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TITLi
INSTITUTION
'REPORT NO
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NOTE
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'DESCRIPTORS,
IDENTIFIERS
CE, 007.479
Firemantlaval Rate Traiang.Manuil and Nonresident
Career Course.
Naval Education and Training. Command Pensacola,
Fla.'
NAVEDXRA-10520-E
76
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*Engineering;.*Engineering TeOhniciAns; Engines;
*Equipment Maintenance; Fluid,tower Education;
Hydraulics; *Job Training; Manuals; *Occupatidnal
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*Navy
ABSTRACT.
,
The Rate Training Manual and the Nonresident Career
CoUrs0 OWNRCO-was prepared to assist the fireman apprentice to
gdalify and to advance to fireman in theNavy. The Manual is designed
foVi.ndividual study and. provides subject matter that'relates
directly
the occupational qualifications of the fireman rating.
Fireman is one of the lower ratings in the eng4sering department,
which is organized for the efficient operationiMMAntenance, and
repair.of the ship's propulsion plant, auxiliaty,Michinery, and
.piping systems. The areas covered inclmdell(1),administrative and
operational functions of the engineering departMent; (2) various laws.
t.andjAlenomena of nature related to ongineeringfundamentals; (3)
TprinciVles and types of ship propulsion; (4) areas of operation in
basic steam cycles; (5) operating principles. of boilers; (6)
components of 'the steam ;turbines and reduction gears; (7) location
°Eind'function of auxiliary machinery and equipment; (8) measurement%
instruments;-.(9) pumps, valves, and piping; (101 diffeient shipboard
elettrical eqmipment; (11) internal combustion engines.; and (12)
engineerihg watches and duties. A glossary of engineering terms and
the metric system are appended and an index is-imcluded. A series of
six assignments is provided in the NRCC to assist the student through
the training manuals (Author/BC)
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* materials,not ava lable from othersources.,ERIC makes every effort *
* to obtain the best copy available. Nevertheless, items of marginal. *
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O
JUL 0 1
FIREMAN
1976
NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING COMMAND
RATE TRAINING MANUAL
AND NONRESIDENT CAREER COURSE
NAVEDTRA 10520-E
U S OEFARTMENT OF HEALTH.
EOUCATION IL WELFARE
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
EOUCATION
THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED E RACILY AS RECEIVED FROM
THE PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGIN.
ATINr, IT POINTS Or VIEW OR OPINIONS
STA TEO DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
EOUCATION POSITION OP POLICY
1111
PREFACE
This Rate Training. Manual . arid the 'Nonresident Career Course
(RTM/NRCC) has been prepared to assist the Firemen Apprentice to qualify
and, to advance to Fireman.
Study of this training manual
be
combined with practical experience, with study and reviewshould
of other
applicable Rate Training Manuals, and with study of manufacturers'
tecloical manuals, NavShips Technical Manual, and other applicable
material.
Designed for individual study and not formal classfoom instruction; the
Cr
RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational
qualifications of the Fireman rating. The NRCC provides the usual way of
satisfying the requirements for completing the RTM, -The set of assignments
in the NRCC includes learning objectives and supporting items designed to
lead students through the RTM.
As one of the Rate Training Manuals, Flreinani and the NRCC has been
prepared by the Naval Education and Training Progam Development Center,
Pensacola, Florida, for the Chief of Naval Education and Training.
Information provided by numerous manufacturers,
publishers, and
associations is gratefullk acknowledged. Technicatiassistance
has been
provided by the Naval Sea Systems Command, Servi0 School Command,
San Diego, and the Service School Command, Great Lakds.
Stock Ordel3i ng -No.
0502-1.14, 2-6010
Revised 1976*
Published by
NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SUPPORT COMMAND
o
UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D.C.: .1916
THE UNITED STATES NAVY
'GUARDIAN OF OUR COUNTRY
The United States Navy is responsible for maintaining control of the sea
and is a 'ready force on watch at home and overseas, capable of strong
action to preserve the peace or, of instant offensive action/to Win in war.
It is upon the maintenance of this control that our country' glorious
future depends; the United States Navy exists to make it so.
WE SERVE WITH HONOR
Tradition, valor, and victory are the Navy's heritage from theigtist. T.o
these may be added dedication, discipline, and vigilance as the wathhwords
of the present and the future.
N Athome oron diStant stations we serve with'prideeconfident in the respett
our country, our shipmates, and our families.
Our responsibilities sober us; our adversities strengthen us.
Service to God and Country is our special privilege. We serve with honor.
THE FUTURE OF THE NAVY
The Navy will always employ new weapons, new techniqueS, and
grotter power to protect and defend the United'States on the sea, 'under
the Seaj and in the
Now and in the future,' control of the sea gives the United States her
greatest advantage for the maintenance of peace and for victory in war.
,
Mobility, surprise, dispersal, and offensive power are the keynotes of
the new Navy. The roots of the Nally lie u a -strong belief in the
future, in continued dedicatiorito our tasks, and In reflection on our,
heritage from the past.
Never have our opportunities and our responsibilities been greateil:
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Page
1, Prepafinglor Advancement
2. Engineering Department
1
4
IV
4
3 Engineering Fundamentals , .
'4, 'Ship Propulsion
.
.
5 Basic Steam Cycles
i
'
4
..., .
.
.
.
.
.
..
. .
{ ...f.
17
."
31
48
,
56
h Gears
72
8. Auxiliary Machinery and Equipment
88
6. Boilers
.
.
,
.
le
.
v
4 .1.
IeductioI
7. Steam Turbines and
9. InstruMents '
:
.... . . .... .
10. Pimps, Valves, and Piping
11
.. .
4
4
4
. ., .
100
116
...
. Shipboard Electiical Equipment
it ti
. .. .
.. .
, .
143
.
12. Internal Combustion Engines
13. Engineering Watch4
.
156
.
. . . .
171
APPENDIX
I, GlossaryEngineeri4 Terms
II The Metric System
177
.
1.0
INDEX
Occippational Standards
193
.
*
.
.
Noniesident CarPer Course followS Occupational St
'197
dards
....... .
'CREDITS
-
The illustrations indicated below are included in this edition of Fireman
through the courtesy of the designated . companies, Diu
associations, Permission to 'use these illustrations is gratefully ac
rs, and
owledgect
Permission to reproduce these illustrations and other materials in . this
Publication should be obtained from the source.
Figure
Source
Babcock & Wilcox Company
6-16C
Buffalo Meter CoMpany
9-16, 9-17
Cooper-Bessemer Corporation
4-12
Crane CompanY
10-15
Ciosby Valve & Gage Corripany
9-6
General Electric Company
7-14, 7-15, 1 .2, 11-3
General, Motors Corporation
12-6
Detroit Diesel Engine Division
4-13
Electro-Motive Division
4-8
James Go Biddle' Company
9-21, 9-22
Jones Motorola Company
9-20
Manning, 'Maxwell & Moore, Inc.
9-1, 9-2, 9-3, 94, 9-5
U.S, Naval 1nStitute
54, 7-5, 7-6, 7-7, 741, 7-12,
7-13, 7-16, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7,
8-8, 9-7, 9-8, 9-11, 9-12,
9-13, 9-23, 10-9, 10-16,
10-17, 10-24, 10-27,
10-28, 10-29, 10-31
5-3, 7-10, 9-19
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
1V
PREPARING FOR ADV
Study of this training manual will start yoU
on your way to earning one of the Engineering
and Hull ratings, (See fig. M.) This training
manual is one of several which will, help you
meet the technical requirements for
advancement.
As a member of the engineering department
aboard ship, you know that you are assigned to
the heart of the ship. It is through your efforts
e e ortsit f every other member ot,the
ePattment that ur ship beconies 'alive and is
le to meet its .'co mitments anywhere on the
oceans of the world,
distillin plants, and
require to perfOrm
mpressots. You will be
entive
corrective
mainte 'ante in accord
ith th -M system.
(For, ad itionalinformatio On this stem, :refer
to Base Military Acquirements, NAVEDTRA
10954-
Chapter 16.) YoU will also' stand
security and fire watches in engineering spaces,
act as boat engineer, take part in drills, and
perfo
the duties'," of damage control repair
arty te ephone-talker and messenger. . .
You .may ask yourself the question, "flovi
'am I ev r going to learn to do all these jobs?" In
'the. beginning, you Will work with the iietty
officer Who is responsible for seeing that a
specific job 'is done properly. He will show you
exactly how to perform every detail of each
operation. Then he will have You' do the job
A Fireman" is basically an engineering trainee \ under his supervision, Finally, when he has
who must perform a wide variety-ottasks. Some N.J confidence in you and your ability to do the
job, he will give you the opportunity to perform
of these tasks may seem quitennnecessatY
on your Own. This general procedure' will be
although there is a very distinct reason for the
observed thronghout your entire period as a
tasks you will be required to perform. The
RATE OF FIREMAN
reason, even though it sometimes may be
unclear, is to increase the operational ickliness
' striker,
In addition to 'meeting theie requirements,
you Will? also:' be required to have, a basic
knowledge of mathematics and. blueprint
reading. Sources of information which will be
of the ship and tb further your *ping.
Everyday throughout your Navy career, y it will
learn something new to'increase your, kno edge
and to make you more valuable to yoursel, and
useful in learning about these subjdcts are listed
later in this chapter.
to the Nail,.
You .must be able to .serve as: a competent
assistant to the petty officers holding any of the
10 ratingi-ii,.!the engineering department. (These
ratings are discussed in chapter 2 of this training
Manual.) YOu will learn to operate pumps,
motors, and turhiiies; to read gages and
thermometers; to maintain and clean eng,ines,
'machinery, and compartMentsi and to identify
,refrigeration
equipment, anchor. windlasses,
I
ADVANCEMENT AND
ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
'Before you candvalice in rate, you must
fulfill certain
.
requirements.
.
litary
and
professional
Naval requirements for advancement are,
those general standards applicable tb all enlisted
FIREMAN
MACHINERY ,
-REPAIRMAN (MR)
fr MACHINIST'S
FIREMAN
RECRUIT (FR)
"s
MATE "(MM)
BOILER
TECHNICIAN (BT)
/1111
0.
.% III 1 11
ENGINEMAN (EN)
ELECTRICIAN'S
MATE" (EM)
FIREMAN
APPRENTICE (FA)
BOILERMAKER (BR).
AIL
HULL MAINTENANCE MO
TECHNICIAN
ER (ML)'
I. G.
CTRICIAN (tC)
(HT)
4k
y.
PATTERNMAKER
FIREMAN
(PM)
(FN)
.
Y SGTAESM TECHNICIAN
(OS)
3.10
Figure il.Engineering and Hull Ratings.
a
2
Chapter' 1--PREPARING FOR
ADVAlsICENT
personnel, such as watch standing,
first aid, and
military conduct. You must
Factors or entering
show
that you are . as
additional practical fa, ors
proficient in each of the
the y'+ are ,published
naval
standards
in changes to . the
specified for the next higher
Occupational Standards Manual.
pay
grade.
These
The Record of
are discussed in
Practical Factors also
Military Requirements,
recording demonstrated provides space for
NAVEDTRA 1054-D.
proficiency in skills
which are within the general
Professional reqtiirements for advancement
but which are not identified ctf the rating
are technical standards ,,that
4 minimum
to the work of each rating. are directly related
occupational standards.
..
If you are transferred
Both the naval. ;requirements
before you
in
all
practical
and
the
factors, the NAVEDTRA quaff
professional -requirements are
1414/1 is
forwarded:
with
divided
into
subject matter gsoupi,
your service `record to
yOur nextwhich are further.
duty station,. You can
subdivided into practical.
save
yourself
a lot of
trouble by making sure that
factors. Practical factorsfactor&and
this
form
is
are thingsknowledge
actually
inserted in your service retard
that you
must be able to do. Knowledge
before.
you are
transferred. If the (Om is
factors are the
minimum things you suit know
,not in, your service
record,
you may be required tci
in order to
perform your 'duties.
,start all over
again and requalify in the
practical factors which
. have already
,The p ofessional and naval
been checked off,
discussed re listed in the requirementS just
The
Navy
has established
Manual of, NaVy
Enlisted M npowerand Personnel
certain'
requirements
'that
mpst be met before you
Classifications
and Oci.upational Standards,
eligible,
to
take the examination are
NavPers 18068-D
(with changes).:Aii&4
for
edyancement. You must
manual provided the
minimum requipments for adVancement
to each
pay de within each
First: Meet basic
rating.
requirements; such as
length of service in
:The .- , ards for Fireman
pay
grade
and
form
the
basis
for
this man al a d they were
Second: Have a statement in total service.
current at the date of
record that you satisfactorily your service
this prin g. However, the
'performed the,
standards
'change
practical factors for` the
occasion ly, and the questions
next
higher
in
pay grade.'
the
Third: Have a
advancement aminations for
statement
in
all
pay
grades
your
service
. record that you successfully
are
based on the latestlevision.
completed
the
taking manual for the
before taking an examinationConsequently, long
next
higher
for
advancement,'
level of
you should 'Cheek fOr
advancement.
revisions.' and\ assure
,, ,- Fourth:
yourself that your knowledge
Be
covers 411 the
commanding officer. recommended by your
latest standards.
.
,
A special form known as the
RECORIOF
PRACTICAL FACTORS,
is used to keep a record NAVEDTRA 1414/1,
of your
standards. The form lists all practical factor
practical factors,
both military and
professional.
As you
demonstrate your ability.
to
perform
each
practical factor, appropriate entries
are
made
in
the DATE and INITIALS
columns
by
the
divisiOn officer or your dupervisini
petty officer.
Since changes are made periodically
to the
Manual
Navy Enlisted Manpower
and
Personnel Classifications
ccupational
Standards, revised forms and
1414/1 are provided wit*. of NAVEDTRA
necessary. Extra
space is provided
441,,f
on the Record s:3f Practical
When you satisfy all of these
requirements,
are eligible to
paiticipat in the
examination.. If you pass the exa
high enough score, your command' tion with a
g officer has
, the authority to
advance you in rate.
'
you
1,
4.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The Navy has set definite
.limits on the
material for which you-are
accountable
on the
examination. The sources
from whith
examination items are taken
are listed, in the
Bibliography for Advancement,
NAVEDTRA
10052. This bibliography is
available on your
ship or station.
It is revised annually, so
he-sure
.
FIREMAN,
Sr
'-
itEWARDSOF ADyANCEMENT
edition. it provides the
to consult the current
and sections of
titles of PublicationsshOulk study when
that you
receive many
Each time you advance, youhigher
pay and
rewards. These rewards include
pension
allowances together with additional
really
But
the
benefits when you retire,
publications
publications
preparing for the examination. TI%
all,the
standards
lisfed contain material covering
An
listed in the Occupational StandarckManual.
manual
or
asterisk (*) identifies the training
before
you
can
manuals that you must complete
the examination for
be eligible to take
advancement;
learn
One of the most useful thinks your an it.
out More about
4 about a subject is how to find
inportant gainS are oppo tunities for more .
assignments,
interesting and challenging
Superiors as well as , .
your
increased respect from
supervise 'or help, and th;
from the men you,fulfillment
of your abilities.
Chance for greater
opportunity to '.
afforded
the
Above all,,, you are
,Wavy, and your
Serve your conunancl, your responsibility in a
country at a higher level of
more important job.
States Navy, you
As a men:theta:the United
knowing
that, as you
have the satisfaction of
in .a most
advance, you are serving your country all times,
important way. Do your job well at
do and hoW you do
and take pride in what you
special privilege.
it. Service to your country is a
with
You must make every endeav ?t to serve
give you all the
No single publication can
need. to know to perform your
information you
'be
which'
duties. Basic training manuals 'advancement
for
helpful to you as you .prepareofficers
will assist
are lifted below. your petty of information.
you in obtaining other sources
10085-B
Tools and Their Uses, NAVEDTRA
Sketching,
BluepriNt Reading and
'.
honor.
the Navy's
Tradition, valor, and victory areoutstanding
history of
heritage. The long
'noble
service of. the Navy
achievements and
challenge to you
provide an inspiration and a to you to help
shipmates. It is up
,
NAVPERS 10077-13
Appendix of this
The glossary section in the
another
good
source of
training manual is
to
difficult
or
information. Unfamiliar`
which has
understand engineering terminology
is
defined
in this
been use throughout this text
section.
and your
prestige and the
maintain and enlarge the ,
ii:r.1
naval service.
traditions of the
°
1
10
le
CHAPTER'2
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
,'The, engineering, ratings cover alrphases of
-operation, maintenance, and repair of maehinery
"
and equipment under the cognizance (continD
of the engineering department. To fully
understand the nature of your new assignments
department which will
concerned with the
operation and maintenance ','of' the propulsion
Plant of the repair ship or, tender, Smallephips,
because of the smaller number-of engineering
ratings abOarcl, .will Combine many ratings into a
single division,
,
as a Fireman, you must understand the
organiza
f the engineenng department and
.
Figure 2-1 shows.the organization structure
of the engineering department aboard a lar$0
be familiar with the scope, of each., Group VII
(Engineering and Hull) Rating.
In thin,, chapter we Shall discuss the
ship and the functions 011ie various divisians of
the 'department,- ,-Remember; that this
organization .does not represent a particular type
.
administrative and operational functions of the
engineering _department .and the Group
or, class of ship. It 'should 'be ,noted that the
Ratings.
administrative assistant, the department training
Officer, and the special assistants arenicles to, the
engineer officer and these' responsibilities, are
often 'assigned as ,additional duties" to officers
ORGANIZATION OF'
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,
,functioning in' other capacities at any. of the
levels in the direct chip of command.
Thethreeprincipal assistants to the engineer
officer age the .main .proprilsion assistant, the
damage, cOntror assiStanty; and the' -electrical officer.; Each, Of-;'lliest ;.'aSsiatants, '- in' 'turn,
,
The engineering department is organized forthe efficient operation, maintenance, and repair
of the ship's propulsion ,plant, . auxiliary
machinery, and-piping systems; In addition, the
engineering department is resPonsible'for (1) the
control of damage, (2) the, operation, and
Maintenance of electric ',generators and distribution Systems, (3) repair to the ship's
and (4)1or general shipboardretiairs.
The organization of the engineering
department is established by the 'slip's
Organization book,, This organization is made up
of a number Of divisionS whose functions..are
discussed laterin this chapter..
The organization of the departinent will vary
adrainisterS those' divisionS!assignedna,hrdicated,
on the Organization :chart':
,
The division, officer is -rtispansible, for the
,
Organiza "on of his division; The Watch, Quarter,
and $ta 'o
ill reflects the organization of
division by sec ores and shows ,the ,assignments
for all einergen4 d
The -billets-, asSigned
depend upon the comp Merit
;the:division
and the capability of-Personnel assn d, to the'. -
,
according to .the size of the. ship apii the
'engineering plant, Forces 'afloat,
;are
primarily concerned with repairs, ; will hive
repair department consisting of MAO of the
engineering ratinT, in addition totairienginiering
ENGINEER OFFICER
The engineer officer.'..isi, the head. Of the
'addition' to ,the,
i e,,itiOe,:eringdepartMent.,,
duties of idepartinent head, the' engineer officer
4,
'.SPECIAL ASSISTANTS,
ENGINEERING TRAINING
OFFICER
'
FIRE *ORAL..
GA$'FREE ENGINEER
4, NBC DEFENSE OFFICER
_
1
AriAGE cottrwill,
4ststAto
R DIV'
OFFICER-
, A btV
, OFFICER
ASSISTANT
.
,
.responsible
the 'Operati*,...oare;, -arts'
maintenance
'411.444)P4Isioil. ' au&
Ogehhiefyl the control :,of " damage .,'and,
accomplishment 'Of pairi:itithin AhoT'aUPiOity
TO' s Pet;ise 00' :',opera tiOn "of, cthe
,
deP4n
di4sutigioofic4,
ensuring the
:;assigned: office:spaces:A*1 'the
' cafe, rid upkeep of, office equipliente
.of 'the shops' :i',-the, eugineeFiUg
2. To
,
and ,direct the
department Ye,OUiph,,
and respon sibilities; cif the',Ogineer,'Offieci 00,
shreri
';14$,('', ostavi jZiguldtions!,` and
f%),iga#11;#1an finctRegyfrOfi fonirk(000
CL,
,
r
`
screed
I
footed_ to
,onaiteCr -6,ffitia4 and initiate
iiotiou,Whitt:upPropritite to screen and
ensure
ft
DttoAitNENt.-AitgaNOTRAilyE-
.,,,. A400
cPP`Os*Iliclance.
prep Lion 'or
epartmeilt-.0itectiyeaaM;Idlloiring,Telea*bY,'
xu
the engineer' i fficer ekiitisi'eoritrol-hveflheir
administrative
function "as 'an" ide 'to the :010k0ei,' dtkir
anddOtiel'aie,as follO*az
isskianpef..z':
de0qtiteut.'ke6i4s",i14(1,1010:',
790
.
fickler fib
1111'X.;
Chapter 24ENGINBERING DEPARTMENT
6. To coordinate the preparation of the
MAIN PROPULSION ASSISTANT
department in-port daily watch hill.
The main .propulsion 'assistant is responsible,
7. 'To assign itasks to, and evaluate the
under the engineer officer, for the operatjo$
'Performance ofclepartment Yeoman and other
enlisted personnel assigned to the department
office.
care, and maintenance of the ship's propulsion
machinery and related auxiliaries, ff4 has
cognizance Oyer the care, stowage, and use of
'fuels and lubricating oils. The preparation and.
care ..of the Engineering ,Log and Bell Batik are
the responsibility of the main propulsion
assistant, as is .the preparatiof of operation, and
maintenance records and procedures.,
°
hi an engineedng derctinent where an
administrative assistant billet is not 'provided
within the framewor of the ship'seorganization,
the engineer officer, may elegate the duties of
such a billet to
co
ten
!son.
pi-
Machinery Division
DEPARTMENT'
TRAINING. OFFICEIV
If you are assigned to the M division, you
will 'probably work in one, of the'enginerooms.
The-duties of a department training Officer
are generally performed by the engineer office/1
or an assistant to the engineer officer. Some of
these &dies are: '1"
Normally, there is one engine for each of the
ship's propellers. On ships with two or more
enginerooms, 4;,1the engineroorns are generally
located immediately aft of the firerooms which
supply theni with steam. In an emergency, any.
engineroOm can be isolated while the ship
,continues underway on the remaining engines.
I. To' develop a department yam .
program in support of -the training objective
the ship.
.
T
2. TO implement approved*Itrainini plans
And policies within the department.
The B division operate's the boilers and the
fireroom machinery. if you are
assigned to this division, your duty station may
3. To elfrrco,ordinate
and assist in the
administration, of division training programs
within the d6partment, including: (a)
supervision/of the preparation of training
materials and review of curricula, training
auxiliary
be one of the firerooms. The firerooms are
usually lb ed amidships on the lower levels.
There ma be as many as 6 or 8 firerooms,
depending n the size and type...of ship. In ships
courses, and lesson plans; (6) assist in the
and training of instructors; (c)
observation of instruction given.. at drills, on
watch, on ,station, and., in the classroom,
followed .by recomendaVons to the engineer
officer;.. (d) procurement; through the ship's
training officer, of required training aids and
selection
having more than one ffferoereach fireroom
generally has two boilers installed either facing
each other, or side by side. The boilers are so
arranged that any -number of them can be used
.
to 'supply steam to- the ship's engines. The'firerooms are separated by watertight bulkheads
so that any fireroom iliay be paled off while the
ship operates-on the remaining boileri.
On your first trip though 'the fireroom you
may wonder why there are so maim/ lines and
valves: You will become familiar with a few of
devices includinVIms, projectors, training`
courses, and books.
-
4. To maintain depk.rtvnt training record
.,and training reports.
them at a time, and by paying strict attention
you,, will gradually learn how all of them are
5. To disseminate 'information concerning
the availability of fleet and service schools.
6, To initiate requisitions for training
plies and materials, subject to the approval of
engineerRfficer.
used.
e
"i
Steam, water, fuel oil, or air may be carried
in these lines. The lines which carry steam or
water are covered by insulation and lagging for
FIREMAN
personnel' safety and to prevent heat loss and
condensation. Lines are stenciled to indicate the
fluid carried and the direction of flow.
These lines do not run through the ship at
,random, but connect the units of the systems
according to a definite plan. In the course of
your training you will trace these lines from one
unit to another throughout each system. The
'ship's blueprints and drawings are of particular
value in tracing out systems in the engineering
plant.
Repair Division
iii
The Rilivision is responsible for maintaining
.
the watertight" integrity Hof the ship, The it
division consists of the hull maintenance shops,
If you are assigned to this division you will work
in one of these shops.
All 'damage control ' and firefighting
equipment aboard ship is maintained by the R
division. Much of the training of petsonnel in
damage control is carried on by R. division
personriel,
DAMAGE CONTROL ASSISTANT
The damage control assistant is responsible,
under the engineer officer; for the prevention
and control of damage, including control of
stability, list, -and trim. Conditions of-closure,
watertight integrity, and compartment testing
are carried out under his supervision. The
damage control assistant (DCA) administe0 the
training of the ship's personnel in damage
control, firefighting, emergency. repair work and
nonmedical defensive measures against NBC
ELECTRICAL OFFICER
./
The electrical officer is responsible,. under
the engineer officer, for the operation,
maintenance, and repair of the electrical,
machinery and,systems throughout the ship. The
maintenance. of the ship's power and lighting
systems is the primary concern of the electrical
officer. Repair shops are provided on larger ships
for extensive repairs to eleCtrical equipment
attack. The hull maintenance shops and the
The IC system, under the electrical officer, is \a
part of the E division.
DCA. In these shops, all necessary repairs to the
gyrodomOasses, intercommunications, and' other
capacities, are made by' 14-assigned personnel.
engjneroonis provide electricity for power and
machine shop are under the cognizance of the
hull and the ship's b9ts, within the shop's
generators are operated by 'the
Personnel of A division operate the
refrigeration plant, air compressors,. emergency
fire pumps, emergency diesel generators, and the
ventilation, heating, and air conditioning
systems. They are the boat engineers in small
boats and maintain the ship's steering engines. If
you are assigned to this division, you may be
stationed in the auxiliary-SOces or in any other
part of the ship where the auxiliaries under A
-
The refrigeration plant, similar in many
respects to the home refrigerator preserves the
supply of fresh foods and provides ice for
general shipbOard use.. .The air compressors,
supply compressed air for pneumatic tools, for
cleaning parts of machiriery, for diesel engine air
starting systems, and for various other purposes.
The equipment assigned to the A di.v4ion is
located throughout the ship.
electrical equipment. The generators in the
light. The steam turbines. Which drive the
Auxiliary Division
-division are located.
The E diirision -has charge of generators,
. ivision: On
electric-driven ships, the E division so operates
the main, generators and main ele trio motors
which turn the ,shaft. If assigned to this division,
you 'might work in the Main motor rooms, the
enginerooms, the electric repair shop, or in the
IC rooms.
NBC DEFENSE OFFICER
i Since nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC)
defense procedures are classified and subject to
frequent modification, it is best to refer to
current OpNav Instructions for a detailed
description' of the NBC defense officer's duties..
In general, the NBC defense officer (collateral
duty of the damage control assistant) is
responsible for the training of shipboaid
personnel in defense against NBC attack. He is
also responsible tor the Iprocurement,
dis ibut ion, . maintenance of NBC defense
"
Chapter 2ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
.
addition, he must ensure
decontamination of personnel, equipment, and
4. Prepare enlisted perforniance evaluation
sheets for personnel of his division.
transportation of NBC casualties with the advice
and assistance of the medical officer.
5. Maintain a division notebook containing
personnel data, cards, training data, a space and
equipment.
In
the ship;
and
the management and
FIRE MARSHAL
The litunarshal, under the engineer officer
and the damage control assistant, is responsible
for the maintenance and readiness of the ship's
firefighting equipment. He is also responsible for
the prevention and elimination of fire hazards in
the ship.
GAS-FREE ENGINEER
officer relieving him,and for ready reference.
6. Be responsible for all forms, reports, and
correspondence originated or maintained Vi.'his
division..
7. Establish and maintain a division
organization manual and other directives which
may be necessary for the administration of his
division.
The duties and responsibilities of the gas-free
engineer are given in chapter 9920 of Nav Ships
Teel:Weal Manual. Briefly, the gas-free engineer
tests and analyzes the air in compartments or
itoids
equipment responsibility log, the watch and
battle stations to be manned, and such other
data as may be useful for the orientation of an
that have been closed and are being
opyned for inspection, to determine whether
such, spaces are safe for personnel to enter
without danger of poisoning or suffocating. He
also determines whether it is safe to perform
"hot work" (welding or cutting) within, on the
exterior boundaries, or in the way of such spaces
without danger of fire or explosion. (The person
designated as the gas-free engineer must have the
qualifications set forth by NaySeaSysCom.
DIVISION , OFFICERS
8. Ensure that, presciibed secur4measuresj
are strictly observed by personnOofitis divisien.
9. Mgice recommendations for personnel
transfers ard changes in the division allowanee
to his department head.
10. Porward requests for leave, liberty, and
special privilege and make recommendations
for their disposition.
I. Conduct periodic inspections and
exercises, and musters to evaluate the
performance and discipline of his division and to
initiate disciplinary action, when he deems it
necessary, in accordance with the Uniform Code
of Military Justice and other regulatory'
directives.
In addition to the duties as set forth in U.S.
Navy Regulations, the Sip's Organization and
Regulations. Manual generally prescribes that a
TECHNICAL ASSISTANTS
diVision officer shall:
Warrant Officer, E-8, and .E-9 personnel) vary
with the' different specialities. In. general, a,
technical assistant's duties and responsibilities
apply to the operation, maintenanee, andre,pair
of machinery, equipment, and systems under the
coknizance of the division to which the teehnical
I. Direct the operation of his division
through leading petty officers, as prescribed in
the division organization.
2. Assign personnel
to
watches and duties
within the division (develop rotation programs
for battle stations, watches, and general dutieq,
tolnesnia the training and proficiency of
assig a personnel).4
3. Ensure that division personnel receive
indoctrination, and military and professional
training.
The duties of technical assistants (1430,
assistant is asiigned.
ENLISTED PERSONNEL
In addition to the general ratings for enlisted
personnel of the engineering department, there .
are specific billets or assignments which require
FIREMAN
special Mention. Three of these billets are the oil
and water king, the movie operator, and ,the
boat engineer.
''Boat *Engineer
Firemen, Enginemen, or Machinlit's Mates
from the A division are detailed as boat
Oil and Water King
On a large ship, the billet for oil and water
king is usually divided into two billetsone for
the fuel. oil details, and the other for potable
engineers. Boat engineers °pc:rate, clean, ,iand
inspect the parts of the boats Vssig d to them,
Boat engine* repairs are under ken by
"'Enginomdn assigned to That duty,
(fresh) water and feed water,
The oil and water king is a boiler Techniciah
on steam-driven ships and is generally an
Engine ma n on' diesel-driven ships. His
responsibilities.are as follows:
.
1,
Supervising the operation of all valves of
the fuel oil system, the transfer and booster
pumps, fuel oil manifolds, fuel oil heating coils
as necessary, and the fresh Water system as
prescribed by the casualty control' bills for those
Systems.
2. Properly maintaining fuel oil service
tanks, and shifting suction among service tanks.
3. flintaining the .distribution of fuel oil
and wate so that the ship will remain on an
even keel and with proper trim.
4. Preparing fuel and water reports.
!
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
RATINGS.
After serving as a Fireman for the required
length of4.thne, you may strike for a third class
petty officer's rating, But, first; Yop must make
arrOportant decision;You may choose any of
10' ocifferent ratings. The 'decision you make will
determine largely the kind of work you will be
doing throughout 'the balance of your Navy
career.
rk
In general, Rthe tt'engineering department
ratings require ;:..art' aptitude' for things
mebhanical, a degree of
oficiency in
mathematics and physics, and sme experience
in repair Work. A knowledge of mechanical
drawing is also desirable, Rate Training Manuals
and Nonresident Career Courses covering many
spects of basic - engineering are available.
Self-reliance, ingenuitk; and resourcefulness are
particularly important to any man striking ffir
5. Testing anti recording the alkalinity,
chloride content, hardness,'nnd other properties
or -feed and boiler water, and making required
tests of fuel oil.,Detailed information concerning
such tests can be obtained from NavShips
Technical Manual, chapter 9550 for oil tests and
chapter 9560 for water tests.
6. 'Refer. to Basic Military Requirements,
_NAVEDTRA 10054-D, for information on
safety precautions to be observed .vvh to handling
fuel oil,
Movie Operator
Movie operators are generally graduates of a
Sound motion picture school or duly qualified
by competent authority. Provision is generallk
made to have a sufficient numb& of operators
to accommodate the ship's needs,
16
an engineeringrating.
`'
Schools for engineering ratings are available
to those who 'can qualify. The various 'types of
schools are covered in Basic Military
Requirements, NAVEDTRA,.l 0054-D. A list of
all schools and their requirements is given in the
Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC),
NAVEDTFtA. 10500.
The titles and job descriptions of the .various.
engineering department ratings are given in the
sections which follow.
MACHINIST'S MATE (MM)
MachinisITMates operate and maintain the
propulsibn turbines, reduction gears, condensers,
air ejectors, and such miscellaneous 'auxiliary
equipment in the engineering spaces as pumps,
air. compressors, generatots, evaporators, valves,
oil purifiers, oil and water heaters, governors,and propeller' shafts. Figure'
shoWs a
.
Chapter 2ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Machinist's Mate recording readings from an
e
orator.
ENGI EMAN (EN)
Enginemen operate and maintain power
plants used to operate, shipboard auxiliaries and
to propel boats and ships. In addition to
working with internal combustion engines
(diesel and gasoline), Enginemen must know
how to operate, maintain, and repair many kinds
of shipboard auxliary equipment.
equipment 'includes' refrigeration %and
and air
Conditioning systems, pumps, air ccompressors,
and
Figure 2-2.Machinist's Mate recording evapdator
readings.
various kinds of hydraulic equipment.:
Figure 2-43 shows an Engineman standing witch'
on a diesel engine.
139.1
Figure 2-3.Engineman standing watch on a diesel engine.
.11
k
1
139.2
FIREMAN
.1
139.3
Figure 2-4. Machinery Repairman operating a milling machine.
highest
MACHINERY REPAIRMAN (MR)
order.
Often,
in
the
absence
of
dimensional drawings or other design
inkrmation, a Machinery Repairman must
Machinery Repairmen make all types of
machine shop repairs on shipboard machinery.,-
depend upon his ingenuity and know-how to
successfully machine a repair part. Figure 2-4
shows a Machinery Repairman operating a
This wOrk requires the skillful use of lathes,
milling Machnes, boring mills, grinders, power
hacksaws, drill Oresses, and other machine tools,
as well as 'all handtools' and Measuring
instruments uSlially found in a machine shop..
The job of °restoring machinery to good working
order, ranging)gsAt does from the fabriOation of
a simple pin rr3r.1i nk to the complete rebuilding
of an intricate gear system, requires skill of the
milling machine.
BOILER 'TECHNICIAN (BT)
The Boiler Technicians operate all types of
marine boilers and firefoom machinery (pumps
and forced draft blowers). They transfer, test,
f2
Chapter 2 ENGINEERING .DEPARTMENT
Mid take soundings of fuel, and feed water tanks,
They also maintain and repair boilers, pumps,
and associated machiary. Figure 25 shows a
Boiler Technician removing an atomizer from-a
burner.
BOILERMAKER (BR)\.
Boilermakers test, maintain, and repaid
marine boilers, heat eXchangers, and associated.
equipment; inspect boilers and effect corrective
measures; perform electric arc and oxyacetylene
welding in boiler repairs; and maintain 'records
and reports.
ELECTRICIAN'S MATE (EM)
L
Electrician's
Figure
Mates
stand
watch, on
generators, motors, switchboakds, and control
equipment; operate -searchlights and other
electrical equipment; maintain and repair power
and lighting tqlrcuits, electrical fixtures, iiiotors,
.ginerators, distribution .switehboards, and other
ekttcttical equipment; test for-founds or other
casualties; and repair and,
ild electrical
%eqtiipment- in an electrical s
Figure 20
139.4
Boiler Technician removing an atomizer
from a burner.
i'df.
-c
v.
I
Figura 2-6.An Electrician's- ate taking readin s oriiiirain switchboard.
\
13
FIREMAN
/7
29.137D
Figure 2-9.A Patternmaker, sawing a pattern.
%Apr
139:6
Figure 2-7.Hull Maintenance Technician preparing
to weld.
,1--
.74-T.442.
"""A
68.124
103.70
Figure 2-8.Hull Maintenance technician removing
damaged pinks.
Figurd2-10.A MAIder finishing a core.
20
14
r.
Chapter 2ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
shows an Electrician's Mate taking readings at
the main switchboard.
INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS
ELECTRICIAN (IC)
IC Electricians maintain and' repair interior
communications (IC) systems, gyrocompass
systems, amplified voice systems, and alarm and
Hull
responsible
Maintenance Technicians
for
are
maintaining and preparing
damage control equipment and for preserving
watertight integrity, by such means as adjusting
dogs and renewing gaskets on watertight doors,
hatches, scuttles, etc. Figure 2.8 shows two Hj11I
Maintenance Technicians removing damaged
planks.
warning systems, and related equipment; and
stand IC and gyrocompass watches. (An IC
PATTERNMAKER (PM)
Electrician may be responsible for maintaining
motion picture equipment aboard ship.)
Patternmakers make wooden, plaster, and
metal patterns, and other equipment used by
Molders in a
HULL MAINTENANCE
TECHNICIAN (HT)
On 27 February 1970 the Secretary of the
Navy approved the establishment of 'the Hull
Maintenance Technician (HT) general rating and
the attendant disestablishment of the Shipfitters
general rating (and included service ratings), and
the Damage Controlman general rating.
Hull Maintenance Technicians (HT) plan,
supervise,
Navy foundry. They mount
patterns on match plates and on follow boards
for production. molding. Pattern
ers make
master patterns; make' full scale
outs of
wooden patterns, core boxes, and tem fates; and
index and store patterns. Figure 2-9 illustrates a
1
Patternmaker sawing a pattern.
MOLDER (ML)
Molders operate foundries aboard ship and
and perform tasks necessary for
fabrication, installation and repair of all types of
structures shipboard and shore-based plumbing
and piping systems, qualify in the techniques,
skills and use of damage control and firefighting
equipment, carpentry, nuclear; biological and
chemical (NBC) defense; perform tasks in the
field of shipboard damage control NBC defense
and firefighting; organize, supervise and train
personnel in maintenance repair, NBC defense
and damage control duties. Figure 2-7 shows an
HT prfparing to weld two pieces of angle iron
t ogether.
at shore stations; make molds and cores, rig
flasks, prepare heats, and pour castings .of
ferrous, nonferrous, and alloy metals; shake out
and clean castings; and pour bearings. Figure
2-10 illustrates a Molder finishing a core.
OTHER RATINGS
j In addition to the Group VII Engineering
and Hull Ratings, you will be required to know
some of the other ratings in the Navy. Figure
2-11 gives you a chart of the Navy Ratings.
21
15
FIREMAN
*
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RD
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yr.
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FT
FIR! CONTROL TEHC/410AM
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OT
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yT
NM
TM
TORPEDOsuur S MATIE
MISSILE TECHNICIAN
GROUP
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DS
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.
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GROUP VI
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V
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TECHNICIAN
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LI
DM
MU
ILLUSTRATOR DRAFTSMAN
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GROUP VII
ESIGRIEERING
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DA! TuRoINE
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GROUP VIII
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ED
AID
AT
AVIATION
LECTRCNICS
CHNICIAN
AO
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AZ
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AG
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-4 -044GROUP If
AVIATION
EM
I ELECTRICIAN'S MATE
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ENGINEERING
AVIATION
MACHINIST'S
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!virtu tECHrocIAN
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22
Figure2-11.Specialty
arks for enlisted ratings.
16
0
3.10
-
CHAPTER 3
ENGINEERING F
DAMENTALS
s chapter is designed to acquaint you
with v. ous laws and phenomena of nature.
with which the object is attracted to the earth.
Inertia is that physical property whichcauses
Included is information pertaining to matter and
energy, force and motion, heat and temperature,
pressure, combustion, the laws of perfect gases,
and some fundamental information about
Metals. The information provided here is general
in nature; but it has been included to give you a
better understanding of how or why engineering
machinery operates or produces work. As you
study this chapter, remember that anything that
occupies space and has weight is called
MATTER.
objects that are at rest to remain at rest, unless
they are acted upon by some external force; and
which causes objects moving at a constant
velocity to continue moving at this constant
velocity, and in the same direction, until acted
upon by some external force.
FORCE
Force is what makes an object start to move,
or speed up, or slow down; or keep moving
against resistance. This foite may be either a
push or a pull. You exert a force when yOu pdsh
against a truck, whether you movethe truck, or
only try to move it. You also exert a force when
you pull on a heavy piano, whether you move
PHYSICS
Tlie forces of physics and the laws of nature
are at work in every single piece of machinery or
equipment aboard ship. It is by these forces and
laws that the machinery and equipment produce
work.
the piano, or only try to move it. Forces
produce or prevent motion, or have a tendency
to do so.
A tendency . to prpvent motion is the
frictional resistance offered by an object. This
frictional resistance is called frictional force.
While it can never cause an object to move, it
can check or stop motion. Frictional force
Wastes power, creates heat, and causes wear.
Although frictional force cannot be entirely
eliminated, it can be reduced with lubricants.
MASS, WEIGHT, AND INERTIA
The physical principles of mass and inertia
are involved in the design and operation of the
heat/ 'flywheels and bull gears that are at work
in the ship's engineering plant. the great mass of
the wheel tends to keep it rotating once it has
been set in motion. The high inertia of the wheel
keeps it from responding to small fluctuations in
speed and thus helps to keep the engine running
smoothly.
The mass and the weight of an object are not
the same. The mass of an object is the quantity
of matter which the object contains. The weight
of the object is equal to the gravitational force
SPEED, VELOCITY,
AND ACCELERATION
Speed is defined as the distance covered per
un't of time. Velocity is speed in a certain,
dir ction: Acceleration, is the rate at which
vel city changes. If, for example, the propeller
shaft rate of rotation increases from stop to 100
17
23
FIREMAN
Stored energy
revolutions1 per minute (rpm) in 20 minutes, the
acceleration is 5 rpm. In other words, the
velocity has increased 5 revolutions per minute,
is energy
that is actually
contained within or stored within an object.
deceleration is obtained when the decrease in
There are two kinds of stored energy: potential
energy and kinetic energy. Potential energy is
energy within an 'object waiting to be released;
while kinetic energy is energy that has, been
released. For example, potential energy exists
within a rock resting on the edge of a cliff, water
behind a dam, or steam behind a turbine throttle
velocity is the same each second or minute.
valve.
during each minute, for a total period of 20
minutes. A body with uniforth mdtion has no
accelerativ. When the velocity of an object'
changes by the same amount each second or
minute, you have uniform acceleration. Uniform
Kinetic energy exists because of the relative
velocities of two ocmore objects. If you puslre*,,
the rock, open the gate bf the dam, or open the
ENERGY
Energy may be described as the ability to do
work. In the physical sense, work is doge when a
turbine throttle valve, something will move. The
rock will fall, the water will flow, and the steam
will jet through the turbine nozzle valves. Thus
the potential energy is converted to kinetic
energy.
force acts on matter and moves it. We use heat
energy tq turn a steam turbine and electric
energy to drive motors. The mechanical energy
of the pistons
in an automobile engine is
transmitted to the wheels. by the crankshaft,
Energy in transistion exists when the rock
hits the ground, the water hits the bottom of the
dam of the paddles of a water wheel, or when
the steam hits the blades of the turbine rotor.
transmission, drive shaft, differential gears and
rear 'axles. Nuclear energy is used to generate
electric power and to drive naval ships.
Perhaps the most common definition of
energy is "the capacity for doing work."
In the examples just discussed, an external
souce of energy was used to get things started.
External energy was used to push the rock, to
HoWever, this is not quite a complete statement
because energy can produce other effects which
could not be considered as work. For example,
open the gate of the dam, or to open the
throttle valve. Thus, you see that one energy
heat can flow from one object to another
without`doing any work; yet heat is a form of
system affects another energy system. There is a
tremendous amount of chemical energy stored
in fuel oil; but it will not raise the steam in the
boiler until some external energy has been
expended to start the oil burning.
eliergy and the process of heat transfer produces
an effect. Therefore, a 'better definition of
energy is "the capacity for producing an effect.".
Energy is normally classified according to
the size and nature of the objects or particles
with which it is associated. "So we say that
mechanical energy is the energy associated with
large objectsusually things that are big enough
Energytati be measured. The most common
measurement of expended energy is in work
units of foot-pounds. When an object has been
moved through a resisting force. work has been
to seesuch as pumps and turbines. Thermal
done.
energy is energy associated with molecules.
Chemical energy is energy that arises from the
forces which bind the *atoms together in a
molecule. Chemical energy is released whenever
combustion or any other chemical reaction takes
place. Electrical energy, light waves, and radio
waves are examples of energy that are associated
with
WORK
The turbines and other Power e pment
used aboard ship are important because they do
work. Work is defined as the result of force
Toying through distance. The unit of ineasure
particles smaller than atoms. Nuclear
energy is obtained by splitting the atoms. Each
of these types of energy (mechanical, thermal,
etc.) must also be classified as either (1) stored
energy, or (2) energy in transition.
-2
4
18
for work is the FOOT-POUND (ft -lb). The two
parts of this unit are the, POUND OF _FORCE
and the FOOT OF DISTANCE.
Force is measured in pounds. The
gravitational pull on an object weighing I pound
Chapter 3ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
is a force. of 1 pound. If you lift a 1-pound
weight from ground level to a height of 1 foot,
you exert a force of 1 pound thrOugh a distance
of 1 foot, and you have done 1 foot-pound of
work in the process...A force of 100 pounds is
required to raise a 100-pound anvil; if you lift it
to the top of a 30-inch bench, the work you
have done is 2 1/2 ft x 100111= 250 ft-lb. Work
(in foot-pounds), thdrefore, equals the. force (in
pounds) times the distance (in feet).
a weight of 100 pounds at the rate of 250 ft-lbper/second, the machine is exerting only 0.454,
horsepower (250 ft-lb 4. 550 ft-lb = 0.454 ltp).
If crane hoists 2,000 pounpls of ,cargo to
height of 30 feet in 5 seconds, how much
horsepower is developed? Here is how to get the
answer:
Power = work
time
Now, suppose you want to move a 60-pound
anvil across the deck without lifting it, It will
take a considerable force to slide, the anvil. If
you slide it 10 feet, you do 600 foot-pounds of
work. Here the force of 60 pounds is required to
overcome the resistingforce of friction between
the anvil and the deck. A great deal of the work
done by any machine is the Overcoming of many
frictional forces which resist the motion of the
parts.
=
Horsepower
5 sec
12t000rft-1b per sec
12000 ft-lb per sec
550 ft-lb per sec
21.8
Or suppose a turbine has .a known
horsepower of 37,500 at rated capacity, and you
want to know hovt; much work it does. You find
out by multiplying the developed horsepower by -
the hours in
POWER
2,000 lb X30 ft
operation. This gives
HORSEPOVVER-HOURS, which is a measure of
work for main propulsion machinery,
The, ship's main engines, boilers, main
reduction gear, main shaft, and propellers are
frequently called the POWER PLANT; and they
are commonly rated according to how much
power they can develop. For example, it might
take one man 10 hours to load 20,000 pounds
of ammunition on a truck, whereas a crane
LAWS OF GASES
The energy transformation of major interest
shipboard engineering plant is the
transformation from heat to work. To see how
this transformation occurs, we need to consider
the pressure, temperature, anll volume
relationships which hold ture for gases. In the
middle of the 17th century, Robert Boyle, an
English scientist, made some interesting
discoveries concerning the relationship between
the pressure, the temperature, antithe volume of
gasps.
1787, ,facqties Charles, a. Frenchman,
proved that all gases ioxpand the same amount
when heated one degred. if the pressure is kept
constant. The 'relationships that these two men
in the
could do the. same job in 5 minutes. The amount
of work done is the same, but the crane is much
more powerful than the man. It can do the work
faster. Power, then relates to work and time; it is
the time rate. of doing work. If we assume that
the ammunition is raised an average height' of 6.
feet, the work done is equal to 6 ft x 20,000 lb
or 120,000 ft-lb. Considering the man also as a
machin6, the power of each of the two machines
if found by dividing this amount of work by the
time required in each case. Expressing 10 hours
In
discovered are summarized as follows:
in minutes, the man would work at the rate of
120,000 ft-lb- + 600 mil]. = 200 ft-lb per min.
The computed power of the crane would be
120,000 ft-lb ÷ 5 min..; 24,000 ft-lb per miner
1. tWhen the temperature is held constant).
an increase in the pressure on a gas causesproportional decrease in volume, A decrease in
the prewiire causes a proportional increase in
400 ft-lb per sec.
The most common unit of power is known
the HORSEPOWER. One horsepower is
equivalent to 550 ft-lb per second, or 33,000
volume.
as
2. When the pressure is held constant, an
increase in the temperature 'of a gas, causes\a
ft-lb per ,minute. Thus, if a lifting machine miles
19
RENIAN
Gage Presiuri
prdtortional increase in volume. A decrease in,
the 'temperature, causes a proportional decrease
Gage pressure IS the pressure actually shown
on the dial of a gage w14ich registers pressures at
or above_ atmospheric pressure, Gage pr, ssure is
actually shown in 'pounds Ilbr scittare inc (psi);
'-'1
3. When the volume is held constant, an
in volumik,
'
increase in the ,temperature of a gas causes
proportional incre.aselin pressure. A -decrease n
the temperature causes a proportional decre e
in pressure.
,1 but it may be shown jn ,inches Pof water,
Suppose we have a boiler in which steam has
,column -*water in a Ultube will be displaced
inch by the pressure being mdasured. Similarly, a
gage pressure reading of 12 inches of mercury
means that the measured pressUre is atqe to
mercury, or other lig*, A reading of 1 inch oftwater means that the exerted preiltire is able to
support a _column of,w1ter l'inclk high, or that. a
just begun to form. With the steam stop valves
still closed, the Irolume of the steam remains
constant while the pressure and the temperature
are both increasing. When operating pressure is
reached and the steam stop valves are op-ined,
the high pressure of the steam causes the steam
to flow to the turbines. The pressure `61
support a column of mercury 12 inches bth.
Gages are calibrated in inches of water when
they are to be used for measuring very low..
pressures. Inches of mercury may be used when
the range of pressures to be measured is
so ewhat higher, since mercury is
approximately 14 times heavier than water.
steam thus provides the Rprential for do
work; the. actual conversion of heat to wo
done in the turbines.
IS
O
Note that a gage pressure reading of zero
PRESSURE AND VACUUM
means that the pressure being measured is
exactly the same as the existing atmospheric
Because pressure is very' imRortant to the"
pressure. A gage reading of 50 psi means that the
necessiry that you
engineering plant,
between gage
rela*nships
the
understand
atmospheric
pressure,
vacuum, and
pressure,
absolute pressure. These ' relationships are
indicated in figure 3-1.
pressure being measured is 50 psi IN EXCESS
OF the existing atmos erie ptesss0 ure.
7
Atmospheric Pressure
the pressu e
t
atmosphere, is. Measured with a EAROMETE
(fig. 3-2), A bar9meter is sirriilar td a manornete
tube
- s (see chapter 9), excetit that the indicating
.
45.
is sealed at the top, A:barometer may be made
by filling a tube' with mercury And then inverting
it 'so at the open, end rests in "a container of
which is open to 'the atmosphere.
tiler
absense ofpressure at the closed end of tie tube
permits atmospheric pressure, acting upon the
surface of the mercury in the oDen container, to,
hold the mercury in the tube at a height which
corregponds to the pressure being exerted.
AhriOspheric
A 11.1.).WHMG HRE5St1RE14.7 PSI ABSOLUTE, OR
30 INCHES OF MERCURY ABSOLUTE.
OR ZERO GAGE PRESSURE,
OR ZERO VACUUM
30 INCHES
OF MERCURY
pressure,' or
exerted iby the weight of the air
PSI OR INCHES OF MERCURY'.
Normally, at sea level atmospheric...pressure
will hold the colunln df mercury at a ,hefght of
1318
approximitOpyy 30ches. Since a ,column of
Figure 3,tRelaticinships between vacuum, gage
pressure, absolute'pressure, and atmospheric pressurk
mercury 1 itibh high exerts a pressure -of 0.49
0
I
pounds per square inch a 30-inch column of
O
,
>.
I
\t,
el Chapter 3ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
pressure; in order1to make prigise measurements
of gage pressure or vacuum.
32
HEIGHT OF
31
MERCURY
COLUMN IS
30
READ HERE
29
Vacuum
A spac-e in which. the pressure is less than
atmospheric pressures said to be under vacuum.
The amount of vact Wn is expressed in terms of
the difference between the pressure in the space
and the existing "atmospheric pressure. Vacuum
is measured i inches of mercurythat is, t11r.,
28
number of . inchq a column of mercury in a
tube will be displaced by a pressure equal to
the .difference between the pressure in the
v cuum space and the.,, existing atmospheric
ressure.
Vacuum gage scales are marked from 0 to
30. When a vacuum gage.reads ,zero, the pressure
in the space is the same as the existing
atmospheric jireatirecor, in other words, there
t.
ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
FORCES COLUMN
is no vAtutTh. A vacuum gage reading of 30
inches of mercury indicates a nearly perfect
vacuum. In actual practice, it is impossible to
OF MERCURY
UP INTO TUBE
obtain a perfect vacuum; and the highest
vacuum gage readings are seldom over 29 inches
of mercury.
Absolute Pressure
Absolute pressure is atmospheric pressure
plus gage pressure, or atmospheric pressure
minus vacuum. For example, if gage pressure is
300 psi, absolute pressure is 314.7 psi; or if the
measured vacuum is 10 inches of mercury,
absolute pressure is approximately \ 20 inches of
69.86
figure 3-2.Operating prinCiple of mercurial barometer.
mercury exerts a pressure which is equal to (30.
x 0.49) 14.7 pounds per square inch. Thus, we
can say that atmospheric pressure (zero gage
pressurg) at sea level is 14.7 psi, or 14.7 pounds
per square inch absolute(psia) Notice, however,
that 14.7 psi is the STANDARkfor atmospheric
pressure. Since fluctuations from this standard
are shown on the barometer, the term
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE is used to describe
the atmoshperic pressure which exists at any
given moment. As a rule, you can use the term
mercury. It is important to note ..that\ the
amount of pressure in a space under vacuum can
be expressed only in terms of absolute pressure.
Sometimes it is necessary to convert a
reading from inches of mercury to pounds per
square inch. figure 3-1 gives you all the
information you need to make this conversion.
Since atmospheric pressure is equal to 14.7 psi
of to 30 inches of mercury, it is easy to see that
inch of mercury is equal to (14.7 psi i- 30)
0.49. Now convert your gage reading to absolute
pressure (in inches of mercury) s and then
multiply this figure by 0.49 psi. FOr ex mple to
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE and the value 14.7.
psi in place of the actual barometric pressure;
but there may be times when it will be
important to know the actual (barometric)
21
27
1?,
FIREMAN
weighs 0.433, pounds, you subtract 0.433 psi
from the gage reading for each fobt of drop.
(CAUTION: The weight of each liquid is
different, id must be determined before you
convert a vacuum gage reading of 14 inches, of
mercury to psi, you _would proceed as follops:
Convert 14 inches of mercury vacuum to
pressure. Absolute pressure is
atmospheric pressure minus vacuum (30 inches 14 inches = 16 inches).
1.
absolute
is correction.)
can make
For example, to correct a pressure gage
reading for a pressure head of water, assume that
a steam pressure gage is connected 10 feet below
the steam line. The steam cools and condenses in
the gage connection line, filling the connection
line with water. The uncorrected gage reading is
2. Multiply the absolute ,pressure in inches
of mercury by 0.49. Since 1 irith of mercury is
equal to 0.49 psi, 16 inches of mercury is equal
to 16 x 0.49 psi) 7.8 psi (approximately 8 psi).
ember that this answer is in terms of
lute pressure.
fir
250 psi. Multiply, 0.433 psi by 10, and then
subtract the resulting figure from 250 psi:
As you can see, it is also easy to convert psi
Since atmospheric
pressure is equal to 14.7 psi or to 30 inches of
mercury, 1 psi is equal to (30 inches of mercury
÷ 14.7) 2.04 inches of mercury. For example, 10
0.433 psi x 10 = 4.33 psi.
(2) 250 psi - 4.33 psi = 245.67 psi.
(1)
to inches of mercury.
Thus the true pressure in the steam line is
psi absolute is equal to (10 x 2.04 inches of
245.67; or approximately 246 psi.
mercury) 20.4 inches of mercury absolute.
