TOE-C843-13.21 - Yaskawa
A
CNC SYSTEM
FOR TURNING
A
h
APPLICATIONS
YASNAC J300L
PROGRAMMING
MANUAL
Upon receipt of the product and prior to initial operation, read these
instructions thoroughly, and retain for future reference.
REFERENCE
YASNAC J300L OPERATING
YASUNNA
MANUAL
TOE-C843-”1 3.20
MANUAL NO. TOE-C843-1 3.21
FOREWORD
This manual gives the information necessary for creating a program u;ing the YASNAC
J300L (with basic NC operation panel, 9-inch CRT).
Some information is given in tables in the Appendix so that readers can easily find the necessary information. In the G code table, section numbers are given for each G code to allow
quick access to a detailed explanation if necessary.
The YASNAC J300L comes with an operation manual in addition to this programming
manual. Use these manuals in conjunction with each other to ensure prclductive operation.
CAUTIONS
This manual describes all the option functions (identified by the “*” symbol) but some of
these may not be available with your YASNAC J300L. To determine the option functions
installed in your NC, refer to the specification document or manuals published b y the machine tool builder.
Unless otherwise specified, the following conditions apply in programming
and programming examples.
●
●
●
explanations
Metric system for input and metric system for output/movement
e
: Zero point in the base coordinate system
@
: Reference point
Yaskawa has made every effort to describe individual functions and their relationships to other functions as accurately as possible. However, there are many things t;~at cannot or must
not be performed and it is not possible to describe all of these. Accordingly, readers are requested to understand that unless it is specifically stated that something can be performed,
it should be assumed that it cannot be performed.
Also bear in mind that the performance and functions of an NC machine tool are not determined solely by the NC unit. The entire control system consists of the mechanical system,
the machine operation panel and other machine related equipment in addition to the NC.
Therefore, read the manuals published by the machine tool builder for detailed information
relating to the machine.
General Precautions
●
●
●
●
●
●
Some drawings in this manual are shown with the protective cover or shields removed,
in order to describe the detail with more clarity. Make sure all covers and shields are
replaced before operating this product, and operate it in accordance with the directions
in the manual.
The figures and photographs in this manua Ishow a representative product for reference
purposes and may differ from the product actually delivered to you.
This manual maybe modified when necessary because of improvement of the product,
modification, or changes in specifications. Such modification is made as a revision by
renewing the manual No.
To order a copy of this manual, if your copy has been damaged or lost, contact your
Yaskawa representative listed on the last page stating the manual No. on the front
page.
If any of the nameplates affixed to the product become damaged or illegible, please
send these nameplates to your Yaskawa :representative.
Yaskawa is not responsible for any modification of the product made by the user since
that will void our guarantee.
NOTES
FOR SAFE OPERATION
Read this programming manual thoroughly before installation, operatiorl , maintenance
inspection of the YASNAC J300L.
or
The functions and performance as NC machine tool are not determined oily by an NC unit
itself. Before the operation, read thoroughly the machine tool builder’s documents relating
to the machine tool concerned.
In this manual, the NOTES FOR SAFE OPERATION
“CAUTION’.
~
WARNING
Indicates a potentially
are classified as “WARNING”
hazardous
or
situa;ion which, if
not avoided, could result in death or serious injury to
personnel.
Symbol
@
is used in labels attached to the prod-
uct.
Indicates a potentially
m!mi!l
hazardous
situa;ion which, if
not avoided, may result in minor or mo,ierate injury
to perscmnel and damage to equipment.
It may also be used to alert against unsafe practice.
Even items described inl ~
CAUTION I may result in a vital accident insome situations.
In either case, follow these important items.
Please note that symbol mark used to indicate caution differs between 1S0 and JIS.
In this manual, symbol mark stipulated by 1S0 is usecl.
On products,
caution
symbol marks of 1S0 and JIS
Please follow the same safety instructions concerning caution.
Ill
are
used
in labels.
KEY TO WARNING
LABELS
The following warning labels are used with the YASNAC J300L.
Electric shock hazard
Do not touch the terminals while the power is
on, and for 5 minutes after switching off the
power supply!
Location of label
NC unit
— Warning label
iv
——
.—.
— .-
Grounding wires must be conr ected to the unit’s
grounding terminals.
ILJI
Use proper
grounding
techniques.
Location of label
I~
WARNING I “
Location of label
NC operation panel with 9 inch CRT
~~——
Rear face
Warning Iab[?l
CONTENTS
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NOTES FOR SAFE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KEY TO WARNING LABELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. PROGRAMMING
1.1
iv
BASICS
FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING TERMINOLOGY . ...1-2
1,141
Numerically Controlled Axesandthe
Number of Simultaneously
Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,.
Controllable
and Least Output Increment
1-2
1.1.2
Least lnputlncrement
1.1,3
Maximum Programmable
1.1.4
Tape Format
1.1,5
Program Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
1.1.6
OptionalBlockSkip(/1),(/2to/9)
1.1,7
Buffer Register and Multi-active
1.2
2.
I
!,,
Ill
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Values for Axis Movement........,..
. . . . . 1-5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Register
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
BASICS OF FEED FUNCTION . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...1-19
1.2.1
Rapid Traverse
1.2.2
Cutting Feed (FCommand)
1.2.3
Switching between Feed per Minute Modeand Feed per
Revolution Mode (G98/G99) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
1.2.4
Automatic Acceleratio
COMMANDS
2.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
nandDeceleration
CALLING AXIS MOVEMENTS
Positioning
(GOO, G06)
2.1.2
Linear interpolation
2.1.3
Circular interpolation
2.1.4
Chamfering
(Gil)
2,1.5
Rounding (G12)
2.1.6
Cylindrical
2.1.7
Polar Coordinate
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,,, ,, ...,,,.,.........,.2-3
(GOl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-5
(G02, G03, G22, G23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,2-14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,2-16
interpolation
(G124)G125)
interpolation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
(G126, G127)*
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
USING THE THREAD CUTTING FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-28
2.2.1
Thread Cutingand
2.2.2
Multiple-thread
2.2.3
Variable Lead Thread Cutting (G34)*
2.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
INTERPOLATION COMMANDS ..,...
2.1.1
2.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Continuous
Cuttirlg(G32)*
Thread Cutting (G32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2
-34
,, ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-37
REFERENCE POINT RETURN . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-39
2.3.1
Automatic
2.3.2
Reference Point Return Check (G27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-44
Return to Fieference Point (G28)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
2.3.3
Return from Reference Point Return (G29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
2.3.4
Second to Fourth Reference Point Return (G30)*
vi
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49
3.
MOVEMENT CONTROL COMMANDS
3.1
SETTING THE COORDINATESYSTEM
3.1.1
Base”Coordinate
3.1.2
Workpiece
3.2
System (G!jO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-3
Coordinate
System (G50T, G51) * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
DETERMINING THE COOFIDINATE VALUE
INPUT MODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-16
3.2.1
Absolute/lncremental
3.2.2
Diametric and Radial Commands
3.2.3
Inch/Metric
3.3
Desigrlation
Input Designation
(G20, G21)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Dwell (G04) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-22
TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-23
3.4.1
Tool Offset Data Memory
3.4.2
Tool Position Offset
3.4.3
Nose ROffset
3.5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . ...3-16
for X-=is
TIME-CONTROLLING COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~~
. . . ...3-22
3.3.1
3.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3-23
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-24
Function (G4(l, G41/G42) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
SPINDLE FUNCTION (S FIJNCTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-75
3.5.1
Spindle Command
(S5-digit Command)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
3.5.2
Maximum Spindle Speed Command
3.5.3
Constant Surface Speed Control (G96, G97)*
3.5.4
Rotary Tool Spindle Selection Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-81
3.6
(G50S)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-76
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-77
TOOL FUNCTION (T FUNCTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
3.6.1
T4-digit Command
3.6.2
T6-digit Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
3.7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION (M FUNCTION) . . . . c. . . ...3-83
3.7.1
MCodes
3.7.2
internally Processed
Relating to Stop Operation
(MOO, MOl, M02, M30) . . . . . . . . 3-83
3.7.3
General Purpose M Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-85
M Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-
84
vii
. .—.——
-—-
..—
.. —.-—----- ———
.- .._—-.—...—..-. -—-.-....
..——
..-..
- .—, -—-..
—.-..-,—
. .. —.-—.——
4.
ENHANCED LEVEL (COMMANDS
4.1
PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(l)
4.1.1
Canned Cycles (G9Cl. G92. G94) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.1.2
Multiple Repetitive Cycles (G70to
4.1.3
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
on Both Ends of Taper (Gill)
4.1.4
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
on Arc Ends (G112) *. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-70
4.1.5
Hole-machining Canned Cycles
(G80to G89, G831, G841, G861) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-79
4.2
Solid Tap Function (G84, G841) *.....
4.2.2
Programmable
4.2.3
Subprogram
4.2.4
Stored Stroke Limit B(G36to
4.3
G76)*
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
* . . . . . . 4-56
PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS (2) , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-94
4.2.1
4,4
,.. .: .,............4-3
Data lnput(GIO)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..4-g4
*....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-104
Call Up Function (M98, M99) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-106
G39)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-108
AUTOMATING SUPPORT FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4- 114
4,3.1
Skip Function (G31) *.....,,.,...,..
4.3.2
Tool Life Control Function (G122, G123) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-117
MICROPROGRAMS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-114
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-126
4.4.1
Differences from Subprograms
4.4.2
Microprogram
4.4.3
Variables,
4.4.4
Operation
4.4.5
Control instructions
4,4,6
Registering the Microprogram
4.4.7
RS-232C Data Output 2( BPRNT, DPRNT)
4.4.8
Microprogram
4.4.9
Examples of Microprograms,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-126
Call (G65, G66, G67)*.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4
instructions
-138
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-162
.,, ,,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-164
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4
Alarm Numbers,,,.
-170
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-171
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-176
,., ,, ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-177
APPENDIX 1 G CODE TABLE
APPENDIX l.l
GCODE TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Al-2
APPENDIX 2 INDEX
..
Vlll
PROGRAMMING
Chapter
1 describes
the basic
BASICS
terms
used
in programming
and the feed functions.
1.1
FUNDAMEN”rALS
OF PROGRAMMING
TERMINOLOGY .
1.1,1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
Numerically
Controlled Axes and the Nulmber
of Simultaneously
1.1,2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘1-3
Maximum Programmable
Movemen
1.2
Axes . . . . . . . . 1 -2
Least Input Increment and Least Output
Increment
1.1.3
Controllable
Values for Axis
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1,1.4
Tape Format
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1,1.5
Program Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
1.1.6
Optional Block Skip (/1), (/2 to /9) * . . . . . . . . 1-17
1.1.7
Buffer Register and Multi-active
Registel’ . . . 1-18
BASICS OF I=EED FUNCTION . . . . . i .. 1-19
1.2.1
Rapid Traverse
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
1.2.2
Cutting Feed (F Command)
1.2.3
Switching between Feed per Minute Mode
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
and Feed per Revolution Mode (G98/G$19) . 1-26
1.2.4
Automatic Acceleration
and Deceleration
. . . 1-27
1.1
FUNDAMENTALS
OF PROGRAMMING
TERMINOLOGY
This section describes the basic terms used in programming.
1.1.1
Numerically Controlled Axes and the Number of Simultaneously Controllable
Axes
The numerically controlled axes and the number of axes that can be controlled simultaneously are indicated in Table 1.1.
—..
[able
. .
1.1
..
.,-.
.. . .
Numerically
Uontroilea
Axes
Controllable
Axes
...
. ,,
ana tne NumDer
,
I
I Basic axes
Controlled
axes
Series 1
control
Aclditional axis
control A*
Additional axis
} control B*
Number of
simttltaneousl y
controllable
axes
, -.
,.
oT Slmul[aneously
Description
lXand Z
Xand Z+C
Expandable to 5 axes (Y-axis, B-axis, etc.)
Positioning (GOO)
All axes
Linear interpolation ((301)
AU axes
Circular interpolation (G02,
G03)
2 axes
Manual operation
All axes
Note 1: For polar coordinate interpolation* and cylindrical interpolation *, circular interpolation is possible on virtual
XCor ZCplane. For details, see 2.1.7,’’Polar Coordinate Interpolation” and 2.1.6, “Cylindrical Interpolation”.
2: With a manual pulse generator, only one axis control is possible.
1-2
—
..—.-
—
I
I
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
1.1.2
OF PROGRAMMING
TERMINOLOGY
Least Input Increment and Least Output Increment
The least input and output increments vary depending cm the type of controlled axis whether
it is a rotary axis or a linear axis.
(1)
Least Input Incrementand 10-tilmeInput Increment
The least input increment to express axis movement distance that is input by using
punched tape or manual data input switches is indicated in Table 1,2.
Table 1.2
Least
Input Increment
(pml 000
DO= O)
Metric Input
Inch Input
‘X-’:zzz::::
:3
By setting “l” for parameter pm1000 DO (pm1000 DO = 1), the “lO-time input increment” specifications indicated in Table 1.3 is selected.
Table
1.3
Metric
10-time
(pml 000 DO=
1)
Input
Inch Input
Note:
Input Increment
‘X-’::z
Selection of “mm-input”
and “inch-input”
~:G:-”-3
is made by the setting parameter
pmOO07
[IOorbythespecification
of G20/G21
Disregarding of the least input increment mode which has been select ed, tool. offset data
are always written in units of 0.001 mm (or 0.0001 inch, or 0.001 deg.). Offset movement is possible in the specified vake. If the offset data are set in units of 0.01 mm,
the following operations and the commands for them must be given in units c}f0.01 mm.
●
Data writing in the MDI mode
●
Programming
●
Program editing
for the memory mode operation
@
O
!
i
2
i
?
q
1.
If an NC program written in units of 0.001 mm is executed while the 0.01 mm
setting increment is selected, dimension commands are. all executed 10 times the
specified value.
2.
If the program stored in memory is executed in the memory mode after changing
the setting for pm1000 DO (input increment setting parameter), dimension commands in the stored program are executed in either 1/10 or 10 times the specified
value.
3.
When a program stored in memory is output to a tape, the stored program is output as it is and not influenced by the setting for pm1000 DO (input increment setting parameter).
(2) Least Output
Increment
The least output increment indicates the “minimum unit” of axis movement that is determined by the mechanical system. By selecting the option, it is possible to select the
output unit system between “mm” and “inches”.
Table 1.4
Least Output
Metric Output
E Inch Output
Unit (pml 000 DO = 1)
Linear Axes
(X-, ‘f-, Z-axis, etc.)
* C-axis
0.001 mm
0.001 deg.
0.0001 inch
0.001 deg.
“l-4
..—.— ———
1.1 FUNDAMEN”rALS
1.1.3
OF PROGRAMMING
TERMINOLOGY
Maximum Programmable Values for Axis Movement
The maximum programmable values that can be designated for a move command are indicated in Table 1.5. The maximum programmable values indicated in these tables are applicable to addresses I, J, K, R, A, and B which are used for designating “distance” in addition
to the move command addresses X, Y, Z, C, U, W, V, and H.
Table 1.5
Maximum
Programmable
Values
for Axis Movement
Linear Axes
(X-, Y-, Z-axis, etc.)
Metric Input
+ 999999.999mm
Inch Input
+ 39370.0787inch
Metric Input
A 999999.999 mm
Inch Input
+ 99999.9999 inch
—,
* C-axis
,—
+ 999999.999 deg.
Metric Output
t 999999.999 deg.
—.
k !199999.999deg.
Inch Output
k S199999.999deg.
=
In incremental programming, the values 10be designated must not exceed he maximum programmable values indicated above. In absolute programming, the mmw distance of each
axis must not exceed the maximum programmable values indicated abclve. In addition to
the notes indicated above, it must also be taken into consideration that the cumulative values
of move command must not exceed the values indicted in Table 1.6.
Table 1.6
Maximum
\ Metric Input ]
I Inch Input
I
Cumulative
Values
+ 999999.999mm
I
A 999999.999 deg.
I
+ 999999.9999inch
I
* 999999.999deg.
I
Note: The values indicated above do not depend on the “least output increment”.
1-5
u
1.1.4
Tape Format
The following describes the important items concerning the tape format.
(1)
Label and Label Skip
By entering “label” at the beginning of a punched tape, classification
tape can be facilitated.
and handling of
The label skip function disregards the data appearing before the first EOB code. With
this feature, label can contain address characters and function codes which are not supported by the NC. A code that does not match the selected parity scheme can also be
used. The label skip function becomes enabled when the power is turned ON or when
the NC is reset. While the li~bel skip function is enabled, “LX” message is displayed
on the screen.
(2) Tape Start and Tape End
At the start and end of a tape, the same code (see Table 1.7) should be punched.
Table 1.7
Tape Start and Tape End
F’:
●
●
Description
Tape startflape end
The ER code (rewind stop code) entered following the tape start label indicates
the rewind stop when the tape is rewound by the tape rewind command.
The ER code, expressing the tape end, indicates the stop point when several
part programs are stored in NC memory.
1-6
.—
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
ER
OF PROGRAMMING TERMINOLOGY
l——
‘~—
CR
(
1~1
~—
-
‘—
Label
T
Comment
part
Program part
y
,–
+i
T
Program start
(Called as “EOW or “End of Block’’. code)
/
Tape start
(Called as ‘(%” or “Rewind Stop” code)
~=~
Tape end
Note:
As the end of program code, M02 orM99canbeusedinsteadof’M30.Whetherornotthe Wcodesindicatedabove
are used as the p;ogram end M code is determined according to the setting for paramt.terpm3005 D3.
Single Main ProgramPunchedon Tape (EIA Cocle)
Fig. 1.1
LF/NL
0/0
=I=Q=
—=— Program part
-
“beITrlTI T
Program start
Tape start
M3 O&Program
end
Program part _
—
Tape end
—-
r
r
-p
Program part
\
Tape end
Fig. 1,2
Multiple Programs F’unched on Tape (EIA Code)
1-7
(3) Program Start and Program End
(a) Program start
When punching a program on a tape, the following code should be punched to declare the beginning of a program. This code cancels the label skip function.
Table 1.8
Program
St:irt
E=.
Description
Program start
(b) Program end
Any of the following codes indicated in Table 1.9 should be punched at the end of
a program to declare the program end.
Table 1.9
Program End
EIA
B
1s0
Description
Program end
M02CR
Mo2LF/NL
M30CR
M30LFINL
Program end and rewind
M99CR
M99LFJNL
Subprogram end
Note 1: When “M02CR” or “M30LF,’NL” is executed, the equipment may or may not be reset or rewound depending
on equipment specifications.
Refer to the manual published by the machine tool builder.
2: When multiple part programs are started in the NC memory, control may move to the next part program after
reading the program end code shown above.
This occurs when part programs are entered by total input.
3: If ER or LF/NLcode is executed for a program in which neither M02 nor M30 is entered at the end of the program; the NC is reset.
“I-8
.
— —-
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
1.1.5
OF PROGRAMMING TERMINOLOGY
l——
Program Format
(1) Program Part
The section beginning with the prc)gram start code-and ending with the program end
code is called the program part. The program part consists of blocks, and each block
consists of words.
E
R
;
I
Block
-
-
Block
Program part
Block
,—
-
Note:
=
z
In this manual, the “EOB” code is expressed by a semi-colon C).
Fig. 1.3
Construction
of Program
(a) Program number
By entering a program number immediately after the program start cocle, it is possible to distinguish a specific program from other programs. A program number
consists of address O and a mi~ximum of 5-digit number that follows address O.
The NC memory has a capacity to store a maximum of 99 prog]ams; this capacit y
can be optionally increased to store up to 299 or 999 programx.
(b) Sequence
number
A sequence number, consisting, of address N and a maximum of 5-digit integer that
follows address N, can be ente:red at the beginning of a block. Sequence numbers
are used only for reference numbers of blocks and do not influence the contents and
execution order of machining processes. Therefore, sequential or non-sequential
numbers may be used for sequence numbers, It is also allowed to leave blocks
without assigning sequence nu:mbers. In addition, the same sequence number may
be assigned to different blocks. Although there are no restrictions on using sequence numbers, it is recommended to assign sequence numblars in a sequential
order. Before executing the sequence number search, it is necessary to execute the
program number search to determine the program in which sequence number
search should be executed.
——..
——-
———
1.
If a sequence number consisting of 6 of more digits is designated, 5 digits from
the least insignificant digit are regarded as a sequence number.
2.
If address search is executed for a sequence number which is assigned to more
than one block, the block searched first is read and search processing is completed
at that block.
3.
For blocks for which a sequence number is not assigned, search is possible by
the address search operation if address data in the block to be searched are designated as the object of address search operation.
4.
When designating a sequence number following G25 or M99, designate a 4-digit
number.
(c) Word
A word consists of an address character included in the function characters and a
numeral of several digits that follow the address character. For example, word
“G02” consists of address character “G’ and numeral “2”.
The function character means a character that can be used in the significant data
area. For details of address character and function character codes, refer to Tables
1.10 and 1.11.
1-1o
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
OF PROGRAMM ING TERMINOLOGY
1——
Table 1.10 Table of Address Characters
Address
A
B
c
I
Description
Designation of angle for GO1 and Gill, Designation of thread angle for S76
——
Designation of spindle shift angle for multiple thread cutting operation
Designation of angle for multiple chamfering and rounding
o
o
H
Iol
I C-coordinate
o
D
Designation of depth and number of cuts for G71 to G76
.
E
Designation of precision feed, Designation of precision lead in thread cu .ting
B
F
B
G
Designation of ordinary feed, Designation of ordinary lead in thread cutt ing
—.
Preparatory function
H
Incremental command of C-axis
o
I
X-coordinate of center of arc, Canned cycle parameter data, Chamfer size (radius)
J
Y-coordinate of center of arc
‘t-----
B
B, O
o
%
B, O
Z-coordinate of center of arc, Canned cycle parameter data, Chamfer sizti
Increment/decrement amount in variable-lead thread cutting
‘–
t----i o
L
I Number of repetitions
I
M
I Miscellaneous function
IBI
B,O
I
‘H
-
Q
Dwell time, Designation of the first sequence number of a canned cycle, Iprogram
number, and macro program number
~ o
Designation of tbe first sequence number of a subprogram and the end sequence
number of a canned cycle
B o
Depth of cut in a hole-machining canned cycle
u
R
Radius of an arc, Amount of rounding, Nose-R amount, Point R coordinate in a
hole-machining canned cycle
s
Spindle function, Clamp spindle speed
T
Tool function, Tool coordinate memory number
u
Incremental command of X-axis, Dwell time, Canned cycle parameter
v
w
Incremental command of Y-axis
1-.-d
B o
B
—,
B, O
—
B, O
—.
o
.+
Incremental command of Z-axis, lCannedcycle parameter
X
I X-coordinate
Y
I Y-coordinate
z
I Z-coordinate
Note:
o
I
B,O
I
IBI
IBI
B: Basic. O: O~tion
1-11
.-... —.—
Table 1.11 Table of Function Characters
EIA code
ISO code
Blank
NUL
Description
EIA:
ISO:
Error if designated in the significant information area
Disregarded
BS
BS
Disregarded
Tab
HT
Disregarded
CR
LF/NL
End of block (EOF)
CR
Disregarded
SP
SP
Space
ER
%
Rewind stop
Uc
—
tJpper case
LC
—
Lower case
2-4-5 bits
(
Control out (Comment start)
2-4-7 bits
)
Qrrrtrol in (Comment end)
+
+
Disregarded, User macro operator
—
Remarks
EIA:
Special code
Minus sign, User macro operator
o-9
0-9
Numerals
A-Z
A-Z
Address characters
I
/
Del
DEL
C)ptional block skip
tJser macro operator
Disregarded (includes all punched holes)
Decimal point
Parameter setting
#
Symbol of sharp (Variable)
*
*
Asterisk (Multiplication operator)
.
=
Equal symbol
[
[
L,eftbracket
1
1
Right bracket
o
For comment in macro program
$
$
For comment in macro program
@
?
@
‘/
For comment in macro program
,
For comment in macro program
EIA:
Special code
For comment in macro program
Note 1: If a code not indicatedaboveis designatedin the significantinformationarea, it causes an error.
2: Informationdesignatedbetweenthe controlout andcontrolin codesis regardedas insignificantinformation.
3: Input code (EIA/fSO) is automatically
pmOO04 DO.
1-12
recognized, and output code is determined by the setting for parameter
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
OF PROGRAMMI NG TERMINOLOGY
(d) Block
●
●
●
A block consists of words to define a single step of operatio]l. One block ends
with the EOB (end of block) code. The EOB code is expressed by “CR’ in
the EIA code system and “;LF/NL” in the 1S0 code system.
In this manual, it is expressed by a semicolon “;” to make the explanation simple.
Characters not indicated in Tables 1.10 “Table of Addrew Characters”
1.11 “Table of Function Characters” must not be used.
One block can contain up to 128 characters.
as “Del” are not counted.
and
Note that inval id chamcters such
.—
~=,,e,)
+--A
(a) Adding a character for TV check (an error occurs if an even number of characters is coI Itained in a block.)
; NO058G03X
.-.
Z ...
3
L—____—
‘essth”’ 129
E“”””
characters in a block
F’”;
–
,___!
A
(b) Number of valid characters atlowed in a block
Fig. 1,4
Block
(2) Comment Part
A comment can be displayed by using the contrcd out and control in codes.
(a) Entering a comment in a program
It is possible to display a required comment on the screen by enclosing it with the
control out and control in codes in a part program. The information enclosed by
these codes is regarded as insignificant information.
(b) Entering the control out and control in codes
The control out and control in codes can be entered in.the same manner as entering
ordinary characters.
●
“(’’:Press the [U] key after pressing the [SHIFT] key.
●
“)’’:Press the [V] key after pressing the [SHIFT] key.
Charactersthat can
be entered between
“(” (control out) and “)” (control in) codes
(Operation
panel with 9-inch CRT)
I
o
,GQ
I
o—
0
+&
-“
Note 1: The characters that can be entered between the control out and control in codes are those that are entered by
using the keys enclosed by dark line in Fig. 1.5.
2: It is not allowed to use tbe control out and control in codes in the area which are already enclosed by the control
out and control in codes.
Fig. 1.5
Characters that can be Entered between Control Out and Control
In Codes (Keys Enclosed by Dark Line)
1-14
1.1 FUNDAMEN1-ALS OF PROGRAMMIIQG TERMINOLOGY
1—
<Example of comment display by using the control out and co lntrol in codes>
RUNNING
012345
RUN
NooO18
(TESTPROGRAM)
;
GOO X1OO.Z1OO.
;
Go1 XO ZO F1O.;
(DRILLEND);
ABSOLUTE
xl 200.000
Z1
2.000
TOOL: TOIO1
FEED: F. 71rev
MEM
-
p]
G/MCODE
G G151
Go1 G80
G97 G199
G99 G127
G40 G125
ACT : S1
MAX : S 1 5000 G67 G133
COM : S1 10MI G69
G123M03
STP
LSK
INCREMENT
xl
0.000
Z1 0000
co . . . .
SETING
“[email protected]
.
Emilmmniiiiiil
Fig. 1.6
Program Execution Display Screen
(3) Programmable
Range (Input Format)
This model of NC adopts the variable block format which complies with .lIS B6313.
Programmable range of individual addresses is indicated in Table 1.12. The numbers
given in this table indicate the allowable maximum number of digits.
An example of input format is given below.
x+53
3 digits to the right of a decimal
point
5 digits in integer part
Sign
This varies depending
1
the dimensioning
(Metric or inch).
See Table 1.12.
Address is X
Input data should be entered without a decimal point. If a decimall point is used, the
entered value is treated in a different manner. Leading zeros and the’ ‘+” (plus) sign can
be omitted for all kinds of address data including sequence numbers. Note that, however, the “-” (minus) sign cannot be omitted.
on
system
Table 1.12 Input Formal
Metric
Output
Address
Metric Input
Inch Input
Inch Output
Metric Input
Inch Input
B: Basic
O: Option
Program number
05
05
B
Sequence number
N5
N5
B
G function
G3
G3
B
Coordinate words
Linear axis
(x z, L K u,
W, R, Q,~J)
a+63
Rotary axis
(c, H)
Feed per minute (mm/min) function
a+54
a+63
b+63
a+54
b+63
B, O
o
F60 or F63
F52 or F54
F60 or F63
F52 or F54
B
F33
F24
F33
F24
B
F34
F26
F34
F26
B
Feed per revolution and thread lead
S function
S5
S5
B
T(2+2)
T(2+2)
B
T(3+3)
T(3+3)
o
M function
M3
M3
B
Dwell
U (P) 63
U (P) 63
B
Program number designation
P5
P5
B
Sequence number designation
c! (P) 5
Q(P)5
B, O
Number of repetitions
L9
L9
B
Designation of angle of line
A (B) 33
A (B) 33
0
Designation of multiple-thread angle
B3
B3
o
T function
Note:
The input format for “feed per minute” is set by using parameter pm2004 DO,
1-16
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
1.1,6
OF PROGRAMMING
TERMINOLOGY
Optional Blclck Skip (/1), (/2 to /9) *
If a block containing the slash code “/n (n=l to 9)” is executed with the external optional
block skip switch corresponding to the designated number set ON, the commands in the
block following the slash code to the end of block code are disregarded. The slash code “/n”
can be designated at any position in a block.
Example:
/ 2 N 1234 GOOX1OO / 3 Z200;
If the “/2” switch is ON, the entire block is disregarded, and
if “/3” switch is ON, this block indicates the following.
N 1234
(3
SUPPLEMENT
GOOX1OO;
1.
“l” can be omitted for “/1”.
2.
The optional block skip function is processed when a part program is read to the
buffer register from either the tape or memory. If the switch is set ON after the
block containing the optional block skip code is read, the block is not skipped.
3.
~le optional block skip function is disregarded for program reacling (input) and
punch out (output) operation.
1-17
. .-. .—... ..-. .—
—
....-.
-—.--..
--.. —”---------
~—...
,-. —_.-.
—- ——. —
——.
—
1.1.7
Buffer Register and Multi-active Register
By using the buffer register and multi-active register, the NC ensures smooth control of the
machine by reading the blocks of data into the buffer register.
(1) Buffer
Register
In normal operation, two blocks of data are buffered to calculate the offset and other
data that are necessary for the succeeding operation.
In the nose R offset mode (option), two blocks of data (a maximum of four blocks of
data, if necessary) are buffered to calculate the offset data that are necessary for the
succeeding operation. In both of the normal operation mode and nose R offset mode,
the data capacity of one block is a maximum of 128 characters, including the EOB code.
(2) Multi-active
Registers *
With a part program enclosed by M93 and M92, a maximum of seven blocks of data
are buffered. If the time required for automatic operation of these seven buffered blocks
is longer than the time required for the buffering and calculation of the offset data for
the next seven blocks, the program can be executed continuously without a stop between blocks.
Table 1,13 M92 and M9:3 Codes
Function
Multi-activeregistersON
m
M92
Multi-active registers OFF
A
1.2 BASICS CIF FEED FUNCTION
1.2
BASICS OF FEED FUNCTION
This section describes the feed function that specifies feedrate (distance per minute, distance
per revolution) of a cutting tool.
1.2.1
Rapid Traverse
Rapid traverse is used for positioning (GOO) and manual rapid traverse (RAPID) operation.
In the rapid traverse mode, each axis moves at the rapid traverse rate set for the individual
axes; the rapid traverse rate is determined. by the machine tool builder and :Setfor the individual axes by using parameters. Since the. axes move independently of each other, the axes
reach the target point at different time. Therefore, the resultant tool paths are not a straight
line generally.
The rapic, traverse override function can adjust the set rapid traverse rate to Fo, 25%, 50%,
and 100%~where F. indicates a fixed feedrate set for parameter pm244’7.
(ID
SUPPLEMENT
1.
Rapid traverse rate is set in the following units for the individual axes.
Setting units of rapid traverse rate
2.
0.001 mm/min
or
1 deg.lmin
The upper limit of the rapid traverse rate is 240,000 mm/min. Since the most appropriate value is set conforming to the machine capability, refer to the manuals
published by the machine tool builder for the rapid traverse rate of your machine.
m
1.2.2
Cutting Feed (F Command)
The feedrate at which a cutting tc)ol should be moved in the linear interpolation (GO1) mode
or circular interpolation (G02, G03) mode is designated using address characters F and E.
The axis feed mode to be used is selected by designating the feed function G code (G98 or
G99) as indicated in Table 1.14. Select the required feed mode by designating the feed function G code before specifying an F and E code.
Table 1,14 Cutting Feecl Mode G Codes
Designation of feed per minute (mm/min) mode
G98
\
Group
Function
m~
G99
10
!
1
I Designation of feed per revolution (mm/rev) mode
\
10
I
See 1.2.3 “Switching between Feed per Minute Mode and Feed per Revolution Mode” for
details of these G codes. F and IEcodes are modal and once designated they remain valid
until another For E code is designated. If feed mode designation G codes are switched between G98 and G99, however, it is necessary to designate the F and E code again. If no new
F and E codes are designated, alarm “0370” occurs. Note that it is not allowed to designate
an E code in the G98 (feed per minute) mode. If an E code is designated in the G98 mode,
alarm “0371” occurs.
1-20
————.- ..— —. .—
-—
1.2 BASICS OF FEED FUNCTION
(1) Feed per Revolution Mode (G99)
A feedrate of a cutting tool per revolution of the spindle (mm/rev, inch/rev) can be designated by a numeral specified following address character F or E.
Table 1.15 Programmable Range of F and E Commands
(Feed per RevolutionMode)
Format
I-
Programmable Range
F33
FO.001.to F500.000 mm/rev
E34
EO.0001 to E500.0000 mm/rtv
F24
FO.0001 to F19.6850 inch/re’~
E26
EO.000001 to E19.685000 inch/rev
F33
FO.001 to F1270.000 mm/re~
E34
EO.0001 to E1270.0000 mm/rev
F24
FO.0001 to F50.0000 inch/re+~
E26
EO.000001 to E50.00000 inch/rev
mm input
mm output
inch input
mm input
inch output
inch input
Note:!:
The allowablemaximumvalue for the X-axisis 1/2of the value indicatedin theta ble.
;!: The upper ]jm jt of feedrates could be re~tr-jcted bytheservosystemand[hemechanical system. For the actual
programmable
feedrate range, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
The feedrate per revolution is further restricted as indicated in Table 1.16 due to spindle
speed S.
Table 1.16 Restrictions
on F and E Commands
by Spindle Speed
An F command specified in the simultaneous 2-axis linear interpolation mode or in the
circular interpolation mode represents the feedrate in the tangential direction.
Example of Programming (linear interpolation
mode)
Whh the following program:
G99 S1OOO(r/rein);
GO1 U60. W40. FO.5;
o
Tangential velocity
500 mm/min
F x S = 0.5 mm/rev x 1000 r/rein
= 500 mm/min
+x
= ~~
I 300 mm/min
—— 4
Z-axis component
~-
400 mm/min
- X-axis component
L~
Fig. 1.7
F Command in Simultaneous
(Feed per Revolution)
Example of Programming
(circular
+Z
2-axis Control Linear Interpolation
interpolation
mode)
Center
With the following program:
G99 S1OOO(r/rein);
G03U.
”” W”.
1.. ”FO.2;
\
T
I
F x S = 0.2 mm/rev x 1000 r/rein
= 200 mm/min
\
200 mm/min
\
‘\
\
=~
+x
/
I
I
\
\
\
\
Note 1: An FO command causes an input error.
2: A feedrate in the X-axis direc(ion is determined by the radial value.
Fig. 1.8
CD
y&LE-
F Command
in the Simultaneous
Interpolation (Feed per Revolution)
Do not specify a negative value for an F command.
value causes alarm “0102”.
1-22
2-axis
Control
Circular
An F command with a negative
1.2 BASICS 01: FEED FUNCTION
(2) Feed per Minute Mode (G98)
A feedrate of a cutting tool per minute (mm/min, inch/rein) can be designated by a numeral specified following address character F. It is possible to set ttle F60 format and
F63 format (mm input) by the setting for parameter pm2004 DO. T!he programmable
range is indicated in Table 1.17.
Table 1.17 f ‘ogrammable
Range of F Commands
Programmable Range (Rotary Axis)
Programmable Range (Linear Axis)
~=
(Feed per Minute Mode)
F1 to F240000mm/min
~i~a
I
I
pm2004
DO=l
‘“C’””’PU’=R1
I
FO.01 to F94488.18 inch/rein
pm2004 BE
DO=O
F0.01toF240000.00
FO.01 to F24000.00 inch/rein
F1 to F240000 deg/min
.—
FO.01 to F240CIO0.00deg/min
FO.001 to F240000.000 min/min
FO.001 to F240000.000 deg/min
FO.0001 to F94488.1890 inch/rein
FO.001 to F240000.0000 degjmin
FO.001 to F609600.000 mm/min
FO.001 to F240000.000 deg/min
F1 to F609600 mm/min
,
WE
inch output
deg/min
I
FO.0001 to F240100.0000deg/min
FO.0001 to F24000.0000 inch/rein
F54
inch input
“r
Note1: The allowablemaximumvalue for the X-axis is 1/2 of the value indicated in the table.
2: The upper limit of feedrates could be restricted by the servo system and the mechanical system. For the actual
programmable feedrate range, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
(3) Simultaneous
2-axis Control
An F command specified in the simultaneous 2-axis linear interpolar ion mode or in the
circular interpolation mode represents the feedrate in the tangential direction.
Example of Programming (linear interpolation
mode)
With the following program:
G98;
o
GO1 U60. W40. F500.;
Tangential velocity
/’”
500 mm/mi I
F
=
500
=
~3002
+ 4002
(mm/min)
~
t
z..mis component
.X
X.axis component
\,~
I 300 mm/min
—— 4
400 mm/min
\/’
Fig, 1.9
F Command in Simultaneous
(Feed per Minute)
2-axis Control Linear Interpolation
1-23
..--—.-.
____ ________
_______...__. _______
.. .
. . .......... .
—..—.. .-.
———,
—,.-,.
— ___________
Example of Programming
(circular
interpolation
\
T\\
Whh the following program:
G98;
G03X.
.” Z””
l.”o
mode)
Center
F200.;
200 mm/min
\
F = 200 = V’FX2+- FZ2
(mm/min)
:
‘i,
I
+x
\
Fx
I
;
t
Note 1: An FO command causes an input error.
2: A feedrate in the X-axis direetion is determined by the radial value.
Fig. 1.10
F
Command
Interpolation
(II)
y+#E.
in the Simultaneous
(Feed per Minute)
Do not specify a negative value for an F command.
value causes alarm “O102”.
1-24
2-axis
Control
Circular
An F command with a negative
1.2 BASICS CIF FEED FUNCTION
(4) Rotary Axis and Linear Axis
An F command specified in the interpolation mode between a rotar,y axis and a linear
axis represents the feedrate in the tangential direction.
Example of Programming
01
G98;
GOI. W1O. H60. F1OO.;
●
mm input (F60)
Distance = ~100002 + 600002 = 60827.625
~T
C-axiscomponent
Z-l~is component
‘ime
=
Tangential velocity
100 mm/min
60827.625 = 0.6082 (rein) = 36.5 (s)
1000000
+-z
●
inch input (F52)
Distance
=
1-
./=!’omm
--
—... — --,
6[) deg
—-.
+C
~1000002 + 600002 = 1166190.0379
LET:::!:::::;:::
Time = 11~o~o~~~79 = 0.1166 (rein) = 6.9 (s)
Fig. 1,-11
F Command in Interpolation between Rotary Axis and Linear Axis
(Feed per Minute)
(5) Independent
Rotary Axis Command
If a rotary axis command is specified independently, feedrate is det{,xmined according
to the selected input increment systsm. In the case of inch input syst~m, the unit of feedrale is determined by the setting for parameter,
Ta131e1.18
1-25
,——-.
———
.—..—..——
—.—..—.
.—
—--
— _____________
1,2.3
Switching between Feed per Minute Mode and Feed per Revolution Mode
(G98/G99)
Before specifying a feedrate command (E, F), a G code that determines whether the specified
feedrate command is interpreted as feed per minute value or feed per revolution value should
be specified. These G codes (G9!3, G99) are modal and once they are specified they remain
valid until the other G code is specified. When the feed mode designation G code is specified,
the presently valid E and F codes are canceled. Therefore, an E and F code must be specified
newly after switching the feed mc)de by designating G98 or G99 command. The initial status
that is established when the power is turned on is set by parameter pm4000.
Table 1.19 Parameter
pm4000 and Initial Status
l-%=%-f1
pmqooo
D2 = I
G99
I
I
(1) Feed per Minute Mode ((398)
By specifying “G98;”, the F codes specified thereafter are all executed in the feed per
minute mode.
Table 1.20 Meaning of (>98 Command
’98 -+%+
mm input
L..___H!
inch/rein
(2) Feed per Revolution Mocle (G99)
By specifying “G99;”, the F codes specified thereafter are all executed in the feed per
revolution mode.
Table 1.21 Meaning of G99 Command
==
1-26
1.2 BASICS OF FEED FUNCTION
1.2.4
Automatic Acceleration
and Deceleration
Automatic acceleration/deceleration
operation, respectively.
(1) Acceleration
and Deceleration
control is provided for rapid traver:;e and cutting feed
for Rapid Traverse and Manui4 Axis Feed Op-
eration
For positioning (GOO),manual rapid traverse (RAPID), manual cent inuous feed (JOG),
and manual handle feed (HANDLE), linear pattern automatic acceleration/deceleration
is applied. Rapid traverse rate and acceleration/deceleration
time co:mtant for rapid traverse are set for following parameters.
Table 1.22 Parameters Used for Setting Rapid Traverse Rate and Acceleration/Deceleration Time Constant
Rapid traverse rate
,---K
Acceleration/deceleration time constant
v
GOO
:***
,Pi,
Feedrate
Time
Fig. 1.12
Automatic
Accelera,tion/Deceleration
~
in Linear Pi~ttern
-t
ml
(2) Acceleration
and Deceleration
for Cutting Feed
For cutting feed (GO1 to G03 mode), feedrate is controlled by the automatic acceleration/deceleration in the exponential pattern.
v
f
Feed rate
Fig. 1.13
L“=‘.
F1
—---
t
Acceleration/Deceleration
Time constant
for cutting
time constant
and feedrate
Table 1.23 Parameters
in Exponential
feed and feedrate
t
Pattern
bias are set for parameters.
For tapping,
bias can be set independently.
for Tapping
X-axis
Z-axis
3rd-axis
4th-axis
5th-axis
Feedrate time constant
pm2501
pm2502
pm2503
pm2504
pm2505
Feedrate bias
pm2821
pm2822
pm2823
pm2824
pm2825
Tapping time constant
pm2511
pm2512
pm2513
pm2514
pm2515
Tapping feedrate bias
pm2831
pm2832
pm2833
pm2834
pm2835
For the parameters indicated above, the most optimum values are set for respective
machines. Do not attempt to change the setting unless necessary.
1-28
2
COMMANDS
CALLING A)(IS
MOVEMENTS
Chapter 2 describes the interpolation
commands,
thread cut-
ting function, and reference point return function.
2.1
INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
2.1,1
Positiorling
(GOO, G06)
2.1.2
Linear interpolation
2.1.3
Circular Interpolation
. . . . . ...2-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
(Gil)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
(G02, G03, G22, G23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4
Chamfering
2.1.5
Rounding (G12)
2.1.6
Cylindrical
2.1.7
Polar
(Gil)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2-t6
(G124, G1 25)*
. . . . 2-18
Interpolation
(G126, G127) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
2-9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2-f14
Interpolation
Coordinate
2-3
2-21
USING THE THREAD CUTTING
FUNCTION,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1
Thread Cutting and Continuous
2-28
Thread
Cutting (G32)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:!-28
2.2.2
Multiple-thread
Cutting (G32) * . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
2.2.3
Variable Lead Threacl Cutting (G34) * ., , . . . 2-37
2-1
—.—
..—.—
2.3
REFERENCE
2.3.1
Automatic
POINT RETURN
Return to Reference
. . . . ...2-39
Point
(G28)” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-39
2.3.2
Fteference Point Return Check (G27) . . . . . . 2-44
2.3.3
Fleturn from Reference
2.3.4
Second to Fourth Reference
Point Return (G29) . 2-45
(GO)* .,.......,.........”..........,,,
2-2
Point Return
2-49
2.1 INTERPOLATION
2.1
INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
COMMANDS
This section describes the positioning commands and the interpolation
cclmmands that con-
trol the tool path’ along the specified functions such as straight line and wc.
2.1.1
Positioning (GOO, G06)
?
In the absolute programming mode, the axes are moved to the specified pcint in a workpiece
coordinate system, and in the incremental programming mode, the axes move by the specified distance from the present position at a rapid traverse rate,
For calling the positioning,
Table 2,1
the following G codes can be used.
G Codes for Positioning
=+2!!+
Positioning in the errcr detect ON mode
Positioning in the errcr detect OFF mode
(1)
Positioning
in the Error Detect CIN Mode (GOO)
When “GOOX(U) o “ . Z(W) 0. “ (*C(H) o “ . *Y(V) 0.. );” is designated, positioning is executed in the “error detect ON” mode, in which the program advances to the
next block only when the number cf lag pulses due to servo lag are checked after the
completion of pulse distribution has reduced to the permissible val~e.
In the GOOmode, positioning is made at a rapid traverse rate in the simultaneous 2-axis
(*5-axis) control mode. The axes not designated in the GOOblockdo not move. In positioning operation, the individual axes move independently of each other at a rapid traverse rate that is set for each axis. The rapid traverse rates set for t]le individual axes
differ depending on the machine. For the rapid traverse rates of you] machine, refer to
the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
+x
Fig. 2.1
Positioning
in Simultaneous
2-axis Control Mode
2-3
——.—-—---
.——-—
..- ,—..——--—-————-.
m
—
—
—
1.
In the GOOpositioning mode, since the axes move at a rapid traverse rate set for
the individual axes independently, the tool paths are not always a straight line.
Therefore, positioning must be programmed carefully-so that a cutting tool will
not interfere with a workpiece or fixture during positioning.
2.
The block where a T comlmand is specified must contain the GOOcommand. Designation of the GOO command is necessary to determine the speed for offset
movement which is called by the T command,
Example of Programming
G50 X150. Z1OO. ;
GOO TO1O1 S1OOO M03 ;
(GOO) X30. Z5. ;
-D
-
GOOdetermines the speed
for offset movement.
@ Designation of GOO can be omitted
since it is a modal command.
--t
F ‘i‘
+x
1
If
/
?,/”
/
5.
@30.
Fig.
2.2
(2) Positioning
—
+Z
in the Error Detect OFF Mode (G06)
When “G06 X(U) .0 “ Z(W) “ “ o (* C(H). “ “ Y(V) c “ . );” is specified, positioning
is executecl in the “error detect OFF” mode.
In the G06 mode, positioning is executed in the simultaneous 2 axis (*up to 5 axis) control mode. Note that the G06 command is not modal and valid only in the designated
block. In this mode, program advances to the next block immediately after the completion of pulse distribution.
2.1
2.1,2
INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
Linear Interpolation (GOI )
With thecommaqds of ’’GOl X(U) “ “ . Z(W) “ “ “ (*C(H)” “ “ Y(V) . “ “)1 F(E) ‘ “ “;“,linear
interpolation is executed in the simultaneous 2-axis (*5-axis) control mode. The axes not
designated in the GO1 block do not move. For the execution of the linear interpolation, the
following commands must be specified.
(1) Command
Format
To execute the linear interpolation,
the commands indicated below must be specified.
(a) Feedrate
Feedrate is designated by an For E code. The axes are controlled so that vector
sum (tangential velocity in reference to the tool moving direcltion) of feedrate of
the designated axes will be the specified feedrate.
F (mm/min) = ~Fx2 + FZ2 + (Fc2)
(Fx: feedrate in the X-axis direction)
(3)
SUPPLEMENT
If no F or E code is designated in the block containing GO1 or in the preceding blocks,
execution of a GO1 block causes alarm “0370”.
●
●
With an F code, axis feedrate is specified in either feed per spindle revolution
(mm/rev or inch/rev) or feed per minute (mm/min or inch/rein).
If the optional C-axis is selected, the feedrate of X- and Z-axis and that of Caxis differ from each other. Feedrates of these axes obtained by the same F
code are indicated in Table 2.2 below.
Table 2.2
Feedrates of X-/Z-axis and C-axis (F Command)
Minimum
F Function
(Feed
per Minute)
F Command
Unit
Feedrate of X-/Z-axis
Feedrate of C-axis
mm input
F60
1 mm/min
1 deg/min
inch input
F51
0.1 inch/rein
2.54 deg/min
mm input
F60
1 mm/min
0.3937 deg/min
inch input
F51
0.1 inch/rein
0.1 deglmin
mm input
F63
0.001 mm/min
0.001 deg/min
inch input
F54
0.0001 inch/rein
0.00254 deg/min
mm input
F63
0.001 mm/min
0.0003937 degjmin
inch input
F54
0.0001 inch/rein
0.0001 deg/min
mm output
pm2004
DO=O
inch output
mm output
pm2004
DO=l
—
inch output
\\
I/,
For the C-axis, a feedrate cannot be specified in the feed per minute mode.
nPOINT
‘Q’
2-6
2.1 INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
(b) End Point
The endpoint can be specified in either incremental or absolute values corresponding to the designation of an address character or G90/G91. For details, see 3.2.1,
“Absolute/Incremental
Programming”.
+x
1.
Programmed
w
z
point
;
x
Present tool position
—
+Z
e ~:~
Fig. 2,3
Linear Interpolation
Example of Programming
G50 X1OO. Z60.;
GOO T0202 S600 M03;
x35. Z5.;
GO1 ZO F1.;
Axes are moved in the GO1 linear interpolation mcde,
X60. FO.2;
}
+x
I
/
/
/
/
D
)’
mc
Fig. 2.4
/
/
Exampleof Programming
2-7
_________
,. _. ._. ... .. . ._ —.-—
-—-—..
.—.-’..—--..
—.-
. . .--—-.——~
,—,.-... -——.
.- .— .——..
—-——,
—.
—.-—-—
-
(2) Angle-designated
Linear Interpolation*
By selecting the optional angle-designated linear interpolation
to execute linear interpolation by designating an angle.
function, it is possible
With the commands of “GO1 X(U) “ 00 A “ “ “ F(E)” 0. ;“ or “GO1 Z(W) “ .0 A “ “ o
F(E) “ . “ ;“, linear interpolation is executed at an angle A which is measured from the
+Z-axis to the end point specified by either X or Z coordinate as shown in Fig. 2.5.
Feedrate is specified by an F or E code along the tangential direction.
range of an angle A is indicated in Table 2.3.
Table 2.3
Programmable
Programmable
Range of Angle (A)
Programmable Range of Angle (A)
E=
How the angle designated by command A is measured is determined by the sign which
precedes the specified value as indicated in Table 2.4.
Table 2.4
Definition of Angle
l=-t--
Definition
measured in the countercloc
wise direction from the +.-axis
Angle
Angle measured in the clockwise
direction from the +.-axis
A-
B
*+Z
b
A+
x
+x
1
I
L-------
Fig. 2.5
$
Starl point
Start point
+Z
Angle-designated
2-8
Linear Interpolation
+Z
2.1 INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
Example of Programming
+— @)
@
GO1 X50. A150. FO.3;
GO1 ZO. A-180.;
.+x
t
@
Fig. 2.6
2.1.3
Angle-designated
Linear Interpolation
Circular Interpolation (G02, G03, G22, G23)
By specifying the following commands in a program, the cutting tool mo~’es along the specified arc in the ZX plane so that tangential velocity is equal to the feedrate specified by the
For E code.
G02(G03)
X(U) .O” Z(W) ”C” I” C. K.””(R
““”)
F(E).””;
Center
+Z
-——
Fig. 2.7
Circular Interpolaticm
2-9
——.——.
———=—.. —.——-.
.—.
-—-. —..—-—-.
——.. --...
———.
—,—. .-—...
..—.-—
. ..—. ——.——...
..
(1) Command
Format
To execute the circular interpolation, the commands indicated in Table 2.5 must be specified.
Table 2.5
Commands
Item
Direction
Necessary for Circular Interpolation
Address
Description
G02
Clockwise (CW)
G03
Counterclockwise (CCW)
of Rotation
End Point
Position
x (u)
X coordinate of arc end point (diametric value)
z (w)
Z
*Y(V)
coordinate of arc end point
Y coordinate of arc end point
I
Distance along the X-axis from the start point to the
center of arc (radial value)
K
Distancealong the Z-axisfrom the start point to the
centerof arc
*J
Distancealong the Y-axisfrom the start point to the
center of arc
Distance from the Start
Point to the Center
Radius of Circular Arc
R
Distance to the center of arc from the start point
(a) Rotation direction
The direction of arc rotation should be specified in the manner indicated in Fig. 2.8.
G02
Clockwise direction (CW)
Counterclockwisedirection (CCW)
\
o
+x
I
G02
‘/ .-
G03
[ —~
Fig. 2.8
0
+2
Rotation Direction of Circular Arc
(b) End point
The end point can be specified in either incremental or absolute values corresponding to the designation of G90 or G91.
