NEWS for R version 3.1.2 Patched - FTP Directory Listing

NEWS for R version 3.1.2 Patched - FTP Directory Listing
NEWS for R version 3.1.2 Patched (2014-11-05
R News
CHANGES IN R 3.1.2 patched
• The internal method of download.file() can now handle files larger than 2GB on
32-bit builds which support such files (tested on 32-bit R running on 64-bit Windows).
• kruskal.test() warns on more types of suspicious input.
• The as.dendrogram method for "hclust" objects gets a check argument protecting
against memory explosion for invalid inputs.
• (Windows.) Rscript.exe was missing a manifest specifying the modern style for
common controls (e.g., the download progress bar).
• If a package had extra documentation files but no vignette, the HTML help system
produced an empty index page.
• The parser now gives an error if a null character is included in a string using Unicode
escapes. (PR#16046)
• qr.Q() failed on complex arguments due to pre-3.0(!) typo. (PR#16054)
• abs() failed with named arguments when the argument was complex. (PR#16047)
• "noquote" objects may now be used as columns in dataframes. (PR#15997)
• Some values with extremely long names were printed incorrectly. (PR#15999)
• Extremely large exponents on zero expressed in scientific notation (e.g. 0.0e50000)
could give NaN. (PR#15976)
• embedFonts() now defaults to format = "ps2write" for �.ps’ and �.eps’ files.
This is available in Ghostscript 9.x (since 2010) whereas the previous default, format = "pswrite", was removed in Ghostscript 9.10.
• For consistency with [dpqr]norm(), [dp]lnorm(sdlog = 0) model a point mass at
exp(mulog) rather than return NaN (for an error).
• capabilities() now reports if ICU is compiled in for use for collation (it is only
actually used if a suitable locale is set for collation, and never for a C locale).
• (OS X only.) Package tcltk checks when loaded if it is linked against the CRAN X11based Tcl/Tk and if so that the Tcl/Tk component and the X11 libraries are installed.
This allows more informative error messages to be given advising the installation of
the missing component or of XQuartz.
The X11() device and X11-based versions of the data editor and viewer (invoked by
edit() and View() for data frames and matrices from command-line R) check that
the X11 libraries are installed and if not advises installing XQuartz.
• icuSetCollate() allows locale = "default", and locale = "none" to use OS services rather than ICU for collation.
Environment variable R_ICU_LOCALE can be used to set the default ICU locale, in
case the one derived from the OS locale is inappropriate (this is currently necessary
on Windows).
• New function icuGetCollate() to report on the ICU collation locale in use (if any).
• utils::URLencode() was updated to use unreserved and reserved characters from
RFC 3986,, instead of RFC 1738.
• unique(warnings()) and c(warnings()) are now supported.
• The Bioconductor �version’ used by setRepositories() now defaults to 3.0. (It can
be set at runtime via environment variable R_BIOC_VERSION.)
• The configure script reports on the more important capabilities/options which will
not be compiled in.
More types of external BLAS are recognized by name in that report.
• When building R as a shared library, the �-L${R_HOME}/lib${R_ARCH}’ flag is placed
earlier in the link commands used during installation and when packages are installed:
this helps ensure that the current build has priority if an R shared library has already
been installed by e.g. install-libR in a library mentioned in LDFLAGS (and not in
�your system’s library directory’ as documented). (Wish of PR#15790.)
• LaTeX package upquote is no longer required for R’s use of inconsolata.
• (Windows only) If both 32 and 64 bit versions of R are installed, the �bin/R.exe’ and
�bin/Rscript.exe’ executables now run 64 bit R. (To run 32 bit R, overwrite these
files with copies of �bin/i386/Rfe.exe’.)
• Running R CMD check with _R_CHECK_DEPENDS_ONLY_ true now makes the
�VignetteBuilder’ packages available even if they are listed in �Suggests’, since
they are needed to recognise and process non-Sweave vignettes.
• R CMD check now reports empty importFrom declarations in a �NAMESPACE’ file, as
these are common errors (writing importFrom(Pkg) where import(Pkg) was intended).
• R CMD check now by default checks code usage directly on the package namespace
without loading and attaching the package and its suggests and enhances. For good
practice with packages in the �Suggests’ field, see § of �Writing R Extensions’.
For use of lazy-data objects in the package’s own code, see ?data.
• dmultinom() did not handle non-finite probabilities correctly.
• prettyNum(x, zero.print=*) now also works when x contains NAs.
• A longstanding bug exhibited by nlminb() on Windows was traced to a compiler bug
in gcc 4.6.3; a workaround has been put in place. (PR#15244 and PR#15914).
• Rendering of \command in HTML versions of help pages has been improved: this is
particularly evident on the help page for INSTALL.
• as.hexmode(x) and as.octmode(x) now behave correctly for some numeric x, e.g.,
c(NA, 1) or c(1, pi).
• drop1() failed if the scope argument had no variables to drop. (PR#15935)
• edit() (and hence fix()) failed if an object had a non-character attribute named
"source" (an attribute that had been used in R prior to version 2.14.0).
• callGeneric() could fail if the generic had ... as a formal argument. (PR#15937).
• Forking in package parallel called C entry point exit in the child. This was unsafe
(_exit should have been called), and could flush stdin of the main R process (seen
most often on Solaris).
As good practice, stdout is now flushed before forking a child.
• R objects such as list(`a\b` = 1) now print correctly.
• getAnywhere("C_pbinom") now returns correctly a single object (rather than unlisting it).
• The confint() method for nls() fits failed it these has specified parameter limits
despite using an algorithm other than "port". (PR#15960)
• Subclassing an S4 class failed if the class required arguments to the generator, through
its initialize() method.
• removeSource() did not properly handle expressions containing arguments that were
supplied as missing, e.g. x[i,]. (PR#15957)
• as.environment(list()) now works, and as.list() of such an environment is now
the same as list().
• Several tcltk functions failed when run in unusual environments. (PR#15970)
• options(list()) now works (trivially). (PR#15979)
• merge(<dendrogram>, ..) now works correctly for two �independent’ dendrograms
(PR#15648), and still compatibly via adjust = "auto" e.g. for two branches of an
existing dendrogram.
• The plot method for "hclust" objects gets an optional argument check; When that
is true (the default) it checks more carefully for valid input.
• (Windows only) If a user chose to install 64 bit R but not 32 bit R, the �bin/R’ and
�bin/Rscript’ executables failed to run. (PR#15981)
• Various possible buffer overruns have been prevented, and missed memory protection
added. (PR#15990)
• Rscript no longer passes --args to R when there are no extra (“user”) arguments.
• objects like getClass("refClass")@prototype now print() and str() without error.
• identical() now also looks at the S4 bit.
• hist(x, breaks) is more robust in adding a small fuzz to few breaks when some are
very large. (PR#15988)
• sub() and gsub() did not handle regular expressions like "\s{2,}" properly if the
text contained NA or non-ascii elements in a UTF-8 locale. Part of this was due to a
bug in the TRE library. (PR#16009)
• RShowDoc("NEWS") now displays the PDF version.
• Matrices and arrays with last dimension zero did not print at all or incompletely.
• plot.histogram() and hence hist() now respect the xaxs, yaxs and lab graphics
parameters. (PR#16021)
• bw.SJ(x) and other bw.*() no longer segfault when x contains non-finite values.
• R CMD Rd2pdf unintentionally ignored its �--os’ option.
• The internal method of download.file() was not reporting file sizes and progress
correctly on files larger than 2GB (inherited from libxml2). This is corrected for
64-bit builds (32-bit platforms may not support such files, but where possible will be
supported in future versions of R).
• Work around a bug in OS X Yosemite where key environment variables may be
duplicated causing issues in subprocesses. The duplicates are now removed on R
startup (via Rprofile). (PR#16042)
• Adjust X11 auto-launch detection in DISPLAY on OS X to recognize latest XQuartz.
• When attach() reports conflicts, it does so compatibly with library() by using
• R CMD Sweave no longer cleans any files by default, compatibly with versions of
R prior to 3.1.0. There are new options �--clean’, �--clean=default’ and �-clean=keepOuts’.
• tools::buildVignette() and tools::buildVignettes() with clean = FALSE no
longer remove any created files. buildvignette() gains a keep argument for more
cleaning customization.
• The Bioconductor �version’ used by setRepositories() can now be set by environment variable R_BIOC_VERSION at runtime, not just when R is installed. (It has been
stated that Bioconductor will switch from �version’ 2.14 to �version’ 3.0 during the
lifetime of the R 3.1 series.)
• Error messages from bugs in embedded �Sexpr’ code in Sweave documents now report
the source location.
• type.convert(), read.table() and similar read.*() functions get a new numerals
argument, specifying how numeric input is converted when its conversion to double
precision loses accuracy. The default value, "allow.loss" allows accuracy loss, as in
R versions before 3.1.0.
• For some compilers, integer addition could overflow without a warning. R’s internal
code for both integer addition and subtraction is more robust now. (PR#15774)
• The function determining the default number of knots for smooth.spline() is now
exported, as .nknots.smspl().
• dbeta(, a,b), pbeta(), qbeta() and rbeta() are now defined also for a = 0, b = 0,
or infinite a and b (where they typically returned NaN before).
• Many package authors report that the RStudio graphics device does not work correctly
with their package’s use of The new option =
TRUE) replaces the RStudio override by the default device as selected by R itself, still
respecting environment variables R_INTERACTIVE_DEVICE and R_DEFAULT_DEVICE.
• readRDS() now returns visibly.
• Modifying internal logical scalar constants now results in an error instead of a warning.
• install.packages(repos = NULL) now accepts http:// or ftp:// URLs of package archives as well as file paths, and will download as required. In most cases
repos = NULL can be deduced from the extension of the URL.
• The warning when using partial matching with the $ operator on data frames is now
only given when options("warnPartialMatchDollar") is TRUE.
• Package help requests like package?foo now try the package foo whether loaded or
• General help requests now default to trying all loaded packages, not just those on the
search path.
• Added a new function promptImport(), to generate a help page for a function that
was imported from another package (and presumably re-exported, or help would not
be needed).
• configure option �--with-internal-tzcode’ can now be used with variable
• The included version of PCRE has been updated to 8.35.
• There is a new target make uninstall-libR to remove an installed shared/static
make install-libR now works if a sub-architecture is used, although the user will
need to specify libdir differently for different sub-architectures.
• There is more extensive advice on which LaTeX packages are required to install R or
to make package manuals (as done by R CMD check) in the �Writing R Extensions’
• Compilers/linkers were handling the visibility control in �src/extra/xz’ inconsistently (and apparently in some cases incorrectly), so it has been simplified.
• (Windows) There is updated support for the use of ICU for collation: see the �R
Installation and Administration Manual’.
• dbinom(x, n), pbinom(), dpois(), etc, are slightly less restrictive in checking if n is
integer-valued. (Wish of PR#15734.)
• pchisq(x, df, ncp, log.p = TRUE) is more accurate and no longer underflows for
small x and ncp < 80, e.g, for pchisq(1e-5, df = 100, ncp = 1, log = TRUE).
(Based on PR#15635 and a suggestion by Roby Joehanes.)