It is sometimes necessary to connect a water
pressure gage at some distance above the point
at which the pressure is being measured; then
the_reading on the gage will show the pressure
being measured minus the pressure required to
support We column of water up to the gage. To
correct the reading you must add the weight of
In order to interpret the reading, on a
pressure gage, you must know the location of
the gage in relation to the line in which the
pressure is being measured. As a general rule,
pressure gage connections are led from the top
of the pressure line. Ckcasionally, however, it is
necessary
the column of waterthat is, yotr must add
to locate a pressure gage at some
distance below the pipe; then the reading on the
gage will indicate the pressure being measured
0.433 psi to the gage reading for eabh foot of
plus thpressure exerted by the.weight of the
For example, assume that a water pressure
gage is connected 5 feet above the point at
which the pressure is being measured. The gage
reading is 30 psi. To obtain the actual pressure
at the point of measurement, you must add (5 x
0.433 psi) 2.17 psi to the gage reading. Thus the
rise.
column of liquid above the gage. The required
correction should be made in calibration of the
gage. If the correction has not been made in
calibration, it must be made in the
interpretation of the gage reading.
a
actual pressure is 32.17 psi.
Correction fO'r a head of liquid should be
made as follows:
1.
PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS
Measure the vertical distance from the
center of the gage to the line in which the
The word hydraulics is derived from the
Greek word for water (hyd6r) plus the Greek
pressure is being, measured.
2. For each foot of the distance measured,
subtract from themgage reading the weight of a
column of liquid l'foot high and ;,.1 inch square
in cross section. If you are measuring pressure
on a steemfor-wffter line, you must correct for a
pressure head of water. Since a column of water
foot high and 1 inch square in cross section
1
word for a reed instrument like an oboe (autos).
The term "hydraulics" originally covered the
study of the physical behavior of water at rest
and in motion. However, the meaning of
hydraulics has been broadened to covet the
physical behavior of all liquids, including the oils
that are used in present day hydraulic systems.
22
28
(;#
Chapter 3ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
FORCE 1
e 100 LBS.
FORCE 2 = 100 LBS.
/
Figura 3-3.Principlo of mochapicol hydraulics.
During the period before World War I, the
Navy began to apply hydraulics extensively to
naval mechanisms. Since that time, naval
applications have increased to the extent that
many ingenious hydraulic devices are used in the
solution of problems of gunnery, navigation, and
aeronautics. Aboard s ip today the applications
of hydraulics include a chor windlasses, power
cranes, steering gear, r mote controls, power
drives for the elevation
guns and training of
mounts and turrets, po der and projectile
hoists, recoil systems, gun rammers, and airplane
catapults.
in every direction. Water will leave the hose at
the same velocity, through leaks, regardless of
where the leaks are in the hose.
Let us now consider the effect of Pascal's
law in 'the system shown in figure 3-3. If the
force at piston A is 100 pourids and the area of
the piston is 10 square inches, then the pressure
in the liquid must be 10 pounds per square inch
(psi). This pressure is transmitted to piston Bso
that for every square inch of its area, piston B
will
This pressure acts at eight angles to the
containing surfaces.
When we apply a force to the end of
confined
liquid,
the
force
be pushed upward with a force of 10
pounds:- In this example we are merely
considering a liquid column of equal cross
section so that the areas of the pistons\are equal.
All we have done is to carry a 100-pound force
around a bend; however, the principle illustrated
is the basis for practically all mechanical
hydraulics.
The foundation for modern hydraulics began
in 1653 when Pascal discovered that "pressure
set up in a liquid acts equally in all directions."
column of
5.181
a
is
The same principle may be applied where
the input piston is much smaller than the output
pigton or vice versa. Assume that the area of the
input piston is 2 square inches and the area of
transmitted not only straight through to the
other end, but also equally in every direction
throughout the columnforward, backward, and
sidewaysso that the containing vessel is
literally filled with pressure. This is the reason
that a flat firehose takes on a circular cross
section when it iS filled with water under
pressure. The outward push of the water is equal
the output piston is 20 square inches. If you
apply a pressure of 20 pounds to the smaller
piston, the pressure created in the liquid will
again be I0 pounds per square inch because the
force is concentrated on a smaller area. The
upwatd force on the larger piston will be 200
23
29
FIREMAN
ds for each of its 20 square
they are no the same. Water from a water main
inches. Thus yo can see that iftwo pistons are
used in a hydraulic system, the Torce acting on
feels cool until it has been over a fire a few
minutes. It evidently must have received
pounds 10 po
something (from the fire. If you place two
pennies together, one of which was heated by
each piston will be directly prOportional to its
area, and the magnitude of each force will be the
piston.
being held in the flame of a match, in a short
time the tWo pennies will be equally warm.
PRINCIPLES OF PNEUMATICS
Again, something passed into the cooler object
and made it hot. That something is called heat.
product of the pressure and the area of the
Pneumatics is that branch of Mechanics that
deals with the mechanical properties of gases.
Perhaps the most common application of these
properties, used in the Navy today, is the use of
compressed air. Compressed air is used to
Many forms of mechanical action also'
produce considerable quantities of heat. For
example, you rub your hands together to warm
them when they are cold. Matches are ignited by
rubbing them on
transmit
pressure, according to Pascal's
principle, in a variety of applications. For
example, in tires and air-cushioned springs,
of a nail is heated when the nail is driven into
wood.
large
contribute greatly to the safety of
railroad and truck transportation. In the Navy,
compressed air is used in numerous ways. For
example, tools such as riveting hammers and
The molecules in the nail (as in all matter)
are in continual motion. The blow on the nail
pneumatic drills are air ozerated. Automatic
hammer and vibrate with greater violence. The
trucks
pi
rough surface. A Hull
piece of metal after hammering it; and the head
compressed air acts as" a .cushion to absorb
shock. Air brakes on locomotives an
a
Maintenance Technician can notice heat in a
increases the molecular motion. late molecules
in the top layer receive the impulse from the
vibration and energy of motion is
passed on\ to layer after layer of molecules.
combustion control systemslitilize compressed
air for the operation of the instruments.
Compressed air is also used in diving bells and
increased
Thus, the effect produced by the blow is a
general increase in the motion of the molecules.
This energy of molecular motion is called heat.
diving suits. Perhaps a brief discussion on the use
of compressed air as an aid in the control of
submarines will best explain the theory of
Because molecules are constantly in motion,
pneumatics.
they exert a pressure on the walls of the pipe,
boiler, cylinder, or other object in which they
Submarines are designed with a number of
tanks that may be used for the control of the
ship. These tanks are flooded with water to
are contained. Also, the temperature of any
substance arises from and is directly
proportional to the activity of the\ molecules.
submerge; or they are filled with compressed air
to surface.
The compressed air for the pneumatic
system is maintained in storage tanks (called
banks) at a pressure. of 4,500 psi. During
surfacing the pneumatic system delivers
compreSsed air to the desired control tanks.
Since the pressure of the air is greater than the
pressure of the water, the Water is forced out of
Therefore, every time you read theh'nometers
and pressure gages you are finding out
something about the amount of internal energy
contained in the substance. !High pressures and
temperatures indicate that the molecules are
moving rapidly and that the substance therefore
has,a lot of internal energy.
the tank. As a result, the weight of the ship
Heat is a more familiar term that internal
energy!, yet one that may actually be more
difficult to define correctly. The important
decreases; it becomes more buoyant, and thus
tends to rise to the surface.
thing to remember is that HEAT IS THERMAL
HEAT
ENERGY IN TRANSITIONthat
theimal energy that is moving
substance orsystem to another.
You undoubtedly know from experience
that heat and temperatifit are related; however,
24
30
is,
it
is
from one
Chapter 3ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
An example will help to b illustrate the
difference between heat and internal energy.
Suppose there are two equal lengths of pipe,
substance to another is normally reflected in a
temperature change in each substancethe
hotter substance becomes cooler, the cooler
substance bedomes hotter. However, the flow of
heat is not reflected in a temperature change In a
substance which is in the process of chatigink.,.
from one physical state (solid, liquid, or gas) to
another. When the flow of heat is reflected in a
temperature change, we say that SENSIBLE
HEAT has been added to or removed from thesubstance. When the flow of heat is not reflected
in a temperature change bnt is reflected in the
changing physical state of a substance, we say
made of identical materials and containing steam
at the same pressure and temperature. One pipe
iS well insulated, the other is not insulated at all.
From everyday experience you know that more
heat will flow from the uninsulated pipe thari
from the insulated pipe. When the two pipes are
first filled with steam, the steam in one pipe
contains exactly as much internal energy as the
steam in the- other pipe. We know this is true
because the two pipes contain equal volumes of
steam at the same pressure and at the same
that LATENT HEAT has been added or
temperature. After a few minutes, the steam in
the uninsulated pipe will contain much less
internal energy than the steam in the insulated
ipe, as we can tell by measuring the pressure
nd the temperature of the steam in each pipe.
hat has happened? Stored thermal
energyinternal energyha Toyed from one
place to another, first from the steam to the
pipe, then from the uninsulated pipe to the air.
removed.
Does anything bother you in this last
paragraph? It should. Here we are talking about
sensible heat and Tatcn$ heat as though we had
two different kinds of heat to consider. As
noted before, this is common (if inaccurate)
engineering language. So keep the following
points clearly in mind: (1) `heat is the flow Of
thirmal energy; (2) when we talk about adding
and removing -heat, we mean that we are
The MOVEMENT or FLOW of thermal energy is
what should be called heat.
Units of Measurement
Both internal energy and heat are" usually
measured using the unit called the B ITISH
THERMAL UNIT. (Btu). For most p cticif?
engineering purposes, I Btu is defined as the
amount of,-thermal energy required to raise the
temperature of I pound of water 1 °F.
providing temperature differentials so that
thermal energy can flow f ?om one substance to
another; and (3) when we talk about sensible
heat and latent heat, we are talking about two
different kinds of EFFECTS that can be
produced by heat, but not about two different
kinds of heat.
The three basic physical states of all matter
are SOLID, LIQUID, and GAS (or vapor). The'
physical state of a substance is closely related to
the distance between molecules. As a general
rule, the molecules are closest together in solids,
farther apart in liquids, and farthest apart in
gases. When the flow of heat to a- substance is
not reflected in a temperature change, we know
that the energy is being used to increase the
distance between the molecules of the substance
and thus to change it from a solid to a liquid or
from liquid to a gas. You might say that latent
heat is the energy price that must be paid for a
change of state from solid to liquid or from
liquid to gas. The energy is not lost; rather, it is
stored in the substance as internal energy. The
energy price is repaid, so to speak, when the
substance changes back from' gas .to liquid or
from liquid to solid, since heat flows from the
substance during these changes of state.
When large amounts of thermal energy are
involved, it is usually more convenient to use
multiples of the Btu. For example.. 1 kBtu is
equal to '1,000 Btu, and' I mint], is eqifial to
1,000,000 Btu.
Another unit in which thermal energy may
e measured is the CALORIE, the amount of
eat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram
of water 1° C. One Btu equals 252 calories.
Sensible Heat and Latent Heat
Sensible heat and latent heat are terms often
used to indicate the effect that the flow of heat
has on a substance. The flow of heat from one
25
31
FIREMAN
LATENT
SENSIBLE HEAT,OF
\ HEAT FUSION
LATENT HEAT
OF VAPORIZATIAN
(OR LATENT HEAT
SENSIBLE
HEAT
SENSIBLE
HEAT
OF CONDENSATION)
300°
SUPERHEATINGy
/1\
WATER
BOILING
212°
200°
doo-STEAM
CONDENSING
STEAM
COOLING '
100°
ICE
WARMING
32°
I
ICE
MELTING
WATER
ICE
COOLING
FREEZING
0
16
144.
970
7
BTU PER POUND OF WATER
180,
44
38.1
Figure 3.4. Relationship between sensible heat and Talent heat for water at atmoshperic pressure.
change in temperature while the ice ,is melting.
After all the ice has melted, however, the
Figure 3-4 shows the relationship between
sensible heat and latent heat for one surance,
water, at atmospheric pressure. (ThV'same kind
of chart could be drawn for other substances;
however, different amounts of thermal energy
temperature of the water will be raised as
additional heat is supplied. If we add 180
Btu ti. at is,
1
Btu
fot each degree of
would be involved in the changes of state.)
temperature between 32° F and 212° Fthe
If we start with 1 pound of ice at 0° F, we
must add 16 Btu to rasie the temperature of the
ice to 32° F. We call this adding sensible heat.
To change the pound of ice at 32° F to a pound
of water at 32° F, we must add 144 Btu (the
add 970 Btu (the LATENT HEAT OF
VAPORIZATION). After all the water has been
temperature of the water will be raised to the
boiling point. To change the pound of 'water at
242° F t9 a pound of steam at 212° p, we must
LATENT HEAT OF FUSION). There will be no
32
26
converted to steam the addition of more heat
,
Chapter 3 ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
will cause an increase in the temperattrre of the
''steam.41f we add about 44 Btu to the pound of
steam which is at 212° F, we can superheat it to
300° F.
The same, relationships apply when heat is
being removed,: The removal of 44 Btu from the
pound of steam which is at 300° F will cause the
temperature to drop to 212° F. As the pound of
steam at 212° F changesto a pound of water at
212° F, 970 ctu are given? off. When a substance
is changing iThm a gas or vapor to, a liquid, we
usually use the term LATENT HEAT OF
CONDENSATION for the heat thatis given off.
Notice, however, that the latent heat of
condensation is exactly the same as the latent
heat of vaporization. The removal of another
180
u of sensible heat will lower the
temperature of the pcumd of water from 212° F
to 32° F. As the pound of water at 32° F
changes to a Pound of ice at 32° F, 144 Btu are
given off without any accompanying change in
temperature. Further removal of heat causes the
temperature of the ice to decrease.
In the CELSIUS SCALE, the freezing point
of 'pure water is 0° and the boiling point of pure
water is 100°. Therefore, 0° C and 100° C are
equivalent to 32° F and 212° F, respectively.
Each degree of Celsius is larger than a degree of
Fahrenheit since there are only 100° Celsius
between the freezing and boiling p9ints of
water, while this same temperature change
requires 180° on the Fahrenheit scale. Therefore
the degree of Celsius is 100 or or 1.8° Fahrenheit.
In the Celsius scale absolute zero is -273°.
Figure 3:5 shows the two temperature scales
in comparison and also introduces the simplest
FAHRENHEIT SCALE
'
FAHRENHEIT
TEMPERATURES
270
260
250
190
The temperature of an object is a measure of
how hot or cold the object is; it can be measured
by thermometers and read on their temperature
scales..
170
160
150
11
11
11
11
11
110
-
MATER BOILS OR CONOENSE S
194-
100 _
90
BO
70
60'
50
J94
100
"
120
140
130
120
110
The temperature scales employed to measure
CELSIUS
TEMPERATURES
tu)"c
11
240 11
230 11
220 11
210 11
200
TEMPERATURE '
A
11
CELSIUS SCALE
40
00
30
BO
temperature are the Fahrenheit Kali: and the
70
20
60
Celsius (centigrade) scale. In engine..ring and for
practically all purposes - in the Navy, the
Fahrenheit scale is used. It may, however, be
necessary for you to convert Celsius readings to
the Fahrenheit scale, so both scales are
explained here.
I0
50
40
30
20
32.....4CE MELTS -WATER FREEZES
10
The FAHRENHEIT SCALE has two main
reference pointsthe boiling point of pure water
at 212°, and the freezing point of pure water at
32°. The size of a degree of Fahrenheit is 1/180
0
.214.
10
0
-10
-20
-20
-30
-40
-30
-40
MERCURY
MELTING ICE
of the total temierature change from 32 to
BOILING WATER
212°. And the scale can be extended in either
directionto higher temperatures without any
limits, and to lower temperatures (by using
MINUS degrees) down 'to the lowest
temperature theoretically possible, the absolute
zero. This temperature is -460°, (31'492° below
-
,A
3311
the freezing point of water.
Figure 3-5.Temperature scales.
27
33
FIREMAN .
^
of the temperature measuring instruments, the
carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and
sulphur 'dioxide. The oxygen required to burn
thermometers shown are exactly alike in size
ap* shape; tl-tb only difference is the outside
the- fuel
liquid-in-glass thermometer.' The
two
obtained from the air. Air is
a
mechanical mixture containing by weight 21
percent oxygen, 78 percent "nitrogen, and I
percent other gases. Only oxygen is used in
combustion of the fuel;nitrogefi is an inert gas
which has no chemical effect upon the
maitings,,,,or scales on them. Each thermometer
is a hollow glass tube which has a mercury-filled'
bulb at the bottom, and which is sialed at the
top. Mercury, like any liquid, expands when
heated and will rise in the hollow tube. The
illustration shows the Fahrenheit thermometer
.cotnbustion.
The chemical combination obtained during
combustion results in the libeption of heat
energy, a portion of which is, used to propel the
ship. Actually, what happens is a rearrangement
of the atoms of the chemical elements into new
combinations of molecules. In other words, as
with its bulb standing in ice water (32° F), while
the 'Celsius thermometer is in boiling water
( 1 00° C).
The essential point to remember is that the
level of the mercury in a thermometer depends
the Semperature of the fuet, oil in the presence of
only on the temperature to which the bulb is
exposed. If you were to exchange the
thermometers, the mercury in the Celsius.
oxygen is increased to the ignition point, the.'
various chemical elements in the fuel begin to
thermometer would drop to the level at which
the mercury now stands in the Fahrenheit
thermometer, while the mercury ' in the
Fghrenheit thermometer would rise to the level
af which tilt mercury now stands in the Celsius
thermometer. The temperatures would be 0° C
for the ice water and. 212° F for the boiling
separate from each other and to unite with
certain amounts of oxygen to form entirely.iiew
.substances, which give off heat energy in the
process. A mod fuel has a high' speed of
combustion, thus producing a large amount of
heat in a short time.
PERFECT COMBUSTION is the objective.
However, this cannot be achieved as yet in either
boiler -or the cylinders of an
a
internal-combustion engine. Theoretically, it is
water.
If you place both thermometers in water
containing lumps of ice, the Fahrenheit
thermometer will read 32° and the Celsius
thermometer will read 0°. Heat the water
simple. It consists of bringing each particle of
the fuel (heated to its ignition temperature) into
.contact with the correct amount of oxyvn. The
slowly. The temperature will not change until
the ice in the water has completely melted (a
great deal of heat is required just to melt the
ice), then both mercury columns will begin Co
following factors arc involved:
rise. When the mercury level is at the +10° mark
on the Celsius thermometer, it
is
I .
will be at the
Sufficient air must be supplied.
2., The air and flIel particles must be
thoroughly mixed.
+50° mark on the Fahrenheit thermometer. The
two columns will rise together at the same speed
and, when the water finally boils, they will stand
at 100° C and 212° F, respectively. The same
temperature changethat is, the same amount of
3.
Temperatures must be high enough to
maintain combustion.
heat transferred to the waterhas raised the
4. Enough time must be allowed to permit
completion of the process.
temperature 100° Celsius and 180° Fahrenheit,
but the actual change in heat energy is exactly
the same.
However, COMPLETE COMBUSTION can
be achieved. This is accomplished by supplying,
more oxygen to the process than -would be
required if perfect combustion were possible.
The result is that some of the excess oxygen
appears in the combustion gases.
COMBUSTION
The term "combustion" refers to the rapid
.10.mical union of oxygen with a fuel. The
perfect cbmbustion of fuel should result in
28.
34
C)
!)
Chapter 3ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS
STEAM
The physical properties. qa some metals or
metal alloys make them more. suitable for one
use than for another. Various terms are used in
describing the physcial properties of metals. By
studying the following . explanations of these
terms you should have a better understanding of
why certain metals are used on one part of the
ship's structure and not on another part.
Stearn is water to which enough heat has
been added to convert it from the liquid to the
gaseous state. When heat is added to water in an
open container, steam forms, but it quickly
mixes with air and cools back to water which is
dispersed in the air, making the air more humid.
If you add the heat to water in a closed
container, the steam builds up pressure. If you
add exactly enough heat to convert all the water
to steam at the temperature of boiling water,
STRENGTH refers to the ability of a metal
to maintain heavy loads (or force) without
breaking. Steel, for example, is strong, but lead
you get saturated steam. SATURATED STEAM
is steam saturated with all the heat it can hold at
the boiling temperature of water.
is weak.
The boiling temperature of water becomes
higher aslhe pressure over the water becomes
higher, 'Steam hotter than the boiling
.
temperature of water is 489° F. So if steam at
BRITTLENESS is a property of a metal that
will alldw it to shatter easily. Metals such as cast
iron or cast aluminum, and some very hard steels
are brittle.
HARDN SS refers to the ability of a metal
to resist pene ation, wear, or cutting action;
MALLEABILITY is a property of a metal
that allows it to be rolled, forged, hammered, or
shaped, without cracking or breaking. Copper is
a very malleable metal.
temperature of water is called SUPERHEATED
STEAM. When "steam has 250° of superheat,
the actual. temperature is the boiling
temperature plus 250° F. At 600 psi the boiling
600 psi has 250° F of superheat, its actual
temperature is 739° F. WET STEAM is steam at
the boiling temperature which still contains
some water particles-. DESUPERHEATED
STEAM is steam which has been cooled by being
DUCTILITY refers to the ability of a metal ,"
to stretch or bend without breaking. Soft iron,
soft steel, and copper are ductile metals.
passed- through a pipe extending through the
steam drum; in the process the steam loses all
but approximately 20°F or 30°F of its
superheat. The advantage of desuperheated
steam is that it is certain to be dry, yet not so
TOUGHNESS Is the property of a metal that
will not permit it to tear or shear (cut) easily
and that allows it to stretch without breaking.
Metal preservation aboard ship is a
continuous operation since the metals are
hot as to require special alloy steels for the
construction of the piping that carries the
t.-
constantly exposed to fumes, water, acids, and
moist salt air; all of these will eventually cause
corrosion. The corrosion of iron and steel is
called rusting and results in the formation of
iron oxide (iron and oxygen) on the surface of
the metal. Iron oxide (or rust) can be identified
desuperheated steam about the ship.
METALS
easily by its reddish color. (A blackish hue
As you look around, you see that not only is
your ship constructed of metal, but also that the
boilers, piping system, machinery, and even your
bunk and locker are constructed of some type of
occurs in the first stage of rusting but is seldom
thought of as rust.) Corrosion can be reduced .or
prevented by using better grades of base metals:
by adding special metals such as nickel and
metal. No one type of metal can serve all the
needs abbard -ship. Many types of metals or
chromium, or by coating the surface with paint
metal alloys must be used. A strong metal must
or other metal preservatives.
lightweight metal ais needed for other parts.
Some areas require spedial metal that can be
Metal and alloys are divided into two general
classes: ferrous and nonferrous. Ferrous metals
are those that -are composed primarily of iron.
Nonferrous metals are those that are composed
be used for some parts of a ship, while a
shaped or workeslyeg easily.
29
35
FIREMAN
arily of some element or elements other
th iron. One way to tell a common fen;ous
metal from a nonferrous metal, is by using a
magnet; most ferrous metal is magnetic and
p
nonferrous metal is nonmagnetic.
Elenients must bi alloyed ,r (or mixed)
together to obtain the desired physical
properties of a metal. For example, alloying (or
mixing) chromium and nickel with iron
produces a metal known as special treated steel.
Special treated steel (STS) has great resistance to
penetrating and shearing forces and is used for
gun Adds, turrets, protective decks, and other
vital areas. A nonferrous alloy that has many
uses aboarAhnip is copper-nickel, which is used
salt/ water piping systems.
extensivel
Copper-nickel is produced by mixing copper and
nickel together. There are many other different
metals and alloys used aboard ship which will
not be discussed here.
sed
WitIVall the different types of
aboard ship, so/ne way must be used to ide tify
These systems have been so designed that ven
after a portion of the metal has been re oved
the identifying marks are still visible..
In the continuous identification . marking
system, the identifying information is actually
painted on the metal with a heavy ink. This
marking appears at specified intervals over the
length of the metal..The marking contains the
prOducer's
trademark
and the commercial
designation of the metal. The marking also
indicates the physical condition of the metal
such as `;fold drawn," "cold rolled," "seamless,"
and others.
In the color marking sy4em, a series of color
symbols with a related color code is used to
identify metals. "Color symbol" refers to a color
marking actually painted on the metal. The
symbol is composed of one, two, or three colors
and is painted on the metal in a conspicuous
place. These color symbols correspond to the
elements of which the metal is composed.
these metals in the storeroom. At the p sent
For further information on the metals used
aboard ship, their properties and identification
systems, refer to the Rate Training Manual, Hull
Maintenance Technician 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA
marking system and the color marking systein.
10573.
the Navy utilizes two syitem of
v identifying, metals: the continuous identifica
,time,
O
36
CHAPTER 4
SHIP P
/
PULSION
The primary, function Of any marine
mechanical energy required to turn the propeller
is provided by the turbines. Reduction sears are
engineering plant is to convert the chemical
energy off' a fuel into useful work and to utilize
used on practically all Asteam-dOwn ships tb
4. that work in the propulsion of the ship. A
connect the turbine to the shaft in a manner
that allows the turbines to operate at high
propulsion unit consists of the machinery and
equipment, including their controls, which are
rotational speeds while the propeller operate at
mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically
lower rotational speeds, thus allowing Most
connected to a propulsion shaft.
efficient operation of both turbines and
propellers.
This chapter contains information on the
principles of ship, propulsion Sand, in addition,
acquaints you with some of the different types
The general principle of ship propulsion is
illustrated in figure. 4-1.
of ship propulsiOn units, which include the
geared-turbine drive, the turboelectric drive,
O
diesel electric drive and the:straight diesel.Angine
drive.
TYPICAL
PROPULSION UNITS
PRINCIPLES OF
SHIP PROPULSION
designs of prime movers are currently in use in
naval ships. The prime movers of a propulsion
Propulsion units with various types and
unit may be either a geared turbine a turbine
A ship is propelled through the Water by
and a generator, a diesel engine and a generator,
means of some device which imparts velocity to
a column of water and moves it in the direction
or a straight diesel engine. These are the most
common types of prime` movers of propulsion
opposite the direction in which it is desired to
move the ship. A reactive force (thrust)
units with which we are most concerned.
is
thereby developed against the velocity-imparting
device, and this thrust, when transmitted to the
ship, causes the ship to move through the water.
All propelling devicesoars, paddle wheels, and
GEARED-TURBINE DRIVE
In the geared-turbine drive, the unit parts or
sections that make up the individual propulsion
propellersare designed to move a column of
water in order to build up a reactive force
units consist of the main turbines and the
reduction gear.
sufficient to move the ship.
Figure 4-2 shows the general arrangement of
The screw-type propeller is the propulsion
device used in practically all naval ships. The
thrust developed on the propeller is transmitted
to the ship's structure by the *shaft through the
thrust bearing. On most steam-driven ships, the
the turbines and gears in a geared-turbine
propulsion unit. Not all geared-turbine plants.
have the cruising turb,me which is included in
the diagram. Ordinarily(, cruising turbines will be
found in only the older destroyers.
31
37
01Ik
FIREMAN
THRUST
BEARING
STRUT (
HAIN
SHAFT
.4.
SPRING
.
BEARINGS
.
r
MATER
COLUMN
-
STRUT
ING
PROPELLE
STERN TUBE
BEARING
DIRECTION OF
REACTIVE FORCE
(THRUST)
HULL
47.42
Figure 4-1.General principle of ship propulsion.
In a- typical destroyer propulsion plant, the
turbine will be revolving at 2,880 rpm (1.8 X 16
X 100), the high pressure turbine at 1,600 rpm
speed reduction ratio between the cruising
turbine shaft' and high pressure turbine shaft is
approximately 1.8 to 1. The speed jittio between
(16 X 100), and the low pressure turbine at
1.,300 rpm (13 X 100).
Figure 4-2 shows two astern elements, one at
the high pressure turbine shaftd propeller
shaft is 16 to 1, and the ratio between the low
pressure turbine and propeller shaft is 13 to 1.
In other words, in operation, if the propeller
each end of the low pressure turbine. This
arrangement is typical for combatant type ships;
auxiliary type ships,%usually have one astern
element instead of two, and that one invariably
shaft is revolving at 100 rpm, the cruising
ASTERN ELEMENT
1'
I LOW-PRESSURE
I
TURBINE
MAIN
REDUCTION
CRUISING
GEARS
TURBINE
REDUCTION
GEAR
MAIN SHAFT
HIGH -
PRESS
E
TURB
CRUISING
TURBINE
47.1
Figure 4-2.Geared-turbine propulsion unit.
32
Chapter
is located at the forward end of the low pressure
turbine (the end\ farthest from the reduction
gear).
The propulsion shaft, which extends from
ain gear (lovi\speed) shaft of the reduction
gear to
ropellCr, is supported and held, in
alignment at the spring bearings, the stern tube
bearings, and strut bearing. The axial thrust,
acting, on She propulsion shaft as a result of the
pushing effect of the propeller, is absorbed in
th't main. thrust bearing. ,In most ships, the main
thrust bearing is located 'at the forward end of
the main shaft, within the reduction gear casing.
In some very large shipa however, the main
shaft thrust bearing is located farther aft in a
machinery space or a shaft alley.
P, PULSION
TUTt.BOELECTRIC DRIVE
urboelectric drive installations have a single
turbine unit for each installed shaft. Figure 4-1
shows the diagrammatic arrangement of a
turboelectric propulsion unit.: *you can see,
the propuldtin unit includes a turbine, main
generator, propulsion motor, and a propulsioncontrol board, a direct current generator for
supplying rotor field current to the proptilsion
motor and excitation current to the generator.
Figure 4-4 is an illustration of a tYpiC11 control
board.
The speed reduction ratio between turbine
and propeller in the turboelectric drive is,
approximately the same as in the geared-turbinel
TURBINE SPEED
LEVER
(AUTOMATIC CONTROL)
-COMBINED
FIELD
REVERSING
LEVER
le
SPEEDGOVERNING
VALVES
-
EMERGENCY
S)3EED
LEVER
MANUAL CONTROL.)
"I
NILam,
STATOR
11
.........,1
"1" -----r;FIELD
i-i-:0
-4-'
DIRECTCURRENT
GENERATOR
,___
DRIVER
PROPULSION
MOT R
TURBINE
MAIN
GENERATOR
GENERATOR-FIELD
CONTACTORS
MAIN
CONDENSE
47.2
Figure 4-3.-Diagram of the turboelectric drive.
1. PHASE BALANCE RELAYS
19. INDICATING LAMP HEATER
2. GROUND PROTECTIVE RELAY
20. EXCITER VOLTMETER,AND GROUND DETECTOR 04ITCH
3. NAMEPLATE,FOR GEN FIELD AMP
21, CONTROL SWITCH
4. EXCITATION SET STARTING SWITCH
2Z, MOTOR-STATOR TEMPERATURE INDICATOR SWITCH
5. TEST BLOCK
21 GENERATOR STATOR TEMPERATURE iNdICAtOR SWITCH
6. STANDBY EXCITER CONTROL SWITCH
24. SHAFT RPM INDICATOR AND REVOLUTION COUNTER
,
21 SHAFT RPM INDICATOR AND REVOLUTION-INDICATOR
ENGINE ROOM TELEGRAPH
8. CLOCK
26. RPM TELEGRAPH
9, GENERATOR FIELD AMMETER
27. LOAD LIMIT CONTROL, RELEASE
10. TURBIN, SPEED INDICATOR
28. LOAD LIMIT CONTROL HANDWHEQ.
11. GENERATOR INDICATING WATTMETER
29, EXCITER Fla.!) RHEOSTAT
12. MOTOR FIELD AMMETER
30, MOTOR SET UP LEVER
13. EXCITER AND GROUND DETECTOR VOL TMETEFt
14. GENERATOR AMMETER
31. FIELD LEVER
32. REVERSER LEVO1'
15. GENERATOR VOLTMETER
33. .GOVERNOR CONTROL LEVER,
16. STATOR COIL TEMPERATURE INDICATOR
34. EMERGENCY LEVER
'7. INDICATING LAMP CONTROL BUS
18. INDICATING. LAMP WRONG DIRECTION INDICATOR
,\
35. TURBINE TRIP HANDLE
36. NAMEPLATE FOR EMERGENCY OPERATION
{
O
f95
Figure 4-4.Propulsion control equipmentDE-51 class.
34
Chapter
4SHI
USLION
4,
139.10
Figure 45 =Main propulsion diesel engine.
drive and
is
brought about electrically. For
example, in one class of turboelectric drive type
destroyer escort, the normal operating
range
Figure 4-5 shows one of the mein proptlsion
diesel engines aboard an oceanographic research
ship. Figura. 4-6 shows the main prop4Ision
fixed speed ratio between the turbine-generator
set and the propulsion motor is 14 to 1.
switchboard operating station aboard the same
ship.
One of the outstanding differences between
geared drive and electric drive is that the latter
does not have an astern turbine element. In the
Si. The propulsion equipment for a fleet tug
th4t utilizes diesel electric drive consists of four
diesel-engine driven generators furnishing power
electric drive the direction of rotation of the
to one propulsion motor rated at 3,000
propulsion motor, and consequently the
horsepower which in turn drives the propeller.
The four generating units are normally located
amid-shipstwo on the port side and two on the
propeller, is controlled' by the electrical switch
set
Therefore, there is no need to reverse
turbine rotation for astern operatio
.
starbqard side.
The control of direction (forward or reverse)
DIESEL ELECTRIC DRIVE
and the speed of propeller rotation
is
accomplished at the control board. A typical
control board installation aboard a fleet tug is
Diesel electric drive is best suited to ships in
the low or mediurn horsepower range up to
about 6,000 shaft horsepower. It has been
shown in figure 4-7.
O
In the propulsion plant's of .some
installed in approximately 175 escort ships and
5 00 surface ships and craft of other types,
including minesweepers, submarine tenders,
diesel-driven ships, there is no mechanical
connection ,between thkengine(s) and the
older submarines. fleet and harbor tugs, fuel oil
propeller(s). In such plants, the diesel engines
tankers and barges, rescue and salvage craft and
miscellaneous unclassified craft.
are connected directly to generators. The
electricity produced by-such an engine-driven
35
41
sl
FIREMAN
J
139.11
Figure 4-6.main propulsion switchboard, unabated operating station.
generator is transmitted through cables to a
motor. The motor is connected to the propeller
shaft directly, or indirectly, through a reduction
gear. When a reduction gear is included in a
diesel electric dnve, the gear is located between
the motor and the propeller.
The generator and the motor, of ,a
electric drive may be of the alternating current
(a-c) type or of the direct current (d-c) type.
Almost all diesel electric drives in the Navy,
however, are of the direct current type. Since
the speed of d-c motor varies directly with the
voltage fuAished by the generator, the control
,
the propeller. The electric system is arranged so
that the flow of current through the motor can
be reversed. This reversal in the flow of current
I causes the rocitor to revolve in the opposite
direction. Thus, the direction of rotation of the
motor and of the propeller can be controlled by
manipulating the electrical controls.
DIESEL ENGINE DRIVE
Diesel engine drive is used on various types
of auxiliary ships and craft such as
minesweepers, subchasers, ammunition ships,
patrol craft, landing ships (LST), and numerous
other yard craft and small boats. You may also
find diesel drive on a few of the older destroyer
system of an electric drive is so arranged that the
generator voltage can be changed at any time.
An increase or decrease in generator voltage is
escorts.
used as a means to control the speed of the
The Navy uses the diesel engines except
where special conditions favor the gasoline
propeller. Changes in generator voltage may be
brought about by electrical means, by changes in
engine speed, or by a. combination or these
methods. The controls of an electric drive 'may
be in a location remote from the engine, such as
the pilot house.
4
In a d-c electric drive, a reverse gear cannot"
be used to reverse the direction of rotation of
engine. Standardization of fuels, cheaper fuel,
and reduction in fire hazards have been the chief
factors in favor of the diesel engine.
The diesel engine used in some of the older
destroyer escorts developed approximately
6,000 hp. The diesel engines of minesweepers
36
42
Chapter - 4SHIP PROPULSION
MS
M2 M3
r
15
MI
MI
R5
M2
M9
1.15
MI
M4
MO
M7
ENGINE
ORDER
TELEGRAM
"11
Dia
SW1 III
GW2
3W$
SW4
=1
SHAFT
Rpm
INDICATOR
r
L,----t
RH1
CZ:3
WO
swn
SW11
.SW1I
WRONG 0
DIRECTION
q
INDICATOR .
CONTROLLER
.
pi
Sw
SW10
SW10
SW
11112
EMERGENCY
STOP
RELEASE
GENERATOR
GENERATOR
PANEL
PANEL
MOTOR
PANEL
ti
X
MI- GENERATOR VOLTMETER, 500-0-500
M2-EXCITER AND GROUND DETECTOR VOLTMETER, 100-0-100
M 3 - AUXILIARY POWER AMMETER, 0- 2000
M4 -MOTOR AND GROUND DETECTOR VOLTMETER, 1000-0 -1000
MS-ENGINE SPEED INDICATOR, 0-1000
M6 - MOTOR FIELD AMMETER, 0 -ISO
M7 MOTOR AMMETER, 3000 -0 -3000
M6 -PILOT HOUSE MOTOR AMMETER, 3000-0-3000 (NOT SHOWN)
MO-EXCITATION VOLTMETER (SHIP'S SERVICE), 0-300
SWI -EXCITER VOLTMETER AND GROUND DETECTOR TRANSFER SWITCH
SW2-AUXILIARY POWER GENERATOR FIELD CONTROL SWITCH
SW3-MDTOR VOLTMETER AND GROUND DETECTOR TRANSFER SWITCH
SW4 -EXCITER VOLTMETER AND GENERATOR FIELD GROUND DETECTOR TRANSFER SWITCH
SWS-ENGINE SPEED -EXCITER FIELD SWITCH ON GENERATOR SET-UP SWITCH (NOT SHOWN)
SW6-ENGINE SPEED CONTROL SWITCH
SW7- EXCITATION CONTROL SWITCH
SWEI -PILOT HOUSE-ENGINEROOM TRANSFER SWITCH
SW9.10-GENERATOR SET-UP SWITCHES
SW11 -GENERATOR CONTROL SWITCH
RHI -AUXILIARY POWER GENERATOR FIELD RHEOSTAT
RH2-MOTOR RELI) RHEOSTAT
PI -ENGINERODM CONTROLLER
27.100
Figure 4-7.-Propulsion control oquipment-floot tug.
43
37
FiREIVIAN
and subchascrs will develop approximately
1,800 hp; while some of the engines in the
smaller yzird craft will develop from 190 to 225
hp. A typical dieselvengine 'is shown in figure
4-8.
Sortie diesel engines are directly reversible.
This means that the propeller shaft is connected
directly to the diesel engine, so that the speed of
the propeller shaft is controlled by the speed of
the diesel engine. When it becomes necessary to
change the direction of rotation of the propeller
shaft, the diesel engine must be stopped, the
cam shaft of the engine must be shifted for
reverse rotation, and then the engine is restarted.
This allows the engine to operate in the opposite
direction; thus reversing the rotational direction
of the propeller shaft. You can see that this
would take time and be very hard to do if
sudden changes in direction were required.
To eliminate this stopping-starting situation
and to make a smoother transition from forward
to reverse in less time, reverse-reduction gears,
clutches, and hydraulic couplings are used.
(These are discussed in the following sections of
this chapter.)
CONVERTING
POWER TO DRIVE
The basic characteristics of a propulsion unit
make it necessary, in most instances': for the
SCAVENGING AIR INTAKE
SILENCER
EXHAUST LIANIFOLD
SCAVENGING AIR BLOWERS
GEAR BOX
PROPELLER
DRIVE HUB
REVERSING CLUTCH
SUBBASE
REVERSING
CONTROL
44
Figure 4-8.Typical dieml engine and reduction gear.
38
75.44X
r
Chapter 4 --SHIP PR PULSION
CRUISING TURBINE
SINGLE REDUCTION
GEAR
444
LOW PRESSURE
TURBINE
HIGH PRESSURE
TURBINE
QUILL SHAFT
-.Tr.--,==.10t. REDUCTION
GEAR
1st. REDUCTION
GEAR
t3
2nd. REDUCTION
PINION
JACKING MOTOR
2nd. REDUCTION
GEAR
a/
GEAR ENCASED-1
MAIN SHAFT COUPLING
47.30
Figure 4-9.Titrbine and locked train double reduction gearing installed on a DD-692 class destroyer.
drive mechanism to change both the speed and
hich effects the speed reduction, is called a
the direction of shaft rotation. In order that
duction gear.
both the engine and the propeller may operate
efficiently, the engine in many installations
includes a' device which permits a speed
reduction from the engine to the propeller shaft.
DUCTION GEARS
Turbines must operate at relatively
igh
speeds for maximum efficiency, where
This device, which is a combination of gears and
39
45
FIREMAN
propellers must operate at lower speeds for
maximum efficiency. Reduction gears are used,
therefore, to allow both the turbine and the
propeller to operate within their most efficient
revolutions per minute (rpm) ranges. A typical
reductio4gear illustration is shown in figure 4-9.
The use of reduction gears is by no means
the first reduction shaft and the second
reduction gear on the propeller shaft
(6000 + 2 = 3000 + 10 = 300).
limited to ship propulsion. Other steam
For a typical example of a double reduction
application, let us consider the main reduction
gear installation on a DD-692 class destroyer,
turbine-driven machinery, such as ship's service
generators and various pumps, also has reduction
gears. In lese units of machinery, as well as in
shown in figure 4-9.
The cruising turbine is connected to the-high
pressure turbine thrOugh a single reduction gear.
shipboard propulsion units, turbine operating
The cruising turbine rotor carries with it
efficiency requires a higher rpm range than that
suitable for the driven unit.
pinion which drives the cruising gear (coupled to
Reduction gearing in many current
turbine rotor and pinion are supported by three.
bearings, one at the forward end of the turbine
a
the high pressure turbine shaft). The cruising
combatant ships makes use of double helical
gears. The use of 41ouble helical gears produces a
and one on each side of the pinipn in the
smoother actiqn,to,of the reduction gearing and
avoids tooth shock. Since the double helical gear
has two sets of teeth at complementary angles to
each other, the end thrust, such as developed in
are connected to the propeller sh.. through a
single helical gears, is thereby eliminated.
Reduction gears are classified by the number
of steps used to bring about the speed reduction
cruising reduction gear case,
The high pressure and low pressure turbines
locked train type double reduction"Year, shown
in figure 4-10. (Note: This type of reduction
gear is used aboard many naval combatant
ships.) First reduction pinioni are connected by
flexible couplings to the turbines. Each of the
first reduction pinions drives two first reduction
gears. A second reduction (slow speed) pinion is
attached to each of the first reduction gears by a
and the arrangement of the gearing. A gear
rriechanism consisting of a pair of gears or a
small gear (pinion) driven by the turbine shaft,
which drives a large (bull), gear on the propeller
shaft directly, is called a SINGLE REDUCTION
GEAR. In this type of arrangement the ratio of
speed reduction is proportional to the diameter
of the pinion"and the gear. For example, in a 2
to I single reduction gear the diameter of the
driven gear is twice that of the driving pinion;
and in a 10 to single reduction gear, the
diameter of the driven gear, is, 10 times that of
quill shaft and flexible couplings. These four
LOW PRESSURE 1st
REDUCTION GEARS
tow Pansto1 2.4
SEDUCTION PIN*
MAIN
EAR
tow PRESSURE Is,
1
REDUCTION MON
the driving pinion.
Ships built since 1935 have DOUBLE
REDUCTION PROPULSION GEARS. In this
type of gear, 4--Ngh-speed pinion, connected to
the turbine shill' by a flexible coupling, drives
an- intermediate (firstjeduction) gear which is
connected by a shaft to the low-speed pinion;
WON PRESSURE In
.EDUCTION PINION
this, in turn , drives the bull gear (second
reduction) mounted on the propeller shaft. For
example, a 20 to 1 (6000-300) speed reduction
might be accomplished by having a ratio of 2 to
(6000-3000) between the high-speed pinion
and the first reduction gear, and a ratio of 10 to
1 (3000-300) between the low-speed pinion on
NON PRESSURE Ilt
SEDUCTION GEARS
HIGH PRESSURE No
REDUCTION PINIONS
1
47.27
Figure 4-10.Locked-train typo gearing.
40
4V
Chapter 4SHIP PROPULSION
pinions drive th second reduction (bUll) gear
to the propeller shaft.
wtich is atta
The arrangemeni\ of the components
depends on the type and size of the installation.
In some small installations, the clutch, the
reverse gear, and the reduction gear may be
CLUTCHES AND
REVERSE GEARS
combined in a single unit; in other installations,
the clutch and the reverse gear may be in one
housing and the reduction gear in a separate
Clutches are normally used on direct-drive
housing attached to the reverse gear housing.
propulsion engines to provide a means of
disconnecting the eivi" from the propeller
shaft. In small enginei clutches are usually
To large engine installations, the clutch and
the reverse gear may be combined; or thy may
be separate units, located betweerk the engine
and a separate reduction gear; or the Clutch may
be separate and the reverse gear may be
combined with reverse .gears and are used for
maneuvering the ship. In large engines special
types of clutches are used to obtain special
coupling or control characteristics and to
prevent torsional (twisting) vibration.
combined.
In most geared-drive, multiple propeller
ships he propulsion units are independent of
Reverse gears are used on marine engines to
reverse the direction of rotation of the propeller
shaft, during maneuvering, without changing the
each Other. An example of this type
arrangement is ill9strated in figure 4-11.
of
direction of rotation of the engine. They are
used principally on relatively small engines. If a
high - output engine has a reverse gear, the gear is
used for low-speed operation only and does not
have full-load and full-speed capacity. For
maneuvering ships with large direct-propulsion
engines, the engines are reversed.
In some installations the drive mechanism is
arranged so that two or more engines drive a
single propeller. This is accomplished by having
the driving gear, which is onor connected
tothe crankshaft of each engine, transmit
power to the driven gear on the propeller shag.
In one type of installation, each of two
propellers is driven by four diesel engines (quad
power unit). The arrangement of the engines,
Diesel propelling equipment on -a boat or a
ship must be capable of providing backing-down
power as well as forward power. There are a few
the location of theduction gear; and the
ships and boats in which backing down is
accomplished by reversing the pitch of the
direction of rotation of the crankshaft and-ttie
prokpeller shaft in one type a "quad" power
propeller; in most ships, however, backing down
unit are illustrated in figure14 2.
is accomplished by reversing the direction of
rotation of the propeller shaft. In mechanical
The drive mechanism' illustrated includes
four clutch assemblies (One mounted to each
engine flywheel) and one gear box. The box
contains two drive purns and the main -drive
gear. Each pinion is driven by the clutch shafts
of two engines, through splines in the pinion
hubs. The pinions drive the single main gear,
drives, reversing the direction of rotation of the
propeller shaft may be accomplished in one 9f
two ways; by reversing the direction of.engine
rotation or by using the reverse gears.
The drive mechanism of a ship or a boat is
required to do more than reduce speed and
reverse the direction of shaft rotation. It is
frequently necessary to operate an engine
which is connected to the propeller shaft.
without having power transmitted to the
propeller. For this--feason, the drive mechanism
smaller, high-speed
Friction clutches are commonly used with
engines, up to 500 hp.
shaft. Devices which are used for this purpose
However, certain friction clutches, in
combination with a jaw type clutch, are used
with engines up to 1,400 hp; and pneumatic
clutches, with a cylindrical friction surface are
are called clutches.
used with engines up to 2,000 hp.
of a ship or boat must include a means of
disconnecting the engine from the propeller
41
47'
FRESH WATER
6
5
60 KW DIESEL
PUMP
C3 HAND
0
LLBRCATNG
1.111=ATING
AFT
GEAR
REDUCTION
COOLING CIRCULATING PUMP
[MORON GEAR
SERVICE PUMPS
LURRtCATING 0:1
FUEL 433. HAND PUMP
(300 GALLONS)
DAY TANK
FUEL ca.
PORT SIDE
DIES
ENGINE
FORWARD
V(35 GALLONS)
EXPANSION TANK
FRESH WATER
E
tm
oG
GA
AIR TANKS
AIR STRAINERS
AHD REDUCDO VALVE
CU STRAINER
y
_7°
FRESH WATER
HEAT EXCHANGER
PRESSURE TANK
FU'a ca
Fra 4E1
USLIUCATING
DRIP TAM
\\10
oAat
tOAID
Ca HAND PUMP
LUUSCATTX3
05 GALLONS)
75248
ea STRAINER
AIR STRAINER
LUIRICATEN3
AND LMVCEBEG
4= FILTER
VALVE
1.11113CATDO
C11 COOLER
FRESH WAGER
EXPANSION TANK
O 1111111111
FUEL CM
DAY TANK
(330 GALLONS)
I
-114
DG.SEIL ENGINE
_
--s
I
L____
r
k
eN
1
...''- - ... k...:
1
.100 KW D3I5E1
GENERATOR SET
STARBOARD SME
UT
GENERATOR
60 KW DUEL
Figure 4-11.Example of independent propulsion units.
ao
FUEL Oil
HAND PUMP
FILTER
CP
ea COOLER
LUBRICATING
LUIRECATING
SPECIAL SERVICE DIESEL
GENERATOR SET
TANK
PRESSURE
ca
-FUEL
HEAT EXCHANGER
GENERATOR SET
REDUCTION
GEAR
II
REDUCTION GEAR
COOLING CIRCULATING PUMP
UJUICATENG ea
SERV= PUMPS
Chapter 4SHIP PROPULSION
75.249X
Figure 4-12.Four engines (quad unit) arranged to drive one propeller (GM 6-71).
Friction clutches are of two general styles;
clutches, and bronze, cast iron, or steel el for wet
clutches. Cast iron surfaces are preferred because
the disk and the bank styles. In addition,
friction clutches can be classified as dry or wet
types, depending on whether the friction
of their better bearing qualities and greater
resistance to scoring or scuffing.
surfaces operate with or without a lubricant.
The designs of both types are similar, except
Force-producing friction is needed to engage
the frictiopclutches and can be obtained either
by mechanically jamming the friction surfaces
together by some toggle-action linkage, or
through stiff springs (coil, leaf, or flat-disk
type). The operation of friction clutches is
that the wet clutches require a large friction area
because of the reduced friction coefficient
between the lubricated surfaces. The advantages
of wet clutches are smoother operation and less
wear of the friction surfaces. Wear results from
discussed in the paragraphs which follow.
slippage between the surfaces not only during
engagement and disengagement, but also, to a
TWIN-DISK CLUTCH AND GEAR
certaip extent, during the operation of the
MECHANISM.One of the several types of
transmissions used by the Navy is the Gray
mechanism. Some wet type clutches are filled
with oil periodically; in other clutches the oil is
apart of the engine-lubricating system and is
circulated continuously. Such a friction clutch
incorporates
provisions
which
will
Marine transmission mechanism. Gray Marine
high-speed diesel engines are generally equipped
with a combination clutch and a reverse and
reduction gear unitall contained in a single
prevent
worn-off particles from being carried by the
housing at the after end of the engine.
circulating lubricating oil to the bearings, gears,
etc.,
The clutch assembly of the Gray Marine
transmission mechanism is contained in the part
The friction surfaces are generally
constructed of different materials, one being of
of the housing nearest the engine. It is a dry
type, twingdisk clutch with two driving disks.
Each disk is connected `through shafting to a
cast iron or steel; others are lined with some
asbestos-base composition or bronze for dry
separate reduction gear train in the after part of
43
49
FIREMAN
the housing. One disk and reduction train is for
reverse rotation of the shaft and propeller; the
other disk and reduction train is for forward'
rotation.
power. To maintain the weight and size of the
mechanism as low
ossible, special clutches
have been designed or large diesel installations.
One of these is
JOE'S CLUTCH AND REVERSE GEAR.A
typical gear mechanism found on many power
boats is Joe's clutch and reverse gear, shown in
figure 4-13. The drive from the engine
crankshaft is taken into the clutch and reverse
gear housing by an extension of the crankshaft
drive gear. The crankshaft rotation is
transmitted to the reduction gear shaft through
the clutch and the reverse gear unit.
AIRFLEX CLUTCH AND GEAR
ASSEMBLY.On the larger diesel-propelled
ships, the clutch, reverse, and reduction gear
unit has to transmit an enormous amount of
e airflex clutch and gear
assembly used with General Motors 12-567A
engines on LST's.
A typical airflex clutch and gear assembly
for AHEAD and ASTERN rotation, is shown in
figure 4-14. There aLe two clutches, one for
forward rotation and tone for reverse rotation.
The clutches, bolted to the engine flywheel,
both rotate with the engine at all times at engine
speed. Each clutch has a flexible tire (or gland).
on the inner side of a steel shell. pefore the tires
are inflated, they will rotate out of contact with
the drums, which are keyed to the forward and
reverse drive, shafts. When air under pressure
(100 psi) is sent into one of,the tires, the inside
DISK CLUTCH
PLUNGER
BEARING, CAGE
TOGGLE ASSEMBLY
CONE CLUTCH
r FRONT COVER
(dialr3
1
ENGINE
SHAFT
COLLAR
AND YOKE
REDUCTION
/
GEAR SHAFT-lk>.
PROPELLER
DRIVE. SLEEVE
BRAKE
BAN
ENGINE SLEEVE
PINION GEAR
DRUM
LONG)
PINION GEAR
( SHORT )
75.254
Figure 4-13.attaway view of Joe's clutch and reverse gear:
44
5
Chapter 4SHIP PROPULSION
MAIN GEAR
D CLUTCH
FO WARD DRUM
SPACER
PROPELLER
FLANGE
IR SHAFT
FORWARD PINION
AIR CONTROL HOUSING
AHEAD
REVERSE
DRUM
MAIN REVERSE PINION
REVERSE
CLUTCH
REVERSE
SHAFT
ASTERN
REVERSE STEP-UP PINION
75.247
Figure 4-14.Clutch and ie verse-reduction gear assembly.
diameter of the clutch decreases. This causes the
friction blocks on the inner tire surface to come
transmitted because of the principle of relative
motion between the two I'otors. The power loss
resulting froWehe small amount of slippage is
transformed into heat which is absorbed by the
in contact with the clutch drum, locking the
drive shaft with the engine.
oil in the system.
HYDRAULIC CLUTCHES OR
COUPLINGS.The fluid clutch (coupling) is
widely
Compared with mechanical clutches,
hydraulic clutches have a number of advantages.
There is no mechanical connection between the
used on Navy ships. The use of a
hydraulic coupling eliminates the need for
a
mechanical connection between the engine and
driving and driven elements of the hydraulic
coupling. Power is transmitted through the
coupling very efficiently (97 percent) without
the reduction gears. Couplings of this type
operate with a small amount of slippage.
Some slippage is necessary for operation of
the hydraulic coupling, since torque is
transmitting torsional vibrations, or load shocks,
from the engine to the reduction gears. This
45
51
FIREM
FORWARD
CONNECTED TO CRANksitAFT
DIRECTION
OF ROTATION
AFT
When blades ore In Position shown
by solid lines, the propeller Is
driving the vessel ahead. When
blades ore in position shown by
broken line the propeller is
driving the vessel astern.
CONNECTED TO pRopEsAER
139.56
75.264
Figure 4-17.Schematic diagram of a controllable
pitch propeller.
Figure 4-15.Dog clutches.
RAKE
ANGLE
! ADIN,
type in that they allow the engine shaft to be
disconnected from the propeller shaft. The dog
clutch ensures a positive drive without slippage
and with a minimum amount of wear. (Forward
OGL
TRAILING
LEADING
TRAILING
EDGE
EDGE
EDGE
BACK
FACE
ROOT
drive is generally accomplished by one set of
dogs, shown in figure 415, connected to the
crankshaft, engaging and turning another set of
dogs, connected to the propeller shaft.)
In several installations, theftiog clutch is used
in addition to a friction clutch; the dog clutch is
engaged after the friction (or synchronizing)
clutch brings the two shafts to an equal speed.
The engagement of the dog clutch eliminates
slippage and holds friction clutch wear to a
HUB
minimum.
B
A
147.46
PROPELLER
Figure 4-16.Propeller blade.
The screw-type propeller consists of hub and
blades (usually three or four) all spaced at equal
protects the engine, the gears, and the shafting
from sudden shock loads which may occur as a
angles about the axis. When the blades are
pro eller. The power is transmitted entirely by
the circulation of a driving fluid (oil) between
ra la' passages in a pair of rotors. In addition,
th 'assembly of the hydraulic coupriiig will
a sorb or allow for slight misalignment.
separately cast and secured to the hub with
result of piston seizure or fouling
of the
clutches
perform much the same function as the friction
D 0 G,
C L UTCH E S .