2-1o
2.1 INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
If the specified end point is not on the specified arc, the arc radius i:; gradually
changed from the start point to the endpoint to generate a spiral so that the endpoint
lies on the specified arc.
Example of Programming
GO1 Z1OO. XO F1O.;
G03 Z-50.
K-1OO.;
100.
f
‘\
/
(
- !50.
O
\
—---l100.
z
-100
(a) End point positioned
inside the circumference
Example of Programming
GO1 Z50. XO;
G03 Z- 100. K-50.;
1
I
i
(b) End point lying outside the circumference
Fig. 2.9
Interpolation
with End Point off the Specified Arc
(c) Center of arc
The center of arccanbe specified in two methods - designation of the distance from
the start point to the center of the arc and designation of the radius of the arc.
End point
+x
z
w
I
‘qk[
;
!;tart point
/
k
Center
.0”
I
K
.l-.–_._— --L —--- +2
+P-
R
Fig. 2.10
c Specifying the distance from the start point to the center
Independent of the designated dimensioning mode (G90 or G91), the center
of an arc must be specified in incremental values referenced from the start
point.
●
Specifying the radius
When defining an arc, it is possible to specify the radius by using address R
instead of specifying the center of the arc by addresses I or K. This is called
“circular interpolation with R desigmtion” mode.
o For the circular arc with the central angle of 180 deg. or smaller, use an R
value of “R > O“.
. For the circular arc with the central angle of 180 deg. or larger, use an R
value of “R < O“.
Example of Programming
G02X(U)
””” Z(W) ””” R*””
”F(E)”’
“;
or smaller
Start point
Fig, 2.11
Circular interpolation
2-12
.——
———
. —
with Radius R Designation
2.1 INTERPCILATION
C3
SJJPJLE-
COMMANDS
If an R command is used to specify the radius of an arc, G22 and (;23 can be used
instead of G02 and G03. When G22 or G23 is used, the programming format is the
same as used when G02 or G03 is specified with an exception of a G code. l[fG22 or
G23 is used, however, it is not allowed to define the center of the arc by I and K commands. If these commands are used with G22 or G23, alarm “0162” occurs.
—
(2) Supplements
H
to Circular Interpolation
A circular arc extending to multiple quadrants can be defined by the commands
single block.
in a
Example of Programming
GOIZ”””
F. O”;
G02 X60. Z-46.6 120. K-19.596 F . “ . ;
+x
27.
K
\
R28.
“\
\
B
\ AA
@ 100.
I
I ~
b 60.
‘?
I
—.——
Fig. 2.12
*
Circular Interpolation
+Z
over Multiple Quadrants
Table 2.6
F==t=-&’;’m
1
–428::–202
= –fi
= –Ig.sgfj
“m
2.1.4
Chamfering
(G11)
With thecommandsof’’Gll
X(U) .00 K “ ‘ “ {orZ(W) .00 I “ c J } F(E) ~ “ . ;“,chamfering
at corners is specified. In the designation of chamfering, single axis command of either Xaxis or Z-axis should be used.
Gll is a modal G code of 01 group. Once designated, it remains valid until other G code in
the 01 group is specified next.
(1) X-axis Chamfering
G1l X(U) O”. K+
——..”
F(E)””;
L
—
Chamfer size
—
Designation
of chamfering
With the commands indicated above, X-axis chamfering
KK+
End
point
direction
is executed.
\
\~
‘
Q
2
450
T
X (diametric value)
+x
t
L.-
B
Start
+Z
point
X-axis Chamfering
Fig. 2.13
(2) Z-axis Chamfering
G1l Z(W) ”O” I+—. ““.
F(E)”””;
t---!-—
Chamfer size (radial value)
—
Designation
of chamfering
With the commands indicated above, Z-axis chamfering
End point
+1
450
1’
-1
Start point
‘/
0’
w
z b
Fig. 2,14
Z-axis Chamfering
2-14
direction
is executed.
2.1
lNTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
Example of Programming
GOO X30. ZO ;
Gll Z-20. 18. F30 ;
(Gil) X80. ,K-7. ;
—
.—
@
Q)
+x
20.
7.
H+
+Z
Fig. 2.15
(3
1.
SUPPLE.
MENT
Example
of Programming
The following restrictions apply to the chamfer size K and I.
\KICIU/2],l
11<1 Wl
The K and I values must be smaller than the total move distance 1n the direction
of the designated axis. A formad error occurs if a value exceeding this limit is
specified.
2.
Alarm “0445” occurs if both addresses X and Z are specified in t he same block,
a block not including I or K is specified in the Gll mode, or I or K value is “O”.
3.
The nose R offset offset function* is valid for the block where G 11 is specified.
4.
It is possible to specify the Gll block in the commands of blocks that define finishing shape for a multiple repetitive cycle (G70 to G73).
5.
It is possible to specify chamfering by specifying GO1 instead clf Gil.
GOIX(U)
.”” K”””
{or Z(W) ””” I.”}
F(E)
o“”;
2-15
.—
_______
____.
—
._
-—...
..
— . . . .. —.
—..
,— .-,. =-—..
,-< ..—.
.—.
———-—
—-—
2.1.5
Rounding (G12)
With the commands of “G12 X(U) “ “ . K “ c “ {or Z(W) “ . “ I . “ “} F(E) o “ . ;“, corner
rounding is executed. In the designation, single axis command of either X-axis or Z-axis
should be used. Rounding is executed in a quarter circle.
G12 is a modal G code of 01 group. Once designated, it remains valid until other G code in
the 01 group is specified next.
(1) X-axis Rounding
G12X(U).
”.K* ——-“” F(E)..;
Rounding
————
vI
—
size
Designation
of rounding direction
With the commands indicated above, X-axis rounding is executed.
K-
K+
Start point
End
point
‘\
u
2
+x
t
T
)( (diametric value)
T
L._-
+Z
Fig. 2,16
X-axis
Rounding
(2) Z-axis Rounding
G12Z(W)”””
I*
~
““. F(E) ”.o;
–L—
Rounding
~—
size (radial value)
Designating
of rounding direction
With the commands indicated above, Z-axis rounding is executed.
End point
+1
—.. - —
/
/
-1
Start point
a
---1--w I
Fig. 2.17
Z-axis Rounc!ing
2-16
—-.
..
2.1 INTERPOLATION
——
COMMANDS
Example of Programming
GOO X20. ZO ;
G12 Z-25. 19. F30 ;
(G12) X70. K-6. F20 ;
—
(b
+
@
+x
25.
6.
@
$70.
9.
o
$20.
G’:
J
Fig. 2.18
1.
Example of Programming
The following restrictions apply to the rounding size K and 1.
lKl<lU/21,111<lWl
The K and I values must be sma”ller than the total move distance in the direction
of the designated axis. A format error occurs if a value exceeding this limit is
specified.
2.
Alarm “0445”
occurs if both addresses
a block not including
I or K is specified
X and Z are specified
in Ihe same block,
in the G12 mode, or I or K value is “O”.
3.
The nose R offset offset function* is valid for the block where G12 is specified.
4.
It is possible to specify the G12 block in the commands of blocks that define finishing shape for a multiple repetitive cycle (G70 to G73).
5.
It is possible to specify chamfering by specifying GO1 instead clf G12.
GOIX(U)
””” R..
”{or Z(W) ””” R”””}
[email protected])”””;
—.—
.
——
2-17
.——
—
.——
—.-.
.-—
..
—-.
.—-
—
,=..—..
.— .. —..—.————.
.
2.1.6
Cylindrical Interpolation
(G I 24, G1 25) *
The cylindrical interpolation function allows programming of machining on a cylindrical
workpiece (grooving on a cylindrical workpiece) in the manner like writing a program in a
plane using the cylinder developed coordinate system. This functions allows programming
both in absolute commands (C, Z) and incremental commands (H, W).
(1) Programming
Format
(a) Features of GI 24, G 125
The following G codes are used for cylindrical interpolation.
Table 2,7
G Codes Used for Cylindrical
Interpolation
Group
Cylindrical interpolation mode ON
Cylindrical interpolation
mode OFF
‘“”’’ion
e
:
These G codes are buffering prohibiting G codes.
Specify G124 and G125 in a block without other commands.
If other G code is
specified with G124 or G125 in the same block, alarm “0161” (UNMATCH
G
CODE) occurs,
G124 and G125 are modal G codes of 20 group. Once G124 is specified, the cylindrical interpolation mode ON state remains until G125 is specified. When the power is turned ON or the NC is reset, the G125 (cylindrical interpolation
mode OFF)
state is set.
(b) Programming
G124CO”.
G125 ;
;
format
Cylindrical interpolation mode ON
-=--Machining program in the cylindrical interpolation
+
mode
+ Cylindrical interpolation mode OFF
where, C = Radius of cylindrical workpiece
(1 = 0.001 mm or 0.0001 inch)
‘The radius of a cylindrical workpiece must always be specified.
is not specified, alarm “0162” (LACK OF ADDRESS) occurs.
2-18
If a C command
2.1
INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
(c) Feedrate
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, interpolation is executecl in the virtual C-Z
plane. Therefore, after the entry to the cylindrical interpolation. mode, it is necessary to specify feedrates in the C-Z plane. lJse address F to specify feedrates.
value represents feedrates (mrn/min, inchhnin) in the C-Z plane.
●
F
For cylindrical interpolation, use the G98 (feed per minute) mode. Cylindrical
interpolation is not possible in the GOOmode. To execute ~Jositiorling, cancel
the cylindrical interpolation mode. Note that GOOmode nlay be specified in
a plane other than the C-Z plane.
(2) Example of Programming
u----z
Cu”ng’oo’
c
Example of programming
0100 ;
G98 ;
TO1O1;
GOO X44.O CO ;
.—
G124 C45.O ; c—
GO1 G42 Z47.5 F1OO;
C60.O ;
Z32.5 C120.O ;
Positioning
C240.O
;
G03Z40.OC249.549
R7.5;
G02Z47.5C259.099
R7.5;
GO1C360.O
;
G40Z44.O;
G125;
M30; —
Fig. 2.19
Coordinate
at the start point c,f cutting
Cylindrical
interpolation
Machining
program
Cylindrical
interpolation
mode ON
1
System for Cylindrical
mode OFF
Interpolation
2-19
———— ,.———=—..=— ...
. . . . . . .. .
. .—
,,.—.—
-.”
.-.
.
—..
-
——.,
—.
—.
—.
—..
.-~
-=——
-.”-.
——.
+—..
--—
(3) Relationships
between Cylindrical Interpolation
and Operations
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, the following G codes maybe specified: (GOO),
GO1, G02, G03, G04, G1O, G22, G23, G40, G41, G42, G65, G66, G67, (G90, G91),
G98, and G134. Alarm “0161” (UNMATCH G CODE) occurs if a G code other than
those indicated above is specified in the cylindrical interpolation mode.
1.
In the GOOmode, only X.-axis can be specified.
2.
G90 and G91 are valid only when special G code specification
3,
In the G134 mode, only M commands maybe
is selected.
specified.
●
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, the tool radius offset function can be
used. Turning ON/OFF of the tool radius offset function must be made in the
cylindrical interpolation mode. The tool radius offset function is valid only
in the cylindrical interpolation mode and the polar coordinate interpolation
mode.
●
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, cutting in the linear interpolation (GO1)
mode and circular interpolation (G02/G03) mode is available. Circular interpolation is permitted only in the C-Z plane. If circular interpolation commands are specified in other plane, an alarm occurs. For the definition of an
arc, use either addresses I and K to specify the center of arc or address R to
directly specify the radius of the arc. Note that designation of address R is optional.
●
The nose R offset function must be canceled before specifying G124.
●
It is not allowed to specify G124 with the mirror image function ON. Similarly, it is not allowed to turn ON the mirror image function in the G124 mode.
If the mirror image function is turned ON in the G124 mode, an alarm occurs.
●
Tand S commands must not be specified in the cylindrical interpolation mode.
Designation of M commands is possible in the cylindrical interpolation mode.
●
The spindle function is invalid in the cylindrical interpolation
●
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, the manual absolute function is fixed to
OFF.
2-20
mode.
2.1 INTERPOLATION
●
COMMANDS
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, program restart is not possible. If program restart is attempted from a block in the cylindrical interpolation mode,
alarm “0481” (PROG, ER.ROR IN G124 MODE) occurs. However, program
restart is allowed for blocks in which the cylindrical
interpolation
mode blocks
are” included.
2.1.7
Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G I 2!6, G1 27) *
The polar coordinate interpolation function allows programming of machining that is
executed by the combination of tool movement and workpiece rotation in,a virtual rectangular coordinate system.
In the machining accomplished by the combination of a linear axis (X-axis) and a rotary axis
(C-axis), the C-axis is assumed to be a linear axis that is perpendicular to the X-axis. By assuming a rotary axis as a linear axis, machining an arbitrary shape that is defined by the Xand C-axis can be programmed easily in the X-C rectangular coordinate system. In this programming, both of absolute commands (X, C) and incremental commands (U, H) can be
used.
(1) Programming
Format
When G126 is specified, the polar coordinate interpolation mode is established and the
virtual coordinate system is set in the X-C plane with the origin oft] le absolute coordinate system taken as the origin of this coordinate system. Polar coordinate interpolation
is executed
specified
\\
in this plane.
assuming
Note that polar coordinate
the present
position
interpolation
of the C-axis
si:arts when G126 is
to be “O”.
I//
Q
POINT
Return the C-axis to the origin of the absolute coordinate system before specifying
G126.
————_
2-21
————-—-.——.—._—.
.—.’——
.. . .
.——
.—,—.
.- .— .- —..
—. ———
——
(a)
Features ofG126
ancjG127
The following G codes are used to turn ON/OFF the polar coordinate interpolation
mode.
Table 2.8
G Codes Used for Turning ON/O FFthe Polar Coordinate interpolation
~GW~
F.n.ti.n
~“
L
Group
19
Polar coordinate interpolation mode ON
G127
I
Polar coordinate interpolation mode OFF
I
19
Specify G126 and G12’7 in a block without other commands.
—
7
—1
I
If other G code is
specified with G126 or G127 in the same block, alarm “0161” (UNMATCH
G
CODE) occurs.
G126 and G127 are moclal G codes of 19 group. Once G126 is specified, the polar
coordinate interpolation mode ON state remains until G127 is specified. When the
power is turned ON or the NC is reset, the G127 (polar coordinate interpolation
mode OFF) state is set.
(b) Feed rates
In the polar coordinate interpolation mode, interpolation is executed in the X-C
plane. It is necessary to specify feedrates after entering the polar coordinate interpolation mode. For the designation of feedrates, use address F. Feedrate F expresses feedrates (mm/min, inch/rein) in the X-C plane. In the polar coordinate interpolation mode, specify feedrates in the G98 (feed per minute) mode. It is not
possible to specify GOO (G codes that include rapid traverse cycle). To execute
positioning, cancel the polar coordinate interpolation mode. It is allowed to specify
GOOin a plane other than the X-C plane.
o Restrictions
on feedrates
The following must be satisfied so that the actual speed of the rotary axis does
not exceed rapid traverse rate:
F/D S (n/360)
;< (Rapid traverse rate of rotary axis)
F (mm/ rein)
: F command
D (mm)
: Diametric value when a cutting tool approaches closest
to the workpiece center
(tool paths after offset if the tool radius offset function
is used.)
2-22
x Feed override
2.1 INTEFIPOL.ATION COMMANDS
—
e Example of calculation
To find the maximum value of F command (override: 1.00%)
Conditions:
To carry out grooving of 15 mm wide akmg the centerline
To use 12 mm diameter end mill
C-axis rapid traverse rate is 12000 deghin.
F/(15 - 12) S (z/360) X 12000
F 5314
From the result indicated above, it is possible to specify F300 in the
program.
c+
A
+12
>
x+
Fig. 2.20
To find the minimum machining diameter with F comm;md of 80 mm/min.
Conditions:
Rapid traverse rate of the rotary axis is 12000 deg/min.
80/D S (n/360) X
12000
D S 0.764
From the result indicated above, machining is not possible if the tool
path after offset comes closer to the center of the work piece than the
calculated value.
2-23
—-
———.
———.
—
- ———.
.
.—-..
.. ,-
.—
..=.
—
-.,
(2) Example of Programming
Virtual C-axis
!
.
A\
—
1,
i.
-
X-axis
-.’
Cutting tool
Example of programming
00001 ;
G98 ;
TO1O1;
GOO X120.O CO;
—
G126 ; GO1 G42 X40.O F1OO.O ;
G03 XO C40.O 1-20.0;
GO1 X-25.O ;
G03 X-40.O C25.O K-15.O ;
GO1 co;
G03 X20.O 120.0;
GO1 G40 X120.O ;
G127 ; M30 ;
Fig. 2.21
Coordinate
Positioning
at the cutting start point
Polar coordinate
interpolation
Machining program using the polar coordinate
interpolation function
1
Polar coordinate
interpolation
System for Polar Coordinate
2-24
mode ON
mode OFF
Interpolation
2.1 INTERPOLATION
(3) Negative Polar Coordinate
COMMANDS
Specification
Fo the machines in which the positive/negative designation of the X-axis is reversed,
it is possible to select the negative X-axis specification. In this specification, the plus
and minus sign of the X-axis in the virtual X- Cplane is reversed. The coordinate system
used for programming is shown in Fig. 2.22. Whether or not the neg.~tive X-axis specification is selected is specified by using parameter pm4019 D1.
NegativeX-axisspecification
“=
pm4019 D1 = 1
pm4019 D1 = O
Normal specification
Negative X-axis specification
Virtual C (+)
Normal specification
Virtual C (+)
Q’)”-Q:)
Fig. 2.22
Coordinate
Coordinate
System of Negative X-axis Specification
Negative X-axis specification
Normal specification
Virtual C (+)
Virtual C (+)
1, G03
P
G02
~)
..- /’
...
-“.
. ..
/’
‘$
‘ G02
G
—.—
—
x (+)
c
i-
’03
x (-)
Negative X-axis specification
Normal specification
Fig. 2.23
)
~
Direction of Rotaticm
2-25
for Arc Commands
Polar
Negative X-axis specification
Normal specification
Virtual C (+)
Virtual C (+)
~-3
--------
.— - G41
(
o
--------
-— G42
-(
-m- x (+)
+—
I
Normal specification
Fig. 2.24
CD
SUPPt.E-
——
-1I
x(-)
Negative X-axis specification
Offset Direction of Tool Radius Offset Function
1.
If the negative X-axis specification is selected, the direction of rotation for the
arc commands (G02, G03) and the direction of offset for the tool radius offset
(G41, G42) are reversed from those in the normal specification. This must be taken into consideration when writing a program.
2.
Turn ON the polar coordinate interpolation mode when the X-coordinate is plus
for the normal specification and when it is minus for the negative X-axis specification.
MENT
—
(4) Relationships
tions
between
Polar Coordinate
Interpolation
Function
and Opera-
In the cylindrical interpolation mode, the following G codes maybe specified: (GOO),
GO1, G02, G03, G04, G1O, 022, G23, G40, G41, G42, G65, G66, G67, (G90, G91),
G98, and G 134. Alarm “0161° (UNMATCH G CODE) occurs if a G code other than
those indicated above is specified in the polar coordinate interpolation mode.
cl)
SIJPPLEMENT
1.
In the GOOmode, only X-axis can be specified.
2.
G90 and G91 are valid only when special G code specification
3.
In the G134 mode, only M commands maybe specified.
is selected.
—
●
In the polar coordinate interpolation mode, the tool radius offset function can
be used. Turning CIN/OFF of the tool radius offset function must be made in
the polar coordinate interpolation mode. The tool radius offset function is valid only in the cylindrical interpolation mode and the polar coordinate interpolation mode.
2-26
—---
2.1 INTERPOLATION
COMMANDS
M In the polar coordinate interpolation mode, cutting in the linear interpolation
(GO1) mode and circular interpolation (G02/G03) mode. Circular interpolation is permitted only in the X-C plane. If circular interpolation commands
are specified in other plane, an alarm occurs. For the definition of an arc, use
either addresses I and K to specify the center of arc or address R to directly
specify the radius of the arc. Note that designation of add:ess R is optional.
. The nose R offset function must be canceled before speci~ying G126.
●
●
●
It is not allowed to specify G126 with the mirror image function ON. Similarly, it is not allowed to turn ON the mirror image function in the G124 mode.
If the mirror image functicn is turned ON in the G126 mode, an alarm occurs.
T and S commands must not be specified in the polar coordinate interpolation
mode. Designation of M commands is possible in the polar coordinate interpolation mode.
The spindle function is invalid in the polar coordinate inkxpolation
. In the polar coordinate interpolation
fixed to OFF.
●
●
mode.
mode, the manual alxolute function is
In the polar coordinate interpolation mode, program restart is not possible. If
program restart is attempted from a block in the polar coordinate interpolation
mode, alarm “0483” (PROG, ERROR IN G126 MODE) occurs. However,
program restart is allowecl for blocks in which the cylindrical interpolation
mode blocks are included.
If a command that causes the tool paths to pass the center of the polar coordinate in the polar coordinate interpolation mode, alarm “0483” occurs since the
C-axis feedrate becomes infinite.
- In the polar coordinate interpolation mode, selection is possible for the X- and
C-axis commands whether they are specified in diametric values or radial values.
‘--i
X- and C-axis commands are specified irl diameter.
X- and C-axis commands are specified in radius.
*
2-27
——— —.-———
..—
-.
—
.- —-. ——
2.2
USING THE THREAD CUllTING
FUNCTION
2.2.1
Thread Cutting and Continuous Thread Cutting (G32)
With the commands of “G32X (U) 00 “ Z (W) . “ “ F (E) “ “ “ ;“, it is possible to cut straight
thread, tapered thread, or scroll thread in the lead specified by an F (normal thread cutting)
or E @recise thread cutting) command to the point specified by absolute coordinate values
(X, Z) or incremental coordinate values (U, W). Note that chamfering of thread is not possible in the G32 mode. Use the CJ92 or G76* mode to include chamfering in thread cutting.
(1) Programmable
Range of F and E Codes
Table 2.9 indicates the programmable
Table 2.9
Programmable
range of thread lead F and E.
Range of F and E Commands
Format
Programmable
Range
of F and E
F33
FO.001 - F500.000 mm
E34
EO.0001 - E500.0000 mm
F24
E26
FO.0001 - F19.6850 inch
—
EO.000004 - E19.685000 inch
F33
FO.001 - F1270.000 mm
E34
EO.0003 - E1270.0000 mm
—
FO.001 - F50.0000 inch
—
EO.OOOO1O
- E50.000000 inch
—
mm input
mm output
inch input
mm input
inch output
F24
inch input
E26
2-28
2.2
USING THE THREAD CUITING
FUNCTION
(2) Direction of Thread Lead
The direction
Table 2.10.
of thread lead specified by the F and E commands
is indicated
in
Table 2.10 Direction of Threacl Lead
Direction of Thread Lead
—,
-4
Taper Angle a
I
(X!Z)<
I
as
LISO I
‘~+~
L-MCIintheZ-a:cis direction stmtikf be specified.
I
-’—~
“.
Lead in the X-axis direction should be specified.
+Z
Fig. 2.25
Thread Cutting
(3) Restrictions
on F and E by Spindle Speed S
As indicated in Table 2.11, there are restrictions on the designation of F and E commands by Table 2. llspindle speed S. Concerning the X-axis feedrate component, its
upper limit is 1/2 of the values indicated in Table 2.11.
Table 2.11 Restrictions
I inch output
I
on F and E Commands
F (E) x S S 24,000 inch/rein
by Spindle :Speed S
I
(4) Programming
Programming
Formats
formats of thread cutting are indicated in Table 2.12.
Table 2.12 Programming
Formats of Thread Cutting
Thread Type
Command
Normal
——
Format
G31 Z(W) ...;...;
—
Straight thread
Precision
G32Z(W).
.. E;..;
Normal
G32X(U)
. .. Z(FO.
Precision
G32X(U)
0.. Z(Wj.
.F O...
.
.. E...;
Normal
G32 X(U) ...;...;
–
Precision
G32 X(U) ...;...;
Tapered thread
Scroll thread
●
Example of programming
—
for cutting straight thread
Thread lead
L
al
IS2
Depth of cut per pass
= 5.0 mm
= 5.0 mm
= 3.0 mm
= 1.0 mm
+-x
GOO U-42. ; _—
@ b
G32 W-68. F5.O ;
[email protected]
GOO U 42. ;
w 68. ;
u-44. ;
G32 W-68. ;
GOO U 44. ;
I
Fig, 2,26
Example of Programming
2-30
:---;--
+.
3—.
~~
for Cutting Straight Thread
+Z
2.2
●
Example of programming
[JSING THE THREAD CUl_HNG FUNCTION
for cutting tapered thread
L = 4.0 rnm
& = 3.0 rnm
52 = 2.0 rnm
Depth of cut per pass= 1.0 rnm
Thread lead
GOO X13.
_—
G32 X38. W-35. F4.O ;
GOO X60. ;
W35. ;
X11. ;
G32 X36. W-35. ;
GOO X60.;
+x
0
[email protected]
Ir—r-’--,,
I
%--
Fig. 2.27
Example of Programming
-Y
:“
L-=---l
for Cutting Tapered Ttread
2-31
——.+.-.————
.—————...
.
.—
(5) Continuous
Thread Cutting
Since the N-C has buffer register, designation for continuous thread cutting is possible.
In addition, continuous threads can be cut smoothly because the block-to-block pause
time is “O” for thread cutting command blocks.
Example of Programming
G32X(U) ””” Z(W) .” F(E)”””;
G32X(U)”””
Z(W)”.;
.—.—
G32X(U).
”” Z(W)”””;
—Cl
ml
—a
@
0
1
—--—
.---—. ;
(2
[5
(a) Reinforced
Fig. 2.28
\\
pipe coupling
Continuous
(b) Worm screw
Thread Cutting
I//
Q
1.
If designation of thread lead (F, E) is changed during thread cutting cycle, lead
accuracy is lost at joints of blocks. Therefore, thread lead designation must not
be changed during threacl cutting cycle.
2.
If continuous thread cutting is specified, M codes must not be specified. If an M
code is specified, the cycle is suspended at the specified block and continuous
thread cannot be cut.
POINT
2-32
2.2
USING THE THREAD ICUITING FUNCTION
(6) Margin for Incomplete Thread Portions (81, 62)
At the start and end of thread cutting, lead error is generated. Therefore, margins al and
82 should be given at the start and end portions in thread cutting,
+x
-+--_--.--f-+,
Fig. 2.29
Margins for Incomplete Threads
These margins 61 and b2 can be calculated as indicated in Table 2,13.
Table 2.13
of Margins for Incomplete Thread Portions
Calculation
Approximate Value
&
51> &(ln;-1)
62
62>&
Meaning
L (mm)
S (r / rein)
K
a(-)
:
:
:
:
Thread lead
Spindle speed
Constant (normally 30)
Thread accuracy
–L
. . . . (Lead error)
—
L
In
: Natural logarithm (log)
EEE!EE3=EI
Example of calculation
Thread lead L
= 3.0 mm
Spindle speed S = 5.0 r/rein
Thread accuracy =1/100
61> ~(hl~-1)
* ,
L*S
60” K
61 and b2 for this case
1
X 50(I
– 3.060—
“K
–3.0x500.=083rnm
60” K
“
x
——
3.61 = 3.0 mm
\\
I/,
ov
Keep the spindle speed at the same value until one thread is cut. If the spindle speed
is not maintained constant, accuracy could be lost due to servo lag.
POINT
—— —
~tiiia)
2.2.2
1.
During thread cutting, override operation
garded.
2.
If G32 is specified in the G98 (feed per minute) mode, alarm “0452” occurs.
3.
If a thread cutting command is executed in the dry run mode, axes move at the
jog feedrate.
Multiple-thread
and feed hold operation
are disre-
Cutting (G32) *
Multiple-thread cutting (multiple threads in a lead) is possible without shifting the thread cutting start point. In thread cutting operation, axis feed starts in synchronization with the startpoint pulse (1 pulse/turn) output from the spindle pulse generator attached to the spindle.
Therefore, the thread cutting start point is always at the same point on the workpiece circumference. In multiple-thread cutting operation, axis feed starts when the spindle rotates by a
certain angle after the output of the start-point pulse from the spindle pulse generator.
Lead
--———.- J
Fig, 2.30
Double-start
Thread
With the commands of “G32 X (U) “ “ o Z (W) . “ “ F (E) “ “ “ B “ “ o ;“, the spindle rotates
by the angle specified by address 11after the output of the start-point pulse of the spindle pulse
generator. After that thread cutting starts toward the point specified by X (U) and Z (W) at
the lead specified by an For E cc)mmand.
234
2.2 USING THE THREAD CUTTING FUNCTION
——
(1) Address B Specified in Multi-thread
Cutting
Least input increment
:
0.0010
Programmable
:
0 S B <360.000
range
If decimal point input is used, “B1.” is equal to 10 (B1. = 10). B commands are nonmodal and valid only in the specified block.
(2) Number of Threads and B Command
In general, the thread cutting start points lie on the workpiece circumference; the intervals of these points are calculated by dividing 3600 by the number of t breads. Examples
of multiple threads (double-start, triple-start, and quadra-start thre ads) are shown in
Fig. 2.31.
Thread cutting start point
- double-start thread
Thread cutting start point
- tripla-start thread
1st thread : No B command
2nd thread:
B180.
1st thread : No B command
2nd thread:
B120.
3rd thread : B240.
Fig. 2.31
Number of Threads and B Commands
2-35
Thread xtting sfart point
- quadra-start thread
1st thread : No B command
2nd threacl: B90.
3rd thread : B1 80.
4th thread : B270,
(3) Spindle Rotating Angle from Start-point
Pulse Specified by B Command
For the designation of spinclle rotating angle measured from the start-point pulse, the
least detectable increment is 360°/4096 pulses ~ 0.08790/pulse since the pulses output
from the spindle pulse generator (4096 pulses/rotation) are used. For a B command,
an error of ~ 1 pulse of the spindle rotation detection pulses could be generated. An
example of programming for double-start thread is indicated below.
Example of Programming
GOO U..;
G32W”.
”F ”.”;
GOO U..;
w“””;
u ... .
G32W U”;
)
Thread cutting of thread A
GOOU O”;
G32 W . . “ B180. ;
GOO U”.;
w“””;
u ... .
B180. ;
G32WU”
--)
Thread cutting of thread B
~
Fig. 2.32
(3
suPPt.E-
Spindle Rotation Angle from Start-point
1.
If a B command value is outside the programmable
“0453” occurs,
2.
If a B cc)mmand is specified for multiple-thread
ting is not possible.
MEWf
Pulse by E)Command
range (O to 360.000), alarm
cutting, continuous thread cut-
G32W . . . . B90
G32W . . . . + Since the operation is suspended at this block to wait for the
start-point pulse, continuous thread cannot be cut.
3.
The spindle rotation angle from the start-point pulse is specified using a B command (C+to 360°) disreg~rding of the spindle rotating direction.
2-36
2.2
2.2.3
USING THE THREAD ICUITING FUNCTION
Variable Lead Thread Cutting (G34)*
With the commands of “G34 X (U) Z (W) c “ “ K “ ‘ “ F (E) . “ “ ;“, variable lead thread
can be cut; thread lead variation per one spindle rotation is specified by address K. The least
input increment of a K command is 0.0001 mm/rev or 0.00001 inch/re~. If the setting for
parameter pm1000 DO = 1, the least input increment of a K command is 0.001 mm/rev or
0.0001 inch/rev.
Fig. 2.33
(1) Restrictions
Variable Lead Thread
on Programmable
The programmable
Range of K Commands
range of K commands is restricted by the formula indicated below.
F:
Fixed lead command (mm/rev or inch/rev)
K:
Variable lead command (mm/rev or inch/rev)
w:
Distance along the Z-axis from the start point to the end pclint (mm or inch)
<“u” along the X-axis in the case of face thread cutting.>
s:
Spindle speed (rev/mm)
N:
Number of spindle revolutions from the start point to the end point (rev)
~ . -(F+
K/2) + ~:)z
K
+ 2“K”W
(2) Feedrate
at End Point
Specify the commands so that the feedrate at the end point will not exceed the upper
limit indicated in Table 2.14.
Table 2.14 Upper Limit of Feedrate at End Point
T__l___
upper~mit
==+---+=+
S x (F + ~ + KN) S pm2800
(Max. cutting feedrate)
(3) Feedrate at End Point
Specify the commands so that the feedrate at the end point will not be a negative value.
(F+~)2+2KW>0
1.
In the continuous block thread cutting for variable lead thread cutting, distribution of command pulses is interrupted at joints between blocks.
2.
If a K command is outside the programmable
3.
If G34 is executed in the dry run mode, the axes move at a feedrate designated
for the jog feedrate if “parameter pm2000 D1 = l“.
4.
If address B is designated in the G34 block, alarm “0450” occurs.
range, alarm “0450” occurs.
2.3
2.3
REFERENCE
2.3.1
Automatic Return to Reference Point (G28)
REFERENCE
POINT RETURN
POINT RETURN
With the commands of “G28 X(U) 0. “ Z(W) . s “ (*C(H) 00 “ *Y(V) “ “);”, the numerical y controlled axes are returned to the reference point. The axes are first nloved to the specified position at a rapid traverse rate and then to the reference point automal ically. This reference point return operation is possible in. up to simultaneous 2-axis (* 5-i~xis) control. The
axes not designated in the G28 block are not returned to the reference pt )int.
Example of Programming
Z-axis deceleration
Intermediate
+x
positioning
d
!
Positioning
,/—”
—”
1/
,–.
Start
point
,
u
—.
2
~
2
w
——
d \
LS
point
Reference point
(A fixed point in the machine)
i_.$ _._..~
T
Reference point return operaticn
z
~
~
‘L
—
—
+Z
/
\
Fig. 2.34
(1) Reference
Reference
Point Return
Point Return Operation
Reference point return operation is the series of operations in which the axes return to
the reference point after the reference point return operation has beerl started manually.
Reference point return is accomplished
in two ways:
(a) Low-speed reference point return
In low-speed reference point return operation, a deceleration Iirnit switch is used.
In high-speed reference point return operation, the first return operation i.sexecuted
in the low-speed type using a deceleration limit switch; the reference po int data are
stored after the completion of the first reference point return and in subsequent reference point return operations is executed without using a deceleration limit
switch.
Alarm “2061” to “2065” occurs if an attempt is made to start tile reference point
return operation from a position where return operation is impossible.
2-39
(b) High-speed
reference point return
See parameter pm4003 D6 and D7,
It is possible to use the “high-speed reference point return” in place of the “automatic reference point return”. In this case, the reference point return is executed
in the following manner.
●
After the positioning at the intermediate positioning point B, the axes return
directly to the reference point at a rapid traverse rate. The axes can be returned
to the reference point in a shorter time compared to the normal reference point
return operation that uses a deceleration limit switch for the individual axes.
c Even if point B is located outside the area in which reference point return is
allowed, the high-speed reference point return specification. allows the axes
to return to the reference point.
c High-speed reference point return is enabled only for the axes for which normal reference point return has been completed either manually (manual reference point return) or by executing the G28 command after turning ON the
power.
●
●
If low-speed reference point return has not been completed for the X- and Zaxis either manually or by executing the G28 command after power-ON, Iowspeed reference point return is executed for the axis (X- and/or Z-axis) which
is specified in the G28 block.
High-speed automatic reference point return is valid only when reference
point return is called by G28, and it does not influence manual reference point
return operation.
2! -40
—- . .. .
2.3 REFERENCEP OINTRETURN
(2) C-axis* Control
integrated
with Spindle
Control
Reference point return is executed for the C-axis each time the control mode is changed
over from the spindle control to the C-axis control.
Feedrate
I
Approach speed
Set for parameters
/
~
/
creep “’’”
)
Reference point
-ii--
Fig. 2.35
Reference
Reference pulse
Point Return Pattern of C-axis lntegri~ted with Spindle
For the C-axis integrated with the spindle, a deceleration limit switch
in low-speed reference point return operation.
is
not used even
(3) Supplements
.
to the Automatic
Reference
Point Return Commands
Concerning machine lock intervention, there are two types of operation: turning ON the machine lock after suspending axis movement by using the feed
hold function, and turning OFF the machine lock after suspending axis movement again by using the feed hoid function. Table 2.15 shows how the machine operates according to the machine lock intervention.
Table 2.15 Machine Operation according to Machine Lock Intervention
kfachine Lock Intervention
Positioning
during
to Intermediate
Pcx3itioning
Point
Low-
speed
type
Machine
Lock
OFF + ON
l+igh-
41though positioning is continued
.Othe intermediate positioning point
position data display only), movement to the reference point is not
jxecuted.
Display data are not updated, either.
speed
type
Low-
speed
type
Machine
OFF -
Lock
ON
High-
OFF
speed
41though positioning is continued
:0 the intermediate positioning
Joint, the position is displaced by
.he machine lock intervention
lmount.
type
●
Machine
Lock
Positioning
Intervention
to Reference
during
Point
Display data are infinitely updated. Although positioning is made at the reference point after the detection of the actuation of the deceleration limit switch,
this cannot be detected due to machine
lock and, therefore, the display data are
infinitely updated.
In response to the machine lock intervention, the axes stops moving. After
that, the display data (position data in
the workpiece coordinate system) are
updated until the reference point return
is completed. (withoot axis movement)
The axes move to the reference point
(position data display is offset by the
machine lock intervention amount).
Actual axis position is displayed due to
the intervention of machine lock.
Accordingly, although the display data
(position data in the workpiece coordinate system) agree with the reference
point, the axes are not located at the reference point.
Before specifying I:heG28 command, the tool position offset mode and nose
R offset mode should be canceled. If the G28 command is specified without
canceling these modes, they are canceled automatically.
c It is possible to select valid/invalid of reference point return for each axis. If
the axis for which “reference point return invalid” has been set is specified in
the G28 block, alar-m “0241” occurs. Refer to parameter pm4002 DO to D4.
2-42
2.3
●
●
●
●
REFERENCEPO INTRETURN
Itispossible
todisplay aliirm`<0411'' (>C-axis) to`` 0415''(5th-axis)
when an
axis move command other than G28 is executed without completing reference
point return after turning ON the power. Whether or not such alarm display
should be given is determined by the setting for parameter pm4022. The direction of reference point return is set for pm4002 DO to D4 for the individual
axes.
The absolute coordinate values of the axes specified in the G28block are saved
to memory as the intermediate positioning point. For the axes not specified
in the G28 block, the intermediate positioning point saved in the previous reference point return operation remains valid.
If M and/or T command is specified with G28 in the same b .ock, the axes continue moving to the reference point disregarding whether or not the FIN processing is completed before the positioning of an axis at the intermediate positioning point. Therefore, DEN is output at the reference IIoint.
The deceleration limit switch position must be carefully attended to when
executing the reference point return for the first time after turning ON the power. For details, refer to 2.4.2, “Manual Reference Point Return” of the Operating Manual.
2-43
——..- ... . .. .. .. .
... ..... . . .. ____ . .-__,
r._.._...
._. —
-.+..--—.—...—..-.....-.——
.- ..-. .——,.
-.-.
—- ——,
——.
-..
2.3.2
Reference Point Return Check (G27)
This function checks whether the axes are correctly returned to the reference point at the
completion of the part program which is created so that the program starts and ends at the
reference point in the machine b y specifying the commands of “G27 X(U)” “ cZ(W)” “ o
(* C(H) .00 * Y(V “ “ “);”.
In the G27 mode, the function checks whether or not the axes positioned by the execution
of these commands in the simultaneous 2-axis (* 3-axis) control mode are located at the reference point. For the axes not specified in this block, positioning and check are not executed.
(1) Operation after the Check
When the position reached after the execution of the commands in the G27 block agrees
with the reference point, the reference point return complete lamp lights. The automatic
operation is continuously executed when all of the specified axes are positioned at the
If there is an axis that has not been returned to the reference point,
reference point.
reference point return check: error (alarm “0421” (X-axis) to “0425” (5th-axis)) occurs
and the automatic operation is interrupted. In this case, the cycle start lamp goes OFF.
(2) Supplements
Operations
●
●
to the Reference
Point Return Check Command
and Other
If G27 is specified in the tool position offset mode, positioning is made at the
position displaced by the offset amount and the positioning point does not
agree with the reference point. It is necessary to cancel the tool offset mode
before specifying (327. Note that the tool position offset function is not canceled by the G27 command.
The reference point return check is not executed if G27 is executed in the machine lock ON state.
c The mirror image function is valid to the direction of axis movement in the
reference point return operation called by G27. To avoid a position unmatch
error, the mirror image function should be canceled by specif ying G69 (mirror
image OFF) before executing G27.
2-44
I
2.3 REFERENCE POINT RETURN
2.3.3
Return from Reference Point Return (G29)
The commands of “G29 X “ “ . Z .0. ;“ ihe axes, having been returned to the reference point
by the execution of the automatic reference point return function (G28, G30), to the intermediate positioning point by back tracing the paths along which the reference point return
has been executed.
Example of Programming
G28 XOO” Z” O”;
Point A ~ B - C (Reference point)
“~
PointB
G29
~
~!=
Iv
C (reference point)
u
Point C+B~D
@-
Point D
Positioning
traverse
in rapid
Reference
pclint returrl
I
i
*
B (Intermediate
\)
‘).=O.
.&””-
A
Fig. 2.36
Return from Reference Point
positioning
point)
(1)
Intermediate
●
●
Positioning
Point
It is not possible to specify the intermediate positioning point in the G29 block.
The axes return to the previous point at a rapid traverse rate along the paths
taken in the return to the reference point. Note that the axes not specified in
the G29 block do not move.
If G28 or G30 (see :2.2.4, “Second to Fourth Reference Point Return (G30)*”)
has been executed several times before the execution of G29, point B to be set
for the execution of B29 is established at the intermediate positioning point set
in the last G28 or Gr30 operation. The following program written in absolute
commands explains how point B is set for the return operation from the reference point.
Coordinate values of intermediate positioning point
Xz
N20
G28
Zlo.
N23
G28
X30. ;
N24
G29
X-4C). Z-50. ;
‘~
GOO
X30.Z20.;
GOO
X-40.Z-50.;
Z20.
(lo., 20.)
(30., 20.)
~n~ point
Intermediate
T
End point
2-46
positioning
point
2.3 REFERENCEP OINTRETURN
—1—1——
Example of Programming
N31
N32
N33
N34
T0300;
G28 U80. W20.;
T0400;
G29 U-80. W40.;
(reference point)
Intermediatepositioning point
(absolute coordinate values)
+x
L——+Z
Fig. 2.37
●
Coordinate
Values c]f Point B for G29 Operation
In the following cases, the intermediate positioning point used for the execution of G29 does not agree with the intermediate positioning point specified
for the execution of G28 or G30. Therefore, do not specify such commands
or attempt such operation.
. Execution of the following before the execution of G29 after the completion of G28:
Coordinate system setting (G50 or coordinate system setting operation
in POS. job)
Intervention of machine lock
Intervention of manual operation with manual absohte OFF
o Execution of G28, or G30 or G29 in a block specified after the cancellation
of the mirror image at a position different from the position where the mirror image was started.
. Execution of G28, or M:30 or M29 after the intervention
tion with the manual absolute OFF.
of manual opera-
(2) Supplements
to the Return Command from the Reference
(a) Automatic
Point Return
reference point return
If G29 is specified without the execution of G28 or G30 after turning ON the power,
alarm “0240” occurs.
(b) Nose R offset and canned cycle
If G29 is specified in the nose R offset mode (G41, G42) or in a canned cycle (G70
to G76, G90, G92, G94, G81 to G89), alarm “0170” or “0182” occurs.
(c) Tool position offset
It is necessary to cancel the tool position offset function before specifying G28,
G30, or G29. If these G codes are executed in the offset mode, the intermediate
positioning point B’ is also offset, causing the tool to move to point B. Note that
the tool position offset function is not canceled by G29.
C (reference point)
+
B’ //
D’
b“
0
----4
,~
/
>~
~’e’
‘Ount
B (intermediate positioning
point)
$“
Fig.
2.38
G29
Operation
Executed
2-48
in the Tool Position Offset Mode
2,3 REFERENCE
POINT RETURN
——1
2.3.4
Second to Fourth Reference Point F~eturn (G30) *
With the commands of “G30 Pn X(U) I o “ Z(W) “ “ . (* C(H) “ “ o Y(V) ..0 );”, the axes
are moved to P2 (second reference point), P3 (third reference point*), or P4 (fourth reference
point*) in the simultaneous 3-axis (* 5-axis) control mode after the positi oning at the specified intermediate positioning point. If “G30 P3 U-40. ‘W30.;” is specifiecl, the X- and Z-axis
return to the third reference point. If “Pn” is omitted, the second reference point is selected.
The axes not specified in the G30 block do not move.
(1) Reference
m
Point Positions
The position of each reference point is determined in reference to the first reference
point. The distance from the first reference point to each of the reference points is set
for the following parameters.
Table 2.16 Reference
Points
X-axia
Z-axis
3rd-axis
4th axis
5th-axis
2nd reference point
pm6811
pm6812
pm6813
prn6B14
pm6815
3rd reference point
pm6821
pm6822
pm6823
pmi5824
pm6825
4th referenee point
pm6831
pm6832
pm6833
pm6834
a
pm6835
(2) Supplements
●
to the 2nd to 4th Reference
Point Return Commands
For the points to be considered to for the execution of G30, ~efer to the supplements in 2.2.1, “Automatic Return to Reference Point (G2!8)”.
c If G29 is specified after G30, positioning is made at the point specified with
G29 after passing the intermediate positioning point specified with G30. Only
the coordinate value of intermediate positioning point of the axis specified
with G30 is updated,
●
For the execution of G30, reference point return must have been completed
after power-ON either manually or by the execution of G28. If an axis for
which reference point return has not been completed is included in the axes
specified in the G30 block, alarm “0240” occurs.
2-49
. .. —-...—_
..—.__..._. .. . . . . ..___.
_______
._
.—
______
. ———
...-——
——
—-------
———.
.. .,.- ——...
—. —.—.—
,—-—...
3
MOVEMENT
CONTROL COMMANDS
Chapter 3 describes
the procedure
used for settilllg and se-
lecting the coordinate
system and the programming
trolling the movement
of a cutting tool.
3.1
for con-
SEl17NG THE COORDINATE
SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-3
3.1.1
Base Coordinate
3.1.2
Workpiece
Coordinate
(G50T, G51)*
3>2 DETERMINING
System (G50) . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3“7
THE COORDINATE
VALUE INPUT MODES
3.2.1
3.2.2
System
Absolute/incremental
. . . . . . . . . . . ...3Designation
16
. . . . . , . . . 3-16
Diametric and Radial Commands
for X-axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,...3-19
3.2.3
3.3
Input Designation
TIME-CONTROLLING
3.3.1
3.4
Inch/Metric
(G20, G21!) , , 3-20
COMMANDS
, ..3-22
Dwell (G04) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-22
TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . ..3-23
3,4.1 TooIOffeet Data Memory . . . . . . . . ,,, . . ...3-23
3.4.2
Tool Position Offset
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-24
3.4.3
Nose R Offset Function (G40, G41/G42) * . . 3-29
3.5
SPINDLE FUNCTION (S FUNCTION)
3.5.1
Spindle Command
3.5.2
Maximum Spindle Speed Command
(G50S)
3.5.3
3.6
3.7
. . . . 3-75
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-76
Constant Surface Speed Control
(G96, G97)*
3.5.4
(S5-digit Command)
.3-75
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-77
I<otary Tool Spindle Selection Function * . . . 3-81
TOOL FUNCTION (T FUNCTION)
. . ...3-82
3.6.1
T4-digit Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
3.6.2
‘r6-digit Command* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
MISCELLANEOUS
FUNCTION
(M FUNCTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-83
3.7.1 Iti Codes Relating to Stop Operation
(MOO, MOI, M02, M30)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-83
3.7.2
Internally Processed
3.7.3
General Purpose M Codes...,,.
3-2
M Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-84
. . . . . . . . . 3-85
3.1 SEITING
3.1
SElllNG
THE COORDINATE
3.1.1
Base Coordinate System (G50)
THE CCIORDINAT’E SYSTEM
SYSTEMI
Before programming axis movement, a coordinate system must be set. “Nhen a coordinate
system is set, a single absolute coordinate system is determined and absolute move commands specified after the setting of a coordinate system are all executed ill it. The G50 command sets the position of the origin of a coordinate system used for programming.
G50 is a non-modal G code that is valid (only in the specified block. The block in which the
G50 command is specified must not contain other G codes, M codes, S codes, and T codes.
Especially, if an S or T code is specified in a block with G50- like “G50 S” o “;“ or
“G50T “ “ “;“, such designation calls specific functions and does not set a coordinate system.
(1) Commands
For setting a coordinate system, both absolute and incremental comnlands may be used.
(a) Coordinate
system setting in absolute commands
*Y”.
“) ;“, a coordinate sysWith the commands of “G50 X. 0.0 Z “ “ “ (“c...
tem is set so that the present tool nose position has the absolute coordinate values
specified in the G50 block (X, Z, C, B*, Y *). In other words, the addresses in the
G50 block specify the distance from the point that should be set as the origin (O,
O, O)of the coordinate system used for progmmming to the present tool nose position. Axis movement commands can be specified for up to 2 aces (* 5 axes max.)
simultaneous y. Note that the axes not specified the G50 block do not move.
An example of coordinate system setting is shown in Fig. 3.1. In this example, the
coordinate system is set at the position where reference poilnt return has been
executed. A coordinate system can be set at any position.
+x
Present tool nose
position
1 .1 A
z
*
coordinate system
+2
Setting of Base Cc)ordinate System (G50) at Reference
Position
Fig. 3.1
Return
3-3
—..
——-. —— ___.
——..
—......-
.—.— .—..
-.. -———-——
--
(b) Coordinate
system setting in incremental
commands
If addresses U, W, and IHare specified with the commands of “G50 X “ .0 Z o c .
(* H...
*VCO o) ;“, a new coordinate system is set in reference to the present
coordinate system by shifting it the distance specified in incremental values of U
(X-axis direction), W (Z-axis direction), and H (C-axis direction).
This feature is effectively used in several applications - an operation that uses cutting tools having considerable differences, for example. In this case, the cutting
tools should first be divided into two groups and the difference between the length
of standard tool in one group and that in the other group should be entered in a program. Then, a new base coordinate system can be set for the second tool group.
Example of programming
G50 U1OO. W- 100.;
‘fpo.itiono~%’i’h5:’didtool
-+,
Fig. 3,2
(2) Coordinate
Setting of Coordinate
System with Incremental
Values
System and 100 I Position Offset
After setting the coordinate system by executing the commands of “G50 X80. Z62.;”
taking the cutting tool No. 0“1,if the cutting tool No. 02 which has the tool position offset amount as shown in Fig. 3.3 is selected and offset is executed, the cutting tool No,
02 moves to point A.
Example of Programming
‘+ti~o’’oo’
N3 G50 X80. Z62.;
N4 GOO TO1O1;
●
●
G50 comma;d
with No. 02 tool
selected
●
N1O GOO T0202;
$
= 40 mm
●
●
●
Fig. 3.3
Coordinate
System and Tool Position Offset
As shown in Fig. 3.3, if the coordinate system is set in reference to the standard tool
and offset data are set for other tools, it is possible to program all tool movements in
a single coordinate system.
3-4
3.1 SEITING
(3) Automatic
Coordinate
THE CCIORDINATE SYSTEM
System Setting
It is possible to set a coordinate system automatically at the completion of manual reference point return. To set the coordinate system in this manner, the sel:ting values should
be set for parameters for each of mm and inch input operation as i rndicated below.
Table 3.1
\\
Parameters
for “mm” Input and “inch” Input
I/,
3.
Whether or not the automatic coordinate system setting functio:n is made valid
or not should be set for parameters pm4006 DO to D4 for the individual axes.
4.
To use the workpiece coordinate system shift function, set the cocn-dinate system
by adding the workpiece coordinate system shift values to the coordinate system
setting values when setting the coordinates ystem using the autom atic coordinate
system setting function.
5.
The coordinate system that has been set using the automatic coordinate system
setting function becomes invalid when other coordinate system setting function
such as G50 is executed.
POINT
Q
3-5
.—. — —-- -—. ——. — .——
.-.
__,
—
.-_ —... _______
.—_—
.——.-———
..- ,— ._-.
_______
(4) Supplements
to the Base Coordinate
System Commands
. If a T code is specified in the block next to the one in which the G50 command
is specified, it is necessary to enter GOOin the block where the T code is specified to define the offset movement feedrate.
G50Xoo”
Zo -.;
GOO S500 M03 TO1O1;
●
●
Cancel the tool position offset and nose R offset function before specifying
G50.
When the power is turned ON, coordinate values (O, O,O) is set for the present
tool position. Therefore, the coordinate system must always be set before
starting an operation. Concerning the C-axis integral with the spindle, use the
automatic coordinate system setting function - change the mode to the C-axis
control and execute the reference point return, and the coordinate system is set
for the C-axis at the position where the reference point return has been completed.
●
Once the coordinate system is set, it is not influenced by the reset operation.