• The s (“step into”) command in the debugger would cause R to step into expressions
evaluated there, not just into functions being debugged. (PR#15770)
• The C code used by strptime() rejected time-zone offsets of more than +1200 (+1245,
+1300 and +1400 can occur). (PR#15768)
• (Windows only.) png(type = "cairo", antialias = "gray") was not accepted.
• Use of save(..., envir=) with named objects could fail. (PR#15758)
• Sweave() mis-parsed �Sexpr’ expressions that contained backslashes. (PR#15779)
• The return value from options(foo = NULL) was not the previous value of the option.
• enc2utf8() and enc2native() did not always mark the encoding of the return values
when it was known.
• dnbinom(x, size = <large>, mu, log = TRUE) no longer underflows to -Inf for
large mu, thanks to a suggestion from Alessandro Mammana (MPI MolGen, Berlin).
• pbeta(x, a, b, log = TRUE) no longer behaves discontinuously (in a
small x-region) because of denormalized numbers.
Also, pbeta(1-1e12, 1e30, 1.001, log=TRUE) now terminates “in real time”.
• The "CRAN" filter (see available.packages()) no longer removes duplicates other
than of packages on CRAN, and does not fail if there is no CRAN repository in
• The device listing from dev2bitmap() and bitmap() was truncated to 1000 characters: modern versions of GhostScript on most platforms have many more devices.
• (Windows.) Commands such as Sys.which() and pipe() which needed to find the
full path to a command could segfault if the �long’ path name was much longer than
the �short’ path name (which Sys.which() returns), as the behaviour of the Windows
API call had changed.
• R CMD build will fail with an error if one of the packages specified in the
�VignetteBuilder’ field is not installed. (Without loading those packages it cannot be ascertained which files are intended to be vignettes. This means that the
�VignetteBuilder’ packages have to be installed for package checking too.) (Wish of
• Misguided attempts to use chull() with non-finite points now give an error (related
to PR#15777).
• For a formula with exactly 32 variables the 32nd variable was aliased to the intercept in some C-level computations of terms, so that for example attempting to remove it would remove the intercept instead (and leave a corrupt internal structure).
• anyDuplicated() silently returned wrong values when the first duplicate was at an
index which was too large to be stored in an integer vector (although a lot of RAM
and patience would have been needed to encounter this).
• tools::Rd2ex(commentDontrun = FALSE) failed if the block had only one line.
• Hexadecimal constants such as 0x110p-5L which were incorrectly qualified by L were
parsed incorrectly since R 3.0.0, with a slightly garbled warning. (PR#15753)
• system() returned success on some platforms even if the system was unable to launch
a process. (PR#15796)
• (Windows Rgui console.) Unbuffered output was sometimes not output immediately
if the prompt was not on the last line of the console.
• The built-in help server did not declare the encoding for the �DESCRIPTION’ or other
text files to be the package encoding, so non-ASCII characters could be displayed
• R is now trying harder to not cleanup child processes that were not spawned by
mcparallel() on platforms that provide information about the source process of the
SIGCHLD signal. This allows 3rd party libraries to manage the exit status of children
that they spawn without R interfering.
• mcmapply() was only parallelizing if the number of jobs was bigger than the number
of cores. It now parallelizes if the number of jobs is more than one.
• Auto-printing would re-evaluate its argument when trying to dispatch to a print
method. This is now avoided when possible.
• Unserializing (including load() and readRDS()) could silently return incorrect numeric values from ASCII saves if there was a read error.
• getParseData() could return incorrect values for the parents of some elements. (Reported by Andrew Redd.)
• Attempting to use data frames of 2ˆ31 or more rows with merge() or to create a
merged data frame of that size now gives a clearer error message.
• parse() did not check its file argument was a connection if it was not a character
string, so e.g. parse(FALSE) attempted to read from stdin.
Nor did dump() and dput().
• The "help.try.all.packages" option was ignored when the shortcut syntax for
help was used, e.g. ?foo.
• A potential segfault in string allocation has been fixed. (Found by Radford Neal.)
• Potential memory protection errors in sort() and D() have been fixed. (Found by
Radford Neal.)
• Fixed a lack of error checking in graphics event functions. (Found by Radford Neal;
a different patch used here than the one in pqR.)
• numericDeriv() sometimes miscalculated the gradient. (PR#15849, reported originally by Radford Neal)
• type.convert() (and hence by default read.table()) returns a character vector or
factor when representing a numeric input as a double would lose accuracy. Similarly
for complex inputs.
If a file contains numeric data with unrepresentable numbers of decimal places that
are intended to be read as numeric, specify colClasses in read.table() to be "numeric".
• tools::Rdiff(useDiff = FALSE) is closer to the POSIX definition of diff -b (as
distinct from the description in the man pages of most systems).
• New function anyNA(), a version of any( which is fast for atomic vectors,
based on a proposal by Tim Hesterberg. (Wish of PR#15239.)
• arrayInd(*, useNames = TRUE) and, analogously, which(*, arr.ind = TRUE)
now make use of names(.dimnames) when available.
• is.unsorted() now also works for raw vectors.
• The "table" method for (also useful as
now passes sep and base arguments to provideDimnames().
• uniroot() gets new optional arguments, notably extendInt, allowing to auto-extend
the search interval when needed. The return value has an extra component,
• switch(f, ...) now warns when f is a factor, as this typically happens accidentally
where the useR meant to pass a character string, but f is treated as integer (as always
• The parser has been modified to use less memory.
• The way the unary operators (+ - !) handle attributes is now more consistent. If
there is no coercion, all attributes (including class) are copied from the input to the
result: otherwise only names, dims and dimnames are.
• colorRamp() and colorRampPalette() now allow non-opaque colours and a ramp in
opacity via the new argument alpha = TRUE. (Suggested by Alberto Krone-Martins,
but optionally as there are existing uses which expect only RGB values.)
• and get an optional vp.ex argument.
• There is a new function find_gs_cmd() in the tools package to locate a GhostScript
executable. (This is an enhanced version of a previously internal function there.)
• object.size() gains a format() method.
• There is a new family, "ArialMT", for the pdf() and postscript() devices. This
will only be rendered correctly on viewers which have access to Monotype TrueType
fonts (which are sometimes requested by journals).
• The text and PDF news files, including �NEWS’ and �NEWS.2’, have been moved to the
�doc’ directory.
• combn(x, simplify = TRUE) now gives a factor result for factor input x (previously
user error). (Related to PR#15442.)
• Added utils::fileSnapshot() and utils::changedFiles() functions to allow
snapshots and comparison of directories of files.
• make.names(names, unique=TRUE) now tries to preserve existing names. (Suggestion of PR#15452.)
• New functions cospi(x), sinpi(x), and tanpi(x), for more accurate computation of
cos(pi*x), etc, both in R and the C API. Using these gains accuracy in some cases,
e.g., inside lgamma() or besselI(). (Suggested by Morten Welinder in PR#15529.)
• print.table(x, zero.print = ".") now also has an effect when x is not integervalued.
• There is more support to explore the system’s idea of time-zone names.
Sys.timezone() tries to give the current system setting by name (and succeeds at
least on Linux, OS X, Solaris and Windows), and OlsonNames() lists the names in
the system’s Olson database. Sys.timezone(location = FALSE) gives the previous
• Platforms with a 64-bit time_t type are allowed to handle conversions between the
"POSIXct" and "POSIXlt" classes for date-times outside the 32-bit range (before
1902 or after 2037): the existing workarounds are used on other platforms. (Note
that time-zone information for post-2037 is speculative at best, and the OS services
are tested for known errors and so not used on OS X.)
Currently time_t is usually long and hence 64-bit on Unix-alike 64-bit platforms:
however in several cases the time-zone database is 32-bit. For R for Windows it is
64-bit (for both architectures as from this version).
• The "save.defaults" option can include a value for compression_level. (Wish of
• colSums() and friends now have support for arrays and data-frame columns with 231
or more elements.
• as.factor() is faster when f is an unclassed integer vector (for example, when called
from tapply()).
• fft() now works with longer inputs, from the 12 million previously supported up to
2 billion. (PR#15593)
• Complex svd() now uses LAPACK subroutine ZGESDD, the complex analogue of the
routine used for the real case.
• Sweave now outputs �.tex’ files in UTF-8 if the input encoding is declared to be
UTF-8, regardless of the local encoding. The UTF-8 encoding may now be declared
using a LaTeX comment containing the string %\SweaveUTF8 on a line by itself.
• file.copy() gains a argument.
• Printing of date-times will make use of the time-zone abbreviation in use at the time,
if known. For example, for Paris pre-1940 this could be �LMT’, �PMT’, �WET’ or �WEST’.
To enable this, the "POSIXlt" class has an optional component "zone" recording the
abbreviation for each element.
For platforms which support it, there is also a component "gmtoff" recording the
offset from GMT where known.
• (On Windows, by default on OS X and optionally elsewhere.) The system C function
strftime has been replaced by a more comprehensive version with closer conformance
to the POSIX 2008 standard.
• dnorm(x, log = FALSE) is more accurate (but somewhat slower) for |x| > 5; as
suggested in PR#15620.
• Some versions of the tiff() device have further compression options.
• read.table(), readLines() and scan() have a new argument to influence the treatment of embedded nuls.
• Avoid duplicating the right hand side values in complex assignments when possible.
This reduces copying of replacement values in expressions such as Z$a <- a0 and
ans[[i]] <- tmp: some package code has relied on there being copies.
Also, a number of other changes to reduce copying of objects; all contributed by or
based on suggestions by Michael Lawrence.
• The fast argument of KalmanLike(), KalmanRun() and KalmanForecast() has been
replaced by update, which instead of updating mod in place, optionally returns the
updated model in an attribute "mod" of the return value.
• arima() and makeARIMA() get a new optional argument SSinit, allowing the choice
of a different state space initialization which has been observed to be more reliable
close to non-stationarity: see PR#14682.
• warning() has a new argument noBreaks., to simplify post-processing of output
with options(warn = 1).
• pushBack() gains an argument encoding, to support reading of UTF-8 characters
using scan(), read.table() and related functions in a non-UTF-8 locale.
• all.equal.list() gets a new argument use.names which by default labels differing
components by names (if they match) rather than by integer index. Saved R output
in packages may need to be updated.
• The methods for all.equal() and attr.all.equal() now have argument
check.attributes after ... so it cannot be partially nor positionally matched (as
it has been, unintentionally).
A side effect is that some previously undetected errors of passing empty arguments
(no object between commas) to all.equal() are detected and reported.
There are explicit checks that check.attributes is logical, tolerance is numeric
and scale is NULL or numeric. This catches some unintended positional matching.
The message for all.equal.numeric() reports a "scaled difference" only for
scale != 1.
• all.equal() now has a "POSIXt" method replacing the "POSIXct" method.
• The "Date" and "POSIXt" methods of seq() allows by = "quarter" for completeness (by = "3 months" always worked).
• file.path() removes any trailing separator on Windows, where they are invalid
(although sometimes accepted). This is intended to enhance the portability of code
written by those using POSIX file systems (where a trailing / can be used to confine
path matching to directories).
• New function agrepl() which like grepl() returns a logical vector.
• fifo() is now supported on Windows. (PR#15600)
• sort.list(method = "radix") now allows negative integers (wish of PR#15644).