Dog-type
46
-'-52
integral with the hub, the propeller is known as
a SOLID propeller. When the blades are
studs, the propeller is refetred as a BUILT-UP
propeller.
Some of the parts of the screw propeller are
identified in figure 4-16. The FACE (or pressure
face) is the afterside of the-blade when the ship
is moving ahead. The BACK (or suction back) is
the surface opposite the face. As the propeller
Chapter 4SHIP R,ROPULSION
rotates, the face of the blade increases pressure
on the water to mekve tt in % positive astern
movement. The overall thrust, or reaction force
ahead, comes from the it cr!ted water velocity
moving astern.
The TIP of the blade is' the most distant
from ,the hub. The ROOT of the blade is the
area where the blade joins the hub. The
LEADING EDGE is the edge which first cuts the
water when the ship, is going ahead. The
TRAILING EDGE (also called the following
edge) is opposite the leading edge.
A RAKE ANGLE, exists when the tip of the
pfopeller blade is not precisely perpendicular to
the axis (hub). The angle is formed by the
distance between where the tip really is (orward
53
t.
47
or aft) and where the tip would be if it were in
perpendicular position.
A screw propeller may be broadly classified
as
FIXED PITCH OR C
PITCH. The'pitch of a
TR LLABLE
ed pitch p peller
cannot be altered during peration; the p tch of
a controllable pitch pro eller can be dh ged at
any time, subject to bridge or engineroom
control. The controllable pitch propeller can
reverse the direction of a ship without requiring
a change of direction of the drive shaft. The
blades are mounted sd that each one can swivel
or turn on a shaft which is mounted in the hub,
as shown in figure 417. Most propellers in naval
ships are of the fixed pitch type, but some
controllable pitch propellers are in service.
CHAPTER 5
BASIC STEAM CYb.ES
In a dition to knowing hav steam, is
generate , you must know what happens to
the !water and th e. steam circulate' throughout
the entire cycle of operatiOn Vithout eVeribeing
expbsed to the atmosphere.:.,
steam af er it leaves the boiler. One of the best
ways to learn about the'steam plant on your
own ship is to trace the path of steam and water
throughout its entire cycle of operation. In this
chapter, the main steam cycle and the auxiliary
steam.cycle are discussed. In each of these cycles
A discussio follows or the four basicreas
of operation in steam cycle, shown, in figure
5-1: part Agener tion; part Bexpansion; part
Ccondensatio nd part 15feed.
,.***"
amewom
1 I
.0*
doom
1B EXPANSION
A GENERATION
I
IL ER';,.
4
...Nom am.. 1.0100 0101 .. :IMMO
Wry.
INIMM
CRUISING, TURBINE
1.1)GH
I
PRESSURE
I
I
TURBINE
girERtiF ATE?
%.331.111.111.111..A.
IN..; =NM* 111.1. j
..i1'..1%1*;
,0.4/0Mi
.10110
I
I
MAIN FEED
PUMP'
I
I
I
FEED
a
D FEED
.1
BOOSTER
PUMP
01111.11
m.o.. oar.=
aa.o.
CONDENSATE
.
PUMP
AIR
EJECTOR
I
IS CONDENSATE
ONO..
11110111M,
=1.
38.2
Figure 8.1.Diagrammatic, arrengement (the main steam cycle.
48
Cha;ter SBASIC STEAM CYCLES
MAT STEAM CYCLE
GENERATION'
To generate steam, it is first necessary to
heat water to its boiling point and then add a
sufficient amount of heat to change (convert)
the boiling water into steam. The heat. required
to change boiling water into steam, at any given
temperature of. the boiling water, is called the
latent heat of vaporization. When steam
condenses back to water (at boiling point), an
equal amount of heat is given off; it is called the
latent heat of condensation. The amount of heat
required to convert boiling water to steam, or
the amount of heat given; off when steam is
condensed, back to water at -its boiling
temperature, varies with the pressure under
which the Kocess takes place. Part A of figure
5-1 illustrates the generation area of the cycle.
There are definite pressure-temperature
relationships involved in the generatioh of
steam. The boiling point of water is 212° F at
sea level, where the atmospheric pressure is 14.2
psi., At higher altitudes, where atmospheric
pressure is reduced, water boils at a . lower
temperature. If the pressure is increased, the
The` -steani in the steam drum is called
SATURATED STEAMthis is steam which has
not been heated above the temperature of the
water from which it was generated. Saturated
steam Is used aboard ship to operate most of the
auxiliary equipment and also in the various
types of heaters.
It is impossible to raise the temperature of
saturated steam without also increasing the
pressure as long as the steam is in contact with
the water from which it is formed. However, the
steam can be heated above its saturation
tejnperature if it is first drawn off into'another
vessel, where it is no longer in contact with the
water, and if additional heat is applied. Steam
'which has been heated aboye its saturation
temperature is known as SUPERHEATED
STEAM. The device which allows this extra heat
to be added to the steam is known as a
SUPERHEATER. Figure 5-2 shows a simple
form of both a boiler and a superheater.
Most naval propulsion 'boilers are equipped
with superheaters. Superheated steam has many
advantages over saturated steam for use in
propulsion machinery. Because the steam is dry,
it causes relatively little corrosion or erosion of
piping and machinery. In addition, superheated
boiling temperature of water will also be
increased. In a boiler operating under a pressure
of 600 psig, water must be heated to
steam does not conduct heat as rapidly as
approximately 48° F. to make it boil. In boilers
operating under a viciressure of 1000 psig, water
as rapidly. The use of superheated steam for
saturated steam; therefore, it does not lose heat
propulsion purposes greatly increases the overall
efficiency of the engineering plant; this
increased efficiency results in large savings in
must be heated to approximately 544° F to
make it boil. Therefore, the boiling point of
water is determined by the pressure.
fuel consumption, and in space and weight
requirements.
It is important to note that the temperature
of steam is determined by the temperature at
which the water boils, as long as the process is
taking place in a closed vessel or in a closed
system such as a boiler. As long as the pressure
remains constant, steam in contact with the
w&ter from which it is being formed must
remain at the same temperatuit as the ,boiling
water. Therefore, in a boiler operating under a
pressure of 600 psig, the temperature of the
gleam in the stem drum must be approximately
489° Fthe, same temperature as the boiling
Since most auxiliary machinery is designed
to operate on saturated steam, naval boilers are
designed to produce both saturated and '
superheated steam.
EXPANSION
The expansion portion of the main steam
cycle is that part of the. cycle in which steam is
led from the boilers to the main turbines and
expanded in those turbines to remove the heat
water. (The tsteam drurn,of the boiler is a sealed
chamber that holds tne., water and steam.)
energy stored in the steam and to transform that
49
55
FIREMAN
fsunntiu401sT.EAm
SATQRATED.
FEED WATER
SUPERHEATER
FURNACE
GENERATING
FURNACE
Figure 5-2.Elementary boiler and superheater.
THERMOMETER CONNECTION
AUXILIARY EXHAUST
OVERBOARD DISCHARGE
RECIRCULATING
CONNECTION
EXHAUST STEAM
STEAM INLET
INLET
VACUUM ,
AIR
OUTLET
CONNECTION
.
VE T
THERMOMETER
CONNECTION
ZINC PLATE
HOSE
CONNECTION
1!P
IMPINdEMENT BAFFLE
rfr
TUBE SUPPORT/
LUKE OIL
COOLER r
CONNECTION
FIBER
BRINGS
AIR
BAFFLE
CIRCULATING
PUMP
CONNECTION
METALLIC
RINGS
TUBE END DETAIL
HOT
WELL
CONDENSATE
OUTLET
SCOOP INLET
47.70X
Figure 5-3.Cutaway view of a main condenser.
50
56
Chapter 5BASIC STEAM CYCLES
energy into mechanical energy of rotation. The
main steam system is the piping system which
leads the steam from the boilers to the main
turbines.
The 'main turbines generally consist of the
cruising turbine, high pressure turbine, and the
low pressure turbine: The steam may flow into
the cruising turbine, then to the high pressure
turbine and on into the low pressure turbine; or
the cruising turbine may be bypassed. Some
main turbine installations do not have a cruising
turbine. Part B of figure 5-1 illustrates the
expansion portion of the main steam cycle; it
contains the cruising turbine, high pressure
turbine, and low pressure turbine.
water and flows from the main condenser (fig.
5-3) toward the boilers while it is being prepared
for use as feed water.
The several components of the condensate
system, in sequence, from the low pre ure
turbine are: (1) main condenser, (2) gin
condensate pump, and (3) the main, air ejector.
(See fig. 54.) These components are shown in
part C of figure 5-1.
The main condenser receives the steam from
the low pressure turbine and condenses the
steam into water. The main condensate pump
takes suction from the main condenser and
delivers the condensate into the condensate
piping system and through the main air ejector.
As its name implies, the air ejector removes the
CONDENSATION
air that was picked up in the main condenser.
The condensate, after passing through the air
ejector, enters the vent condenser section of the
deaerating feed tank before entering the tank.
Since each ship must produce sufficient
quantities of feed water for the boilers and since
a marine engineering plant must be as efficient
as possible, the feed water must be used over
and over again.
FEED
As the steam leaves or exhausts from the low
pressure turbine, it enters the condensate
The deaerating feed tank (fig. 5-5) is
sometimes considered as the dividing line
system. The condensate system is that part of
the steam cycle in which the steam condenses to
FIRST STAGE
AIR EJECTOR
between condensate and feed water. This tank
SECOND STAGE
IN
EJECTOR
AFTER
CONDE SER
VENT TO
ATMOSPHERE
(VIA
EXHAUST FAN)
AUX. STEAM
AUX. STEAM
EXHAUST
VEN'T
GLAND
EXHAUST
STEAM
11P.
TO
D AERATIND
TANK
DRAIN
CONDENSATE
PUMP
LOOP
REAL
INTER
CONDENSER
CD CONDENSATE
Gn VAPOR
1=1 STEAM
Figure 5-4.Flow diagram of a two-stage air ejector.
51
GLAND
EXHAUST
CONDENSER
47.77X
FIREMAN
SPRAY
VALVES
AIR
OUTLET
RECIRO
LATION.
(
STEAM
I INLET
WATER
INLET
_
21,
VENT.
CONDENSER
toOree'
AIM10,14'.
eee
HIGH
PRESSURE
INA
OEAERATING
UNIT
CtiECK.
VALVE
CONTROL
a
1ga
WATER OUTLET
38.17
Figure 5-5.Deaer tited tank.
58
52
Chapter 5 BASIC STEAM CYCLES
has three basic functions: (1) to free the
condensate of all trapped oxygen and air, (2) to
heat the water to a degree which will allow the
economizer to introduce all the remaining
necessary heat before discharging it to the
beater, and (3) to act as a reservoir in which to
store water to take care of rapid increases in
feed needs and to absorb sudden' increases or
rges of the condensate.
economizer tubes. As .a result the water is
approximately 100° F hotter as it flows out of
the economizer to the boiler.
AUXILIARY STEAM CYCLE
The generation spction of the auxiliary
steam cycle is the same as the main steam cycle.
The main difference is that the auxiliary steam
does not go through a superheater. Therefore,
the auxiliary steam in all cases is a saturated
As the condensate enters the deaerating feed
tank,-it is sprayed into the dome of the tank by
nozzles: Here it is discharged in a fine 'spray
throughout the steam-filled top or preheater.
The break up of the condensate into a fine spray
releases the trapped oxygen and air from the
steam.
Another difference occurs between the
generation and expansion sections. Note that in
figure 5-6, the line that carries the steam to the
condensate. The air-free, oxygen-free condensate
falls to the bottom of the tank, while the air and
oxygen are exhausted from the tank.
auxiliary equipment (where expansion takes
place) has a number of lines leading to various
pieces of equipment such as main feed pumps,
main feed booster pumps, main condensate
The condensate that is collected in the
storage section of the deaerating feed tank is
now called feed water and becomes a source of
supply for the main feed booster pump. The
main feed booster pump takes suction from the
deaerating feed tank and maintains a constant
,
pumps, main tube oil pumps, and steam reducing
valves, just to name a few pieces of equipment,
serviced by the various fap offs. In the main
steam cycle, only the main turbines are serviced
by the main steam line. Another major
difference is that after 'expansion has taken
place, the exhaust steam does not go directly
into the main i5r auxiliary condenser (fig. 5-7)
but goes into an auxiliary exhaust header and
then to either the main or auxiliary condenser
via an unloading valve (fig. 5-8). Normally, in
port the auxiliary steam plant will be used. The
unloading valve associated with the plant that is
in operation will be used. The unloading valve
maintains about 10-15 pounds of exhaust steam
discharge pressure to the main feed pump.
The main feed pump picks up the water
(delivered from the booster pump) and
discharges it into the main -feed piping system.
Part D of figure 5-1 illustrates the path of the
water from the deaerating feed tank to the
economizer. The discharge pressure of the'main
feed pump is usually about 150 psi greater than
the boiler operating pressure. For example, the
discharge pressuce of, a main feed pump,
Aft charging to a Oiler operating at 600 psi, will
normally be 750,..01. The discharge pressure is
42, pressure on the exhaust steam header for plant
efficiency.
maintained throughout the main feed piping
system; however, the quantity of water
is
The condensation section of the steam cycle
the same process in both the main and
auxiliary steam cycles. The system where salt
water is used in a heat ,exchanger (main or
auxiliary condenser) tto turn the low pressure or
exhaust steam back tccondensate for future use
is called a conderming section. The basic
diffIrence is that the main condenser will'not
alwrys be used as a heat sink in the auxiliary
steam cycle. As stated before, in most cases in
port you will be using the auxiliary condenser
and the associated auxiliary equipment will be
used to operate the auxiliary steam plant.
discharged to the economizer is controlled by a
feed stop arid check valve or automatic feed
water regulator valve.
The economizer is positioned on the boiler
'to perform one basic function; that is, to act as a
preheater. The gases of combustion flow around
the economizer tubes hich absorb some of the
eat of combustion, an the economizer in turn
heats the water that is flowing through the
53
59
FIREMAN
2 OtGR** =tom
i worm wpm
2 FtR2 ROOM
FIRE ROOM
AostSio.
Ljt
.
to 4 O.. 0.4
t *trot. 0.1
nini
DEM OPERATED
30.18
Figure 8-6.Adicillary steam system.
GENERATC$,TURIINE EXHAUST INLE
THERMOMETER CONHECTIO
tr
DETAIL OF TUBE ENDS
GENERATOR TURBINE
EXHAUST INLET
STRAINER
CIRCULATING CONNECTION
CONDENSATE OUTLET
RELIEF VALVE
..r." CONNECTION
}-:VIPH.
WATER
`'-"" OUTLET
:11
FEED TANK VENT
EXPANSION JOINT
CONDENSATE PUMP VENT
AIR EJECTOR SUCTION
EVAPORATOR DRAIN
0.1
MAKE UP CONNECTION
FEED WATER
DRAIN TANK VENT
WATER INL
THERMOMETER
CONNECTION
47.71
Figure 5-7.Auxiliary condenser.
54
b
6O
Chapter 5BASIC STEAM CYCLES
'1
GAT VALVE
$TR INER
'A*
UNLOADING
VA VE
.-/TILNJILm
'r
0,1Lifil
7"
NUM.
DIAPHRAGM
*E1Y-PASS
VALVE
MPH AGM
R SEAL
DIAPHRAGM
SPRING
ADJUSTING
SCREW
MANUAL CONTROL
VALVE WHEEL
4
Figure 5- 8.- -Swartwout unloading valve.
The feed system is the same with one major
difference, that is, in port an auxiliary feed
booster pump (electric driven) can be used
instead of the main feed booster punip to take
suction on the deaerating feed tank. This
47.61
auxiliary pump can be used to supply the head
of water to the emergency feed pump (a
reciplTating pump) instead of the main feed
pump which, in turn, will feed the water back
to the boilers to be converted back to steam.
61
55
CHAPTER 6
BOILERS
of ater.) In Addition to these basic functions,
This chapter gives you basic information on
operating principles. We shall
boilers and
th steam drum either contains or is connected
to many of the important controls and fittings
discuss boiler c nstruction and the major parts
and their f ctions. Also, you will find
numerous fire oom safety precautions which
must be observed when boilers are being fired.
required for the operation of the boiler.
)
At the bottom
right side of the boiler you
will find thewater drum and on the bottom left
side is another drum, the header,, or sidewall
header, shown in figure 6-3. The waterdrum is
BOILER ASSEMBLY
larger than the header, but both are smaller than
the steam drum. They equalize the distribution
of water to thegerieiatirig tubes and collect the
e s eam cycle in
A boiler is that part
which water is Converted nto steam. The boiler
eaders and tubes, and
consists of me al drum
ing steam pressure and
accessories fo con
temperature :nd other aspect*, of boiler
operation. Y ,u ill also find a furnace with
casing and u ake; steam and water drums;
deposits of loose scale and other solid matter
which may be present in the boiler water. The
drum and header each has a blowdown valve.
When the valve is opened, some of the water is
forced out of the drum or header and carries the
loose scale, sediment, or dirt with it.
generating, circulation, and water screen tubes; a
superheater; an economizer; and the necessary
At each end of the steam drum are a number
piping and accessories to ensure an ample supply
of fuel, water, and air.
of large tubes (fig. 6-4) that lead to the water
drum and sidewall header. These tubes are the
downcomers through which water flows
downward from the steam drum to the water
A cutaway view of a D-type boiler is shown
in figure 6-1. As we continue our discussion on
boiler assembly, imagine that you are assembling
a similar boiler. As you add each part to your
boiler, follow the line drawing that describes the
position of that part.
drum and the header. The downcomers range
diameter from 3 to 8 inches.
A great number of other tubes also link the
steam drum to the water drum and the steam
drum to the header. The several rows of tubes
that lead from the steam drum to the water
drum are the generating tubes (fig. 6-5) which
The steam drum (fig. k-2) is a cylinder,
located at the top of the boiler, and it runs
lengthwise _from the front to the back of the
are arranged in the furnace so the gases and the
heat of combustion can flow around them. The
large arrows in figure 6-5 show the direction of
flow of the combustion gases.
boiler. The steam drum provides a space for the
accumulation of steam generated in the tubes
and for the separation of moisture from the
steam./It also sery s as a storage space for boiler
water, which is tributed from the steam 'drum
The generating tubes are made of steel that
is strong enough to withstand the high pressures
to the down mer tubes. (During normal
operatiA, the steam dram is kept about half full
56
62
Chapter 6 BOILERS
'SURFACE BLOW 1
!FEED WATER OUTLET)
I OXFFL E MATERIAL I
I AIR !m.o.!.
PLASTIC CHROME ORE I
Ff
I SUP.ERNEATER
124. INSULATING OLOCK
11% SPLIT INSULATING BRICK)
IVSPLIT FIREBRICK
PEED WATER'
INLET
SOT
we
oLOort
I Me PLASTIC FIREORICK
[MS FIREORICK
11,14" INSULATING FIREBRICK!
L.tca:14ItTiplAL
V INSULATING OLOCK 1
?IS FIREBRICK
INSULATING BLOCK
2/3"INSULATING FIREORICK
PLASTIC CHROME ORE )
I l'INSULATING BLOCK )
Figure 6-1.Cutaway view of a D-type boiler (older type).
63
57
38.40
FIREMAN
T~
77
i
END VIEW
SIDE VIEW
139.13
Figure 6-2.Steam drum.
OOWNCOMERS
139.15
Figure 6-4.Addition of downcomer tubes.
BOTTOM
BLOW DOWN VALVE
OOWNCOMERS
139.14
Figure 6.3. Steam drum, water drum and header.
and te peratu es within the boiler. In most
boilers these to
are usually 1 to 2 inches in
diameter, but there may be some that are 3
inches. These small tubes present a large surface
area to absorb the heat in the furnace. Note that
a 2-inch tube has twice the surface area of a
1-inch tube, but four times the volume. A 3-inch
tube has 3 times the surface area of a 1-inch
tube, but 9 times the volume. The smaller the
. diameter of the tube, the higher is the ratio of
absorption surface to the volume of water.
Normally there is only one row of generating
139.16
Figure 6-5.Adding generating tubes and furnace area.
tubes leading from the steam drum to the
58
64
Chapter 6BOILERS
sidewall header. These are the sidewall (water
wall) tubes which provide, a cooling effect to
protect the side wall of the furnade.
So far we have assembled the drums, header,
downcomers, and the generating tubes. Before
going any further with the assembly, let us trace
the path of the water through the boiler. The
water flows out of the steam drum down
through the downcomers into the water drum
and the sidewall header. As the water is heated it
forms a vapor (steam) that is lighter than the
water in which it is contained. The steam rises
through the generating tubes and returns to the
steam drum. The arrows in figure 6-6 show the
circulation path of the boiler water as it leaves 4.
the steam drum and as it returns to the steam
drum as steam.
The furnace, or firebox (fig. 6-5) is the large,
room-like kpace where air and fuel are mixed for
the combustion of the fuel (fire). The fire heats
the water that
is
headers.
38.40
in the drums, tubes, and
Figure 6-7.Refractory lined furnace.
The furnace is more or less a rectangular
steel casing which is lined on the floor, front
wall, side walls, and rear wall with refractory
(heat resisting) material. Refractory materials
1
used in naval boilers include firebrick, insulating
brick, plastic firebrick, and air-setting mortar.
The refractory lining protects the furnace
steel casing and prevents the loss of heat from
the furnace. The refractories retain heat for a
relatively long period of time and thus help to
maintain the high furnace temperatures that are
needed for complete combustion of the fuel.
Figure 6-7 shows a refractory lined furnace.
COOLER WATER
FLOWS DOWN
MIXTURE Of
HOT WATER
AND STEAM
FLOWS UP
There are many different types of
refractories. Each type is used according to its
physical and chemical properties which
determine the refractory's location within the
furnace. Some refractory materials can
withstand greater temperatures than others and
are positioned nearer to the intense heat of the
HOT
GASES
fire.
In chapter 5 you discovered that an
economizer is positioned on the boiler (fig. 6-8)
139.17
Figure 6-6.--Natural circulation (accelerated type).
where it acts as a pre-heater. It absorbs heat
59
65
FIREMAN
One more basic component is needed to
0 00
1000
complete the water-steam flow path-. From your
study of the steam cycle do you remember what
that"' component might be? In chapter 5 you
were told that the steam, as it leaves the steam
drum on its way to the main turbines, passes
000
through a superheater.
The superheater (fig. 6-1Q) is constructed)af
a number of U-shaped tubes which are insta ed
horizontally projecting forward into the furnace.
The superheater tubes are connected to the
superheater headers which are installed vertically
at the rear of the boiler; one end of the tube
enters one header and the other end of the tube
enters the other header. (Some supeIheaters are
of the vertical type with horizontal headers.)
positioned in
The superheater tubes are
the boiler that they are SUff0 nded by the
generating' tubes. They are also pla d so the hot
gases of combustion flow over and arou d them.
Figure 6-11 shows the relative position of the
superheater tubes installed -irr the boiler. You
have now assembled the major parts of the
boiler. Look again at the assembled boiler shown
139.18
Figure 6-8.Relative position of economizer.
in figure 6-1. Identify the component parts and
review their functions.
FUEL OIL BURNERS
Now that you have assembled the major
11.1P1.4eqleitittiliiii
components of the basic boiler, you are ready to
inject the fuel and air into the furnace where
combustion takes place. Look at the fuel oil
burners that are mounted on, the boiler front
(fig. 6-12). The complete burner assembly
consists of the atomizer, the air registers, and
the valves and fittings needed to connect the
ittirkt
,"14t1i1110141!"
A
1:111
LIU
atomizer to the fuel line.
ATOMIZERS
38.28
Figure 6-9.U-bend economizer tube with aluminum
gill rings.
The atomizers divide or break up the fuel oil
Itom the gases of combustion and in tarn
into very fine particles as illustrated in figure
6-13. There are three major types of atomizers
in use on naval boilers. Straight-through-flow
est shi s. The
atomizers are found in the
used on
return-flow atomizers (fig. 6-13)
many of the newer ships; you may also find
steam-aisist atomizers on some cof the newer
transfer the heat to the incoming feed water.
ships.
from.the furnace and transmits this heat to the
incoming feed water. The economizer is made
up of a number of tubes which are illustrated in
figure 6-9. The fins on the tube absorb the heat
60
66.
Chapter 6BOILERS
SUPERHEATER
HEADERS
.
SUPERHEATER
HEADERS
SATURATED
STEAM
INLET
ItIt PASS
DRAIN
SUPERHEATER
TUBES
2nd PASS
VENT
rd PASS
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
OUTLET
B
DRAIN
DRAIN
Figure 6-10.Diagrammatic arrangement of superheater.
38.23
ECONOMIZER
I
\
i©©©©!
©C)
©@ OC)
i ®@ ©®
160 ©©I t
©©0©
//
wATER WALL
WATER
TUBES
463
/Jo/
1
/c
/ors/
/4./ /
/0 '
/// i/
,/,/ ,
SUPERHEATER
TUBES
GENERATING
TUBES
SIDE WALL
HEADER
WATER DRUM
38.70
Figure 6-12.Babcock an d Wilco
aroline -type fuel
oil burners installed on a boiler front.
38.39
Figure 6-11.Relative position of superheater tubes.
4-
61
67
FIRQAN
ORIFICE
PLATE
SPRAYER
PLATE
ATOMIZER
NUT
DISTRIBUTOR
HEAD
.14
NOZZLE
BODY
I GOOSE NECK I
11111111111111111141111111,
IATOMIZER
iy .r
101 OMAHA
ASSEMBLY
-.5414A112"17
tt'AfrAe
dint".4111111illIll 11101 11111111lilimi,
nektklatitkav
OIL LEAVING
e°
ORIFICE
WHIRLING
CHAMBER
OIL RETURN
' /7,
OIL
SUPPLY
/f.
ATOMIZER
BARREL
38.75
[NOZZLE
Figure 6-13.Return-flow atomizer.
I SPRAYER PLATE'.
Figu)re
6-14 shows an atomizer of the
straight through -flow 'type. It consists of five
major Parts: the tip, sprayer plate; nozzle,
38.71
Figure 6-14.Parts of a straight-through-flow
burner b\a,rrel, and the gooseneck. The nozzle,
sprayer plap, and tip assembly fit on the end of
the burner barrel which projects into the
furnace. The gooseneck fits on the outer end of
the burner barrel. Fuel oil enters the atomizer
assembly through the gooseneck and is sprayed
into the furnace.
atomizer assembly.
These grooves are so shaped that the oil is given'
a high rotational velocity as it discharges into a
small cylindrical whirling chamber in the center
of the sprayer plate.
The whirling chamber is cone-shaped at the
end and has as opening (orifice) at the small end
of the cone. The oil leaves the chamber through
AIR REGISTERS
the orifice and is broken. up into very fine
Air enters the furnace through the air
register where it mixes with the fine oil spray
particles to form a cone-shaped fog-like spary. A
strong blast of air, which has been given a
whirling motion in its passage through the
register, catches the oil fog and mixes with it.
The mixture of air and oil enters the furnace
which entered through the atomizer. Figure 6-15
shows the arrangement of air register part's in a
burner assembly. The air register consists of
three main parts: (1) air doors, (2) a diffuser,
where combustion takes place.
and (3) air foils. The air doors are used/to open
or close the register as necessary. They are
usually kept either, fully opened or fully closed.
When the air doors are open, air rushes"fn and is
given a whirling motion by the diffuser plate.
The diffuser plate causes the ,air to rpix evenly
with the atomized oil in such a wa g/. that the
CLASSIFICATION OF BOILERS
Naval boilers may be classifr.d in a number
of different ways, according to various design
features. Some knowledge of these methods of
flame will not blow away from the atomizer.
The air foils guide the major quantity of air so
that it mixes with the larger particles of oil spray
beyond the diffuser.
classification will help you understand the
- design and construction of modem naval boilers.
LOCATION OF FIRE
AND WATER SPACES
Oil is forced under pressure through the
burner barrel. It goes through "the holes in the
_First of all, boilers are classified according to
nozzle (fig. 6-16A) into the tangential grooves of
the relative location of their fire and water
the rear side of the sprayer plate (fig. 6-16B).
62
68
Chapter 6BOILERS
INNER CASING
t
BURNER
BARREL
OUTER CASING
AIR DOOR HANDLE
II
STATIONARY
AIR FOILS
I
=1....
:=W41)..4
BURNER CONE OPENING I i<
a
GOOSE NECK
I
IV
py 's.sizzY9
"se
114
OW -NIA
YOKE
DISTANCE PIECE
MOVABLE AIR DOORS
DIFFUSER
PLATE.
INNER CASING
OUTER CASING (BOILER FRONT)
BURNER (SIDE VIEW)
BURNER BARREL
BURNER COVER PLATE
AIR (;.:IOR HANDLE
ATOMIZER VALVE
re
BURNER (FRONT VIEW)
Figno 6-15.Cross-sectional view of Babcock and Wilcox Carolina-type fuel oil burner with
sCeight-through -flow atomizer.
-69
63
Air
38.69
FIREMAN
NOZZLE
HOLE S
DISHED AND
ROUNDED FACE
A
FLAT FACE
7
J
38,/2X
:Mt
Figure 6-16.Nozzle and spreyor plate showing holos, groove and whirling chombor.
of some older merchant ships. However, these
boilers are not suitable for use on modern naval
shipsecause of their excessive weight and size,
the excessive length of time required to raise
steam, and thAjnability to meet demands for
rapid speed chitges./
spaces. By this method of classification, all
boilers may be divided into two groups:
fire-tube boilers and water-tube boilers. In
FIRE-TUBE BOILERS, the gases of combustion
flow through the tubes and heat the surrounding
water. In WATER TUBE BOILERS, the.,:water
flows through the tubes and is heated by the
TYPES OF CIRCULATION
gases of combustion that fill the furnace.
All boilers used in propulsion plants of naval
Water-tube boilers are --also classified
according to the type of circulation. Natural
ships are water-tube boilers. Fire-tube boilers,
which were once used extensively in marine
installations, are still used in propulsion plants
circulation boilers are those
in which the
411,'
64
70
Chapter bBOILERS
circulation of water depelids on the difference in
density betWeen a rising mixture of hot water
and steam,.and a falling body of relatively cool,
steam-free -water: The difference in density
occurs because the water expands as it is heated,
thus becoming less dense. There are two types of
this type of superheater is uncommon at the
present time, it may be used again in future
boiler designs.
FURNACE ARRANGEMENT
natural circulationfree and accelerated.
Aknatuml circulation boilers now in naval
use may also be classified according to the
In. FREE CIRCULATION BOILERS, the
tubes which connect the lower and upper drums
or headers are 'only slightly inclined to allow the
-lighter hot water and steam to rise while the
heavier and cooler water descends. Installing the
generating tubes at a greater angle of inclination
increases the rate of water circulation.
Therefore, boilers.in which the tubes slope more
steeply between the water drums or headers and
the steam drum are ACCELERATED
furnace arrangement. By this classification,
boilers are either SINGLE-FURNACE BOILERS
or
DOUBLE-FURNACE BOILERS.
Double-furnace boilers are also referred to as
DIVIDED- FURNACE BOILERS.
OTHER NAVAL BOILERS
There are many different kinds of boilers
used in naval ships. Earlier in this chapter yc5u
studied and assembled the 600 psi D-type boiler.
The other boiler used in naval ships is the 1200
psi boiler shown in figure 6-17. Ngtice that this
boiler is very similar to the boiler shown in
CIRCULATION BOILERS.
Most modern naval boilers are designed for
accelerated natural circulation. In such boilers,
large tubes (3 inches or more in diameter) are
installed between the steam drum and the water
drums. We discussed, these large tubes, the
figure 6-1. However, the boiler in figure 6-17 has
some special operating and design features which
w assembled the boiler
downcomers when we
make it' different from the one shown in figure
6-1. A relatively new boiler that is presently
installed on some new constructico of the DE
1040 class ship is the pressure fired boiler shown
in figure 6-18. Since the pressure fired boiler is
used for propulsion only, those ships that have a
rffssure fired boiler installed also have an
earlier in this chapter. The .downck:rri l'ers, are
located outside the furnace (fig. 6-1) and away
from the heat of combustion, thereby serving as
pathways for the downward flow of relatively
cool water. The small tubes, the generating
tubes, then carry the steam and water upward.
auxiliary boiler.
Auxiliary boilers are not generally used on
seam -driven ships tbecaute, all steam for
auxiliary service is taken from the
propulsion-plant boilers. Auxiliary boilers are a
wide variety of small boilers that are used in
diesel -driven ships to supply steam or hot watet
for distilling plants, space heating, galley and
laundry services. Auxiliary boilers contain their
own accessories and controls and operate as a
TYPE OF SUPERHEATER
Oi
the
practically all boilers currently used in
propulsion plants of naval ships,
the
superheater tubes are protected from radiant
heat by water screen tubes. These tubes absorb
the intense radiant heat of the furnace, and the
superheater tubes are heated by convection
currents rather than by. direct radiation. Hence,
the superheaters are referred to as
complete self-contained unit. The three basic
types of auxiliary boilers in naval use are (1),
CONVECTION-TYPE SUPERHEATERS.
fire-tube boilers (fig. 6-19), (2) water-tube
boilers with natural circulation (fig. 6-20), and
On some older boilers, the superheater tubes
(3) water-tube boilers with faced circulation
w re not screened by water screen tubes but
(fig. 6-21).
we e exposed directly to the radiant heat of the
fu ace. Superheaters of this type are called
.
R DIANT-TVPE SUPERHEATERS. Although
Generally, operating pressures of auxiliary
boilers range from 50 psi to 125 psi. Most
65
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9 -7"
Chapter 6BOILERS
139.19
Figure 6-18.Pressure fired boiler.
67
FIREMAN
1r
139.20
Figure 6-19.Fire-tube auxiliary boiler.
operating and maintenance procedures for main
propulsion boilers are also applicable to
auxiliary boilers.
than boilers which operate at lower pressures
and temperatures. Boilers operating at 4500 psi
and above are now, in use in some stationary
power plants. For naval propulsion
boilers, such pressuKs are not practicable at the
steam
present time. However, a number of boilers,
operating at 1200 psi pressure and at 950° F,
NEW HIGH-PRESSURE
BOILERS
been installed on new naval ships.
Increasing use of these boilers will be made.
A HIGH-PRESSURE BOILER is any boiler
that operates at 700 psi or above. The
HIGH-PRESSURE, D-TYPE BOILER is
have
The modern trend in boiler design is toward
higher 'Pressures and temperatures. High pressure
boilers are smaller, lighter, and more economical
in
fuel usage, in any given shaft horsepower,
.7-
68
4
/
Chapter 6- BOILERS
139.21
Figure 6-
Assembly view, water-tube auxiliary boiler (natural circulation).
69
t)
FIREMAN
precautions that your petty officers will- tell
you.
A few important safety precautions are
listed here; your petty officers will instruct you
in many more:
1. Do not open or close any valve you are
not told to open or close.
2.
Do not play games of any kind in the
fireroom.
3. Do not leave tools lying around the
fireroom; always return them to their proper
stowage.
Observe the following precautions when
lighting off a boiler:
I.
Remove stack cover.
Run the water level down until it is
below lighting off level and, then, add water
with the emergency feed pump until it is at
2.
lighting off level.
139.22
Figure 6-21.Amernbly view, water-tuba auxiliary
boiler (forced circulation).
3. Always purge the f
off the first burner.
4. Stand well cl ar when inserting and
withdrawing the torch.
natural circulation boiler that is the same as the
D-type boiler, wept that it has been modified
Observe the following precautions during
for higher operatin g pressures.
°
boiler operation:
I. Never leave disconnected atomizers in
place. /
FIREROOM SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS
2. Keep the atomizer root valves closed to
secured burners, except during maneuvering.
Safety precautions are for your protection as
well as for the protection of machinery and
equipment.
When
working
e before lighting
in
a
steaming
3. Test the drain from the oil heater once
fireroom, 'you should be fully clothed. The
each hour.
valves, pipes and exposed metal in flrerooms are
always hot and'will burn the flesh and leave a
scar. Not only should you keep your shirt on,
4. Blow through the gage glasses once each
watch.
but you should also keep your shirt sleeves
rolled down. Whenever you are assisting in
5.
lighting off or securing boilers, or just generally
working in the fireroom, pay strict attention to
posted safety precautions and to those
6. Wipe up spilled oil at once.
76
i`
Poke through the burner drain holes
once each watch.
70
-/-*/
Chapter 6BOILERS
Observe the
allowing safety precautions
2. Remove atomizers from registers as soon
as -possible after securing.
when securing a boiler:
1.
3. Close all openings to the furnace as soon
as all atomizers have been extinguished.
In shutting down a fireroom, do not
close the master oil valve until the fuel oil pump
4. Pump the water level to three-fourths
is secured,
glass on cutting out a boiler,
77
71
CHAPTER 7
STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
We have discussed the basic steam cycle and
various turbine propulsion units. In this chapter
we shall discuss the components insde the casing
of the turbines and reduction gears so that you
will have a basic understanding of how the
stored energy (heat) in steam is transformed into
the mechanical energy (work) of rotation.
CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES
Turbines may be classified in four ways:
By the manner in which the steam causes
the turbine rotor to rotate.
2. By the type of staging and compounding
of steam pressure and velocity.
1.
3. By the division of the steam flow.
4. By the direction of the steam flow.
TURBINES
The development of steam power was built
around the reciprocating engine; however, the
earliest steam engine operated on the TURBINE
prniciple. Almost 2,000 years as Hero, a Greek
mathematician built a small steam turbine and
demonstrated that steam power could be used to
operate other machinery (fig. 7-1). Hero's
turbine consisted of a hollow sphere which
carried four bent nozzles. The sphere rotated
freely on two tubes that carried steam from the
boiler. Steam generated iu the boiler passed
upward through the tubes and into the sphere
and out through the nozzles. As the steam left
the nozzles, the sphere rotated rapidly.
Down through the ages the turbine principle
has been applied to many different types of
machines. The water wheel that was used to
operate the flour mills in colonial times, the
common windmill used to oump water, and the
two-bladed windmill Used to charge batteries are
.all examples of the turbine principle. In these
examples the power is derived from the effect of
the wind or a stream of water on a set of blades
attached to a wheel. In the steam turbine,
steam under pressure serves the same purpose as
We %Lind or the flowing water in the other types.
139.23
Figure 7- .Hero's steam Turbine.
72
78
(
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
Under each of these classifications, there are
several types of turbines, some of which are
described briefly in the following paragraphs.
pulse Turbines ,
The energy to rotate an impvilse turbine is
derived from the kinetic energy of a steam jet or
some other rapidly moving fluid. The term
"impulse" means that the force which turns the
turbine comes from the impact of the rapidly
moving fluid. The toy pinwheel (figl 7-2) can be
used to study some of the basic principles of
turbines. When you blow on the rim of the
wheel, it spins rapidly. The harder you blow, the
faster it turns. The steam turbine operates on
the same principle, except that instead of the air
you were blowing, it uses the high pressure
steam from the ship's boiler.
The impulse turbine consists essentially of a
rotor or spindle mounted on a shaft that is free
to rotate in a set of bearings. The outer rim of
NOZZLE NO.4
the spindle carries a set of curved blades, and the
whole assembly is enclosed in an airtight case.
Several nozzles direct the steam against the
bladespd turn the spindle (fig. 7-3).
33.46
Figure 7-3.A simple impulse turbine.
STEAM NOZZLES (hereafter referred to as
its pressure is reduced, but its velocity is greatly
nozzles or stationary blades) are connected to
increased. The potential energy of the steam
the line that carries high pressure steam from the
boiler. As the steam passes through each nozzle,
under pressure is converted to kinetic energy in
the high-speed jets emerging from the nozzles.
These jets are directed against the turbine blades
and turn the spindle. 'In other words, the
velocity of the steam is reduced in passing over
the blades, and some of its kinetic energy is
transferred to the blades as a force to turn the
spindle. The modern impulse turbine operates
on the same general principle as the model just
described, but it has many refinements.
COMPOUND TURBINES have several rows
of revolving blades with stationary nozzles or
blades mounted between each row. As the steam
passes throukh the first stage, it moves faster in
the nozzles and slows down while going through
the moving blades. The second set of nozzles
speeds the steam up again, making additional
kinetic energy available for the second row of
139.24
Figure 7-2.The toy pinwheel operates on the impulse
turbine principle_
moving blades. This sequence continues through
all of the successive stages until ate pressure is
,,)
3
79
FIREMAN
NOZZLE
-------
STEAM
CHEST
EXHAUST
ROTOR
EQUALIZING
HOLE
SHAFT
GLAND
KEY.
// /
%ri/iirrr
SHAFT
GLAND
1,0,10
----0
smA
tFaaaan.t t 0..1110,1
139.25
Figure 7-4.A velocity compounded impulse turbine
with a reduction gear.
38.78X
Figure 7-5.Impulse turbine.
reduced -to the point that it would not be
easible to take any more energy from it.
rings keep the steam from escaping through tie
The velocity compound impulse turbine
show in figure 7-4 has two rows of moving
blades. Steain enters through the inlet, flows
shown on the turbine in figure 7-4 later in the
chapter. It consists of a pinion gear (attached to
thc spindle shaft) an4a much larger bull gear.
Because of its larger diameter, the bull gear
rotates much more slowly than the high-speed
shaft bearing. We shall discuss the reduction gear
through the governor valve, and passes through
the stationary nozzles. The steam undergoes a
large pressure drop and a large velocity increase
turbine.
out of the nozzles. The steam then enters the
first row of moving (rotor) blades, attached to
Impulse turbines are used in the Navy to
drive the forced draft blowers and most of the
the rotor where there is a de ease in velocity. It
then flows through the stationary blades or
feed water and fuel pumps. They have few
guide blades. There is neither a pressure drop
nor a velocity increase while the steam goes
through the stationary blades. The stationary
blades, attached to the turbine casing, merely
provide a place for the steam to reverse its flow
before it enters the next row of moving blades.
moving parts, are lightweight, do not take up
mucKace, and run with very little vibration.
In an impulse turbine, a STAGE is defined as
one set of nozzles and the succeeding row or
rows of moving and fixed blades. Another way
to define a stage is that is includes the nozzles
and blading in which only one pressure drop
takes place. (In an impulse turbine, remember,
The steam then enters the second row of moving
blades where there is also a decrease in velocity.
The velocity is so reduced that by the time tie
steam reaches the exhaust, molsk of the energy
the only pressure
nozzles. Therefore,
has been used to turn the spindle.
The shaft of the spindle revolves in bearings
supported by the turbine casing. Carbon packing
drop takes piaci in the
the number of sets of
nozzles in an impulse turbine indicates the
number of stages.)
74
s0
.1.1.11111111.1r11,11,..
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
\
impulse stages in one casing. The casing .is
internally-divided by diaphragms which contain
nozzles so that the residual steam pressure of
one stage is utilized in the following stage.. This
type of turbine is known as a
PRESSURE-COMPOUNDED IMPULSE
TURBINE because a pressure drop occurs in
each stage, as the steam expands through each
set of nozzles. Figure 7-7 shows a
pressure-compounded impulse turbine with four
ROTOR
EQUALIZING
HOLE
stages.
SHAFT
GLAND
SHAFT
GLAND
;.,
.1 0.
,,
/pr:,
,
Reaction Turbines
,
/
The ancient turbine built by Hero operated
on the reaction principle. Hero's turbine was
invented long before Newton's time, but it was a
working model of Newton's third law of motion
Which states: FOR EVERY! ACTION THERE
1111It
MUST BE AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE
REACTION. On first thought, you may find it
difficult to accept this statement on its face
value. However, let us look at some more
38.79X
Figure 7-6.Velocity-compounded impulse turbine.
understandable samples of Newton's theory.
Figure 7-5 shows a SIMPLE IMPULSE
If you set An electric fan off a roller skate, it
will take off across the table (fig. 7-8). The fan
TURBINE. This turbine has one stage, consisting
of one set of nozzles and 6ne row of moving
blades mounted on the rotor. Simple impulse
turbines do not completely utilize the velocity
of the steam, and are therefore not very
pushes the sir forwArd and sets tip a breeze
(velocity); the air is also puShing backward on
the fan with an equal force, but in an opposite
direction. You enjoy- Th*1:k breeze that is blowing
efficient.
One way to increase the efficiency of a
single-stage impulse turbine is to add another
roerar even two more rows) of moving blades
-to the rotor wheel. Figure 7-6 shows a turbine
which has two rows of moving blades. This type
turbine is a VELOCITY-COMPOUNDED
IMPULSE TURBINE because the lowered
velocity of the steam leaving the first row of
moving blades, is used in the second row of
moving blades; and, if a third row iS added, the
additionally lowered velocity of the steam is
used again in the third row. The fixed blades,
which are fastened to the casing rather than t
the rotor, serve only to direct the steam
froA
from
riQ
l
one row of moving blades to another.
Another way to increase the efficiency of an
impulse turbine is to arrange two or more simple
38.80X
Figure 7- 7. Pressure-compounded impulse turbine.
75
,
it
FIREMAN
that in an impulse turbine the nozzles increase
the velocity of the steam and transform the
potential energy of the steam under pressure
Li into kinetic energy in the steam jet. A forward
force must be applied to the steam to increase
its velocity as it passes through the nozzle. From
Newton's third lawoof motion you have seen
that the steam"jet everts a force on the nozzle
and an equal reactive force on the turbine blades
in the opposite direction; this is the force that
139.26
Figure 7-8.The reaction of the air on the bladg
chives the turbine.
rolls the electric fan across the sable.
In the reaction turbine, stationary blades
attached to the turbine casing act as nozzles and-
direct the steam to the moving blades. The
moving blades are mounted on the rotor. Most
reaction turbines have several stages, with
alternate rows of stationary and moving nozzle
blades.
The "kickback" or reaction force generated
by the nozzle blades can be demonstrated by a
toy balloon. Blow up the balloon and toss it into
the air. The air will rush out through the
opening and the balloon will shoot off in the
opposite direction (fig. 7-9).
139.27
Figure 7-9.A toy balloon demonstrates the
7' "kickback" or reaction principle.
YWheri you fill the balloon with air, you have
rtate,ntial energy in the increased air pressure
inside. When you let the air escape it is speeded
up (velocity) as it passes out, through the small,
opening; this represents a transformation from
potential to kinetic energy. The force applied to
the air to speed it up is accompanied by a
from the front of the fan, but the breeze
produces an opposite force on the back side of
reaction in the opposite direction. This reactive
force propels the balloon forward through the
air.
the blades to move the fan backward.
When yOu try to push a car, you may not
know it but, you are pushing back with your
feet as hard as you are pushing forward with
your hands. Try it scimetime when you are
standing on an icy road. You will not be able to
move the car . unless you Ikon dig in with your
feet to exert the backward force. With a little
You probably think that the force that
makes the balloon move forward comps from,
Ole jet of air blowing against the air in the room,
but this is not so. It is the reaction of the force
it talfes to increase the velocity (speed) of the air
as it papes out through the - opening. The
balloon would .travel even faster if'it were in a
thought on your part you should be able to
come up with enough examples to prove to
yourself that Newton's third law .of motion
vacuum. Try it the next time you are near a
holds true under all clidumstances.
.The reaction turbine (fig. 7-10) has tall the
advantages of the impulse'type turbine, plus a
The reaction turbine uses the reaction of a
steam jet to drive the spindle. You have learned
9 76
82
balloon.
slc&ver operating 4speecl and greater efficiency.
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
The several stages through which the steam
passes gradually reduce the steam pressure until
practically ,off of the energy has been converted
to power. When a reaction turbine is operated in
conjunction with a condenser,. the exhaust
pressure of the turbine is only a smAll fraction of
the normal atmospheric pressure. The steam
gradually expands as it passes through the
successive stages. Therefore, the length of the
blades is increased in each succeeding stage to
compound the total pressure drop into as many
steps as there are rows of fixed and moving
blades. This pressure staging lowers the steam
velocity in each stage.
CONSTRUCTION OF TURBINES
Other than the contrcls, similar turbine parts
are found in both the impulse,and the reaction
turbines, slick! as foundations, casings, nozzles
(or stationary blades), rotors, Movabli blades,
take care of the additional volume of steam
caused by this expansion.
bearings, shaft glands, and gland seals.
Brkfly, let us compare- the impulse turbine
and the reaction turbine. In the impulse turbine
you learned that the steam pressure drops
ONLY in the nozzles.
Foundations
Turbine foundations are built up from a
structural foundation in the hull to provide a
In the reaction turbine,-the steam pressure,
drops 'successively in each row of blades
whether fixed or moving. The combination of a
row of fixed blades and a row of moving blades
in these .turbines is sometimes referred to as a
DOUBLE STAGE (also known as
a
rigid supporting base. All turbines are subjected
to varying degrees of temperaturefrom that
exiling during a secured condition to that
existir g during full-power operation. Therefore,
jtame means 'must be provided to allow for
sing
expansion and contraction.
REACTION STAGE).
All
reaction
turbines
are
Normally., the after end of the turbine is
firmly secured by bolts to the structural
foundation. The bolts have shanIts which are
fitted to the exact size of the holes in which
they are placed. The tight fit thus prevents
motion of any kind.
pressure
'-ornpounded. The PRESSURE-COMPOUNDEb
REACTION TURBINE has alternate rowsr-or
of fixed and moving blades, which
'stages,
LOW PRESSUR
At the forward end of the turbine, there are
tw9 ways to give freedom of momement. Either
elongated bolthbles or grooved sliding seats are
used so the forward ena bf jhe turbine can move
fore and aft, as eithei expansion or c_9traction,
respectively,yikes piaci.
ELEMENT
ASTERN ELEMENT
Casings
Turbine -casings are generally constructed of
cast carbon steel. However, for tukbines that use
superheated steam with temperaWires of more
than 65091Vonthe 'casings are generally cast or
fabricated from carbon molybdenum steel or
chromium molybdenum steel. Each casing has a
steam chest to receive j the incoiliiir high
pressure steam which it.delivers to the" first set'
139.28X
Figure 7-10.A low pressure Peaction turbine with
ar
the upper half of the case removed.
of rrozzles ots blades.
77
FIREMAN
Nozzles
The primary funs
Movable Blades
n of the, nozzles is to
convert the thermal energy of steam into kinetic
energy. The secondary function of the nozzles is
The blades are secured to the turbine casings
and rotors b' various methods. Some ¶f the
methods of securing turbine blading are
illustrated in figure 7-13, parts A through D. The
straight circumferential dovetail (part A). is
groups or blocks with each group being
primarily" used to secure rotor bladei. The
controlled by a separate nozzle control valve.
inverted circumferential dovetail (part B) is used
The amount of steam delivered to each stage ' to secure blading in most impulse turbines. The
thus becomes the function of each of the
side-locking key piece method (part C), which is
nozzles and nozzle control valves in each group
used only on casing blades, consists of driving a
or block. A diagrammatic arrangement of a
locking key piece between the blade root and a
nozzle group is shown in figure 7-1-1 .
groove in the casing. The sawtooth serration
to direct the steam against the blades. In most
modern turbines the Rozzles are made up into
method (part D) is used for both rotor and
Rotors
casing blades.
Rotors (forged wheels and shaft) are Made
of carbon steel when used with:s)team of
Bearings
temperature of the steam will be greater than
The rotor of every turbine must be
supported in bearings, which serve a (Jou*
purpose. The bearings ( I) carry the weight of
relatively low temperatures. Howev , when the
650° F, the rotors are made of carbon
molybdenum of some uther creep- resistant
alloy. In all types of turbines, the primary
purpose of the rotor is to carry- the moving
blades which receive the energy from the steam
the rotor and (2) maintain the corsed radial
clearance between rotor and casing. AU main
turbines, and most auxiliary units,
to turn the turbine shaft. A rotor without the
have a
bearing at each end of the rotor.
blades is shown in figure 7 -I 2.
Bearings are generally classified as sliding
surface (sleeve and thrust) or as rolling contact
(antifriction).
All propulsion and most auxiliary turbine
installations are equipped' with sleeve bearings,
which ark of two types: cylindrical and
NOZZLE
CONTROL
VALVES
+lb
0
-47.13X
47.15X
Figure 7-12.Turbine motor l4ithout tllades.
Figure 7-11.Diagram of a nozzle group.
78
84
Chapter 7 STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
F`
BLADE
BLADE
WHEEL
WHEEL
CAULKING PIECE
LABYRINTH
SHROUDING
LOCKING
TURBINE
CASING
KEY
PIECE
CASING
ROTOR
77;
4f//4,>%
N.4
Figure 7-13.Methods of securing blading.
79
R
el
FIREMAN
turbine, usually just forward of the forward
turbine bearing. A thrust bearing is also installed
on the propeller shaft either at the forward end
esm
of the main reduction bull gear or in the
UPPER HALF
propeller line shafting abaft (behind) the gear, to
take the thrust of the propeller. Except that the
propeller thrust bearing is' much larger, the
OUTLe TS, TO
SIGHT FLOW AND
THenuomeren
DAM
design of turbine thrust bearings and propeller
thrust bearings Much the same. Some thrust
bearings are lubricated by the sane lubricating
oil system which suptIlies oil tO-kthe turbine
DRAINS
-- bearings and reduction `gears. Some )ships have
separate thrust bearings aft of the reduction
gear; this arrangement has its own lube oil
system. An assembled thrust bearing element is
shown in figure 7-15.
Rolling Contact (antifriction) bearings
include ball and roller bearings which are used
98.3X
ott some small auxiliary units.
Figure 7-14. A typical propulsion turbine joumcl
bearing.
Shaft Glands
spherical-seated. A typical cylindrical journal
Shaft glands are used to prevent leaking of
bearing is shown in figuie 7-14.
THRUST BEARINGS take care of any axial
thrust, which may exist in a turbine rotor, and
also hold the turbine rotor within certain'
definite axial clearances. Thrust bearings are
steam from the turbine casing at the points
where the shaft extend through the casing. The
shaft glands on auxiliary turbines. have a gland
housing which may be either a part of the
turbine casing or a separate housing bolted to
installed on all main turbines on one end of the
the,
casing.
Two
types
of packing are
PACKING
is
STRIP
OR FIN
IA0)10104. I:.3 pi..
1=7_
SHAFT
CARS
BLOCK
10
0
ola
N
r,...\.
Mr=
PAOtI G
I
CKING
RING
t
....\
Ma=
KEY
"'AO..
-0
11
41°-
SHAFT
47.17X
Figure 7- 16. Turbine motor shaft glands:
A. Labyrinth packing gland; B. Carbon packing gland..
139.29X
Figure 7-15.Assembled thrust bearing element.
I
80
86
.
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
usedlabyrinth packing and carbon packing,
which may be used either separately or in
combination.
GLANb SEALING STEAM
AT 2 poi
;
Labyrinth packing, shown in figure 7-16A,
consists of rows of metallic strips or fins. The
I
strips are so fastened to the gland liner that
SHAFT
there is a very small space between the strips and
the shaft. As the steam from the turbine casing
leaks through
the small space between the
47.10X
Figure 7-17.A turbine steam reading gland.
packing strips and the shaft, steam pressure is
gradually reduced.
Carbon packing rings, shown in figure 7-16B,
restrict the passage of steam along the shaft in
much the same manner as do the labyrinth
packing
strips. Carbon packing trigs are
mounted around the shaft and held in place by
springs. Three or four carbon rings are generally
used in each gland. Each ring is fitted into a
separate compartment of the gland housing, and,
each ring consists of two, three, or four
segments which are butt-jointed to each other.
These segments are held together by a garter
spring. Keepers (lugs or stop pins) are used to
prevent rotation of the carbon rings when the
shaft trott--e(s. The outer carbon ring
compartleht is\connected to a drain line.
Carbon packing is suitable only for relatively
low pr ssures and temperatures. Therefore,
when bath types of packing are used in one
gland, thel labyrinth packing is used at the initial
high-pressure area and the carbon packing is
used at the low pressure area.
(15 to
1
17 pounds absolute) to the turbine
sealing glands (fig. 7-17). In high-pressure and
cruising turbines at higher speeds, the pressure
on the turbine end of the forward glands will be
so great that steam will bleed out through these
glands, automatically sealing them. Since these
glands may at times seal themselves, it is
necessary to have a separate system for the
cruising and the high-pressure turbifies.
REDUCTION GEARS
In Chapter 4 we discutsed the main
propulsion locked-train type, double-reduction
garing used in the DD-692 class destroyer. N,",
let
us consider the
double-reduction gearing.
main
propulsion,
MAIN PROPULSION,
DOUBLE-REDUCTION (1 GEARING
There are two other types of main
propulsion, double-reduction gearing in usethe
articulated gearing and the nested gearing.