To reset the coordinate system, use either of the following operation.
“ To set “O” on the [ABS] function screen.
“ To set “O” for the coordinate values by executing “G50 XO ZO (CO);” in the
MDI mode.
“ To turn OFF the power once and turn it ON again.
o The present tool position in the base coordinate system is displayed on the
[AIM] function name which is called in the [POSIT.] job.
●
Whether or not the workpiece coordinate shift is valid when G50 is specified
is determined by the setting for parameter pm4012 DO.
3-6
3.1 SETrlNG
3.1.2
THE CCIORDINATE SYSTEM
Workpiece Coordinate System (GsOT, Gsl ) *
The function to set workpiece coordinate systems is provided to set the coordinate system
for the individual cutting tools so that the program can be executed at the :same program origin even if the cutting tool to be used is changed by the tool selection operation.
(1) Tool Coordinate
Data Memory (Number)
Before specifying “GSOT” commarid, it is necessary to write the cocxdinate data to the
tool coordinate data memory for each of the cutting tools.
(a) Tool coordinate
data memory
The number of tool coordinate data memory areas corresponds
tool offset data memory area pairs. See Table 3.2.
Table 3.2
Tool Coordinate
to the number of
Data Memory
Number of Tool Offset Data Memory Area
Pairs
Tool Coordinate Ddi~ Memory Areas
1
When Oto 16
51 to 66 (I6 areas)
2
When Ot 50
I
(b) Tool coordinate
+
(Number)
51 to 99 (4!) areas) ---i
data memory numbers and tool numbers
Tool coordinate data memory number “51” corresponds to tool rmmber’’Ol”. Similarl y, tool coordinate data memory number” 52” corresponds to tool number “02”,
and so on.
Table 3.3
Correspondence
between Tool Coordinate
bers and Tool Numbers
Tool Coordinate
Data Memory No.
Tool No,
51
01
52
.
02
.
8;
3;
3-7
:
Dat:~ Memory
Num-
I
(c) Coordinate
data: Xtn, Ztn
The coordinate data (Xtn, Ztn) as shown in Fig. 3.4 are written to the tool coordinate data memory for the individual tools Tn.
‘X*H
1
I
The tool post or turret is at the position
where the CNC’S present position data
display is (O, 0).
/’
At,,
‘xtn/2
Ae-
(L
f > Zm
Xm
7,
i
1
4
+Z
Workpiece
The workpiece coordinate system determined
by the operator at the workpiece measurement
value direct input operation.
Fig. 3.4
Tool Coordinate
3-8
Data Memory
3.1 SEITING
THE CC IORDINATE SYSTEM
(2) Commands
(a) Features of G50T and G51
Table 3.4
G Codes Related to Workpiece
Coordinate
Systsm
=“’0”” %+
Setting a workplece coordinate system
Return to the origin for present value display
The G50T and G51 commands are both non-modal and valid o]dy in the specified
block.
(b) Setting a workpiece
❑0
G50T
coordinate
system
AA;
TT
~
Toed offset number designation
(00 to 50)
Toc,l coordinate value memory number designation
A workpiece
coordinate
(51 to 99)
system is set by using the comrnaml format indicated
above; the value calculated in the following formula is used as the setting value of
the workpiece coordinate system.
Workpiece
= [Present
+ [Value
+ [Value
coordinate system setting value
position display value in the NC]
set at the specified tool coordinate data memory area]
set at the specified tool offset memory area]
Here, the “present position display value in the NC” indicates t~llevalue displayed
at the [EXTERN] function in the [POSIT.] job.
●
In normal operation, “00” should be set for A A (tool offset number designation part).
Example:
G50 T51OO ;
T
If “00” is set, a workpiece coordinae system is set
assuming that the data set in the tool offset memory
area is “0.
3-9
———-.
...
———. ——
..— ..——..
-—..
.
. . . ... .... . .
. .
... -— ———
—..
—.,—..
.- ,—— —..
—.—
-—.
When the program as indicated in the example above is set when the tool post
or turret is positioned at arbitrary position, the workpiece coordinate system
that the operator has determined is set correctly.
T1 when the turret or tool post is positioned
at an arbitrary position (-x, -z)
+x
I
)
z~l
When the turret or tool post
is positioned at (O, O)
T1
\
-z
{ \
(L
#
/
(-x/2)
\
+x!,
+Z
/2
(-z) +z~,
}
Workpiece
Fig. 3.5
●
Workpiece
The workpiece coordinate
is set using these values.
system
coordinate system
Coordinate
System Setting
With the commands of “G50 TOOOO;”,the workpiece coordinate system is
canceled. That is, the command TOOOOcauses the calculation of the present
position data with “value in tool coordinate data memory = O“ and “value in
tool offset data memory = O“ to set the workpiece coordinate system.
(c) Returning to the origin for present position (G51 )
With a rnachiningprograrn that uses the workpiece coordinate system setting function, the start point of machining should be set at the position where the present
position data display is (,0, O). Therefore, after the completion of machining, G51
must be specified in the program so that the X- and Z-axis return to the start point
of machining accurately. With theG51 command, both of the X- and Z-axis return
to the start point at a rapid traverse. Note that G51 should be specified in a block
independently without other commands.
3-1o
3.1 SElllNG
THE COORDINATE
SYSTEM
(3) Example of Programs
(a) Example program using a workpiece coordinate
system
An example of program in which a workpiece coordinate systl>m is used is given
below.
The start point of machining is (O, O) of present position display.
N1 G50 T51OO; ~
Setting of a workpiece
tool No. 01
N2 GOO TO1O1 M03 S1OO;
~
coordinate
system for
Selection of tool No. 01 (Note)
(Machining using tool No. 01)
N20 GOOXC””
ZO””
N21 G50 T5200;
_
N22 GOO T0202;
(Machining
N40 G51;
-
Positioning
Setting of a workpiece
tool No. 02
—
coordinate
system for
Selection of tool No. 02 (Note)
using tool No. 02)
Returning to the point of (O, O) (present position
data display)
c
T02
+x
\
Position where position
data display is (O, O)
N20
+Z
Workpiece coordinate system
(Machining with tool NCE. 01 and 02 is programmed
in this coordinate system)
Note: The tool position offset command in TOIC1 and T0202 can be used for the compensaticln for tool wear. [t can also
be used for offsetting in taper cutting.
Fig. 3.6
Example
Program
3-11
Using Workpiece
Coordinate
Systelm
(b) Example of program in which operation in a workpiece coordinate
is interrupted
system
If an operation is restarted from the beginning of the program without returning the
cutting tool to the start point of machining after the interruption of the program given below, the cutting tool is positioned correctly at the first approach position.
Example of program in which operation in a workpiece coordinate system is interrupted
N1
N2
N3
N4
G50 T51OO;
TO1O1;
G96 S150 M03;
GOO X20. Z2.5;
+-A
When the operation is restarted from the position
of (-20., -27.5) after the interruption
/
+x
/,
Machining start position
= Present position data display (O, O)
B
A Approach
Workpiec~
system
Fig. 3.7
coordinate
position (20., 2.5)
+Z
(TooI coordinate
data memory
51X= 80.
51Z = 40.)
Example of program in which operation in a workpiece coordinate
system is interrupted
The commands of “N1 (350 T51OO;” executed at point B sets a workpiece coordinate system using the values of X = 60. (-20. + 80.) and Z = 12.5 (-27.5 + 40.).
Therefore, the workpiece coordinate system is saved and, accordingly, the approach position point A remains unchanged.
3.1 SEITING
(c) If tool change positions differ in a workpiece
THE COORDINATE
coordinate
SYSTEM
:system
An example of program and workpiece coordinates ystem setti ng values are indicated below for cases where tool change position differs by tclols.
Table 3,5
Tool Coordinate
Data Memory
-:
N1 G50 T51OO;
N2 GOO TO1O1 M03 S1OOO;
“
(Machining with TO1)
N25 G50 TOOOO;
N26 GOO X-50. Z-35.;
N27
G50
N28
GOO T0202
M03
.
“
—
Toolchangepositionto T02
is (-50,, -35.).
T5200;
S800;
‘z
The coordinate system setting values used
by these commands are:
X= (-50.) + 110. =60.
z = (-35.) + 40. = 5,
(Machining with T02)
N48 G51;
T02
/
J’f’
Machining start position
= Position where present position clata is (O, O)
~.
+x
F
$110.
1
#
z = 5“
T02
i.\--
47,5
Tol
-50./2
0100.
-35.
-
TO1
P
X = 4J60.
+
Workpiece
Fig. 3.8
coordinate
+Z
system
If Tool Change Positions Differ in a Workpiece
Coordinate
System
(4) Workpiece
Coordinate
System Shift Amount
The coordinate system that is set using G50 or the workpiece coordinate system setting
function can be shifted by the required distance. It is possible to write the shift distance
to the workpiece coordinate system shift data memory, which is No. 00 of the offset data
memory data, for the X-, Z- and C-axis in the same operation as writing the tool offset
data.
(a) Shift data written to the memory
The shift data written to the memory becomes valid at the following timing:
Execution of the G50 coordinate system setting command
●
. Execution of the G50 T workpiece coordinate system setting command
Q Execution of the automatic coordinate system setting function
Execution of key operation for setting the coordinate system.
●
When any of the operation indicated above is executed, a coordinate system is set
by simply adding the set shift amount. No cutting tool movement takes place. If
a positive value is set for AX, AZ, and AC, the coordinate system is shifted in
the direction indicated by the arrow symbol in Fig. 3.9. In this figure, ~ and Z.
indicate the original coordinate system setting values.
~m-
+x
+x
Originel coordinate
-tz
~
system
/
XO12
+Z
4
Shift
+.p.+z
Coordinate
Fig. 3.9
t AX/2
I
system set after the shift
Workpiece
Coordinate
System Shift Operation
The direction in which the coordinate system should be shifted can be changed by
changing the setting fclr parameter pm4012 D3. By setting DO, it is possible to
make the shift amount invalid at the execution of G50.
3.1 SETTING THE COORDINATE
(b) After changing
memory
the data in the workpiece
coordinate
system
SYSTEM
shift data
If the data in the workpiece cc~ordinate system shift data memmy is changed, the
new shift amount becomes vallid when any of the operations irldicatecl in item (a)
above is executed.
a)
SUPPLEMENT
1.
Once the coordinate system is shifted by the workpiece Ccrordini]te system shift
function, it cannot be canceled unless “O” is set. Resetting of the NC cannot cancel the shifting of the workpiec(e coordinate system.
2.
The G50 TUCIOO; commands do not indicate the offset data memory number of
the workpiece coordinate system shift function but it indicates the cancel of the
tool position offset function.
—
.——.
(5) Supplements
●
to the Workpiece
Coordinate
To use the G50 T and G,50 commands,
System Setting Commands
set “O” for parameter
pm3000 DO
(pm3000 DO = O; presetting of the external present position data for G50 is
OFF).
●
The “G51;” command is equivalent to the commands specified in two blocks
like “G50 TOOOO;”and “GOOXO ZO;”. Therefore, execution of the G51 command cancels the tool offset number as well as the workpit, ce coordinate system and thus the tool offset number becomes “00” after tile execution of it.
●
●
●
The workpiece coordinate system shift function becomm valid when the
workpiece coordinate system is set by using the “G50 T“ command.
The present position data of the cutting tool in the set wo:rkpiece coordinate
system is displayed in the present positicm display (workpiece coordinate system) and not displayed in the external present position display.
The workpiece coordinate system set by G50 T is not Cal[celed by the reset
operation.
3-15
._.
——.
—_ ,—.
——
.,___________
_______ ______________
—. .——
——....—— — .—...- .-. .—-—-—-
3.2
DETERMINING
‘THE COORDINATE
VALUE INPUT MODES
This section describes the commands used to input coordinate values.
3.2.1
Absolute/incremental
Designation
Axis movement data specified following an axis address determines axis movement distance
in either incremental or absolute values.
By using addresses X, Z, CY, Y*, U, W, H*, and V*, it is possible to use both incremental
and absolute values.
(1) Command
Format
(a) Absolute commands
To specify axis movement distance in an absolute value, use addresses X, Z, and
c.
Example:
X“”OZ”..C”.”;
(b) Incremental commands
To specify axis movement distance in an incremental value, use addresses U, W,
and H.
Example:
U“””W”C.H.O”;
(c) Use of both incremental and absolute commands in the same block
It is allowed to use both incremental
Example:
and absolute values in the same block.
X“””WOOO;
u . . . z“””;
If addressesthat represent the same axis are specified in the same block like “X “ “ “
u 00. ;“, the address specified later becomes valid.
These G codes specify whether dimension values specified following an axis address are given in an absolute value or incremental
3-16
value.
32 DETERMINING THE COORDINATE
Table 3.6
Address
Absolute and Incremental
Command Value
——
Diametric
value
x
Z
Diametric
value
u
Incremental value
*H
——
*v
Radial value
——
I
(Description)
,—
4
Position in the X-axis direction
+
I
---1
Movement distance in the X-ax ISdirection
—,
Movement distance in the Z-axis direction
I
Movement distance in the C-ax)s direction
I
Movement distance in the Y-axis direction
I
X-axis direction component of [he distance to the
center of arc viewed from the start point of arc
I
I
I
Z-axis direction component of the distance to the
center of arc viewed from the start point of arc
Incremental value
Y-axis direction component of (he distance to the
center of arc viewed from the start point of arc
*J
R
Meaning
Position in the C-axis direction
—
Position in the Y-axis direction
*Y
K
and Mearling
Position in the Z-axis direction —-
Absolute
*C
w’
Commands
VALUE INF’UT MODES
l——
Direct designation of arc radius
Incremental value
Since a diametric value is specified for addresses X and U, actual a~is movement distance is a half the specified value.
X3
T
~1
Fig, 3.10
Absolute and Incremental
3-17
Coordinate
Values
I
(2) Use of G90 and G91
(a) If special G code I (Basic) or II
(Option)is selected
G90and G91 commanck can be used when special G code I (basic) or special G
code 11(option) is selected.
Table 3.7
Function of G90 and G91 Commands
E==
Note: G90 and G91 are valid only for X, Z, C?, and Y* as indicated in Table 3.8.
Table 3.8
Example:
Valid Address for G90/G91
Designation
With the commands of “G91 GOOX40. Z50.;” axis movement commands are executed as incremental commands.
(b) Auxiliary data for circular interpolation
The auxiliary circular interpolation
incremental commands.
data I, J*, K, and R are always interpreted
It is not allowed to specify G90 and G91 in the same block. If both of these G codes
are specified in the same block, the one specified later becomes valid. For example,
if the commands of “GO1 G90 X80. G91 Z60.;” are specified in a block, G91 specified
later becomes valid and all axis movement commands (X80. and Z60.) are interpreted
as incremental commands.
3-18
as
3.2 DETERMINING THE COORDINATE
3.2.2
VALUE INPUT MODES
1—
Diametric and Radial Commands fcw X-axis
To specify X-axis commands, address X or U is used and dimensions ara usually specified
in diametric values. This designation method is called the diametric command designation.
However, it is also possible to use a radial value to specify X-axis dimensions and which of
designation is used is set by parameter :pm1000.Dl.
pm1000 D1 = O
Diametric designation
pm1000 D1 = 1
Radial designation
----i
+x
+
u
PI=
X2
1
(a) Diametric designation
xl +Z
(b) Radial designation
Fig. 3.11
Coordinate
Table 3.9
Use of Diametric and Radial Designation
Values
Item
Diametric Designation
1 ‘~
1
Address X command
Diametric value
I
!
I
Diametric incremental
value
Address U command
.=ti
Radial incremental value
X-axis position display
Tool position offset amount
Tool coordinate data for tool coordinate system
Nose R amount
Feedrate F and E in the X-axis direction
Radial value/rev, Radi:d value/mm
z:==
Radius designation for circular interpolation
(I, ~ J, R)
G90 to G94, G70 to G76
Chamfering, rounding, multiple chamfering
parameters
D, I, K, P, Q, R
Radial WIILE
.—
—.
4
1-
J-
Radial valu>
.—.
---1
3.2.3
Inch/Metric Input Designation (IG20, G21 )
It is possible to select the dimension unit for the input data between “mm” and “inches”.
this selection, the following G codes are used.
Table 3.10 Dimension
For
Unit Selection G Codes
EE~
(1) Command
Format
G20 and G21 should be specified at the beginning of a program in a block without other
commands. When the G code which selects the input dimension unit is executed, the
following values are processed in the selected dimension unit: subsequent programs,
offset amount, a part of parameters,
a part of manual operation, and display.
Example of Programming
ER
CR
01234;
G20; —
Designating
3-20
the input in “inch” system
32 DETERMINING
(2) Supplements
to the Dimension
THE COORDINATE
Unit Designation
V.4LUE INPUT MODES
Commands
●
A parameter is used to select “inch/mm”. Therefore, the Stiik when the power
is turned ON is determined by the setting for this paramel.er.
●
If the dimension unit system should be switched over duri~~gthe execution of
a program, the tool position offset and nose”R offset func;io n must be canceled
before the switching over of the dimension unit system,
●
After switching over the dimension unit system between G20 and G21, the
following processing must be accomplished.
“ Set the coordinate system before specifying axis move commands.
“ If position data are displayed in a workpiece coordinal e system, or when
an external position data display unit is used, reset the present position data
to “o”.
●
The tool offset amounts stored in memory are treated in a different manner between the G20 and G21 modes.
Table 3.11 Tool Offset Amounts in G20 and G21 Modes
Stored Offset Amount
150000
‘nthe’’’::::::m)”o=a
3-21
3.3
TIME-CONTROLLING
3.3.1
Dwell (G04)
COMMANDS
It is possible to suspend the execution of axis move commands specified in the next block
for the specified length of time (dwell period).
By specifying “G04 U (P, X, F) . . . ;”, execution of programmed
for the length of time specified by address U, P, X or F.
●
●
commands is suspended
Command unit of address P is”1 = 0.001 see”. For example, a dwell period
of 2.5 seconds is specified by “G04 U2500;”. The block used to specify dwell
must not include commands other than G04 and P commands.
The maximum programmable
Table 3.12.
value with address U, P, X, or F is indicated in
Table 3.12 Dwell Period (Programmable
I
Format
I
L
U(P, X, F)63
I
Range of P)
Programmable
Range
Oto 999999.999 sec
Note: The value is independent of the input and output unit systems,
3-22
of Dwell
Period
(P)
I
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
3.4
TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
The following three kinds of tool offset functions are provided: tool posil!ion offset function,
nose R offset function, and tool radius offset function*.
3.4.1
Tool Offset Data Memory
The memory area where the data of the offset functions and coordinall e system setting is
called the tool offset data memory.
.—
Tool Offset Data
Memory No.
Workpiece
coordinate
system shift
memory
-
X-axis
Z-axis
G-axis
Nose R
Offset Data
00
~ Control
Point
‘
,=
(
Basic
01to16
l—
}
Memory area
for storing tool
offset data, tool
coordinate data
(X- and Z-axis)
{
17t099
Option
2
Fig. 3.12
‘4
11
Tool Offset Data Memory
(1) Contents of Tool Offset Data Memory (X-/Z-axis) of 001 to :!99
The tool offset data memory of 001 to 299 for the X- and Z-axis is usually used to store
the tool position offset data. However, there are also cases that the tool coordinate data
are stored in this area if workpiece coordinate systems are used. For details of the use
of this memory area, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
.—
Even if 299-set option is selected, offset numbers Oto 99 are allowed if a T4-digit specification is used.
—
(2) Tool Offset Number Specified by T Function
A’<tool offset number” specified by the Tfunction directly corresponds to the “tool offset memory number” and the data stored in the specified area is c:.lled out to execute
offset functions. Concerning the tool coordinate data memory, the’ ‘tool selection designation” number in the T functicm corresponds to the tool coordinate data memory
number. The workpiece coordinate system shift data memory is independent of the T
command. The offset data should be stored to the memory area before starting automatic operation.
3-23
—--.—-
.. —.
——.
—-
.- ———-.
—. . . ..
------,- .—..
—.—
.-..
3.4.2
Tool Position Offset
The tool position offset function adds the offset amount to the coordinate value specified in
a program when a tool offset number is specified and moves the nose R to the position obtained by the addition. Therefore,, the difference between the coordinate value of the nose
R of the cutting tool, assumed in programming, and that of the actual nose R position should
be set to the tool offset data memory in advance as the offset amount. If the coordinate value
of the nose R is changed due to tool wear or other reasons, the offset amount set in the tool
offset data memory must be modified accordingly. By using the tool position offset function,
the required dimensions can be obtained without changing numerical values in a program.
(1) Setting Range of Tool Position Offset Amounts
The range of tool position offset amounts that can be set to the memory is indicated in
Table 3.13.
Table 3.13 Tool Offset Amount Setting Range
output
Input
Tool Offset Amount Setting Range
1
(2) Signs Usecl in Tool Position Offset Amounts
For the tool position offset amount, difference between the reference tool and the selected tool is set as the signed value with the offset amount of reference tool taken as
“O”. The sign that precedes the offset amount should be determined by viewing the reference tool from the selectecl tool.
+x
i
+87
-87
O*
-z
—
+Z
Sx: X-axis tool position offset amount (in diameter)
82: Z-axis tool position offset amount
I
Fig. 3,13
f
-x
Signs Used in Tool Position Offset Amounts
3-24
3.4 TOOL OFFSET flJNCTIONS
(3) Outline of Tool Position Offsetting Movements
As explained in item (2) above, when the cutting tool selected by “Trlrllll_l”
command moves according to the axis movement command specified in a program, the offset amount that corresponds to the specified tool offset number is added to the command
and the cutting tool moves to the point obtained after-the addition. If no axis movement
command in the same block, the cutting tool moves only by the ofiset amount. Once
offset, the cutting tool always moves to the offset position unless other offset number
is specified. If other number is specified or offset amount is ‘changed while the tool
position is offset, offset is made corresponding to the difference bei.ween the previous
and new offset amounts.
Example of Programming
TO1O1;
GOIX”-o
Z-o”
T0115;
F(E)”””;
-—@
—@
@
Offset movement
+6Z2 ‘
SV +
Fig. 3.14
End of commands~
\-
v
Tool Position Offseiling
(4) Offset Movement
Movements
Speeds
Offset movement explained above is executed at the feedrate valid al that point. Therefore, the required feedrate must be specified in the same block or a preceding block if
the tool position offset function is specified (GOO, GO1 F..., etc.).
Example of Programming
G50Xo-o
Z---;
Goo s’”
- M03 TO1O8;
x . . . z“””;
Only offsetmovementis executed
at a rapidtraverserate
_
3-25
—-———.
,- ——— —. ——
. . ..-——--———=.
.
. -—
,-—
....-
..-..
—.—
--.
(5) Calling the Tool Position Offset Function
The tool position offset command is called when a tool offset number is specified.
(a) Designating a T code
Specify a T code in the block where the tool position offset function should be
called. The tool position offset function becomes from the specified block. When
a T code is read, a tool selection signal (binary code) is output and, at the same time,
offset movements start using the offset amount which corresponds to the specified
offset number. T codes are modal and once a T code is specified, it remains valid
until ar~other T code is specified. If “GOO T0202;” is specified, for example, tool
No. 02 is selected and offset movements occur according to the data set for tool
offset No. 2.
(b) Changing the offset amount
To change the offset amount, specify a T code that has another offset number.
If
a T code with a different tool number is specified,
executed.
is
tool selection
operation
Example of Programming
GOO TCJ202;
GOIX”””
ZC”.
GO1 T0216;
~—
FO O.;
Offset No. is changed from 02 to 16 and offset movements
occurs at a cutting feedrate.
3.4 TOOL C~FFSET FUNCTIONS
(c) Correcting
angle in taper cutting
To correct an angle in taper cutting, specify the T code that changes the offset
amount in the same block with the cutting feed commands.
GOO T0202;
GOIX”””
ZOo” F-o-;
Difference
Operation
/’
+3
between T0216 and T0202
by [email protected]
Operation without T0216
u
q
-w
Start point
+Z
Fig. 3.15
Correcting Taper Angle
If axis movement commands are specified with the T function in the same block,
the nose R moves to the offset target position. In this example, cutting is executed
by correcting the difference between the offset amounts called by T0202 and
T0216.
(d) Canceling the tool position offset function
To cancel the tool position offset function, specify a T code of offset No, O or 00
like TCICIOO. The cancel command becomes valid immediately in the specified
block and offset cancel movements occur.
Example of Programming
GOO T0202;
GOIX”
OOZ”””
GOIU+””
.W-”.
Goox”””
z”””
F”.”;
”F.
”CT0216;
To200;-—
0
C)fket amount is not added to the programmed
axis movement command:; and X- and Z-axis
move to the target point specified in the program
3-27
——
.— ,—...
... .——.
-—-——
-—. .
The commands in block. ~ can be written in two blocks.
GOOX””.
Z”” O;
T0200;
z——----
Withthis command, only cancel movement is executed
at a rapid traverse.
The
reset
(6) Supplements
operation also cancels the tool position offset function.
to Tool Position Offset Commands
Cancel the tool position offset function before specifying the automatic reference point return (G28) operation.
Cancel the offset by specifying “[email protected]’>command before specifying the
reference point return check (G2’7) operation. If G27 is executed although the
tool position is offset, an error occurs since the offset amount is added to the
specified coordinate values.
Cancel the tool position offset function before specifying M02 or M30.
If the NC is reset by the reset operation or by the execution of M02 or M30
during the tool position offset mode, the offset function is canceled and offset
number becomes “O” or “00”.
The tool position offset function is temporarily canceled if the reference point
return (manual or automatic) operation is executed. The processing after that
varies depending on the setting for the parameter.
F
pm4010 D1 = O
The offsetdata is savedand recoveredin a later block.
pm4010 D1 = 1
The offset data is canceled.
3.4 TOOL CJFFSET FUNCTIONS
3.4.3
Nose R Offset Function (G40, G41 /G42) *
Since the nose of a cutting tool is rounded, overcuts cmundercuts occur in taper cutting or
arc cutting since offset simply by the tool position offset function is not satisfactory. How
such problems occur is shown in Fig. 3.16. The nose R offset function called by G41 and
G42 compensates for an error to finish the workpiece to”the programmed shape.
+-
-.
out nose R offset
nose R offset
IFcutting tool
Undercut (uncut portion left)ii
Shape obtained without using the nose %
offset function
Programmed shape
(Also the shape obtained by using the
offset function)
Fig. 3.16
Ier of nose R
, tool nose
Nose R Offset Function
(1) Nose R Offset Amount
The term “Nose R Offset Amount” means the distance from the tocl nose to the center
of nose R.
(a) Nose R offset data memory
To use the nose R offset functicm, the nose R amount of the cutting tools to be used
must be written to the nose R cifset data memory in the NC. The number of pairs
of the nose R offset data that can be written to the NC is determined according to
the machine model. The memclry area used for storing the nose R offset data varies
depending whether the basic specification NC is used or option is selected. The
allowable maximum value of the nose R offset amount that can be written is
f 99.999 mm ( + 9.9999 inches).
3-29
.————
..- ..—..——.
——-_—. —
—-
(b) Nose R offset amount range
The nose R offset amount can be written in the range indicated in Table 3.14.
Table 3.14 Nose R Offset Amount Range
k==
(c) Setting the nose
R offset amount
For the nose R offset amount, set the radius of the circle of the tool nose without
a sign.
~~~~
~
~.>
Imaginary tool nose
Fig, 3.17
a
TERM?
+ Imaginary
Setting the Nose R Offset Amount and Imaginary Tool Nose
—
Tool Nose
———
Withthe nose R offsetfunction,the imaginarytool nose which is set at the reference position is taken as the
reference poin!. The present position display given by the NC represents the position of the imaginary tool nose.
3-30
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
(2) Designation
of Imaginary Tool Nose Position (Control Point)
(a) Control point memory
The position of the imaginary tool nose viewed from the center of the nose R is
expressed using a l-digit number, Oto 9. This ii called the control point. The control point should be written to the NC memory in advance as wi th the nose R offset
data.
+x
2
—
—
+Z
7
6
—-–– 0
S Nose
1
5
R
center
1“””-”-”---””-”
Ka
3
Fig. 3.18
8
4
Control Point
(b) Setting the control point
As explained above, the position of the tool nose in reference to the center of nose
R is expressed by a l-digit number as the control point. Control point O is treated
different manners depending on the setting for a parameter: when “parameter
pm4013 D6 = l“, control point O is processed in the manner as,with control point
9. If “pm4013 D6 = O“, the nose R offset function is invalid. Nole that control point
data is written using address C.
@oorg
Imagirrarf
_.{._ . ...___.gi~.[
Fig. 3.19
Examples
of Control
Point Setting
3-31
———____
.___________ ,______
““
—.. -— ——..
——-. —.—.-..—
nose control point
(c) Control points and programs
c When control points 1 to 8 are used, the imaginary tool nose position should
be used as the reference to write a program. Write the program after setting
a coordinate system.
c1
.
,,’1
,.
~
(a
G?
o
Center of
.
Center of nose FI
‘\,
~’m~;”~~
/+lrnagLyVHnL
.
. . ..rnmtsd
(’”
L
imaginary
Imaginary
.
tool
imagme~
tool nose
A
0
nose point
.
.
Imaginary
Programmed
F+xtion left
h
uncut
shape
(a)
Programmed
shape
tool
Programmed
%
(b)
shape
Program with Nose R Offset Function
The nose R offset function offsets the
tool paths from the programmed shape
to eliminated overcuts and undercuts,
The imaginary tool nose point follows the
programmed shape, causing overcuts and
undercuts at tapers and arcs,
●
tce nose
3“
nose point
Program without Nose F{ Offset Function
Fig. 3.20
“
Program and Tool Movements
for Control Points “1to 8
When control points O or 9 is used, the center of nose R should be used as the
reference to write a program. Write the program after setting a coordinate system. If the nose R offset function is not used, the program shape must not be
different from the shape to be machined.
@r
Center
of nose
%
LY
(a)
(<
(imaginary
Ntovements
R
tool nose)
Movements
T
of
center of nose R
L
-i)
y
‘-y
Programmed
Program without Nose R Offset Function
Program and Tool Movements
332
Programmed
shape
shape
The center of nose R follows the programmed
shape. Therefore, if the coordinate system is set in
reference to the center of nose R, the shape to be
programmed must be different from the shape to be
machined,
Fig. 3.21
<.7,
of center
o’ nose R
(b)
Program with Nose R Offset Function
As with the program (b) in Fig. 3.20, appropriate
offsetting is made to finish the shape accurately
without overcuts and undercuts.
for Control Point O or 9
3.4 TOOL CFFSET FUNCTIONS
(3) Nose R Offset Commands
(a) Designation of offset amount and control point
To designate the nose R offset amount and control point, specify the offset data
memory number where the nose R offset amount and control point are entered by
lower 2 digits (3 digits) of a T command.
T
❑0
❑O
(T4-digit command)
Designation of memory number where tool position offset
and nose R offset number, and control point are saved
T
Designation
of tool selection
(b) Designation of nose R offset function ON and offset direction
To designation ON/OFF of the nose R offset function and the ofiset direction, use
the G codes
Table 3.15 G Codes Used for Turning ON/OFF Nose R Offset Function
G Code
G40
Nose R offset caned
G41
Nose R offset, left (nose R center is at the left side)
G42
Nose R offset, right (nc,se R center is at the right side)
CT
—
06
I
06
3—
G40 and G41/G42 are modal CJcodes in 06 group, and once designated the specified G code mode remains valid until another G code is specified, When the power
is turned ON or the CNC is reset, the G40 mode is set.
To enter the nose R offset mocle, specify either G41 or G42 with a T code.
+x
7//////
Offset to the right (G42)
‘/’////’/’
Olfsetto the Iefl(G41)
+Z
Fig. 3.22
Designation
of Nose R Offset Direction
The nose R offset direction can be changed over between “to thl>right” and “to the
left” by specifying G41 or G42 during the execution of a program. It is not necessary to cancel the nose R offset mode by specifying G40 or TOIObefore changing
over direction of offset. To cancel the nose R offset mode, spt:cify G40.
3-33
---
,—-
---
—..
—. —.
—.
—.....
(4) Outline of Nose R Offset Movements
Fig. 3.23 shows how the nose R offset function is executed.
Offset cancel (G40) block
(in the GO1 mode)
Offset cancel
CL
L
\
@
F
,!
state
““w
\
Imaginary tool nose
Offset start-up (G42) blcjck
(in the GOO mode)
Fig. 3.23
●
●
●
Outline of Nose R Offset Movements
(G42, Control Point 3)
In the offset cancel state, the imaginary tool nose position (~ agrees with the
point specified in the [email protected]
In the offset mode, the center of nose R is offset by the nose R amount from
the programmed paths and it follows the offset paths. Therefore, the imaginary tool nose position does not agree with the programmed point. Note that
the present position display shows the position of the imaginary tool nose.
In the offset mode, at the joints between
tool movements:
two blocks,
the nose R center paths (M97), or the round-the-arc
In Fig. 3.23, round-the-arc
●
there are two patterns
the center of nose R passes the point of intersection
path is generated
paths are generated
between
(M98).
bloclcs @ [email protected]
At the offset start-up [email protected] and cancel [email protected], the movements to link the
offset mode and offset cancel mode are inserted. Therefore, special attention
must be paid for specifying the offset start-up and cancel blocks.
—-
@iEB
for
between
1.
The nose R offset function can be used for circular interpolation
dius designation.
2.
It is allowed to specify a subprogram (M98, M99) in the offset mode. The nose
R offset function is applied to the programmed shape which is offset by the tool
position offset function.
3-34
specified by ra-
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
(5) Entering the Offset Mode
The offset mode is set when both of a tool offset number (by a T code) and G41 (or G42
to G44) are specified and the nose R.offset function is called. More precisely, the offset
mode starts at the time when the AND condition of a T code and a G code is satisfied.
There are no differences whichever of these codes is specified first (see Fig. 3.24). The
initial movement when the offset mode starts in the offset cancel statl>is called the startup motion.
TO1O1 ;
G41 ; Start-up block
I
1
Offset mode
I
G41TO101 ; Start-up block
G41 ;
TOI 01 ; Start-up block
1
I
Offset mode
I
Offset mode
Fig. 3.24
Offset Mode Entry lMethods
(6) Start-up of Offset (Axis Movement
Command Specified in the Start-up Block)
Since the offset start-up is executed with the offset taken into accclunt, the G code in
01-group must be either GOOor GC1l. If a G code other than GOOo.r GO1 is specified,
alarm “0180” occurs. If the offset :starts in the GOOmode, the axes move to the offset
point at their individual rapid traverse rates. Therefore, be aware oI~possible interference of a cutting tool with the worlkpiece.
There are two types of start-up such as start-up at inside corner and start-up at outside
corner.
u)
(D
CJ
. .
. .
. ..
..
x.
.. ..
‘x
3.
“N
.td
NC)”
. A“’
“.
w
VY
N
3.4 TOOL CFFSET FUNCTIONS
(b) Start-up at outside corner (“180° or larger)
In this case, two kinds of start-up modes (types A and B) are provided and the mode
to
be used can be selected by the setting for a parameter.
●
Type A: pm4013 DO = 1
The center of nose R moves to the offset point (on the normal start point of
the vector of the block next to the start-up block).
o From straight-line
~----:\
T(&to straight line at outside corner (183° to 270°)
Example of Programming
T .. . .
Gol Gh2z”””
z“””;
x”””;
l\
\
o~
I
\
\
\
\
\
“
\
Programmed
path
\
\
\
o
-,
‘GIL()
Fig. 3.27
Offset Start-up (Straight-line
3-37
-. ———
..— —
——— ——.—.— —..
to Straight-line
(1))
‘ Straight-line
to Straight-line
at outside corner (270° to 360°)
Example of Programming
T .. . .
Gol Gi2z”””
z“””;
x”””;
~------/
o~
/
/
,-
Programmed
path
1
G40
Fig. 3.28
Offset Start-up (Straight-line
. Straight-line
to Straight-line
(2))
to arc at outside corner (270° to 360°)
Example of Programming
T“””;
G01G42Z0.
.X”.”;
G02Z”””
X””” R”””;
\
\
\
Programmed
path
\
o
if>
G40
Fig. 3.29
Offset Start-up (Straight-line
3-38
to Arc)
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
●
Type B: pm4013 DO = O
The offset mode starts in the manner so that overcut dox not occur in the
movement in the next block.
“ Straight-line to straight-line at outside comer (270° t{) 360°) in the M97
(round-the-arc motion OFF) mode
Example of Programming
T, . . . .
G01G42Z.
z“””;
”” X.
O”;
s
----—--—-
\,
\
/“
k
-
Q)
o—
-&\
1,
‘\,
Programmed
4
‘~i
t)
path
-.
Fig. 3.30
Offset Start-up (Stlraight-line to Straight-line
(1))1
. Straight-line to straight-line at outside comer (180° to 270°) in the M96
(round-the-arc motion ON) mode
Example of Programming
T“.”;
G01G42Z”””
z, . . . .
.
X ... >
.- Found-the-arc
motion
o—
‘\;\
~
Programmed
\,
;
,
path
i,
/“k
I
‘h
—
\\,
{340
Fig, 3.31
Offset Start-up (Stiraight-line to Straight-1ine (2))
3-39
——. —.
—. —,,
———...
,—- —,....-..———
,--—.
- .,.
. Straight-line
to arc at outside corner (180° to 270°) in the M97 mode
Example of Programming
‘T”””;
GOIG42Z”.
”X O””;
G02Z”””
X””” R”””;
G40
Fig. 3.32
Offset Start-up (Straight-line
s Straight-line
to Arc (1))
to a~rcat outside corner (180° to 270°) in the M96 mode
Example of Programming
‘T”””;
G01G42Z.
G02Z”””
”” XO. O;
X””” R”””;
o
Round-the-arc
\
G40
Fig. 3.33
Offset Start-up (Straight-line
3-40
to Arc (2))
motion
FUNCTIONS
3.4 TOOL CFFSET
“ Straight-line
mode
to straight-line
at outside corner (270° to 360°) in the M97
In the M96 mode, tool path is generated to connect the end point of the startup block to the start point of the next block by an arc ir. the same manner
as shown in Figs. 3.31 i~nd3.33. In the M97 mode, the tool path is generated as shown in Figs. :3.34 and 3.35.
Example of Programming
T . . . .
Gol Gi2z”””
z, . . . .
x”””;
-------—
0
R
—
-----
o~,
R
IR
{
/“
Programmed
path
;
/’
R
,-”
/“
,’
,/’
-9s
/’
.-’
1’
d ._—
I
G40
Fig. 3.34
Offset Start-up (Straight-line
o Straight-line
to Straight-line)
to arc at outside corner (270° to 360°) in the M97 mode
Example of Programming
T . . . .
GOIG’42Z”””
X”””;
G02Z”””
X”””
R’””;
4,
\
\\
L(j)
programmed
‘.
path
s
;~
: R
FR
/
/
/
/
/’
/’y’
/
I
&. .
\
G40
Fig. 3.35
Offset Start-up (Straight-1ine to Arc)
3-41
.—— — —.
———.
———..
—
——-————.———-—.——.———
.. .— -—--
—.—.—
-—-—
(7) Start-up
Block)
of Offset (Axis Movement
Command
Not Specified
in the Start-up
If there are no axis movement commands specified in the start-up block, the center of
nose R moves to the point offset by Ron the normal at the start point of the next block
disregarding of the inside or outside corner and M96 or M97 mode. G codes in the 01
group that can be specified in the start-up block are only GOO, GO1, and Gil, and an
alarm “0180” occurs if other G code is specified. When Gll is specified in the start-up
block, the offset mode starts when the execution of the first cutting feed command
starts. Chamfering operation is executed as in the GO1 mode operation in the offset
mode.
●
If the next block calls straight-line
motion
Example of Programming
T . . . .
GOIG’42
GOIZ”””
F”””;
X-O;
\
Movement of the cente~ of nose R
at the start of offset
Fig. 3.36
●
Offset Start-up
Block)
(No Axis Movement
Command
in the Start-up
If the next block calls arc motion
Example of Programming
T .. . .
GOIG’42 F”””;
G03’Z . . .1..;,..;
Movement of the center of nose R
at the start of clffset
I
I
I
Fig. 3.37
Offset Start-up
Block)
3-42
(No Axis Movement
Command
in the Start-up
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
(8) Axis Movements
in the Offset Mode
Once the tool radius offset mode is set by the execution of G41 or G42, the center of
nose R moves along the paths offset by R from the programmed pal hs until the tool radius offset mode is canceled by G410. Since the offset paths are auto] natically generated
by the NC, the program should simply define the shape to be machined. The tool paths
are controlled according to the angle made” between the specified programmed paths.
(a) Inside corner (smaller than 180°)
The center of nose R moves to the position obtained by the calculation for the point
of intersection.
●
Straight-line
Fig. 3.38
●
.
Straight-line
Straight-line
Fig. 3.39
to straight-line
to Arc
Straight-line
Arc to arc
Fig. 3.40
to Straight-line
Arc to Arc
to Arc
(b) Outside corner (larger than 180°)
For this offset, two types of offset modes are provided and the offset mode to be
used can be selected by the designation of an M code.
Tool radius offset round-the-arc ON
Tool radius offset round-the-arc OFF
(calculation is executed to obtain the point of intersection)
-
F=
@ Tool movements
“ Straight-line
in the M96 (tool radius offset round-the-arc
ON) mode
to straight-line
Round-the-arc
motion
/
Note: In this case, round-the-arc
Fig. 3.41
motion of a cutting tool is included in the preceding block,
Round-the-arc
“ Straight-line
Motion (Straight-line
to Straight-line)
Round-the-arc
to arc
\
\
●H*
o
Center
Fig. 3,42
“
Round-the-arc
Motion (Straight-line
to Arc)
Arc to arc
Round-the-arc
Fig.
3.43
Round-the-arc
Motion
3.44
(Arc
to
Arc)
motion
motion
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
●
Tool movements
“ Straight-line
Fig. 3.44
in the M97 (tool radius offset round-the-arc
to straight-line
at outside corner (180° to 270°)
Offset Motion (Straight-line
o Straight-line
OFF) mode
to Straight-line)
to arc at cmtside corner (180° to 270°)
Center
Fig. 3.45
Offset Motion (Straight-line
to Arc)
“ Arc to arc at outside ccmner (180° to 270°)
Fig. 3.46
Offset Motion (Arc to Arc)
3-45
._-—___.
-... — .- —A-..
—.-...-—-....
—.—.. —
..- ——.. -—-” ...-—-—-—-
--——-—--,——’-——--——
--- ,—.——----.---————
“ Straight-line
to straight-line
,,
/ /’
at outside corner (270° to 360°)
,/
. .0
GO1
1? ,~’
~R
/’
GO1
,.
\
‘o. go-o
.R-R- . - . -.--.---+
s
Fig. 3.47
Offset Motion (Straight-line
s Straight-line
to
to Straight-line)
arc at outside corner (270° to 360°)
//
/ /’
,/
-1
Fig. 3,48
Offset Motion (Straight-line
to Arc)
c Arc to arc at outside corner (270° to 360°)
/
R ,“
:\
,
s
Fig. 3.49
Offset Motion (Arc to Arc)
3-46
/ //
3.4 TOOL OFFSFT FUNCTIONS
(c) Special commands
and motion in the offset mode
Special commands in the offset mode include the temporary cancel command (type
I and II) and re-designation of G41 and G42.
●
Temporary cancel command (type I)
The offset mode is temporarily canceled and offset modle cancel motion is
executed if the following commands are specified in the cffset mode. In this
temporary cancel motion, the center of nose R moves to tile point offset by R
on the normal at the end point of the preceding block.
“ Three or more blocks that do not include axis movem ant commands
can
be specified consecutively. The commands that do not call for axis movement includes G04 (dwell), independent M codes, S code, and axis command with O movement distance.
“ It is allowed to specify ‘buffering prohibiting block. The blocks that prohibit buffering include M codes (MOO, MO1, M02, M30), buffering prohibiting M code set by a parameter, G36 to G39 (stored stroke limit area ON,
OFF), and G1O (tool offset amount setting).
Example of Programming
NIGOIX”.
.Z”.
O;
N2G04
P”””;
N3 M15 ;
N4 S1OOO;
N5G01X”””
Z”””;
k,
\\
\\
\\
\\
“w+-----------
Nose Fl center path
N5
ifl
\
Fig. 3.50
L.
N2
N3
N4
Programmed
path
NI (G42)
Nose R Offset Temporary Cancel Command
(Consecutive 3 Blocks Not Including Axis Movement
Commands)
Example of Programming
NIGOIX.
”O Z”.”;
N2G01
”””;
N3G01X”’’”
Z”””;
\
k,
Nose R center path
‘----------------
N3
Programmed
N2
Fig. 3.51
●
path
N1 (G42)
Fig. 3.51 Nose R Offset Temporary
(Buffering Prohibiting Block)
Cancel Command
Temporary cancel command (type H)
With this type of command, the center of nose R moves so that the imaginary
toed nose moves to the endpoint of specified in the program by the automatic
reference point return command (G28, G30), thread cutting command (G32,
G34, G92), and coordinate system setting command (G50, etc.). The offset
mode is automatically set again from the block next to the one that contains
such commands. Note that axis movement does not occur if the coordinate
system setting command is specified.
●
Re-designation
of G41 and G42
It is possible to move the center of nose Rto the point offset by R on the normal
at the start point of the next block by specif ying G41 or G42 in the offset mode,
disregarding of the outside or inside corner and M96 or M97 mode.
Fig. 3.52
Re-designation
3-48
of G41, G42 in the Nose R Offset Mode
3,4 TOOL C FFSET FUNCTIONS
Axis Movements
in the Offset Mode (No Axis Movement
Commancls)
In the nose R offset mode, the NC generates the tool paths by buffertng the data of two
blocks. If a block not including axis move commands is read, the NC reads one more
block to generate the offset tool paths. Designation of such a block which does not include axis move commands is allowed in the tool radius offset mode for up to two consecutive blocks.
After the designation of G41 or G42, there must not be three or more consecutive blocks
that do not include the movement commands of the axes in the offset plane.
(a) Consecutive
three or more blocks not including axis move commands
If three or more blocks not containing
given consecutively,
the specified
the cutting
offset amount
axis move commands
tool is moved
in {he offset plane are
to the position
(offset normally
at the end point of the block immediately
such blocks.
Example of Programming
T ... .
GOIG’41Z”-”
z . . . x“””;
X””” F-;
z . . . x“”””;
Blocks not incll.ding axis movement
commands in the offset plane
(If such blocks continue up to two
blocks, the NC :an generate tool
paths without a problem.)
G04 P1OOO;
z . . . x“””;
z . . . x“””;
M. ..;
s, . . . .
z . . . . x, . . . .
Z“”” x”””;
G40Z.
.O X”.”:
-1
}
by
preceding
(b) Insertion of dummy block
If there are no axis move commands in three consecutive blocks, the cutting tool
is positioned on the normal end point of the block immediately preceding such
blocks, If it is impossible to specify move commands of the axes in the offset plane
due to the retraction motion of the third axis orotherreasons and if normal positioning is not desirable, a dummy block that includes I or K can be inserted in the program. ‘The dummy block does not call up actual axis movements, but it only gives
the data necessary for the calculation to generate the offset tool paths. In the example program given below, a dummy block specifying the same movements as given
in the block (N020) where the axis movement restarts in the ZX plane after the Zaxis movement is inserted in a program; addresses I and K are used in the dummy
block.
Example of Programming
N001G17G01
G41Z”
N002Z.
”” X”” O;
O” X..
.FJ
OCT...;
1
XY plane
NOIOZ”
N012
~
O” Y..”;
NO1l K”’
I...;
-
Dummy block
--------
M’””;
Z-axis (3 blocks or more)
N019
N020Z”
S”””;
O” X””.;
‘---
””
1
j ------------
”--’
I
XY plane
}
N029Z”.
”X .”.;
N030G40Z.
”” X..;
J
N012
NOI 9
7%,,..
Fig. 3,53
~_z
Insertion of Dummy Blocks
3-50
———_—
________ ..._.
;
34 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
‘——
* In a dummy block, addresses I and Kare used corresponding to X- and Z-axis.
Specify these addresses meeting the plane which has beer selected as the offset plane. Note that in dummy blocks, commands should be given in incremental commands. With the example program indicated above, if
“z’”””
x“”” “ in N20 are specified in absolute values, change them to
equivalent incremental values.
●
If the object of the dummy blockis circular interpolation, enter the dummy
block as shown in the example program given below. Insert the dummy block
in which the straight line expressing the tangential direction at the start point
of circular interpolation is specified as shown in Fig. 3.54. The cutting tool
moves to point A as shown in Fig. 3.55 by the execution (if the dummy block
so that the following circular interpolation can be executed.
Example of Programming
N050G01Z”””
X””.;
N051 GO1 K (b) I (-a) ; + Dummyblock
N052 M”””;
\
z-EM.is
I
N059 S..”;
N060G03Z”.
N061G01
J
”X .-.
K (a) I (b) ; -
Circular interpolation
Z-..;...;
x
!
(straight-line)
L-.--.-z
Fig. 3,54
Insertion of Dummy Block
..
----
.
..- Center
i
t
t
$
(
~<
b
[K
N051 Dummy block
1——.z
Fig, 3,55
●
Movement to Point A by Execution of Dummy Block
If I or K is specified when canceling the offset mode, the offset position is corrected from point (i) to [email protected] according to the direction specified by these
addresses.
Direction defined
by I and J
\
“.\
\
\.
\
\
.
,
.\
.
4“
“\O’&’
.
.
-- G~Q ------2
L
Fig. 3.56
Correction
of Offset Position
3-52
G42
3.4 TOOL CIFFSET FUNCTIONS
——l——
(1O)Switching the G41 and G42 in the Offset Mode
The direction of offset (left side and right side) canbe directly switched without canceling the offset mode. There are two kinds of G41/G42 switching rnel hods (types A and
B) and the method to be used can be selected by the setting for a p ~rameter.
pm4013 D1 = 1
TypeA
pm4013 D1 = O
Type B
.----1
(a) Type A: pm4013 D1 = 1
The offset direction is switched at the start and end of the block ill which the switching of the offset direction is specified.
Example of Programming
NIO T”””;
N11G41(G42)
N20G01Z
Z”” CX”.
O;
””” X””” F”””;
N21 G42 (G41)
N22 Z”””;
z . . . x“””;
*
Offset direction switching
block
. . ,.”-?,’
,
,
/
,i
G41
“,
‘~ N21
,’
N20
+
fj
‘,
‘,
N22
\
, ,’<
. .-
u
(a) G41
G42
+ G42 (M96 mode)
&b
N20
N21
d’.
G41
‘.
‘.,
/’
-.
G42
-+
=
(b) G42 + G41
Note:
If the contentsof N21 block are expressed in two blocks as indicated below
G42 (or G41);
z . . . x. ..;
the offset direction is switched in the same manner.
Fig. 3.57
Switching the Offset Direction at the Start and End of the Block
3-53
..—
——
-. ——.. -.—
..-
—.. —.-..——.—..——
—... .— ——... -.--————
—-...
(b) Type 13: pm4013 D1 = O
Direction of offset is switched at the point of intersection of the offset tool paths.
s
,x’”
t
,’
,’
t!
1’
G42
t’
.
.
I
I Point of intersection
-Q ------
Fig. 3.58
+.
-.--&
s
Switching of the Offset Direction at Point of Intersection
Tool Paths
of Offset
If there is no point of intersection, the offset direction is switched according to type
A.
Fig. 3.59
Switching of the Offset
Intersection
3-54
Direction
when There
is No Point of
3.4 TOOL 13FFSET FUNCTIONS
(11) Changing the Tool Offset Amount in the Offset Mode
There are two kinds of offset amount changing methods (types A and B), and the method to be used can be selected by the setting for a parameter.
(a) Type A: pm4013 D2 = O
When a new T code is specified, the new offset data are calculated from the axis
move commands given in the block including the new D code and the next block.
------
-------
----
0.- -------
----
/t
“
7’2;’’:5”
Block specifying
a new D code
b
/
Fig. 3.60
Calculating the New Offset Data from the Axis Nlove Commands
in the New T Code Specifying Block and the Next Block
(b) Type B: pm4013 D2 = 1
When a new T code is specified, the new offset data are calculated from the axis
move commands given in the block including the new T code and the preceding
block.
.S
‘2
/
Fig. 3,61
Calculating the New Offset Data from the Axis tdove Commands
in the New T Code Specifying 1310ckand the FWvious Block
3-55
——
... .—, .—.
.--. .—. ———.
I
I
i
,
I
i
I
1
(n
m
cd
“.
W
.
N
“.
N
xx
0
c:
-I-I
in
N
u
(E”
“.-.
.
.
.
NN
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
xx
. .
“.
N
cl.
-.
,
B
g
w.
w
z
0
ii-
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
—l—l—
(b) Canceling the offset mode at outside comer (larger than
lQO”)
There are two types (types A and B) of offset mode cancellation
axis movement
patterns, and the pattern to be used can be selected by the setting for a parameter.
For this selection, the same parameter as used to select the start-up mode is used.