• Some functionality of print.ts() is now available in .preformat.ts() for more
• mcparallel() gains an option detach = TRUE which allows execution of code independently of the current session. It is based on a new estranged = TRUE argument
to mcfork() which forks child processes such that they become independent of the
parent process.
• The pdf() device omits circles and text at extremely small sizes, since some viewers
were failing on such files.
• The rightmost break for the "months", "quarters" and "years" cases of
hist.POSIXlt() has been increased by a day. (Inter alia, fixes PR#15717.)
• The handling of DF[i,] <- a where i is of length 0 is improved. (Inter alia, fixes
• hclust() gains a new method "ward.D2" which implements Ward’s method correctly.
The previous "ward" method is "ward.D" now, with the old name still working.
Thanks to research and proposals by Pierre Legendre.
• The sunspot.month dataset has been amended and updated from the official source,
whereas the sunspots and sunspot.year datasets will remain immutable. The documentation and source links have been updated correspondingly.
• The summary() method for "lm" fits warns if the fit is essentially perfect, as most of
the summary may be computed inaccurately (and with platform-dependent values).
Programmers who use summary() in order to extract just a component which will be
reliable (e.g., $cov.unscaled) should wrap their calls in suppressWarnings().
• The included version of LAPACK has been updated to 3.5.0.
• There is some support for parallel testing of an installation, by setting TEST_MC_CORES
to an integer greater than one to indicate the maximum number of cores to be used
in parallel. (It is worth specifying at least 8 cores if available.) Most of these require
a make program (such as GNU make and dmake) which supports the $MAKE -j nproc
Except on Windows: the tests of standard package examples in make check are done
in parallel. This also applies to running tools::testInstalledPackages().
The more time-consuming regression tests are done in parallel.
The package checks in make check-devel and make check-recommended are done
in parallel.
• More of make check will work if recommended packages are not installed: but recommended packages remain needed for thorough checking of an R build.
• The version of �tzcode’ included in �src/extra/tzone’ has been updated. (Formerly
used only on Windows.)
• The included (64-bit) time-zone conversion code and Olson time-zone database can
be used instead of the system version: use configure option �--with-internaltzcode’. This is the default on Windows and OS X. (Note that this does not currently
work if a non-default rsharedir configure variable is used.)
(It might be necessary to set environment variable TZ on OSes where this is not
already set, although the system timezone is deduced correctly on at least Linux, OS
X and Windows.)
This option also switches to the version of strftime included in directory
• configure now tests for a C++11-compliant compiler by testing some basic features.
This by default tries flags for the compiler specified by �CXX’, but an alternative
compiler, options and standard can be specified by variables �CXX1X’, �CXX1XFLAGS’
and �CXX1XSTD’ (e.g., �-std=gnu++11’).
• R can now optionally be compiled to use reference counting instead of the NAMED
mechanism by defining SWITCH_TO_REFCNT in �Rinternals.h’. This may become the
default in the future.
• There is a new option �--use-system-tre’ to use a suitable system tre library: at
present this means a version from their git repository, after corrections. (Wish of
• The CRANextra repository is no longer a default repository on Windows: all the binary
versions of packages from CRAN are now on CRAN, although CRANextra contains
packages from Omegahat and elsewhere used by CRAN packages.
• Only vignettes sources in directory �vignettes’ are considered to be vignettes and
hence indexed as such.
• In the �DESCRIPTION’ file,
License: X11
is no longer recognized as valid. Use �MIT’ or �BSD_2_clause’ instead, both of which
need �+ file LICENSE’.
• For consistency, entries in �.Rinstignore’ are now matched case-insensitively on all
• Help for S4 methods with very long signatures now tries harder to split the description
in the �Usage’ field to no more than 80 characters per line (some packages had over
120 characters).
• R CMD INSTALL --build (not Windows) now defaults to the internal tar() unless
• There is support for compiling C++11 code in packages on suitable platforms: see
�Writing R Extensions’.
• Fake installs now install the contents of directory �inst’: some packages use this to
install e.g. C++ headers for use by other packages that are independent of the package
itself. Option �--no-inst’ can be used to get the previous behaviour.
• The behaviour of the code browser has been made more consistent, in part following
the suggestions in PR#14985.
• Calls to browser() are now consistent with calls to the browser triggered by debug(),
in that Enter will default to n rather than c.
• A new browser command s has been added, to “step into” function calls.
• A new browser command f has been added, to “finish” the current loop or function.
• Within the browser, the command help will display a short list of available commands.
• Only vignettes sources in directory �vignettes’ are considered to be vignettes by
R CMD check. That has been the preferred location since R 2.14.0 and is now obligatory.
• For consistency, R CMD build now matches entries in �.Rbuildignore’ and
�vignettes/.install_extras’ case-insensitively on all platforms (not just on Windows).
• checkFF() (called by R CMD check by default) can optionally check foreign function calls for consistency with the registered type and argument count. This is
the default for R CMD check --as-cran or can be enabled by setting environment
variable _R_CHECK_FF_CALLS_ to �registration’ (but is in any case suppressed by
�--install=no’). Because this checks calls in which .NAME is an R object and not
just a literal character string, some other problems are detected for such calls.
Functions suppressForeignCheck() and dontCheck() have been added to allow
package authors to suppress false positive reports.
• R CMD check --as-cran warns about a false value of the �DESCRIPTION’ field
�BuildVignettes’ for Open Source packages, and ignores it. (An Open Source package needs to have complete sources for its vignettes which should be usable on a
suitably well-equipped system).
• R CMD check --no-rebuild-vignettes is defunct:
R CMD check --no-build-vignettes has been preferred since R 3.0.0.
• R CMD build --no-vignettes is defunct:
R CMD build --no-build-vignettes has been preferred since R 3.0.0.
• R CMD Sweave and R CMD Stangle now process both Sweave and non-Sweave vignettes. The tools::buildVignette() function has been added to do the same
tasks from within R.
• The flags returned by R CMD config --ldflags and (where installed)
pkg-config --libs libR are now those needed to link a front-end against
the (shared or static) R library.
• �Sweave.sty’ has a new option �[inconsolata]’.
• R CMD check customizations such as _R_CHECK_DEPENDS_ONLY_ make available packages only in �LinkingTo’ only for installation, and not for loading/runtime tests.
• tools::checkFF() reports on .C and .Fortran calls with DUP = FALSE if argument
check_DUP is true. This is selected by R CMD check by default.
• R CMD check --use-gct can be tuned to garbage-collect less frequently using
gctorture2() via the setting of environment variable _R_CHECK_GCT_N_.
• Where supported, tools::texi2dvi() limits the number of passes tried to 20.
• (Windows only) A function R_WaitEvent() has been added (with declaration in
header�R.h’) to block execution until the next event is received by R.
• Remapping in the �Rmath.h’ header can be suppressed by defining
• The remapping of rround() in header �Rmath.h’ has been removed: use fround()
• ftrunc() in header �Rmath.h’ is now a wrapper for the C99 function trunc(), which
might as well be used in C code: ftrunc() is still needed for portable C++ code.
• The never-documented remapping of prec() to fprec() in header �Rmath.h’ has
been removed.
• The included LAPACK subset now contains ZGESDD and ZGELSD.
• The function LENGTH() now checks that it is only applied to vector arguments. However, in packages length() should be used. (In R itself LENGTH() is a macro without
the function overhead of length().)
• Calls to SET_VECTOR_ELT() and SET_STRING_ELT() are now checked for indices which
are in-range: several packages were writing one element beyond the allocated length.
• allocVector3 has been added which allows custom allocators to be used for individual
vector allocations.
• chol(pivot = TRUE, LINPACK = TRUE) is defunct.
Arguments EISPACK for eigen() and LINPACK for chol(), chol2inv(), solve() and
svd() are ignored: LAPACK is always used.
• .find.package() and .path.package() are defunct: only the versions without the
initial dot introduced in R 2.13.0 have ever been in the API.
• Partial matching when using the $ operator on data frames now throws a warning and
may become defunct in the future. If partial matching is intended, replace foo$bar
by foo[["bar", exact = FALSE]].
• The long-deprecated use of \synopsis in the �Usage’ section of �.Rd’ files has been
removed: such sections are now ignored (with a warning).
• package.skeleton()’s deprecated argument namespace has been removed.
• Many methods are no longer exported by package stats. They are all registered on
their generic, which should be called rather than calling a method directly.
• Functions readNEWS() and checkNEWS() in package tools are defunct.
• download.file(method = "lynx") is deprecated.
• .C(DUP = FALSE) and .Fortran(DUP = FALSE) are now deprecated, and may be
disabled in future versions of R. As their help has long said, .Call() is much preferred.
R CMD check notes such usages (by default).
• The workaround of setting R_OSX_VALGRIND has been removed: it is not needed in
current valgrind.
• Calling lm.wfit() with no non-zero weights gave an array-overrun in the Fortran
code and a not very sensible answer. It is now special-cased with a simpler answer
(no qr component).
• Error messages involving non-syntactic names (e.g., as produced by `\r` when that
object does not exist) now encode the control characters. (Reported by Hadley Wickham.)
• getGraphicsEvent() caused 100% usage of one CPU in Windows. (PR#15500)
• nls() with no start argument may now work inside another function (scoping issue).
• pbeta() and similar work better for very large (billions) ncp.
• Where time zones have changed abbreviations over the years, the software tries to
more consistently use the abbreviation appropriate to the time or if that is unknown, the current abbreviation. On some platforms where the C function localtime
changed the tzname variables the reported abbreviation could have been that of the
last time converted.
• all.equal(list(1), identity) now works.
• Bug fix for pushing viewports in grid (reported by JJ Allaire and Kevin Ushey).
NOTE for anyone poking around within the graphics engine display list (despite the
warnings not to) that this changes what is recorded by grid on the graphics engine
display list.
• Extra checks have been added for unit resolution and conversion in grid, to catch
instances of division-by-zero. This may introduce error messages in existing code
and/or produce a different result in existing code (but only where a non-finite location
or dimension may now become zero).
• Some bugs in TRE have been corrected by updating from the git repository. This
allows R to be installed on some platforms for which this was a blocker (PR#15087
suggests Linux on ARM and HP-UX).
• ? applied to a call to an S4 generic failed in several cases. (PR#15680)
• The implicit S4 generics for primitives with ... in their argument list were incorrect.
• Bug fixes to methods::callGeneric(). (PR#15691)
• The bug fix to aggregrate() in PR#15004 introduced a new bug in the case of no
grouping variables. (PR#15699)
• In rare cases printing deeply nested lists overran a buffer by one byte and on a few
platforms segfaulted. (PR#15679)
• The dendrogram method of as.dendrogram() was hidden accidentally, (PR#15703),
and order.dendrogram(d) gave too much for a leaf d. (PR#15702)
• R would try to kill processes on exit that have pids ever used by a child process
spawned by mcparallel even though the current process with that pid was not actually its child.
• cophenetic() applied to a "dendrogram" object sometimes incorrectly returned a
"Labels" attribute with dimensions. (PR#15706)
• printCoefmat() called from quite a few print() methods now obeys small
getOption("width") settings, line wrapping the �"signif. codes"’ legend appropriately. (PR#15708)
• model.matrix() assumed that the stored dimnames for a matrix was NULL or length
2, but length 1 occurred.
• The clipping region for a device was sometimes used in base graphics before it was
• On Windows there is support for making �.texi’ manuals using texinfo 5.0 or later:
the setting is in file �src/gnuwin32/MkRules.dist’.
