
Natural Aggregate Sand and Gravel sources with established nomographs
will run the Michigan Test Method for Measuring Fine Aggregate Angularity
(MTM 118) on all aggregates with more than 80 percent passing the No. 4
sieve. The percent crushed in these fine aggregates for use in determining
the AWI value from the nomograph is obtained from Table 5.
TABLE 5:
AWI VALUES
ANGULARITY INDEX
PERCENT CRUSHED
< = 3.0
> 3.0 to < = 4.0
> 4.0
30
70
95
Natural Aggregate Sand and Gravel sources without a nomograph must
follow the Procedures Manual for Mix Design Processing for submitting
aggregate samples, but must include approximately 200 grams of each of
the No. 8 and No. 16 fractions. MDOT will conduct the necessary tests and
report the results to the aggregate supplier.
Natural Aggregate Sand and Gravel sources with an established nomograph
and less than 80 percent passing the No. 4 sieve, will use the percent
crushed of the retained No. 4 aggregate to determine the appropriate AWI
from the nomograph.
10. Report
10.1
A report summarizing the results of the AWI determination shall include the gradingweighted petrographic composition, computation of the grading-weighted AWI,
computed adjustment for uncrushed material, and the grading-weighted adjusted
AWI.
9 of 9
MTM 112-04
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF COARSE
AGGREGATE SAMPLES FOR FREEZE-THAW TESTING
1. Scope
1.1
1.2
This method covers the procedures for securing samples of coarse aggregate, methods of
processing and conditioning for freeze-thaw testing in concrete, and related tests required
to provide detailed information about the aggregate under consideration.
This method specifically describes procedures for evaluating coarse aggregate for
Portland cement concrete. With suitable modifications, it may also be used for evaluation
of aggregate for other uses.
2. Related Documents
2.1
STM Standards:
C 29 Test Method for Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate
C 127 Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
C 131 Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by
Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
D 75 Methods for Sampling Aggregates
2.2
MDOT Publications:
Standard Specifications for Construction
Procedures for Aggregate Inspection
MTM 102 Abrasion Resistance of Aggregate by the Los Angeles Machine
MTM 110 Deleterious and Objectionable Particles in Coarse Aggregate
3. Apparatus And Materials
3.1
The apparatus and materials required to perform the many tests outlined in this procedure
are listed in the respective ASTM standards and MDOT test procedures noted in Section
7.
4. Sampling of Aggregate For Freeze-Thaw Testing
4.1
Samples for freeze-thaw testing are taken at the direction of the Structural Materials
Testing Engineer of the Materials and Technology Division or the appropriate District
Materials Engineer/Supervisor.
4.2
Samples of coarse aggregate obtained from sources for freeze-thaw durability shall be
representative of materials to be furnished to Departmental projects. The plant operation is
especially critical with regard to density of heavy media or other procedures used for
beneficiation. Production at the time of sampling should not be from an area of the pit,
quarry or slag pile which is of limited extent or is not typical of the source.
4.3
Samples of coarse aggregate for freeze-thaw durability testing must contain the following
1 of 6
MTM 113-01
sizes and quantities:
Вѕ inch to 1 inch
(19.0 mm to 25 mm)
ВЅ inch to Вѕ inch
(12.5 mm to 19.0 mm)
_ inch to ВЅ inch
(9.5 mm to 12.5 mm)
No. 4 to _ inch
(4.75 mm to 9.5 mm)
Series 6
100 pounds
(45 kg)
100 pounds
(45 kg)
100 pounds
(45 kg)
100 pounds
(45 kg)
Series 17
0 pounds
(0 kg)
160 pounds
(75 kg)
120 pounds
(55 kg)
120 pounds
(55 kg)
Series 26
0 pounds
(0 kg)
0 pounds
(0 kg)
160 pounds
(75 kg)
240 pounds
(110 kg)
For example, if a series 6 sample is sieved through a Gilson Sieve Shaker (or equivalent) in
the Region, 100 pounds (45 kg)(1-1/2 to 2 bags) of each of the four sizes are to be
submitted to the Testing Laboratory. If series 6 samples are not separated by size in the
Region, a minimum of ten (10) bags of aggregate plus two (2) full bags of scalped material
(3/4 to 1 inch)[19 mm to 25 mm] are to be submitted to the Testing Laboratory.
If material is sampled from a stockpile, the sample should be from areas of the stockpile
that appear to contain coarser material. If material is sampled from a belt or other area and
appears to be lacking in any of the required sizes, additional bags of material should be
submitted. Failure to submit sufficient material of the proper sizes prolongs the time until
results are available. Hand sieving of coarse aggregate is not thorough enough to replace
separation by a Gilson Sieve Shaker.
4.4
In addition to the sample for freeze-thaw testing, one full bag of coarse aggregate
representing the gradation being produced must also be submitted for complete mechanical
analysis, deleterious and crushed particle content. This bag will be clearly marked with a
big "X". The deleterious particle content test results shall be reported as the "production
pick" on the Report of Test form.
4.5
Samples from stockpiles shall be taken at a number of widely separated points so as to
provide the greatest chance of obtaining material produced over a period of time. If
material is obtained from bins or belt discharge, small increments should be taken over a
period of time to avoid the effect of any short term variations. Sampling otherwise shall be
according to ASTM D 75, unless specifically covered in Procedures for Aggregate
Inspection.
4.6
Samples shall be accompanied by a "Sample Identification".
5. Regrading of Aggregate
5.1
Production-run coarse aggregate received in the Testing Laboratory will be separated by
sieving on the Gilson Sieve Shaker, using the 1-inch (25 mm), 3/4-inch (19.0 mm), ВЅ-inch
(12.5 mm), 3/8-inch (9.5 mm), and No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieves as required. Material retained
on the coarsest sieve required for the series or passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve shall be
discarded. The remaining size fractions shall be retained for recombining as necessary for
subsequent tests. Resieving in the Testing Laboratory will not be required for coarse
aggregates thoroughly separated on a Gilson Sieve Shaker by Region personnel.
2 of 6
MTM 113-01
5.2
The coarse aggregate will be recombined in the proportions, by weight, shown in Table 1
except as described in 5.2.1 and 5.2.2. The Series 6 grading shall be used unless
otherwise specified for freeze-thaw tests.
TABLE 1 - GRADING OF COARSE AGGREGATES
Sieve Size
1-inch (25.0 mm)
3/4-inch (19.0 mm)
ВЅ-inch (12.5 mm)
3/8 inch (9.5 mm)
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
5.3
Series 6
% PASSING
Series 17
Series 26
100
75
50
25
0
100
60
30
0
100
60
0
Peastone
(As Rec'd Grading)
Grading Typical
of Source, as
produced
5.2.1
Specific Gravity, Absorption, Crushed Particles, Deleterious Particles, and Unit
Weight Tests - Coarse aggregate shall be recombined to the grading used for the
freeze-thaw tests, except that the deleterious particles determination shall not
include the 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) to No. 4 (4.75 mm) fraction for Series 6 and 17
aggregate. Absorption shall be determined with the aggregate in the moisture
condition specified in Section 6.
5.2.2
Abrasion Resistance - Coarse aggregate shall be used in separate size fractions or
recombined as required.
5.2.3
Deleterious Particle Content - In addition to the production (Bag X) deleterious
particle content test, a separate deleterious particle content test will be run on the
recombined material and reported as the "F-T pick" on the Report of Test form.
Fine aggregate used in the concrete for freeze-thaw testing shall meet the requirements
for 2NS of the materials division of the Standard Specifications for Construction.
6. Moisture Conditioning
6.1
Before incorporating in concrete, prepare the aggregate to ensure a definite and
uniform condition of moisture. Fine aggregate will be used in the moist condition
with moisture content determined. Coarse aggregate shall be oven dried prior to
moisture conditioning and prepared in one of the following procedures. The
method of 6.1.1 is standard for gravel, crushed stone, and crushed concrete while
the method in 6.1.2 is standard for blast furnace slag.
6.1.1
Subject the coarse aggregate to a vacuum of 28.5 inches Г… 0.2 inches of mercury
(96.2 kPa + 0.7 kPa) for one hour, flood the confining chamber with water, release
the vacuum, and soak the aggregate for 23 hours. At the end of the 24-hour
period, open the chamber, drain the excess water and proceed with concrete
batching for freeze-thaw testing.
NOTE: Minimum of 28 inches (94.6 kPa) vacuum must be maintained in the
confinement chamber until water covers the entire coarse aggregate sample.
6.1.2
Immerse the coarse aggregate in water for 24 hours. At the end of the 24-hour
3 of 6
MTM 113-01
period, drain the excess water and proceed with the specific gravity and absorption
testing of Section 7.1, or the making of concrete for freeze-thaw testing.
6.1.3
Same as 6.1.2 but the 24-hour period shall be changed to some other number of
hours as directed by the Engineer in charge.
7. Testing For Material Properties
7.1
Specific Gravity and Absorption - Bulk specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate
will be determined in accordance with ASTM C 127, using the prescribed 24-hour soak. In
addition, the vacuum saturated absorption will be determined using some of the aggregate
prepared in paragraph 6.1.1. Record the data and report the results as shown in Figures 1
and 2.
7.2
Deleterious and Crushed Particles Determination ("Pick") - Deleterious particles are soft
and chert particles as identified in the "Procedures for Aggregate Inspection." Detailed
procedures for picking deleterious and crushed particles are outlined in MDOT's
"Procedures For Aggregate Inspection," and MTM 110. Freeze-Thaw samples to be
tested for deleterious content shall be picked after the sample has been washed but prior
to the particles becoming surface dry. The deleterious particle content for Portland cement
concrete coarse aggregate shall be determined on the material retained down to and on
the 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) sieve for Series 4, 6 and 17 aggregates, and on the material
retained down to and on the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve for the Series 26 and peastone
aggregates.
7.3
Abrasion Resistance - The abrasion resistance of coarse aggregate particles smaller than
1 inch (25 mm) will be tested in accordance with ASTM C 131 and MTM 102.
7.4
Unit Weight of Aggregate - The unit weight of coarse aggregate will be determined in
accordance with ASTM C 29, Shoveling Procedure.
8. Reports
8.1
Report the following data on Form 1804 "Report of Test - Freeze-Thaw Durability In
Concrete" as shown in Figure 2.
8.1.1
Report the bulk specific gravity results to the nearest 0.01.
8.1.2
Report the absorption result(s) to the nearest 0.01%, and indicate if saturated by
24-hour soak, vacuum saturation, or other moisture conditioning.
8.1.3
Report the percentage of deleterious particles to the nearest 0.1%, for the material
retained on 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) sieve for Series 6 and 17 aggregates and for the
material retained on the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve for Series 26 and peastone
aggregates.
8.1.4
Report the abrasion result to the nearest 1%.
8.1.5
Report the percentage of crushed particles to the nearest 1%.
8.1.6
Report the unit weight of the coarse aggregate to the nearest 1 lb/ft3 (1 kg/m3) (for
4 of 6
MTM 113-01
internal use in mix designs only).
5 of 6
MTM 113-01
Figure 1
DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION
OF COARSE AGGREGATE USED FOR DURABILITY SPECIMENS
Laboratory Number:
Identification:
00A-1020
F-T No.
00FT-85
Date:
5-25-00 ________________
ABC Gravel Company, 89-23, 6AA ______________________________________________
Condition of Sample
Indication
Weight in grams
Vacuum Saturation
24 hr. Cold Water Immersion
Saturated Surface Dry in Air
Saturated Sample in Water
Oven Dry in Air
Moisture Content of Sample
Volume of Sample in cc.
B
C
A
B-A
B-C
2560.0
1624.0
2514.0
46.0
936.0
2500.0
1582.5
2456.0
44.0
917.5
2515.5
1590.5
2476.0
39.5
925.0
2465.5
1558.0
2425.0
40.5
907.5
Bulk Specific Gravity
(SSD Basis)
B__
B-C
2.7350
2.7248
2.7195
2.7168
Average =
Bulk Specific Gravity
(Oven Dry Basis)
2.7299
A__
B-C
2.6859
Average =
2.7182
2.6768
2.6768
2.6814
Average:
Absorption Percent
B-A x 100
A
Average =
1.8298
1.7915
1.81
2.6722
2.6745
2.68
1.5953
1.6701
1.63
Unit Weight (lbs/ftВі)
95
X 16.02 = Unit Weight (kg/mВі)
1522___
Remarks: __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Tested By:
K.B.
Computed By:
K.B.
6 of 6
Checked By:
R.G.__
MTM 113-01
1804
Figure 2
REPORT OF TEST
Freeze-Thaw Durability
In Portland Cement Concrete
File 300
00FT-85
GENERAL
00A-1020
June 15, 2000
Freeze-Thaw No.
Job No.
Laboratory No.
Date:
Coarse Aggregate
Report on sample of
Date sampled
December 29, 1999
Date received
January 6, 2000
Source of material
ABC Gravel Company, Pit No. 89-23_________________________________________
Sampled from
Stockpile @ Source
Submitted by
J. Smith___________________________________________________________________________
Intended use
Portland Cement Concrete
Quantity represented________________________
Specification
Grade 6AA, 1996 Std. Specs.____________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
PROPERTIES OF COURSE AGGREGATE
Bulk Specific Gravity
Absorption %
24- hour soak
Vacuum-Saturation
Crushed Material In Sample
Los Angeles Abrasion, % of wear
CONCRETE MIX DATA
Date Made
Slump, in
Unit Weight of Concrete, lbs/ftВі
Actual Cement Content, lbs/ydВі
Water-Cement Ratio, by weight
Air Content, %
Compressive Strength,
psi
Freeze-Thaw Durability,
Expansion per 100 Cycles, %
2.68
1.63
1.81
40
22
Deleterious Particles
Soft Particles, %
Chert, %
Sum of Soft and Chert,
%
Coke & Coal
Unit Weight of Agg.
(Dry, loose) lbs/ftВі
F-T Pick
1 inch- 3/8 inch
0.0
0.0
0.0
Production
1 inch- 3/8 inch
0.0
0.0
0.0
92
BATCH NUMBER
2
3
6-29-95
7-6-95
2.25
2.0
145.6
144.9
517
512
0.45
0.44
7.0
7.2
3890
3800
7 Days
1
6-22-95
2.5
146.1
519
0.46
6.3
4030
28 Days
Beam 1
4750
0.008
4600
0.018
4550
0.008
Beam 2
Beam 3
Beam 4
0.016
0.012
0.012
0.006
0.010
0.011
0.015
0.009
0.011
Remarks: Tested for Information
Freeze-Thaw Testing conducted in T-3
7 of 6
MTM 113-01
Average
2.25
145.0
516
0.45
6.8
3910
4630
0.011
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
MAKING CONCRETE SPECIMENS FOR
FREEZE-THAW TESTING OF CONCRETE COARSE AGGREGATE
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes the procedure for making concrete beams to be tested according to
MTM 115, for determining the durability of concrete coarse aggregate in freezing and
thawing. The method includes criteria for design of the concrete mixture, tests on the
freshly mixed concrete, fabrication of specimens, and tests for strength of hardened
concrete.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 39
C 128
C 138
C 143
C 150
C 173
C 185
C 188
C 192
C 231
C 490
C 566
C 617
C 1064
Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
Test Method for Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete
Test Method for Slump of Portland Cement Concrete
Specification for Portland Cement
Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric
Method
Test Method for Air Content of Hydraulic Cement Mortar
Test Method for Density of Hydraulic Cement
Method of Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory
Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
Specification for Apparatus for Use in Measurement of Length Change of
Hardened Cement Paste, Mortar, and Concrete
Test Method for Total Moisture Content of Aggregate by Drying
Method of Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
Test Methods for Temperature of Freshly-Mixed Portland Cement Concrete
2.2 ACI Standards:
211.1
Practice for Selecting Proportions for Concrete
2.3 MDOT Publications:
MTM 113 Method of Selection and Preparation of Coarse Aggregate Samples for FreezeThaw Testing
MTM 115 Method of Testing Concrete for Durability by Rapid Freezing in Air and Thawing
in Water
3. Equipment and Materials
3.1
Equipment Required - Equipment shall be as described in ASTM C 192, including concrete
mixer, cylinder molds 4 by 8 inches (102 mm by 203 mm), tamping rods, slump apparatus,
1 of 12
MTM 114-01
air content apparatus including pressure meter (Type A or B) and volumetric meter
(Rollameter), unit weight container, curing facilities, and small tools.
3.2
3.1.1
Beam molds shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 192, and in addition shall
be constructed to provide test beam specimens with dimensions of 3 inch (76 mm)
height, 4 inch (102 mm) width, and 15-1/2 inch (394 mm) length as cast for length
change measurements. Thread gage studs into the end plates to provide an overall
length of 16.0 inches (406 mm) and a gage length of 13.5 inches (343 mm), based
on distance from under the heads of the gage stud bolts. See ASTM C 490 for
general concept for gage stud attachment. One monitor beam specimen 3 by 4 by
16 inches (76 mm by 102 mm by 406 mm) per source will be cast with a center
embedded type T thermocouple.
3.1.2
Gage studs shall be 1-1/4 by 1/4 inch (32 mm by 6.35 mm) stainless steel bolts or
machine screws with 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) - 20 UNC threads. The ends shall be
rounded to 3/16 inch (4.75 mm) radius.
3.1.3
Scales shall be as described in ASTM C 192, with capacity of at least 100 pounds
(45 kg), and able to weigh small quantities of water to 0.01 lb. (0.01 kg).
3.1.4
Armored thermometer, Fahrenheit (Celsius ) scale, as described in ASTM C 1064.
3.1.5
Unit weight apparatus as described in ASTM C 138.
3.1.6
Capping apparatus as described in ASTM C 617.
3.1.7
Compressive strength apparatus as described in ASTM C 39.
Materials:
3.2.1
Portland cement, Type I, conforming to ASTM C 150. Cement from three sources is
to be blended. Alkali content of cement will be monitored by review of mill reports
from cement producers.
3.2.2
Fine aggregate from laboratory stock material conforming to MDOT specification
2NS.
3.2.3
Coarse aggregate as furnished for test per MTM 113.
3.2.4
Air entraining admixture, neutralized vinsol resin. Dilution may be required to
measure the small quantities used.
4. Concrete Mix Design
4.1
Mix Parameters - Use the following constants for the proportioning of concrete mixtures:
4.1.1
Cement Content - 5.5 sk/yd3 (517 lb/yd3) [307 kg/m3].
4.1.2
Consistency (slump) - 2-1/2 inch (65 mm) (based on Relative Water Content of
1.15).
4.1.3
Air content - 7% for Series 6 and 17, 8% for Series 26 and 8.5% for peastone.
2 of 12
MTM 114-01
4.1.4
Coarse aggregate content (b/bo) - 0.75 for Series 6 and 17, 0.66 for Series 26 and
0.57 for peastone (based on dry, loose unit weight of recombined coarse
aggregate).
4.2
Mix Design Procedure - Determine the concrete mixture proportions by use of the modified
"Mortar-Void Theory" by Talbot and Richart (Bulletin 137, University of Illinois Engineering
Experiment Station), specifically as contained in MDOT Portland Cement Concrete mix
design computer program. (The procedure described in ACI 211.1 will provide similar
proportions for users outside of MDOT, provided the proportioning is based on the
parameters shown in 4.1). The values for specific gravity of cement shall be the average of
all cements according to ASTM C 188 (or the standard value of 3.15). The specific gravity
and absorption of the fine aggregate shall be as determined according to ASTM C 128. The
specific gravity and absorption of the coarse aggregate, for the moisture condition in which it
is to be used, shall be as described in MTM 113. Express the proportions in pounds per
cubic yard (kg/m3) of concrete, based on dry weight of aggregates, total of absorbed and
free mixing water, and the dry, loose unit weight of coarse aggregate. A typical computer
printout of proportions is shown in Figure 1.
4.3
Determine batch weights as shown on the design sheet in Figure 2. Batches for the tests
and specimens described in Sections 6 and 7 will require 0.9 ft3 (0.025 m3) when the air
content is determined by the pressure method. Adjust the nominal batch size as necessary
if other tests or specimens are required. Cement weights are to be equal proportions of
three different sources of cement unless otherwise provided. Coarse aggregate weights are
to be proportioned as described in 5.2 and Table 1 of MTM 113.
5. Mixing Concrete
5.1
General - Complete testing of coarse aggregate for durability in freezing and thawing
requires three test beams from each of three batches made on different days. In addition,
one monitor beam shall be made from one of the batches, usually batch #1. The following
procedure describes the method of making a single batch. If results from the first batch
deviate from the desired properties by a moderate (but not excessive) amount, corrections
may be made for subsequent batches so that the average is within allowable limits. If the
water used differs appreciably from the design water content, a redesign of the mixture
proportions may be necessary. Due to limited amount of coarse aggregate available, a
batch should be discarded only for substantial departure from the desired mix parameters.
5.2
Weighing Materials - Weigh the materials in the quantities determined on the computation
sheet as illustrated in Figure 3.
5.2.1
Coarse Aggregate - Weigh the size fractions dry in the following order: 3/4 to 2 inch
(19 mm to 12.5 mm), 3/8 to No. 4 (9.5 mm to 4.75 mm), 2 to 3/8 inch (12.5 mm to
9.5 mm), and 1 to 3/4 inch (25 mm to 19 mm), presuming all size fractions are used.
(Placing a coarser fraction in the bottom of the container prevents small particles
from sticking when the aggregate is placed in the mixer). Moisture-condition the
coarse aggregate as described in 6.1 of MTM 113. At the end of the
moisture-conditioning period and immediately before batching to the mixer, decant
excess water until that remaining in the container is less than the total water
computed for the batch (see 5.2.4). Weigh the container with coarse aggregate and
water, so that the water can be adjusted to the proper amount.
3 of 12
MTM 114-01
5.2.2
Fine Aggregate - Determine the total moisture content of the fine aggregate
according to ASTM C 566. Adjust the batch weight by the amount of moisture in the
sample. Protect the fine aggregate from drying between sampling for moisture
content and introducing into the mixer.
4 of 12
MTM 114-01
5.3
5.4
5.2.3
Cement - Weigh the three amounts as illustrated on the computation sheet,
Figure 3.
5.2.4
Water - Weigh the amount of water indicated by the mixture design less the quantity
of water included with the coarse aggregate and with the fine aggregate. The
quantity of water other than that included with the coarse and fine aggregates, to be
held back from the water as designed, and added during mixing as necessary to
achieve the specified slump, should be a minimum of 1.5 pounds (0.70 kg). A small
additional quantity may be weighed in case the design quantity is slightly less than
that required to provide the desired slump.
Batching and Mixing - After "buttering" the mixer as described in ASTM C 192, charge the
materials into the mixer in the following order:
5.3.1
The coarse aggregate and the water in that container (see 5.2.1).
5.3.2
Air entraining admixture, as required for desired air content.
5.3.3
Fine aggregate.
5.3.4
Start mixer and add the cement.
5.3.5
Start timer when all cement is in mixer, then mix for 3 minutes. Add water during the
mixing period until the concrete appears to exhibit the required consistency of 2 to 3
inch (50 mm to 75 mm) slump.
5.3.6
Stop mixer for 3 minute rest period. Cover concrete in mixer during this period with
damp burlap or the mixer lid to prevent evaporation losses.
5.3.7
Restart mixer and mix the concrete for 2 minutes additional. Add water if necessary
to obtain the desired consistency. Only a small amount of water addition during this
period is desirable.
Weigh the water remaining and record on the computation sheet, Figure 3.
6. Tests on Freshly Mixed Concrete
6.1
Consistency - Determine the slump of the concrete according to ASTM C 143. Return the
concrete sample to the mixer after the test.
6.2
Temperature - Determine the temperature of the concrete in the mixer according to ASTM C
1064.
6.3
Unit Weight - Determine the unit weight of the concrete according to ASTM C 138. Return
the concrete sample to the mixer after test.
6.4
Air Content - Determine the air content of the concrete by the pressure method according to
ASTM C 231 for most natural aggregates (use of type A or B air meter is presumed). Use
the volumetric method according to ASTM C 173 for blast-furnace slag and other
aggregates with high absorption (>2.50%) properties. The air content should be within a
+2% to -1% tolerance band around the nominal specified in 4.1.3. All batches outside these
limits will be discarded. Air contents should be on the higher end of the range, rather than
5 of 12
MTM 114-01
the low end. If the pressure method is used, at the end of the test carefully release the
cover of the meter to allow the water to escape, tilt the bowl so that all water drains from the
surface, and return the concrete sample to the mixer. If the volumetric method is used, the
concrete from the air content test is discarded.
6.5
Remixing - Following tests on the freshly mixed concrete and the return of those portions to
the mixer, remix the concrete for approximately 20 to 30 seconds, prior to molding
specimens.
7. Molding Specimens
7.1
Number of Specimens - Mold 4 cylinder specimens, 4 inch (102 mm) diameter by 8 inch
(203 mm) height, for compressive strength tests. Mold 3 beam specimens, 3 by 4 by 15-1/2
inch (76 mm by 102 mm by 394 mm) with reference gage studs imbedded in the ends, for
freeze-thaw testing. Mold 1 monitor beam specimen (without gage studs) with Type T
thermocouple embedded in the center, usually from batch #1 only.
7.2
Procedure:
7.2.1
Cylinders - Mold the cylinders as described in ASTM C 192, consolidating the
concrete by rodding. After molding is completed, cover the specimens with steel
plates.
7.2.2
Beams - Mold the beams as described in ASTM C 192, using the rodding procedure
for consolidation and with special care to consolidate the concrete around the gage
studs (if present). Strike off and finish the surface using a wood float. After the
concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent damage to the surface, cover with
multiple layers of damp burlap.
8. Curing
8.1
Demold the specimens 20 to 24 hours after casting. Take care in removing beam end
plates to avoid loosening gage studs or thermocouple lead. Mark the specimens with
identifying numbers. After demolding, cure the specimens as described in ASTM C 192,
except the beam specimens shall be cured in lime-saturated water until the day prior to the
start of freeze-thaw testing (day 13). At that time, the beams shall be placed in a 40 oF в€Ђ 1
o
F (4.4 oC + 0.5 oC) water bath for approximately 16 hours before initial length readings are
taken and they are placed in the freeze-thaw machine. Cylinder specimens may be cured
either in moist air or in lime-saturated water.
9. Tests on Hardened Concrete
9.1
Compressive Strength - Test the concrete for compressive strength according to ASTM C
39. Test 2 cylinders at 7 days and 2 cylinders at 28 days age. Record results on a data
sheet as shown in Figure 4.
9.2
Freeze-Thaw Durability - Test 3 specimens for freeze-thaw durability as described in MTM
115, starting at an age of 14 days.
10. Computations
6 of 12
MTM 114-01
10.1
Compute the unit weight of concrete, volume per batch, actual cement content, net water
used, and water-cement ratio as shown on the yield data sheet as shown in Figure 5.
11. Report
11.1
Report the following data on the "Report of Test Freeze-Thaw Durability in Concrete" as
shown in Figure 6.
11.1.1 Date each batch was made.
11.1.2 Slump, inch (mm).
11.1.3 Unit weight of concrete, lb/ft3(kg/m3).
11.1.4 Actual cement content, lb/yd3(kg/m3).
11.1.5 Water-cement ratio, by weight.
11.1.6 Air Content, %.
11.1.7 Compressive strength, psi (MPa), at 7 and 28 days.
11.1.8 Moisture condition of coarse aggregate, i.e. vacuum saturated, 24-hour soaked, or
other conditioning in remarks if non-standard.
7 of 12
MTM 114-01
FORM 1830
FILE 300 -
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONCRETE PROPORTIONING DATA
CONTROL SECTION ID: GENERAL
JOB NUMBER:
FREEZE-THAW
LAB NUMBER:
00A-1020
GRADE OF CONCRETE: FT
INTENDED USE OF CONCRETE: FREEZE THAW DURABILITY
DATE: 6/21/00
SPECIFICATION: MTM 114
MIX DESIGN NUMBER: 00FT-85
CONCRETE MATERIALS
SPECIFIC
ABSORPTION
SOURCE
NUMBER
CLASS
MATERIAL
SOURCE
CEMENT
(SEE REMARKS)
FINE Agg.
BIN
19-58
COARSE Agg.
ABC GRAVEL COMPANY
89-23
GRAVITY
PERCENT
2NS
2.65
0.90
6AA
2.68
1.81
I/IA
CEMENT CONTENT, LB/CU YD: 517 (SK/CU YD): 5.5
AIR CONTENT (DESIGN): 7.0 % (SPECIFIED) : 7.0%
R.W.C.: 1.15
FLY ASH CONTENT, LB/CU YD: 0
THEORETICAL YIELD = 99.96
B/Bo: 0.75
SPECIFICATION TOLERANCE (+ -) = 1.5%
AGGREGATE AND WATER PROPORTIONS
QUANTITIES, LB/CU YD OF CONCRETE
WEIGHT OF COARSE AGG.
(DRY, LOOSE)
LB/CU FT
FINE AGG.
(OVEN DRY)
COARSE AGG.
(OVEN DRY)
TOTAL
WATER
90
1291
1822
276
91
1274
1842
276
92
1256
1863
275
93
1239
1883
274
94
1222
1903
273
95
1205
1923
272
96
1187
1944
272
97
1170
1964
271
98
1153
1984
270
99
1136
2004
269
100
1118
2025
268
THIS CHART FOR USE WITH CEMENTS OF THE CLASS SHOWN FROM APPROVED SOURCES.
TYPICAL UNIT WEIGHT (DRY, LOOSE) OF COARSE AGGREGATE AS DESCRIBED ABOVE IS 95 LB/CU FT.
SPECIAL MESSAGES: ______________________________________________________________________
CC: Tom Woodhouse
John Staton
8 of 12
MTM 114-01
MATERIALS RESEARCH & TESTING ENGINEER
FREEZE-THAW DURABILITY MIX DESIGN
WORKSHEET
Freeze-Thaw No. 00FT-85
Cement, Blend of:
Coarse Aggregate:
Lab. No.
Blue Circle (Detroit), Lafarge
(Alpena), Lafarge (Paulding)
MATERIAL
CEMENT
COARSE
AGGREGATE
(DRY)
FINE
AGGREGATE
(DRY)
TOTAL
WATER
AND
ABSORBED
WATER
C. AGG. 1923
F. AGG. 1205
Abs.
3.11
ABC Gravel Company 89-23
00A-1020
6AA
Fine Aggregate:
Sp. Gr.
Bin, Pit No. 19-58
WEIGHT LBS PER YD;
5.5 Sack= 517 lb
1923
1205
2.68
1.81
2.65
0.90
BATCH PROPORTIONS, POUNDS
0.90 ft; =
5.74
1/3
5.74
1/3
5.75
1/3
17.23
Total Cement
(c)
Pass
Ret.
16.02
1" - 3/4" 25%
16.02
3/4" - 2"
25%
16.02
2" - 3/8" 25%
16.03
3/8" - #4
25%
64.09
Total Coarse Agg.
(a)
40.16
Total Fine Aggregate
(b)
Total Water 272
9.07
Total Water
(d)
X 0.0181 = 34.81
+
X 0.0090 = 10.84
= Abs. Water 45.65
Total Aggregate Contains 39 % Fine Aggregate
*lb/yd; x 0.03333 = 0.90 ft; Batch
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Computed By: T.W.
Checked By: K.B.
9 of 12
MTM 114-01
BATCH COMPUTATIONS FOR MAKING
CONCRETE FOR AGGREGATE DURABILITY SPECIMENS
(WEIGHT IN POUNDS)
Freeze-Thaw No. 00FT-85
COARSE AGGREGATE
CAN # 1
1" - 3/4"
3/4 - 2
1/2 - 3/8
3/8 - #4
14.82
16.02
30.84
16.02
46.86
16.02
62.88
16.03
64.09
14.82
78.91
b) 40.16
0.0251
1.01
2.58
DRY WT.
40.16
MOIST.(LB) 1.01
TOTAL
43.75
PAIL # 1
2.60
1/3
5.74
8.34
5.74
14.08
5.75
TOTAL
19.88
1/3
COARSE AGGREGATE
ABC GRAVEL CO, PIT NO. 89-23
DATE:
(MOISTURE CONDITIONED)
6 - 21 - 00
(BATCH MADE)
6 - 22 - 00
WATER MEASUREMENT
COARSE AGG + CAN
+ TOTAL WATER
- RESERVE WATER
78.91
9.07
2.00
9.07
-2.00
= CAN, AGG, WATER, TARE
85.98
7.07
RESERVE WATER
CEMENT
1/3
00A-1020 – 1
6AA
TOTAL
78.91
FINE AGGREGATE
PAIL # 1
BATCH NO.
c) 17.23
2.60
19.83
10 ml
a) Coarse Agg. as Designed
64.09
b) Fine Agg.
as Designed
40.16
c) Cement
as Designed
17.23
e) Total Weight of Batch
( 1.07 )
- 0.42
= 0.65 Surplus
Reserve Water
- Surplus Water
AIR ENTRAINING ADMIXTURE
Summary of Proportions
d) Total Water of Batch
2.00
+ 0.42
= 2.42
9.43
2.00
- 0.65
= 1.35
= Subtotal of Water in Batch
+
=
1.35
8.42
+ Moisture in Fine Agg.
+
1.01
= TOTAL WATER IN BATCH (d)
= d) 9.43
Wt.of Concrete and Unit Wt. Bucket
89.39
- Weight of Unit Weight Bucket
16.70
= Weight of Concrete (f)
= f) 72.69
________________________________________________
SLUMP =
2 1/2
130.91
Design Weights: Computed By: T.W.
Checked By: K.B.
AIR CONTENT =
- Factor of Agg. Porosity
= Percent Air
Mixed Weights: Computed By: K.B.
Checked By:
K.B.
CONCRETE TEMPERATURE =
10 of 12
6.5
- 0.2
= 6.3
73
MTM 114-01
FREEZE-THAW DURABILITY
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTS
Laboratory Number:
Freeze-Thaw Number:
00A-1020
Coarse Aggregate: ABC GRAVEL COMPANY
89-23
00FT-85
Batch Number
6AA
1
2
3
Date of Mix
6-22-00
6-29-00
7-6-00
Date of 7 Day Tests A & B
6-29-00
7-6-00
7-13-00
Date of 28 Day Tests C & D
7-20-00
7-27-00
8-10-00
Batch
#
Specimen
Diameter
inches
Area
in5
Total
Load
Comp. St.
psi
A
3.99
12.50
39500
3160
B
3.99
12.50
37800
3020
C
3.99
12.50
49400
3950
D
3.99
12.50
49600
3970
A
4.00
12.57
41600
3310
B
4.00
12.57
43900
3490
C
3.99
12.50
57900
4630
D
3.99
12.50
55400
4430
A
3.99
12.50
38500
3080
B
3.99
12.50
38000
3040
C
4.00
12.57
50400
4010
D
4.00
12.57
53700
4270
1
2
3
Average
psi
3090
3960
3400
4530
3060
4140
MPa
Compressive strength in psi x 0.0068948 = MPa
1-A & B
21.3
1-C & D
27.3
2-A & B
23.4
2-C & D
31.2
3-A & B
21.1
3-C & D
28.5
Average MPa
Remarks:_______________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Checked by:
K. B.
11 of 12
MTM 114-01
YIELD DATA
AGGREGATE DURABILITY CONCRETE MIXES
Coarse Aggregate: ABC Gravel Company, 89-23, 6AA
Computation Details
Formulae for
Computation
g
Unit Weight
of Concrete
h
Volume of
one batch
of Concrete
i
Cement used
for one yd;
of Concrete
F-T No. 00FT-85
Yield Data
Batch No. 00A-1020
f
0.
e
g
1
2
3
1
2
3
72.69
0.503
73.24
0.503
72.26
0.503
144.51
145.61
143.66
lb/ft;
130.91
144.51
131.04
145.61
130.34
143.66
0.9059
0.8999
0.9073
ft;/
batch
465.21
0.9059
465.21
0.8999
465.21
0.9073
514
517
513
lb/yd;
9.43 x 27
0.9059
9.27 x 27
.08999
9.17 x
27
0.9073
235.41
232.48
227.24
lb/yd;
= 281.06
- 45.65
= 278.13
- 45.65
= 235.41
= 232.48
0.46
0.45
0.44
17.23 x 27
h
j
Net Water Used
for one yd;
of Concrete
d x 27 -Abs.H20
h
= 272.89
- 45.65
= 227.24
k
Water/cement j
Ratio
i
235.41
514
232.48
517
227.24
513
Computed by:
K.B.
K.B.
w/c
K.B.
Note: c, d, e & f are to be taken from the design computation sheets.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Checked by:
T.W.
12 of 12
MTM 114-01
REPORT OF TEST
Freeze-Thaw Durability
In Portland Cement Concrete
Form 1804
File 300
Freeze-Thaw No.
Job No.
Laboratory No.
Date:
Report on sample of
00FT-85
GENERAL
00A-1020
June 15, 2000
_____________ Coarse Aggregate__________________________________________
Date sampled
________ December 29, 1999
Source of material
Date received
_________________
January 6, 2000
___________ABC Gravel Company, Pit No. 89-23___________________________________
Sampled from
_____
Stockpile @ Source
Quantity represented __________________________
Submitted by
J. Smith__________________________________________________________________________
Intended use
Portland Cement Concrete _________________
Specification
Grade 6AA, 1996 Std. Specs
PROPERTIES OF COURSE AGGREGATE
F-T Pick
Bulk Specific Gravity
2.68
Absorption %
Deleterious Particles
Production
1 inch- d inch
1 inch- d inch
Soft Particles, %
0.0
0.0
24- hour soak
1.63
Chert, %
0.0
0.0
Vacuum-Saturation
1.81
Sum of Soft and Chert, %
0.0
0.0
Crushed Material In
Sample
40
Coke & Coal
Los Angeles Abrasion, %
of wear
22
Unit Weight of Agg. (Dry, loose) lbs/ft;
92
BATCH NUMBER
CONCRETE MIX DATA
1
2
3
6-22-95
6-29-95
7-6-95
2.5
2.25
2.0
2.25
Unit Weight of Concrete, lbs/ft;
146.1
145.6
144.9
145.0
Actual Cement Content, lbs/yd;
519
517
512
516
Water-Cement Ratio, by weight
0.46
0.45
0.44
0.45
Air Content, %
6.3
7.0
7.2
6.8
7 Days
4030
3890
3800
3910
28 Days
4750
4600
4550
4630
Beam 1
0.008
0.018
0.008
Beam 2
0.016
0.006
0.015
Beam 3
0.012
0.010
0.009
Beam 4
0.012
0.011
0.011
Date Made
Slump, in
Compressive Strength,
psi
Freeze-Thaw Durability,
Expansion per 100 Cycles, %
Remarks:
Average
0.011
Tested for Information
13 of 12
MTM 114-01
Freeze-Thaw Testing conducted in T-3
14 of 12
MTM 114-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TESTING CONCRETE FOR DURABILITY
BY RAPID FREEZING IN AIR AND THAWING IN WATER
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes the procedure for testing concrete beams to evaluate their durability in
rapid freezing and thawing, specifically for the evaluation of coarse aggregate used in the
concrete. The method uses concrete beam specimens prepared according to MTM 114 and
describes the freeze-thaw cycling and evaluation of the beams by the length change (dilation)
procedure. This method conforms to the general requirements of ASTM C 666, Procedure B.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 490
C 666
E 178
2.2
Specification for Apparatus for Use in Measurement of Length Change of
Hardened Cement Paste, Mortar, and Concrete
Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing
Practice for Dealing with Outlying Observations
MDOT Publications:
MTM 113 Method of Selection and Preparation of Coarse Aggregate Samples for FreezeThaw Testing
MTM 114 Method for Making Concrete Specimens for Freeze-Thaw Testing of Concrete
Coarse Aggregate
3. Apparatus
3.1
The equipment for freeze-thaw testing shall be as described in ASTM C 666, including an
automatic freezing-and-thawing apparatus as necessary for testing by Procedure B (without
specimen containers), temperature-measuring equipment, length change comparator, and
tempering tank.
3.2
The length change comparator shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 490, except that
the comparator and reference bar shall be set for a nominal overall length of 16 inches (406
mm) (13.5-inch [343 mm] gage length). Dial gage micrometers for use on the length change
comparator shall meet the graduation interval and accuracy requirements for C 490 for the
inch calibration requirements. Prior to the start of measurements on any specimens, fix the
comparator at an appropriate length to accommodate all of the specimens to be monitored for
length change.
4. Freezing-And-Thawing Cycle
4.1
The nominal freezing-and-thawing cycle for this method shall consist of alternately lowering
the temperature of the specimens from 40oF to 0oF (4.4oC to -17.8oC) and raising it from 0oF
to 40oF (-17.8oC to 4.4oC), within the temperature limitations of ASTM C 666. The nominal
cycle length shall be 3 hours. Table 1 is a tabulation of temperature versus time that is
achieved by MDOT equipment.
4.2
The thawing portion of the cycle may be extended when necessary in order to use the freezethaw chamber as a tempering tank while testing specimens.
1 of 6
MTM 115-01
5. Test Specimens
5.1
The specimens for use in this test shall be beams made and cured according to MTM 114.
Three beams from each of 3 batches of concrete shall constitute a test, or a minimum of 7
beams (with no more than 1 damaged beam per batch) if there should be mechanical
damage to specimens.
6. Test Procedure
6.1
Except as otherwise stated herein, all testing shall be according to ASTM C 666. So that the
freezing-and-thawing apparatus works under constant load at all times, fill all spaces with
either test beams, control beams, or dummy beams.
6.2
On the day prior to starting the beams in freeze-thaw, place them in a 40oF в€Ђ 1oF (4.4oC +
0.5oC) water bath for approximately 16 hours before being placed in the machine and
determine the initial length comparator reading for each specimen in accordance with ASTM
C 490.
6.3
Start freezing-and-thawing tests by placing the specimens in the freeze-thaw apparatus
during the thawing cycle. Remove the specimens approximately 24 hours after the start of
freezing and thawing (approximately 8 cycles) and test for length change. Subsequently, test
the specimens for length change twice weekly (at intervals not exceeding 36 cycles when
possible).
6.4
Continue freezing and thawing until the specimens have been exposed to 300 cycles, or until
the length change reaches 0.100%, whichever occurs first. Determine the final length
comparator reading of the specimen at the end point. For beams failing before 300 cycles
(i.e., reaching 0.100% total dilation), use the number of cycles at that point to calculate
dilation per 100 cycles. For beams tested to over 300 cycles (due to holidays or weekends,
etc.), interpolate for total dilation at 300 cycles for the value to be used in calculating dilation
per 100 cycles.
6.5
Record the values of length change, number of cycles, and location in the freeze-and-thaw
apparatus on a worksheet as shown in Figure 1.
7. Calculations
7.1
Length Change - Calculate the length change in inches and in percent as indicated in Figure
1. At the end of test calculate the average expansion per 100 cycles as:
Lc = E' x 100
n
Where:
Lc = length change at end of test per 100 cycles, %
E' = total length change in percent
n = number of cycles at end of test
7.2
Outlier Tests - Evaluate any suspected outliers according to the methods of ASTM E 178 for
possible elimination in the average length change calculations. See attached Annex A.1,
Identification of Outliers in Freeze-Thaw Dilation Results, for proper application.
2 of 6
MTM 115-01
8. Report
8.1
Report the following data on the "Report of Test - Freeze-Thaw Durability in Concrete" as
shown in Figure 2, for each beam and the average of the nine beams in the test (less any
excluded according to 7.2, or due to mechanical damage) where indicated.
8.1.1
8.2
Expansion per 100 cycles in percent, individual values and average.
Combine the results of testing under this method with the results obtained under MTM 113
and 114 to provide a complete report on the aggregate being tested, as shown in Figure 2.
TABLE 1: TEMPERATURE VERSUS TIME CYCLING
Function
Start Cooling
Tim
e
Sample Tank Air/Water Temp oC
(О•F)
o
Beam (At Center) Temp C
(О•F)
0
+40 (+4.4)
+40 (+4.4)
10
+8 (-13.3)
+31 (-0.6)
20
+4 (-15.6)
+25 (-3.9)
30
+3 (-16.1)
+21 (-6.1)
40
+2 (-16.6)
+17 (-8.3)
50
+1 (-17.2)
+13 (-10.6)
60
0 (-17.8)
+10 (-12.2)
70
0 (-17.8)
+8 (-13.3)
80
0 (-17.8)
+6 (-14.4)
90
0 (-17.8)
+4 (-15.6)
100
0 (-17.8)
+2 (-16.7)
105
0 (-17.8)
+1 (-17.2)
110
0 (-17.8)
0 (-17.8)
112
(Air/Water Transition)
0 (-17.8)
120
+34 (+1.1)
+25 (-3.9)
130
+37 (+2.8)
+33 (+0.6)
140
+39 (+3.9)
+37 (+2.8)
150
+40 (+4.4)
+39 (+3.9)
160
+40 (+4.4)
+40 (+4.4)
Empty
Sample Tank
170
+40 (+4.4)
+40 (+4.4)
Start Cooling
180
+40 (+4.4)
+40 (+4.4)
Stop Cooling
Flood
Sample Tank
Note: There is a в€Ђ 3О•F (в€Ђ 1.7o C) tolerance band around the above temperature curves.
3 of 6
MTM 115-01
ANNEX
(Mandatory Information)
A1 IDENTIFICATION OF OUTLIERS IN FREEZE-THAW DILATION RESULTS
A1.1
Identify outliers according to ASTM E 178. Type of outliers and method of analysis are
as follows:
A1.1.1 Case A is the most common case where the smallest or the largest observation
in the set of nine dilation values appears to be an outlier. Use the one-sided T
test.
A1.1.2 Case B is the case where the two smallest or two largest observations appear
to be outliers. Use the Grubbs test.
A1.1.3 Case C is the least frequent case where the smallest and the largest
observation appear to be outliers. Use the Tietjen-Moore statistic.
Note A1.1 All three of these methods are explained in ASTM E 178.
A1.2
For Case A, use the critical value of 2.323 from Table 1 for n = 9 observations and an
upper 1% significance level. If the suspected outlier is on the low end, T1 is the
comparison statistic while for the high end, T9 is used. The smallest observation x1 is
an outlier provided that T1 is greater than the critical value. The largest observation x9
is an outlier if T9 is greater than the critical value.
A1.3
For Case B, use the critical value of 0.1082 from Table 4 for n = 9 observations and an
upper 1% significance level. The two smallest observations x1 and x2 are outliers if
S21,2/S2 is less than the critical value. The two largest observations x8 and x9 are
outliers if S28,9/S2 is less than the critical value.
A1.4
For Case C, use the critical value of 0.078 from Table 14 for n = 9, alpha = 0.01 as a
comparison with the calculated E2 value. The original smallest observation x1 and
largest observation x9 are outliers provided E2 is smaller than the critical value.
A1.5
The appropriate critical value must be applied for a given value of (n) observations.
The number of observations may vary from n = 7 to n = 9. If, however, it is determined
that less than seven observations remain after eliminating outliers, a new set of
dilations will be determined from the same aggregate source.
A1.6
Several test reports have been analyzed. The attached worksheet (Figure A1.1)
identifies the outliers and shows the resulting overall dilation results after excluding the
verified outliers. This outlier test will be performed as part of the test report preparation
by the Structural Services Unit. Some statistical judgment is required to determine
which of the three cases characterizes the given data set in question. Once an outlier
has been confirmed and eliminated, further checks in an attempt to eliminate additional
results should not be applied. Calculations for the three cases above are performed by
the Freeze-Thaw Dilation Program (FTD) in the Structural Services Unit.
4 of 6
MTM 115-01
Figure 1
FREEZE-THAW DURABILITY EXPANSION WORKSHEET
Laboratory No.
Pit Name
Batch Made
Date
90A-1020-2-2
Pit No.
89-23
Beam No.
ABC Gravel Company
Spec. 6AA
F-T No.
6-29-00
Starting Date
7-13-00
End Date
Gage Length: 13.5 inches (343 mm)
All Measurements To Be Made At 40 О•F в€Ђ 1 О•F (4.4 О•C в€Ђ 0.5 О•C)
Comparator Reading - Reference Bar = 0.1900 (RR)
Time
Specimen
Comparator
Reading
(RS)
Number
of
Cycles
(n)
Expansion+
or
Contraction
(E)
17_____
00FT-85
8-21-00
Space
Number
Percent
Expansion
(E')
8
9
0.003
9
23
0.0006
0.004
8
37
0.1740
0.0007
0.005
9
74
96
0.1739
0.0006
0.004
8
50
8:00
120
0.1742
0.0009
0.007
9
31
8/1
8:00
152
0.1743
0.0010
0.007
8
4
8/4
8:00
176
0.1745
0.0012
0.009
9
23
8/8
8:00
208
0.1742
0.0009
0.007
8
62
8/11
8:00
232
0.1751
0.0018
0.013
9
16
8/15
8:00
264
0.1752
0.0019
0.014
8
28
8/18
8:00
288
0.1752
0.0019
0.014
9
45
8/21
8:00
312
0.1760
0.0027
0.020
8
7/13
8:00
0
0.1733
7/14
8:00
8
0.1737
0.0004
7/18
8:00
40
0.1739
7/21
8:00
64
7/25
8:00
7/28
9
8
---
---
300
------
--------
0.017
9
8
9
8
Expansion, (E) = RSn - RS
Length Change, LC (per 100 cycles) =
Calculated By:
Expansion, % (E') = [(E x 25.4))343]100
'
E Г— 100
No. of cycles
completed
=
0.017 Г— 100
300
= 0.006
R.G.
5 of 6
MTM 115-01
Checked By:
K.B.
F-T Machine No.: T-3
6 of 6
MTM 115-01
Figure 2
1804
REPORT OF TEST
Freeze-Thaw Durability
In Portland Cement Concrete
File 300
00FT-85
GENERAL
00A-1020
June 15, 2000
Freeze-Thaw No.
Job No.
Laboratory No.
Date:
Report on sample of
Coarse Aggregate_______________________________________________
Date received _ January 6, 2000___________
Date sampled
__________
December 29, 1999
Source of material
_ ABC Gravel Company, Pit No. 89-23______________________________________
Quantity represented__________________________
Sampled from
Stockpile @ Source
Submitted by
J. Smith______________________________________________________________
Intended use
Portland Cement Concrete ____________ Specification
Grade 6AA, 1996 Std. Specs
PROPERTIES OF COURSE AGGREGATE
Bulk Specific Gravity
2.68
Absorption %
F-T Pick
Production
1 inch- d inch
1 inch- d inch
Soft Particles, %
0.0
0.0
Deleterious Particles
24- hour soak
1.63
Chert, %
0.0
0.0
Vacuum-Saturation
1.81
Sum of Soft and Chert, %
0.0
0.0
Crushed Material In Sample
40
Coke & Coal
Los Angeles Abrasion, % of wear
22
Unit Weight of Agg. (Dry, loose)
lbs/ft;
92
BATCH NUMBER
CONCRETE MIX DATA
1
2
3
Average
Date Made
6-22-95
6-29-95
7-6-95
Slump, in
2.5
2.25
2.0
2.25
Unit Weight of Concrete, lbs/ft;
146.1
145.6
144.9
145.0
Actual Cement Content, lbs/yd;
519
517
512
516
Water-Cement Ratio, by weight
0.46
0.45
0.44
0.45
Air Content, %
6.3
7.0
7.2
6.8
Compressive Strength,
psi
7 Days
4030
3890
3800
3910
28 Days
4750
4600
4550
4630
Freeze-Thaw Durability,
Expansion per 100 Cycles, %
Beam 1
0.008
0.018
0.008
Beam 2
0.016
0.006
0.015
Beam 3
0.012
0.010
0.009
Beam 4
0.012
0.011
0.011
Remarks:
0.011
Tested for Information
7 of 6
MTM 115-01
Freeze-Thaw Testing conducted in T-3
8 of 6
MTM 115-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
IDENTIFYING AGGREGATES THAT PRODUCE
CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATE
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the presence of calcium carbonate precipitate
resulting from the reaction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbonate-producing
constituents in aggregates.
1.2
Calcium carbonate precipitate has been shown to progressively decrease water flow
through geotextile filters and perforated drain lines underneath pavements.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 294 Standard Descriptive Nomenclature for Constituents of Natural Mineral
Aggregates
C 702 Standard Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregates to Testing Size
E 11
Standard Specification for Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
3. Apparatus and Supplies
3.1
Balance with a capacity of 500 g or more, and accurate to 1 g.
3.2
Oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110oC + 5oC.
3.3
Sieves conforming to ASTM E 11, including the No. 4 (4.75 mm) and No. 200 (75 Ојm)
sieves.
3.4
Shallow, flat-bottom glass dishes such as 100 mm by 15 mm petri culture dishes, and
miscellaneous containers.
3.5
De-ionized water.
3.6
Hydrochloric acid (1:10) - Prepare dilute hydrochloric acid using one part concentrated
hydrochloric acid (sp. gr.1.19) to ten parts deionized water.
3.7
Tester, or pH indicators such as pHydrion papers capable of measuring pH range from
3.0 to 12.0.
1 of 2
MTM 116-01
4. Sample
4.1
The sample shall be representative of the source.