I
I
pm4013 DO= 1
I
Type A
pm4013 DO. O
I
Type B
“ Type A
I
I
pm4013 DO = 1
The center of nose R is moved normally 10the offset positi{m at the end point
of the block immediately before the offset mode cancellation block and then
to the end point specified in the program.
. Straight-line
to straight-line
at outside corner (180° to 270°)
Example of Programming
(G41)
G40
Fig. 3.64
Straight-1ine to Straight-line
“ Straight-line
to straight-line
‘41/’
/“ /
/“
at Outside Corner
at outside corner (270° to $60°)
Example of Programming
-.
Q
(G41)
~
GOIX.
G40X.
Fig. 3,65
-” Z”. ”F
”” Z..”;
Straight-line
.””;
G40
\
\
--——
——
_____
_
“---i!)
\\
\
\
\ \
to Straight-line
\\
at Outside Corner
3-57
---—
—.. ,—. ——-+.
___
. ..— .——-—--
-—..
-.—.
=... . ..--..
.4. .-
—— ....—
?. !——-
—...
,,-4 -—-.....-—.—.———..——-—.
“ From arc to straight-line
at outside corner (180° to 270°)
Example of Programming
G42
G02X”””
Z”””
G01G40X”””
I”””
K’””;
/
Z”””;
()
Center
Fig. 3.66
From Arc to Straight-line
. Arc to straight-line
at Outside Corner
at outside corner (270° to 360°)
Example of Prc)gramming
G42
G02X”””
Z”””
I”””
G01G40X””’
Z”””;
\
h
K”””;
0
Q
’40
/
‘.
\
\
\
\
s
,.
/’
,’
;
6
Center
Fig. 3.67
Arc to Straight-line
at Outside Corner
G40
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
●
Type B: pm4013 DO = O
The center of nose R moves to the point c~btained by the calculation of the point
of intersection using the axis move commands in the offset mode cancel block
and those in the block immediately before this block, and then to the point specified in the program.
. Straight-line
to straight-line
at outside corner (180° to 270°)
Example of Programming
G42
GOIZ”””
G40XC””
F”..;
Z””.;
G40
.,
.’
,0
Cf
/’
/’
R,. ”
----
Straight-line
“ Straight-line
to Straight-line
to straight-line
u’
s
&
Fig. 3.68
R
at Outside Corner
at outside corner (270° to 360°)
Example of Programming
G42
GOIZ.
”- F”. O;
G40X”””
Z””4;
G40
Fig. 3.69
Straight-line
to Straight-line
3-59
at Outside Corner
. Arc to straight-line
at outside corner (180° to 270°)
Example of Programming
G42
G40
/
G02X”0.
Z’. I”.
O
G01G40X”””
Z”””;
K.””;
/o
/0
//
/
/
//
R /“
/
/
(“f
/
1(
//
/“
s
Center
Fig. 3.70
Arcto
Straight-line
o Arctostraight-line
at Outside Corner
atoutside
corner (270 °t03600)
Example of Programming
G42
G02X”””
Z”””
I”””
K”””;
G01G40X”””
Z”””;
G40
r5
Center
Fig. 3.71
Arc to Straight-line
3-60
at Outside Corner
34
TOOL O’I’FSET FUNCTIONS
——!——
(c) Example of programs
Example of Programming
1
(G42, control point 3)
0 G02
@ GO1 U20. FO.25 ;
@ GOO G40 X11O. Z40. ;
@ TOlOO;
Offset mode cancel movement
-—
( n the GOOmode)
The coordinate values of this point are (110, 40)
with a standard tool since the tool position offset
is also canceled.
GOO
,7-_-—.
4
-------
,
*
+x
r)Txk?17
-+-----+z
Fig. 3.72
Example of Programming
Example of Programming
1
2
(G42, control point 3)
O
@
@
@
GO1 X . . . Z“”” F”””;
GO1 U24. FO.3 ;
GO1 G40 X80. Z40. F6. ;
GOO T0200;
_
----”3-(3
(in the GO1
Offset mode cancel movement
@’
/---
+x
12. @
“0
G
Fig. 3,73
I
Example of Programming
2
3-61
__
—.=. .—.-
—.”.
-.”.
—
-—-.
—
(14)Offset Made Cancel Movements
Cancel Block)
If the G40 block that cancels
specified
movements,
Command
the offset mode does not include
mand, the offset cancel movement
point
(Axis Movement
in which the imaginary
in the program.
Since
G40 (or TODOO)
GOO or GO1 must be specified
in a preceding
Specified
in the
an axis movement
com-
tool nose moves
command
to the end
calls such axis
or the same block that con-
tains it. If other than GOO, IGO1,or Gll is specified as a G code in 01 group, an alarm
“0181” occurs.
Example of Programming
(G41, control point 4)
OGOIX”””
Z”””
@G01G40F
o+.;
GOO T0300 ;
F.””;
\
/
/
/
/
/
,’
/
@ Offset cancel movement
Fig. 3.74
Offset Mode Cancel Movements
(a) Canceling the offset mode by TCli100
If the nose R offset mode is canceled
cancel movements
In these movements,
position
offset is canceled,
ments should not be executed
mode.
3-62
..
by “TCICIOO” command,
occur simultaneously
the imaginary
specified
command
tool position
offset
with the nose R offset cancel movements.
nose R moves
to the position,
iri the program.
simultaneously,
where
If these two cancel
the tool
move-
use G40 to cancel the nose R offset
3.4 TOOL CIFFSET FUNCTIONS
(b) Canceling theoffset
mode by ’’G4O X“.
Z“”.
I .“
K“”.
;“
A special cancel movement can be called by specifying I and K commands with
G40 in the same block. The point of intersection is calculated using the commands
specified in the block immediately preceding the G40 block and the vector defined
by I and K specified in the G410block; the offset mode is canceled in the manner
the center of nose R passes through the calculated point of intersection.
\\
\
\\
\
\
Vector defined by I and K
\
\.
\
\
\\
\
..
/
/
//
,-
.
G40 [...
Nose R ce,nter paths
\
\
.—
paths
Programmed
Fig. 3.75
K. ..;
Canceling the Offset Mode by G40 I “ “ .
K ““
In this offset mode cancel movements, the center of nose R passes the point of intersection determined by the two blocks disregarding of whether the corner made by
the preceding block and the vector (defined by I and K) is inside or outside corner,
and also disregarding of the M96 and M97 mode. If the point of intersection cannot
be calculated, the center of nose R moves to the point offset hIy R on the normal
at the end point of the preceding block as shown in Fig. 3.76.
/“
. ,
s ;._ /’” --
/“
G401.
.—.
~{
K. ..;
- ----——-— ——
Nose R center paths
/
—.—.
—
-—-—Vector defined by I and K
Fig. 3.76
Programmed
paths
Canceling the Offset Mode by G40 I . “ c K “ “ ~
(No Point of Intersection)
3-63
.—.-.
.
.. ——.—-— ——.—————.
.. .. . -—....”.—————--—.
..-
Example of Programming
N1 G50 X140. Z20. ;
N2 GOO S1700 M03 T0202 ;
N3 (GOO) G42 XO Z5. ; —
Nose R offset start-up block
T
N4 GO1 [email protected] FO.2 ;
N5 X20. ;
N6
N7
N8
N9
Z-20. ;
X30. W-15. S11OO;
G12 W-20. 13. ; —
Gll X50. K-3. S700 ; -
%
~
3
&
o
(Rounding)
(Chamfering)
N1O GO1 Z-70. ;
Nll
G02 X90.
Z-90.
R20. S360 ; —
(Arc designated by R commanti)
N12 GO1 X11O. S300 ;
N13 G04 ~JO ;
(Dwell for making sharp edge)
N14 (GO1) Z-11O. ;
N15 X120. ;
N16 GOO X140.
Z30. T0200 ;
Nose R offset cancel block
—
N17 G40 ;
N15
/’
.“
------
.’-O?~&-~~d~
cancel
‘----N-l~--
‘-
‘---
‘–‘-;~--------------7),
- ‘---fvfovements
for tool
position offset: N2 ,/”
\
o ‘of
;zNoseR
R $90,
;
center paths
Programmed
‘at’s
~
r;
,’ N?
.
‘
I+-llO.
Fig. 3.77
L
-90, l.+
-70.
Example of Programming
3-64
@
‘TOOL
N0,2
~
j
r
[
&
..v
-z
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
(15)lnterference
Check
The interference check function prevents the cutting tool from cutting into or interfering
with the workpiece. However, this check is not made at the start-u] J of the tool radius
offset mode. The process to be taken in case of interference is detected from the blocks
read into the buffer memory can be selected by the setting for a parameter as indicated
below.
,
,
——
Alarm occurs ard operation stops.
H%--+-%::::
---k==-----+
Whether or not the interference check is executed is also determined by the setting for
a parameter.
1nterferencecheclck not made.
pm4013 D3 = O
I
pm4013 D3 = 1
I lnterferencecheck is made.
1
[
The illustration in Fig. 3.78 shows how the interference check function operates. In
reference to the programmed paths,, offset tool paths are generated according to the set
nose R offset amount. With nose R offset amount Ra, tool paths f - f2 + f3 - f4
- fs - f6 is generated and with Rb tool paths f ~‘ - f6’ are generated. However, in
the tool paths generated with the offset amount of Rb, path f3’ --+ f4’ shows 180° reversed movement from the correct programmed path direction f3 –* f4. Tlhe function
assumes this interference and generates an alarm.
f,‘
f*’ f~’
fG’
Rb
comman P
Ra
~
command
,—
\
L
f4!
f,
fs
f2
fG
. .—
Ra \
I
I
I
t
,—
)f
Programmed
paths
Fig, 3.78
Definition of Interference
3-65
——
..—-
————
—..
—. ——..
—.——
—...—
—..
—
..-. ——-—.———
——-..
(a) Type A: pm4013 D4 = 1 Generation
of alarm
The foliowingprograms give examples in which the function determines that interference (overcuts) will occur due to considerable differences between the programmed paths and the tool paths generated after offset.
●
Example program I
.
.4”
\\
~o
1
,“h
L.-/
1
;;;
NO
I
I ---------
,’
*“
-------L
“---
------
@@
R
--‘,
\
\
N3
N2
N1
Fig. 3.79
●
Example Program 1
Example program 2
0
-------
------
—
-.,
t,
\,
\I
@:
NO
N1
N2
Note:
Since the cutting tool cuts into the workpiece excessively at the end [email protected] of block Nl, alarm “0187” occurs.
The operation stops when the cutting tool reaches the end point of block NO.
Fig. 3.80
Example Program 2
3-66
——— .—
—.
... —-
..
3.4 TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS
Type B: pm4013 D4 = O Correcting the tool paths
If the function detects possible interference after the calculation of the offset tool
paths, the function clears the nose R center paths that might cau se interference and
generates the paths that are free of interference.
●
Generating interference-free
For the programmed
paths for straight-line
to straight-line
motion
paths as shown in Fig. 3.81, three poi,~ts fl, f2, and f3 are
generated at the joint of blocks N1 and N2 according to the nose R offset function.
Point f4 is also generated at the joint of N2 and N3. Interference check is made
using these four points fl to fo and the points causing inte:l”ference are erased
one by one until the tool paths that are free of interferenc~ are generated.
Checked for f3 - f4: Erasing f3 since interference
Checked for f2 - f4: Erasing f2 since interference
Checked for fl - f4: No interference
Fig. 3.81
occurs.
occurs.
Generating Tool %thS without Interference
(Straight-line to Straight-line)
●
Generating interference-free
For the programmed
paths for arc to arc motion
paths as shown in Fig. 3.82, four points fl, f2, f3, and f4
are generated at the joint of N1 and N2 according to the nose R offset function.
At the joint of N2 and N3, another four points fs to fg are generated. Interference check is made using these eight points fl to fg and the points causing interference are erased one by one until the tool paths that are free of interference
are generated.
Checked for f4 - f5:
Checked for fs - f6:
Checked for f2 - f7:
f4 and f5 are erased since interference
fs and ffj are erased since interference
No interference
Tool paths are generated as fl -
fz fz
Fig, 3.82
Generating
Interference-free
3-68
——
occurs.
occurs.
fT ~ f&
f~
Paths for Arc to Arc Motion
3,4 TOOL OI=FSET FUNCTIONS
~ Example where interference-free
tool paths cannot be gen~rated
For the programmed paths as shown in Fig. 3.83, three points fl, f2, and f3 are
generated at the joint of N1 and N2 according to the nose R offset function.
At the joint of N2 and N3, another three points fq to fGare generated. Interference check is made using t]hese six points f 1to fGand the po ints causing interference are erased one by one until the tool paths that are free of interference
are generated.
Checked for f3 - f4: f3 and f4 are erased since interference
Checked for f2 - f5: f2 and f5 are erased since interference
Checked for fl - fG: fl and fGare erased since interference
occurs.
occurs.
occurs.
Occurrence of alarm (“0188”): Operation stops when the cutting tool is positioned at the start point of N1 block.
N2
Fig. 3.83
where Interference-free
Generated
Tool Paths cannot be
Example
3-69
.. ...—.. .. . . .——
-- ..———
——
- .—-
—..
—.. —
.- .---—
——
..-
—. —.
——.
.. ,-, .. —..
—-.—
—.
—---
(16) Internal M codes for judging round-the-arc
ON/OFF (M96/M97)
M96 and M97 commands are modal and the M96 mode is set when the power is turned
ON. The round-the-arc judgment internal M codes are indicated in Table 3.16.
Table 3.16 Round-the-arc
E
Judgment
Internal M Codes
M96
Nose R offset round-the-arc ON
M97
Nose R offset round-the-arc OFF (execution of the calculation of point of intersection)
Arc 1
Point of .
/7
Cr
—
Programmed
paths
+
(b) M97 Mode
(a) M96 Mode
Fig, 3.84
~—~
Movements
in the M96/M97 Mode
(a) Movements in the nc~se R offset mode called by G41 /G42
in the nose R offset mode, called by G41/G42, when the shape specified by the pro-
gram has a corner that has the tangential angle of 180° or larger, the cutting tool
turns around the corner along an arc if the M96 mode is specified, In the M97
mode, an arc is not generated for the tool paths, but the point of intersection is calculated from the paths that are offset from the programmed paths by the nose R
offset amount and the cutting tool moves to the calculated point of intersection
when turning around the corner.
(b) Block:; where M96 and M97 commands
are valid
The following example shows how the M96 and M97 commands become valid.
Example of Programming
GO1 Z“.”X.O.F...
(GO1)Z.
”X.OOM
96;
z . . . x“””;
Z . . . X.” M97;
3-70
——.
—
—.—...—
;
M96 becomes valid from the tool movements
) along the corner, defined by these two blocks.
M97 becomes valid from the tool movements
} along the corner, defined by these two blocks
3.4 TOOI. CIFFSET FUNCTIONS
(17)Supplements
●
●
to the Nose R Offset Commands
In nose R offset mode, the maximum programmable
3.21 also apply.
values specified in Table
Alarm “0184” occurs if the following shapes are specified.
. Circular arc: Radius (r) of arc+ 5 S Nose R radius (F1.)
,
Cutting tool
-“
i
b
r<R
r
I
I
2
I
t
(a) Alarm in offset at the outside of an arc
(b) Alarm in offset at the inside of an arc
r------
‘-
“–
Offset is c]rrectly executed
at the outsde of the arc even
if ‘{r < R“.
Fig. 3.85
Programmed
Paths Causing an [email protected]
‘ Point of intersection dc)es not lie on the tool paths
---w
(H
J
No point of Intersection
}
The error o(,curs if a nose R has
an excessively large diameter in
comparison with the programmed
shape to be machined.
Nopointof/’’::”\”\
intersection
\
,
‘d
>
/“
\\_
A
~e~
RI
Cutting toc,l
~q
I
T>
Fig. 3.86
Programmed
Paths Causing an [email protected]
3-71
error
* The G codes that can be used in the nose R offset mode are indicated in
Table 3.17. The following G codes must not be used in the nose R offset
mode: G31, G74/Cr75/G76, G68/G69, and G122/G123.
If any of these G
codes is specified in the nose R offset mode, alarm “0161” occurs.
Table 3.1 i’ G Codes That Can Be Specified in the Nose R Offset Mode
F
Remark
Usable G Codes
GOO,GO1, G04, G06, Gll
G96, G97 : Constant surface speed control
G98, G99 : Feed function designation
(G90, G91: Absolute/incremental command)
7
E: cOmrn=E!E
G70, G71, G72, G73 : Multlple-repetlt]ve cycle
~ Multiple chamfering, rounding
●
Even in the M96 mode, if both AX and AZ are smaller than the specified
amount as shown i:n Fig. 3.87, round-the-arc paths are not generated but the
cutting tool moves directly to point B. The amount to determine whether or
not round-the-arc paths are generated is set for parameter pm4450.
AZ
B
--,.’
.’
,,
l-\,
\,
~, t
If
---
{
x
Cutting tool
movements
AX~r
Az~r
r: Value set for parameter pm4450
!I
I
F
I
,
‘“>
Fig, 3,87
\
Programmed
path
If Both AX and AZ are Smaller Than Specified Amount
3.4 TOOL CIFFSET FUNCTIONS
●
If offset is made in the M96 mode for the step that is smaller than the nose R
offset amount, overcuts will occur. Conversely, uncut portion will be left if
the M97 mode is used for offset. In actual operation, it is recommended to use
the M97 mode.
-— *–---—-.
‘\
\
\ ~.
..+
i
-------~).
</--
Overcuts
(a) M96 Mode
Q
i–--––
-*
\ Uncut portion
(b) M97 Mode
Fig. 3.88
Offsetting Step Smaller Than Nose R Offset Amount
●
MDI operation intervention is not allowed in the offset mode. However, oneIine MDI operation is possible.
●
In the G41 or G42 mode, it is possible to enter the data in tke same procedure
as in the MDI operation by using the following steps: First mrn ON the single
block switch. After the machine has stopped in the block stop state, select the
RAPID or JOG mode and enter the data. The data that can be entered in this
operation are restricted to IF,M, S, and T codes. After entering the data, press
the cycle start switch without changing the mode (RAPID’ or JOG) selected
for entering the data, and the entered code is executed immediately with the
signal such as BIN code output. Return the mode to the automatic operation
mode and press the cycle start switch. With this operation, suspended automatic operation can be resumed. Note that MOO, MO1, 1,402, M30, and M
codes processed in the CNC cannot be entered by this operation.
3-73
——.-— —-,
—,- ———-—. ——--—
——-.
.—-.
.-.
-,.”,...
.__-—-.
—..
——.—
—.-.
.— ——.--.-—-——
.—-— —
. The T code command that has the tool offset number of “O(Y’cancels the tool
position and nose IRoffset functions.
Example of Programming
N2 G41 ;
N3 GOO TO1O1 ;
1
Nose R offset mode with tool No. 01
N21 GOO TOlOO ;
Cancel
j}
N25 GOO T0202 ;
.
Nose R offset
Tool position offset
1
1
Nose R offset mode with tool No. 02
N40 GOO T0200 ;
N41 G40 ;
3-74
..
3.5 SPINDLE FUNCTION
3.5
SPINDLE FUNCTION (S FUNICTION)
3.5.1
Spindle Command (S5-digit Commimd)
(S FUNCTION)
A spindle speed can be directly specified by entering a 5-digit number following address S
(S00000).
The unit of spindle speed is “r/rein”. The specified S vidue becomes valid
from the moment’the S command completion input signal (SFIN) is turned ON. [f an S command is specified with M03 (spindle forward rotation) or M04 (spindle reverse rotation), the
program usually advances to the next block only after the spindle has reached the speed specified by the S command. For details, refer to the instruction manuals published by the machine tool builder.
Example of Programming
S1OOOM03;
SA
1000 r/rein
r
Spindle speed agreed
————
—
I
I
I
Actual spindle speed
r
I
I
r
Start of spindle
rotation
—-*
,’~
Start of the block indicilted
Fig. 3.89
Completion
above
Spindle Speed Command
of M
t
●
For the output of S5-digit commands, it is possible to add the control function
implemented by the PLC can be added by the NC. In this case, it is possible
to set the spindle speed in manual operation to the speed that corresponds to
the specified S command by using the rotary switch on the machine operation
panel. For details, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
c An S command is mlodal and, once specified, it remains valid until another S
command is given next. If the spindle is stopped by the execution of M05,
the S command value is retained. Therefore, if M03 or M04 is specified without an S command in the same block, the spindle can start by using the S command value specified before.
●
The lower limit of an S command (SO or an S command close to SO) is determined by the spindle drive motor and spindle drive system, and it varies with
each machine. Do not use a negative value for an S command. For details,
refer to the instruction manuals published by the machine tool builder.
●
●
3.5.2
Spindle speed override is possible for the specified S code.
For the machine that has the gearbox with which gear range can be changed
by specifying an M code, specify the M code to select an appropriate gear
range before specifying an S code. For the number of gear ranges and the
available spindle speed range in the individual gear ranges, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
Maximum Spindle Speed Command (G50 S)
By the commands of “G50 S “ 00 ;“, the clamp speed of the spindle can be set by specifying
the allowable maximum spindle speed in a 5-digit number following address S. Once the
clamp speed is set, it is not influenced by the reset operation.
If a spindle speed that exceeds the specified speed is entered, the spindle speed is clamped
at the specified clamp speed. To cancel the clamp speed, specify “G50 SO ;“.
. The clamp speed specified with G50 can be displayed on the screen.
●
If the PLC-based control function is added to the S code output, the unit of S
codes is not always “rlmin”. For the unit system used for spindle speed, refer
to the manuals published by the machine tool builder.
3-76
3,5 SPINDLE
3.5.3
FUNCTION
(S FUNCTION)
Constant Surface Speed Control (G:96, G97) *
The G codes indicated in Table 3.18 are used for the constant surface spd control function.
G96 and G97 are modal G code of 02 group. The initial state when the plower is turned ON
is the G97 (cancel) mode.
Table 3.18 G Codes for Constant Surface Speed Control
==!:
Constant
surface speed control ON
Constant surface speed control cancel
(1) Constant Surface Speed Contrcd ON (G96)
With the commands of “G96 S . . “ (M03) ;“, tlhe workpiece surface speed is designated by a maximum 5-digit number following address S. The unit used for specifying
the surface speed is indicated in Table 3.19.
Table 3.19 Units of Surface Speed Designation
In the constant surface speed control mode, the NC assumes the present value of the
X-axis as the workpiece diameter and calculates the spindle speed every 32 msecso that
the specified surface speed is maintained. The result of calculation iIsoutput in analog
voltage. The specified surface speed can be changed by specifying a required S code
in the following blocks.
3-77
(a) Spindle gear range selection
For the machine that has the gearbox with which gear range can be changed by
specifying an M code, specify the M code to select an appropriate gear range before
specifying G96. For details, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool
builder.
Example of Programming
N8 MAA;
—
N9 G96 S1OO M03 ;
(b) Designation
M code for selecting gear range
(Example: Gear range No. 4)
of “G50 S“
In the constant surface speed control operation, the allowable maximum spindle
speed must be specified following G50 before the G96 designation block so that
the spindle speed becomes abnormally high as the X-axis present value becomes
smaller.
-,
N1O G50 S2000 ;
Nll h!t~~ ;
N12 G96 S150 M03 ;
3-78
Designation
of clamp speed (r/rein)
3.5 SPINDLE FLJNCTION (S FUNCTION}
(c) Constant surface speed control in positioning
mode blocks
If the setting for parameter pm4011 D4 is “1” (pm4011 D4 = 1), the constant surface speed control is applied even to positioning mode (GOO, Ci06) blocks. In this
case, however, the spindle speed is calculated based on the coordinate values of the
end point of positioning.
Therefore, spindle speeds are consta~tly calculated and
controlled only in the cutting mode.
If “pm4011 D4 = O“, constant surface speed control is applied only to the cutting
feed blocks and the positioning block immediately before the cutting feed block.
For the positioning block, spindle speed is calculated based on the coordinate values of the end point of positioning.
(I
/
/
/ \
GOO ‘
/
Go1
1-
At the start of GOO mode operation, spindle speed is
calculated and set for the end point of positioning.
L’
1
,
-t---F-Z
~
8
x-coordinate
for positioning
value used for calculating
4
N4 G50 S1500 ;
spindle speed
block
Spindle speed clamp v?.lue
N5 hl~~;
.
*
N6 G96 S150 M03 ;
N7 GOO X40. Z5. ;
N8 GO1 ZO FO.15 ;
N9 X80. Z-30. ;
N1O W-10. ;
Nil. G22 X120. W-20. R20. ;
N12 GO1 U1O. ;
N13 G97 S500 ;
N14 G50 S2000 ;
‘—
Gear range selection
Designation
M code
of surface speed of 150 m/min
Constant surface speec control mode
1
~ancel of constant SLlrfilCe speed control
+x
+’
Fig. 3.90
Constant Surface Speed
3-79
—...——.... .—-,.—....—..—.-.—..
—- ———- -----
..-.——..-
..-
—.———.,.— —. ——..-
.—
.-a
..
—-——
—,
—-—---
(2) Canceling the Constant Surface Speed Control (G97)
Specify a spindle speed (r/rein) by a maximum of 5-digit number following address S
with the commands “G97 S “ . . (M03) ;“. The constant surface speed control mode
is canceled, and the spindle rotates at the specified spindle speed.
(3) Supplemer~ts to the Constant Surface Speed Control Commands
o
●
To execute the constant surface speed control, set the G50 coordinate system
or a workpiece coordinate system so that the X-coordinate value of the centerline of the spindle will be “O” and program the operation on this coordinate
system. With this, X-coordinate values in a program represent the diameter
of workpiece accurately.
Set “l” for parameter pm4011 D5 (pm4011 D5 = O) to execute the constant
surface speed control. In this setting, spindle speed is calculated without adding the tool position offset amount to the coordinate values specified in a program. If a large value is set for tool offset data, the tool position offset function
is executed correctly and the constant surface speed control is also executed
correctly.
c With the setting of “pm4011 D5 = l“, the “coordinate
value in a program +
tool position offset amount” is taken as the diameter of a workpiece for the
calculation of spindle speed to execute the constant surface speed control. If
the constant surface speed control is executed under such setting, it is necessary to set a coordinate system for the individual tools. It is also necessary to
use the tool position offset only for compensation for tool wear so that a large
value will not be set for offset data.
●
●
For spindle gear ranges, up to four steps is allowed.
Setting for parameter pm4011 D5 and that for pm3000 D2 are not related to
each other. Switching over the setting for these parameters (calculation for the
constant surface speed control, present position data display on the screen) is
processed independently.
pm3000 D2 = O
In the presentpositiondata (workpiececoordinatesystem),
coordinatevaluesare displayedwith the tool positionoffset
amountand nose R offsetamountincluded.
pm3000 D2 = 1
In the present position data (workpiece coordinate system),
coordinate values are displayed without including the tool
position offset amount and nose R offset amount.
[
3-80
3.5 SPINDLE FUI’JC 170N [S FUNCTION)
3.5.4
Rotary Tool Spindle Selection Function *
By selecting this, option, it is possible to add the rotary tool spindle to the main spindle. In
this case, spindle speed commands (S cc)des) are applied to the main or rotary tool spindle
according to the specified G code as indicated below. IG132 and G133 arl>modal; when the
NC is reset or when the power is turned ON, the G133 mode is set,
After switching over the G code between G132 and G133, make sure tcl specify a spindle
speed before rotating the spindle.
Table 3.20
Spindle Mode Selection G Codes
Spindle speed commands are used as those for the rotary tool
-’””’”0”
I
“-F7
G133
Spindle speed commands are used as those for the main spindle.
I
22 I
Q It is not possible to use the rotary tool spindle for the reference spindle where
feed per revolution control is executed.
“ The constant surface speed control is not valid for the rotary tool spindle.
3-81
.—. ———
-————.———--—..————-
..— ——
—.
——. - . ..-———.—.—
.————
3.6
TOOL FUNCTION (T FUNCTION)
The tool function has two command designation types as T4-digit commands and T6-digit
commands.
3.6.1
T4-digit Command
A tool number and a tool offset number are specified by a 4-digit number following address
T (TUOOO).
T
❑o
❑ tl
L
Tool offset number
I
Tool number
The range of numbers that can be specified differ depending on whether the option is selected
or not. For details, refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder. Concerning
the details of tool offset, refer to 3.4 “TOOL OFFSET FUNCTIONS”.
3.6.2
1.
When a command that changes the selected tool is given, turret indexing operation starts immediately to select the specified tool with the turret type NC lathe.
Therefore, move the axes to the position where rotation of the turret does not
cause interference before specifying such a command.
2.
Tool offset number “00” indicates “cancellation”
of the tool offset function.
T6-digit Command *
A tool number and a tool offset number are specified by a 6-digit number following address
T (TUDCiDD3).
In a T command, leading zeros may be omitted. In comparison to the
T4-digit commands, only the number of digits is increased and functions and other details
are the same as ‘T4-digit comma:nds.
T
❑ un
TT
I
I
❑ on
L
Tooloffsetnumber
T’ool number
3-82
3.7 MISCELLANEOUS
3.7
MISCELLANEOUS
FUNCTION (M FUNCTION)
FUNCTION (M FUNCTION)
The miscellaneous function is specified. by a maximum of a three-digit lumber (MOOCi)
following address M. With the exception of specific M codes, the functions of MOOto M89
codes are defined by the machine tool builder. Therefore, for details of the M code functions,
refer to the instruction manuals published by the machine tool builder.
The M codes specific to the NC are described below.
3.7.1
M Codes Relating to Stop Operation (MOO, MOl, M02, M30)
When an M code relating to stop is executed, the NC stops buffering, Whether spindle rotation, coolant discharge or another operation stops in response to the execution of such an M
code is determined by the machine tool builder. For details, refer to the instruction manuals
published by the machine tool builder. For these M codes, a code signal is output independently in addition to M2-digit BIN code.
(1) MOO (Program
Stop)
If MOOis specified during automatic operation, automatic operation is interrupted after
the completion of the commands specified with MOOin the same block and the MOOR
signal is output. The interrupted automatic operation can be restarted by pressing the
cycle start switch.
(2) MO1 (Optional Stop)
If MO1 is executed with the optional stop switch ON, the same operation as with MOO
is executed. If the optional stop switch is OFF, MO1 is disregarded.
(3) M02 (End of Program)
M02 should be specified at the end of a program. When M02 is executed during automatic operation, automatic operation ends after ‘the commands specified with M02 in
the same block have been completed. The NC is reset. The state after the end of a program varies with each machine. Fc,r details, refer to the instruction manuals published
by the machine tool builder.
(4) M30 (End of Tape)
Norman y, M30 is specified at the end of tape. When M30 is execute~ durin,g automatic
operation, automatic operation ends after the commands specified with M30 in the
same block have been completed. The NC is reset and the tape is rlewouncl. The state
after the execution of M30 varies with each machine. For details, refer to the instruction
manuals published by the machine tool builder.
3-83
—...
.— .——.
-. —-—
_.. .
.—-—
\\
...——
———
—
I//
When MOO, h401, M02, or M30 is specified, the NC stops buffering. For these M
codes, the NC output the irtdependent decode signal in addition to the M2-digit BIN
code.
POINT
Q
D
Refer to the manuals published by the machine tool builder concerning whether or not
the spindIe and/or coolant supply is stopped by the MOO, MO1, M02, and M30.
~uglm.
3.7.2
Internally Processed M Codes
M codes in the range of M90 to M99 and M190 to M 99 are processed by the NC internally
and the corresponding output signal (BIN code and decode output) is not output even when
these M codes are executed.
Table 3.21 Internally Processed
M Codes
Function
I Setting at Power-ON
=“’:’’’-====4=:
Nose R offset, round-the-arc mode
I
* M97
I
*M191
I Nose R offset, point of intersection calculation mode
I Comment toutput function
for extensionM codes.
Whenthe power is turned ON, the M code mode indicated by “0” symbol is set. This is not influenced by the
Note 1: M190 to M199 are used
2:
I
reset operation.
3-84
3.7 MISCELLANEOUS
3.7.3
FUNC-I’ION (M FUNCTION)
General Purpose M Codes
(1) Other General
M Codes
The functions of the M codes other than the specific M codes are determinedly the machine tool builder. The representative use of several general M cocles is given below.
For details, refer to the instruction manuals published by the machine tool builder. If
an M code is specified with axis move commands in the same block, whether the M
code is executed with the axis move commands simultaneously or it is executed after
the completion of the axis move commands is determined by the machine tool builder.
For details, refer to the instruction manuals published by the math.ne tool builder.
m
Table 3.22 Other General M Codes
Function
M Code
I
NKK3
\ Spindks tart, forward dircclicm \
M04
Spindle start, reverse direction
M05
Spindle stop
-i
CoolantON
1
Coolant OFF
7
M08
M09
(2) Designation
It is possible
and sampling
M codes that
machine tool
Remarks,
‘-T
T
I
Generally, M state between M03 and M04 cannot
be switched directly. To charge the M code state,
executeM05 once
of Multiple M Codes in a Single Block*
to specify up to five M codes in a single block. The specified M codes
output are output at the same time. Concerning the combinations of the
can be specified in the same block, refer to the manuals published by the
builder for restrictions on them.
3-85
ENHANCED
LEVEL COMMANDS
Chapter 4 describes the program support functions,
tion support functions,
4.1
automa-
and macro programs.
PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-3
4,1.1
Canned Cycles (G90, G92, G94) . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.1.2
Multiple Repetitive Cycles (G70 to G76) * . . 4-16
4.1.3
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
Both Eridsof Taper (Gill
4.1.4
4.1,5
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56
Multiple Chamfering/l?ounding
(G112)”*,..,
Hole-machining
(G80to
4-1
on
on Arc Elds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..4-7O
Canned Cycles
G89, G831, G841, G861) *..
. . . . . . 4-79
4.2
PF%OGF{AMSUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(2) ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-94
4.2.1 Solid Tap Function (G84, G841)* . . . . . . . . . 4-94
4.2.2
F)rogrammable
4.2.3
Subprogram
Data Input (G I O) * . . . . . . . . 4-104
Call Up Function
(M98)M99),,,,
4.2.4
4.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-
Stored Stroke I.imit B (G36 to G39)
AUTOMATING
106
. . . . . . 4- 108
SUPPORT
FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4114
4.3.1 SkipFunction(G31)*.......
. . . . . . . . ...4-114
4.3.2
4.4
100 I Life Control Function (G I 22, G1 23) * . 4-117
MACRC)PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-126
4.4.1 Differences from Subprograms . . . . . . . . . . 4-126
4.4.2
Microprogram
Call (G65, G66, G67) * . . . . 4-128
4.4.3
Variables
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-138
4.4.4
~peration
instructions
4.4.5
Control instructions
4.4.6
Registering the Microprogram
4.4.7
FU3-232C Data Output 2
(BPRNT, DPRNT)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-162
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-164
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-171
4.4.8
Microprogram
4.4.9
Examples of Microprograms
4-2
, . . . . . . . . . . 4-170
Alarm Numbers
. . . . . . . . . . 4-176
. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-177
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
SUPPORT FWNCTIONS
4.1
PROGRAM
4.1.1
Canned Cycles (G90, G92, G94)
(1\
(1)
The canned cycle function defines the fcmr block operations of basic cutting operation, infeed, cutting (or thread cutting), retraction, and return, in one block (to be called as one
cycle).
Table 4.1
Tale of Canned Cycles
G Code
—
Taper Cycle
—,
Straight Cycle
G90X(U). .. Z(WF(E)F;E).
Cutting
cycleA
cutting)
(OD’90
1-~”
..;
:
G90X(U). .. Z(WI. .. I.. .F(E). ..;
~~;~:
—
G92X(U).
Thread
’92
cutting cycle
>-[:
G92X~).
.. Z(WI. .. I.. [email protected]).
-.;
,,~j~:
Y
G94X(U).
Cutting
’94 B
cycle
face cutting)
.. Z(WF( E)(;)...;
‘f
Chamfer size
..
Z(WF(
E)(;)...;
$--
[email protected]).
..z(wI.
Chamfer size
. I . . ..(E)....
~f~
4-3
-——.——.——.
.—.——— ——
..-. —. .——.
——-—
———
—.—
(1) Cutting Cycle A (G90) Commands
The cutting cycle A is used for outside diameter (OD) cutting and has two kinds of
cycles – straight cutting cycle and taper cutting cycle.
(a) Straight cutting cycle
With the commands of “G90 X(U). “ o Z(W). “ . F(E) o “ “ ;“, straight cutting
cycle is executed as indicated by sequence @ [email protected] shown in Fig. 4.1.
by F
u_J---Fig. 4,1
Straight Cutting Cycle
Since G90 is a modal G code, cycle operation is executed by simply specifying infeed movement in the X-axis direction in the succeeding blocks.
Example of Programming
N1O
Nll
N12
N13
GOO
G90
XIO.
X60.
X94. Z62. ;
X80. W42. 1’0.3 ;
-—
;
-—
;
+——
1
Start of G90 cycle
Executes G90 cycle by changing
the cutting paths.
N14 GOO” “ . ;
+x
+Z
Fig. 4.2
Straight Cutting Cycle
4-4
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
~1—
(1)
(b) Taper cutting cycle
With the commands of “G90 X(U)” .0 Z(W)” “ “ 1”0 “ F(E)- -- ;“ taper c~t~ing
cycle is executed as indicated by [email protected] [email protected] shown in ITig. 4.3.
+x
A
_
Fig.
Taper
4.3
Cutting
Feed designated
by F cc}de
Cyclcl
The sign of address I is determined by the direction viewing point A’ from point
B.
Example of Programming
N20 00 X87. Z72. ;
N21 G90 X85. W42.
N22 X80. ;
N23 X75.;
1-10.5 FO.25 ;
N24 X70. ;
N25 GOO O””;
+x
t--=----
.-.-.
-.-.-JJ-
i
Taper Cutting Cycle
Fig. 4.4
4-5
.——— —-. —-
—.—
!——--—-—-——-
-—
...——...
——-—
——-—--—
—--------
—.—
... ..— .——....
—-—
—-—..
.
If the G90 cycle is executed with the single block function ON, the cycle is not
interrupted halfway but it stops after the completion of the cycle consisting of
sequence @ to ~.
The S, T, and M functions that are used as the cutting conditions for the execution of the G90 cycle should be specified in blocks preceding the G90 block.
Hc)wever, if these functions are specified in a block independently without
axis movement commands, such designation is valid if the block is specified
in the G90 mode range.
G90
GOO
G90
X“”” Z.””
x, . . . .
x
.,.
x
“ “ “ ;0505
F(E)”.”;
I””.
M05
; +
Error
X..”ZO””;
X.””
Z.””
1
G90 valid range
.
I”””
F(E)..”;
x, . . . .
x
GOO
G90 valid
1
T0505
X“..:
X“””
M05
; +
Correct
z”””;
mode is valid up to the block immediately
a G code of 01 group is specified.
me
range
. . . .
G90
before the one in which
(2) Thread Cutting Cycle (G92) Command
For thread cutting operations, four kinds of thread cutting cycles are provided – two
kinds of straight thread cutt ing cycles and two kinds of tapered thread cutting cycles.
(a) Straight
G92X(U)
thread cutting cycle
”. OZ(W)””
OF(E)”.”;
Designation
4-6
of thread lead (L)
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(l)
——
——
With the commands indicated above, straight thread cutting cy;le @) to @, shown
in Fig. 4.5, is executed.
+x
J
z
w
<T
c
Ststrt point A
––-..--..
/r
--.,
T @@
@j
@
~ z-Rapid
~
traverse
2 ~Fe6dciesignated
byF
code (designation by
E code)
- +Z
~
2
(p
B’ ‘
Approx.
450
B4
‘-w
\
A--LL
Fig. 4.5
Details of thread chamfering
Straight Thread Cutting Cycle
4-7
———.
—. —..
_-..
_________
.
.——
....— .- —..
—-—
----
Since G92 is a modal G code, thread cutting cycle is executed by simply specifying
depth of cut in the X-axis direction in the succeeding blocks. It is not necessary
to specify G92 repeatedly in these blocks.
Example of Programming
N30 GOO X80. Z76.2 MOO;
+
N31
1
G92
X66.4
Z25.4
1>6. ;
Moo;
N32 X65. ;
N33 X63.8
Thread cutting cycle, in four in-feeds
1
;
GOO X1OO. Z1OO.
—
ML!!J
~ ;
--r
T--”
-------
v
462.64
~+
●
1.8 mm
0.7 mm
0.6 mm
0.58 mm
1
-1
●
OFF
- +Z
~
e
4.6
MA A; Thread chamfering
Depth of cut
1st in-feed:
2nd in-feed:
3rd in-feed:
4th in-feed:
T
Fig.
ON
;
N34 X62.64
N35
Thread chamfering
_pq_
I
762
Straight
~
Thread Cutting Cycle
When the G92 cyclIe is executed with the single block function ON, the cycle
is not suspended halfway, but it stops after the completion of the cycle consisting of sequence @ [email protected]
If “thread chamfering input (CDZ,)” is ON at the time G92 is specified, thread
chamfering is executed. Thread chamfering size y can be :set for parameter
pmOloO in increments of O.lL in the range from Oto 25.5L, Here, “L” represents the specified thread lead.
It is recommended
to program the sequence that turns ON and OFF the “thread
chamfering input (CDZ)” by using appropriate M codes.
4-8
4.1 PROGRAM SUPF’ORTFUNCTIONS
(l)
(b) Straight thread cutting cycle (in-feed along thread angle)
With the commands of “G92 X(U) . “ “ Z(W) “ “ o K .0. F(E). . . ;“, straight
thread cutting cycle [email protected] [email protected] as shown in Fig. 4.7 is executed. In this cycle, infeed is made along the thread angle.
Rapid feed
Feed designated by F code
(Designation by E code)
Fig. 4.7
Straight
Thread Cutting Cycle (In-feed along Thread Angle)
The sign of address K is determined by the clirection viewing ~oint A’ from point
A.
Angle of thread
‘f-%
‘------$A
Depth of cut
Fig. 4.8
●
●
Designation
Point A’
of Shift Amount Kin Z-axis Direction from Point A to
When the G92 cycle is executed with the single block function ON, the cycle
is not suspended halfway, but it stops after the completion o fthe cycle consisting of sequence @ to @).
To execute in-feeding along the angle o-fthread (a), cakxl ate the value of K
using the following formula.
()
]Knl = dn tan ~
4-9
.——
—..
— .———_.
.- —-——-.
———...
--—
!—,
....— -—...—”—
.—.
Table 4.2
Quick Reference – Angle of Thread (a) and tan
a
EE2
~
tarl ~
()
29°
0.258618
30°
0.267949
55°
0.520567
60”
0.577350
80°
0.839100
●
(.)
In the multiple repetitive cycle (G76), thread angles are restricted to six kinds.
However, the cycle called by G92 allows cutting of thread which has an optional thread angle.
Calculation of value IK I = d tan (60°/2)
K] = –1.8 x 0.57735 = -4.866 mm
Kz = –2.5 x 0.57735 = –1 .443 mm
K3 = –3.1 x 0.57735 = –1.790 mm
& = –3.68 x 0,57735 = -2.125 mm
From the calculation indicated above, the program should be as indicated below.
N40 GOO X80. Z76.2 MOO ;
N41 G92 X66.4 Z25.4 K4).87 F6. ;
N42 X65.
K–1.44 ;
N43 X63.8
K–1.79 ;
N44 X62.64
K-2.13 ;
N45 GO() Xloo.” Zloo.” MAA
;
+
76.2
Angle of thread
a=60°
,,$
JO”
25.4
----
Depth of cut
dl=l.8mm
d2 = 2.5 mm
d3 =3.1 mm
dd. 3.68 mm
. . .
I 30”
i
.-
5
I
k
n
AT
-<
@80.
4
o
%
\
%
~
+Z
@62.64
1
-—
Fig, 4,9
r
1
.&
Straight Thread Cutting Cycle (In-feed Along Thread Angle)
4-1o
4,1 PROGRAM SUPPORTF UNCTIONS(l)
(c) Tapered thread cutting cycle
With the commands of “G92 X(U) “ “ “ Z(W) 000 I o “ . F(E) 0.0 ;“ tapered
thread cutting cycle [email protected] [email protected] as shown in Fig. 4.10 is execxued.
+x
4
z
u
F
:@
*
?
Rapid traverse
Feed designated
by F code
(Designation
by E code)
@:
~
2
---~
0:
A
Fig. 4.10
7
<r
0°
-+
+Z
.-
I
1 Approx.
$ ,150
I
I
b
61
Details of thread chamfering
l---’=q+Tapered Thread Cutting Cycle
The sign of address I is determined by the direction viewing point A’ from point
B. Since G92 is a modal G code, thread cutting cycle is executed by simply specifying depth of cut in the X-axis di rection in the succeeding blocks. It is not necessary
to specify G92 repeatedly in these blocks.
Example of Programming
N50 GOO X80. Z80.8 MOO;
N51 G92 X70. W–50.8 1–1.5 IF2.;
N52 X68.8;
N53 X67.8;
N54 GOO X1OO. Z1OO. M~~
+x
------
---
Lead:
;
2.0
5.
,1,5
0
N
-—
1
Fig. 4.11
●
>
t
i-z
Depth of cut
2nd pass: 0.6 mm
3rd pass: 0.5 mm
Tapered Thread Cutting Cycle
When the G92 cycle is executed with the single block function ON, the cycle
is not suspended halfway, but it stops after the completion o<the cycle consisting of [email protected] [email protected]
4-11
—- —-.
.——
..- .— ,- ——-.
-———-
. ..
(d) Tapered thread cutting cycle (in-feed along thread angle)
With the commands of “G92 X(U) “ “ . Z(W) 0. “ I.” “ “ K . “ “ F(E) “ . c ;“, tapered thread cutting cycle [email protected]) [email protected] as shown in Fig. 4.12 is executed. In-feed
is made along the angle of thread. The sign of address K is determined by the direction viewing point A’ from point A.
+x
~----
‘. --~’ Q_
@
:@
~i
1
,a~i,t~~.~~~,
Feed designated by F code
(Designation by E code)
2
1
B71
A
~
2
/K
+Z
ikl
x
a
b~----i
1
1
------
●
●
A
a
7
,’
,4’
/1
Vv
l-=
Fig. 4.12
---
i
Tapered Thread Cutting Cycle (In-feed Along Thread Angle)
When the G92 cycle is executed with the single block function ON, the cycle
is not suspended halfway, but it stops after the completion of the cycle consisting of [email protected] [email protected]
Tc, execute
in-feeding along the angle of thread (a), calculate the value of K
using the following formula.
dn tan (~)
ep’q =
1 * +1 o tan(~)
The sign of denominator
If 8’<90°:
If 0’>90°:
“+”
“-”
4-12
depends on the value of E!’.
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONSH)
Since this makes calculation complicated, it is recommended to use the G76
automatic thread cutting cycle if the NC has the multiple repetitive cycle function. With the G76 cycle, the calculation indicated abo~’e is automatically
executed by the NC.
●
●
●
In the multiple repetitive cycle (G76), thread angles are res tricted to six kinds.
However, the cycle callecl by G92 allows cutting of thread which has an optional thread angle.
The S, T, and M functions that are used as the cutting conditions for the execution of the G92 cycle should be specified in blocks preceding the G92 block.
However, if these functicms are specified in a block independently without
axis movement commands, such designation is valid if the block is specified
in the G92 mode range.
If the thread cutting feed hold option is selected, thread chamfering is executed
immediate y when the FEED HOLD button is pressed duri:lg the execution of
thread cutting cycle. After the completion of chamfering, the cutting tool returns to the start point A.. If the setting for parameter pm4011 D1 is “l”
(pm4011 D1 = 1), the cutting tool stops at the point B where chamfering
is
A
m
completed.
When the CYCLE STUr
button is pressed while the cutting tool is at start
point A or chamfering completion point B, the suspendetl cycle is executed
again from the beginning.
If the thread cutting feed hold option is not selected, the tliread cutting cycle
is continued even if the FEED HOLD button is pressed during the execution
of thread cutting cycle. In this case, the operation is suspel lded upon completion of retraction operaticln after finishing the thread cutting cycle.
Thread cutting cycle path
when feed hold is not executed
c
,--------Thread cutting
~
B(
:;:
\ \
c1
Fig. 4.’13
●
A
Start
point
;::;
hold is
executed
\
.
Feed Hold during Thread Cutting Cycle
If chamfer size is “O” when the G92 cycle is executed with chamfering ON,
alarm “0454” occurs.
4-13
——. ——..
— .——.—.. —. —-.
_- —_.
.—..
_..
. ..”
,—
... .— .—..
--.. ———
—-...
(3) Cutting Cycle B (G94) Commands
(a) Straight facing cycle
.“ straight facing
With the commands of “G94 X(U) “ “ s Z(W) “ . . F(E) . . . ?>
cycle [email protected] [email protected] as shown in Fig. 4.14 is executed.
+x
A’
A +-~
[
H
i
II
L
“J
7.
@
~
Start point A
I
~ @.4-Rapid traverse
t
~
Feed designated
bv, F code
i-z
Fig. 4.14
Straight Facing Cycle
Since CJ94is a modal G code, thread cutting cycle is executed by simply specifying
depth of cut in the Z-axis direction in the succeeding blocks. It is not necessary to
specify G94 repeatedly in these blocks.
Example of Programming
N60 GOO X65. Z42. ;
N61 G94 X20. Z38. FOI.35;
N62 Z34. ;
N63 Z30. ;
1
Cutting in 3 cycles in the G94 mode
N64 GOO;
+x
i
i%+
1111
ttll
~tt!
=i4&--+z
-A -l-:
Fig .4.15
Straight
Facing
4-14
Cycle
4.1 PROGRAM SUPP(IRT
FUNCTIONS
(1)
—~1
(b) Taper facing cycle
With the commands of “G94 X(U) o “ . Z(W) s 0.
K . . . F(E) . wQ;“, taper
facing cycle [email protected]) [email protected] as shown in Fig. 4.16 is executed.
Rapid feed
Feed designated
by F code
+Z
Fig. 4.16
Taper Facing Cycle
A
The sign of address K is determined by the direction viewing point A’ from point
B.
n
Example of Programming
N70N
GOO X74. 232. ;
N71
N72
N73
G94 X20. 230.
225. ;
Z20. ;
N74
GOO ;
K-5.29
1
“I_apercutting in 3 cycles in the G94 mode
1
5.29
+x
#z
*..
I
I
I
I
I
+70.
),
FO.3 ;
;’”%
2
—
+Z
20.
d
Fig. 4.17
30.
Taper Facing Cycle
@ The S, T, and M functions that are used as the cutting conditions for the execution of the G94 cycle should be specified in blocks preceding the G94 block.
4-15
.—_—._ —.--.
——____
-------
—.- ——_.—
._..
_ ,—
... ,— __-_.
.--_. ___________
However, if these functions are specified in a block independently without
axis movement commands, such designation is valid if the block is specified
in the G94 mode range.
●
4.1.2
If the G94 cycle is executed with the single block function ON, the cycle is not
interrupted halfway but it stops after the completion of the cycle consisting of
sequence @) [email protected]
Multiple Repetitive Cycles (G70 to G76) *
By using the multiple repetitive cycles, programming steps can be considerably reduced due
to the features that both rough and finish cutting cycles can be executed by simply defining
the finishing shape, and the like.
For the multiple repetitive cycles, seven kinds of cycles (G70 to G76) are provided as indicated in Table 43.
Table 4.3
G Code
3 G70
Note that these G codes are all non-modal
G code.
Cycles Called by G70 to G76
Remark
Cycle Name
Finishing cycle
s=~~~’g’=dG70cyc
f0r
‘OseROff
---1
G73
Pattern repeating cycle
G74
Face cut-off cycle
i--
R-Ern:::dcu=l
Nose R offset impossible
4-16
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
Table 4.4
(1)
Table of Multiple Repetitive Cycles (G70-76)
Programming Fo;mat
,—
(1) Monotonous
increase/monol’orlous
G71Pn$Qnf
s, . . .
Nns .,..;
U..
W..
K..
decrease shape
K-.
D F( E)..
Firlishing shape
Nnf ...;
1
(2) Shape with recesses
G71Pns
Qnf U..
Nns . . . . .
l..
D..
F(E) .. S..
R1;
1
I=inishing shape
Nnf ...;
(U, W, 1, and K Signed commands)
(1) Monotonous
G72Pns
s, . . .
increase/monotonous
Qnf U..
W..
K..
decrease
K..
D.
shape
. F(E).
.
Nns . . . . .
Finishing shape
Nnf ...;
1
(2) Shape with recesses
G72Pns
Qnf W..
Nns . . . . .
K..
D..
F(E) .IS.
.R1;
Fir ishing shape
Nnf . . . . .
1
(U, W, 1, and K: Signed corrmands)
.—
4-17
—.—...
Table 4.4
Table of Multiple Repetitive Cycles (G70-76) (cent’d)
—
—
Programming Format
Cutting Cycle
K+W
—c
7
I
G73
G73Pns
Nns ..;
l+;
W.l.
A
K.
D..