A packaging of the Perl script and modules for texinfo 5.2 has been made available
• write.table() now handles matrices of 231 or more elements, for those with large
amounts of patience and disc space.
• There is a new function, La_version(), to report the version of LAPACK in use.
• The HTML version of �An Introduction to R’ now has links to PNG versions of the
• There is some support to produce manuals in ebook formats.
�doc/manual/Makefile’. Suggested by Mauro Cavalcanti.)
• On a Unix-alike Sys.timezone() returns NA if the environment variable TZ is unset,
to distinguish it from an empty string which on some OSes means the �UTC’ time zone.
• The backtick may now be escaped in strings, to allow names containing them to be
constructed, e.g. `\``. (PR#15621)
• read.table(), readLines() and scan() now warn when an embedded nul is found
in the input. (Related to PR#15625 which was puzzled by the behaviour in this
unsupported case.)
• (Windows only.) file.symlink() works around the undocumented restriction of the
Windows system call to backslashes. (Wish of PR#15631.)
• KalmanForecast(fast = FALSE) is now the default, and the help contains an example of how fast = TRUE can be used in this version. (The usage will change in
• strptime() now checks the locale only when locale-specific formats are used and
caches the locale in use: this can halve the time taken on OSes with slow system
functions (e.g., OS X).
• strptime() and the format() methods for classes "POSIXct", "POSIXlt" and "Date"
recognize strings with marked encodings: this allows, for example, UTF-8 French
month names to be read on (French) Windows.
• iconv(to = "utf8") is now accepted on all platforms (some implementations did
already, but GNU libiconv did not: however converted strings were not marked as
being in UTF-8). The official name, "UTF-8" is still preferred.
• available.packages() is better protected against corrupt metadata files. (A recurring problem with Debian package shogun-r: PR#14713.)
• Finalizers are marked to be run at garbage collection, but run only at a somewhat
safer later time (when interrupts are checked). This circumvents some problems with
finalizers running arbitrary code during garbage collection (the known instances being
running options() and (C-level) path.expand() re-entrantly).
• The included version of PCRE has been updated to 8.34. This fixes bugs and makes
the behaviour closer to Perl 5.18. In particular, the concept of �space’ includes �VT’
and hence agrees with POSIX’s.
• The new field �SysDataCompression’ in the �DESCRIPTION’ file allows user control
over the compression used for �sysdata.rda’ objects in the lazy-load database.
• install.packages(dependencies = value) for value = NA (the default) or
value = TRUE omits packages only in LinkingTo for binary package installs.
• The long undocumented remapping of rround() to Rf_fround() in header �Rmath.h’
is now formally deprecated: use fround() directly.
• Remapping of prec() and trunc() in the �Rmath.h’ header has been disabled in
C++ code (it has caused breakage with libc++ headers).
• getParseData() truncated the imaginary part of complex number constants. (Reported by Yihui Xie.)
• dbeta(x, a, b) with a or b within a factor of 2 of the largest representable number
could infinite-loop. (Reported by Ioannis Kosmidis.)
• provideDimnames() failed for arrays with a 0 dimension. (PR#15465)
• rbind() and cbind() did not handle list objects correctly. (PR#15468)
• replayPlot() now checks if it is replaying a plot from the same session.
• rasterImage() and grid.raster() now give error on an empty (zero-length) raster.
(Reported by Ben North.)
• plot.lm() would sometimes scramble the labels in plot type 5. (PR#15458 and
• min() did not handle NA_character_ values properly. (Reported by Magnus Thor
• (Windows only.)
readRegistry() would duplicate default values for keys.
• str(..., strict.width = "cut") did not handle it properly when more than one
line needed to be cut. (Reported by Gerrit Eichner.)
• Removing subclass back-references when S4 classes were removed or their namespace
unloaded had several bugs (e.g., PR#15481).
• aggregate() could fail when there were too many levels present in the by argument.
• namespaceImportFrom() needed to detect primitive functions when checking for duplicated imports (reported by Karl Forner).
• getGraphicsEvent() did not exit when a user closed the graphics window.
• Errors in vignettes were not always captured and displayed properly. (PR#15495)
• contour() could fail when dealing with extremely small z values. (PR#15454)
• Several functions did not handle zero-length vectors properly, including browseEnv(),
format(), gl(), relist() and (E.g., PR#15499)
• Sweave() did not restore the R output to the console if it was interrupted by a user
in the middle of evaluating a code chunk. (Reported by Michael Sumner.)
• Fake installs of packages with vignettes work again.
• Illegal characters in the input caused parse() (and thus source()) to segfault.
• The nonsensical use of nmax = 1 in duplicated() or unique() is now silently ignored.
• qcauchy(p, *) is now fully accurate even when p is very close to 1. (PR#15521)
• The validmu() and valideta() functions in the standard glm() families now also
report non-finite values, rather than failing.
• Saved vignette results (in a �’ file) were not being compared to the new
ones during R CMD check.
• Double-clicking outside of the list box (e.g., on the scrollbar) of a Tk listbox widget
generated by tk_select.list() no longer causes the window to close. (PR#15407)
• Improved handling of edge cases in parallel::splitindices(). (PR#15552)
• HTML display of results from and ?? sometimes contained badly
constructed links.
• c() and related functions such as unlist() converted raw vectors to invalid logical
vectors. (PR#15535)
• (Windows only) When a call to system2() specified one of stdin, stdout or stderr
to be a file, but the command was not found (e.g., it contained its arguments, or the
program was not on the PATH), it left the file open and unusable until R terminated.
(Reported by Mathew McLean.)
• The bmp() device was not recording res = NA correctly: it is now recorded as 72 ppi.
• Several potential problems with compiler-specific behaviour have been identified using
the �Undefined Behaviour Sanitizer’ in conjunction with the clang compiler.
• hcl() now honours NA inputs (previously they were mapped to black).
• Some translations in base packages were being looked up in the main catalog rather
than that for the package.
• As a result of the 3.0.2 change about �the last second before the epoch’, most conversions which should have given NA returned that time. (The platforms affected include
Linux and OS X, but not Windows nor Solaris.)
• rowsum() has more support for matrices and dataframes with 231 or more elements.
• predict(<lm object>, interval = "confidence", scale = <something>) now
works. (PR#15564)
• The bug fix in 3.0.2 for PR#15411 was too aggressive, and sometimes removed spaces
that should not have been removed. (PR#15583)
• Running R code in a tcltk callback failed to set the busy flag, which will be needed
to tell OS X not to �App Nap’.
• The code for date-times before 1902 assumed that the offset from GMT in 1902 was a
whole number of minutes: that was not true of Paris (as recorded on some platforms).
• Using Sys.setlocale to set LC_NUMERIC to "C" (to restore the sane behavior) no
longer gives a warning.
• deparse() now deparses complex vectors in a way that re-parses to the original values.
(PR#15534, patch based on code submitted by Alex Bertram.)
• In some extreme cases (more than 1015 ) integer inputs to dpqrxxx() functions might
have been rounded up by one (with a warning about being non-integer). (PR#15624)
• Plotting symbol pch = 14 had the triangle upside down on some devices (typically
screen devices). The triangle is supposed to be point up. (Reported by Bill Venables.)
• getSrcref() did not work on method definitions if rematchDefinition() had been
• KalmanForecast(fast = FALSE) reported a (harmless) stack imbalance.
• The count of observations used by KalmanRun() did not take missing values into
• In locales where the abbreviated name of one month is a partial match for the full
name of a later one, the %B format in strptime() could fail. An example was French
on OS X, where �juin’ is abbreviated to �jui’ and partially matches juillet. Similarly for weekday names.
• pbeta(x, a, b, log.p = TRUE) sometimes underflowed to zero for very small and
very differently sized a, b. (PR#15641)
• approx() and approxfun() now handle infinite values with the "constant" method.
• stripchart() again respects reversed limits in xlim and ylim. (PR#15664)
• The �NEWS’ files have been re-organized.
This file contains news for R >= 3.0.0: news for the 0.x.y, 1.x.y and 2.x.y releases is in files �NEWS.0’, �NEWS.1’ and �NEWS.2’. The latter files are now installed
when R is installed. An HTML version of news from 2.10.0 to 2.15.3 is available as
• sum() for integer arguments now uses an integer accumulator of at least 64 bits and
so will be more accurate in the very rare case that a cumulative sum exceeds 253
(necessarily summing more than 4 million elements).
• The example() and tools::Rd2ex() functions now have parameters to allow them
to ignore \dontrun markup in examples. (Suggested by Peter Solymos.)
• str(x) is considerably faster for very large lists, or factors with 100,000 levels, the
latter as in PR#15337.
• col2rgb() now converts factors to character strings not integer codes (suggested by
Bryan Hanson).
• tail(warnings()) now works, via the new `[` method.
• There is now support for the LaTeX style file �zi4.sty’ which has in some distributions replaced �inconsolata.sty’.
• unlist(x) now typically returns all non-list xs unchanged, not just the “vector” ones.
Consequently, format(lst) now also works when the list lst has non-vector elements.
• The tools::getVignetteInfo() function has been added to give information about
installed vignettes.
• New assertCondition(), etc. utilities in tools, useful for testing.
• Profiling now records non-inlined calls from byte-compiled code to BUILTIN functions.
• Various functions in stats and elsewhere that use non-standard evaluation are now
more careful to follow the namespace scoping rules. E.g., stats::lm() can now find
stats::model.frame() even if stats is not on the search path or if some package
defines a function of that name.
• If an invalid/corrupt .Random.seed object is encountered in the workspace it is ignored with a warning rather than giving an error. (This allows R itself to rely on a
working RNG, e.g. to choose a random port.)
• seq() and give more explicit error messages if called with invalid (e.g.,
NaN) inputs.
• When parse() finds a syntax error, it now makes partial parse information available
up to the location of the error. (Request of Reijo Sund.)
• Methods invoked by NextMethod() had a different dynamic parent to the generic.
This was causing trouble where S3 methods invoked via lazy evaluation could lose
track of their generic. (PR#15267)
• Code for the negative binomial distribution now treats the case size == 0 as a onepoint distribution at zero.
• abbreviate() handles without warning non-ASCII input strings which require no
• read.dcf() no longer has a limit of 8191 bytes per line. (Wish of PR#15250.)
• formatC(x) no longer copies the class of x to the result, to avoid misuse creating
invalid objects as in PR#15303. A warning is given if a class is discarded.
• Dataset npk has been copied from MASS to allow more tests to be run without
recommended packages being installed.
• The initialization of the regression coefficients for non-degenerate differenced models in arima() has been changed and in some examples avoids a local maximum.
• termplot() now has an argument transform.x to control the display of individual
terms in the plot. (PR#15329)
• format() now supports digits = 0, to display nsmall decimal places.
• There is a new read-only par() parameter called "page", which returns a logical
value indicating whether the next call will start a new page.
• Processing Sweave and Rd documents to PDF now renders backticks and single quotes
better in several instances, including in �\code’ and �\samp’ expressions.
• utils::modifyList() gets a new argument keep.null allowing NULL components in
the replacement to be retained, instead of causing corresponding components to be
• tools::pkgVignettes() gains argument check; if set to TRUE, it will warn when it
appears a vignette requests a non-existent vignette engine.