Gland Sealing System
Steam is passed into the glands to seal the
glands of the turbines and to prevent air from
being drawn into the condenser. The
low-p
re turbine, which operates at all times
with a, va um in its casing, must have steam
admitt at .11 times to the glands from some
extern s ce. This steam is led from the
auxiliary xhaust line to pass through a cutout
valve,
n through a weight-loaded pressure
regulating valve to the 'turbine glands. The
weight-loaded pressure regulating valve operates
at all times to maintain a pressure of 1/2 to 2 psi
87
Articulated Gearing
The ARTICULATED GEARING, shown in
figure 7-18,. has more bearings and occupies
more longitudinal space in a ship than the nested
or locked-train type reduction gearing, shown in
figure 7-1q.- This type is seldom used in the
Navy; it is nth * on combatant ships.
Nested Gearing
The nested gearing rig. 7-19) is the simplest
of all double-reduction gears. It uses eminimum
FIREMAN
1ST REDUCTION PINION
1ST
REDUCTION GEAR
2ND
REDUCTION
PINION
DOUBLE HELICAL GEAR
SINGLE HELICAL GEAR
INTERNAL SPUR GEAR
EXTERNAL SPUR GEAR
MAIN GEAR
47.28
Figure 7-18.Articulated type of double gearing.
2ND REDUCTION
PINION
1ST
2ND REDUCTION
PINION
'
amok:
REDUCTION
PINION
1ST
IT
REDUCTION
INION
1ST
1ST
REDUCTION
REDUCTION
GE AR
GE AR
Dt\IEL GEAR
5.22
/ND
2N D
REDUCTION
PINION
WORM GEAR
,
REDUCTION
PINION
Figure 7-20.Types of gears found in shipboard
machinery.
2ND REDUCTION
OR MAIN GEAR
reduction gearing used fOr main 'provision.
iigured 7-20 Illustrates common forms of gears
used in shipboard machinery. Probably one of
the simplest types of reduction gearing is the
47.29
Figure 7-19.Nested type of double reduction gearing.
worm gear shown in figure 7-20.
Worm Gear
number of bearings aril flexible couplings. The
nested gearing type is used on most auxiliary
ships; it is NOT used on combatant ships.
The ge ritrg used in shipboard pumps and
auxiliary IT achinery is not as complicated as the
Watpj gears are used to transmit motion
between shafts which. are at right angles to each
other. The worm gear consists of a cylinder with
one or more threads (sing, doUble, triple) cut on
82
88
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
the outside like a screw. The worm wheel is a
gear with teeth cut on the outside rim to mesh
with the threads on the worm.
The worm gearing speeds reduction. A
complete turn of the worm turns the wheel
3) The uppelipart of the gear casing is the
main cover which is divided into two sections
with inspection ports so located that the teeth
of any pinion or gear can be examined without
removing the main cover sections. The
ahead the distance of one tooth on the wheel. A
double thread worm will revolve the gear twice
hinged covers.
inspection ports are covered with easily opened
as fast as a single thread worm.
Reduction gearing for pumps and other
auxiliary machinery is constructed slightly
differently than the main reduction gearing just
discussed. In the ship's service generator, the
pinion is forged together with the shaft as one
,
REDUCTION
GEAR CONSTRUCTION
The gears in a main reduction gear u
unit, sue.h
as the main gears,and the pinion gears, must be
whole part. One end 'of the pinion shaft
capable of transmitting tremendous power loads.
The pinibn gear is the smaller of two meshing
gears and is usedjnainly for decreasing speed
shaft..
Almost all pinion gears in mite reduction
gearing are machined completely of specially
heat-treated, nickel-steel forgings. Generally, the
gear wheels are of built-up construction with the
teeth cut in forged steel bands which are welded
to ste webs.
bs. The first reduction gears are
general! welded on their respective shafts. The
on is a
'd by
welding a forged hub and a forged rim ogether.
The gear hub is bolted to a plate which is keyed
cause the gears to operate noisily; or even fail,
and oxidation of the metal.
.
In main circulating pumps the
solid forging, while the gear it cons
and increasing power,. Since even a very slight
unevenness of tooth contour and spacing will
special precautions are taken manufacture the
gears to exact dimensions. The
he gear§ are cut in a
room maintained at constant teniperature and
humidity to eliminate expansion, contraction,
is
flanged and bolted rigidly to the- turbine shaft.
The gear wheel is pressed and keyed onto the
to the gear shaft,.)
4
The reddaicon gear of a turbine-driven
condensate pump, shown in figure 7-22, which is
a worm shaft and a worm wheel, reduces the
turbine spe d of approximately 5500 rpm to
pump spe
of approximately 1100 rpm. The
worm is cut in a solid, low-carbon, nickel-steel
ft. forging. The worm wheel is a solid nickel-bronze
casting wliklf pressed onto a forged steel
shaft. The gear casing is of cast steel to form
rigid suppoit for the rotating e
ents. It is split
horizontally for easy assembl or disigsembly.
bull gear is usually pressed on the shaftagainst a
locating shaft shoulder and is Secured by one or
WHEEL
ore keys and a locking nit mechanism (fig.
7-21).
KEY SLOT
LOCKING
NUT
Gear casings can be divided into three major
SHAFT
KEY
parts:
.
1)
.
,
lower part (base section) supports
bull `gear,
gear, main thrust bearing, and the
high-speed parts of the reduction gear. The
tihe
lowerosection al-so serves as the sump or. storage
tank for the lubricating oil in the system.
2) The intermediate section of the casing
the bearing housing for the
supports
intermediate speed pinions and gears as well as
the high speed pinions. 1:'
4
89
83
13 .3'0
Figure 7-21.--Key and !odd
nut.
FIREMAN
rs
2. ROLLING FRICTIONbetween two
solid objects, one (or both) of which is rolling
on. the other.
3. FLUID FRICTIONbetween
the,
molecules or particles of a fluid, or between two
films of fluid.
Since liquid lubricants can be -readily
circulated, they are used universally for internal
lubrication. Lubkicating oils are mineral oils
obtained
petroleum. In theory, eluid
WORM a SPUR
REDUCTION GEAR
lubrication is b ed on the alUal separation of
the surfaces so that no metal-to-metal contact
occurs. As long as an oil film remains unbroken,
sliding or rolling friction is replaced by the fluid
friction (internal friction) of the lubricant itself.
Under such ideal conditions, friction and wear
are held to a minimum.
TURBINE
CASING
41,
Purpose of Lubrication
-ccts
The primary purpose of lubricating oil and
grease is to SUBSTITUTE FLUID FRICTION
PUMP SHAFT
FOR EITHER SLIDING OR ROLLING
FRICTION. This means that a lubricant of
sufficient quantity and consistency must be
provided to keep the moving metal parts (of
47.38
Figure 7-22.Main condensate pump roduction.bearing.
bearing, lining, and journal, for example) from
contacting each other. The remaining fluid
friction, within the-lubricant itself, is far less
LUBRICATION
than that which would otherwise occur between
All moving
ires
receive a steady
and adequate supply of oil of proper quality at
the correct temperature. Impurities and foreign
the solid objects, but it also generates heat
which must be removed:
The secondary (but highly important)
purpose of a lubricant is that of ABSORBING
matter must be removed from the lubrication
system and a reserve supply of good clean oil
AND REMOVING THE HEAT which
must be maintained.
To understand the principles of lubrication,
you should know the purposes of a lubricant.
Lubricants reduce friction between moving
parts. Frictiori is the resistance to -motion
between the two bodies in contact. When this
frictional resistance is overcome, and motion
takes place, heat is generated. There are three
.kinds of friction:
of this heat by the lube oil prevents serious
damage to the machinery parts and makes it
necessary to have the oil repeatedly cooled as it
`circulates about the mechanisms
In general, BOTH FRICTION AND
OPERATING TEMPERATURES in bearings
increase with a g.vater unit bearing pressurei,
with thinner films b.f. the lubricant, if below a
definite minimum; with a high velocity of
rubbing or rotation-of the journal; and with a
.
1. SLIDIkG FRICTIONbetween two
solid objects whose outer surfaces slide over
each other.
84
0'
is
generated by the fluid fti on as well as the heat
which, in steam turbine
conducted along the
shafting from the steam-h
d rotors. Removal
90
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
some rotary water pumps are lubricated with a
small amount of water that leads through the
BEARING
JOURNAL
bearings and moisten the packing.
OIL FILM
Lubricating Systems
Each turbine is provided with a lubricating
system that supplies oil under pressure to t
bearings. The system consists
a sump or
reservoir for storing the oil, an oil pump, a
strainer, a cooler, temperature and pressure
gages, and the necessary piping to carry the oil
to the bearings and back to the sump. The
location and arrangement of these parts vary
with each make and type of turbine.
The lube oil pump is generally a gear-type
pump. A definite pressure is maintained in the
oil feed lines. A pressure relief valve allows
excess oil to recirculate back td the suction side
of
pump.
Quite often dual strainers are connected in
the line so that the system can operate on one
strainer while the other one is being cleaned.
47.78
Figure 7-23.The oil film ceparates the rotating,
shaft from the bearing.
The tube-in-shell type of cooler is generally used
with sea water, zirculating through the tubes and
the oil flowing around them. The temperature of
higher viscosity of the lubricant. (Viscosity
the oil is controlled by adjusting the valve that
refers to the flowing qualities of a liquid. Water
and gasoline or liquids which flow freely, have
a low viscosity. Cold molasses and honey do not
flow freely; therefore, they have a high
regulates the amount of sea water flowing
through the tubes.
Oil must circulate through the turbine
bearingsoat the prescribed pressure and within
certain 'temperature limits. A pressure gage
installed in the feed
and a. thermometer
installed in the return line indicate whether the
viscosity.)
Bearing Lubrication
oil system
Most of the moving parts of a machine are
supported in bearings that permit them to rotate
freely. Lubrication consists of supplying these
bearings with oil. The oil forms a film on the
surfaces of the shaft and the bearing, and keeps
them separated (fig. 7-23). An oil must be
selected that has enough body to keep the metal
surfaces from touching each ther during ALL
is
functioning properly.
Thermometers are often installed in the bearings
to serve as a warning against overheating. If
there is a decided drop in oil pressure, the
engine should be shut down immediately; even
a moderate rise in the oil temperature should be
investigated. An oil-level float gage indicates the
amount of oil in the sump.
operating conditions.
Lubricating Oil
and Greases
Bearings that carry a heavy load are
sometimes lubricated Ailith gr se. These bearings
are equipped with standard ease cups or zeric
Many different kinds of lubricating materials
are in use, each of them filling the requirements
fittings like those on an aut mobile. The cups
must be kept filled at all ti es. The shafts of
of a particular set of conMons. Animal and
85
OP
FIREMAN
oils and even water have good
lubricating qualities, but they cannot withstand
high temperatures. Mineral oils, Aimilar to the
ails used in an automobile engin?", are the best
type of lubricant for modern machinery
vegetable
operating at high speeds and high temperatures.
Some heavy-duty bearings are lubricated with
grease in about the same way that the spring
shackles and steering gear of your car are
greased.
Mineral lubricating oils are derived from
crude oil in the same process which produces
gasoline, kerosene, and fuel oil. They vary
according to the type of crude oil and the
refining methods used. The same type of oil is
usually made in several grades or weights. These
grades correspond to the different weights of oil
for an automobile varying from light to heavy.
Oils used in the Navy are divided into 9
classes, or series, depending on their use. Each
type of oil has a symbol number that indicates
its class and viscosity. For example, symbol
2190 oil
is
a number 2 class of oil with a
viscosity of 190 Saybolt Seconds Universal. The
viscosity number represents the time in seconds
that is required for 60 cubic centimeters (dc) of
WASHERS
the oil, at a temperature of 130° F, to flow
".NUT
HEATING OIL
VESSEL
through a standard size opening in -a Saybolt
ORK
viscosimeter (fig. 7-24).
38.214
A 2190TEP oil is used for all propulsion
Figure 7- 24. Details of the viscosimster tube.
turbines and reduction gears. The letters TEP
indicate that the oil has been treated to give it
water-protecting and corrosion-resisting
properties, and extra load carrying capacity.
This oil is also used in the turbines that drive the
variou% kinds of pumps an blowers, except
those pumps that are driven through a worm
L.)
The common SODA SOAP GREASES
used for applications where no water is prese t
and where operating temperatures approach 20
F. The common LIME SOAP GREASES do n t
absorb moisture or emulsify as readily as the
gear which use a Navy symbol 3080 oil.
soda soap greases, but have lower melting points.
They are us-ed as general purpose greases for
Lubricating greases are mixtures of soap and
lubricating oil. Fillers, such as graphite, are also
added to some greases to make the\ grease more
effective for certain lubrication requirements. .
light load applications at ordinary operating,
temperatures.' These two types of greases will
lubricate the majority of
machinery.
Certain lubricating greases containVitives.
These SPECIAL ADDITIVE AREA S are
satisfactorily
The soaps used on the common SOAP AND
OIL GREASES are chemical compounds formed
by fats or fatty acids' reacting with various
alkaline materials such as lime, soda, aluminum,
zinc') barium, lithiumjead, and potassium.
identified by the additn. For example, LEAD
OLEATE SOAP GREASES are used for certain
bearing surfaces which are so heavily loaded that
1,
86
-
92
e
Chapter 7STEAM TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
ordinary grease
prevent contact
will
not maintain a
of the
rubbing
film to
surfaces.
EXTREME PRESSURE GREASES
and the HARD GRADES are used at slow speeds
under heavy pressure.
also
incorporate special additive agents to provide
Standard Navy Lubrication°
necessary film strength.
AlWays be sure that you are using the
specified lubricant for the individual machinery)
part, unit, or system you are responsible
OXIDATION INHIBITOR GREASES have
an additive incorporated to ensure better
stability at high temperatures and to prevent
rusting under these conditions. In GRAPHITE
GREASES, the added graphite acts as a mild
for operating or maintaining.
Most ships make up LUBRICATING
CHARTS for quick reference on this
abrasive to help smooth roughened surfaces, and
information. These charts generally Contain
acts as a Her to smooth over unequal surface
spots. It also substitutes its own low friction for
lubrication, symbol of lubricant, quantity, Ind
interval of supplyalong with applicable general
that of the metal it covers; this is especially
important where a bearing is exposed to
temperatures so high that ordinary grease or oil
would break' dOwn. Except for such high
temperatures, .`gr4hite grease should not be used
in bearings which are in first-class condition.
-Each of thscs several types of greases
instructions,
operating
hints, and
possible
casualties. The charts are generally posted in
machinery compartments.
The manufacturer's technical manual for
each- unit of machinery is the basic reference for
the correct lube oil, if no lubrication chart
is
supplied in three grades: soft, medium, and
(based
on
manufacturer's instructions) is
addition, the TABLE OF
RECOMMENDED OILS can be found in chapter
9450 of NavShips Technical Manual
hard. SOFT GRADES are used at high speed
available.
under ight pressure; the MEDIUM GRADES are
used at medium speeds under medium pressure;
93
87
4,
a
line diagram of the unit or system, point of
.
In
1(--
CHAPTER 6
AUXILIARY' MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
In addition to the propiiIiittiLmachinery and
steam-jet refrigeration system and the vapor
compression cycle refrigeration system. The
equipment, you will become acquainted with
other types of machinery, such as refrigeration
equipment, air conditioning equipment and
distilling plants. You will also become
acquainted with the steering gear, the anchor
steam-jet system is used on some naval ships for
air conditioning and on some merchant ships for
large area, moderate temperature refrigeration.
The steam-jet plant (fig. 8-1) consists of a flash
tank, a booster ejecta, a condenser,, air ejectors,
and the necessary pumps. and piping. 'The flash
tank (sometimes called the, evaporator) is
maintained unde /exceptionally high vacuum by
windlass and capstan, lube oil purifier , undry
eotOpment, galley equipmeht, air compre rs,
orafies, elevators, and 'winches. The information
provided in this chapter will be general in
nature; primarily, we shall discuss the location
and the function of the auxiliary machinery and
a steam-jet boo ter ejector as water is sprayed
into the flash tank, part of each drop flashes
into vapor and thereby cools the unvaporized
portion of each drop to approximately 50°F, or
lower depending on t.Itcapacity of the unit.
The cooled water
the bottom of the
o the
sh
then pumped to the cooling coils and
r rned to the flash tank at a temperature of
a proximately 55°F.
equipment mentioned above.
REFRIGERATION EQUIPM
°
,
There are two basic types of mechanical
refrigeration systems used in the Navy, the
AIR. EJECTORS
J
BOOSTER EJECTOR
AUTOMATIC VALVE AND
-0- STEAM LINES
STEAM CONTROLS
VENT
STEAM
1ST
LINE
STAGE
COOLING
..11
r1
213" V
WATER
U 1.,
FLASH TANK
k
COOLING
SALT WATER
2Y' VACUUM
..,e,...-4- SPRAY PIPES
AFTER
CONDENSER
INTER
CONDENSER
CONDENSER
ORA N TO
SHIP'S SYSTEM
4..
.... .. **_,. ""_ ./ *".
%.
"L >,,
*>
k ki
=4:CHILLED
WATER ----r="
DRAIN TO
CONDENSER
AAP)
WATER
LdvEL
CONTROLLER
PUMP..
PUMP
4
CONDENSATE TO RECIRCULATING
LINE AND SHIP'S DRAIN SYSTEM
CHU.LED
ATER SYSTEM
47.89
Figure 8-9. Steam -jet refrigeration systeip.
88
-94
Chapter 8 AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
EVAPORATOR
The self-contained units, which have the
refriirration source within the unit cabinet,
COMPRESSOR
123 VAPOR
REIRIORANT
inchlae d king water coolers, refrigerators, and
frozen od cabinets.
.1=3 MOD
REFRIGRANT
+1ST FLOW
Other refrigeration equipment includes two
types of ice-making machines. One type is a
self-contained unit which makes ice cubes: The
other is a tank-type which m*.rs large slabs of
ice. The tank-type ice mac T.
is normally
located in a separate machinery room which is
identified as the ice machine room. This type is
installed on auxiliary ships such as tenders and
CORADiSER
SEA
repair ships.
WATER
RECEIVER
47.90
AIR CONDITIONING
Figure 8-2.Vapor compression (R -12) cycle
refrigeration.
EQUIPMENT
Air conditioning is installed on naval ships
for Certain spaces where personnel efficiency,
health, safety, or operation of equipment may
be endangered by high temperatures or high
humidity.
The vapor compression cycle refrigeration
,sys m (fig. 8-2) is most commonly used on
naval ships in various applications, such as
refrigerated6hip's stores, refrigerated cargo, and
unitary (self-contained) refrigeration (as ship's
Some of the spaces that might be air
service store equipment).
conditioned include the radio and radar control
spaces, sick-pay areas; and living and berthing
spaces. The radio and radar control spaces are
usually air conditioned because& the high heat
given off by the equipment. This heat, especially
Ship's stores spaces are refrigerated for the
preservation of food supplies. The insulated
compartments for cold storage spaces are the
walk-in type. The equipment selected to cool
these spaces is designed to maintain certain
temperatures: for ships designed before 1950,
the meat room at 15°F, fruit and vegetable
rooms at 40°F, butter and egg rooms at 32°F;
and for ships designed since 1950, the freeze
in combination with high humidity, lobe
dangerdus to the operator and the equip Alt.
Air conditioned sick-bay areas haVe proven
advantageous" in that they help to speed
recovery. The living and berthing spaces are
often air conditioned, both to provide comfort
room at 0°F and the chill room, at 33°F.
Auxiliary ships have refrigerated cargo
for the crew
efficiency.
spaces for stowage of perishable food that is
intended for the forces afloat and for advanced
bases. Approximately 30 to 60 percent of the
refrigerated cargo space is maintained at 0°F (at
-5°F on the latest designed ships). The
remainder of the refrigerated area is maintained
at 33°F to 35°F.
to
increase
personnel
There are two basic types of-air conditioning
equipment used aboard ship. One type uses
chilled water for the cooling medium; the other
uses refrigerant R-12 to carry away the heat.
Most of the air conditioning equipment aboard
Unitary refrigeration systems are of two
typesremote and self-contained. The remote
Navy ships uses the.refrigeration equipment for
the removal of heat from the circulating water
or refrigerant. *Heat is removed by the cooling
coils of the refrigeration equipment. There are
also some (smaller selfzcontained units used
aboard ship similar to the window type used in
type is a complete unit except that the source of
refrigeration is lOcated separately and is not
contained within the unit cabinet. Equipment of
thiS,type includes soda fountains and ice cream
hardening machines.
homes.
89
-
and
rz
FIREMAN
FIRST-EFFECT
SECOND-EFFECT
SEPARATOR
SEPARATOR
DISTILLING
CONDENSER
VAPOR FEED
HEATER
SECOND-EFFECT
TUBES
O
FIRST-EFFECT
TUBES
FLASH
CHAMBER
BRINE PUMP
SUCTION
'FIRST-EFFECT
SECOND-EFFECT
DRAIN REGULATOR
DIVISION PLATE
DRAIN REGULATOR
47.117
Figure 8-3.Soloshell doubfa-effect distilling plant.
Steam operated distilling plants re classified
DISTILLING PLANTS
as coil, submerged, tube, vertical basket, and
q
The two basic types of distilling- plants
igialled aboard naval ships are the vapor
e 'beam
compress '- distilling plant and
n the
ethod
used t e apply heat to the sea water., In the vapor
oompre on plant, the source of heat is
obtained om electrical energy.
The vapor compression type distilling plant
dis
v. plant. The main difference bet
two ty es of distilling plants is in the
was first developed primarily for -submarine
,service, where the absence of steam made it
necessary to supply anotfier form of heat
,nergy. However,- on newer type submarines,
this type plant is currently u ed for back-up
only. It is also used on older, sm
iesel-driven
surface
ce craft where the daily dem d for fresh
war does not exceed 4,000 gallons per day
(gpct). The vapor compression consists of three
main componentsevaporator, compresior,
.
heat exchanger.
flash types. The coil type is found on a res
older auxiliaries, while the submerged tube type
is found on most older sh,ipsahe vertical basket and flash types are newei'designs and have been
installed on some combatant ships constructed
in the last 15 years. Some submerged tube types
were also installed during thkperied.
In the vertical basket type low-pressure
steam flows into a corrugated basket that is
surrounded by sea water. Sere the steam giveS'
up its heat to boil the .sea; water and is then
condensed. The fresh water vapor from the
boiling sea water is condensed and then removed
as distillate (fresh water).
In ,the flash` type, preheated feed water is
discharged into a vacuum chamber where a
Aim of the water is vaporized (flashes into
ste ). The remaining water passes into a
econd flash chamber where further vaporization
Chapter tj--UXILIARY MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
takes ace. Any number of flash chambers,
where liporization takes place, can be installed.
Each sta e has a condenser in which the fresh
water vapor is condensed.
are of the soloshell double-effect type. This typo
consists of a single shell that has a vertical
partition which divides the shell into two
evaporator shells.
There are three basic typos df
submerged -tube type distilling plants: soloshell
double-effect (fig. 8-3), the Viple-effect, and the
two-shell double- effect. The principal difference
between the triple-effect plant and the two-shell
double-effedt plant is the number of stages of
evaporation. In the double-effect plant
evaporation takes place in-two stages, while in
the triple-effect plant.evaporation takes place in
three stages.
The most commonly used 20,000 gpd
two-shell double-effect plant is built with two
hotizontal 'cylinder evaporator shells mounted
parallel to each other. The triple-effect distilling
plant is similar to the two-shell double-effect
plant except that the triple-effect plant has an
intermediate evaporating stage. A standard
triple-effect, 20,000 gpd plant is illustrated in
figure .84.
Almbst all low-pressure distilling plats up
and including the 12,000 gpd capacity plant
One type of 20,000 gpd caOcity, soloshell
dooiote-effect plant is installed on some of the
older ships. Where it is necessary to furnish
40,000 gpd, two such plants are installed. Some
older destroyers are equipped with two soloshell
orator plantsone, located in the forward
mien oom with a capacity of approximately
12,000 gpd; the other, located in the aft
cvr
engineroom, with a capacity of approximately
4,000 gpd.
STEERING GEARS
There are two basic types of steering
mechanisms in use in the Navy. One is the
electromechanical steering gear, used extensively
on small noncombatant ships. The other, and
most common, type is the electrohydraulic
steering gear. In the electromechanical steering
gear, an electric motor is the prime mover. The
electric motor receives a signal from the bridge
1
2nd EFEECT FEED HEATER
err E
FEED CHEAT
AIR EJECTOR"
CONDENSER
VAPOR OU
AUXILIARY
STEAM INLET
CONDENSATE
COOLER
BRINE
DRAIN CONNECTIONS
2nd 'OHO
P SUCTION
3rd EFFECT
Figuro 04.-20,000 gpd triplo-affact distilling plant.
91
97
47.118.1
FIREMAN
principles are basically the same. Some ships.
have double hydraulic rams and cylinders
mounted fore and aft, as shown in figure 8-5,
while other ships employ a double cylinder,
single-ram, mounted athwartships. A typical
and, through shafting and a gear arrangement,
moves the rudder.
In
the
electrohydraulic
movement of the rudder
steering
gear,
obtained from
hydraulic rams operating in cylinders that are
connected to variable delivery pumps.
Development of this type was prompted by the
is
electrohydraulic
illustrated in figure 8-6.
single-ram
large electrical power requirement necessary to
steering
gear is
Emergency steering gear is provided on all
combatant and auxiliary naval ships that have
electrohydraulic steering gear. Generally, large
steer ships of large displacement and high
speeds.
combatant ships have a duplicate hydraulic
The electrohydraulic steering gear provides
same udistinct advantages over the
steering gear for emergency use. On other ships
the emergency gear consists of a hand-operated
hydraulic pump.
electromechanical steering gear:
I. Little friction between moving parts
2.
Immediate responses to movement of
ANCHOR WIND LASS
AND CAPSTAN
the steering wheel
3.
Requires small deck space and head
room
4.
Savings in weight
A windlass is a piece of deck machinery used
primarily for paying-out and heaving-in an
5.
Flexibility and dependability.
anchor chain. A wildcat (drum), fitted with
whelps to engage the anchor chain may be
mounted eit'her vertically or horizontally at the
end of the windlass shaft. (A whelp any one of
There are various types of electrohydraulic
use, but their operating
steering gears in
TOLE
PUMP
CYLINDER
IOLE
MOT
CYLINOE
YOKE
SHAFTS
0
SIX-WAY PUMP
TRANSFER COC TR" 'NG
!AXES
RuODER
CTLINOEN
RUNNING
PUMP
41 014111 66666
RACK AND
PINION
ELECTRIC LEADS
FROM STEERING STAND
N.{
SUPPLY
B
SELL SYNCHRONOUS
nEcEIYEH
PLANETARY
NI
RETURN
DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
4
47.139X
Figure 8-5.Diagrammatic arrangement of a double-rem electrohydraulic steering gear.
92
98.7
.1
Chapter 8kUIC MARY MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
the ribs or ridges on the drum of a windlass. It
looks much likaD the sprocket wheel o a chain
Some) older naval ships are equipped with a
geared windlass driven by a steam engine or an
electric motor. Some of the new smaller
combatant ships such as destroyers and
destroyer escorts are equipped with the electric
motor type. Figure 8-8 I)lustrates an electric
windlass for a modern dest oyer.
fall.)
General requirements of the anchor windlass
are that it must be simple, rugged, and reliable.
It must be capable of reversal and have suitable
brakes.
There *e
A capstan is a spool-shaped, vertically
Mounted drum used for heaving-in on heavy
three 'general types of
power-driven anchor windlasses:
electrohydraulic, electric, and
mooring lines. Figure 8-9 shows a vertical shaft
anchor windlass capstan which is normal topside
steam.
Hand-operated windlasses are used on small
ships where the weight of the anchor gear can be
handled without excessive effort by operating
equipment on a destroyer. The capstan is a
component part -of the anchor windlass, as
personnel.
shown in figure 8-7 and figure 8-8.
Tjae electrohydraulic anchor windlasses are
advantageous where the load varies through a
wide range because of the amount of anchor
LUBE OIL PURIFIERS
strength of the tide, and the type of bottom in
which the anchor is set. Figure 8-7 illustrates a
typical electrohydraulic anchor windlass
Purifiers, normally located in the
engineroom, are used to free contaminated lube
oil or diesel oil of water, sediment, and the other
impurities. The purifiers used in the) Navy
operate on the principle of centrifugal force;
chain payed out, the force of the wind, the
arrangement.
STEEIONO WHEEL
ON AFTER COO( HOUSE
AUTOMATIC BYPASS
nileiTcs",
ELECTRIC CONTROLI
SYSTEM
(f*I0
TRANSMITTER UNIT
TRANSMITTER
PORT
PORT
CvlOADIR
POST OR SPED CARL
TRANSFER SWITCH
CRANK FOR HANG OPERATION
OF PORT PUMP
RUNPONG PUMP
I,
AFTER
ECK
1,
oi,?tal
STARDOARD
CARLE
CROSSHEAD
TRANSFER SWITCH TRANSMITS
CURRENT THROUGH EITHER
CARLE OR
TRANSMITTER
PLUNGER
(RAW
TO RECEIVER AS WOW
POLL OTUP
INAPT
TRICK WHEEL FOR
HAND CONTROL
UNIVERSAL JOINT
RICO
MINDER
MU PUMP
IDLE ELECTRIC
MOTOR
WORM
WHEEL
WORM
STARBOARD
sum v
Aram,
SPIRAL GEARS
AUTOMATIC RFPAIS
27.83X
Figure 8-6.Diagram of typical single-ram electrohydraulic steering gear system.
--
99
*\
FIREMAN
CONTROL STAND
INDICATOR
CAPSTAM 4EAO
WILOCAT
BRAKE OANO
NANO OPERATED
CHAIN PIPE
WEATHER OECK
EXPANSION
TANK
GAGE GLASS
OECK CONTROL
FOR TILTING BOX
OR FLOATING RING
PRESSURE
AIR ESCAPE
HYORAULIC COCKS
GAGE
MOICATOR
HANO WHEEL FOR
LOCAL CONTROL
INOENT ANO SPRING
RELIEF VALVE
3 WA' COCK
LOA0E0 PAWL
REOUCTION
GEARS
LOCKING
HE AO
MOTOR
H YOR AUL IC
MOTOR
B-ENO
TO STVO WINOLASS
MAGNETIC
DRAKE
SAME AS PORT
PINION GEAR
A -ENO
VARIABLE
MAIN OECK
STROKE PUMPS
COUPLING
SECTION THROUGH PORT WINOLASS
Figura 8-7.Typical olectrohydraulic anchor windlass arrangement.
that is, a bowl or hollow cylinder is revolved at
higli speeds while contaminated oil is passed
through it. This procedure separates the
impurities from the oil. There are two types of
purifiers, the tubular type and the disk types
L
I
ice
77...
DECK
47.143X
11
Nr
7:71.11.4.4
The hollow cylinder or tubular type is
relatively small in diameter and is operated at
high speed. The cylinder is fitted with a
three-wing device that keeps the liquid rotating
FRICTION DRAKE
12-i"r
LOCKING IIANDWHEEL
at the speed of the bowl without slippage.
)
Figure 8-10 shows the tubular type purifier.
The disk type purifier has a bowl of larger
diametei, which is fitted with a series of disks
that separate the liquid into thin layers. A
DRIVE
MOTOR
se
-;`44 . ;I I
lbw TIIIIPIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
nal view of a disk type purifier is shown in
figu re 8-1 1.
fp
rtgl,lilw
AIR COMPRESSORS
MOTOR OPERATED BRAKE
There are many uses for compressed air
aboard ship and it would be difficult to mention
Figure 8-8.Electric windlass.
all of them. Some of the more common uses
3.224k
94
10
Chapter 8AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
include: operating pneumatic tools; ejecting gas
Air compressors may be of the centrifugal,
rotary, or reciprocating type. The type used is
determined by the volume and pressure of air
desired. Most of the compressors used in the
from ship's guns; starting diesel engines; charging
and firing torpedoes; operating gun
co un terrecoil mechanisms; and operating
automatic combustion control systems.
Compressed air is supplied to the various
sigNrns by, high-pressure, medium-pressure, or
low-pressure air compressors, as appropriate.
Navy are of the reciprocating type.
Compressors are driven by electric motors,
internal combustion engines, steam turbines, or
reciprocating steam engines. The air compressors
Reducing valves reduce a higher pressure to a
used most in the Navy are driven by electric
lower pressure for a specific system.
Air compressors are classified in a number of
ways. A compressor may be single-acting
(compression on one end of the stroke)(,
motors.
Low-pressure compressors are those which
have a discharge pressure of 150 psi or less.
Medium-pressure compressors are those which
have a discharge pressure of 151 psi to 1000 psi.
Compressors which have a discharge pressure
above 1000 psi are classified as high-pressure air
double-acting (compression on each end of the
stroke); single-stage (one cylinder); multistage
(more than one cylinder); and the compressor
design may be such .that the pistons operate
horizontally, vertically, or at an angle.
compressors.
Compressors are also classified according to the
type of compressing element; the source of
CRANES
driving power; the method by which the driving
unit is connected to the compressor; and 'the
pressure that is developed.
Cranes are designed to raise a load, lower it,
and move it in horizontal directions. You will
r`1
I
flo
.-4
941Airaini-
47.146
Figure 8-9.Vertical shaft anchor windlass capstan head.
ra
95
FIREMAN
IBELT GUARD
I MOTOR PULLEY I
COUPLING NUT
PURIFIED
OIL OUTLET
I FUNNEL COVER
LOWER COVER I
47.86
Figure 8-10.Tubular type centrifugal purifier (Sharpies).
find cranes installed on carriers, cruisers, and
Detailed information concerning shipboard
auxiliaries.
Cranes are used for handling
airplanes, boats, bombs, torpedoes, mines, sweep
gear, missiles, trucks and stores. Some
cranes can be obtained from
manufacturers' technical manuals.
submarines are also equipped with cranes for
applicable
ELEVATORS
handling missiles.
In general, cranes may be electrically-driverf,
engine-driven, or hand-driven. Cranes
Many avy ships are equipped with elevators
which are used to handle bombs, airplanes,
constructed for very heavy loads (lifting heavy
aircraft, boats, or torpedoes) are usually
electrohydraulic.
freight, torpedoes, and ammunition. Shipboard
elevators are divided into two general
classeselectrohydraulic andsplectromechanical.
9,6
102
et 4
_di
Chapter 8AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT,
ELECTROHYDRAULIC ELEVATORS are
divided into two general typesthe direct
plunger lift and the plunger-actuated cable lift.
The platform of the DIRECT PLUNGER
LIFT ELEVATOR is raised or lowered by one
or more hydraulic rams, which are located under
the platform. During the hoisting of a platform,
hydraulic oil is pumped into the ram from a
high-pressure tank (approximately 950 psi).
Lowering of the platform
discharging
the oil
low- pressure
is
performed by
from the rams into
t ank,
which
is
under
a
an
approximate pressure of 230 psi.
Pressure is maintained in the high-pressure
tank' by two hydraulic pumps (variable stroke),
which take suction from the low-pressure tanks.
Special control valves, located in the pressure
and exhaust lines, regulate elevator speeds by
varying the amount of hydraulic oil admitted to,
or discharged from, the rams. Mechanical locks
allow the platform to be locked and held in
position at deck level. Automatic quick-closing
valves in the oil line prevent an unrestricted fall
of the elevator.
The platform of the PLUNGERACTUATED CABLE LIFT ELEVATOR is
raised by wire rope fastened to the platform at
either two or four joints. Most hydraulic
airplane elevators are of this type. The wire
ropes in an airplane elevator are operated
through a series of pulleys by a horizontal
hydraulic ram located below the hangar deck.
COVER CLAMP HOOK
INLET ARM
LARGE SPRING
REGULATING TUBE
COVER CLAMP SPRING
COVER TOP
LONG COVER CLAMP
COVER TOP SCREW
INLET ARM SEAL
COVER CLAMP NUT
RING
SPRING SIDE
FRAME COVER
BALL CHECK SPRING
HOPPER
BALL CHECK VALVE
VALVE STOP SCREW
SHORT COVER
CLAMP
SEAL RING
BRAKE
BOWL
CLUTCH BLOCK
SPACER
FRICTION RING
STUD
WORM WHEEL
FRICTION HUB
TOP BEARING
OIL FILLER CA
FRAME
.
BOWL SPINDLE
BOTTOM SCREW
47.83
Figure 8-11.Dish type centrifugal purifiers.
97
103
FIREMAN
to start and run on high speed. Low speed is
Special safety devices engate the" guide rails of
elevato , stop the fall, and hold the
platform IA en one group of wire ropes fails.
used for automatic deceleration as the elevator
approaches the selected level. The platform
travels on two or four guides. Hand-operated or
power-operated lock bars, equipped with
the
ELE
ROMECHANICAL ELEVATORS are
used for freight, bombs, and stores. In elevators
of this type, the platform is raised and lowered
electrical interlocks, hold the platform in the
by one or more wire ropes which pass over
stowed position or accurately hold the platform
when on- or off-loading tracks are used.
pulleys and wind or unwind on hoisting drums.
Hoisting drums are driven through a reduction
gear unit by an electric motor. An electric brake
WINCHES
stops and holds the platform. The motor has
two speeds (full speed and low, or one-sixth
A winch is a piece of deek machinery that
has a drum or drums on a horizontal shaft for
speed). Control arrangements allow the elevator
DRUM
GEAR
GYPSY
SPEED
CONTROL
D
OIL
BATH
REDUCTION ROPE
GEARING
BEDPLATE
GUARD
DRUM
DRUM
BRAKE
CLUTCH
LEVER
DRUM
CLUTCH .
DRIVE
DRUM
MOTOR BRAKE
LEVER
ELECTRIC
BRAKE
80.149
Figure 8-12.Units of an electromechanical winch.
104
,
Chapter 8AUXILIARO MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
handling loads with wire rope. In addition, cargo
winches may be equipped with one or two gypsy
The laundry equipment in a modem ship's
consists 'of washer-extractor
conalt*tions, dryers, various types of ironing
laundry
heads fitted for handling manila rope. Figure
and `pressing equipment, plus numerous
8- 1 7 illustra .s the units of an electromechanical
winch.
Winches are of the steam, electromechanical,
miscellaneous items Such as laundry marking
machines.
or electrohydriAc types. Winches handle wire
rope used wail equipment such as booms and
davits for handling boats and cargo; for fueling
and replenishment at sea; and for miscellaneous
GALLEY EQUIPMENT
operations when the handling of rope under
The food preparation and service equipment
located in the galley and messing spaces aboard
naval ships is designed for quantity food service.
tension is required.
Steam winches are normally installed on
such, ships as tankers, where use in the vicinity
of flammable materials is required. Other older
type auxiliary ships, which have direct-current
power supplies, use electromechanical winches
Galley equipment is used for the cooking
and preparation of food for use in the-general
mess. This equipment consists of ranges, ovens,
griddles, deep-fat fryers, mixing machines, meat
where d-c motors provide the desired speed
slicing machine, cube steak machine, coffee
control of the winch drum or gypsy head. Since
newer auxiliary ships and all combatant ships do
not have direct-current power supplies, they are
equipped with electrohydraulic winches. In an
electrohydraulic winch, the stroke adjustment of
the hydraulic pump provides the desired speed
control of the drum and the gypsy head.
urns, toasters, .steam jacketed kettles, steam
tables, scales, refrigerators, cooking utensils, and
LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT
repair ships, there is also a meat cutting room
(butcher shop) where meats, fish, and poultry
'Arel, prepared for cooking. The equipment
nqrAally found in this area consists of
meat-cutting blocks, meat-grinding machines,
)
dishwashing machine. Other equipment that are
used specifically for vegetable preparation are
the machine-driven potato peelers, food cutters,
and the french-fry cutters. _Normally, the latter
three pieces of equipment are located in a
vegetable preparation room.
On large ships such as carriers, tenders, and
y
Prior to 1914, personnel aboard naval ships
washe d'. their laundry by hand. Their equiptvent
consisted of a bucket, soap, and water. Today
most all naval ships are equipped with laundry
power-driven
facilities. Carriers, tenders, and repair ships also
have drycleaning equipment.
meat-cutting
bandsaw,
slicing
machines, knives and other meat cutting tools,
and hooks for hanging meat.
105
99
CHAPTER 9
INSTRUMENTS
Measurement, in a very real '''sense, is the
PRESSURE GAGES
language of engineers. The shipboard engineering
plant has many instruments that indicate to
instruments, operating pea nel can determine
whether the machine , or the system, is
Pressure gages include a variety of Bourdon
tube gages, bellows and diaphragm gages, and
manometers. The Bourdon tube gages are
generally used for measuring pressure of 15
pounds per square inch (psi) and above. The
bellows and diaphragm gages and manometers
operating within the pr-
are generally used for measuring pressures below
operating personnel conditions existing within a
piece of machinery or a system. By proper
interpretation of the readings of the
ed range.
15 psi.
Recorded instrument readings are used to
ensure that the plant is operating properly and
BOUkDON TUBE GAGES
also to determine the operating efficiency of the
plant. The instruments provide information for
The most common Bourdon tube gages used
in the Navy are the (1) simplex, (2) vacuum, (3)
compound, and (4) duplex gages. They operate
on the principle that pressure'' n 'a curved tube
hourly, daily, and weekly entries for station
operating records and reports. The data entered
/in the records and reports must be accurate since
the engineer officer studies the records and
reports to keep up with the condition of the
has a tendency to straighten o t the tube. The
tube is made of bronze for pres ures under 200
plant. Remember that accurate data entered on
the records and reports can be obtained only by
psi and of steel for pressures over 00 psi.
Figure 9-1 shows a Bourdon t be installed in
a gagekase. The Bourdon tube is the shape of
reading the instruments carefully.
The
a C and
is welded or sliver-b zed to the
stationary base. The free and o the tube is
connected to the indicating mechanism by a
instruments, indicators, and alarms
discussed in this chapter are included not only
because of their relative importance in the
linkage assembly. The threaded socket, welded
to the itationary base, is the pressute
connection. When pressure enters the Boadon
tube, thg tube straightens out slightly and moves
the link connected with the toothed-gear sector.
The teeth on the gear sector mesh with a small
engineering plant, but also to give you an idea of
the wide raige and type of instruments,
- indicators, and alarms that are used in the
engineering plant aboard a naval ship.
gear on the pinion to which the pointer is
Engineering measuring instruments may be
classified into the following groups:
attached. Thus when pressure in the tube
increases, the gear mechanism pulls the pointer
1.
around the dial and registers the amount of
Pressure gages
2. Thermomete
d pyrometers
3. Liquid leve ndica
4. Fluid flow
ters
5. Revolutio
nters and indicators.
pressure being exerted in the tube.
The simplex gage, shown in figure 9-2, may
be used for measuring the pressure of steam, air,
water, oil, and similar fluids or gases.
100
108
Chapter 9 INSTRUMENTS
TOOTHED GEAR SECTOR
The Bourdon tube vacuum gage, commonly
used on auxiliary condensers to indicate vacuum
in inches of mercury, is illustrated in figure 9-3.
CASL
SEALED ENO
OVAL SHAPED
BOURDON T E
CONNECTING
LINK
HAIR SPRING
Vacuum g ag e s indicate pressurdp below
atrrfbspheric pressure, whereas pressure gages
indicate pressure above atmospheric pressure.
The compound Bourdon tube gage (fig. 9-4)
uses a single
Boiudon tube of such great
elasticity that it can measure vacuum (in inches)
to the left of the zero point and pressure (in
pounds per square inch (psi)) to the right of the
zero point.
The duplex Bourdon tube gage illustrated in
CONN CLING
LINK SCREWS
MOVEMENT
SUPPORT
PIVOT
PINION
BUSHING
SEALED END
STATIONARY BASE
figure 9-5 has two separate gear mechanisms
within the same case. A pointer is connected to
the gear mechanism of each tube. Each pointer
operates independently of the other pointer.
Duplex gages are commonly used for such
purposes as slVwing the pressure drop between
THREADED SOCKET
(PRESSURE CONNECTION)
the inlet side and the outlet side of lube oil
strainers. If the pressure reading for the inlet
side of the strainer is much greater than the
38.211AX
Figure 9-1.Bourdon tube installed in a
gage case.
RFD HAND
POINTER
I I
38.211BX
Figure 9- 2. Simplex Bourdon tube pressure gage.
38.211DX
Figure 9-3.--Bourdon tube vacuum gage.
101
107
FIREMAN(
f:)'
61.3BX
Figure 9-6.Indicating mechanism of a bellows
38.211EX
Figure 9-4.Compound Bourdon tuke gage.
pressure gage.
125 150 us
100
75
SO
225
250
25
CALIBRATING SPRING
300
ZERO ADJUSTING
SPRING
PANEL.OR
BULKHEAD
ZERO ADJUSTING SCREW
38.211FX
43
Figure 9-5.Duplex Bourdon tube gage.
108
102
4
38.212X
Figure 9-7.Diaphragm air pressure gage.
a 14
Chapter 9INSTRUMENTS
pressure reading for the outlet side, the strainer
is most likely very dirty and is thus restricting'
the flow of tube oil through the strainer.
MANOMETERS
A manometer is perhaps the most accurate,
least expensive, and simplest instrument for
measuring low pressup, or low pressure
differentials. A manometer, in its simplest form
consists of a glass U-tube of uniform diameter,
filled with a liquid. The most common liquids
used are water, oil, and mercuryt One end of the
U-tube is open to the atmosphere and the ether
end is connected with the pressure to be
'BELLOWS GAGES
A bellows gage is generally used to measure
pressures less than 15 psi. Some types are
satisfactory for measuring draft pressures and
for general low pressure measurements. The
bellows' of t gage is made of stainless steel,
brass, ) be
um- pper, Monol or phosphor
brow". A bellows 's shown in a gage case in
measured.
Manometers are available in many different
sizes and designs. They all operate on the same
principle. Two common types of manometers
are shown in figure,9-8i
figure'9-6.
When pressure increases in the line to a
bellows gage, the bellows increases in length and
THERMOMETERS AND PYROMETERS
operates a"system of gears and lever which are
connected to the ,pointer. The pointer then
thermometer is aprinstrument which
o
measures temperature. The temperature
1-k
,registers the higher reading on the dial. When the
pressure to the bellows gage decreases, the
bellows returns to its normal length, returning
the pointer toward zero. When the pressure to
the bellows is completely yremoved, the
hairspring of %e spoVer returns the pointer all
the way back to zero.
DIAPHRAGM GAGES
Diaphragm gages are sensitive and give
reliable indications of small differences in
pressure. Diaphragm gages are generally used to
.,measure air pressure in the space between the
inner and outer boiler casings.
The indicatiflg mechanism of a diaphragm
gage, shown in figure 9-7, consists 9f a tough;
pliable, neopreike rubber membrane conntdted
to a metal sPring which is attached by' a simple
link* system to the gage pointer.
.
One side of the diaphragm is exposed to the
pressure being measured, while the other side is
exposed te the aftmosphere. When pressure is
applied to the diaphragm, it moves upward,
puthing the metal spring ahead. As the spring is
pushed up, it moves the pointer, connected to it
with a chain, to a higher reading on the dial.
When the pressure is lowered the diaphragm
pulls the pointer back toward the zero point.
I09
103
61.4X
Figure 9-8.A. Standard U-tube manometer.
B. Single-tube manometer:
10,
FIREMAN
measured may be that of steam to the main
Ar,
engines, brine in an ice machine, oil and bearings es
in the main engines',4or substances in many other Q
locations. In generpl, a thermometer measures
changes in temperature by utilizing the effect of
heat on the expansion of a liquid or a gas.
Thermorheters are designed
POINTER
mkt, NT,
.01METALLIC ELEMENT
Aet
GAGE DIAL.
as (1)
direct-reading, liquid-in-glass type, (2) bimetallic
type, or (3) distant-reading, indicating-dial type
thermometers.
110 ORO
61.27
Figure 0.10. Bimetallic actuator for a thermometer.
LIQUID-IN-GLASS THERMOMETERS
Liquid-in-glass thermometers are filled with
mercury, ethyl alcohol, benzine, water, or some
other liquid suitable for the temperature range
involved. Most of the liquid-in-glass
thermometers used in the engineering spaces are
in the glass stem. Cold, or the absence of heat,
uses the liquid-to contract and fall.
LiqUid-intlass thermometers are designed so
,That the face will be in the best positon for
reading, ',when the thermometer is installed.
Some thermometers with different angles are
filled with mercury. When a thermOmeter is
exposed to a temperature to be measured, heat
shown in figure 9-9.
causes the liquid in the bulb to expand and rise
Mercury-filled Thermometers must not be
or improperly handled ,,because of
personnel hazard. Mercury produces a highly
Toxic vapor which is 'hazardous if breathed in
misused
excessive concentration.
48' RECLINED ANGLE
Cr INCLINED
BIMETALLIC DIAL THERMOMETERS '*
ANGLE
Bimetallic dial. t ermometers use a bimetal
element for indicati temperature changes on a
circular dial. The' bimetallic actuator is a
single-helix coil fitted olosely to the inside of the
stem tube. A rise in temperature causes the
actuating
element to
expand. Beause the
element is composed of tw.o thin strips of
different metals with each metal having a
different rate of expansion, the element expands
by unwinding instead of by expanding against
the sides of the tube. The pointer shaft is
'LEFT DICE ANGLE
secured to the free end of the element and thus
registers the-amount of element movement on'
the dial face. Figure 9-10 shows the actuating
element of a bimetallic thermometer.
RIGHT GIDE ANGLE
DISTANT-READING
DIAL THERMOMETERS
Distant-reading dial thermometers are used
when indicating portions of the instrument must
.
61.26
Figuro 9-9.Tpormometors with angle socks ts.
104
110
Chapter 9IN TRUMENTS
wires r cables inside, the armor contains a small
metal tube. The capillary tubing must be
carefully and must be maintained free
of kinki
twists, so that the mercury column
within the
ing is not distrupted.
handle
BOURDON
TUBE
PRESSURE
GAGE
The Bourdon tube pressure gage is the same
as we discussed earlier in this chapter. The gage
contains a Bourd9n tube which has a tendency
to straighten out as the pressure in the Bourdon
tube increases.
CAPILLARY
TUBING
Now, let us put together the three major
of the distant-reading thermometer
units
(mercury bulb, capillary tubing, and the pressure
gage) and see what happens. Remember that all
three of these units are filled with mercury and
that when the temperature rises, the increase
causes the mercury in the bulb to expand. The
expansion of the mercury in the bulb causes a
%pressure to be built up in the ca illary tubing.
This same pressure is transrakted- hrough the
capillary tubing into the Bourdon tube in the
MERCURY
BULB
pressure gage. The Bourdon to
61.28X
Figure 9-11.Distant-reeding dial thermometer.
be
placed
at
temperature
a distance
aightens out
and, through an assembly of gears and levers,
causes a pointer to move around a dial, which
has previously been calibrated to show
corresponding temperatures. The expansion of
the mercury in the bulb-results in a movement
of the pointer that is directly proportional to
the temperature applied to the bulb.
from where the
is being measured. The
m e rcury-filled, distant-reading thermo meter,
shown in figure 9-11, is the most common type
used aboard ship. There are other types, but
they are not commonly used aboard ship and
PYROMETERS
will not be discussed.
Pyrometers are used to measure temperature
through a wide range, generally between 300°F
The mercury-filled, distant-reading
thermometer (fig. 9 -I I-) consists of a mercury
bulb, capillary tubing, and a Bourdon tube
pressure gage. The mercury bulb, the capillary
tubing, and the Bourdon tube in the pressure
and 3,000°F. They are used aboard ship to
mea u
temperatures in heat treatment
fu aces, in exhaust temperatures of diesel
en: es, a d for other similar purposes.
gage are all filled with mercury.
e pyrometer includes a thermocouple and
a
The mercury bulb is the sensing element. It
is inserted and fastened securely (eithk- threaded
meter. The thermocouple, made of two
issimilar metals joined together at one end,
produces an electric current when heat is applied
at its joined end. The meter, calibrated in
degrees, indicates the temperature at the
thermocouple. Figure 9-12 illustrates the
4or bolted) in an opening in a pipe lior turbine
pump casilig, for instance, where a temperature
measurement is desired.
The capillary tubing is constructed similarly
to armored electric cable, but instead of having
operating principle of the thermocouple of the
pyrometer.
105
FIREMAN
chamber to the mercury-filled bulb of the
indicator gage, and another line connects the
space above the mercury column to the top of
the tank. Since the height of the liquid in the
tank has a definit4 relationship to the prosswe
izirid.
A --
7e0PCIA71100 0A.50
(341M773.127C1104.1011AT00
70 09HCA70 700.*072Altrae)
exerted by the liquid, the scale can be caliblated
to show the height (or liquid level). Whe the
height`of the liquid in the tank is known, the
measurement of height can be readily converted
I
LITAL
to volume (gallons).
GAGE GLASSES
61.34X
Figura 9`12. Diagrammatic arrangomont of a
tharmocoupla.
o
The gage glass is qne of the simplest kinds of
liquid level indicators. Gage glasses are used on
boilers, on deaerating feed tanks, on inspection
tanks, and on other shipboard machinery. Gage
glasses vary in design and construction
depending upon pressure or other service
conditions.
The liquid level in the gage glass is the same
as the liquid level in the container, and the
LIQUID LEVEL INDICATORS
In the engineering plant aboard ship,
operating personnel must frequently know the
level of various liquids in various locations. The
level of the water in the ship's boilers is an
example of a liquid level that must be known at
all times. Other liquid levels that must be known
are the level of the fuel oil in, storage
tanks and service tanks, the level of theqvater in
the deaerating feed tank, and the level of the
lubricating oil in the oil sumps and reservoirs of
pumps and other auxiliary machinery.
liquid
level
can
be
determined
by
visual
Liquid level indicators, other than sounding
rods and ta'es, are constructed in a variety of
designs and sizes; some are simple and some are
MERCURY
relatively complex. Some indicators measure
BASE
liquid level directly by measuring the height of a
column of liquid.
OIL
IN
TANK GAGING SYSTEM
One of the most common liquid
CONTROL...
level
VALVE
indicators is the static head gaging system,
shown in figure 9-13. This type indicator is
COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY
BALANCE CHAMBER
generally used to measure the liquid level in fuel
oil storage tanks aboard ship. This system uses a
mercury manometer to balance a head of liquid
/-
in the tank against the column of liquid in the
manometer. The balance chamber is located so
that its orifice (opening) is near the bottom of
the tank. A line connects the top of the balance
1
ORIFICt
61.5X
Figure 9-13.Static head gaging system..
106
112
( hapter 9 INS!
N IS
°
139.32
Figure 9-14.Boiler gage glass installed on a boiler.
observation. A typical boiler gage glass installed
on a boiler is shown in figure 9-14.
In addition to the gage glasses. some boilers
are equipped with remote. water level indicators.
The remote water level indicators are generally
installed on the operating level of the boilers to
provide the petty officer in charge with ci readily
obtainable reading of the water level
in
gasoline, and other liquids. You cannot get an
accurate measurement of the rate of flow of a
liquid through a meter finless the recorded
amount is read correctly. Some different types
of dials used on fluid meters are shown in figures
9-16 and 9-17. TI R- dial readings are generally in
U.S. gallons unless otherwise specified on the
dial face. The dial faces shown in figure 9-16 are
far the straight-reading type meter: the dial faces
shown in figure 9-17 are for a round reading
the
steam drum of the boilers. Figure 9-15 illustrates
one type of reIl ate water level indicator.
meter.
TUID ME,IERS
Fluid
meters
Fo read the stright-reading meter, read from
are
used
aboard
ship to
left to right and add sthe number indicated by
the smaller pointer above. For example, in part
measure flow rate of fuel oil, diesel oil, water,
107
ti
FIREMAN
0
A of figure 9-16 the reading is 0000280. Part B
shows the reading to be 0000285. As the pointer
turns, so does the righiphand, numbered roller.
Even though the next higher. number is partly
exposed always read the lesser number,'which.is
the number disappearing frond sight. When the
small pointer is at 0 all the numbers in the
straight-reading dial will be centrally aligned, as
shown in part A and part G of figure 9-16. When
the small pointer is at 8 or 9 (part C of fig.
9-16), the next larger number on the numbered
roller is almost completely exposed, but the
lesser number must be read. The dial in part C of
figure 9-16 reads 288 gallons, not 298 gallons.
1
To read the round-reading dial face
(fig.
9-17) take the lesser number of the two between
which the hand points in each circle. Notice that
each circle indicates tens, hundreds, thousands,
tens of thousands, etc. Place the number taken
from the circle marked "tens" in-The units
position, place the number taken from the circle
narked "hundreds" in the tens place; and
14 $.0 ALLONS
-414 MS
tJy 41.0
kt:A.
41,
4.
61.13.1X
Figure 9-16.Straight reading registers.
ww,...1.
g
139.33
Figure 9-15.Reroote water level indicator.
114
108
61.13.2X
Figure 9-17.Round reading registers.
10.