F(E)..;.;
Finishing shape
Pattern repeating
Nnf} ..;
cycle
(U, W, I and K: Signed commands)
$$q
Tape commands
G70
Qnf U..
Q
2
A’K
+’
Execution of finishing cutting defined by Nrrs to Nnf
G74
G75
F(E)
K’KK
G74
G70 Pns Qnf;
x(u)
}
..R1;
.. Z(W)
.. I. K..
D..
(1) Operation as shown in the left is executed
command is not speeified,
I
if “RI”
I
Face cut-off cycle
I
(2) If “RI” command is specified, retraction amount “d”
I
for each in-feed is disregarded and the axis returns
to point A level after each in-feed.
d: Setting parameter
Be.
G75
pm0864 (G74)
pm0865 (G75)
(1, D and K Unsigned commands)
A
—
_
c1
-----
(3) Using address A, it is possible to specify the
number of in-feed steps instead of depth of cut.
u
T
(4) It is possible to shift the axis at the stari and end of
OD cut-off cycle
operation by specifying the width of cutting tool by
address B.
rmq
z~-Dx
(1, K, D, A, and B: Unsigned communds)
—A
G76X(U)
.. Z(W)
.. I..
D..
A: Angle of thread
u
T
(0°, 29°,30°,55”,0°,60°,
80”)
G76
K and D: Unsigned commands
:~~
Automatic
thread
x
cutting cycle
kwj
‘]6KSD=K
~BK
f
w
4
A
7
4-18
D..
FAE).
.A.
. ;
(1) OD Stock Removal Cycle (G71 )
With the G71 command, stock removal cycle and rough finishing cycle in which finishing allowance is left on OD or ID can be specified. The programming format differs
depending on the finishing shape, whether it is of monotonous irwease/monotonous
decrease shape or it has recesses in it.
(a) For the workpiece with monotonous increase/monotonous
ing shape
If the finishing shape is monotonous increase/monotonous
commands are used.
ns: Sequence
I
decrease finish-
decrease, the following
number of cycle start
nf Sequence number of cycle end
++
G71Pns
Nuns”””.””.”;
........
. . . F, . . .
... s ...
Nnf”’””.””~
Qnf U*.
.” W*.
.” IA””
“K&”.”D”””
~~-TT—T—-—,.
.
.
F(E) ”” S”’O;
(Note)
L‘
Delpth of cut in the X-axis
direction in each in-feed
(ur,signed)
I
—
1
Rough finishing allowance
in the Z-axis direction
Rough finishing allowance in the X-axis
direction (radius desigrlation)
——
Finishing allowance
in the Z-axis clirection
Finishing allowance in the X-axis direction
(diameter designation)
—Finishing shape program
(Max. 45 blocks)
This program defines the shape to be finished (A -. A’ - B) and it
should start with sequence number “ns” and end with “nf”. Among
the commands specified in this program, the F and S commands
are valid only when the G70 finishing cycle is executed.
Note: Specify the feed command (F(E)) andspind Iecommand (S)that are used fortheexecution
al cycle.
of the 01> stock remov-
* The operation starts from point A; after executing the stock removal cycle
(-—) and rough finishing cycle (-- -), the cutting tool returns to point A and
the operation ends.
+x
c
-------Bi . ..i
c
\
‘,
A
The point shitled by #,
x
Finishing
allowance
:
Fig. 4.18
●
~
-J
t...
Rough finishing
allowance
Iu
5
~
W) from point A
—
Finishing shape program
—
Stock removal cycle
- - Rough finishing cycle
—
—b$
D
~.+z
--
Execution of the Cycle
If “I = O, K = O (or no designation)”,
finishing
cycle as shown
the cycle finishes
by skipping
the rough
in Fig. 4.19.
Return movement
+x
c
A
B
D
I
>
$
.~t
Finishing
allowance
7$
k.
Fig. 4.19
Ir,.feed movement
+Z
Skipping the Rough Finishing Cycle
4-20
—
Finishing shape program
—-
Stock removal cycle
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(l)
——
—1—l
. The “return movement” is executed in ihe GOO(rapid traverse) mode. Concerning the “in-feed movement”, it is executed at the feeclrate (GOO or GO1)
specified in the program for ~.
For foedrate for in-feedi ng by depth of cut
D in the X-axis direction, override setting is possible in 21 steps in units of
10% in the range from O to 200% by the setting for a parameter.
A
x ; Monotonous
B
B
x : ~OnOtOnOU~
A
ncrease
Z : Monotonous
~?
,pl>~
)1
)
b
gijj
BB
Fig. 4.20
●
o
decrease
Examples of monotonous
A
A
increase/monotonous
decrease shape
The following restrictions apply to the start (Nns - ..)
blocks of the finishing shape program.
and end (Nnf. “ .)
+x
1
-%-”----------%”-
j-’+-~~~~q
To be specified In GOO or GO1 mode.
...
I
WI is parallel
~-+’
Fig. 4.21
Restrictions
on Start and End Blocks
4-21
-.....——
—..-.—.
- —,..”
. . . .——-——-.
u
(b) For the workpiece
with recesses in the finishing shape
If the finishing shape has recesses in it, the following commands are used.
ns: Sequence
number of cycle start
nf: Sequence number of cycle end
F
G71Fns
Qnf U*”.
.If.-
..
‘ns:::;:i
I
I
‘J
Nnf””””””;
-
D”. . F(E)”””S..”
——
Depth of cut m the X-axIs direction
‘---N:-feed::d)
Ro~jgh finishing
direction
~—
RI;
—
allowance
in the X-axiS
(radius designation)
Finishing allowance in the X-axis direction
(diameter designation)
L
Finishing shape program
(Max, 45 blocks)
Program that defines the shape of A -
A’ -+ B
Note 1: Specify the feed command (F (E)) and spindle command (S) that are used for the execution of the OD stock
removal cycle.
2: If “RI” is designated in the program, tool paths are calculated for the finishing shape program which has recesses.
‘
The operation starts from point A; after executing the stock removal cycle
(–—) and rough finishing cycle (-- -), the cutting tool returns to point A and
the operation ends. If address I is not designated, the rough finishing cycle is
skipped.
Position shifted by ‘r; + l“
from point A
Return movement
*——-,
---—
—
--—
—
E
/.
~--
---
f
\
1A
re>
\
f
\
‘b
,~’
\
.x~;
4’
5;=,
D
\
\
\
L.-.f
+/ I
I
Rough ‘“
finishing
allowance
_
d’~
~ IU
2
K
Finishing allowance
Finishing shape
—
—
+Z
Lp
Fig, 4,22
n-feed movelment
i
-
Cycle Execution
4-22
Finishing shape program
Stock removal cycle
- Rough finishing
cycle
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORTF UNCTIONS(l)
—1
,———
—
\\
.. ..— .—..-.——
l/,-
POINT
Each block specified in the finishing shape program must define rnonolonous increasing or monotonous decreasing shape. An arc that extends over mull iple quadrants
must be programmed in two or more blocks.
Q
—.
—.
-.
.- .-———
.—.———
o The “return movement” is executed in the GOO(rapid traverse) mode. Concerning the “in-feed movement”, it is executed at the feedrate (GOO or GO1)
specified in the program for ~.
For feedrate for in-feedi ng by depth of cut
Din the X-axis direction, override setting is possible in 21 steps in units of
10% in the range from O to 200% by the setting for a parameter.
●
In the stock removal cycle, cutting starts from the recess closest to the start
point.
@
[email protected]_
Finishing shape program
Point specified in the last
..—
—.
ji/i/$F%E)?
bwk
@
@
Start
point
L/’
A’
Finishing shape program
Point specifie[l in the first block
Fig. 4.23
Stock Removal Cycle
Since the defined shape is cut from the recess located closest to the start point, if
the cutting path being generated crosses the projection lying m.xt to the recess as
shown in Fig. 4.24, the cutting :path is interrupted. Then, the ne~,vcutting paths are
generated until the deepest point in the recess is finished. After that the cutting path
generation returns to the interrupted point and cutting paths are generated continuously from the interruption point.
lnterru~tlon
1
Depth of cut D
\
Fig, 4.24
~
point
Recess
Example of Cutting – Cutting Palh Crosses the P1’ejection beyond
the Recess
4-23
—-——,—...——
——.
-—.— ——
... —. —-.
———--—
. If a recess has projection and recess in it as shown in Fig. 4.25, interruption
will occur again during the cutting of a recess appearing in the recess being
defined.
Recess
\/’
L--.
J/y
Recess
Fig, 4.25
Cutting a Complicated
Recess
If interruption points appear repeatedly during the cutting of a recess, appearance
of up to three interruption points is allowed before the cutting path returns to the
first interruption point. If such interruption points appear at more than three positions, alarm “0469” occurs. There are no special restrictions on the number of recesses as long as this requirement is satisfied.
* The shape that has overhang cannot be cut. Therefore, the Z-axis commands
in the finishing shape program must change monotonously.
‘\ N%HP4!A
v
Cutting path
t-
InterruptIon
Cuttin
“
%~
InterruptIon
3
path
Cuning
pa~h
4
‘U
-,4
Fig. 4.26
An Example of Shape that Cannot be
4-24
cut
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPCIRT FUNCTIONS
●
For the end block of the finishing shape program, the restrictions
(1)
shown in
Fig. 4.27 apply. Therefore, the G command to be specified in the end block
(Nnf” “ “ ;) must be either GOOor GO1.
‘~~~~”poin’
Fig. 4.27
●
~
Restrictions
may not be parallel to tile X-axis.
on the lEnd Block of Finishing Shape Program
The retraction amount in each in-feed cycle can be set for a setting parameter.
Setting parameter to set retraction amount
\
I
\
t
pm0860 (X-axis)
pm0861 (Z-axis)
—----4
>
\
1
~–
Cutting path
\,
i
Fig. 4.28
●
●
Setting the Retraction Amount
The finishing allowance (W, K) in the Z-axis direction mu: t not be specified.
If such finishing allowance is specified, overcuts into the wall at one side occurs+
Approach is executed in t he cutting feed mode and not influenced by the G
code specified in the finishing shape pro~y-am. Therefore, with some finishing
shape programs, positioning could be executed at a rapid tri~verse rate after an
approach in a cutting feedrate.
Approach
L___!
Fig. 4,2?9
●
Approach
When parameter setting is “pm4026 D1 = l“, the cutting t]ol could interfere
with the workpiece if the endpoint of finishing shape progr:im for the monotonous decreasing shape or the shape with recess lies lower t Ian the start point.
4-25
(c) Supplements
to 013 stock removal cycle
“ U, W, I, and K are signed commands. If a wrong sign is used in the designation
of these commands, overcuts will occur. The depth of cut D to be specified
for each in-feed operation should be specified without a sign.
B
A
Error due to the designation
of U, W, 1, K c O
A’
‘Fig.
4.30
xl
In-feed
Caused
Sign Used for U, W, 1,and K
by Wrong
c Write the finishing shape program immediately after the G71 or G72 block.
Blocks written between the G71/G72 block and the finishing shape program
are disregarded.
●
●
If F, S, and/or T cocie is not specified in the G71/G72 block, these codes specified in the preceding blocks are applied for the execution of the OD stock removal cycle. The F, S, and T codes specified in the finishing shape program
are valid only for the execution of the finishing cycle (G70), and they are disregarded during OD stock removal cycle.
The G codes that can be specified in blocks in the finishing shape program,
excluding Nns and Nnf, are indicated in Table 4.5.
Table 4.5
k
Usable G Codes
Usable G Codes
GOO,GO1, G02, G03, G22, G23, G41, G42
Gil,
G12
=
To be counted as equivalent to two blocks
Gill
To be counted as equivalent to four blocks
G112
To be counted as equivalent to five blocks
k
●
●
For in-feed movemlent by D, override setting is possible in units of 10% in 21
steps in the range from Oto 20070. Seting parameter pmO023 DO to D4 is used
(setting is made in a 5-bit code).
If both I and K are omitted, it is possible to execute the cycle by using the finishing allowance IJ and W for the rough finishing allowance. (Valid by the
setting of parameter pm4026 DO = 1)
4-26
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1)
0 If the nose R offset mode has been set before the execution of G71 or G72, the
nose R offset is valid for the G71/G72 cycle.
Therefore, in the program where rough finishing cycle is {Imitted (1 = O, K =
0),.the nose R offset function is invalid. For the G70 to G73 cycles, it is possible to execute the nose R offset function in the finishirq; shape programs.
Accordingly, G41 and G42 can also be specified in blocks in the finishing
shape program with an exception of Nsf and Nnf blocks. In addition, in the
rough finishing cycle and finishing cycle, the nose R offset functicm becomes
valid from the block where G41 or G42 command is specfied.
If G41 or G42 is specified in the first block of the finishil~g shape program,
GOOor GO1 must also be specified in the same block along with an axis movement command. Designation of G41 or G42 in a block u ithout other commands is not allowed.
4-27
.——-—
—.—.
— ___
..__
. ....
. . . .._ . . . ..M_
-----
—,-.
—
..- .— .——.
—.—. —. ———
-- .
. When the nose R offset function is called up for the finishing shape that has
no recess in it
Example of Programming
N1
N2
N3
N4
G50 X260. Z220. ;
GOO S1OOOM03 TO1O1 ;
G42 ;
X145. Z180. ;
OD stock removal cycle
1
N5
N6
N7
N8
N9
N1O
Nll
N12
N13
G71
P6
GO1
X60.
G12
U1. WO.5 12. K2. D4. FO.3 S800 ;
Q13
GOO X40.
- In-feed at rapid traverse
S800 ;
W-40.
FO.15 ;
W–30.
W–20.
S600
;
15. ;
+ Equivalent
to 2 blocks
Finishing shape
= 9 blocks
X1OO W–10. S300 ;
W-20. ;
X140. W–20. S200 ;
X145. ;
GO1
N14 G40 ;
N15 GOO X260. Z220. TOlOO;
+x
220,)
I
Be–+– –-___..
———-”
——
———
-
_______
A #~/
,.
1
----7TH!-+
4
[email protected]=1---uY2mmmm
.,,
.
‘K)
0.5 mm (W)
Fig. 4.31
When Nose R Offset is Called Up for the Finishing Shape that Has
No recess in It
4-28
4.1 PROGRAM
SUPPL3RTFUNCTIONS
(I)
‘ When the nose R offset function is not called for the finishing shape that
has recess in it
Example of Programming
NO1 G50 X260. Z70. ;
N02 GOO S500 M03 TOIO1 ;
N03 X124. Z–10. ;
N04 G71 P5 Q14 U2. D6. FO.2 S250 R1 ;
-
OD stock removal cycle
N05 GO1 X120. ;
N06 X80. Z–50. FO.1 S500 ;
N07 w–lo. ;
N08
N09
N1O
Nll
N12
N13
N14
Xllo. w–lo. ;
w–lo. ;
G02 X90. W-20. 115. K-20.;
X11O. W–20. 125. ;
GO1 W–5. ;
X120. w–5. ;
X124. ;
N15
N16
N17
N18
N19
GOO X260. Z70. TO1OO;
T0202 ;
G50 X255. Z70. ;
X124. Z–10. ;
* Execution
G70
Center
P5
Finishing shape
of the finishing cycle for (371
Q14 ;
.,
20.
1/
/
P
/ -’
(260., 70,)
//
/’
[
.—
Fig. 4.32
When Nose R Offsat is not Called for the Finishinq Shape that Has
Recess in It
4-29
—————.—.
.. ———..
-—.—
— —.—...
... — .—...
-.—
—.-.
(2) Face Rough Turning
Cycle (G72)
With the G72 command, stock removal cycle and rough finishing cycle in which finishing allowance is left on face can be specified. In comparison to the cycle called by G71,
which carries out cutting by the movement in parallel to the Z-axis, the G72 cycle carries out cutting by the movements parallel to the X-axis. Therefore, the cycle called by
G72 executes the same operation as with the cycle called by G71 in a different direction.
Read the supplements described for the G71 cycle before attempting programming for
the G72 cycle.
(a) For the workpiece with monotonous
ing shape
increase/monotonous
If the finishing shape is monotonous increase/monotonous
commands are used.
F
G72Pns Qnf U+.
ns: Sequence
number of cycle start
nf: Sequence
number of cycle end
””’W+”””
I+...
K+.c.D...
decrease, the following
F(E) ””” S.””;
A
Nuns”””.”..”;
decrease finish-
(Note)
)4
TTT
. . . . . . . . ,.
. . . F, . . . .
.. . s . . . .
Nnf”””””.””~
/
[L’
—
—
~—
1-
~nishing
Rough finishing allowance
in the Z-axis direction
Rough finishing allowance in the X-axis
direction (radius designation)
Finishing allowance
allowance
Depth of cut in the X-axis
direction in each in-feed
(unsigned)
in the Z-axis direction
in the X-axis direction
(diameter designation)
Finishing shape program
(Max, 45 blocks)
This program defines the shape to be finished (A+ A’ + B) and it
should start with sequence number “ns” and end with ‘W”. Among
the commands specified in this program, the F and S commands
are valid only when the G72 finishing cycle is executed.
Note:
Specify the feed command (F(E)jandspindle
al cycle.
4-30
command (S)that areused forthe execution of the OD stock remov-
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPI)RTFUNCTIONS
(l)
* Theoperation
starts from point A;afte]r executing thestLJck renloval cycle
(—) and rough finishing cycle (-- -), the cutting tool returns to point A-and
the operation ends.
+x
c
I PAA
Finishing’
allowance
/ 4P’
,A
Finishing shape program
Stock removal cycle
}’-~=~~
:
Rough finishing
allowance
A \
m
WK
.~
L
Fig. 4.33
●
A
Rough finishing ‘cycle
+2
Execution of the Cycle
If “I = O, K = O (or no designation)”, the cycle finishes by skipping the rough
finishing cycle as shown in Fig. 4.34.
,
In-feed movement
Return movement
pi
f
I-4
+2
——
Finishing shape program
———————
Stock removal cycle
Fig. 4.34
Skipping the Rough Finishing Cycle
4-31
__
—.._——
.—..
-.——
.
-e,
—..,...
—-—..
—.,
-.
—.
—...
.—
.-
—.....——
-.——
●
●
The “return movement” is executed in the GOO(rapid traverse) mode. Concerning the “in-feed movement”, it is executed at the feedrate (GOO or GO1)
specified in the program for ~.
For feedrate for in-feeding by depth of cut
D in the Z-axis direction, override setting is possible in 21 steps in units of 10%
in the range from O to 200% by the setting for a parameter.
The following restrictions apply to the start (Nns” “ o) and end (Nnf. . “)
blocks of the finishing shape program.
+x
Nns .,.
;
~ ~
is parallel
to the Z-axis.
Nnf . . . ;
y
~B
+Z
—
Fig. 4.35
To be specified in GOO or GO1 mode.
}
Restrictions
(b) For the workpiece
on Start and End Blocks
with recesses in the finishing shape
If the finishing shape has recesses in it, the following commands are used.
ms: Sequence number of cycle start
I
tt
G721krs
~.
nf
Qnf W*”.
Sequence
RI;
..D. —. . . F(E) ”o” S”””
(Note 1)
(No=2)
t
”K*.
Nuns”’””..””;
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . ~]
.
,
number of cycle end
j
L
. . . . . . . . .
Nnf..””.”””:
II
‘Jl!
L
~
Rough finishing allowance in the Z’-axis
direction
~
‘—
Depth of cut in the Z-axis direction
in each in-feed (unsigned)
(radius designation)
Finishing allowance in the Z-axis direction
(diameter designation)
— Finishing shape program
(Max, 45 blocks)
Program that defines the shape of A + A Note 1:
B
Specifythe feed command(F (E))and spindlecommand(S) that are used for the execution of the OD stock
removal cycle.
[f ‘“RI”is designatedin the program,tool pathsare calculatedfor the finishing shape program which has recesses.
4-32
—
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
●
(1)
The operation starts from point A, after executing the stt }ck removal cycle
(—) and rough finishing cycle (-- -), the cutting tool returns to point A and
<;
\a
the operation ends. If address I is not designated, the roug]l finishing cycle is
skipped.
A
~
Position shifted by ‘W+ K from point
A
/
Finishing shape program
,/’
A
Stock removal cycle
Rough finishing cycle
m
Finishing allowance
Rough finishing allowance
In-feed movement
~“;
. ]!
>
‘f”’
L
~
1
‘.
-..
$&
+2
Cycle Execution
I
B
\~ K
Fig. 4.36
Return movement
w
D
.. —
\
\l/
/
Q
POINT
Each block specified in the finishing shape program must define monotonous increasing or monotonous decreasing shape. An arc that extends over multiple quadrants
must be programmed in two or more blocks.
... —
●
The “return movement” is executed in the GOO(rapid traverse) mode. Concerning the “in-feed movement “, it is executed at the feedrate (GOO or GO1)
For fcedrate for in-feeding by clepth of cut
specified in the program for ~.
Din the X-axis direction, override setting is possible in 21 steps in units of
10% in the range from O to 200% by the setting for a parameter.
—.—
(3
;W&LE-
The retraction amount in G72 can be set for pm0862 (X-axis) and pni0863 (Z-axis).
————
—
4-33
———..— . ..——. —.. — .— —..-..——.
.—
.,.—-,..,....
.—. ——-.
-—.,-
—.
..- .-.— .
. . . . .———
—--
----
* When the nose R offset function is not called up by “I = O,K= O(or no designaticm)”
4 mm (D)
II
(;)
Example of Programming
N 1 G50 X260. Z60. ;
N“ GO() Slooo M(33 T0202°;
N)
X170. Z5. ;
N4
G72 P5 Qll
Face stock removal cycle
1
UO.6 WO.5 IO KO D4.O FO.3 S200 ;
N5
GO1 Z-60. FO.15 ;
N6
X120. S250 ;
N7
Z-50.
N8
X80. Z=IO. S400 ;
NY
Z-20. ;
*
In-feed at cutting feedrate
Finishing shape
program
N’1O X40. ZO S800 ;
N.11
N12
N13
N:14
N:15
Fig. 4.37
Z5. ;
GOO X260. Z60. ;
T0303 ;
X170. Z5. ;
G70 P5 Qll ;
+ Executes the finishing cycle
When Nose R Offset is not Called Up
by”1 = O, K = O (or No Designation)”
4-34
4.1 PROGRAM SUPP~DRT FUNCI-IONS
●
An example of finishing shape for G71 and G72 is shown below.
A
U,l>o
U,l>o
W,K<O
W,K>O
A
r
Ji!ji!j
‘z
%
/
\
Finishing sha,oe
%
for G71 and G72
Fin”shing allowance
\
x
“[email protected]
Fig. 4.38
U,l<o
W,K<O
~
U,l<o
W,K>O
A
Relationships between Addresses U, W, 1, and K
and Finishing Shape Programs for G71 and G72!
(1)
(3) Pattern Repeat Cycle (G73)
The G73 pattern repeat cycle is effective when machining a workpiece that has similar
shape to the finishing shape like cast and forged workplaces. The following commands
are used to execute the pattern repeat cycle.
ns: Sequence
~
r
number of cycle start
nf: Seq.en ce number of cycle end
}+
W+ C”.l+””
G72 Pns Qnf —
U . . . . .——
.K+.
—
”. —
D””.
L
Nns. ”””””.-;’
.. . ... .. >
.
. . . F,, . . . .
(Note)
Number of rough cutting cycles
(1 S D S 127; unsigned)
... s ... .
Nnf””..”...~
F(E)
./ . .. S”””.
i
‘Total
L___
—
Z-axis stock for rough cutting
(signed)
‘Total
X-axis stock for rouqh cutthm
(signed) (radius designa~on)
Finishing aliowance in the Z-axis direction
(signed)
Finishing allowance in the X-axis direction
(signed) (diameter designation)
Finishing shape programs
(Msx. 39 blocks)
This is the finishing shape program for A ~ A’ -+ B and the program
should start with the sequence number of “ns” and ends with “nf”.
The F and S commands specified in these blocks are valid for the
execution of the finishing cycle called by G70.
Note:
Specify (he feedrate
(F (E)) ancl spindle speed (S) to be used for the execution of the pattern repeat cycle.
l,&*i::::g:c
The cutting pattern is repeated ID times
Finishing
allowance
-A
Y
~_
——
Finishing shape Iprogram
——
Pattern repeating stock removal cjcle
Fig. 4.39
M>
JWK
Pattern Repeating Cycle
4-36
.7
.-
. ~ The operation ends by executing this cycle.
The operation starts and ends at point A.
4.1
●
PROGRAM SUPPORT
FUNCTIONS(l)
The “return movement” is executed in Ihe GOO(rapid tra~’erse) mode. Concerning the “approach “, it is executed at the feedrate (GO(Jor GO1) specified
in the program for ~.
Example of Programming
N1O
Nll
N12
N13
N14
N15
N16
N17
N18
N19
N20
G50 X260. Z220. ;
GOO S300 M03. T0303 ;
X220. Z160. ;
G73 P14 Q19 U2. W1. 18. K8. DJ3 FO.3 S200 ; --- Pattern
GOO X80.
GO1
W-40.
W–20.
repeat cycle
1
S400 ;
FO.15 ;
X120. w-lo. S300 ;
W–20. ;
G02 X160. W–20. FL20.S200 ;
GO1 X180. W–10. ;
GOO X260. Z220. ;
Finishing shape program
1
-
+x
l-ml
.P
(.26(}., 220.)
m
H 4P
B
I
$180.
4)160.
1’1
120
40,
Fig. 4.40
10.
20.
(~80. 1
,.
8.
.—+Z
20. 10, 20.
Pattern Repeat Cycle
4-37
—-—-- .. ..-..-..—.- —”--.’ ...-. —
. . . . ..——
. . ..—
.. . . . ... ...-... —
. . ..
———.—..
—.—
—---------
.— .. —
.. ..-.
—————. —..
.
●
The number of rough cutting pattern to be repeated (D) should be specified by
an unsigned value. The following restriction applies to the designation of address D.
.l~D~127
Alarm “0467” occurs if a value outside the range indicated above is specified. With the designation of “D = l“, rough cutting is executed one time
at depth of cut of I and K to leave the finishing allowance.
. It is necessary to specify the finishing shape immediately
block.
after the G73
o The start (Nns o s “) and end (Nnf” “ o) blocks of the finishing shape program must be designated in either the GOO or GO1 mode. Note that tool
paths may not be parallel to the X- or Z-axis.
. The shape defined by the finishing shape program may not be monotonous
increasing or monotonous decreasing shape.
●
●
If F, S, and/or T code is not specified in the G73 block, these codes specified
in the preceding blocks are applied for the execution of the OD stock removal
cycle. The F, S, and T codes specified in the finishing shape program are valid
only for the execution of the finishing cycle (G70), and they are disregarded
during OD stock removal cycle.
The G codes that can be specified in blocks in the finishing shape program,
excluding Nns and Nnf, are indicated in Table 4.6.
Table 4.6
Usable G Codes
Usable G Codes
Remark
—
GO1, G06, G02, G03, G22, G23, G41, G42
Gil, G12
To be counted as equivalent to two blocks
Gill
To be counted as equivalent to four blocks
I
G112
4-38
To be counted as equivalent
to
five blocks
I
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPCJRT FUNCTIONS(l)
0
If designation of I and K (total stock for rough cutting) is toth “O’”or neither
of these addresses are specified, alarm “0467” occurs.
/11 and AK, which indicate stock removal per one cycle of rough cutting, are
calculated by the following:
In this calculation, a value smaller than 0.001 mm is rounded off. Do not write
a program in which a value of AI and/or 1~Kbecomes small er than 0.001 mm.
(Example 1)
With the program in which I = 0.005 mm, K = 0.005 mm, and
D=7,
A1 _ O.00~ = 0, AK= -y=
O is oktained.
6
Thus, alarm “0467” occurs.
(Example 2)
With the program in which I = 0.01 mm, K = 0.01 mm, and D
= 7,
AI = &
= 0.001 mm , AK = ~
= 0.001 mm
is obtained. Thus, each cycle is executed witlh the stc~ckamount
indicated below.
1st to 6th cycle : AI=
AK=
0.001 mm
: AI=
AK=
0.004 mm
7th cycle
If the nose R offset mode has been set prior to the designation of the G73 cycle,
the nose R offset function is valid for all G73 cycles.
~
n
Finishing Cycle (G70)
After carrying out rough cutting cycle by using the G71, G72, and G73 cycles, finish
cutting can be carried out by specifying the G70 cycle.
G70 Pns Qrrf;
‘L.
nf: Finishing cycle end sequence
L
ns: Finishing cycle start sequence
number
number
Only the finishing shape program, specified before the G71, G72, or G73 cycle, is
executed by the commands indicated above. During the execution of the finishing cycle
G70, the F(E), S, and T codes specified in the finishing shape program are valid. Those
specified in the G71, G72, or G73 block for rough turning are invalid for a finishing
cycle.
Prohibited commands
and operation
It is ncl necessary to specify the G70 block immediately after the designation of
the G71, G72, or G73 cycle, For example, it is allowed to enter commands to
change the cutting tool from a roughing tool to a rough finishing tool between them.
However, the commands or the operation indicated in Table 4.7 must not be entered
between them.
Table 4,7
Prohibited Commands
and Operation
Prohibited Commands and Operation
L..fi~
M02 and M30 which are associated with
the Internal reset processing
The firushmg shape program Mdeleted
(b) Save and search function for the finishing shape program
The processing for the finishing shape program differs depending on the operation
mode -- TAPE mode or MEM mode,
m
TERM?
_.
—.
—-..——.
—————
. ———
+ Finishing
Shape
Program
Memory
The ‘“finishing shape program memory” is the speeial memory provided in the NC to store binary converted
program so that the processing time for the stock removal cycle is shortened.
—
—.-
4-40
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(I)
●
Inthe TAPEmode
~
G71 Pns Qnf .“. ;
r
Nns ”.”;
OD stock removal cycle commands
~
-- Finis hing shape program (A)
~Nnf
...;
.-i
+
G70 Pns Qnf . “ o ;
~
G72
Pns’ Qnf’ o“ . ;
Nns’ .””;
Nnf’ ”””:
Face rough turning cycle commands
—
-
[
+
Execution of finishing by program (A)
Finishing shape program (B)
—
After the execution of the commands indicated above, the finishing shape program (A) is cleared and finishing shape program (B) remilins in the internal
memory. Therefore, the finishing cycle specified by the G70 can be used for
the finishing shape program (B). If the sequence number specified in the G70
block does not agree with the sequence number in the finishing shape program
memory, alarm “0462” occurs.
●
m
,
In the MEM (memory) mode
If the sequence number specified in the G70 block and the one in the finishing
shape program memory agree with each other, the finishing cycle is executed.
If they do not agree with each other, the finishing shape program is searched
in the part program; the fcund program is once saved to the internal memory
and then executed. This function is called the “finishing shape program search
function”. This search function is executed only in the part program of the program number in which the G70 command has been specified. If this function
is used, cycle time will be longer than the time required in executing the program without using this function.
Only in the MEM mode operation, this function allows more than two stock
removal cycles (pattern repeating cycles) to be executed which are followed
by the respective finishing cycles as indicated below:
Stock removal cycle (A)
J
Stock removal cycle (B)
J
Finishing cycle (A)
+
Finishing cycle (B)
4-41
.—...
———— -.- —.-—-——.—
.-. .———... — .,- ,—
....— ——... --- ———— —.-.
.
(c) Supplements
to the finishing cycle
e If khe sequence numbers “ns” and “nf” of the start and end of the finishing
cycle are as indicated below, an alarm occurs.
o If sequence numbers “ns” and “d” specified with G70 do not agree with
the sequence numbers stored in the finishing
(TAPE mode operation).
shape program
memory
. In the finishing shape program, if the sequence number “ns” appears before
“nf”, both specified in the G70 block. If “ns = nf”, it also causes an alarm.
. If the nose R offset mode has been set before the designation of G70, the nose
R offset function is executed for the finishing cycle of G70.
4-42
4.1 PROGRAfvf SUF’PORT FUNCTIONS
(l\
(5) Face Cut-off Cycle (G74)
In the cycle called by G74, peck fee(i operation parallel to the Z-axis is repeated to carry
out face cut-off cycle. For the execution of the face cut-off cycle, tile following commands are used.
G74 X (U)
““”z(w):
——
. . . 1 ““K.
_-
F(E) .o” (RI) ;
”” D.”.
—— —--——
L
Feed command
–- Retraction amount at cutting bottom
(unsigned)
— DerMh of cut in the Z-axis direction
(un’signed)
.— Move distance in the X-axis direction
(unsigned)
– Z-coordinate
–
X-coordinate
of point C
of point B
+x
A
KK
KKK
D
$
t
,
,
R:
F:
d:
z
Note
The illustrationaboveindicatesthe operationwhen “RI” is not specified. If “RI” is specified, the cutting tool
returns to the in-feed start point, point A level,for eachin-feedoperationdisregardingof tbe retractionamount
(d). The cycle starts and ends at point A.
Fig. 4.41
Lll
TERM?
Rapid traverse
Feed designated by F ,code
l?etraction amount
(setting parameter pm0864)
Dwell at the cutting bottom
(setting parameter pm(402)
Face Cut-off Cycle
—.—
+ Peck Feed Operation
Peck feed operation indicates the operation in which the cutting axis repeats advance and retraction movements
to carry out the specified cutting.
4-43
.——..-.
... — ——-...
.—
—----
(a) Grooving canned cycle
By specifying addresses A and B with the G74 command, grooving canned cycle
is executed with the number of in-feed steps and the width of cutting tool taken into
consideration.
G74X(L
o.oZ(W,),O”CI.”.K””DS..AO
‘-
.B.
..~(E(Rl);
‘-’TTT
Rl);
r
[L
L
L
Feed command
Width of cutting tool
(unsigned)
Number of in-feed steps
(unsigned)
Retraction amount at cutting bottom
(unsigned)
—
Depth of cut in the Z-axis direction
— Move distance in the X-axis direction
(unsigned)
(unsigned)
—.
– Z-coordinate of point C (signed)
–
X-coordinate
+x
t
l—
of point B (signed)
Number of steps
*R
point
of cutting tool
——
“-t-
Fig. 4.42
———
+Z
R : Rapid traverse
F : Feed designated by F code
d : Retraction amount
(setting parameter pm0864)
Dwell at cutting bottom
(setting parameter pm0402)
Grooving Canned Cycle
o If none of A and B is specified, the same cycle as the normal G74 cycle is
executed.
4-44
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT
FUNCTIONS
II)
s If only address B is specified, shift operation by the width of cutting tool is
executed at the start and end of the G74 cycle.
The shift movement at the start of the G14 cycle is made from the point where
positioning has been made in the block immediately before the G74 block by
the width of the cutting tool in the specified X-axis direction.
At the end of the G74 cycle,
where the shift has been made
the position where positioning
mediately preceding the G74
●
●
●
the cutting tool is first positioned to the point
at the start of the G74 cycle and then returns to
was made by the commands in the block imblock.
If only address A is specified, shift operation is not executed but only grooving
operation is executed.
If addressAis specified, the retraction amount is as set forpararneter pm0867.
If “O” is set for this parameter, peck feed operation is not executed.
Alarm “0472” occurs if groove width ~ B (width of cutting tool).
+x
Example of Programming
1,
.-
G74 X40. Z50. 14. K15. D1. FO.25 ;
idi==#
($40,
El
+2
H
1:?0
—-
50.
Fig. 4.43
(b) Supplements
to face cut-off cycle
@ If the given commands are “I > I U/2 I”, peck feed operat: on starts from and
ends at point A.
●
If “K > I W I” or the parameter setting is “pm0864 = O“, cutting is executed
to the bottom in one time without including peck feed op~ration.
c If “D = O“ or address D is not specified, retraction movement is not executed
at the bottom.
. The final depth of cut K’ in the Z-axis direction and tl]e final movement
amount 1’ in the X-axis direction are automatically calcu’1ated.
such designation calls 01[t 1 cycle operation
with only Z-axis. This cycle can be used for deep-hole d -illing cycle.
c If X (U), I, and D are not specified,
. The nose R offset function is invalid fcr the G74 cycle,
4-45
.—.——-—-——..
—.. —--.
”—..
-—
—..
-—.
. ..
—
.
.
.
. ..
.
.
.
-—.
-.
—..
—-..
——...
———-.
--
.—
——
-----
-—
——.—-
.
.
(6) OD Cut-off Cycle (G75) Commands
The G75 cycle executes an OD cut-off cycle while carrying out peck feed operation parallel to the X-axis. In comparison to the G74 cycle in which the 01) cut-off cycle is
executed in parallel to the X-axis, the G75 cycle executes virtually the same operation
excluding that the cycle is executed in parallel to the X-axis. Read the supplements to
the G74 commands given before.
The OD cut-off cycle is executed by using the following commands.
G75 X(U)+: . . .
. ...
-Z(W
...
...
‘-THF(EVR’);
L
L
Feed command
Retraction amount at cutting bottom
(unsigned)
~
Move distance
in the z-~is
di~e~tion
(unsigned)
L__
[email protected]
of cut in the X-axis direction
(unsigned)
‘-
–
Z-coordinate
X-coordinate
of point B
of point C
+x
t
B.
R
*-
‘R
F
A
F
d
----
~
2
RR
F
f~~
Z
R:
F:
d:
cw
D-
x
d
—
+-----Note:
+Z
Rapid traverse
Feed designated by F code
Retraction amount
(setting parameter pm0865)
Dwell at cutting bottom
(setting parameter pm0402)
The illustration above indicates the operation when “RI” is not specified. [f “RI” is specified, the cutting tool
returns to the in-feed start point, point A level, for each in-feed operation disregarding of the retraction amount
(d). The cycle starts and ends at point A.
Fia. 4.44
OD Cut-off Cvcle
.
4-46
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1)
(a) Grooving canned cycle
By specifying addresses A and B with the G75 command, grooving canned cycle
is executed with the number of in-feed steps and the width of cut ring tool taken into
consideration.
G74 X(U)
.“Z(W)O.”1.COK”””D”””’A.
—.
,
— -. —
OB”.l:(E)””’(R1):
‘7’-TT-T’
L
L
‘
Feed command
Wid[h of cutting tool
(unsigned)
L
Number of m-feed steps
(unsigned)
Retraction amount at cutting bottom
(unsigned)
I
—
L
–
-—
Move distance in the X-axis direction (unsigned)
X-coordinate
Z-coordinate
Depth of cut in the Z-axis (Iirection {unsigned)
of point B (signed)
of point C (signed)
Wdth of
cutting
+x
I
R : Rapid traverse
F : Feed designated by F code
d : Retraction amo~.lnt
(setting parameter pm0865)
Dwell at cutting oottom
(setting parameter pm0402)
Fig. 4.45
Grooving Canned Cycle
4-47
0
If none of A and E! is specified,
the same cycle as the normal
675
cycle is
executed.
e
If only address
executed
B is specified,
shift operation
by the width
of cutting
tool is
at the start and end of the G75 cycle.
The shift movement
positioning
at the start of the G75 cycle is made from the point where
has been made in the block immediately
the width of the cutting
tool in the specified
At the end of the G75 cycle, the cutting
Z-axis
before the G75 block by
direction.
tool is first positioned
to the point
where the shift has been made at the start of the G75 cycle and then returns
the position
mediately
●
[email protected]
was made by the commands
shift operation
If address A is specified,
Alarm
but only grooving
is executed.
the retraction
If “O” is set for this parameter,
●
is not executed
“0472”
occurs
if groove
amount
is as set for parameter
peck feed operation
width
< B (width
is not executed.
of cutting
Example of Programming
N1 GOO X86. Z70.
N2 G75 X.50. Z40, 16. K4. (DO) FO.2 ;
R
‘L t-Ik’#’I 1---m
,
1
>
+Z
.
+—————
7’”=----4I
Fig. 4.46
4-48
to
in the block im-
the G75 block,
If only address A is specified,
operation
e
where positioning
tool).
pm0868.
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FLINCTION
S(l)
(7) Automatic Thread Cutting Cycle (G76) Commands
G76 calls an automatic thread cutting cycle for cutting straight or ta~)er thread in which
in-feed is made along thread angle. The following commands are used for the execution
of the automatic thread cutting cycle.
G76X(U)*
.”.
Z(~+”.
”I*””
OK “0.D’”.F(E)””.A”.:;
“-T-FTT
I
‘-
Angle of thread
(deg)
Thread ‘cad
—
[
.—
TT
~L
Height of thread (unsigned)
X-axis distance at taper (radius desi~lnation)
Z-coordinate
X-coordinate
●
1St pass in-feed (resigned)
of point C
of point C
The sign of address I is determined by the direction viewing point B’ from
point C. The automatic thread cutting cycle starts and ends at pc)int A.
W
A
R
R
u
F, ,C
i
I
Y
;
a:
w
z
t-
Fig. 4.47
Fixed amount
(settirlg parameter
pm0866)
Execution of Automatic Thread Cutting Cycle
4-49
——-.—.
–... ——.———...
—.
—!—.—
.=. .— —.”.-.—
--. ,.
e How the cutting is tool is moved near point B is shown in Fig. 4.48 (taper
thread).
amount
(setting parameter
Fig. 4.48
●
pm0866)
In-feed Near Point B
Depth of cut Dn for the nth in-feed movement is Dn = ~D
For angle of thread, designation is possible from the following six angles: 0°,
29°,30°,55°,60°,80°.
In the last pass of thread cutting cycle, the depth of
cut is fixed to the predetermined value “a” (in the X-axis direction) which is
set for setting parameter pm0866.
(a) Straight
thread cutting
If address I is “O” or address I not specified, straight thread cutting cycle as shown
in Fig. 4.49 is executed.
K
amount
(setting parameter pm0866)
Fixed
Fig. 4.49
Straight Thread Cutting
4.50
4. I PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1)
—l—
Example of Programming
60”
#--%,/
GOOx66. Z115. ;
G76 X56.2 Z30. K3.9
GOO . . .
D2.
F6.
A60
;
60
+x
~1
/’
/’
—.
%
ti
a : Fixed amount
(setting ?arameter
#~$
+
a
N
6
%
110.
1Fig. 4.50
pm0866)
~ D = ~c~~;and)
-1
Example of Programming
If fixed depth of cut “a” is set to 0.2 mm, the depth of cut in the individual thread
cutting passes is as indicated below.
Istpass
2ndpass
3rdpass
4thpass
5thpass
..
.
..
..
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
..
..
..
..
1.700mm
2.528mm
3.164mm
3.700mm
3.900mm
Although 2.00 mm is specified in the program for the depth of cut in the first pass,
actual depth of cut is determined to 1.7 mm as the result of calculation of
d=
●
D which calculates the difference.
If the “thread chamfering
chamfering is executed.
pmOIOO in increments of
sents the specified thread
input (CDZ)” is ON when G76 is specified, thread
‘Thread chamfering size y can bt set for parameter
O.lL in the range from Oto 25.5L. Here, “L” reprelead.
4-51
.. ——.—,.
....— .——
.. —-—
—-----
●
B:yadding an L command to the C176mode commands, it is possible to execute
the cycle by n times counted from the final pass.
LO= The commands of the final pass are executed.
LI = The cycle one before the final pass and the final pass are executed.
Ln= The cycle is executed from the “n” times before the final pass to the final
pass.
(If value “n” i.sgreater than the normal number of cycle execution times
(N), normal thread cutting cycle is executed.)
●
It is possible to execute zig-zag in-feed mode thread cutting cycle with
constant metal removal amount by adding a P command,
The P command determines how the in-feed is made for thread cutting operation as indicated below.
No P command
P~
P2
P3 or greater
:
:
:
:
Constant
Constant
Constant
Constant
metal
metal
metal
metal
removal
removal
removal
removal
amount,
amount,
amount,
amount,
in-feed
in-feed
zig-zag
in-feed
on one
on one
in-feed
on one
~)f—-:&’”
,—.—.—
b
+11
side
side
mode
side
Tool nose
\
\
\
\
“/
\\
\\ \\tp
\
5th nass
—-
fz2- ‘-’””---21
‘&
-r---
B6
\
.
B7—————
-
~8y.=..—
-
&———... B9
Fig. 4 .51
Constant
Cutting
Metal
4-52
Removal
6t~ pass
Amount,
f
.—~
Zig-zag
In-feed
Mode
Thread
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPDRT FUNCTIONS(l)
(b) Taper thread cutting
If a tapered thread isdesignatedwith “A # 0“, the X-coordinate value of the thread
cutting start point is not always Dn, which expresses the deptl 1of cut.
R:
B
‘.,
Drl
~
Thread cutting
. ~- -.
4
Thread cutting start position
Fig. 4.52
Thread Cutting Start Position far Tapered Thread Designated
with “A # O“
(c) Supplementsto automaticthread cutting cycle
●
If an angle other than six allowable angle values for the angle of thread (0°,
29°,30°,55°,60°,
80°) is specified, the larger closest angle is selected.
(Example)
●
u
A
If “A15” is specified, actual thread cutting cycle is executed
with “A29”. However, if the specified value A is “A> 80°”,
it is replaced with “A8W to execute threacl cutting cycle.
If depth of cut along the angle of thread in the last thread cuitingpass, ~nend D,
does not agree with the value of “K- a“, the difference between these two values is deducted from the depth of cut applied to the first pass. The depth of
cut in the first pass is not greater than the specified value D in any case.
B
mD
K
. ...
-..
@
.
a
-.
B’
Difference
Fig. 4.53
in the last thread cutting pass
Depth of Cut in the 1st Thread Cutting Pass
when” -D
# (K-a)”
4-53
.—. .
.. . . ..——
—--
—.—
,—
....— .--
. . ..-. —
—.-
.,-
(Example)
—.
~lendD
D = 5.(3 mm, K = 9.8 mrn
If fixed amount is “a = 0.2 mm”:
= Y’z x 5.000 = 10.000 mm
Difference
= ,~jD
– (K – a) = 10.000 – (9.800 – 0.200) = ~
> ()
As the result of calculation indicated above, the depth of cut in each pass is
determined as indicated below.
Istpass . . . . . . . . . 5.000 – 0.400 = 4.600
2nd pass . . . . . . . . ~ x 5.000- 0.400=
3rd pass . . . . . . . . & x 5.000 -0.400=
4th pass . . . . . . . . . ~ X 5.000- 0.400=
mm
6.671 mm
8.261 mm
9.600 mm
5th pass . . . . . . . . . 9.600 + 0.200 = 9.800 mm
●
If the thread cutting feed hold option is selected, thread chamfering is executed
immediately when the FEED HOLD button is pressed during the execution of
thread cutting cycle. After the completion of chamfering, the cutting tool returns to the start point A. If the setting for parameter pm4011 D2 is “l.”
(prn4011 D2 = 1), the cutting tool stops at the point B where chamfering is
completed. The cutting tool returns to point A when the CYCLE START button is pressed after that.
If the thread cutting feed hold option is not selected, the thread cutting cycle
is continued even if the FEED HOLD button is pressed during the execution
of thread cutting cycle. In this case, the operation is suspended upon completion of retraction operation after finishing the thread cutting cycle.
Thread cutting cycle path
when feed hold is not executed
c
----
-..
~
<
‘:3
Fig. 4.54
.-
,
Thread cutting
cycle path
when feed
hold is
B~
\ \ executed
\
.
A
Start
point
Feed Hold during Thread Cutting Cycle
Nose R offset is invalid for the G76 cycle.
In the block immediately after the G76 block, it is necessary to newly specify
a G code of 01 group.
(Example)
G76 . . . ..o.
GOO M30 ;
4-54
o. ;
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPC.IRT FUNCTIONS
(8) Supplements
(1)
to Multipie Repetitive Cycles
* In the multiple repetitive cycle mode (G70 to G76), MDI mode operation is
not allowed.
●
●
It is not possible to execute G70 to G76 cycles by the MD I mode operation.
If G70 to G76 cycle is executed with the SINGLE BLOCK switch ON, the
cycle is executed n the manner as indicated in Table 4.8.
Table 4.8
Single Block Operation
G Code
r
G70, G71, G72, G73, G74, G75
I Block stop occurs in minimum writs of blocks into
I which the cycle is broken down.
~
G76
operation ‘—T
I
Block stop occurs at point A for the execution of each
cycle.
——
-___!
c If the block specified immediately after the designation of ‘G70 to (G76 cycle,
it is necessary to specify a G code of 01 group again. Thi:; is because the G
code in this group could have been changed from the one .sIetbefore the entry
to the G70 to G76 cycle due to the execution of the cycle.
s For the commands specified in the G71 to G76 cycle, it is possible to specify
the symmetric patterns as shown in Fig. 4.55. With G71 to G73, this is specified by the direction the finishing shape program in reference to point A. With
G74 to G76, four patterns can be specified by the commands position of point
(X, Z) or (U, W) for point A.
I
1
1
AL>c ‘&j.
C
u+, w+, I +
Fig. 4.55
u+, w–, I +
+Z
Four Patterns
4-55
..
—————
... ——
... .— -—...
----—
—-—
.-
4.1,3
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
on Both Ends of Taper (Gl 11) *
The following four movements can be specified by the commands in a sirlgle block if Gill
function is used: taper- chamferinghounding
-+ taper --+chamfering/rounding.
Representative shapes for which the multiple chamfering/rounding
are used are shown in Fig. 4.56.
End point
Fig. 4.56
Gill
Examples of Multiple Chamfering
is a non-modal G code and valid only in the specified block.
4-56
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORTF UNCTIONS(l)
(1) Programming
Format
(a) Rounding
Example of Programming
Gill
Gill
Gill
X(U) ””” I”. ”A”””lB”.
”P”. ”Q ““”;
X(U) ””. K””’ A”” CB”. ’PC”” Q“”. ;
X(U) ””” I””” K” O”:B””. P.”. Q “.”;
‘b
B
2nd line
-k
Imaginary point
of intersection ~
I
Fig. 4.57
p
u
2
1st rounding
.A
1st line
~-~tati
Rounding on Both Ends
point
of Taperand ProgrammingFormat
(X-axisCommands)
Example of Programming
GlllZ(~’””1””’AO”.B..”P”O.
GlllZ(~..”K.O.A”””B”””P””C
GlllZ(~.”010”.K””.BO””P””.
Q“”. ;
Q“””;
Q“.”;
imaginary point of
/intersection
Ist line
Al
y
K
Start point
w
I
Fig. 4.58
Rounding on Both Ends of Taper and Programming
(Z-axis Commands)
Format
4-57
———
_________
. ..-.——-.
...-.+ ..—.-. ..... —..
———. —..,_
... .—,—.
--—._-._
.—.-- .,.
(b) Chamfering
Example of Programming
D
2ndchamfer
7X
b
B
u
Imaginary point of
intersection
@*point
Fig. 4.59
Chamfering cm Both Ends of Tapers and Programming
(X-axis Commands)
Format
Example of Programming
GlllZ(~”O”I”..#L.”B””.C”””
GlllZ~”.”K”””A.”.B”.”C””
GlllZ(~”.”1””.K..”B”.”C”O.
D.””;
.D”””;
D.””;
2nd chamfering
~
-B
2rld line
:
1st chamfering
I point of
m
:::f:::.
1st line
A
r
h----Fig. 4.60
K
. ..%
=ai
point
z
Chamfering on Both Ends of Tapers and Programming
(Z-axis Commands)
4-58
Format
——-
4,1 PROGRAM SUPPCRT FUNCTIONS(I)
——
(C) Addresses
The addresses indicated in Table 4.9 are used when designating lnultiple chamferingh-ounding on both ends of taper function. The required movements can be
executed by specifying only addresses that define the required shape.
Table 4.9
I
Addresses
and Meaning
Address
x (u)
I
I z (w)
.—
Input Increment
——,
—
Description
X-coordinate of end point
(U: Incremental amount from the start point)
1 = 0.001
or
1,,0.0001
Z-coordinate of end point
(W: Incremental amount from start point)
Unit
mm
inch
.—
E--A
Move angle of the 1st line
B
Move angle of the 2nd line
1
Imaginary point of intersection between the 1st and
2nd lines, X-axis distance from the start point (radius
value)
K
Imaginary point of intersection between the 1st and
2nd lines, Z-axis distance from the start point (radius
value)
1 = 0.001 deg
1F---
.—
1 = 0.001
I
1,:0.0001
‘r
P
1st rounding radius (unsigned)
Q
2nd rounding radius (unsigned)
c
1st chamfering size (unsigned)
I
D
2nd chamfering size (unsigned)
I
“-----i
F---
—
mm
inch
I
4-59
.. .-—-. —.
—.————— —.—..-. —-——
..
... ...
——.-.--—.——
-..
(2) Defining the Shape
To define the shapes of tapers and chamfering/rounding
given in Table 4.10.
shapes, follow the instructions
Table 4.10 Defining the Shapes
I
Definition
Shape
A: Move angle of the 1st line
1st line
L-
I : X-axis distance from the start point
to the imaginary point of intersection
K: Z-axis distance from the start point
to the imaginary point of intersection
Listchamfering/ C : 1st chamfer size
P : 1st rounding radius
rounding
2nd
chamfering or
rounding
Specify either of these addresses.
: Move angle of the 2nd line
B
X (U): X-coordinate of the end point
(u
: End point of X-axis
Incremental amount from the start point)
Z (W): Z-coordinate of end point
(w : End point of Z-axis
Incremental amount from the start point) 1
—
r
2nd line
}
I
Specify two of these addresses.