• R CMD check --as-cran checks the line widths in usage and examples sections of the
package Rd files.
• R CMD check --as-cran now implies �--timings’.
• R CMD check looks for command gfile if a suitable file is not found. (Although
file is not from GNU, OpenCSW on Solaris installs it as gfile.)
• R CMD build (with the internal tar) checks the permissions of �configure’ and
�cleanup’ files and adds execute permission to the recorded permissions for these
files if needed, with a warning. This is useful on OSes and file systems which do not
support execute permissions (notably, on Windows).
• R CMD build now weaves and tangles all vignettes, so suggested packages are not
required during package installation if the source tarball was prepared with current
R CMD build.
• checkFF() (used by R CMD check) does a better job of detecting calls from other
packages, including not reporting those where a function has been copied from another
namespace (e.g., as a default method). It now reports calls where .NAME is a symbol
registered in another package.
• On Unix-alike systems, R CMD INSTALL now installs packages group writably whenever the library (lib.loc) is group writable. Hence, update.packages() works for
other group members (suggested originally and from a patch by Dirk Eddelbuettel).
• R CMD javareconf now supports the use of symbolic links for JAVA_HOME on platforms
which have realpath. So it is now possible to use
R CMD javareconf JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0
on a Linux system and record that value rather than the frequently-changing full path
such as �/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-’.
• (Windows only.) Rscript -e requires a non-empty argument for consistency with
Unix versions of R. (Also Rterm -e and R -e.)
• R CMD check does more thorough checking of declared packages and namespaces. It
– packages declared in more than one of the �Depends’, �Imports’, �Suggests’ and
�Enhances’ fields of the �DESCRIPTION’ file.
– namespaces declared in �Imports’ but not imported from, neither in the
�NAMESPACE’ file nor using the :: nor ::: operators.
– packages which are used in library() or requires() calls in the R code but were
already put on the search path via �Depends’.
– packages declared in �Depends’ not imported via the �NAMESPACE’ file (except the
standard packages). Objects used from �Depends’ packages should be imported
to avoid conflicts and to allow correct operation when the namespace is loaded
but not attached.
– objects imported via ::: calls where :: would do.
– objects imported by :: which are not exported.
– objects imported by ::: calls which do not exist.
See �Writing R Extensions’ for good practice.
• R CMD check optionally checks for non-standard top-level files and directories (which
are often mistakes): this is enabled for �--as-cran’.
• LaTeX style file upquote.sty is no longer included (the version was several years
old): it is no longer used in R. A much later version is commonly included in LaTeX
distributions but does not play well with the ae fonts which are the default for Sweave
• R CMD build makes more use of the �build’ sub-directory of package sources, for
example to record information about the vignettes.
• R CMD check analyses ::: calls.
• The macros used for the texinfo manuals have been changed to work better with the
incompatible changes made in texinfo 5.x.
• The minimum version for a system xz library is now 5.0.3 (was 4.999). This is in part
to avoid 5.0.2, which can compress in ways other versions cannot decompress.
• The included version of PCRE has been updated to 8.33.
• The included version of zlib has been updated to 1.2.8, a bug-fix release.
• The included version of xz utils’s liblzma has been updated to 5.0.5.
• Since javareconf (see above) is used when R is installed, a stable link for JAVA_HOME
can be supplied then.
• Configuring with �--disable-byte-compilation’ will override the �DESCRIPTION’
files of recommended packages, which typically require byte-compilation.
• More of the installation and checking process will work even when TMPDIR is set to a
path containing spaces, but this is not recommended and external software (such as
texi2dvi) may fail.
• Installation is aborted immediately if a LinkingTo package is not installed.
• R CMD INSTALL has a new option --no-byte-compile which will override a
�ByteCompile’ field in the package’s �DESCRIPTION’ file.
• License �BSD’ is deprecated: use �BSD_3_clause’ or �BSD_2_clause’ instead.
License �X11’ is deprecated: use �MIT’ or �BSD_2_clause’ instead.
• Version requirements for LinkingTo packages are now recognized: they are checked
at installation. (Fields with version requirements were previously silently ignored.)
• The limit of 500 S3method entries in a NAMESPACE file has been removed.
• The default �version’ of Bioconductor for its packages has been changed to the upcoming �2.13’, but this can be set by the environment variable R_BIOC_VERSION when
R is installed.
• �Rdefines.h’ has been tweaked so it can be included in C++ code after
�R_ext/Boolean.h’ (which is included by �R.h’).
Note that �Rdefines.h’ is not kept up-to-date, and �Rinternals.h’ is preferred for
new code.
• eval and applyClosure are now protected against package code supplying an invalid
• The unused namespace argument to package.skeleton() is now formally deprecated
and will be removed in R 3.1.0.
• plclust() is deprecated: use the plot() method for class "hclust" instead.
• Functions readNEWS() and checkNEWS() in package tools are deprecated (and they
have not worked with current �NEWS’ files for a long time).
• �An Introduction to R’ has a new chapter on using R as a scripting language including
interacting with the OS.
• help.request() could not determine the current version of R on CRAN. (PR#15241)
• On Windows, failed on root directories unless the path was terminated
with an explicit ".". (PR#15302)
• The regmatches<-() replacement function mishandled results coming from
regexpr(). (PR#15311)
• The help for setClass() and representation() still suggested the deprecated argument representation=. (PR#15312)
• R CMD config failed in an installed build of R 3.0.1 (only) when a sub-architecture
was used. (Reported by Berwin Turlach.)
• On Windows, the installer modified the �etc/Rconsole’ and �etc/’
files even when default options were chosen, so the MD5 sums did not refer to the
installed versions. (Reported by Tal Galili.)
• plot(hclust(), cex =) respects cex again (and possibly others similarly). (Reported by Peter Langfelder.)
• If multiple packages were checked by R CMD check, and one was written for a different
OS, it would set --no-install for all following packages as well as itself.
• qr.coef() and related functions did not properly coerce real vectors to complex when
necessary. (PR#15332)
• ftable(a) now fixes up empty dimnames such that the result is printable.
• package.skeleton() was not starting its search for function objects in the correct
place if environment was supplied. (Reported by Karl Forner.)
• Parsing code was changing the length field of vectors and confusing the memory
manager. (PR#15345)
• The Fortran routine ZHER2K in the reference BLAS had a comment-out bug in two
places. This caused trouble with eigen() for Hermitian matrices. (PR#15345 and
report from Robin Hankin)
• vignette() and browseVignettes() did not display non-Sweave vignettes properly.
• Two warning/error messages have been corrected: the (optional) warning produced by
a partial name match with a pairlist, the error message from a zero-length argument
to the : operator. (Found by Radford Neal; PR#15358, PR#15356)
• svd() returned NULL rather than omitting components as documented. (Found by
Radford Neal; PR#15360)
• mclapply() and mcparallel() with silent = TRUE could break a process that uses
stdout output unguarded against broken pipes (e.g., zip will fail silently). To work
around such issues, they now replace stdout with a descriptor pointed to �/dev/null’
instead. For this purpose, internal closeStdout and closeStderr functions have
gained the to.null flag.
• log(), signif() and round() now raise an error if a single named argument is not
named x. (PR#15361)
• deparse() now deparses raw vectors in a form that is syntactically correct.
• The jpeg driver in Sweave created a JPEG file, but gave it a �.png’ extension.
• Deparsing of infix operators with named arguments is improved. (PR#15350)
• mget(), and numericDeriv() did not duplicate arguments properly.
(PR#15352, PR#15353, PR#15354)
• kmeans(algorithm = "Hartigan-Wong") now always stops iterating in the QTran
stage. (PR#15364).
• read.dcf() re-allocated incorrectly and so could segfault when called on a file with
lines of more than 100 bytes.
• On systems where mktime() does not set errno, the last second before the epoch
could not be converted from POSIXlt to POSIXct. (Reported by Bill Dunlap.)
• add1.glm() miscalculated F-statistics when df > 1. (Bill Dunlap, PR#15386).
• stem() now discards infinite inputs rather than hanging. (PR#15376)
• The parser now enforces C99 syntax for floating point hexadecimal constants
(e.g., 0x1.1p0), rather than returning unintended values for malformed constants.
• model.matrix() now works with very long LHS names (more than 500 bytes).
• integrate() reverts to the pre-2.12.0 behaviour: from 2.12.0 to 3.0.1 it sometimes
failed to achieve the requested tolerance and reported error estimates that were exceeded. (PR#15219)
• strptime() now handles �%W’ fields with value 0. (PR#15915)
• R is now better protected against people trying to interact with the console in startup
code. (PR#15325)
• Subsetting 1D arrays often lost dimnames (PR#15301).
• Unary + on a logical vector did not coerce to integer, although unary - did.
• na.omit() and na.exclude() added a row to a zero-row data frame. (PR#15399)
• All the (where necessary cut-down) vignettes are installed if R was configured with
• source() did not display filenames when reporting syntax errors.
• Syntax error reports misplaced the caret pointing out the bad token.
• (Windows only) Starting R with R (instead of Rterm or Rgui) would lose any zerolength strings from the command line arguments. (PR#15406)
• Errors in the encoding specified on the command line via --encoding=foo were not
handled properly. (PR#15405)
• If x is a symbol, is.vector(x, "name") now returns TRUE, since "name" and
"symbol" should be synonyms. (Reported by HervВґe Pag`es.)
• R CMD rtags works on platforms (such as OS X) with a XSI-conformant shell command echo. (PR#15231)
• is.unsorted(NA) returns false as documented (rather than NA).
• R CMD LINK did not know about sub-architectures.
• system() and system2() are better protected against users who misguidedly have
spaces in the temporary directory path.
• and edit() are now more likely to work on file paths containing spaces.
(Where external utilities are used, not the norm on Windows nor in which
should previously have worked.)
• Packages using the methods package are more likely to work when they import it but
it is not attached. (Several parts of its C code were looking for its R functions on the
search path rather than in its namespace.)
• lgamma(-x) is no longer NaN for very small x.
• (Windows) system2() now respects specifying stdout and stderr as files if called
from Rgui. (PR#15393)
• Closing an x11() device whilst locator() or identify() is in progress no longer
hangs R. (PR#15253)
• list.dirs(full.names = FALSE) was not implemented. (PR#15170)
• format() sometimes added unnecessary spaces. (PR#15411)
• all.equal(check.names = FALSE) would ignore the request to ignore the names
and would check them as attributes.
• The symbol set by tools::Rd2txt_options(itemBullet=) was not respected in
some locales. (PR#15435)
• mcMap() was not exported by package parallel. (PR#15439)
• plot() for TukeyHSD objects did not balance dev.hold() and dev.flush() calls on
multi-page plots. (PR#15449)
• chooseCRANmirror() and chooseBioCmirror() gain an ind argument (like
• mcparallel has a new argument mc.interactive which can modify the interactive
flag in the child process. The new default is FALSE which makes child processes noninteractive by default (this prevents lock-ups due to children waiting for interactive
• scan() now warns when end-of-file occurs within a quoted string.
• count.fields() is now consistent with scan() in its handling of newlines in quoted
strings. Instead of triggering an error, this results in the current line receiving NA as
the field count, with the next line getting the total count of the two lines.