Chaptef 9INSTRUMENTS
coittinue similarly for the remaining circles.
Each division of any circle stands for one -tenth
of the whole number indicated by that circle. If
a hand is o or near a numbers read that number
instead of tale next lower number when the hand
in the
circle is on or past 0.
The most common instrument used in the
plant aboard ship to measure
rotational Speed is the tachometer. For most
shipboard machinery, rotational speed is
expressed in revolutions per minute (rpm). The
tachometers generally used aboard ship are of
engineering
three main types: centrifugal, chronometric, and
resonant.
REVOLUTION COUNTERS
AND INDICATORS
Measurements of rotational speed are
necessary for the operation of the pumps, forced
draft blowers, main engines, and other
machinery or equipment of the engineering
plant. As a result, various instruments are used
to indicate the shaft speed or to count the
number of turns a shaft makes.. One type of
instrument, the revolution counter, which is
mounted on the throttleboard in the
engineroom, counts the total number of turns
that are made by a main propulsion shaft. These
counters are similar to the speedometer of an
automobile. A typical revolution counter is
shoiwn in figure 9-18.
The..CENTRIFUGAL tachometer may be
either portable (single and multiple range) or
permanently mounted. The portable multirange
tachometer has three ranges: low (50 to 500
rpm), medium (500 to 5,000 rpni), and high
(5,000 to 50,000 rpm). Do not shift from one
range to another while the poytable centrifugal
tachometer is in use.
Normally, permanently mounted centrifugal
tachometers operate off the governor or
speed-limiting assembly. The tachometer
continuously records the actual rotational speed
of the rhachinery shaft. permanently mounted
centrifugal tachometer is illustrated in figure
9-19.
The portable centrifupj tachometer is
operated manually. A small shaft which
protrudes from the tachometer case is applied
manually to a depression or projection on the
end of a rotating shaft of a pump, motor`, or
other machinery. The centrifugal or rotating
movement of the machinery ,,soft is converted
to instantaneous values of s1,ecl.on the dial face
of the tachometer. Figure 9-20 shows a portable
multirange centrifugal tachometer.
The
portable PHRONOMETRIC
tachometer,
shown in figure, 9-21, is a
combination watch and rdvolution counter. It
measures' the average number of revolutions per
minute of a motor shaft, pump shaft, etc. This
tachometer has an outer drive 'shaft which runs
free when applied to a rotating shaft, until a
starting buttori is depressed to start the timing
element. Note the starting button beneath the
index finger in figure 9.21. The chronometric
tichOmeter retains readings on its dial after its/
drive shaft has been disengaged from a rotating
shaft, until the pointers' are returned to zero.by
the reset button (usually the starting button).
7.143
Figu8. Revolution counter.
109
FIREMAN
38.111X
Figure 9-19.Permanently mounted centrifugal type tachometer on a forced draft blovkr.
110
116
Chapter 9INSTRUMENTS
61.17X
Figure 9- 20. Multiranga centrifugal tachometer.
The range of a chronometric tachbitieter is
usually from 0 to 10,000 rpm andlrom 0 to
3,000 feet per minute (fpm).
Each portable centrifugal or chronomJtric
tachometer has a small rubber covered wheel
and a number of hard rubber tips. The
appropriate tip or wheel is fitted on the end of
the tachometer drive shaft and held against the
shaft to be measured. Portable tachometers of
th0 centrifugal or chronometric type are used
for iritumittent readings only, and are not used
fol. continuous operation.
The RESONANT REED tachometer,
illustrated in figure 9-22, is particularly useful
for measuring high rotational speeds sjich as
those that occur in turbines and generators. This
type tachometer is particularly suitable when it
is practically impossible to reach the moving
ends of the machinery shafts. This instrument
gives continuous readings and is capable of
makin rap , instantaneous adjustments to
rotational sp d.
2.66X
Figure 9.21. Portable chronometric tachometer.
111
1
FIREMAN
Resonance is the quality of an elastic body
which causes it to vibrate vigorously when
subjected to small, rhythmic impluses at a rate
alarms,
equa to, or near, its natural frequency. Ip a
many others.
reso ant reed tachometer, resonance provides a
simp a but accurate means to measure speed and
rate of vibration.
A resonant reed tachometer consists of a set
of consecutively tuned steel'reeds mounted in a
mse with a scale to indicate rpm of the shaft and
vibrations per minute (vpm) of the reeds. This
`tachomethas no pointeronly a set of
accurately tuned reedsand it operates without
direct contact with a moving part under test. It
has no gears or couplings, and it _requires no
flow
indiCators,
Superheater temperature alarms are installed
on most boilers to warn operating personnel of
dangerously high temperatures in the
superheater of the boilers. Some superheater
temperature alarms operate similarly to the
Bourdon tube pressure gage. As heat is applied,
the mercury in the spiral-wound Bourdon tube
expands, causing the Bourdon tube to move a
cantilever arm toward an electric microswitch.
As the preset alarm temperature is reached, the
cantilever arm engages the microswitch, setting
of a warning howl or buzzer. The warning signal
continues until the superheater temperature has
OTHER ENGINEERING INSTRUMENTS
There are
steam
SUPERHEATER TEMPERATURE ALARMS
oilingiland practically no maintenance.
instruments
superheater
smoke indicators, salinity indicators, lube oil
pressure alarms, engine order telegraph, and
a great number of additional
been lowered to approximately 10° or 15°F,
indicators used in the
engineering plant. This section will acquaint you
and
below the preset alarm temperature. The signal
or alarm stops because the mercury in the
with those additonal instruments which you
Bourdon tube contracts, moving the Bourdon
tube, which in turn causes the cantilever arm to
move away from the microswitch, shutting off
the alarin. A diagrammatic arrangement of one
type of superheater alarm is shown in figure
most likely will be seeing or working with in the
engineering department. These additional
instruments include superheater temperature
9-23.
STEAM FLOW, INDICATOR
Steam flow indicators' 91).1)W the rate of flow
through the superheater of
of steam
PIVOT POINT
SPIRAL
STEEL CAPILLARY TUBE
BOOR DON
TUBE
MERCURY FILL ED BULB
CANTILEVER
mICROSwiTcH
ARM
ADJUSTER FOR
SE TTINC. ALARM
TEMPERATURE
61.16X
61.31 X
Figure 9-23.Superheater temperature alarm.
Figure 9-22.Mounted resonant reed tacImeter.
112
118
Chapter 9INSTRUMENTS.
BULL'S-EYE
LENS
VISION
GLASS
UPTAKE
CASING
LAMP
[!'"
.11;
.40
I
COVER
CLAMP
_Irk\
/1N
,
REFLECTOR
UNIT
wed
LINE OF SIGHT
-48,433111
41:
,w,
.111:
', 1
N wA..
ADJUSTABLE
MIRROR
ee
'No
COVER
CLAMP
LAMP UNIT
LOCK
NUT
.27
LOCK.
NUT
ADJUSTABLE
MIRROR
LINES
VISION Ut'iT
COVER
CLAMP
Figure
9-24.Smoke indicator.
double-furnace boilers. Before fires are lighted in
38.60
SMOKE INDICATOR
the superheated side of double-furnace baiitirs,
the operator must ensure that a sufficient flow
of steam-is passing through the superheater. The
flowof steam is necessary to carry off the heat
Of combustion in the superheated side of
double-furnace boilers in order to prevent
overheating of the superheater tubes, drums, and
Smoke indicators (periscope type) provide
the boiler operator With visual indications of
conditions in the stack above the furnace area. A
smoke indicatorIS shown in figure 9-24.
headers.
SALINITY INDICATOR
The steam flow indicator is calibrated in
inches and is normally set at 2 inches as the
minimum low. In other words, fires should not
be lighted in the superheated side of
double-furnace boilers until the .pointer on the
steam flow indicator has reached the 2 -inch
mark, which is an indication of sufficient flow
Electrical salinity indicating cells (fig. 9-25)
are installFd throughout distilling
plakts to
maintain a constant check on the distilled water.
An electrical salinity indicator consists of a
number of salinity 'cells ,in various locations in
the plant; for example, in the evaporators,
condensate pump discharge, and the air-ejector
pf steam.
113
11
1.0
FIREMAN
ringing bell or loud siren, receives its signal from
the bearing that is the most) remote from the
lube oil pump. When the alarm is sounded, the
affected machinery must be stopped
immediately, the cause determined, and
corrective measures taken.
ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH
The engine order telegraph (speed indicator),
shown in figure 9-26, relays the speed requested
by the officer of the deck while underway to the
throttleman in the engineropm. The engine
order telegraph is generally mounted on the
throttleboard adjacent to the throttle valves, so
that it is readily visible to the throttleman. The
following table lists speed changes which may be
indicated via the engine order telegraph.
7150
Figure 9-25.Salinity cell and valve assembly.
condenser' drain. These salinity cells are all
connected to a Salinity indicator panel.
a Since the electrical resistance or a solution
varies according to the amount of ionized salts
in solution, it is possible to measure salinity by
measuring the electrical 'resistance. The salinity
indicator panel is equipped 1 with a meter
calibrated to read directly either in equivalents
per million (epm) or in grains per gallon (gpg).
The newer type salinity indicators are calibrated
in epm.
LUBE OIL
PRESSURE ALARM
Lube oil pressure alarms are installed oncall
generators and Inain propulsion engines to signal
when the lube oil pressure to the bearings is
dangerously low. Low lube oil pressure,, can
cause a number of casualties that will impair the
operating condition of- the machinery invlved.
The lube oil pressure, which
w
is either a rapidly
7.116
Figure 646.Engine order telegraph.
114
10
'A 4
4
I
Chapter 9INSTRUM NTS
Ahead
1/3
2/3
I
II
III
Stop
Astern
1/3
2/3
Full
Standard
Full
The wrong direction alarm is connected to
the engine order telegraph and the main engine
throttle valves. If the engine order telegraph
indicates "ahead" and the throttleman attempts i
to open the astern throttle valve, a loud signal or '
.
Plank
alarm is sounded.
Q
A
121
115
.
-
-
b
CHAPTER 10
r
ob.
PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
4
Fireinan, you should have. a general
of the basic operating principles of
knowled
the various pes' of pumps used by the Navy.
Pumps are used to move any substance which
If a system has a 'pump, it must also contain
devices for controlling the volume of,flow, the
direction of flovy, or theoperattng pressure of
the system. A device that performs one or more
of these control functions is called a VALVE.
A
flows or which can be made-to flow. When
thinking of the term pumj,ing, you probably
In addition to 'pumps and valves,. in this
chapter we shall discuss pipipg which is a vital
part of the sliip's engineering plant.
think of movineWater, oil, air, steam, and other
common liquids and gases. Substances such as
molten Metal, sludge, and mud are alsO fluids
s
and can be pumped with specially designed
pumps.
PUMPS
.
A pump is a device which suses an external
4
Pumps are classified by their ,design .and
source of power to Apply a force to a fluid in
order to pc ove the fluid from one place to
another. *pump transforms energy from the
operational features. Pumps are further classified
by the type .of. movement that causes the
pumpip-rr'actionv (reciprocating, rotary,
external source (such as ar4 electric motor or
centrifugal, propsller, or jet pumps). Pumps are
also classified by the rate of speed, the rate of
discharge, eand the method of priming. Some
pumps run at variable speed; others at constant
speed. Some pumps have a variable capacity;
others discharge at a constant rate. Some pumps
are self-priming; -others require a positive
pressure on the suction (intake) side before they
,can begin to move a liquid.
steam turbine) "nto :mechanical kinetic energy,
which is reveal d by the motion of the fluid.
en used to do work,
i
This kinetic en
such as: to raise a liquid,- from one level to
another, as when lifting 'Water from a well; to
transport a liquid through a pipe, as in an oil
pipeline; to move a liquid against some
resistance as when filling a boiler under pressure;
or to force a liquid througha hydra is system
against variptus resistances.
Regardless of classificatippump must
have- a POWER END and asPe.-OiD .END:-The
Aboard ship, pumps are used for a number
of essential services. Pumps,supply water tp the
boilers, draw condensate from the condensers,
supply sea ,water to the firemain, circulate
cooling water for coolers and condensers, pump
out bilges, transfer fuel. oil, 4upply sea water to
the distilling' plants, and serve ;many other
purposes. The operation of the ship's propulsion
plant and of almost all the auxiliary machinery
power. end may
be
a *am turbine,
a
reciprocating steam engine; steam jet, or an
electric motor. In . steam-driven pumps,' the
power end is oftenalled the STEAM END. The
fluid end is generally called the PUMP END; but
it may be called the LIQUID END, the A R
to
END, thr-011--....EXILgs.,--the GAS N
indicate' thf nature of the IPuid substpce b ing
'Rumpedi
depends on the proper operation of pumps.
,gump failure may cause failure Of an entire
power plant, although most plan s have two
Pu fps can be divided into groups accofding
.to the principles on which they operate. Most
pumps fall into five pain types: reciprocating,
pumpsa main pump and a standb Dump.
116
4%,
I
clv
Chapter 10 PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
rotary, centrifugal, 'propeller, and jet. Each type
or'pump is especially suited for some particular
kind of work.
RECIPROCATING PUMPS
The hand water pump commonly used on
farms is a good example of the reciprocating
pump. The reciprocating ptgair, derives its name
from the back and forth or up and down
movement of the Piston or plunger inside
a
cylinder. These pumps are used on modern ships
as emergency feedwater pumps and as
emergency fire and bilge pumps. ReciprocatOri
pumps are used for emergency purposes because
they are easy to operate and can be started
safely by relatively inexperienced personnel.
These pumps are also reliable for starting under
cold conditions.
139.34
A single- acting pump is one which takes a
Figure 10-1.Orrating principle of two typos of
suction on one stroke only, known as the
reciprocating pumps.
suction stroke. On the return strokecalled the
discharge strokethe liquid is forced out of the
cylinder. Figure 10-1A illustrat?s the operating
principle of a single-acting reciprocating pump.
The principal parts of a .single-acting
reciprocating pump are a Fylindera piston, and
a valve system. The piston fits ?nugly in the
top and bottom of each stroke.
....._
,
A stream of water is forced out of the
cylinder and is moved up and down in the
cylinder by the punipp4haft. Most of these
pumps are steam-dtilkn. "The pump shaft is a
continuation of the piston rod of the steam
cylinder.
1
type except that the valve .system is arra ged
,.. differently, and an air ,chamber is added to
maintain the pressure when the piston is at the
double-acting pump on both 'the up and the
down strokes. On the up stroke, the water above
the piston is forced out through the upper outlet
valve. At the same time, 'fater is being drawn
into the space below the piston through the
,
On the down stroke, the valves in the
lower 'inlet valve. On the down stroke, the water
below the piston is forced- out of (discharged
bottom of the cylinder arerclosed and the water
in the lower part of the cylinder is forced up
from) the cylinder through the lower outlet
calve and a new charge of water is drawn into
the top of the cylinder through the upper inlet
through the valves in the pistbn: On the up
strokes, the weight of the water above the piston
closes the piston valves. As the piston moves
valve.
upward, it draws the water from the suction line
into the ylinder through the cylinder valves.
The water abo the piston leaves the pump
through an outlet line or a spout.
Reciprocating pumps are often called
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT pumpsthat is,
each discharge stroke displaces a definite'
'amount of liquid, regardless of the resistances
The double-acting Ohm shown in figure
against which the pump is operating. A relief
valve must be installed in the discharge line to
10-1 B delivers a steady stream of water under
high pressure. Double-acting pumps are, also
steam-driven. The pump is connected directly to
relieve any excess pressure.
the piston rod of the steam cylinder. These
st
The operation of the reciprocating pump
pumps have the same general parts and operate
on the same general principle as the single-acting
generally depends on a valve system which
direas the steam First in d one end of the
117
123
FIREMAN
STEAM rrEST
Ant
.1171
'EXI1AOST
PORT
SI
LIVE OTEALi
PACE
STGALI PORT
PO( PILOT
VALVE
P15*
139.35
TEAL, PILOT
VALVE
UAW STE
PL5T014 T
VALVE
Figure 10-2.Operating principle of D-shaped slick
valve of a redprocating pump.
.
AUTgAWD
ff
.
cylinder and then into the other end. The steam
is allowed to escape from the cylinder after it
has served its purpose. Steam to and from the
cylinder passes through two ports (opepings),
one in each end of the cylinder. This
arrangement is quite similar to the manner in
which the water passes through the
32.99
Figure 10-3.Piston-type valve gear for steam and of
reciprocating pump.
double-acting water pump described previously.
One valve design consists of a D- SItAPED
SLIDE VALVE (D-valve) that is actuated by a
cylinder port is connected to the exhaust port
through the back of the valve. As the,piston
rises, it pushes the exhaust steam out at the toP
linkage attached to the piston rod. (See fig.
10-2.) The steam chest which is attached to
the cylinder is connected through a stop valve to
the auxiliary 'steam line. When the piston reaches
the top of its sfroke, the valve-operating
mechanism moves the valve down to the
of the cylinder through the exhaust port.
a
position shown in figure 10-2A. The port
connecting the steam chest to the 'pace at the
same function as the D-valve, but the movement
of the valve is controlled by the difference in the
steam pressure between the inlet and the outlet.
The piston valve gear consists of a main
top of.the cylinder is uncovered. Steam from the
chest flows through this port, exerts a pressure
on the top of the piston, and forces it
piston-type slide valve and a pilot slide valve.
Since the rod from the pilot valve is connected
to the pump rod by a valve-operating assembly,
the position of the pilot valve is controlled by
the position of the piston in the steam cylinder.
The pilot valve furnishes actuating steam to the
main piston valve; this in turn admits steam to
the top or to the bottom of the steam cylinder
at the proper time.
downward.
At the same time, the space belolk the piston
is connected with the exhaust port through a
recess in the back of the valVe. As the piston
moves downward, tke steam that fills this space
is forced out through the exhaust port.
As the piston nears the bottom of its stroke,
the valve mechanism moves the D-valve to the
position shown in figure I0-2B. This, movement
Figure 10-3 shows the piston valve gear
commonly used aboard ship. It performs the
or.
Regardless of the type of valve used, the
continued operation of tholyump consists of
fivers the lower port. Steam froth the chest
now flows into the lower-re of the cylinder
and pushes the piston upward. The upper
feeding steam into one end" of the cylinder and
exhausting it from the other end. The direction
118
124
Chapter 10PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
of steam flow (in and out of the cylinder ports)
, is reversed at the end of
each stroke of the
.
WW1
piston.
cnt-411
tWil"
Starting a recipfocating p p Is quite
simple. First, open the proper v
s in the
rates:4
suction and discharge lines before sta ing the
pump. Next, open the exhaust valve and the
cylinder drains. Then open the throttle valve
slightly, or "crack" it to feed enough steam Into
the cylinder to warm it. Adjust the throttle to
perate the pump at a slow speed until live
s eam begins to come out of the drains. Now
c1 ose
W:111
11,11=41
SHAM
the drains and adjust the throttle to
(A)
operate the pump at the desired speed.
When securing a reciprocating pump, close
valve. Next open the cylinder drains and close
the valves in the suction and discharge lines.
After the steam cylinder has drained, close the
drain valves.
Variable Stroke Pumps
Aboard ship, variable stroke pumps (positive
displacement) are used largely
on
electrohydraulic steering gear, elevators, cranes,
and anchor windlasses. In these applications, the
variable stroke pump is referred to as the A-end
of the drive system and the hydraulic motor
which is driven by the A-end is referred to as the
B-end. By controlling the pumping action of the
A-end, you can run the motor (B-end) in'either
direction and vary the speed from zero to the
maximum rate. On some naval ships, variable
stroke pumps are also used as in-port and
cruising fuel oil service pumps.
Although variable stroke pumps are often
classified Ai rotary pumps, they are actually
reciprocating 'sumps. They operate on a
principle similar to that of -a single-acting
reciprocating pump. A rotary motion is
imparted to a cylinder barrel or cylinder block
in
the pump by means of a constant-speed
electric motor, but the actual pumping is done
by a set of pistons reciprocating inside a set of
Figure 10-4 illustrates the operating
principle of a Waterbury variable-volume pump.
This pump is used as a variable-speed power
transmission in the steering gear and the
gun-training mechanism aboard ship. It is also
used in those systems where it is necessary to
control the pump output within very narrow
limits.
In the Waterbury pump the p,dping is done
by a set of pistons which move back and forth
within close-fitting cylinders. The oil enter and
leaves the cylinders through ports or pass es in
the cylinder heads. The pistons are operat d by
the cam action of a tilting plate. This me od of
changing rotary motion to reciprocating (back
and forth) motion is demonstrated by the device
shown in figure 10-4.
This demonstrator consists of a cykpder
barrel and a tilting plate attached to a shaft, as
illustrated in figure 10-4A. The tilting plate is
fastened to the shaft by a universal joint which'
permits it to tilt in any direction. The
connecting rods (piston rods) rest in sockets in
the tilting plate and are, attached to pistons
which slide up and down in the cylinders. When
the handwheel is turned the complete assembly
turns with it.
When you place the demonstrator on a
cylinders.
Let us discuss the way that the rotary
motion is changed to reciprocating motion.
1110-0(
139.37
Fiouro 10 4. Operating principlo of a Waterbury
the throttle first, and then close the exhaust
,,,
Nati
sloping surface the tilting plate will tip or, tilt
and assume the same angle as the block. The
pistons on the low side will be drawn down in
5
CONTROL SHP!
PLA'f
1:1001
RU;)
*vt hnfR BARRit
P Sfth
TIL 71NG
\.
Btu, K
11;
4:1
MAIN
SHAFT
-a
'HAFT TRUNNION BLOCK
SOCKET RING
DIAGRAM - TILTING BLOCK POs"ilikk,
REVIR4
FORWARD
1
I
I
Chapter 10 PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
the cylinders, and those on the high side will be
pushed up. In figure 10-4A the number 1 piston
ROTARY PUMPS
highest.
All rotary pumps work.by means of rotating
parts which trap the liquid at the suction side of
is in the lowest position; number 3 is in the
the pump casing and force it through the
Now turn the handwheel to the right, and
see what happens. As the far side of the tilting
plate moves up along the surface of the block,
are commonly used as the rotating elements in
rotary pumps.
be raised. The near side of the plate will be
moving down along the block surface and the
Rotary pumps (positive displacement) are
most useful for pumping oil and "other heavy
discharge outlet. Gears, screws, lobes, and vanes
the connecting rods and pistons on that side will
pistons on this side will move down in tht
viscous
cylinders.
The operation is continuous. Each
piston moves up during half of each revolution
around the shaft, and moves down during the
liquids.
They
are
also
used
for
nonviscous liquids, such as water or gasoline,
where the pumping problem involves a high
suction lift. Rotary pumps are used for fuel oil
other half.
service, fuel oil transfer, and lubricating oil
service. These pumps are self-priming, because
The stroke of the pistons (the distance that
they move up and down during each revolution
of the shaft) depends on the slope or tilt of the
tilting plate. In figure 10-4B the demonstrator is
resting on a level surface, and the tilting plate is
parallel to the bottom of the cylinder barrel.
When you turn the handwheel now, the tilting
plate will' not move up and down, and the
pistons will remain in the same position in the
they are able to remove air from the suction
lines and produce a high suction lift (or a
satisfactory vacuum).
The simple GEAR PUMP, shown in figure
is frequently used in the lulricating
systems of fuel oil and water pumps, forced
draft blowers and other auxiliary machinery.
10-6
This type of pump has two spur pars which
cylinders.
mesh together and rotate in opposi+ directions;
So far, the demonstrator has been used to
show that the pistons will move up and down in
the cylinders when the shaft is turned with the
angle plate tilted. The device can be converted
into an oil pump by adding an adjustable tilting
box to control the tilt of the tilting plate and by
placing a valve plate on top of the cylinder
barrel. The valve plate has two elongated ports
which allow the oil to flow into the cylinders on
one side of the pump and out on the,other side.
When the tilt of the tilting plate is increased, the
stroke of the pistons is increased and more oil
passes through the pump. Tilting the tittingplate
in the opposite direction reverses the direction
of the oil flow.
one is the drivinittl tthe other is the driven
gear. The driving gear is
tached to the shaft of
the electric motor or steam turbine that drives
the pump; the driven gear is in mesh with the
driving gear and is driven by it. The gears must
fit very closely within the case so tliat the liquid
will not leak back to the suction side of the
pump. The parts are lubricated by the liquid
being pumped.
DISCHARGE
The variable stroke axial piston pump (fig.
10-5) has the same pOncipal parts as the
demonstrator just described in figure 10-4. The
moving parts are enclosed in a pump case that is
kept filled with oil. These pumps are mounted in
a horizontal position and are usually driven by
an electric motor.
SUCTION
38.108
127
121
Figure 10.8. Action of simple gear pump.
FIREMAN -
At first glance, you might think that the
n the two gears. This is not
liquid passes be
true. As the gea rotate, the liquid is trapped in
the spaces bet en the gear teeth and the pump
case and is ca *ed around to the discharge side
FLEXIBLE
COUPLING
of the pump. As the teeth come in mesh, the
UPPER THRU
PLATE
liquid is squeezed out of these spaces and is kept
from returning to the suction side of the pump.
Pressure is built up and forces the liquid out of
the pump into the discharge line.
There are several variations of the simple
gear pump. One kind has herringbone teeth (fig.
10-7) which make little noise and maintain an
even pressure. Another kind has three lobes on
IDLER
00WER ROTO4
ROTOR HOUSING
IDLER
DISCHARGE
each gear instead of teeth. Lobe pumps and
some helical pumps have timing gears which
rotate the pump parts. All of these pumps
SUCTION
SPACER
RING
pone
ROTOR HOUSING
operate on the same principle, as the simple gear
pump just described.
SCREW PUMPS represent still another type
IDLER
LOCATING
LOCATING
PE
LATTROST
OWER
CAPS
of positive displacement rotary pump. In the
screw pump, the liquid is trapped and forced
through the pump by the action of rotating
47.80
screws. Screw pumps have few moving parts and
Figure 10- 8. Cutaworview of triple screw,
high pitch pump.
no valves to get out of order. They are widely
used aboard ships as fuel oil and lubricating oil
service pumps. They may have two or three
-
screws and are divided into high pitch and low
pitch types.
Tltie triple screw pump (high-pitch)
illustrated in figure 10-8 has three screws or
rotors which revolve within a close-fitting
"housing. The power rotor in the center is in
mesh with sand drives) the two idling rotors
HAND DRIVE
(idlers).
The suction line is connected to the pump
intake, which in turn opens into the chambers at
the ends 'of the rotors. As the rotor turns, the
liquid flows in between the threads at the outer
each pair of screws. At the end of the
end
first turn, a spiral-shaped slug of the liquid is
trapped when the ends of the threads come in
mesh again. The threads carry the liquid along
within the housing toward the center of the
11111,11.1111
pump and to the discharge opening.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Centrifugal pumps are used in the feed, fresh
water, and fire main systems of the engineering
-38.104
Figure 10-7.Herringbone gear pump.
122
128'
Chapter 10PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
plant. There are many types of centrifugal
pumps (feedwater booster, condensate, and
fire), but all operate onthe same principle.
Centrifugal pumps canhandle large quantities of
a liquid and deliver it at a high pressured. These
pumps may be .driven by a steam turbine, an
electric motor, or a diesel engine. They do not
operate on the positive displacement principle,
but depend on centrifugal force to move the
liquids through, the pump and to maintain the
desired Pressure. (See fig. 10-9.)
tank from ,which suction is' to be taken. When
the intake valve is opened the liquid flows into
the pump arid primes it. The vent cock should
be opened until all air is purged front the pump
casing.
A single-impeller pump will maintain
pressures up to 150 psi. Where higher pressures
aye required the pump is designed with from two
to ',six Openers. The pressure is raised by
succeksive
When a body revolves in a curved path, it
exerts a "centrifugal force" upon the
, e
casing, or whatever means is used restrain it.
from moving in a straight (tangen' al) line. For
example, centrifugal force is the f rce that holds
the water in a pail when you swin it in a circle
Over your head. If there happens to be a hole in
the bottom of the pail, the water will squirt out,
even when .the pail is upside down.
stages. The outlet from the first
impeller is connected to the inlet of the second
impeller and so on through all the stages.
PROPELLER PUMPS
Propeller pumps ary used on some ships as
circulating water pumps. (See fig. 10-10.)
Propeller pumps closely resemble centrifugal
pumps in design and operation but do not use
centrifugal force for their operation.
The simple centrifugal pump shown in figure
10-9 has only one main moving part. A wheel
called an impeller is connected to the drive shaft
and rotates within the pump casing. The casing
has the same spiral shape as the snail's shell. The
water enters the pump through the inlet pipe,
which empties into the center of the casing. The
location of the outlet passage corresponds to the
opening in the snail's shell through which the
Propeller pumps are used on some ships as
circulating pumps (fig. 10-10).
CASING
END PLATE
snail emerges.
SUCTION
The suction connection is so designed that
the liquid is guided from the suction chamber of
the casing to the center or' "eye" of the impeller.
VENT COCK
As the impeller rotates, it carries the water
DISCHARGE
CURVED VANES
around with it. The centrifugal force resulting
from this rotation pushes the water away from
the center and holds it against the inside of the
IMPELLER
CASING
pump casing. As the water flows along the inside
of the spiral-shaped casing, it is diverted through
the outlet opening and passes into the discharge
END
PLATE
JOINT
VOLUTE
DIFFUSER
line.
DRAIN
CONN.
Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming: they
should NEVER be run while empty. The
impeller fits very closely into the sides of the
casing and depends on the liquid being pumped
to supply the necessary coolant. This type of
139.38X
pump is usually installed below the level of the
Figure 10-9.-1-s sting principle of a centrifugal pump.
123
129,
FIREMAN
TURBINE CASING
EXHAUST
STEAM CHEST'
BULL GEAR
THRUST BEARING
a
A
WATER OUTLET
STUFFING BOX a
PACKING RINGS
THRUST BUSHING
'PROPELLER'
WATER
LUBRICATEO
BEARING
WATER INLET
47.37
Figure 10-10.Main condenser circulating (propeller) pump (showing reduction gearing).
JET PUMPS
The propeller pump has a propeller closely
fitted into a tubelike casing. The propeller
All the pumps previously described require
motors or turbines to drive-them. However, jet
pumps have no moving parts. The flow through
pumps the liquid by pushing it in a direction
parallel to the shaft.
Propeller pumps must be located either
the pump is maintained by a jet of water or
below or only slightly above the surface of the
liquid to be pumped, since they cannot operate
with a high suction lift.
steam which passes through a nozzle at a high
velocity.
124
s.4
Chapter 10PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPIT
Jet pump's' are generally classified as
EJECTORS (which use a jet of steam to entrain
the fluid up through the inlet (D) into the
chamber and mit through the discharge line.
and transport air, water, or other fluid) and
EDUCTORS (which use a flow of water to
Thus, pumping action is established.
entrain and pump fluids). The basic principle of
operation of these two devices is identical.
Jet pumps of the ejector type are'
occasionally used, aboard ship to pump small.
A simple jet pump of the ejector type is
shown in figure 10-11. In this pump, steam
quantities of drainage overboard. Their primary
use on naval ships is to remove air and o'c'her
noncondensable gases from the main and
auxiliary condensers.
under pressure enters the chamber (C) through a
pipe (A) which is fitted with a venturi-shaped
Figure 1042 shows a portable eductor of
nozzle (B) having a reduced area which increases
the type found in damage control lockers. The
the velocity of the steam., The fluid in the
chamber at pbint F, in' front of the nozzle, is
principle of operation
,
is
the, same as that
described for the ejector type of jet pump;. but
water is used instead of steam. All the water
which enters the large end of the jet must go out
driven out of the pump through the discharge
line (E) by the force of the steam jet. The size of
the dischaige line increases gradually beyon"d the
chamber to decrease the velocity of the
discharge. As the steam jet forces some oftthe
fluid from the chaniber into the discharge line,
through the small end. Since the exit end
is
smaller than the entrance end, the water leaving
the jet will have a greater velocity than it had
upon entering the jet. The venturi-shape of the
diverging nozzles causes a low pressure area,
creating suction which draws water through the
pressure in the chamber is lowered and the
pressure on Plig- surface of the supply fluid forces'
strainer and entrains it through the diverging
nozzle. This ensures a constant flow.
Eductors may also be used for salvage work
and with fog or foam equipment. Eductors will
operate when entirely submerged in a flooded
compartment b and will discharge against a
moderate pressure.
1
E
Although fire and bilge pumps are still being
installed in new ships, fixed-type eductors are
the principal means of pumping water overboard
through the drainage system. By the use of
eductors, centrifugal fire pumps , can serve as
drainage pumps without having to run the risk
of fouling the pump with debris present in the
bilges; this is especially useful when there has
been damage to a ship.
ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
CONSTANT-PRESSURE
PUMP GOVERNORS
Constant-pressure pump governors used in
the Navy are applied almost entirely to
steam-driven pumps, both rotary and centrifugal
types. A constant-pressure pump governor
operates to maintain a constant discharge
pressure, regardless of pump capacity or output.
75.283
Figure 10-11.Jet pump (ejector type).
125
131
FIREMAN
DISCHARGE
OVERBOARD
IDIVERGING
NOZZLE
DISCHARGE FROM
FIRE PUMP
VENTURI
o°
SUCTION]
STRAINER
47.48
Figure 10-12.Eductor.
A constant-pressure pump governor for a
lubricating oil service pump is shown in figure
10-13. The governors used on fuel oil service
pumps and on main feed pumps are of the same
type. The size of the upper diaphragm and the
amount of spring tension vary on governors used
The constant-pressure pump governor
(sometimes referred to as pressure regulating)
consists essentially of an automatic throttling
valve installed in the steam supply line to the
pump's driving unit. A pipeline connects the
governor to the pump's discharge- line.
Variations in discharge Pressure, or in pressure
differential, actuate the governor, causing it to
regulate the pump speed by varying the flow of
steam to the driving unit.
for different services. You will find detailed
information concerning the operation and
adjustment of governors in chapter 9470 of
Nav Ships.Technical Manual.
126
132
if
I
I
'-ter
ss:
i-,,,,ii
ADJUSTING SCREW
1:,,
0
gg
DIAPHRAGM
-7.7,6i411'.
1.01
ROM PUMP DISCHARGE
;
\
otsmarlili I
°if
r
III
Ilk
if-.44040 1 k.
4111
DIAPHRAGM
r Ir.!
DIAPHRAGM GUIDE
NEEDLE VALVE
4PPbr,-
DIAPHRAGM
AUX. VALVE
,
4111-1.-PISTON
NI
NI
Lima;
I i
ammur icipur
1
NE+
11Air-i
iv Ito 'T
No
N.
MAIN VALVE
7
IIIIII*
zi
4"-- ki
IOU
jrLI'
1114
.
I
38.90
Figure 10-13.Constant-pressure pump governor.
13
127
FIREMAN
VALVES
LIST AP PARTS
10
Most of tile equipment in the engineering
spaces is operated by either opening or closing
the valves. A valve is a device for stopping
and/or controlling the flow of a fluid (liquid or
gas) through as pipe or an opening. Valves are
installed in every piping system aboard ship.
You will find them in the fuel line, the
2
PART NO.
3
0
12
13
1
NAME OF PART
VALVE am.
10
2
3
SONNET
0
4
DISk NUT
5
0
1
8
9
DISK
BONNET STUD
0ONNET STUD NUT
BONNET BUSHING
OLAND
GLAND FLANGE
PACKING STOP RING
GLAND STUD
GLAND STUD NUT
SET SCREW
HANOWHEEL
HANDWHEEL NUT
PACKING
BONNET GASKET
DISK WASHER
0
7
19
a
10
11
12
feedwater pipes, and the steam lines. In addition
13
14
15
to the large valves which control the flow .of
fluid in the lines, there are small valves which
pipe the flow around the' larger ones. These
IC
17
ID
'19
STEM.
small valves are called bypass valves which are
used to equalize pressures.
.38.117
Figure 10-14.Cross-sectional view of globe
-
Valve, designs vary greatly to meet service
demands. Most valves are classified as stop valves
stop valve.
(globe, gate, plug, piston, butterfly, and needle
Valves), check valves, or combination stop-check
valves.
10 -14. -Globe valves are widely used, throughout
Valves can be operated in various ways.
They may have hand wheels, air or hydraulic
pistons, or they may be operated by gravity, or
the engineering plant for a variety of services.
These valves may be used partly open as well as
fully open or fully closed, and are suitable for
by a solenoid.
use as throttling valves.
STEP VALVES
The moving parts of a globe valve consist of
a disk, valve stein, and a handwheel. The stem,
which connects the handwheel and the disk, is
threaded and fits into threads in the valve
bonnet. When you turn the handwheel the stem
moves up or down in the bonnet, carrying the
disk with it The valve is closed by turning the
handwheel clockwise and opened by turning it
top valves are used to close off a pipe or
ope g so that the contained fluid cannot pass
throw . Some valves can be closed partially to
cut down or regulate the flow of fluid.
The typical stop valve consists of the body,
an opening (port) through which the fluid flows,
a movable disk for ,closing this port, and some
means to raise and lower the disk. In the closed
counterclockwise.
The valve should never be jammed in the
position, the disk fits snugly into the port,
closing it completely. When the valve is open,
open position. After a valve has been fully
-opened, the handwheel should be turned.toward
the closed position one-half turn. Unless this is
the disk uncovers the port, allowing the fluid to
pass through. Each type of stop valve has a
done, the handwheel is likely to freeze in the
open position, and it will be difficult to close
different mechanical arrangement for closing the
port in the valve.
the valve. Many valves have been damaged in this
manner. Another reason for not leaving globe
valves fully open is that it is sometimes difficult
to tell whether a valve is open or closed. If a
valve is jammed in the open position, the stem
may be damaged or broken by someone who
Globe Valves
Globe valves generally derive their name
from their body shape. (Other types of valves
may also have globular bodies; hence, the name
thinks that the valve is closed Ao,r1 tries to force
it open. Valves that are exceptions to the above
rule are called BACK SEATING valves.
may tend to be misleading.) A cross-sectional
view of a globe stop valve is shown in figure
128
134
Chapter 10 PUMPS, VALVES, ANti PIPING
The edge of the port, where the disk touches
it, is called the valve seat. The edge of the disk
and the seat are machined and ground together
to form a tight seal. The rate at which the fluid
YOKE SLEEV
NUT
flows through the valve is regulated by the
WHEEL
pgsition of the disk. When the valve is closed,
the disk fits firmly against the valve seat. When
it is open, the fluid flows through the space
between the edge of the disk and the seat.
YOKE
YOKE SLEEVE
Packing is placed in the stuffmg box or space
that surrounds the valve stem and is held in place
STEM
by a packing glarid. With continued use of the
valve, the stem will gradually wear the packing
away and a leak may develop. You can generally
stop a slow leak by tightening the gland a turn
or two. If this fails, pressure should be removed
GLAND
BONNET
from the valve and the packing should be
BUSHING
-renewed.
PACKING
_/
Y
"BONNE9
Gate Valves
BODY BONNET
BOLTS
Gate valves (gg. 10-15) operate on the same
principle as the gTobe valve, but they have a gate
GATE
instead of a disk. The port is the full size of the
pipe and extends straight through the valve. The
gate is connected to the valve stem aid is raised
or lowered by turning the handwheel. When the
BODY
BODY SEAT
RINGS
valve is in closed position, the wedge-shaped gate
blocks off the port; in open position, the gate is
drawn up into a recess in the,,top of the valve.
Gate valves are used when\ a straight-line
flow through the valve is desirable. They do not
work well as throttles because they tend to
chatter. Therefore, gate valves are usually
GUIDE
RIB
operated in the fully open or shut position.
7
They are often used in water lines.
Plug Valves
11.317X
Figure 10-15.Cutaway view of gate stop valve
(rising stem type).
Plug valves (sometimes referred to as plug
cocks) are frequently used in gasoline and oil
feed pipes as well as in water drain lines. The
ordinary petcock is a good example of thivalve.
ti
The body of a plug valve (fig. 10-16) is
shaped like a cylinder with holes or ports in the
cylinder wall in 'line with the pipes in which the
Sometimes the operation of a back seating valve
will require that it be fully opehed. Whenever
this is so, special instructions to that effect will
valve is mounted. Either a 'cone-shaped or i
cylindrical plug, attached to the' handle, fits
snugly into the valve body. A hole bored
through the plug is in line with the po in the
be given. These valves are so designed that, when
fully open, the pressure being controlled cannot
reach the valve stem packing, thereby
eliminating possible leakage past the packing.
valve body. Turning the plug valve h
129
135
dle
FIREMAN
O
LUBRICANT
(
SCREW
PLUG
CHECK
VALVE
SUPPORT-SPRING
NON-LUBRICATED VALVE
fr
PLUG
*S.
LUBRICATED VALVE
4
139.39X
Figure 10-16.Plug valves.
plug 90° (one-quarthr turn) from the open
the opening in the valve seat before the needle
actually, seats. This arrangement pefmits a very
gradual increase or,decreast- in the size of-the
opening and, thus, allows more praise eontrol
inf flow than can be obtained' with an ordinary
position.
globe valve.
(which is in line with the hOle in the plug) lines
up the hole in the pimp with.the ports in the
valve body so that fluid can Pass througi the
...
valve. The flow can be stopped by turning the"
Some plug valves are designed as three-way
or four-way selector valves. Three or more pipes.'
- Butterfly, Valves.
are connected to a single valve in line with the
same number of ports in the cylinder wall. Two
Butterfly valves are used for liquid service
only. The disk in this type valye is flat an
operated by turning the hand lever on the ste
When the lever is positioned 90° to the piping
the valve is fully open;lhe valve is in the ful
or more holes drilled in they plug provide a
varkty of passages through the valve. When a
valve of this kind is located in a fuel line, the
liquid may be drawn from any one of two or
three tanks by setting the handle in different
closed-position when the lever is in4ine with the
positions.
piping.
Needle Valves
CHECK VALVES
Needle valves are used to make relatively
fine adjustments in the flow of fluid. A needle
valve has a long tapered point at the end of the
Check valves permit a flu" o flow through
a line in only one direction...They have many
valve stem. This needle acts fs a disk. Because of
the long taper, part of the needle passes through
in automobile tires, the valtrig in an ordina
watef pump, end the feedwater check valvekon
uses, 'bothaboard ship and ashore: The air valves
130
136
Chapter 10 PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
DISK NUT
CAP
HINGE PIN
DISK
11.319X
1
Figure 10 -17. Swing -check valve.
11.320
Figure 10 -18. Cutaway view of lift-check valve.
a steam drum are examples of check valves. All
of these valves open and close automat
but
some have a handle or handwheel to 15ck them
closed or to limit the size of the opening.
Two similar stop-check valves are shown in
cross section in f(gure 10-19. As yoU can see, the
flow and operating principles df this type valve
very much resembles the check valve. However,
the valve stem is long enough so that when it is
The port in a check valve may be closed by a
disk, a ball, or a plunger. In some valves a spring
closes the valve, while in others the weight of
.the disk or ball holds the valve against the seat.
The valve opens when the pressure on the inlet
side is greater than the pressure on the- outlet
side of the valve. It closes automatically when
the pressure on the inlet side is less than that on
the outlet 'side. Figure 10-17 illustrates a
swing-check valve and figure 10k18 shows
screwed all the- way doWn it holds the disk
firmly against the seat, thus preventing any flow
of fluid. In this position, the valve acts as a §top
valve. When the stem is raised, the disk can be
opened by pressure on the inlet side. In this
position, the valve acts as a check valve, allowing
the flow of fluid in only one direction. The
maximum lift of the disk is controlled by the
td
posiVon of the
valve stem. Therefore, the'
position of the valve stem can limit the amount
of fluid passing through the valve even when
lift-check valve. These valves are often installed
in drain lines, where it i
portant that the flow
be in only one dire
valve is operating as a check valve.
&v. Stop -check
valves are used in various
locations throughout the engineering plant.
Perhaps -"the most° familiar example is the
so-called boiler feed-check valve, which is
STOP-CHECK VALVES
As you have seen, most valves can be
classified as being either stop valves or check
valves. Some valves, however, can -function as
actually a stop-check valve rather than a true
check valve. StRp-check valves are used in many
'drain lines; onkathe discharge side of "many
pumps; and as exhaust steam valves on auxiliary
machinery.
either a stop valve or as a check valve, depending
on the position of the valve stem. These valves
are known as STOP-CHECK VALVES.
6
131
137
a-
I
FIREMAN
LIST OF FARTS
NAME OF MOS
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I
OMR
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GLAND COLT
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11.1911PREM
15
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RELIEF PLUG
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19
GLAND RANGE
20
MK! ou^mo at* COrZW
21
ARM HUT
11.321
FTOTo
10-19.Stop-chock volvos.
to a single stem. Both valves open)1or close at the
THROTTLE VALVES
same time whenever the handwheel is turned.
The ports and the disks are so designed that the
steam tends to close one of the disk valves and
open the other. Figure 1040 illustrates the
operating principle of a double-poppet throttle
A throttle valve is inst Iled in the main
steam line just ahead of he engine. It is
.operated by a handwheel and can be opened or
closed quickly for starting and stopping. These
can also be set at any.in-between posit*
tOiregulate the speed of the engine. Unlike check
valve.
2ves
c)
The forces exerted on the disks of the
valves, they are installed to that the steam
'pressure tends to close rather than open them.
double-poppet throttle valve resemble a
tug-of-war. The steam pushes down on top of
The pressure in the main steam lines,of some
one disk and up on the bottom of the other
installations is 600 psi. The disk of a throttle
valve 6 inches across has an area of about 28
square inches. Therefore, the force exerted on
disk. Like the rope in the tug-of-war game, the
stem keeps the disks in the same position,
relative to each other.
the valve disk tending to keel; it dosed is 16,800
pounds (600 X 28). Throttle valves are designed
to equalize this force, so that they can be
opened easily.
A double - poppet; throttle valve is two valves
in one. It has two ports and rwo disks attached
RELIEF VALVES
'Relief valves are installed in the steam,
water, air, and oil lines, and on various units of
machinery aboard ship. They open
132
138
Chapter 10PUMPS,
automatically when the pressure within the line
becomesteo high. Relief valves protect piping
much
e same as fuses protect .electrical
O
equipment and wiring in the home. There aie
many types of relief valves. Most relief valves
have either a disk or a steel ball acting against a
coil spring.
The disk-type relief valve in figure 10 -21 A
consists of a valve body, a valve disk, and a stem.
The steel spring pushes down .on the disk and
keeps the valve closed. The force of the spririg is
geperally adjustefl, by setting an adjusting nut on
to of the spring! The inlet side of the valve is
connected to the system to be protected.
NISA11610 MN MN
When the force on the bottom of the disk,
exerted by the pressure of the fluid in the line,
becomes greater than the compression of the
spring, the disk is pushed off the seat, opening
the valve. The valve outlet may be opened t6,the
atmosphere in compressed air or steam lines.
When the valve is used to protect a pump, its
outlet is connected to the suction line leading to
the pump;. the excess fluid passes through the
139.41
Figure 10-21.Roliof valvoo.
REDUCING VALVES
The heating system and the galley operate
on low-pressure steam. The source of..steam for
these systems is the boilers, whin are under
relief valve, and back to the inlet side of the
high pressures. Reducing valves are installed in
the steam lines to these systems, to reduce the
pump.
The ball-type relief valve shown in figure
10-21B operates on the same principle as th
disk valve. The ball valve is generally used
pre ure. These valves will
hold a constant
pr ssure in the delivery lines, even if the boiler
p ssure varies over a wide range.
Most reducing valves depend on a balance
be een the outlet or operating pressure and the
pre ure of a spring or compressed air in a sealed
lube oil lines. The operating pressure is regulated
by adjusting the threaded plug (not illustrated)
which holds the spring in
chat ber. Although some of these valves are
complicated, the principle on which they
rate is easily understood.
The simplified reducing valve In figure 10-22
qui
BOTTOM SURPACe
AReA 20 SO. IN.
has a main valve, a piston, and a spring. The
HIGH
PRESSURE
LOW
PRESSURE
SPRING
600 PSI
Panama'
,
J
ARE
Figure 10-20.Oporating principle of a
douhio-poppot throttio valve.
10 SC). IN.
VALVE
139.40
139
13.3
PISTON
139.42
Figure 10-22.Tho operating principle of a simple
reducing valve.
FIREMAN
compression of the spring pushes the piston to
the left and opens the valve. When the steam is
turn.1 on, it passes through the open valve and
builds up pressure in the outlet chamber.
Whenever the force exerted on the piston
becomes greater than the force exerted by the
spring, the piston moves to the right and closes
wilCut chattering and must remain tightly
closed after seating.
It is important that you understand- the
difference between boiler safety valves and
ordinary relief 'valves. The amount of pressure
required to lift a relief valve increases as the
valve lifts, because the resistance of the spring
the valvt
increases in
proportion to the amount of
compression. Therefore, a relief valve opens c;31
During the operation, the outlet steam
pressure and spring force remain in balance with
slightly at a specified pressure, discharges a small
amount of fluid, and closes at a lower pressure
which is very close to the pressure that caused it
to open.
the valve partly open. Any slight variation in
outlet pressure will upset this balance. The
piston will move and increase or decrease the
size of the valve opening and restore the original
outlet pressure.
Can you see why relief valves will not do fbr
boilers? If the valves were set to lift at anything
close to boiler pressure, tbe valves would be
constantly opening and closing, pounding the
scats and disks and causing early failure of the
In some valves the spring is replaced by a
sealed chamber which contains compressed air.
The air pressure acts on a diaphragm instead of
valves. Furthermore, relief valves will not rapidly
on a piston. The valve can be set to maintain any
desired pressure by adjusting the air pressure in
the sealed chambej. Sometimes the diaphragm is
discharge 'the large amount of steam that must
located between two chambers: one of them
opened to the inlet, and the other opened to the
outlet steam. The action of the diaphragm
operates a valve which in turn regulates the
steam pressure on a piston connected to the
main valve. In all reducing valves, the outlet
pressure controls the rate at which the inlet
reseat very soon after they are opened.. (Figure
be discharged q4ickly to bring the boiler
pressure down to a safe point. Relief valves
10-23 shows a typical safety valve.)
PIPING
Piping is used throughout the engineering
steam is permitted to pass through the valve.
spaces. One. piping system carries fuel from the
SAFETY VALVES
service tanks to the furnace. A second piping
system supplies the boiler with feedwater. A
third piping system carries steam from the boiler
Each boiler is fitted with safety valves which
allow steam to escape from the boiler when the
pressure rises above specified limits. The
capacity of the safety valves installed on a boiler
must be great enough to reduce the steam drum
pressure to a specified safe point when the boiler
is being operated at maximum firing rate with all
steam stop valves completely closed. Safety
valves are installed-on the steam Mini and at the
superheater outlet.
to the engines and other points where it
PIPING DEFINITIONS
Several different types of safky valves are
used on naval boilers, but all' are designed to
open
completely (POF
when
a
In routine operations aboard ship, there is
frequent misuse of the terms pipe, tubing, and
piping by strikers and inexperienced naval
specified
piessure is reached and to remain open until a
specified pressure drop" (BLOWDOWN) has
occurred. Safety valves must close tightly
is
needed. Still other systems are used aboard ship
to carry salt water, fresh water, gasoline,
compressed air, and certain gases.1,The nature of
the substances carried in the pipes, as well as the
nature of the services performed, makes it
necessary to use a variety of materials, sizes, and
designs of piping and attached fittings.
personnel. As a step toward correcting the
misuse of these time terms, the following.
definitions are offered.
..140
6
(N.
Chapter 10-PUIVI S, VALVES, AND PIPING
ADJUSTING NUT
HAND LIFTING LEVER
SPINDLE
SPINDLE LOCK CLIP
DISK
COTTER PIN
ADJUSTING RING
SET SCREW
'
DISK
HOLDER
ADJUSTING RING
DISK INSERT
NOZZLE RING
29.210
Figure 10-23.Steam drum safety valve (nozzle reaction type).
1. A PIPE is made of meal such as cast
extra strong. The outside diameter (OD) is the
iron, wrought iron, steel, copper, or bra*. The
same for each of the three wall thicknesses elf*
size of a pipe is designated by its nominal inside
diameter (ID) in accordance with standard iron
pipe size (IPS), expressed in inches or fractions
any pipe with a given IPS dimension, while
of an inch from 1/8 inch to 12 inches. Pipe is
designated in three grades or weights of wall
thickness as standard, extra strong, or double
designated by its OD.
actual ID of these three pipes will differ. If the
ID measures more than )2 inches, the pipe is
For example, a 1-inch standard pipe will
ile 1-inch
have an ID slightly over 1 inc
135
141
FIREMAN.
extra strong and 1-inch double extra strong
pipes will have lesser ID's because of their
greater wall thicknesses. An identical OD
permits standardization in pipe dies and taps.
2. TUBING, unlike pipe, is designated for
size. by its nominal OD dimension; specified for
wall thickness in decimals of an inch; and joined
by such methods as flanging, welding, soldering,
or brazing. Because it has thinner wallg, tubing is
much more flexible than the thicker-walled pipe.
Refrigeration piping systems are examples of
shipboard use of tubing.
3. PIPING is an assembly of pipes or
tubing, and fittings, forming a whole or
composite part of a system designed to transfer
fluids (water, steamas, and oil).*
for transferring 600 psi, 850°F steam. The
material of the first may be carbon steel;
whereas that of the second MUST be
molybdenum alloy steel, capable of resisting
high temperature and pressure.
PIPE FITTINGS
A piping system can be made up by joining
individtal lengths of pipe with unions,
couplings, elbows, or other threaded fittings.
Piping systems may also be made up by bolted
flanges, weldings, _solderings, or by flared
couplings.
The water pipes in a home and some of the
low-pressure pipes aboard ship are fastened
together' by THREADED fittings. Standard
treadV pipe fittings are shown in figure 10-24.
PIPING MATERIALS
Most of the piping systems aboard ship are
made of steel, copper, brass, or a copper-nickel
alloy. Steer is used for the steam and fuel oil
lines. Copper tubing may be used for piping that
carries fresh water, lube oil, and other materials.
Nickel-alloy tubing has exceptional resistance to
corrosion, and is used when resistance to
corrosion is an important consideration, such as
in salt water and fresh water lines.
You will often hear the term "alloy" used in
connection with various kinds of metals. A
metal is said to be an alloy 1when it contains
other metals in addition to the p1 rincipal one.
A chrome-nickel-steel alloy is made by
adding chromium and nickel to the molten-steel
while it is being manufactured. A common
stainless steel used aboard ship, which is a steel
alloy, contains chromium and nickel. The alloys
of steel, aluminum, and copper are widely used
throughout the Navy.
.The piping materials must be carefully
selected from specified standards approved by
NAVSHIPS; not according to appearance. For
example, the 7-inch steel tubing employed for
transferring 400 psi, 650°F steam may look the
same to you as the 7-inch steel tubing employed
142
1i310X
Figure 10-24.Standard threaded pip fittings.
.
Chapter 10PUMPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
other NotySeas publications contain information
on gaskets and packings. Aboard ship, tables
which show the types of gasket and packing
materials approved for various services are
posted in the engineering spaces.
Materials used for gaskets include pressed
cork, asbestos, soft iron, Monel, metallic cloth,
and hard fiber sheets. The type of gasket to be
used depends on the pressures and temperatures
to-which it will be subjected and in some cases,
on the nature of the fluid being carried in the
piping system.
Packing is used to seal the area. around valve
stems, revolving shafts, and sliding shafts. These
units are designed with a space, known as a
stuffing box, which surrounds the shaft or stem.
When the packing has been placed in the stuffirg
box, it is compressed by tightening a gland or
nut which screws up against it. Such an
arrangement can be seen if you take an ordinary
water faucet apart. The packing serves to keep
the water from flowing up around the valve
139.43
Figure 10-25.Gasket insertion..
In high-pressure steam lines the lengths of
steel pipe are welded together into sections. A
flange is welded to. the ends of the sections. A
suitable gasket is inserted betweetk flanges, and
they are drawn tightly together 1giNtud bolts
which pass through the holes in the outer edges
of the connection. (See fig. 10-25.) Tubing is
usually connected by flared couplings
stem.
Packing materials in common use include
woven asbestos and rubber; antifriction metal
woven with cotton thread and graphite; spun
yarn; and soft metal, flax, and rayon
combinations. The-.type of packing to be used
depends on the service requirements.
(fig.
10-26) or by soldering.
STRAINERS
GASKETS AND PACKING
Strainers (fig. 10-29) are installed in almost
all piping livErS to prevent the passage of foreign
When leakage occurs in a piping system, it
usually , occurs
at one of the joints. Many
methods and materials are used to keep joints
from leaking. Flanged joints in piping systems
are made up with gaSkets to make a tight seal
and thus to prevent leakage. (When the coupling
is tightened, the gasket is compresSed and seals
the joints.) Figure 10-27 illustrates various types
of gaskets. Corinections in which there are
sliding or rotating parts require packing material
to seal the joints.
