Operation and maintenance manual - Univa
Operation and
maintenance manual
Table of contents
Operation and maintenance manual
Table of contents
1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 1
1.1. Safety precautions ............................................................................. 1
1.2. Symbols ............................................................................................. 1
2. The jet propulsion unit ................................................................................ 3
2.1. Structure ............................................................................................ 3
2.2. Serial number .................................................................................... 4
3. Operation ..................................................................................................... 5
3.1. Starting .............................................................................................. 5
3.2. Steering ............................................................................................. 6
3.3. Controlling ......................................................................................... 7
3.3.1. The positions of the reversing deflector control lever ............. 7
3.3.2. Using the reversing deflector ................................................. 8
3.4. Driving under difficult conditions ..................................................... 9
3.5. Dry running ....................................................................................... 9
4. Maintenance ............................................................................................... 11
4.1. Washing ........................................................................................... 11
4.2. Corrosion protection ........................................................................ 11
4.2.1. Changing the anodes ............................................................ 11
4.2.2. Touch-up painting and antifouling ........................................ 13
4.3. Bearing ............................................................................................ 14
4.3.1. Lubricating the front bearing ............................................... 15
4.3.2. Lubrication of the rear end bearing ..................................... 16
4.4. Control system ................................................................................. 18
4.5. Seals ................................................................................................ 19
4.6. Hydraulic reversing deflector control system ................................. 19
4.7. Raw water cooling ........................................................................... 23
4.8. Impeller ........................................................................................... 24
4.8.1. Checking the impeller ........................................................... 24
4.8.2. Removing the impeller .......................................................... 25
4.8.3. Installing the impeller ........................................................... 27
4.9. Intermediate shaft ........................................................................... 29
5. Problem situations ..................................................................................... 31
5.1. Cavitation ......................................................................................... 31
5.2. Ventilation ........................................................................................ 32
5.3. Clogged jet ...................................................................................... 33
Appendix 1. Declaration of incorporation for partially completed
machinery ....................................................................................................... 37
Appendix 2. Grease recommendations ........................................................... 38
Appendix 3. Oil recommendations ................................................................. 39
Appendix 4. Tightening torques ..................................................................... 40
Appendix 5. Test report ................................................................................. 41
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Introduction
Operation and maintenance manual
1. Introduction
Congratulations on purchasing your new Alamarin-Jet Jet-245 water jet
propulsion unit!
This manual contains important information on the operation, use and
maintenance of the unit. Please read these instructions carefully before using
the unit. This way the unit will be safe to operate.
Please retain this manual throughout the product's life cycle. If you lose the
manual, contact your nearest distributor for a new one. If you sell the unit,
make sure to hand over this manual to the new owner.
Please contact your nearest distributor if you have any queries regarding the
operation or maintenance of the unit.
В© Alamarin-Jet Oy
Tuomisentie 16
FI-62300 Härmä, Finland
Telephone: +358 10 7745 260
Fax: +358 10 7745 269
Internet: www.alamarinjet.com
All rights reserved.
The information in this manual may not be copied, published or reproduced
in any way whatsoever, or exploited for commercial purposes, without explicit
written permission from Alamarin-Jet Oy.
The information in this manual is subject to change without notice. AlamarinJet Oy reserves the right to modify the contents without notice.
1.1.В Safety precautions
Read these instructions carefully before you operate a boat equipped with the
water jet propulsion unit or carry out any maintenance procedures. Please
also read the boat's manual. Always follow the instructions and the safety
precautions below.
• Only a person with adequate training is permitted to carry out the
demanding maintenance procedures described in this manual.
• The person carrying out the procedures must always wear the appropriate
protective equipment.
• The work premises must be sufficiently large, safe and well-lit.
• The tools that are to be used must be clean and appropriate for the intended
purpose.
1.2.В Symbols
Please refer to table 1 for a description of the symbols used in this manual.
Table 1. The symbols used in the manual
Icon
Description
DANGER
Negligence in the performance of a procedure can cause a threat
to your life.
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Icon
Description
WARNING
Negligence in the performance of the procedures can lead to
personal injury, breakdown of equipment, or serious malfunction
of the equipment.
CAUTION
The procedure involves minor danger or a possibility of minor
damage to equipment.
WARRANTY
The warranty is voided if the procedure is carried out incorrectly.
NOTE
Important notice or fact.
TIP
Additional information that facilitates the performance of work or
a procedure.
MAINTENANCE ON LAND
The boat must be lifted out of the water for maintenance.
MAINTENANCE IN WATER
The maintenance procedure can be carried out in water.
CARRIED OUT BY ONE PERSON
One person can carry out the procedure.
CARRIED OUT BY TWO PERSONS
Two persons must carry out the procedure.
INDICATOR ARROW
ARROW DESCRIBING MOTION
Please note that this instruction uses the terms "jet" and "jet propulsion unit".
They mainly refer to the same thing.
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The jet propulsion unit
Operation and maintenance manual
2. The jet propulsion unit
The Alamarin-Jet water jet propulsion unit (jet) is a single stage axial flow
pump, which produces a high volume flow rate and thrust with high efficiency.