• The default method of image() will plot axes of the class of xlim and ylim (and
hence of x and y if there is a suitable range() method). Based on a suggestion of
Michael Sumner.
• load() now has a verbose argument for debugging support, to print the names of
objects just before loading them.
• When loading a serialized object encounters a reference to a namespace which cannot
be loaded, this is replaced by a reference to the global environment, with a warning.
• pairs() gains a line.main option for title placement.
• The remaining instances in which serialization to a raw vector was limited to 2GB
have been unlimited on a 64-bit platform, and in most cases serialization to a vector
of more than 1GB will be substantially faster.
• R CMD config now make use of personal �Makevars’ files under �~/.R’ and a site file
�’, in the same way as R CMD SHLIB and R CMD INSTALL. This makes
the utility more useful in package configure scripts.
On Windows finding the personal files may require the environment variable HOME set.
The old behaviour can be obtained with the new options �--no-user-files’ and
• Alternatives to the site and user customization files �’ and
�~/.R/Makevars’ can be specified via the environment variables R_MAKEVARS_SITE
and R_MAKEVARS_USER respectively. These can be used to suppress the use of the
default files by setting an empty value (where possible) or a non-existent path.
• sys.source() did not report error locations when keep.source = TRUE.
• as.POSIXct.numeric was coercing origin using the tz argument and not "GMT" as
documented (PR#14973).
• The active binding to assign fields in reference classes has been cleaned up to reduce
dependence on the class’ package environment, also fixing bug in initializing read-only
fields (inspired by a report from Hadley Wickham).
• str(d) no longer gives an error when names(d) contain illegal multibyte strings
• Profiling of built-in functions with line.profiling=
TRUE did not record the
line from which they were called.
• citation(pkg) dropped the header and footer specified in the �CITATION’ file
• Quotes were handled differently when reading the first line and reading the rest, so
read.table() misread some files that contained quote characters (PR#15245).
• cat() with sep a character vector of length greater than one and more than one
argument was using separators inconsistently (PR#15261).
• On Windows in R 3.0.0, savePlot() failed because of an incorrect check on the
argument count.
• unzip(list = TRUE) returned Names as a factor and not a character vector (as documented) for the internal method. (Noticed by Sean O’Riordain.)
• contourLines() now checks more comprehensively for conformance of its x, y and z
arguments (it was used incorrectly in package R2G2).
• Saved graphics display lists are R version-specific. Attempting to load workspaces
containing them (or some other version-specific objects) aborted the load in R 3.0.0
and earlier; now it does a partial load and generates a warning instead.
• In R 3.0.0, identify() and locator() did not record information correctly, so replaying a graph (e.g., by copying it to another device) would fail. (PR#15271)
• Calling file.copy() or dirname() with the invalid input "" (which was being used
in packages, despite not being a file path) could have caused a segfault.
dirname("") is now "" rather than "." (unless it segfaulted).
• supsmu() could read/write outside its input vectors for very short inputs (seen in
package rms for n = 4).
• as.dendrogram()’s hclust method uses less memory and hence gets considerably
faster for large (n Лњ 1000) clusterings, thanks to Daniel MВЁ
ullner. (PR#15174)
• The
parallel::mclapply(mc.preschedule = TRUE) was a list of strings and not
of error objects. (Spotted by Karl Forner and Bernd Bischl.)
• In R 3.0.0, when help() found multiple pages with the same alias, the HTML display
of all the selections was not produced. (PR#15282)
• splinefun(method="monoH.FC") now produces a function with first argument named
x and allows deriv=3, as documented. (PR#15273)
• summaryRprof() would only read the first chunksize lines of an Rprof file produced
with line.profiling=TRUE. By default, this is the first 100 seconds. (PR#15288)
• lsfit() produced an incorrect error message when argument x had more columns
than rows or x had a different number of rows than y. (Spotted by Renaud Gaujoux.)
• Binary operations on equal length vectors copied the class name from the second
operand when the first had no class name, but did not set the object bit. (PR#15299)
• The trace() method for reference generator objects failed after those objects became
function definitions.
• write.table() did not check that factors were constructed correctly, and so caused
a segment fault when writing bad ones. (PR#15300)
• The internal HTTP server no longer chokes on POST requests without body. It will
also pass-through other request types for custom handlers (with the method stored
in Request-Method header) instead of failing.
• Packages need to be (re-)installed under this version (3.0.0) of R.
• There is a subtle change in behaviour for numeric index values 231 and larger. These
never used to be legitimate and so were treated as NA, sometimes with a warning. They
are now legal for long vectors so there is no longer a warning, and x[2^31] <- y will
now extend the vector on a 64-bit platform and give an error on a 32-bit one.
• It is now possible for 64-bit builds to allocate amounts of memory limited only by
the OS. It may be wise to use OS facilities (e.g., ulimit in a bash shell, limit in
csh), to set limits on overall memory consumption of an R process, particularly in a
multi-user environment. A number of packages need a limit of at least 4GB of virtual
memory to load.
64-bit Windows builds of R are by default limited in memory usage to the amount of
RAM installed: this limit can be changed by command-line option �--max-mem-size’
or setting environment variable R_MAX_MEM_SIZE.
• Negative numbers for colours are consistently an error: previously they were sometimes taken as transparent, sometimes mapped into the current palette and sometimes
an error.
• identical() has a new argument, ignore.environment, used when comparing functions (with default FALSE as before).
• There is a new option, options(CBoundsCheck=), which controls how .C() and
.Fortran() pass arguments to compiled code. If true (which can be enabled by
setting the environment variable R_C_BOUNDS_CHECK to �yes’), raw, integer, double
and complex arguments are always copied, and checked for writing off either end of
the array on return from the compiled code (when a second copy is made). This also
checks individual elements of character vectors passed to .C().
This is not intended for routine use, but can be very helpful in finding segfaults in
package code.
• In layout(), the limits on the grid size have been raised (again).
• New simple provideDimnames() utility function.
• Where methods for length() return a double value which is representable as an
integer (as often happens for package Matrix), this is converted to an integer.
• Matrix indexing of dataframes by two-column numeric indices is now supported for
replacement as well as extraction.
• setNames() now has a default for its object argument, useful for a character result.
• StructTS() has a revised additive constant in the loglik component of the result:
the previous definition is returned as the loglik0 component. However, the help
page has always warned of a lack of comparability of log-likelihoods for non-stationary
models. (Suggested by Jouni Helske.)
• The logic in aggregate.formula() has been revised. It is now possible to use a
formula stored in a variable; previously, it had to be given explicitly in the function
• install.packages() has a new argument quiet to reduce the amount of output
• Setting an element of the graphics argument lwd to a negative or infinite value is now
an error. Lines corresponding to elements with values NA or NaN are silently omitted.
Previously the behaviour was device-dependent.
• Setting graphical parameters cex, col, lty, lwd and pch in par() now requires a
length-one argument. Previously some silently took the first element of a longer
vector, but not always when documented to do so.
• Sys.which() when used with inputs which would be unsafe in a shell (e.g., absolute
paths containing spaces) now uses appropriate quoting.
• as.tclObj() has been extended to handle raw vectors. Previously, it only worked in
the other direction. (Contributed by Charlie Friedemann, PR#14939.)
• New functions cite() and citeNatbib() have been added, to allow generation of
in-text citations from "bibentry" objects. A cite() function may be added to
bibstyle() environments.
• A sort() method has been added for "bibentry" objects.
• The bibstyle() function now defaults to setting the default bibliography style. The
getBibstyle() function has been added to report the name of the current default
• scatter.smooth() now has an argument lpars to pass arguments to lines().
• pairs() has a new log argument, to allow some or all variables to be plotted on
logarithmic scale. (In part, wish of PR#14919.)
• split() gains a sep argument.
• termplot() does a better job when given a model with interactions (and no longer
attempts to plot interaction terms).
• The parser now incorporates code from Romain Francois’ parser package, to support more detailed computation on the code, such as syntax highlighting, commentbased documentation, etc. Functions getParseData() and getParseText() access
the data.
• There is a new function rep_len() analogous to for when speed is required
(and names are not).
• The undocumented use rep(NULL, length.out = n) for n > 0 (which returns NULL)
now gives a warning.
• demo() gains an encoding argument for those packages with non-ASCII demos: it
defaults to the package encoding where there is one.
• strwrap() converts inputs with a marked encoding to the current locale: previously
it made some attempt to pass through as bytes inputs invalid in the current locale.
• Specifying both rate and scale to [dpqr]gamma is a warning (if they are essentially
the same value) or an error.
• merge() works in more cases where the data frames include matrices. (Wish of
• optimize() and uniroot() no longer use a shared parameter object across calls.
(nlm(), nlminb() and optim() with numerical derivatives still do, as documented.)
• The all.equal() method for date-times is now documented: times are regarded as
equal (by default) if they differ by up to 1 msec.
• duplicated() and unique() gain a nmax argument which can be used to make them
much more efficient when it is known that there are only a small number of unique
entries. This is done automatically for factors.
• Functions rbinom(), rgeom(), rhyper(), rpois(), rnbinom(), rsignrank() and
rwilcox() now return integer (not double) vectors. This halves the storage requirements for large simulations.
• sort(), and sort.list() now use radix sorting for factors of less than
100,000 levels when method is not supplied. So does order() if called with a single
factor, unless na.last = NA.
• diag() as used to generate a diagonal matrix has been re-written in C for speed and
less memory usage. It now forces the result to be numeric in the case diag(x) since
it is said to have �zero off-diagonal entries’.
• backsolve() (and forwardsolve()) are now internal functions, for speed and support for large matrices.
• More matrix algebra functions (e.g., chol() and solve()) accept logical matrices
(and coerce to numeric).
• has some support for n ≥ 231 : see its help for the limitations.
A different algorithm is used for (n, size, replace = FALSE,prob = NULL) for
n > 1e7 and size <= n/2. This is much faster and uses less memory, but does give
different results.
• approxfun() and splinefun() now return a wrapper to an internal function in the
stats namespace rather than a .C() or .Call() call. This is more likely to work if
the function is saved and used in a different session.
• The functions .C(), .Call(), .External() and .Fortran() now give an error (rather
than a warning) if called with a named first argument.
• Sweave() by default now reports the locations in the source file(s) of each chunk.
• clearPushBack() is now a documented interface to a long-existing internal call.
• aspell() gains filters for R code, Debian Control Format and message catalog files,
and support for R level dictionaries. In addition, package utils now provides functions
aspell_package_R_files() and aspell_package_C_files() for spell checking R
and C level message strings in packages.
• bibentry() gains some support for “incomplete” entries with a �crossref’ field.
• gray() and gray.colors() finally allow alpha to be specified.
• monthplot() gains parameters to control the look of the reference lines. (Suggestion
of Ian McLeod.)
• Added support for new %~% relation (“is distributed as”) in plotmath.
• domain = NA is accepted by gettext() and ngettext(), analogously to stop() etc.
• termplot() gains a new argument plot = FALSE which returns information to allow
the plots to be modified for use as part of other plots, but does not plot them.
(Contributed by Terry Therneau, PR#15076.)
•, formerly an undocumented part of, is now available to copy a
device to a quartz() device. dev.copy2pdf() optionally does this for PDF output: defaults to PNG.
• The default method of pairs() now allows text.panel = NULL and the use of
<foo>.panel = NULL is now documented.