4.1.1
Coarse Aggregate - Separate aggregate into individual sieve fractions, if
desired, for more detailed analysis. Reduce the sample test fraction to
approximately 100 g, following ASTM C702. Using de-ionized water, rinse the
sample test fraction over a No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve, then oven-dry at 110oC +
5 oC. Crush the oven-dried sample test fraction to size passing the No. 4
(4.75 mm) sieve, retaining all material. Reduce the sample test fraction to
approximately 25 g, following ASTM C702.
4.1.2
Fine Aggregate -- Reduce sample to approximately 25 g, following ASTM
C702. Using de-ionized water, rinse sample over a No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieve,
then oven-dry at 110oC + 5oC.
5. Procedure
5.1
Place the prepared sample in a shallow flat-bottom dish. Add de-ionized water to
immerse the sample, agitating to evenly distribute the sample. Determine and record
the initial pH of the leachate. Let stand exposed to room atmosphere for 24 hours.
Examine the surface of the leachate and aggregate for calcium carbonate precipitate.
If precipitate is present, test with a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid. Carbonate
precipitate will effervesce and dissolve.
6. Report
6.1
Report the presence or absence of calcium carbonate precipitate and the initial
leachate pH. The presence of calcium carbonate precipitate and an initial leachate pH
of 10 or higher indicates that an aggregate has a high potential for producing
precipitate.
2 of 2
MTM 116-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING PERCENTAGE OF
CRUSHED PARTICLES IN AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of percent of particles, which, by visual
inspection, have the essential characteristics of crushed aggregate.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
E 11
Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
3. Terminology
3.1
Fractured Face - Broken surface constituting an area equal to at least 50 percent of
the projected area of the particle, as viewed perpendicular to the fractured face.
3.1.1
A fractured face is defined as being caused either by mechanical means or by
nature. Natural fractures, to be accepted, must be similar to fractures
produced by a crusher. The fractured face should have sharp or slightly
blunted edges.
3.2
Crushed Particle - A particle of aggregate having at least one fractured face, or at least
two fractured faces, as specified for the class of aggregate.
3.3
Sandstone Particles - Considered as crushed particles regardless of shape due to
angular nature of sand grains in the particle.
3.4
Crag or Recycled Portland Cement Concrete Particles - When the largest rock
fragment is less than 50 per cent of the total particle volume, the entire particle is
considered crushed due to the angular nature of the sand grains or adhering concrete
matrix. When the largest rock fragment is greater than 50 per cent of the total particle
volume, count the particle as crushed only if the visible portion of the rock fragment
has one or two fractured faces, depending on the specification provisions.
4. Significance and Use
4.1
The specifications contain requirements for percentage of crushed particles, with the
purpose of maximizing shear strength in either bound or unbound aggregate mixtures.
This method can be used in determining the acceptability of coarse, dense-graded,
and open-graded aggregates with respect to such requirements.
NOTE 1:
The intended purpose of determining percent of crushed particles is to
indicate a degree of internal friction between particles.
1 of 4
MTM 117-01
5. Apparatus
5.1
Balance - A balance or scale accurate to within 1 gram for all aggregates except HMA
aggregates. HMA aggregates require a balance or scale accurate to within 0.1 gram.
5.2
Sieves - Sieves conforming to ASTM E 11.
6. Sample
6.1
The sample for testing is the aggregate used for the sieve analysis. Save and
combine material retained on all sieves down to and including the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve for:
a. Open Graded Aggregates
b. Aggregates for HMA Mixtures
3/8 inch (9.5 mm) sieve for: a. Dense Graded Aggregates (except for HMA
mixtures)
b. Coarse Aggregates
NOTE: Remember to include this sieve when testing for gradation. It may not be
required for the sieve analysis.
7. Procedure
7.1
Weigh the test sample to the nearest gram or 0.1 gram for HMA mixtures and record
as "test sample weight."
7.2
Inspect and separate into crushed particles (using criteria of "one or more fractured
faces" or "two or more fractured faces" as is appropriate for the aggregate under test),
or uncrushed particles.
7.3
Determine the weight of crushed particles and record as "weight of crushed particles".
8. Calculation
8.1
Calculate the percentage of crushed particles as follows:
CP
Where: CP
=
=
100 (Wf/Wa)
percentage of particles with fractured faces (crushed particles)
Wf
=
weight of particles with at least the specified number of
fractured faces, g
Wa
=
weight of test sample (or portion of test sample from which
crushed particles were selected), g
2 of 4
MTM 117-01
9. Report
9.1
Report the percentage of crushed particles for all aggregates except HMA aggregates
to the nearest 1 percent. The percentage of crushed particles for HMA aggregates will
be reported to the nearest 0.1 percent.
3 of 4
MTM 117-01
APPENDIX
X. Guide to Features of Crushed Particles
X1.
The following discussion is intended to convey the intent of this method with regard to
description of crushed particles and not to define rigidly enforced limits.
X2.
Angle at edge of fractured face:
The angle between two fractured faces, or between a fractured face and the remaining
surface of the particle should normally be moderately abrupt, approximately 60О•
minimum from the plane of the fractured face.
X3.
Edge Condition:
The edge of a fractured face should be sharp or only slightly blunted. For example, a
processed piece of crushed carbonate will have a small amount abraded from the
sharp edge, making it slightly rounded. This is still acceptable.
4 of 4
MTM 117-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
MEASURING FINE AGGREGATE ANGULARITY
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the angularity of a fine aggregate as an
overall measure of particle shape characteristics. For this test method, fine aggregate
is defined as that passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve and retained on the No. 200 (75
Ојm) sieve. More specifically, the fine aggregate used in this method shall be that
material which passes the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve and retained on the No. 30 (0.60
mm) sieve.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 702 Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
Practice for Random Sampling of Construction Materials
E 11
2.2
Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
MDOT Publications:
MTM 107 Sampling Aggregates
3. Significance and Use
3.1
The method provides a numerical value representing the angularity of the particles in
the sample. The greater the value of the angularity, the more angular the particles.
4. Interferences
4.1
The test must be performed in an atmosphere free of vibration. The presence of
vibration will provide erroneous angularity values.
5. Apparatus
5.1
Graduated Cylinder - A glass and/or plastic graduated cylinder having a capacity of
250 mL, 12 inch (37 mm) inside diameter and readable to the nearest 2 mL.
5.2
Sieves - Sieves conforming to ASTM E 11. The following sieve sizes will be used:
No. 8 (2.36 mm) and No. 30 (0.60 mm).
5.3
Scale - A scale or balance accurate to в€Ђ 0.1 gram.
5.4
Oven - An oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110oC в€Ђ 5oC.
1 of 4
MTM 118-01
5.5
Funnel - See drawing for specification dimensions.
6. Sampling
6.1
Sample the aggregate to be tested in accordance with Methods D 3665 and D 75, and
reduce to the appropriate test sample size in accordance with Method C 702.
7. Test Specimen
7.1
Obtain a dry sample of such size that it will yield at least 750 grams of the aggregate
described in 7.2.
7.2
Wash the sample of aggregate through the No. 30 (0.60 mm) sieve until the water runs
clear. Dry the sample to a constant weight at a temperature of 110oC в€Ђ 5oC. Sieve
the material in accordance with Method C 136 into the following sieve fraction:
Passing
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
Retained
No. 30 (0.60 mm)
8. Procedure
8.1
Place 100 mL of distilled water into a 250 mL capacity graduated cylinder.
8.2
Weigh 200 grams of the retained No. 30 (0.60 mm) material.
8.3
Position the funnel into the cylinder such that the end of the funnel is approximately
1 inch (25 mm) above the water level.
8.4
At a steady rate, pour weighed sample into the funnel, raising the funnel as the water
level rises such that the end of the funnel is always approximately 1 inch (25 mm)
above the water level. This process should take approximately 10 seconds to
complete. Read total volume of sample + water (Vt) to the nearest mL and record on
the attached data sheet.
8.5
Read sample volume (Vsa) to the nearest ml and record on the attached data sheet.
8.6
Repeat steps 8.1 - 8.5 three times.
9. Calculations
9.1
Calculate the angularity void ratio (e) as follows:
e
=
Volume of Voids (Vv)
Volume of Solids (Vs)
Where: Vs =
Vt - 100 mL
Vv =
Vsa - Vs
2 of 4
MTM 118-01
9.2
Calculate the angularity index (A.I.) as follows:
A.I. =
Where:
10 * (e,avg. - 0.60)
e,avg. =
average angularity void ratio from step 9.1.
10. Report
10.1
The angularity index (AI) as calculated above will be shown on the attached data
summary sheet.
11. Precision
11.1
The angularity void ratio (e) can be measured by the angularity index method to
within в€Ђ 0.05, therefore, the angularity index can be calculated to within в€Ђ 0.5.
ANGULARITY INDEX OF FINE AGGREGATES
Control Section
Sieve Fraction
Job Number
Tested By
Sample No.
Date
WEIGHT OF
SAMPLE, g
Ws
TOTAL
VOLUME,
mL Vt
SAMPLE
VOLUME,
mL Vsa
VOLUME
SOLIDS, Vs
= Vt-100 mL
VOLUME
VOIDS, Vv
= Vsa-Vs
ANGULARITY
VOID RATIO
E = Vv/Vs
AVG. V. RATIO
E, avg.=
ANGULARITY INDEX = 10 * (e, avg. - 0.6) = _________________
3 of 4
MTM 118-01
4 of 4
MTM 118-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SAMPLING OPEN-GRADED DRAINAGE COURSE (OGDC)
COMPACTED IN PLACE
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedures for sampling open-graded drainage course
(OGDC) compacted on the grade. This procedure is suitable for both unbound and
asphalt stabilized OGDC.
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with MTM 107.
1.3
The samples obtained as described in this method are to be used to verify the grading
and physical properties of the open-graded aggregate. In the case of asphalt
stabilized OGDC, the samples are also to be used to verify the asphalt content.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 702 (AASHTO T 248) Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to
Testing Size
D 3665
2.2
Practice for Random Sampling of Construction Materials
MDOT Publications:
MTM 107 Sampling Aggregates
3. Sampling
3.1
Sample the OGDC compacted in place on the project.
3.2
Sampling Frequency - Obtain one composite sample across the full width of the
OGDC. The length sampled should contain approximately 1000 tons. If the OGDC is
placed in less than full roadway width (in the case of part width construction), sample
the width as placed.
3.3
Number of Increments - Prepare each composite sample by taking 10 increments from
each section.
3.4
Sampling Pattern - Use either the procedure in 3.4.1 on 3.4.2 as preferred.
3.4.1
Random Locations - Select the locations for the sample increments, both
longitudinally and transversely, using a system of random numbers as
described in ASTM D 3665.
1 of 3
MTM 119-01
3.4.2
Fixed Locations
10 equal increments, usually 200 feet.
D = your choice, but same for each increment in the lot.
T = 8 feet for 2 lanes, 16 feet for 3 lanes, 22 feet for 4 lanes, 28 feet for 5 lanes.
Distances to the sampling points may be measured by pacing.
3.5
Sample Size - The composite sample shall be a minimum of 50 pounds; therefore,
each increment must be at least 5 pounds. If the total of the increments provides
substantially more than 50 pounds of aggregate, reduce the sample size by means of
a sample splitter or quartering as described in ASTM C 702 (AASHTO T 248).
3.6
Securing Samples - Secure the sample increments at the locations selected according
to 3.4. Remove all of the OGDC from the full depth, including all fines in the opengraded aggregate, but no material from underlying layers. If a geotextile fabric is used
under the OGDC, use caution not to puncture the fabric.
3.6.1
In removing the material, use care to prevent larger material surrounding the
hole from rolling into the sample hole, since such material will cause the
increment to have a non-representative portion of large particles.
3.6.2
A metal Rainhart shield with a 6-inch diameter hole is recommended. Carefully
excavate the OGDC with a spoon forming a vertical face. Be very careful to
recover all the OGDC without contaminating with the underlying subbase or
damaging the underlying geotextile, whichever the condition may be. Place the
OGDC on a sample bag or plywood sheet. Thoroughly mix and then take one
scoopful as the sample. An alternate method would be to dig a hole in the
OGDC large enough to contain the scoop. Dig a vertical face at one end of the
hole. Place the scoop at the bottom of the OGDC and work vertically upward
filling the scoop.
2 of 3
MTM 119-01
4. Sample Identification and Testing
4.1
Identify the composite sample by project number, stationing (and roadway)
represented by the sample, date, material description, and person taking the sample.
4.2
Submit the composite sample to the field laboratory, or district or central laboratory as
directed for appropriate testing.
3 of 3
MTM 119-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
PREPARING CONCRETE PAVEMENT CORES
TO BE TESTED FOR DURABILITY BY RAPID FREEZING IN AIR
AND THAWING IN WATER
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes the procedure for preparing concrete pavement cores to be
tested for durability in rapid freezing and thawing, specifically for the comparison of
concrete pavements before and after recycling. The method describes the procedure
for preparing core specimens for freeze-thaw testing, including trimming, installation of
gage studs, and moisture conditioning.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 295 Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete
C 490 Specification for Apparatus for Use in Measurement of Length Change of
Hardened Cement Paste, Mortar, and Concrete
C 856 Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete
2.2
MDOT Publications:
MTM 121 Method of Testing Concrete Pavement Cores for Durability by Rapid
Freezing in Air and Thawing in Water
3. Apparatus
The equipment for preparing concrete pavement core specimens shall include the following:
- Trim saw capable of slicing 4 inch (100 mm) diameter concrete pavement cores
- Fixture to hold cores for drilling the stud holes
- Holding tank for moisture conditioning cores before freeze-thaw testing
- Miscellaneous equipment, including drill with 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) masonry bit, wrenches,
etc.
4. Supplies
The supplies for preparing concrete pavement cores shall include the following:
- Stainless steel gage studs, two per specimen, as described in ASTM C 490
- Epoxy adhesive
- Miscellaneous items, including mixing spatulas, applicators, etc.
1 of 2
MTM 120-01
5. Preparing Specimens
5.1
Trim each core to nominal 8 inch (200 mm) length using a trim saw. Reject broken or
severely cracked cores.
5.2
Place each core in a fixture, then using a drill with a 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) masonry bit,
drill holes 2 inch (13 mm) deep dead center in the core ends.
5.3
Insert epoxy adhesive and a gage stud into each prepared hole in the ends of each
core. Allow epoxy to harden before moving specimen.
5.4
Submit cores to a petrographer for petrographic examination per ASTM C 295 and
C 856 before freeze-thaw testing.
5.5
Receive cores after completion of petrographic examination and immerse in a holding
tank maintained at a temperature of 4oC + 0.5oC for a minimum of 40 hours before the
start of freeze-thaw testing according to MTM 121.
2 of 2
MTM 120-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TESTING CONCRETE PAVEMENT CORES FOR DURABILITY
BY RAPID FREEZING IN AIR AND THAWING IN WATER
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes the procedure for testing concrete pavement cores for durability
in rapid freezing and thawing, specifically for the comparison of concrete pavements
before and after recycling. The method uses concrete pavement core specimens
prepared according to MTM 120, and describes the freeze-thaw cycling and the
evaluation of the cores by the length change (expansion) procedure. This method
conforms to the general requirements of ASTM C 666, Procedure B.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 295 Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete
C 490 Specifications for Apparatus for Use in Measurement of Length Change of
Hardened Cement Paste, Mortar, and Concrete
C 666 Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing
C 856 Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete
2.2
MDOT Publications:
MTM 120 Method for Preparing Concrete Pavement Cores to be Tested for Durability
by Rapid Freezing in Air and Thawing in Water
3. Apparatus
3.1
The equipment for freeze-thaw testing shall be as described in ASTM C 666, including
an automatic freezing-and-thawing apparatus as necessary for testing by Procedure B,
temperature-measuring equipment, length change comparator, scales for weighing,
and tempering tank.
3.2
The length change comparator shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 490,
except that the comparator and reference bar shall be set for a nominal overall length
of 220 mm. Dial gage micrometers for use on the length change comparator shall
meet the gradation interval and accuracy requirements for ASTM C 490 for the mm
calibration requirements. Prior to the start of measurements on any specimens, the
comparator should be adjusted to an appropriate length to accommodate all of the
specimens to be measured for length change.
1 of 6
MTM 121-01a
4. Freezing-and-Thawing Cycle
4.1
The nominal freezing-and-thawing cycle for this method shall consist of alternately
lowering the temperature of the specimens from 40О•F (4oC) to 0О•F (!18oC) and raising
it from 0О•F (!18О•C) to 40О•F (4О•C) temperature limitations of ASTM C 666. The
nominal cycle length shall be 4 hours.
4.2
The thawing portion of the cycle may be extended when necessary in order to use the
freeze-thaw chamber as a tempering tank while measuring specimens for length
change.
5. Test Specimens
5.1
The specimens for use in this test shall be 4 inches (102 mm) diameter concrete
pavement cores prepared according to MTM 120. The number of cores in a test set,
nominally 6 to 12, may vary according to the condition of the specimens as received.
Broken or severely cracked cores shall be excluded from freeze-thaw testing.
6. Test Procedure
6.1
Except as otherwise stated herein, all testing shall be performed according to ASTM
C 666, Procedure B. The freezing-and-thawing apparatus shall be operated with all
spaces filled to maintain constant load conditions. Dummy specimens shall be used if
necessary to fill empty spaces.
6.2
When the specimens have been prepared and moisture-conditioned at 40О•F + 1О•F
(4О•C + 0.5О•C) according to MTM 120, the initial length shall be measured. Record the
initial comparator length reading in accordance with ASTM C 490. Record the initial
weight of each core specimen.
6.3
Start freezing-and-thawing tests by placing the specimens in the freeze-thaw
apparatus during a thawing cycle. Remove the specimens after 42 cycles of freezing
and thawing and determine the specimen length and weight as in 6.2. Return the
specimens to random locations in the freezing-and-thawing apparatus for subsequent
42-cycle increments.
6.4
Continue the freeze-thaw test until the specimens have been exposed to 378 cycles
(9 weeks) of freezing and thawing, or until specimens break or lose end-studs.
6.5
Record the values of length and weight changes on a worksheet as shown in Figure 1.
6.6
Submit specimens for petrographic examination per ASTM C 295 and C 856 after
freeze-thaw testing is completed. Petrographic examination shall include noting of
broken beams and cracks resulting from the freezing-thaw testing.
2 of 6
MTM 121-01a
7. Calculations
7.1
Calculate the expansion, in percent, for each specimen after completion of each 42cycle increment of freezing and thawing as:
Lc =
(l2-l1) X 100
Lg
Where:
Lc
l1
l2
Lg
= length change of the test specimen after c cycles of freezing and thawing, %,
= length comparator reading at 0 cycles,
= length comparator reading after c cycles, and
= the effective gage length between the innermost ends of the gage studs.
7.2
Enter results of computations on a data sheet as indicated in Figure 2, and determine,
by interpolation, the expansions at 350 cycles.
7.3
Computations may be done by computer.
8. Report
8.1
Combine the results of the freeze-thaw tests and petrographic examinations on a
report sheet as in Figure 3. Expansions of 0.06 percent or greater at 350 cycles are
considered to indicate unacceptably low resistance to freezing and thawing, and shall
be noted in the report. Graphs may be included. Prepare a separate report sheet for
each core set, to be included in a memorandum report or project report.
3 of 6
MTM 121-01a
Figure 1.
FREEZE-THAW MEASUREMENTS
Initial Standard:
core number
Set No.:
date:
cp*
core number
date:
cp*
WEIGHT-LENGTH-SONIC
std:
date:
cycle:
cycle:
weight
length
cycle:
weight
Group No.:
sonic
std:
length
sonic
cp*
weight
date:
cp*
length
cycle:
weight
4 of 6
std:
sonic
std:
length
sonic
date:
cp*
date:
cp*
cycle:
weight
std:
length
cycle:
weight
sonic
std:
length
sonic
MTM 121-01a
Figure 2.
Date:
Project Number:
Project Location:
Series I.D.:
Specimen Type:
Concrete Type:
08/22/89
IR 80024-24755A
I-94 Recycle
OR
100 mm Cores
EXPANSION, %
Number of Cycles
Specimen
I.D.
42
84
126
168
210
252
294
336
378
1
0.006
0.007
0.011
0.016
0.019
0.02
0.02
0.021
0.021
2
0.01
0.011
0.021
0.034
0.041
0.049
0.056
0.063
0.069
3
0.097
0.009
0.01
0.014
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.019
0.019
4
0.014
0.016
0.02
0.027
0.03
0.034
0.037
0.04
0.044
5
0.009
0.01
0.016
0.021
0.026
0.03
0.034
0.039
0.043
6
0.007
0.007
0.01
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
7
0.01
0.009
0.013
0.019
0.021
0.024
0.027
0.03
0.033
8
0.009
0.009
0.011
0.017
0.021
0.024
0.027
0.031
0.034
9
0.016
0.021
0.04
0.057
0.07
0.083
0.094
0.107
0.12
10
0.009
0.009
0.011
0.014
0.017
0.021
0.021
0.023
0.023
Average
0.01
0.011
0.016
0.023
0.027
0.032
0.035
0.039
0.042
5 of 6
MTM 121-01a
6 of 6
MTM 121-01a
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF THE DRAINABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS OF GRANULAR MATERIALS
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the procedure used to determine the various DRAIN
ABILITY characteristics of granular materials including permeability, effective porosity,
and drained percent saturation attained by gravity.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
MDOT Publications:
MDOT Density Control Handbook
Research Report No. R-805
3. Terminology
3.1
Permeability - The rate at which water can be conducted by a material.
3.2
Effective Porosity - The ratio of the volume of the voids of a soil mass that can be
drained by gravity to the total volume of the mass.
3.3
Percent Saturation - The percent of voids in a compacted sample that are filled with
water.
4. Apparatus
4.1
A permeability test assembly as shown in Fig. 1 consisting of a test cylinder with a
4 inch inside diameter, 6 inches long, with top and bottom extensions, a rigid frame,
and a test stand.
4.2
Compaction assembly as shown in Fig. 2 consisting of a permeability test cylinder, top
retaining ring, and a bottom support plate.
4.3
Compaction equipment including a T-180 rammer, wood block, and strike off bar.
4.4
A 100-mL graduate, a 250-mL graduate, and two 250-mL beakers.
4.5
A stopwatch or electric timer.
4.6
A balance with 3000g capacity and accurate to the nearest 0.1g.
4.7
A Speedy moisture meter.
4.8
A standard Michigan sand cone and pounding block as described in the MDOT Density
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
1 of 6
MTM 122E-01
Control Handbook.
4.9
Miscellaneous hand tools, such as pans, scoops, spoons and brushes.
5. Sample
5.1
Obtain a representative sample of at least 50 pounds. If the material is above or near
100 % saturation, dry it until it becomes friable. Drying may be done in air or by use of
a suitable drying apparatus, but the temperature of the sample should not exceed
140oF.
5.2
Sieve the entire sample over a : inch sieve, and discard the coarse material retained
on the : inch sieve.
6. Procedure
6.1
Determine the materials maximum density and optimum moisture content using the
standard one-point Michigan Cone Test Method described in the MDOT Density
Control Handbook. If these values have been determined in the field for density
control, then the field values can be used.
6.2
Adjust the moisture content of the material to approximately 1 or 2 percent below
optimum by air drying or adding water as needed. If water is added be sure to
completely mix the sample to insure a uniform moisture content.
6.3
Place the compaction assembly on the wood pounding block provided with the
Michigan cone equipment. The block must rest on a rigid foundation, such as a
concrete cube weighing not less than 200 pounds, or on a concrete floor. Form a
specimen by compacting the material in five equal layers to give a total compacted
depth of about 6 2 inches. Compact each layer with 25 uniformly distributed blows
from the 10-pound T-180 rammer dropping free from a height of 18 inches above the
elevation of the soil. Scarify the surface of each layer before placing the next layer.
Half way through the compaction procedure determine the moisture content of the
remaining material with a Speedy moisture meter and record results on the data sheet.
Following compaction remove the extension collar and carefully trim the compacted
soil even with the top of the mold by means of a straight edge. Remove the mold from
the base plate, weigh to the nearest 0.1g., and record results on the data sheet.
Determine the percent compaction of the molded specimen based on the one-point
cone maximum density. The specimen must be between 95 -100 percent compaction.
If the specimen is outside of this range it must be remolded by first adjusting the
moisture content and then increasing (higher density) or decreasing (lower density) the
number of layers as required.
6.4
Place the molded specimen in the permeability test assembly and place assembly on
the test stand.
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
2 of 6
MTM 122E-01
6.5
Saturate the sample from the top by slowly flooding the surface of the sample with deaired water taking care not to erode the surface. If de-aired water is not available draw
a supply of hot tap water and allow it to sit at room temperature for at least 12 hours
before using. Continue to increase the supply of water until the overflow outlet is
reached, then adjust the supply until a constant amount of water overflow is
maintained. The sample is saturated when discharge appears. If no discharge
appears within 30 minutes, the material can be considered impermeable and the test
can be discontinued.
6.6
Place a beaker under the sample and observe the discharge flow rate. When the
discharge flow rate appears to be constant begin collecting the water at one minute
intervals. Take at least three consecutive 1 - minute readings of constant flow and
record both the elapsed time and quantity of water for each time interval on the data
sheet. The flow is considered constant if the individual values are within в€Ђ 2 percent of
the average value. If the quantity of water collected in one minute is less than 10 cc
then the time interval can be increased as needed and must be noted on the data
sheet. If no water passes through the sample after 30 minutes it is considered
essentially impermeable, the test is terminated, and it is so noted on the data sheet.
6.7
After all flow readings are taken, shut off the water supply, pour the excess water from
the top of the sample, and allow the sample to gravity drain. When the length of time
between drops of water coming out of the bottom of the sample is greater than one
minute the sample is considered gravity drained. Immediately remove the sample from
the mold and determine it's moisture content from a sample obtained from the middle
of the specimen. Record this moisture content on the data sheet where indicated.
7. Calculations
Perform the following calculations and record the results on the data sheet where indicated.
7.1
Permeability, K (ft/day)
K =
(Qt) (L) x C
(h) (A) (Tt)
Qt =
Total quantity of water measured, cc
L
=
Length of sample, cm
h
=
Head of water on sample, cm
(Measured from the overflow spout to the top of the porous stone)
A =
Cross section area of sample, cm2
Tt
Total time, minutes
=
C =
47.24, conversion factor to change mm/min to ft/day
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
3 of 6
MTM 122E-01
7.2
Volume of Solids, Vs
Vs =
d
Gs x 1000
d
Dry density of test sample, g/cc
=
Gs =
7.3
7.4
Volume of Water after Gravity Drained, Vw
Vw =
d x We
1000
We =
Gravity drained moisture content expressed as A decimal.
Volume of Voids, Vv
Vv =
7.5
Specific gravity of test material
(Assumed to be 2.68 unless determined by testing to be otherwise.)
1 - Vs
Gravity Drained Percent Saturation, % Sat.
% Sat. =
7.6
Effective Porosity, Ne
Ne =
7.7
Vw x 100
Vv
1 - Vs [(Gs x We) + 1]
Permeability, Effective Porosity Ratio
Ratio =
K
Ne
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
4 of 6
MTM 122E-01
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
5 of 6
MTM 122E-01
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
Michigan D epartment
of Transportation
1005 (5/95)
FIELD PERM EABILITY DATA
D A TE
TEST
ID
COL. NOS.
OPERA TOR
PROJ ECT N O.
MOLD +
W ET SOIL
gms.
W T.
MOLD,
gms.
W T.
W ET SOIL,
gms.
W T.
W ET SOIL
Kg.
VOL.
MOLD
Cu. M
W ET
DENSITY
Kg/m Ві
MOIST.
CONTENT,
FROM
SPEEDY
DRY
DENSITY,
Kg/mВі
QT.
TOTA L
FLOW ,
mm Ві
L
LENGTH
OF
SA MPLE,
mm
h
HEA D,
mm
A
CROSS
SECT.
A REA
mmВІ
Tt
TOTA L
TIME,
min.
k
PERM
mm/min
k
PERM
m/day
SPECIFIC
GRA VITY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Vs
VOLUME
SOLIDS
Vv
VOLUME
VOIDS
We
DRA INED
MOIST.
CONTENT,
SPEEDY
Vw
VOLUME
W A TER
%
SA TURA .
DRA INED
e
VOID
RA TIO
Ne
EFFECT
POROSITY
k/ne
RA TIO
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
TES T D A TA
TEST
ID
COL. NOS.
TEST
ID
FLOW
ML
TIME
MIN.
TEST
ID
FLOW
ML
TIME
MIN.
TEST
ID
FLOW
ML
TIME
MIN.
6 of 6
CA LCU LA TION S
Co l. 3
Co l. 4 = --------100 0
Co l. 4
Co l. 6 = --------Co l . 5
Co l. 1 8 = 1 - C o l. 1 7
Co l. 2 0 =
Co l. 6
Co l. 8 = ---------------Co l . 7 + 1
(Co l. 8 ) (Co l. 1 9 )
----------------------10 00
Co l. 9 = Flo w , M L x 1 0 0 0
Co l. 2 1 =
N o t es :
Co l. 7 an d Co l. 1 9 M o ist u re c o n t en t ex p r es s ed as a d ec im al.
Co l. 1 6 is as s u m ed t o b e 2 .6 8 u n les s d et erm in ed b y t es t in g
t o b e o t h erw is e.
Co l. 2 0
----------- x 1 0 0
Co l. 1 8
(Co l. 9 ) (Co l. 1 0 )
Co l. 1 4 = ---------------------------------------(Co l . 1 1 ) (C o l. 1 2 ) (Co l.1 3 )
Co l . 1 8
Co l . 2 2 = ----------Co l . 1 7
Co l. 8
Co l. 1 7 = ---------------------Co l. 1 6 x 1 0 0 0
Co l. 2 3 = 1 - Co l . 1 7 [ (Co l. 1 9 ) (C o l. 1 6 ) + 1 ]
M at erial Req u irem en t s :
Co l. 2 1 M ax im u m al lo w ab le p ercen t s at u rat io n = 9 5 %
Co l. 1 5 M in im u m allo w ab le Perm eab ilit y .
Co l . 1 5
Co l . 2 4 = ----------Co l . 2 3
Co l. 2 4 M in im u m allo w ab le k /n e Rat io = ________________
Circ le all v alu es f ailin g t o m eet t h ese req u irem en t s .
k = _____________________m /d ay
MTM 122M-01
REM A RKS:
Co l. 1 5 = Co l. 1 4 x 1 .4 4
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF THE DRAINABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS OF GRANULAR MATERIALS
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the procedure used to determine the various DRAIN ABILITY
characteristics of granular materials including permeability, effective porosity, and drained
percent saturation attained by gravity.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
MDOT Publications:
MDOT Density Control Handbook
Research Report No. R-805
3. Terminology
3.1
Permeability - The rate at which water can be conducted by a material.
3.2
Effective Porosity - The ratio of the volume of the voids of a soil mass that can be drained by
gravity to the total volume of the mass.
3.3
Percent Saturation - The percent of voids in a compacted sample that are filled with water.
4. Apparatus
4.1
A permeability test assembly as shown in Fig. 1 consisting of a test cylinder with a 102 mm
inside diameter, 152 mm long, with top and bottom extensions, a rigid frame, and a test stand.
4.2
Compaction assembly as shown in Fig. 2 consisting of a permeability test cylinder, top retaining
ring, and a bottom support plate.
4.3
Compaction equipment including a T-180 rammer, wood block, and strike off bar.
4.4
A 100-mL graduate, a 250-mL graduate, and two 250-mL beakers.
4.5
A stopwatch or electric timer.
4.6
A balance with 3000g capacity and accurate to the nearest 0.1g.
4.7
A Speedy moisture meter.
4.8
A standard Michigan sand cone and pounding block as described in the MDOT Density
Control Handbook.
4.9
Miscellaneous hand tools, such as pans, scoops, spoons and brushes.
5. Sample
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (english)
1 of 6
MTM 122M-01
5.1
Obtain a representative sample of at least 23 kg. If the material is above or near
100 % saturation, dry it until it becomes friable. Drying may be done in air or by use of
a suitable drying apparatus, but the temperature of the sample should not exceed 60
o
C.
5.2
Sieve the entire sample over a 19 mm sieve, and discard the coarse material retained
on the 19 mm sieve.
6. Procedure
6.1
Determine the materials maximum density and optimum moisture content using the
standard one-point Michigan Cone Test Method described in the MDOT Density
Control Handbook. If these values have been determined in the field for density
control, then the field values can be used.
6.2
Adjust the moisture content of the material to approximately 1 or 2 percent below
optimum by air drying or adding water as needed. If water is added be sure to
completely mix the sample to insure a uniform moisture content.
6.3
Place the compaction assembly on the wood pounding block provided with the
Michigan cone equipment. The block must rest on a rigid foundation, such as a
concrete cube weighing not less than 91 kg, or on a concrete floor. Form a specimen
by compacting the material in five equal layers to give a total compacted depth of
about 165 mm. Compact each layer with 25 uniformly distributed blows from the 4.5
kg T-180 rammer dropping free from a height of 457 mm above the elevation of the
soil. Scarify the surface of each layer before placing the next layer. Half way through
the compaction procedure determine the moisture content of the remaining material
with a Speedy moisture meter and record results on the data sheet. Following
compaction remove the extension collar and carefully trim the compacted soil even
with the top of the mold by means of a straight edge. Remove the mold from the base
plate, weigh to the nearest 0.1g., and record results on the data sheet. Determine the
percent compaction of the molded specimen based on the one-point cone maximum
density. The specimen must be between 95 -100 percent compaction. If the specimen
is outside of this range it must be remolded by first adjusting the moisture content and
then increasing (higher density) or decreasing (lower density) the number of layers as
required.
6.4
Place the molded specimen in the permeability test assembly and place assembly on
the test stand.
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (english)
2 of 6
MTM 122M-01
6.5
Saturate the sample from the top by slowly flooding the surface of the sample with deaired water taking care not to erode the surface. If de-aired water is not available draw
a supply of hot tap water and allow it to sit at room temperature for at least 12 hours
before using. Continue to increase the supply of water until the overflow outlet is
reached, then adjust the supply until a constant amount of water overflow is
maintained. The sample is saturated when discharge appears. If no discharge
appears within 30 minutes, the material can be considered impermeable and the test
can be discontinued.
6.6
Place a beaker under the sample and observe the discharge flow rate. When the
discharge flow rate appears to be constant begin collecting the water at one minute
intervals. Take at least three consecutive 1 - minute readings of constant flow and
record both the elapsed time and quantity of water for each time interval on the data
sheet. The flow is considered constant if the individual values are within в€Ђ 2 percent of
the average value. If the quantity of water collected in one minute is less than 10 mL
then the time interval can be increased as needed and must be noted on the data
sheet. If no water passes through the sample after 30 minutes it is considered
essentially impermeable, the test is terminated, and it is so noted on the data sheet.
6.7
After all flow readings are taken, shut off the water supply, pour the excess water from
the top of the sample, and allow the sample to gravity drain. When the length of time
between drops of water coming out of the bottom of the sample is greater than one
minute the sample is considered gravity drained. Immediately remove the sample from
the mold and determine it's moisture content from a sample obtained from the middle
of the specimen. Record this moisture content on the data sheet where indicated.
7. Calculations
Perform the following calculations and record the results on the data sheet where indicated.
7.1
Permeability, K (m/day)
K =
(Qt) (L) x C
(h) (A) (Tt)
Qt =
Total quantity of water measured, mm3
L
=
Length of sample, mm
h
=
Head of water on sample, mm
(Measured from the overflow spout to the top of the porous stone)
A =
Cross section area of sample, mm2
Tt
Total time, minutes
=
C =
1.44, conversion factor to change mm/min to m/day
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (english)
3 of 6
MTM 122M-01
7.2
Volume of Solids, Vs
Vs =
d
G s Г— 1000
d
Dry density of test sample, k3/m3
=
Gs =
7.3
7.4
Volume of Water after Gravity Drained, Vw
Vw =
d x We
1000
We =
Gravity drained moisture content expressed as A decimal.
Volume of Voids, Vv
Vv =
7.5
Specific gravity of test material
(Assumed to be 2.68 unless determined by testing to be otherwise.)
1 - Vs
Gravity Drained Percent Saturation, % Sat.
% Sat. =
7.6
Effective Porosity, Ne
Ne =
7.7
Vw x 100
Vv
1 - Vs [(Gs x We) + 1]
Permeability, Effective Porosity Ratio
Ratio =
K
Ne
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (english)
4 of 6
MTM 122M-01
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (english)
5 of 6
MTM 122M-01
Michigan D epartment
of Transportat ion
1005 (5/95)
FIELD PERM EABILITY DATA
D A TE
MTM 122M (metric); MTM 122E (English)
TEST
ID
COL. NOS.
OPERA TOR
PROJ ECT N O.
MOLD +
W ET SOIL
gms.
W T.
MOLD,
gms.
W T.
W ET SOIL,
gms.
W T.
W ET SOIL
Kg.
VOL.
MOLD
Cu. M
W ET
DENSITY
Kg/m Ві
MOIST.
CONTENT,
FROM
SPEEDY
DRY
DENSITY,
Kg/mВі
QT.
TOTA L
FLOW ,
mm Ві
L
LENGTH
OF
SA MPLE,
mm
h
HEA D,
mm
A
CROSS
SECT.
A REA
mmВІ
Tt
TOTA L
TIME,
min.
k
PERM
mm/min
k
PERM
m/day
SPECIFIC
GRA VITY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Vs
VOLUME
SOLIDS
Vv
VOLUME
VOIDS
We
DRA INED
MOIST.
CONTENT,
SPEEDY
Vw
VOLUME
W A TER
%
SA TURA .
DRA INED
e
VOID
RA TIO
Ne
EFFECT
POROSITY
k/ne
RA TIO
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
TES T D A TA
TEST
ID
COL. NOS.
TEST
ID
FLOW
ML
TIME
MIN.
TEST
ID
FLOW
ML
TIME
MIN.
TEST
ID
FLOW
ML
TIME
MIN.
6 of 6
CA LCU LA TION S
Co l. 3
Co l. 4 = --------100 0
Co l. 4
Co l. 6 = --------Co l . 5
Co l. 1 8 = 1 - C o l. 1 7
Co l. 2 0 =
Co l. 6
Co l. 8 = ---------------Co l . 7 + 1
(Co l. 8 ) (Co l. 1 9 )
----------------------10 00
Co l. 9 = Flo w , M L x 1 0 0 0
Co l. 2 1 =
N o t es:
Co l. 7 an d Co l. 1 9 M o ist u re c o n t en t ex p r es sed as a d ecim al.
Co l. 1 6 is as su m ed t o b e 2 .6 8 u n les s d et erm in ed b y t es t in g
t o b e o t h erw ise.
Co l. 2 0
----------- x 1 0 0
Co l. 1 8
(Co l. 9 ) (Co l. 1 0 )
Co l. 1 4 = ---------------------------------------(Co l . 1 1 ) (C o l. 1 2 ) (Co l.1 3 )
Co l . 1 8
Co l . 2 2 = ----------Co l . 1 7
Co l. 8
Co l. 1 7 = ---------------------Co l. 1 6 x 1 0 0 0
Co l. 2 3 = 1 - Co l . 1 7 [ (Co l. 1 9 ) (C o l. 1 6 ) + 1 ]
M at erial Req u irem en t s :
Co l. 2 1 M axim u m al lo w ab le p ercen t s at u rat io n = 9 5 %
Co l. 1 5 M in im u m allo w ab le Perm eab ilit y .
Co l . 1 5
Co l . 2 4 = ----------Co l . 2 3
Co l. 2 4 M in im u m allo w ab le k /n e Rat io = ________________
Circle all valu es f ailin g t o m eet t h ese req u irem en t s.
k = _____________________m /d ay
REM A RK S:
Co l. 1 5 = Co l. 1 4 x 1 .4 4
MTM 122E-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
FIELD DETERMINATION OF THE
DRY UNIT WEIGHT (LOOSE MEASURE) OF COARSE AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the field procedure for determining the unit weight of those
coarse aggregates normally specified in concrete mix designs.
1.2
This method may be used to quickly determine the unit weight of the aggregates using
their existing moisture content, provided there is no free water or glisten on the exposed
aggregate surfaces.
1.3
Except for the following modifications or additions, the determination of the unit weight
conforms to ASTM C-29.
2. Related Documents
2.1
ASTM C 29
Test method for Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregates.
2.2
Procedures for Aggregate Inspection Manual - Test Method for Moisture Determination.
3. Procedure
3.1
The shoveling procedure section of ASTM C 29 is to be followed.
3.2
Weigh the unit weight sample to the nearest 0.1 kg.
3.3
The moisture content is to be determined as described in the Procedures for Aggregate
Inspection Manual, and sampled from the material after the unit weight has been
performed. If the moisture content is to be determined later, the moisture sample is to
be placed in an airtight container.
4. Calculation
4.1
Calculate the dry unit weight using the worksheet on page 2 of this MTM.
4.2
Round the dry unit weight to the nearest kilogram/cubic meter, note both values on the
sample I.D. when submitting coarse aggregate for concrete mix design.
1 of 2
MTM 123-01
WORKSHEET FOR UNIT WEIGHT COMPUTATION
MATERIAL
PIT #
WET WEIGHT OF SAMPLE
Total weight (3 samples)
#1
kg
#2
kg
kg
#3
kg
Average = Total / 3 = (a)
UNIT WEIGHT (WET)
(a) Average weight (incl. measure)
kg
(b) Weight of measure
kg
(c) Wet weight (a - b)
kg
(d) Volume of measure
m3
(e) Unit weight, wet (c / d)
kg/m3 (nearest 0.01)
MOISTURE CONTENT DETERMINATION
(f) Weight of sample (wet)
gms
(g) Weight of sample (dry)
gms
(h) Weight of moisture (f - g)
gms
(i) Moisture factor (h / g)
(nearest 0.0001)
(j) Moisture content (i x 100)
%(nearest 0.01)
UNIT WEIGHT (DRY)
(e)
1=i
=
kg/m;
(English Conversion)
16.02
kg/m; = lbs/ft;
REMARKS:____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
TESTED BY:
DATE:
2 of 2
MTM 123-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING AGGREGATE DURABILITY
BY UNCONFINED FREEZING AND THAWING
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers a procedure for determining the durability of unconfined aggregate
by rapid freezing and thawing.
1.2
As determined by this test, the durability of a sample is a measure of the mass loss
after 300 cycles of unconfined freezing in air and thawing in water.
1.3
The test was developed for evaluating aggregates such as railroad ballast samples
that contain particle sizes too large for conventional testing according to MTM 115.
The test can be used for screening evaluation of aggregates submitted for freeze-thaw
tests.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards:
Michigan Test Method 115 Method of Testing Concrete for Durability by Rapid
Freezing in Air and Thawing in Water.
2.2
AASHTO Standards:
T 103 Standard Method of Test for Soundness of Aggregates by Freezing and
Thawing.
2.3
ASTM Standards:
E 11 Specification for Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes.
C 666 Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing.
3. Apparatus
3.1
Freezing Equipment - The equipment for freezing and thawing shall be as described in
ASTM C 666, including an automatic freezing and thawing apparatus as necessary for
testing by Procedure B, temperature-measuring equipment, and tempering containers.
3.2
Mechanical sieve shaker - The equipment shall have a timer to control sieving time.
3.3
Sample Containers - The sample containers shall be of non-corroding, perforated
material, with size of openings adequate to permit free drainage of water but small
enough to retain the sample and any subsequent fractional loss after testing. The use
of cloth liners is recommended to prevent loss of disintegrated sample material from
the containers.
3.4
Sieves - The sieves used shall meet the requirements of ASTM E11.
1 of 5
MTM 124-01
3.5
Balance - Balance shall be readable and accurate to 0.5 g or 0.1% of the test load,
whichever is greater, at any point in the range of use.
3.6
Drying oven - The drying oven shall provide a free circulation of air throughout the
oven and shall be capable of maintaining a temperature of 110oC в€Ђ 5О•C.
4. Sample
4.1
Aggregate for the test shall consist of particles finer than the 2 2 inches (63.0 mm)
sieve and coarser than the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve.
5. Preparation of Sample
5.1
The sample of aggregate shall be thoroughly washed and dried to constant mass at a
temperature of 110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C and shall be separated into size fractions by grading
with a mechanical shaker to refusal (until no particles pass the sieve). Particles
sticking in the mesh shall not be used for the test. Amounts retained on the individual
sieves shall be recorded to determine the original gradation of the sample as shown in
the example in Table 1.
TABLE 1.
Example Gradation of Sample
Sieve
Opening
inches
mm
2
50.0
12
37.5
1
25.0
:
19.0
2
12.5
d
No. 4
Totals
5.2
Grading of Sample,
Amount Retained
g
%
1340
20
3015
45
9.5
1541
23
4.75
804
12
6700
100
The required mass for each fraction shall be weighed out and placed in separate
containers for the test. Quantities required for the test fractions are shown in Table 2.
Several containers may be required for the larger size fractions.
2 of 5
MTM 124-01
TABLE 2.
Sieve Fractions and Quantities Before Test
Passing
Sieve
Opening
Retained
Sieve
Opening
Test
Fraction
Quantity
Required
Test
Fraction
Quantities
Used
for Example
g
inches
mm
inches
mm
g
22
63.0
2
50.0
6500 в€Ђ 350
2
50.0
12
37.5
5000 в€Ђ 250
12
37.5
1
25.0
3500 в€Ђ 150
1
25.0
:
19.0
2500 в€Ђ 100
:
19.0
2
12.5
1500 в€Ђ 50
2
12.5
d
9.5
1000 в€Ђ 30
10008
d
9.5
No. 4
4.75
300 в€Ђ 10
298
4883
2525
6. Procedure
6.1
The samples in tempering containers shall be immersed in water at a temperature of
approximately 4О•C в€Ђ 5О•C for 24 hours without vacuum treatment prior to the start of
freezing and thawing.
6.2
Immediately after the 24-hour soak period the samples shall be placed in the automatic
freeze-thaw apparatus.
7. Cycles of Freezing and Thawing
7.1
Alternate freezing and thawing shall be repeated per MTM 115 until the samples have
been subjected to a total of 300 cycles.
8. Determination of Mass Loss
8.1
To prevent large percentage losses due to minor changes in particle size, as resulting
from loss of material from sharp edges, the sieves used for regrading after freeze-thaw
testing are slightly smaller than those used for preparing the sample fractions, per
AASHTO T 103. Sieves used for regrading the test fractions after freeze-thaw testing
are shown in Table 3.
8.1.1
After completion of the final cycle, the sample fractions shall be dried to
constant mass at 110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C, then regraded, using a mechanical sieve
shaker, to determine the individual sample fraction mass losses.
3 of 5
MTM 124-01
8.1.2
Record the amounts retained on the designated sieves after testing, as shown
in the example in Table 3.
TABLE 3.
Example Sieve Sizes For Regrading After Test
Sieve Opening
Before
Test
Example
Test
Fractions
Retained
After
Test
inches
mm
inches
mm
2
50.0
1:
45.0
12
37.5
13
31.5
1
:
25.0
f
22.4
19.0
e
16.0
12.5
7
/16
11.2
d
9.5
5
/16
8.0
911
No. 4
4.75
No. 5
4.00
265
2
8.1.3
g
4649
2323
Compute the sample fraction mass losses from the sample fraction weights
before and after testing, as shown in the example in Table 4.
TABLE 4.
Example Computation of Sample Fraction Mass Losses
Sieve
Before
Test
Quantity
Retained
Before Tes
inches
mm
2
50.0
12
37.5
1
25.0
:
19.0
2
12.5
d
9.5
1008
No. 4
4.75
298
g
4883
Sieve
After
Test
inches
mm
1:
45.0
13
31.5
f
22.4
e
16.0
7
/16
11.2
5
/16
No. 5
2525
Quantity
Retained
After Test
Sample Fraction
Mass Loss
After Test
g
g
%
4649
234
4.8
2323
202
8.0
8.0
911
97
9.6
4.00
265
33
11.1
4 of 5
MTM 124-01
Compute the gradation-weighted sample mass loss from the sample gradation
and the sample fraction mass losses as shown in the example in Table 5.
8.1.4
TABLE 5.
Example Computation of Gradation-Weighted Sample Mass Loss
Sieve
Before
Test
Original
Sample
Gradation
Amount
Retained
Sample
Fraction
Mass Loss
Gradation Wtd. Sample
Mass Loss
%
%
%
20
4.8
1.0
45
8.0
3.6
inches
mm
2
50.0
12
37.5
1
25.0
:
19.0
2
12.5
d
9.5
23
9.6
2.2
No. 4
4.75
12
11.1
1.3
Totals
100
8
9. Report
9.1
The report shall include the following information:
- Gradation of the original sample
- Mass of each fraction before testing
- Actual loss in each fraction, expressed as a percentage of the original mass of the
fraction, reported to the nearest 0.1 percent
- Total gradation-weighted loss, reported to the nearest whole number
- Types of failure, such as random cracking, splitting along laminations, or
disintegration
- Test procedure used
5 of 5
MTM 124-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF IOWA PORE INDEX OF COARSE AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This practice describes the procedure for determining the Iowa Pore Index of coarse
aggregates for use in portland cement concrete.
1.2
It may be necessary to perform a petrographic examination and sort the aggregate into
appropriate lithological groupings for detailed analysis of the material.
1.3
The test is used as an investigative screening method rather than for specification
enforcement. It is intended to supplement data from field service records, petrographic
examinations, and acceptance tests of aggregate used in concrete.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
Applicable Standards:
C 136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 295 Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete
E 11 Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
2.2
Other References:
Iowa Pore Index Test, Iowa Dept. of Transportation, 1980
Transportation Research Record 853
3. Significance and Use
3.1
This practice was developed as a rapid screening procedure for the evaluation of
aggregates submitted for freeze-thaw testing.
3.2
High freeze-thaw dilation measurements have been recorded for concrete specimens
containing vacuum-saturated, absorptive aggregates that register high primary load
values (water uptake during the first minute of absorption) during the Iowa Pore Index
test.
3.3
Aggregates that record pore index values in excess of 27 have in turn been correlated
with the development of D-cracking in concrete pavements.
3.4
Therefore, if aggregate samples are found to have pore index value greater than 27,
there is a high probability that these aggregates may contribute to D-cracking in
concrete pavements.
1 of 6
MTM 128-01
4. Apparatus
4.1
Pore Index meter with calibrated vertical cylinder for measuring aggregate water
uptake during pressure-saturation.
4.1.1
A large pore meter chamber with six-liter capacity that will hold approximately
9000g of aggregate is used to precondition aggregates for separation into
absorptive versus nonabsorptive types for pore index evaluation.
4.1.2
A small pore meter with 0.8 liter capacity that allows rapid filling and
pressurization is used for the pore index determinations.
4.2
Balance, with capacity of 4000 g or more, accurate to 1 g.
4.3
Sieves conforming to ASTM E-11: one : inch (19 mm), and one 2 inch (12.5 mm).
4.4
Stereoscopic microscope.
4.5
Oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110 + 5О•C.
4.6
Accessory equipment and utilities, including water and compressed air lines, timer and
calculator.
5. Sample Preparation
5.1
Separate by sieving approximately 16 kg of 2 inch (12.5 mm) to : inch (19 mm) size
particles from a coarse aggregate sample.
5.2
Sort sample into rock type categories and record petrographic information as shown on
page four.
Note: If the sample contains substantial amounts of deeply weathered or absorptive
material in any rock type category, the procedure in 5.4 should be followed, and
separate pore index determinations should be conducted on the subcategories.
5.3
Oven dry the carbonate fraction.
5.4
Further separate the carbonates into dense and absorptive subcategories by pressuresaturation in the large pore index chamber for 15 minutes at 35 psi (241 kPa), following
the pore index determination procedure described in 6.3 and 6.4. Immediately toweldry the aggregate and blow compressed air over them. The surfaces of dense
particles will appear dry and surfaces of absorptive particles will appear damp.
5.5
Oven dry the carbonate fractions separated by the procedure in 5.4, then weigh and
record on worksheets as shown on page four.
2 of 6
MTM 128-01
6. Procedure
6.1
Make preliminary calculations on worksheets before starting pore index tests, as
shown on page four.
6.2
Place a weighed, oven-dried sample fraction in the pore index chamber, then attach lid
and lines for air and water.
6.3
Open air bleeder valve, then open water line and fill meter. Agitate to expel trapped air
bubbles while filling, until water level is at 0.0 in the vertical cylinder.
6.4
Quickly close water valves and air bleeder valve, then open compressed air valve and
start timer. Maintain 35 psi (241 kPa) air pressure during the test by adjusting the air
pressure controller if necessary.
6.5
Record water level readings at 1-minute and 15-minutes as shown on the worksheet
on page 4. Water level readings at 15, 30, 45 seconds and intermediate 1-minute
intervals may be recorded to generate absorption curves if desired.
6.6
Repeat the pore index determination procedure for the sample fractions using
quantities of aggregate sufficient to fill the pore index chamber.
Note: For a highly absorptive aggregate, use a smaller quantity to prevent complete
loss of water from the vertical cylinder during the test.
7. Computations
7.1
Determine the Iowa Pore Index value by subtracting the 1-minute reading from the 15minute reading and then performing the computation as shown on the worksheet on
page 4 using the factors described in sections 9 and 10 below.
8. Report
8.1
Report the Iowa Pore Index determination results on a test report sheet or in a
summary report. Include the pore index values and corresponding percentages of the
constituents in the sample shown on page 4. Primary load values (water uptake during
the first minute), and total amounts of water uptake during the test may be included for
additional information. The report may include a statement of Iowa Pore Index criteria
for interpretation of the test results.