The operation of the unit is based on increasing the water flow rate in the
nozzle. The change in the flow rate creates a reactive force in the direction of
the flow, which thrusts the boat forward. By changing the direction of the jet
flow, the boat can be steered in the desired direction.
The jet gets its propulsion power from a petrol or diesel engine. The most
common way to transmit the power is through a gearbox, but a direct
drive installation is also possible and functional. The greatest benefits of
a gearbox are a real neutral gear and an intake duct backflush. In bobtail
installation, it is commendable to use a flywheel adapter provided by the
engine manufacturer. This will protect the engine from mechanical damage
and corrosion, for example.
2.1.В Structure
The jet consists of four main parts (figure 1). These are specified in the table 2.
FigureВ 1.В Main parts of the jet
Table 2. Purpose of the main parts of the jet
Part
Purpose
Intake duct (A)
Leads the water from outside the boat to the intake side of
the impeller. Keeps the loss of power as small as possible
and distributes velocity evenly.
Impeller (B)
Increases the water's flow rate. The impeller is rotated
by the driving motor. The nozzle converts the pressure
energy produced by the impeller into motion energy.
Steering device
(C)
Changes the direction of the jet flow coming out of the
nozzle, which creates the force needed for turning.
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Part
Purpose
Controlling device Causes the boat to reverse and stop. Lowering the
(D)
reversing deflector causes the boat to reverse. The
direction of the jet flow changes obliquely forward under
the boat, which is when the thrust is directed forward and
down.
2.2.В Serial number
Every jet has a unique serial number. The serial number has been marked on
the type label, which is on the side of the bearing oil reservoir (figure 2). The
serial number is also stamped on the body of the jet under the cooling system
(figure 3).
FigureВ 2.В Serial number on the oil reservoir
FigureВ 3.В Serial number on the body
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3. Operation
If you have never driven a jet boat before, familiarise yourself with the
separate guide “Steering and controlling jet boats” before driving the boat for
the first time. You can find the guide on the CD attached to the back cover of
the paper version of this operation and maintenance manual.
3.1.В Starting
Before you start the engine equipped with the jet, make sure that
• the reversing deflector control lever is in centre position
• the gear is disengaged. (If the engine has no gearbox, it must be in the idle
position before you start it.)
The positions of the reversing deflector control lever are described in section
3.3. Controlling, page 7.
Operation for the first time
CAUTION!
Before you set the boat afloat for the first time, make sure
that the jet has been installed according to the installation
instructions. If you have not personally installed the jet, check
with the boat's retailer that the jet has been installed correctly.
Correct installation helps to prevent the emergence of
unexpected fault situations which can lead to damages.
The jet does not require separate running in. However, follow the engine
manufacturer's instructions about running in during the first few drives.
Ensure the functioning of the jet carefully when driving at low speeds.
DANGER!
The jet can be dangerous when running.
Do not go near the rotating parts.
Do not open the jet's inspection hatch when the engine is
running.
When running, the jet propulsion unit sprays water backwards
at great pressure. Make sure that there is no one in the water
behind the boat!
The intake in the bottom of the boat causes suction power at
the back of the boat when the jet propulsion unit is running.
Make sure that there is no one in the water at risk of being
affected by the intake.
When you start the engine for the first time, you may hear a jingling sound for
a few minutes. This is normal and the sound will disappear when the impeller
gap sets in place. The noise from the oil pump may be loud at first but it will
disappear as the system fills up with oil.
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During the first few drives, the reversing deflector's hydraulic control system
needs more oil than usual because the hoses and the cooler are empty. Check
the oil level and add more oil if necessary in accordance with the instructions
in Chapter 4.3.1. Lubricating the front bearing, page 15.
NOTE!
An oil leak may pollute the environment.
Monitor the oil level and make sure that oil does not leak out.
3.2.В Steering
WARRANTY!
In this section, controlling the jet boat is described in a way
that it is performed using a system that has been installed as
intended by the manufacturer.
Alamarin-Jet Oy is not liable for damages which derive from
incorrect installation of the system.
Steering denotes exclusively moving the steering nozzle. Steering means
changing the boat's bow angle.
The boat is steered by turning the steering wheel. The steering wheel is
hydraulically connected to the cylinder, which moves the steering nozzle.
FigureВ 4.В Steering device
Steering is possible only when the power of the jet flow is sufficient. This is
why the engine must run on sufficiently high revs when steering. A suitable
number of revolutions depends on the engine. Usually it is between 1,000 and
1,500 rpm.
In sharp curves, turning the nozzle causes the boat to slow down. This is
normal and increases safety.
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Turning the nozzle from one extreme position to the other takes between
1 and 3 revolutions of the steering wheel, depending on the capacity of the
steering pump used.
3.3.В Controlling
Controlling denotes exclusively moving the reversing deflector. Controlling
means changing the boat's driving direction (forward - astern). The reversing
deflector is moved with the lever, which is usually next to the throttle lever.
The lever controls the hydraulic system mechanically (the cable operates the
cylinder valve)
The reversing deflector can be lowered in front of the jet flow using
hydraulics, causing the boat to reverse (figure 5).
FigureВ 5.В Lowering the reversing deflector
3.3.1.В The positions of the reversing deflector control lever
The reversing deflector control lever can be in one of three positions: forward,
rear or centre.