Figure 10-28 illustrates several kinds of
packing. It is important that the proper gasket
or packing material be used in each application.
NavShips Technical Manual, chapter 9950, and
11.310
Figure 10-26.Tee for flared tubing.
C
137
FIREMAN
FLAT RING GASKET
B
FIAT FULL-FACE GASKET
INSTALLATION
CENTERING RING
(a) SINGLE-PLATE TYPE
CENTERING RING
a
D
(11) EXPANDING (DOUBLE-PLATE) TYPE
TYPICAL GASKET CROSS-SECTION
Figure 10-27.Fixed joint gaskets: A. Sheet asbestos gaskets. B. Plain-faced metal gaskets.
C. Serrated-faced metal gaskets. D. Spiral-wound, metal asbestos gaskets.
138
.-
144
Chapter 10PUYPS, VALVES, AND PIPING
COILS
BRAIDED FLAX
HIGH PRESSURE ROD GRAPHITE.
LUBRICATED ASBESTOS
RUBBER -CO RED, DUek - WRAPPED,
GRAPHITE LUBRICATED
ASBESTOS CLOTH AND RESILIENT RUBBER
RINGS
MOLD ED
RINGS
BRAIDED COPPER
ASBESTOS, ALUMINUM,GRAPHITE AND
NEOPRENE COMPOUNDS
.
PRESSED COTTON FABRIC
EXPANSION JOINT PACKINGS
WIRE-INSERTED ASBESTOS
WIRE- INSERTED BRAIDED ASBESTOS,
GRAPHITE- LUBRICATED
5.35X
Figure 10-28 Type of packing.
139
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Chapter 10PUMPS, VALVES,
D PIPING'
a valve and some device or arrangement which
will cause the valve to open or Close, when
necessary, to drain the condensate from the line
without allowing the escape of steam. Steam
traps are installed at the low point of a system'
or below a machinery unit that has "'to be
drained. Drains are used to remove condensate
while steam lines and steam-driven machinery
MI
are being warmed up. A drain usually consists of
a section of piping and one or diore valves.
There are several types of steam traps in use
on
naval
ships:
mechanical
(fig.
10-30),
thermostatic (fig. 10-31), and impulse (fig.
10-32).
You will find additional information on
steam traps in chapter 9480 of NavShips
Technical Manual.
11.325D
Figure 10-30.A mechanical steam trap.
1
CAP
0-VAPOR
VOLATILE LIQUID
VOLATILE LIQUID
a
SEAT BUSHING
REPLACEABLE
HERMETICALLY
SEALED BELLOWS 4"
4
(b) TRAP HOT; VALVE CLOSED
(a) TRAP COLD; VALVE OPEN
11.326X
Figure 10-31.Thermostatic steam trap.
147
141
FIREMAN
CYLINDER STEM
LOCK NUT
CONTROL
ORIFICE
ALVE
CYLINDER
CIRCULAR
SEAT
BAFFLE
TO HIGH PRESSURE
DRAIN SYSTEM
INLET
CONTROL
ORIFICE
VALVE
DISK
CYLINDER
STRAINER
CIRCULAR
BAFFLE
FLANGE
VALVE
SEAT
VALVE
DISK
38.126
Figure 10-32.Impulse steam trap.
rr
142
'148
0
CHAPTER '1 1
SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Much auxiliary machinery and equipment
irpn, offer little resistance and are called
CONDUCTORS.
In contrast to gopd conductors, some
aboard modem naval ships is run by--erdchiccity.
Regardless of rate or rating, all personnel
assigned to a ship will operate some electric
duties. As a
Fireman, you will probably use or operate
substances, such as wood, paper, porcelain;
rubber, mica, and plastics offer a high resistance
to -"an electric current and are known as
INSULATORS. Electric circuits throughout the
device in / performance of his
portable lights, electric drills and grinders,
electric heaters,.....rittilatIon blowers and fans,
electric-driven pumpk, and other electrical
ship Ware made up of copper wires covered with
rubber or scune other insulator. The wire offers
little resistance to the current, while the
insulation keeps the current from passing to the
steel structure of the ship.
Definite units have been established to
measure electrical properties of conductors and
equipment. Therefore, you should know and
observe ,all applicable safety precautions when
working with or around electrical appliances and
equipment.
We will not discuss the theories of basic
electricity in detail in this chapter. However, we
will familiarize you with the different electrical
characteristics of electric currents. A brief
review of these fundamentals of electricity is
equipment aboard ship and with wliat the
given in the sections which follow.
equipment is designed to do.
You will find additional information on the
basic principles of electricity in the Navy
training manual Basic Electricity, NAVEDTRA
ELECTRIC CURRENT
Current the rate at which electricity flocs
through a and 6
ircuit, The practical
unit, called the
'ERE (I) specifies the rate at
which the electric urrent is flowing. AMPERE
is a measure of th intensity or the number of
electrons passing a point in as circuit each
second. The flow of current can be compared to
10086-B.
INTRODUCTION TO
ELECTRICITY
Various techniques and equipment which
apply principles of electricity require that you
have some degree of theoretical knowledge, as
well as practical experience and skill, to operate
the flow of water through a pipe.
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
them safely.
Electric cables carry the electric energy
wire,
motors where it is expended in performing
up water pressure before the water will flow
Before an electric current can flow through a
there must be a source of- electric
"pressure" just as there must be a pump to build
produced by the generators to the electric
work.
All materials will conduct electricity, but
some of them offer more resistance than others.
through a pipe. This electric pressure is known
as ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (emf) or voltage
(E); the source may be a GENERATOR or a
Metals such as silver, copper, aluminum, and
BATTERY.
143
149
)
FIREMAN
If you increase the pressure on the electrons
in the conductor, a greater current will flow, just
as an increased pressure on water in pipe will
increase the flow.
Alternating .current (a-c) is used aboard the
Navy's combatant ships. The advat4ages of a-c
RESISTANCE
D-C GENERATORS
AND EXCITERS
Electrical resistance (R) is that quality of an
electric circuit that opposes the flow of current
through it. The unit of resistance is known as
installations over d-c are lower cost, smaller
units, and less maintenance.
A d-c generator is a rotating machine which
changes mechanical energy to electrical energy.
the OHM.
The essential parts of a d-c generator are the
yoke and field windings which are stationary,
the
and
WATT
armature
which
rotates. IiI a-c
generators, called alternator, the field rotates
and the armature is stationary. To avoid
confusion, the rotating .iembers of d-c
Power (P) is the rate of doing work. In a
direct-current (d-c) circuit, power is equal to the
generators are 'called ARMA URES, and in a-c
generators they are called ROTORS.
There is no difference between d-c
product of the current times the voltage, or
P = E X I. The practical unit of power is the
WATT, or KILOWATT (watts ÷ 1000).
generators and exciters. The exciter Is a' d-c
generator which supplies direct current for an
a-c generator. In the pas d-c ship's service
generators were used abo d ship. At present,
GENERATOR TYPES
AND DRIVES'
The generator is the heart of the ship's
practically all ships hav
0-volt (60-hertz) a-4
ship's service and emergency generators. The d-c
electrical system. A large amount of electricity is
required aboard any ship for die proper
service, or for exciters, operate att.either 120
provision
of air,
water,
and
generators used in Navy installations for ship's
volts or 240 volts. The amount of power output
food.
depends on the
Communications between the various parts of a
ship depend largely upon the availability of
electric power to operate the ship's announcing
system, radio, radar, and lighting systems, as
well as the training and firing of guns.
Since a generator runs at greatest efficiency
windings are rotated to induce a voltage in the
armature windings. The current, 'driven by the
induced voltage, is circulated through the
commutator (on the armature shaft) and carried
by the brushes (which ride on the commutator)
when generating or producing its full-rated
power output; it is not practicable to have one
large generator running constantly at part load.
Therefore, two or more small generators are
installed 'aboard ship, depending on the specific
type ship.
to the external circuit. Part of the armature
ent4is forced throufh ,the field winding to
increase
Another reason for installing two or mor
and
maintain
the
magnetic
field
strength.
°generators aboard _ship is to ensure that, in the
event of damage to a generator, there will be
rough power and lights available until the
GENERATORS
generator has been repaired. In
addition, generators.a installed throughout theengineering spaces of a s p so that the electricyl
plant cannot be ,c1Fstroye
y ones or two enemy
shells or bomb hits.
efective
,
The general construction
a-c generators is
somewhat simpler than that of d-c generators.
The heavy current on a d-c generator has to pass
through the commutator and brushes. -An a-c
144
-
esign of the d-c
size a
generator.
et. typical d-c generators ilustrated ;if .figure
114. The armature is sul'oorted On ball
bearings. The field coil wins ngs crea
a
magnetic. field through which the armature
.50,
.
chapter 11 SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT'
CAC SC Fara
POD MOUNTING
Pozca
jenerator does not have a commutator. The
YIELD
`heavy current on an a-c. generator is tqfken from
AND
the stationary part or _stator windings. An a-c
generator has two slip rings which carry a
relatively small direct current that is supplied by
the exciter to the d-c winding of the rotor.
IC LD COM!
DNUANCIS
END
DELL
C ONNUT ATOP
An a-c generator, like a d-c generator, has
magnetic fields and an armature. In a small a-c
generator the armature revolves, the field. is
stationary, and no commutator is required. In a
large a-c generator the field revolves and the
irmature is wound on the stationary member, or
stator.
73.161
Figure 11-1,A d-c generator.
The
principal advantages of the
over the
'evolving-field generators
revolving-armature generators are that:
1.
The load current from the stator
is
connected directly to the external circuit
itho t using a commutator.
2.
Only two slip rings are necessary to
supply excitation to the revolving field.
3. The stator winding is not subjected to
mechanical stresses that are due to centrikal
force.
The a-c generators, or alternators, used by
the Navy are divided into two classes: (I)
low-speed, engine-driven alternators, and (2)
A exTAYOR
high-speed, turbine-driven alternators.
The high-speed alternator may be either
steam- or gas-turbine driven.
The low-speed, engine-driven alternator (fig.
11-2) has a large °diameter revolving field, with
many poles, and a stationary armature.' The
stator (fig.
notow
mounted the d-c field windings.
1
(fig.
*
I1-2A) contains the armature
windings. The rotor (fig. 11-2B) consists of
salient, or protruding, pales on which ,are
The high-speed, turbine-driv
11-3) is Connected either
alternator
or
i ctly
through gears to a steam turbine. Th enclosed
metal structure is part of a forced ventilation
system that carries away the heat by circulation
of air through the stator (fig. 11-3A) and rotor
139.43.0X
Figure 11-2.Low-speed engine-driven alternator.
(fig. I L-3B).
145
151
4 f.,,
FIREMAN
SHIP'S SERVICE
TURBINE- DRIVEN GENERATORS
illustrated in figure 11-4. Although generator
sets (turbogenerators) may be built differerittb
all have the same arrangement of major parts.
Ship's service genwtors are so named
because they furnish electricity for the service of
the ship. Aboard most steam-driven ships of the
Turbines used for driving the ship's service
generators diffrOrom other auxilial turbines in
that they usually operate on superheated steam.
Navy, these generators are driven by turbines.
Large ships may have as many as six or eight
ship's service generators and from one to three
These turbines are usually of the axial-flow,
multistage, geared type. The turbine exhausts to
a separate auxiliary condenser which has its own
emergency diesel-driven alternators.
circulating pumps, condensate pumps, and air
ejectors, Cooling water for the condenser is
provided by the auxiliary circulating pump
New construction destroyers have four
turbine-driven ship's service generators (two in:
the forward engineroom and two in the after
through separate injection and overboard valves.
engineroom), and two smaller diesel-driven
emergency generators, one forward and one 'aft.
The type of ship's service generator
Superheated steam, is supplied to the ship's
service generator turbine from either the main
steam line or a special turbogenerator line which
commonly used aboard ships in the Navy is
leads directly from the boiler. Aboard some
ships, the turbine mayin the event of
condenser casualtybe discharged directly to
the atmosphere, or to the main condenser when
the main plant is in operation.
Because the ship's service generator must
supply electricity at a constant voltage and
frequency (hertz), the turbine must run at
a
constant speed even though the load will vary
greatly. Constant speed is maintained by a
speed-regulating governor. This turbine also has
an overspeed trip,, which closes the throttle if
the turbine overspeeds or if the speed-regulating
governor fails to function; - aback- pressure trip,
which closes the throttle if excessive exhaust
pressure is built up; and a manual trip which
may be used to close the throttle quickly if
there is damage to the turbine Or to the
generator. The shaft glands of the shit* service
11
i
`A
generator turbine are supplied with gland- sealing
STATOR
steam; the system is similar to that ased for
main propulsion turbines. Other auxiliary
turbides in naval use are ..selcicun,t if ever,
A provided with gland-sealing systems.
Z'
DIESEL-DRIVEN GENERATORS
noToR'
Practically all Navy ships are equipped with
diesel-driven 'emergency generators. Diesel
rather than turbines and reduction
gears, are most suitable for this application
because of their quick starting ability!
engines,
.139.44X4
4.
Figure 11-3.High-speed turbine-driven alternator.
Emergency generators furnish power directly to
146
-
1t 2
Chap er 11 SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
760 - hW 60-Hz
GENERATOR
BOARD
GAGE
GEAR BOX
TURBINE
',-
THROTTLE
VALE
CONDENSER
4
139.67
Ficura 11-4.-750-10V Turbine-Generator Sot.
the radio,, radar, gunnery, and vital machinery
equipment, through an emergency switchboard
and automatic bus transfer equipment.
The typical shipboard plant consists of two
diesel emergency generators, one fo and and
one aft, in spaces outside the eng nerooms and
installation, the principle_ of operation is the
same. .
Detailed information concerning the
operation of diesel-driven generators can be
obtained from appropriate manufacturers'
technical manuals.
firerooms. Each emergenty generator has its
individual switchboard and switching
arrangement for control of the generator and for
distribution of power to certain vital auxiliaries
and a minimum number of lighting fixtures in
SWITCHBOARDS
Switchboards consist of panels for munting
the various measuring instruments, indicating
vital spaces.
The capacity of the emergency unit varies
/with the size of the ship on which the unit is
installed. Reprdless of the size of the
devices, and protective and regulating apparatus
required to control the operation of the
generators and the distribution of electric
47
153
FIREMAN
of the
00wer. A distribution switchboard is provided
fig each generator or group of generators.
Most Navy ships have from two to four
ship's service generdtor switchboards; small
ships, such as destroyers, have two switchboards,
whereas large ships may have as many as four to
eight switchboards. In many cases two or more
generators can feed one switchboard.
two generators. All the necessary apparatus for
controlling each generator and for distributing
its power is incorporated in its associated
switchboard.
The forward ship's service generators and
distribution switchboard are the control
Most switchboards have the equipment
grouped to form a number of units. Each unit is
switchboard. It is provided with instruments and
controls for the after generators. These
Instruments and controls are necessary too
parallel the generators and equalize the load. An
Automatic voltage regulator is mounted on each
switch4oard to control the generator field
excitation and to maintain a constant a-c
generator voltage throughout the normal
changes in load.
complete. Bus bars .are used to tie each unit
together to, form a switchboard. There are
generator, bus tie, power distribution, and
lighting distribution units. Each of these
complete units has a separate front panel on the
switchboard. Newer ships, Jhave transformers
throughout the' ship with lighting distribution
panels instead of lighting distribution units. A
number of these units mounted on a common
base comprise a section. A switchboard may
Two emergency diesel generator sets provide
consist of a single section or 'of several sections,
each complete in itself but connected by cables
to form a switch-gear group. This arrangement
electric power for limited lighting and for vital
auxiliaries in the event of failure of the ship's
service power. One unit is located in the forward
emergency generator room and the other unit is
located in the after emergency generator room.
The forward emergency switchboard is normally
of several,§m41 sections lessens the danger of
shock, localiiti damage from fire, and provides
for easy removal of damaged sections for repairs
or replacement.
energized
from
switchboard,
the
forward ship's service
and the after emergency
switchboard is energized from the after ship's
The two types of switchboard construction
are live front and dead front. The live front
switchboard is found only on very old ships
service switchboard during normal operation.
where low-voltage and d-c distribution systems
are used, and as interior 'communications
switchboards. The more cdmmon switchboard,
shown in figure
electrical system. A typical power
distribution system in a destroyer consists of
fotrr generatorstwo forward and two aft and
two distribution switchboards, one with each
D-c power distribution systems are in use on
some older ships that have large deck machinery
loads. Th, se systems, which consist of the ship's
service gene
and distributiontchboards,
are similar to the a-c systems. On new ships, d-c
11-5, is used for all a-c
distribution systems.
power is provided at the load with. rectifiers
(NOTE: The terminals are accessible on the live
when:required.
front type. In, the dead front switchboard, the
meters and operating handles are mounted .on
the panels, and all live parts are located within
COMPONENTS, OF
A SWITCHBOARD..
the panels.)
Each switchboard includes one or more
GENER,ATOR AND
DISTRIBUTION SWITCHBOARDS";
units, a bus tie unit, a poWer distribution unit;
lighting distribution units Or transformers, and
lighting 'distribution panels. Large circuit
breakers connect ship's service and emergency
generators to th power distribution system.
Ship's service 450-volt, a-c switchboards are
all of the dead front type. These switchkeprds
are built to provide efficient and safe operation
-as
148
-
15 4
1
Chapter 11$H1PBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
They are also used on bus ties and shore
connection circuits. In accordance with the
electric load, smaller circuit breakers are also
installed on switchboards and on distribution
panels throughout the ship.
Circuit Breakers
Circuit breakers (fig. 11-6) equipped' with
individual automatic tripping devices are used to
isolate faulty circuits and to serve as overload
protection. These circuit breakers are a part o(
the switchboard equipment. Circuit breakers;
rather than fuses, are used in circuits that
require large amounts of current. They can bt)
operated for an indefinite period, and theI
action can be controlled with greater accuracy'
Overload circuit breakers open automatically
when the current (load) on the circuit exceeds a
preset value for which the circuit breaker is set.
Figure 11-5.Ship's service switchgear group No 15 section 1513.
149
155
77.254
FIREMAN
adjust (set) the voltage of the generator at any
value within nominal limits. When additional
loads are applied on the generator, there will be
a tendency for the voltage to drop. The
automatic regulator keeps the voltage of the
generator constant at various loads.
Indicating Meters
All -the important switchboards aboard ship
are provided with electrical meters of various
types. Electrical meters, somewhat like gages
and thermometers, show the operator what is
taking place in the electrical machinery and
systems. electrical meters are of two general
types: installed meters (on switchboards) and
portable meters. Some of the common meters
that are used on switchboards are voltmeters,
ammeters, kilowatt
meters.
4
meters,
and
frequency
3
1. OPERATING HANDLE CHOWN
IN LATCHED POSITION
2. AMPERE RATING MARKER
3. MOUNTING SCREWS
ELECTRIC ,MOTORS
4. COVER SCREWS
C.
5. BREAKER NAMEPLATE
Electric motors are used aboard ship ,to
G. COTTER KEY HOLE
operate guns, winches, elevators, compressors,
pumps, ventilation systems, and other auxiliary
machinery and equipment. There are many
77.241
reasons for using electric motors: they are safe,
convenient, easily controlled, and easily supplied
with power.
A motor changes electrical energy, produced
by the generators, into mechanical energy. There
Figure 11-6.Circuit breaker.
Circuit breakers used with shipboard equipment
are not susceptible to tripping under successive
heavy shocks, such as those caused by gunfire.
Circuit breakers are used on all rotating
electrical machinery and feeders to vital loads,
such as gunmounts and searchlights.
In addition to overload relays, reverse power
trip relays are provided on a-c generator circuit
breakers. These units are designed to open in the
event of a power reversal. The units are mounted
within the generator switchboard.
are gportant reasons for changing mechanical
energy to electrical energy and back again to
mechanical energy. One reason is that electric
cables can be led through decks and bulkheads
with less danger to watertight integrity than
steam pipes or mechanical shafts. Another
reason is that damage to a steam line can cause
steam to escape, resulting in personnel injury. If
an electric cable is used and a fault occurs, the
circuit breaker protecting the cable opens
automatically.
Voltage Regulators
Voltage
regulators; 'installed
on
the
D-C AND A-C MOTORS
associated switchboards, are used for a-c ship's
service and emergency generators. The voltage
regulator maintains the generator voltage within
specified limits. The switchboard operator car,
The a-c motor, smaller and requiring less
maintenance than the d-c motor, is extensively
`used by t = Navy. The d-c motor, which is built
150
Chapter 11SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
like a d-c generator, is used mostly aboard
auxiliary-ships and some small ships.
Storage batteries are also used for emergency
equipment aboard ship, for ship's boats, and
forklifts. The storage battery is used as a source
of electrical energy for emergency diesel
generators, gyrocompasses, and emergency
Most of the a-c motors used aboard ship are
3-phase, 60-hertz, 450-volt motors. Tit
induction motor is commonly used by the Navy.
Although most a-c motors have one speed, a
number of motors with two speeds,
those on ventilation systems, are installed
aboard ships.
MOTO1 1 CONTROLLERS
Controlling devices are used to start, stop,
speed up, or slow down motors. In general, these
controllers are standard equipment aboard ship
and are either manual, semiautomatic, or
automatic. They are dripproof and shock
radio.
Since you may act as a boat engineer, you
should be familiar with safety precautions to be
observed when you work around batteries.
Batteries must be protected from salt water,
which can mix with the electrolyte (acid
solution) and give off poisonous fumes. Salt
water in the electrolyte also sets up a chemical
reaction which will ruin the battery. If this ever
\ occurs, notify the electric shop immediately.
Storage batteries, whell being charged, give
off a certain amount of hydrogen gas. Battery
compartments should be well ventilated to
discharge this gas to the atmosphere. Flames or
sparks of any kind, including lighted cigarettes,
should never be allowed in the vicinity of any
storage battery that is being charged. When the
battery is low or does not perform properly, the
boat engineer should notify the Electrician's
Mate (EM) so that the faulty condition can be
resistant. In some installations the controllers
are operated by remote control, with the switch
at a convenient location.
These motor control devices (controllers,
master switches, and electric brakes) protect the
equipment to which they are connected.
Controllers provide protective and governing
features for every type of shipboard auxiliary.
To govern the controllers themselves, chaster
switches of various types are installed. Electric
corrected promptly.
brakes are used to bring a load to rest, or to hold
it at rest, when electric power to the motor is
cut off. Aboard ship, electric brakes are used
primarily on hoisting and lowering equipment
PORTABLE EQUIPMENT
Aboard
such as cranes, winches, and windlasses.
any ship
there
will be
small
electric-powered equipment, such as portable
electric drills, hand lanterns, small ventilation
Most controllers function simply to start or
to stop auxiliary machinery, but some
controllers also provide for reversal of direction
or multispeed operation. Motor controllers,
some times called starters, have overload
protective devices to prevent burning out the
motor. Most controllers cut out automatically
when the electric power fails, and they have to
be restarted manually. .
blowers, and handtools. SAFETY is wearing
rubber gloves and protective safety goggles when
you work with metal-cased portable electric
tools.
BATTLE LANTERNS
Relay-operated hand lanterns (fig. 1 l-7A)
usually called battle lanterns, are powered by
dry cell batteries. Hand lanterns are provided to
give emergency light when the ship's lighting
systems fail. These lanterns are placed in spaces
where continual illumination is necessary, such
as machinery spaces, control rooms, essential
watch stations, battle dressing stations, and
escape hatches. All auxiliary machinery with
BATTERIES
Aboard ship, batteries are one of the sources
of electricity for emergency and portable power.
Dry cell batteries are used primarily for
flashlights, hand lanterns, and test equipment.
151
157
FIREMAN
a
D
HAND LANTERN
I") (MANUAL OPERATED)
1-EANTERN
(RELAY OPERATED)
C PORTABLE FLOOD LANTERN
7.
77.47
'47
Figure 11-7.Special lights.
152
-
Chapter 11-- SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
gage boards should be provided with a battle
lantern to illuminate the gage board in the event
of a casualty. The battle lantern should not be
removed from its mounting bracket except in an
emergency. DO NOT use It as a flashlight.
The relay control boxes for battle lanterns
are connected to the emergency lighting supply
circuit (or to the ship's service lighting circuit) in
which the lantern is installed. If power in the
circuit fails, the relay opens and the batteries
light the lantern.
Hand ,(battle) lanterns are capable of
operating for approximately 10 continuous
hours (or the equivalent) before the light output
ceases to be useful.
Similar hand lanterns (fig. 11-7B) which are
NOT connnected to relays, are installed
throughout the ship to provide illpmination in
stations which are manned occasionally. These
Lanterns are manually operated. If used in an
emergency, the manually operated hand lanterns
should always bp1 RETURNED TO THEIR
ORIGINAL LOCATION.
maintenance work is being done or when
machinery repairs are being made.
The portable extension light and cord should
be in good condition. The cord should' be free
rom cuts or damaged areas. The light and cord
s tuld be free from moisture, oil, and grease.
Do not lay extension cords across decks &
other places where they. may be damaged. If
possible, cords should be run overhead and tied
in place. Also, keep rubber cords away from hot
steam piping as well as away from oil and paint.
Avoid running an extension cord through
a
watertight hatch or door.
An extension light should be returned
promptly to the tool issue room or electric shop
after the work for which it Was used has been
finished. The light should be clean, dry, and in
good condition. Defective extension lights
(including lights without guards) should be
brought immediately to the electric shop for
repairs.
PORTABLE TOOLS
SEALED BEAM LIGHTS
Proper care and precautionary measures
Sealed beam lights (fig. 11-7C), a type of
flood lantern, are used to give high-intensity
illumination in daTage control or other
emergency repair work. These units consist of a
should be taken in handling and working with
portable tools such as electric drills and grinders.
Protective goggles must ALWAYS be worn when
tools such as wire brushes and grinders are used.
There is an inherent danger when you work
sealed beam light similar to that used for
with portable electric tools because of the
automobiles. The sealed beam light, powered by
four small wet cell storage batteries, is mounted
in the battery case and fitted with a handle for
possibility of electric shock. Electrician's Mates
are required to make weekly tests of all portable
electrical tools to ensure .that they are safe to
convenience in carrying. A sealed beam lamp
will operate for the equivalent of 3 continuous
hours before the battery requires recharging.
When the battery is at full charge, the beam has
use. Portable tools in use on Navy ships are
provided with a grounded plug and a ground
wire connected to the metal part of the tool.
Grounded receptacles are installed throughout
the ship. The cords for portable electric tools
an intensity which is similar to that of the
headlight on an automobile. At the end of 3
hours the light, output will gradually drop to
about one-half its original brilliance. These
sealed beam lights are normally stored in the
contain three conductors; the third conductor is
used to ground the portable tool to the ship.
These
precautions are taken to prevent
dangerous electric shock to operators of
portable tools.
damage control repair lockers.
PORTABLE EXTENSION LIGHTS
SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
AND- CONNECTIONS
Portable extension lights are _widely used
aboard ship, especially in the engineering spaces.
Only approved extension lights are to be
Adequate lighting is necessary when
As a Fireman, you should be familiar with
the power distribution systems, the lighting
used.
153
159
FIREMAN
4.,
distribution
systems, and shore power
connections which have been described briefly
in this manual. You will find greater detail on.
this and other shipboard electrical equipment in
distribution boxes. The feeder distribution box,
which is similar to the power distribution panel,
has only a few branch circuits. The distribution
boxes carry power directly to. the actual load
chapter 9620, Nav Ships Technical Manual.
circuits.
POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
SHORE POWER CONNECTIONS
The power distribution system connects the
generators, which furnish electric power, to the
power-driven equipment installed throughout
the ship. From the generator switchboards, a
Shore power connections are installed at or
near suitable weather deck locations to which
portable cables from the shore, or from a ship
alongside, can be connected. Power Can be
distribution system consisting of feeders, mains,
supplied
through these connections to the
switchboard when ship's service generators are
not in operation.
submains, load center panels, and distribution
boxes carries power to every part of the ship.
The most important auxiliaries are supplied with
normal, alternate, and emergency feeders,
through automatic bus transfer units, each with
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS
source of power. Casualty power
systems are installed aboard ship to provide
electrical connections when both ship's service
a separate
There are certain safety precautions which
should be observed by those who work with or
around electrical appliances and equipment.
Following are some of the most common
electrical safety precautions which all shipboard
personnel are required to follow:
and emergency electrical systems are damaged.
LIGHTING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Lighting distribution systems are necessary
not only to light the ship but also to assist
Do not attempt to maintain or repair
personnel in controlling damage. Aboard
combatant ships two lighting systems are
installed: ship's service lighting and emergency
lighting. The ship's service lighting normally
supplies all lighting fixtures. Emergency lighting
circuits are supplied to vital machinery spacqs,
the radio room, the combat information cente'1,
electric equipment. Leave the electrical work to
the Electrician's Mates and IC Electricians.
Observe and follow all pertinent
instructions and electric warning signs aboard
ship.
and other vital spaces. The emergency lighting
system receives power from the ship's service
generators but, if normal power is lost, the
emergency system is automatically cut in on the
emergency generators. Lighting distribution
systems are similar to power distribution
systems, except that they (I) are more
numerous, (2) have lower voltages (120V), and
Observe all safety precautions regarding
portable electric lights and tools. (Rubber gloves
and goggles.)
Ren) ember that 120-volt electricity is
very dangerous, especially aboard ship.
Do not touch or operate an electrical
(3) have smaller panels and cables.
switch which has a warning tag attached to it.
Lighting distribution requires a variety of
panels and distribution boxes to connect their
loads with their power supplies. High-voltage
feeders from switchboards are stepped down
switchboards.
Do
not
behind
electrical
Do not touch live electric wires and
from 450V to approximately 120V by
transformers which are connected to
fittings.
distribution panels. CircuitA emerging from
distribution panels are connected to feeder
lighting fixtures.
Do not remove steamtight globes from
154
4
go
160
Chapter 11SHIPBOARD ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Do not remove battle lanterns &Om their
locations.
Z
Do not use manually operated hand
battle lanterns for unauthorized purposes. Each
person should have his own flashlight.
Do not use electric cables to hoist or
support heavy weights, and do not use the
wireways for storage.
Do not permit water to get into
electrical equipment.
driven
When you repair equipment that
by
a
motor,
have
an
is
electrician
disconnect the circuit and tag it as out of
commission.
Do not start or operate electric
equipment when flammable vapors are present..
Take time to learn the electrical safety
precautions that are applicable to your assigned
duties and duty station, whether it be the
fireroom, engineroom, electric shop, or other
Remember that a flame, spark, or lighted
cigarette can cause a disastrous battery
explosion.
duty assignment. (A thorough understanding of
electrical safety precautions will help prevent
injury to yourself and damage to equipment
which you may be called upon to operate.
Remember that electrolyte from a
storage battery can cause severe burns and can
operating condition of electrical equipment,
`-damage equipment and clothing.
If you are ever in doubt about the
CALL AN ELECTRICIAN.
161
155
CHAPTER 12
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
t6NITION PRINCIPLES
Most of the auxiliary machinery and
equipment aboard large Navy ships utilize
electric motors as prime movers. This chapter
dealwrimarily with internal combustion engines
in which a mixture of air and fuel serves as the
The
gasoline
and, diesel engines differ
principally in that the gasoline engine has a
carburetor and a spark ignition system. The fuel
and air for the SPARK IGNITION (GASOLINE)
in the carburetor. This
ENGINE is mi
to
the cylinders where it is
mixture is drawn i
an electric spark.
compressed and igni
working fluid.
Internal combustion engines are used
extensively in the Navy, serving as propulsion
units in a variety of ships and boats. Also,
IGNITION type engine
T e COis com only known as a DIESEL ENGIN 'E. The
engine ' takes in atmospheric air,
diese,
compre ses it, and then injects the fuel into the
cylinder The heat generated by compression
ignites the ei;.hence, the term "compression
ignition" is sed h,-Vdiesel engines.
11
internal combustion engines are used as prime
movers, or energizing units, for auxiliary
machinery. In most shipboard installations,
internal combustion engines are of the
RECIPROCATING type. In relatively recent
years, GAS TURBINE engines have also been
placed in Navy service as power units. The
discussion which follows will deal primarily with
reciprocating engines.
OPERATING CYCLE
gasoline
All reciprocal g engines have a definite
cycle of operation tomize the fuel, get it into
the cylinders, ignit and burn it, and dispose of
the gases of combustion. All reciprocating
internal combustion engines operate on either a
2-stroke or a 4-stroke cycle. A stroke is a single
engi,pes are of the reciprocating type.
distance a piston moves between limits of travel,
Each piston executes two strokes for each
RECIPROCATING ENGINES
0
The internal combustion engines (diesel and
engine) with which you will be
working are machines that convert heat energy
into mechanical energy. Diesel and gasoline
up or down movement of the piston, or the
revolution of the crankshaft. The number of
The general trend in Navy service is to install
diesel engines rather than gasoline engines,
unless special conditions favor the use of
gaiokine engines. Small boats used in
conjunction with airplane facilities are
frequently powered with gasoline engines
because the available fuel supply is gasoline. In
!dition, gasoline engines (P-250 pump) are used
lme installations because of their small size
.tck of suitable diesel engines.
piston strokes occurring during any one series of
operations (cycle) is limited to either two or
four, depending on the design of the engine.
In 4-STROKE CYCLE engines each piston
goes through for strokes and the crankshaft
makes two revolirtie.ris_to=-compete one cycle.
Each piston delivers power during one stroke in
four, or each piston makes one power stroke for
each two revolutions of the crankshaft.
.156
12
Chapter 12INTERNAL COMAUSTION ENGINES
--
during this stroke. The air which entered the
cylinder during the intake stroke is compressed
into the small space above the piston. The
volume of this air may be reduced to less than
1/16 of what it was at the beginning of the
stroke.
The high pressure, which results from this
great. reduction in volume, raises the
temperature of the air far above the ignition
point of the oil. When the piston nears the top
of the compression stroke, the charge of fuel is
forced into the cylinder through the injection
B
valve.
The air which has been heated by
compression ignites the fuel.
tirN
During the POWER STROKE, indicated in C
of figure 12-1, the inlet and exhaust valves are
both closed. The increase in temperature
resulting from the burning fuel greatly increases
the pressure on top of the piston. This increased
pressure forces the piston downward and rotates
the crankshaft. This is the only stroke in which
power is furnished to the crankshaft by the
piston.
54.19
Figure 12-1.The 4-stroke diesel cycle.
Let us take one cylinder of a diesel engine
and trace its operation through the four strokes
that make up a cycle. (See fig. 12-1.) The engine
parts shown in this figure include only a
cylinder, a crankshaft, a piston and connectingrod, and the intake and exhaust valves. To
simplify the diagrams (A through D), the
valve-operating mechanism and the fuel system
have been omitted.
In part A of figure 12-1 the intake valve is
open and the exhaust valve is closed. The piston
is moving downward and drawing a charge of air
into the cylinder through the open valve. This
portion of the cycle during which the piston is
moving downward is. called the INTAKE
During the EXHAUST STROKE, shown in
D of figure 12-1, the exhaust valve is open and
the intake valve remains clesed. The piston
moves upward, forcing the bailed gases out of
the combustion chamber through the exhaust
valve. This stroke, which completes the cycle, is
followed. immediately by the intake stroke of
the nexi cycle, and the sequence of events
continues to repeat itself.
The 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine operates
on the same mechanical, or operational, cycle as
the diesel engine. In the gasoline engine, the fuel
and air are mixed in the carburetor, and the
mixture is drawn into the cylinders through the
intake valve. The fuel-air mixture is ignited
near the top of the compression stroke by
electric spark which passes
terminals of the spark plug.
STROKE.
When the crankshaft has rotated to the
position shown in 11 of figure 12-1, the piston
has moved upward, on the COMPRESSION
between
an,
the
The principal difference in the cycles of
operation for diesel and gasoline engines involves
the admission of fuel and air to the cylinder.
While this occurs as one event in the operating
cycle of a gasoline engine, it involves two events
STROKE, almost to the top of the cylinder.
Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed
157
163
-FIREMAN
diesel engines. There are six main events
taking place in the diesel cycle of operation
in
(intake of air, Compression of air, injection ,of
fuel, ignition and combustion of charge,
expansion of gases, and removal of burned
gases), and five main events in the cycle of a
gasoline engine (fuel is not injected in a gasoline
engine).
TWO-STROKE CYCLE diesel engines are
widely used by the Navy. The Navy ')uses some
gasoline engines that operate on the 2-stroke
cycle; they are used principally to drive portable
pumps/
Every second stroke of a 2-stroke cycle
engine is a power stroke. The strokes between
are compression strokes. The intake and exhaust
fundtions take place rapidly near the bottom of
each power stroke. With this arrangement there
is one power stroke for each revolution of the
crankshaft, or twice as. many as in a 4-stroke
cycle engine.
The steps in the . operation of a 2-stroke
cycle engine are shown in figure 12-2. The
cylinder shown ,has an exhaust valve but no
intake valve. (Other designs have both intake
and exhaust ports and include no valves.) The air
enters the combustion chamber through ports
(openings) in the cylinder wall; these ports are
uncovered by the piston as it nears the bottom
54.20
Figure 12-2.The 2-stroke diesel cy
of each stroke.
In A of figure 12-2, the piston is moving
upward on the compression stroke. The exhaust
are carried out through the exhaust lve. This
scavenging operation takes place almost
valve and the intake ports are closed, and the
piston is compressing the air trapped in the
combustion chamber. At the toR of the stroke,
with the piston in the position shown in B of
figure 12-2, fuel is injected (sprayed) into the
instantly and corresponds to the intake and
exhaust strokes of Ow 4-stroke cycle.
You might expect a .2-stroke cycle engine to
develop twice as much power as a 4-stroke cycle
cylinder and then ignited by the hot compressed
engine; however, it does not because a certain
percentage of the engine's power is required to
drive the blower. Nevertheless, 2-stroke cycle
air.
In C of figure 12-2,\the piston is moving
downward on the power stroke. The exhaust
diesel engines give excellent service. Small
gasoline engines operating on the 2-stroke cycle
valve is still closed an the increased pressure,
resulting from the bumikg fuel, forces the piston
downward and rotates the crankshaft.
As the piston nears the bottom of the power
stroke, shown in D of figure 12-2, the exhaust
valve opens and the piston continues downward
to uncover the intake ports. Air delivered under
pressure by a blower or from the crankcase (in a
gasoline engine) is forced into the cylinder
through the intake ports, and the burned gases
principle operate satisfactorily, but the larger
sizes are less popular.
DIESEL ENGINES
The diesel engines used in small boats look
very much like the gasoline engines used in an
automobile. Each cylinder has an injector to
-
158
164
Chapter 12INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
sd
admit fuel to the cylinder at the proper time.
sleeve called a cylinder liner. The upper end of
the cylinder is covered by a cylinder head.
The injector may also serve as the higl&pressure
pump. Some engines have a high pressure pump
with a hydraulic head which resembles a
distributor. The lines carry the high pressure fuel
The pistons are connected to the crankshaft
by connecting rods, which transmit power from
the pistons to the ,crankshaft and convert their
to the injector in the same order Ss the firing
order. On the gasoline e gine, the carburetor
reciprogating motion to the rotary motion of
the pfankshaft. The rods are joined to the
ns by piston pins (wrist pins) and are
nected to the crankshaft by connecting rod
arings. (See fig. 12-3.) Rings on each piston
ovide a seal between the Pigton- and the
provides the proper mixtt e of gasoline and air
for the cylinder. In most f the 1-cycle.gasoline
'engines in use by the Na , the oil is mixed with
the gas to provide lubrication for the bea gs
azkikpistons. Most boat engines ha ,eta s water
heat exchanger instead of theco entional
radiator. Although different makes a models
of diesels vary widely, they all have he same
essential parts.
k
c linder wall. As the piston moves up and down,
rings press' against the cylinder wall, thus
pr venting the air or gases from passing down
to the crankcase or the oil in the crankcase
rom working up past the rings. In addition' to
the pressure of 'the rings, compression and
corcibustion pressure between the ring and
piston push the rings against the cylinder wall.
The rotating force of the crankshaft-' is used
to drive such items as reduction gears, propeller
shafts, generators, and pumps. During three of
the strokes of a 4-stroke cycle engine, the rotary
motion bf the crankshaft is moving the piston
i
POWER SYSTEM
The main working parts of the engine
transmit power from the cylinders to the
driveshaft. These ,parts include the cylinders,
pistons, connecting rod, and the crankshaft. The
cylinders of most marine engines are contained
in a single block or crankcase of iron. Each
cylinder is lined with a special hardened steel
up and down A.
CONNECT 1NG
ROD BEARING CAP
-
PISTON PIN CAP
CONNECTING ROD
OIL SEAL SADDLE
SADDLE SPRING
WAS HE
PISTON PIN
CONNECTING
ROD j3OLTS
en
PISTON
COMPRESSION
PISTON RINGS,
CONNECTING ROD
PISTON PIN
BUNING
PISTON PIN
OIL CONTROL
PISTON RINGS
n02
PISTON PIN CAP
of,
Figdre 12-3.Piston and conreting rod parts.
0-
1
159
165
76.69
1
FIREMAN
VALVE MECH
tight fit in the exhaust openings (ports) in the
IISM
cylinder head and are held in the closed position
The valves are opened by the action of a
camshaft, driven by the crankshaft through a
train of gears, or a gear and chain-drive
by the compression of the valve springs. The
rocker arm and tuidge transmit the reciprocating
motions of the cam roller-to the valves.
mechanism. The camshaft extends the length of
the engine and carries one or more cams for each
cylinder. The shaft is cylindrical with
irregular-shaped cams. Each cam is circular on
one end and has a LOBE (NOSE) on the other
end which gives that end an egg-shaped
appearance as shown in figure 12-4B. The
circular part of the cam is called the cam flat or
. In figure 12-4A the cam roller is riding on
the base circle of the cam and the valves are
closed. As the camshaft rotates, the cam lobe or
nose rides under the roller and raises It to the
position shown in figure 12-4B. When the roller
is lifted, the arm rotates around the rocker shaft
and the opposite end of the arm is lowenbd. This
action pushes the bridge and valves down against
the pressure of the valve springs and opens the
base circle.
The camshaft gives an intermittent
reciprocating motion as it rotates. A, cam
follower br roller,, riding on the rotating cant, is
valve passagfs.
lifted each' time the lobe or cam nose comes
On some types of engines, the camshaft is
located near the crankshaft. In these designs the
around.
The valve mechanism of a 2-stroke cycle
action of the cam roller is transmitted to the
diesel engine is shown in the cutaway views that
appear in figure 12-4. This engine has two
rocker arm by a push rod. In some engines, the
valves are inverted and are located in recesses at
the side of the cylinders. In this arrangement the
valve stems may ride directly on the cams, or
they rimy be separated by a short steel shaft and
roller called'a tappet assembly.
exhaust valves which are opened at the same
time by the action of a single cam. They make a
CA ND. At.
(Dv.
tn.., A Al
40Ca.1
40.01 ttttt
J
.01
The camshaft must _be timed with the
crankshaft so that the lobes will open the valves
in each cylinder at the correct instant in the
operating cyeI
In the 2-stroke cycle the
exhaust valves are opened for only a short time
near the bottom of the power stroke to Rermit
the burned gases to ekape. Since the-.c cle is
completed in one revolution, the camshaft
rotates at the same speed as the crankshaft.
A
The 4-stroke cycle engine has an intake and
an exhaust valve in every cylinder.-Each valve is
operated by a separate cam. The intake valve is
held opeh 'during the intake stroke, and the
exhaust valve is opened during the exhaust
stroke. Since two revolutions of the crankshaft
are necessary to complete a 4-stroke cycle, the.
camshaft of these engines turns only half as fast
as the crankshaft
AIR SYSTEM
,
139.46
In "the 4-stroke. cytte en ne, the air enters
the cylinders through. the i ake valve. As each
Figgre 124:--Cutaway of a cylinder head, shovving the
valve-operating mechanism.
160
9
166
Chapter 12INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
pis* ton* moves downward on the intake stroke,
the volume in the combustion chamber increases
and the pressure decreases. The normal
atmospheric pressure then forces the air into the
cylinder through the intake valve.
Since the 2-strode cycle engine does not go
through an intake stroke, a means must be...
provided to force air into the cylinders. The, air
enters through intake ports, uncovered when the
piston approaches the bottom of the power
stroke. (See fig. 12-S.) Since the exhaust valves
are
open when the intake ports are being
uncovered, the incoming air forces the burned
gases out through the exhaust valves and fills the
cylinder with a supply of fresh air.
On the compression stroke, the exhaust
stroke is called the COMPRESSION RATIO.
Compressing the air to 1/16 of its original
volume would represent a compression ratio of
16 to 1.
As the compression ratio is increased, the
temperature of the air in the cylinder increases.
Current gasoline engines operate at compression
ratios between 8 to 1 and 11 to 1, but
compression ratios of diesel engines range
between 12 to I and 16 to 1. This means that on
the compression stroke of a diesel engine the air
is compressed to a range of 400 to 600 psi;
which results in a temperature ranging from
700° to 800° F. However, when2the fuel is
injected Into the cylinder and begins to, burn,
the pressure may increase to more than 1500 psi
and the temperature may rise as high as 1800°F.
valves are closed, the intake ports are covered,
and the air is trapped in the cylinder. The rising
piston compresses the air and raises its
temperature. By the time the piston reaches the
top of the stroke, the volume of the combustion
chamber has been greatly reduced. The relation
between the volume of the cylinder with the
piston at the bottom of its stroke and the
The fuel system of the diesel engine draws
fuel oil from the service tank and injects it into
the engine cylinders. Figure 12-6 shows the units
cylinder volume with the piston at the top of its
injector type. The fuel pump draws the fuel oil
FUEL SYSTEM
found in a typical fuel system of the unit
from the tank through a primary filter and
delivers it under low pressure to the injector by
way of the secondary- filter. The injector,
operated by a rocker arm, meters, pressurizes,
and atomizes the fuel as it is injected into the
combustion chamber. The outlet line carries the
excess fuel oll-from the injector back to the fuel
tank. In some installations, a transfer pump is
*
installed between 'the tank and the primary
111=611.1111111111* a_ I
filter. In other installations, the injection pump
and injection nozzles are separate units instead
of a combined unit, as shown in figure 12-6.
A diesel engine will not operate efficiently
unless clean fuel is delivered to the injector or
injection nozzles. As the fuel oil is pumped into
the fuel tanks, it is strained through a fine mesh
screen.
The larger particles of the solids
suspended in the fuel are trapped in the primary
*screen. The secondary filter separates the finer
particles of foreign matter wftich pass through
the primary filter screen. The final filtering takes
place within the injector. Most filters have w
Liain plug for removing the water, sludge, and
75.151
Figure 12-5.ml-A 2:stroko-cyclo engine cylinder with
the piston at the bottom all the power stroke.
other foreign matter. The filter should be
drained once each 'day.
161
167
0
FIREMAN
inject the same amount .4 fuel into every
cylinder.
The an-TOT\I t of fuel injected into the
cylinders on each stroke is controlled by
tPl PIPS
CRIVT PR
PR to. v
TO mar RAPIPaD
rotating the plungers of a unit injector. The
throttle, which regulates the speed of the engine,
is connected to the injectors through a suitable
linkage. A change in the throttle setting rotates
auer01.0
the plungers and varies the amount of fuel
injected into the cylinders on each stroke.
ISCONORAY
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
PAL PPP
The
lubrication system of an internal
combustion engine is very important. If the
PIPS. 111uRT MP.
*WIWI, 10 PUP,
lubricating system should fail, not only will the
engine stop but also many of the parts are likely
to be damaged beyond repair. Therefore, when
lubrication failure occurs, the engine can seldom
be run again without a major overhaul.
The lubricating system delivers oil to the
moving parts of the engine to reduce friction
PRUARIP PUP.
PM VON ISPIR181)
and to assist in keeping Them cool. Most diesel
PUP. ?ANN
and gasoline engines are equipped with a
pressure lubricating system which delivers the
oil under pressure to the bearings and bushings
and also lubricates the gears and cylinder walls.
The oil usually reaches the bearings through
passages drilled in the framework of the engine.
The lubricating system of a typical diesel engine
2.67X
Figure 12-6.The fuel supply system of a General
Motors portable diesel engine.
is shown in figure 12-7.
Many methqAs of lubleating the individual
parts of each type of engine are in use in the
different engine models. Generally speaking, the
oil is fed from the main gallery through
individual passages to the main crankshaft
There are many methods of fuel injection.
and just as many types of injection pumps and
nozzles. The unit injector shown in figure 12-6
bearings and one end of the hollow camshaft.
All the other moving parts and bearings are
lubricated by oil drawn from these two sources.
The cylinder walls and the teeth of many of the
gears are lubricated by oil spray thrown off by
the rotating crankshaft. After the oil has served
its purpose, it drains back to the sump to be
consists basically of a small cylinder and a
plunger, and extends through the cylinder head
to the combustion chamber. A cam, located on
the camshaft adjacent to the cam that operates
the exhaust valves, acts through a rocker arm
and depresses the plunger at the correct instant
in the operating cycle.
When the injector plunger is depressed, a
fine spray of fuel is discharged into the cylinder,
through small holes in the nozzle. The amount
used again.
'IThe oil pressure in the line leading from the
pump to the engine is indicated on a,
Bourdon-type pressure gage. A temperature gage
in the return line provides an indirect method
for indicating variations in the temperature o'
of fuel injected on each stroke of small boat
engine fuel pumps is very small. The smooth
operation of the engine depends to a large
the engine parts. Any abnormal drop in pressure
,or rise in temperature should _be investigated at
extent on the accuracy with which the plungers
162
168
Chapter 12 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
12 0 Ct ti ARM
PUSH ROO
C0 30
E..
OIL PRessuria ciaGe\
Jai
PISTON PIN
CONNECT= Roo
U
11.
b
CAMSHAFT OE AR
MAIN OIL LINE
THRUST DUTTON
1.3.*
V ALVC LIFTER
CAMSHAFT
CRANKSHAFT
i±
CRANKSHAFT GEAR
OIL PAN
OIL LEVEL
OIL PUMP
OIL INLET SHIELO
OIL INLET SCREEN
.
Figure 12-7.Basic units and oil passages of a pressure feed lubrication system.
once. It is advisable to secure the engine until
29.96
to flow back into the sump. All of the oil from
the pump passes through the strainer, unless the
oil is cold and heavy, or if the strainer (or oil
the trouble has been located and corrected.
All of the engine parts are lubricated with oil
delivered by the gear-type oil pump. This pump
takes suction through a screen from an oil pan
or sump. From the pump, the oil is forced
cooler) is clogged. In such cases, the bypass valve
is forced Open and the oil flows directly to the
engine. Part of the oil
through the oil strainer and the oil cooler into
the main oil gallery. This gallery extends the
fed
to the engine
is
returned through the filter, which removes
flakes of metal, carbon particles, and other
length of the eeirgirie and serves as a passage and
impurities.
reservoir from which the oil is fed to the main
bearings.
COOLING SYSTEM
Constant oil pressure, throughout a wide
range of engine speeds, is maintained by the
pressure relief valve which allows the excess oil
Diesel engines are equipped with a
water-cooling system to carry away the excess
163
169
FIREMAN
direct current electric motor. The motor is
heat produced in e engine cylinders. The water
is circulated thr ugh water jackets in the
cylinder walls and passages that surround the
designed to carry extremely heavy loads but,
because it draws a high current (300-665
valves in the cylind
amperes), it tends to overheat quickly. To avoid
Ei
erifr-freshiwat
head.
-
overheating, NEVER allow the motor to run
r or sea water may be used
more than 30 seconds at a time. Then allow it to
cool for 2 or 3 minutes before using it again.
ooling. IV som engines the sea water is
circ dated through the engine and then
for
disci arged overboar
In
To start a diesel, engine, you must turn it
over rapidly to obtain sufficient heat to ignite
the fuel. The starting motor is located near the
flywheel, and the drive gear on the starter is
arranged so that it can mesh with the teeth on
the flywheel when the starting switch is closed.
The drive mechanism must function to (1)
transmit the turning power to the engine when
the starting motor runs, (2) disconnect the
starting motor from the engine immediately
after the engine has started, and (3) provide a
gear reduction ratio between the starting motor
and the engine. (The gear ratio between the
driven pinion and the flywheel is usuallvabout
other types, fresh
wate is circulated t lough the engine and then
through a heat exchanger. Sea water is circulated
through this exchanger and cools the fresh
water. An advantage of the fresh water system is
that it keeps the water passages cleaner and thus
I
provides better cooling and allows the engine to
operate at higher temperatures.
N
STARTING SYSTEMS
There are three types of starting systems
used in internal combustion engineselectric,
hydraulic, and pneumatic.
As
15 to 1. This means that the starting motor shaft
rotates 15 times as fast as the engine, or-at 1,500
rpm, to turn the engine at a speed of 100 rpm.)
P Fireman you will probably have more
c ntact with the electric starting system than
u will with the other two types. Most, if not
The drive mechanism must disengage the
pinion from the flywheel immediately after the
engine starts. After the engine starts, its speed
all, lifeboats aboard ships use an electric starter
to start the engine.
_Depending on ship type, the emergency
generator, whether it be diesel or gas turbine, is
started by either an electric starter or penumatic
starter. Main propulsion diesels and gas turbines
are usually pneumatic starter systems (air start).
Electric starting systems use direct current
may increase rapidly to approximately 1,509rpm. If the dive pinion remained meshed wit
the flywheel and also locked with the shaft of
the starting motor at a normal engine speed
(1,500 rpm), the shaft would be spun at a rapid
rate-22,500 to 30,000 rpm. At such speeds, the
starting motor would be badly damaged.
because electrical energy in this form can be
stored in batteries and drawn upon when
needed. The bat
's electrical energy can be
restored by charging the battery with an
engine-driven generator.
Hydraulic Starting Systetns
There are several types of hydraulic starting
systems in use. In most installations, the system
consists of a hydraulic starting motor, a
piston-type accumulator, a manually-operated
hydraulic pump, an engine-driven hydraulic
pumprand a reservoir for the hydraulic fluid.
Hydraulic pressure is obtained in the
The main components of the electric starting
system are the storage battery, the starting
motor, the generator, and the associated control
and protective devices. The storage battery is
described in detail in Basic Electricity, NavPers
10086-B.
accumulator by the manually-operated hand
pump or from the engine-driven pump when the
engine is operating.
When the starting lever is operated, the
control valve allows hydraulic oil (under
pressure) from the accumulator to pass through
Electric Starting Motors
The starting motor for diesel and gasoline
engines operates on the same principle as a
`61
164
110
Chapter 12INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
the hydraulic starting motor, thereby cranking
the engine. When the starting lever is released,
spring action disengages the starting pinion and
closes the control valve, stopping the flow of
hydraulic oil from the'accumulator. The starter
is protected from the high speeds of the engine
by the action of an overrunning clutch.
The hydraulic starting system is used on
some smaller diesel engines. This system can be
applied to most engines now in service without
modification other than to the clutch and pinion
assembly,
which
must
be
changed
when
The CARBURETOR is a device used to send
a fine spray of fuel into a moving stream of air
as it moves to the intake valves of the cylinders.
The spray is swept along, vaporized, and mixed
(as a gas) with the moving air. The carburetor is
designed to maintain the same mixture ratio
over a wide range of engine speeds. The
MIXTURE RATIO is the number of pounds of
air mixed with each pound of gasoline vapor. A
RICH MIXTURE is one in which the percentage
of gasoline vapor is high, while a LEAN
MIXTURE contains a low percentage of gasoline
vapor.
converting from a left-hand to a right-hand
rotation..
The electrical system of the gasoline engine
has the same units as the diesel engine, plus the
ignition system. This system is designed to
Air Starting' Systems
deliver a spark in the combustion chamber of
Most modern large diesel engines are started
each
cylinder at a specific point in that
cylinder's cycle of operation. A typical ignition
system includes a storage battery, an ignition
coil, breaker points, a condenser, a distributor, a
spark plug in each cylinder, a switch, and the
by admitting compressed air into the engine
cylinders at a pressure capable of turning over
the engine. The process is continyed until the
pistons have built up sufficient compression heat
to cause combustion. The pressure used in air
necessary wiring.
starting systems ranges from 250 to 600 psi.
There are two distinct circuits in the ignition
Some larger engines and several smaller
systemthe primary and the secondary. The
engines are provided with starting motors driven
by air. These motors are similar to those used to
drive such equipment as large pneumatic drills
and engine jacking motors. Air starting motors
are usually driven by air pressures ranging from
90 to 200 psi.
primary circuit carries a low-voltage current; the
secondary is a high-voltage circuit. The battery,
the ignition switch, the ignition coil, and the
breaker points are connected in the primary
circuit. The seconctiry circuit, also connected to
the ignition coil, includes the distributor and the
spark plugs.