3 of 6
MTM 128-01
ANNEX
(Mandatory Information)
A1.
Determination of the Pore Meter Expansion Factor (EF)
A.1.1 To determine the expansion factor (EF) fill the pore meter with water until the
water level is at 0.0, then close all valves and pressurize to 35 psi (241 kPa).
The expansion factor is the water level reading during pressurization.
A2.
Determination of the Pore Meter Calibration Factor (CF)
A.2.2 To determine the calibration factor (CF) fill the pore meter until the water level
is at 0.0, then drain the water into a graduated cylinder until the bottom scale
reading is reached. The amount of water removed from the vertical graduated
cylinder of the pore meter is used to calculate the ml per division of the pore
meter scale.
4 of 6
MTM 128-01
PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS WORKSHEET
FOR
IOWA PORE INDEX DETERMINATION
Sample:
Sample No:
Particle Size:
Date Tested:
Rock Type
Igneous/Metamorphic, Dense
* Ig/Metamorphic,Absorptive
Sedimentary
Carbonates, Dense.....
Carbonates, Absorptive
Sandstone, Nonfriable.
* Sandstone, Friable....
* Siltstone.............
* Shale.................
* Clay Ironstone........
Chert.................
Totals......................
Weight, g
.
Sample Content,
.
[email protected], %
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Total [email protected] + Chert............................................
.
Asterisks indicate rock types classified as soft and nondurable in service.
REMARKS:
5 of 6
MTM 128-01
WORKSHEET FOR
IOWA PORE INDEX DETERMINATION
Sample:
Sample No.:
Sample Wt., g.
Particle Size:
Date Tested:
Elapsed Time
00 sec.
15
30
45
1 min.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
(oven-dry) :
Water Level
0.0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Absorption, ml
Per 9000 g
Sample
0.0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Water Level – EF
0.0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Absorption, ml per 9000 g Sample = (WL-EF)* (CF*WF)
EF = Pore Meter Expansion Factor....................
CF = Pore Meter Calibration Factor..................
WF = Sample Wt. Factor = 9000 g/Sample Wt.,g........
(CF*WF).............................................
Pore Index = Abs @ 15 Min. - Abs @ 1 Min............
=
=
=
=
=
Tested in __________ liter chamber.
REMARKS:
6 of 6
MTM 128-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
LEACHATE DETERMINATION OF IRON BLAST
FURNACE SLAG USED FOR LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE FILL
1.
Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedure for sampling and testing iron blast furnace
slag for determination of leachate from the aggregate.
1.2
This procedure will apply to all uses of slag except for use in HMA
PCC.
2.
Applicable Documents
2.1 MTM 113 - Michigan Test Method for Sampling Aggregates
2.2 AASHTO Standards:
M 92
M 231
Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
Standard Specifications for Weighing Devices Used in Testing Materials
T 248
Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
2.3 ASTM Standards:
D 1193
E 70
E 832
E 960
3.
Specification for Reagent Water
pH of Aqueous Solutions with the Glass Electrode
Specification for Laboratory Filter Paper
Specification for Laboratory Glass Beakers
Significance and Use
3.1 This MTM will be used to evaluate iron blast furnace slag for determination of leachate from the aggregate. The slag will meet the
requirements of this test method prior to acceptance and use, except when used in HMA and PCC.
4.
Equipment and Materials
Balance, Class G20, in accordance with AASHTO M 231
No. 4 sieve, conforming to AASHTO M 92
Filter paper, medium grade, conforming to ASTM E 832
The Geological Society of America Rock Color Chart
Plastic five-gallon bucket with lid
Funnel
1 of 3
MTM 129-07
or
Glass beaker, 150 mL conforming to ASTM E 960
pH meter
Tamping rod, round, steel, approximately 5/8 inch in diameter and approximately 24
inches long
Deionized or distilled water conforming to ASTM D 1193
5.
6.
General Requirements
5.1
Sampling and testing shall be conducted by the Aggregate
Producer.
5.2
Material shall be stockpiled for a minimum of one month prior to testing aggregate for leachate determination.
5.3
Aggregate Sampling shall be conducted in accordance with MTM 107.
5.4
Stockpile location, stockpile identification and test results shall be maintained at the
slag source and be made available upon request.
Procedure
6.1 Place the test sample in a five gallon bucket, fill with distilled or deionized water until the sample is covered with at least ВЅ inch and not
more than 1 inch of water and place a lid on the bucket. No additional water shall be added after the test is started. Allow the sample to soak
for one day.
6.2
After the one-day soaking period, thoroughly stir the sample with the tamping rod and
collect a water sample of approximately 100 mL.
6.3
Using a funnel, filter the water sample through the filter paper into a glass beaker.
6.4
Observe the color of the water.
6.5 Calibrate a pH meter in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and ASTM E 70 and then determine the pH of the water sample
to the nearest 0.1.
7.
6.6
If the water color is equal to or darker than the moderate greenish- yellow color (Hue
10 y) from the rock color chart, or the pH is not within 6.0 to 10.5, the material is not
acceptable and the test is completed. Upon the completion of the color observation
and pH
measurement, the 100 mL water sample is discarded.
6.7
If the water color is lighter than the moderate greenish-yellow color (Hue 10 y) from the
rock color chart and the pH is within 6.0 to 10.5, then allow the sample to soak for
another six days. The bucket shall be covered with the lid and the sample stirred after
three days and seven days of soaking.
6.8
Repeat steps 6.2 through 6.5 after three days and seven days of soaking.
Acceptance Criteria
7.1
If after one day, three days or seven days of soaking, the water color is equal to or
2 of 3
MTM 129-07
darker than the moderate greenish-yellow color (Hue 10 y) from the rock color chart,
the material will not be acceptable for use.
8.
7.2
If after one day, three days or seven days of soaking, the pH is not within 6.0 to 10.5,
the material will not be acceptable for use.
7.3
If after seven days of soaking, the water color is lighter than the moderate greenishyellow color (Hue 10 y) from the rock color chart and the pH is within 6.0 to 10.5, the
material is acceptable for use.
Report
8.1
All pH values shall be reported to the nearest 0.1 unit.
8.2
The color of the water shall be reported as lighter than, equal to or darker than the
moderate greenish-yellow color (Hue 10 y) from the rock color chart.
3 of 3
MTM 129-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF PAVEMENT THICKNESS AND DEPTH
OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE PAVEMENT
BY THE CORING METHOD
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the procedure for selection of pavement units to be cored,
requirements for number of cores to be taken, method of measurement for length of core
and depth of pavement reinforcement, and procedure for reporting results.
1.2
Reference to Standard Specifications shall be interpreted as the Michigan Department of
Transportation Standard Specifications for Construction, for the edition applicable to the
project from which the cores are obtained.
1.3
Reference to Core Types A, B, and C, and Types X, Y, and Z, refer to ranges of pavement
thickness and depth of pavement reinforcement, respectively, as described in Section
602.04H of the Standard Specifications with regard to contract price adjustments.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards:
Standard Specifications for Construction
2.2
AASHTO Standards:
R 11
Practice for Indicating Which Places of Figures Are to Be Considered Significant in
Specified Limiting Values
T 148 Measuring Length of Drilled Cores
2.3
MDOT Forms:
502
1872
Pavement Core Record
Concrete Pavement Cores - Worksheet
3. Terminology
3.1
Additional Core - A core taken because the initial core from a pavement unit indicates
pavement thickness or depth of steel in a penalty range.
3.2
Alternate Core - A core taken to replace an initial core from reinforced pavement when the
initial cores did not contain reinforcing steel.
3.3
Initial Core - The first core taken from a pavement unit.
1 of 10
MTM 201-02
3.4
Pavement Unit - An area of pavement selected for coring for determination of pavement
thickness and depth of reinforcement.
3.5
Random - Having no specific pattern.
3.6
Straddler Core - A core taken to determine the limits of pavement in a C and/or Z penalty
range.
3.7
Substitute Additional Core - A core taken outside a pavement area having a deficiency in
the C and/or Z penalty range which is substituted from an additional core from the
pavement unit.
3.8
Substitute Initial Core - A core taken outside a pavement area having a deficiency in the C
and/or Z penalty range which is substituted for the initial core from the pavement unit.
4. Determination of Pavement Units
4.1
To determine the frequency of coring, divide the pavement into units. The width of a unit is
a lane. The width of each lane is determined by the mandatory and/or optional joints
indicated on the cross sections shown on the plans.
4.2
Determine the length of a unit as described in 4.2.1 or 4.2.2.
4.2.1
Divide areas 2000 feet (600 meters) or more in length and 3 feet (1 meter) or more
in width into units of 1000 linear feet (300 linear meters) of pavement for each lane,
starting at the end of the pavement bearing the smaller station number. The length
of the last unit will be variable to conform to the remaining pavement limits, and will
be from 500 to 1500 feet (150 to 450 meters) in length.
4.2.2
Divide areas less than 2000 feet (600 meters) in length but at least 2500 square
feet (250 square meters) in each lane into units of 500 linear feet (150 linear
meters). Areas of 2500 square feet (250 square meters) or more but less than 500
linear feet (150 linear meters) will be considered as one unit. The length of the last
unit will be variable to conform to the remaining pavement limits, and will be from
250 to 750 feet (75 to 225 meters) in length.
NOTE 1:
The Standard Specifications provide that temporary concrete pavement, and
pavement within 4 feet (1.2 meters) of an obstruction, pavement areas of less
than 2500 square feet (250 square meters), or pavement less than 3 feet (1
meter) in width, will be cored at the discretion of the Engineer.
NOTE 2:
While requirements for coring are different depending on the area of pavement,
any price adjustments (or requirement for replacement) should be as indicated
in the Standard Specifications.
5. Coring Procedure
5.1
Identification of Cores - Each core taken for project acceptance purposes shall be
numbered with consecutive numbers starting January 1 each year. A consecutive core
2 of 10
MTM 201-02
number is assigned to the initial core of each added pavement unit regardless of the
core's location within the limits of a single project or from within various projects. All
cores taken from a pavement unit shall bear the same number as the initial core.
Suffixes, as described in 5.1.1 through 5.1.4, shall be added to cores other than initial
cores to identify their core type, as described in 5.3. The assignment of suffixes shall
represent the order in which the cores were taken.
5.2
5.1.1
When cores are required to determine deficiencies in pavement thickness, the
suffix shall be the letters A, B, C, etc.
5.1.2
When cores are required to determine the out of tolerance depth range of
reinforcement, the suffix shall be the letter "S" plus a number, as: S1, S2, S3,
etc.
5.1.3
When cores are required for both pavement thickness deficiencies and steel
reinforcement depth range determination, both suffixes shall be used, as
503AS1, 503BS2, etc.
5.1.4
When an alternate core is taken, the suffix shall be the letter "X".
Initial Core - Take one core (the "initial" core) from each prescribed pavement unit.
Select the longitudinal location at random, except that cores will not be taken within 2
feet (0.60 meters) of transverse joints. Select the transverse location at random,
except that cores will not be taken within 2 feet (0.60 meters) of a longitudinal joint, or
in the area of thickened edges of lanes.
5.2.1
If a core from a reinforced pavement does not include a section of pavement
reinforcement, take an "alternate initial" core (or "alternate additional" core see 5.5) not less than 10 feet (3 meters) nor more than 100 feet (30 meters) up
stationing of the initial core. Use this alternate core for the determination of the
depth of pavement reinforcement only.
5.2.2
Record the stationing of each core to the nearest foot (0.5 meters). Record the
transverse location relative to centerline, edge of pavement, or other reference
to the nearest 0.1 foot (50 mm).
5.3
Classification of Cores - After measuring the core as described in Section 6, classify
the core in accordance with the results for both the measurement for concrete
thickness and the depth of steel in accordance with the ranges indicated in Tables
602-3A and 602-3B of the Standard Specifications. The resulting classification will
determine the procedure to be followed, as described in 5.4 and 5.5.
5.4
Core Type AX - When the initial core from a pavement unit is classified as Type AX, no
additional cores will be taken from that pavement unit.
5.5
Core Type Other Than AX - When the initial core from a pavement unit is classified as
other than Type AX, take "additional" cores as described in 5.5.1 or 5.5.2.
3 of 10
MTM 201-02
NOTE 3:
5.5.1
5.5.2
The Standard Specifications provide that additional cores are to be used
only for evaluating the pavement unit as related to the deficiency found in
the initial core. Thus, if the initial core is classified as Type BX, additional
cores would be evaluated only for pavement thickness, and depth of
reinforcement would not be considered even though it may be in a Z range
in an additional core.
Core Types AY, BX, and BY - When the initial core is classified as one of these
core types, take two additional cores within the pavement unit. When the
coring is being done on a linear basis, take one additional core not less than
100 feet (30 meters) nor more than 300 feet (90 meters) in each direction from
the initial core. When the second additional core cannot be taken as described
above due to the limits of the pavement unit, take the second additional core
at least 300 feet (90 meters) from the initial core and at least 100 feet (30
meters) but not more than 300 feet (90 meters) from the first additional core.
When the coring is being done on a square meter area basis, take the two
additional cores at random within the pavement unit.
5.5.1.1
If the measurements of the two additional cores are within the Type
A, B, X, or Y range for the measurement for which the initial core
was deficient, no further cores will be taken within the pavement
unit.
5.5.1.2
If the measurements for either or both of the additional cores are in
a C and/or Z range for the measurement for which the initial core
was deficient, follow the requirements in 5.5.2.2.
Core Types AZ, BZ, CX, CY, and CZ - When the initial core or either or both of
the additional cores, is classified as one of these core types, take "straddler"
cores at random transversely within the pavement unit, but spaced at 10 foot (3
meter) longitudinal intervals in each direction from the C and/or Z core until, in
each direction, a core is obtained which is no longer in a C and/or Z range.
The first core taken in each direction which is not in the C and/or Z range will
determine the extent of the area having a deficiency in the C and/or Z range
(C/Z deficiency area). The procedure to be followed after defining the limits of
the C/Z deficiency area is as described in 5.5.2.1 for cases where the initial
core indicated a C and/or Z deficiency, or 5.5.2.2 for cases where an additional
core indicated a C and/or Z deficiency.
5.5.2.1
Initial Core Classified as C and/or Z - The first straddler core taken
that is not in the C and/or Z range will become the "substitute initial"
core for the pavement unit. The second straddler core taken that is
not in the C and/or Z range will be used only in the determination of
the extent of pavement in the C and/or Z range. If the first straddler
(substitute initial core) is classified as Type AX, no additional cores
will be taken, as described in 5.4. If the first straddler (substitute
initial core) is classified as Type AY, BX, or BY, taken two
additional cores as described in 5.5.1.
4 of 10
MTM 201-02
5.5.2.2
Additional Core Classified as C and/or Z - The first straddler core
taken that is not in the C and/or Z range will become a "substitute
additional" core and will meet the requirements for one of the two
additional cores to be taken as described in 5.5.1.1. The second
straddler core taken that is not in the C and/or Z range will be used
only in the determination of the extent of pavement in the C and/or
Z range.
6. Measurement of Cores
6.1
Measurement for Thickness of Pavement - Make measurements for the length of a
core for determining pavement thickness in accordance with AASHTO T 148, and
round the results using the rounding off method of AASHTO R 11. Due to construction
practices, the base course material may vary between core locations of contiguous
pavement coring units. The measurement of a core as described in 6.1.1 and 6.1.2
will be governed by the actual base course material displayed at a core location.
Measuring apparatus shall be constructed as stated in AASHTO T 148 except, the
three symmetrically placed supports that contact the lower end of the specimen may
be rounded to a radius of not more than 0.75 inch, and the end of the measuring rod or
other device that makes contact with the end surface of the specimen for measuring
may be rounded to a radius of not more than 0.25 inch.
6.1.1
For concrete placed over a dense-graded aggregate, clean the bottom of cores
by tooling and wire brushing as necessary to remove sand and loosely
attached coarse particles. Measure the length of the core, round the result to
0.1 inches (1 mm) and report as "actual depth" on the field worksheet (Figure
1).
6.1.2
For concrete placed over an open-graded aggregate (OGA), tool the bottom of
cores to remove particles of the OGA projecting significantly beyond the lower
surface of the mortar, then measure the length of the core. Record the length
of the core (thickness of pavement) to the nearest 0.1 inch (1 mm) as the
"actual depth" on the worksheet. Deduct 0.25 inches (6 mm) from the actual
depth (before rounding the raw data) and report to the nearest 0.1 inch (1 mm)
as the "adjusted depth".
NOTE 4:
6.2
The 0.25 inch (6 mm) deducted is based on laboratory testing and is the
approximate increase in length of the core over the thickness of concrete
placed, due to mortar separating from the concrete and surrounding and
bonding to particles in the OGA. The increased quantity of concrete
required due to loss of mortar into the OGA is estimated to be less than 2
percent of the volume of concrete required.
Measurement for Depth of Reinforcement - Make measurements for depth of
reinforcement from the top surface of the core to the top of the longitudinal bar or wire
to the nearest 0.1 inch (1 mm) and report as "depth of steel". When two or more
longitudinal bars or wires are present in a core, record the depth of each bar or wire
individually and report the depth of reinforcement as described in 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3, or
6.2.4.
5 of 10
MTM 201-02
6.2.1
Cores with Reinforcement in X and/or Y Depth Ranges - For cores with two or
more longitudinal bars or wires positioned in the X and/or Y depth ranges, the
reinforcement measurements will be averaged.
6.2.2
Cores with Reinforcement in X or Y and Lower Z Depth Ranges - For cores
with longitudinal bars or wires positioned in the lower Z depth range and also in
the X and/or Y range, only the measurements in the X and/or Y range will be
used for determining the depth of reinforcement, as described in 6.2.1.
6.2.3
Cores with Reinforcement in X or Y and Upper Z Depth Ranges - For cores
with longitudinal bars or wires positioned in the upper Z range, and also in the
X and/or Y range, only the measurements in the upper Z range will be used to
classify the core.
6.2.4
Cores with Reinforcement in Upper and/or Lower Z Ranges - For cores with
longitudinal bars or wires in either or both Z ranges, the measurements will be
reported individually for each Z range.
NOTE 5:
The Standard Specifications provide for an adjustment of the X, Y, and Z
reinforcement maximum depth ranges where the "actual depth" or
"adjusted depth" (as determined in 6.1.1 or 6.1.2) exceeds the pavement
plan thickness by 0.2 inches (5 mm) or more. Therefore it is necessary
that each core used to determine depth of reinforcement also be measured
for thickness of pavement. No adjustment is made in any of the recorded
measurements due to an adjustment in reinforcement depth range.
7. Report
7.1.
Report the results of the determinations by this test method on the Pavement Core
Record (Form 502). When laboratory results are reported, use the Concrete
Pavement Cores - Worksheet (Form 1872).
7.2
Form 502 - Report the project limits of roadways and the individual limits of ramps,
shoulders, and other pavement areas by their P.O.B. and P.O.E. stations. Stationing
limits of bridges and gaps will be reported but will not be included in the determination
of the length of a unit. Station equations will be reported. All cores taken on a project
will be reported. Each core in the report will be identified by core number, station,
transverse location, actual depth and adjusted depth as described in 6.1, core length
surplus or shortage, depth of reinforcement, date core was taken, lane description, and
lane width.
NOTE 6:
7.3
The Standard Specifications provide that individual core length
measurements in excess of the plan thickness by more than 0.2 inches (5
mm) will be considered as the specified thickness plus 0.2 inches (5 mm)
and will be reported as a "surplus" of 0.2 inches (5 mm).
Form 1872 - Report the laboratory identification number, core number, actual or
adjusted depth, and depth of reinforcement.
6 of 10
MTM 201-02
7.4
When three cores are taken from a pavement unit as described in 5.5.1, the
measurements for thickness and/or depth of reinforcement will be averaged as
provided in 7.4.1 and 7.4.2.
NOTE 7:
The Standard Specifications provide for using the measurement from
additional cores only for the defect that required the taking of the additional
cores.
7.4.1
When averaging the lengths of the three cores, include the length in excess of
specified pavement thickness only as permitted by the Standard Specifications
(See NOTE 6).
7.4.2
For cores with reinforcement in the Y or Z depth range, the thickness of
pavement shall also be determined for each core, so that the limits of the depth
range may be determined for pavement having excess thickness. In this case,
the actual or adjusted value of pavement thickness (as appropriate) from 6.1 is
used to determine average pavement thickness.
7 of 10
MTM 201-02
8 of 10
MTM 201-02
9 of 10
MTM 201-02
FORM 1872
FORM 1872 R
___
Figure 2. Form 1872/1872R
10 of 10
MTM 201-02
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TESTING CONCRETE BLOCKS USED FOR
PRECAST CONCRETE SLOPE PAVING
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes the procedures for testing precast concrete blocks used for
slope paving for compressive strength and absorption. Except for the size and
preparation of the test specimens, the units shall be tested according to ASTM C 140,
Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units.
2. Number of Specimens
2.1
The number of units representing a sample, and the number of samples taken, shall be
as described in the Materials Source Guide of the Department. In general, four units
will form a sample, three of which will be tested and the fourth reserved as a "save
sample" or to be used in place of a defective specimen.
3. Compressive Strength
3.1
Compression test specimens having surface dimensions of 4 by 4 inches (100 mm) will
be sawed from the units. The specimens will be tested with the load applied in the
direction of the thickness of the unit.
4. Absorption
4.1
The test specimen for determination of the absorption shall be one-half of a unit,
sawed from the same unit from which the compression test specimen was sawed.
Slurry from the sawing shall be washed from the specimen before proceeding with the
absorption test.
1 of 1
MTM 203-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
CONSOLIDATION METHOD OF CONCRETE CYLINDER TEST SPECIMENS
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the consolidation method of concrete cylinder test
specimens used in determining the compressive strength of concrete.
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with ASTM C 31.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM C31 Specification for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field.
3. Procedure
3.1
All concrete test specimens shall be formed and cured in accordance with ASTM C 31.
3.2
Concrete cylinder test specimens, regardless of slump, may be consolidated either by
rodding or vibrating as described in Section 8.3 of ASTM C 31.
1 of 1
MTM 205-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
USE OF UNBONDED CAPS IN DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF HARDENED CONCRETE CYLINDERS
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes requirements for a capping system using unbonded caps
for testing concrete cylinders in accordance with AASHTO T 22.
1.2
Unbonded capping systems must be qualified as specified in ASTM C 1231, Section 8,
prior to use for acceptance testing.
2. Referenced Documents
AASHTO T 22
Standard Method of Test for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete
Specimens
ASTM C 1231
Practice for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of Compressive
Strength of Hardened Concrete Cylinders.
ASTM D 2240
Test Method for Rubber Property - Durometer Hardness
3. Terminology
3.1 Definition of terms:
3.1.1
Unbonded cap refers to a steel extrusion controller and an elastomeric pad.
3.1.2
Pad refers to an unbonded elastomeric pad.
4. Significance and Use
4.1
This method describes the use of elastomeric pads and steel extrusion controllers in
testing hardened concrete cylinders. It may be used as a suitable alternate as
described in AASHTO T 22, Annex A3.1.
4.2
The elastomeric pads deform in initial loading to conform to the contour of the ends of
the cylinder. They are restrained from excessive lateral spreading by metal rings to
provide a uniform distribution of load from the bearing blocks to the ends of the
concrete cylinder.
5. Summary of Method
This method establishes requirements for the unbonded capping system. Except for
qualification testing, the procedures for aligning specimens in the testing machine and initial
application of load, conduct the testing, recording, and reporting according to the requirements
of AASHTO T 22.
1 of 3
MTM 206-01
6. Materials and Apparatus
6.1
Use pads made of elastomeric material that will accommodate surface irregularities in
ends of the cylinder and have the necessary toughness to withstand repeated use.
The pads shall be 0.5 inches в€Ђ 0.0625 inches (13 mm + 2 mm) thick and the diameter
shall not be more than 0.0625 inches (2 mm) less than the inside diameter of the
retaining ring. Use pads that have a minimum Type A durometer hardness as
required by Table 1 of ASTM C1231. Type A durometer hardness is defined by ASTM
D2240.
6.2
The same surface of the neoprene cap shall bear on the concrete cylinder in all tests
performed with an individual cap. Use caps for a maximum of 100 tests. If the pad
shows a crack or other signs of excessive wear, as described in Section 7.2 of ASTM
C1231, then it is to be discarded.
6.3
Steel extrusion controllers must be durable in repeated use. The cavity in the metal
retainers must have a depth of at least twice the thickness of the pad. The inside
diameter of the retaining rings shall not be less than 102 percent or greater than 107
percent of the diameter of the cylinder. The surfaces of the metal retainers that
contact the bearing blocks of the testing machine shall be plane to within 0.002 inches
(0.05 mm). The bearing surfaces of the retainer shall not have gouges, grooves, or
indentations greater than 0.01 inches (0.25 mm) deep or greater than 0.05 in5 (3.2
mm2) in surface area.
7. Test Specimens
7.1
Neither end of a cylinder may depart from perpendicularity to the axis by more that 0.5
degrees. No individual diameter of a cylinder may differ from any other diameter by
more than 2 percent.
7.2
Depressions under a straight edge measured with a round wire gage across any
diameter shall not exceed 0.20 inches (5 mm). If cylinder ends do not meet this
tolerance, the cylinder shall not be tested using this method unless irregularities are
corrected by sawing or grinding.
8. Precautions
8.1
Concrete cylinders tested with neoprene caps rupture more intensely than comparable
cylinders tested with sulphur - mortar caps. As a safety precaution, the cylinder testing
machine should be equipped with a protective cage.
9. Procedure
9.1
Examine the pads for excessive wear or damage. Replace pads with cracks or splits
exceeding 0.375 inches (10 mm) in length regardless of depth. Insert the pads in the
retainers before the assembly is placed on the cylinder.
2 of 3
MTM 206-01
9.2
Center the unbonded caps on the cylinder and place the cylinder on the lower bearing
block of the testing machine. Align the axis of the cylinder with the center of thrust of
the testing machine. As the spherically seated block is brought to bear on the upper
steel extrusion controller, rotate its movable portion by hand so that uniform seating is
obtained. After application of load, but before reaching 10 percent of the anticipated
specimen strength, check to see that the axis of the cylinder is vertical within a
tolerance of 0.125 inches (3 mm) in 12 inches (300 mm). Also check to see that the
ends of the cylinder are centered within the retaining rings. If the cylinder alignment
does not meet these requirements, release the load, check compliance with 7.1 and
recenter the specimen. Reapply load and recheck the specimen centering and
alignment. A pause in load application to check cylinder alignment is permissible.
9.3
Complete the load application, testing, calibration, and reporting of results according to
AASHTO T 22. Unbonded capped cylinders may develop early cracking but continue
to carry increased load. Therefore, cylinders must be tested to complete failure.
3 of 3
MTM 206-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TESTING CONCRETE
1. Scope
1.
ASTM C 172 is to be followed for sampling freshly mixed concrete except for these
modifications. Concrete samples should be representative of the entire concrete
batch. For structure concrete being placed with a transfer bucket, take samples
after more than 2 cubic yard (2 cubic meter) has been discharged. If it is
necessary to take samples from a stream of concrete where the concrete is being
placed directly into the forms, make a representative sample by mixing several
pailfuls of concrete taken from the stream. Pavement concrete may be sampled
after the concrete is placed on the grade if taken from 2 or more locations to make
a composite sample. Concrete sampled from pumped concrete should be taken at
the discharge end of the pump. For convenience, routine tests may be made on
concrete samples from the pump hopper provided sufficient correlative tests have
been made between the truck discharge and the pump discharge.
1 of 1
MTM 207-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
AIR AND WATER METHOD OF DETERMINING
THE ACTUAL SPECIFIC GRAVITY BY SINGLE OPERATOR
FOR A HMA MIXTURE
1.
Scope
1.1
2.
Definition
2.1
3.
5.
One balance with a submerged weighing platform (в€Ђ0.1 gm accuracy).
See Figure 1.
Preparation of Apparatus
4.1
Add water to the bucket illustrated in Figure 1 such that the temperature of the bath
is brought to 77 О•F в€Ђ 0.4 О•F (25 О•C в€Ђ 0.2 О•C).
4.2
Adjust the balance such that the reading is zero with the submerged weighing
platform attached.
Conditioning
5.1
6.
Actual Specific Gravity as determined by this method is defined by the ratio of the
weight of a HMA mixture to its volume divided by the density of water.
Apparatus
3.1
4.
This method covers the determination of the actual specific gravity of compacted
HMA paving mixtures.
Before testing, dry each specimen thoroughly and remove any loose material that
could possibly fall off in the course of the test.
Procedure
6.1
Record the weight of the sample in air.
6.2
Gently place the specimen into the bath and onto the weighing platform so that the
sample specimen is completely submerged.
6.3
Record the weight of the sample in water.
6.4
Complete calculations.
1 of 2
MTM 306-01
7.
Calculations
7.1
Actual Specific Gravity =
(Weight in Air)
_______________
([Weight in Air] - Weight in Water)
8.
9.
Precision and Accuracy
8.1
The actual or bulk specific gravity can be established to within three decimal place
accuracy (в€Ђ 0.001).
8.2
All tests conducted by single operator should be within 0.012 for any group of test
samples to be acceptable.
References
ASTM Standards:
D 1188
Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted HMA
Mixtures, Using Paraffin-Coated Specimens
D 2041
Test Method for Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity of HMA Paving
Mixtures
D 2726
Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted HMA Mixtures Using
Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens
D 3549
Test Method for Thickness or Height of Compacted HMA Paving Mixture
Specimens
E 12
Definitions of Terms Relating to Density and Specific Gravity of
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
AASHTO Test:
T 166-83
Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted HMA Mixtures using Saturated
Surface-Dry Specimens
2 of 2
MTM 306-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
THE ASPHALT IMMERSION METHOD (BEAKER METHOD) FOR
DETERMINING THE THEORETICAL MAXIMUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF
HMA PAVING MIXTURES
1.
Scope
1.1
2.
Applicable Documents
2.1
3.
ASTM Standards:
D 979 Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures
D 70 Specific Gravity and Density of Semi-Solid HMA Materials
C 702 Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
Summary of Method
3.1
4.
This method covers the determination of the theoretical maximum specific gravity
of HMA paving mixtures by the immersion of samples in asphalt cement.
A representative sample of HMA paving mixture is immersed in asphalt cement in
order to drive out all air and achieve a voidless mass. The entire mass (mixture,
asphalt cement used for immersion, stainless steel beaker used for containment,
and brass rod used for stirring) is weighed in air and water. The theoretical
maximum specific gravity of the mixture is calculated based on the following
knowns: the mass and volume of the beaker, rod, and asphalt cement (used for
immersion) and the mass of the mixture.
Significance
4.1
The theoretical maximum specific gravity is necessary to conduct a proper voids
analysis of a compacted paving mixture.
4.2
This particular method is significant for several reasons:
4.2.1
This method correlates well with Michigan Department of Transportation
MTM 307-77 and is simpler, more efficient and more economical to run.
4.2.2
Since asphalt cement is the immersion medium, this method (as did MTM
307-77) eliminates problems associated with absorption of the medium by
aggregate in porous mixtures. Absorption of materials other than asphalt
(since the absorption rates are different) will lead to erroneous results.
4.2.3
The method appears to be one which can be easily used in the field.
1 of 4
MTM 308-01
5.
Definitions
5.1
6.
Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity - Specific gravity of a mixture without air
voids.
Apparatus
6.1
Container - 1200 mL, seamless, stainless steel beaker.
NOTE 1: Larger beakers may be used provided a balance with ample
capacity and sufficient sensitivity is used, and provided the water bath used
for weighing in water is suitable as described in 6.4.2.
6.2
Stirring Instrument - Brass rod approximately 0.315 inches (8 mm) in diameter and
approximately 7.87 inches (200 mm) long.
6.3
Balance - With ample capacity and sufficient sensitivity to enable calculations to at
least four significant figures (to at least three decimal places). The balance shall
be equipped with a suitable suspension apparatus and holder to permit weighing a
sample which is suspended in a water bath.
6.4
Water Bath:
6.5
7.
6.4.2
A bath suitable for total immersion of the beaker and immersed mixture
sample while suspended under the balance. The bath shall be equipped
with an overflow outlet for maintaining a constant water level.
Oven - oven shall be provided which will maintain the specified temperature в€Ђ 5О•F
(в€Ђ 3О•C).
Asphalt cement (500-1000 grams) of known specific gravity (see Method D 70).
Calculation
8.1
9.
A constant temperature water bath deep enough to maintain the water level
3/4 the height of the beaker. The bath shall be thermostatically controlled
as to maintain the specified test temperature в€Ђ 2О•F (в€Ђ 1О•C) at any point
in the tank.
Materials
7.1
8.
6.4.1
Weigh rod and beaker in air and water at 77 О•F в€Ђ 2 О•F (25О•C в€Ђ 1О•C) and record
weights as RA, Rw, BA, Bw.
Sampling
2 of 4
MTM 308-01
9.1
Obtain the sample in accordance with Method D 979 or as quartered from a
laboratory prepared mixture sample.
9.2
The weight of the test sample shall conform to the following requirements.
Samples larger than the capacity of the container should be quartered (in a
manner similar to that described in ASTM C 702, Method B) and tested a portion at
a time.
Maximum Aggregate Size,
Square Openings, inch (mm)
1 2 (37.5)
1 (25.0)
3/4 (19.0)
2 (12.5)
3/8 (9.5)
No. 4 (4.75)
10.
Minimum Weight of Test
Sample (gms) Per Test Point
4000
2500
1000
500
500
500
Procedure
Heat to 290О•F (143О•C) a sufficient amount of asphalt cement to conduct the
10.1
test.
10.2
Place the sample of loose mixture in a beaker or beakers (never fill more than 2 of
beaker) and weigh the beaker, rod and mixture in air. Record the weight as MA. If
a compacted specimen is used, then it shall be warmed in an oven to a
temperature where the mixture is workable and manually separated.
10.3
Reheat mixture to 290 О•F (143 О•C) and add a sufficient amount of asphalt cement
to cover the mixture allowing for mix consolidation and air removal (usually fill 2/3 3/4 of beaker).
10.4
Place beaker, rod, mixture and asphalt cement in the oven so that the mixture is at
290О•F (143О•C). Remove in twenty-minute intervals and stir slowly and thoroughly
allowing entrapped air to be released. Return to oven.
10.5
Once it has been determined that all entrapped air is removed (when no air
bubbles rise to the surface), allow the sample to cool to room temperature (usually
over night).
10.6
Weigh the beaker, rod, mixture and asphalt cement in air and record the weight at
TA.
10.7
Place the beaker or beakers (including rod) in a constant temperature water bath
at 77 О•F (25 О•C)
10.8
Allow beaker or beakers to attain a temperature of 77 О•F (25О•C) for approximately
two hours.
3 of 4
MTM 308-01
10.9
11.
Remove beaker or beakers from water bath and weigh in 77 О•F (25О•C) submersion
tank. Record weight as Tw.
Calculations
11.1
Calculate the theoretical maximum specific gravity of the mixture as follows:
Gmm =
MA - RA - BA__________________
(TA - RA - BA) - (Tw - Rw - Bw) - (TA -
MA)
Gb
Where:
Gmm
MA
TA
asphalt cement.
RA
BA
Tw
B
Bw
F (25 О•C)
Rw
B
О•
О•
= Theoretical maximum specific gravity of mixture.
= Total weight in air of the beaker, rod and mixture.
= Total weight in air of the beaker, rod, mixture and
= Weight of rod in air.
= Weight of beaker in air.
= Total weight (while suspended in water at 77 О•F
(25 О•C) of the beaker,
rod, mixture and asphalt cement.
= Weight of beaker while suspended in water at 77
(25 C)
Gb
12.
13.
= Weight of rod while suspended in water at 77 О•F
= Specific gravity of asphalt cement at 77 О•F (25 О•C)
Report
12.1
Report the theoretical maximum specific gravity of the mixture to the nearest 0.001
at 77 О•F (25 О•C).
12.2
Type of mixture.
12.3
Sample identification information.
Precision
13.1
Ninety-five percent of tests conducted by a single operator should be within 0.012
based on 118 pairs of tests conducted at the Michigan Department of
Transportation.
4 of 4
MTM 308-01
13.2
Multi-laboratory precision.
correlation.
This method has not yet had multi-laboratory
5 of 4
MTM 308-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
HMA MARSHALL MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE
1. Scope
1.1
This procedure is intended to describe modifications to ASTM standards, and to provide
appropriate references for the design of HMA paving mixtures by the Marshall Method.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
D 1559
D 2726
2.2
MTM Standards:
MTM 306
MTM 308
2.3
Other Documents:
Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2
3. Definitions
3.1
Definitions are in accordance with the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2 except that
absorbed asphalt is included as part of the voids in mineral aggregate.
4. Modification of Marshall
4.1
Preparation of mixture, compaction of specimens and specimen testing for resistance to
plastic flow are all performed in accordance with ASTM D 1559 with the following
exceptions:
4.1.1
D 1599, Preparation of Mixtures: Rather than a separate batch for each
specimen, one batch is made for all specimens at each asphalt content.
4.1.2
D 1599, Determination of Mixing and Compacting Temperatures: Mix
preparation and specimen compaction are both done at 290 О•F (143 О•C) rather
than varying temperature according to viscosity.
5. Specific Gravity Marshall Specimens
5.1
Testing for the Specific Gravity of compacted Marshall specimens is performed in
accordance with ASTM D 2726.
6. Maximum Theoretical Specific Gravity
6.1
Testing for maximum theoretical specific gravity (Gmm) is performed in accordance with
Michigan Test Method 308-91.
1 of 2
MTM 309-01
NOTE: Two theoretical Gmm tests are conducted for each of the four test points when a
full mix design is conducted. The effective specific gravity (Gse) is calculated
based on each Gmm. The average Gse of each test point must differ by no more
than 0.015. A minimum of three Gmm tests are conducted for one-point designs.
Allowable variance for the three Gmm tests for one-point designs is 0.012 for top
and leveling course designs and 0.020 for base course designs.
7. Calculations
7.1
Calculations are performed in accordance with The Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2,
except that absorbed asphalt is included as part of the voids in mineral aggregate
(VMA).
8. Optimum Asphalt Content
8.1
The Michigan Department of Transportation procedure for targeting optimum asphalt
content is as follows:
8.1.1
For shoulders, design for 2.0 percent air voids.
8.1.2
For most low traffic volume trunk lines, design for 3.0 percent air void.
8.1.3
For trunk lines with high traffic volumes, design for 2.5 to 3.5 percent air voids usually 3.0 percent.
8.1.4
For temporary roadways (two seasons use or less), design for 3.0 to 4.0 percent
air voids - usually 3.5 percent.
8.1.5
For all designs, the fines to asphalt ratio shall not exceed 1.2 percent.
9. Rejected Mix Designs
9.1
If at the optimum asphalt content the mixture fails to meet stability, flow or VMA
requirements, the mix design is rejected and a new mix design with a different gradation
and/or different aggregates will be required. On trunk lines with high traffic volumes,
close attention is made to the maximum unit density to try to avoid designing a mix with
the optimum asphalt content exceeding this value.
10. Modifications
10.1 It should be noted that this procedure is a guideline only, and variations from it are
sometimes necessary. Other factors which should be taken into account when
determining optimum asphalt content are: roadway vertical alignment; traffic turning
movements; commercial traffic volumes; environmental conditions; construction
conditions; previous behavior of the aggregate in HMA mixtures; and the surface upon
which the mixture is being placed.
2of 2
MTM 309-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING AGGREGATE GRADATION FOR BITUMINOUS MIXTURE
1. Scope
7
This test method describes a rapid procedure for determining the aggregate gradation
in a bituminous mixture.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C136 Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates.
E11 Wire Cloth Sieves for testing purposes.
2.2
MDOT Publications:
Bituminous Plant Procedures Manual.
3. Reagents
3.1
An effective biodegradable solvent which produces a non-hazardous waste must be
used.
4. Apparatus
4.1
Pans or bowls - 10 quart (9.5 liter) capacity.
4.2
Balance or scale accurate to within 0.1% of the initial weight of the test sample at any
point within the range used.
4.3
Sieves conforming to ASTM E11: one No. 8 (2.36 mm) and one No. 200 (75 Ојm).
5. Procedure
5.1
Obtain a representative sample of the bituminous mixture according to MDOT
Bituminous Plant Procedures Manual.
5.2
Reduce sample to proper size (approx. 2500 grams) using MDOT box method or
quartering method.
5.3
Dry reduced sample for 15 to 30 minutes in an oven at 280 О•F в€Ђ 25 О•F (138 О•C + 14
О•C) and weigh to the nearest 0.1 gram.
5.4
Determine asphalt cement content for the mixture sample as follows:
Pb = 100 x Gb x (Gse - Gmm)
Gmm x (Gse - Gb)
1 of 2
MTM 311-01
Where:
Pb
=
percent asphalt (%)
Gb
=
specific gravity of asphalt
Gse
=
effective specific gravity of aggregate from mix design.
Gmm
=
maximum theoretical specific gravity of mixture (tested valve).
5.5
Place the mixture in a pan or bowl and cover with solvent for 15 to 30 minutes.
Frequently agitate the sample gently with a spatula during this time.
5.6
Decant solvent over No. 8 (2.36 mm) and No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieves. Dispose of solvent
by an approved method. Add water to the sample, agitate and decant over the No. 8
(2.36 mm) and No. 200 (75 Ојm) sieves. Continue washing with water until wash water
is clear. Care should be taken to avoid the loss of particles.
5.7
Dry sample to a constant weight in an oven or on a hot plate. Avoid excessive
temperature in the drying process.
5.8
Conduct a sieve analysis of the aggregate according to ASTM C136.
6. Calculations
6.1
Calculate the total dry weight of the aggregate as follows:
Wagg
= Wmix x ( 1 - Pb/100)
Where:
Wagg
=
total dry weight of the aggregate
Wmix
=
total dry weight of the mix
Pb
=
percent asphalt (%) determined in Section 5.4
2 of 2
MTM 311-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
STANDARD PRACTICE OF SAMPLING
HMA PAVING MIXTURES
1.
Scope
8
1.2
2.
This practice covers sampling of HMA paving mixtures at points of manufacture,
storage, or delivery.
The values stated in acceptable metric units are to be regarded as the standard.
The values in parentheses are provided for information purposes only.
Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size2
Standard Practice for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures5
Test Method for Collection of a Gross Sample of Coal3
Practice for Random Sampling of Construction Materials5
Practice for Probability Sampling of Materials4
Practice for Choice of Sample Size to Estimate the Average Quality
of a Lot of Process4
Practice for Acceptance of Evidence Based on the Results of
Probability Sampling4
C 702
D 979
D 2234
D 3665
E 105
E 122
E 141
3.
Significance and Use
3.1
4.
General:
3.1.1
Sampling is equally as important as the testing, and the sampler shall take
every precaution to obtain samples that will yield an acceptable estimate of
the nature and conditions of the materials that they represent.
3.1.2
Samples for the development of preliminary data are obtained by the party
responsible for the development of the data. Samples for control of the
product at the source of manufacture or storage, or at the site of use, are
obtained by the manufacturer, Contractor, or other parties responsible for
accomplishing the work. Samples for tests to be used in acceptance or
rejection decisions by the purchaser are obtained by the purchaser or his
authorized representative.
Procedure
4.1
Inspection - The material shall be inspected to determine discernible variations.
The seller shall provide equipment needed for safe and appropriate inspection and
sampling.
1 of 6
MTM 313-07
4.2
Sampling - The procedures for selecting locations or times for sampling are
described in Practice D 3665.
4.2.1
Sampling from a Conveyor Belt - Stop the conveyor belt. Randomly
select at least three areas of approximately equal size on the belt
for sampling. In each of the locations to be sampled, insert
templates, the shape which conforms to the shape of the belt. From
the selected areas obtain approximately equal increments of
material which will form a sample whose quantity equals or
exceeds the minimum recommended in 4.3.2. Carefully scoop all
material between templates into a suitable container.
4.2.2
Sampling from Truck Transports or Paver Hoppers - By a random
method, select the units to be sampled from the production of
materials delivered. Obtain at least three approximately equal
increments. Select at random from the unit being sampled and
combine to form a field sample whose quantity equals or exceeds
the minimum recommended in 4.3.2. The sample may be obtained
by collecting the increments with a scoop or shovel.
4.2.3
Sampling from the Roadway Prior to Compaction - When only one
sample is to be taken, obtain at least three approximately equal
increments, selected at random from the unit being sampled, and
combine to form a field sample whose quantity equals or exceeds
the minimum recommended in 4.3.2.
4.2.3.1 When three or more samples are to be taken in order to
evaluate a lot of material, utilize a random method to
locate the locations to be sampled. Select a sample from
each location, assuring the quantity of each sample
exceeds the minimum recommended in 4.3.2.
4.2.3.2 Take all increments or samples from the roadway for the
full depth of the material, taking care to exclude any
underlying material. When necessary, place templates on
the existing roadway to exclude any underlying material.
Clearly mark the specified area from which each
increment or sample is to be removed. Templates which
are placed before the mixture is spread will be a definite
aid in securing approximately equal increment weights.
4.2.4
Sampling from a Skip Conveyor Delivering Mixture to Bin Storage Select the units to be sampled from the skip conveyor by a random
method based on the bin's storage capacity. Stop the skip conveyor
immediately following pug mill discharge. Dig a furrow 6 in. (150
mm) in depth extending from the top to the bottom of the pile.
Obtain three approximately equal increments from the top, middle,
and bottom of the furrow depositing each portion in a container.
The combined portions should form a field sample whose quantity
equals or exceeds the minimum recommended in 4.3.2.
2 of 6
MTM 313-07
4.2.5
Sampling from a Funnel Device Feeding a Conveyor for Mixture
Delivery to Storage - Select the units to be sampled from the funnel
device by a random method based on the bin's maximum storage
capacity. Obtain at least three approximately equal increments of
material for each sample by passing a bucket or pan or other
suitable container across the full flow of materials as it drops from
the funnel device onto the conveyor. The combined portions should
form a field sample whose quantity equals or exceeds the minimum
recommended in 4.3.2.
4.2.6
Sampling from Roadway after Compaction - Select the units to be
sampled by a random method from the material in place. Obtain at
least three approximately equal increments selected at random
from the unit being sampled. Test each increment and average the
test results to determine the acceptability. Take all increments from
the roadway for the full depth of the material, taking care to exclude
any underlying material. Each increment shall be obtained by
coring, sawing, or other methods in such a manner as to ensure a
minimum disturbance of the material.
4.2.7
Sampling HMA Loose Mix from Wedging – Stick the mat to find the
width that meets the minimum thickness required for coring. The
width subject to loose mix sampling and coring will need to meet
the minimum thickness required for coring for the particular nominal
max aggregate size in the mix. If this width is less then 3 feet use a
mini-stockpile for sampling.
Core and Sample this area
Do not Core or Sample this area
Min Core Thickness
Paving Width
Figure 2: Sampling from Wedging; only sample from
pavement area that meets minimum core thickness.
4.2.8
Sampling HMA Loose Mix from Mini-Stockpile - Select the tonnage
to be sampled by a random method. Have the Contractor form a
mini-stockpile (approximately 3 to 5 tons). For one composite
sample, take at least four approximately equal increments of
material from around the stockpile (front, back, right, and left) and
at different heights. At each location around the stockpile, obtain
an increment of the sample by digging into the pile approximately
one foot, forming a vertical face to remove the segregated material.
The shovel is then brought up the entire vertical face to obtain the
sample; this material will be placed in a bucket with all other
3 of 6
MTM 313-07
increments sampled from that stockpile to form one composite
sample.
4.3
Number and Quantities of Field Samples:
4.3.1
The number of field samples (obtained by one of the methods
described in 4.2) required depends on the criticality of, and
variation in, the properties to be measured. Designate each unit
from which a field sample is to be obtained prior to sampling. The
number of field samples from the production should be sufficient to
give the desired confidence in test results.
NOTE 1- Guidance for determining the number of samples
required to obtain the desired level of confidence in test results may
be found in Method D 2234, Practice E 105, Practice E 122, and
Practice E 141.
4.3.2
A guide to the quantity of material in field samples is given in Table
1. The quantities depend on the type and number of tests to which
the material is to be subjected, and sufficient material must be
obtained to provide for the proper execution of these tests.
Standard control and acceptance tests are covered by ASTM
Standards and specify the portion of the field sample required for
each specific test.
TABLE 1
Guide for Estimating Quantity of Sample
Maximum Nominal Size,
of AggregatesA
No. 8 (2.36-mm)
No. 4 (4.75-mm)
3/8"
(9.5-mm)
2"
(12.5-mm)
3/4" (19.0-mm)
1"
(25.0-mm)
1-1/2" (38.1-mm)
2"
(50-mm)
Approximate Weight of
Uncompacted Mixture,
min, lb (kg)
4 (1.8)
4 (1.8)
8 (3.6)
12 (5.4)
16 (7.3)
20 (9.1)
25 (11.3)
35 (15.9)
Approximate Area of
Compacted Mixture,
min, in2 (cm2)
36 (232)
36 (232)
36 (232)
64 (413)
100 (645)
144 (929)
144 (929)
225 (1453)
A
The nominal maximum size of aggregate is the largest sieve size listed
in the applicable specification upon which any material is permitted to
be retained.
Generally, the amounts specified in Table 1 will provide adequate
material for routine testing. Extract test portions from the field
sample by quartering or splitting in a similar manner to Practice
C702 or as required by other applicable test methods.
4 of 6
MTM 313-07
NOTE 2 - The approximate areas of a sample for a given weight
are given in Table 1. These dimensions are based on normal lay
down thicknesses for each aggregate size. Differences in
thickness, specific gravity of the aggregate and mix design will
cause some variance in these areas.
5.
Shipping Samples
5.1
Transport samples in containers so constructed as to preclude loss or
contamination of any part of the sample, or damage to the contents from
mishandling during shipment.
5.2
Samples shall have individual identification attached giving the information
required by the sample user. Typical information that may be useful could include,
but not necessarily be limited to, the following:
5.2.1
Job for which the material is to be used, giving project number, highway
route number, county, and other pertinent geographical information.
5.2.2
Source of sample, including for plant-mixed samples the name of owner or
operator of plant, location of plant, type of plant, size of batch, and
identification of bitumen and mineral aggregates used in the mixture.
5.2.3
Point at which sampled, for samples taken from roadway, both by station
number and location transversely in pavement; also whether sampled from
completed pavement windrow, etc.
5.2.4
Quantity represented.
5.2.5
By whom sampled and title.
5.2.6
Date of most recent mixing, if road-mixed.
5.2.7
Date sampled.
5.2.8
By whom submitted and address.
5.2.9
Purpose for which sample was taken.
5.2.10 To whom report is to be made.
5 of 6
MTM 313-07
APPENDIX
(Non-mandatory Information)
NUMBER AND SIZE OF INCREMENTS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE CHARACTER OF UNIT
SAMPLED
X.
Scope
X1.
This appendix presents the rationale used by the responsible committee in the
development of this Practice.
X2.
Descriptions of Terms Specific to This Standard
X3.
X2.1
Field sample - a quantity of the material to be tested of sufficient size to
provide an acceptable estimate of the average quality of a unit.
X2.2
Lot - a sizable isolated quantity of bulk material from a single source,
assumed to have been produced by the same process (for example, a
day's production or a specific mass or volume).
X2.3
Test portion - a quantity of the material of sufficient size extracted from the
larger field sample by a procedure designed to ensure accurate
representation of the field sample, and thus of the unit sampled.
X2.4
Unit - a batch of finite subdivision of a lot of bulk material (for example, a
truckload or a specific area covered).
Test Unit, Size, and Variability
X3.1
The unit to be represented by a single field sample should not be so large
as to mask the effects of significant variability within the unit. Neither
should a unit be so small as to be affected by the inherent variability
between small portions of any bulk material.
X3.2
A unit of bulk material composed of graded aggregate or aggregate
mixtures might consist of a full truckload. If it were possible, the entire load
might be tested; as a practical matter, a field sample is composed of three
or more increments chosen at random from the material, as it is loaded or
unloaded from the truck. Research has shown that such a procedure
permits an acceptable estimate to be made of the average gradation that
might be measured from 15 or 20 increments from the truck.
X3.3
Significant variability with a lot of material, where it might exist, should be
indicated by statistical measures, such as the standard deviation between
units selected at random from within the lot.
2
Annual book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.02.
Annual book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.05.
4
Annual book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
5
Annual book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.03.
3
6 of 6
MTM 313-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
THEORETICAL MAXIMUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY
OF HMA PAVING MIXTURES
1.
Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the theoretical maximum specific gravity
and density of uncompacted HMA paving mixtures at 77 О•F (25
О•C).
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
2.
Referenced Documents
ASTM Standards:
D979
D 2041
D4311
E1
3.
4.
Test Methods for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures2
Standard Test Method for Theoretical Maximum Specific
Gravity and Density of HMA Paving Mixtures2
Practice for Determining Asphalt Volume Correction to a
Base Temperature2
Specification for ASTM Thermometers3
E 12
Terminology Relating to
Density and Specific Gravity of Solids, Liquids, and Gases4
Terminology
3.1
The terms specific gravity and density used in this test method are in accordance
with Terminology E 12.