Forward position
When the reversing deflector control lever is in the forward position, the
deflector is not blocking the jet flow and the boat moves forward (figure 6).
FigureВ 6.В Ahead
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A
Throttle lever
B
Control lever
Rear position
When the reversing deflector control lever is in the rear position, the deflector
is blocking the jet flow and the boat moves astern (figure 7).
FigureВ 7.В Astern
A
Throttle lever
B
Control lever
Centre position
The centre position of the control lever corresponds to the ”idle” position of
the gearbox: even though the drive is on, the boat does not move. The centre
position is not absolute as it depends on the power of the jet flow. You can find
the centre position by testing during the first few driving hours.
3.3.2.В Using the reversing deflector
When moving at low speeds, the reversing deflector is used to control the
boat's speed. Because the engine is being run at 1,000–1,500 rpm to enhance
steering, the boat may travel faster than desired. If this is the case, the
deflector can be lowered in front of the jet flow to reduce the thrust directed
towards the driving direction. This does not affect the steerability, which
remains good.
At high speeds, the deflector is not used to reduce speed. Instead, speed is
controlled with engine revolutions.
It is possible to turn the boat in place when the deflector is in the centre
position. When the nozzle is turned in the desired direction, the boat rotates
about its central axis.
When reversing, steering is inversed in comparison to driving forwards. If
you want to reverse the boat to the left, you must turn the steering wheel to
the right. A good rule to remember is that the boat's bow always turns in the
same direction as the wheel when reversing. When fast turns are needed, the
engine revolutions are not reduced. Instead, the turn is performed through the
combined motion of the nozzle and the deflector.
Emergency stop
When the boat is running forwards at great speed, it is possible to stop the
boat by only using the reversing deflector. When the reversing deflector is
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lowered quickly, the boat stops in a very short distance. The emergency stop is
to be used in emergencies only.
WARNING!
Alert the passengers and tell them to hold on to something if
you are planning an emergency stop. Without being prepared,
a passenger may be thrown overboard.
3.4.В Driving under difficult conditions
Shallow water
The jet boat can be used in very shallow water. However, note that especially
on high revolutions, the suction power of the intake is high (figure 8).
FigureВ 8.В Suction power of the intake
Loose objects may get sucked into the grass rake and small objects may
wash through the jet. Stones may cause damage to the jet and its parts. In
sandy conditions, the impeller inevitably wears. A worn impeller requires
maintenance (section 4.8. Impeller, page 24).
Reed fields
At planing speeds, a jet boat usually crosses reed fields without difficulty. In
difficult conditions, however, clogging may be possible.
A clogged jet must be cleaned immediately (section 5.3. Clogged jet, page
33).
3.5.В Dry running
The jet may be run by the engine even out of the water, because the bearings
are greased and oiled. This is a significant benefit in comparison to waterlubricated bearings, which do not sustain dry running well.
During dry runs, a temporary water inlet must be arranged for the motor sea
water cycle to cool the engine.
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4. Maintenance
The jet is designed and manufactured to be as simple as possible. This is why
the need for maintenance is low and maintenance can be carried out on shore.
However, maintenance must be performed regularly and whenever the need
arises.
Alamarin-Jet can provide you with a toolkit, available through separate order,
for maintenance purposes. The toolkit includes the tools needed to perform
most maintenance and repair procedures on the jet. The tools included in the
toolkit are specified in Table 3.
Table 3. Toolkit
Tool
Pcs
Size
Wrench
4
13 and 17 mm
Allen wrench
3
5 (0.19"), 6 (0.24") and 8 (0.3") mm
Knife
1
-
Universal pliers
1
-
4.1.В Washing
Washing the jet regularly removes possible salt accruals and impurities, thus
reducing the risk of corrosion.
Every time you lift the jet out of the water, it is a good idea to rinse it with
fresh water.
4.2.В Corrosion protection
The jet has been protected against corrosion in the manufacturing and
installation phases. However, the protection requires regular maintenance.
4.2.1.В Changing the anodes
The main raw materials used for manufacturing the jet parts are aluminium,
acid-proof steel and plastic. Materials that have different electrochemical
properties can form a galvanic couple when they are submerged in electrolytic
fluid (salt water). A galvanic couple forms an electrical circuit because the
materials have different inherent voltages. This in turn leads to electron
movement and corrosion of the weaker material.
Cathodic protection is used to prevent the propagation of galvanic corrosion.
Cathodic protection means introducing a third material with weaker
electrochemical properties into the same circuit.
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The jet is protected from galvanic corrosion with passive cathodic protection,
i.e. with anodes. Every critical aluminium casting has its own anode. The
locations of the anodes are shown in the figure 9.
FigureВ 9.В Anodes
A
Steering nozzle (1 pc)
B
Stator, outside (1 pc)
C
Reversing deflector (2 pcs)
D
Impeller tunnel (1 pc)
E
Stator, inside (1 pc)
F
Frame (2 pcs)
G
Inspection hatch (1 pc)
The functioning of the anodes is absolutely crucial to prevent corrosion. The
anodes must be replaced when they have worn down to half their original size.
Replacing the anodes:
Most of the anodes are attached with simple screws. Below you will find
instructions for changing the anodes that are attached differently.