• setRefClass() and getRefClass() now return class generator functions, similar to
setClass(), but still with the reference fields and methods as before (suggestion of
Romain Francois).
• New functions bitwNot(), bitwAnd(), bitwOr() and bitwXor(), using the internal
interfaces previously used for classes "octmode" and "hexmode".
Also bitwShiftL() and bitwShiftR() for shifting bits in elements of integer vectors.
• New option "deparse.cutoff" to control the deparsing of language objects such as
calls and formulae when printing. (Suggested by a comment of Sarah Goslee.)
• colors() gains an argument distinct.
• New demo(colors) and demo(hclColors), with utility functions.
• list.files() (aka dir()) gains a new optional argument no.. which allows to
exclude "." and ".." from listings.
• Multiple time series are also of class "matrix"; consequently, head(), e.g., is more
• encodeString() preserves UTF-8 marked encodings. Thus if factor levels are marked
as UTF-8 an attempt is made to print them in UTF-8 in RGui on Windows.
• readLines() and scan() (and hence read.table()) in a UTF-8 locale now discard
a UTF-8 byte-order-mark (BOM). Such BOMs are allowed but not recommended by
the Unicode Standard: however Microsoft applications can produce them and so they
are sometimes found on websites.
The encoding name "UTF-8-BOM" for a connection will ensure that a UTF-8 BOM is
• mapply(FUN, a1, ..) now also works when a1 (or a further such argument) needs a
length() method (which the documented arguments never do). (Requested by HervВґe
Pag`es; with a patch.)
• .onDetach() is supported as an alternative to .Last.lib. Unlike .Last.lib, this
does not need to be exported from the package’s namespace.
• The srcfile argument to parse() may now be a character string, to be used in error
• The format() method for ftable objects gains a method argument, propagated to
write.ftable() and print(), allowing more compact output, notably for LaTeX
formatting, thanks to Marius Hofert.
• The function has been added to trigger immediate event
• Sys.which() now returns NA (not "") for NA inputs (related to PR#15147).
• The print() method for class "htest" gives fewer trailing spaces (wish of
Also print output from HoltWinters(), nls() and others.
• loadNamespace() allows a version specification to be given, and this is used to check
version specifications given in the �Imports’ field when a namespace is loaded.
• setClass() has a new argument, slots, clearer and less ambiguous than
representation. It is recommended for future code, but should be back-compatible.
At the same time, the allowed slot specification is slightly more general. See the
documentation for details.
• mget() now has a default for envir (the frame from which it is called), for consistency
with get() and assign().
• close() now returns an integer status where available, invisibly.
(Wish of
• The internal method of tar() can now store paths too long for the �ustar’ format,
using the (widely supported) GNU extension. It can also store long link names, but
these are much less widely supported. There is support for larger files, up to the
�ustar’ limit of 8GB.
• Local reference classes have been added to package methods. These are a technique
for avoiding unneeded copying of large components of objects while retaining standard
R functional behavior. See ?LocalReferenceClasses.
• untar() has a new argument restore_times which if false (not the default) discards
the times in the tarball. This is useful if they are incorrect (some tarballs submitted
to cran have times in a local time zone or many years in the past even though the
standard required them to be in UTC).
• replayplot() cannot (and will not attempt to) replay plots recorded under R <
3.0.0. It may crash the R session if an attempt is made to replay plots created in a
different build of R >= 3.0.0.
• Palette changes get recorded on the display list, so replaying plots (including when
resizing screen devices and using dev.copy()) will work better when the palette is
changed during a plot.
• chol(pivot = TRUE) now defaults to LAPACK, not LINPACK.
• The parse() function has a new parameter keep.source, which defaults to
• Profiling via Rprof() now optionally records information at the statement level, not
just the function level.
• The Rprof() function now quotes function names in in its output file on Windows,
to be consistent with the quoting in Unix.
• Profiling via Rprof() now optionally records information about time spent in GC.
• The HTML help page for a package now displays non-vignette documentation files in
a more accessible format.
• To
options(stringsAsFactors = FALSE),
model.matrix() and replications() now automatically convert character
vectors to factors without a warning.
• The print method for objects of class "table" now detects tables with 0-extents and
prints the results as, e.g., �< table of extent 0 x 1 x 2 >’. (Wish of PR#15198.)
• Deparsing involving calls to anonymous functions has been made closer to reversible
by the addition of extra parentheses.
• The function utils::packageName() has been added as a lightweight version of
• find.package(lib.loc = NULL) now treats loaded namespaces preferentially in the
same way as attached packages have been for a long time.
• In Windows, the Change Directory dialog now defaults to the current working directory, rather than to the last directory chosen in that dialog.
• available.packages() gains a "license/restricts_use" filter which retains only
packages for which installation can proceed solely based on packages which are guaranteed not to restrict use.
• New check_packages_in_dir() function in package tools for conveniently checking
source packages along with their reverse dependencies.
• R’s completion mechanism has been improved to handle help requests (starting with a
question mark). In particular, help prefixes are now supported, as well as quoted help
topics. To support this, completion inside quotes are now handled by R by default
on all platforms.
• The memory manager now allows the strategy used to balance garbage collection and
memory growth to be controlled by setting the environment variable R_GC_MEM_GROW.
See ?Memory for more details.
• (�For experts only’, as the introductory manual says.) The use of environment variables R_NSIZE and R_VSIZE to control the initial (= minimum) garbage collection
trigger for number of cons cels and size of heap has been restored: they can be overridden by the command-line options --min-nsize and --min-vsize; see ?Memory.
• On Windows, the device name for bitmap devices as reported by .Device and
.Devices no longer includes the file name. This is for consistency with other platforms and was requested by the lattice maintainer.
win.metafile() still uses the file name: the exact form is used by package tkrplot.
• set.seed(NULL) re-initializes .Random.seed as done at the beginning of the session
if not already set. (Suggestion of Bill Dunlap.)
• The breaks argument in hist.default() can now be a function that returns the
breakpoints to be used (previously it could only return the suggested number of
• File �share/licenses/licenses.db’ has some clarifications, especially as to which
variants of �BSD’ and �MIT’ is intended and how to apply them to packages. The
problematic licence �Artistic-1.0’ has been removed.
LONG VECTORS: This section applies only to 64-bit platforms.
• There is support for vectors longer than 231 − 1 elements. This applies to raw, logical,
integer, double, complex and character vectors, as well as lists. (Elements of character
vectors remain limited to 231 в€’ 1 bytes.)
• Most operations which can sensibly be done with long vectors work: others may
return the error �long vectors not supported yet’. Most of these are because they
explicitly work with integer indices (e.g., anyDuplicated() and match()) or because
other limits (e.g., of character strings or matrix dimensions) would be exceeded or
the operations would be extremely slow.
• length() returns a double for long vectors, and lengths can be set to 231 or more by
the replacement function with a double value.
• Most aspects of indexing are available. Generally double-valued indices can be used
to access elements beyond 231 в€’ 1.
• There is some support for matrices and arrays with each dimension less than 231 but
total number of elements more than that. Only some aspects of matrix algebra work
for such matrices, often taking a very long time. In other cases the underlying Fortran
code has an unstated restriction (as was found for complex svd()).
• dist() can produce dissimilarity objects for more than 65536 rows (but for example
hclust() cannot process such objects).
• serialize() to a raw vector is unlimited in size (except by resources).
• The C-level function R_alloc can now allocate 235 or more bytes.
• agrep() and grep() will return double vectors of indices for long vector inputs.
• Many calls to .C() have been replaced by .Call() to allow long vectors to be supported (now or in the future). Regrettably several packages had copied the non-API
.C() calls and so failed.
• .C() and .Fortran() do not accept long vector inputs. This is a precaution as it is
very unlikely that existing code will have been written to handle long vectors (and
the R wrappers often assume that length(x) is an integer).
• Most of the methods for sort() work for long vectors.
rank(), sort.list() and order() support long vectors (slowly except for radix
• sample() can do uniform sampling from a long vector.
• More use has been made of R objects representing registered entry points, which is
more efficient as the address is provided by the loader once only when the package is
This has been done for packages base, methods, splines and tcltk: it was already
in place for the other standard packages.
Since these entry points are always accessed by the R entry points they do not need
to be in the load table which can be substantially smaller and hence searched faster.
This does mean that .C / .Fortran / .Call calls copied from earlier versions of R
may no longer work – but they were never part of the API.
• Many .Call() calls in package base have been migrated to .Internal() calls.
• solve() makes fewer copies, especially when b is a vector rather than a matrix.
• eigen() makes fewer copies if the input has dimnames.
• Most of the linear algebra functions make fewer copies when the input(s) are not
double (e.g., integer or logical).
• A foreign function call (.C() etc) in a package without a PACKAGE argument will only
look in the first DLL specified in the �NAMESPACE’ file of the package rather than
searching all loaded DLLs. A few packages needed PACKAGE arguments added.
• The @<- operator is now implemented as a primitive, which should reduce some
copying of objects when used. Note that the operator object must now be in package
base: do not try to import it explicitly from package methods.
• The transitional support for installing packages without namespaces (required since
R 2.14.0) has been removed. R CMD build will still add a namespace, but a
.First.lib() function will need to be converted.
R CMD INSTALL no longer adds a namespace (so installation will fail), and a
.First.lib() function in a package will be ignored (with an installation warning
for now).
As an exception, packages without a �R’ directory and no �NAMESPACE’ file can still be
• Packages can specify in their �DESCRIPTION file’ a line like
Biarch: yes
to be installed on Windows with �--force-biarch’.
• Package vignettes can now be processed by other engines besides Sweave; see �Writing
R Extensions’ and the tools::vignetteEngine help topic for details.
• The �*.R’ tangled source code for vignettes is now included in tarballs when
R CMD build is used to produce them. In R 3.0.0, �*.R’ files not in the sources
will be produced at install time, but eventually this will be dropped.
• The package type "mac.binary" now looks in a path in the repository without any Mac subtype (which used to be �universal’ or �leopard’): it looks
in �bin/macosx/contrib/3.0’ rather than �bin/macosx/leopard/contrib/2.15’).
This is the type used for the cran binary distribution for OS X as from R 3.0.0.
• File �etc/Makeconf’ makes more use of the macros $(CC), $(CXX), $(F77) and $(FC),
so the compiler in use can be changed by setting just these (and if necessary the
corresponding flags and FLIBS) in file �~/.R/Makevars’.
This is convenient for those working with binary distributions of R, e.g. on OS X.
• R CMD check now gives a warning rather than a note if it finds calls to abort, assert
or exit in compiled code, and has been able to find the �.o’ file in which the calls
Such calls can terminate the R process which loads the package.
• The location of the build and check environment files can now be specified by the
environment variables R_BUILD_ENVIRON and R_CHECK_ENVIRON, respectively.
• R CMD Sweave gains a �--compact’ option to control possibly reducing the size of the
PDF file it creates when �--pdf’ is given.
• R CMD build now omits Eclipse’s �.metadata’ directories, and R CMD check warns if
it finds them.
• R CMD check now does some checks on functions defined within reference classes,
including of .Call() etc calls.
• R CMD check --as-cran notes assignments to the global environment, calls to
data() which load into the global environment, and calls to attach().