3.2
Definitions:
3.2.1
Density, as determined by this test method - the mass of a cubic meter of
the material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) in SI units, or the mass of a cubic foot of the
material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) in inch-pound units.
3.2.2
Residual pressure, as employed by this test method - the pressure in a
vacuum vessel when vacuum is applied.
3.2.3
Specific gravity, as determined by this test method - the ratio of a given
mass of material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) to the mass of an equal volume of water
at the same temperature.
Summary of Test Method
4.1
A weighed sample of HMA paving mixture in the loose condition is placed in a
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
vacuum vessel. Sufficient water at a temperature of 77 в€Ђ 1.8 О•F (25 oC в€Ђ 1.0 О•C)
is added to completely submerge the sample. Vacuum is gradually applied to
reduce the residual pressure in the vacuum vessel to 25 +/-2 mm of Hg and
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
then held for 15 +/- 2 min. At the end of the vacuum period, the vacuum is
gradually released. The volume of the sample of paving mixture is obtained by
immersing the vacuum container with sample into a water bath and weighing. At
the time of weighing, the temperature is measured as well as the mass. From the
mass and volume measurements, the specific gravity or density at 77 О•F (25 О•C)
is calculated
5.
Significance and Use
5.1 The theoretical maximum specific gravities and densities of HMA paving mixtures are
intrinsic properties whose values are influenced by the composition of the mixtures in
terms of types and amounts of aggregates and HMA materials.
6.
5.1.1
They are used to calculate values for percent air voids in compacted HMA
paving mixtures.
5.1.2
They provide target values for the compaction of paving mixtures.
5.1.3
They are essential when calculating the amount of bitumen absorbed by
the internal porosity of the individual aggregate particles in a HMA paving
mixture.
Apparatus
6.1
Vacuum container, for weighing in air and water shall be a 4500 mL metal vacuum
pycnometer with a clear plastic lid.
6.2
Balance, with ample capacity, and with sufficient sensitivity to enable the specific
gravity of samples of uncompacted paving mixtures to be calculated to at least four
significant figures, that is, to at least three decimal places. It shall be equipped
with a suitable apparatus to permit weighing the specimen in water while
suspended from the center of the scale. Use wire or fish line of the smallest
practical size to suspend the specimen holder. Do not use chains, strings, or sash
cords. The balance shall conform to Specification D 4753 as a class GP2 balance.
6.3
Vacuum pump or water aspirator, capable of evacuating air from the vacuum
container to a residual pressure of 25 +/- 2 mm of Hg.
6.3.1
6.4
When a vacuum pump is used, a suitable trap of one or more 1000 mL
filter flasks, or equivalent, shall be installed between the vacuum vessel
and vacuum source to reduce the amount of water vapor entering the
vacuum pump.
Residual pressure manometer5 or calibrated digital absolute pressure gage
(either), must be connected directly to the vacuum vessel at the end of the vacuum
line and be capable of measuring residual pressure down to 25 +/- 2 mm of Hg.
NOTE 1 - An example of a correct arrangement of the testing equipment is shown
in Fig. 1.
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
NOTE 2 - Residual pressure in the vacuum vessel measured in millimeters of
mercury, is the difference in the height of mercury in the Torricellian vacuum leg of
the manometer and the height of mercury in the other leg of the manometer that is
attached to the vacuum vessel.
6.5
Manometer or vacuum gauge, suitable for measuring the vacuum being applied at
the source of the vacuum. This is required to check the reading given by the
residual pressure manometer attached directly to the vacuum vessel.
NOTE 3 - The Torricellian vacuum leg of the manometer occasionally acquires one
or more bubbles of air that introduce error into the residual pressure reading. By
the addition of the vacuum gage, this error can often be quickly detected by the
differences between two vacuum measurements.
7.
6.6
Thermometers, calibrated liquid-in-glass thermometers of suitable range with
subdivisions and maximum scale error of 0.9 О•F (0.5 О•C), or any other
thermometric device of equal accuracy, precision and sensitivity shall be used.
Thermometers shall conform to the requirements of Specification E 1.
6.7
Water Bath, when weighing-in-water, must be suitable for immersion of the
suspended container with its de-aerated sample and capable of maintaining a
constant temperature between 68 О•F (20 oC) and 86 О•F (30 О•C). The use of an
overflow outlet is mandatory.
6.8
Bleeder valve, attached to the vacuum train to facilitate adjustment of the vacuum
being applied to the vacuum vessel and the slow release of vacuum pressure.
6.9
Mechanical agitation device, capable of applying a gentle but consistent
agitation of the sample. This device shall be equipped with a means of firmly
anchoring the container so that it does not move on the surface of the device.
6.10
Protective gloves, used when handling glass equipment under vacuum.
Sampling
7.1
Obtain the sample in accordance with Test Methods D979.
7.2
The size of the sample shall conform to the following requirements. Sample Sizes
greater than about two thirds of the volume of the container shall be tested in
portions with none of the portions tested being less than 1250 g.
1
Вѕ
8.
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size
in. (mm)
Minimum Sample Size, g
(25.0) or greater
2500
(19.0) or smaller
2000
Calibration of Pycnometer
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
9.
10.
8.1
Calibrate the container by accurately determining the mass of the container dry (B)
and in water (E) at 77 О• в€Ђ 1.8 О•F (25 О•C в€Ђ 1.0 О•C). Verify the dry weight (within в€Ђ
0.1g) daily.
8.2
The equipment must be kept clean.
Procedure
9.1
Separate the particles of the sample of paving mixture by hand, taking care to
avoid fracturing the aggregate, so that the particles of the fine aggregate portion
are not larger than 1/4 inch (6.3 mm).
9.2
Cool the sample to room temperature, place it in the container and weigh.
Designate the net mass of the sample as sample and bowl weight in air (A). Add
water at a temperature of approximately 77 О•F (25 О•C) to cover the sample with a
minimum of 1 inch of water. The water level surface should be at least 1 ВЅ inches
from the top of the pycnometer bowl.
9.3
Remove air trapped in the sample by starting the agitation and gradually increasing
the vacuum until the residual pressure manometer reads 25 +/- 2 mm of Hg.
Maintain this residual pressure for 15 +/- 2 minutes. Agitate the container and
contents during the vacuum period continuously by a mechanical device.
9.4
At the end of the vacuum period, gradually release the vacuum using the bleeder
valve. Suspend the container and contents in the water bath and determine the
mass after 10 minute в€Ђ 1 minute immersion. Record the mass of the sample and
bowl weight in water (D) at 77 О•F (25 О•C).
Calculations
10.1
Calculate the theoretical maximum specific gravity of the sample at 77 О•F (25 О•C)
as follows:
Sample and Bowl Wt. in Air, grams
Bowl Wt. in Air, grams
Sample Wt. in Air, grams
Sample and Bowl Wt. in Water, grams
Bowl Wt. in Water, grams
Sample Wt. in Water, grams
Volume, cc
Gmm
10.2
A
B
C=A-B
D
E
F=D-E
G=C-F
C/G
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
If the sample was tested in several portions, report the weighted average
maximum specific gravity for all portions tested.
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
11.
Report
11.1
Report the following information:
- Specific gravity of the mixture to the third decimal place
- Type of mixture,
- Size of sample,
- Number of samples.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.03.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.03.
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.05.
5
Sargent Welch, 39745 Gauge-Vacuum, Mercury Pre-filled (or equivalent).
3
Figure 1
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
THEORETICAL MAXIMUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY
OF HMA PAVING MIXTURES
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
1.
2.
Scope
1.14
This test method covers the determination of the theoretical maximum specific
gravity and density of uncompacted HMA paving mixtures at 77 О•F (25 О•C).
1.2
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
Test Methods for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures2
Standard Test Method for Theoretical Maximum Specific
Gravity and Density of HMA Paving Mixtures2
Practice for Determining Asphalt Volume Correction to a
Base Temperature2
Specification for ASTM Thermometers3
Terminology Relating to Density and Specific Gravity of
Solids, Liquids, and Gases4
D979
D 2041
D4311
E1
E 12
3.
4.
Terminology
3.1
The terms specific gravity and density used in this test method are in accordance
with Terminology E 12.
3.2
Definitions:
3.2.1
Density, as determined by this test method - the mass of a cubic meter of
the material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) in SI units, or the mass of a cubic foot of the
material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) in inch-pound units.
3.2.2
Residual pressure, as employed by this test method - the pressure in a
vacuum vessel when vacuum is applied.
3.2.3
Specific gravity, as determined by this test method - the ratio of a given
mass of material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) to the mass of an equal volume of water
at the same temperature.
Summary of Test Method
4.1
A weighed sample of HMA paving mixture in the loose condition is placed in a
vacuum vessel. Sufficient water at a temperature of 77 в€Ђ 1.8 О•F (25 oC в€Ђ 1.0 О•C)
is added to completely submerge the sample. Vacuum is gradually applied to
reduce the residual pressure in the vacuum vessel to 25 +/-2 mm of Hg and
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
then held for 15 +/- 2 min. At the end of the vacuum period, the vacuum is
gradually released. The volume of the sample of paving mixture is obtained by
immersing the vacuum container with sample into a water bath and weighing. At
the time of weighing, the temperature is measured as well as the mass. From the
mass and volume measurements, the specific gravity or density at 77 О•F (25 О•C)
is calculated
5.
Significance and Use
5.1
6.
The theoretical maximum specific gravities and densities of HMA paving mixtures
are intrinsic properties whose values are influenced by the composition of the
mixtures in terms of types and amounts of aggregates and HMA materials.
5.1.1
They are used to calculate values for percent air voids in compacted HMA
paving mixtures.
5.1.2
They provide target values for the compaction of paving mixtures.
5.1.3
They are essential when calculating the amount of bitumen absorbed by
the internal porosity of the individual aggregate particles in a HMA paving
mixture.
Apparatus
6.1
Vacuum container, for weighing in air and water shall be a 4500 mL metal vacuum
pycnometer with a clear plastic lid.
6.2
Balance, with ample capacity, and with sufficient sensitivity to enable the specific
gravity of samples of uncompacted paving mixtures to be calculated to at least four
significant figures, that is, to at least three decimal places. It shall be equipped
with a suitable apparatus to permit weighing the specimen in water while
suspended from the center of the scale. Use wire or fish line of the smallest
practical size to suspend the specimen holder. Do not use chains, strings, or sash
cords. The balance shall conform to Specification D 4753 as a class GP2 balance.
6.3
Vacuum pump or water aspirator, capable of evacuating air from the vacuum
container to a residual pressure of 25 +/- 2 mm of Hg.
6.3.1
6.4
When a vacuum pump is used, a suitable trap of one or more 1000 mL
filter flasks, or equivalent, shall be installed between the vacuum vessel
and vacuum source to reduce the amount of water vapor entering the
vacuum pump.
Residual pressure manometer5 or calibrated digital absolute pressure gage
(either), must be connected directly to the vacuum vessel at the end of the vacuum
line and be capable of measuring residual pressure down to 25 +/- 2 mm of Hg.
NOTE 1 - An example of a correct arrangement of the testing equipment is shown
in Fig. 1.
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
NOTE 2 - Residual pressure in the vacuum vessel measured in millimeters of
mercury, is the difference in the height of mercury in the Torricellian vacuum leg of
the manometer and the height of mercury in the other leg of the manometer that is
attached to the vacuum vessel.
6.5
Manometer or vacuum gauge, suitable for measuring the vacuum being applied at
the source of the vacuum. This is required to check the reading given by the
residual pressure manometer attached directly to the vacuum vessel.
NOTE 3 - The Torricellian vacuum leg of the manometer occasionally acquires one
or more bubbles of air that introduce error into the residual pressure reading. By
the addition of the vacuum gage, this error can often be quickly detected by the
differences between two vacuum measurements.
7.
6.6
Thermometers, calibrated liquid-in-glass thermometers of suitable range with
subdivisions and maximum scale error of 0.9 О•F (0.5 О•C), or any other
thermometric device of equal accuracy, precision and sensitivity shall be used.
Thermometers shall conform to the requirements of Specification E 1.
6.7
Water Bath, when weighing-in-water, must be suitable for immersion of the
suspended container with its de-aerated sample and capable of maintaining a
constant temperature between 68 О•F (20 oC) and 86 О•F (30 О•C). The use of an
overflow outlet is mandatory.
6.8
Bleeder valve, attached to the vacuum train to facilitate adjustment of the vacuum
being applied to the vacuum vessel and the slow release of vacuum pressure.
6.9
Mechanical agitation device, capable of applying a gentle but consistent
agitation of the sample. This device shall be equipped with a means of firmly
anchoring the container so that it does not move on the surface of the device.
6.11
Protective gloves, used when handling glass equipment under vacuum.
Sampling
7.1
Obtain the sample in accordance with Test Methods D979.
7.2
The size of the sample shall conform to the following requirements. Sample Sizes
greater than about two thirds of the volume of the container shall be tested in
portions with none of the portions tested being less than 1250 g.
1
Вѕ
8.
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size
in. (mm)
Minimum Sample Size, g
(25.0) or greater
2500
(19.0) or smaller
2000
Calibration of Pycnometer
1 of 11
MTM 314-04
9.
10.
8.1
Calibrate the container by accurately determining the mass of the container dry (B)
and in water (E) at 77 О• в€Ђ 1.8 О•F (25 О•C в€Ђ 1.0 О•C). Verify the dry weight (within в€Ђ
0.1g) daily.
8.2
The equipment must be kept clean.
Procedure
9.1
Separate the particles of the sample of paving mixture by hand, taking care to
avoid fracturing the aggregate, so that the particles of the fine aggregate portion
are not larger than 1/4 inch (6.3 mm).
9.2
Cool the sample to room temperature, place it in the container and weigh.
Designate the net mass of the sample as sample and bowl weight in air (A). Add
water at a temperature of approximately 77 О•F (25 О•C) to cover the sample with a
minimum of 1 inch of water. The water level surface should be at least 1 ВЅ inches
from the top of the pycnometer bowl.
9.3
Remove air trapped in the sample by starting the agitation and gradually increasing
the vacuum until the residual pressure manometer reads 25 +/- 2 mm of Hg.
Maintain this residual pressure for 15 +/- 2 minutes. Agitate the container and
contents during the vacuum period continuously by a mechanical device.
9.4
At the end of the vacuum period, gradually release the vacuum using the bleeder
valve. Suspend the container and contents in the water bath and determine the
mass after 10 minute в€Ђ 1 minute immersion. Record the mass of the sample and
bowl weight in water (D) at 77 О•F (25 О•C).
Calculations
10.1
Calculate the theoretical maximum specific gravity of the sample at 77 О•F (25 О•C)
as follows:
Sample and Bowl Wt. in Air, grams
Bowl Wt. in Air, grams
Sample Wt. in Air, grams
Sample and Bowl Wt. in Water, grams
Bowl Wt. in Water, grams
Sample Wt. in Water, grams
Volume, cc
Gmm
10.2
A
B
C=A-B
D
E
F=D-E
G=C-F
C/G
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
If the sample was tested in several portions, report the weighted average
maximum specific gravity for all portions tested.
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MTM 314-04
11.
Report
11.1
Report the following information:
- Specific gravity of the mixture to the third decimal place
- Type of mixture,
- Size of sample,
- Number of samples.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.03.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.03.
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.05.
5
Sargent Welch, 39745 Gauge-Vacuum, Mercury Pre-filled (or equivalent).
3
Figure 2
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MTM 314-04
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY OF COMPACTED HMA MIXTURES USING
SATURATED SURFACE-DRY SPECIMENS
1.
Scope
1.1
This test method covers the determination of bulk specific gravity and density of
specimens of compacted HMA mixtures.
1.1.2
1.2
2.
ASTM Standards:
C 670
Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods
for Construction MateriaIs2
D 979
Practice for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures3
D 1461
Test Method for Moisture or Volatile Distillates in HMA Paving
Mixtures2
D 2726
Standard Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of
Compacted HMA Mixtures Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens3
D 3203
Test Method for Percent Air Voids in Compacted Dense and Open
HMA Paving Mixtures3
D 3666
Practice for Evaluating and Qualifying Agencies Testing and Inspecting
HMA Paving MateriaI3
D 4753
Specification for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and
Scales for Use in Testing Soil, Rock, and Related Construction
Materials4
Terminology
3.1
4.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
Referenced Documents
2.1
3.
This test method should be used only with dense graded or practically
nonabsorptive compacted mixtures.
Descriptions of Terms:
3.1.1
Bulk density - as determined by this test method, the mass of a meter
cubed of the material at 77 О•F (25 О•C).
3.1.2
Bulk specific gravity - as determined by this test method, the ratio of the
mass of a given volume of material at 77 О•F (25 О•C) to the mass of an
equal volume of water at the same temperature.
Summary of Test Method
4.1
The specimen is immersed in a water bath at 77 О•F (25 О•C). The mass under
water is recorded, and the specimen is taken out of the water, blotted quickly with
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MTM 315-01
a damp towel, and weighed in air. The difference between the two masses is used
to measure the mass of an equal volume of water at 77 О•F (25 О•C). Correction
factors are provided for converting the mass of water to that of the reference 77 О•F
(25 О•C) if from a practical point of view the weighing was done at different
temperatures.
4.2
5.
This test method provides guidance for determination of the oven dry or thoroughly
dry mass of the specimen. The bulk specific gravity is calculated from these
masses. Then the density is obtained by multiplying the specific gravity of the
specimen by the density of the water.
Significance and Use
5.1
The results obtained from this test method can be used to determine the unit
weight of compacted dense HMA mixtures and in conjunction with Test Method D
3203, to obtain percent air voids. These values in turn may be used in determining
the relative degree of compaction.
5.2
Since specific gravity has no units, it must be converted to density in order to do
calculations that require units. This conversion is made by multiplying the specific
gravity at a given temperature by the density of water at the same temperature.
NOTE 1 -The personnel and equipment used in performing this test can be
evaluated in accordance with Practice D 3666.
6.
Apparatus
6.1
Balance, with ample capacity, and with sufficient sensitivity to enable bulk specific
gravities of the specimens to be calculated to at least four significant figures, that
is, to at least three decimal places. It shall be equipped with a suitable apparatus
to permit weighing the specimen while suspended in water. The balance shall
conform to Specification D 4753 as a class GP2 balance.
NOTE 2 - Since there are no more significant figures in the quotient (bulk specific
gravity) than appear in either the dividend (the mass of the specimen in air) or in
the divisor (the mass of the volume of water equal to the volume of the specimen,
obtained from the difference in weight of the saturated surface-dry specimen in air
and in water), this means that the balance must have a sensitivity capable of
providing both mass values to at least four figures. For example, a sensitivity of
0.1 g would provide four significant figures for mass in the range from 100.1 g to
999.9 g.
6.2
7.
Water Bath, for immersing the specimen in water while suspended, equipped with
an overflow outlet for maintaining a constant water level.
Sampling
7.1
Specimens may be either laboratory-molded HMA mixtures or from HMA
pavements.
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MTM 315-01
8.
9.
7.2
Obtain field samples in accordance with Practice D 979.
7.3
Pavement specimens shall be taken from pavements with a core drill, diamond or
a carborundum saw, or by other suitable means.
Test Specimens
8.1
Size of Specimens - it is recommended, (1) that the diameter of cylindrically
molded or cored specimens, or the length of the sides of sawed specimens, be at
least equal to four times the maximum size of the aggregate; and (2) that the
thickness of specimens be at least one and one half times the maximum size of the
aggregate.
8.2
Care shall be taken to avoid distortion, bending, or cracking of specimens during
and after removal from pavements or mold. Specimens shall be stored in a safe,
cool place.
8.3
Specimens shall be free of foreign materials such as seal coat, tack coat,
foundation material, soil, paper, or foil. When any of these materials are visually
evident, they shall be removed by sawing in accordance with 8.6.
8.4
If desired, specimens may be separated from other pavement layers by sawing or
other satisfactory means.
Procedure
9.1
For Specimens that Contain Moisture or Solvent, or Both:
9.1.1
Mass of Specimen in Water - Immerse the specimen in a water bath at 77
О•F (25 О•C) for 3 to 5 minutes, then weigh in water. Designate this mass as
"C". If the temperature of the specimen differs from the temperature of the
water bath by more than 2 oC, the specimen shall be immersed in the water
bath for 10 to 15 minutes.
9.1.1.1 Measure the temperature of the water and if different from 77 О•F в€Ђ
1.8 О•F (25 О•C в€Ђ 1 О•C) a correction to the bulk specific gravity to
77 О•F (25 О•C) must be made in accordance with 10.2.
9.2
9.1.2
Mass of Saturated Surface-Dry Specimen in Air - Surface dry the specimen
by blotting quickly with a damp towel and then weigh in air. Designate this
mass as B.
9.1.3
Mass of Oven-Dry Specimen - Thoroughly dry the specimen to constant
mass at 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C). Allow the specimen to cool and
weigh in air. Designate this mass as A.
For Thoroughly Dry Specimens:
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MTM 315-01
10.
9.2.1
Mass of Dry Specimen in Air - Weigh the specimen after it has been
standing in air at room temperature for at least 1 h. Designate this mass as
A.
9.2.2
Mass of Specimen in Water - Use the same procedure as described in
9.1.1.
9.2.3
Mass of Saturated Surface-Dry Specimen in Air - Surface dry the
specimen by blotting quickly with a damp towel and then weigh in air.
Designate this mass as B.
Calculation
10.1
Calculate the bulk specific gravity of the specimen as follows:
Bulk sp gr = A / (B - C)
where:
A
= mass of the dry specimen in air, g,
(B-C) = mass of the volume of water for the volume of the specimen at 77 О•F
(25 О•C),
B
= mass of the saturated surface-dry specimen in air, g, and
C
= mass of the specimen in water, g.
10.2
The bulk specific gravity of the specimen at 77 О•F (25 О•C) can be calculated from
bulk specific gravity of the specimen measured at any other temperature as
follows:
Bulk sp gr at 77 О•F (25 О•C) = K x Bulk sp gr measured at any other temperature
Where:
K is determined from Table 1.
10.2.1 This calculation is valid for the precision of the test method if the
temperature of the water differs from 77 О•F (25 О•C) by less than 5.4 О•F
(3 О•C). For a difference of temperature greater than 5.4 О•F (3 О•C), a
correction to the mass of water displaced shall be made using the following
equation:
Correction =_О”T x Ks x (B - C)
Where:
О”T = 77 О•F (25 О•C) - the temperature of the water bath, and
Ks = 6 x 10-5 mL/mL/0C average coefficient of cubical thermal expansion
of HMA concrete.
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MTM 315-01
TABLE 1
Absolute Density of Water and Conversion Factor K for Various Temperatures
Temperature, oC
Absolute Density of WaterA
Correction Factor K
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
0.999728
0.999634
0.999526
0.999406
0.999273
0.999129
0.998972
0.998804
0.998625
0.998435
0.998234
0.998022
0.997801
0997569
0.997327
0.997075
0.996814
0.996544
0.996264
0.995976
0.995678
1.002661
1.002567
1.002458
1.002338
1.002204
1.002060
1.001903
1.001734
1.001555
1.001364
1.001162
1.000950
1.000728
1.000495
1.000253
1.000000
0.999738
0.999467
0.999187
0.998898
0.998599
A
Data taken from Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 55th ed., CRC Press, Inc.
10.3
Calculate the density of the specimen as follows:
Density = Bulk sp gr x 997.0 (or 62.24)
Where:
997.0 = density of water in kg/m3 at 25 oC (0.9970 g/cm3)
10.4
11.
This test method has been written using the absolute system for density (kilograms
per meter cubed) in SI units. The conversion to the gravitational system of unit
weight in pounds per foot cubed and the recording of density in pounds force per
foot cubed is acceptable with this test method.
Report
11.1
Report the following:
5 of 6
MTM 315-01
- Bulk specific gravity of the mixture to three decimal places as: bulk specific
gravity at 77 О•F (25 О•C),
- Density of the mixture with four significant figures in kg/m3 or lb/ft3 as: density at
77 О•F (25 О•C),
- Type of mixture, and
- ,Size of sample.
12.
Precision and Bias
12.1
Criteria for judging the acceptability of bulk specific gravity test results obtained by
this test method are given in the following table:5
Standard Deviation test
and Type Index (IS)
Acceptable Range
of Two Results (D 2S)
0.0124
0.0269
0.035
0.076
Single operator precision
Multi-laboratory precision
NOTE 3 - Samples for the inter-laboratory study were prepared in three HMA
mixing plants and were compacted by the individual laboratories with Marshall
compaction equipment using 75 blows each end of the specimen. Mechanical
compactors were also used, but they were calibrated to give compaction
equivalents for the 75 blows of the manual equipment.
In a report6 dated March 22, 1988, The University of Nevada-Reno concluded that
"The ASTM D 2726 precision statement accurately reflects variances caused by
either method of compaction (Marshall or Hveem), or by aggregate type (rounded
or angular)."
12.2
The figures given in Column 2 are the standard deviations that have been found to
be appropriate for the conditions of test described in Column 1. The figures given
in Column 3 are the limits that should not be exceeded by the difference between
the results of two properly conducted tests.
12.3
The values in Column 3 are the acceptable range for two tests. When more than
two results are being evaluated, the range given in Column 3 must be increased.
Multiply the standard deviation(s) in Column 2 by the multiplier given in Practice C
670, Table 1, for the number of actual tests. Example: for three tests - 0.0124 x
3.3 = 0.041. Additional guidance and background is given in Practice C 670.
12.4
Bias - Since there is no accepted reference material suitable for determining the
bias for the procedure for measuring density, no statement on the bias of this test
method is being made.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.02.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vol 04.03.
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.08.
5
Basis of estimate: 4 replicates, 6 materials, 16 laboratories.
3
6 of 6
MTM 315-01
6
Supporting data available from ASTM headquarters. Request RR: 1004.
7 of 6
MTM 315-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF ASPHALT CONTENT
FROM ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES BY THE IGNITION METHOD
1.
2.
3.
Scope
1.1
This test method covers the determination of asphalt content of hot-mixed paving
mixtures by ignition of the asphalt cement in a furnace. The aggregate remaining
can be used for sieve analysis following ASTM C 136, ASTM C 117 and Crush
Count MTM 117.
1.2
The values stated in metric units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.3
This process may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This
standard does not claim to address all of the safety and health issues associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of each user to consult and establish
appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of
regulatory limitations prior to use.
Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards
E 29
Rounding Method
D 979 Practice for Sampling HMA Paving Mixtures
C 136 Mechanical Analysis of Extracted Aggregate
C 117 Test Method for Material Finer Than No. 200 (75Ојm) Sieve in Mineral
Aggregates by Washing
C 702 Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
C 566 Total Moisture Content of Aggregate by Drying
D 75
Sampling Aggregates
D 140 Sampling HMA Materials
2.2
Furnace manufacturer=s instruction manual
2.3
MDOT Standards
MTM 117 Determining Percentage of Crushed Particles in Aggregates
Summary of Test Method
3.1
4.
Asphalt in a sample of hot-mix paving material is burned by ignition. The asphalt
content is calculated from the change in mass of the sample and is expressed as
mass loss and a percentage of the total sample.
Apparatus
4.1
A forced air ignition furnace, capable of maintaining the temperature at 1202 О•F
(650 О•C), with an internal balance thermally isolated from the furnace chamber
1 of 8
MTM 319-01
accurate to 0.1 gram. The balance must be capable of weighing a 3,000-gram
sample in addition to the sample baskets. The furnace must calculate a
temperature compensation factor for the change in the weight of the sample
baskets and provide for the input of a correction factor for aggregate loss. The
furnace must provide a printed ticket with the initial sample weight, sample weight
loss, temperature compensation, correction factor, corrected asphalt content (%),
test time and test temperature. The sample chamber dimensions must be at least
14 inches (356 mm) by 10.5 inches (267 mm) by 14 inches (356 mm) (W x H x D).
A method for reducing furnace emissions must be provided.
The furnace must provide an audible alarm and an indicator light to indicate when
the sample weight loss has remained constant for two consecutive minutes. The
furnace door must be equipped with a locking mechanism to keep the door locked
until the test procedure is complete.
NOTE: The National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) Asphalt Content
Tester manufactured by Barnstead/Thermolyne and distributed by QC Resource,
(800) 296-7171, or an approved equal may be used.
5.
4.2
A set of two or three tempered stainless steel No. 8 (2.36 mm) mesh or otherwise
perforated baskets having an area for the sample of approximately 232 in.2
(0.15m2). The baskets must have a minimum depth of 2 inches (50 mm) and be
nested. A minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) air space is required between the catch pan
the lower basket and must be open on all sides. A screen top to confine the
aggregates, and a basket guard to keep the assembly together, must be provided
with the assembly. A basket transfer device for placing and removing sample
baskets from the furnace must also be included.
4.3
One stainless steel catch pan, dimensions (L x W x H) of 11 inches (280 mm) by
11 inches (280 mm) by 1 inch (26 mm).
4.4
Oven capable of maintaining 257 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (125 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C).
4.5
Balance, 8 kg capacity, sensitive to 1.0 gram for weighing the sample in the
baskets.
4.6
Safety Equipment: safety glasses or face shield, high temperature gloves and longsleeve jacket. Additionally, a heat-resistant surface capable of withstanding 1202
О•F (650 О•C) and a protective cage capable of surrounding the sample baskets
must be provided.
4.7
Miscellaneous Equipment: A pan or bowl of adequate size for transferring samples
after ignition, spatulas, bowls and wire brushes.
Sampling
5.1
HMA test samples must be obtained according to ASTM D 979. The test sample
must be the result of quartering a larger sample according to ASTM C 702.
Sample size must be equal to calibration size в€Ђ 10 grams if method I is used.
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MTM 319-01
Sample size must be 100 в€Ђ 10 grams greater than the calibration sample if method
II is used. Samples must not exceed 2000 grams. If larger size samples are
needed, the test sample may be divided into suitable increments, tested, and the
results appropriately combined for calculation of asphalt content.
TABLE 1 Size of Sample
Nominal Maximum Aggregate
Minimum Mass of Sample
Size Standard
Grams
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
1200
3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
1200
1/2 in. (12.5 mm)
1500
3/4 in. (19.0 mm)
2000
1 in. (25.0 mm)
3000
1 1/2 in.(37.5 mm)
4000
6.
5.2
Aggregate used for the calibration samples will be sampled from the aggregate
weigh belt or stockpiles, in accordance with ASTM D 75.
5.3
If RAP is used in the hot asphalt mix, it will be obtained from the RAP weigh belt,
and calibration method I must be used.
5.4
Obtain samples of asphalt cement in accordance with ASTM D 140.
Calibration
6.1
Two calibration procedures are provided. Either method may be approved by the
engineer. For mix designs containing RAP, the binder content of the RAP will be
as reported on the mix design. If stockpiled aggregate samples are used for
calibration samples, the aggregate must be blended to the proportions reported on
the mix design.
6.2
Certain aggregate types may result in a high correction factor. Aggregate with a
correction factor higher than 0.5 must be calibrated and tested at a lower
temperature, as specified in section 6.6.11.
6.3
The calibration procedure for a given mix must be repeated for every 50,000 tons
of mixture produced or as requested by the engineer.
6.4
A copy of the computer printout and a completed copy of Form 1912 must be
submitted to the engineer or his representative.
6.5
Method I (Mixture Calibration)
6.5.1
This method may be affected by the type of aggregate in the
mixture. Accordingly, to optimize accuracy, a calibration factor must be
established with the testing of a set of calibration samples for each mix
type. This procedure must be performed before any acceptance testing is
completed.
3 of 8
MTM 319-01
6.5.2
Dry samples to a constant weight in oven 257 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (125 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C)
in accordance with ASTM C 566.
6.5.3
Heat the aggregates and asphalt cement to approximately 302 О•F в€Ђ
9 О•F (150 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C). Heat all mixing bowls and tools to approximately
302 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (150 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C).
6.5.4
Prior to mixing of calibration samples, an initial or [email protected] mix is
required to condition the mixing equipment. Remove and discard the
[email protected] mix from the bowl by scraping, leaving a uniform coating of
asphalt mix residue. The butter mix prevents the calibration samples from
being biased by the residual asphalt mix retained in the mixing bowl.
6.5.5
Prepare three calibration samples at the design asphalt cement
6.5.6
Preheat the ignition furnace to 1000 О•F (538 О•C) or to an approved
established test temperature.
6.5.7
Input a correction factor of zero into the ignition furnace controller.
6.5.8
Weigh and record the weight of the sample baskets and catch pan
(with cover and guard in place).
6.5.9
The freshly mixed samples may be placed directly in the sample
baskets. If allowed to cool, the samples must be preheated in a 257 О•F в€Ђ
9 О•F (125 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) oven.
content.
6.5.10 Distribute approximately equal portions of the calibration sample among
the baskets, starting with the bottom basket in the catch pan. Use a
spatula or trowel to level the sample, taking care to keep material away
from the edges of the basket. Re-nest baskets in the catch pan as the
sample is being distributed. Replace cover and guard on basket assembly.
6.5.11 Weigh and record the sample, baskets, catch pan and basket guard.
Calculate and record the initial weight of the sample (total weight - the
weight of the sample basket assembly) on form 1912.
6.5.12 Input the initial weight of the sample to the nearest gram into the ignition
furnace controller. Verify that the correct weight has been entered.
6.5.13 Open the chamber door, then using the sample transfer device, place the
baskets with the sample into the furnace. Close the chamber door and
verify that the sample weight (including the baskets) displayed on the
furnace's scale equals the total weight recorded in Section 6.5.8 within в€Ђ 5
grams. Differences greater than 5 grams or failure of the furnace balance
to stabilize may indicate that the sample baskets are in contact with the
furnace wall and will invalidate the test. Initiate the test by pressing the
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MTM 319-01
start/stop button. This will lock the sample chamber and start the
combustion blower.
6.5.14 Allow the test to continue until the stable light and audible stable indicator
indicates that the test is complete. Press the start/stop button. This will
unlock the sample chamber and cause the printer to print out the test
results.
6.5.15 Open the chamber door, then using the sample transfer device, remove the
baskets with the sample. Place hot sample and basket assembly on a
heatproof surface and place the protective cage over it. Allow to cool to
room temperature (approximately 30 minutes).
6.5.16 Record the weight of the sample after ignition to the nearest 0.1 gram and
calculate the calibration factor as follows.
CF =
(M I в€’ M L )
Г— 100 в€’ P
MI
Where:
CF
MI
ML
P
=
=
=
=
calibration factor
total mass of the mixture calibration sample prior to ignition
total mass of the mixture calibration sample after ignition
percentage of actual asphalt cement in the mix by mass of
the total mix expressed as a percent
6.5.17 Repeat these steps for the two additional calibration samples. Calculate
the average calibration factor by averaging the three CF values.
6.6
Method II (Virgin Aggregate Only - RAP Excluded)
6.6.1
This method may be affected by the type of aggregate in the
mixture. Accordingly, to optimize accuracy, a calibration factor must be
established with the testing of a minimum of three calibration samples for
each mix type. This procedure must be performed before any acceptance
testing is completed.
6.6.2
A minimum of three blended, aggregate only, calibration specimens
are obtained from aggregate weigh belt or aggregate stockpile in
accordance with ASTM D 75. One additional blended, aggregate only
sample is batched and tested in accordance with ASTM standards C 117,
C 136, C 566, and MTM 117, to verify gradation meets JMF tolerances.
5 of 8
MTM 319-01
6.6.3
Dry samples to a constant weight in oven 257 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (125 О•C в€Ђ
5 О•C) in accordance with ASTM C 566.
6.6.4
Preheat the ignition furnace to 1072 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (578 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C).
Record the furnace temperature set point prior to the initiation of the test.
6.6.5
Input a correction factor of zero in the ignition furnace controller and
record on form 1912.
6.6.6
Weigh and record the weight of the sample baskets and catch pan
(with cover and guard in place).
6.6.7
Distribute approximately equal portions of the calibration sample
among the baskets, starting with the bottom basket in the catch pan. Use a
spatula or trowel to level the sample, taking care to keep material away
from the edges of the basket. Re-nest baskets in the catch pan as the
sample is being distributed. Replace cover and guard on basket assembly.
6.6.8
Weigh and record the sample, baskets, catch pan and basket
guards. Calculate and record the initial weight of the sample (total weight the weight of the sample basket assembly).
6.6.9
Input the initial weight of the sample to the nearest gram into the
ignition furnace controller. Verify that the correct weight has been entered.
6.6.10 Open the chamber door, then, using the sample transfer device, place the
baskets with the sample into the furnace. Close the chamber door and
verify that the sample weight (including the baskets) displayed on the
furnace's scale equals the total weight recorded in Section 6.6.8, within в€Ђ
5 grams. Differences greater than 5 grams or failure of the furnace
balance to stabilize may indicate that the sample baskets are contacting
the furnace wall and will invalidate the test. Initiate the test by pressing the
start/stop button. This will lock the sample chamber and start the
combustion blower.
6.6.11 Allow the sample to remain in the furnace for forty-five (45) minutes. The
stable light and audible stable indicator may come on after 15 to 30
minutes; do not stop the test at this time. Press the start/stop button when
the furnace timer indicates 45:00. This will unlock the sample chamber and
cause the printer to print out the test results. If the mass loss exceeds 0.5
percent, lower the test temperature to 972 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (522 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) and
repeat the test. If the mass loss continues to exceed 0.5 percent, lower the
test temperature to 873 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (467 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) and repeat the test. If
mass loss continues to exceed 0.5 percent or if the sample fails to stabilize
in 45 minutes, Method I (6.5) must be used.
6.6.12 Open the chamber door, then using the sample transfer device, remove the
baskets with the sample. Place hot sample and basket assembly on a heat
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MTM 319-01
proof surface and place the protective cage over it. Allow to cool to room
temperature (approximately 30 minutes) before emptying baskets.
6.6.13 Record the weight of the sample after ignition to the nearest 0.1 gram and
calculate the calibration factor of CF using the formula in Section 6.5.16.
6.6.14 Repeat these steps for the two additional calibration samples. Calculate
the average calibration factor by averaging the three CF values.
7.
Asphalt Content Test Procedure
NOTE: The increase in temperature when burning an asphalt mixture is approximately 104
О•F (40 О•C). Therefore, the temperature for calibration is 104 О•F (40 О•C) greater when
burning a calibration aggregate than when burning a mix.
7.1
Preheat the ignition furnace to 1000 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (538 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C), or to an approved
test temperature. If method II was used for calibration use a temperature 104 О•F
(40 О•C) less than that used for calibration.
7.2
Input the correction factor for the specific mix to be tested as determined in
Section 6, into the ignition furnace controller, and record on form 1912.
7.3
Weigh and record the weight of the sample baskets and catch pan (with guards in
place).
7.4
If the mixture is not sufficiently soft to separate with a spatula or trowel, place it in a
large flat pan and warm to 257 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (125 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) for twenty-five (25)
minutes. Distribute approximately equal portions of the sample among the
baskets, starting with the bottom basket in the catch pan. Use a spatula or trowel
to level the sample, taking care to keep material away from the edges of the
basket. Re-nest baskets in the catch pan as the sample is being distributed.
Replace cover and guard on basket assembly.
7.5
Weigh and record the sample, baskets, catch pan and basket guards. Calculate
and record the initial weight of the sample (total weight - the weight of the sample
basket assembly).
7.6
Input the initial weight of the sample to the nearest gram into the ignition furnace
controller. Verify that the correct weight has been entered.
7.7
Open the chamber door, then using the sample transfer device, place the baskets
with the sample into the furnace. Close the chamber door and verify that the
sample weight (including the baskets) displayed on the furnace's scale equals the
total weight recorded in Section 7.4, within в€Ђ 5 grams. Differences greater than 5
grams or failure of the furnace balance to stabilize may indicate that the sample
baskets are contacting the furnace wall and will invalidate the test. Initiate the test
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MTM 319-01
by pressing the start/stop button. This will lock the sample chamber and start the
combustion blower.
8.
9.
7.8
Allow the test to continue until the stable light and audible stable indicator signify
that the test is complete. Press the start/stop button. This will unlock the sample
chamber and cause the printer to print out the test results.
7.9
Open the chamber door, then using the sample transfer device, remove the
baskets with the sample. Place hot sample and basket assembly on a heatproof
surface and place the protective cage over it. Allow to cool to room temperature
(approximately 30 minutes).
Gradation
8.1
Allow the sample to cool to room temperature in the sample baskets.
8.2
Empty the contents of the baskets into a pan or bowl. Use a small wire sieve
brush to ensure that all fines are removed from the baskets.
8.3
Perform the gradation analysis according to ASTM C 566, ASTM C 117, ASTM C
136 and MTM 117.
Report
9.1
Attach a copy of original printed ticket and form (1912) to the daily report (1903).
8 of 8
MTM 319-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND
ABSORPTION OF COARSE AGGREGATES
1.
Scope
1.1
2.
3.
Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM
C 128
C 136
C 702
E 11
E 12
2.2
AASHTO Standards:
T 85 Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregates
2.3
MDOT Standards:
MTM 107 Sampling Aggregates
Standards:
Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate
Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to the Testing Size
Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
Terminology Relating to Density and Specific Gravity of Solids, Liquids,
and Gases
Significance and Use
3.1
4.
This test method covers the determination of specific gravity and absorption of
coarse aggregate. The specific gravity may be expressed as bulk specific gravity,
bulk specific gravity (SSD) (saturated-surface-dry) or apparent specific gravity.
The bulk specific gravity (SSD) and absorption are based on aggregate after 24
hour soaking in water.
Bulk specific gravity is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the
volume occupied by the aggregate in HMA mixtures that are proportioned or
analyzed on an absolute volume basis.
Terminology
4.1
Definitions
4.1.1
Absorption - the increase in the weight of aggregate due to water in the
pores of the material, but not including water adhering to the outside
surface of the particles, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight. The
aggregate is considered [email protected] when it has been maintained at a
temperature of 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) for sufficient time to
remove all the uncombined water.
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MTM 320-01
4.1.2
Specific gravity - the ratio of the mass (or weight in air) of a unit volume of
a material to the mass of the same volume of water at stated temperatures.
Values are dimensionless.
4.1.2.1
Apparent specific gravity - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit
volume of the impermeable portion of aggregate at stated
temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of water at
a stated temperature.
4.1.2.2
Bulk specific gravity (dry) - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit
volume of aggregate (including the permeable and
impermeable voids in the particles but not including the voids
between particles) at a stated temperature to the weight in air of
an equal volume of water at a stated temperature.
4.1.2.3
Bulk specific gravity (SSD) - the ratio of the weight in air of a
unit volume of aggregate, including the weight of water within
the voids filled to the extent achieved by submerging in water
for approximately 24 hours (but not including the voids
between particles) at a stated temperature, compared to the
weight in air of an equal volume of water at a stated
temperature.
NOTE: The terminology for specific gravity is based on terms in Terminology E 12.
5.
Summary of Test Method
5.1
6.
A sample of oven washed, dry aggregate is immersed in water for approximately
24 hours to essentially fill the pores. It is then removed from the water, the water
dried from the surface of the particles and the sample weighed. Subsequently the
sample is weighed while submerged in water. Finally, the sample is oven-dried
and weighed a third time. Using the weights thus obtained, and formulas in this
test method, it is possible to calculate three types of specific gravity and
absorption.
Apparatus
6.1
Balance - A weighing device that is sensitive, readable and accurate to 0.1 g. The
balance shall be equipped with suitable apparatus for suspending the sample
container in water.
6.2
Sample container - A bucket or container capable of being suspended and of a
size appropriate for the sample. The container shall be constructed in a manner,
which will prevent trapping air or loss of aggregate when the container is
submerged.
6.3
Water Tank - A watertight tank into which the sample container may be placed
while suspended below the balance.
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MTM 320-01
6.4
7.
8.
Sieves - A No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve or other size as needed (see 7.2), conforming to
Specification E 11.
Sampling
7.1
Sample the aggregate in accordance with MTM 107.
7.2
The weight of the test sample shall be a minimum of 2000 grams but no more than
3000 grams.
Procedure
8.1
Thoroughly mix the sample of aggregate and reduce it to the approximate quantity
needed, using the applicable procedures in Method C 702. Remove all material
passing a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve by dry sieving. If the sample contains 25% or
more of material passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm ) sieve, but retained on the No. 8
(2.36 mm) sieve, the material retained on the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve shall be tested
separately as a coarse aggregate. In calculating the percentage of material in
each size fraction, ignore the quantity of material finer than No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve
if the sample contains less than 25% retained on the No.8 (2.36 mm) sieve.
8.2
Dry the test sample to a constant weight at a temperature of 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (110
О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) and cool in air at room temperature until the aggregate has cooled to a
temperature that is comfortable to handle.
8.3
Wash material (retained on the No. 4 [4.75 mm] sieve and/or on the No. 8
[2.36 mm] sieve) to remove dust or other coatings from the surface. Subsequently
immerse the aggregate in water at room temperature for a period of 24 в€Ђ 4 hours.
8.4
Remove the sample from the water and roll it in a large absorbent cloth until all
visible films of water are removed. Take care to avoid evaporation of water from
aggregate pores during the operation of surface drying. Immediately weigh the
test sample in the saturated surface dry condition. Record this weight as the
Aweight of the saturated surface dry test [email protected] This weight and all subsequent
weights shall be recorded to the nearest 0.1 g.
8.5
After weighing, immediately place the saturated-surface-dry test sample in the
sample container and determine its weight in water at 77 О•F в€Ђ 3 О•F (25 О•C в€Ђ
1.7 О•C). Take care to remove all entrapped air before weighing by agitating the
sample. Record this weight as the Aweight of saturated test sample in [email protected]
NOTE 2: The container should be immersed to a depth sufficient to cover it and
the test sample during weighing. Wire suspending the container should be of the
smallest practical size to minimize any possible effects of a variable immersed
length.
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MTM 320-01
8.6
9.
Remove the aggregate from the sample container and place into an ovenproof
pan, taking care not to lose any material. Dry in an oven at a temperature of 230
О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) to a constant weight. Cool the sample until the
aggregate has reached a temperature that is comfortable to handle. Weigh the
sample and record the weight as "weight of oven-dry test sample in [email protected]
Calculation
9.1
Specific Gravity:
9.1.1
Bulk Specific Gravity (Dry) - Calculate the bulk specific gravity 77 О•F
(25 О•C), as follows:
Bulk specific gravity (dry) = J / (C-F)
Where:
J = weight of oven-dry test sample in air, g.
C = weight of saturated-surface dry test sample, g.
and
F = Weight of saturated test sample in water, g.
9.1.2
Bulk Specific Gravity (Saturated Surface-Dry) - Calculate the bulk specific
gravity, 77 О•F (25 О•C), on the basis of weight of saturated-surface-dry
aggregate as follows:
Bulk sp gr (saturated-surface-dry) = C / (C-F)
9.1.3
Apparent Specific Gravity - Calculate the apparent specific gravity 77 О•F
(25 О•C), as follows:
Apparent sp gr = J / (J-F)
9.2
Average Specific Gravity Values -- When the sample is tested in separate size
fractions, the average value for bulk specific gravity (dry), bulk specific gravity
(SSD), or apparent specific gravity can be computed in accordance with 9.1 using
the following equation:
G=
1
P
P
1 +
2 + ... Pn
100G 100G
100Gn
1
2
Where:
G = average specific gravity. All forms of expression of specific gravity can be
averaged in this manner.
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MTM 320-01
G1, G2, ... Gn = appropriate specific gravity values for each size fraction depending
on the type of specific gravity being averaged.
P1, P2, ...Pn = weight percentages of each size fraction present in the original
sample.
9.3
Absorption - Calculate the percentage of absorption as follows:
Absorption, % = [(C-J) / J] x 100
9.4
Average Absorption Value - When the sample is tested in separate size fractions,
the average absorption value is the average of the values as computed in 9.3,
weighted in proportion to the weight percentages of the size fractions in the original
sample as follows:
A = (P1A1 / 100) + (P2A2 / 100) + ...(PnAn / 100)
Where:
A = average absorption, %
A1, A2, ... An = absorption percentages for each size fraction, and
P1, P2, ...Pn = weight percentages of each size fraction present in the original
sample.
10.
11.
Report
10.1
Report specific gravity results to the nearest 0.001 and indicate the type of specific
gravity, whether bulk (dry), bulk (saturated-surface-dry) or apparent.
10.2
Report the absorption results to the nearest 0.1%.
Precision and Bias
11.1
The criteria for judging the acceptability of the specific gravity test results obtained
by this method are given in the following table:
Table 1 Precision
Single-Operator Precision:
Bulk specific gravity (dry)
Bulk specific gravity (SSD)
Apparent Specific gravity
Absorption, %
Multilaboratory Precision:
Bulk specific gravity (dry)
Bulk specific gravity (SSD)
Apparent Specific gravity
Absorption, %
Standard Deviation
Acceptable Range
of Two Results
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.088
0.025
0.020
0.020
0.25
0.013
0.011
0.011
0.145
0.038
0.032
0.032
0.41
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MTM 320-01
6 of 5
MTM 320-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND
ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATES
1.
Scope
1.1
2.
3.
Referenced Documents
2.1
STM Standards
C 70
Test Method for Surface Moisture in Fine Aggregate
C 127 Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
C 136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate
C 702 Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to the Testing Size
E 11
Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
E 12
Terminology Relating to Density and Specific Gravity of Solids, Liquids,
and Gases
2.2
AASHTO Standards:
T 84
Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregates
2.3
MDOT Standards
MTM 107 Method for Sampling Aggregates
Significance and Use
3.1
4.
This test method covers the determination of specific gravity and absorption of fine
aggregate. The specific gravity may be expressed as bulk specific gravity, bulk
specific gravity (SSD) (saturated-surface-dry) or apparent specific gravity. The
bulk specific gravity (SSD) and absorption are based on aggregate after 24 hour
soaking in water.
Bulk specific gravity is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the
volume occupied by the aggregate in HMA mixtures which are proportioned or
analyzed on an absolute volume basis.
Terminology
4.1
Definitions
4.1.1
Absorption - the increase in the weight of aggregate due to water in the
pores of the material, but not including water adhering to the outside
surface of the particles, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight. The
aggregate is considered [email protected] when it has been maintained at a
temperature of 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) for sufficient time to
remove all the uncombined water.
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MTM 321-01
4.1.2
Specific gravity - the ratio of the mass (or weight in air) of a unit volume of
a material to the mass of the same volume of water at stated temperatures.
Values are dimensionless.
4.1.2.1
Apparent specific gravity - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit
volume of the impermeable portion of aggregate at stated
temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of water at
a stated temperature.
4.1.2.2
Bulk specific gravity (dry) - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit
volume of aggregate (including the permeable and
impermeable voids in the particles but not including the voids
between particles) at a stated temperature to the weight in air of
an equal volume of water at a stated temperature.
4.1.2.3
Bulk specific gravity (SSD) - the ratio of the weight in air of a
unit volume of aggregate, including the weight of water within
the voids filled to the extent achieved by submerging in water
for approximately 24 hours (but not including the voids between
particles) at a stated temperature, compared to the weight in air
of an equal volume of water at a stated temperature.
NOTE 1: The terminology for specific gravity is based on terms in
Terminology E 12.
5.
Summary of Test Method
5.1
6.
A sample of washed, oven dry fine aggregate is covered with water for
approximately 24 hours to essentially fill the pores. The water is then removed and
the sample is exposed to a current of air and is stirred to remove the water from
the surface of the particles. Subsequently the sample is placed in a volumetric
flask and weighed. The flask is filled with water, air bubbles are removed, and the
sample is weighed again. Finally the sample is placed in a pan and oven-dried
and weighed a third time. Using the weights thus obtained, and formulas in this
test method, it is possible to calculate three types of specific gravity and
absorption.
Apparatus
6.1
Balance - A weighing device having a capacity of 2 kg or more, sensitive to 0.1 g
or less.
6.2
Pycnometer - A volumetric flask of 30.5 in.3 (500 cm3) capacity.
6.3
Mold - A metal mold in the form of a frustum of a cone with the dimensions as
follows: 1.57 inches в€Ђ 0.12 inches (40 mm в€Ђ 3 mm) inside diameter at the top,
3.54 inches в€Ђ 0.12 inches (90 mm в€Ђ 3 mm) inside diameter at the bottom, and
2.95 inches в€Ђ 0.12 inches (75 mm в€Ђ 3 mm) in height, with the metal having a
minimum thickness of 0.03 inches (0.8 mm).
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MTM 321-01
6.4
7.
Sampling
7.1
8.
Tamper - A metal tamper weighing 340 g в€Ђ 15 g and having a flat circular tamping
face 1 inch (25 mm) в€Ђ 0.12 inches (3 mm) in diameter.
Obtain approximately 1200 grams of the fine aggregate from the sample using the
applicable procedures described in Practice C 702. For the purposes of this
procedure, fine aggregate is defined as the aggregate passing the No. 8 (2.36 mm)
sieve.
Procedure
8.1
Dry the sample in a suitable pan or vessel to constant weight at a temperature of
230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F (110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) .
8.2
Allow the sample to cool to room temperature, then wash sample over a No. 200
(75 О¦m) sieve until water runs clear. Place material retained on the No. 200
(75 О¦m) sieve in a container and immerse in water at room temperature for a
period of 24 в€Ђ 4 hours.