Replacing the stator anode
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FigureВ 10.В Stator anode
The stator is protected by an anode housed under a plastic plug located on the
starboard side the stator. To remove the anode, first open the arrester screw
(figure 10, point A) and unscrew the plug. Now you can replace the anode
located inside the plug. Leave the screw that holds the anode in place (figure
10, point B) loose and fasten the plug into place using a sealing compound
(such as Sikaflex 221). Only then attach the other end of the arrester to the
stator. After this, tighten the screw that holds the anode in place.
4.2.2.В Touch-up painting and antifouling
The aluminium castings have been protected with paint. Painting efficiently
prevents the propagation of various forms of corrosion, e.g. pit corrosion.
Bare aluminium, on the other hand, is liable to corrosion in difficult conditions.
This is why it is important to carry out touch-up painting if paint comes loose
and aluminium is exposed. Touch-up painting can be done in various ways.
What is important is that the paints used are suitable for aluminium and that
the paint manufacturer's instructions are followed during painting.
If the boat is going to be used in waterways where the growth and sticking
of organisms around the boat’s bottom and the propulsion unit is heavy,
the propulsion unit can be painted with antifouling paint after installation.
Generally speaking, antifouling paints are based on various soluble
substances, such as copper. Because the propulsion unit is made mainly of
aluminium, copper forms a highly unfavourable galvanic couple with the
propulsion unit. In other words, the aluminium starts to corrode because it
functions as an anode.
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WARNING!
Familiarise yourself with antifouling before painting the
propulsion unit with antifouling paint! Painting the propulsion
unit with antifouling paint that contains copper will result in
heavy corrosion and destruction of the propulsion unit. Do not
use any other antifouling paints for painting the propulsion
unit except those intended for aluminium surfaces.
A boat bottom made of reinforced plastic can be painted using antifouling
paint that contains copper. In this case, leave a 50 mm (2") unpainted area
around the propulsion unit in the stern and on the bottom of the boat (figure
11).
FigureВ 11.В Antifouling
A
Unpainted area
B
Painted area
CAUTION!
Do not paint the anodes or their fastening screws.
4.3.В Bearing
The jet's bearing is very simple. There are bearings at both ends of the direct
shaft. The structure of the front bearing (figure 12, point A) is receptive to
axial pressure. It also carries the radial loads caused by the weight of the
shaft and the parts attached to it. At the rear end, a grease lubricated needle
bearing supports the shaft (figure 12, point B). A water-lubricated bushing can
also be used.
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FigureВ 12.В Bearing
4.3.1.В Lubricating the front bearing
The front bearing is oil-lubricated and the housing is secured with a
mechanical sealing. When the shaft rotates, the oil circulates through the
reservoir and impurities gather to the bottom of the reservoir on the drain
plug magnet (figure 13, point A).
FigureВ 13.В Drain plug magnet and oil return hose
A
Drain plug magnet
B
Oil reservoir return hose connection
Oil change
WARNING!
Use protective gloves while handling oil.
The front bearing oil must be changed after the first 20 hours of driving and
then after every 500 hours or once every driving season.
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Before you start changing the oil, make sure you have a container for draining
the used oil.
Changing the oil:
1.
Open the reservoir cap and stir the oil inside.
Impurities are easier to remove from the reservoir when they are mixed in
with the oil.
2.
Open the drain plug (figure 13, point A) and drain the oil into the
container.
3.
Clean the plug magnet, close the drain plug and fill the reservoir with
new oil. Oil recommendations can be found in the appendix 3. Oil
recommendations, page 39.
This prevents air from drifting into the system and ensures that lubrication
functions well from the start.
4.
Remove the reservoir return hose (figure 13, point B) and keep it below
the reservoir.
This way the oil drains out from the bearing housing and the hoses and
the system fills up with new oil. The time it takes to drain the oil depends
on how far the reservoir is from the bearing housing. The colour of the oil
indicates whether all the old oil has drained out.
5.
Attach the oil return hose to the reservoir once the system is filled with
new oil.
6.
Check the oil level from the dipstick on the reservoir cap (figure 21, point
B) .
When the shaft starts to rotate, the system generates pressure into the
return line, causing oil to start circulating in the system.
4.3.2.В Lubrication of the rear end bearing
The rear end bearing is lubricated from the engine room with petroleum jelly.
The lubrication channel runs from the engine room to the rear end bearing
housing.
An automatic lubrication unit that makes sure that the rear end bearing is
lubricated regularly is available as an accessory.
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FigureВ 14.В Automatic lubrication unit
A
Oil pressure hose from the
hydraulic cylinder
D
Grease nipple
B
Scale
E
Grease hose to the lubrication
channel
C
Piston
Feeding
You can adjust the feed as follows:
• If the automatic lubrication unit feeds too much grease (the reservoir gets
empty too soon), reduce the pressure by loosening the adjusting screw
(figure 15).
• If the automatic lubrication unit does not feed grease to the rear bearing
(cold conditions, thick grease type), increase the pressure by tightening the
adjusting screw (figure 15).