• R CMD build by default uses the internal method of tar() to prepare the tarball. This
is more likely to produce a tarball compatible with R CMD INSTALL and R CMD check:
an external tar program, including options, can be specified via the environment
variable R_BUILD_TAR.
• tools::massageExamples() is better protected against packages which re-define base
functions such as cat() and get() and so can cause R CMD check to fail when checking examples.
• R CMD javareconf has been enhanced to be more similar to the code used by
There is now a test that a JNI program can be compiled (like configure did) and
only working settings are used.
It makes use of custom settings from configuration recorded in �etc/javaconf’.
• The �--no-vignettes’ argument of R CMD build has been renamed to the more
accurate �--no-build-vignettes’: its action has always been to (re)build vignettes
and never omitted them.
R CMD check accepts �--no-build-vignettes’ as a preferred synonym for
• The ENCODING argument to .C() is defunct. Use iconv() instead.
• The .Internal(eval.with.vis) non-API function has been removed.
• Support for the converters for use with .C() has been removed, including the oft
misused non-API header �R_ext/RConverters.h’.
• The previously deprecated uses of array() with a 0-length dim argument and
tapply() with a 0-length INDEX list are now errors.
• �Translation’ packages are defunct.
• Calling rep() or on a pairlist or other non-vector object is now an error.
• Several non-API entry points have been transferred to packages (e.g., R_zeroin2) or
replaced by different non-API entry points (e.g., R_tabulate).
• The �internal’ graphics device invoked by .Call("R_GD_nullDevice", package = "grDevices")
has been removed: use pdf(file = NULL) instead.
• The .Fortran() entry point "dqrls" which has not been used by R since version
2.15.1 is no longer available.
• Functions traceOn() and traceOff() in package methods are now defunct.
• Function CRAN.packages() is finally defunct.
• Use of col2rgb(0) is defunct: use par("bg") or NA instead.
• The long-defunct functions Rd_parse(),
clearNames(), gammaCody(),,, lm.wfit.null(),
print.coefmat(), reshapeLong(), reshapeWide(), tkclose(), tkcmd(),
tkfile.dir(), tkfile.tail(), tkopen(), tkputs(), tkread(), trySilent()
and zip.file.extract() have been removed entirely (but are still documented in
the help system).
• The unused dataPath argument to attachNamespace() has been removed.
• grid.prompt() has been removed: use devAskNewPage() instead.
• The long-deprecated intensities component is no longer returned by hist().
• mean() for data frames and sd() for data frames and matrices are defunct.
• chol(pivot = FALSE, LINPACK = TRUE),
ch2inv(LINPACK = TRUE),
eigen(EISPACK = TRUE), solve(LINPACK = TRUE) and svd(LINPACK = TRUE)
are defunct: LAPACK will be used, with a warning.
• The keep.source argument to library() and require() is defunct. This option
needs to be set at install time.
• Documentation for real(), as.real() and is.real() has been moved to �defunct’
and the functions removed.
The maxRasters argument of pdf() (unused since R 2.14.0) has been removed.
The unused fontsmooth argument has been removed from the quartz() device.
All the (non-API) EISPACK entry points in R have been removed.
chol(pivot = TRUE, LINPACK = TRUE) is deprecated.
The long-deprecated use of \synopsis in the �Usage’ section of �.Rd’ files will be
removed in R 3.1.0.
• .find.package() and .path.package() are deprecated: only the public versions
without the dot have ever been in the API.
• In a package’s �DESCRIPTION’ file,
License: X11
is deprecated, since it includes �Copyright (C) 1996 X Consortium’ which cannot be
appropriate for a current R package. Use �MIT’ or �BSD 2 clause’ instead.
• The C code underlying base graphics has been migrated to the graphics package (and
hence no longer uses .Internal() calls).
• Most of the .Internal() calls used in the stats package have been migrated to C
code in that package.
This means that a number of .Internal() calls which have been used by packages
no longer exist, including .Internal(cor) .Internal(cov), .Internal(optimhess)
and .Internal(update.formula).
• Some .External() calls to the base package (really to the R executable or shared
library) have been moved to more appropriate packages. Packages should not have
been using such calls, but some did (mainly those used by integrate()).
PACKAGE parallel:
• There is a new function mcaffinity() which allows getting or setting the CPU affinity
mask for the current R process on systems that supports this (currently only Linux
has been tested successfully). It has no effect on systems which do not support process
affinity. Users are not expected to use this function directly (with the exception of
fixing libraries that break affinity settings like OpenBLAS) – the function is rather
intended to support affinity control in high-level parallel functions. In the future,
R may supplement lack of affinity control in the OS by its own bookkeeping via
mcaffinity() related to processes and threads it spawns.
• mcparallel() has a new argument mc.affinity which attempts to set the affinity
of the child process according to the specification contained therein.
• The port used by socket clusters is chosen randomly: this should help to avoid
clashes observed when two users of a multi-user machine try to create a cluster
at the same time. To reproduce the previous behaviour set environment variable
• There has been some minor re-organization of the non-API header files. In particular,
�Rinternals.h’ no longer includes the non-API header �R_exts/PrtUtil.h’, and that
no longer includes �R_exts/Print.h’.
• Passing NULL to .C() is now an error.
• .C() and .Fortran() now warn if "single" arguments are used with DUP = FALSE,
as changes to such arguments are not returned to the caller.
• C entry points R_qsort and R_qsort_I now have start and end as size_t to allow
them to work with longer vectors on 64-bit platforms. Code using them should be
• A few recently added C entry points were missing the remapping to Rf_, notably
• Some of the interface pointers formerly available only to are now available to
front-ends on all Unix-alikes: one has been added for the interface to View().
• PACKAGE = "" is now an error in .C() etc calls: it was always contrary to the documentation.
• Entry point rcont2 has been migrated to package stats and so is no longer available.
• R_SVN_REVISION in �Rversion.h’ is now an integer (rather than a string) and hence
usable as e.g. #if R_SVN_REVISION < 70000.
• The entry points rgb2hsv and hsv2rgb have been migrated to package grDevices and
so are no longer available.
• R_GE_version has been increased to 10 and name2col removed (use R_GE_str2col
instead). R internal colour codes are now defined using the typedef rcolor.
• The REPROTECT macro now checks that the protect index is valid.
• Several non-API entry points no longer used by R have been removed, including
the Fortran entry points chol, chol2inv, cg, ch and rg, and the C entry points
Brent_fmin, fft_factor and fft_work.
• If a .External call is registered with a number of arguments (other than -1), the
number of arguments passed is checked for each call (as for other foreign function
• It is now possible to write custom connection implementations outside core R using
�R_ext/Connections.h’. Please note that the implementation of connections is still
considered internal and may change in the future (see the above file for details).
• The management of translations has been converted to R code:
• The translations for the R interpreter and RGui.exe are now part of the base package
(rather than having sources in directory �po’ and being installed to �share/locale’).
Thus the base package supports three translation domains, R-base, R and RGui.
• The compiled translations which ship with R are all installed to the new package
translations for easier updating. The first package of that name found on .libPaths()
at the start of the R session will be used. (It is possible messages will be used
before .libPaths() is set up in which case the default translations will be used:
set environment variable R_TRANSLATIONS to point to the location of the intended
translations package to use this right from the start.)
• The translations form a separate group in the Windows installer, so can be omitted
if desired.
• The markup for many messages has been changed to make them easier to translate,
incorporating suggestions from Lukasz Daniel.
• There is again support for building without using the C �long double’ type. This is
required by C99, but system implementations can be slow or flawed. Use configure
option �--disable-long-double’.
• make pdf and make install-pdf now make and install the full reference index (including all base and recommended packages).
• The ’reference manual’ on the Windows GUI menu and included in the installer is
now the full reference index, including all base and recommended packages.
• R help pages and manuals have no ISBNs because ISBN rules no longer allow constantly changing content to be assigned an ISBN.
• The Windows installer no longer installs a Start Menu link to the static help pages;
as most pages are generated dynamically, this led to a lot of broken links.
• Any custom settings for Java configuration are recorded in file �etc/javaconf’ for
subsequent use by R CMD javareconf.
• There is now support for makeinfo version 5.0 (which requires a slightly different
�.texi’ syntax).
• The minimum versions for �--use-system-zlib’ and --use-system-pcre are now
tested as 1.2.5 and 8.10 respectively.
• On Windows, the stack size is reduced to 16MB on 32-bit systems: misguided users
were launching many threads without controlling the stack size.
• configure no longer looks for file �~/.Rconfig’: �~/.R/config’ has long been preferred.
• When R CMD build is run in an encoding other than the one specified in the package’s вЂ�DESCRIPTION’ file it tries harder to expand the [email protected] field in the specified
encoding. (PR#14958)
• If R CMD INSTALL is required to expand the [email protected] field of the вЂ�DESCRIPTION’
file, it tries harder to do so in the encoding specified for the package (rather than
using ASCII escapes).
• Fix in package grid for pushing a viewport into a layout cell, where the layout is
within a viewport that has zero physical width OR where the layout has zero total
relative width (likewise for height). The layout column widths (or row heights) in this
case were being calculated with non-finite values. (Reported by Winston Chang.)
• solve(A, b) for a vector b gave the answer names from colnames(A) for
LINPACK = TRUE but not in the default case.
• La.svd() accepts logical matrices (as documented, and as svd() did).
• legend() now accepts negative pch values, in the same way points() long has.
• Parse errors when installing files now correctly display the name of the file containing
the bad code.
• In Windows, tcltk windows were not always properly constructed. (PR#15150)
• The internal functions implementing parse(), tools::parseLatex() and
tools::parse_Rd() were not reentrant, leading to errors in rare circumstances such
as a garbage collection triggering a recursive call.
• Field assignments in reference class objects via $<- were not being checked because
the magic incantation to turn methods on for that primitive operator had been inadvertently omitted.
• setHook(hookname, value, action="replace") set the hook to be the value,
rather than a list containing the value as documented. (PR#15167)
• If a package used a �NEWS.Rd’ file, the main HTML package index page did not link
to it. (Reported by Dirk Eddelbuettel.)
• The primitive implementation of @<- was not checking the class of the replacement.
It now does a check, quicker but less general than slot<-. See the help.
• split(x, f) now recycles classed objects x in the same way as vectors. (Reported
by Martin Morgan.)
• pbeta(.28, 1/2, 2200, lower.tail=FALSE, log.p=TRUE)
longer -Inf;
ditto for corresponding pt() and pf() calls, such as
pt(45, df=5000, lower.tail=FALSE,log.p=TRUE). (PR#15162)
• The Windows graphics device would crash R if a user attempted to load the graphics
history from a variable that was not a saved history. (PR#15230)
• The workspace size for the predict() method for loess() could exceed the maximum
integer size. (Reported by Hiroyuki Kawakatsu.)
• ftable(x, row.vars, col.vars) now also works when the *.vars arguments are
(integer or character vectors) of length zero.
• Calling cat() on a malformed UTF-8 string could cause the Windows GUI to lock
up. (PR#15227)
• removeClass(cc) gave ”node stack overflow” for some class definitions containing
"array" or "matrix".
CHANGES in previous versions
• Older news can be found in text format in files �NEWS.0’, �NEWS.1’ and �NEWS.2’ in
the �doc’ directory. News in HTML format for R versions from 2.10.0 to 2.15.3 is in
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