8.3
Remove excess water with care to avoid loss of material. Spread the sample on a
flat non-absorbent surface exposed to a gently moving current of warm air and stir
frequently to secure homogeneous drying. When the test sample approaches a
free flowing condition, follow the procedure in 8.3.1 to determine whether or not
surface moisture is present on the constituent fine aggregate particles. It is
intended the first trial of the cone test will be made with some surface water in the
sample. Continue drying with constant stirring and test at frequent intervals until
the test indicates the sample has reached a surface-dry condition. If the first trial
of the surface moisture test indicates moisture is not present on the surface, it has
dried past saturated-surface dry condition. This will invalidate the test and the
material must be re-tested.
8.3.1
8.4
Cone Test for surface moisture - Hold the mold firmly on a smooth nonabsorbent surface with the large diameter down. Place a portion of the
partially dried fine aggregate loosely in the mold by filling it to overflowing.
Lightly tamp the fine aggregate into the mold with 25 light drops of the
tamper. Each drop should start about 0.20 inches (5 mm) above the
surface of the aggregate. Permit the tamper to fall freely on each drop.
Adjust the starting height to the new surface elevation after each drop and
distribute the drops over the surface. Remove loose sand from the base
and lift the mold vertically. If surface moisture is still present, the fine
aggregate will retain its shape. When the fine aggregate slumps slightly it
indicates that it has reached a surface-dry condition.
Immediately introduce into a calibrated pycnometer approximately 500 g of
saturated surface-dry fine aggregate prepared as described in Section 6. Weigh
and record as Aweight of saturated-surface dry test [email protected] This and all
subsequent weights shall be recorded to the nearest 0.1 g.
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MTM 321-01
8.5
Fill pycnometer with water to approximately 90% of capacity. Roll, invert, and
agitate the pycnometer to eliminate all air bubbles (Note 2). Adjust its temperature
to 77 О•F в€Ђ 3 О•F (25 О•C в€Ђ 1.7 О•C), if necessary by immersion in circulating water,
and bring the water level in the pycnometer to its calibrated capacity. Determine
the total weight of the pycnometer, sample and water. Record this weight as
Aweight of flask filled with sample and water to calibration [email protected]
NOTE 2: It normally takes about 15 to 20 minutes to eliminate air bubbles.
Dipping the tip of a paper towel into the pycnometer has been found to be useful in
dispersing the foam that sometimes builds up when eliminating the air bubbles.
8.6
9.
Remove the fine aggregate from the pycnometer and place into an ovenproof
container. Be certain to remove all the material from the pycnometer, taking care
not to lose any. Dry the material in an oven at a temperature of 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F
(110 О•C в€Ђ 5 О•C) to a constant weight. Cool the sample until the aggregate has
reached a temperature that is comfortable to handle. Weigh the sample and
record as Aweight of oven-dry test sample in [email protected] Calculate according to section
9.
Calculation
9.1
Specific Gravity:
9.1.1
Bulk Specific Gravity (Dry) - Calculate the bulk specific gravity 77 О•F
(25 О•C), as follows:
Bulk sp gr (dry) = J / (E+C-F)
Where:
J = weight of oven-dry test sample in air, g.
E = weight of flask filled with water to calibration mark
C = weight of saturated-surface dry test sample in air, g.
and
F = Weight of flask with sample and water to calibration mark, g.
9.1.2
Bulk Specific Gravity (Saturated Surface-Dry) - Calculate the bulk specific
gravity, 77 О•F (25 О•C), on the basis of weight of saturated-surface-dry
aggregate as follows:
Bulk sp gr (saturated-surface-dry) = C/(E+C-F)
9.1.3
Apparent Specific Gravity - Calculate the apparent specific gravity 77 О•F
(25 О•C), as follows:
Apparent sp gr = J / (E+J-F)
9.2
Absorption - Calculate the percentage of absorption as follows:
4 of 5
MTM 321-01
Absorption, % = [(C-J) / J] x 100
10.
11.
Report
10.1
Report specific gravity results to the nearest 0.001 and indicate the type of specific
gravity, whether bulk (dry), bulk (saturated-surface-dry) or apparent.
10.2
Report the absorption results to the nearest 0.1%.
Precision and Bias
11.1
The criteria for judging the acceptability of the specific gravity test results obtained
by this method are given in the following table:
Table 1 Precision
Single-Operator Precision:
Bulk specific gravity (dry)
Bulk specific gravity (SSD)
Apparent Specific gravity
Absorption, %
Multilaboratory Precision:
Bulk specific gravity (dry)
Bulk specific gravity (SSD)
Apparent Specific gravity
Absorption, %
Standard Deviation
Acceptable Range
of Two Results
0.011
0.0095
0.0095
0.11
0.032
0.027
0.027
0.31
0.023
0.020
0.020
0.23
0.066
0.056
0.056
0.66
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MTM 321-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
HMA MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE
1. Scope
1.1
This method is used to determine that the aggregates and HMA mixtures meet
gradation and physical requirements stated in Standard Specifications, Supplemental
Specifications or Special Provisions. This method is used to determine the optimum
asphalt content for virgin and recycled HMA mixtures.
2. Referenced Documents
ASTM C 702
ASTM C 136
ASTM C 117
MTM 118-97
MTM 117-97
Aggregates
MTM 112-97
Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
Standard Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
Standard Test Method for Materials Finer Than No. 200 (75 О¦m) Sieve in
Mineral Aggregates by Washing
Test Method for Measuring Fine Aggregate Angularity
Test Method for Determining Percentage of Crushed Particles in
Test Method for Determining an Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) from Sample
Petrographic Composition and Wear Track AWI Factors
ASTM C 535
Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Large-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
ASTM D 5
Standard Test Method for Penetration of HMA Materials
ASTM D 1559
Standard Test Method for Resistance to Plastic Flow of HMA Mixtures
Using Marshall Apparatus
ASTM D 2726
Standard Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted
HMA Mixtures Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens
ASTM D 2041
Standard Test Method for Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and
Density of HMA Paving Mixtures
ASTM D 2172
Standard Test Method for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from HMA
Paving Mixtures
Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2
3. Definitions
3.1
Definitions are in accordance with the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2, except absorbed
asphalt is included as part of the voids in mineral aggregate.
4. Apparatus
4.1
Sample Splitter - shall be comparable to a Gilson SP-1 sample splitter with adjustable
bars. Shall be able to reduce a 60-pound (27.2 kg) aggregate sample to appropriate
sample size.
4.2
Mechanical Sieve Shaker - shall be comparable to a Gilson PS-3 or PS-4 PortaScreen. The unit shall be capable of running for 15 minutes.
4.3
Electronic Scale - shall be comparable to a Mettler PM-16 scale. Minimum 16,000gram capacity, sensitive to 0.1 gram. Equipped with suitable suspension apparatus
1 of 14
MTM 322-01
and holder to permit weighing specimens while suspended from center of scale pan.
4.4
Oven - shall be comparable to BLUE M DC-246F batch oven. Equipped with a 24hour timer. Additional ovens comparable to VWR 1350F constant temperature oven.
Both ovens capable of holding a constant test temperature. The ovens shall be used
for heating aggregates, HMA materials, specimen molds, compaction molds and other
equipment to the required mixing and molding temperatures.
4.5
Water Bath - shall be comparable to BLUE M Model MW 1140A-1, Magni Whirl
Constant Temperature Bath. The water bath shall be at least 6 inches (15.24 cm)
deep and shall be thermostatically controlled to maintain the bath at either 77 О•F (25
О•C) or 140 О•F (60 О•C). The tank shall have a shelf for supporting specimens 2 inches
(5.08 cm) above the bottom of the bath.
4.6
Mixing Apparatus - shall be comparable to a Hobart mixer with appropriate bowl and
mixing apparatus to provide efficient and thorough mixing of a 6000-gram sample.
4.7
Mechanical Compactor - shall be comparable to Rainhart Series 110 Automatic
Compactor with a non-rotating base and a flat, circular tamping face and a 10-pound
(4.536 kg) sliding weight with a free fall of 18 inches (45.72 cm). The compactor shall
be equipped with compaction pedestal and specimen mold holder that meet
specifications of ASTM D 1559. To be used in compacting all Marshall specimens.
This compactor shall be equipped with an adjustable electronic counter/shut off switch
comparable to Pine Instrument Company Model ACCCR. The mechanical compactor
shall be calibrated to give results comparable to the hand-operated hammer.
4.8
Specimen Extractor - may be a mechanically or manually operated jack.
4.9
Marshall Testing Equipment - shall be comparable to Rainhart Automatic Tester and
Recorder. The recorder may be either a chart recording or digital recording with direct
hookup to a computer.
4.10
Manometer - capable of measuring a residual pressure of 30 mm Hg or less.
4.11
Humboldt Universal Penetrometer
4.12
Extractor - shall be comparable to a Soiltest air-driven extractor using a continuous
flow centrifuge.
5. Identification of Submitted Aggregate Samples and Paperwork
5.1
Each submittal must include a completed MDOT Form 1820 - Contractor=s HMA Mix
Design Communication.
5.2
Each aggregate sample must be submitted in oven-proof containers, preferably canvas
bags.
5.3
Each bag of aggregate must have a correctly completed MDOT Form 1923.
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MTM 322-01
5.4
MDOT assigns a mix design number to each aggregate sample and corresponding
paperwork.
5.5
Work sheets for the individual aggregate tests are completed.
6. Aggregate Test Specimens
6.1
Preparation of Aggregates - oven dry entire sample (1) using the BLUE M DC-246F
batch oven prior to mechanical processing to remove all moisture. A sample splitter
comparable to Gilson SP-1 shall be used to reduce the aggregate down to a workable
size according to the procedures in ASTM C 702. The proper sample sizes are:
Coarse aggregate
Dense graded
Fine aggregate
Crusher dust
6.2
-
2500 grams maximum
2000 grams maximum
1300 grams maximum
800 grams maximum
Mechanical processing - according to the procedures in ASTM C 136 a mechanical
shaker comparable to Gilson PS-3 or PS-4 shall be used to separate each aggregate
into the following size fractions:
P 12 inch (37.5 mm)
P 1 inch (25.0 mm)
P 3/4 inch (19.0 mm)
P 2 inch (12.5 mm)
P 3/8 inch (9.50 mm)
P No. 4 (4.75 mm)
P No. 8 (2.36 mm)
P No. 16 (1.18 mm)
P No. 30 (0.60 mm)
P No. 50 (0.30 mm)
P No. 100 (0.15 mm)
P No. 200 (0.075 mm)
R 1 inch (25.0 mm)
R 3/4 inch (19.0 mm)
R 2 inch (12.5 mm)
R 3/8 inch (9.50 mm)
R No. 4 (4.75 mm)
R No. 8 (2.36 mm)
R No. 16 (1.18 mm)
R No. 30 (0.60 mm)
R No. 50 (0.30 mm)
R No. 100 (0.15 mm)
R No. 200 (0.075 mm)
R PAN
Shaking time is 15 minutes. Two samples of each aggregate are tested. The samples
are recorded as wash #1 and wash #2 respectively. Each sample is identified with:
Mix design number
Aggregate type
Sieve size
Wash #1 or #2
Weigh the material accurately to 0.1 grams on electronic scales. Record this weight in
the BEFORE WASH column for the respective sieve on MDOT Aggregate Wash
Record (Form 1899). Proceed until all sieve sizes are weighed. The second sample is
recorded under WASH #2 columns.
6.3
Washed Sieve Analysis - each sample will be washed according to the procedures in
ASTM C 117. With one exception, MDOT washes each sieve individually. A wetting
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MTM 322-01
agent is not used. Once the material has been washed and dried, accurately weigh
the aggregate to 0.1 grams and record as the AFTER WASH weight for each sieve
size respectively. Enter the wash #1 and wash #2 weights into MDOT=s computer
program, which will calculate the amount of P 200 (0.075 mm) material that is retained
on each aggregate sieve size. This program also calculates the total amount of
material needed for the mixture by sieve size. Both washes are averaged and correct
batch weights for each sieve size are proportioned back to a 5500 gram mix sample.
6.4
Aggregate Tests - using the combined aggregates from the wash #1 and wash #2, the
following tests shall be performed to determine aggregate properties:
6.4.1
The Angularity Index (AI) tests shall be conducted according to the procedures
in MTM 118-97. An AI test is run on individual aggregate samples if at least
7% is retained on the #30 (0.60 mm) sieve. However, all aggregates with
material retained on the #30 (0.60 mm) sieve must be included in the blended
sample. Minimum Angularity Index values must be met by the virgin material in
mixtures that contain RAP. Record test results and calculations on MDOT
Form 1828.
6.4.2
The Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) tests shall be conducted according to the
procedures in MTM 112-97. The AWI petrographic pick is performed by the
Aggregate Quality Control Unit. If a nomograph exists for an aggregate
source, the AWI from the nomograph will be used for the design. An AWI
value of 240 will be assigned to all RAP unless documented evidence is
presented by the Contractor of a different value. Record test results on MDOT
Form 1820.
6.4.3
The percent of crushed particles of the aggregate shall be conducted
according to the procedures in MTM 117-97. Record test results on MDOT
Form 1820.
6.4.4
A current Los Angeles abrasion test is required before the HMA mix design is
received in the laboratory. Requirements for L.A. Abrasion are as follows:
L.A. < 35 minimum one every 5 years *
L.A. > 35 minimum one per year
* provided there are three L.A.s at 35 or under on record.
7. Preparation of Aggregate Mixture
7.1
Aggregate Preparation - using the same Gilson shakers, sample weights and
procedures used in the washes, shake down enough of each aggregate to prepare a
minimum of 4 - 5500 gram mixture samples. This sample size will result in a sufficient
quantity of mix to produce three Marshall specimens and one TMD sample. Store
each aggregate by sieve size in separate pans. ID each pan.
7.2
Mixing Temperature - heat the aggregate in the BLUE M batch oven for a minimum of
3 hours. The oven should be set at 290 О•F (143.3 О•C).
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MTM 322-01
7.3
Batching Aggregates - from the aggregate washes and the resulting MDOT computer
program, fill out a mixture blend sheet. This states the correct weights needed on
each sieve size by aggregate type to batch the material to the combined gradation.
7.4
Blending Aggregates - one aggregate, one sieve at a time, remove the pans from the
oven and weigh out the required weight for each of the samples into a large bowl.
7.5
Final Check - once all the aggregates have been blended, dry mix thoroughly and
weigh the sample to ensure the correct weight was achieved. Make adjustments if
necessary.
7.6
RAP - when RAP is included in the mix design, split down a minimum of 4 samples to
the weight required for the mix design, using the Gilson sample splitter. Put in pans
and set aside.
NOTE: The RAP should be air-dried before this process is started.
8. Preparation of Mixtures
8.1
Preheating - the day before the mix design testing, pre-set BLUE M batch oven at
290 О•F (143.3 О•C) to come on a minimum of 3 hours before mixing time. MDOT mixes
and compacts its HMA mixtures at 290 О•F (143.3 О•C). If a polymer modified asphalt is
used in the mix design, the oven temperature will be set per the polymer
manufacturer=s recommendations for mixing and compaction temperature. The
following materials and equipment are placed in the oven at this time:
8.1.1
The blended aggregate mixtures - a thermometer is placed in the aggregate to
assure the mixing temperature is achieved.
8.1.2
A 1-gallon (3.8 liter) can of the specified asphalt grade - the lid is on the can,
but not tightly closed. Any excess asphalt left over from the design is
discarded.
8.1.3
Mixing equipment - which includes the mixing bowl, mixing paddles, trowels,
spoons, etc.
8.1.4
RAP (if included in the mix design) - is placed in the oven 1 hour before mixing.
8.2
At the start of the workday the compactor and the hot plate for the Marshall hammer
are turned on.
8.3
Marshall Volume - the MS-2 Manual (Sixth Edition, Mix Design Methods for Asphalt
Concrete) from the Asphalt Institute recommends the correct size of a compacted 4inch (10.16 cm) Marshall is 2.5 inches в€Ђ 0.049 inches (63.5 mm в€Ђ 1.27 mm) in height.
This is equivalent to a volume of 515 cm3 в€Ђ 8 cm3. MDOT makes a trial mix at 1230
grams aggregate plus predicted optimum asphalt content. The Marshall specimen is
weighed out at 1230 grams, compacted, cooled, extruded and the volume measured.
If the volume is not 515 cm3, a formula is used to determine the correct weight needed
for the Marshalls to achieve this volume.
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MTM 322-01
Adjusted weight of mix = 515 * weight of mix used
Measured Volume
8.4
Mixing - test a minimum of 4 points at asphalt contents in increments of 0.5 %, with at
least one full point above or below optimum asphalt content.
8.4.1
The mixing bowl is removed from the oven and tared on the electronic scale.
The first batch of aggregate is removed from the oven and poured into the
mixing bowl. The aggregate weight is checked to ensure 5500 grams. The
scale is tared again. A pocket is created in the middle of the aggregate and
the correct amount of asphalt is poured in.
8.4.2
The mixing bowl is attached to the Hobart mixer. The mixing paddle is
removed from the oven and attached. The aggregate and asphalt is mixed for
12 minutes.
8.4.3
The mixture is placed in stainless steel bowls. Excess material on both the
mixing bowl and paddle are scraped into the bowl. The bowls are covered and
placed back into the oven for a 2-hour oven- cure time. The mixing bowl and
paddle are placed back into the oven in preparation for the next test point.
8.4.4
Repeat this process for the remaining points.
NOTE: Keep track of the times when each point is put into the oven to ensure
proper cure-time.
8.4.5
After the 2-hour oven cure-time, the mixture is removed from the oven and
dumped onto a heated quartering table. The mixture is worked with a heated
trowel to help ensure that segregation does not exist. The mix is quartered into
3 Marshall samples and one TMD sample. The TMD sample is placed on a
large aluminum rectangular pan, spread out and allowed to cool. The 3
Marshall samples are checked for correct weight to produce a Marshall with a
volume of 515 cm3 в€Ђ 8 cm3. The Marshall tins are covered and placed back
into the oven. A calibrated thermometer is placed in each tin.
9. Mixture Testing
9.1
Marshall Compaction - once the Marshall samples have reached compaction
temperature, they are compacted per ASTM D 1559.
EXCEPTION: MDOT makes a 5500-gram batch for 3 Marshalls and one TMD sample
instead of making one batch per Marshall. Also, MDOT mixes and compacts
exclusively at 290 О•F (143.3 О•C).
9.1.1
The Marshall hammer shall have a flat, circular tamping face with a nonrotating base.
9.1.2
The Marshall molds are preheated in a VWR 1350 F constant-temperature
oven.
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MTM 322-01
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.1.3
The Marshalls are compacted at 290 О•F (143.3 О•C), 50 blows per side. If a
polymer-modified asphalt is used in the mixture, compaction temperature is
recommended by the supplier.
9.1.4
After compaction the Marshall is marked with an ID and placed on its side to
cool. The Marshall is left overnight before being extruded.
9.1.5
Smooth the rough edges.
Marshall Bulk Specific Gravity - ASTM D 2726 procedures are followed.
9.2.1
Calculate the Bulk Specific Gravity to 3 decimal places.
9.2.2
All Marshall volume should be within the 515 cm3 в€Ђ 8 cm3 tolerance limits.
9.2.3
The average Gmb from each individual asphalt content (3 Marshalls) should be
within 0.012 spread. Any Marshalls outside this spread should be evaluated
and re-done. If 4 Marshalls per point are run, and one falls outside this
tolerance, it can be tossed out.
9.2.4
The Marshall weights and calculations are recorded on MDOT Form 1822,
Marshall Mix Design Worksheet.
Marshall Stability and Flow - ASTM D 1559 procedures are followed.
9.3.1
MDOT uses a Rainhart Stability Machine to measure the stability and flow.
9.3.2
The Rainhart gauges are hooked up to a computer and the data is recorded
electronically on a disk. Stability, flow and graphs are printed out on a laser
printer. Data is also recorded on MDOT Form 1822.
9.3.3
The stability value for each Marshall is corrected when the specimen volume is
other than 509 to 522. Table 1 from ASTM D 1559 lists the correlation ratios
for other volumes.
Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity (Gmm) - ASTM D 2041 procedures are followed.
9.4.1
MDOT=s minimum sample size is 2000 grams.
9.4.2
One Gmm test per point.
9.4.3
The mix is spread out on a large aluminum tray and allowed to cool. The
mixture is broken down by hand so the particles of the fine aggregate portion
are not larger than 1/4 inches (6.35 mm).
9.4.4
MDOT uses an aluminum pycnometer, calibrated weekly. The dry weight is
checked daily.
9.4.5
MDOT uses a Humboldt vibrating table to apply the 15-minute agitation.
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MTM 322-01
9.4.6
After agitation the pycnometer is filled with water, attached to an electronic
scale and is hung in a water bath at 77 О•F (25 О•C) for 15 minutes. The final
weight is taken.
9.4.7
Calculate the theoretical maximum specific gravity to 3 decimal places.
Calculate the aggregate effective specific gravity (GSE) to 3 decimal places.
The maximum spread between all GSE tests should be 0.012. If one of the
values is outside this tolerance, re-testing should be considered.
9.4.8
Record data on MDOT Form 1806.
10. Calculations
10.1
Bulk Specific Gravity of the Compacted Mix (Gmb) - calculate the Gmb to 3 decimal
places as follows:
G mb =
10.2
Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity (Gmm) - calculate the Gmm to 3 decimal places
for each asphalt content as follows:
G mm =
10.3
weight in air
SSD weight - weight in water
mixture weight in air
mixture weight in air - mixture weight in water
Aggregate Effective Specific Gravity (GSE) - calculate the GSE to 3 decimal places for
each asphalt content as follows:
GSE =
100 - Pb
100 Pb
в€’
Gmm Gb
Average the GSE for all asphalt content. Record on MDOT Form 1806.
10.4
Computed Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity (Gmm) - using the average GSE from
the mix design, calculate the Gmm for each asphalt content as follows:
G mm =
100
100 в€’ Pb Pb
+
GSE
Gb
Record the computed Gmm on MDOT Form 1806.
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MTM 322-01
10.5
Air Voids - calculate the air void content at each asphalt content to one decimal place
as follows:
Air Voids % =
10.6
Voids Filled With Asphalt (VFA) - calculate the VFA at each asphalt content to
2 decimal places as follows:
VFA = 100 Г—
10.7
G mm - G mb
Г— 100%
G mm
Pb Г— Gmb
(Gb Г— AV ) + ( Pb Г— Gmb )
Voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA) - calculate the VMA at each asphalt content to one
decimal place as follows:
VMA % = 100 Г—
AV
100 в€’ VFA
Absorbed asphalt is included as part of the VMA.
10.8
Asphalt Blend Ratio (ABR) - calculate as part of the VMA.
вЋ§ log A t, pen в€’ log As , pen вЋ«
ABR = вЋЁ
вЋ¬ Г— 100
log
log
A
pen
в€’
A
pen
a
,
s
,
вЋ©
вЋ­
10.9
Percent RAP Allowed in Mix (S,%) - calculate S,% as follows:
ABR вЋ« вЋ§вЋЄ A t, %
вЋ§
S , % = вЋЁ1 в€’
вЋ¬вЋЁ
100 вЋ­ вЋЄвЋ© A s, %
вЋ©
вЋ«вЋЄ
вЋ¬ Г— 100
вЋЄвЋ­
11. Report
11.1
Data Entry - the following information is entered into MDOT=s Mix Design computer
program.
11.1.1
Project information, control section number, project number, etc. Data from
MDOT Form 1820.
11.1.2
Contractor=s aggregate gradations, aggregate sources, % of blends, crush
counts, AWI values, AI values, etc. Data from MDOT Form 1820.
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MTM 322-01
11.2
11.1.3
Marshall test values. Data from MDOT Form 1822.
11.1.4
TMD test values. Data from MDOT Form 1806.
11.1.5
RAP data from MDOT Form 1814.
11.1.6
Desired air voids.
Test Report - the test report is generated.
11.2.1 The data entry page is reviewed for correct data entry.
11.2.2 The test report page is reviewed for correct data entry.
11.2.3 Target air voids are per specification for the project.
11.2.4 If desired air voids are achieved with at least one full test point above or below
optimum asphalt content, proceed. If not, another asphalt content needs to be
run.
11.2.5 All specification items are checked. If they meet, proceed. If not, the design
is stopped.
11.2.6 The test results for unit weight, stability, flow, air voids and VMA versus
asphalt content are plotted on a graph.
11.3
Review.
11.3.1 The design is reviewed by the HMA Mix Design Supervising Technician.
11.3.2 If confident with the results, proceed. If not, more testing may be necessary.
11.3.3 Notify the Traveling Mix Inspector (TMI), Project Engineer, Consultant and
Contractor as to status of the mix design.
11.3.4 The HMA Mix Design Engineer gives the final review and approval of the mix
design.
11.3.5 The HMA Mix Design is reported out.
12. Submitted Mix Designs
12.1
Mix design submittal shall be made to:
Michigan Department of Transportation
Construction and Technology Laboratory
HMA Mix Design Unit
8885 Ricks Road
P.O. Box 30049
Lansing, MI 48909
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MTM 322-01
The hours for the laboratory are Monday through Friday from 5:30 am until 3:30 p.m.
12.1.1 MDOT will only accept one passing design per course, per project. The
maximum number of designs per course, per project, any one
Contractor/consultant may submit is two.
12.1.2 Upon acceptance of a submitted mix design (SMD) MDOT will have 7 calendar
days to evaluate. SMDs received after 11:45 am will start the 7-day clock on
the next scheduled workday.
12.2
Material Submittal - upon initial submittal of a mix design a representative of the HMA
Services Unit must review the design for completeness of documentation and
materials.
12.2.1 3 - 5000 gram samples of mixture at point closest to/at optimum asphalt
content.
12.2.2 1 - 6700 gram sample of mixture at optimum asphalt content.
12.2.3 2 - 1400 gram samples of blended aggregate.
NOTE: If Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is used in the mix design, these
aggregate samples are not required.
12.2.4 800 grams sample passing No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve and retained No. 30
(0.60 mm) sieve for the final Angularity Index blend. All material must be
washed and dried.
12.2.5 Individual Aggregate Wear Index (AWI) samples. For each aggregate requiring
an AWI value.
12.3
Documentation
12.3.1 MDOT Form 1820 - Contractor=s HMA Mix Design Communication
12.3.2 MDOT Form 1923 - Sample Identification (include with each submitted sample)
12.3.3 MDOT Form 1813 - Submitted Mix Design Summary Sheet
12.3.4 MDOT Form 1806 - Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity of HMA Paving
Mixtures
12.3.5 MDOT Form 1822 - Marshall Mix Design Worksheet
12.3.6 MDOT Form 1814 - Contractor Submitted Mix Design Worksheet for Recycled
Mixtures
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MTM 322-01
12.3.7 Documentation of RAP stockpile testing. One complete mixture analysis every
1000 tons of RAP (minimum of 3). One penetration test on the recovered
asphalt cement every 3000 tons of RAP (minimum of 2).
12.3.8 Mix design regression analysis
12.3.9 Letter from the Contractor authorizing the consultant as the Contractor=s agent
on mix design issues for the project.
12.3.10MSDS for polymer modified asphalt, if used in the mixture.
12.4
MDOT Review
12.4.1 Any sample submissions that are deficient in amount or lacking proper and
complete identification will be rejected.
12.4.2 MDOT will review the submitted mix design for compliance with project
specifications.
12.4.3 MDOT will evaluate the submitted mix design tests by entering and running this
data with MDOT=s HMA Mix Design computer program.
12.4.4 MDOT will evaluate Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) mix designs and
determine if the percent virgin to percent recycled conforms with MDOT
procedures.
12.4.5 MDOT will test the physical properties of the aggregate samples for aggregate
wear index (AWI), angularity index (AI), soft stone and percent crushed for
compliance to specification.
NOTE: If a nomograph exists for an aggregate source, its value will be used for
the mix design.
12.4.6 Submitted mix designs that meet MDOT evaluation of materials,
documentation, mix design computer run and proper asphalt cement percent
recycle for RAP mix designs will be accepted by MDOT for actual lab testing.
12.4.7 MDOT will then prepare Marshall specimens for testing stability and flow
(ASTM 1559), bulk specific gravity (ASTM 2726) and prepare specimens for
maximum theoretical specific gravity (ASTM 2041).
NOTE: MDOT does not oven-cure these samples. The mixture is warmed just
long enough to quarter out the TMD and Marshall samples. The Marshall
samples are then put in tins and into the oven to bring up to test temperature.
12.4.8 MDOT will run an extraction on mixture submitted and compare results to the
mix design and evaluation of the percent of recovered asphalt cement,
recovered asphalt cement penetration, aggregate gradation and percent crush.
12.5
Tolerance Limits for MDOT verification of submitted mix design.
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MTM 322-01
12.5.1 Bulk Specific gravity of mixture в€Ђ 0.026.
12.5.2 Theoretical maximum specific gravity в€Ђ 0.019
12.5.3 Air Voids в€Ђ 1.0%
12.5.4 Asphalt content в€Ђ 0.3%
12.5.5 Percent crush must meet specification for project
12.5.6 Verification tolerance for crush particle content в€Ђ 15%
12.5.7 Angularity Index must meet specification for project.
12.5.8 Stability must meet specification for project.
12.5.9 Flow must meet specification for project.
12.5.10Aggregate gradation must meet design master gradation specification.
12.5.11Sieve 1 inch (25.0 mm) through 3/8 inch (9.50 mm) в€Ђ 3.0%
12.5.12Sieve No. 4 (4.75 mm) through No. 50 (0.30 mm) в€Ђ 2.0%
12.5.13Sieve No. 100 (0.15 mm) through No. 200 (0.075 mm) в€Ђ 1.0%
12.5.14If the penetration results from the extracted mixture qualify for a price reduction
per Table 4.00-3 of the Special Provision, the mix design will be considered a
failing design.
12.5.15For all designs, the fines to asphalt ratio shall not exceed 1.200 percent.
12.6
Submitted Mix Design Review
12.6.1 All specification items and the tolerance limits between the submitted design
and MDOT test results are reviewed.
12.6.2 Submitted mix designs that meet all tolerance limits will be reported out as
passing. If not, the design process is stopped.
12.6.3 Notify the Traveling Mix Inspectors (TMIs), Project Engineer and Consultant as
to the status.
12.6.4 The HMA Mix Design Engineer gives the final review and approval of the mix
design.
12.6.5 The HMA Mix Design is reported out.
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MTM 322-01
13. Modifications
13.1
It should be noted this procedure is a guideline only and variations from it are
sometimes necessary. Other factors to be taken into account when determining
optimum asphalt content are: roadway vertical alignment, traffic turning movements,
commercial traffic volumes, environmental conditions, construction conditions,
previous behavior of the aggregate in HMA mixtures and the surface upon which the
mixture is being placed.
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MTM 322-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SAMPLING HMA PAVING MIXTURES
BEHIND THE PAVER
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedures for sampling HMA paving mixtures at the point of
delivery immediately behind the paver and before initial compaction.
1.2
The values stated are to be regarded as the standard.
1.3
These procedures may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. They
do not claim to address all of the safety and health issues associated with their use. It
is the responsibility of each user to consult and establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Significance and Use
2.1
Sampling is equally as important as testing, and the sampler will use every precaution
to obtain samples that will show the nature and condition of the materials which they
represent.
2.2
This sampling method may be used for:
2.2.1
Contractor Quality Control
2.2.2
Agency Quality Assurance
2.2.3
Investigations
3. Equipment
3.1
Sampling Plates - (3 each) The sampling plates used for all mixtures shall be
rectangular and have a minimum size of 14 x 28 inches (360 x 720 mm) or 14 x 14
inches (360 x 360 mm). All plates will have a hole approximately 0.25 inches (6 mm)
in diameter drilled through each of the four corners.
3.2
Lifting Handles and Wire Lead - Attach a 24 inch (600 mm) length of wire to the two
holes on each side of the plate to serve as lifting handles. An additional wire lead is
attached to one of the lifting handles for locating the buried plate in the pavement.
This wire will extend to the edge of the pavement.
3.3
Non-absorbent containers with a suitable capacity of either 3.5 gallons (13 liters) or 5
gallons (19 liters).
3.4
Hammer and nails for securing plates and wire lead.
3.5
MDOT Approved Sampling Shovel (Fig. 2).
1 of 5
MTM 324-07
3.6
MDOT Approved Splitter
4. Composite Sample
4.1
Sample the HMA paving mixtures at the point of delivery immediately behind the paver
and before initial roller compaction. One composite sample consists of a minimum of
three increments collected within 10 feet longitudinally and across the width of the
paving operation (Fig. 1).
4.2
Sample Size - The composite sample shall be governed by the special provision in the
contract.
5. Sampling With Plates and Shovel – Use this method when sampling HMA directly over
aggregate base, rubblized concrete, crush and shape HMA base, or a cold milled surface
when paving operation is 3 feet or greater.
5.1
Determine the sample locations according to the special provision for QC/QA in the
contract.
5.2
Place the plate with the wire lead attached to one of the handles at the designated
location ahead of the paver. If conditions on the project require restricting movement
of the plate, drive a nail through one of the holes in the plate and into the pavement.
5.3
Extend the wire lead beyond the edge of the pavement. Trucks, pavers, and/or
materials transfer devices will be allowed to cross over the plate and/or wire lead.
5.4
After the mixture is placed, use the wire lead to locate the plate. Find and lift the wire
handles out of the pavement. This will locate the four corners of the plate.
5.5
Once the plate edges are defined, use the shovel and dig downward through the
thickness of the pavement until it is in contact with the plate. Push the shovel forward
until the shovel is full. Lift the shovel up slowly, being careful not to lose any HMA.
Place materials from shovel directly into sample container.
5.6
Remove sampling plates from pavement.
5.7
The Contractor will fill and level the void left in the pavement with HMA obtained from
the paver’s auger system. This material will first be placed in sampling buckets.
5.8
Distribute samples.
6. Sampling With Shovel (Without Plates) – Use this method when sampling over HMA and
concrete surfaces when paving operation is 3 feet or greater. When paving operation is
utilizing a windrow pickup machine, this sampling method shall also be used.
6.1
Determine the sample locations according to the special provision for QC/QA in the
contract.
6.2
Using a sampling shovel at the random location dig directly downward into pavement
until it comes into contact with the pavement surface. When in contact, push shovel
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MTM 324-07
forward until sampling shovel is full of HMA and lift the shovel up slowly, being careful
not to lose any HMA. Place materials from shovel directly into sample container.
6.3
The Contractor will fill and level the void left in the pavement with HMA obtained from
the paver’s auger system. This material will first be placed in sampling buckets.
6.4
Distribute samples.
7. Documentation
7.1
After the sample has been obtained, the attached form titled Sample Identification
for HMA Mixture Street Samples will be filled out completely and included with the
sample.
SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION FOR HMA MIXTURE STREET SAMPLES
CONTROL SECTION:
JOB NUMBER:
PROJECT ENGINEER:
DATE SAMPLED:
TIME SAMPLE TAKEN:
CONTRACTOR:
LOT, SUBLOT NUMBER AND
LOCATION:
HMA MIX TYPE:
TONNAGE REPRESENTED:
REMARKS:
SAMPLED BY:
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MTM 324-07
E.O.P.
6 in. (150 mm)
Paver Direction
6 in. (150 mm)
E.O.P.
Maximum 10 ft. (3 m)
Figure 1: Sampling Pattern Behind the Paver
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MTM 324-07
Figur 1: Incremental Sampling Pattern Behind the Paver
Figure 2: MDOT Approved Sampling Shovel
Dimensions:
Overall Length = 5 Feet
Shovel Width = 10 Inches
Shovel Length = 12 Inches
Shovel Sides = 3 Inches (Minimum)
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MTM 324-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
QUANTITATIVE EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN
FROM HMA PAVING MIXTURES
1. Scope
1.1 These methods cover the quantitative determination of bitumen in HMA paving mixtures
and pavement samples.
1.2 Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with AASHTO T 164-01.
2. Modification
2.1 The “Checklist for HMA Mixture Analysis Vacuum Extraction”, of the HMA Production
Manual (pg. 50-51), will replace the procedure within Section 25 of AASHTO T
164-01.
2.2 The bitumen will be extracted using a biodegradable solvent from Section 3, in place of
those listed in Section 6 of AASHTO T 164-01.
3. Approved Extraction Solvents
3.1 The approved extraction solvents for Section 6 of AASHTO T 164-01 are as follows:
Hisol Plus
ASTEC Corporation
7750-650 Zionsville Road
Indianapolis, IN 46268
(800) 743-7770
Biogenic SE 374
Rochester Midland Corporation
P. O. Box 31515
Rochester, NY 14603
(800) 388-4762
3.2 The extraction solvent selected from the approved extraction solvent list will be given to
the Contractor by MDOT at the pre-production meeting. The extraction solvent
selected for the project will not change during the project.
4. Evaluation Procedure
4.1 This evaluation procedure outlines the Department’s approval process for biodegradable
asphalt solvents used for extraction of HMA mixes.
4.2 A copy of the MSDS sheets, product data information, and a 5 gallon sample of the
product being tested must be submitted to Construction and Technology.
4.3 To place a product on the Approved Extraction Solvents List (Section 3), a biodegradable
solvent must meet the following requirements:
4.3.1
Flash point of 140 В°F or above.
4.3.2
A maximum Specific Gravity of 0.90.
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MTM 325-07
4.3.3
Must rinse through filter without evidence of clumping or coagulation of the
solvent.
4.3.4
Extract asphalt cement from a 2000 gram, 5.5% AC, standard and polymer
modified asphalt mix within 0.5% of the amount of asphalt used to
construct the standard mix.
4.3.5
4.3.4.1
Using an amount of solvent not to exceed 2.0 gallons.
4.3.4.2
Using an amount of rinse water not to exceed 2.5 gallons.
The biodegradable solvent must be used at room temperature.
5. Producer Requirements
5.1 Companies with products on this list will be expected to comply with the following to stay
on the list:
5.1.1
Produce the same quality of material as the material supplied for the
original evaluation.
5.1.2
Provide only approved products to Department projects.
5.1.3
Promptly report to the Department any changes in company name, product
name, company address or company ownership.
5.1.4
Notify the Department of any changes in production of the product. Any
alteration that will change the product physically will require a reevaluation
of the product.
6. Disqualification
6.1
Products may be removed from this list for any of the following:
6.1.1
Mislabeling products or substitution of products other than those originally
submitted.
6.1.2
Failure of the product to meet an of the Department’s requirements for this
type of material.
6.1.3
Failure to work satisfactorily on the job.
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MTM 325-07
7. Requalification
7.1 A product that has been disqualified and removed from the above list will be considered
for re-evaluation only after submission of a written request, along with acceptable
evidence that the problems causing the disqualification have been corrected.
8. Correspondence
8.1
All correspondence concerning this list should be directed to the following:
Michigan Department of Transportation
Construction and Technology
Secondary Complex
Attn: Bituminous Services Unit
8885 Ricks Road
P. O. Box 30049
Lansing, MI 48909
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MTM 325-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TRANSVERSE SHEARING RESISTANCE OF COHESIVE SOILS
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the transverse shearing resistance of
cohesive soils by measuring the force required to cause failure in two shear planes of
a soil cylinder. It is dependent upon minimal disturbance of the soil sample. This test
is for strength information as opposed to specification requirements.
1.2
The limitations of the technique are defined by the following factors:
1.2.1
Soil materials such as sand, silt, peat, or gravel should not be tested for
transverse shear.
1.2.2
Normal stress on the shear plane is unknown.
1.2.3
The shear plane is pre-determined.
NOTE 1 - When doubt exists as to soil composition, the test should be run and
appropriate remarks noted. The user's judgement is essential.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
MDSH&T, "Transverse Shearing Resistance of Cohesive Soil", Field Manual of Soil
Engineering (Fifth Edition), January 1970, pp. 261-264.
2.2
Housel, W.S., "Method ST-14", Applied Soil Mechanics - Laboratory Manual of Soil
Testing Procedures, 1957, pp. 61-66.
3. Summary of Method
3.1
An undisturbed soil sample is obtained in the field through the use of a standard core
liner sampler. The soil core liner is transferred from the shipping tube to the transverse
shear cylinder. This device suspends the small center section of the steel liner which
produces two soil shear planes. Displacement of this center section is induced by
adding equal weight increments to an attached load bucket at designated time
intervals until failure. Deformation readings are taken from a dial gage and plotted on
a graph against elapsed time. A second graph is prepared to determine the yield load
(Ly). The value for transverse shearing resistance (SC) is calculated from a given
formula and reported in pounds per square foot (psf).
3.2
After the transverse shearing resistance of the sample has been determined, the
Natural Moisture-Density Test (a separate test not included in this procedure) is
performed on the soil recovered from the small section of the cylinder.
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MTM 401-01
3.3
The exposed ends of the two remaining 3 inch cylinders are sealed with paraffin and
stored for later use in the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soils Test
(AASHTO Designation: T-208) or for a re-test of SC.
4. Significance
4.1
A value for the strength of cohesive soils is necessary to accurately determine the
bearing capacity of spread footings, pilings, lateral pressures against retaining walls,
the stability of slopes and embankment foundations. This method provides a direct
measurement of the static yield value (SC) for these and other design purposes.
4.2
When four or more loads result in failure, the final results are essentially independent
of the dynamic resistance and the rate of loading. It is assumed these results
represent the applied stress capable of being sustained in static equilibrium.
4.3
Shearing stress is assumed to be independent of normal stress.
4.4
The slope of the curve representing the last 7 minutes of deflection for each cumulative
load increment is taken to approximate the long term behavior of the soil sample.
4.5
The advantages of this technique include the following:
4.5.1
This method provides a direct measurement of the static yield value (SC) of
cohesive soils.
4.5.2
Vast MDOT experience with this method is a major aid in the interpretation of
most Michigan cohesive soils.
4.5.3
All equipment and special apparatus for sampling and testing are readily
available.
5. Definitions
5.1
Transverse Shearing Resistance or Static Yield Value (SC) - the maximum load per
unit area at which the soil sample will not suffer progressive deformation.
6. Interferences
6.1
Pebbles, pieces of wood, sand pockets, or other similar obstructions within the area of
either shear plane may lead to erratic and undependable results.
6.2
Strong vibrational disturbances on the soil cylinder prior to or during the test may lead
to undependable results.
7. Apparatus
7.1
Transverse Shear Device - A specially designed three-piece cylinder (see Figure 1c)
shall be constructed of steel, aluminum, or other durable material. The cylinder ID
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MTM 401-01
shall be 1.51 inches + 0.005 inches to readily accommodate the loading of the
stainless steel liner containing the soil core. The cylinder shall supply the support for
the dial gage.
NOTE 2: Dimensional drawings for the Transverse Shear Test apparatus are on file in
the Geotechnical Services Unit. The materials used for the construction of the
removable 1.0 inch shear section will limit the minimum load that can be initially
applied to the soil core during the test procedure.
7.1.1
The removable shear section shall be held in place by two opposing thumb
screws. An eye bolt shall be located at the bottom of this section to hold a shot
bucket.
7.2
Static Loading Equipment - Galvanized steel shot buckets ranging in capacity from 100
to 500 in3 shall be used to contain the increments of steel shot. The size of the bucket
selected for the test is dependent upon the estimated failure load. Various sizes and
loads of steel shot shall be used to produce the intended stress across the shear
planes.
7.3
Transfer Jig - A transfer jig shall be used to support the shear cylinder in a
substantially horizontal position. It must allow for the coaxial transfer of the soil
sample and liner from the shipping tube into the shear cylinder with a minimum degree
of disturbance (see Figure 1d).
7.4
Deformation Indicator - The deformation indicator shall be a dial gage graduated to
0.001 inches and shall have a minimum travel range of 1.0 inches.
7.5
Timer - A timing device shall be used to measure the elapsed testing time to the
nearest second.
7.6
Balance - The balance shall have a sensitivity not less than 0.5% of any load within the
range of 0 to 10 pounds.
7.7
Hand Mandrel - The hand mandrel shall have a plane circular pushing face with a
1.5 inch OD and a minimum overall length of 15.0 inches. This tool shall be used to
eject the steel liner containing the soil sample from the shipping tube with negligible
lateral disturbance (see Figure 1a).
7.8
Soil Extruder - The soil extruder shall consist of a solid steel shaft with a minimum
length of 3.0 inches. The extruder shall have a plane circular pushing face with a
1.37 inches + 0.001 inches OD. This tool shall be used to eject the soil specimen from
the 1.0 inch liner (see 8.4.2) and the soil sample from a 3.0 inch liner (see Figure 2).
7.9
Test Railing - The test railing shall consist of two identical steel bars. They shall be
parallel, level, and separated by a distance of 2.15 inches + 0.05 inches. They shall
be mounted at a height of no less than 16.0 inches from the work surface to
accommodate a loading bucket. The test railing shall be designed to suspend the
shear cylinder and to catch the 1.0 inch shear section after failure.
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MTM 401-01
8. Procedure
8.1
The measurement procedure consists of applying uniform forces to two 1.5 in2 shear
planes at designated time intervals. Figure 3 shows a typical equipment set-up with
the test in progress.
8.2
Sample preparation:
8.2.1
Remove the tape and paraffin seal from the ends of the brass shipping tube.
Align the shear cylinder and the shipping tube on the transfer jig. Insert the
hand mandrel into the shipping tube and push the steel liners containing the
soil sample directly into the shear cylinder as shown in Figure 4. Avoid placing
any lateral force on the steel liners. Pull the shipping tube straight back 1.0
inch while holding the steel liners in the shear cylinder with the hand mandrel.
Use a trimming knife to carefully cut off the 3.0 inch soil liner that remains
outside of the shear cylinder but still partially inside the shipping tube. Remove
the remaining 3.0 inch soil liner from the shipping tube.
NOTE 3 - Seal the exposed ends of the severed soil section and store it for later use in
either the Unconfined Compressive Strength Test or for a possible re-test of transverse
shearing resistance (see Annex 1).
8.2.2
8.3
Estimate the failure load to the nearest 1.0 pound by physically feeling the
exposed ends of the soil core. Line up the 1.0 inch liner sections with the 1.0
inch shear section. Re-seal the exposed ends of the sample with paraffin to
prevent evaporation of soil moisture during the test. Place the loaded shear
cylinder on the test railing.
Load Application:
8.3.1
Divide the estimated failure load by 6 to determine the weight of a single load
increment. Weigh each load increment to within 1% of the incremental load.
Pour the first increment of steel shot into the bucket and hang it on the eye bolt
beneath the small shear section and remove the 2 thumb screws. Set the dial
gage at zero and start the timer. Take deformation readings to the nearest
0.0001 inch at the end of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10 minute intervals (cumulative).
Record all data on the Transverse Shear Test Worksheet, Form 1861C (see
Figure 5). Express the deformation readings as the deflection x 10-3 inch.
Immediately after 10-minute reading, carefully pour the next increment of steel
shot into the bucket. Avoid any sudden jarring of the small shear section.
Repeat the procedure for taking deformation readings.
8.3.1.1
Continue the loading and reading procedures every 10 minutes
until the cumulative load causes complete failure.
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MTM 401-01
NOTE 4: The first load increment cannot be less than 0.5 pounds. This is the
approximate initial load resulting from the combined weight of the following items: (a)
the 1.0 inch liner section containing the soil specimen, (b) the 1.0 inch shear section,
(c) the shot bucket, and (d) the force exerted by the foot of the dial gage. Since the
stress load is cumulative, only the first increment of steel shot shall be adjusted by this
amount.
8.4
Remove all the soil liners from the shear cylinder after failure has been achieved.
Examine the shear planes for obstructions (especially air or sand pockets). If an
obstruction is found, refer to Annex 1. Otherwise, record "good shear" under
"Remarks".
8.5
Specimen Recovery and Analysis:
8.5.1
Record the data determined from the recovery and analysis procedure on the
Volumetric Analysis of Undisturbed Soil Worksheet, Form 1861 C-R (see
Figure 6). An example of a completed form is shown in Figure 6a.
8.5.2
Smooth the shear planes on the 1.0 inch liner with a spatula. If additional soil
is needed to completely fill either shear plane of the 1.0 inch liner, take a small
amount of soil from the corresponding shear end of the 3.0 inch liner. Seal the
exposed ends of the two 3.0 inch liners with paraffin and store them (see 3.3).
8.5.3
Weigh the 1.0 inch liner and specimen to the nearest 0.1 gram. Remove the
specimen with the soil extruder. Place it in a tared container. Take care to
recover the small amounts of soil left inside the 1.0 inch liner and on the soil
extruder. Weigh the specimen and container to the nearest 0.1 gram. Weigh
the 1.0 inch liner to the nearest 0.1 gram. Compute the wet weight of the
specimen (W1 - WC = W) from both the tared container and 1.0 inch liner
weighings. The difference, if any, between the two specimen weights must be
no greater than 0.1 gram or an error has occurred in the recovery procedure.
8.5.4
Record the length of the sheared soil core to the nearest millimeter. For this
method the core length shall be 1.0 inch, as determined from the specified
shear cylinder dimensions (see Figure 1c).
8.5.5
Classify the specimen according to the properties listed under the heading
"Classification of Wet Sample". Circle the appropriate terms.
NOTE: The last step in the Transverse Shearing Resistance Test procedure usually
includes the first step in preparing the soil for the Natural Moisture-Density Test (see
3.2). Place the specimen in a pre-heated oven set at 230 О•F + 9 О•F for a minimum of
24 hours.
9. Plotting and Calculation
9.1
Deformation-Time Graph:
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MTM 401-01
9.1.1
9.2
Deformation-Load Graph:
9.2.1
9.3
Prepare a graph of the deformation readings versus time for each load
increment (see Annex 2). Refer each time-rate curve to a common origin by
subtracting the deflection for the preceding 10-minute interval. The resulting
series of curves expresses the tendency of the soil specimen to reach static
equilibrium under increasing stress load.
Represent the slope of each deformation-time curve by taking the difference
between the 3 minute and 10 minute deformation readings. Plot a graph of
these differences against their respective cumulative loads (see Annex 3).
Draw the best straight line through the points representing elastic deformation
and a second line through the points representing plastic deformation. The
ordinate at the point of intersection shall represent the ultimate load value or
yield value (Ly) of the soil specimen. This value is recorded to the nearest 0.1
pound.
Calculation:
9.3.1
Calculate the transverse shearing resistance value (SC) from the following
equation:
Sc =
Ly
At
where:
SC = transverse shearing resistance value in psf
Ly = yield value in pounds
At = total area of the shearing planes in ft2
9.3.2
The determination of the total area (At) is discussed in Annex 4.
9.3.3
To convert to kilopascals (kPa), multiply Sc by 0.04788 (SI conversion factor
from ASTM E-380).
10. Report
10.1
The results of the Transverse Shearing Resistance Test (Sc) shall be reported in the
Report of Test "Soil Mechanics" Form 1861 and the Soil Mechanics Analysis Form
1841A (see Figures 7, 8). These reports shall also include the results obtained from
supporting tests (see Note 6).
10.1.1 The value for SC shall be reported in pounds per square foot (psf).
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MTM 401-01
10.1.2 All pertinent information regarding any deviation from the procedure or from
acceptable limits shall be recorded under "Remarks".
NOTE 6: No single sample can adequately represent the regional characteristics of
soil properties necessary for the evaluation of foundation stability. No single test can
effectively determine soil strength. Therefore, the results for the Transverse Shearing
Resistance Test are normally reported with the test results for (a) compression
shearing resistance, (b) dry density, and (c) natural moisture characteristics. These
results are further combined with the information obtained by the boring crew in the
field. All of this data is represented graphically on individual boring charts and
composite subsoils analysis charts (see Figure 8). When additional information is
needed in evaluating soils of critical strengths, questionable plasticity, etc., the
following supplemental tests may be performed and reported with SC: (d) gradation, (e)
Atterberg limits, (f) specific gravity, and (g) organic content.
11. Precision
11.1
Since soil is a natural material having inherent variability, this method may show a
similar variability in results (often exceeding + 20%) for similar soil samples such as retests.
11.2
Since the gradual transition from elastic deformation to progressive deformation often
results in the best approximation of the yield value Ly, this method is designed to show
a similar transition in deformation and an approximation of Ly to the nearest 0.1 pound.
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MTM 401-01
ANNEXES
A.1
Basis and Procedure for Re-test
A.1.1 For the following reasons the determined value for SC may not represent true
transverse shearing resistance of the cohesive soil sample:
A.1.1.1
An overestimation of the failure load causes the specimen to shear
prematurely. Not enough points are plotted to adequately define the
deformation-load curve. The results of the test shall be discarded and a retest performed.
A.1.1.2
An outlier appears in the results of several shear tests for samples
obtained from the same soil deposit. An outlier usually reflects an error
occurring in the test procedure, a damaged sample or an obstruction in
either shear plane. The results of the test in question shall be discarded
after a re-test has confirmed such an error.
NOTE A1: An outlier may reflect a real change in soil stratification. If the results of a
re-test confirm a soil change, the shear value of both tests shall be included in the
report.
A.1.2 The following procedure shall be used to perform a re-test of the cohesive soil sample:
A.1.2.1
Remove the paraffin from the ends of one of the remaining 3.0 inch steel
liners. Vertically transfer the soil core from the 3.0 inch liner into the
sectional re-test liner as shown in Figure 2. When possible, eject the soil
core in the same direction in which it initially entered the liner. Estimate the
failure load and reseal the exposed ends with paraffin. Use the transfer jig
to insert the sectional re-test liner into the shear cylinder. Line up the
middle 1.0 inch liner section with the 1.0 inch shear section.