FigureВ 15.В Lubricating the Rear Bearing
The amount of grease fed to the rear bearing must be 0.1 l/100 h (6 cu in/100
h). The grease volume in the unit is 0.3 l (18 cu in). With these settings, the
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reservoir will empty in 300 hours. If you notice that the reservoir empties
slower or faster than this, adjust the pressure to the desired direction.
You can fill the reservoir by pushing grease into it with a grease gun through
the nipple (figure 14, point D). This will cause the piston to protrude out of the
reservoir.
The properties of the grease to use are described in appendix 2. Grease
recommendations, page 38.
NOTE!
Any excess grease exits the bearing housing into the water.
Only use environmentally friendly grease for lubricating the
bearing.
If there is no automatic lubrication unit installed into the system, there is a
nipple at the end of the lubrication hose, through which grease can be pumped
to the rear bearing. 0.5 dl (6 cu in) of grease should be added every 50 hrs.
4.4.В Control system
The joints and shaft bushings that belong to the control systems are essentially
maintenance-free, but lubrication prolongs their operating life. Locations
where waterproof petroleum jelly should be added during maintenance are
marked in figures 16–17. When the plastic bearings of the joints wear and
gaps are created, they must be replaced.
FigureВ 16.В Steering nozzle joints
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FigureВ 17.В Reversing deflector joints
4.5.В Seals
The only seal that needs to be checked is the inspection hatch seal (figure 18).
FigureВ 18.В Inspection hatch seal
If the inspection hatch seal leaks, it will cause ventilation or water leakage in
the engine room if the inspection hatch is inside the engine room (see Chapter
5.2. Ventilation, page 32).
CAUTION!
If water gathers in the bilge, the cause for this must be
determined immediately. Any possible leaks must be repaired
immediately. Water can damage e.g. the starter motor.
4.6.В Hydraulic reversing deflector control system
For controlling the reversing deflector, the jet has a hydraulic cylinder which is
operated mechanically with a cable. The cable (figure 19, point C) operates the
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valve regulator (point A). The cylinder gets its power from the pump which has
been integrated in the propulsion unit.
FigureВ 19.В Hydraulic cylinder
In a stock delivery, the system does not include a control lever or a cable, so
their type varies depending on the boat manufacturer. However, the different
types of systems have the following things in common:
• The operation of the deflector is always separate from the throttle and the
gearbox.
• The stroke length of the cylinder is always the same.
• The incoming direction of the cable can be chosen freely.
The oil circulating in the system must be cooled down in order to prevent
excessive heating. This is done with a heat exchanger, which is integrated into
the frame of the propulsion unit (figure 20).
WARRANTY!
If the oil in the system is not cooled, the manufacturer is not
responsible for possible damages which derive directly or
indirectly from the oil overheating.
If the valve regulator is removed, the cylinder must be readjusted. The
adjustment instructions can be found in the Repair manual.
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FigureВ 20.В Cooling system
The system must have the right amount of oil. If you need to add oil to the
system, add it in the oil reservoir through the cap (figure 21, point C). There is
a dipstick on the reservoir cap with markings for maximum and minimum oil
levels (figure 21).
FigureВ 21.В Checking the oil level
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A
Maximum level
B
Minimum level
C
Cap
Note that the oil must be changed once every driving season. The type of oil to
use is described in appendix 3. Oil recommendations, page 39.
Replacing the oil filter
The oil filter in the oil reservoir must be replaced after every 500 operating
hours.
1.
Open the six cover screws (figure 22)
FigureВ 22.В Oil reservoir cover screws
The filter is located under the cover and has a spring on top of it that
keeps the filter in place (figure 23).
FigureВ 23.В Oil filter spring
2.
Remove and replace the spring and the filter.
It is not necessary to replace the spring unless it is damaged.
3.
22
Put the cover back into place.
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Make sure that the cover seal is correctly positioned in the groove (figure
24, point A). The cover must also be positioned correctly so that the spring
is in line with its support (figure 24, point B).
FigureВ 24.В Oil reservoir cover
4.
Reattach the six cover screws (figure 22)
4.7.В Raw water cooling
Figure 20 shows a system in which the cooling water comes from the jet
(Chapter 4.7. Raw water cooling, page 23). The system can consist of
different looking components depending on the boat manufacturer. What is
essential is the correct order of the components. A system equipped with a
separate raw water intake pump has the same main components.
The jet comes complete with the possibility to connect the engine cooling
water (figure 25). The engine does not need a separate water pump. In case
the cooling water is taken with a separate pump, the jet's raw water line is
stoppered.
At the beginning of the line, there must be a tap with which the line can be
shut temporarily, such as during cleaning of the filter or other maintenance.
The raw water line requires no other separate maintenance procedures.
FigureВ 25.В Raw water cooling
1
Raw water connector
2
Tap
3
Filter
4
Input for the engine
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Operation and maintenance manual
4.8.В Impeller
Depending on driving conditions, the impeller will wear down, causing a
gap to develop between the duct wall and the tip of the impeller blade. The
gap should be as small as possible to achieve maximum efficiency. (Factory
installation gap is 0.2 mm (approx. 0.008"). When the gap expands too much,
the jet's performance decreases.
The impeller usually wears on the outer edge of the blades. The impeller
operates in a cone-shaped space and its position can be adjusted in the
direction of the shaft in accordance with the blade wear.