D: 2nd chamfer size
Q : 2nd rounding radius
}
Specify either of these.
Note that the following
designation is not allowed:
● Combination of X and U
commands
● Combination of Z and W
commands
Specify either of these addresses.
(a) 1st rounding
The 1st rounding indicates rounding at the corner made by the 1st and 2nd lines.
4.-60
4.1 PROGRAM SUPP113RTFUNCTI0
NS(1)
(b) 2nd chamfering/rounding
The 2ndchamfering/roundingis
line as shown in Fig. 4.61.
made according to the commands definingthe
2nd
Q
Rounding to the line
parallel to the Z-axis
7$:
b~;
,
‘\
‘,
(a) If the 2nd line is defined by B and X (U)
Rounding to the line
parallel to the X-axis
<,>
~>,,
~z(lq
L--z(w)
(b) If the 2nd line is defined by B and Z (W)
2nd Chamfering/Rcwnding
Fig. 4.61
(c) Direction of the 2nd chamfering/rounding
The direction of the 2nd chamferinghounding
is the same direcrion as the 2nd line
advancing direction. For details, see Tables 4.11 and 4.12.
Table 4.11 Direction of 2nd Chamfering
Move
Angle of the 2nd Line
B Command Value
Chamfering Direction
+x
—
Other Ccsncitions
+Z
b
Chamfering in the X+, Z+ direction
..-.--./
The 1st line moves in the Fositive (.+)direction
of the X-axis.
B =0, –360.000, 360.000
Chamfering in the X–, Z+ direction
FT’X-XS
I
t
0< B <90.000
–360.000 c B < –270.000
The 1st line moves in the negative (–) direction
‘-.—
‘
Chamfering in the X+, Z+ direction
-.
//’
4-61
.---—.—
-.. —.—
... ..
.—..
-..
———-—-.
Move
Angle of the 2nd Line
B Command Value
+x
Chamfering Direction
&
+Z
Chamfering in the X+, Z+ direction
..(
Other Conditions
The 1st line moves in the positive (+) direction
of the Z-axis.
B = 90.000,-270.000
Chamfering in the X+, Z-- direction
‘lk
The 1st line moves in the negative (–) direction
of the Z-axis,
Chamfering in the X+, Z-- direction
90.000<
–270.000
B <180.000
< B < –180.000
—
) \
Chamfering in the X+, L- direction
B = 180.000, –180.000
\ —.
Chamfering in X–, Z- direction
/-----
180.000< B < 270.000
–180,000 < B < –90.000
The 1st line moves in the positive (+) direction
of the X-axis.
The 1st line moves in the negative (-) direction
of the Z-axis.
Chamfering in the X+, Z+-direction
—
/)
Chamfering in the X–, Z- direction
f
Chamfering in the X–, Z+ direction
B = 270.000, –90.000
T
The 1st line moves in the negative (–) direction
of the Z-axis.
The 1st line moves in the positive (+) direction
of the Z-axis.
Chamfering in the X–, Z+ direction
270.000<
–90.000
B <360,000
< B <0
—
(-’
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
Table 4.12 Direction of 2nd Rounding
.—
—
Move
Angle
of the 2nd Line
B Command
Value
(1)
—.
+x
Chamfering
Direction
Other
&
+Z
Conditions
—.—
Rounding in the X–, Z+ direction
B = O,–360.000, 360.000
Rounding in the X+, Z+ direction
/
—
0< B <90.000
–360.000 < B < –270.000
Rounding in the X+, Z+ direction
2)
Roundingto the line parallelto the X-axis
----/Roundingto the line parallelto the Z-axis
Rounding in the X+, Z+ direction
.-”f
B = 90.000, –270,000
Rounding in the X+, Z- direction
-L..
—
90.000< B < 180.000
–270.000 < B < –180.000
Rounding in the X+, G direction
>>
Roundingto the line parallelto the Z-axis
{<
Roundingto the line parallelto the X-axis.
B = 180.000, –180.000
The Ist line moves in
the positive (+) direction
of the X-axis.
The l.st line moves in
the positive (+) direction
of the Z-axis.
The 2nd line is defined by B, X (U).
.—
The 2nd line is defined by B, Z (W).
The l.st line moves in
the negative (–) direction of the X-axis.
.A
/]
Z (W) command
cannot be used.
The Ist line moves in
the negative (–) direction of the Z-axis.
“+
Rounding to the X–, Z- direction
Rounding to the X–, Z- direction
f--[
Rounding to the line parallel to the X-axis
1
The 2nd line is defined by B and X (U).
The l.st line moves in
the positive (+) direction
of the X-axis.
r
X (U) command
cannot be used.
The 2nd line is detlned by B and Z (W).
Rounding in the X+, Z- direction
~..
—
180.000< B < 270.000
–180.000 < B < –90.000
The Ist line moves in
the negative (–) direction of the X-axis.
X (U) command
cannot be used.
The 2nd line is definej by B, Z (W).
—
The 2nd line is defined by B, X (U).
Rounding to the line parallel to the Z-axis
Rounding in the X–, Z- direction
-f--”
B = 270.000, –90.000
Rounding to the X–, Z+ direction
--1
—
.—
The l.st line moves in
the negative (–) direction of the Zaxis.
The l.st line moves in
the positive (+) direction
of the Z-axis.
Z (W) command
cannot be used.
I
4-63
-. .——--.
—-.,. —.—.
... ..—.——.—-—.—
—-—.-
-1
Move Angle of the 2nd Line
B Command
Value
270.000< B <360.000
-90.000 c B <0
+x
Chamfering
Direction
L
+Z
Rounding in the X–, Z+ direction
\
Rounding to the\ ine parallel to the Z-axis
,7
Other Conditions
The 2nd line is defined by B, X (U).
The end line is definecl by B, Z (W).
Rounding to the line parallel to the X-axis
4-64
“3
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(d) Supplements
●
●
(1)
to shape definition
If all of B, X (U), and Z (W) are specified to define the 2rld line, the 1st line
can be defined by specifying only one of A, I, and K.
For the multiple chamferingh-ounding on both ends of taper function, the Ist
and 2nd lines are defined by selecting appropriate addresses from X, Z, I, K,
A, and B. Note that omission of an address and designation of “O” for it have
different meaning. Therefore, differing from other G codes, designation of
“O” for an address cannot be omitted.
Table 4.13
Omission of Address with Value “O”
Omission of Address witfi Value “O
Address
x
z
I
K
A
B
Omission is not allowed.
P
Q
c
D
Omission is allowed.
(chamfer size and rounding radius are “O”.)
●
If X (U) and Z (W) are used to define the 2nd line, 2nd ch;imferirighounding
is not allowed. If 2nd charnferinghoun.ding is specified although X (U) and
Z (W) are used to define the 2nd line, an error occurs.
●
Chamfering and rounding can be combined as needed SUC1las 1st chamfering
and 2nd rounding, and 1st rounding and 2nd chamfering.
●
If all of A, I, and K are used to define the 1st line, address ~, is disregarded and
the 1st line is defined by I and K.
●
If all of B, X (U) and Z (W) are used to define the 2nd line :md two of A, I, and
K are used for the definition of the 1st li ne, B is disregard d for the definition
of the 2nd line, and the 2nd line is defined by X (U) and Z (W).
●
The direction of rotation is defined in reference to the positive (+) direction
of the Z-axis; positive value for the counterclockwise dir~ ction and negative
value for clockwise rotation. (Programmable range: --350.000 S A, B S
360.000)
‘L+%2’A135,0’A–225
Fig. 4.62
Designation
of Move Angle A and B of Line
4-65
(3) Examples of Programming
Example 1
(GOI WC.;)
+ Commands for $50 portion
W–1OO. 115. A90. B165. C3. D5. ;
or Gill W–1OO. 115. KO. 13165. C3. D5. ;
(broken lines) in the illustration
Gill
-..
6-’!‘c
1
below
Commands for the portion indicated
by solid lines in the illustration below
100
‘—-
@’oo. ,
t
Fig, 4.63
I
Multiple Chamfering
on Both Ends of Taper
Example 2
(GOIW O.;)
Gill W–1OO. 115. A90. B165. P3. Q5. ;
or Gill W--1OO.115. KO. B165. P3, Q5. ;
(G12 X200.
K-2.;)
1
Commands for the portion indicated
by solid lines in the illustration below
+ Commandsfor broken line portion after solid line portion: 2Fi
%t——
-- $80.
—__
‘z
4
($50
Fig. 4.64
Continuous
Rounding on Both Ends of Taper
4-66
—.
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORTFUNCTIONS
(4) Supplements
to Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
(1)
on Both Ends of Taper
. It is not allowed to specify addresses M, S, and T in the block containing Gill.
●
If the 1st chamfering specified by address C in the Gill block has the shape
as shown in Figs. 4.65 and 4.66, such designation is not p]ssible.
The end point is that of the 2nd line assuming that chamfe.ri.lg.hounding
made.
. . . . . . ..- --,
End
point I
:
t
I
L
i>-------------
Fig. 4.65
End
point
Start
point
Outside the Rectangle Defined by the Start and lEnd Points
\
‘.
“,
‘\
-I
.,
451’.,
\
Fig. 4.66
is not
45°
‘<
\
\\
\
Start
point
Inside the Range between 45° Line from Start Point to End Point
and 45° Line from E%d Point to Start Point
. The NC processes all operations to define the 1st and 2nd lines and the 1st and
2nd chamferinghounding
when it reads the Gill block in~o buffer. It could
take more than 500 msec depending on the shape to be defined. If the time
required for the axes to execute the commands in the preceding block is shorter
than the time required for tlhenecessary operation, axis movement will be suspended to impair the surface being machined. To prevent such suspension of
axis movement due to long operation time, place the NC in tfie buffering mode
(M93 mode) several blocks before the Gill block.
●
If the Gill block is executed with the single block function ON, the movements to the end point of the Gill block are divided intcl a maximum of 4
blocks.
4-67
————.
,..—.-—
— ,— —..=-.——-
... —...-....-
. . . ..-----
—--
——.
—-—
— ..- .— .. —
.. . ..- ———-——
.. ..
* If the Ist line is defined as the “45° line from the start point to the end point”
or the 2nd line is defined as the “4.50 line from the end point to the start point”,
such designation could or could not cause an error depending on the shape being defined.
Example 1 Program that does not Cause an Error
G
111 Z–1OO. I-25.
B180.
+x
A225.
C5. 1)5. ;
1–25
D5.
A225.
Fig. 4.67
Example of Program that does not Cause an Error
Example 2 Program that Causes an Error
Gill
Z–1OO. ]–25. A225.
B270. C5. :D5.;
z-1 00
D5.
f
C5.
End
point
I–25
5J
i_4’
.A225.
Fig. 4.68
Example of Program that Causes an Error
4-68
4.1 PROGRAM SUPF’ORT FUNCTIONS
. Alarms Caused by Incorrect Gill
(1)
Command Designation
Table 4.14 Table of Alarms Caused by Incorrect G111 Command Designation
Description
Alarm Code
—
I For the definition of the 2nd line, only one address is specified among address-
es B, X (U), and Z (W).
~For the definition of the 2nd line, two addresses are specified among addresses
B, X (U), and Z (TV)while only one or none of addresses A, I, and K is specified to define the 1st line.
) Both address C (lst chamfering) and address P (lst rounding) are specified.
oBoth address D (2nd chamfering) and address Q (2nd rounding) are specified.
) The 2nd line is defined using addresses X and Z with the Z!ndchamfering /
rounding defined using addresses Q and D.
0281
0282
rhe value specified for addresses A and B (line move angle) is outside the range
of –360.000 S A, B S 360.000.
0283
*The 1st chamfering portion is outside the rectangle defined by the start and end
points.
~The 1st chamfering portion is inside the area between the 45° line from the
start to the end points and the 450 line from the end to the start points.
~There is no point of intersection between the 1st and 2nd lines.
~
End point
~The 1st and 2nd lines are on the same line.
~Since addresses A, I, and K are specified in the following manner to define the
1st line, the shape cannot be defined
When value A is –360.000, –180.000, O, 180.000, or 360.000:
Address I is specified for the definition of the 1st line.
When value A is –:!70.000, –90.000, O,90.000, or 270.0010:
Address K is specified for the definition of the 1st line.
~Since addresses B, X (U), and Z (W) are specified in the following manner to
define the 1st and the 2nd line, the shape cannot be defined.
When value B is –360.000, –180.000, O, 180.000, or 360.000:
Address X (U) is specified for the definition of the 2nd line.
When value B is –;!70.000, –90.000, 0,90.000, or 270.000:
Address Z (W) is specified for the definition of the 2nd line.
0284
DThe value specified for addresses C and D (chamfer size) is too large in comparison to the specified shape, and the chamfering movement is not possible.
End point
.----,
~ StarI pcint
c
B
~The value specified for addresses P and Q (rounding radius) is too large in
comparison to the specified shape, and the rounding movement is not possible.
---. ,
!
‘
P
Start point
]Y
0285
*M, S, and/or T command is specified in the Gill block.—
1
4-69
—-—.——————
—.
- .. —-
--
-.
—...
—..
-—
,—,—
..-
!—
.——.
-.
—.
————...
4.1.4
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
on Arc Ends (Gl 12) *
The following four movements can be specified by the commands in a single block if Gll 2
function is used: line + chamfering/rounding
-+ arc+ chamfering/rounding.
Depending
on the direction of arc, two kinds of chamfering/rounding
on arc ends are possible – on the
periphery and on the face.
G112 is a non-modal G code and valid only in the specified block.
(1) Programming
Format
(a) Continuous
rounding on arc ends (on periphery)
Example of Programming
G112X(U)
”.. I..
.PO.
.P.
.. Q...
R..
;
K
Center of arc
2nd
rounding
1st rounding
u/2
~
Stari
d>”
p
~;~ne point ‘X
Arc
Fig. 4.69
Continuous
(b) Multiple chamfering
Rounding on Arc Ends (on Periphery)
on arc ends (on periphery)
Example of Programming
G112X(U)
.”” I”” OK”. ”C.
.. O..
K
r
OR. ..;
1
center of arc
1St
chamfering
4
I
D
Arc
Fig. 4,70
Multiple Chamfering
4-70
on Arc Ends (on Periphery)
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(c) Continuous
(1)
rounding on arc ends (on face)
Example of Programming
G112Z(W)
..4 I”. .”
OF”” ”Q”””””
R“”.
;
Start point
Line
a’
Y
P
1St
rounding
Arc
R
—z
2nd rounding
Q
Fig. 4.71
Continuous
Rounding on Arc Ends (on Face)
(d) Multiple chamfering
on arc ends (on face)
Example of Programming
Gl12Z~”O”IO””K.”C””.D”.
“R”””;
Start point
K
Line
c
1St
chamfering
Arc
R
w
a’
z
2nd chamfering
D
Fig. 4.72
Multiple Chamfering
on Arc Ends (on Face)
4-71
,——
... --——
—
..——.—
... .— .. —-
. . . .. ——.
—...
(e) Addresses
The addresses indicated in Table 4.15 are used when designating multiple chamfering/rounding on arc ends.
7—L,
–.
lame
A.-AJ
4. I a
A..
––––
Haaresses
–...,.
.
.
.
.
.
ana Mearung
Address
Meaning
X(u)
X-coordinate of end point in multiple chamfering/rounding on arc ends (on periphery)
(U: Incremental amount from the start point)
z (w)
Z-coordinate of end point in multiple chamfering/
rounding on arc ends (on face)
(W Incremental amount from the start point)
I
Distance along the X-axis from the center of arc
or start point
K
Distance along the Z-axis from the center of arc
or start point
R
Radius of arc
P
1st rounding radius (unsigned)
Q
2nd rounding radius (unsigned)
c
1st chamfer size (unsigned)
D
2nd chamfer size (unsigned)
4-72
Input Increment Unit
1 = 0.001 mm
or
1 = 0.0001 inch
(decimal point input
allowed)
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1}
(2) Defining the Shape
(a) Shapes in multiple chamfeiring/rounding
on arc ends
How the shapes appearing in the multiple chamferinghounding
tion is defined is indicated in Table 4.16.
Table 4.16 Description
on arc ends func-
of Shapes
Shape
Description
Lke
The line extending from the start point, and parallel to the Z-axis (arc on periphery) or the X-axis (arc on face)
Arc
The arc which has th,: center defined by I and Kin referenct to the start point.
1st chamfering
Chamfering executecl at the comer made between the line ard the arc; the size of
chamfer is specified by C.
1st rounding
Rounding executed at the comer made between the line and the arc; the radius of
rounding is specified by P.
2nd chamfering
2nd rounding
Chamfering executed!at the corner made between the line defined by X (U),
which is parallel to the Z-axis (arc on periphery), or the one defined by Z (W),
which is parallel to the X-axis (arc on face), and the arc; the size of chamfering
is specified by D.
Rounding executed at the corner made between the line defined by X (U), which
is parallel to the Z-axis (arc on periphery), or the one defined by Z (W), which is
parallel to the X-axis (arc on face), and the arc in the marine! that the rounding
arc is tangent to both elements; the radius of rounding is specified by Q.
4-73
(b) Arc cutting direction
The rotating direction for arccuttingis determined so that the arc lies at the opposite
side to the center of arc in reference to the line drawn from the start point as shown
in Fig. 4.73.
Center of arc
K
K
YQ:;
;=
Start
a:
+x
(>enter
of arc
i2cP
K
K
\
—
!-
+Z
R
Center of arc
(I
R
o
K
K
Start
Stari
POkIt
point
‘r)
Fig. 4.73
Center of arc
Arc Cutting Direction
4-74
K
R
P’
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(l)
How the direction of rotation in arc cutting is determined in the NC is indicated in
Table 4.17.
Table 4.17 Commands
and Arc Cutting Directions
~~r...PeriP:cu”in!DireiO:=:e.e
120,
I
KZ0
Counterclockwise: CCW
(same as G03)
I
Clockwise: CW
(same as G02)
~
I
I< O,K<O
Clockwise: CW
(s~me as G02)
Counterclockwise: CCW
(same as G03)
CoUnterclockwise: CCW
(same as G03)
I
Clockwise: CW
(same as G02)
The arc cutting direction indicated above can be reversed by specif ying a negative
value for arc radius R as shown in Fig. 4.74.
Direction of arc cutting
when a positive value is
set for R
Ks
I
CCW
I
CW
R> O, I< O,K<O
K
+x
Fig. 4.74
R< O, I< O,K<O
Arc Cutting Direction with a Negative R Value
4-75
(c) Omission of addresses
Addresses X(U) and Z(W) are used to determine the arc location (on periphery or on face). Therefore, they cannot be omitted even if the start and end
points are on the same position; specify “U()” or “WO”. Concerning other
addresses, how their omission is treated is indicated in Table 4.18.
Table 4.18 Omission of Addresses
Processing at Omission
Address
F+
I
Equivalent of “IO”
K
Equivalent to “KO”
R
Equivalent to “R(Y’and causes an alarm.
P
Q
c
D
Equivalent to “O” designation and chamfering/rounding is
not executed.
(3) Examples of Programming
Example 1
t– ~ne in broken line (preceding the arc)
(GO1 X1OO. Z-SO.;)
G112 UO 110. K-SO. P5. Q5. R30. ;
(GO1 Z-150.;)
+
Line in broken line (succeeding
~–
the arc)
–1 50.
)-~~l_-50
-t----
Fig. 4.75
Continuous
‘z
Rounding on Arc Ends
4-76
4.1 PROGRAM SUPF’ORTFUNCTIONS
(l)
Example 2
+Lineinbrokenline
(preceding the
(GO1 XIOO. Z-5O.;)
G112 UO IlO. K–50. C5. D5. R30. ;
~ Line in broken line (succeeding the arc)
(GO1 Z-15(3.;)
~
–150.
arc)
50.
F
+x
L
Fig. 4.76
(4) Supplements
●
Multiple Chamfering
on Arc Ends
to Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
A
on Arc Ends Function
It is not allowed to specify addresses M, S, and Tin the block containing G112.
n
No other G codes maybe specified in the G112 block. An error occurs if a G
code is specified with G112 in the same block.
●
The NC processes all operations to define the 1st and 2nd lines and the 1st and
2nd chamferinghounding
when it reads the G112 block into buffer. It could
take more than 500 msec depending on the shape to be defined. If the time
required for the axes to execute the commands in the preceding block is shorter
than the time required for the necessary operation, axis movement will be suspended to impair the surface being machined. To prevent such suspension of
axis movement due to long operation time, place the NC in the buffering mode
(M93 mode) several blocks before the G112 block.
If the G112 block is executed with the single block function ON, the movements to the end point of the G112 block are divided into a maximum of 4
blocks.
If G112 is specified in the. finishing shape defining block for the multiple repetitive cycles G71 (OD stock removal cycle), G72 (face rough turning cycle),
and G73 (pattern repeating cycle), theG112 block is equivalent to five blocks.
;
4-77
.—. ———-.
— .-—
— —- —.-
.. ———’.—
-..
—.—...
—
,.-!.— .——
. . . ..————
-.,
●
Alarms Caused by Incorrect G112 Command Designation
Table 4.19 Table of Alarms Caused by Incorrect G112 Command Designation
Alarm Code
0285
Description
M, S, and/or T code is specified in the G112 block.
X (U) or Z (W) is not specified.
Both of X (U) and Z (W) are specified.
● R is not specified, or RO is specified.
● I and K are not specified, or “O” is specified for both of I and K.
● Both P and C are specified.
● Both Q and D are specified.
●
●
0286
●
Movement in the direction opposite to the direction from the start point to th(
center of arc
cen’era
@
point
●
There is no point of intersection between arc and line.
Center
K
of arc
R
Start
point
a --------
●
There is no point of intersection between arc and end point.
0287
Q
●
“~,
Chamfering specified by C is not possible.
fi~’;;,,
P
●
Chamfering specified by D is not possible.
04
‘\
4-78
the
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(I)
4.1.5
Hole-machining
Canned Cycles (G80 to G89, G831, G841, G861 ) *
Hole-machining canned cycles (G80 to CJ89, G831, G841, G861) can define specific movements for machining holes that usually require several blocks of commands by single-block
commands. Fourteen kinds of canned cycles are provided and G80 cancels the called out
canned cycle program.
(1) G Codes Calling Canned
Cycles
Cycles and Axis Movement
Patterns
of Canned
G codes that call out a canned cycle and the axis movement pattern
cycle are indicated in Table 4.20.
Table 4.20
Hole-machining
called canned
Canned Cycles
—.
Code
Retraction
Applications
1
G80
—
—
G81
Cutting feed
—
G82
Cutting feed
Dwell
G83
3831
Cancel
---=———l—
Rapid traverse
Drilling
—.
—
—
Intermittent feed
—.
—
Intermittent feed
4
Rapid traverse
Spot facing
J
Rapid traverse
Deep hole drilling
J
High-speed deep
hole drilling
Rapid traverse
I
G84
Cutting feed
Spindle reverse
rotation after
dwell
3841
Cutting feed
Spindle forward
rotation after
dwell
G85
Cutting feed
G86
Cutting feed
2861
Cutting feed
G87
Spindle indexing
+ Shift + Rapid
traverse + Shift
+ Spindle forward
rotation + Cutting feed
Cutting feed
—*Dwell + Spindle
Tapping
fcxward rotation
—
1
Cutting feed
+ Dwell + Spindle
Reverse tapping
reverse rotation
—
-t——————
-~-=ing
1-
Rapidtraverse
- Spindleforward
rotation
Boring
Spindle indexing
-+ Shift
Rapid traverse
+ Shift + Spindle
forward rotation
Boring
Spindle indexing
+ Shift
Rapid traverse
+ Shift + Spindle
forward rotation
Spindle stop
I
Back boring
4-79
--.—-———
.——-.
.— .. ——.. —
. . .——-.
—.. ——.
... .— ,. —..
—. —-—
G Code
I
Axis Feed
EL
I
Processing
at Hole Bottom
I
Retraction
G88
Cutting feed
Spindle forward
rotation after dwell
Manual return
+ Spindle forward
rotation
G89
Cutting feed
Dwell
Cutting feed
(2) Programming
Applications
Boring
.4
Boring
Format
—
Designation
of a plane (determination
hole machining
axis)
————
I
r
+t
G code calling up a canned cycle
G17 G””” X(Z) .”” CO. OZ(X).
(G19)
(H)(W)
(u) (w)
/
.. RP.
(U)
——
I
I
I L
I
I
~
t--- Designation
.. P...
~Lengthofdwellatholebot’tom
Designation
Designation
Of hole machining
of R-point level coordinate
of hole-machining
pOint coordinate
axis coordinate
value
Value
values
Q . . . L.””F”o”;
————
]]L
Feed rate
~–Number
Of repetitions
I
~
G83, G831: Cut-in depth
G861: Shift distance
G84, G841: Dwell time at R-point level
The following four steps are executed as one cycle with the commands indicated above.
Q
TERM?
&-
●
Positioning
at the hole machining position
●
Rapid traverse to R-point level
●
Hole machining up to the bottom
●
Return to R-point or initial point level
+ Initial Point Level
The initial point level is the absolute position of the point where the hole machining axis is located when the
NC mode enters the canned cycle mode from the canned cycle cancel state. The initial point level is not changed
if a canned cycle is executed in the G199 (R-point level return) mode.
4-80
I
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1)
(a) Addresses
●
Positioning axes
:
The hole machining position is specified by either
incremental or absolute values. ‘rhe positioning
axes are those included in the se] ected plane.
●
Hole machining axis
:
The position of the hole bottom is specified by
either an.absolute value or an incremental value
referenced to the R-point level. Axis move from
the R-point level to the hole bottom is controlled
i:n the GO1 mode using the feedrilte specified by
an F code. With some types of canned cycles,
GOOoperation is included (intermittent feed, for
example). Return motion from the bottom of the
hole to the R-point level is controlled in the GOO
c,r GO1 mode according to the type of the canned
cycle. The hole machining axis is an axis not
included in the selected plane as shown in
Table 4.21.
Table 4,21 Plane Selection G ICodes and Hole Machining Axes
I
G Code
I
G17
I Selected Plane (Positioning
I
Plane)
XY
I
Hole Machining Axis
I
,7
,,.
I
I
Note 1: Generally, the G18 plane is selected for normal machining carried out in a two-axis NC lathe. Beforestarting
a holemachiningcannedcycle,G17or 019 mustalwaysbespecified,and when can,.!eling the hole machining
cycle the plane must be returned to the XZ plane by specifying G18.
2: The C-axis can be used as the positioning axis disregarding
3:
of the plane desigmiticn
(G17 to G19).
In a hole-machiningcannedcycle,if theselectionof theplaneandthe designationc,fthe hole machiningaxis
do not agree with each other while pammeter setting is “pm4017 D6 = l“, an alarm occurs.
●
R (hole machining feed start level)
:
The position of the R-point level is
specified by either an absolute or incremental value. The feed axis is the hole
machining axis. Return operation from
the R-point level to the initial point
level is controlled in the GOO mode.
With the standard G code, the R-point
level is always specified by an absolute
value. If the X-axis is taken as the hole
machining axis, the unit system of the
hole machining axis is the same as selected for the X-axis (diametric value
when pm1000 D1 = O, and radial value
when pm1000 D1 = 1).
●
L (number of repetitions)
:
The number of repetitions is specified
by address L. If designation of address
L is omitted, “L1” is assumed. If “L =
O“ is specified, only positioning at (X,
Z) is executed.
●
P (dwell time)
:
The length of dwell at the bottom of
the hole is specified in units of 1 msec.
Designation of “P1.0” executes dwell
for 1 second, If address P is not designated, dwell is not executed.
c
Q (depth of cut, shift amount)
:
Address Q is used to specify depth of
cut for G83 and G831 cycles and shift
amount for G861 and G87 cycles. An
unsigned incremental value is used; to
specify X-axis component, a radial value is used.
(3) Designation
of Return Mode
In the execution of a hole-machining canned cycle, the return mode after the completion
of a cycle differs depending on which of the following G codes is specified.
Returnsto the initialpoint level.
=.t.rnstoth.,-p.intev.
These G codes are modal.
4-82
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(1)
(4) Table of Operation
Table 4.22 Table of Normal Hole-machining
Canned Cycles
● Dwell
O
—
GI 99 (R-point Level Return) Mode
GI 98 (Initial Point Level Return) Mode
—
Q
---------
Drilling
—
y~
G81
~
“‘- Rapid feed
Sirwle-block stop
Initial point level
---. -----*O
Q
-—— Initial point level
R-point level
t—
Hole bottom
b
i–-–-
R-point level
— Cutting feed
L
Hole bottom
.—
—
G82
Q
---------
—
*—?
Drilling
Spot facing
—L—
.We,,k
_--..--_--
Q
Initial point level
——
H
~—-i----
R-point level
Hole bottom
Initial point level
R-point level
Dwell 1’,
—
— Hole bottom
--------
[;~~[
’83
X8
,m;f$:i
,m,:[email protected]:
Deep hole drilling
& Setting
G17:
G18:
G19:
& Setting
pm 0870
pm 0871
pm 0872
G17:
G18:
G19:
pm 087;
pm 0871
pm 0872
——
——
deep
hole drilling
High-speed
’83’
:E:&E,
& Setting
::~:&Em
G17:
G18:
G19:
pm 0870
& Setting
G17:
pm 0870
pm 0871
G18: pm 0871
pm 0872
G19:
pm 0872
4-83
-- ——--—..
—..
—
..- .— .—-
. . ..-. ———
Table 4.22
Table of Normal Hole-machining
Canned Cycles (cent’d)
G198 (Initial Point Level Return) Mode
o
---------<------
—--y
G84
Tapping
●
Dwell
O
Single-block
G199 (R-point Level Return) Mode
Initialpointlevel
u
---------w--–—
--—-— Initialpointlevel
Spindle forward
“
;
i-..-...
~
~Spindle reverse Jr
‘ rotation after dwell
i ----
--—
;y:;;:::,dwe”
---—
Hole bottom
stop
~ ------
––
Spindle revers 4..---T
rotation after dwell
Spindle forward
rotation after dwell
R-point level
–—---
Hole bottom
P : Dwell time at hole bottom
, P : Dwell time at hole bottom
~ Q: Dwelltime at R-pointlevel
Q: Dwell time at R-pointlevel
[
I
I
u
..---- .--y–-_—
level
—.--..— Initial point
~
I
G841
Reverse tapping
I
i-----
0
--------w---—
Spindle forward
rotation after dwell
;—
Initial point level
‘-----,
j___
R-point level
Spindle forward
__-rotation
after dwel}
R-point level
I
1
~Spindle reverse Jr
_——
—
-----—
Hole bottom
~rotation after dwell
Spindle revers J--r
rotation after dwell
‘---—
Hole bottom
P : Dwell time at hole bottom
C): Dwell time at R-point level
~ P : Dwell time at hole bottom
~ Q: Dwell time at R-point level
~
G85
Boring
IQ
~
____7.._-...j-.
I
—
~----
I
~
[ –-
H . ..—.
I
I
!
[
Initial point level
—
Q
----.-. --*9—-–——..-.—
lniti~[
point
level
R-pointlevel
g---
Hole bottom
U
----
R-point level
-— Hole bottom
Spindle forward
rotation
,Q
.-.----.-
-
-- --
Boring
--
Initial point level
Q
----------o——
(
G86
~
!
~ Spindle stop A
---
---
--- -------------
i..-{ --—
R.point,eve,
Hole bottom
-—---
Spindle stop
-A
---—---—----
Initial point level
, Spindle forward
rotation
R-point level
Hole bottom
1
Note: For the spindlecontrol,referto (5) “SpindleControlin Hole-machiningCannedCycles”.
4-84
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(l)
Table 4.22
Table of Normal Hole-machining
Canned Cycles (cont’d)
● Dwell
O
GI 99 (R-point Level Return) Mode
GI 98 (Initial Point Level Return) Mode
Q--.----+,::::::::::::l
Q-”-----7--~;,,
3------&--–
G861
(constant shift)
Spindle orientation
after dwell
bottom
fo:::::::~,
,..._. –- R-pc)intlevel
e
R-pointlevel
i --–—Hole
L!
Spindle orientation
i’ ~’
.—___
Hole
bottom
after dwell
Boring
1~
Single-blockstop
la
L
Q: Shift distance (unsigned incremental
Shifting feedrate: pm2864
Shifting direction: pm4028
Dwell time: P command
Q: Shift distance (unsigned increlnental
Shifting feedrate: pm2864
Shifting direction: pm4028
Dwell time: P command
value)
value)
.—
0
Spindle forward rotation
____-T~
_—--Initial
4
point level
~-–--R-point
Spindle orientation
after dwell
G861
(variable
l-’
i
Q
--------w–———
bottom
Initial point level
‘ S indle Iorward rotation
3A,
-––
R-point level
level
—Hole
—
Spindle orientation
after dwell
i’ ~’
–--—
Hole bottom
shift)
&l
&
Boring
Q : Shift distance (specified by i, j, and k)
G17: By i and j
G18: By k and i
G19: By j and k
: X-axis incremental value (signed) (radial value)
i
: Y-axis incremental value (signed)
j
k
: Z-axis incremental value (signed)
Shifting feedrate: pm2864
Dwell time: P command
4-85
: Shift distance (specified
G17: By i and j
G18: By k and i
G19: By j and k
i
: X-axis incremental value
: Y-axis incremental value
j
k
: Z-axis incremental value
Shifting feedrate: pm2864
Dwell time: P command
Q
by i, j, and k)
(signed) (radial value)
(signed)
(s[gned)
Table 4.22
Table of Normal Hole-machining
Canned Cycles (cent’d)
●
O
G198 (Initial Point Level Return) Mode
Dwell
Single-block stop
GI 99 (R-point Level Return) Mode
Q--------~~:U~iUelinle.el
3:
:
,,
Spindle forward rotation
G87
(constant shift)
~ [
Spindle index ~~
and stop
~----–-
Hole bottom
Not used
t
+==&---
Back boring
Spindle forward
rotation
R-point level
I-Q+
Q: Shifting distance (unsigned incremental
Shifting feedrate: pm2864
Shifting direction: pm4028
value)
Q
. . ..-.-.2.’eindexandst0F)
------—Initial pc,int level
i!
ea:
;
Y
::
Spindle forward rotation
t ;
!,
Spindle index —
c==
~ -—- -- Hole bottom
and stop
G87
(variable
t
shift)
H
i
===x—---R-point
level
Spindle forward
Back boring
rotation
1~
Q : Shift distance (specified by i, j, and k)
GI 7: By i and j
G18: By k and i
G19: By j and k
I
: X-axis incremental value (signed) (radial value)
: Y-axis incremental value (signed)
j
k
: Z-axis incremental value (signed)
Shifting feed rate: pm2864
4-86
Not used
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPCIRT FUNCTIONS
Table 4.22
Table of Normal Hole-machining
Canned Cycles (cent’d)
● Dwell
O
u .--_---_- -u—
,<
.—
—
Single-block stop
G199 (R-point Level Return) Mode
—
G198 (Initial Point Level Return) Mode
G88
Spindleforward
rotation
Initialpointlevel
0
----------w—-—
–-—-- Initialpointlevel
, Spindleforward
Boring
spindestop~~-;;;;;
::,~,:pl~~z::
after dwell
o
---------
Initial point level
G89
-—?—
Boring
i.
Dwell
/r
i
Q
----------
$––
Hole bottom
Initial point level
-—----–-––
R-point level
(5) Spindle Control in Hole-machining
Dwell
IJ
‘–
----
‘——
R-point level
- ‘“le
b“tiom
Canned Cycles
(a) Tapping cycle (G84) and Reverse tapping cycle (G841 )
Table 4.23 Spindle Control in Tapping and Reverse Tapping Cycles
G84
G841
Bottom of hole
(Spindle stop)
J
Spindle reverse rotation
Retraction
(Spindle stop)
4
Spindle forward rotation
(Spindle stop)
1
Spindle forward rctation
—
(Spindle stop)
i
Spindle reverse rotation
4-87
(1)
——
For the control of the spindle, a value is set for the parameters
Table 4.24 and the set value is output as an M code.
Table 4.24
Spindle
Cycles
Control
Parameters
for Tapping
indicated
and Reverse
in
Tapping
Default M Code (No Parameter Setting)
CJ
‘“’”meter
LA!.!!’’””’ -L_
‘“’~
‘“4432
When changing the spindle rotating direction from forward to reverse or from reverse to forward, whether the spindle is stopped once or the direction of rotation
is changed directly without stopping the spindle is selected by the setting for the
following parameter.
Spindle stop M code is not output.
F~
I
pm4016 D’= 1
Spindle stop M code is output.
I
I
(b) Boring cycle (G86)
Table 4,25 Spindle Control in Boring Cycle
Note:
The parameters used to output the spindle control M codes are the same as indicated in Table 4.24.
(c) Boring cycle (G861 ) and back boring cycle (G87)
Table 4,26 Spindle Control in Boring and Back Boring Cycles
F
E-——
I
Bottom of hole
‘“-
‘:’
[
-
Spindle index and stop
Spindle index and stop
Spindle forward rotation
[
I
L!Y!x’E-Q!ind’efO”ard
‘“’ation
Spindle index and stop
Spindle forward rotation
Note: The M code for spindle forward rotation is the same as indicated in Table 4.24.
4-88
I
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS(I)
For the parameter used to set the spindle index and stop M code, the following parameter is used.
Tabie 4.27 Spindle lndexand
Stop Parameter
Default M Code (No Parameter Setting)
--=1
(6) C-axis Clamp/Unclamp
It is possible to clamp the C-axis during hole machining. By setting “l” for parameter
pm4017 D4 (parameter pm4017 D4 = 1), the C-axis clamp/unclamp M codes which are
set for the parameters indicated below are output at the positionss hewn in Fig. 4.77.
It is also possible to execute dwell afterclarnping the C-axis by the se:ting for the setting
parameter indicated below.
m
xi----------------y—$---–
point
M (Clamp)
{\
~
--—~-–
initial Pointlevel
M (unclamp),
(dwell) *
In the G198 mode
R-point level
!
H
---—
Fig.
4.77
C-axis
-----
“ M (unclamp),
(dwell) -
In the G199 mode
Hole bottom
Clamp/Uncliamp
Table 4.28 Parameters
E====I=
Clamp M code
Unclamp M code
Dwell time after clamp
C-axis is clamped/not clamped
Used for C-axis Clamp/Clamp
Setting
Default (No Parameter
‘arameter
=L=====
~E’’’’ers
pm 0400
——
pm 4017 D4
O: C-axis is not clamped
1: C-axis is clamped
—
4
Setting)
(7) Shift in Boring (G861 ) and Back Boring (G87) Cycles
(a) Direction of shift in G861/G87
(when Q command
is used)
Specify the shift amount with a Q command and set the direction of shift for
parameter pm4028.
Table 4.29 Direction of Shift and Parameters
R
Plane Selection
Hole Machining Axis
Z-axis
G17
HG18
Shift Direction
Setthg Parameter
D1
DO
o
0
+x
o
1
-x
1
0
+Y
1
1
–Y
pm4028 D3, D2
D3
o
o
1
1
D2
0
1
0
1
+Z
-z
+x
–x
pm4028 D5, D4
D5
o
o
1
1
D4
0
1
0
1
+Y
-Y
+Z
–z
pm4028 Dl, DO
Y-axis
‘D-
(b) Direction of shift for G861 /G87 cycle (designation
by 1,J, and K)
It is possible to specify the shift in linear interpolation by using I, J, and K.
The shift amount is specified in the following manner according to the plane
selected for the operation.
G17 (XY plane)
:
Specify with I and J.
G18 (ZX plane)
:
Specify with K and I.
G19 (YZ plane)
:
Specify with J and K.
I:
X-axis incremental value (signed) (radius value)
J:
Y-axis incremental value (signed)
K:
Z-axis incrememal value (signed)
The shift speed is set fo:r parameter pm2864 in either case (a) or (b).
(G17)X”
”” Z”””
R”””
I””’
T
4-90
L––––.
Shift amount
4.1 PROGRAM SUPPCIRT FUNCTIONS
(8) Supplements
to Hole-machining
(1)
Canned Cycles
c G codes that call up a hole-machining
canned cycle (G81 to G89, G831, G841,
and G861) are modal and cmce specified, the specified G code remains valid
until another G code in the same G code group, a G code in 01 group, or G80
is specified.
●
●
●
The hole machining data are modal while a hole-machining canned cycle
mode remains valid. It is possible to call up a new hole-machining canned
cycle while in the hole-machining canned cycle mode previously setup. If address data to be used for the execution of a newly called hole-machining
canned cycle are omitted, the modal data specified in the previous blocks are
used.
When the program is written using incremental commands, the bottom of the
hole to be machined is definedby the distance referenced from the R-point level. If the R-point level is changed during the execution of a hole-machining
canned cycle, the bottom of the hole is defined in reference Io the new R-point
level. Therefore, to prevent an error, always specify both the R-point level and
the bottom of the hole.
The L command that specifies how many times the hole-machining canned
cycle should be repeated is non-modal. However, there is a case that the specified Lcommand is saved temporarily as indicated below. Note that the Lcommand remains valid until it is actually executed.
Example of Programming
G81 U1O. R-20. Z-30. :F1OO;
●
●
L3 ;
The hole-machining canned cycle is not executed since none of
X (U), Z (W), C (H), Y (V), and R are specified.
X20. ;
The G81 cycle is executed three times as specified by “L3”
which has been saved. After the completion of the cycle, “L3”
is cleared.
Before starting a hole-machining canned cycle, the spindle must have been
started in the automatic operation by executing M03 or M04. Never start a
hole-machining canned cycle after starting the spindle manually.
Before entering the hole-machining canned cycle mode, clefine the R-point
level (hole bottom) newly by specifying the bottom of the hole. Note that the
R-point level data are cleared when the hole-machining canned cycle mode is
canceled.
4-91
●
To execute a hole-machining canned
block in which the new address data
lowing addresses: X (U), Z (W), C
canned cycle is not executed unless
cycle after changing the address data, the
are specified must include any of the fol(H), Y (V), and R. The hole-machining
any of these addresses is specified.
c If M, S, and/orT code is specified in the block where a hole-machining canned
cycle commands are specified, the specified codes are output at the first positioning operation. They are also output in the first positioning operation if “L”
is specified. Therefore, these codes must be specified independently.
“ If following G codes are specified in the hole-machining canned cycle mode,
alarm “0170” occurs. The hole machining canned cycle mode must be canceled before specifying these G codes.
“ G codes in * group, excluding G04
. G codes (G41, G42) that call up the nose R offset mode.
c In the hole-machining canned cycle mode, it is possible to call a subprogram
by specifying the subprogram call command (M98). The hole-machining
canned cycle can be continuously executed in the called subprogram. In this
case, although the P command (dwell time) for the hole-machining canned
cycle is temporarily destroyed by the P command (jump destination program
number) specified with M98, the previous P command value is automatically
recovered after the jump to the specified subprogram.
The restrictions on M98, such as the maximum four nesting levels and the
cc)mmand input function from punched tape, are the same as applied to M98
in other than the hole-machining canned cycle mode.
An alarm occurs if the hole-machining
cified in the same block.
●
canned cycle G code and M98 are spe-
The hole-machining canned cycle mode is canceled when G80 or a G code in
01 group is specified.
If a G code in 01 group is specified with a Gcode that calls up a hole-machining
canned cycle in the same block, alarm “0170” occurs. Note that if G80 is specified with a G code in 01 group in the same block, an alarm does not occur
but the specified commands are executed normally.
4.-92
4.1 PROGRAM SUPP,DRT FUNCTIONS(l)
●
If ahole-machining
canr~ed cycle isexecuted with the SINGLE BLOCK
switch set ON, the operation is suspended at the timing indicated beIow and
the FEED HOLD lamp on the machine operation panel lights. The single
block stop at the completion of a hole-machining canned c ycle is the same as
the single block stop in ot her than a hole-machining canned cycle; the FEED
HOLD Iamp does not go on.
. After the completion clf positioning at the specified point
“ After the completion of positioning at the R-point level
. After the completion c~fone cycle if an L command is specified
●
●
●
In the hole-machining canned cycle mode, it is possible to insert the dwell
(G04) command block, that contains only dwelI command. In this case, the
specified dwell is executed normally.
The F command specified as a hole-machining canned cycle command remains valid even after the cancellation of the hole-machining canned cycle.
If address search operation is attempted by suspending (block stop) a hole-machining canned cycle, it causes an alarm. Address search during block stop,
which is specified in a program, is allowed. If the Cdlh;d hole-machining
canned cycle is executed more than one time for one block of commands in
a program (L command designation), address search at the completion of each
cycle causes an alarm.
4-93
—. —..-—..
—..
_. —. —.. ——..
_____
—. .-_,
—- . .. _____
.. .._
____
.,— ____
... ,— .—-.
. ..-——-
___
.,.
4.2
PROGRAM
SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
4.2.1
Solid Tap Function (G84, G84”1) *
(2)
The solid tapping function executes tapping by synchronizing the feed of the hole machining
axis with the rotation of the rotary tool spindle. If tapping is executed by using this function,
a floating chuck is not necessary any more and, at the same time, accurate tapping is made
possible at a high speed.
(1) Commands
Used for Solid Tap Cycle
To execute solid tapping, change the mode to the solid tap mode and then specify the
solid tap cycle.
(a) Solid tap mode commands
The following G codes are provided to determine which of the tapping mode is
called up, solid tap or conventional tapping cycle. These G cocies are modal.
When the power is turned ON or the NC is reset, G94 mode is set.
●
Solid tap mode command (G93)
Once G93 is executed, the tapping cycle commands (G84/G74) are executed
in the solid tap mode. In this mode, Z-axis feed is controlled in the “feed per
revolution” mode. In the solid tap mode, no machining other than solid tapping is allowed.
●
Solid tap mode cancel command (G98, G99)
The solid tap mode is canceled and the conventional tapping mode is called
up. Once G94 is executed, tapping cycles are executed in the conventional
mode, in which the Z-axis feed is controlled in the “feed per minute” mode.
4-94
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPC~RT FUNCTIONS
(b) Programming
for the solid
(2)
tap cycle
After executing G93, solid tapping is enabled by specifying the commands indicated below.
●
Programming
G code
r
G84 X(U)*
for tapping lcycle
calling up a tapping cycle
.OC(H)+””
Z(W)+””
R+””
(P””)F(E).(~”.)(~oo);
.— -—
11
Number of
repetitions
Spindle
speed
— Tap pitch (mm/rev)
Dwell tirle at the hole bottom
– R-point level coordinate value
(absolute command)
– Designation of hole Dosition and hole bottom level
(U, ~ and W incremental command)
●
Programming for reverse lapping cycle
G code calling up reverse tapping cycle
r
G841 X(U)+””
C(H)+””
Z(W)+. ” R*””
A
o
(P”. )F(E’1”” (S”.)(L);
(2) Part Program Using Solid Tap Commands
(a) M** command
This command selects the gear range used for solid tap cycle. If no such M code
is specified, A gear is selected.
(b) G93 command
When the G93 command is executed, the spindle stops and the solid tap mode is
established with the position lclop set for the control of the spindle.
It is also possible to execute spindle indexing to position the spindle at a fixed position before establishing the solid tap mode after the spindle has been stopped. To
execute spindle indexing, change the setting for parameter (pm1053 D2 = 1). Note
that spindle indexing to the fixed position is possible only when the spindle and the
spindle PG rotate at a 1 : 1 ratio.
The solid tap mode is canceled by G84 (or G841).
4-95
.. -.—.————...
—-——. —.—...-.——
... .—-—, +. .. ..-—-————-—---
-b
0)
w
——
——
———
N
E
9.
x
<u
I
ic1
.
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(3) Example of Programming
and Description
(2)
of Operation
Example of Programming
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
N7
G17; . . . . . ...0
G93; . . . . . [email protected]
G84 (or G841) X1OO.C1O. Z-20. R-10. F1 S3000 ; . . . . . [email protected]
G20. .“ . . . . . . . . @
X150. .o . . . . . . . @
G80. .“ . . . . . . . . @
G99; . . . . . [email protected]
Operation
@
Hole machining axis
@
Solid tap mode ON (spindle positioning mode ON)
@
Tapping in the solid tap mode at (100., 10.) in 1 mm pitches.
@
Tapping in the solid tap mode at (100., 20.) in 1 mm pitches.
@
Tapping in the solid tap mode at (150., 20.) in 1 mm pitches.
@
Canceling the canned cycle
@
Solid tap mode OFF, mm/rev mode designation
4-97
————..———.—.—....—...—-——-
.- —...
——. ... —-
——
.,- -—
... .— -—..
---—— ——
.
.. .
(4) Relationship
between the Solid Tap and Other Operation
(a) Dry run
Whether the solid tap cycle or the conventional tapping should be executed when
G93 is executed with the DRY RUN switch ON can be selected by the setting for
a parameter.
Es~::’l:Y
If a tapping cycle is called up with the setting of “pm4016
executed in the following manner.
D6 = O“, the cycle is
If G93 is executed with the DRY RUN switch set ON, G93 is invalid and the
G84/G841 command called up in the solid tap mode is processed as the G84/G841
command called up in the conventional tapping mode. The feedrate for this operation is determined by the setting of the JOG switch, Once the solid tap mode is entered with the DRY RUN switch ON, the G84/G841 command is processed as if
the command were called up in the conventional tapping mode even if the DRY
RUN switch setting is changed from ON to OFF during the execution of the cycle.
Therefore, the spindle does not start even when G93 is executed.
For the execution of the G93 block, whether the DRY RUN switch is ON or not is
judged when the G93 code is read. Usually, this state is determined while the commands in the preceding block are executed. Therefore, when G93 is operated with
DRY RUN ON for program check, etc., be sure that the DRY RUN switch is ON
from the beginning and do not change it before completion.
(b) MST function lock
If G93 is executed with the MST FUNCTION LOCK switch set ON, G93 is invalid
and the G84/G841 cycle is executed as the conventional tapping cycle. Note that
feedrate command is executed in the feed per revolution mode and thus the spindle
position is not controlled.
Whether the solid tap cycle is executed with the MST function lock state or not is
judged when the G93 code is read. Therefore, if the G93 program should be
checked in the MST function lock state, the MST LOCK switch must be set ON
from the beginning of operation so that it will not be turned ON during the operation.
4-98
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(2)
(c) Machine lock
If tapping cycle is executed in the solid tap mode with the MACHINE LOCK
switch set ON, although the spindle rotates, Z-axis does not mov~ but onl y the position data are updated.
(d) Feedrate override and spindle override
During tapping cycle in the solid tap mode (G84 or G74), feed override is fixed at
100%. Note that override for rapid traverse is valid. Concerning the spindle override, the value set for parameter pm4017 D2 is used; the parameter setting is read
when the solid tap commands are read and the spindle override is clamped at this
value during solid tapping.
(e) Feed hold
During tapping cycle in the solid tap mode, feed hold is invalid. I fthe FEED HOLD
button on the machine operation panel is pressed during tapping in the solid tap
mode, tapping is executed up to the point-R level and stops there.
(9
Mode change
During tapping cycle in the solid tap mode, mode change is invalid.
(9) program
re-stafi
If the program is restarted from a block in the solid tap mode, GIJ3 is not executed.
Therefore, to restart a program from a block in the solid tap mcde, it is necessary
to enter and execute G93 in the MDI mode.
4-99
.—.
——
....— -—
,....+ .—
—-..
,-
(5) Supplements to the Solicl Tap Function
●
●
In the G93 block, cmly S, F, and N codes can be specified,
are specified in the G93 block, alarm “0250” occurs.
If other commands
In the G93 mode, an S code is processed as the S command for solid tap operation.
. In the G93 mode, only G codes indicated below can be specified. If a G code
not indicated below is specified, alarm “0250” occurs. Concerning GO1, although it can be specified in the G93 mode, axis move commands cannot be
specified.
G codes that can be specified in the G93 mode
GOO, GO1, G04, G70, G71, G72, G74, G80, G84, G90, G91, G98, G99
c Spindle indexing called in the G93 mode is the indexing to the fixed position
in reference to the zero point pulse (C-axis) that is output from the spindle PG.
●
●
●
To specify G98/G99 after the completion of solid tap, make sure to cancel the
canned cycle by specifying G80.
When G98/G99 is specified after the completion of solid tap, an F command
value is reset to “O’. Make sure to specify an F command when a program including cutting feed is specified after the designation of G98/G99.
Solid tapping is executed by the combination of the control of the spindle and
the hole machining axis. Two combinations of the spindle and the hole machining axis can beset using parameters (pm1240 to pm1243). If the solid tap
command is specified for the axis not set for the parameters, alarm “0161 occurs.
e F values are displayed in the order they are specified in a program.
the display, it is necessary to specify the F value again.
●
To change
For the parameter where the spindle speed that corresponds to the 10 V command is set in the gear range used for solid tap, make sure to set a value larger
than the value set for the parameter where the allowable maximum spindle
speed for solid tap is set.
Example:
pm1415 = 3200, pm1416 = 3000
4-1oo
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
~21
(6) Functions Related to Solid Tap
If the options related to the solid talp function are selected, the following functions are
added or modified.