A.1.2.2
Proceed with the re-test as described in the main text from "Load
Application" (8.3) to the end of "Calculation" (9.3).
A.1.2.3
With the exception of a re-test that confirms a change in soil stratification,
discard the results of the first test and report the results of the re-test as
described in "Report" (10). If the re-test confirms a soil change, report the
results of the first test with the re-test.
NOTE A2: It is not always evident whether an error occurred in the initial test or in the
re-test. A second re-test may be necessary to determine the reliability of a value for
SC. In the rare case of two re-tests, all information pertaining to the difficulty shall be
included in the report. One of the three 3.0 inch liners must be reserved for the
Unconfined Compressive Strength Test.
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MTM 401-01
A.2
Preparation of the Deformation-Time Graph
A.2.1 The following discussion provides an expansion of the procedure for preparing the
deformation-time graph (9.1). Reference should be made to Figure 5a when reviewing
this material.
A.2.2 The deformation readings taken from the dial gage are expressed as the deflection x
10-3 inches. The time intervals are expressed in minutes.
A.2.3 For the first test load the deformation readings (column labeled "Reading") and the
increments of deflection (column labeled "Inc.") are the same. For each successive
load application, the first increment of deflection (C) is found by subtracting the
preceding 10 minute reading (A) from the 1 minute reading (B); 1.4 - 0.6 = 0.8, as
shown in the typical example for the fourth load application (cum. load = 4). The
increase in deflection (D - B) for each time interval is added to the preceding increment
(C) and recorded as the increment for the next time interval (E). In the example 1.6 1.4 = 0.2 and 0.2 + 0.8 = 1.0, is the recording for the 3 minute increment. To
determine the increment of deflection for each succeeding time increment within one
load increment, use the formula: (D - B) + C = E. Thus, the increment of deflection for
the 5 minute interval is (1.9 - 1.6) + 1.0 = 1.3, for the 7 minute interval is (2.3 - 1.9) +
1.3 = 1.7, for the 9 minute interval is (2.7 - 2.3) + 1.7 = 2.1, and for the 10 minute
interval is (2.8 - 2.7) + 2.1 =2.2.
A.2.4 Each increment of deflection is plotted against its corresponding time interval within
each load increment. A straight line is drawn between successive points to determine
one curve. Points (C) and (E) belong to the curve for the fourth load increment. Each
curve is referred to a common origin by subtracting the deflection for the preceding
10 minute interval as described in A.2.3.
A.2.5 A completed graph and worksheet is shown in Figure 5c.
A.3
Preparation of the Deformation-Load Graph
A.3.1 The following discussion provides an expansion of the procedure for preparing the
deformation-load graph (9.2). Reference should be made to Figure 5b when reviewing
this material.
A.3.2 The deflection difference represents the last 7 minutes of each load increment (box
labeled "Diff."). This is found by subtracting the reading at the 3 minute interval from
the reading at the 10 minute interval; 0.6 - 0.1 = 0.5 as recorded in "Diff." for the first
load increment.
NOTE A3: It is assumed the dynamic effects of each load increment will have substantially
subsided by the 3 minute reading. Thus, the slope of the curve representing the last 7 minutes
of deflection is taken to approximate the long-term behavior of the soil sample.
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MTM 401-01
A.3.3 The deflection difference is plotted against its corresponding cumulative load. At least
four complete load increments are needed to determine the yield value Ly. Figure 5b
shows Ly as 9.0 pounds.
A.3.4 A completed graph and worksheet is shown in Figure 5c.
A.4
Procedure for Calculation of SC
A.4.1 The calculation of SC is fixed by the particular design of the steel liners which house
the soil sample. In accordance with the stated specifications for the manufacture of
steel liners (see Figure 1b) the total area (At) of the two shear planes is derived as
follows:
At = 2 x (ПЂ d2 / 4)
where:
At = total area of the two shear planes in inch2
d = 1.375", the inside diameter of the steel liner per specification.
At = 3.0 in2
solving:
The equation for transverse shearing resistance thus becomes:
SC =
Ly (144)
At
where:
SC = transverse shearing resistance in psf
Ly = yield value in pounds
At = 3.0 in2
144 = conversion factor for ft2
A.4.2 To convert to kilopascals (kpa) multiply Sc by 0.04788 (SI conversion factor).
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MTM 401-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING THE LIQUID LIMIT OF SOILS
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers an abbreviated procedure for production determination of liquid
limit of soils.
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with AASHTO Method
T89.
2. Modifications to Method B
2.1
Change in Section 10.2: A single 0.5 inch groove closure will be considered
satisfactory when achieved at the required number of blows.
2.2
Change in Section 10.3: The required number of blows for a single groove closure
shall be 25.
1 of 1
MTM 403-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
THE MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONS OF SOILS USING A 5.5 POUND (2.5 kg)
RAMMER AND A 12 INCH (305 mm) DROP
1. Scope
1.1
This test method is used to determine the relation between the moisture content and
density of soils compacted in a 4-inch (107 mm) mold using a 5.5 pound (2.5 kg)
rammer dropped from a height of 12 inches (305 mm).
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with AASHTO T99,
Method C. This modification is to conform with field practice utilizing all soil particle
sizes passing a 1-inch (25.0 mm) sieve.
2. Modification
2.1
In Methods C, change 0.75 inch (19.0 mm) to 1.0 inch (25.0 mm) to include the
following sections: 2.7, 7.2, 8.4 and 13.1.4.
1of 1
MTM 404-02
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOIL
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the unconfined compressive strength of
cohesive soil in the undisturbed and remolded conditions, using strain-controlled
application of the test load. The primary purpose of the unconfined compression test
is to obtain quickly approximate quantitative values of the compressive strength of soil
possessing sufficient coherence to permit testing in the unconfined state.
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with AASHTO Method
T208. These modifications document MDOT standard practice. The Section
numbering conforms to the numbering in ASSHTO method T 208.
8. Calculations (Replaces Sections 8.1 through 8.4)
8.1
Prepare a load-deformation curve from the information recorded during the test
procedure (Section 7.1).
NOTE: A continuous load-deformation chart will be generated automatically by
constant strain-rate compression machines such as those manufactured by the Instron
Corporation.
8.2
From the load-deformation curve, determine the maximum recorded load, P, in Pound
Force, which is achieved prior to exceeding 15 percent deformation.
8.3
Calculate the unconfined compressive strength, qu, to three significant figures, or
nearest 20 psf, as follows:
qu = (P/A) x 144
where:
8.4
P =
maximum applied load in lbf, which is achieved at or before 15 percent
deformation is reached, as determined in Section 8.1
A =
uncorrected cross-sectional area of the specimen in square inches
Calculate the unconfined Compressive Shearing Resistance, Suc, to three significant
figures, or nearest 20 psf, as follows:
Suc =
(qu/2)
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MTM 405-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
NATURAL MOISTURE-DENSITY DETERMINATION
OF UNDISTURBED LINER SAMPLES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the natural moisture content and dry density
of a portion of an undisturbed liner sample following transverse shear testing.
2. Significance
2.1
For cohesive soils for which this test is appropriate, this method supplies a reasonable
approximation of in-place moisture-density conditions.
3. Apparatus
3.1
Liner Ring - A stainless steel liner ring 1.0 inch long and 1.37 inches internal diameter.
3.2
Soil Extruder - the soil extruder shall consist of a solid steel or brass shaft with a
minimum length of approximately 3.0 inches. It shall have a plane circular pushing
face with a 1.36 inches outside diameter perpendicular to the long axis of the shaft.
3.3
Glass Plate - Approximately 4 inches x 4 inches or larger.
3.4
Spatula - With stiff, straight edged blade at least 3.0 inches long.
3.5
Drying Container - May be can lid, watch glass, or other suitable container
approximately 80 mm in diameter.
3.6
Balance - Sensitive to 0.1 gram and at least 200 grams capacity.
3.7
Oven - A thermostatically-controlled drying oven capable of maintaining temperatures
of 230 oF + 9 oF for drying samples.
4. Procedure
4.1
Upon completion of the Transverse Shearing Resistance Test of Cohesive Soils (MTM
401-01), the 1.0 inch ring shall be pulled on free of the testing machine and placed one
soil side down on the glass plate. The top surface shall be carefully smoothed with the
straight edge of the spatula supported by the upper edges of the liner. No voids,
depressions, humps or projections may be permitted. The sample shall then be
reversed and the second side of the sample similarly smoothed.
4.2
Weigh the ring containing the wet soil and record the weight, (W1), on line 3 of the data
sheet (see example attached).
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MTM 406-01
4.3
With the soil extruder, push the sample carefully from the stainless steel ring and place
the entire sample on the pre-weighed drying container, being careful to scrape all the
material from the sides of the ring.
4.4
Weigh the empty liner ring (Wc) and subtract from the weight obtained in 4.2 to obtain
the wet weight, (W), of the soil core (upper portion of sheet).
4.5
Weigh the sample in the drying container and subtract container weight to confirm that
the entire sample was transferred (under Volumetric Analysis, middle portion of sheet).
If a small weight loss occurs, a slight pro-rated volume correction may be made.
4.6
Dry the sample to constant weight in the 230 oF + 9 oF oven. Overnight drying will
clearly be sufficient for samples of this size without extra weighings to assure no
further weight loss.
4.7
Weigh and record the dry weight of sample and container, (W2), and subtract container
weight, (Wc), to establish net dry weight of sample (Wo).
4.8
Complete calculations as shown on the attached example work sheet for weight of
moisture (Ww), percent moisture, dry weight basis (w), dry bulk specific gravity (Go) and
dry density (Ddry). Wet bulk specific gravity (Go), percent moisture, wet weight basis
(w w), wet density (D wet) and percent liquids by volume may also be determined as
shown in those calculations with an asterisk.
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MTM 406-01
3 of 3
MTM 406-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT
DETERMINATION OF DISTURBED SOILS SAMPLES
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of the natural moisture content of a disturbed
soils sample which is immediately sealed in an appropriate container and kept there
until tested.
1.2
This procedure is appropriate for soil of any classification.
2. Apparatus
2.1
Sample Container - An appropriate vessel which will not deteriorate on contact with
water and soil, can be sealed easily to retain soil moisture, and will readily withstand
the 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F drying temperature. Sixteen ounce seamless tin cans with cover
have worked well, sealed with masking tape, duct tape, etc., and are recommended.
2.2
Balance - Sensitive to at least 1 gram and having at least 1000 grams capacity.
2.3
Oven - A thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature
of 230 О•F в€Ђ 9 О•F for drying samples.
3. Procedure
3.1
The sample is received as sealed in the field and should first be examined for any
break in the seal. If the seal is satisfactory, the sealing should be removed and the
sample with container weighed immediately and recorded on the first line of the work
sheet (see attached sample). If moisture has condensed on the inside of the cover,
the cover should be weighed as part of the container. (If sample is not adequately
sealed when received, the sample should be rejected.)
3.2
Dry the sample and container in the drying oven for at least 12 hours or to constant
mass, weigh, and record on line 2 and line 5 of the work sheet (wt. of dry soil and
dish).
3.3
Subtract the dry weight from the wet weight to obtain mass of water in sample.
3.4
Carefully remove all of the dried soil from the container and determine the mass of the
empty container. Record on line 6, and subtract from line 5, to determine the net mass
of the dry soil - line 7.
3.5
Determine percentage moisture (dry basis) from mass of water and mass of dry soil line 4.
1 of 2
MTM 407-01
Project No. ______________________________ Job No. ______________________
Lab No. _________________________________ Soils No. _____________________
Date Received ____________________________ Date Tested __________________
Tested by ______________________________________________________________
Checked by ____________________________________________________________
NATURAL MOISTURE
A
B
C
D
Wt. of Wet Soil and Dish(g)
Line 1
Wt. of Dry Soil and Dish(g)
Line 2
Wt of Water . . . . . . . . . (g)
Line 3
Percent of Moisture . . .
Line 4
Wt. of Dry Soil and Dish(g)
Line 5
Wt. of Dish . . . . . . . . . (g)
Line 6
Wt. of Dry Soil . . . . . . .(g)
Line 7
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MTM 407-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
MAGNETIC PARTICLE DETERMINATION FOR SOILS OR AGGREGATES
1. Scope
1.1
This method provides a uniform means of determining the magnetic particle content of
the coarser portion of soils or aggregates, including industrial byproducts. It is not a
means of determining iron content.
2. Apparatus
2.1
Balance, 1000 g minimum capacity, accurate to nearest gram.
2.2
Magnet of 10 pound в€Ђ 1 pound (4.5 kg в€Ђ .45 kg) lifting capacity, with keeper bar. See
Figure 1 for configuration of ends of current magnet, which should be approximated if
possible.
2.3
No. 8 (2.38 mm) sieve.
2.4
Stencil brush (stiff bristles).
2.5
Spatula.
2.6
Collection container, large enough and with sufficiently high walls that magnet may be
held within it and retained material brushed off without loss of material.
Figure 1
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MTM 409-01
Approximate end configuration of magnet
2 of 2
MTM 409-01
3. Procedure
3.1
The sample shall be dried to constant weight at a temperature no greater than 140 oF
(60 О•C).
3.2
Quartering may be done before or after drying. Sample size should range from about
200 grams (finer grained samples) to 1000 grams (larger grained samples).
3.3
The dry sample shall be sieved over a No. 8 (2.38 mm) sieve with only the retained
portion used for magnetic separation. Note that the sample can be run on retained No.
10 (2.00 mm) or retained No. 4 (4.76 mm) material, but the deviation must be noted
with the results.
3.4
Determine the mass of the material to be magnetically separated to the nearest gram.
3.5
Spread the material on a counter covered with brown counter paper and move the
magnet through the materials slowly, picking up all particles that the magnet will pick
up. The spatula will assist in spreading and sorting. As each load of material is picked
up, empty it into the collection container, using the stencil brush to clean the magnet
each time.
3.6
Determine mass of separated magnetic particles to the nearest gram and calculate
percentage relative to the initial retained mass.
4. Report
4.1
Results should be shown as Magnetic Particles, percent. If determined on other than
basis",
retained No. 8 (2.38 mm) material, add the note: "Retained
showing on what sieve the separation was made.
3 of 2
MTM 409-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
ELECTROCHEMICAL TESTING OF MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EMBANKMENTS
1. Scope
1.1
These tests evaluate the suitability of backfill to be used with metals required in
various Mechanically Stabilized Embankments.
2. Purpose
2.1
Supplemental Specification 2.08(8) was written to protect various metals located in
Mechanically Stabilized Embankments from accelerated corrosion. It may be used to
protect other metals also, such as, water mains, load bearing piling and sheet piling.
The following table shows acceptable limits:
TABLE - ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTY
LIMITS
Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH)
Electrical Resistivity, min.
Chlorides, max.
Sulfates, max.
5-10
3,000 ohm-cm
200 ppm *
1,000 ppm *
*Tests not required when pH is at least 6.0 but less than 8.0, and the resistivity is
greater than 5,000 ohm-cm.
The testing procedures for determining the electrochemical properties are as follows:
3. Field Determination of Hydrogen-Ion Concentration (pH)
3.1
Apparatus and Materials
3.1.1
Portable pH meter suitable for rapid determination of soil pH including probe
and support equipment.
3.1.2
pH standard solution of pH 7.
3.1.3
Disposable cups, 2.0 ounces min., wax coated or plastic type.
3.1.4
Teaspoon or small scoop.
3.1.5
Wash bottle with distilled water.
1 of 9
MTM 410-01
3.2
3.3
Procedure
3.2.1
At five randomly selected sites within the proposed source, a sample of soil
shall be obtained from below the "A" horizon.
3.2.2
Place 2 to 4 level spoonfuls of soil sample into the disposable cup and add an
equivalent number of teaspoons of distilled water to the soil in the cup.
3.2.3
Mix water and soil by stirring. The specimen is now ready for testing.
3.2.4
Standardize pH meter using standard solution. Follow instructions provided
with pH meter.
3.2.5
Insert pH probe into test specimen and read. If the pH reading is unstable
when the electrode is immersed in the soil slurry, leave the electrode immersed
until the pH reading has stabilized. In some cases, this waiting period for the
stabilization of pH reading may be as long as five minutes.
Reporting - Record the following data on acceptable forms:
- Identify location where samples were taken.
- Depth at which sample taken.
- Record pH readings.
4. Determination of Resistivity
The resistivity test is an indication of the soluble salts in the soil. The backfill material shall be
tested by an approved portable earth resistivity meter either at the source or in the laboratory.
4.1
Field Determination of Resistivity
4.2.
Apparatus and Materials
4.3
4.2.1
Portable earth resistivity meter suitable for rapid in place determination of soil
resistivity including probes, rods, and necessary support equipment.
4.2.2
Distilled or deionized water.
Test Procedure
4.3.1
At five randomly selected sites within the proposed source, insert the field
probe into the soil between 6 and 12 inches. Electrode spacing shall be in
accordance with manufacturer's recommendations for the depth of proposed
excavation. Measure the resistivity.
4.3.2
Remove the field probe and pour about 2.0 ounces of distilled water into the
hole.
4.3.3
Re-insert the probe, while twisting to mix the water and soil, then measure the
resistivity.
2 of 9
MTM 410-01
4.3.4
Withdraw the probe and add an additional 2.0 ounces of distilled water.
4.3.5
Re-insert the probe and again measure the resistivity of the soil.
4.3.6
Record all three readings. The lowest of the three readings will be considered
the resistivity of the material at that location.
4.4
Reporting - Record the following data on acceptable forms:
- Identify location of test site(s).
- Record electrode spacing.
- Identify meter units and record readings.
- Compute and record ohm-centimeter values.
4.5
Laboratory Determination of Resistivity
4.6
Apparatus and Materials
4.7.
4.6.1
Earth resistivity meter suitable for laboratory testing, a.c. type, such as
manufactured by Associated Research, Inc.; Biddle, Inc.; Soil Test, Inc.; Bison
Instrument Co., Inc. or approved equal.
4.6.2
Soil box, see Figure 1.
4.6.3
U.S. Standard Sieve, No. 8 (2.36 mm).
4.6.4
Pans, metal, 12 x 12 x 2 inch approximate.
4.6.5
Oven, 200 oF maximum, constant temperature cabinet.
4.6.6
Balance, 5 kg. capacity, accurate to 10 grams.
4.6.7
Distilled or deionized water.
Test Procedure
4.7.1
At five randomly selected sites within the proposed source, a sample of
approximately 4000 gm shall be obtained from below the "A" horizon.
4.7.2
Screen each sample through a No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve.
4.7.3
If the sample is too moist to be sieved, dry it in a 140 oF oven and then break
up all clods. Do not crush rocks. Only natural material passing the No. 8
(2.36 mm) sieve is to be used for the test.
4.7.4
Quarter or split out about 1,300 gm of the passing No. 8 (2.36 mm) material.
4.7.5
If the sample has been dried, add about 150 mL of distilled water to the 1,300
gm of soil and thoroughly mix. If the sample has not been dried, see 4.7.12.
3 of 9
MTM 410-01
4.7.6
After the soil sample is thoroughly mixed, place and compact it (moderate
compaction with the fingers is sufficient) in the soil box. The soil box shall be
completely filled and level with the top.
4.7.7
Measure the resistivity of the soil in accordance with the instructions furnished
with the meter.
4.7.8
Remove the soil from the soil box and add an additional 100 mL of distilled
water and again thoroughly mix.
4.7.9
Again place and compact the soils in the soil box and measure its resistivity.
4.7.10 Repeat this procedure once more.
4.7.11 If the resistivity of the soil has not followed a trend of high resistivity, low
resistivity, and then an increase in resistivity for the preceding additions of
distilled water, continue to add water to the soil in about 50 mL increments;
mixing, placing, compacting, and measuring resistivity for each increment, until
a minimum resistivity is obtained.
4.7.12 If the sample has not been dried, begin the test procedure by adding 50 mL of
distilled water in lieu of 150 mL specified above. Continue to add 50 mL
increments of distilled water followed by mixing, placing, compacting, and
measuring until a minimum value of resistivity is measured.
4.7.13 Record the test value that is the minimum value of soil resistivity at any
moisture content.
4.8
Reporting - Record the following data on acceptable forms.
- Identify location where samples were taken.
- Depth at which sample taken.
- Identify meter units and record all readings.
- Compute and record ohm-centimeter values.
(See Figure 1.)
5. Trimetric Determination of Soluble Chloride in Soils
5.1
Apparatus and Materials
5.1.1
Silver nitrate solution (1 mL of solution is equivalent to 1 mg of chloride).
Dissolve 4.79 grams of reagent grade silver nitrate in distilled water and dilute
to one liter.
5.1.2
Potassium chromate indicator solution. Dissolve 10 grams of reagent grade
potassium chromate in distilled water and dilute to 100 mL. Add enough of the
silver nitrate solution prepared in section 5.1.1 to produce a slight red
precipitate. Filter to remove any precipitate.
4 of 9
MTM 410-01
5.1.3
A pH meter including probe and calibrated buffers.
5.1.4
Sodium hydroxide solution. Dissolve 2 gram of reagent grade sodium
hydroxide in 100 mL of distilled water.
5.1.5
Acetic acid, 5 percent. Pour 10 mL of reagent grade glacial acetic acid into
190 mL of distilled water. Mix.
5.1.6
Buret, 50 mL capacity, with 0.1 mL graduations.
5.1.7
Class A volumetric pipet, 30 mL (and smaller if needed).
5.1.8
Erlenmeyer flask, 500 mL and 250 mL.
5.1.9
Laboratory balance accurate to 0.1 gram.
5.1.10 Distilled water.
5.1.11 Filtering funnel, 75 mm top diameter.
5.1.12 Filter paper 12.5 cm, Whatman No. 41, or equivalent.
Figure 1
Materials List:
Bottom - 1 piece plastic 6.5 x 4.5 x 0.25 inch (165 x 115 x 6.4 mm)
Ends - 2 pieces plastic 4.5 x 1.75 x 0.25 inch (115 x 45 x 6.4 mm)
Sides - 2 pieces plastic 6.0 x 1.75 x 0.25 inch (152 x 45 x 6.4 mm)
Electrodes - 2 pieces 20 gauge stainless steel 6.0 x 1.75 inch (152 x 45 mm)
Machine Screw - 2 each No. 8 - 32 x 0.75 inch (19 mm) round head with washer and nut,
stainless steel
Washers - 2 each rubber
5 of 9
MTM 410-01
2.0 inch
f inch
6.5 inch
Figure 2
Figures 1 and 2 Shows the Soil Box for Laboratory Resistivity Determination
5.2
Procedure
5.2.1
At each of five randomly selected sites within the proposed source, a sample of
approximately 200 grams shall be obtained from below the "A" horizon and
placed in approved containers (five samples, five containers).
5.2.2
Weigh 100.0 gm of a soil (passing a No. 40 (425 Ојm) sieve) sample into a
500 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add 300 mL of distilled water, then stopper the flask
and shake it vigorously for about 30 seconds. After one hour, repeat the
shaking. Let the sample settle overnight.
5.2.3
Slowly decant, and filter about 100 mL to 150 mL of the liquid (supernatant
extract) through Whatman No. 41 filter paper.
5.2.4
Pipet 30.0 mL of the filtered extract into a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add 20
mL of distilled water.
5.2.5
Check the pH; the range should be between 6.3 and 10.0. If the pH is below
6.3, add sodium hydroxide solution to adjust to the above range; if the pH is
above 10.0, add acetic acid to adjust to the above pH range.
5.2.6
Add two drops of potassium chromate indicator solution.
5.2.7
With vigorous stirring, titrate with silver nitrate solution (from the 50 mL buret)
until the faint reddish-brown tinge of the indicator persists for at least
6 of 9
MTM 410-01
30 seconds. If the titration is over 30 mL, take a smaller sample aliquot so as
to keep the titration volume below this value. Dilute any smaller sample to
about 50 mL with distilled water before pH adjustment and titration.
5.2.8
Calculate chloride content of soil as follows:
ppm chloride = 100 x (mL titration - 0.2 mL blank)*
*for a 30 mL sample aliquot
5.3
Reporting
5.3.1
Record the following data on acceptable forms:
- Identify location(s) at which samples were taken
- Depth at which sample was taken
- ppm chloride in soil
6. Gravimetric Determination of Soluble Sulfate in Soils
6.1
Apparatus and Materials
6.1.1
Muffle furnace
6.1.2
Hot plate
6.1.3
Beaker, 400 mL
6.1.4
Graduated cylinder, 100 mL
6.1.5
Porcelain crucible, 30 or 40 mL capacity, low or high form
6.1.6
1:1 hydrochloric acid. Carefully pour 100 mL of reagent grade 37%
hydrochloric acid into 100 mL of distilled water. Mix.
6.1.7
Barium chloride, 20% solution. Dissolve 100 grams of reagent grade barium
chloride in distilled water and dilute to 500 mL.
6.1.8
Distilled water
6.1.9
Laboratory balance accurate to 0.1 gram
6.1.10 Analytical balance accurate to 0.0001 gm
6.1.11 Erlenmeyer flask, 500 mL
6.1.12 Metal or suitable cooling pad
6.1.13 Stirring rod, glass
6.1.14 Filtering funnel, 75 mm top diameter
7 of 9
MTM 410-01
6.1.15 Filter paper, 12.5 cm, Whatman No. 41 and Whatman No. 40
6.1.16 Small brush
6.1.17 Class A volumetric pipet, 30 mL
6.2
Procedure
6.2.1
At each of five randomly selected sites within the proposed source, a sample of
approximately 200 grams shall be obtained from below the "A" horizon and
placed in approved containers (five samples, five containers).
6.2.2
Weigh 100.0 gm of a soil (passing a No. 40 (425 Ојm) sieve) sample into a
500 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add 300 mL of distilled water, then stopper the flask
and shake it vigorously for about 30 seconds. After one hour, repeat the
shaking. Let the sample settle overnight.
6.2.3
Slowly decant, and filter about 100 mL to 150 mL of the liquid (supernatant
extract) through Whatman No. 41 filter paper.
6.2.4
Pipet 30.0 mL of the filtered extract into a 250 mL beaker. Add 10 mL of
1:1 hydrochloric acid, 100 mL of distilled water, and a stirring rod. Heat to
boiling, then remove from hot plate and allow to cool slightly.
6.2.5
Filter through an acid-washed Whatman No. 41 filter into a 400 mL beaker.
Wash the filter paper six times with hot distilled water.
6.2.6
Add enough distilled water to make the beaker slightly more than half full.
Place a stirring rod in the beaker and heat to boiling.
6.2.7
While stirring, add 5 mL of 20% barium chloride solution dropwise to the boiling
sample. Continue stirring while boiling for five minutes.
6.2.8
Cover the beaker and place it on a warm hot plate. Allow to settle overnight.
6.2.9
To filter, decant the supernatant liquid through Whatman No. 40 paper. Wash
the precipitate by decantation in the beaker with a 25 mL portion of hot distilled
water. Then transfer the precipitate quantitatively to the filter paper and was
six times with hot distilled water from a wash bottle, taking care not to allow the
precipitate to "creep" over the top edge of the filter paper.
6.2.10 Remove the paper from the funnel and fold it to fit in the porcelain crucible. In
the muffle, carefully burn off the paper with free access to air. After the paper
is carbonized or burned off, ignite for 30 to 45 minutes in the closed muffle at
1450 oF to 1650 oF.
6.2.11 Remove the crucible from the muffle; set it on a pad to cool.
6.2.12 When the crucible is cool to the touch, weight it to the nearest milligram. Dump
the contents, brush out any residue, and reweigh the crucible. Record both
8 of 9
MTM 410-01
weights in grams.
6.2.13 Calculate the sulfate content as follows:
ppm sulfate = 41150 [(wt of crucible plus residue) - (wt of empty crucible)].
6.3
Reporting
6.3.1
Record the following data on acceptable forms:
- Identify location(s) where samples were taken
- Depth at which sample taken
- ppm sulfate in soil
9 of 9
MTM 410-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF PREFABRICATED DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes a procedure for determining the compressive properties of
prefabricated drainage systems.
1.2
Except as described herein, the testing shall be in conformance with Procedure A of
ASTM D 1621. The section numbering conforms to the numbering in ASTM D 1621.
4. Compressive Strength
4.1
Procedure A - the stress at the yield point if a yield point occurs before 18%
deformation (as in figure 1a). In the absence of such a yield point it is the stress at
18% deformation (as in figure 1b). Figures 1a and 1b can be found in ASTM D 1621.
5. Apparatus (Replaces portion of section 5.1 in Apparatus)
5.1
Testing Machine - A compression testing machine capable of operating at a constant
rate of motion of the movable cross head shall be used. It must be capable of loading
to 72.5 psi (500 kPa). Two fixed, parallel and aligned plates of 1.6 inches (40 mm)
minimum thickness shall be used for the upper and lower loading platen.
6. Test Specimen (Replaces portion of sections 6.1 and 6.4 of Test Specimen)
6.1
The test specimen shall have 8.0 inches (208 mm) maximum length by the full product
width, up to 18.0 inches (468 mm) maximum width. The specimen shall be cut
equidistant from core support columns.
6.4
A minimum of 3 specimens shall be tested for each sample. Specimens that fail at
some obvious flaw should be discarded and retests made, unless such flaws constitute
a variable the effect of which it is desired to study.
7. Conditioning (Replaces portion of sections 7.1 and 7.2 of Conditioning)
7.1
Conditioning - Condition the test specimens at 73.4 О•F в€Ђ 3.6 О•F (23 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C) for
not less than 24 hours prior to test in accordance with procedure A of Methods D 618,
for those tests where conditioning is required.
7.2
Test Conditions - Conduct test in the standard laboratory atmosphere of 73.4 О•F в€Ђ
3.6 О•F (23 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C), unless otherwise specified.
1 of 2
MTM 411-01
8. Procedure A
(Cross head Motion) (Replaces portions of sections 8.2, 8.4, 8.4.1 of Procedure A)
8.2
Apply the load to the specimen in such a manner that it is distributed as uniformly as
possible over the entire loading surface of the specimen. The rate of cross head
movement shall be 0.5 inches (13 mm) per minute.
8.4
Continue until a yield point is reached or until the specimen has been compressed
approximately 21% of its original thickness, whichever occurs first.
8.4.1
When specified, a deformation other than 18% may be used as the point at
which stress shall be calculated. In such a case, compress the specimen
approximately 3% more than the deformation specified. Substitute the
specified deformation wherever "18% deformation" is cited in sections 10 and
11.
10. Calculation
(Replaces portion of section 10.3 of Calculation, change values of x1 and x2,
figure 1a and 1b)
10.3
Measure from point 0 along the zero load line a distance representing 18%
deformation. At that point (Point M in figures 1a and 1b), draw a vertical line
intersecting the load deflection or load-strain curve at Point P.
Figure 1a and 1b
X1 = Procedure A: 18% core deformation
X2 = Deflection (approximately 21%)
11. Report (Replaces Section 11.1.5, delete Section 11.1.6)
11.1.5 Average compressive strength.
2 of 2
MTM 411-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
HYDRAULIC BURSTING STRENGTH OF NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE FABRICS C
DIAPHRAGM BURSTING STRENGTH TESTER METHOD
1. Scope
1.1
This test method covers the determination of the resistance of nonwoven geotextile
fabrics to bursting using the Hydraulic Diaphragm Bursting Tester.
1.2
Except as described herein, the testing shall be in conformance with ASTM D 3786.
The paragraph numbering as follows corresponds to the paragraph numbering in D
3786-87.
8. Apparatus and Materials (Replaces portion of section 8.1 and 8.1.4 in Apparatus and
Materials)
8.1
Hydraulic Diaphragm Bursting Tester - A motor driven tester that meets the
requirements of 8.1.1 through 8.1.4 shall be used.
8.1.1.1
8.1.4
The upper and lower clamping surfaces shall have a circular
opening at least 3.0 inches (76 mm) in diameter and coaxial
apertures of 1.25 inches (32 mm) in diameter. The surfaces of the
clamps between which the specimen is placed shall have
concentric grooves spaced not less than 1/32 inches (.80 mm)
apart and shall be of a depth not less than 1/1700 inches from the
edge of the aperture. The surfaces of the clamps shall be metallic
and any edge which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded
to a radius of not more than 1/64 inches (.40 mm). The lower
clamp shall be integral with the chamber in which a screw shall
operate to force a liquid pressure medium at a uniform rate of 170
mL в€Ђ 5 mL/minute against the rubber diaphragm.
Hydraulic Pressure System - A means of applying controlled increasing
hydrostatic pressure to the underside of the diaphragm until the specimen
bursts through a fluid displaced at the rate of 6.7 inches в€Ђ 0.2 inches (175 mm
в€Ђ 5 mm) per minute. The fluid is displaced by a piston in the pressure
chamber of the apparatus. The recommended chamber fluid is USP
chemically pure 96 percent glycerin. The hydraulic system, including the
gages, shall be mounted so as to be free of externally induced vibrations.
Means shall be provided at the instant of rupture of the specimen for stopping
any further application of the loading pressure and for holding unchanged the
contents of the pressure chamber until the total bursting pressure and the
pressure required to inflate the diaphragm indicated on the gage have been
recorded.
1 of 1
MTM 412-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
THE MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONS OF RECYCLED MIXTURES
USING A 10.0 POUND (4.5 kg) RAMMER AND AN 18 INCH (457 mm) DROP
1.
2.
Scope
1.1
This test method is used to determine the relation between the moisture content and
density of soils and soil mixtures containing recycled material compacted in a 4-inch
(107 mm) mold using a 10.0 pound (4.5 kg) rammer dropped from a height of 18
inches (457 mm).
1.2
Except as described herein, the method will be in conformance with AASHTO T180,
Method C. This modification is to conform with field practice utilizing all soil particle
sizes passing a 1-inch (25.0 mm) sieve.
Modification
2.1
In Method C, change 0.75 inch (19.0 mm) to 1.0 inch (25.0 mm) to include the
following sections: 2.7, 7.2, 8.4 and 13.1.4.
1 of 1
MTM 413-02
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
EPOXY COATED DOWEL BARS FOR LOAD TRANSFER
IN CONCRETE PAVEMENT JOINTS
1. Scope
1.1
These test methods are intended for use in qualifying epoxy coatings for use on steel
dowel bars used for load transfer in concrete pavement joints, to prevent corrosion of
the dowel bars.
1.2
Procedures for determining coating thickness for lot-by-lot acceptance testing are also
described herein.
1.3
The bars on which the coating is applied are separately described in the MDOT
Standard Specifications.
1.4
The requirements for epoxy coatings are described in the MDOT Standard
Specifications for Construction.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards:
Standard Specifications for Construction
2.2
AASHTO Standards:
M6
M 80
M 85
T 253
2.3
ASTM Standards:
A 123
D 658
D 1186
E 376
G 14
2.4
Fine Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete
Coarse Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete
Specification for Portland Cement
Method for Testing Coated Dowel Bars
Specification for Zinc Coatings on Iron and Steel Products
Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Air Blast
Abrasion Test
Method for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of
Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to a Ferrous Base
Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field or EddyCurrent (Electromagnetic) Test Methods
Test Method for Impact Resistance of Pipeline Coatings (Falling Weight
Test)
ACI Standard:
211.1 - Practice for Selecting Proportions for Concrete
1 of 6
MTM 601-07
3. Materials
3.1
Coated Dowel Bars - All dowel bars used for evaluation testing shall have an epoxy
coating thickness as specified, or as recommended by the supplier. The ends of the
dowel bars shall be saw cut or sheared (by an approved process).
3.2
Concrete Mixture:
3.2.1
Materials and proportions for the concrete mixture used for encasing the dowel
bars for the various tests shall be as follows:
Cement: AASHTO M 85
Fine Aggregate: AASHTO M 6 (MDOT 2NS)
Coarse Aggregate: AASHTO M 80, No. 57 (MDOT 6A)
Selecting Proportions: ACI 211.1-70
Cement Factor: 6 Sacks (335 kg per cubic meter)
Water-Cement Ratio, by Weight: 0.44 maximum
Air Content: 6-7 percent
Consistency: 2 inches в€Ђ 2 inch (50 mm в€Ђ 13 mm) slump
3.2.2
The concrete shall be placed into the molds and consolidated by vibration.
Curing shall be at room temperature under wet burlap and/or polyethylene
sheeting.
4. Corrosion and Pull-Out Resistance Test
4.1
Specimens - Saw cut 4 coated dowels to a length of 12 2 inches (320 mm). Coat two
of the dowels with an approved bond breaker. Fit the dowels into a 6 x 6 x 12 2 inch
(150 x 150 x 320 mm) mold, and support the ends of the dowels by placing in holes
(equal to the diameter of the dowel) drilled in the center of 6 x 6 x 3 inch (150 x 150 x 6
mm) steel plates, which are placed inside the ends of the mold. Place a third similar
steel plate, cut in half, at the center of the bar as a parting strip, and support in position
by means of clips fastened to the mold. Fill the mold with concrete, consolidate and
cure as described in Section 3.
4.2
Initial Pull-Out Resistance - After 24 hours в€Ђ 1 hour, remove the specimens from the
molds. Apply a tensile force to the concrete blocks, at a strain rate of 0.2 inches per
minute (0.5 mm/minute), until a space of 2 inch (13 mm) between the 2 concrete
blocks is obtained (3 inch [6 mm] movement).
4.2.1
Calculate the shear bond stress as the maximum force divided by the contact
surface of one end of the bar.
Shear bond stress = Force/(ПЂ x diameter x length)
4.3
Corrosion Treatment 4.3.1
Place the test specimens into moist storage and allow to cure to an age of
14 days, then place in room air and allow to dry at 75 О•F (24 О•C) for 14 days.
2 of 6
MTM 601-07
4.3.2
4.4
Final Pull-Out Resistance - At the end of the freeze-thaw cycling, apply a tensile force
to the blocks, as in 4.2, until a space of 1 inch (25 mm) between the two concrete
blocks is obtained (1/2 inch [13 mm] additional movement) and record the maximum
force during this period.
4.4.1
4.5
After this drying period, place the specimens in water up to the level of the
dowel bar axis for 24 hours. After the 24 hour immersion, replace the water
with a 4 percent (by weight) calcium chloride solution.
Subject the specimens to 50 cycles of freezing and thawing consisting of
16 hours exposure at -9 О•F в€Ђ 5 О•F (-23 О•C в€Ђ 3 О•C) and eight (or more) hours
of thawing at room temperature. Replace the calcium chloride solution with
fresh solution after every five cycles.
Calculate the final pull-out resistance as in 4.2.1
Corrosion Examination - Continue the tensile force to the blocks until the dowel is
completely removed from one concrete block. Saw or split the block and examine for
evidence of corrosion staining at the dowel-concrete interface. Examine the dowel for
corrosion, or tearing or perforation of the coating.
5. Deflection Test
5.1
5.2
Test Specimen - The specimen shall consist of two concrete end blocks and a
concrete center block, connected by two coated dowel bars, generally as illustrated in
Figure 1. Two test specimens are required for duplicate tests.
5.1.1
Support each dowel bar, 18 inches (460 mm) long, by means of a 1/4 inch
(6 mm) thick steel plate in the end of the mold, having a hole in the center
equal to the diameter of the bar, and a second similar steel plate, cut in half, at
a distance 8 1/2 inches (220 mm) from the end support plate. Support the
intermediate plates in true position normal to the axis of the bar by chips in the
mold. The cross-section dimensions of the concrete shall be a minimum of
6 inch x 6 inch (150 mm x 150 mm).
5.1.2
Fill the mold with concrete, consolidate, and cure as described in 3.2.2. At
24 hours в€Ђ 2 hours, remove the mold, including the 1/4 inch (6 mm) divider
plates, and cure in a moist room to age of 14 days. If the gap between the end
blocks and the center block increased to more than 5/16 inch (8 mm), apply
force to the ends of the specimen so that each gap is between 1/4 inch and
5/16 inch (6 mm and 8 mm).
Load Test - At the end of the curing period, mount the specimen in a loading frame
such as shown in Figure 2. Fasten the end blocks to prevent possibility of rotation
during loading. Place a top loading member (steel beam or similar) with a length equal
to the center concrete block length minus 4 inches (100 mm), centered on the center
block. Thin padding may be used under the top loading member to compensate for
surface irregularities in the concrete.
5.2.1
Apply a force of 4000 pounds (17,800 N) at a rate of approximately 2000
pounds per minute (8,900 N/minute) to the top loading member. Measure the
3 of 6
MTM 601-07
deflection of the ends of the center block relative to each of the end blocks
under the 4000 pound (17,800 N) load to the nearest 0.001 inch (0.025 mm),
as indicated in Figure 3.
6. Abrasion Resistance Test
6.1
Determine the resistance of dowel bar coatings to abrasion in accordance with ASTM
D 658, modified to use sandblasting equipment such as a Uni-Blaster, Model SB4,
produced by Industrial Products Division of Inland Manufacturing Company, Omaha,
Nebraska. Use new silica sand passing a No. 20 (850 Ојm) sieve and retained on a
No. 120 (125 Ојm) sieve. Apply air pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa) to the gun.
6.2
Direct a stream of sand at a spot on a coated dowel, normal to the dowel, from a sand
blast gun equipped with a 0.1 inch (2.4 mm) jet and a 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) nozzle. Clamp
the gun in position so that there is 1 : inches (45 mm) between the gun nozzle and the
dowel surface.
6.3
Determine the length of time for penetration of the coating and report it as the time of
penetration per mil of coating. Use the average result of three penetrations as the test
value. Run the test on at least two dowels.
7. Mar Resistance Test
7.1
Determine the ability of dowel coatings to withstand damage during transportation and
handling by use of modified ASTM A 123 and ASTM G 14 procedures. Perform the
modified test by placing a firmly supported coated dowel in a horizontal position and
subjecting at least 5 areas to a blow from the rounded end of a 3 pound (1.4 kg) ballpeen hammer. Mount the modified hammer, pivoted at the end of the handle, to swing
in a 12 inch (300 mm) radius, 90 degree arc, from vertical to horizontal. Strike the bar
normal to its surface. Perform the test at 75 О•F в€Ђ 2 О•F (24 О•C в€Ђ 1 О•C) and on at least
2 coated dowels.
8. Chemical Resistance Test
8.1
Conduct the test as described in AASHTO T 253.
9. Coating Thickness Measurement
9.1
Measurements for coating thickness may be made by either of the procedures
described in 9.2 or 9.3, except in case of dispute, the method in 9.2 shall be used.
9.2
Micrometer Method - Make measurements for coating thickness as follows. Measure
(with a micrometer caliper) the diameter of the coated bar at 5 points in one plane
through the axis of the bar, subtracting from each of these measurements the diameter
of the bar in that plane as measured on an uncoated portion of the bar, and dividing
the difference by 2 to provide the average thickness of 2 diametrically opposite points
on the bar. Repeat the procedure in a plane at 90 degrees to the first measurements.
Report the average of the 10 determinations, to the nearest 0.001 inch (0.025 mm), as
the average coating thickness of the specimen, and also the minimum single thickness
reading on 2 diametrically opposite points.
4 of 6
MTM 601-07
9.3
Magnetic Thickness Gage Method - Use a magnetic thickness gage as described in
ASTM E 376 or D 1186. Standardize the magnetic thickness gage using foil or shims
on the bare portion of a bar having size and type of steel similar to that on which the
coating thickness is to be determined. Measure the thickness on a minimum of
12 points on 4 elements of the dowel bar spaced at 90 degrees to each other, with an
equal number of points on each element. Report the average value and the minimum
thickness, to 0.001 inch (0.025 mm).
10. Report
10.1
Include the following information in the report:
10.1.1 Identification of sample (producer, type of coating, nominal thickness, nominal
diameter of dowel bars on which it is applied).
10.2
For the corrosion and pull-out resistance test:
10.2.1 The maximum shear bond stress for initial movement;
10.2.2 The maximum shear bond stress for final movement (after 50 cycles of freezing
and thawing); and
10.2.3 Evidence of corrosion of the dowel bar or disruption of the coating.
10.3
For the load deflection test, the relative deflection under load for each joint gap and the
average of the measurements.
10.4
For the abrasion resistance test, the individual and average time of penetration per mil
of coating for each dowel bar.
10.5
For the mar resistance test, report number of impact areas that show rupture or
fracture of the coating and that show flaking-off of the coating.
10.6
For the chemical resistance test, evidence of blistering, softening, disbonding,
development of holidays, or undercutting from drilled holes with any of the solutions or
distilled water.
10.7
For coating thickness, report the average coating thickness and also the minimum
coating thickness, along with the procedure used.
5 of 6
MTM 601-07
Figure 1: Specimen
Figure 2: Loading Frame
6 of 6
MTM 601-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE ION CONTENT IN HARDENED CONCRETE
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes a procedure for determining the amount of chloride ion in
pulverized samples of hardened concrete, due to inclusion of calcium chloride as a set
accelerator or permeation of sodium chloride or calcium chloride used for snow and ice
removal. The results are reported in pounds (kilograms) of chloride ion per cubic yard
(meter) of concrete.
1.2
The results of the tests aid in determining how much concrete should be removed prior
to bridge deck resurfacing.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
AASHTO Standards:
T 260 Sampling and Testing for Total Chloride Ion in Concrete and Concrete Raw
Materials
3. Summary of Method
3.1
Samples obtained by field personnel consist of cores or powdered samples. If cores,
slices are taken at the desired depth(s) from the surface and pulverized so that all
material passes a 300 Ојm sieve. Powdered samples are obtained using a rotary
impact drill, with companion samples taken at the level of the upper reinforcing steel in
bridge decks, and immediately below the level of the upper reinforcement. Detailed
sampling procedures are included in AASHTO T 260.
3.2
A weighed sample is digested with nitric acid, filtered, and the chloride ion is
precipitated with excess silver nitrate. The excess silver ion is titrated with potassium
thiocyanate. The concentration of chloride ion is then calculated.
4. Equipment, Supplies, and Reagents
4.1
Equipment:
- Convection oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of approximately 230 О•F
(110 О•C)
- Electric hot plate, capable of a heating surface temperature up to 390 О•F (200 О•C)
- Balance, accurate to 0.0001 gram, capacity of 100 grams
- Magnetic stirrer and Teflon stirring bars
- Buret, with 0.1 mL graduations
1 of 4
MTM 605-01
4.2
Supplies:
- Graduated beakers, 250 mL and 600 mL with watch glasses
- Funnels, 100 mm diameter
- Filter paper, Whatman No. 1, 185 mm diameter
- Pipets
4.3
Reagents:
- Distilled water
- Concentrated nitric acid, HNO3 (Reagent 69-71%)
- Benzyl alcohol
- Ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3)3 indicator solution (40g/L)
- Standardized silver nitrate AgNO3, 0.05N
- Standardized potassium thiocyanate, KSCN, 0.05N
5. Sample Preparation
5.1
Place the powder or pulverized samples in the oven (in specimen cans, uncovered),
and dry overnight at a temperature of approximately 230 О•F (110 О•C).
5.2
Cover the samples and allow to cool to room temperature.
6. Procedure
6.1
6.2
Extraction:
6.1.1
Weigh out a 4.0000 в€Ђ 0.0020 gram sample into a 250 mL graduated beaker.
Add hot distilled water to the sample and swirl the beaker to form a slurry.
Dilute the slurry by adding additional distilled water to the 125 mL graduation
on the beaker.
6.1.2
SLOWLY add 15 mL of concentrated HNO3 while constantly stirring. Cover
with a watch glass and digest on the hot plate, below boiling, for 15 minutes.
Raise the temperature to approximately 347 О•F (175 О•C) until the samples
start to boil, with the watch glass in place.
6.1.3
Remove sample from the hot plate and allow to cool to room temperature.
Filter the sample through the filter paper into a 600 mL beaker. Filtering should
be started as soon as the sample reaches room temperature. Rinse the filter
with warm distilled or deionized water.
Titration:
6.2.1
Using a pipet or dispensing pipet, add 3.00 mL of the AgNO3 to the filtrate in
the 600 mL beaker. Mix vigorously using a magnetic stirrer until precipitation is
complete. Add 3 to 5 mL of benzyl alcohol using a dropping pipet.
2 of 4
MTM 605-01
6.2.2
6.3
Add Fe(NO3)3 indicator (1 mL per 100 mL of solution) and titrate the solution
with KSCN to a faint pink endpoint that persists for at least 4 seconds. If the
end point appears immediately upon the addition of KSCN, add an additional
3.00 mL of AgNO3 and continue titration to the faint pink endpoint.
Quality control
6.3.1
With each batch of samples, a method blank, standard solution, sample spike
and sample repeat are analyzed.
6.3.2
Recoveries for the standard solution should be 90% to 110% of the known
value. Sample spike recovery should be 85% to 115% of the spike value and
repeats should not differ by more than 15%.
6.3.3
If values fall outside these ranges, corrective action should be taken and the
batch repeated.
7. Calculations
7.1
Calculate the concentration of chloride ion in the concrete using the appropriate
formula below. For chloride ion per cubic yard of concrete, the following unit weights
of concrete shall be used when the true weight is not known: for concrete containing
natural aggregates, 144 pounds per cubic foot (2310 kilograms per cubic meter); for
concrete containing blast furnace slag aggregate, 134 pounds per cubic foot
(2150 kilograms per cubic meter).
Chloride as NaCl, lb/yd; of concrete = 0.04973D
A- K
W
(Chloride as NaCl, kg/m3 of concrete = 0.07895D
A-K
W)
where:
A =
quantity of AgNO3 used, mL
K =
quantify of KSCN used, mL
W =
weight of sample, g
D =
unit weight [of concrete or aggregate], lb/ft; (kg/m;)
For gravel,
D = 0.8710 lb/ft; (13.952 kg/m;)
For slag,
D = 0.8110 lb/ft; (12.991 kg/m;)
3 of 4
MTM 605-01
8. Report
8.1
Report the test results for each test sample together with appropriate data on location
from which the sample was taken, as reported on the sample identification.
8.2
Report the results to the nearest 0.1 lb/yd; (kg/m;).
4 of 4
MTM 605-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING THE AMOUNT OF ZINC AND CLEAR COAT
ON A FENCE POST WITH A MULTI-COATED SYSTEM
1. Scope
1.1
This method applies to the testing of coating systems for multi-coated fence posts
(pipe sections only) for compliance to specifications.
1.2
The multi-coated system consists of 0.9 ounces per square foot (0.275 kg/m5) of zinc
applied to both the interior and the exterior of the post according to ASTM A 123 (HotDipped). On top of the zinc on the exterior, a clear coat system shall be applied. The
clear coat shall have a minimum thickness of 0.3 mil (7.6 micrometers).
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standard Specifications for Construction.
2.2
MDOT Special Provision, Posts for Fence and Gates - Zinc Coating.
2.3
ASTM A 123 - Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel
Products.
3. Equipment
3.1
Positector, for measuring coating thickness.
3.2
Saw, for cutting pipe sections.
3.3
Compression Testing Machine, for flattening cut pipe sections.
4. Sampling
4.1
From the post received for testing randomly select two 6 inch (150 mm) long sections
and cut them out.
5. Sample Preparation
5.1
Cut the two 6 inch (150 mm) specimens longitudinally into halves exposing the interior
surfaces.
5.2
Flatten all four 6 inch (150 mm) specimens using a Compression Testing Machine
(machine). Specimens should be placed in the machine with the outside diameter of
the pipe facing up. The head of the machine should be carefully lowered until it is in
contact with the specimen. Both the head of the machine and the surface which the
specimen is on should be level. Once in contact, the specimen should be flattened
with the load being applied at a rate of approximately 225 lbf/second (4.4 kN/sec) until
it is completely flat. Caution should be taken to avoid extensive damage to the clear
1 of 2
MTM 613-01
coat. It is not acceptable to flatten the specimens by pounding on them with a
hammer. Lubricant can be used if needed.
6. Testing
6.1
Visually examine the remaining length of post (minus the two 6 inch [150 mm]
specimens that have been cut out) for the existence of clear coat. With a knife scrape
a few random areas, if the clear coat exists it should come off with scraping. Record
observations.
6.2
Visually examine the interior and exterior coating on the post by looking at each of the
flattened 6 inch (150 mm) specimens. Hot-dip galvanizing should be visually apparent
on the interior and the exterior of the pipe. Record observations.
6.3
Using a positector, measure six randomly selected spots on the interior side of each
flattened 6 inch (150 mm) specimen. Measurements should not be taken within 3 inch
(6 mm) of any cut edge. Record all of the measurements taken.
6.4
Using a positector measure six randomly selected spots on the exterior side of each
flattened 6 inch (150 mm) specimen. Measurements should not be taken within 3 inch
(6 mm) of any cut edge. Record all of the measurements taken.
7. Computations
7.1
Average the six interior measurements for each of the flattened 6 inch (150 mm)
specimens. Perform the same calculation for the exterior measurements.
7.2
For each of the flattened 6 inch (150 mm) specimens subtract the interior average from
the exterior average.
8. Acceptance Criteria
8.1
The sample must have clear coat on the exterior and be Hot-Dipped galvanized on
both the interior and the exterior.
8.2
The averaged positector reading for the interior of the post for each flattened specimen
shall be greater than or equal to 1.5 mils (39 micrometers). For each flattened
specimen no more than three of the six measurements shall fall below 1.5 mils
(39 micrometers).