The longitudinal position of the impeller in the duct reveals its power demand.
The deeper the impeller sits, the less power it takes from the engine, because
the diameter of the impeller is smaller. The pitch and the length and number of
blades naturally also affect the power demand.
By adjusting the impeller, its operating life can be prolonged considerably. The
adjustment of the impeller should be done whenever it is necessary, but checks
must be carried out at least once a year. The impeller is adjusted by removing
the impeller and then reinstalling it.
4.8.1.В Checking the impeller
The condition of the front edge of the impeller blades is important. A damaged
front edge causes cavitation.
WARNING!
The impeller blade edges can be sharp and cut your hands.
Protect your hands with protective gloves before you remove
the impeller.
The front edge can be repaired by carefully hammering the marks caused
by bigger stones and grinding them smooth. The front edge must also be
sharpened, not sharp enough to cut, but so that it is no thicker than 1 mm
(approx. 0.04").
You can also return the impeller to the factory for checking and repairing.
If you suspect that there is a malfunction in the impeller, do as follows:
1.
Shut down the engine and open the inspection hatch.
2.
Check that there is no blockage in the intake duct.
3.
Check the impeller visually. Notice especially the gap between the outer
edge of the blade and the duct wall.
If there is no apparent fault, do as follows:
1.
Lift the boat out of the water.
2.
Remove the impeller (Chapter 4.8.2. Removing the impeller, page 25).
3.
Check the impeller more closely.
Contact the importer or the manufacturer if necessary and ask for
additional instructions.
24
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Maintenance
Operation and maintenance manual
4.8.2.В Removing the impeller
Before the impeller can be removed, the reversing deflector, the steering
nozzle and the stator must be removed.
Removing the impeller:
1.
Open the screws indicated by arrows in figure 26.
WARNING!
Make sure that the reversing deflector is not accidentally
lowered. This may result in serious injury!
Lower the reversing deflector past the steering nozzle. The steering nozzle
must be centred when the reversing deflector is lowered.
FigureВ 26.В Reversing deflector screws
2.
Open the six fastening screws of the stator (figure 27).
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
25
Maintenance
Operation and maintenance manual
FigureВ 27.В Stator fastening screws
There are eight screws, four of which are shown in the figure.
3.
Remove the stator, reversing deflector and steering nozzle as a complete
unit (figure 28).
FigureВ 28.В Removing the stator, reversing deflector and steering
nozzle
26
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Maintenance
Operation and maintenance manual
4.
Loosen the impeller fastening screws (figure 29, point A).
FigureВ 29.В Impeller fastening screws
5.
Remove one screw completely and screw it into the threaded hole in the
plastic mounting cone (figure 29, point B).
When you tighten the screw in the threaded hole, the fastening cone is
released and the impeller can be pulled off the shaft. If the adapter is very
tight, use multiple screws to release it.
4.8.3.В Installing the impeller
New and repaired impellers are fitted in the same way.
Installing the impeller:
1.
Attach the plastic fastening cone to the impeller hub and tighten the
screws so that they are fingertight.
Note that the place of the wedge groove is marked on the impeller hub
(figure 30).
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
27
Maintenance
Operation and maintenance manual
FigureВ 30.В Position of the wedge groove
The thrust caused by the impeller is transmitted through the adjuster
sleeve to the shaft (figure 31). The sleeve has a left-handed threading.
FigureВ 31.В Adjuster sleeve
28
2.
Screw the adjuster sleeve in counterclockwise as deep as it will go.
3.
Attach the fastening cone on to the impeller while making sure that it is in
the correct position, and tighten the screws so that they are fingertight.
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Maintenance
Operation and maintenance manual
FigureВ 32.В Wedge groove
4.
Push the impeller on to the shaft and make sure that the wedge is in place.
Gently push the impeller against the duct walls. Note that the shaft hangs
downwards due to gravity and the oil pump belt. Because of this, you must
lift the shaft slightly when pushing the impeller into place.
5.
Tighten the impeller fastening screws evenly in a crosswise sequence.
The tightening torque is 20 Nm.
While tightening, the impeller moves back slightly, which should result in
an adequate gap for the impeller blades (0.2-0.4 mm).
CAUTION!
If the gap is too big, it will cause loss of power and reduce
performance.
6.
Tighten the adjuster sleeve against the impeller by hand through the
inspection hatch.
WARNING!
If you do not tighten the sleeve, the impeller will move
forward and get stuck in the duct walls when the jet is
operated, resulting in mechanical damage.
7.
Install the stator and the steering nozzle in place in reverse order to that
when removing (Section 4.8.2. Removing the impeller, page 25).
The torque to be used is the tightening torque for M10 bolts.
4.9.В Intermediate shaft
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
29
Maintenance
Operation and maintenance manual
The intermediate shaft which is connected between the jet and the engine
usually depends on the boat manufacturer. Contact the shaft's manufacturer
for information on the maintenance of the intermediate shaft.
Regardless of the manufacturer, the alignment of the intermediate shaft must
be kept accurate. The alignment must be checked at least once every driving
season (year).
WARNING!
The intermediate shaft must absolutely be of high enough
quality and properly balanced. An intermediate shaft that has
been installed or balanced incorrectly can cause excessive
damage to the propulsion unit.