(a) Display of synchronization
●
error in solid tapping
While in the solid tap mode, the servo lag error display screen displays the following data.
X-axis
. . . Spindle servo lag error
Z-axis . . . . Synchronization
ing axis
C-axis.
error between the spindle and the hole machin-
. . . Hole machining servo lag error
Note that the names of axes displayed on the screen vary depending on the machine configuration.
●
If “pm4015 D6 = l“, it is :possible to display the peak value of the number of
synchronization error pulses for the spindle and the hole machining axis. (Xaxis: Positive peak value; C-axis: Negative peak value)
Note that the names of axes displayed on the screen vary del]endingon
chine configuration.
the ma-
(b) Error detect in the solid tap mode
By setting “l” for parameter pm4015 D5, it is possible to set the error detect OFF
mode for rapid traverse (X- , Z-axis positioning) during solid tap.
By this setting, cycle time can be reduced. In this case, the program must be made
carefully since the program advances to the Z-axis block immediately after the
completion of pulse distribution for the positioning of the X-a~xis.
(c) High-speed
return speed in solid tap
. By settinga numeral “n” forparameterpm1252,
the cutting speed is controlled
during solid tap so that the feedrate in the return motion will be “n” times (0.1
s— n ~
— 25.5) the feedrate applied in the cutting motion.
pm1252
●
Programmable
Setting:
:range:
O to 255
1 = 0.1 times (If “pm1252 = 0“, setting of
“l” is equivalent to 1 time.)
For spindle speed, the value of “S command value x multiplication
ratio” is
clamped at the maximum speed for solid tap.
4-101
..-..- .—..
—.—
—...-
diJeH
S-T
z‘1
S!XE
OAJ9s
a[pu!ds
z60wd
t60wd
a[pu;ds puz :
s[pu!ds lSI :
[email protected]
ozzwd
s[pu!ds pUz:
a[pu!ds $SI
:
mugqmqo
xapu~ a[pu!ds
~d~l JapomrJ a[pu!ds
8x:0’1=
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:1’0=
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pwe f%!~as
I
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I
wail
16TZ
apouJ de] p~[os
aql u! paMo[[e
IOUpueuso-soov
Oszo
uo!~dpxaa
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
Table 4.13
List of Parameters
(cent’d)
Item
(2)
..—
Setting and Setting
Range
Parameter
spindle speed for command voltage of 10 V with the gear used
for solid tap
pm1415
pm1435
: 1st spindle
: 2nd spindle
Setting
Range
1 = 1r/rein
1-32767
Maximum spindle speed for solid tap
pm1416
pm1436
: 1st spindle
: 2nd spindle
Settini;
Range
1 = 1r/rein
1-32767
Spindle position loop gain for
pm1417
Solidtap
pm1437
: 1st spindle
: 2nd spindle
Setting
Range
1 = 0.01(1/s)
1-32767
[n-position width for solid tap
servo axis to be accelerated to
the target point
pm1500
pm1501
: Solid tap (1)
: Solid tap (2)
Setting
Range
1 = 1 pulse
1-32767
Solid tap synchronization compensation parameter (kl)
pm1502
pm1504
: Solid tap (1)
: Solid tap (2)
Range
–32767 -32727
Solid tap synchronization compensation parameter (k2)
pm1503
pm1505
: Solid tap (1)
: Solid tap (2)
—
Range
–32767 -32727
Spindle gear ratio for solid tap)ing
pm1510
: 1st spindle gear A: Number of teeth
side
: 1st spindle gear A: Number of teeth
gear (spindle)
: 1st spindle gear A: Number of teeth
gear (motor)
: 1st spindle gear A: Number of teeth
side
: 1st spindle gear B: Number of teeth
side
: 1st spindle gear B: Number of teeth
gear (spindle)
: 1st spindle gear B: Number of teeth
gear (motor)
: 1st spindle gear B: Number of teeth
side
: For 2nd spindle
Settirq;
Range
1 = 1 tooth
0-32768
—
Settinf;
Range
l=lms
0-32767
—
Setting
O, 1
pm1511
pm1512
pm1513
pm1514
pm1515
pm1516
pm1517
pm1518 to
pm1525
—
~inear pattern spindle acceleraion/deceleration time constant
‘or solid tapping
at the spindle
of intermediate
of intermediate
at the motor
at the spindle
of intermediate
of intermediate
at the motor
pm2471
pm2472
: 1st spindle
: 2nd spindle
3N/OFF of GOOerror detect durng solid tapping
pm4015 D5
: 0 = Error detect ON
: 1 = Error detect OFF
lisplay of synchronization error
leak value between spindle and
lole machining axis during sold
apping
pm4015 D6
: 0 = Peak value is not displayed.
: 1 = Peak value is displayed.
Setting,
O, 1
;pindle override clamp in tap)ing cycle
pm4017 D2 : 0 = Fixed at 100%
: 1 = Fixed at the value read first
Settin2
O, 1
.—
a
.—
. ..-
4-103
——..————.
.— —..
— ..——--.
—
——.—
.—-.—..,—.—
... ..
.——
4.2.2
Programmable
Data Input (G1 O) *
By using the commands of “GICI P” “ . X(U)” “ . Z(W)s “ o R” ~ “ C ;“, it is possible to
write and update the tool offset almount using a part program. If an address is omitted in the
designation of data input block, the offset amounts for the omitted addresses remain unchanged.
Table 4.32 Description
of Addresses
“’’’’t’””
Specifies the tool offset number.
+
x
z
Updates the present offset amount to the specified value.
I
kolpointda
=
Adds the specified value to the present offset amount.
Updates the nose R offset amount to the spec]fied value.
:
Example of Programming
G1O P16 X32.5
WO.05 ;
-r--r-TAdds 0.05 mm to the offset amount of Z-axis.
Updates the present offset amount of X-axis to 32.5 mm.
I
Declares that the following data are reflected to tool offset
number”1 6,
(1) Tape Format
Punch the tape in the format indicated above. Offset data of different offset numbers
can be stored to the offset memory at a time.
Label
%;
GIOP.
GIOPO.
GIOP”
%
.” X.” OZ” O. R””.;
”X”.
”Z. ”” R”C;
C” X””” ZO” CR. ”C;
4-104
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(2) Setting the Workpiece
Coordinate
(2)
System Shift Data
With the commands of “G1O POOX (U) “ . “ Z (W) “ . “ C (H) “ ‘ . ;“, it is possible to
write and update the workpiece coordinate system shift data using a part program. If
an address is omitted in the designation of data input block, the offset amounts for the
omitted addresses remain unchanged.
x, z, c
:
Absolute setting data of the workpiece coordinate system shift amount
u, w, H
:
Incremental
setting data of the workpiece coordinate system shift amount
4-105
-.. —.———.
.——
——.
—..—
901. -v
●
●
●
4.2 PROGRAM SUPPC)RT FUNCTIONS
(b) End of Subprogram
(2)
Code (M99)
At the end of a subprogram, M99 must be specified in a block without other commands.. Upon execution of M99, the program automatically returns to the block
in the main program next to the one where the subprogram has been called up.
Fig. 4.79 shows how a subprogram called up from the main program is executed.
Example of Programming
Main Program
0100 ;
NIGOO ””” ;
N2
N3
N4
N5
M98
.””
M98
”””
Subprogram
-----,1 rq ,
P200 Q3 L2 ;
;
P200 ;
;
---’1
4*--,
1:
‘1
,
1
~
J
0200;
Nl ”””;
N2 ””.;
N3. o.;
-*-, i
\
$
41_~
\
\
\\
\
‘1/
L-’[email protected]
N20: M99 ;
L.-:
,x ‘2~d
timetime
Fig. 4.79
●
●
Execution of A Subprogram
By specifying “M99P “ “ “ “ . ; “, the program returns to the block specified
by the P command in the main program instead of the blo(ck next to the one
where the subprogram has been called up.
If M99 is specified in a main program, the program returns to the beginning
of that main program and the program is repeatedly executed.
4-107
—..———
—..
—..
—”.-
—.
--—
-——,
——,-
..-, — -—...-.—
-----
4.2.4
Stored Stroke Limit B (G36 to G39)
The stored stroke limit function checks whether the present position of axes operated manually or automatically enters the stored stroke limit (entry prohibited area) which is set by G36
to G39. The No., 2 to No. 5 entry prohibited area is called the stored stroke limit B. If an axis
has entered the stroke end limit, operation is stopped and alarm occurs.
(1) Programming
Format
● G36U”””
W”””
I.. .KC. .
..
-1----d+
By setting 3, 4, and 5, No. 3 to No, 5
entry prohibited areas can also be set,
L’
Coordinate
value of point D
Coordinate
value of point C
With the commancls indicated above, the function checks the entry of axes into
the entry prohibited area No. 2.
“ The commands of “G37 (P” “ “);” cancel the function to check entry into the
prohibited area No. 2.
No. 2 entry prohibited
u, W)
/
K3
area
/
/
D (1, K)
The entry prohibited area is
defined outside the boundary
Fig, 4.80
Stored Stroke Limit B
4-108
c (u, W)
D (I; K)
The entry prohibited area is
defined inside the boundary
●
G38U.
”O W”.”
l“. ”
~
K“”.
;
‘E–E:5::2::
With the commands indicated above, the function checks the entry of axes into
the entry prohibited area No. 3.
. The command of “G39;” cancels the function to check enlry into the prohibited area No. 3.
N0,3entry prohibited
area
E (U, W)
E (U, W)
7~~
/
/
/
/
/
/
r
F (1, K)
The entry prohibited area is
defined outside the bour]dary
Fig. 4.81
Stored
Stroke
Limit B
4-109
F (1, K)
The entry prohibited area is
defined inside the boundary
~OS80.d
~
6ti80.d
i
011. -ti
(+)
EWE
pal!q!qoJd $’“ON
-----1
(E)
(b) Designation
of check axes
The axes for which stored strok:e limit B (No. 2 to No, 5 entry prohibited areas) is
checked is designated by using parameters (maximum of three axes).
Table 4.35 Stored Stroke Limit Check Axis Numbers for No. 2 to No. 5 Entry
Prohibit Areas
Stroke Limit Check Axis No. (Note)
Check Area
Note
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 2 entry prohibited area
pm6111
pm6112
pm6113
No. 3 entry prohibited area
pm6114
pm6116
No. 4 entry prohibited area
pm6117
pm6115
—,
pm6118
No. 5 entry prohibited area
pm6120
pm6121
pm6122
E
pm6119
(c) Parameters
boundary
used for setting the entry prohibited area outside/inside
of he
Table 4.36 indicates the parameter numbers used for setting the entry prohibited
area outside or inside the boundary.
Table 4.36 Outside/Inside Designation
(No. 2 to No. 5)
-
of Entry Prohibited Area
--’y
No. 3 entry prohibited area
u
A
Setting: 1 = X-axis,2 = Z-axis
pmOO08 D5
--l
O: Inside the specified area
I
(d) Turning ON/OFF the Stored Stroke Limit Check
Whether or not the entry to No. 2 to No. 5 entry prohibited area should be checked
(storecl stroke limit B) can be designated by the setting of setting parameters.
Table 4.3”7 Turning ON/OFF the Stored Stroke Limit B
L
Check Area
Parameter No.
No. 2 entry prohibited area
pmOO08 DO
Description
No. 5 entry prohibited area
L-1---00°808
‘3
~
When a G code (G36 to G39) is specified, the setting for these setting parameters
is automatically changed. Therefore, the ON or OFF state that is specified last by
either the G code or the setting for the setting parameters becomes valid. Concerning the No. 1 entry prohibited area, the check is always ON.
●
For the coordinate
the absolute
values of the points that define the boundaries,
value in the machine
= least output (movement)
written.
Therefore,
less the manual
the power
●
coordinate
increment]
system.
from the first reference
the stored stoke limit check function
or automatic
reference
always
That is the distance
use
[1
point should be
is not made valid un-
point return is executed
after turning
ON.
Upon completion of the first manual or automatic reference point return after
power ON, the stored stroke limit check function becomes valid to check the
entry of axes into the entry prohibited areas. Therefore, if the reference point
is located in the entry prohibited area, it causes stored stroke limit error immediately. If this occurs, turn the stored stroke limit check function OFF and
correct the set data.
4-112
(2) Supplements
to the Stored Strc]ke Limit B Function
. If a cutting tool enters the entry prohibited area, it stops at the position slightly
inside the entry prohibited. area beyond the boundary and the stored stroke limit error occurs. In this state, the cutting tool is allowed to b~ moved only in the
opposite direction manually.
●
If the MACHINE LOCK switch is ON, the check is made based on the coordinate values in the machine coordinate system.
Example of Setting
No. 1 entry prohibited area
+x
A (2000. ,,1000)
+Z
eference point
(Workpiece
B = D
Fig. 4.83
center)
(–11000, –9000)
Area Setting
Parameter
Coordinate Values
pmOO08 D4
o (NO.2)
pmOO08 D5
O (No. 3)
——
Inside/outside
pn10831
-5000
1 ~“
-8000
pm0832
No. 2 area
pn10834
pm0835
pn~0837
prn0838
‘
-11000 ~
–10000I
.——
-6000
-6500 1 E
No. 3 area
prn0840
pm0841
prn6901
prn6902
1F
2(100
1A
1000
.—
No. 1 area
prn6911
prn6912
4-113
——.
—______._—_ _____ __, .<_. ._ ..._
-7000
-9000
.—
-1:1000
-10000 I
——
B
4.3
AUTOMATING
SUPPORT
4.3.1
Skip Function (G31) *
FUNCTIONS
By specifying “G31 X(U)” o” Z(W).”. F(E). ““;“, special linear interpolation is executed.
If a skip signal is input during the execution of linear interpolation, linear interpolation is interrupted and the program advances to the next block without executing the remaining linear
interpolation.
Delay from the input of the skip signal to the stiart of processing corresponding
signal is shorter than 0.5 msec; this is processed at extremely high speed.
(1) Programming
to the input
Format
(a) Feedrate
For the execution of the (331 block, feedrate can be selected from the following two
methods according to the setting for parameter pm2001 DO.
I
prn2001 DO= O
I To specify the feedrate with F as another ordinary program
I
l_---!zw2Kl_l_To use the feedrate preset for parameter pm2440
(b) If skip signal is turned ON
When the skip signal is input, the coordinate values of the point where the skip signal is input are automatically saved to the parameters. Therefore, the coordinate
values of the skip point can be used as the coordinate data in macro programs.
I
pmo~~~
I
Saving the X-axis coordirrate value
I
I
prn0812
I Saving the Z-axis coordinate value
I
(c) If skip signal is not turned ON
If the skip signal is not turned ON during the execution of the commands specified
in the Cr31 block, the operation stops upon completion of these commands and
alarm “0491” occurs. N“ote that G31 is a non-modal G code.
Note that G31 is a non-modal code.
I
pmOO07 D2 = O
An alarm occurs if the skip signal is not input until the completion
of the G31 block.
An alarm does not occur if the skip signal is not input until the
pmOO07 D2 = 1
completion of the G31 block. The program advances to the next
block.
4-114
I
4.3 AUTOMATING
SUPPORT FUNCTIONS
(2) Operation after Skip Signal ON
How the axes move after the turning ON of the skip signal varies depending on the commands specified in the block to be executed next.
(a) When axis move commands
in the next block are incremental
commands
The position where the skip sig,nal is turned ON is taken as the reference point to
execute the incremental commands in the next block.
Example of Programming
Actuiq movement%
G31 W120.;
GO1 U1OO.;
x
~J
tj
~Ov~men~
50.
specified by
I
the prcgram
-----
t
120,
z
Skip signal ON
Fig. 4.84
(b) When axis move command
axis)
in the next block is absolute command
(one
The axis specified in the next block moves to the specified position and the other
axis remains at the position where the skip signal has turned ON.
Example of Programming
Movement
specified
Actual movement
G31 Z400.;
GO1
the
by
prcgram,
n-
X1OO.;
~z
J
/-_ii__
’100
Skip signal ON
Fig. 4.85
4-115
.—
.— ,—-
..-. — ——
.—_-.-—
——-.
(c) When axis move commands
axes)
in the next block are absolute command
(two
The axes move to the specified position when the skip signal is turned ON.
Example of Programming
G31 W1OO.;
\
GO1 X300. Z200.;
x
\
‘\ 4)300.
\
-—100.
LLJ:
z
Skip signal ON
Fig. 4.86
CD
SUPPLE.
hlENT
Before specifying G31, cancel the nose R offset mode by specifying G40. If G31 is
specified without canceling the nose R offset mode, alarm “0182” occurs.
4-116
4.3 AUTOMATING
4.3.2
SLIPPORT FUNCTIONS
TOOI Life Control Function (G1 22, G1 23) *
When the tool life control function is used, the tools are controlled in groups and the service
life of the tool is set for individual tools. Tools are selected by tool group and if a selected
tool is used to the preset life, it is replaced with another tool in the same to[olgroup according
to the preset tool selection order.
(1) Tool Life Control Specifications
(a) Number of tool life controlled tools
With the tool life control func[ion, tool life can be controlled for up to 256 tools.
The tools are grouped for this function. Parameter pmOO09 is used to set the number of tool groups and the number of tools in each group.
Table 4.38
N umber of Tool Life Controlled Tools
—
pmOO09
Number
D7
D6
o
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
of Groups
Number
of Tools in Groulj
64
4
3;!
8
16
16
s
32
:1
—
———.—.———
\\
’i/
Q
POINT
Do not change the number of tool groups during the execution of the tcol life management function.
(b) Tool life control data
The data used by the toed life control function is stored as the tool group file. The
data in this file is retained even after the power is turned OFF.
Table 4.39 Tool Life Control Data
Description
Title
E
T NO (tool number)
The number assigned to the tool for which tool life is controlled.
LIFE (tool life)
The service life of the tool set for the tool number
USED (tool used data)
Counted used data of the tool set for the tool number
STS (status)
Status of the life of the tool set for the tool number
OVER/SIUPiUSE/TJOT
LIFE TYPE
Tool life control data for each tool group
TIME:
1 to 9999
COUNT 1 to 9999
—.
\\
I/,
Q
POINT
The data in the tool file and other files become valid at the timing when the tool selection command is executed after modifying the data. Even if the NC is reset after modifying the data, the new data are not reflected to the tool life management information
presently executed.
4-118
4.3 AUTOMATING SLJPPORTFUNCTIONS
(c) Counting the tool life
Tool life is counted for the life-controlled tools while they are actually called up
and used in the tool life control mode. It is possible to set the tool life counting type
for each of tool groups.
●
Control by time
Total cutting time of the specified tool is counted. Although counting is made
in units of seconds, the counted value is stored in units of minutes. The fraction
of data (data in seconds) are retained until the power is turned OFF and the tool
life time data are counted continuously when the same tool ix selected next before turning the power OFF. The counted data are cleared when the power is
turned OFF.
Cutting time means the following:
. Cutting in the GO1, G02!/G03 mode
“ Time until the skip signal is input by the G31 comman~,.
“ Thread cutting in the G32, G34 mode
o The time in which axis movements are controlled at a cutting feedrate in
a canned cycle, etc.
“ The time in which axis movements are controlled in th(, thread cut mode
in a canned cycle, etc.
●
Control by the number of use
The number of tool use is counted by specifying a predetermined code in a program. The code to be used for this function is specified by :he setting for the
parameter.
-
:
~~~~~
‘=+
——
Since tool life is counted in the buffering processing, if life exceeded status occurs
during the execution of the next one block, the life exceeded status is triggered before the execution of that block.
\l/
\’”’/
n
.—
During the operation, registration or deletion of a tool file is not allowed.
.—
POINT
‘s
4-119
—..— -—.——--.——-.
.—
—--
————...
—.—
—.. - ..—..- —
. . ..-.. -——
—.-—
.-
.—.—
1.
——.
—.———..——.—.————
It is possible to select the tool life counting (number of uses) objective groups by
using the parameter indicated below.
E==+
Counting only for the specified tool groups
Counting for all registered tool groups
---i
2.
If “pm4029 D3 = l“, tool life is counted for the tools for which “TIME” is set for
“LIFE TYPE” and the STS of them is “NOT”, “USED” or “OVER”.
3.
If the last tool in a group is skipped, the one previously used is called. If the previous tool has been skipped, the one used before the previous tool is called.
(d) Life count conditions
Although tool life count processing is executed automatically,
sing is not executed in the following cases.
When the life count ignore
request input signal is ON
When the MST lock input
signal is ON
When the machine lock sig-
nal is ON
When the dry run input si~nal is ON
When the feed hold input
signal is ON
life count proces-
Life count data (time and use count) are not counted while this
signal is ON.
Life count data (time and use count) are not counted while this
signal is ON and also during the period until a T command is
input after this signal is turned OFF. This is because the actual
tool number and the tool number specified in the program
could differ from each other.
Life count data (time and use count) are not counted while this
signal is ON.
Life count data (time and use count) are not counted while this
signal is ON.
—
Life count data (time) are not counted while this signal is ON
and also during the period until the cycle start signal is input
after this signal is turned OFF.
When the operation mode is
changed over
Life count data (time) are not counted while in the manual operation mode and during the period until the cycle start signal is
input after the recovery to the automatic operation mode.
The use count data are counted upon the input of the operation
completion signal if MST is saved or at the input of the cycle
start signal after recovery to the automatic operation mode if
operation has been finished forcibly.
When the internal toggle
switches of MST function
lock, machine lock, and dry
run are turned ON
Especially when the MST function lock switch is ON, the life
count data are not counted until a T command is input correctly.
4-120
4.3 AUTOMATING SLIPPORT FUNCTIONS
(2) Setting of Tool Life Control Data
The tool life control data are set by manually inputting them on the Tool life screen.
In addition to this method, the data can also be set by using the following methods.
(a) Using the tool data registration
I
I
G122
G123
I
I
commands
(GI 22, G1 23)
Start of tool data registration
End of 1:001data registration
I
I
In each tool group, the tool data are stored in the order they arc specified. Disregarding of whether or not the tool data exist in the tool data registration area, the
specified tool data are stored from the beginning of the area to cvervvrite the existing data. Concerning the data that are not overwritten, the pr(.vious data remain
as they are. After storing the necessary tool data, specify “TO” o r clear the tool data
of the tool group for which the tool data are going to be registered in advance. If
the tool data exceeding the allc~wable number of tools are speci:l’ied, the data of the
tools exceeding the limit are discarded. If no setting data are specified following
tool number, “O” is set for both SET and USED. Note that SIX data cannot be set
using a program.
Example of Programming
00001 ;
G122 PI 11 ;
~
TO1O1 LO1OOUO1OO;
T0202 L0200 U0200;
T0303 L0300 U0300;
T0404 L0400 U0123;
TO;
N
P2 10;
G123 ;
M30 ;
—
Start of tool data registration for 01 group tools
Start of tool data registration for 02 group tools
Elrd of tool data registration
Tool group number (1 to 64: Max. group number)
P:
I
:
Life kind (O:Count, 1: Time)
A space is entered if a number other than “O” or “l” is set.
T
:
Tool number (0 to 9999)
L:
Life setting
(Oto 9999)
u:
Tool use data (Oto 9999)
4-121
_,...
..-. — .-—
,—..—..-
CB
SUPPIJ%
MENT
Alarms
related to the tool life control function
“ If T9999 is registered using the tool data registration program, alarm “0300”
occurs.
●
If an address other than P, I, T, L, and U is specified in tool data registration commands, or if no tool is registered to the group that is selected by the tool group
selection command, alamm “0301” occurs.
(b) Using the user microprogram
command
For the data in the tool life control function tool group file, system variable numbers of the user microprogram are assigned. By setting a system variable with the
user microprogram command, tool change commands, etc. can be changed. The
macro system numbers of the data used by the tool life control function are indicated below.
I-++
#60901 to #61156
#61201 to #61456
4-122
4.3 AUTOMATING SUF’PORT FUNCTIONS
(c) Using tape format
If tool group data are output to tape using the external commulllication function,
there is. no distinction of tool groups and the data are output from the tools in 01
group successively by the number of tools that can be registered. [f there are vacant
areas where tool data are not registered, the information of such areas is output as
tool number “0000”. If the tool data are input using tape, the tool data area stored
in the same format.
Example of Output to Tape
%;
$1;
TO1O1 LO1OO UO1OO S3
T0202 L0200 U0200 S3
T0303 L0300 U0300 S3
T0404 L0400 U0123 S4
T0505 L0500 UO045 S2
T0606 L0600 UOOOOSO
T0707 L9999 UOOOOSO
TOOOOLOOOOUOOOOSO
T1121 L0123 UOOOOSO
T1222 L1234 UOOOOSO
11 ;
11 ;
11 ;
11 ;
11 ;
11 ;
11 ;
11 ;
IO;
IO;
%
(3) Tool Selection Command
To execute a tool selection command using the tool life control fun;tion,
code in the following format.
T99
specify a T
❑ o;
I
~
Tool group number
Tools in the group specified by “llU” are selected in order among available ones.
Alarm “0302” occurs if the status of all tools in the selected tool group is “skip”.
4-123
.. —_
—,—... — ———
... .— .. —
. ... . .. —. ———
---
(4) Relation with Coordinate
(a) Workpiece
System Setting Command
coordinate
system setting function
The format for the worlkpiece coordinate system setting function is changed when
the tool life control function is added.
G50
T99
❑ a;
L—
Group number
When the tool life control function is executed, the workpiece coordinate system
number is determined as follows: value “50” is added to the higher two digits of
the registered tool number of the tool selected in the tool group which is specified
by “T99ClCl”. in this case, however, lower two digits (workpiece coordinate system offset number) of the registered command value are assumed to be “O”. For
example, if the following program is executed when the tool number of the tool selected in 01 group is “T0203”,
G50 T9901 ;
T9(?01 ;
this is equivalent to the following program.
G50 T5200 ;
T0203 ;
(b) Tool coordinate
If the optional
executed,
system setting function*
function. to set a coordinate
the coordinate
after the execution
the registered
system
is set according
of t!he tool life control
value is directly
4-124
system
automatically
when a T code is
to the registered
group selection
used as the coordinate
command
command.
system
setting
value
In this case,
value.
4.3 AUTOMATING
SLJPPORT FUNCTIONS
1. When the tool life control functions
used, aT code in aprograrn cl.oesnot indicate
a specific tool, but it indicates a tool group, and a tool is selected from the specified tool group to execute the program. If a tool command does not satisfy the
requirements for a tool group cclmmand, the T command in a pro gram is directl y
executed.
2.
While the l-line MDI function is executed, do not specify the spare tool selection
command
or the life counting
command
of the tool life ccmtrol function.
T99CICI, T9999, and MA A are processed as normal commands; execution of
such commands finishes immediately by outputting an external :signal. Accordingly, the next tool search and life counting are not executed.
3.
If the turret is rotated manually, actual tool number of the tool at the cutting position differs from the tool number specified in a program. Even in this state, the
function
counts tool life data for the tool number
this state continues
do not execute
ally indexed
until a T command
is executed
the tool life control function
to the cutting
position
specified
in the program.
in automatic
operation
until the tool number
agrees with the tool number
Since
mode,
of the tool actuspecified
in the
program.
—
4-125
..- ,— .——.
----. ———
——--
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
The NC has a set of instructions that can be used by the machine tool builders and the users
to implement the original functicms. The program created by using these instructions is
called a microprogram, which can be called and executed by the commands specified in a
block with G65 or G66.
A microprogram
provides the following.
●
Variables can be used.
●
Arithmetic and logical operations using variables and constants are possible.
●
Control commands for branch and repeat can be used.
●
Commands to output messages and data can be used.
●
Arguments can be specified.
This makes it possible to create a :program in which complicated operations and operations
requiring conditional judgment are included.
4.4.1
Differences from Subprograms
Differences between macroprograrns
and subprograms
are indicated below.
c With microprogram call up commands (G65, G66), arguments can be specified. However, with subprogram call up command (M98), it is not possible
to use arguments.
●
●
If commands other than P, Q, and L are specified in the M98 block, the program jumps to the specified subprogram after executing these commands.
With G65 and G66, commands other than P and L are regarded as argument
specification and the program jumps to the specified microprogram immediately. In this case, however, the commands specified preceding G65 and G66
are executed normally.
With a microprogram, local programs at the same level as the level of the microprogram are used. However, with subprograms, levels of local variables
are not changed.
In other words, local variables in a microprogram are different before and after the call up of the rnacroprogram and those in a subprogram remain the same
before and after the call up of the subprogram.
4-126
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
Local variable levels are
r
‘ifferen’
1
Argument
pessed
*
Variables
Operation commands
Control commands
Output commands
;———————
G65 P~
<argument-specification>;
‘———————~ ~,g,
Microprogram
(a) Microprogram
J
Local variable level remains
at the same level
“1
‘
Variables
Operation commands
Control commands
Output commands
+————————————
M98 Pm
‘ ~~
~,g;
(b) Subprograms
Fig. 4.87
Differences
between Microprograms
and Subprograms
4-127
—.
——..—-—+.
— —..-.--.”—..——.
—
..-
———
—=..
— .—
.-. .— ——
,.. .—. —
—...
4.4.2
Microprogram
Call (G65, G66, G67) *
Microprograms
are usually executed after being called up.
The procedure used for calling up a microprogram
Table 4,40 Microprogram
I
Calling UP Method
I
is indicated in Table 4.40.
Calling Format
Command
Code
I-+%=2):
Remarks
]
Canceled by G67
I
-
-i
—
\l/
\
/
POINT
o
v
By specifying these codes in the order of G, M, and T, the M and T codes are disregarded while only G code is valid. This specification does not cause an alarm.
If macroprogjram
call commands
of thecommandsis”G
fied in the same block.
of G, M, and T are specified
. . . M “ “ . T “ - .;” disregarding
4-128
in one block, the priority
of the order they are speci-
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
(1) Simple Call Up (G65)
Byspecifying’’G65 P””” L””” cargument specification> ;’’, thernacroprogmmw hich
is assigned the program number specified with P is called up and executed L times.
If it is necessary to pass arguments to the called up microprogram,
be specified in this block.
Table 4.41
these arguments can
P and L Commands
(2) Modal Call Up (G66, G67)
The modal call up commands set the mode for calling up a microprogram.
The specified microprogram is called up and executed when the specified conditions are satisfied.
●
“, the mode for
By specifying “G66 P .- ~ L” . . <argument-specification>;
calling up the microprogram is set. Once this block is executed, the microprogram which is assigned the program number specified with P is called up and
executed L times after the completion of move commands.
If an argument is specifie[i, the argument is passed to the microprogram each
time it is called up as with the simple call up of a macroprograrn. The correspondence between the address of argument and local vari:lbles is the same as
in the case of simple call up (G65).
Q G67 cancels the G66 mode. When arguments are specifiecl, G66 must be specified before all arguments. If G66 is specified, G67 must be specified in the
same program corresponding to it.
Table 4.42
Modal Call Up Conditions
Call Up Conditions
I
L!l
TERM?
e-
Tse~~=n-
After the execution of move cornrmmd
\
G66
+ Argument Specification
I
————
G67
I
A real number is assigned to the local variable that corresponds to the level of the called up microprogram.
When specifying arguments, G65 must be pliicedbeforeall arguments.
CommandsspecifiedbeforeG65are processedas normalcommandsandthe programjumps to the called up
microprogram
after the completion of these commands.
For details, refer to item (6) “Specifying
Argument”.
—.—
4-129
.——.-—.. ———.
..—.—.
..- ..—.—...
-—.—= ———.
—
(3) Microprogram
Call Up by G code
By specifying “G *** cargument-specification>
;”, the microprogram/subprogram
of
the program number that corresponds to the number specified by G code is called up
and executed.
For the G code used to call up a microprogram/subprogram,
a maximum of 24 pairs of
G codes can be set; each G code has a maximum of 3 numerical digits that are not used
by the NC. The program numbers of programs to be called up can be set corresponding
to the set G codes.
Table 4,43 Parameters
r
for Setting the Correspondence
Number of Pairs
Microprogram Call Up G Code
Program No. to be Called Up
1
2
pm4480
(max. 3 digits)
pm4840
(max. 5 digits)
23
24
pm4503
pm4863
t
Max. 24 pairs
(4) Microprogram
Call Up by M Codes
(a) Microprogram
call up format
By specifying “M *** c argument >;”, the microprogram of the program number
that corresponds to the specified M code is called up and executed.
In this case, if a move command is specified in the same block, the microprogram
is executed after the completion of the axis move command.
For the M code used to call up a microprogram/subprogram,
a maximum of 24
pairs of M codes can be set excluding such M codes as MOO,MOI, M02, M30, and
those used for internal processing. The program numbers of programs to be called
up can be set corresponding to the set M codes.
4-130
4.4
Table 4.44 Parameters
MACROPROGRAMS
for Setting the Correspondence
Microprogram Call Up M Code
1
2
pm4504
(max. 3 digits)
23
24
pm4527
Program
No. to be Called
,—
Up
lpm4864
(max. 5 digits)
lpm4887
t
Max. 24 pairs
(b) Specifying arguments
It is possible to specify arguments in the M code macroprograrn call up block. In
this case, it is not allowed to specify axis move commands in the same block.
—
pm4020 D5 = O
I
pm4020 D5 = 1
Call up without argument specification
1
I
Call up with argument specification
I
If more than one M code is specified in a single block, the first M code is checked
whether it is for microprogram call up. Concerning the second and later M codes,
if the setting for parameter pm4020 D5 is “call up with argument specification”,
the use of them is determined by the setting for a parameter whether they are treated
as a normal M code or as M cclde used for specifying an argument.
—
pm4020 D6 = O
I
pm4020 D6 = 1
Normal M code
I
M code for specifying argument
1
I
When an M code used for microprogram call up is executed, M [code or MF which
is output for normal M code is not output.
4-131
--—.————-
... —---
.— ----- ~—
.. ..-— —..
——.. — .—
..- .— .—
..- —- ———
—-.
(5) Microprogram
Call Up by T Code
By specifying “T *****”, it is possible to determine whether the specified T command
should be treated as a normal T command or a microprogram call up T command by
the setting for parameter pm4889. If “pm4889 = O“, the T command is treated as a normal T command.
When using a T command for calling up a microprogram, one required program number can be set. In this case, the T command value is used as the argument of common
variable #1.49. Designation of other arguments is not allowed.
Table 4.45 Parameter
Used for Microprogram
Command Selection
Call Up by T Code
Call Up Program Number
E-ma
When a microprogram call up T command is executed, T code and TF are not output
as a normal T code. The T command is a 4-digit or 6-digit command.
(6) Nesting of Macroprograrn
Call Up
As with subprograms, it is possible to call up a microprogram from another microprogram. In this type of call up, nesting level increases one each time a rnacroprogram call
up is executed by G65, G66, G, M, or T code. The allowable maximum nesting level
of microprogram call up is four.
(a) Nesting level of microprogram
call up
With a microprogram called up by G, M, and T codes, the allowable nesting level
is one, In other words, from a microprogram called up by G, M, or T code, call
up of another
microprogram
or T cclde is specified
using G, M, or T code again is not allowed.
in a microprogram
If G, M,
which has been called up by the execution
call up G, M, or T code, an alarm occurs in the case of a G code
and with other codes (M and T), they are executed as normal M and T codes.
of microprogram
4-132
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
(b) Modal call up (G66)
In the modal call up mode, the specified microprogram
is call~d up and executed
at each. execution of a move command. If more than one G6t1 is specified in the
same program, the prior G66 command specified is valid duri:ng the execution of
a microprogram called up by the G66 command given later. Therefore, after the
execution of a move commancl given in the microprogram called up by G66 specified later, the microprogram specified with the previous G66 is also executed. In
other words, the microprograms
specified last.
are executed sequentially
starting with the one
Example of Programming
G66 P9400;
GOOX1 O.;
G66 P9500;
GOOZ20.;
G67;
G67;
GOOZ30.;
09400;
(300 X40.;
(300 Z50.;
M99;
09500:
GOOX60.;
GOOZ?O.;
M99;
Execution order of programs
G66 P9400;
GOO X1 O.;
G66 P9500;
GOOZ20.;
After the execution of
axis move commands
—-
09400;
GOOX40.;
GOOZ50.;
~M99;
. 09500;
After the execution of
axis move commands
GOO X60.;
—
094CIO;
GOO X70.;
GOO X40.;
M99;
GOO Z50.;
M99;
\
094CIO;
GOO X40.;
GOO :L50.;
c2:\
Note:
M99;
If microprogramcall up is nestedby specifyingmore than one G66, cancel code G67, cancels G66 sequentially
beginning with the one specified last. It is not allowed to specify G66 in the microprogram
hy G66.
Fig. 4.88
Nesting of Microprogram
which is called up
Call
4-133
——
....— —.
—.---—
.—
x
9#
BI
H#
b#
x
vz#
s#
A
sz#
z
9z#
r
I
s
61#
a
L#
.L
oz#
a
W
n
Tz#
6#
A
zz#
Tl#
M
Ez#
H
3
‘u/
1#
o
LI#
x
81#
[email protected]!Jl?A - SSWpp~
(1 ed~l)
put? axqwodsaq
d
a
z#
alq12peA1’?307
I adAl u! ssaJpp~
alqt?!JE?A
pzloq
a3UapUOdS61JJO~
SeSSeJPPV Eqqesfl
v
I adAl u! ssa~pp~
CKNJapUOdSi3JJOQ alqt?!J12A - SS&lJppv
Sf3U~LUUJO~ dn 11~~ .J04
EIlq~!JEA - SS6LIPPv 9~”v alqE?J
~uaun6Jv 6u!A.jpads(L)
4.4
(b) Correspondence
between addresses
MACROPROGRAMS
and local variables
(Type II)
To use I, J, and K, they must be specified in the order of I, J, and K. Suffixes 1 to
10 specified in the table below indicate the order they are used irl a set, and the suffix is not written in actual commands.
For addresses for which argument specification is not required, l,he commands can
be omitted. In this case, local variables corresponding the addresses without commands are cempty>.
Address - Variable Correspondence
for Call Up Commands (Type II)
Table 4.47
Address - Variable Corresponclence
Address
in Type II
Local Variable
and Usable Addresses
Address - Variable Correspondence
‘——
Address
in
Type II
Local Variable
A
#1
K5
B
#2
16
c
#3
J6
11
#4
&
J1
#5
17
K1
#6
J7
12
#7
K7
#24
Jz
#8
18
#25
Kz
#9
Jg
13
#lo
KS
J3
#11
19
K3
#12
J9
14
#13
Kg
#30
J4
#14
110
#31
&
#15
JIO
15
#16
Klo
#32
——
#33
J5
#17
—
#18
#19
#20
—
#21
—
——
#22
#23
—
—,
—
#26
#27
—
—,
.—
#28
#29
—
Note 1: If more than one address is specified for one variable number, the one specified later is valid.
2: If more than one set of I, J, or K is specified, the order of sets is determined for each
numhers are determined corresponding to that order.
l/J/K set, so thatvariable
Example of argument specification
When arguments are specified, the microprogram call up code must always be specified before the specification of arguments. If argument specification is given before the microprogram call up code, an alarm occurs. The value of argument specification can include a sign and decimal point independent of the address.
~~~
~L
~1.~
If no decimal point is used, the value is saved to the variable as the value with a
decimal point according to the normal number of digits of that address.
1 set
2 sets 3 sets
G65 P*** AlO. C20. X30. Z40. 150. K60. J70. 180.;
TL
#10: 80,
#8:
70,
#6: 60,
#4; 50.
#26:
_
—
30.
#3: 20.
#1:
1 set
#24:
40.
10.
2 sets
G65 P*** IlO. D20. 130. J40. E50.;
l-~~
1
~+
-—
LFig. 4.89
~
J40. is disregarded
#8: 50,
D20. is disregarded
#7: 30.
#4: 10,
Example of Argument
4-136
Specification
and E50. is made valid
and 130, is made valid,
4,4
(d)
MACROPROGRAMS
Decimal point position in argument
An argument is usually specified with a sign and a decimal point. If a decimal point
is not specified, the decimal point position is assumed at the position indicated in
Table 4.48.
Table 4.48 Decimal Point Position in Argument
for Argument Specification
‘T~tmnches
Address
I
A, B
I
3
I
3
I
D, H
I
o
I
o
I
4
I
6
I
F (in the G99 mode)
I
3
I
4
I
M, S, T
I
I
I
I
I
o
I
I
o
IR
I
I
u, v, w
x,
Y,
z
o
4 (3)
3 (2)
3 (2)
3 (2)
o
I
4 (3)
4 (3)
Note 1: The number indicates the position of the decimal point counted from the lowest position.
2: Numbers in ( ) indicate the number of digits right
DO= l“.
4-137
to thedecimalpointwhen the setting of parameter’’pmlOOO
4.4.3
Variables
Three types of variables are provided:
ables.
local variables, common variables and system vari-
(1) Local Variables (#1 to #33)
Local variables are used locally for each microprogram.
Each time a microprogram
is called up, new local variables (#1 to #33) are secured independently for that microprogram. For the local variables, values specified using arguments are saved or the results of operation executed in the microprogram are saved.
For those for which an argument is passed, the value is saved and those for which argument is not passed, the contents are <empty>. When execution of a program returns
from the called up microprogram by the execution of M99, the local variables secured
for that microprogram become <empty>. They are also <empty> when the power is
turned ON or the NC is reset.
Main program
Microprogram
(Level 1)
G65 P-
Microprogram
Level2)
G65 P-
G65 P-
m
M99
I
Read/write
possible
n
G65 P-
-1
4
M99
M99
!
—–7
#1
#33
#33
Fig. 4.90
Microprogram
.evel 4)
.1
#l
Local vatiable (Level O)
Microprogram
(Level 3)
~o#
I
#l
#l
#1
#33
#33
#33
Local variable (Level 2)
able (Level 1)
Local Variables
4-138
Local variable (Level 3)
Local variable (Level 4)
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
@
hcalvariables
oflevel Oaresecured forthemain
prograln. Formacroprograms, local variables are secured corresponding to the level (level 1 to level
4) of the called up microprogram.
@
If a microprogram is called up by G65, for example, the local variables used
for the program where microprogram call up is executed are saved and the local variables are secured for the called up rnacroprogram corresponding to its
level. In this case, the arguments are passed to the called up microprogram.
Consequently, even with (he same microprogram, the local variables of the
level of that macroprograrnhave different values if the macroprograrn is called
up in different timing.
@
When the execution of a macroprograrnreturn
stothe macrc,program one level
above by the execution of M99, the local variables of the previous microprogram level are reset to <empty> and the local variables having been saved are
recovered.
@
You should not change the contents of local variables while a microprogram
is being executed. If they are changed after interruptinfi the operation by
single block stop, make sure that the new contents do not cause problems before restarting the operation.
@
Local variables can be used in a subprogram. In this case, the local variables
of the present microprogram level are used. Argument specification is not allowed when calling up a subprogram. The contents of the local variables are
not reset to <empt y> when the execution of a program returris from the subprogram by the execution of .M99.
4-139
.——-----—
——— - ..—..
.——..
—.—-
—....- —..
—.—
—
..-. — .——.
-.—-——
——-..
(2) Common Variables (#1 00 to #299, #500 to #999)
Common variables means the variables that can be used in common in main programs,
subprograms, microprograms, and those called up in nesting. Therefore, the common
variable where the result of an operation executed in a microprogram is saved can be
used in another microprogram.
For common variables, argument specification is not
allowed.
Main program
Microprogram
(Level 1)
Microprogram
(Level 2)
Microprogram
(Level 3)
Microprogram
(Level 4)
G65 P***
L
j=-~’:~=~j–--
M30
—
1
1
Read/write
permitted
#100 to #299
#500 to #999
11
Common variables
Fig.
4.91
●
Common
Variables
Common variables are classified into two types according to the state they are
in when the NC is reset.
Table 4.49 Common Variables
The content is <empty> when the power is turned ON or the NC is reset
By setting pi~rameter“pm4009 D1 = l“, the content is not cleared
to <empty>.
-
F’r
-L
#500 to #999
●
The content is saved and not cleared to <empty> when the power is turned ON
or the NC is reset.
The number of’sets of the common variables can be optionally expanded.
4-140
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
Table 4,50 Option Type and Expanded Common Variables
Option Type
Number of Sets
a
#100 to #149 (50 sets)
#500 to #559 (60 sets)
b
#100 to #199 (100 sets)
#500 to #599 (100 sets)
c
#100 to #199 (100 sets)
#500 to #699 (200 sets)
d
#100 to #299 (200 sets)
#500 to W99 (500 sets)
(3) System Variables
as indicated in Table 4.51.
With the system variables, their use is predetermined
A
Table 4.51 System Variables
Type of System Variable
.
#1000 to #1031, #1032
Interface input signals
Interface output signals
.—
.—
#1100 to #1131, #1132
---i
Tool offset amount, workpieee coordinate system shift
distance
#2001 to #2499, #14101 to #14112
Alarm message display
#3000
Clock
#3001, #3002 to #3010
.——
Control for single-block stop, and miscellaneous function
complete wait
#3003
Control for feed hold, feedrate override, and exact stop
#3004
RS-232C data output
#3100
Modal information
Position information
u
System Variable
No,
“7
—
#12001 to #134$)9
—
.—
-----1
..—
—
#4000 to #4999
#5000to #5999
+
+
I
(a) Interface input signals
.
By entering system variables #1000 to #103 1 in the right side of an operation
expression, it is possible to read the ON/OFF state of each of 32-point input
signal exclusively used for a microprogram.
The relationship between the input signals and system variables is indicated
in Table 4.52.
Table 4.52 Interface Input Signals and System Variables
r==
I
Input
Signals
System
#loo7
UI 7
27
#1006
UI 6
26
#loo5
UI 5
25
#1.oo4
LJI4
24
UI 3
23
#loo2
UI 2
’22
#lool
UI 1
21
#looo
UI O
20
#lo15
#lo14
#lo13
#1.o12
#loll
#lolo
#loo!)
#1008
UI 15
215
UI 14
214
UI 13
213
UI 12
212
UI 11
211
UI 10
210
UI 09
29
UI 08
28
#1023
#lo22
#lo21
#lo20
#lo19
#1018
#lol’7
#1016
Input
Signal
UI 23
223
UI 22
’222
UI 21
UI 20
UI 19
UI 18
I-H17
UI 16
221
:~20
219
218
217
2,16
System
Variables
#lo31
#lo30
#1029
#1028
#1027
#1026
#1025
#1024
Input
Signals
UI 31
UI 30
UI 29
UI 28
UI 27
UI 26
UI 25
UI 24
231
230
229
228
2,27
226
225
2’24
1-----I
Variables
Input
Signals
System
Variables
I
#loo3
E
4-142
4.4
IMACROPROGRAMS
The value read to the system variables indicated above is either “1.0” or “0.0” according to the ON/OFF state of the corresponding input signals.
Table 4.53 Value of Variables
●
By entering system variable #1032 in the right side of an operation expression,
it is possible to read the ON/OFF state of all of 32 points of input signals (U1O
to U131) collectively as a positive decimal value.
#1032 = ~ #[1000 + i] X 2i
i-o
●
Note that it is not possible to enter a value by entering a system variable (#1000
to #1032) in the right side of an operation expression.
4-143
.——
——
..—
—, ——.
— - —-.
——.
—.....
....— .——
—.—
—.-
(b) Interface output signals
●
By entering system variables #1100 to #1131 in the
expression, it is possible to output the ON/OFF state
The
signal exclusively used for a microprogram.
output signals and system variables is indicated in
right side of an operation
to each of 32-point output
relationship between the
Table 4..54.
Table 4.54 Interface Output Signals and System Variables
LSystem
Variables
I
:::::
System
Variables
output
}-- Signals
I
System
Variables
output
Signals
System
Variables
output
*
Signals
T
#llo7
#1106
#llo5
##llo4
#llo3
#llo2
#llol
#lloo
Uo 7
UO 6
26
Uo 5
25
Llo 4
24
Uo 3
23
Uo 2
~?
Uo 1
’21
Uo o
’20
#1115
#1114
#1113
//1112
#1111
#lllo
#1109
#1108
Uo 15
215
Uo 14
Uo 13
213
[JO 12
U() 11
UO 08
212
211
Uo 10
210
Uo 09
214
29
28
#1123
#1122
#1121
//1120
#1119
#1118
#11:17
#1116
UO 23
~~3
Uo 22
’222
Uo 21
UO 20
~ 20
U() 19
UO 18
239
—
218
Uo 17
21’7
UO 16
221
#i131
#l130
#1129
#/1128
#1127
#1126
#1125
#1124
UO 26
2?6
UO 25
UO 24
225
224
Uo 30
UO 29
230
229
—
216
—
—
U031
’131
——
22
UO 28
728
=
4-144
UO 27
227
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
By entering “1.0” or “0.0” to the system variables indicated in Table 4.54, the corresponding signals are output in the ON or OFF state.
Table 4.55
Value of Variables
=3
●
If a value other than “1.0” or “0.0” is set for variables #~ 100 to #1131, it is
treated as indicated below.
<empty> or less than 0.5:
Other than above:
●
0.0
1.0
By entering system variable #1132 in the left side of an operation expression,
it is possible to output the ON/OFF state to the 32 point clutput signals (UOO
to U031) collectively. In this case, a positive decimal vallue set for #1132 is
output after converted into a binary 32-bit value.
A
u
31
#1132
●
= ~#[1100
jea
-i- i] X 2i
By entering system variables #1100 to #1132 in the right side of an operation
expression, it is possible 10 read the ON/OFF state (1.0, 0.0, positive decimal
value) output last can be read.
(c) Offset amount and workpiece
coordinate
system distance
Tool offset amount can be read by entering system variables #12001 to #13499 in
the right side an operation expression.
Workpiece coordinate system shift distance can be read by entering system variables #14101 to #14112 in the right side an operation expression.
By entering the system variables indicated above in the left side of an operation expression, it is possible to update the offset values.
Example of Programming
#116 = #12016
:
Enters the content of tool offset number 16 to common variable
#116.
#14101 = #4
:
Clears the workpiece coordinate system shift distance of X-axis
and sets the content of local variable #4.
4-145
—
.— -
.—.— .—..
—.—
--
(d) Correspondence
between system variables and tool offset numbers
The correspondence between the tool offset numbers and the system variables is
indicated in Table 4.56.
Table 4.56 Tool Offset Numbers and System Variables (16 sets)
Offset Data Name
Offset No,
System Variable
01
02
#12001
#12002
16
#12016
01
02
#12302
16
#12316
—
X-axis
#12301
Z-axis
01
#12901
02
#12902
“16
#12916
01
#13201
02
#13202
1.6
#13216
‘1
Nose R offset
—
Control
point
4-146
44
MICROPROGRAMS
Table 4.57 Tool Offset Numbers and System Variables (99 sets)
(Mset Data Name
Offset No.
System Variable
01
02
#12001
#12002
99
#12099
01
02
#12301
#12302
99
#12399
01
02
#12901
#12902
99
#12999
01
02
#13201
#13202
99
#13299
X-axis
—
Z-axis
—
NoseR offset
—
Control point
—
4-147
——
—~
.—
... — ,.—.
..-*———
..-
—..
. —-—.
----Iable 4.58
1001 Wtset
Offset Data Name
.
Numbers
Offset No.
Z-axis
Nose R offset
Control point
——
Table 4.59
.. . ..
Variables
.. . .
.
(299 sets)
System Variable
02
#12001
#12002
99
#12099
299
#12299
01
X-axis
.-.
and System
01
#12301
02
#12302
99
#1~399
299
#12599
01
02
#12901
#12902
99
#12999
299
#13999
01
02
#13201
#13202 (#2302)
99
#13299
299
#13499
Workpiece Coordinate System Shift Distance Setting System Variables
4-148
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
(e) Alarm message display
By specifying “#3000 = <Alarm-number> (<Alarm-message:’);”,
the NC can be
placed in the alarm state. The timing the NC is placed in the alarm state is after the
completion of the commands in the block immediately preceding the block including the commands indicated above.
(9
.Alarm-number>
:
A 4-digit alarm number not used by NC.
Use of a variable is allowed.
(Alarm number range: 5000 to 5999)
<Alarm-message>
:
ASCII character string with 32 or le:;s characters
(alphanumerics and special characters)
Clock
It is possible to read time by entering the system variable used for the clock in the
right side of an operation expression. If such a system variable is entered in the left
side of an operation expressicm, it is possible to preset the time.
~
I
Table 4.60 System Variables lJsed for Clock Function
(9) Control for single-block
function
stop and waiting for completion
of miscellaneous
By setting an appropriate number for system variable #3003, the following control
is possible:
●
To make valid/invalid the SINGLE-BLOCK
blocks.
switch setting; for the succeeding
9
To advance the program t o the next block without waiting for the input of the
miscellaneous function (M, T) completion signal (FIN).
4-149
- .-—..-.-
. . -.———
..—. —.——
—..——. ———
... .— ——
.... . ..—
———
—.-.
o
Cn
-I-I
s
u
u)
E“
z
~
0
!2
II
w
II
o
I-J
c
cd
0
s
0
— — —
-J
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
(h) Setting for feed hold, feedrate override, and positioning cclmpletion control
For the control of feed hold, feedrate override, and positioning completion, system
variable #3004 is provided and by setting an appropriate value for this system variable, it is possible to make these functions valid or invalid.