8.3
The averaged positector reading for the exterior of the post for each flattened
specimen shall be greater than or equal to 1.8 mils (46 micrometers). For each
flattened specimen no more than three of the six measurements shall fall below 1.8
mils (46 micrometers).
8.4 For each of the flattened specimens the averaged exterior and interior difference shall be
greater than or equal to 0.3 mil (7.6 micrometers). This is the average thickness of the
clear coat.
2 of 2
MTM 613-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
BOND RELEASE AGENTS
FOR EPOXY COATED DOWEL BARS
1.
Scope
1.1
This test method is intended for use in qualifying bond release agents for use
on epoxy coated steel dowel bars used for load transfer in concrete pavement
joints.
1.2
The steel dowel bars and epoxy coating are separately described in the MDOT
Standard Specifications for Construction.
2.
Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards –
Standard Specifications for Construction
2.2
ACI Standards –
211.1 - Practice for Selecting Proportions for Concrete
3.
Materials
3.1
Coated Dowel Bars – All dowel bars used for evaluation shall meet requirements
for dimensions, steel grade, and epoxy coating. The ends of the dowel bars shall
be saw cut and deburred.
3.2
Bond Release Agent – The bond release agent being evaluated shall be applied in
a manner and to a thickness typical with the manufacturer’s standard production
process.
3.3
Test Molds – Standard 6 inch diameter by 12 inch long concrete cylinder testing
molds shall be used. A system of braces and spacers is required to ensure that
the dowel is plumb, centered, and placed at the correct depth in the mold.
3.4
Concrete Mixture –
3.4.1
Material specifications and proportions for the concrete mixture used for
encasing the dowel bars for the pull-out shear bond stress tests shall be as
follows:
Cement: AASHTO M85
Fine Aggregate: AASHTO M6 (MDOT 2NS)
Coarse Aggregate: AASHTO M80, No. 57 (MDOT 6A)
Selecting Proportions: ACI 211.1
Cement Factor: 6 sacks
Water-Cement Ratio, by Weight: 0.44 maximum
1 of 3
MTM 614-07
Air Content: 6-7 percent
Consistency: 2 inches В± ВЅ inches slump
3.4.2
The concrete shall be placed into the molds and consolidated by vibration.
Curing shall be at room temperature under wet burlap and/or polyethylene sheeting.
4.
Pull-Out Shear Bond Stress Test
4.1
Specimens –
4.1.1
Label, measure, and record (to 0.05 inches) the lengths of five 1-1/4 inch
diameter by 18 inch long dowels. Measure (average four readings to 0.01 inches) and
record the dowel diameters.
4.1.2 Apply the bond release agent at the manufacturer’s recommended
application rate for a length of 10 inches from one end of the dowels.
Dowels with the release agent pre-applied by the manufacturer may be
used.
4.1.3
Fit the dowels into the cylinder molds such that 9 inches В± Вј inches of the bond
release coated end will be embedded in concrete (see Figure 1). Ensure that the dowels
remain centered, plumb, and clearances are maintained.
4.1.4
Implement a method that will allow the cured cylinder to be mounted to the
crosshead of a universal testing machine. Figure 1 shows one option.
4.1.5 Fill the molds with concrete, consolidate, and cure as described in Section 3.4.2.
4.2
Pull-Out Resistance –
4.2.1
After 72 hours В± 2 hours, remove the specimens from the molds.
4.2.2 Measure the length (to 0.05 inches) of the portion of each dowel not
embedded in concrete. Subtract this distance from the total dowel length
and record the result as length of embedment.
4.2.3 Attach necessary mounting hardware as described in Section 4.1.4.
Mount the specimen in a universal testing machine.
4.2.4 Apply a tensile force at a strain rate of 0.2 inches per minute for five
minutes to achieve a one inch pull-out of the dowel from the concrete.
Record the maximum achieved tensile force in pounds.
2 of 3
MTM 614-07
4.2.5 Calculate the shear bond stress as the force divided by the embedded
surface contact area of the dowel.
Shear bond stress = Force / (Рї x diameter x embedment length).
4.2.6
5.
Record the calculated shear bond stress.
Report
5.1
Complete and submit the Physical Requirements for Bond Release Agents form
in the Qualification Procedure for Bond Release Agents for Epoxy Coated
Dowel Bars.
Figure 1: Specimen
3 of 3
MTM 614-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
WIPING CLOTHS FOR LABORATORY AND GENERAL USE
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the determination of acceptability of both "white" wiping cloths for
laboratory use and "mixed color" cloths for general use.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
Michigan 4480-S2, September 1986, State of Michigan, Department of Management
and Budget Purchasing Office, Specifications for White Wiping Cloths.
2.2
Michigan 4480-S1, November 12, 1982, State of Michigan, Department of
Management and Budget Purchasing Office, Specifications for "Mixed Color" Wiping
Cloths.
3. Summary of Method
3.1
The test procedure involves the determination of specification adherence as to size,
weight, color, absorption, and a visual inspection for deficiencies.
4. Significance
4.1
This procedure provides a means of ensuring quality wiping cloths from the suppliers
and is necessarily highly subject to the tester's judgment. His judgment is the
determining factor regarding the final acceptance or rejection.
5. Apparatus
5.1
Balance accurate to 0.1 g.
6. Procedure
6.1
Weigh the container and sample together noting the total weight, and then remove the
cloths from the container and weigh the container. The difference in weight will give
the net weight of the sample which is recorded on the work sheet (Figure 1).
6.2
Size - Divide the sample into four categories based on the size of the individual cloths.
The four categories are:
- larger than 9 square feet (0.8 m5).
- 18 x 18 inches (457 x 457 mm) or larger, but less than 9 square feet (0.8 m5).
- less than 18 x 18 inches (457 x 457 mm), but larger than 12 x 12 inches
1 of 4
MTM 704-01
(305 x 305 mm).
- less than 12 x 12 inches (305 x 305 mm).
Weigh the cloths in each of the categories and determine the percent by weight in
each category to the nearest whole percent and record on work sheet.
6.3
Weight -
6.3.1
Sort through the entire sample and separate out two groups of material - one
group that appears unusually light and another group that appears unusually
heavy.
NOTE 1: After some experience, a technician will be able to judge the acceptable
weight of cloths by "feel" and as a result the two groups of unusually light and usually
heavy cloths may be quite small. An inexperienced technician may not feel as sure of
himself and may have a larger number of cloths that he feels are not within tolerable
limits. However, if he has to separate the entire sample into the two groups this will in
no wise affect the final test results.
6.4
6.5
6.3.2
Cut out a measured square piece of cloth (at least 12 x 12 inches [305 x
305 mm]) from each piece in the "unusually light" group, and weigh on a
balance to determine the weight per square yard (m5). Record the percent by
weight that is less than 3 ounces per square yard (100 g per m5) on the work
sheet (Figure 1).
6.3.3
Similarly cut out a measured square piece of cloth from each piece in the
"unusually heavy" group, and weigh on a balance to determine the weight per
square yard (m5). Record the percent by weight that is greater than 7 ounces
per square yard (235 g per m5) on the work sheet. If no material exceeds
these bounds, the material passes the weight requirement.
Color -
6.4.1
If the wiping cloths are "mixed color," separate into two groups - the light from
the dark cloths. Determine the percentage by weight of light colored and
record on work sheet.
6.4.2
If the wiping cloths are "white" wiping cloths for laboratory use, similarly
determine the percentage of white cloths (which should be 100 percent) and
record on work sheet.
Absorption -
6.5.1
Determine the absorption of "white" and "mixed color" wiping cloths by laying
the material on a flat wooden surface and applying one drop of water with an
eye-dropper. If the water spreads or fans out into the surrounding fabric within
10 seconds to a diameter of 2 inch (13 mm), the cloth shall be considered
absorptive. If the water is not absorbed, but rolls on top of the cloth, or passes
2 of 4
MTM 704-01
through the mesh of the cloth shall be considered non-absorptive. Weigh the
cloths that are non-absorptive and record the percentage on the work sheet.
6.6
Visual Deficiencies -
6.6.1
Visually inspect the wiping cloths for cleanliness, stains, buttons and other
attachments.
NOTE 2: Dyes may not be used to remove stains.
6.6.2
Generally determine if the cloths are free of materials such as: cuffs, collars,
pockets, ruffles, elastic and heavy seams. Other deficiencies include stiff
fronts, bathrobes, bedspreads, duck, tapestry, curtain material, ticking, poplin,
sateen, drapery, rayons, and lustrous fabrics of all descriptions. Cloths which
are deficient in any respect will be considered unsatisfactory.
3 of 4
MTM 704-01
FIGURE 1
WIPING CLOTHS - WORK SHEET
PRODUCER______________________________________________________
Mixed __________________
ColorsWhite ________________
Laboratory Number _______
Date Received ______________
P.O. Number ____________
Date Reported ______________
TEST
SPEC.
MIN.
REQ.
MAX.
RESULTS
TESTED
BY
REMARKS
Size (by weight) %
Larger than 9 square feet
(0.8 m5)
Smaller than 9 square feet (0.8
m5), but larger than 12 x 18
inches (305 x 457 mm)
0
100
Smaller than 12 x 18 inches
(305 x 457 mm)
0
Weight %
Less than 3 ounces per square
yard (100 g/m5)
0
More than 7 ounces per square
yard (235 g/m5)
0
Color (by weight) %
White, no print (white)
100
Light in color (mixed)
70
Absorption (by weight) %
Non-Absorptive
(Water)
0
General Requirements
Quality, Texture
Cleanliness, etc.
Pass
Pass
REMARKS:
cc: File
4 of 4
MTM 704-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
MINIMUM SOIL RESISTIVITY
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedure for determining the minimum resistivity of a soil.
These values are used to establish the aggressiveness of the proposed site. The
minimum value is obtained through an incremental addition of distilled water to a
selected soil sample. After each increment, the soil resistivity is measured in a soil
box.
2. Summary of Method
2.1
2.2
Assumptions
2.1.1
The sampled soil as obtained in its natural state exists at or above its
minimum resistivity.
2.1.2
As more distilled water is added to the sample, more salts will be dissolved
and result in a lower resistivity.
2.1.3
The addition of distilled water after all the salts have been dissolved will
cause an increase in the resistivity.
2.1.4
Minimum resistivity =
Applications
2.2.1
2.3
2.4
Box Factor
Conductivity Reading
Soil
Terminology
2.3.1
Box Factor - Standard value for each soil box - arrived at by dividing the
surface area of the electrodes in cm2 by the distance between the
electrodes.
2.3.2
Soil Box - A fabricated box containing two opposed stainless steel
electrodes and calibrated for measuring resistivity.
Significance
2.4.1
Advantage - Soil moisture content is a controlling factor in resistivity
measurements. In place resistivity measurements are then subject to the
natural moisture content at the time of measurement and, therefore, does
not necessarily represent the most aggressive condition attainable by the
soil. Minimum resistivity represents a base level of the lowest possible
1 of 5
MTM 707-01
2.4.2
2.4.3
resistivity attainable by an increase in moisture.
Interferences Stones larger, than the openings in a No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve.
Air voids in the soil as compacted into the soil box.
Soil not level with the top of the soil box.
Ice on the electrodes
Box contaminated by a previous soil.
Limitations - The quantity of water added in each increment is a function of the
soil type. The basic procedure is for a granular soil. Cohesive and organic
soils will allow a somewhat larger addition. Experience is the best aid in
estimating these quantities. These quantities can be adjusted as the test
progresses. As the minimum value is approached, the quantity should be
reduced. The test shall be considered complete when the resistivity value
increases for three consecutive frames.
3. Applicable Documents
3.1
Apparatus
- Conductivity instrument with leads suitable for soil box measurements.
- Soils box calibrated for use with the conductivity meter (see Figure 1).
- No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve
- Pail
- Spoon
- Spatula
- Graduate cylinder
- Table top
- Tripod short leg
- Scrub brush
- Rubber gloves
- Apron
- One liter Nalgene bottle
- One squirter bottle
- Calculator
3.2
Materials
- Distilled water
- Rags
- Notebook
5. Selection and Preparation of Sample
5.1
Thoroughly mix the soil sample selected by in place resistivity.
5.2
Classify and record soil type.
5.3
Select approximately 1,300 grams of soil passing the No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve.
2 of 5
MTM 707-01
6. Test Procedure
6.1
6.2
Test Steps
6.1.1
Place the soil in the soil box and compact it (moderate compaction with the
fingers is sufficient).
6.1.2
Strike off excess soil with spatula.
6.1.3
Connect the leads from the conductivity meter to the two terminals on the box.
6.1.4
Measure the conductivity and record.
6.1.5
Remove the soil from the box.
6.1.6
Add 50 mL of distilled water to the soil and thoroughly mix.
6.1.7
Place contents back into soil box, compact and again measure the
conductivity.
6.1.8
Repeat the procedure until a minimum value has been established.
6.1.9
Record the minimum value as the resistivity of the soil.
Precautions
6.2.1
Make sure a good contact between the meter and soil box is obtained through
the leads.
6.2.2
Thoroughly clean all equipment that comes in direct contact with the soil before
and after testing.
7. Calculations
P=
Box Factor_______
Conductivity Reading
where:
P equals the soil resistivity in ohm cms.
Box factor in centimeters is given for each box.
Conductivity reading in mohs per centimeter.
8. Precision and Accuracy
8.1
Data Recording
8.1.1
Record all conductivity measurements to the nearest micro mho.
8.1.2
Record resistivity values to the nearest ohm cm.
3 of 5
MTM 707-01
9. Report
9.1
Presentation of Data
9.1.1
Form - All raw data and readings along with the final minimum resistivity will be
entered on attached form.
The resistivity values are plotted on the back of the form. Percent moisture on the
X axis and resistivity on the Y axis.
4 of 5
MTM 707-01
MINIMUM RESISTIVITY TEST
Laboratory Number ___________________
Soil Type ___________________________
Date Tested _________________________
Tested By __________________________
Checked By _________________________
Specific Resistivity of Distilled Water _____________________________________________________
Weight of Dry Sample ________________________________________________________________
Box Factor _________________________________________________________________________
Water Added
Percent
Reading
5 of 5
Resistivity
MTM 707-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
PLASTIC TRAFFIC CONES
1.
Scope
1.1 These testing procedures cover departmental tests used to determine the acceptability
of polyvinyl chloride traffic cones for use as an aid in traffic control.
2.
Applicable Documents
2.1 The following ASTM specifications are used in testing the cones:
ASTM D 412 Tension Testing of Vulcanized Rubber
ASTM D 2240 Indentation Hardness of Rubber and Plastics by Means of a Durometer
3.
Summary of Method
3.1 The test procedures cover tests used to determine the physical dimensions and
properties of the molded cones.
4.
Significance
4.1 These tests are conducted to insure that the cone will have the flexibility and stability
required to insure its usefulness as a traffic controlling device.
5.
Procedure
5.1 Physical Dimensions and Weights - All dimensional measurements shall be made using
a suitable device capable of measuring to the nearest 0.01 inch (0.3 mm). All weights
shall be determined on a suitable device capable of weighing to the nearest 0.10 pound
(0.05 kg).
5.2 Bond Strength Test - Three reduced-section specimens shall be prepared from the
cone. The reduced section at the joint between the base and conical section shall be
neatly trimmed to 1 inch (25 mm) in width and the area at this point calculated for each
specimen. The load required to cause failure will be determined on a suitable testing
machine of a cross-head speed of 5 inches в€Ђ 1 inch (125 mm в€Ђ 25 mm) per minute.
5.3 Low Temperature Resistance - The cone shall be conditioned a minimum of two hours
at -9 О•F в€Ђ 3 О•F (-23 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C) in a cold box. A steel ball weighing 0.2 pounds в€Ђ
0.1 pound (.09 kg в€Ђ 0.05 kg) shall be dropped a distance of 60 inches (1.5 meters)
through a vertical tube to impact the conical surface of the cone. The cone shall be
positioned so that the conical surface is in a horizontal plane. The cone shall be
subjected to three impact tests spaced at least 6 inches (150 mm) apart. Fracturing,
cracking, or splitting of the conical section of the cone shall constitute failure of the test.
1 of 2
MTM 709-01
5.4 Heat Resistance - The cone shall not exhibit any slump when conditioned in an upright
position for 4 hours at 150 О•F в€Ђ 3 О•F (66 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C).
5.5 Specimen Conditioning - Unless otherwise stated the cones shall be conditioned at least
48 hours at standard laboratory condition prior to the commencement of testing.
6.
Report
6.1 The report shall list the test results for the tests conducted as follows:
- Total Height, inch (mm)
- Square Base, inch (mm)
- Inside Diameter at Base, inch (mm)
- Inside Diameter at Top, inch (mm)
- Inside Diameter (2 inch (13 mm)from Top), inch (mm)
- Wall Thickness, Conical Section, Top, inch (mm) min.
- Wall Thickness, Conical Section, Bottom inch (mm) min.
- Weight, Total, pound (kg), min.
- Weight, Base, pound (kg), min.
- Hardness, Shore A (Conical Section)
- Tensile Strength, psi (kPa), min.
- Elongation @ Rupture, %, min.
- Tensile Stress @ 200% Elongation, psi (kPa), min.
- Tensile Strength of Bond Between Base and Conical Section, psi (kPa), min.
- Low Temperature Resistance
- Heat Resistance
2 of 2
MTM 709-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
GLASS BEADS FOR PAVEMENT MARKING
1. Scope
1.1
This standard covers five procedures for testing glass beads used in pavement
marking paint, including: (1) Gradation, (2) Imperfect Particles, (3) Index of Refraction,
(4) Chemical Stability, and (5) Color.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
C 702
Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
D 1214
Sieve Analysis for Glass Spheres
E 11
Wire Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes
3. Summary of Methods
3.1
Gradation - This test is conducted according to ASTM D 1214 with certain
modifications and using No. 20 (850 Ојm), No. 30 (600 Ојm), No. 40 (425 Ојm), No. 50
(300 Ојm), No. 80 (180 Ојm), and No. 100 (150 Ојm) sieves.
3.2
Imperfect Particles - Beads are inspected under a microscope for irregularly shaped
particles and other imperfections using No. 30 to No. 40 (600 Ојm to 425 Ојm), No. 40 to
No. 50 (425 Ојm to 300 Ојm), No. 50 to No. 80 (300 Ојm to 180 Ојm), and No. 80 to
No. 100 (180 Ојm to 150 Ојm) size range.
3.3
Index of Refraction - The glass beads are placed in index of refraction oils and viewed
through a polarizing microscope lens to determine index of refraction.
3.4
Chemical Stability - The beads are boiled in water to determine the degree of alkalinity.
3.5
Color - Beads are checked for color by comparing them with four vials of beads of
desired and acceptable standards.
4. Field Sampling
4.1
Sample each shipment at the delivery point. Select a number of bags at random,
equivalent to the cube root of the total bags in shipment. The following table shows
the number of bags to be selected from shipments of various sizes.
1 of 8
MTM 711-01
Number of Bags in
Shipment
2-8
9-27
28-64
65-125
126-216
217-343
344-512
513-729
730-1000
1001-1331
(etc.)
Number of Bags to
be Sampled
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
(etc.)
4.2
Mix the contents of each of the bags selected by rolling them through at least two
revolutions to reduce segregation of sizes within the bag.
4.3
Lay one of the selected bags on a board, open the bag's self-seal closure and insert a
sampling thief diagonally through the beads until the tube contacts the diagonally
opposite corner of the bag, sealing further entry of beads into the tube. A piece of
thin-walled tubing, 1.0 to 1.25 inch (25 to 32 mm) in diameter and about 36 inches
(915 mm), makes a satisfactory sample thief. Seal the bag closure about the tube and
tilt the board with the bag of beads, allowing the sample to flow out of the tube into a
container. About 1.0 to 1.25 pounds (450 to 570 g) of beads are collected in this
manner.
4.4
Repeat the operation described above until all of the selected bags have been
sampled. Consolidate the samples representing a single shipment into one container
and forward a minimum of 4.5 pounds (2 kg) of beads to the Laboratory for testing. If
the number of bags sampled results in an excessively large sample, the size may be
reduced by use of a riffle sample splitter.
5. Method for Determining Gradation
5.1
Apparatus:
- Balance, accurate and sensitive to 0.05g with a minimum capacity of 160 g.
- Sieves, 203 mm diameter, conforming to ASTM Specification E 11, and using No. 20
(850 Ојm), No. 30 (600 Ојm), No. 40 (425 Ојm), No. 50 (300 Ојm), No. 80 (180 Ојm), and
No.100 (150 Ојm) sieves.
- Drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 110 oC в€Ђ 5 oC.
- Riffle sample splitter conforming to ASTM C 702.
2 of 8
MTM 711-01
5.2
Procedure:
5.2.1
Split the sample to approximately 100g using a sample splitter. Dry the sample
to substantially constant weight at a temperature of 110 oC в€Ђ 5 oC in drying
oven.
5.2.2
Weigh the test sample of dried glass beads to the nearest 0.1 g and place on
the sieve with the largest opening in the series specified for the test. Hold the
sieve, with pan and cover attached, in one hand in a slightly inclined position
so that the sample will be well distributed over the sieve, at the same time
gently striking the side about 150 times per minute against the palm of the
other hand on the upstroke. Turn the sieve every 25 strokes about one-sixth of
a revolution in the same direction. Continue the operation until not more than
0.1 g passes through the sieve in 1 minute of continuous sieving. Each time,
before weighing the material passing through the sieve, tap the side of the
sieve with the brush handle in order to remove any material adhering to the
wire cloth.
5.2.3
When the sieving has been finished, carefully remove the residue remaining on
the sieve to a tared container. Invert the sieve over a pan and clean the wire
cloth by brushing the underside. Add the material thus removed from the wire
cloth to the residue removed from the sieve.
5.2.4
Weigh the portion of the sample retained on the sieve to the nearest 0.1 g and
record on worksheet (See Figure 1). Place each fraction retained in a properly
marked container. Place the material passing through the largest sieve on the
sieve with the next smaller opening for the series selected for the sieve
analysis. Continue sieving in a similar manner, using successively each of the
sieves in the order of decreasing size of opening, and recording the weight
retained on each sieve. Calculate the percent retained on each sieve and the
percentage of the sample passing each of the sieves, and record on
worksheet. Report results for No. 20 (850 Ојm), No. 30 (600 Ојm), No. 50 (300
Ојm), and No. 100 (150 Ојm) sieves for compliance with specification limits.
6. Method for Imperfects Determination
6.1
Apparatus:
6.1.1
Sieves No. 30 (600 Ојm), No. 40 (425 Ојm), No. 50 (300 Ојm), No. 80 (180 Ојm),
and No. 100 (150 Ојm).
6.1.2
Transparent double-stick tape.
6.1.3
4 inch X 4 inch (102 mm x 102 mm) glass plates.
6.1.4
Stereo-Microscope - 7 to 30 power.
3 of 8
MTM 711-01
6.2
Procedure:
6.2.1
Record the weight retained of each fraction on the worksheet from the
gradation test, and determine the percent retained for each of the four fractions
considering only material between the No. 30 (600 Ојm) and No. 100 (150 Ојm)
sieves (See Figure 1). Pass the beads retained from the gradation test, of the
given size range (No. 30 - No. 40 [600 - 425 Ојm], No. 40 - No. 50 [425 300 Ојm], No. 50 - No. 80 [300 - 180 Ојm], and No. 80 - No. 100 [180 - 150 Ојm])
through the larger sized sieve of the range with a piece of double-stick
transparent tape adhering to the underside of the sieve, and a pan to collect
the beads not adhering to the tape. The sieve openings will locate the beads
in neat rows and columns on the tape.
6.2.2
Remove the tape from the sieve and stick it on a 4 x 4 inch (102 x 102 mm)
glass plate. With the plate back lighted under a stereo-microscope, isolate five
groups of 40 beads each (5 rows of 8 beads per group) in different areas of the
tape. This is accomplished by scraping away the beads immediately adjacent
to each group of 40 beads.
6.2.3
Defective or imperfect beads are counted from each group of 40 and the
number is recorded on the worksheet. The number of imperfects in each size
fraction is totalled, and the percentage determined.
NOTE 1: Examples of imperfect beads include: (a) angular chips, broken beads and
internal fractures, (b) encrusted, dull, and non-reflective colored beads, (c) fused
cluster, twinned beads with smaller bead diameter greater than one tenth of the larger
bead, dumbbell twins with internal plane at the point of attachment, (d) flat or thin
beads, and beads with pronounced spikes or other protrusions, and (e) oblong beads
with major axis more than twice the length of the minor.
6.3
Calculations:
6.3.1
Multiply the percent imperfects for each size fraction by the percent retained in
each fraction to get the weighted percent imperfect. Similarly calculate the
weighted percent imperfect for the other fractions and determine the total.
Record all percentages to the nearest 0.1%.
7. Method for Determining Index of Refraction
7.1
Apparatus:
- Polarizing microscope 200X.
- Microscope slides and cover slides.
- Refractive Index Oils from 1.49 to 1.53.
4 of 8
MTM 711-01
7.2
Procedure:
7.2.1
Prepare a microscope slide by placing one drop of index of refraction oil on the
slide (usually the oil used to start the test is a standard 1.516). With tweezers,
place several glass beads (from the No. 80 - No. 100 [180 - 150 Ојm] size
fraction from the gradation test) on the oil droplet, and place a cover slide on
top of the oil and beads.
7.2.2
Place slide under microscope and locate beads through the microscope using
a tungsten light source. Focus on several beads and then move the
microscope platform down and then up to observe in which direction the bright
ring surrounding the individual beads moves. If, when lowering the microscope
stage, the bright ring of light moves into the bead, the index of refraction of that
bead is higher than that of the surrounding oil standard. If the bright ring of
light moves away from the bead, the bead has a lower index than the
surrounding oil.
7.2.3
If the bead has a lower index of refraction than the oil, repeat using the next
lower index oil until the index of the bead is higher than the oil. This locates
the index of the bead between that of the two oils.
7.2.4
If the bead was a higher index of refraction than the oil, repeat using the next
higher index oil until the index of the bead is lower than the oil. This locates
the index of the bead between that of the two oils. Report the results to the
nearest 0.01 on the final report form (See Figure 2).
NOTE 2:
A more accurate determination can be made by combining oils. For
example, if one drop of 1.512 oil is added to one drop of 1.516, the resulting index will
be approximately 1.514, but this precision is not normally warranted.
8. Method for Determining Chemical Stability
8.1
Definitions:
8.1.1
8.2
Apparatus:
8.2.1
8.3
Alkalinity number - The number of mL of 0.1N HC1 required to reach the
titration end point.
10 mL buret with 0.05 mL divisions.
Procedure:
8.3.1
Place 100 mL of distilled water in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask and bring to a
boil. Remove from heat and pour a 10g sample of glass beads (unsieved) into
the flask. Place back on heat and boil gently or five minutes. At the end of the
5 minute boiling period, remove the beads from the water by filtering. Rinse
the inside of the flask and rinse the glass beads with distilled water and drain
the washings into the original filtrate. Stopper the flask containing the filtrate
5 of 8
MTM 711-01
and allow to cool to room temperature.
8.3.2
After cooling, add 4 or 5 drops of phenolphthalein as a color indicator to the
filtrate, and then titrate with 0.1N HC1. The titration end point is reached when
there is no longer a trace of pink coloration to the filtrate.
8.3.3
The number of mL of a 0.1N solution of HC1 required is equivalent to the
alkalinity number. For example, if it takes 0.4 mL of 0.1 N HC1 to reach the
titration end point, then the alkalinity number is 0.4. Record the alkalinity
number to the nearest 0.1 on the worksheet and the report form (Figures 1 &
2).
9. Method for Color Determination
9.1
Apparatus:
9.1.1
9.2
Four standard vials of desired and acceptable colors.
Procedure:
9.2.1
Place a vial of the sample beads next to the standard beads and visually match
the beads with the standards for color. The four acceptable colors are: very
light gray, very light gray tinge, colorless, and bright white.
9.2.2
Report as "passes" or "fails". A note describing the beads' color (light gray
tinge, or bright white) may be put in the laboratory notes area on the report
form.
10. Resampling
10.1
If the material does not meet the specification requirements, a resample is ordered
from the field and the resample is included under the same laboratory number as the
original sample.
11. Report
11.1
Transfer the information from the calculation worksheet (Figure 1) to the report form
(Figure 2), with the gradation and imperfects percentages rounded to the nearest
whole percent.
11.2
If a resample is run, report the results as the average of the two tests.
6 of 8
MTM 711-01
FIGURE 1
Glass Beads for Pavement Marking
Calculation Worksheet
Lab. No.
Gradation:
Tested by:
Retained, g
Sieve Size
Retained, %
Total Passing, %
No. 20 (850 Ојm)
No. 30 (600 Ојm)
No. 40 (425 Ојm)
No. 50 (300 Ојm)
No. 80 (180 Ојm)
No. 100 (150 Ојm)
Passing No. 100 (150 Ојm)
Total
Imperfects Determination:
Tested by:
Retained, *g
Size Fraction
Retained, %
Imperfects
Count
No. 30-40 (600-425 Ојm)
200/
No. 40-50 (425-300 Ојm)
200/
No. 50-80 (300-180 Ојm)
200/
No. 80-100 (180-150 Ојm)
200/
Total
800/
Weighted Percent
%
Imperfect
*Weights as determined for gradation (except total).
Fraction
No. 30 - 40
No. 30 - 40
No. 30 - 40
No. 30 - 40
(600 to 425 Ојm)
(600 to 425 Ојm)
(600 to 425 Ојm)
(600 to 425 Ојm)
Count
Total
Imp.
Count
Imp.
Count
Imp.
Count
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
200
200
200
200
Total mL of 0.1N HCL
7 of 8
MTM 711-01
Imp.
FIGURE 2
GLASS BEADS FOR PAVEMENT MARKING
Report Form
Type
Lab. No.
Producer
Date Received
Date Reported
Sample
P.O. No.
TEST RESULTS
Original
Resample
Specs.
Average
Min.
Max.
Color
Gradation, % passing
No. 20 Sieve, (850 Ојm)
100
No. 30 Sieve, (600 Ојm)
75
95
No. 50 Sieve, (300 Ојm)
15
35
No. 100 Sieve, (150 Ојm)
0
5
Chemical Stability, Alkalinity
Number
2.0
Index of Refraction
1.50
Imperfect Particles, %
25
Average Net Weight
per bag - kg
23.0
REMARKS:
8 of 8
MTM 711-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
PHYSICAL TESTS OF PAINT FOR PAVEMENT MARKING
1. Scope
1.1
These methods cover the testing of physical properties of pavement marking paint.
There are eight procedures for the following properties: (1) Weight per liter, (2) Drying
time, (3) Viscosity (KU), (4) Pigment Content, (5) Total Solids (Nonvolatile Content),
(6) Vehicle Solids, (7) Reflectance, and (8) Color.
2. Applicable Documents
2.1
2.2
Federal Test Method Standard No. 141a:
Method 4184.1
Weight Per Liter
Method 4281
Consistency of Pigmented Materials Krebs-Stormer
Method 4021.1
Pigment Content
Method 4041.1
Volatile & Nonvolatile Content (Ordinary Lab Oven)
Method 4051
Vehicle Solids (Ordinary Centrifuge)
Method 4252
Color Specifications from Photoelectric Tristimulus Data
ASTM Standards:
D 711 No-Pick-Up Time of Traffic Paint
E 308 Color in CIE 1931 System
3. Summary of Methods
3.1
Weight per Liter - Determine the weight per liter of paint by weighing a known volume
and converting the weight in grams to grams per liter.
3.2
Viscosity - By use of the Krebs-Stormed instrument, determine the viscosity in Krebs
Unit (KU) (Time-weight ratio per given resistance).
3.3
Pigment Content - Extract pigment from the whole paint by use of ordinary centrifuge
and solvents, and calculate the residue as percent pigment.
3.4
Volatile and Nonvolatile Content - Weigh samples of whole paint and drive off the
vocatives by heating in an oven. Reweigh and calculate loss as vocatives and the
residue as nonvolatile.
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MTM 712-01
3.5
Vehicle Solids - Using test results of 3.3 and 3.4, calculate the vehicle fraction and
determine the vehicle nonvolatile.
3.6
Color - Draw down a film of paint on an aluminum panel, allow to dry, then measure the
X and Y co-ordinates on a colorimeter.
3.7
Reflectance - Measure the reflectance on the same panel as the X and Y color
co-ordinates, using a different set of standards with the colorimeter.
3.8
Drying Time - Draw down a film of paint, add glass beads to the wet film and run a
drying time wheel over the film within one minute. Continue to run the drying time wheel
over the film until no paint is picked up by the wheel's rubber tires.
4. Sampling
4.1
Submit three 500 mL friction-top cans filled to the top and sealed.
4.2
Take samples from the producers filling lines while the batch is being packaged and
label each can with the batch number. Fill out a Michigan Department of Transportation
ID form #1923, package and ship samples to the Construction and Technology
Chemistry Laboratory.
4.3
Samples taken at the point of delivery should be taken from thoroughly agitated
containers so that the samples will be well mixed. Samples should be taken by MDOT
inspectors, packaged, and shipped to MDOT, Construction and Technology Chemistry
Laboratory with a completed sample ID.
4.4
Sample Preparation:
4.4.1
Mix the paint in the sample can by shaking for 2 to 3 minutes on a paint shaker.
4.4.2
When the sample is removed from the paint shaker, place it in a constant
temperature water bath at 25 oC for thirty minutes minimum so that the sample
will adjust to the 25 О•C temperature and air bubbles may dissipate.
4.4.3
After preconditioning the paint sample, run the nonvolatile, pigment, weight per
liter, color and reflectance, and drying time from the first 500 mL can as quickly
as possible after opening. A 20 mL syringe is filled once for use in weighing the
nonvolatile test samples, and the pigment content test sample. A second
500 mL can is opened after preconditioning and the viscosity run immediately.
The third 500 mL can is saved for retests, or special tests.
5. Determining Weight per Liter (FTMS 141a, Method 4181.1 modified)
5.1
Apparatus:
Balance - Capable of weighing to the nearest 0.01 gram.
Cup - A smoothly finished aluminum cup with a snug fitting plug cover having a small
hole in its center, and a capacity of 83.2 grams of water.
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MTM 712-01
5.2
Procedure - Weigh the empty cup and cover. Fill the cup almost to the rim, or to the ring
engraved inside the cup, with a preconditioned paint sample. Carefully place the cover
on the cup, seat it with a rotary motion, and wipe off the paint that comes out the cover
hole and along the rim. Weigh the cup filled with paint to the nearest 0.1 gram.
5.3
Calculation - Determine the actual weight of the paint in the cup, by subtracting the
weight of the empty cup from its weight full (see worksheet).
6. Determining Consistency (Viscosity) (FTMS 141a, Method 4281)
6.1
Apparatus:
Viscometer - Krebs-Stormed with a paddle rotor.
Container - 500 mL friction top can with a diameter of approx. 85 mm.
Thermometer - A range of 20 oC to 70 oC.
Timer - A stopwatch or other timing device graduated in 0.2 second or less.
6.2
Procedure:
6.2.1
After preconditioning sample, run the viscosity test immediately upon opening
the can, so that loss of volatile matter is not a factor. Place the container on the
platform of the viscometer so that the rotor is immersed in the sample to the
mark on the rotor shaft.
6.2.2
Before starting the actual test, turn the rotor through 100 revolutions and adjust
the weights to get as near as possible to 30 seconds per 100 revolutions of the
rotor. Then from a running start (at least ten revolutions) run the test two or
three times and average the Krebs Unit readings (see worksheet).
6.2.3
From the chart supplied with the Krebs-Stormed viscometer, determine the
Krebs Units, based on the weight required to produce the specified speed.
7. Determining Pigment Content (FTMS 141a, Method 4021.1 with modifications)
7.1
Apparatus:
Balance - Capable of weighing to the nearest 0.001 gram.
Centrifuge - Multi-unit head, speed of approximately 2000 rpm.
Oven - Gravity convection, well ventilated, thermostatically controlled to 105 О•C.
Centrifuge Tubes - Glass, 100 mL capacity.
Syringe - Plastic disposable, 20 mL capacity.
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MTM 712-01
7.2
Reagents:
Extraction Mixture A - 1 part Acetone, 2 parts Toulene by volume.
Ethyl Ether (ACS).
7.3
7.4
Procedure:
7.3.1
Fill a 20 mL disposable syringe with preconditioned paint, and weigh.
7.3.2
Place from 10 to 15 grams of paint from the syringe into a preweighed glass
centrifuge tube, and reweigh the syringe. The weight of the paint is determined
from the difference in the weights of the syringe.
7.3.3
Add 20 to 30 mL of Mixture A to the centrifuge tube, mix thoroughly with a glass
rod. Wash off rod and add Mixture A to approximately 60 mL.
7.3.4
Place tube in centrifuge and counterbalance each arm used. Centrifuge until
well settled (usually 15 to 30 min) or until the supernatant liquid is clear.
7.3.5
Pour off the clear liquid and repeat the procedure in 7.3.3 and 7.3.4 twice more.
For the fourth wash use 30 or 40 mL of ethyl ether (the ether wash aids in
drying the extracted pigment) but otherwise following the steps in 7.3.3 and
7.3.4.
7.3.6
After the ether wash has been poured off, tap the tube in the palm of the hand to
dislodge the pigment from the bottom of the tube. Place the tube in a fume hood
and allow the ether that remains in the pigment to evaporate slowly. After the
ether has evaporated, once again tap the tube to dislodge the pigment, and
place the tube and pigment inside an oven at 105o C в€Ђ 2 oC for two hours.
7.3.7
Cool and weigh. This procedure assumes that all of the vehicle constituents are
soluble in extraction mixture A and have been dissolved and decanted away,
and all that remains in the tube is pigment.
Calculations - (See Worksheet):
7.4.1
Pigment Content Pg = PW x 100
S1
Where:
Pg
=
Pw
S1
Pigment content, %
= Weight of pigment after extraction, g
= Sample weight, g
4 of 8
MTM 712-01
7.4.2
Vehicle Content V = 100 - Pg = S1 - Pw x 100
S1
Where:
7.4.3
V =
Vehicle content, %
Vehicle Fraction VF = 0.01 V = S1 - Pw
S1
Where:
VF = Vehicle fraction (used to calculate percent nonvolatile
content in the vehicles)
8. Determining Volatile and Non Volatile Matter (Ordinary Oven)
(FTMS 141a, Method 4041.1 Modified)
8.1
Apparatus:
Aluminum weighing dish - flat bottom, 60mm diam.
Convection type oven - 105 oC.
Analytical Balance - 0.0001 gram accuracy.
Disposable Syringe - 20 mL capacity.
8.2
8.3
Procedure:
8.2.1
As described in Federal Standard No. 141a, Method No. 4041.1 except
Section 4.1 is modified as follows:
8.2.2
Use a 20 mL syringe instead of a dropping bottle, to reduce exposure to the air.
Use a sample weight of 1 to 2 grams, determined by loss in weight of the
syringe, and dissolve in 6 mL of reagent grade toluene. Dry in the oven at
105 О•C for two hours.
Calculations - (See Worksheet):
8.3.1
Volatile Matter PV = S2 - R x 100
S2
Where: PV =
Volatile Matter in paint, %
S2 =
Sample weight, g
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MTM 712-01
8.3.2
R = Weight of residue after drying, g
Nonvolatile Matter PNV
=
100 - PV
Where: PNV
8.3.3
=
Nonvolatile matter in paint, %
Vehicle Solids VS = (S2 - R) x 100 = PV
S2 x VF
VF
Where: VS
=
VF
Vehicle solids by weight of vehicle, %
=
Vehicle fraction (see 7.4.3)
9. Determining Color and Reflectance (FTMS 141 a, Method 4252 Modified)
9.1
Apparatus:
Colorimeter - Capable of determining Reflectance X, Y, and Z tristimulus values.
Film Applicator - Wet film of 380 Ојm + 15 Ојm.
Aluminum Panels - 150 mm x 200 mm approx.
9.2
9.3
Procedure:
9.2.1
Apply a film of paint on an aluminum panel 380 Ојm + 15 Ојm wet thickness using
the film applicator, and allow to dry in a horizontal position overnight.
9.2.2
Turn on the colorimeter and allow to warm up for 30 minutes.
9.2.3
Standardize the colorimeter with the proper set of standards then take readings
on the paint film.
Calculation:
9.3.1
Calculate the tristimulus values X, Y, Z, as per colorimeter instructions, then
calculate and report chromaticity coordinates x and y.
9.3.2
Reflectance - Recalibrate the colorimeter using a new set of reflectance
standards. Using the same panels of sample paint films, read reflectance of the
paint directly from the instrument.
6 of 8
MTM 712-01
10.
Determining No-Pick-Up Time (ASTM Method D 711 Modified)
10.1
Apparatus:
Traffic Paint Drying Time Wheel - Figure 1 of ASTM D 711.
Film Applicator - 380 Ојm + 15 Ојm wet film thickness.
Timing Device - Stopwatch or electric timer.
10.2
Procedure:
10.2.1 As described in ASTM D 711 except as follows:
10.2.2 Weigh 11.6 grams of glass beads and place in a salt shaker. Immediately after
casting the paint film, sprinkle the beads evenly over the paint film and continue
the test procedure as in ASTM D 711. The 11.6 grams of beads uniformly
distributed over a 100 mm by 450 mm surface is equivalent to 600 g of beads
per liter of paint.
11.
Reporting Results
11.1
Test results are recorded on the test report including disposition of material.
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MTM 712-01
PAINT ANALYSIS WORKSHEET
Laboratory No. ___________
WEIGHT PER LITER
Bottle + Sample
Bottle
Sample
Kg/L =
Wt./Liter =
Wt. Sample
Vol. Bottle
=
83.3 mL
% PIGMENT
Tube + sample
Tube + pigment
Tube
Wt. Sample
Tube
Wt. Pigment
% Pigment
=
% Pigment
=
Wt. Pigment
Wt. Sample
X 100
% VEHICLE
100% - % Pigment =
100% -
=
% Vehicle;
Veh. fraction =
% VOLATILE THINNER
Sample
Sample
Sample
Sample
Bottle + sample
Bottle
Sample
Dish
Dish + sample
Dish + residue
Vol. thinner
Sample x veh. fr.
% Volatile thinner
Avg.
% Volatile Thinner =
% Resins and Oils
Viscosity
Wt. Grams
Wt. Volatile thinner
Wt. Sample x Vehicle Fraction
X 100
100% - Volatile Thinner
100% Krebs Units
Time Sec.
=
=
Ford Cup
Time Sec.
Krebs Units
Avg.
Gardner Tube
%Resins and Oils
%Resins and Oils
Viscosity:
Avg.
poises
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MTM 712-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SAMPLING TIMBER GUARDRAIL POSTS, BLOCKS,
AND SIGN POSTS FOR CHEMICAL TREATMENT TESTS
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes the procedure for sampling guardrail posts and blocks and sign
posts to check the preservative retention and penetration.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards
Standard Specifications for Construction
2.2
American Wood Preservers= Association
Standard A3, M2 (Section 5.2 and 5.3) and M6
3. Equipment
3.1
Increment borer
Extractor
Specimen holder, cutting block, knife
Gloves (latex)
Plastic container and marking pen
4. Procedure for Sampling
4.1
Determine the number of treated charges to be sampled. The treater may supply this
number. The number of posts and/or blocks for each charge shall also be obtained
from the treater.
4.2
The number of stacks/piles of posts/blocks in each charge shall be determined visually
without closely examining each stack/pile.
4.3
Twenty borings per charge shall be spread equally over the stacks/piles making up
that charge.
4.4
Borings are taken at approximately the center of the widest face of the post/block.
Exceptions are permissible if stacking arrangements or banding does not permit this
procedure. No boring shall be taken closer than 1 inch (25 mm) from any edge.
4.5
Do not take borings from splits, knots, resin areas, or wild grain.
4.6
Mark area to be bored with a lumber crayon or felt tipped marker. Drill through this
mark to identify the specimen.
1 of 2
MTM 713-01
4.7
Complete sample identification. List type of material (i.e., posts, blocks, sign posts,
etc.), size, type of treatment (CCA or Penta), and species of wood, if known.
4.8
If any post or block needs to be resampled because of the lack of an adequate number
of posts or blocks, resample following the above procedure; however, do not take a
second boring within 2 inches (50 mm) of the first boring. The second boring should
be taken along the same grain pattern as the first boring.
4.9
Plug each hole with a treated plug driven home or with the excess flattened to within
c inch (3 mm) of the surface.
2 of 2
MTM 713-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
INSPECTION AND PULL TESTING OF
TEMPORARY CONCRETE BARRIER LOOPS
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the equipment, procedure and test frequency for pull testing
loops on temporary concrete barriers.
1.2
This MTM is used with the Certification Procedure described in C-3 of the Materials Quality
Assurance Procedures Manual.
1.3
The purpose of testing temporary concrete barriers is to ensure the end cable attachment
assemblies conform to the requirements of Standard Plan R-52 Series 1996 Standard
Specifications for Construction and Special Provision. With proper installation, the barrier
end cables should meet or exceed the minimum pullout test requirement and be properly
sized to allow field assembly of barrier sections within the specified tolerances.
1.4
The project engineer or Region materials staff will be provided the opportunity to witness
all sampling and testing conducted by the Contractor.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
MDOT Standards
Standard Plan R-52 Series
Standard Specifications for Construction
Special Provisions
Materials Quality Assurance Procedures Manual
3. Testing Equipment
3.1
30 ton (178 kN), hollow plunger, testing ram
3.2
Hydraulic pump
3.3
Clevis, thimble, threaded rod and pin
3.4
Horseshoe and miscellaneous leveling pins
3.5
Calibration chart psi gauge reading to pounds force of load (kPa gauge reading to newton
of load)
NOTE: All testing equipment must be calibrated annually. MDOT equipment will be returned to
the Structural Research Laboratory for calibration (Construction and Technology Building,
Secondary Governmental Complex, 8885 Ricks Road, Lansing). The Contractor must provide a
copy of calibration certification for their equipment to the project engineer.
1 of 4
MTM 716-01
4. Dimensional Measurements
4.1
The Contractor is responsible for dimensional measurements of all Temporary
Concrete Barrier as shown on Standard Plan R-52 Series.
4.1.1
Measure the distance from the face of the barrier to the inside edge of the
cable. This measurement is to be taken at the center of the loop,
perpendicular to the barrier. Any individual loop that fails to meet this
dimension will be rejected.
NOTE: Cables that have been pull tested may not meet this requirement.
Therefore, dimensions should be checked prior to pull testing.
4.1.2
Measurement from one outside edge of the cable to the other outside edge,
along the end of the barrier, can be checked by placing the horseshoe over the
loop. If the horseshoe does not fit down over the loop, the loop is too wide and
will be rejected.
4.1.3
Check to make certain loops are within allowable limits of center on the end of
the barrier.
4.1.4
Check to make certain the loops are within allowable distances from the top
and bottom of the barrier.
5. Field Inspection
5.1
MDOT personnel will perform a careful visual inspection of all barrier sections used on
a job. The inspector will look for damaged or frayed cables, severely rusted loops,
spalled concrete, exposed rebar, etc., all of which are reasons for rejecting the barrier
sections. While inspecting, look for loops that do not have any bonding material
extruded around the cables. These end attachments are improperly grouted and will
generally provide the lowest pull out strengths. Any cable which appears suspect is to
be pull tested by MDOT personnel following the procedures in Section 7.
5.2
After the barriers have been placed, the pins installed, and the loops snugged, the
construction inspector will check for the 4 inch (100 mm) dimension between the
barrier sections.
5.3
If the overall inspection of the temporary concrete barriers as placed on the project is
satisfactory to the engineer, and a complete Type D Certification has been received, a
statement should be made on the Inspector=s Daily Record (IDR) to indicate the
inspection was performed.
6. Frequency of Test and Retest
6.1
Contractor Testing
6.1.1
Prior to placing barrier sections and following the procedures in Section 7, the
Contractor will perform pull tests on a minimum of 15 percent of the untested
barrier loops selected from new barrier sections and newly retrofitted sections.
2 of 4
MTM 716-01
6.2
6.1.2
If one of the loops fails the pull test, twice the number of loops shall be tested.
If another loop fails the pull test, all of the remaining loops shall be tested.
(Example: a Contractor has 500 loops on a job. Fifteen percent (75) loops
must be tested. If one loop fails the test, the Contractor must now test 150
loops. If another loop fails, all 500 loops must be tested).
6.1.3
MDOT reserves the right to review pull testing results upon request.
MDOT testing
6.2.1
Following the procedures in Section 7, MDOT personnel reserve the right to
conduct pull testing.
6.2.2
Whenever loops are found which appear damaged, they should be tested even
if testing has previously been done.
7. Pull Test Procedure
7.1
Included in the MDOT pull test equipment box is a calibration sheet that relates psi
(kPa) gauge readings to pounds (newton) of load. Each calibration sheet corresponds
to an individual ram. Be certain the calibration sheet and test ram go together.
7.2
Place the horseshoe over the loop to be tested. Place the thimble against the inside of
the loop to be tested. Attach the ram to the cable by inserting the pin through the
clevis and the thimble. The thimble is used to reduce the probability of breaking the
cable. If testing must be done without the thimble and the cable breaks in the radius,
DO NOT count this test as a failure as this is not a test of the epoxy anchor system.
Although the loop must be replaced, only failures of the epoxy anchor system are used
for evaluation of the loop integrity. If the cable extrudes from the concrete any
distance, this is a failure of the anchoring system and would be counted for rejection.
7.3
Once the pin is in place, hand tighten the nut at the end of the ram to take up as much
slack as possible. This will be necessary to avoid the possibility of the ram reaching
full stroke and the clevis hitting the back of the device before the cable reaches the full
test load.
7.4
Begin loading the ram and continue loading until the pressure gauge reaches a
reading which corresponds to the required test load of 32,000 lbf (142,000 N)
(approximately 7,000 psi (48,000 kPa) on the gauge for most MDOT pumps). At this
point begin timing for one minute. During this time, the gauge reading should not drop
below the psi (kPa) reading that corresponds to the minimum specified load of 30,000
lbf (133,000 N) (approximately 30,000 lbf (45,000 kPa) on the MDOT gauge). If the
load falls only slightly below the 30,000 lbf (133,000 N) requirement, the loop should
be reloaded and tested again.
Be careful to avoid the clevis hitting the back of the device. If this occurs, the device
may show a passing loop that actually failed.
CAUTION: When applying load to the cable, do not stand in front of the ram.
Sudden release could occur causing the unit to fly back.
3 of 4
MTM 716-01
NOTE: Under normal test procedure, once 32,000 lbf (142,000 N) is reached you may
see a slow drop in pressure due to cable stretching or possible concrete crushing at
the base of the ram. This slow drop should not cause the gauge reading to drop below
the 30,000 lbf (133,000 N) mark in the one minute time limit.
7.5
Any loop which fails the pull test is to be spray painted bright orange. All loops which
pass the pull test will be painted green.
8. Rejection of Barrier Sections
8.1
8.2
Individual Barrier sections can be rejected for reasons including but not limited to:
8.1.1
Physical condition (spalling, exposed rebar, etc.)
8.1.2
Incorrect loop dimensions.
8.1.3
Failure to meet loop pull out strength requirements.
The entire supply of barrier sections can be rejected for reasons including but not
limited to:
8.2.1
Failure to provide all Type D Certification documentation
8.2.2
Failure of more than two loops subjected to pull testing by the Contractor.
8.2.3
Failure of more than two loops to meet the dimensional requirements.
8.2.4
Failure of more than two loops subjected to testing by MDOT.
9. Reporting Procedure
9.1
The Contractor shall provide a report of all pull tests conducted as a part of the Type D
certification for all temporary concrete barrier sections placed on a project.
4 of 4
MTM 716-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SIGN POST DRIVING HEADS
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the sampling and testing of large sign post driving heads.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
A 322 Standard Specifications for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades
A 681 Standard Specification for Tool Steels Alloy
2.2
MDOT Materials Quality Assurance Procedures Manual
3. Testing Equipment
3.1
Rockwell Hardness Tester
3.2
Micrometer for Measuring Material Thickness
3.3
Ruler Graduated to 0.02 inch (0.5 mm)
3.4
Calipers
3.5
Carbide Saw
4. Material Requirements
4.1
Each sign post driving head shall be fabricated from material as specified in the
purchase order conforming to the requirements of either ASTM A 322 Grade 6150, or
A 681 Type S7.
4.2
The final surface hardness of the final sign post driving head shall meet the following:
Material Designation
A 322 Grade 6150
A 681 Type S7
Hardness Range (Rockwell-c)
48 - 55
50 - 55
4.3
The shipment of sign post driving heads shall be furnished with a Type "A" certification,
including final surface hardness tests and chemical analysis documentation, with
identification to the heat number of the steel, and to furnace lot number if heat treated.
4.4
All sign post driving heads shall be stamped prior to heat treatment with the lot
identification numbers to identify them with a specific test report. Markings shall be
located on the flat surface as indicated in the attached figures.
4.5
In addition to the Type "A" certification, a minimum of one percent of the total shipment
or one driving head per heat per shipment will be sampled and tested by the
1 of 3
MTM 717-01
department's Construction and Technology Division before final acceptance and
payment is made. Each specimen sampled will be tested for final surface hardness
and conformance with dimensional requirements. Chemical analysis testing may be
performed by the Construction and Technology Division. The department will allow a
retest if it is determined that original test specimen does not meet final surface
hardness and/or chemical analysis requirements. Sampling for the retest will be at
twice the frequency as that of the original test. Failure to meet specification
requirements will be justification for rejection and the entire shipment will be returned
at the expense of the supplier.