WARRANTY!
If an intermediate shaft that has been installed or balanced
incorrectly causes damage, this will not be covered by the
warranty.
30
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Problem situations
Operation and maintenance manual
5. Problem situations
5.1.В Cavitation
The most common malfunction in water jet propulsion units manifests as
cavitation. Cavitation is a phenomenon in which the water pressure decreases
locally to such an extent that water vaporises on the surface of the impeller
blade, creating steam bubbles. The bubbles move on the surface of the blade
and when they reach a higher pressure area they collapse.
Signs of cavitation are engine overdrive and stopping of thrust, and it can
often be heard as a thundering sound.
Cavitation reduces performance considerably and damages the impeller.
Any factor that hinders the flow of water in the jet increases the chance of
cavitation. Usually the cause is the reduction of pressure in the whole intake
duct caused by a blockage.
If cavitation is apparent or the boat runs slowly even though the engine runs
on high revolutions, investigate the cause.
Checking the causes for cavitation:
1.
Open the inspection hatch (figure 33).
FigureВ 33.В Opened inspection hatch
2.
Check the grass rake (figure 34).
Make sure that grass, reed, plastic, stone or some other extraneous object
is not clogging the grass rake. Remove possible blockages.
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
31
Problem situations
Operation and maintenance manual
FigureВ 34.В Checking the grass rake for blockages
3.
Check the stator or nozzle unit (figure 35).
Make sure there are no extraneous objects (such as rope or reed entangled
in the drive shaft, stones in the outlet port). Remove any possible
blockages.
FigureВ 35.В Checking the stator for blockages
4.
Check the impeller.
Make sure there are no extraneous objects and that it is not damaged. The
impeller should be smooth with no sharp cuts. Remove possible extraneous
objects and fix the impeller if it is damaged (section 4.8. Impeller, page 24).
5.
Close the inspection hatch.
6.
Tighten the inspection hatch wing screw by hand.
5.2.В Ventilation
Ventilation produces similar symptoms and sounds as cavitation (section 5.1.
Cavitation, page 31), but is caused by different reasons.
Ventilation is created when air gets into the intake duct. The air causes the
impeller to lose grip and the thrust weakens.
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KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Problem situations
Operation and maintenance manual
Ventilation can be caused by the following, for example:
• The inspection hatch cover is open or the seal is damaged.
Close the inspection hatch if it is open. Change the seal if it is damaged
(section 4.5. Seals, page 19).
• The installation height of the jet is wrong and air is allowed to pass along the
surface of the cavitation plate into the intake duct.
In this case the jet must be reinstalled. Consult the boat's retailer.
• During installation, places accordant with the instructions have not been
sealed.
In this case, the sealing must be done again. Consult the boat's retailer.
5.3.В Clogged jet
Driving among water plants or in ice sludge can clog the jet. If this happens,
the blockage can stop the boat from moving.
With these simple instructions it is possible practically without exception to
clean very difficult blockages from the jet. Unlike with other propulsion units,
in boats equipped with a jet the engine stops very rarely as a result of a water
plant blockage. However, ice sludge can clog the jet so badly that the blockage
cannot be removed without lifting the boat out of the water.
Boats equipped with a gearbox
In boats equipped with a gearbox, cleaning the jet is easy because in reverse
gear a back flow is created in the intake duct.
Cleaning the jet:
1.
Put the gear in reverse.
2.
Use some acceleration to detach the blockage.
WARNING!
The jet is designed to run in reverse only for one minute at a
time and at under 2,000 rpm. This is usually enough to clear
the blockage.
Too heavy a load in reverse gear can lead to jamming of the
impeller or breaking down of hydraulics.
Boats without a gearbox
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
33
Problem situations
Operation and maintenance manual
If the boat has no gearbox, cleaning the jet may require several phases.
Cleaning the jet:
1.
Stop the engine.
This usually helps drop any extraneous objects from the grass rake.
2.
Let the engine run on high revolutions for a few times.
This often sucks the extraneous objects through the jet and cleans it.
3.
If the boat is moving ahead, raise the speed of the boat as high as possible
and then shut down the engine.
The speed of the boat often sweeps the grass rake clean.
4.
Drive the boat in reverse as fast as possible. As the boat moves astern,
shut down the engine and move the deflector control lever in the forward
position.
This causes water to flow backwards through the jet and usually opens all
kinds of blockages.
Difficult blockages
If the aforementioned measures do not remove the blockage, you can locate
the blockage through the jet's inspection hatch and remove it manually.
Removing a blockage through the inspection hatch:
1.
Open the inspection hatch (figure 36).
FigureВ 36.В Inspection hatch
34
2.
Locate the blockage and remove it manually.
3.
Close the inspection hatch.
4.
Tighten the inspection hatch screws (4 pcs) by hand.
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Problem situations
Operation and maintenance manual
WARNING!
Do not open the inspection hatch when the engine is running.
There is a rotating shaft behind the hatch.
TIP!
Keep a long tube in the boat for removing stones or other
objects wedged between the grass rake.
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
35
Problem situations
Operation and maintenance manual
36
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Declaration of incorporation for partially completed machinery
Operation and maintenance manual
AppendixВ 1.В Declaration of incorporation for partially
completed machinery
(Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, Annex II, 1.B.)