The STORAGE BATTERY is usually the 12-
GASOLINE ENGINES
and 24-volt type. One terminal is grounded to
the engine frame, while the other is connected
The main parts of the gasoline engine are
quite similar to those of the diesel engine. The
two engines differ principally in that the
to the ignition system.
The IGNITION COIL is in many respects
similar to an electromagnet. It consists of an
iron core surrounded by the primary and
gasoline engine has a carburetor and an electrical
ignition system.
secondary coils. The primary coil is made up of
a few turns of heavy wire, while the secondary
coil has a great many trims of fine wire. In both
The induction system ofja gasoline engine
draws gasoline from the f61 tank and air from
the atmosphere, mixes them, and delivers the
mixture to the cyl4ders. The induction system
consists of the fuel tan , the Juel pump, the
carburetor, and the necessary fuel lines and air
passages. Flexible copper tubing' carries the fuel
coils, the wire is insulated, and the coils are
entirely separate from each other.
The BREAKER POINTS constitute
a
mechanical switch connected to the primary
circuit. They are opened by a cam which is
from the tank to the carburetor, while the
timed to break the circuit at the exact instant at
which each cylinder is due to fire. A condensir
is connected across the breaker points to prevent
arcing and to provide a better high-voltage spark.
intake manifold carries the fuel-ai mixture from
there to the individual cylinders. The fuel-air
mixture is igted by an electric spark.
165
171
I
FIREMAN
DISTRIBUTOR, connected to the
secondary or high-voltage circuit, serves as a
selector switch which channels electric current
to the individual cylinders. Although the breaker
points are connected in the primary circuit, they
The
are often located in the distributor case. The
same drive shaft operates both the breaker
points and the distributor.
The SPARK PL11GS, which extend into the
combustion chambers of the cylinders, are
connected by heavy insulated wires to the
distributor. A spark plug consists essentially of a
metal shell that screws into the spark plug hole
in the cylinder, a center electrode embedded in a
porcelain cylinder, and a side electrode
connected to the shell. The side electrode is
adjusted so that the space between it and the
center electrode is approximately 0.025 inch.
When the plug Res, an electric spark jumps
across the gap between the electrodes.
When the engine is running, the electric
current in the primary circuit flows from the
The starting system of the gasoline engine is
basically the same as that of the diesel engine.
The generator keeps the battery charged and
provides the current to operate the lights and
other electrical equipment. The starter motor
draws current from the battery and rotates the
flywheel and crankshaft for starting.
?
The electrical system usually requires about
90 percent of the routine maintenance
performed on gasoline engines. You should keep
the connections tightened and the battery
terminals covered with a light coating of
pe tro 1 a t um. Unsatisfactory operation can
usually be traced to either dirty fuel or fouled
spark plugs. If the fuel is strained before it is put
difficulties will be eliminated. A fouled plug can
be removed and cleaned by wire brushing or
sand blasting.
You will find detailed informatiori on spark
ignition systems in Engineman 3 & 2, NavPers
1054I-B.
is
interesting to note1fiat The high voltage, which
jumps the gap in the spark plugs, does not come
from\the battery but is produced in the ignition
GAS TURBINE ENGINES
coil.
The ignition coil and the condenser are the
only parts of the ignition system which requii4
Until recently, the application of the gas
turbine engine to marine use in the Navy has
been experimental. Experiments have proved
an explanation. The soft iron core and the
primary winding function as air electromagnet.
that the gas turbine engine can be used to power
short-range ships, landing craft, high-speed craft
such as PT and air-sea rescue boats, emergency
generators, and portable firefighting equipment.
current flowing through the primary
winding magnetizes the core. This same core and
the secondary winding function as a
e
transformer. Variations in the primary current
change the magnetism of the core which, in
turn, produces high voltage in the secondary
The MSB-5 class minesweepers were the first
U.S. naval ships to use gas turbine engines on an
operational basis. Gas turbine installations
winding.
aboard the MSB-5 class minesweepers supply
power for the generators.
In the past few years several classes of ships
With the engine running and the breaker
points closed,
spark.
in the tank, and if the tank is filled each time
the engine is secured, most of the fuel
battery through the switch, the primary winding
in the ignition coil, the breaker points, and then
back to the battery. The high voltage is
produced in the secondary winding in the
ignition coil and flows through the distributor to
the individual spark plugs and back to the
ignition coil through the engine frame. It
a
The electricity that would otherwise arc across
the breaker points, as they are separating, now
flows into the condenser.
The principal purpose of the condenser is to
protect the breaker points from being burned.
The condenser also aids in 'obtaining a hotter
a
low-voltage current
flows
through the primary circuit. When the breaker
have been built, or are under construction,
points open, this current is interrupted; this
which are totally gas turbine. These ships are of
the size of the light cruiser and large DLG' class
produces a high voltage in the secondary circuit.
166
-
172'
`o
Chapter 12INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
ships. Several other types of ships which are gas
turbine-powered are at various stages of
development.
As service experience has been gained, the
number of gas turbines in use has increased. The
following discussion deals with a comparison of
gas turbines and reciprocating engines, the
advantages and disadvantages of the gas turbine
engines and their principal parts, or components.
several advantages over reciprocating euines.
However, there are certain undesirable features
of gas turbine engines. Not all of the desirable or
undesirable features of gas turbine engines are
discussed here, but some of the more important
ones are pointed out. The advantages and
disadvantages of the gas turbine engine cannot
be listed in order of importance, because the
requirements of the engine as a source of power
differ in various applications.
COMPARISON OF
GAS TURBINES AND
RECIPROCATING ENGINES
Compared with other types of internal
combustion engines, the gas turbine engine
weighs less, takes up less space, and is normally
The gas turbine is similar to reciprocating
of simpler design with a smaller _number of
engines in that air is compressed, a fuel-air
moving parts. The gas turbine engine develops
more power per unit of weight and unit of
mixture is burned, and the gases of combustion
are expanded to produce useful power. Engines
of the reciprocating type use one
volume than other engines.
componentthe cylinderfor compression,
combustion, and expansion. Since all three
phases take place Within one component, the
power impulse must occur intermittently or
Gas turbine engines start quickly and
accelerate rapidly. Some models can develop full
power from a cold start in less than one-tenth
the time required for a diesel engine in a
comparable application. The gas turbine adjusts
to varying loads more rapidly than other type
periodically, as the cycle is repeate.. This is not
true in gas turbine engines; instead, ompression,
combustion, and expansion take p ace in three
separate components. Air is comp essed in one
component, combustion takes
dace
engines.
The number of personnel required to
operate and maintain a gas turbine engine, and
the time required for the training of such
in an
adjacent burner, and a turbine for turbines)
receives the energy generated by co bustion. As
does the piston in a reciprocatin engine, the
turbine transmits the energy of th gases to a
shaft which drives a useful load. Th three basic
personr.e! are much less than for engines of
other types. Only one man is needed to start and
operate some gas turbir4 engines. The simplicity
components of the gas turbine e a ne are so
of the operating controls and the automatic
arranged and connected that the power output
from the turbine is steady and co tinuous. In
safety devices used reduce the time required for
training operators.
brief, the gas turbine engine can be defined as an
internal combustion engine that produces power
by a continuous and self-sustaining process. An
air mass is. compressed and then combined with
Compared to a diesel engine, the gas turbine
has far fewer components and produces much
less vibration at full power. The gas turbine
atomized fuel. The resulting mixture is then
engine
ignited and burns. The combustion gas expands
has a significant advantage over the
gasoline engine in the fuel used. The fuel used in
gas turbines presents much less fire hazard than
the highly volatile fuel used in gasoline engines.
through one or more turbines which change
some of the energy into useful power.
ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF
GAS TURBINE ENGINES
Even though the gas turbine engine has some
advantages over other types of internal
combustion engines, it also has sortie
disadvantages, such as a higher r to of fuel
consumption ciland larger componen require
for air inlet and exhaust.
In additiod to the development of a uniform
flow of power output, gas turbine engines have
167
173
tr.
FIREMAN
COMPONENTS OF
GAS TURBINE ENGINES
The gas turbine engine uses processes in its
operation which-aro similar to those employed
in other types ofnternal combustion engines.
The engine components and the terms used to
identify them are considerably different from
the parts and terms which are common to the
diesel and gasbline engines. Although gas turbine
engines vary in design and Navy installations
include engines of other manufacturers, much of
the discusfion in the following section is
applicable to all gas turbine engines.
The components of a gas turbine engine may
be grouped as (1) parts of the basic engine, (2)
engine accessories, and (3) engine systems (fig.
compressor, combustion chamber (burners), and
turbine wheel(s).
The COMPRESSOR is that part of the
engine which draws in air and compresses it by
centrifugal force (that force which tends to
move something outward from
a
center of
rotation). The compressor consists of a rotating
impeller enclosed by a case. The BURNER is
that part of the engine in which combustion
occurs. It consists of a cylindrical outer shell,
perforated inner liner, fuel nozzle, and igniter
plug. A NOZZLE is a metal chamber which
collects combustion gases from the burners and
directs them through fixed vanes or nozzles. The
ROTOR is a rotating assembly, consisting of
the compressor, an interconnecting shaft, and
first-stage turbine wheel.
12-8).
The section of the engine which changes
energy into useful power is known as the power
Parts of the
output section. The main parts of this section
are the power turbine wheel, exhaust ducts,
Basic Engine
reduction gear, and output shaft.
The forward (compressor end) section of the
engine, where a stream of hot expandable gases
is created as a result of continuous compression
The TURBINE WHEEL is a bladed disk
which turns when the exhaust gas stream acts
upon its blades. A circular metal duct,
and combustion, is called the gas producing
containing a ring of fixed vanes that form
section. This section consists principally of the
nozzles, which directs the gas flow from the
COMBUSTION I
CHAMBER
(..
1
PROPULSION
POWER
COUPLING
STARTER
COMPRESSOR
SHAFT
TURBINE
-0
EXHAUST TO
ATMOSPHERE
ATMOSPHERIC
AIR INTAKE
147.135
Figure 12-8.Schematic diagram showing relationsh p of parts in single-shaft gas turbine engine.
1
168
174
Chapter 12INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
a boat engineer. Refer to Basic Military
first-stage turbine to the second-stage turbine is
as
ASSEMBLY.
Requirements, NavTra 10054-D, chapter 19, for
additional information.
Engine Accessories
DIESEL - POWERED
called the
INTERSTAGE NOZZLE
BOAT OPERATION
The main engine components discussed to
this point are not the only components required
to make a complete engine. Like other types of
internal combustion engines, the gas turbine
engine includes, various accessories.
The pa is which constitute
the engine
accessory gr up are driven by the engine rotor
or by the output shaft. The rotor-driven
accessories include the gear-type fuel pump,
centrifugal fuel control governor, combination
pressure-scavenge
oil
pump.
A
centrifugal.
The actual operation of a small boat diesel
might be considered as consisting merely of
starting it, regulating the speed, and stopping it.
However, there are other factors which should
be considered. If you are goof to depend on the
engine to give reliable service, you must give it a
lot of attention. Your first experience in having
a casualty halfway between the ship and dock
may leave a lasting impression on you,
particularly if you happen to have the captain
overspeed switch is driven by the output shaft.
aboard.
Engine Systems
When you are assigned to a boat, your first
responsibility is to inspect the engine and warm
The principal systems of a gas turbine engine
are those which supply fuel for combustion, oil
for lubrication, and electricity or air for starting
the engine and for the operation of instruments
and warning and safety devices.
The engine accessories are usually considered
as components of whichever system they affect.
OPERATION OF
SMALL BOAT ENGINES
When a ship is at anchor, the officers and
crew travel to and from the shore in small boats.
As a Fireman, you may be assigned as an
engineer on one of these small craft. A coxswain
will be in charge of the boat. In some boats
there may also be two seamen actpg as bow and
stern hooks.
You will be responsible for operating the
it up. You should check the fuel supply, the
lubricating oil, and the cooling system. When
you are satisfied that everything is as it should
be, you are ready to start the engine.
Starting a diesel engine ordinarily consists of
placing the throttle in the idle position, or
opening it part way, and pressing the starter
button. The engine should start after the starter
has turned it over a couple of times. It should be
warmed up by running it at low speed until it is
up to operating temperature.
While the engine is warming up, you will
have a chance to find out whether it is in good
running condition. Watch the instrument panel
to help you determine the condition of the
engine. (See fig. 12-9.) For example, if the oil
gage fails to register any pressure, you should
stop the engine immediately. The water
temperature gage is used as an indication of the
temperature of the engine parts. The engine
exhaust is usually cooled by sea water; the(
exhaust discharge should
boat's engine. You will receive your orders from
the coxswain over the boat's bell system. You
should know the. bell signals; two sounds for
neutral, one for slow ahead, three for reverse,
and four calls for full speedin the direction in
which you are going. The coxswain will expect
you to comply with the bells instantly. You will
be required to follow certain safety precautions
-169
175
be inspected
immediately after starting to determine whether
the water pump has suction. If the pump does,
not have suction, stop the engine and check the
cooling system for such troubles as a clogged
strainer and closed sea valves. You should check
the idling speed by bringing the throttle back to
the idling position. The engine should respond
FIREMAN
the proper grade approved for that particular
engine is used.
The engine can be stopped by merely closing
the throttle. You 'should leave the engine
compartment clean and orderly. A report calling
attention to any abnormal operating condition
that you may have noticed will be a help to the
maintenance and servicing crew.
Another important part of your job is
TROUBLESHOpTING. Diesel engine failure'can
uscially be attributed either to the fuel system or
to improper cooling or lubrication. If the fuel is
not reaching the engine cylinders, you can often
trace the trouble to an empty fuel tank or an
accumulation of water in the strainers. A
plugged vent in the fuel tank filler cap will cause
a vacuum to form in the top of the tank, and the
engine will stop for lack of fuel. Overheating
generally results from a lack of either oil or
cooling water.
0
GASOLINE ENGINE
OPERATION
139.48
Figure 12-9.The instrument panel of a small
diesel-powered boat.
(
The operation of a small boat gasoline
engine is similar Cothat of a diesel engine. Since
normal'y to changes in the throttle setting, and
it should run smoothly after being brought up to
operating temperature.
Yotr should know where the fuel- and
lube-oilkrainer drains are located so that you
can get- rid of any water that may accumulate in
these sy4tems. If lube oil must be added, see that
gasoline from a leak or an 'open container will
vaporize quickly and may form an explosive
mixture, additional precautions against fire must
be taken. Adequate ventilation must be provided
to rid the engine compartment of any
combushble vapors which may accumulate. No
smoking is permitted in small boats at any time,
this is especially important in boats equipped
with gasoline engines.
cPf
17C
'170
CHAPTER 13
ENGINEERING WATCHES
Throughout the chapters of this training
manual you have become acquainted with the
organization and ratings of the engineering
department. You may be assigned to one of
many different types of ships. On these ships
you will find that the engineering spaces vary in
size and appearance. If you are assigned to a
steam-driven ship, you may find the boilers, the
main engines, and their associated equipment in
one space; or you may find the boilers and their
equipment in one space, and the main engines
an d their equipment in another space.
Regardless of the number of boilers and main
engines, many of the watches are basically the
same. Therefore, the information in this chapter
general in nature and does not apply
specifically to any one ship.
This cha ter contains information related to
some of the ktches and the duties that you will
be required t perform such as messenger of the
watch, soup ing and security watch, and
cold-iron, watch.' As you progress and become
acquainted with the fireroom or engioneroom
is
you will be required to stand otherfwatches
under the supervision and instruction of a petty
officer. These watches include: (1) for the
fireroomburnerman, blcvwerman, and
checkman; and (2) for the engineroomlower
level
watch, upper level watch, evaporator
watch, shaft alley watch, and throttle watch.
MESSENGER OF THE WATCH
The messenger of the watch-- performs a
engineering
spaces, you must ;-now proper
telephone procedures; when you talk, speak
slowly and in a very distinct manner
pronouncing Qte syllables of each word very
clearly. When you receive a message, or are given
a message to transmit, be sure to repeat it word
for word, exactly as it was given to you; do not
engage in any idle chatter.
As the messenger on the watch you will also
perform such other duties as the petty officer of
the warcl may designate. This includes checking
all operating machinery to see that it is
operating, properly, recording temperature and
pressure readings in the appropriate logs, and
calling the watch relief.
The' dy,\erating log is an hourly record. of
operating pressures and temperatures of almost
all operating machinery. . The log readings
include lube oil pressures and temperatures,
boiler pressures and temperatures, pump
suctions and discharge pressures, and other items
of importance to the operation of the
engineering plant. You will be required to write
and print legibly, to correctly spell common
Navy terms and to maintain your logs neatly and
accurately. You should become acquainted with
proper operating pressures and temperatures so
that you will know when a piece of machinery
or equipment is not operating properly.
SOUNDING AND
SECURITY WATCH
number of important (1,4t;,,a wilit.h involve a
great' deal of responsibility. The messenger is
usually assigned as telephone talker on the
engineering JV circuit during close maneuvering
As a Fireman you will be required to stand
sounding and security watches. While on this
171
4
conditions with other ships, when entering or
leaving port, or when refueling or replenishing
from another ship. Because the JV circuit is used
to provide communications between all the
177
e44
FIREMAN
watch, your primary mission is to look for fire
and flooding hazards. On most ships, this watch
'weighted at the end to facilitate lowering into
the sounding tUbe.
is from the end of the working day until 0800
the next morning and is also in effect during
holiday routine. The watch is particularly
HOW TO TAKe
needed at these times because there are fewer
personnel working aboard 'the ship and certain
spaces that require frequent observation are not
under the normal observation of personnel
bronze
A SOUNDING
Wher is relatively hard to see on a brass or
sounding rod.
Before 'yoU
take a
sounding, dry the rod or tape thoroughly and
coat it with white chalk. When the chalk
working in or near them. On some ships
(particularly the larger ones), sounding and
becomes wet, it turns to a distinctly visible light
brown color. For example, if there is 6 inches of
water in a tank when you take a sounding, the
light brown,color of the chalk will be distinctly
visible up to the 6-inch mark; while the
security watches are stood around the clock.
When you stand this watch, in addition to
looking for fire and flooding hazards, be sure
that no fresh water spigots are leaking or left
running in heads, washrooms, galleys, and
pantries. Another of your responsibilities while
on watch is to maintain the-proper condition of
material readiness by checking all watertight air
remainder of the sounding rod will still be
covered with the white chalk. The chalk method
is used only where water may be present.
ports, doors, hatches, scuttles, and all other
When you have coated the sounding rod
damage controh-fittings. Report any irregular
condition (change in soundings, violations of
material condition, fire hazards, etc.) to your
with chalk, lower it down the tube until it
watch supervisor.
lower it slowly so that it his bottom without
touches the bottom; immediately draw it back.
Do not drop the rod or tape to the bottom, but
injuring the rod or tape. If the ship is rolling, tj,k
to lower and hoist the rod or tape while the ship
SOUNDINGS
A sounding tube
of
I I /2-inch pipe. The lower end is fitted at a low
point in the compartment, tank, or void which
the tube serves. The upper end terminates in a
flush deck plate which is usually located on the
main or second deck; it is closed with a threaded
plug or cap.
Tubes are made as straight as possible, but
strrie are, necessarily curved. Some sounding
tubes, partichlarly thOse serving spaces under the
enginerooms and firerooms, cannOt be extended
to the upper decks because of the construction
is
is on an even keel. After you have taken the
usually made
of the ship. These tubes terminate in
sounding, enter the reading in the sounding log.
COLD-IRON WATCH
When a ship moves alauside aepair ship or
,
tender, or into a naval shipyard,, and is
receiving power from these activities, a security
and'fire watch is usually set by each department.
This watch is commonly called the COLD-IRON
WATCH.
Each cold-iron watch makes frequent
inspections of the area, assigned to him and looks
for fire hazards or other unusual, conditions
throughout the area. He sees that no
unauthorized persons are in his watch area, that
risers
0, which extend approximately 3 feet above the
compartment served; they have gate valve
closures.
Sounding are taken with a sound rod or
all spaces are cleaned, and that no tools, rags,
sounding tape, whichever is provided for that
purpose aboard ship. Normally, the sounding
rod is approximately 6 feet long and is made of
gear, and the like are left, adrift. He keeps bilges
reasonably free of water.
12 -inch lengths of 1/2-inch brass or bronze rods.
It is lowered with a chain or line. The sounding
tape is a steel tape, coiled on a reel suitable for
holding while the tape is lowered. The tape is
c
a
The watch makes hourly reports to the
officer of the deck as to alt, existing conditions.
Any unusual conditions that do exist are
reported -to the officer of the deck immediately
172
178
rr
Chapter I3ENGINEERING WATCHES
so that the department responsible can be
notified to take the necessary corrective
measures.
M engine speed and steam conditions
change, the bumerman must rapidly eut burners
in or out, as required, to hold the steam pressure
steady. -During maneuve'rIng il, close contact
with other ships, and when the ship is entering
or leaving ...port, the bumerman must be
constantly alert for large, rapid changes in
In the event that welding or burning is going
on in his area, the -gold-iron watch sees that a
fire watch is stationed. (The fire watch stands by
with a CO2 extinguisher.) If none has been
stationed, the cold-iron watch has the work
discontinued until the fire watch has been
stationed. The cold-iron watch carries out all
engine speed.
orders and special orders pertaining to the duties
of that watch.
If the ship is in drydock,.the cold-iron watch
checks all sea valves after working
w
hours to see
that the valves are secure or are blanked off. He
must see that no oil is pumped' into the
BLOWERMAN
The blowerman is responsible for operating
the\ forced draft blowers that supply combustion
air to the boiler. Although the air pressure in the
double casings is affected by the number of
registers in- use and the extent to which each
register is open, it is chiefly determined by the
,manner in whiCh the forced draft blowers are
operated. The opening, setting, or adjustingof
drydocks at any time. He Wiill not allow any
weights, such as fuel oil, feedwater,' or potable
Water, to be shifted without perniission of the
engineeofficer.
,
The cold-iron watch must be
-a II regulations, instructions, anoNi safety
the air registers is the BURNERMAN'S job. The
control of forced draft bloWers is the
BLOWaRMAN'S job. It is important that the
LL
precautions
and
must
see
t 1W (tites'e
';
arc
bumerman and the blowerman cooperate with
-each other because both are concerned with the
combustion of the fuel oil.
observed. He gives his relief aWinformation.
regarding existing conditions, orders, and special
orders. If the relieving watch is not satisfied with
the conditions, he will not relieve him, but will
4-
report for instructions to the petty officer with
the day's duty.
CHECiMAN
The checkinan is responsible for operating
the feed stop valve and the feed check valve. The
checkman has ONLY ONE JOBto maintain the
proper water level in the boiler: This job requires
full attention at all times. When a boiler is being
operated srrianually,the checkman must NEVER
be giVen'any tither duties.
Some ships are equipped with fully
automatic feedwat
on
s, so a checkman is
not 'normally needed. Hovyev,T, if the automatic
BURNAIMAN
The bumerman 'maintains proper steam
pressure by cutting burneit in or out, or by
regulating the fuel, oil ppessure at the burners.
The steam pressure must be held at the working
pressure, amqp- as steady as possible. The
bumerman 'must keep a close check for dirty
atomizers, by observing their operation and the
condition of the fire. He changes the atomizers
when authorized by tyre petty officer in charge
of the watch.
system fails or is switched to mantkal control,
therra checkmah must be imm diately stationed
on the checks.
The burner7man depends on a steam pressure
and ,a superheated steam anaperature
thermometer for information °on conditions
within the boiler. In most cases anengine'gder
gage
telegraph (annunciator)
THROTTLE WATCH
The tasks. of a throttkman at the main
engines are very important: Orderi from the
bridle relative to movement' of the propellers,
.be complied with immediately. To. make'
,
located near the
burner front' so that 'the fireroom watch will
know what main engine changes,ale being Made.
'must
I73
1- 7 9
4
'
ti
FIREMAN
/
correct adjustments for the required speed, you
must keep a (-lose watch on the rpm indicator on
the throttl board and open or close the
throttle, a required: to attain or maintain the
necessary, rpm. In addition to handling the
throttle itself, you may also have to operate a
variety of associated valves, accurately log all
speed changes in the Engineer's Bell Book,
visually 'check all gages (pressure, temperature,
vacuum, etc.) installed on the throttle board,
and keep the petty offices' in charge informed of
any abnormal gage readings.
You should become thoroughly familiar
with all the gages, instruments, and indicators on
the throttle board so. thatypti wilt know what a
normal reading is. ThereAare steam pressure
gage< steam ternperatur thermometers, a
revolutions-per-minute (rpm) indicator, an
engine order telegraph, feedwater pressure gages,
cooling water pressurepies, gages indicating the
vacuum obtained in the main engine low pressure turbine, and others. Whenever an
opportunity presents itself, study thelAhrottle
board and ask questions. Do not hesitate to ask
the operator whether those are normal readings,
and whether they are the approximate readings
you should alwaykqee there during steaming
conditions. When --ou have learned the
difference between a normal reading and an
abnormal reading, you max possibly help- to
prevent a major casualty 'by observing an
- abnormal reading and reporting it to the petty
officer in charge of
the watch.
P
V
4,
'
0
the pumps -and equipment, you must learn to
make various routine checks on the operating
machinery. Some of the checks for the main
feed punip, the lube oil pump, and the main
condensate pump.are discussed in the sections
that follow. alnder the watchful eye of -the
pumpman, you will learn how to make the
following checks and to perfbrni the following
duties.
MAIN FEED PUMP
In addition to complying with the posted
instructions and safety precautions for the
machinery and equipment at this station, the
pumpman performs the following auties:
II 'Maintains main feed pump discharge
pressure at a predetermined 'value by adjusting
the constant presire governor,
2. Keeps ihfain feed pump bearing s at the
proper temperature by regulatinrtothe flow .of
water through tha.feed pump lube oil cooler.
3. Checks to ensure proper lube oil pressure
to the bearings.
4. Keeps shaft packing glands adjusteli
properly. A small leakage is necessd.0 ,f9r
lubrication to prevent burning out the *kilt,
but an excessive amount of leakage wastes boiler
f eedwater.
5.
Checks and maintains proper
1
e oil
level in the main feed pump sump tank.
6. KeeRs valve packing glands tightened to
prevent leak4.
Keeps his watch station clean; removes
fire hazards by wiping up oil and picking up rags
and other stray gear.
7.
LOWER _VEV*Et. WATCHES
c.
When you are assi ed to the lower level to
assist the lower level atch (pumpman) and to
learn his duties and re onsibilities, you will find
considerable n ber of pumps and other
auxiliary machinery. Some of the pumps anV
equipment you will find are the main lube oil
'pumps and lube oil coolers, main condensate
pumps and main conderiser and, when installed
in the engineroom, main feed*, pumps, main feed
booster pumps, and
'fire pumps.. In some
installhtions you 91 als9.--1incl air compressors
on the lower level..
In addition, to learning the proper
procedures for starting, operating, and stopping
Is alert for unusual sounds, vibrations,
temperatures, and pressures.
9.
Keeps the standby pump ready for
instant use.
LOBE OIL pump
1. Maintains the proper lukke oil' pump
discharge pressure by adjusting the constant
pressure governor.
2.
Keeps the stand y -pump bn automatic
standby, ready for i stant use.
3. Shirts and cle s main rube oil strainers
once each watch or mo a ften if required.
Chapter 13 ENGINEERING WATCHES
4. "ChIcks the lube oil system for leaks
maintains the proper off level in the main en
sump tank.
5, Operates the lube oil purifier as ordered.
valve adjustments to correct conditions
indicated by slight variations from the normal
Checks the oil pres'sure,to the lube oil
service pump bevings and maintains the oil at
the proper ,,tepera,ture by regulating' 'the
level in
readings, and report unusual con bons to the
petty officer In charge; maintain a normal water
6.
amount of water through the pump lube oil
cooler.
7.
,
Regulates
the
cooling
water
the deaerating tank, if it
is
in the
engineroom, by adjusting the excess and makeup
feed valves; light off and secure turbogenerators;
and other upper level machinery, as ordered; and
maintain an adequate gland seal pressure on the
turbogenenitor.
flow
through the lube oil cooler go maintain the
correct oil outlet temperature.
SHAFT ALLEY WATCH
MAIN CONDEN$ATJ PUMP
Another main engine duty to which you
I. Keeps the condensate in the condenser
may be assigned is that of keeping watch on the
bearings of the propeller shafts leading froin the
hot well at the proper level.
2./ Frequently checks the exhaust trunk and
m a in condenser overboard for abnorinal
temperatures.
3.
Checks
the
main
reduction gears (or motors of a turboelectric
driven ship) to the ship's propellers. The shaft
alley watch stander:
condensate pump
bearings for proper oil pressure and temperature.
4. Keeps fhe main condenser vented.
5. Starts or secures an additidnal pump, as
1.
required, to keep the ;condensate level at the
correct height.
6. 'Constantly
checks fqr
.
unusual
conditions such as vibrations, sounds, and high
or low temperature or pressures.
3. is responsible for having the shaft, alley
bilge -pumped.
4. Is to be especially alert during high speed
to observe any abnormal , rise in bearings
temperature.
5. Reports hourly, by phone, to the control
All watch standers should be constantly alert
'for signs of leakageln all parts of the steam and
water systems. Some of the more common
causes of feedwater waste are: (1) leaks in pipe
fittings, flanges, valve and pump packing glands,
engineroom and at any time that abnormal
conditions develop:
pump hodtings and relief valves'? (2) use of
excessive gland sealinestak and (3) failure to
shift drains from-glie.bilie to the appropriate
drain system. Using an excessive amotint of
boiler feedwater is an indication of a poorly
operated plant and reflects on the lility bf the
6. In ships, which have the main thrust
bearing in the shaft
responsible for
operation of the main thruiT bearing lube oil
system.
7.
EVAPORATOR WATCH
UPPER -LEVEL 'WATCH
A ship requires a large amount of pure fresh
ater daily, yet a ship can only store sufficient
water to last a few dayi; therefore proper and
VVVhen,yoli are"assigned to the dutrerbf the
upper level watch in the engineroom, you will
record , periodic temperature and pressure
to, the upp
Performs any other additional duties
which may be assigned.
watch stander.
readings fr
Checks all spring bearings for proper
lubrication, including correct oil level, condition
of the oil, proper operation of self-oiling devices
(ring or cjiain), and bearing temperature.
2. Checks and adjusts stern tube gland for
correct amount of leak-off.
careful watches must be maintained on the
evaporators whenever they are in operation.
he various gages otw, or connected
evel machinery; make required
Proper watch standing requires the operator to
475
181
FIREMAN
constantly check
compartment number, name, rating, and rate
salt than the maximum allowable limits.
(actual and allowance).
3. Watch assignments for each person under
various conditions of battle readiness.
4. Station each person will have arfd -what
he will provide for emergency situations Such as
Fire, Rescue and Assistance, and General
Emergency.
pressures, temperatures,
vacuim, and salt content of the distilled water.
The stiff) cannot operate if the distilled water
that is to be used for feedwater contains more
OTHER WATCHES
OR ASSIGNMENTS
5.
Visit and search party, landing force,
spettfl sea detail, and other special duties and
Each division Officer prepares a Watch,
Quarter, and Station Bill for his division. You
will generally find the following information on
stations which each person is assigned.
.
The Watch, Quarter, and Station Bill to Is
you where' you fit into the ship's organizatio al
picture. Check it frequently, for it is your duty
to know where you belong udder all conditions.
There is NO EXCUSE FOR NOT KNOWING.
The bills may be differently designed for
different ships,. but the stations and duties are
always approximately the same.
this bill:
I. Organization of
sections and watches).
2.
the
division
(i.e.,
Listing of, each person as to billet
locker number, bunk number,
number,
4
is
182
176
p
APPENDIX I
GLOSSARY
, When you enter a new occupation, you must
AFTERCOOLER:
Ai terminal heat- transfer
unit after the last stage.
learn the vocabulary of the trade so that you
understand your fellow workmen and can mq,ke
yourself understood by them. Shipboard life
requires that Navy personnel learn a relatively
AIR EJECTOR: A type of jet pump, used to
remove air and other gases from the condensers.
new vocabularyeven new terms for many
commonplace items. The reasons for this need
AIR CHAMBER:
A chamber, usually
bulb-shaped, on the suction and discharge sides
of a pump. Air in the chamber acts as a cushion
and prevents sudden shocks to the pump.
are
many, but most of them boil down to
convenience and safety. Under certain
eircbmstances, a word or a few words may mean
an exact thing or may mean a certain sequence
of actions which makes it unnecessary to give a
lot of explanatory details.
A great deal of the work of a Fireman is
-such
that an incorrectly interpreted inOruetion
-.4
could cause confusion, breakage of machinery,
or even loss of life. Avoid this confusio4nd its
attendant danger by learning the meaning -of
terms common to the Engineering Department.
This glossary is not all-inclusive, but it does
contain many terms that every Fireman should
edit REGISTER: A device in the casing of a
boiler which ,regulates the amount of air for
combustion and provides a circular motion to
the air.
AISE:
.
Association. of.lron and Steel Engineers.
ALLOY: A mixture of two or more metals.
know. The terms given in this glossary may have
more than one definition; ortly those definitions
as related to engineering are given.
ALTERNATING. CURRENT fa-c): Current
that is constantly changing in value and
direction at regular recurring intervals.
ttBT (automatic pus transfer): An automatic
electrical device that supplies power to vital
equipment. This device will, shift from the
normal power supply to an alternate power
AMBIENT TEMPE
of the surrounding area.
supply any time,'the normal supply
interrupted.
AMMETER: An instrument for measuring the
rite of flow of electrical current in amperes.
,
is
EALING: The softening of,. metal by
heatingand
slow cooling.
r
A gas that is chemically
ACETYLENE:
produced from calcium carbide and water, used
for welding and cutting.
ADAPTER: A coupling or similar device that
permits fittings
fittings with different-sized openings
(apertures)
A*
UNCIATOR:
TELEGRAPH.
,
be joined together.
177
V
mperature
183
See
ENGINE ORDER
ARGON: An inert gas, slightly heavier,,,than air,
used in inert-gas shielded metal arc welding.
FIREMAN
ARMORED CABLE: An electric cable that is
protected on the outside by a metal covering.
BOILER OPERATING STATION: A location
from which boilers are operated.
American Society for Testing Metals.
BOILER RECORD SHEET: A NavShips form
maintained for each boiler, which serves as a
ASTM:`
AUTOMATIC COMBUSTION CONTROL
monthly summary of operation.
SYSTEM (ACC): A system that automatically
controls the fuel and air mixture in a boiler.
BOILER REFRACTORIES:
AUXILIARY MACHINERY: Any system or
unit of machinery that supports the main
heat of combustion.
propulsion units or helps support the ship and
the crew. Example: Pump, evaporator, steering
engine, air-conditioning, and refrigerator
equipment, !aunt*/ and galley equipment, deck
BOILER ROOM: A compartment containing
boilers but not containing a station for operating
or firing the boilers. Refers specifically to
bulkhead enclosed bo4r installations.
winch, etc.
IAN'S
Materials used in
the boiler furnace to protect the boiler from
r"
BOILER TUBE CLEANER: A cylindrical
brush that is used to clean the insides of boiler
BACK PRESSURE: The pressure'. exerted on
the exhaust side of a pump or engine.
tubes.
BDC (bottom dead center): The position of a
reciprocating piston at its lowest point of travel.
BOILER WATER:
The
water
actually
contained in the boiler.
The process of filling empty
tanks with salt water to protect the ship from
BALLASTING:
BRAZING: A method of joihing two metals at
high temperature with a molten alloy.
underwater damage and to increase its stability.
See DEBALLASTING.
BRINE: A highly concentrated solution of salt
in water, normally associated with the overboard
BLUEPRINT:
Reproduced copy of drawing
(usually having white lines on a blue
background).
discharge of distilling plants.
BRITTLENESS:
which water is heated by
combustion to form steam.
the
gases
of
BULL GEAR: The largest gear in reduction
gear trainthe main gear, as in a geed turbine
drive.
BOILER CENTRAL CONTROL STATION: A
centrally, located station for directing the
control 6f all boilers in the fireroom.
BOILER DESIGN
PRESSURE:
BURNERMAN: Man in fireroom who tends
the burners in The boilers.
Pressyre
BUSHING:
specified by the manufacturer, usually about
A rivewable lining for
BYPASS:
All parts
To divert the flow of gas or liquid.'
Also, the line that diverts the flow.
inside the boiler which colntrol the flow of steam
and water..
CALIBRATION:
The comparison of
measuring instrument with a set standard.
BOILER OPERATING PRESSURE: 'The
pressure required to he maintained in a boiler
.
0
178
-
any
CANTILEVER: A projecting arm or beam
supported only at one end.
while in service.
/-\
a hole
through which a moving part passes.
103% of normal steam drum operating pressure;
BOILER INTERNAL FITTINGS:
That property of a material
which causes it to break or snap suddenly with
little or no' prior sign of deformation.
A strong metal tank or vessel
composed of tubes, drums,'and headers, in
BOILER:
184
Appendix I GLOSSARY
CAPILLARY TUBE: A slender, thin-walled,
small-bored tube used with remote-reading.
indicators.
CONSTANT PRESSURE GOVERNOR: A
device that maintains a constant pump discharge,
pressure under varying'loads.
CARBON DIOXIDE: A colorless, odorless gas
used as a fire.( extinguishing agent and for
inflating liferafts A-0 lifejackets.
CONTROLLER: A device Lsed to stop, start,
and protect motors from overloads, while the
motors are running.
CARBON PACKING:
Pressed segments of
graphite used to prevent steam leakage around
COOLER: Any device that removes heat. Some
devices such as oil coolers remove heat to waste
in overboard seawater discharge, and other
devices such as an ejector cooler conserve heat
by heating condensate for boiler feedwater.
shafts.
CASUALTY POWER SYSTEM:
Portable
cables that are rigged to transmit power to vital
equipment in an emergency.
CORROSION:
The process or being ;aten
CHECK VALVE: A valve that permits the flow
of a liquid in one direction only.
away gradually by chemical action, sucfir as
CHILS? SHOCKING: A method that uses steam
and cold water to rem9ve scale from'the tubes
of a distilling plant.
COUNTERSINK: A cone-shaped tool used to
rusting.
enlarge and bevel one end of a drilled hole.
CREEP-RESISTANT ALLOY:' A metal which
resists the slow plastic deformation that occurs
at high temperatures when the materialtis under
constant stress.
CHLORINE: A heavy,,greenish-yellow gas used
in water purification, sewage disposal, and in the
preparation of bleaching solutions. Poisonou's in
concentrated form.
CROSS-CONNECTED 'PLANT: A method of
operating two or more plants as one unit from a
common steam supply.
CIRCUIT BREAKER: An electrical, device that
provides circuit overload protection.
.4
CLUTCH:
A form of coupling designed _tp
connect or disconnect a
member.
CURTIS STAGE:
A velocity-compounded
impulse turbine stage that has one pressure drop
in the nozzles and two velocity drops in the
driving or then
blading.
COLD IRON CONDITION: An idle plant as in
a destroyer when all port services are received
from an external ,source such as shore or tender.
DEAERATING FEED TANK (DA tank): A
unit in the steam -water cycle that (1) frees the
condensate of diisolved oxygen, (2) heats the
feedw.ater,. and (3) acts as a reservoir for
CONDENSATE: Water produced in the cooling
system of the steam cycle from steam that has
returned from the turbine or from steam that has
feedwater.
returned from various heat exchanges. The water
.is used over again to generate steam in the boiler
for an endless repetitive cycle.
DEBALLASTING: The process by which salt is
emptied from tanks to protect the ship from
underwater damage and to increase its stability.
P
CONDENSER: A heal transfer device in which
steam or vapor is condensed to water.
CONDUCTION:
DEGREE OF SUPERHEAT:
The amount by
which the temperature of steam exceeds the
saturation temperature.
A method of heat transfer
from one body to another when the two bodies
are in physicalgontact.
DIRECT CURRENT (d-c): Current that moves
in one direction only.
179
185
FIREMAN
One in which the drive
mechanism is coupled directly to the driven
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (EMF): A force
that causff electrons to move through a closed
member.
circuit; expressed in volts.
DIRECT DRIVE:
Water produced in distilling
DISTILLATE:
plants.
DI STILLING PLANTS:
Units commonly
called evaporators (evaps) used to convert
seawater into fresh water.
ELEMENT:
A substance which consists of
chemically united atoms of one kind.
ENERGY: The capacity for doing work.
ENGINEER'S BELL BOOK: A legal record,
maintained by the throttle watch, of all ordered
mair),engine speed changes.
DRAWING:
Illustrated plans
fabrication and assembly details.
DRUM, STEAM:
that
show
The large tanlrat the top of
the boiler in which the steam colltcts.
DRUM, WATER: A tank at the bottom of a
INE ORDER TELEGRAPH: A device on
E
th ship's bridge to give orders to
en ineroom. Also called ANNUNCIATOR.
the
EPM (equivalents per million): The number of
equivalent parts of a substanZe per million parts
bOiler; also called MUD DRUM.
of another substance. The word "equivalent"
DRY PIPE: A perforated pipe at the highest
point in a steam drum to collect steam.
EVAPORATOR: A distilling device to produce
fresh water from seawater.
Property possessed by metals
that allows them to be drawn or stretched.
EXPANSION JOINT: A junction which allows
for expansion and contraction.
A heat transfer device on a
boiler that uses' the gases of combustion to
The tendency of a material to
FATIGUE:
break under repeated strain.
DUCTILITY:
ECONOMIZER:
preheat the feedwater.
EDUCTOR:
A jet-type pump (no moving
refers to the equivalent weight of a substance.
FEED HEATER: A heat transfer device that
heats the feedwater before it goes to the boiler.
parts) used to empty flooded spaces.
EFFICIENCY: The ratio of the output to the
input.
ELASTICITY:
The ability of a material to
FEEDWATER: Water of
boilers.
FERROUS METAL:
content.
return to its original size and shape.
ELECTRODE:
used in electric welding, that melts when current
is passed through it.
ELECTROLYSIS: A chemical action that takes
place between unlike metals in syste, using salt
water. .
0
Metal with a high iron
FIREBOX: The section of a ship's boiler where
fuel oil combustion takes place.
A metallic rod (welding rod),
A
ELECTROJIIYDRAULIC STEERING:
system <baying a motor-driven hydraulic pump
that creates the force needed to actuate the rams
to position the ship's rudder.
e high t possible
level of purity made in vaporat s for use in
FIRE MAIN:. The saltwater line that provides
firefighting water and flushing water throughout
the ship.
FIRE TUBE BOILER: Boilers in which the
gaSes of combustion pass through the tubes and
heat the water surrounding them.
PLARFBACK: A backfire of flame and hot
gases into a ship's fireroom from the firebox.
Caused by a fuel oil exploSion in the firebox.
180.
a
Appendix IGLOSSARY
FLASH POINT OF OIL; The temperature at
which oil vapor will flash into fire although the
main body of the oil will not ignite.
FLEXIBLE I-BEAM:
An I-shaped steel beam
on which the forward end of a turbine is
mounted; it allows for longitudinal expansion
and contraction.
FLOOR cLATES: The removable deck plating
of a rueroom or engineroom aboard ship.
FLUX: A chemical agent that retards oxidation
of the surface, removes oxides already present,
and aids fusion.
FORCE: Anything that tends to produce or
modify motion.
FORCED. DRAFT: Air under pressure supplied
to the burners in a ship's boiler.
FORCED DRAFT BLOWERS: Turbine- driven
fans which supply air to the boiler furnace.
FORCED FEED LUBRICATION:
A
A valve
the fuel oil pressure to the burners.
FUEL OIL 'SERVICE TANKS: Tanks which
provide suction to the fuel oil service pumps to
FUSE:
circuit
-
portable tools.
HAGEVAP SOLUTION:
A chemical
compound used in distilling plants. to prevent
the formation of scale.
HALIDE LEAK DETECTOR: A device thatis
used to locate leaks in refrigeration systems.
HANDHOLE: An opening large enough for the
hand and arm to enter the boiler for making
slight repairs and for inspection purposes.
HEAT EXCHANGER: Any device that allows
the transfer of he-at from one fluid (liquid, or
gas) to another.
II.
A protective device that will open. a
if the current. .flow exceeds a
predetermined valtie. -t-z.
always must be checked prior to your using
" HEADER: A chamber, or tank, located within
a boiler, to which tubes are connected so that
water or steam may pass freely from one tube to
the other(s). 'Similar to, but Mailer than-, a
water drum.
installed at the burner manifold, that controls
,
GROUNDED PLUG:
A three-pronged
electrical plug used to ground portable tools to
the ship's structure.' It is a safety device which
HARDNESS: The ability (of a material to resist
penetration.
FRESH WATER SYSTEM: A piping system
which supplies fresh water throughout the Ship.
\
through reduction gears.
(quenching) of metal to induce hardness.
and hammering.
,
GEARED-TURBINE DRIVE: A turbine that
drives a pump, generator, or other machinery
HARDENING: The heating and rapid cooling
FORGING: The forming of metal by heating
discharge o4-tQ theers.,,,,,
that has been tested-and found safe for hot work
(welding and cuttjng).
HANDY BILLY: A small portable water pump.
lubrication system that uses a pump to maintain
a constant pressure.
FUEL OIL MICROMETER VALVE:
GAS FREE: A term used to describe a space
HYDROGEN:
A higi r explosive, light,
invisible, nonpoisonous as used in underwater
welding and cutting operations.
.''
.
4,
GAGE GLASS: A device that indicates the
liquid level in a tank.
HYDROMETER* An instrument used to
determine thevspecific gravity of liquids.
1.81
1.8.7
FIREMAN
,HYDROSTATIC TEST:
bypass damaged sections of a pipe, 'a hose, or a
A pressure test that
wire. (See BYPASS.)
uses water to detect leaks in a boiler or in other
closed systems.
13-
JURY RIG:
Any temporary or Makeshift
device.
IGNITION, COMPRESSION: When the heat
generated by compression in an internal
combustion engine ignites the fuel (as in a diesel
engine).
LABYRINTH PACKING: Rows of metallic
strips or fins that prevent steam lebitage along
the shaft of a turbine.
IGNITION SPARK: When the mixture of air
and fuel in an internal combustion engine is
ignited by an electric spark (as in a gasoline
LAGGING: A protective and confining cover
placed Over insulating material.
engine).
IMPELLER:
LIGHT OFF: Start. Literally, to startiltfffe in,
as in "light off a boiler."
edge.
LOG- BOOK: Any chronological record of
events, such as engineering watch log.
An encased, rotating element
provided with vanes which draw in fluid at the
center and expel it at a high velocity at the outer
IMPULSE TURBINE: A turbine in which the
major part of the driving force is received from
the impulse of incoming steam.
INDIRECT
DRIVE:
A
drive
LOG, ENGINEERING: A legal record of
,.important events and data concerning the
machinery of a ship.
mechanism
LOG ROOM: Engineer's office aboard ship.
coupled to the driven member ,by gears or bets.
INERT:
A unit that removes
water and sediinent from lubricating oil by
LUBE OIL PURIFIER:
Inactive.
centrifutal force.
INJECTOR: A device which uses a jet of steam
to force water into the boiler. Injectors are also
used in the diesel engine to force fuel into the
MACHINABILITY: The ease with which a
metal may be turned, planed, milled, or
otherwise shaped.
cylinders.
INSULATION: A material used to retard heat
transfer.
MAIN CONDENSER: A heat ex ner which
converts exhaust steam to feedwat r.
An intermediate heat
I NT E RCOO LE R:
transfer unit between two successive stages, as in
an air compressor.
MAIN DRAIN SYSTEM: , Syst nr used for
pumping bilges; consists of pumps and
associated piping.
bulkhead,
mounted.
\;\
Receptacle, usually secured to a
JACKBOX:
in
which
telephone
jacks
MAIN INJECTION (sCoOp injection):
are
An
opening in the skiin of a ship through which
cooling water,'
An order issue by ,a re ..jr
activity to its own subdivision to perform a
-JOB ORDER:
and mgiirli
ehvered to the main condenser
er by the forward motion
ofsthe s p.
repair job in,response to work request.
\
MAKEUP FEED:" Water of required purity for
use in ship's boilers. This water is needed to
JUMPER: Any connecting Pipe, hose, or wire,
normally used in emergencies aboard ship to
replace that lost in the steam cycle.
'
182
,ar.
Appendix IGLOSSARY
MALLEABILITY: That property of a material
which enables it to be stamped, hammered, or
rolled into thin sheets.
OIL KING:
MANIFOLD:
A fitting with numerous
branches which conveys fluids between a large
OIL POLLUTION ACTS: The Oil" Pollution
Act of 1924 (as amended) aid the Oil Pollution
Act of 1 961 prohibit the overboard discharge of
oil or water, which contains oil, in Port, in any
sea area within 50 stiles of land, and in special
prohibited zones.
pipe and several smaller pipes.
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE (MA): The
advantage (leverage) gained by the use of devices
such as a wheel to open a large valve, chain falls
and block and-tackle to lift heavy weights, and
wrenches to tighten nuts on bolts.
ORIFICE: A smail opening.
OVERLOAD RELAY: An electrical Protective
device which autorhatically-trips when,a circuit
MECHANICAL CLEANING: A method of
cleaning the firesides of boilers by scraping and
wire-brushing.
ROMHOS:
draws excessive current.
,4A
OXIDATION: The process of various elements
and compounds combiningWith oxygen. TI
corrosion of metals' is generally a form of
oxidation; rust on iron, for example, is iron
Electrical
units used with
salinity indicathrs to measure the conductivity
of water.
MOTOR GENERATOR SET:
oxide or oxidation.
A machine
p,
which consists Of a motor mechanically coupled
to a generator and usually mounted on the same,.
A series of pulsations
caused by minor, recurrent explosions in the
firebox- of a ship's boiler. Usually caused by a
shortage of air.
NAVY BOILER COMPOUN
A powdered
chemical mixture used in boile w ter treatment
PERIPHERY:
Tire curved line which forms the
boundary of a circle (circumferepte), ellipse, or
ludge.
similar figure.
NAVY SPECIAL
OIL (NSFO): The
grade of fuel oil t at the Navy uses icombatant
-
"PITOMETER LOG: "Device that indicates the
ships.
NIGHT ORDER BOOK:
A
speed -of a 'ship and the distance traveled by
ieasuring water pressure on a tube projected
noteb ok,
outside the ship's hull.
containing standing and special, instructions
from the engineer officer to the -night
.engineering officer of the watch.
PLAST-/CITY:.
deformed without breaking.
An inert...gas which will not"
support life or combustion. Used in recoil
systems-and other -spaces that require an inert
PNEUMERCATOR:
composed
primarily
A type. of manometer
used to measure the,voltime of liquid in tanks.
atmosphere.
Metals that are
of .- some element Or
That property which enables a.
material to be excessively and, perMan9tly,
NITROGEN:
NONFERROUS METAL:
,
PANT, PANTING:
base.
to convert scale- foi`tYli-ng, salts int
A petty officer who recoiv.es,
transfers, discharges, and lusts fuel. oil And
maintains fuel oil records.
t PPM (parts per million):
Comparison of the
number of .parts- of a substance' with a milli n
parts of another substance. Used to measure the
salt content of water.
elements other than iron.
J
OFFICER OF THE WATCH (00W): Officer
on duty in the engineering spaces.
PREHEATING: The application. of Mkt to the
lase metal before itis elded or cut.
183
1.89
FIREMAN
turbine, automobile engine, etc.
ROOT VALVE: A valve located where a
branch line comes off the main line.
PUNCHING TUBES: Process for cleaning ,the
interiors of boiler tubes.
ROTARY SWITCH: An electrical switch which
closes or opens the circujt by a rotating motion.
PRIME MOVER: The source of motionas a
RADIATION, HEAT:
form of heat waves.
Heat emitted
in
ROTOR: The rotating part of a turbine,
or electric motor.
the
SAE:
REACHPRoDS:#X length of pipe or back stock
stems.
used as an extension on
Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAFETY VALVE: An automatic, .quick
opening and closing valve which has a reset
REACTION TURBINE: A turbine in which the
'major part of the driving. force Is received from
the reactive force of steam as it leaves the
pressure, lower than the lift pressure.
1.
SALINITY: Relative salt content of water.
blading.
SALINOM'ETER: A hydrometer that measures
the concentration of salt in a solution.
Any coupling or fitting which
REDUCER:
imp,
mp,
connects a large opt-King to a smaller pipe or
hose.
SAi,RATION PRESSURE:
The
pressure
REDUCING VALVES:
corr sponding to the saturation tem,peratdre.
pressure.
SATURATION TEMPERATURE: Temperature
at which g liquid boils under a given
pressure. For any given saturation temperature there is a corresponding saturation pressure.
Automatic valves that
provide a steady pressure lower than the supply
REDUCTION GEAR: A set of gears that
transmit the rotation of one shaft to another
a slower speed.
provision cargo ship or a
An authorized
compartment.
refrigerated
abbreviation for refrigerator.
SCALE: Undesirable deposit, mostly calcium
sulfate, which forms in the tubes of boilers.
Various types of heat
REFRACTORY:
resistant, insulating material used to line the
insides of boiler furnaces.
given on completion of a drill or exercise. The
procedure followed when any piece of
equipment is to be shut down.
RE,FRIGERANT 12 (R-12): A, nonpoisonous
gas used in air conditioning and refrigeration
SENTINEL VALVES: Small relief valves used
primarily as a warning device.
REEFER:
A
SECURE:
systems.
To make fast or safethe order
SHAFT ALLEY:. The Pong compartment of a
instrument that
controls the flow of gases from compressed gas
ship in which the propeller shafts revolve.
cylinders.
SKETCH;
REGULATOR
(gas):
,An
A rodgh drawing indicating major
features of an object to be constructed.
Flexible
R EMOTE OPERATlivG GEAR:
cables attached to valve wheels so the,valves can
be operated from anothencompartment.
SLIDING FEET: A mounting for turbines and
boilers which allows for expansion and
contraction.
4
RISER: A verticalepipe leading off a large One.
Example: a fireman riser.
SLUDGE: The sediment left_in fuel oil tanks.
184
-
Appendix IGLOSSARY
SOLID COUPLING:
shafts rigidly.
A device that joins two
strain.
SOOT BLOWER: Soot removal device (fiat
uses a steam jet to clean the firesides of a boiler.
SPECIFIC
STRENGTH: The ability of a material to resist
HEAT:
.
STRESS: A force which produces or tends to
produce, deformation in a metal.
The amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of I pound of
STUFFING BOX'. 'A device to prevent leakage
a substance. 1°F. All substances are compared to
water which has a specific heat of I BTU /lb / °F.
engineering plair(
SPEED-LjMITING GOVERNOR:
A device
limits the rotational speed of a prime
STUFFING TUBE: A packed tube that makes
SPEED-REGULATING GOVERNOR:
A
device that maintains a constant speed on a
piece of machinery that is operating under
SUMP: A container, compartment, or- reservoir,
used as a drain or receptacle for fluids.
t
over.
varying load conditions.
between a moyitig and a fixed part in.a steam
a watertight fitting for a cable or small pipe
passing through a bulkhead.
SUPERHEATER: A unit in the boiler that drys
the steam and raises its temperature.
SPLIT ,PLANT:
A . method of °O rating
propulsion plants so that they are divided into
two or more separate and complete units.
SPRING BEARINGS: Bearings positioned at
varying intervals along a propulsion shaft-to help
keep it in alignment and to support its weight.
STANDBY, EQUIPMENT:
Two identical
auxiliaries that perform onaunction. When one
auxiliary is running, the standby is so connected
that it may be started if the first fails.
SWASH PLATES:
Metal plates in th; lower
part of the steam drum that prevent the surging
of boiler water with the motion of the ship_
_
SWITCHBOARD: A panel or group of panels,,
with automatic piotective devices that distribute
electrial power throughout the ship.
TAKE LEADS:- A method of determining
bearing clearance.
TANK TOP: Top side
,double bottom of a ship.
STATIC: A force exerted by reason of ight
alone as related to bodies at rest or in bal' ce.
oank section
or
TDC (top dead center): The position* of a
reciprocating piston at its uppermost point of
STEAMING WATCH: Watches stood when the
main engines are in use and the ship is
underway.
travel.
A device that uses low
pressure steam to remove .3,--.;°t Cluin inside
TEMPERING: -The heating and controlled
cooling of a metal to produce the desired
boiler's and to remove carbon from boiler tubes.
hardness.
STEERING ENGINE:
turns the rudder.
The machinery that
THIEF SAMPLE: A sample 'Of bfl or water
taken frornla ship's tank for analysis.
STERN TUBE: A watertight enclosure for the
THROTTLEMAN: Map in the engineroom who
STEAM LANCE:
rkerpeller
Operates the throttles to control the main
engines.