5. Testing Procedures
5.1
Each sign post driving head sampled by the department will be tested at the
Construction and Technology Division laboratory as follows:
5.1.1
Type "A" certification documentation, as described in Subsection 4.3 of this
test method, will be reviewed for conformance.
5.1.2
If chemical analysis testing is to be conducted, material to be tested will be
removed from the driving head as shown in the attached figures.
5.1.3
Critical dimensions will be verified as shown in the attached figures.
5.1.4
Final surface hardness testing of the driving head will be verified. Hardness
tests will be performed at approximately 2 inch (50 mm) intervals randomly
along the length of the driving head. A minimum of six tests will be conducted
on the driving head.
6. Report
6.1
The Construction and Technology Division will produce a laboratory test report. The
test report will include the specific physical and chemical test results for each sample
tested and the final disposition of the shipment.
2 of 3
MTM 717-01
3 of 3
MTM 717-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TESTING CORRUGATED POLYETHYLENE PIPE
AND CORRUGATED POLYETHYLENE TUBING
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedures for testing corrugated polyethylene pipe 12 to 36
inch (300 to 900 mm) diameter and corrugated polyethylene tubing 3 to 10 inch (75
to 250 mm) diameter once samples have reached the Central Laboratory.
1.2
This method describes specific modifications (additions and deletions) from the
AASHTO and referenced ASTM standards.
2. Related Documents
2.1
AASHTO Standards
M 252 Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Drainage Tubing.
M 294 Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 300 to 1200 mm
diameter
2.2
ASTM Standards
As referenced in AASHTO M 252 and M 294.
2.3
MDOT Publications
Standard Specifications for Construction
Supplemental Specifications
Special Provisions
3. Equipment
3.1
Equipment shall be as described in AASHTO M 252, M 294 and documents
referenced therein.
4. Test Procedure
4.1
Except as otherwise stated herein, all testing shall be according to AASHTO M 252
or M 294.
4.2
Subject pipe and tubing shall be tested for the following: markings, workmanship,
visible defects, inside diameter, perforations, elongation, pipe stiffness, pipe
flattening, brittleness, and fitting requirements as described in related AASHTO
standard.
1 of 2
MTM 718-01
4.3
Subject pipe and tubing shall not be tested for environmental stress cracking, high
temperature strength or low temperature flexibility as described in related AASHTO
standard.
4.4
Pipe stiffness and pipe flattening tests will be conducted according to AASHTO (i.e.:
specimens "B" and "C" shall be rotated 45 and 90 degrees respectively from the
orientation of specimen "A" as described in AASHTO).
2 of 2
MTM 718-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
TUNGSTEN CARBIDE INSERTS IN UNDERBODY BLADES
1. Scope
1.1
Testing of the brazed connection between the tungsten carbide inserts and the
underbody blades will determine if the underbody blades meet the current MDOT
Specifications.
2. Testing Equipment
2.1
Electro-hydraulic test machine.
2.1.1
Fixture for shear testing of the brazed connection.
2.1.2
Microscope (20X minimum).
3. Selection and Quantity of Samples to be Tested
3.1
Two blades per shipment (a shipment shall be considered any delivery that takes place
within a three [3] week period) or four (4) blades per yearly order, whichever is greater;
shall be sampled and tested by the MDOT Construction and Technology Division
before final acceptance and payment is made.
3.2
From each blade four sample specimens shall be taken. Two samples shall be taken
from each third point of the blade for a total of four specimens.
4. Brazing Requirements
4.1
The MDOT specification for cutting edges with tungsten carbide inserts for moldboard
assemblies requires that the inserts be securely brazed over the entire length and
surface of the blade groove. Workmanship shall be consistent with sound brazing
practice with no evidence of voids or use of shims. A visual inspection will be
performed to determine if there are any voids present. Any observed voids in the
brazing shall be noted on the test report. Brazing gaps, excessive voids, or oxidated
surface not holding brazing material shall be cause for rejection of the shipment.
1 of 2
MTM 719-01
4.2
The brazing material shall be a high strength alloy type with a minimum rated shear
strength of 30,000 psi (207,000 kPa). A "Type D" certification from the manufacturer of
the brazing material is required to be submitted with the invoices to the Central Office.
This certification will be forwarded to the Aggregate and Metals Laboratory.
5. Preparation of the Test Specimen
5.1
Each underbody blade to be tested shall be sawed so that an individual insert and the
blade base materials surrounding that insert are removed from the overall blade. The
test specimen shall be machined to 3/4 x 3/4 x 1 inch (19 x 19 mm thickness x 25 mm
long).
6. Procedure
6.1
The test load shall be applied to the insert along the longitudinal axis at a rate not to
exceed 350 lbf/sec (1560 N≅m/sec). The peak load value is observed and recorded
(failure of the insert does not change the peak loading value observed).
6.2
The peak load is divided by the actual surface area of the insert to blade interface
(approximately 0.0104 square feet (0.000968 square meters) to obtain the shear
loading value in pounds force per square foot (Newtons per square meter).
6.3
The inserts may shatter during shear testing, causing a lower psi (kPa) value. If the
primary mode of specimen failure is shattering of the insert and the shear strength
value is less than 20,000 psi (138,000 kPa) the tester may elect to either test
additional samples or exclude the specimen from the average test value for that blade.
A minimum of three (3) shear test values per blade must be used to calculate a valid
average.
6.4
The shear loadings values from the test specimens from each blade shall be averaged
to obtain a final test value for each blade.
7. Acceptance or Rejection of the Shipment
7.1
In addition to the brazing workmanship specified in Section 4.1 the shear strength of
the brazed connection is evaluated to determine if the shipment is to be accepted or
rejected. If the averaged shear strength of each blade tested meets or exceeds the
20,000 psi (138,000 kPa) minimum requirement the entire shipment shall be
considered accepted and payment made.
7.2
If for any reason the averaged shear strength of any originally sampled blade falls
below a minimum of 20,000 psi (138,000 kPa) one of two things shall occur:
7.2.1
If one originally sampled blade fails to meet the 20,000 psi (138,000 kPa)
requirement, a second blade from the same shipment delivery point shall be
tested. Failure of this second test blade constitutes a cause for rejection of the
entire shipment.
7.2.2
If two or more originally sampled blades fail to meet the 20,000 psi (138,000
kPa) minimum shear strength requirement this shall constitute a cause for
rejection of the entire shipment being tested.
2 of 2
MTM 719-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
CORRUGATED POLYETHYLENE PIPE
(BELL & SPIGOT FUSED COUPLINGS)
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedures for testing corrugated polyethylene pipe 12 to 36
inch (300 to 900 mm diameter) bell and spigot fused couplings.
1.2
This method describes specific modifications (additions and deletions) from the
AASHTO and referenced ASTM standards.
2. Related Documents
2.1
AASHTO Standards
M 294 Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe, 300 to 1200 mm
diameter.
2.2
ASTM Standards
As referenced in AASHTO M 252 and M 294.
2.3
MDOT Publications
Standard Specifications for Construction
Supplemental Specifications
Special Provisions
3. Equipment
3.1
Equipment shall be as described in AASHTO M 294 and documents referenced
therein.
4. Test Procedure
4.1
Except as otherwise stated herein, all testing shall be according to AASHTO M-294.
4.2
Coupling shall be cut from pipe specimen leaving at least 6 inches (150 mm) of pipe
extending from fused joint. A section of pipe at least 12 inches (300 mm) in length,
with the gasket installed on the first corrugation, shall be inserted into the open end of
the fitting to complete the assembly of the joint.
4.3
Brittleness of bell and spigot coupling at the butt fused joint/pipe interface may be
tested by conditioning the assembled specimen at 25 oF (-4 oC) for 24 hours and
impacting it one time each at 4 locations approximately 90 degrees apart, using a 10
pound (4.5 kilogram) type-B tup from a height of 10 feet (3 meters) as described in
AASHTO. Coupling, pipe or fused interface shall not split, crack or break during this
test or the subsequent joint integrity test.
4.4
Subject pipe couplings will be inspected or tested for the following: workmanship,
visible defects, joint integrity, as described in related AASHTO standard.
1 of 1
MTM 720-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SOIL ANCHOR DRIVING HEADS
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the sampling and testing of soil anchor driving heads.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
A 322 Standard Specifications for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades
2.2
MDOT Materials Quality Assurance Procedures Manual
3. Testing Equipment
- Rockwell Hardness Tester
- Micrometer for Measuring Material Thickness
- Ruler Graduated to 0.02 inches (0.5 mm)
- Calipers
- Carbide Saw
4. Material Requirements
4.1
Each soil anchor driving head shall be fabricated from material as specified in the
purchase order conforming to the requirements of ASTM A 322 Grade 6150.
4.2
The final surface hardness of the final soil anchor driving head shall meet the
following:
Material Designation
A 322 Grade 6150
Hardness Range (Rockwell-c)
48 - 55
4.3
The shipment of soil anchor driving heads shall be furnished with a Type "A"
certification, including final surface hardness tests and chemical analysis
documentation, with identification to the heat number of the steel, and to furnace lot
number if heat treated.
4.4
All soil anchor driving heads shall be stamped prior to heat treatment with the lot
identification numbers to identify them with a specific test report. Markings shall be
located on the flat surface as indicated in the attached figures.
4.5
In addition to the Type "A" certification, a minimum of one percent of the total shipment
or one driving head per heat per shipment will be sampled and tested by the
Department's Construction and Technology Division before final acceptance and
payment is made. Each specimen sampled will be tested for final surface hardness
and conformance with dimensional requirements. Chemical analysis testing may be
performed by the Construction and Technology Division. The Department will allow a
1 of 3
MTM 721-01
retest if it is determined that original test specimen does not meet final surface
hardness and/or chemical analysis requirements. Sampling for the retest will be at
twice the frequency as that of the original test. Failure to meet specification
requirements will be justification for rejection and the entire shipment will be returned
at the expense of the supplier.
5. Testing Procedure
5.1
Each soil anchor driving head sampled by the Department will be tested at the
Construction and Technology Division laboratory as follows:
5.1.1
Type "A" certification documentation, as described in Subsection 4.3 of this
test method, will be reviewed for conformance.
5.1.2
If chemical analysis testing is to be conducted, material to be tested will be
removed from the driving head as shown in the attached figures.
5.1.3
Critical dimensions will be verified as shown in the attached figures.
5.1.4
Final surface hardness testing of the driving head will be verified. Hardness
tests will be performed at approximately 2 inch (51 mm) intervals randomly
along the length of the driving head. A minimum of six tests will be conducted
on the driving head.
6. Report
6.1
The Construction and Technology Division will produce a laboratory test report. The
test report will include the specific physical and chemical test results for each sample
tested and the final disposition of the shipment.
2 of 3
MTM 721-01
3 of 3
MTM 721-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SMOOTHNESS OF SURFACE
1. Scope
1.1
This test method is used to measure the smoothness of paving courses using a 10 foot
(3 m) straightedge, as called for in the Standard Specifications.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
Standard Specifications for Construction, Section 4.00.12 - 1990 (502.03.H. - 1996).
3. Apparatus
3.1
Straightedge - a rigid beam at least 10 feet (3 m) long, supported on equal-sized
blocks one inch (25 mm) or greater in thickness at each end, as shown in Figure 1.
3.2
Ruler or scale graduated in 1/16 inch (1 mm) increments.
4. Procedure
4.1
Move the straightedge over the surface and parallel to the centerline until the alleged
high or low point is found, as in Figure 1. With the ruler in a vertical position, measure
the distance between the bottom edge of the straightedge and the surface. Perform
the measurement at the point of the highest surface elevation or lowest surface
elevation. The difference between the measurement (at the highest or lowest surface
elevation) and the block thickness will be the measure of smoothness, as called for in
Section 4.00.12 - 1990 (502.03.H. - 1996).
5. Report
5.1
Report the location of the measurement (station and distance right or left) and mark
the site on the pavement if correction is required.
1 of 2
MTM 722-01
2 of 2
MTM 722-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
WATER TIGHTNESS TESTING OF
CULVERT AND SEWER JOINTS UP TO 24 INCHES (600 mm) IN DIAMETER
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the requirements for independent laboratory testing of
culvert and sewer joints, up to 24 inches (600 mm) in diameter, to verify WATER
TIGHTNESS. Laboratory test results will be considered valid once they have been
reviewed and accepted by MDOT. Retesting will be required whenever the joint
configuration or materials are changed.
1.2
Testing may be conducted by the manufacturer when witnessed and certified by an
authorized representative of an independent laboratory.
This authorized
representative must verify the design and calibration of the testing apparatus.
1.3
Two procedures are included in this MTM either of which may be used to verify the
WATER TIGHTNESS of sewer and culvert joints. The rate of water leakage from the
test section or the rate of air pressure drop in the test section may be measured.
12. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards
C 924M
C 969M
C 1091
F 1417
F 949
2.2
Standard Practice for Testing Concrete Pipe Sewer Lines by Low-Pressure
Air Test Method
Standard Practice for Infiltration and Exfiltration Acceptance Testing of
Installed Precast Concrete Pipe Sewer Lines
Standard Test Method for Hydrostatic Infiltration and Exfiltration Testing of
Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines
Standard Test Method for Installation Acceptance of Plastic Gravity Sewer
Lines Using Low Pressure Air
Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride)(PVC) Corrugated Sewer
Pipe With a Smooth Interior and Fittings
Recommended Standards of Wastewater Facilities, 1990
3. Significance and Use
3.1
Culvert and sewer joints, 24 inches (600 mm) or less in diameter, tested and approved
in accordance this MTM will be placed on the Qualified Products List.
4. Apparatus
4.1
4.2
Testing may be carried out using either air pressure or hydrostatic pressure. Provide
plugs capable of sealing the sewer or culvert test section for the appropriate test
method.
The pressure gauge used, for either method, shall have a range of 0 to 10 psi (70 kPa)
gauge. The gauge shall read to the nearest 0.07 psi (0.5 kPa) with an accuracy of
1 of 5
MTM 723-07
в€Ђ .01 psi (0.1 kPa).
4.3
The pressure test apparatus must include a 6.0 psi (40 kPa) pressure relief device.
4.4
When testing plastic pipe, the pipe shall be deflected five percent (5%) during the
entire testing period to represent the maximum allowable deflection at the time of field
installation. The apparatus described in ASTM F 949 shall be used to deflect the
plastic pipe.
5. Test Section
5.1
The pipe section to be pressurized using the air or hydrostatic test procedure
described in Section 6 shall consist of either two standard length pipe sections for the
diameter being tested or two pipe segments each having a minimum length of ten feet,
properly connected in accordance with the watertight joint design.
5.2
Jointing procedures used in the laboratory must be readily adaptable for use in the
field to allow verification testing.
5.3
The test section shall be clean and free of debris at the time of testing.
6. Test Procedure
6.1
The test procedures presented have been adapted from ASTM field installation
acceptance methods for hydrostatic (ASTM C 969, C 1091) and air pressure (ASTM
C 924M, F 1417) testing.
6.2
Hydrostatic Pressure Testing
6.3
6.2.1
Plug the ends of the test section to provide a watertight seal and provide
bracing to withstand the expected test pressure. Bracing shall not create
longitudinal compressive forces within the test section. One of the plugs shall
be fitted with an orifice through which water can be introduced into the test
section. A water supply line shall be fitted with suitable control valves and a
pressure gauge allowing continuous monitoring of the hydrostatic pressure at
the top of the pipe.
6.2.2
Fill the test section completely with water.
6.2.3
For concrete and clay pipe, the water filled test section is to stand for a
minimum of four hours and a maximum of 72 hours to allow for water
absorption by the pipe material. Refill the test section as necessary before
continuing with testing.
6.2.4
Bring the hydrostatic pressure in the test section to 4.0 psi (28 kPa) and begin
timing the test. Measure the leakage from the pipe joint while maintaining
4.0 psi (28 kPa) for 20 minutes.
Air Pressure Testing
6.3.1
Plug the ends of the test section to provide an airtight seal and provide bracing
to withstand the expected test pressure. Bracing shall not create longitudinal
2 of 5
MTM 723-07
compressive forces within the test section. One of the plugs shall be fitted with
an orifice through which air can be introduced into the test section. An air
supply line shall be fitted with suitable control valves and a pressure gauge
allowing continuous monitoring of the air pressure.
9
6.3.2
Pressurize the pipe to 4.0 psi (28 kPa). Allow a minimum of two minutes for
the air pressure to stabilize to between 3.5 psi (24 kPa) and 4.0 psi (28 kPa). If
necessary, add air to the test section to maintain the pressure between 3.5 psi
(24 kPa) and 4.0 psi (28 kPa).
6.3.3
After the air pressure has stabilized between 3.5 psi (24 kPa) and 4.0 psi
(28 kPa), close the air supply valve so that no additional air may enter the test
section.
6.3.4
Record the air pressure and begin timing the test. Record the time required for
the air pressure to decrease 1.0 psi (7.0 kPa).
Basis of Acceptance
7.1
Hydrostatic Pressure Verification
The method of jointing is considered acceptable when the leakage is less than or
equal to 200 gallons per inch of inside diameter per mile per day (20 liters per
millimeter of inside diameter per kilometer of pipe per day). (Ref: Recommended
Standards of Wastewater Facilities, 1990) Table 723-1 gives allowable leakage rates
for a range of pipe diameters and pipe section lengths calculated using the acceptance
criteria.
7.2
Air Pressure Verification
The method of jointing is considered acceptable when the time required for the air
pressure to decrease 1.0 psi (7.0 kPa) exceeds the minimum times listed in Table
723-2.
10 Report
8.1
Independent laboratory test reports must be submitted which document that a
minimum of three passing tests (either three hydrostatic or three air pressure) have
been performed for each type of pipe jointing system and each diameter of pipe being
submitted for approval as a Qualified Product.
8.2
Each report must include the following information:
-
pipe and joint component manufacturer's name
specific product name(s)
description of joint configuration
material specification for each component
the diameter of pipe joint tested
standard pipe section length for pipe joint tested
joint assembly procedure used in laboratory testing
the date and location of testing
observed leakage rate (hydrostatic) or time for 7.0 kPa pressure drop (air)
3 of 5
MTM 723-07
-
field assembly diagram sufficient to allow identification of all joint system
components
certification statement by authorized representative of independent laboratory if
testing is conducted by manufacturer and independently witnessed.
TABLE 723-1
Maximum Leakage for Various Pipe Diameter and Standard Pipe Section Lengths for Twenty-Minute
Test Interval
Pipe Diameter
in (mm)
12 (300)
15 (375)
18 (450)
24 (600)
Length of Pipe Section
ft (mm)
Allowable Leakage
oz (L)
8
(2400)
6.8
(0.20)
10
(3000)
8.5
(0.25)
12
(3600)
10.0 (0.30)
15
(4500)
12.8 (0.38)
18
(5400)
15.2 (0.40)
8
(2400)
8.5
10
(3000)
10.5 (0.31)
12
(3600)
12.5 (0.37)
15
(4500)
15.9 (0.47)
18
(5400)
18.9 (0.56)
8
(2400)
10.1 (0.30)
10
(3000)
12.8 (0.38)
12
(3600)
15.2 (0.45)
15
(4500)
19.3 (0.57)
18
(5400)
23.0 (0.68)
8
(2400)
13.5 (0.40)
10
(3000)
16.9 (0.50)
12
(3600)
20.3 (0.60)
15
(4500)
25.4 (0.75)
18
(5400)
30.4 (0.90)
(0.25)
TABLE 723-2
4 of 5
MTM 723-07
Minimum Time for 1 psi (7.0 kPa) Air pressure Decrease for Various Pipe Diameters
(1)
(2)
Pipe Diameter
in (mm)
Thermoplastic Pipe (1)
elapsed time (min:sec)
All Other Materials (2)
elapsed time (min:sec)
4 (100)
3:46
0:18
6 (150)
5:40
0:42
8 (200)
7:34
1:12
10 (250)
9:26
1:30
12 (300)
11:20
1:48
15 (375)
14:10
2:06
18 (450)
17:00
3:00
21 (525)
19:50
3:36
24 (600)
22:40
3:36
ASTM F 1417
ASTM C 828 and ASTM C 924
5 of 5
MTM 723-07
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
SMOOTH-WALL COILABLE
POLYETHYLENE (PE) CONDUIT AND PIPE
1. Scope
1.1
This method covers the procedures for testing smooth-wall coilable polyethylene
(PE) pipe and conduit for use as utilities duct or electrical conduit. The test
procedures cover tests used to determine the physical dimensions and properties of
all smooth-wall coilable polyethylene (PE) conduit and pipe submitted for approval.
Tests specified in referenced documents but not covered in this test method will
generally not be performed.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
2.2
ASTM Standards:
D 1785
Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride)(PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40,
80, and120.
D 2122
Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and
Fittings.
D 3035
Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on
Controlled Outside Diameter.
D 3350
Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials.
D 3485
Specification for Smooth-Wall Coilable Polyethylene (PE) Conduit (Duct)
for Preassembled Wire and Cable.
NEMA Standards
TC 2 - 1983 Electrical Plastic Tubing (EPT) and Conduit (EPC-40 and EPC-80).
3. Equipment
3.1
Equipment shall be as described in ASTM D 2122, D 3485, D 1785 and NEMA TC2
- 1983 and documents referenced therein, except as modified herein.
4. Test Methods, Procedures and Specifications
4.1
Dimensions - This test is conducted according to ASTM D 2122 - 1990 except that
out-of-roundness is not checked. Wall thickness and outside diameter dimensions
shall conform to ASTM D 1785 for Schedule 40 and 80 material, or applicable
special provision. No more than 3% deviation from the minimum wall thickness
specification will be allowed. Wall thickness range shall be within 12% in
accordance with ASTM D 3035.
1 of 2
MTM 724-01
4.2
Crushing Resistance - This test is conducted according to NEMA TC2 - 1983 except
load requirements for wall thicknesses greater than Schedule 40 (ie. Sch. 80, DR
11, etc.) will be double the specified Schedule 40 load specification for the
equivalent diameter of conduit or pipe.
4.3
Impact Test - Room Temperature Impact test is not conducted.
Low Temperature Impact test is conducted according to ASTM D 3485 except as
follows:
a. Only samples 2 inch (50 mm) diameter and greater will be tested.
b. Three 6 в€Ђ 0.2 inch (150 в€Ђ 2 mm) specimens will be cut from each length of
conduit or pipe included in the sample, and tested at low temperature 0 О•F в€Ђ 4
О•F (-18 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C).
c. A 20 в€Ђ 0.2 pound (9 в€Ђ 0.1 kg) Type B tup will be dropped from a height of 10
feet (3 m), onto conduit and pipe specimens. The face of the tup should strike
the center of the specimens once from the 10 foot (3 m) height, but may rebound
and impact the specimen more than once. The material does not meet the
requirements of this test method if any of the three (3) specimens tested cracks
or tears.
4.4
Workmanship - Samples of conduit and pipe shall be visually inspected for finish
and imperfections.
4.5
Markings - Samples of conduit shall be marked according to ASTM D 3485, and
shall include a producer code. (Markings must include the designation [email protected] or
AType [email protected]).
4.6
Couplings or Joints - If couplings or joints are intended to be used with the material,
examples of the couplings or joints made from the approved material must be
submitted for inspection and/or testing. Two 1.5 в€Ђ 0.01 feet (460 в€Ђ 3 mm) length
sections of each size of conduit or pipe shall be joined by whatever method will be
used at the job site and submitted to the laboratory. One joint or coupling section
shall be submitted for each job where they are used with the pipe or conduit. If
tested, the test will be conducted according to NEMA TC 2 - 1983 (Axial Pull Test)
except that the means of holding or gripping the ends of the test specimen during
the test can be modified to accommodate existing laboratory equipment.
4.7
Color and (UV) Stabilizer - PE Conduit or Pipe covered by this test method must be
produced from material with a color and UV stabilization designation code of C, D,
or E as described in ASTM D 3350. All PE Conduit or Pipe covered by this test
method, for use above ground shall be black in color.
2 of 2
MTM 724-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING RIDE QUALITY USING
A CALIFORNIA TYPE PROFILOGRAPH
1. Scope
1.1
Ride quality of the pavement, expressed in inches per mile (mm/km), will be
determined from a mechanically produced profilogram (trace) or from a
computerized version of the California type profilograph.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
E 1274 Standard Test Method for Measuring Pavement Roughness Using a
Profilograph.
2.2
MDOT Standards
MTM 727 Manual Analysis of California Type Profilograms
3. Equipment
3.1
A California type profilograph, which is either mechanical or computerized, will be
used.
3.2
Mechanical profilographs will produce a profilogram with a true 1:1 vertical scale and
a true 1:300 horizontal scaling. The profilogram will have roadway stations recorded
thereon.
3.3
Computerized profilographs will produce a plot of the profile and a printout which will
give the following data: stations every 100 feet (km), bump or dip height and length
of specification, the blanking band width, date of measurement, overall inches per
mile (mm per km) for that measurement, total length of that measurement, and the
raw inches (mm) for each 528 foot (160 m) segment. Vertical displacement will be
sampled every 3 inches (75 mm) or less along the roadway.
3.4
The profilometer must be capable of continuing linear measurement while
suspending measurement of ride quality during passage over excluded sections.
This exclusion can be accomplished by software, mechanical or electronic means.
4. Calibration
4.1
A manufacturer=s operating manual and a tire pressure gauge will be available at
the site.
4.2
The calibration procedure for the mechanical machine will consist of profiling two
replicate runs on a designated roadway of 1000 feet (300 m) in length. Horizontal
calibration will be checked by running the profilograph over the 1000 foot (300 m)
length and measuring the length of the resulting output on the profilogram. A 1000 foot
1 of 3
MTM 725-01
(300 m) run must produce 40 inches {+ 0.1 inch} (1 m {в€Ђ 3 mm}) of profilogram output.
Vertical calibration will be checked by running the test wheel over a block of known
thickness (usually 1 inch {25 mm}) and measuring the displacement it produces on the
profilogram. There will be no visible tolerance allowed on the vertical calibration.
4.3
Calibration of the computerized versions will have a run made over a distance of a
measured 1000 feet (300 m). The computer must print out a distance equal to the
measured distance в€Ђ 3 feet (в€Ђ 1 m). The vertical calibration will be as per the
manufacturer's specification.
4.4
If the horizontal or vertical checks do not meet specifications, the machinery must be
corrected. In addition to the calibration procedures, a visual inspection of the
profilograph must be conducted. This would include condition of the test tire and bogie
wheels, manufacturer=s recommended tire pressure, tracking of the paper on the
spool and paper drum, condition of chains and cables, tracking of the device down the
road, and general condition of the test device. This calibration procedure is the same
for either type of profilograph.
5. Procedure
5.1
The limits of the pavement to be measured will be marked. The operator is
responsible for starting the California type profilometer with the measuring wheel on
the mark and ending on the mark at the end of the run.
5.2
Measure ride quality by operating the profilograph over the pavement to be measured.
The location within the lane and the number of runs will be determined by applicable
specifications. The equipment shall be operated within the speed range specified by
the manufacturer for data collection.
5.3
Linear measurement shall be continued over areas excluded from ride quality
measurement that lie within the overall limits of the pavement to be measured.
5.4
The pavement surface must be clean to obtain accurate measurements.
6. Manual Data Processing
6.1
The trace generated by a mechanical profilograph will be analyzed according to
Michigan Test Method MTM 727.
7. Automated Data Processing
7.1
For computerized profilographs, the profile data will be bandpass filtered in the
computer to remove all spatial wavelengths shorter than 2 feet (0.61 m) and longer
than 110 feet (33.5 m). This will be accomplished by a third order, low pass
Butterworth filter set at 2 feet (0.61 m) and a third order, high pass Butterworth filter set
at 110 feet (33.5 m). The resulting band limited profile will then be computer analyzed
according to the California Profilograph reduction process to produce the required
inches per mile (mm/km) statistic. This will be accomplished by fitting a linear
regression line to each 528 feet (160 m) of contiguous pavement section. This
2 of 3
MTM 725-01
corresponds to the perfect placement of the blanking bar by a human trace reducer.
Scallops are then detected and totaled according to the California protocol outlined in
Michigan Test Method MTM 727. Bump analysis will take place according to the
California Profilograph reduction process outlined in Michigan Test Method MTM 727.
8. Report
8.1
For manual profilographs provide the trace with smoothing line, scallop heights, and
bump locations. Also provide a summary sheet of the profile index.
8.2
For computerized profilographs, a copy of the official computer generated trace and
printout will be submitted for project records and to determine the ride quality payment.
Each run will be reported to the nearest 0.1 inch (0.5 mm).
8.3
Segments less than 528 feet (160 m) shall be prorated to a 528 foot (160 m) segment.
Each run will be reported by the Contractor to the nearest 0.1 inch (0.5 mm).
3 of 3
MTM 725-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
DETERMINING RIDE QUALITY
USING A GM TYPE RAPID TRAVEL PROFILOMETER
1. Scope
1.1
Ride quality of the pavement, expressed as RQI (Ride Quality Index) units, or
California Profilograph units of inches/mile (mm/km), will be determined by proper
reduction of the true profile obtained by a GM Type of Rapid Travel Profilometer.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
E 950 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Longitudinal Profile of Traveled
Surfaces with an Accelerometer Established Inertial Profiling Reference.
3. Equipment
3.1
An automated profilometer, based on the General Motors Rapid Travel concept, will be
used. The unit will produce a true profile for spatial wavelengths from 2 to 110 feet
(0.61 to 33.5 m). The unit must also be able to generate the equivalent California
Profilograph plot and values as well as locations of bumps or dips over the specified
height. The unit will also be capable of producing a plot of the true profile with a range
from 2 to 110 feet (0.61 m to 33.5 m) wavelengths.
3.2
The profilometer will produce a plot of the profile and a printout which will give the
following data: stations every 100 feet (km), bump or dip height and length of
specification, the blanking band width, date of measurement, overall inches per mile
(mm per km) for that measurement, total length of that measurement, the raw inches
(mm) for each 528 foot (160 m) segment, and the ride quality index for each 528 foot
(160 m) segment and for the total run.
3.3
The profilometer must be capable of continuing linear measurement while suspending
measurement of ride quality during passage over excluded sections. This exclusion
can be accomplished by software, mechanical or electronic means.
4. Calibration
4.1
A manufacturer=s operating manual and tire pressure gauge will be available at the
site.
4.2
The profilometer will be tested for overall operation by performing the "Bounce" test
procedure included with the unit on the site prior to use. In addition, any other tests
prescribed by the manufacturer will be performed on the site prior to use.
4.3
Horizontal measurement will be checked over a measured distance of 1000 feet
(300 m) and will read within в€Ђ 3 feet (в€Ђ 1 m) of the measured distance.
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MTM 726-01
4.4
Vertical calibration will be as per the manufacturer's specification.
5. Procedure
5.1
The limits of the pavement to be measured will be marked. Measurement must start
16.25 feet (5 m) prior to the beginning of the pavement to be measured and end
16.25 feet (5 m) after the end of the pavement to be measured.
5.2
Measure ride quality by operating the profilometer over the pavement to be measured.
The location within the lane and the number of runs will be determined by applicable
specifications. The equipment shall be operated within the speed range specified by
the manufacturer for data collection.
5.3
Linear measurement shall be continued over areas excluded from ride quality
measurement that lie within the overall limits of the pavement to be measured.
5.4
The pavement surface must be clean and dry to obtain accurate measurements.
6. Automated Data Processing
6.1
The digitized profile will be internally processed by dividing it into three spatial
wavelength bands by using third order Butterworth high and low pass filters. The three
bands are 50 to 25 feet (15.2 to 7.6 m), 25 to 5 feet (7.6 to 1.5 m), and 5 to 2 feet
(1.5 to 0.6 m). Variance of the profile in each band is then computed:
∑ (x − x )
2
N
Where x is an individual profile elevation, in inches (mm), for the band, 0 is the
average profile elevation value, in inches (mm) for the band, and N is the number of
profile elevations measured in the band.
Where Vari is the variance for band i.
i = 1 for 50 to 25 feet (15.2 to 7.6 m), i = 2 for 25 to 5 feet (7.6 to 1.5 m) and i = 3
for 5 to 2 feet (1.5 to 0.6 m).
RQI is then given by the formula:
RQI = 3.077 ln (Var1 x 108) + 6.154 ln (Var2 x 108)+ 9.231 ln (Var3 x 108) - 141.85
This provides a scale from 0 (a perfect road) to 100 (the roughest road).
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MTM 726-01
7. Report
7.1
RQI will be calculated for each 528 foot (160 m) segment. Segments less than 528
feet (160 m) will be computed as partial segments at the beginning and end of
excluded sections and at the end of a run.
7.2
The RQI for each run will be reported, to one decimal place (e.g., 48.6).
7.3
A copy of the computer generated trace is to be provided as well as a printout with
numerical values.
3 of 3
MTM 726-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
MANUAL ANALYSIS OF CALIFORNIA
TYPE PROFILOGRAMS
1. Scope
1.1
This method describes procedures to determine pavement riding quality, in terms of a
Profile Index, from a profilogram produced by a California type 25 foot (7.6 meter)
profilograph.
1.2
Operation of the profilograph and areas to be tested shall be in accordance with
Michigan Test Method 725, Michigan Test Method 726 or Supplemental Specification.
1.3
The 25 foot (7.6 meter) profilograph is a rolling straight edge which measures vertical
deviations from a moving 25 foot (7.6 meter) reference plane. The pavement profile is
graphically recorded on a profilogram on a scale of 1:300 longitudinally and
1:1 vertically. The Profile Index is determined from the profilogram by measuring and
summing "scallops" that appear outside of a "blanking band" and is reported in inches
per mile (millimeters per kilometer). Individual bumps requiring removal are located by
use of a special bump template.
2. Apparatus
2.1
Profilogram produced by a 25 foot (7.6 meter) California type profilograph on plain
white chart paper.
2.2
Processing template (see Figure 1) which is a clear plastic scale 21.1 inches (536 mm)
long representing a pavement length of 528 feet (160 meters or 0.16 kilometers) at a
scale of 1:300. At the center of the scale is an opaque band (blanking band) of
specified width extending the entire 21.1 inches (536 mm) in length. On either side
and parallel to the blanking band are scribed lines 0.1 inches (2.5 mm) apart. These
lines serve as a convenient scale to measure deviations of the profile trace above or
below the blanking band which are called "scallops".
2.3
Bump template (see Figure 1) which is a clear plastic template having a line 1 inch
(25 mm) long scribed on one face with a scribed mark at either end and a slot or edge
located a specified height from and parallel to the scribed line. The 1 inch (25 mm)
line corresponds to a distance of 25 feet (8 meters) on the profilogram.
2.4
Ink pen with red ink or other color contrasting to the profile trace.
2.5
Calculator.
2.6
Scale or ruler.
2.7
Reporting form (see Figure 5).
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MTM 727-01
3. Procedure
3.1
Preparation of the profilogram for analysis. This is done by drawing a "smoothing line"
through the recorded profile using the red (or other contrasting color pen) (see
Figure 2). This smoothing line removes high frequency deviations from the trace
caused by texture, debris, or bouncing of the follower wheel. Care should be taken in
drawing the smoothing line to remove only the high frequency deviations.
3.2
Detection of isolated bumps requiring removal (see Figure 3). This process identifies
and locates bumps exceeding a specified height which are required to be removed by
grinding. At each prominent bump or high point on the profile trace, place the bump
template so that the scribe marks at each end of the scribed line intersect the profile
trace to form a chord across the base of the peak or indicated bump. The line on the
template need not be horizontal. A line is then drawn in the slot (or along the edge).
Any portion of the profile trace (smoothed line) extending above this line indicates the
approximate length and height of the bump exceeding specifications. In instances
when the distance between recognizable low points is less than 25 feet (8 meters), a
shorter chord length, tangent to the trace at the low points, can be used. It is the intent
of this requirement however that the baseline for measuring the height of bumps will be
as nearly 25 feet (8 meters) as possible but in no case will exceed this value. When
the distance between prominent low points is greater than 25 feet (8 meters), the ends
of the scribed line should intersect the profile trace with the scribed line in a nearly
horizontal position.
3.3
Determination of Profile Index - Begin evaluating each trace for a lane from the same
point on the road so that segments representing the same length of road can be
aligned on the report form. Processing should always proceed in the direction the
trace was produced. Place the processing template over the profile trace such that the
blanking band covers as much as the trace as possible (see Figure 4). When this is
done the scallops above and below the blanking band will be approximately balanced.
When going around superelevated curves, the profile trace may move from a
generally horizontal position making it impossible to blank out a significant length of
the trace. If this occurs, the trace should be broken into short sections and the
template repositioned on each segment (see Figure 4). When the template is properly
positioned, outline the ends of the template to facilitate alignment of the template on
the next 528 feet (0.16 km) segment.
Measure and total the height of all scallops appearing above and below the blanking
band, measuring each scallop to the nearest 0.05 inch (0.1 millimeter). Round down
as well as up. Do not count a scallop as 0.05 inches (0.1 mm) just because you see
the smoothed profile line. Short sections of the profile may be visible outside the
blanking band, but unless they project 0.3 inches (0.8 mm) or more vertically and
extend 0.1 inches (2 mm) or more longitudinally, they are not counted. Single spikes
are not counted, double peaked scallops are only counted once as the highest peak.
When a scallop occurs at the end of the template, count the scallop only once and in
the segment where the peak is highest. Sum the measurements of all scallops in each
528 foot (0.16 km) segment and write the total on the profilogram near the center of
the segment and circle it.
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MTM 727-01
The last segment counted is generally not an even 528 feet (0.16 kilometers) and the
length must be measured. If the length is less than 264 feet (0.80 kilometers), it
should be added to the previous section. If greater than 264 feet (0.80 kilometers) but
less than 528 feet (0.16 kilometers), the segment will be evaluated alone based on its
actual length.
The Profile Index in "inches per mile (millimeters per kilometer)" for a single trace is
computed by dividing the total accumulated heights of the individual scallops
(measured roughness) by the total length of the trace in miles (kilometers).
3 of 8
MTM 727-01
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MTM 727-01
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MTM 727-01
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MTM 727-01
7 of 8
MTM 727-01
Form _____/2001
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
RIDE QUALITY DETERMINATION
***************************************
25 Foot (7.6) Meter California Profilograph
PROJECT INFORMATION
-----------------------------------------------------CONTROL SECTION _______________
JOB NUMBER ___________________
ROUTE _______________________
PAGE ________ OF ___________
CONTRACTOR ___________________________________________________________________________________
PROFILE RUN BY ____________________________________________________________ DATE ____/____/____
PROFILE PROCESSED BY _________________________________________________________ DATE ___/___/___
LANE _______________
OUTSIDE WHEELTRACK
LENGTH,
MILES
(KILOMETERS)
MEASURED
ROUGHNESS,
MILES
(KILOMETERS)
INSIDE WHEELTRACK
PROFILE
INDEX,
INCHES/MILE
(mm/km)
LENGTH, MILES
(KILOMETERS)
MEASURED
ROUGHNESS,
MILES
(KILOMETERS)
PROFILE
INDEX,
INCHES/MILE
(mm/km)
TOTALS
__________
__________
LANE TOTAL
__________
__________
____________ + __________
Figure 5.
8 of 8
__________
= _______
__________
in/mi (mm/km)
MTM 727-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
CORRUGATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPE
AASHTO M 304
1. Scope
1.1
This test method describes the procedures for testing AProfile Wall Drain [email protected]
(Smooth-Wall Corrugated PVC Pipe) (CPV) for use as Class 1 Storm Sewers as
specified in the 1996 Standard Specifications for Construction. The test procedures
cover tests used to determine the physical dimensions and properties of CPV pipe
submitted for approval and are not intended for quality control or simulated service
testing. Tests specified in referenced documents but not covered in this test method
will generally not be performed. (Pipe designated as ASTM F 949 may also be
acceptable for uses where AASHTO M 304 pipe is specified. In this case ASTM F
949 pipe will be tested according to the provisions of this test method).
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
2.2
2.3
AASHTO Standards:
M 304
Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Profile Wall Drain Pipe And
Fittings Based on Controlled Inside Diameter.
M 294
Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe 300 to 1200 mm
Diameter.
ASTM Standards
D 2122
Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and
Fittings.
D 2412
Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of
Plastic Pipe by Parallel Plate loading.
D 2424
Test Method for Impact Resistance of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings by
Means of a Tup (Falling Weight).
F 949
Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Corrugated Sewer
Pipe With a Smooth Interior and Fittings.
Michigan Test Method
MTM 723 Water Tightness Testing of Culvert and Sewer Joints up to 24 Inches
(600 mm) in Diameter.
1 of 2
MTM 728-01
3. Equipment
3.1
Equipment will be as described in ASTM D 2122, D 2412, D 2424 and documents
referenced therein, except as modified herein.
4. Sampling
4.1
Sampling will be performed at the frequency stated in the Materials Quality Assurance
Manual - Section G. When a quantity of pipe requires more than one sample, each
length of pipe sampled will be termed a sub-sample.
5. Test Methods, Procedures and Specifications
5.1
Conditioning - Condition specimens for a minimum of 4 hours in air at 23 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C.
Test the specimens at 23 О•C в€Ђ 2 О•C.
5.2
Workmanship - Samples will be visually inspected for finish and imperfections prior to
preparation of specimens for testing and shall meet the requirements of AASHTO
M 304.
5.3
Dimensions - This test is conducted according to ASTM D 2122 except that out-ofroundness is not checked. Dimensions shall conform to AASHTO M 304, or applicable
special provision. Waterway wall thickness may deviate by 3% thinner than the
minimum specification.
5.4
Pipe Stiffness - This test is conducted according to ASTM D 2412. Specimens will be
oriented in the testing machine as described in AASHTO M294. The inside diameter
dimension employed in this test will be taken at the point of orientation.
5.5
Flattening - This test will be conducted on the same specimens using the same
orientation, and inside diameter dimension that was used when performing the pipe
stiffness test. Rate of loading will be as stated in AASHTO M 304.
5.6
Impact Resistance - Impact Resistance test will be conducted according to AASHTO M
304 except: Three impact test specimens will be tested per sample/sub-sample. There
will be one impact test done on each impact test specimen. A substitute tup weight
and drop height may be used to achieve the specified impact force. Orient the
specimens so the that one of the ribs receives the strike essentially centered on the
tup face. Material may be rejected if any impact test specimen fails as defined in
AASHTO M 304.
5.7
Markings - Samples shall be marked according to AASHTO M 304 (or ASTM F 949).
5.8
Watertight Joints - Unassembled joint and gasket assemblies shall be submitted with
the sample for visual inspection. Qualification of the specific watertight joint system,
and inclusion of the watertight system on the Qualified Products List by the
Construction & Technology Division will be according to MTM 723.
2 of 2
MTM 728-01
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
CERTIFICATION OF CALIFORNIA
TYPE PROFILOGRAPHS
11 Scope
1.1
Profilographs used to determine measure ride quality for possible incentive payment
shall be certified as functional and accurate by MDOT.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
E 1274
E 1364
2.2
Standard Test Method for Measuring Pavement Roughness Using a
Profilograph
Standard Test Method for Measuring Road Roughness by Static Level
Method
MDOT Publications:
MTM 727 Michigan Test Method for Manual Analysis of California Type
Profilograms
3. Equipment
3.1
The Contractor shall transport the profilograph to the test site designated by MDOT,
and will provide all personnel and supplies need to operate the profilograph and
record the results. MDOT will supply the height calibration blocks.
4. Test Site
4.1
MDOT will provide a pavement test site to be used for certification of profilographs.
The test site will be at least 528 feet (160 m) long. The reference pavement profile
will be determined with a rod and level in conformance with ASTM E 1364. A white
stripe will be placed on the pavement at a uniform offset from the line to be profiled.
Starting and ending locations will also be identified with pavement markings.
5. Certification Overview
5.1
The certification process will consist of four separate procedures: height
measurement verification, distance measurement verification, profile elevation
accuracy and repeatability, and accuracy and repeatability of the ride index
calculation. Each of these four procedures must be successfully completed for
certification to be given.
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MTM 729-02
6. Procedure
Note: Operating the profilograph and printing out results will be the responsibility of the
equipment owner. Analysis of the data will be done by MDOT. Prior to starting the
certification procedure, assemble the profilograph and turn on any electronics and/or
computers to allow time for them to warm up to normal operating temperature. Check to see
that the tire(s) are inflated to the manufacturer=s recommended pressure. Adjust tire pressure
if needed.
6.1
Height Measurement Verification: Place the profilograph in a relatively level area.
Place gage blocks of 0.5 inches (10 mm) and 1.5 inches (40 mm) under the surface
sensing wheel. Record the height measured by the profilograph. Each reading must
be within +/- 0.02 inches (0.5 mm) of the actual thickness of the blocks.
6.2
Distance Measurement Verification: Measure the profile of the test section five times
and print out profiles of each run. For computerized profilographs, record the
measured distance. The average error of the five distance measurements must be
less than +/- 0.5% of the actual length of the test section. For mechanical
profilographs, measure the length of each trace. The average error of the five trace
lengths must be less than +/- 0.5% of the actual length of the test section divided by
300.
6.3
Profile Elevation Accuracy: From the five profiles, select 15 bumps or dips that appear
on the profiles with a height or depth greater than 0.2 inches (5 mm). Record the
height or depth of these same 15 bumps or dips from each of the five profile plots.
Determine the average and standard deviation for the height or depth of each
bump/dip. The average of these standard deviations must be less than 0.2 inches (5
mm).
Plot a California profilograph style plot from the rod and level survey data in
accordance with the mathematical model outlined in Chapter 6 of the FHWA
publication Development of Procedures for the Calibration of Profilographs.
Determine the height or depth of the same 15 bumps/dips that were measured
previously. Determine the bias for each measurement by subtracting the rod and level
value from the averages computed for the 5 test runs. The overall bias will be the
summation of the absolute value of each individual bias divided by 15 (the number of
points selected). The overall bias must be less than 0.2 inch (5 mm).
6.4
Accuracy and Repeatability of Ride Index Calculation: Record the Profile Index (PI)
value for each of the 5 test runs and determine the average and standard deviation.
Determine the PI from the rod and level profile in accordance with MTM 727. The
standard deviation for the 5 runs must be within 1.0 inch per mile (16 mm/km). The
average PI from the 5 test runs must be within +/- 2.0 inches per mile (32 mm/km) of
the PI calculated from the rod and level measurements.
7. Certification
7.1
Profilographs that meet all the criteria listed in section 6 will be certified by MDOT for
use in measuring ride quality. A sticker will be placed on the profilograph indicating
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MTM 729-02
the date that the certification expires.
7.2
Certifications shall be valid for a maximum of one year. Profilographs must be recertified after undergoing any major component repairs or replacements. Major
component repairs or replacements include, but are not limited to, work on the
following:
- the frame, wheels or bearings of the profilograph.
- the height sensor or associated hardware.
- the chart recorder on manual profilographs.
- the computer or electronics on computerized profilographs.
- software upgrades.
Minor adjustments to the equipment can be made to the equipment without undergoing
re-certification provided that the adjustments do not affect profile measurement or
computation of profile indices. Minor adjustments include, but are not limited to, the
following:
- inspecting, re-soldering, or replacing electronic connections.
- cleaning components, normal adjustments as required by the manufacturer.
- setting software parameters and/or scale factors in accordance with specifications.
3 of 3
MTM 729-02
MICHIGAN TEST METHOD
FOR
CERTIFICATION OF PROFILOMETERS
1. Scope
1.1
Profilometers used to measure ride quality for possible incentive payment shall be
certified as functional and accurate by MDOT.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1
ASTM Standards:
E 950
E 1926
E 13649
2.2
Standard Test Method for Measuring the Longitudinal Profile of Traveled
Surfaces with an Accelerometer Established Inertial Profiling Reference.
Standard Practice for Computing International Roughness Index of Roads
from Longitudinal Profile Measurements.
Standard Test Method for Measuring Road Roughness by Static Level
Method
FHWA Publications:
Development of Procedures for the Calibration of Profilographs (Publication No.
FHWA-RD-89-110)
3. Equipment
3.1
The Contractor shall transport the profilometer to the test site designated by MDOT,
and will provide all personnel, fuel and supplies need to operate the profilometer and
print out the results. MDOT will supply the height calibration blocks and a guide wheel
or camera to assist with alignment of the profilometer over the correct path on the test
road.
4. Test Site
4.1
MDOT will provide a pavement test site to be used for certification of profilometers.
The test site will be at least 528 feet (160 m) long. The reference pavement profile will
be determined with a rod and level in conformance with ASTM E 1364. A white stripe
will be placed on the pavement at a uniform offset from the line to be profiled. Starting
and ending locations will also be identified with pavement markings.
5. Certification Overview
5.1
The certification process will consist of five separate procedures: height measurement
verification, system verification with a bounce test, distance measurement verification,
profile elevation accuracy and repeatability, and accuracy and repeatability of ride
index calculation. Each of these five procedures must be successfully completed for
certification to be given.
1 of 3
MTM 730-02
6. Procedure
Note: Operating the profilometer and printing out results will be the responsibility of the
equipment owner. Data analysis will be done by MDOT. Prior to starting the certification
procedure, attach the guide wheel or camera to the profilometer and allow the operator to do
several runs on the test site to warm up the equipment and allow the operator to get used to
steering using the guide wheel or camera.
6.1
Height Measurement Verification: Park the profilometer in a level area. Place the
equipment onto an operating mode that displays height measurements. Place a flat
metal plate on the ground below the height sensor and take initial readings. Place
three different calibration blocks {three blocks with 3 different thicknesses between 0
and 1 inch (0 and 25mm)} under the sensor and record the measured height reading
for each block. Each reading must be within +/- 0.01 inches (0.2mm) of the actual
thickness of the blocks.
6.2
System Verification: Perform two bounce tests. The first shall be done in accordance
with the manufacturer=s instructions, and the equipment must pass any criteria
established by the manufacturer. The second bounce test will be done in a mode
where a paper trace can be made of the test. (Note: this can be done on some
machines by accessing an internal clock via software. On other machines, the wheel
encoder must be externally driven.) The magnitude of any profile shown on the paper
trace must be less than 1.0 % of the vehicle bounce amplitude.
6.3
Distance Measurement Verification: Check to see that the vehicle=s tires are inflated
to the manufacturer=s recommended pressures. Adjust pressure if needed. Calibrate
the distance measuring device. Then measure the length of the test site three times.
The average error of the three distance measurements must be less than +/- 0.1% of
the actual length of the test section.
6.4
Profile Elevation Accuracy and Repeatability: Measure the profile of the test section
ten times and print out California profilograph style profiles of each run. Select 15
bumps or dips that appear on the profiles with a height or depth greater than 0.2
inches (5 mm). Record the height or depth of these same 15 bumps or dips from each
of the ten profile plots. Determine the average and standard deviation for the height or
depth of each bump/dip. The average of these standard deviations must be less than
0.1 inches (2.5 mm).
Plot a California profilograph style plot from the rod and level survey of the test site in
accordance with the mathematical model outlined in Chapter 6 of the FHWA
publication Development of Procedures for the Calibration of Profilographs.
Determine the height or depth of the same 15 bumps/dips that were measured
previously. Determine the bias for each measurement by subtracting the rod and level
value from the value measured on each of the 10 test runs. The overall bias will be the
summation of the absolute value of each individual bias divided by 15 (the number of
points selected). The overall bias must be less than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm).
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MTM 730-02
6.5
Accuracy and Repeatability of Ride Index Calculation: Record the International
Roughness Index (IRI) value for each of the 10 test runs and determine the average
and standard deviation. Determine the IRI for the rod and level data in accordance
with ASTM E 1926. The standard deviation for the 10 runs must be within +/- 2 inches
per mile (50 mm/km). The average IRI from the ten test runs must be within +/- 5
inches per mile (200 mm/km) of the IRI calculated from the rod and level
measurements.
Note: International Roughness Index has been selected for this certification process
because it is a nationally accepted ride index and equations are readily available for
calculating IRI from profiles generated by both rod and level measurements and from
profilometers. It is generally accepted that a profilometer correctly calculating one ride
index will properly calculate other ride indices provided the machine=s software
computations have been verified.
7. Certification
7.1
Profilometers that meet all the criteria listed in section 6 will be certified by MDOT for
use in measuring ride quality. A sticker will be placed on the profilometer indicating
the date that the certification expires.
7.2
Certifications shall be valid for a maximum of one year. Profilometers must be recertified after undergoing any major component repairs or replacements. Major
component repairs or replacements include, but are not limited to, changes to the
following:
S
S
S
S
S
S
the accelerometer or associated hardware.
the height sensor or associated hardware.
the distance measuring unit and associated hardware.
any printed circuit board necessary for the collection of raw sensor data or the
processing of profiles or ride indices.
the computer.
software upgrades.
Minor adjustments to the equipment can be made to the equipment without undergoing
re-certification provided that the adjustments do not affect profile measurement or
computation of profile indices. Minor adjustments include, but are not limited to, the
following:
S
S
S
inspecting, re-soldering, or replacing connectors.
cleaning components, normal adjustments to voltage levels as required by the
manufacturer.
setting software parameters and/or scale factors in accordance with specifications.
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MTM 730-02
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