Manufacturer:
Alamarin-Jet Oy
Tuomisentie 16
FI-62300 HГ„RMГ„
Compiler of the technical file:
Hannu Rantala, Technical Manager
Alamarin-Jet Oy
Tuomisentie 16
FI-62300 HГ„RMГ„
Description of the partially completed Water jet propulsion device
machinery:
Operation of the partially completed
machinery:
The device is intended to be used as
the propulsion device of a motor boat.
A propulsion device transforms the
torque of the motor into propulsive
force.
Model and type of the partially
completed machinery:
Jet-245
Serial number of the partially
completed machinery:
_____________________________________
Alamarin-Jet Oy guarantees that the abovementioned partially completed
machinery meets the requirements of the Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC)
and the validating national regulations.
In addition, the company guarantees that
• the specific technical documents related to the partially completed
machinery have been created according to section B of Annex VII in the
Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC), and
• the following harmonised standards are applied: SFS-EN-ISO 12100-1 and
SFS-EN-ISO 14121-1.
Alamarin-Jet Oy also undertakes to deliver the documents related to the
partially completed machinery to the relevant national authority in electronic
format if so requested.
The partially completed machinery must not be introduced to use before the
final equipment to which it is intended to be attached has been declared to
conform to the requirements of this Directive.
Place: Kauhava
_________________________________
Date and Signature
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
37
Grease recommendations
Operation and maintenance manual
AppendixВ 2.В Grease recommendations
The grease used for lubricating the propulsion unit bearing must meet the
following requirements:
• lithium soap and a thickener with EP additives
• mineral oil as a base oil
• NLGI class 2
• operating temperature range -25 to 130°C (-13–266 °F)
• continuous operating temperature min. 75 °C (167 °F)
Recommended grease brands:
• Würth Multi-Purpose Grease III
• FAG Multi2
• FAG Load 220
• Mobil XHP 222
• Neste Allrex EP2
• Shell Retinax Grease EP2
A grease that has equivalent properties to those mentioned above can also be
used for lubrication.
38
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Oil recommendations
Operation and maintenance manual
AppendixВ 3.В Oil recommendations
The operating hydraulic system of the reversing deflector and the lubrication
of the front bearing are designed to use oil that is specifically intended
for automatic transmission systems. The oil must meet the following
requirements:
2
Kinematic viscosity 40в„ѓ
33-36 mm /s
Kinematic viscosity 100В°C
7.1-7.7 mm /s
Viscosity index
min. 170
Density 15В°C
0.835–0.890 g/cm
Pour point
max. -42 в„ѓ
Flashpoint
min. 180 в„ѓ
2
3
Recommended oil brands:
• Mobil ATF 320
• FormulaShell ATF DEXRON III
• Neste ATF-X
• BP Autran DX III
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
39
Tightening torques
Operation and maintenance manual
AppendixВ 4.В Tightening torques
Use the tightening torques from the table 4 when tightening the propulsion
unit screws. The strength grade of an acid-proof A4-80 screw is equivalent to a
class 8.8 screw.
Table 4. Tightening torques of the screws
В Strength grade
В В В 8.8
10.9
12.9
Thread
Tightening torque В (Nm) (*)
В M5
5.5 (4)
8.1 (6)
9.5 (7)
M6
9.6 (7)
14 (10)
16 (12)
M8
23 (17)
34 (25)
40 (30)
M10
46 (34)
67 (49)
79 (58)
M12
79 (58)
115 (85)
135 (100)
M16
145 (107)
215 (159)
250 (184)
(*) The tightening torque in pound-feet (approximate value) is marked in the
table in parentheses after the corresponding value in Nm.
A suitable thread locking compound that is good for all purposes is one of
medium strength, for example. Loctite 242 or similar.
40
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Test report
Operation and maintenance manual
AppendixВ 5.В Test report
It is recommended that a speed test report is filled out when the boat is
commissioned. The performance of the boat can later be compared to this
report for the purpose of finding potential faults. The report template can be
found on the following page.
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
41
Test report
Operation and maintenance manual
42
KHO/245/EN/1.1.0.
Test report, Speed
В© Alamarin-Jet Oy
Customer:
Date:
Project/vessel:
ID:
Test location:
Air temperature:
В°C
Seastate:
Water temperature:
В°C
Wind:
m/s from
Jet type:
Number of units:
Impeller type:
Nozzle size:
Engine type:
Rated power:
kW
@ crankshaft [rpm]
Transmission type:
Reduction ratio:
Load condition (total weight including all)
Test 1:
kg
LCG=
m
Test 2:
kg
LCG=
m
Alamarin-Jet will treat all information supplied by you as strictly confidential.
Test 1
RPM
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
Instructions:
Speed 1
Speed 2
Test 2
Average
RPM
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
Speed 1
Weight is to be calculated including all weight on board
speed 1 and speed 2 are measured to opposite wind directions
Please return the completed form to Alamarin-Jet by post or e-mail.
Post: Alamarin-Jet Oy, Tuomisentie 16, FI-62300 HГ¤rmГ¤, Finland | E-mail: [email protected]
TR-S/EN/1.0.0
Speed 2
Average
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