When the NC is reset, the setting is reset to” #3004 = 0“,
Table 4.62 Control for Feed Hold,
Completion Functions
Feedrate
Override,
Feedrate Override
Positioning
Positioning Completion
‘aiid
~
and
-=+
I-H-H%-+---%%+---++
“ For the feed hold function
The feed hold function is invalid in the following blocks.
From the block where 1,3,5,
or 7 is set for #3004
To the block where O, 2,4, or 6 is set for #3004
The blocks for which the feed hold is made invalid are nclt accepted and the
feed hold signal is not output.
●
For feedrate override
The setting of feedrate override is disregarded in the following blocks.
From the block where 2,,3,6, or 7 is set for #3004
To the block where O, 1,4, or 5 is set for #3004
●
For the positioning completion function.
The check is not made for the completion of positioning.
From the block where 4,5,6,
or 7 is set for #3004
To the block where O, 1,2, or 3 is set for #3004
4-151
.——
—-.
—.. .——..—
—....--
—-.
-—
....-. —...
.—-—..
——., — .———
--- .— --—..--.-.———
—..
Example of Programming
for Special Thread Cutting Cycle (incremental
mode)
N4acroprograrn call command
G65
P9093
U-
..”
W-”””
‘r~~~
K.”.
F.””;
I W;,;;;:j,n#21 Negative value,
diametral
value
Microprogram
09093 ;
M93 ;
7-block buffering
‘—
#10 = ROUND
[#6] *2 ;
#11 = ROUND
[#21] +#10 ;
#12 = ROUND
[#23] +#10 ;
#3003 = 1 ;
—
SINGLE-BLOCK
—
Feed hold
Feedrate override
Positioning completion
GOO U#ll
;
#3004 = 7 ;
G32 U-#10
W-#6
F#9 ;
switch made invalid
~
—
Made invalid
}
G32 W#12 ;
G32 U#10 W-#6 ;
——
#3004 = o ;
1
—A..–—
GOO U-#11 ;
GOO W -#23 ;
#3003 = o ;
—
—
M92 ;
M99 ;
+x
———————
.
[y
Fig. 4.93
4-152
w-
3
+Z
1—
4.4
(i)
MACROPROGRAMS
RS-232C data output 1 (#3100)
By using system variable #3100, it is possible to output a messa!je and variable data
to an external device via the RS-232C data input/output interface.
●
By specifying “#3100 = (<message>);”, the message enclosed by the control
out and control in codes is output to an external device. The CR and LF (carrier
return, line feed) codes are automatically output at the end of the message.
If no message is input, only the CR and L,Fcodes are output. The term message
indicates the ASCII character string (alphanumerics arid special characters)
consisting of less than 12!8characters.
@ By specifying “#3100 = [variable>];”,
the value of <Variable>is output as
9-digit signed decimal data (decimal fraction: 4 digits, inleger part: 5 digits).
The term variable includes local variables, common variables, and system
variables. If five or more digits are specified to the right of a decimal point,
the number at the fifth place to the right of the decimal point is rounded off.
And if six or more digits are specified in the integer part, aII asterisk (*) is output for such digits.
Example of Programming
—–
Line feed, carriage return
#3100 = (
)
#3100 = (TOOL OFFSET 01);
““”R);
#3100=(
““”x
““”z
#3100 = [ItiOll ; . ‘.– = “10.Oltimm
#3100 = [#2101] ; . . .
#3100 = [#2201] ; “ ~“
#3100 = (
= .-10.000 mm
= 0.800 mm
)
1
In this case
Printout data
TOOL OFFSET 01
————
10.0%00———
- lo.iooo –––––
O.hooo
“b’
Including a sign, data with up to 6-digit number
in the left of a decimal point can be output.
4-153
-- —.——.-——=—
—-—.
(j)
Special codes that can be used in a microprogram
The allowable special codes are indicated in Table 4,63. For the characters indicated by note) in the table, the tape punch pattern in the EIA code is as indicated
in Table 4.63.
Table 4.63 Special Codes
By using the following parameters, a hole punch pattern different from the pattern
indicated above can be set. If the setting for these parameters is “O”, the patterns
indicated in Table 4.63 are used.
d
4-154
4.4
IMACROPROGRAMS
Table 4.64 Hole Punch Pattern Setting Parameters
I
pn4100
pm4103
Note:
I
I
#
*
hW!Z.L-J
Fortheseparameters,readtherequiredpunehholepatterninabinary numberandconve{tit intoa decimalnumber
to set.
(Example) Toset’’152’’forpunch hole pattern.
4-155
(k) Modal information
By entering the system. variables indicated below in the right side of an operation
expression, it is possible to read the modal value given in blocks up to the immediately preceding block. Note that these system variables cannot be entered to the
left side of an operation expression.
Table 4.65 Modal Values and Macro System Variables
I
Modal Command
G code
(01-group)
LI
I
to (31 -group)
!
E code
Macro System Variable
‘400’
I
I
‘“’~
#4108
~
I
#4115
I
F code
~—
I
Sequence number
1
Program number
I
--:-
S code (1)
t-
T code
Note 1: Since an M code is non-modal
*-+
information,
it is not possible to read M codes using system variables.
2: Concerning E(#4108) and F (A+4109),either the E or Fcommand specified immediately before the specification
of the system variable is saved. Therefore, system variables #4108 and #4109 hold the same value.
Example of Programming
Main program
G65 1’9602 <Designation of arguments>;
Microprogram
09602 ;
#1 = #4001 ; ——
GOOX. ”” Z”,-;
GOIZ”””
F”.”;
G03X””
Z”” R””;
GOO Z”.;
G#l ; M99 ;
Saves G codes (GOOto G03) of 01 group
Recovers G codes of 01 group
4-156
4.4 MACROPROGRAMS
(1) Position information
By specifying the system variables indicated below, it is possible to read the position information.
Note that these system variables cannot be specified in the left side of an operation
expression.
Table 4.66 Position Information
Position
—
Macro
Information
System
Variable
Reading
during
Operation
X-axis block end point position (Af3SIO)
Z-axis block end point position (ABSIO)
C-axis block end point position (ABSIO)
#5001.
#5002
#500’3
X-axis position in the machine coordinate
system (ABSMT)
Z-axis position in the machine coordinate
system (ABSMT)
C-axis position in the machine coordinate
system (ABSMT)
—
X-axis POS.ABS position (ABSOT)
Z-axis POS.ABS position (ABSOT)
C-axis POS.ABS position (ABSOT)
#502 1.
#504 1.
#5042
#5043
Possible (Note 1)
X-axis skip signal input position (ABSKP)
Z-axis skip signal input position (ABSKP)
C-axis skip signal input position (ABSKP)
#506 1
#5062
#5063
Possible
X-axis offset
Z-axis offset
C-axis offset
#508:1
#5082
#5085
Possible
X-axis servo position error
Z-axis servo position error
C-axis servo position error
#5101
#5102r
#5 105
P(,ssible (Note 1)
#5022
Possible
—
Possible (Note 1)
#5023
—
R
A
Note 1: When the system variable indicated by (notel) is specified, the position information is read after the completion
of the commands specified in the immediately preceding Mock.
2: If an additional axis is selected, the correspondence between the axia and the system variable could differ from
the correspondence indicated above. Fordetails,referto the manualspublishedby the machinetool builder.
4-157
———
—.-—
———. .—, —
.-. .— --—-..
_-. —
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4.4 MACROPROGRAMS
(5) Assigning Variables
A numeric value specified following an address can be replaced with a variable.
By specifying “caddress> #i or <address> - #i”, the value of the specified variable or
its negative value (complement) can be taken as the command valu~eof that address.
(Example)
Equivalent to FO.3
F#140, #140=0.3
●
I
I Equivalent to Z300.
I z#lo3, #lo3=300.
.-~
For the following addresses, it is not allowed to assign a variable.
(Example)
It is not allowedto use a variablefor “n” of “/n” (n=l to 9).
It ISnot allowedto use a variablefor 0 number(programmlrnber).
number).
If it not allowedto use a variablefor N
: number (sequence’14
c
●
It is not allowed to use a variable to express a variable nulnber.
When replacing “10” in #10 with #20, for example, expression of ##20 is not
allowed. This must be written by # [#20].
●
If a variable is used as the address data, values below the mmimum input unit
are rounded off.
(Example)
I X#l, #1 = 45.2346
I X45.235 mm(().()()~ mmirputu nit)
I
I F#2, #2 = 0.2555
I FO.256rn/rev (F33 format)
I
I G04P#3,#3
I G04P5.377sec
I
I M#4, #4 = 2.7236
I M03
I
I G#4, #4 = 2.7236
I G03
I
●
=5.37672
It is possible to use <expression> instead of a numeric valu~ to be assigned to
an address.
By specifying “<address> [expression>],
or <address> - [<expression>]”,
the value or negative value (complement) of the <expression> can be used as
the command value for that address.
●
The constant used in [ ] without a decimal point is assumed to have a decimal
point at the end.
4-159
(6) Undefined Variables
Variables which have not been defined yet are called undefined variables, and their values are <empty>. The following variables are treated as undefined variables.
●
Local variables and common variables (#100 to #299) when the power is
turned ON or the NC is reset.
●
Local variables for which arguments are not specified when a microprogram
is called up.
●
Local variables which belong to the level of the microprogram
execution of program returns by the execution of M99.
●
Local variables and common variables where no values have been set in a nlacroprogram.
●
Common variables where no values have been set at the NC operation panel.
9
Variable “#O”. (This is always treated as c empt y > and must not be entered
in the left side of an operation expression.)
from which the
(a) Meaning of <empty>
●
If an undefined variable is assigned, the address itself for which it is assigned
is disregarded.
E
●
#2 = <empty>
GOOX#2;is equivalent to GOO;.
#2=o
GOOX#2;is equivalent to GOOXO”
“~
If an undefined variable is used in an operation expression, it is treated to have
the variable value of “O” with the exception that it is replaced with <empt y>.
Fi=.em.tw
__’_T_
#3 = #2; indicates #3 = <empty>. ‘7
#’2= <empty>
#3 = # [#2+#2]; indicates #3 = #O = <empty>.
#2= <empty>
#3 = #l*#2; indicates #3 = <empty>.
#2 = <empty>
#3 = #2+#2; indicates #3 = <empty>.
#l = <empty>
#3 = #2/#2; indicates #3 = <empty>.
1-----E::
*+
#3 = 5*#2; indicates #3 = <emptyz.
#3 = 5/#2; causes division error.
4.160
——-.
4.4
●
MACROPROGRAMS
If an undefined variable is used in a conditional expression, it is treated to have
the variable value of “O” with an exception of EQ and NE.
4-161
.—
.—.
—-~.
.—..
..
. . .. —..—..—
.-. — .—
.--—-———
------
4.4.4
Operation Instructions
By performing general arithmetic operations in which local variables, common variables,
system variables, and constants are connected with operators and functions, it is possible to
set the result of operation to the given variable.
The variables used in the arithmetic operation read the required data from the internal variable data area. The result of the operation is set to a variable to write the result of the operation
to the internal variable data area. The write cycle is completed when the execution of one
block is completed.
The basic formula of arithmetic operation is” #i = <expression>”.
and functions can be used.
The following operations
(1) Definition and Setting of Variables
E
#i = #j
~
= # [#j = #k]
Definition or setting
Indirect designation
(2) Addition Type Operations
I sum
l#i=#j+#k
Ei=k
l#i=#j
XOR#k
(3) Multiplication
e
Logical sum (for each bit in 32-bit binary)
I Exclusive logical sum (for each bit in 32-bit binary)
Type Operation
/#i = #i/#k
I Quotient
I
I
l#i=#j
I Logical product (for each bit in32-bit binary)
I
l#i=#j
L
*#k
AND#k
#i = #j MOD #k
[ Product
Remainder
(With #j and #k, remainder is obtained after rounding the values
to an integer. If #j is negative, #i is also negative.)
4-162
,. . . . . .
.
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
(4) Functions
% = SIN[#j]
Sine (in units of degrees)
#i = COS[#j]
Cosine (in units of degrees)
#i = TAN [#j]
Tangent (in units of degrees)
—
#i = Al_AN[#j] or
#i . ATAN [#j/#k]
Arctangent
#i = SQRT [#j]
Square root
#i = ABS [#j]
Absolute value
#i = BIN [#j]
Conversion from BCD to binary
#i = BCD [#j]
Conversion from binary to BCD
#i . ROUND [#j]
Conversion into integer by rounding off
#i = FIX [#j]
Cutting off decimal fractions
% = FUP [#j]
Rounding off decimal fractions
#i = ASIN [#j]
Arcsine
#i = ACOS [#j]
Arccosine
#i = LN [#j]
Natural logarithm
#i = EXP [#j]
Exponent with e (= 2.71.8. ~. ) as a base
(5) Combination
—.
—
—.——
—
—
.—.
.—
—
..——
—
—
—
of Operations
It is possible to combine the operations
above.
and functions explained in items (1) to (4)
In this case, the priority of operation is in the order of functions, multiplication
eration and addition type operation.
(Example) #i = #j
+ #k * SIN
type op-
1[#1]
@@o
(6) Changing the Order of Operations
by [ ]
By enclosing a part of an expression by brackets ([ ]), that part is given priority for calculation.
The brackets can be nested in up to five levels inchlding the brackets used in functions.
(Example) #i = SIN
[ [ [#j+#k] *
#1 +
#m] * #n]
@[email protected]@@
4-163
—.-———.——..——.—-.. ...
—--—.—>—
.—-—---
.— ——--.
—.—
.—
(7) Supplements
●
to the Operation
Instructions
A constant used in <expression>
a decimal
point
at the end.
without a decimal point is assumed to have
The allowable
range
of the constant
is
4:99999999.99999999.
●
Function ROUND converts a value into integer by rounding off processing.
This processing is executed at the digit indicated below.
“ If used in an operation instruction,
decimal
fractions
are rounded
conditional
(Example
at
the digit one place below
When #10= 12.3758,
#1 = ROUND [#10] + #1 = 12.0
ROUND [#10] in IF [#10 GT ROUND
2)
When #10=
Numerical values treated in microprograms
M*2E
●
M :
E:
[#lO]]
+
12.0
12.3758,
GOO X [ROUND [#lO]] is equivalent
(minimum input unit: 0.001 mm).
●
IF or WHILE,
off.
“ If used in address data, the value is rounded off
the minimum input unit of the address.
(Example 1)
expression
are floating
to GOO X12.376
point type values.
One sign bit + 52-bit binary data
One sign bit + 10-bit binary data
With an operation instruction,
whether
the NC operation
stops in the single-
block mode or not when the single block input (SKB) is ON is determined
the setting
I
for parameter
pInOO07 D1 = ()
I
Does not stop in the single block mode.
I
t
4.4.5
pmOO07 D1 = }.
by
pmOO07 D1.
I
Stops in the single block mode.
Control Instructions
To control the program
branch
instruction
flow of mlacroprograms,
and repetition
s
Branch
●
Repetition
instruction.
instruction
instruction
4-164
the following
two instructions
are provided:
4.4
IMACROPROGRAMS
(1) Branch Instruction
By specifying”IF [e conditional expression >] GOTO <sequence number>;”, the program jumps to the block of the specified sequence number in the same program if
<conditional
expression>
If <conditional
<sequence
expression>
number>
at the beginning
When branch
the forward
is satisfied.
is not :satisfied, the program advances to the next block.
should be placed at the beginning
of a block, the commands
of a block.
in the block are executed
occurs, branch in the reverse direction
Even if it is not placed
~rom the beginning.
takes a longer time than branch
in
direction.
IF [<~onditional
E
Not
expressions]
GOTO <sequence number>;
satisfied L
Satisfied
N
<sequence
number>
Fig. 4.94
csequence
: 5-digit
number>” . . . . ;
positive
Branch Instruction
Satisfied)
integer,
(Conditional
variable,
[<expression>]
Expression
Satisfied, Not
It is possible to omit “IF [< conditional expression >]. In this case, lhe block indicates
a simple jump instruction.
Simple
jump
E
Fig. 4.95
GOTO <sequence number>;
N <sequence
Branch Instruction
number>. . . . . ;
(Simple Jump Instruction)
4-165
.- —...
————.
————--- ... .—..
—..
—.Z
---e
-,-—
#-,. —.—
..--. — -.—
.- —. —__.-.
Instead of “GOTO <sequence number>”, an NC statement or microprogram
can be specified in one block. However, the following microprogram
not be used due to restrictions.
●
Control instructions
.
RS-232C data output 2
●
Status monitoring instruction
statement
statements can-
Satisfied
+“————#
IF [<conditional expressiorts]
Not
satisfied E
Fig, 4.96
NC statement or microprogram
statement;
b
Branch Instruction
The <conditional
(1-Block Instruction)
expression> includes those indicated in Table 4.69.
Table 4.69 Types of Conditional
Expressions
k%F”a’Express
1--E--#i LT #j
#i <#j
#i GE #j
#i2#j
#i LE #j
#i~#j
AORB
[email protected],s.-
IA.ANDB
I Logical p,od.ctof
lAxORB
I Exclusive logical sum of A and B
Note:
Constants and <expression>
. .
. .. . ————.
A and B
can be used instead of #i and #j.
4-166
—- . .. ...- —...
I
l#i>#j
l#i GT#j
I
]
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
(2) Repeat Instructions
WHILE [<conditional
expression>]
DOcnumber~;
END <numbers;
<number>
= 1, 2, :3
With the commands indicated above, blocks between the block next to the DO block
and the END block are repeatedly executed while the <conditional expression> is satisfied.
If the conditional
expression> is not satisfied, the program jumps k) the block next to
the END block. It is possible to omit “WHILE [<conditional expression>]. In this case,
the block between the DO and END blocks is continual y repeated,
n
A
WHILE [<cclnditional expression>”
L’
DO<numb~r>;
-
Satisfied
L
Not
satisfied
1
Repeated
while the
conditional
expression
is satisfied
END <number>;
DO <number>;
END “cnumber>;
Fig. 4.97
●
I ‘“3
Repeated continuously
—.
Repeat Instruction
DO must be specified befcre END.
L==--lJ=---l
I
Note:
o
I
x
I
O: Correct, x : Incorrect
4-167
————————.-.,—.
... ,— .. —...
—.—
—-—.
--
●
The cnumber> in “DO <number>” and “END <number>” must be the same
number, and DO and END must be specified as a pair.
DO1
DO1
DO1
DO1
END1
...
END2
DO1
END1
END1
END1
D02
END2
x
-
o
1’
x
‘
x
~~
~
Note: C): Correct, x: Incorrect
“
The same aumber>
can be used as many times as required.
range of repetition must not overlap.
r-..
DO1
DO1
DO1
DO1
END1
DO1
DO1
D02
END1 2
END1
END1
‘i
END1
1
END1
3
END1
‘J
END2
0
x
x
x
1DO1
Note:
●
However, the
C): Correct,
x : Incorrect
Nesting of DO to END loop is allowed for up to three levels in a microprogram
or subprogram.
From the DO to END loop, it is possible to call up a microprogram or subprogram. In the call u.pprog m, nesting of the DO to END loop is also allowed
for up to three levels.
DO1 “—
DO1
D02
-–
D03
+
-1
END3 -
D02 ~
-/
G65P***-
M***\
::31
END1
END24–
END2\:
END1 +—
L
Note:
0
C): Correct
4-168
.-
—
o
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
By specifying “GOTO <sequence number> “, it is possible to jump from the
DO to END loop to a block outside the loop. However, jump into the DO to
END loop by using “GOrO <sequence number>” is not :possible.
●
1301
to
GOTO -sequence
to
END1
E
— GOTO <sequence number>
number>
...
‘+ N -csequence number>
“. ;
o
[
...
k
DO1
to
N <sequence number>
to
END1
x
DO1
to
IF [<conditional expression>] GOTO <sequence number>
to
END1
...
f
I
~
N <sequence number>” 00 ;
o’
Note: O:
Correct, x: Incorrect
———
For the execution of an operation instruction, operation stops or does not stop in the
single block stop mode if the single block input (SBK) is ON according to the setting
for parameter pmOO07 D1.
I
prnOO07 D1 = O
I Does not stop in the single-block mode.
I
prnOO07 D1 = 1
I Stops in the single-block mode.
I
I
4-169
—- ——.
—....
—-.—
--- .— .——
.. . ..—_—.—__
—
4.4.6
Registering the Microprogram
Microprograms can be registered and edited in entirely the same manner as registering and
editing normal NC programs and subprograms.
For this registration, there are no limits in the size of microprograms;
NC programs, subprograms and microprograms can be stored to the limit of the memory capacity.
The program numbers to be used when registering microprograms are classified as indicated
in Table 4.70 according to their applications.
In addition to the classification indicated below, the program numbers to be used specially
for microprograms can beset to clearly identify them from NC programs and subprograms.
Whether the program number range should be secured for microprograms or not can be set
by using a parameter.
Table 4.70 Classification
of Microprograms
Classificationby Applications
There are no restrictions on reglstratlon, deletlon or
e-=
Macroprogmms can be protected from edit and display; edit protect and display protect can be set independently by using a parameter.
E= ~
Microprograms can be protected from edit and display; edit protect and display protect can be set collectively by using a parameter.
There are no restrictions on registration, deletion or
To disable all of edit, input/output,
pmO020 DO = 1
a
and display of 08000 tc) 08999:
To disable edit and output/input and enable display of 08000 to 08999:
pmO020 DO = O ancl pmO021 DO = 1
To disable all of edit, input/output, and display of 09000 to 09999:
pm3004 DO = 1 ancl pmO022 DO = O
To disable edit and output/input and enable display of 09000 to 09999:
pm3004 DO = O and pmO022 DO = 1
For 09000 to 09999, an option is provided to disable all of edit, input/output,
always disregarding of the setting for pm3004 and pmO022.
4-”170
and display
4.4
4.4.7
MACROPROGRAMS
RS-232C Data Output 2 (BPRNT, D12RNT)
The macroprogra,m commands indicated ‘below are possible in addition to the RS-232C data
output 1 (see 4.4.3 (3), (k)). These commands are used to output variables and characters
through the external device that has the RS-232C interface.
●
Open command (POPEN)
●
Data output command (BP’RNT or DPRNT)
●
Close command (PCLOS)
(1) Open Command (POEN)
POPEN [ a ] ;
L
RS-232C channel number
With the command indicated above, the DC2 control code is ou[put from the NC.
This command should be specified prior to the series of data output commands.
For the RS-232C channel number, either “l” or “2” (option) can be specified; if no
number is specified, No. 1 RS-232C channel is specified.
(Example)
POPEN;
POPEN [2];
Opens the No. 1 RS-232C channel.
Opens the No. 2 RS-232C channel.
4-171
.———-- .—-—
—
-.——
————,.—
. . ..
—.-—-—-——
>/.’
(2) Data Output Command
(BPRNT or DPRNT)
(a) BPRNT
BPRNT [a #~[c] . . . ];
~~
Number of digits right to the decimal point
~
Variable
1
~
~~a,a~~,,
With the commands imiicated above, the character and the variable are output from
the NC.
Concerning characters, the specified characters are output in the ISO code.
The following characters can be specified: alphabets (A to Z), numbers, and
special characters (*, /, +, -). Note that “*” is output in a space code.
●
Variable value is treated as the 2-word (32 bits) data with the number of digits
right to the decimal point taken into consideration, and the value is output in
the binary data from the higher byte. Since the values of all variables are saved
with the decimal point, it is necessary to specify the number of effective digits
right to the decimal point following the variable command in brackets. After
the output of the command data, the EOB code is output in the 1S0 code.
●
(Example)
With the designation of “BPRNT [C** X#100 [3] Z#lOl [3] M#10 [0]];”, the following is output if the values of the variables are “#100 = 0.40956”, “#101 =
-1638.4” and “#10 = 12.34”.
C3
AO
—
P
D8
--’7
000(
19A
—.
! !
FFE70000
–-~--j’---T
4D
000000
I
L
T-
OC
OA
L
(HEX)
EOB
12
“M”
1
-1638400
“z
410
“x
Space
Space
——
“c”
4-172
4.4 MACROPROGRAMS
——.
1.
When outputting the data using the BPRNT command, it is not influenced by the
following parameters.
●
2.
Parameters other than pmOO04, pmOO06 D4 and D6, and pmOO09
To use the BPRNT command, set the communication
for control code control and YES for RTS control.
control parameters as NO
(b) DPFINT
DPRNT [a#b [c d] o“ “ ];
Number of digits right to the decimal point
TTTL
II~ ~
Number of digits left to the decimal point
variable
I
With the commands indicated above, the character and the varitlble are output from
the NC.
●
●
Concerning characters, the specified characters are outpu:l in the ISO code as
with the BPRNT command.
Concerning variable value, it is output in the 1S0 code digit by digit by the specified number of digits from the higher digit position. Tile decimal point is
also output in the 1S0 code. To output the variable value, $,pecify the variable
number following thes ymbol of “#” and then specif y the numbers of effective
digits left and right to the decimal point individually in brackets. In this designation, the variable value is assumed to be a maximum o:t~eight digits (c + d
<8
— ).
If the specified number of digits right to the decimal poim is not “O”, the numeric value is always specified by the specified number o f digits. If it is “O”,
the decimal point is not cutput.
Space code is output.
Nothing is output.
m::<
●
After the output of the command data, the EOB code is output in the 1S0 code.
●
The variable of c empty > is regarded as “O”.
4-173
—.. -—...—.
— ———
--- .— —
,.-..
-——
—s.
-.
(Example)
With the designation of “DPRNT [X#2 [53] Z#5 [53] T#30 [40]];”, the following
is output if the values of the variables are “#2= 128.47398”, “#5= -91.2” and “#30
= 1234.56”.
. If the parameter setting is “to output space code” (pm4009 D2 = O)
D8
—
AO AO AO El B2B82EB437
B4
t—————
t
5A
x
2D AO AO A.O39 B1 2EB23030
-___91.200
I
1
D4
——— 128.474
z
B1 13233B4
OA
EOB
1234
T
“ If the parameter setting is “to output nothing” (pm4009 D2 = 1)
D8
B1 B2 B8 213B437 B4
TT-”
128.474
I
1
5A
.—
t
x
2D 39 B1 2EB230
1
t
I
D4
~
B1 B233 B4
OA
“ ‘L–
I
EOB
1234
T
4-174
—
-91.200
z
I
I
30
4.4 MACROPROGRAMS
(3) Close Command
(PCLOS)
PCLOS [ a ];
‘~
I?S-232C
channel
number
With the command indicated above, the DC4 control code is output from the NC. For
the RS-232C channel number, eithe:r “l” or “2” can be specified; if no number is specified, No. 1 RS-232C channel is specified.
(Example)
PCLOS;
PCLOS [2];
(4) Supplements
●
Closes the No. 1 RS-232C channel.
Closes the No. 2 RS-232C channel.
to RS-232C Data Output 2
To output the data using the BPRNT or DPRNTcommand, set “O” for pmOO04
D5. If “l” is set for pmOO04 D5, the data cannot be output correctly.
——
pmOO04D5 .0
Parity bit output in tape punch in the ISO code
1
pmOO04D5 = 1
●
●
●
Panty bit not output in tape punch in the ISO code
It is not necessary to specify the open command (POPEN) and the close command (PCLOS) continuously. Once the open command is e:~ecuted, the channel remains open until the close command is specified next.
If the command being output by the data output command
stops and the succeeding data is lost. Therefore, if the NC
command at the end of the program in which data is being
close command at the end (ofthe program and execute the
as the M30 command only after all data has been output.
is reset, processing
is reset by the M30
output, specif y the
processing of such
The open and close commamds must always be specified in a pair. It is not allowed to specify the close command although the open command is not specified.
4-175
—.— .—.
- ..— ——--.—-———-
-1
..———
—..
—-----
——-——..
.—
.-. .— ,—...—.—
A
n
4.4.8
Microprogram
Alarm Numbers
Alarm numbers
Table 4.71.
related with macroprograrns
Table 4.71 Microprogram
F
Alarm
0211
I
I
Description
No.
ODIVfDE IN MACRO
CONSTANT DATA OUT OF RANGE
0221
In a microprogram, specified constant is outside the allowable range.
tiNM.4TCH
in
Alarm Numbers
Description
0210
and the cause of them are indicated
—
G67 COMMAND
fie number of G67 commands is greater than –
the number of G65 and G66 commands.
0222
[n a microprogram, division by “O” is
executed.
I
ROOT VALUE NEGATIVE
I
A negative value is specified for square root
~
operation.
I
+ RANGE
FLOATING DATA OUT OF
MACRO FORMAT ERROR
0223
There is an error in microprogram
format.
—
UNDEFINED
0213
# NO.
A value not defined as a variable number is
used.
–
0224
0225
A variable that cannot be used is set in the left
I
I
Nesting level of brackets [ ] exceeds the limit.
The result of function operation (ASIN,
ACOS, LN, SQRT) is outside the allowable
range.
I
M.ACRO CALL LIMIT OVER
EXCHANG OVERFLOW
hl~croprogram
the limit.
0227
call up nesting level exceeds
——
0228
‘DO and END instructions are not specified in
pa[rs.
1-----I
Overflow during conversion into integer.
I
~
BCD INPUT DATA OVERRFLOW
I
Overflow of input data for BCD function.
I
BIN FORMAT ERROR
0229
The numbers of left bracket [ and right bracket ] do not match.
There is an error in format with the BIN function.
1
EXP OUTPUT DATA OVERFLOW
DO-END NO. OUT OF RANGE
0219
+,
—
( ] UNMATCH
0218
~
ASIN, ACOS, LN, SQRT ERROR
DO-END FORMAT ERROR
0217
I
An axis move command is specified with
M99 in the modal call (G66) mode.
[ ] LIMIT OVER
0226
0216
G66-M99 PROG ERROR
Overflow with operation stack.
side of operation expression.
t-
I
MACRO SYSTEM ERROR
ILL LEFT SIDE # NO.
0214
Floating point data exceed the allowable
range.
In “DO m“ command, “m” is not in the range
of15m
S3.
0230
—
Overflow with the EXP function.
I
GOTO NO. FORM/W ERROR
I____
0220
The value of “n” in the “GOTO n“ command –
is outside the allowable range, or the specified
“n” is not found.
4.-176
I
4.4
4.4.9
MACROPROGRAMS
Examples of Microprograms
Some examples of microprograms
(1) Microprogram
are explained below.
in Thread Cutting Canned Cycle
(a) G92 straight thread cutting cycle
Example of Programming
G92 U-SO. W-60.
(PI)
F6.O ;
The commands indicated above are executed according to the following processing
in the NC. The example is explained assuming that thread chamfering is not
executed.
A
Example of Programming
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(P2)
(iv)
(3’–”–-–––
(iii)
GOO U-50. ;
G32 W-60. F6.O;
GOO U-SO. ;
GOO W-60. ;
‘x
J
u
I
4
@‘)
+Z
L
All axis move distances and thread lead should be replaced with variables (local variables: #1 to #33).
@
For local variables, type I iindtype II variables are provided. When the number
of local variables to be handled is small, it is recommended to use type 1local
variables which allow the use of U, W, and F, thus facilitating assigning of arguments.
@
By using type I local variables, locaI variable are assignecl to address characters as indicated below.
U-50. W-60. F-6.O
7
T-$-#21
#23
#9
By using these variables, the example program (P2) can be written in the following manner.
Example of Programming
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(V)
(P3)
GOO U#21 ;
G32 W#23 F#9 ;
GOO U-#21 ;
GOO W-#23 ;
M99 ;
-----
-#23
---- ●
r
-#21 I
Q
‘#21
J
#23
4-177
—
--
.—.—..—
-..,.——.—-—
“,——
. .
.
.—
..—
..
—...
-—,
—..
-.
(b) Calling up a macroprograrn
Example of Microprogram
by using G65
Call Up Program (P4)
G65 P9093 U-50.
W-60. F6.O;
@
Use the example program (P4) to call a microprogram.
is “09093”.
Microprogram
body
09093 ;
GOO U#21 ;
G32 W-#23 F#9 ;
GOO U-#21 ;
GOO W -#23 ;
M99 ;
@
With the microprogram indicated above, it is necessary to specify the W-point
and F-point levels for each execution of the microprogram. Therefore, another microprogram which specifies the position of the W-point and F-point levels should be written.
09000 ;
#loO = #23 ;
#lol = #9 ;
M99 ;
09093 ;
GOO U#21 ;
G32 W#100 F#lOl ;
GOO U-#21 ;
GOO W-#100 ;
M99 ;
@
~eprogramusedt(,
dicated below.
G65
G65
G65
G65
G65
P9000
P9093
P9093
P9093
P9093
call twomacroprograms
W -60. F6.O ;
U-50, ;
U-51.4;
U-52.6;
u “““ ;
4-178
indicated in [email protected] above isin-
4.4 MACROPROGRAMS
(c) Example program for thread chamfering
Specify chamfering distance by address K.
-——- ——--
—
I
I
I
x
~
2
j
I
U: Diametric
value
radial value
Example of Thread Chamferin;q Program (P5)
“ Example of Macro Program Call Command???
G65
G65
G65
G65
●
P9000
P9093
P9093
P9093
W-60. K4.8 F6.O ;
U-50. ;
U-51.4;
U ““o ;
Example of Macro Program Body
09000 ;
#100 = #23 ;
#lol = #9 ;
#102 = ABS [#6]
M99 ;
09093 ;
#10 = ROUND [#102] *:! ;
#11 = ROUND [#21] + #10;
#12 = ROUND [#100] + ROUND [#102] ;
GOO U#21 ;
G32 W#12 F#lOl ;
●- Thread chamfering
G32 U#10 W-#102 :
GOO U-#11 ;
‘
GOO W-#100 ;
M99 ;
4-179
—.
—.—.-—.. -—-. . .
. ..-.., —-.
——-————
.—.,
.. —
... .— -—
. . . . ..—
——
—.
Since this program does not include #3000 (single block invalid control) and
#3004 (feed hold invalid control), the program is not protected satisfactorily
from operation error. In addition, the thread cutting cycle is possible only in
the U- and W- axis directions. It is necessary to edit the program so that thread
cutting can be executed in four directions.
r-----l
t -.—— —
i-
.-
—-
r----%
----=7’%
;1
it
~
—
—— —--
U
L+
t.._.
u
An example of microprogram
P9000
P9093
P9093
P9093
call up program is indicated below.
W-45. K4.O F5.O ;
U40. ;
U41.4 ;
U . ““ ;
An example of microprogram
09000 ;
+ JJl
#100 = #23 ;
+. F
#lol = #9 ;
+-- IKI
#102 = ABS [#6] ;
M99 ;
4-180
—.
U, W Signed value
K
Unsigned value
U = #21 (Diametric value)
W= #23
K = #6 (Radial value)
F=#9
_.-..___#
GOO
G65
G65
G65
G65
Start point
?
body is indicated below.
4.4
MACROPROGRAMS
09093 ;
#3003 = 1 ;
M93
;
—
—
—
Single block invalid
—
7-block buffering
#10 = ROUND [#102] *2;
IF’ [ABS_ [#21] LT#lO] GOTO 4 ;
IF [#21 GT 01 GOTO 1 ;
IF [#21 EQ 0] GOTO 4 ;
#11 = ROUND [#21] + #1.O;
—-—
If U value is negative
#12 = #lo;
GOTO 2 ;
N1 #11 = ROUND [#21] -#10;
——
If U value is positive
#12 = -#lo;
N2 #13=
ROUND [#102] ;
IF [ABS [#100] LT#13] GOTO 4 ;
IF [#100GTO] GOTO 3 ;
IF [#100EQO] GOTO 4 ;
#14 = ROUND [#100] + #13 ;
—-
If W value is negative
#15 = -#13 ;
GOTO 5 ;
N3 #14=
ROUND [#1001 -#13 ;
~-
If W value is positive
#15 = #13
GOTO
5 ;
N4
#3000=
N5
GOO U#21
#3004
G32
499
= 7 ;
W#14
(MACRO INPUT ERR.);
;
#3004
GOO
Error display
Feed hold
Feedrate override
Positioning complete
—
F#lOl ;
G32 U#12 W#15 ; _
~
hwalid
‘—
Thread chamfering
L
= o ; —
U-#11 ;
GOO W-#100 ;
M92 ;
#3003 = o ;
M99 :
4-181
—-—
—-. — . .. —.. —. — .. . ..—-.. -. —.. ——-.
..———...—..... . . . —-—.
— .-.---——..
-.—..-”,... .—-+
~—
... .—. ——-—-.---—-
..-
G CODE TABLE
Appendix
1.1
1 describes the G code and the functions.
GCODETAE]LE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. A1-2
APPENDIX
1.1
G CODE TABLE
Appendix Table 1.1
G Code
G Code Table
GOO #1
GO1
#1
Refer to
Function
Group
Positioning (rapid traverse)
2.1.1
Linear interpolation
2.1.2
01
G02
Circular interpolation
CW (radius R designation)
2.1.3
G03
Circular interpolation
CCW (radius R designation)
2.1.3
G04
Dwell
*
G06
G1O
Positioning
3.3.1
(error detect OFF)
Programmable
Gll
2.1.1
4,2.1
data input
Chamfering
2,1.4
Rounding
2.1.5
01
G12
G~O
#2
(inch)
3.2.3
Input unit system designation (mm)
3.2.3
Input unit system designating
05
G21
#2
Circular interpolation
radius R designation
CW
2.1.3
G23
Circular interpolation
radius R designation
CCW
2.1,3
G27
Reference point return check
2.3.2
G28
Automatic reference point return
2.3.1
Return from reference point
2.3.3
G30
Second, third, and fourth reference point return
2.3.4
G31
Skip function
4.3.1
G22
05
*
G~9
Thread cutting, continuous
G32
01
G34
G36
#2
~
,
thread cutting, multiple-thread
cutting
2.2.1,2.2.2
Variable lead thread cutting
2.2.3
Stored stroke limit 2nd area ON
4.2.3
Stored stroke limit 2nd werI OFF
4.2.3
Stored stroke limit 3rd area ON
4.2.3
07
G37
#2
G38
#2
G39
#2
Stored stroke limit 3rd area OFF
4.2.3
G40
#1
Nose R offset, cancel
3.4.3
Nose R offset, left
3.4.3
Nose R offset, right
3.4.3
Coordinate system setting, max. spindle speed setting, workpiece coordinate system setting
3.1.4
Actual position display zero return
3.1.5
Microprogram
4.4.1
G41
,
~
08
06
G42
G50
#1
*
G51
G65
*
G66
simple call
Microprogram
modal call
4.4.1
Microprogram
modal call, cancel
4.4.1
09
G67 #1
Al-2
—
G Code
Function
Group
Refer to
—,
4.2.4
Programmable mirror image ON
G68
10
G69
Programmable mirror image OFF”
4.2.4
—
G70
Multiple canned cycle (finish)
4.1.2
G71
Multlple canned cycle (OD, rough)
4.1.2
Multiple canned cycle (Face, rough)
4.1.2
G72
*
Multiple canned cycle (closed loop cutting)
4.1.2
G74
Multiple canned cycle (face, cut-off)
4.1.2
G75
Multiple canned cycle (OD, cut-o~
G73
G76
G80
#l
—
4.1.2
Multiple canned cycle (automatic thread cutting)
4.1.2
Canned cycle, cancel
4.1.5
—
G81
Canned cycle (drilling)
G82
Canned cycle (Spot facing)
4.1.5
G83
Canned cycle (high-speed deep hole drilling)
4.1.5
G84
Canned cycle (tapping)
14
G85
Canned cycle (boring)
G86
Canned cycle (boring)
G87
Canned cycle (back boring)
G88
Canned cycle (boring)
G89
Canned cycle (boring)
G90
#2
01
G92
G94
4.1.5
4.1.5
—
4.1.5
—
4.1.5
—
4.1.5
—.
Cutting cycle A
4.1.1
4.1.1
Cutting cycle El
4.1.1
Constant speed control, cancel
G98
#2
Feed per minute (mm/min)
G99
#2
3.5.3
—
02
#1
3.5.3
.—,
1.2.4
—
04
*
4.1.5
Thread cutting cycle
G97
Gill
—.
—
Constant speed control
G96
4.1.5
—
Feed per revolution (mm/rev)
1.2.3
Multiple chain Fering/rounding of taper
4.2.2
G112
Multiple cham~ering,hounding
G122
Start of tool registration
of arc
—
4.1.3
—
4.3.2
11
G123 #1
End of tool registration
Cylindrical
G124
int,:rpolation
Cylindrical interpolation cancel
G126
Polar coordinate mode ON
19
G127
Polar coordinate mode OFF
G132
Rotary tool S command mode
2.1.6
.—
20
G125 #l
4.3.2
—,
2.1.6
2.1.7
—
-
2,1.7
3.5.4
22
G133
Rotary tool S command mode cancel
G198 #2
Canned cycle (initial point level return)
15
G199
3.5.4
—
4.1.5
—.
Canned cycle (R-point level return)
4.1.5
Note 1: The NC establishes the G code modes, identified by #1, when the power is turned ON or when the NC is reset.
2: The NC establishes
the G code modes, identified by #2, when the power is turned ON.
Al-3
..— .—.—
——.
. ..”-.-—
2
AP’PENDIX
INDEX
In Appendix
2, technical terms specific to NC and J300L are
arranged in alphabetical
order.
Please use this index when looking for descriptions
using the
technical term as the key code.
M-1
—.... .—.—
A
Absolute/Incremental
F
Desigrration . . . .
Address Characters . . . . . . .
.
.
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
FCommand
.
Face Cut-off Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. .....
1.11
Angle -designated Linear Interpolation
Argument Specification..,.,,,,,
argument specification
2-8
.
.,,,.,,
.
.. .
.
. ..
Automatic Acceleration and Deceleration
Automatic Coordinate System..,,..
..
.... ..
.. ..
.
.
.
.
Feed per Revolution Mode . ., .,,,,...
1-27
boring
cycle,
. . . . . .
4-30
.. . .
2-39
finishing shape program search function . . .
.. . .
.
4-49
Function Characters....,.,,.,,,,,,,.
..
4-114
. . . 3-5
,.. .
... ,., .,
Finishing Shape Program Memory
4-40
4-40
. ....
...
4-41
. . . . . . . . . . 1.12
G
GCODETABLE
.
.
Base Coordinate System
Boring cycle.......,,.,.,,,,.,..
.
.
. . . . . . . .
4-88
. ..
. .. ........
3-3
. .
.,, ,, . ., .,, .,, ..,..,...
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. A1-2
General Purpose M Codes..,.,,.,,..
4.88
BURNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ..... .. .. .
., . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buffer Register,..,.,..,..,...,,..
. .
3-85
H
boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-110
Branch instruction,
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21.1-26
Finishing Cycle . . . . . . . .
B
back
4-43
.. ...
..
AUTOMATING SUPPORT FUNCT’IONS . . . . . . . . . .
1-20
.
Feed per Minute Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23.1-26
4-134
.
Automatic Return to Reference Point
Automatic Thread Cutting Cycle,
Face Rough Turning Cycle ., .,,,:,...
. . . . . . 4-129
.
.,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, .,.,,,.,.,....,..,.,.,
4-171
High -speed retumspeed
4-165
High-speed reference point retur
in solid tap...
.. .... .... . ..
n,.,,.
.. ...
. 4-101
. . . . . . . . . . . 2-40
Hole Punch Pattern Setting Parameters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Hole- machining Canned Cycles
4-155
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-79
c
1
Canned Cycles......,..
.
Chamfering ., . .,.,....,
.. . .
. .
Circular lnterpnlation .,, .,, ...,.,.
.
4-3
. . . . . . .2
. .. .. .. .. ..
2-9
.
Common Variables...,.,
.
Constant Surface Speed Control
controlin
..,,.....
. .
4-175
Input Format.................,.,
........
... ...
. .
1-15
4-140
Interference Check,,,.,..,.,..,..
..... .
... ...
. .
3-65
intermediate Positioning Poirrt ...,.,..
..
... ...
.
2-46
internally Processed M Codes,
..
. .
.
3-77
Control Irrstructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, .,, .,
.
3-20
.. ...
, . ., ., . ., . ., .,, . ., ..,..2-28
.
3-30
..,....
..... ..
2-12
Close Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imaginary Tool Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
lrrch/Metric Input Designation,
Initial Point Ihwel ., . . . . . ...,,....
circular interpolation with R designation
Continuous Thread Cutting
-14
.
..,....
.
... ...
4-80
.
3-84
1-13
., .,, ..,..,.
L
4-164
control out.,,.,,...,,.
1-13
Control Point . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
COORDINATE SYSTEM
Iabel skip function,,.,,.,,.,,.,..
3-31
.
b3.s.tI nput[ncrement
h~to”tput
[ncrement,
3-3
Cutting Cycle A........
4-4
Cutting Cycle B, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~,”ear]nterpo]ation,
4-14
1-6
. . ..
......
.,,.,,.
. ..
...
... ..
. ...
..
1-3
1-3
... .
2-5
Cuttirrg Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20.1-28
Local Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4.138
Cylindrical interpolation
Low-speed reference point return.,..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-18
Data Output Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
4-172
Designation of Multiple M Codes in a Single Block . . . . .
. . . 3-85
.
dummy block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Macro System Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Microprogram Alarm Numbers . . . . . . .
.
Microprogram Call
4-171
.
.. . ..
E
4-176
. . .
..........
Microprogram Call Up by MCodes
MACROPROGIWMS
3-83
4-156
.... .. ...
Microprogram Call Up by Goode,
3-50
...... ... ... ....
..
4-130
.. ... ...
...
4-132
.................
...... ...
..
4-126
.,..
Maximum Spindle Speed Command,..
A2-2
4-128
. . . . . . . . . . 4-130
Maximum Programmable Values for Axis Movement ., ., .
4-177
..
..
Microprogram Call Up by TCode,
.,.,....
2-39
3-83
MFUNCT’ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-22
Examples of Microprograms
.
MCodes Relating to Stop Operation.
3-16
DETERMINING THE COORDINATE VALUE INPUT MODES
DPRNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . .
M
D
Diametric and Radial Commands for X-axis . .
. ..
. ....
.....
. .,
...
1-5
3-76
MISCELLANEOUS FUNCfION
......... .... .. .. .. ..
s
3-83
Modal Call Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-129
Modal information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 4-156
SFUNCHON
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
S5-digitCommand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-75
Multi-active Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 1-18
Second to Fourth Reference Point Return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modal call up, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-133
.
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
on Arc Ends
.
.. ..
Multiple Chamfering/Rounding
on Both Ends of Taper . . . . . . . . . . 4-56
Sequence number . ., . ., . .,...,..,
4-70
2-49
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Simple Call Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 4-129
Multiple Repetitive Cycles.......,..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Skip Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-114
Multiple- thread Cutting....,....,..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Solid Tap Fcmction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 4-94
Special codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-154
Spindle Command,
N
SPINDLE FUNCTION,
Negative Polar Coordinate Specification . . .
Nesting of Microprogram Call us......
Stnred StrOke Limit B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-108
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-132
straight facing cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Number of Simultaneously Controllable Axes
Subprogram Call Up Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-106
3-29
. . . . . . . . . 1-2
Subprograms
ODCut-off
Cycle
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,..........,..,....4-126
Switching between Feed per Minute Mode and
Feedper Revolution Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
System Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-141
0
0f3Stock
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
2-25
Nose ROffset Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numerically Controlled Axes .,.....
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75
T
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
Removal Cycle
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Open Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-171
TFUNCITON
Operation Instructions
. . . . . . . . 4-162
T4-digit Command
. . . . . . . . . 1-17
T6-digit Command.....,.....,..
.
.... .. ..
Optional Block Skip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-82
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-82
Tape End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Tape Format...........,.....,..
P
.
. .. ....... .. . ..
1-6
Tape Start,..................,.,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Pattern Repeat Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4-36
Tapping cycle,..,........,...,..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-87
Peck Feed Operation
.. .... .. .. ... . . .. .. .. .. ..
4-43
Tt}read Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Polar Coordinate Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-21
Ttlread Cutting Cycle, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Position information,
.
4-6
THREAD CU’ITING FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-157
Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
TIME- CONTROLLING COMMANDS
Positioning inthe Error Detect OFF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Tc,ol coordinate system setting function
Positioning inthe Error Detect ON Mode . . .
TOOL FUNCfTON
. . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
.. .. .... .. .......
. . . . . . . . . .,
3-22
4-124
.................................
.
3-82
Program End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Tclol Life Control Function
Program Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Tclol Offset Data Memory
Program number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
TOOL OFFSET FUNCIVONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Program Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Tc}olPosition Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
PROGRAM SUPPORT FUNCITONS
3-23
Undefined Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-160
v
Rapid Traverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19.1-27
REFERENCE POINT RETURN....,..
. .. ..... .. .. ..
2-39
............. .. .. .. .. ..
2-44
Registering the Microprogram ...,...
..... .
var]able block format, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Variabl ef_eadThrea dCutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
. . . . . . . . . 4-170
Variable s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repeat Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-167
Return from Reference Point Return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
Returning to the origin forpresentposition. . . . . . . .
. . . . 3-10
............................
. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-138
w
Reversetappingcycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-87
RotaryToolSpindleSelection Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-81
RS-232C dataoutput
. . ,.
u
. . . . . . . . . . . 4-104
R
Rounding
.......... ... . . .... ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3.4-94
Programmable Data Input . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Point Return Check,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-117
Workpiece Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Workpiece coordinate system setting function
. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Workpiece Coordinate System Shift Amount
l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-153
... .. .... .
.,
4-124
. . . . . . . . . . 3-14
RS-232C Data Output 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-171
.-
M-3
—
—-
——
..
____ _ —. .... . . .
—–—
–—.
YASNAC J300L
PROGRAMMING
h/lANUAL
TOKYO OFFICE New Pier Takesh!ba South Tower, 1.16-1, [email protected],
fhnato
W’”’’apan
Phone 81-3-5402-4511
Fax 81-3-5402-4580
YASKAWA
ELECTRIC AMERICA, INC.
Chicago-Corporate
Headquarters
2942 MacArthur Blvd. Northbrcok, IL 60062 .~028, U.S.A.
Phone 1.847-291-2340
Fax 1-847-498-2430
Chicago-Technical
Center
3160 MacArthur Blvd. Northbrook, IL 80062-1917, U.S.A.
Phone 1-847-291-0411
Fax 1-847-291-1018
.
MOTOMAN INC.
805 Liberty Lane West Carrollton, OH 45449, USA,
Phone 1-937-847-6200
Fax 1-937-847-8277
YASKAWA
EL~TRICO DO BRASIL COM~RCIO
LTDA.
Avemda Bngade!ro Fana Lima 1664-5” CJ 504/511, S?io Paulo, Brazil
Phone 55-11-815-7723
Fax 55-11-870-3849
YASKAWA
ELECTRIC EUROPE GmbH
Am Kronberger Hang 2, 65o24 Schwalbach, Germany
Phone 49-6196-589-300
Fax 49-6196-888-301
Motoman Robotics AB
Box 504 S38525 Torstls, Sweden
Phone 46-486-48800
Fax 48-486-41410
Motoman Robotec GmbH
Kammetieldstrape
1, 85391 Allershausen, Germany
Phone 49-8166-900
Fax 49-8166-9039
YASKAWA
ELECTRIC UK LTD.
Un!12 Cenlunon COUFI Brick Close, Kdn Farm, MMon Keynes MK11 3JA, United Kingdom
Phone 44-1908-565874
Fax 44-1908-565891
YASKAWA
ELECTRIC KOREA CORPORATION
Palk Nam Bldg 901 18+-3, l-Ga Euljiro, Joong-Gu Sc?Oul, Korea
Phone 82-2-776-7644
Fax 82-2 -753 -263s
YASKAWA
ELECTRIC (SINGAPORE)
PTE. LTO,
151 Lorong Chuan, ?404-01, New Tech Parx Singapore 556741, Singapore
Phone 65-282-3003
Fax 65-289-3003
YATEC ENGINEERING
CORPORATION
Shen Hsiang Tang Sung Chiang Building I OF 146 Sung Ch!ang Road, Ta[get, Taiwan
Phone 886-2-563-0010
Fax 886-2-567-4677
BEIJING OFFICE Room No. 301 Office Building of Sqing lntematlonal Club, 21
J!anguomenwal Avenue, Beijing 100020, China
Phone 86-10-532-1850
Fax 86-10-532.1851
SHANGHAI OFFICE
27 tiui He Road Shanghti
200437 China
Phone 86-21.6553-6060
I=ax 86-21-6553-8060
YASKAWA
JASON (HK) COMPANY LIMITED
Rm. 2909-10, Hong Kong Plaza, 186-191 Connaught F?oad West, Hong Kong
Phone 852.2803-2385
Fax 852.2547.5773
TAIPEI OFFICE
Shen Hsiang Tang Sung Chiang Bul}dlng 10F 146 Sung Ch!ang Road, Ta!pei, Taiwan
Phone 886-2-563-0010
Fax 686-2-567-4677
Y
YASKAWA
ELECTRIC
~
.
CORPORATION
YASKAWA
MANUAL NO. TOE-C843-13.21
@ Printed in Japan July 199797-1 0.35 ~
-/-
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