STRAIN: The deformation, or change in shape,
of a material which results from the weight of
THRUST BEARING: A bearing that limits the
end play and absorbs the axial thrust of a shaft.
the applied load.
185
FIREMAN
To use steam to remove
TO BLOW TUBES:
VOID:
decks.
soot and carbdn from the tubes of steaming
boilers.
VOLATILE: The term that describes a liquid
which vaporizes quickly.
To fill up, as a ship tops off, with
TOP OFF:
fuel oil before leaving port.
_TOUGHNESS:
The property of a
VOLTAGE TESTER:
that4etects electricity.
material
which enables it to w thstand shock as well as to
be deformed witho breaking.
TRANSFORMER:
step up or step do
Boilers in which the
water flows through the tubes an is heated by .
the gases of combustion.
An electrical device used to
an a-c voltage.
WATER WASHING: A method of cleaning the
firesides of boilers to rerve soot and carbon.
L
WELDING LEAD: The conductor through
which electrical current is transmitted from the
power sOurce to the electrode holder and
welding rod.
A tool that expands
replacement ,tubes into their seats in boiler
TUBE EXPANDER:
a.
TURBINE: A multibladed
steam or hot gas.
A portable instrument
WATER TUBE BOILER:
TRICK WHEEL: A steering wheel in the
steering engineroom or emergency steering
station of a ship.
drums and headers.
small empty compartment Itow
et.
WHELPS:
rotor driven by
Any of the ribs or ridges on the
barrel of a capstaQ or windlass.
WIPED BEARINGS: A bearing in which the
babbitt has melted because of excess heat.
TURBINE JACKING GEAR: A motor-driven
gear arrangement that slowly rotates idle
propulsion shafts and turbines.
Passageways betteen decks and
on1he overheads of co V artments that contain
WIREWAYS:
electric cables.
TURBINE STAGE: One set of nozZles and the
succeeding row or rows of moving blades.
WORK REQUEST: Request iced to naval
shipyard, tender, or repair ship for repairs.'
Large enclosed
UPTAKES (exhaust trunks):
passages for exhaust gases o rnovefromboilers
to the stacks.
ZERK FITTING: A small fitting to which a
grease gun can be applied to force lubricating
VENT: A valve in a tank or compartment that
into
machinery.
grease
primarily permits air to escape.
bearings
or
moving _parts
of
A metal placed in saltwater systems tS
counteract the effects of electrolysis.
VENTURI INJECTOR: A devic'e used to wash
the firesides of boilers.
ZINC:
tlf
\)
492
l86
s.
*44
0
APPENDIX II
TOIE METRIC SYSTEM
The metric system was developed by French
scientists in 1790 and was specifically designed
to be an easily used system of weights and
measures to benefit science, industry, and
commerce. The metric system is calculated
entirely in powers of 10, so one need not work
with the various mathematical bases used with
the English system, such as 12 inches to a foot,
3 feet to a yard, and 5280 feet to a mile.
The system is based on the "meter" which is
one ten-millionth of the distance from the
Equator to the North Pole. It is possible to
develop worldwide standards from this base df
measurement. The metric system of weights is
based on the gram, which is the weight of a
specific quantity of water.
Soon after the system was developed
scientists over the world adopted it and were
able to deal with the 'mathemaircs of their
'experiments more easily. The data and
particulars of their work could be understood by
other scientists anywhere in the world..During
the early 19th century many European nations
adopted the new system for engineering and
commerce. It was possible for these countries to
trade manufactured goods with one another
without worrying whether it would be possible
to repair machinery from another country
without also buying special wrenches and
measuring tools. Countries could buy and sell
machine tools and other sophisticated and
precision machinery without troublesome
modifications or alterations. It was much easier
to teach the metric system, since meters cjn be
changefr-tcl kilometers or centimeters with\ the
moveitent of a decimal point, which is roughly
like being able to convert yards to miles or
inches by adding zeros and a decimal instead of
With the exception of the United States,- all
the
industrialized nations of the world have
adopted the -metric system. Even England and
Canada are changing from their traditional
systems of measure, and the mptric system will
be almost universal by 1980.
Although the metric system has not been
officially legislated by the Congress, the metric
system is becoming more prominent in this
country. Most automobile mechanics own somo
metric, wrenches to work on foreign cars or
foreign components in American 'cars. Almost all
photographic equipment is built to metric
standards. Chemicals and drugs are usually sold
in metric quantities, and "calorie counters" are
using a metric unit of thermal energy.
Because we are allied with countries who use
the metric system, much of Our military
information is in, metric terms. Military maps use
meters and kilometers instead of miles, and
many weapons are in metric sizes, such as 7.62
mm, 20 mm, 40 mm, 75 mm, and 155 mm.
Interchange of military equipment has caused a
mixture of metric and English measure
equipment since World War I when the army
adopted the French 75 mm field gun, and World
War II when the Navy procured the Swedish 40
mm Bofors and the Swiss 20 mm Oerlikon heavy
machine guns.
It
is inevitable that the United States will
officially adopt the metric system. Exactly when
this happens and how rapidly the changeover
will depend on economics, since the expense of
retooling our industry and commerce to new
measurements will be very great. The cost of
conversion will be offset by increased earnings
from selling machinery and products overseas.
Another benefit is that scientists use the metric
system, but their calculations now have to be'
multiplying by 1760 or dividing by 36.
187
193
FIREMAN
The basic quantities of the Metric system are
translated into English measure to be used by
industry. With adoption of the metric system
ideas can go directly from the drawing board to
multiplied or divided by powers of 10 to give
other workable values. We cannot easily measure
machine parts in terms of a- meter, so 'the
millimeter, or one-thousandth of a meter is used.
For very fine measure thernicron, also called the
micrometur, can be used. It is one-millionth part
of a meter, or one-thousandth of a millimeter.
For small, weights the milligram, one-thousandth
the assembly line.
The Navy will be using the metric system
more during the next few yioars. Although you
will find it easier to solve problems using this
system, at first you will find it difficult to
visualize or to estimate quantities in unfamiliar
of a gram is used. All of these multiples are
expressed with standard prefixes taken from
units of measure.
Fortunately many metric units can be
related to equivalent units in the English system.
is
The meter which is the basic
approximately one-tenthltonger than a yard.
The
basic Emit
of volume, the liter,
Latin:
is
approxiMately one quart. The gram is the weight
of a cubic centimeter, or milliliter, of pure water
and is the basic unit of weight. As a common
weight
though, the kilogram, or kilo, which
I
*deco
10
*hecto
100
kilo
equals the weight of a liter of water, weighs 2,2
pounds. The cubic centimeter (cc) is used where
we would use the square inch. and where we
measure by the fluid ounce. the metric system
employs the milliliter (ml). For power measure
the metric system uses the kilowatt (kW), which
is approximately 1.3 horsepower.
,000,000
1/1,000
1/100
1/10
micro
milli
cent'
*deci
*myna
mega
I ,000
10,000
1,000,000
* Rarely used
Over the next few years the metric system
will become more used by the Navy as well as by
is
the civilian world. You will find it easy to work
eight-fifths of a kilometer and a nautical mile is
1.852 kilometers. or nearly 2 kilometer
the
A basic metric expression of pressure
4.2
kilogram per square centimeter, which is
with once you have mastered the basic terms. It
will be difficult to translat values from our
In
terms of
distance,
a
land
n
c
present system to the metric s
psi. nearly I atmosphere of pressure.
simultaneously with both systems. The table
inch, and one-inch wrenches will fit many of the
bolts. These sizes correspond to 13 mm, 19 mm,
and 2 mm respectively in the metric system,
they are
use
very popular
and are
The
I af
wrench, which is standar
intended to fit a 20 mm n
e the new
Tables of equivaleriT English measure and
metric equivalents are essential when you work
When working on foreign machinery, you
may notice that your-half-inch, three-quarter
interchangeable.
m, but this
operation will become unpecessary o
measurements are totally adopted.
which follows shows the equivalent measures of
the two systems. The columns on the left have
the equivalent values which are accurate enough
for most work. and on the right are the
multiples used to convert the values with a high
'degree of accuracy.
nch spark plug
this country, is
194
188
,
/e
Appendix IITHE METRIC SYSTEM
THESE PREFIXES MAY BE APPLIED
TO ALL SI UNITS
Vittipla sad SmbewItip Iss
Prefize3
1 000 000 000 000 = 10"
1 000 000 000 = 10'
1 000 000 = 10'
i 000 = 10'
100 =
101
10= 10
0.1 = 10-'
0.01 = 104
0.001 = 10-'
0.000 001 = 104
tera (WO
T
giga (Pgif)
G
mega (megler)
M
kilo (kill)
k
hecto (helet6)
h
deka (deed)
da
deci (des%
d
centi (seta)
milli (mill)
micro (mi'krii)
c
0.000 000 001 = 10 nano (nan16)
0.000 000 000001, = 1041 pico (pesk6)
0.000 000 000 000 001
10-" femto (fernsto)
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 104' atto (ert6)
Most commonly mut
195
189
Symbols
m
AL
n
p
f
a
FIREMAN
e
Multiply
4,041
Acres
10
Acres
Acres
43,560
Square Feet
Feet per Minute
0 01136
Meters,
Miles per Hour
0 5921
Knots
.
Feet per Second
Feet per Second
Square Feet
Furlongs
10
Square Yards
Furlongs
660
3.281
Bushels
Furlongs
40
Rods
4.21
Cubic Feet
Gallons
Furlongs
220
Yards
Ares
1,076
119.6
Square lel
1.196
Square yards
Gallons (U.S.?
0 03115
Centimeters
0 3931
Inches
Cubic Centim'eters
0 06102
Cubic Inches
Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons (U.S.)
3,185.4
0 13368
31.5
-
144
Cubic inches
120
Fathoms
120
Feet
240
Yards
10.16
Chains
66
Feet
Chains
100
Links
Chains
Cubic Feet
Rods
4
Cubic Inches
1,128
Cubic Feet
Cubic Feet
0 02832
Cubic Feet
Cubic Feet
6.229
Cubic Meters
Cubic Yards
0 03104
,
Grams
Gallons (U.S.)
Grams
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
28.316
Liters
Grams
16.39
Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Meters
35,S.1
1.481
(:),e-grees
Fathoms
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
0 1605
211.214
1.2009
Gallons (U.S.)
4.546
4
Liters
Quarts (British)
Barrels (hold,
U.S.)
Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
231
Gallons (British)
Liters
Quarts IU.S.)
0 8327
3.185
4
Grains
Kilograms
Milligrams
Ounces (ayon
0 001
1,000
0.035,2?
dupois)
Centimeters
10.16
Hands
Cubic Feet
Gallons (British)
Hands
4
Inches
Gallons (U.S.)
Hectares
2.471
Acres
Liters
Hectares
Cubic Yards
Cubic Feet
21
Cubic Meters
0 1646
0 01145
0.00833
r
__.DZees
(C.)
ti
Fathoms
1.8288
100
Hogsheads
2
Hogsheads (U.6.)
63
Hundredweights
0 508
Inches
Rad)ons
Cable Lengths (U.
S.)
Fathoms
26.411
t
Gallons (U.S.)
Liters
Barrels (Liquid,
U.S.)
Degrees (F.)
1.8
Cubic Meters
01
Liters
164.6
0 5556
..
Ares
100
Hectoliters
Hectoliters
Hectoliters
Cubic Feet
L308
,
.
Feet
..
Points
6
Picas
Inches
6
Ems
Inches
12
2.54
196
O
190
Gallons (U.S.)
Quintals (metric)
Inches
Inches
Meters
12
..
Cubic Centimeters
4,546.1
0 003606
401639
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards
Degrees (C.)+ 11.8
Degrees (F.) -32
Feet
0 0005181
0 004329
Cubic Meters
Cubic Yards
Chains
15.43
Grams
Gallons (British)
Miles per Hour
0.6818
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)
Centares
Meters per Minute
18.288
Centares
100
Centares
1
Fathoms
0.3048
Feet per Second
Ares
Barrels (U.S., dry)
Barrels (U.S., liquid)
Barrels (U.S., liquid)
Board Feet (1' x 1' x 1')
Cable lengths (U.S.)
Cable lengths (U.S.)
Cable lengths (U.S.)
0 1661
Feet
Acres
0 02411
Ares
Feet
Square Yards
1,840
Ares
-
Centimeters
. 30.48
Square chains
Centares
Acres
To Obtain
By
Feet
Ares
40.41
Acres
Multiply
To Obtain
By
Ens
Centimeters
9
Appendix II THE METRIC SYSTEM
Multip ly
By
Inches
0.0833
Inches
1,000
Inches
Inches of Mercury
Kilograms
,
Kiloliters
Kiloliters
Kiloliters
Kiloliters
0.49131
Pounds per Square Inch
Grams
2.2046
Pounds (Avoirdupois)
.1 /
Cubic Meters
1.300
Cubic Yards
Gallons (U.S.)
1,000
4.557
Kilometers
3,280.8
Kilometers
Kilometers
,
Kilometers
Kilometers
1,000
Meters
Knots
1.1516
Knots
,1.688
Leagues, frautical
Leagues, Nautical
Le ues, Nautical
25.33
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Statute
Miles, Statute
Miles, Statute
Miles, Statute
Miles, Statute
Miles, Statute
Miles, Statute
Miles, Nautical
Miles, Statute
Yards
Statute Miles per
How
Feet per Second
4.8280
Leagues, Statute
3
Miles, Statute ,
Myriameters
7.92
Inches
Ounces (avoirdupois)
Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Inches
Pint (Liquid, U.S.)
Pint (Liquid, Br.)
Pint (Liquid, Br.)
Pint (Liquid, U.S.)
Links
Liters
Liters
Liters
,Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters
1,000
61.025
0.908
Gallons (British)
Gallons (U.S.)
Quarts (British)
Quarts (U.S.,dry)
1.0567
Quarts (1-00.
0.21998
0.26418.
,
0.8799
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
100
0.001
Centimeters
Kilometers'
1.0936
Yards
3.281
39.37
1,000
Millier (See Tons Metric)
Milliradians
5 1,853.2
Pounds (avoirdupois)
Pounds (avoirdupois)
Pounds (avoirdupois)
Pounds (avoirdupois)
Pounds (avoirdupois)
Pounds (troy)
1
1.0936
Yallit'.
Feet per Second
Meters per Second
2.237
Microns
0.001
Miles, Nautical
8.44
Miles per Hour
Millimeters
Cable Lengths
Fe Si per Minute
Off
Feet per Second
1.467
0.8684
Knots
7.33
Cable Lengths
Feet
5,280
68
48
63,360
1.6093
1,609.3
0.8689
1,760
Furlongs
Inches
Kilometers
.
Meters
Miles, Nautical
Yards.
,
206.265
0.001
10
28.3495
Seconds of Arc
Inches
Kilometers
Grams
4
Gills (U.S.)
4
Gills (British)
0.56825
Liters
Liters
0.4732
7,000
Grains
453.59
Grams
0.4536
16
1.2153
0.8229
Kilograms
.
Ounces
Pounds (troy)
sounds (avoir-
Pounds per Square Inch
2.03537
Inches of
Quart (British)
Quart (British)
Quart (Liquid, U.S.)
1.1365
2
Quart (U.S.)
2
Liters
Pints (British)
Liters
Pints (U.S.)
1.97
Hundredweights
Mercury
Millimeters
0.0541
Ys
2,026.8
Inches
Meters per Minute
Miles, Statute
Minutes.of
dupois)
Feet
Meters
Kilometers
Meters
1.1508
Mils
U.S.)
Meters
Inches
1.8532
(Statute)
Miles per How
Miles, Statute
Leagues, Statute
3
To Obtain
Feet
72,363
(Statute)
Miles per How
Cable Lengths
Kilometers
Miles, Nautical
Kilometers
5.5597
By
6,016.1
Latitude
Miles, Nautical
Miles per Hour
Liters
Inches
0.62137
1,093.6
.
Cable Lengths
.Feet
39,370
0.5396
Kilometers
Mils
Yards
264.18
Kilometers
Multiply
0.0277
1,000
Kilograms
To Obtain
Feet
Quintals (Metric)
Quintals (Metric)
0.9463
100
Kilograms
197
191
1 'N.
FIREMAN
)
Multiply
To Obtain
By
Multiply
To Obtain
By
Radians
57.30
Degrees
Square Miles, Statute
Rods
16:3
Feet
Square Miles, Statute
Rods
25
Links
Square Yards
Square Inches
Square Yards
9
Centares
Square Yards
1,296
Square Feet
0.b929
929
Square Centimeters
Square Feet
144 s
Square Inch -.J
Tpns (Long),
Tons (Long)
2,240
Tons (Metric)
1,000
Metric Tons
Pounds (Avoirdupois)
Kilograms
2,204.6
PdAls (Avoir-
0 9072
2,000
dupois)
Metric Tons
Pounds (Avoirdupois)
Square Centimeters
1;1550
Square Feet
Square Feet
0.1111
Square Yards
Square Inches
6.452
Square Centimeters
Square Inches
0.006944
Square Feet
Square Kilometers
Square Kilometers
.
100
0.3861
.
2.59
'-0.8362
1.016
Hectares
,Tons (Metric)
Square Miles
(Whe)
Tons (Short)
Square Meters (See
Tons (Short)
Cen tares)
640
Square Miles, Statute
25,900
r
Square Kilometers
Centares
Square Feet
Square Inches
(Millier)
(Statute)
Square Miles, Statute
Hectares
259
Acres
Yards
Ares
Yards
91.44
0.9144
Centimeters
Meters
O
198
192
lr
INDEX
A
elassification.of boilers, 62-65
, furnace arrangement, 65
location of fire and water spaces, 62
type of superheater, 65
types of circulation, 64
Cold-iron watch, 172
Combustion, 28
A-c generators, 144-146
Advancement, preparing for, 1-4
Advancement rewards, 4
Air compressors, 94
Air conditioning equipment, 89
Air registers, 62
Anchor windlass and capstan, 92
Appendix I, glossary, 177-186
Appendix II, metric system, 187-192
Assembly, boiler, 56-60
Atomizers, 60
Auxiliary machinery and equipment, 88-99
Auxiliary steam cycle, 53-55
Condensatiorerb
Constant-pressuiRiump governors,. 125-128
Converting power to drive, 38*
clutches and reverse gears, 44r-46
reduction gears, 39-41
Cranes, 95
D
D-c generators and exciters, 144
Damage control assistant, 8
Diaphragm gages, 103
Diesel-driven generators, 146
Diesel electric drive, 35
Diesel engine drive, 36-38
Diesel engines, 158-165
air sOtem, 160
'cooling system, 163
fuel system, 161
lubrication system, 162
power system, 159
starting systems, 164
valve mechanism, 160
Diesel-powered boat operation,, 69
Distant-reading dial thermometer, 104
Distilling plants, 90
B
Basic steam cycles, 48-55
Batteries, 151
Battle lanterns, 151-153
Bellows gages, 103,
Bimetallic dial thermometers, 104
Blowerman, 173
Boiler assembly, 56-60
Boiler technician (BT), 12
Boilermaker (BR), 13
Boilers, '6-71
Boilers, classification of, 62-65
Boilers, new high-pressze, 68-70
Bourdon tube gages, 100-103
.Burnerman, 173
Burners, fuel oil, 60-62
E
C
Electric motors, 150
motor controllers, 151
d-c and a-c motors, 1
Capstan and anchor windlr 92
Checkman, 173
193
199
o.
1
FIREMAN
Electrical equipment, shipboard, 143-155
Electrical officer, 8
Electrical safety precautions, 154
Electrician's Mate (EM), 13-15
Electricity introduction, 143
electric current, 143
electromotive force, 143
resistance, 144
watt, 144
Elevators, 96-98
Energy, 18
Engineer officer, 5
Enginernan (EN), 11
Equipment, portable, 151-153
Evaporator watch, 175
Expansion, 49-51
Engineering department, 5-16
Engineering department organization, 5-10
Engineering department ratings, 10-16
boilermaker (BR), 13
boiler technician k BT), 12
electrician's mate (EM), 13-15
engineman (EN), 11
hull maintenance technician (HT), 15
interior communications eleetrician (IC), 15
machinery repairman (MR), 12
machinist's mate (MM), 10
molder (ML), 15
patternmaker (PM), 15
Engineering funda entals, 17-30
Engineering instrum nfttl 12-115
engiiie order tel aph, 114
lube oil pressure alarm, 114
salinity indicator, 113
smoke indicator, 113
steam flow indicator, 112
superheater temperature alarms, 112
Engineering watches0171-176
Gage glasses, 106
Galley equipment, 99
Gas-free engineer, 9
Gas turbine engines, 166 -169
comparison of gas turbines and
reciprocating engines, 167
components of gas turbine engines, 168
Gaskets and packing, 137
Gasoline engines, 165
(;eared- turbine drive, 31-33
Generation, 49
Generator and distribution switchboards, 148
Generator types and drives, 144-147
a-c generators, 144-146
d-c generators and exciters, 144
diesel-driven generators, 146
ship's service turbine-driven generators, 146
.
Glossary, appendix I, 177-186
H
High-pressure boilers, new, 68-70
Hull maintenance technician (HT), 15
Hydraulics principles, 22-24
Information sources, 3
Instruments, 100-115
Interior communications electrician (IC), 15
Internal combustion engines, 156-170
L
Laundry equipment, 99
Lighting distribution systems, 154
Liquid lei/el indicators, 106
F
Feed, 51-53
Fire marshal, 9
Fireman rate, 1-3
Fireroom safety precautions, 70
J
Fluid meters, 107-109
Force, 17
Fuel oil burners, 60-62
air registers, 62
atomizers, 60
Furnace arrangement, 65
gage glasses, 106
tank gaging system, 106
Liquid-in-glass thermometers, 104-106
200
194.
bimetallic dial thermometers, 104
distant reading dial thermometers, 104
pyrometers, 105,
Lovvei level watches, 174
lube oil pump, 174
main .c)ndensate pump, 175
main feed pump, 174
-0,,
INDEX
Lube oil pressure alarm, 114
Lube oil purifiers, 93
Lubrication, 84-87
P
Packing and gaskets, 137
Patternmaker (PM), 15
Physics, 17-29
combustion, 28
energy, 18
force, 17
laws of gases, 19
mass, weight, and inertia, 17
power, 19
pressure and vacuum, ;0-22
principles of hydraulics, 22-24
principles of pneumatics, 24-27
,...speed, velocity, and acceleration, 17
steam, 29
temperature, 27
work, 18
;),
M
MachineryV equipment, auxiliary, 88-99
Fl
Machinery repairman (MR), 12
Machinist's mate (MM), 10
Main propulsion assistant, 7
Main propulsion, double-reduction gearing,
81-83
Main steam cycle, 49-53
condensatiog, 51
expansion, 49-51
feed, 51-53
generation, 49
Manometers, 103
Messenger of the watch, 171
Metals, 29
Meters, fluid, 107-109
Metric system, appendix II, 187-192
Molder (ML), 15
Piping, 134-137
pipe fittings, 136 piping definitions, 134-136
piping materials, 136
Pneumatics principles, 24-27
Portable equipment, 151-153
battle lanterns, 151-153
portable extension lights, 153
portable tools, 153
sealed beam lights, 153
N
NBC defense officer, 8
Naval boilers, other, 65-68
New high-pressure boilk,rs, 68-70
Power distribution systems, 15e
Preparing for advancement, 1-4
0
Operation of small boat engines, 169
diesel powered boat operation, 169
gasoline engine operation, 170
Organization of engineering department, 5-10
damage control assistant, 8
department administrative assistant, 6
department fra.ining officer, 7.
division officeri, 9
electrical officer, 8
engineer officer, 5
enlisted personnel, 9
fire marshal, 9
gas-free engineer, 9
main propulsion assistant, 7
NBC defense officer, 8
technical assistants, 9
Pressure gages, 100-10V
bellows gages, 163
Bourdon tube gages, 100-103
diaphragm gages, 103
manometers, 1()3
.s?
}Principles of ship propulsion, 31
Propeller, 46
Propulsion, ship, 31-47
Propulsion units, typical, 31-38
Pump governors, constant-pressure, 125-128
Pumps, 116-125
centrifugal, 122
jet0124
propeller, 123
4. reciprocating, 117-121
rotary, 121
Pyrometers, 1105
195
201
FIREMAN
R
T.
Ratings, engineering department, 10-16
Reciprocating engines, 156-158
ignition principles, 156
operating cycle, 156-158
Reduction gears, 39-41, 81-87
lubrication, 84-87
main propulsion, double-reduction
gearing, 81-83
reduction gear construction, 83
Refrigeration equipment, 88
Resistance, 144
Reverse gears and clutches, 41-46
Revolution counters and indicators, -109-112
Tank gaging system, 106
Thermometers, liquid-in-glass, 104-106
Thermometers and pyrometers. 103
Throttle watch, 173
Turbines, 72-81
classification of turbines, 72-77
construction of turbines, 77-81
Turboelectric drive, 33-35
Typical propulsion units, 31-38
diesel electric drive, 35 ,
diesel ehgine drive, 36-38
geared-turbine drive, 31-33
turboelectric drive, 33-35
S
Safety precautions, electrica1,154
Safety precautions, fireroom, 70
Salinity indicator, 113
Sealed beam lights, 153
Shaft alley watch, 175
Ship propulsion, 31-47
Ship propulsion principles, 31
Shipboard electrical equipment, 143-155
Shipboard electrical systems and connections,
Upper level watch, 175
V
Vacuum and pressure, 20-22
Valves, 128-134
check, 130
reducing, 133
relief, 132
safety, 134
stop, 128-130
stop-check, 131
153
lighting distribution systems, 154
power distribution systems, 154
shore power connections, 154
Ship's service turbine-driven generators, 146
Small boat engines, operation of, 169
Smoke indicator, 113
Sounding and security watch, 171
soundings, 172
Steam, 29
Steam cycles, basic, 48-55
Steam flow indicator, 112
Steam traps and drains, 140-142
Steam turbines and reduction gears, 72-87
throttle, 132
Watch, 171-175 '4
cold-iron, 172
evaporate, 175
lower level, 174
messenger, 171
shaft alley, 175
Steering gears, 91
Strainers, 137-140
throttle, 173
Superheater temperature alarms, 112
Superheater, type of, 65
Switchboards, 147-150
components of a switchboard, 148-150
generator and distribution switchboards,'
upper level, 175
Watch messenger, 171
Watches,engineering, 171-176
Watt, 144
Winches, 98
14
196
2O2
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS
Firemen,(FN) train for one of the general or, service ratings of Engineering and Hull Group VII.
Firemen stand messenger, cold iron, and fire watches; clean engineering spaces and eq3ipment;
make minor repairs to engineering equipment; record readings of gages; participate in general
drills; and perform general detail duties.
40(
The observance of proper safety precautions in all areas is an integral part of each billet and the
, responsibility of every Navy man and woman: therefore, it is a universal requirement for all ratings.
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS
ei
Covered
in
25 NAVAL ORIENTATION AND ORGANIZATION
25251
Identify organizational structure of the engineering department
Assignment
1
28 TECHNICAL DRAWINGS
28286
Read a three-view working drawing
28287
Use damage-control drawings to locate principal valves in main
steamline
.4
1,4,5
30 MECHANICAL MAINTJOPERA -AUX EQUIPMENT
30609
Locate refrigeration equipment, anchor windlasses, distilling
plants, compressors, steering engines, cranes, elevators, winches,
and the following pumps: fuel oil service, fuel oil transfer, fire
r and flushing, fire and bilge, main lubricating oil, fresh water,,
condensate, main circulating, main feed,'main feed booster, acrd
emergency feed pump
4,5
30610
Operate centrifugal and reciprocating pumps using checkoff
sheet
4,5
30611
_
Define functions of the folloWing auxiliary equipment: air
compressors, distilling plants, refrigeratiaplants, fuel oil
heaters, lube oil coolers, main and auxiliary condensers, air
ejector condenser assembly, a.c. and d.c. generators and motors,
and pumps
4,5
.
197
203
ft
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS
Covered
. in
'Assignment
-
31 MECHANICAL MAINT/OP,ERA-PROPULSION
0
31376
Read fuel, water, oil, air and steam'gages, indicators, and
thermometers
31377
Identify basic types and component parts of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Naval boilers
Steam turbines
Reduction gears
Propeller and shafting
Shipboard electrical systems
Internal combustion engines
-31378
Define functions of valves found in engineering systems
31379
Pealikm functions of boat engineer_
.31380
31381
)
31382
1
Replace gaskets and repack valves in law pjessure steam and
water piping systems
\
Perform minor ejgine maintenance
31383
Define principles of maiTand auxiliary steam cycles
31384
Define basic principles of:
A. Mass, weight, and inertia
C.
D.
E.
F.
,\
Pressure and vacuum
Hydraulics And pneumatics
Combustion, heat, and temperature
Recognize common engineering terms and nomenclature
31386
Assist in perfornfance ormaintenance.using maintenance,
requirement cards (MRC)
Use weekly 3-guschedule to determine maintenance assignments
38 ADMINISTRATION
1
38001
File- shlip's blueprints
204
198
1,4,5
2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
Force energy, and power
,.velocity, and acceleration
31385
'31387
c.
,6
.
Trace path of main steam from boiler to engine and back to
boiler, naming eitial fittings, piping, and main machinery
through which it
B.
5,
.
,
OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS
Covered
in
Assignment
42 GENERAL WATCHSTANDING
422421
4243
Stand following engineering watches:
A.
Fire watch
B.
Messengerc:'
C.
D.
Cold iron
Sounding and security watch
f
6
6
6
6
in required records at watch station
Mai
94 MECH i ICAL MAINTENANCE
94368
Use and maintain handtools
94369
Use lubricating oils and greises
4r
3
'
Jo'
I
205
199
ff
FIREMANI
.
NAVEDTRA 10520-E
Prepared bythe Naval Education and Training Program Development
Center,_ Pensacola, Florida
4
Your NRCC contains A set of assignments and self-scoring answer sheets
(packaged separately). Tt)e Mate Training
Manual"Fireman, NAVEDTRA 10520-E, is
your textbook for the NRCC.
If an errata
sheet comes with the NRCC, ma e all indicated changes or correttions..
not
change or correct the textboolc
ssigniments in any other way.
higher. If you are on active duty, the
averageof your grades in all assignments must be at least 3.2. If you are
NOT on active duty, the average of your
grades in all assignments of each
creditaable unit must be at least 3.2.
The unit breakdown of the course, if
any, is shown later under Naval Reserve
Retirement Credit.
WHEN YOUR.COURSE IS ADMINISTERED
BY LOCAL COMMAND
HOWTOCOMPLETETHIS COURSE SUCCESSFULLY
Stud
e textbobk pages given at
As soon as you have finished an
the begi nin of each assignment before
assignment, submit the completed selftrying o an wer the items. Pay attention
scoring answer sheet to the officer
to tabte an
ustrations as they
designated to administer it. He will
contain a lot of information. Making your % chock the accuracy of your score and
own drawings can help you understand the
discuss with you the items that you do
subject matter. Also, read the .learneng
not understand. )(Cod may wish to record
objectives that precede the sets of items
your score on the assignment itself since
The learning objectives and items are
the self-scoring answer sheet is not
based on the subject matter or study
returned.
material in the textbook. The objectives
tell you what you should be able to do
If you are completing this NRCC to
by studying assigned textual material
become eligible to take the fleetwide
and answering the items.
advaricement examination, follow a
7"
schedule that.will.,enable you to complete
At this point you should be ready
all assignments in time. Your schedule
4
to answer the items in" the assignment.
Should( call for the completion of at
Read each item carefully.aSelect the
least bne assignment per month.
BEST ANSWER for each item, consulting
your textbook when necessary. Be sure
Although you complete the course
to select the BEST ANSWER from the
successfully, the Naval Education and
subject matter in the textbook. You may
Training Program Development Center will
discuss difficult points in the course
not issue you a letter of satisfactory
,with others. However, the answer you
completion. Your command will make a note.
select must be your own. Use only the
in your service record, giving you credit
self- scoring answer sheet designated
for your work.
for your assignment. Follow the scoring
directions given on dhe answer sheet
WHEN YOUR COURSE IS ADMINISTERED
itself and elsewhere in this course.
BY THE NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAPIING
.
.
Your NRCC will be administered by
your command or, in the case of small
commands, by the Naval Education and
'Training Program Development Center.
No matter who administers your course
you can complete it successfully by
earning gradeS that average 3.2 or
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT CENTER
After finishing an assignment, go
on to the next. Retain each completed
self-scoring answer sheet until you
finish all the assignments in a unit (or
in the course if it is not divided into
units). Using the envelopes provided,
206
mail your aelf-ocoreki answer oheetOtO the
Naval Education and Training Program
Development Center where the scores will
be verified and recorded. Make oure all
blanks at the top of each answer sheet
are filled in. Unless you furnish all the
information required, it will be
impossible to give you c edit for your
work. You may wish to rec rd your scores
on the assignments since
e oelf-ocoring
answer oheetn are not returned.
The Naval Education and Training
Program Development Center will issue a
letter of satisfactory completion to
certify successful completion of the
course (or a creditable unit of the
course). To receive a course-completion
letter, follow the directions given of
the course-completion form in the back
of this NRCC.
NAVAL RESERVE RETIREMENT CREDIT
This course is evalUated at 10NaVal
Reserve retirement points. These points
are creditable to personnel eligible to
receive them under current directives
governing retirement of Naval Reserve
personnel.
Points will be credited upon
satisfactory completion of the entire
course.
4
You may keep the textbook and
assignments for this course. Return them
only in the event you disenroll from the
course or otherwise fail
complete the
course. Directions for re urning the
textbook and assignments are given on the
book-return form in the back of this
NRCC.
PREPARING FOR YOUR ADVANCEMENT
EXAMINATION
ODURSE 011IECTIVE
When you complete this course, you
will halt abroad concept of how the
engineering plant works from the beginning
of the steam.cycle in the fireroom through
the engineroom and return to the fireroom.
You will have a general knowledge of the
piping and auxiliary systems needed to
operate a steam plant.
You will have a
broad view of the electrical distribution system, damage control, and small'
boats.
You will have been introduced
Your examination for advancement is
based on the Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel Classification and
Occupational Standards (NAVPERS 18068-D).
to the engineering'Iplant organization
The sources of questions in this examinetion,.are given in the Bibliography for Ad- and the types of watches stood by
engineering personnel.
vancement Study (NAVEDTRA 10052). Since
your NRCC and textbook are among the
sources listed in this bibliography, be
sure to study both in preparing to take
your advancement examination. The standards for your rating may have changed
since your course and textbook were
printed, so refer to the latest editions
of NAVPERS 18068-D and NAVEDTRA 10052.
While working on this nonresident
career course, you may refer freely to
the text.
You may seek advice and instruction from others on problems arising in
the course, but the solutions submitted
must be the result of your own work and -.
decisions. You are prohibited from referring to or copying the solutions of
others, or giving completed solutions to
anyone else taking the same course.
207
ii
4
.
Naval nonresident career courses may include a variety of items
multiple-choice;lue-falSet
matching, etc.
The items are not grouped by type; regardless of type, they are presented in the same
general sequence as be textbook material upon which they are based.
This presentation is designed
to preserve continuity of thought, permitting step-by-step development of ideas. Some courses use
many types of items, others only a few. The student c4n readily identify the type of each item (and
the action required of him) through inspection of the SampIes given below.
MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS
Each item contains several alternatives, one of which provides the best answer to the item..
Select the best alternative and erase the appropriate
x on the answer sheet.
SAMPLE
s-1. The first person to be appointed Secretary of Clefense
under the National Security Act of 1947 was
1. George Marshall
2. James Forrestal
3. Chester Nimitz
4. William Halsey
The erasure of a correct answer is indicated in this way on the dhswer sheet:
s-i
°II
I
I
TRUE-FALSE ITEMS
Determine if the statement is true or false.
If any part of the statement is false the statement is to be considered false.
Erase the appropriate box on the answer sheet as indicated below.
SAMPLE
s-2. Any naval officer is authorized to correspon
officially with a bureau of the Navy Department
without his commanding officer's endorsement.
The erasure of a correct answer is also
indicated in this way on the answer
sheet:
2
L_
MATCHING ITEMS
IS -2
CC
Each set of items consists of two columns, each listing words, phrases or sentences.
The task
is to select the item in column B which is the best match for the item in column A that is being
considered.
Specific instructions are given with each set of items. Select the numbers identifying
the answers and erase the appropriate boxes on the answer sheet.
SAMPLE
In items s-3 through s-6, match the name (7-IFi shipboard officer in column A by selecting from
column B the name of theNepartment in which the officer functions.
A. Officers
B. Departments
s-3. Damage Control Assistant
1. Operations Department
s-4. CIC Officer
2. Engineering Department
The erasure of a correct answer is indicated in this way on the answer sheet:
s-5. Assistant for Disbursing * 3. Supply Department
s-6. Communications Officer
How To Score Your Immediate Knowledge of Results (IKOR) Answer Sheets
T
F
9
9
C
12
Total the number of incorrect erasures (those
that show page numbers)
for each item and place
in the blank space at
the end of each item.
Sample only
Number of boxes
erased incorrectly 0-2
Your score
4.0
3-7
151)
Now TOTAL the column(W6f incorrect erasures and find your score in the Table at the
bottom of EACH answer sheet.
NOTICE:
If, on erasing, a page numbe,r appears, review text (staFting on that page) and
erase again
until "C", "CC", or "CCC" appears.
For courses administered by the Center, the mdximum
number of points (or incorrect erasures) will be deducted from each item which does NOT have
a "C", "CC", or "CCC" uncovered (i.e., 3 pts. for four choice items, 2 pts. for three choice
items, and -1 pt. for T/F ieema).
iii
208
lo
Assignment 1
Preparing for AdvanceneVIssAngineering Department and Enghaporing Fundamental°
Textbook Asaignment:
Chapter° 1, 2, and 3
In this couroo you will demonotrato that learning hao taken place by correctly anowering teaching item°.
Tho mere phyoical act of indicating a choice on an answer ohoot io not in itself important; it io the pentrq achievement, in whatever form it may take, prior to the physical not that io
important and toward which nonreoident career couroe learning objectives are directed. The °election
of the correct choice for a nonreoident career course teaching item indicate° that you have ful-
filled, at leant in part, the nted objective(n).
Tho accomplishment of certain objective°, for example, a Alynical act ouch ao drafting a memo,
cannot readily bo determined by means of objective typo nonresident career course items; however, you
can demonotrate by means of anowero to teaching items that you have acquired the requiaite knowledge
to perform the phyoical act. The accomplishment of certain other learning objeotivea, for example,
the mental. act° of comparing, recognizing, evaluating, ohooping, selecting, etc., may be readily
domonotrated
a nonresident career courne by indicating the correct answers to teaching items.
The com re enoive objective for thia oourae has already been given.
It atatea the purpose of
the oourae
terms of what you will be able to do ac you complete the oourae.
The de iled objectives in each aaaignment state what
you ahould accomplish aa you progress
through the course. They may appear aingly or in clusters of olooely related
objectives, aa
appropriate; they are followed by items which will enable you to indicate your accomplishment.
All objectives in this course are learning objectives and items are teaching items.
Thry point
out important thinga, they assist in learning, and they should enable tyou to do a Letter JA for
the Navy.
This aelf-atudy course is only one part of the total Navy training program; by .1.3 very aature
it can take you only part of the way to a training goal. Practical experience, achools, selected
reading, and the desire to accompliah are also neceasary to round out a fully meaningful training
program.
1-3.
Learning Objective:
Recognize the general duties of a Fireman and identify
the bagic military and professional
requirements for advancement.
Textbook
pages 1 through 4.
The petty officers you assist aboard ship
will give you opportunities to perform
tasks on your°own before showing yol.ektow
to do them.
1-4.
The knowledge factors of a professional or
a military requirement for advancement are
subdivisions of the requirement that specify
the
1.
1-tl.
1-2.
A Fireman trains for what group of ratings?
1.
Ordnance
2.
Operations
3.
Supply
4.
Engineering
2.
3.
4.
Aboard ship, the tasks performed by a
Fireman include standing security and
fire watches in the engineering spaces
and serving as messenger for damage
control repair parties.
mental skills one must have to
perform the duties of the rating
physicalskills one must have to
perform the duties of the rating
performance tests one must pass
physical skill tests one must pass
1-57 The qualification standards for advancement in rating listed in the Manual of
Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel
Classifications and Occupational Standards
are the
1.
maximum requirements
2.
average requirements
3.
minimum requirements
4.
suggested, but not necessary requirements
1
209
1-6.
Which.of the following publications [Mould
you consult to find the military and profoot:lona' requirements for advancement?
1.
NAVSEA Journal
2.
Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower and
Personnel Classifications and Occupational Standards
3.
List of Training Manuals and Correspondence Courses
4.
Basic Military Requirements
1-12.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
administrative and operational
functions of the engineering department and the eleven Group VII ratings.
Textbook pages 4 through 16.
'
1-7.
1-8.
Before you can take the examination for
advancement, there must be en entry in
your service record to prove that you have
qualified in the
1.
professional qual orations
2.
knowle ge factors
3.
military qualifica ons
4.
practical factors
1-9.
1-10.
1-11.
-
1-13.
Men assigned to the engineering department
will probably be called upon to repair
which shipboard equipment?
1.
Computers
2.
Electric motora
3.
Fire control radar sets
4.
Loran gear
1-14.
Assists is to the engineer officer
Upon being transferred another duty
station, you should make sure that your
NAVEDTRA 1414/1 is
1.
among your personal papers
2.
retained by your division officer
3.
destroyed and a new one started at
your new duty station
in your-rarvice record
Which of the following publications will
be useful to you when you study for
advancement in rating?
1.
Tools and Their Uses
2.
Blueprint Reading and Sketching
3.
Rate Training Manual
4.
All of the above
inc lud
1.
The final requirement that must be met
before you are eligible to take the
examination for advancement is 'the
1.
required length of service in pay grade
2.
satisfactory completion of the practical factors for the next higher rate
3.
completion of training manuals for the
next higher rate
4.
recommendation by your commanding
officer
A recommended publication for finding
titlesof reference materials to help
you prepare for your servicewide examination is the latest-revision of
1.
Bibliography for Advancement Study
2.
NAVSHIPS Technical Manual
3.
Manual of Qualifications for Advancement in Rating
4.
Military Requirements for Petty
Officer 3 and 2
cP
3.
4.
da ge control assistant, repair
officer, and electronics officer
electrical officer, main propulsion
assistant,sand damage control,
assistant
main propulsion assistant, C division
officer, and electricalOofficer
damage control assistant, operations
officer, and the main propulsion
assistant
1-15.
The duties and responsibilities of the
engineer officer are established by
1.
the Chief of Naval Personnel
2.
the commanding officer
3.
the Naval Ship Engineers
enter/
4.
U.S. Navy Regulatiorlf
1-16
Who aids the engineer officer by screening
all his incoming mail and controlling the
issuance of directives which he has
released?
1.
Engineering department administrative
assistant
2.
Leading Yeoman assigned to the
engineering department
3.
Leading Yeoman assigned to,the ship's
.
How will you rqpognize the training
manuals in the Bibliography for Advancement Study that you must complete 'to
come eligible to take an examination
fo
vancement?
1.
They are listed by title in especial
column under your rating
2.
Their titles are each marked with a
dagger
3: They are listed by title ''in a,"mandatory completion" column
4.
Their titles are marked with
asterisk
2.
Lally
the
2,;.0
office
4.
A technical assistant assigned to the
engineering department
,
1-17.
In a typical organization of a large
nhip's engineering department, the main
propulsion assistant, the damage control
assistant, and the electrical officer are
responsible to the
1.
gas-free engineer
2.
engineer officer
3.
engineering division officer
4.
NBC defence officer
1-18
Which of the following are duties of the
engineering department training officer?
1.
Observing instructions given at drills,
on watch, and on station
2.
Supervising the preparation of training materials
3.
Routing information about available
service schooling
4.
All of the above
1-22.
Tate training of personnel to fight firms
oard nhclip is administered by the'
1.
ship's training officer
2.
damage control assistant
3.
adminintrative.annistant to the
engineer officer
4.
B division leading petty officer
In items 1-23 through 1-27, select the division
of the shipboard engineering department from
column B that is responsible for the tusk given
in column A.
A.
Tasks
1-23.
Operating air compressors
1-24.
Preserving watertight
integrity
1
1-19.
Which of the following responsibilities
belongs to the'main propulsion assistant?
1.
Preparing the Engineering Log and Bell
Book
2.
Supervising the engineering department
yeoman
''N\L Training ship's personnel' in emergency
repair work
4.
Maintaining the ship's power and
lighting systems
1-20.
1-21.
4
The duty station of a Fireman assigned to
the M division of a ship is probably
located in one of the
1.
enginerooms
2.
firerooms
3.
repair shops
4.
auxiliary spaces'
Maintaining firefighting
equipment
B.
Divisions
1.
R division
2.
A division
3.
E division
4.
M division
1-26.
Maintaining gyrocompasses
1-27.
Operating steam-driven
turbogenerators
1-28.
A fireman assigned to E division may be
expected to work in which of the following spaces?
1.
Main motor room
2.
IC room
3.
Electric repair shop
4.
Each of the above
,
Which of the following practices are best
for learning the locations of steam valves
1-29.
in a ship's fireroom?
1.
Ask a petty officer from the B.-division
to point out each valve on the ship's
blueprint and then memorize these
locations
2.
Trace all the steam 1\nes from beginning to end with the aid of the ship's
,
blueprints and.diagrams and then ask
1-30.
the engineer dfficer to point out each
valve
3.
Memorize the location of all the valves
with the aid of the ship's blueprints
and verify the information on your
first trip through the fireroom
4.
Learn the location of a few valves at
1-31.
a time with the aid of the ship's
blueprints and diagrams and actually
trace steam lines from beginning to
end
A
Who is responsible for training personnOi
in nSnmedical defensive measufes against
NBC attack?
1.
Ship's training offi
2.
Damage control s atant
3.
Leading petty o' icer in A division
4.
Leading DC petty officer
,J
Wech of the follo ing are duties of the
NBC defense office ?
1. 'Maintenance o' NBC defense equipment
2.
Decontaminat on of personnel. and ship
3.
Transport on of NBC casualties
4.
If one of the voids in your ship is opened,
which of the following is the duty of the
gas-free engineer to perform?
1.
Determine whether personnel may safely
enter the void
2.
3.
4.
3
211
All. of t e above
Determine whether Wig safe for
welding in the area
Do both i and 2
Ensure that each welder in the area has
a firewatch checking for explosive gases
1-32.
4)
1-33.
As one of his duties, a division of cer
recommends changes to the allowance 0 his
division. He makes his recommendation
directly to the
commanding officer
1.
department head
2.
3.
division's technical assistant
department admin strative assistant
4.
1-41.
Aboirrd a large steam - driven ship, the oil
king supervises the op ration of
small boats
1.
motion picture projeaCtors
2.
transfer and booster umps
3.
steam turbines
4.
1-34.
3.
1-35.
Recognize the
Learning Objectives
basic principles of physics that
apply to shipboard machinery and
equipment to produce work. Textbook
pages 17 through 21.
Small boat engineers are usually of what
ratings?
1.
FN, EN, or IC
2.
HT, EN, or FN
4.
Hull Maintenance Techniciano perform which
of the following duties?
Plan, supervise, and perform tasks
1.
necessary fqx!abrication, installation, and repair of allatypes of
structures
Perform tasks relating to shipboard
2.
damn fp control, CBR defense, and
firefight ng
Supervis and train personnel in
3.
mainte nce, hull repair, CBR defense,
and damage control
All of the above
4.
FN, EN, or MM,
EN, FN, or MR
L
It is desirable that a Fireman striking
for an engineering rating (Group VII) have
a knowledge of which of the following?
1.
Mathematics
2.
Physics
Mechanical drawing
3.
4.
All of the above
'
I
4
1-42.
Matter can be defrined as anything that
occupies space nd has definite
shape
1.
2.
volume
weight
3.
4.
visibility
1-43.
B.
Rating.
What is meant by the inertia of a
stationary object?
'Quantity of matter which the object
1.
contains
Force with which the object is pulled
2.
toward the center of the earth
Physical property that keeps the
'Physical
1.
Molder -
4.
2.
Boilermaker
machines
3.
Machinery Repairman
Repair boiler
equipment
4.
Machinist's Mate
Ih items 1-36 through 1-38, select from column B
the rating of personnel who perform the tasks in
yolumn A.
A.
Tasks
object '&t rest
1-36.
-'91 -37.
1-38.
'1-39.
Pour castings of
ferrous metals
Measurement of the mass and the weight
of an object'
Operate millir
1-44.
An object moving at a constant velocity
will eontinue moving at the same speed
in the same direction until acted upon
by some outside force.
i
1-45.
Which of the following definitions
describes the force that is exerted
on a stationary object?
A push or pull with which you cause
1.
or try to cause an object to move
A quantity that keeps the object at
2.
4
The main propulsion turbines are main-.
tained by what rating?
Boiler Technician
1.
2.
Machinist's Mate
3.
Machinery Repairman
4.
Engineman
c
rest
3.
A quantity of matter contained in the
object
1-40.
Whic of the following ratings has the
respo sibility for making repairs on the
emerge cy generator diesel engines?
1.
Machinist's Mate
Machinery Repairman
3.
[email protected]
Electrician's Mate
21.2
4.
A physical property that causes a
moving object to continue moving
'
1-46.
Which of the following is a measure of
velocity? ,
1.
50 revolutions
2.
50 rpm clockwise
3.
50 rpm per }sec counterclockwise
4.
50 rpm per sec clockwise
.
Information for items 1-47 through 1-49:
Assume that an object at rest was placed
in motion and moved along a straight path.
During the first 4 minutes of travel, the
'velocity of the object was marked at 1-minute
intervals as shown by the following table:
1-55.
O
1-56.
Energy that exists because of tht$relative
velocities of two-oramore objects is called
1:
potential energy
2.
kinetic energy
3.
energy in transition
4.
both energy in transition and potential
energy
Expended energy can be measured in work
units of
1.
horsepo
2.
specif
heat
Btu
foot-pounds
3.
4.
Mark
0-minute
lrminute
2-minute
3-minute
4-minute
1-47.
1-48.
Velocity
0
5
20
10
15
ft/sec
ft/sec
ft/sec
ft/sec
ft/sec
What was the average acceleation of the
objeCt during the first minUte?
1.
0 ft per sec
2.
2.5 ft per sec
3.
15 ft per sec
4.
20 ft per sec
In items 1-57 through 1-59, select the definition
from columnB that best describes the term in
column A.
A.
441-57.
Term
B.
Defini4on
gY
1.
Applicatidn of force
through a distance
2.
Capacity for producing
an effect
1-58.
Power
1-59.
Work
3.
The object was decelerating between the
second and third minute marks.
o
Amount of force per unit
area
o
1,419.
4.
During the first 4 minutes, the object
accelerated and decelerated at uniform
rates.
1-60.
How much work is done when a 60-pound box
is raised from the ground to the top of an
80-foot platform?
1.
60 ft-lb
2.
140 ft-lb
3.
480 ft-lb
4.
4,800 ft-lb
1-61.
A motor-driven hoist lifts a 165-pound
load to a height of 50 feet in 30 seconds.
How much power does the motor develop?
1.
1/4 hp
2.
1/2 hp
In items 1-50 through 1-53, select from column B
the, source of the, type of energy in column A.
A.
Type of Energy
B.
Source
1-50.
Mechanical
1.
Sun
1-51.
Electrical
2.
Battery
1-52.
Nuclear
3.
Auto piston
1-53.
Thermal
4.
Reactor
Time rate of doing work
3.
3 fip
4.
10 hp
0
1-62.
1-54.
Which of the following situations indicates potential energy?
1.
Water striking a water wheel
2.
Water behind a dam
3.
Steam passing through a nozzle
4.
Water being converted to steam
What is the horsepower of a pump that can
lift 2,500 lb of water per minute from a
`depth of 66 feet?
-1.
4 hp
2.
3.
4.
5 hp
6 hp
,40 hp
1-65.
How much work can be done by,a 4-horsepower
engine?
2,200,000 foot-pounds of work per
1.
1=63.
volume of the water in the tank when its
temperature rises?
Pressure increases; volume remains
1.
constant
Pressure decreases; volume increases
2.
Hoek pressure and volume remain the
3.
same
Prepsure decreases; volume remains the
4.
minuteZ.
132,000 foot-pounds of work per
minute
22,000 foot-pounds of work per minute
142,000 foot-pounds of work per hour
.
3.
vs
04.
According tiCbarleslaw, if the temperature of Alexibfe container of air
1 -64.
same
I'
.
were doubled, the volume of air would
1.
be reduced by one -half
be reduced to one quarter the original
2'4
A
volume
remain Constant' ut the pressure would
3.
double
be increased to &ice the original
4.
volume
I
6
qa
A 5-gallon closed steel'tank is full of
a water. `What happens to the pressut'e and
214
"Assigitriieitt 2 /
Engineering Fundamentals; Ship Propulsion; Basic Steam Cycle
Textbook Assignment:
Chapters 3, 4, and 5 >
.
Learning Objective:. Recognize the
basic principles of physics that
apply to shipboard machinery and
equipment to produce work. Textb k
nages 21 through 30.
2-3.
Compared with water, how heavy is
mercury?
1.
One-fourteenth as heavy
2.
The same weight
3.
Fourteen times as heavy
4.
Fifty times as heavy
3.
4.
.
3.
4.
45..7 in. of mercury
2-7C
What is the absolute pressure of a ;pace
for which the vacuum gage reading is 20
in. of mercury?
1.
10 in of mercury
2.
20 in. of mercury.
3.
30 in of mercury
4.
40 in. of mercury
2-8.
What is the approximate absolute pressure of a space in which the vacuum
reading is 4 in. of mercury?
1.
2.
3.
4.
inch less
inch more
inches less
inches more
psi
psi'
psi
psi
The pressure of the air in a space at
sea level is 27 -In. of mercury. What is
the pressure reading of the vacuum gage?
1.
3.0 in. of mercury
2.
12.3 in. of mercury
3.
27.0 in. of mercury
4.
tank?
1
1
2
2
9
24
33
39
2.
At sea level tle.absolute pressure in an
air tank measures 31 inches of mercury.
How much more or less than atmospheric
pressure is the pressure in the air
2.
At sea level the pressu
in a tire is
24 psi gage.. The absolute pressure in
the tire is approximately
1.
The forces in a mercurial barometer
which balance each other are the
1.
forces exerted by the atmosphere
and the weight of a column of mercury
2.
force exerted by steam under presre and the force exerted by the
weight of a column of mercury
3.
weight of a column of mercury plus
the force exerted by the air in the
tube above the mercury, and the
force exerted by the atmosphere
plus 14.7 psi
4.
weight of a column of mercury, and
the pressure of the vacuum above
the mercury,plus the force exerted
by the atmosphere
1.
3.
tp 16,68 psi
2-6.
2-2.
13.72 psi
14.70 psi
2.
..,
2-5.
2-1.
If a barome r reads 28 inches of mercury,
what is the lmospheric pressure in
pounds per square inch?
1.
0.986psi
2-9.
2.0
4.0
12.7
16.7
psi
psi
psi
psi
If a pressure gage must be located at a
point below ,the pipe of the pressure
line being measured, th," vading on the
gage includes the
exerted by
the weight of the
'iquid above
the gage.
I
0
7
2I5
_J
to.
2-10.
PA Williams obtains a reading on a water
pressure gage of 18 psi. The gage is
located 3 feet above the water pipe.
Williams calculates the actual pressure
of the water to be
16.7 psi
1.
2.
18.0 psi
3.
18.4 psi,
4.
19.3.psi
2-13.
What is the relationship between A, the
force applied to the small piston, and
B, the force exerted by the large piston?
10 lb
1.
Force B minus force A
Force B is 10 times force to
2.
Force A plus force B o 10 lb
3.
Force Ais 10 times force B
4.
2-14.
The area of the small piston in a hydraulic '
pfess is 3 square inches and the area 91
the large piston is 75 square inches. If
a.force of 50 pounds is applied to the
small piston, the large piston will
(neglecting frictiohal losses) exert a
force of
25 lb
1.
2.
4,
250 lb
3."
725 lb
4.
1,250 lb
2-15.
How is the water removed froM the main
ballast tanks when a submerged submarine
is surfacing?
1.
Motor-driven pumps syphon off the
water
2.
The water is forced out with air
The water flows-out thrIgh the phits
3.
under the pull of gravity
4.
Hydraulic pumps syphon off the water
2-16.
The heat produced in a nail which is
being.hammered into a piece of wood is
energy caused by
1.
physical changes in the nail
the increased motion of the molecules'
2.
in the nail
chemical, changes in the nail
3.
the friction between the hammer and
4.
the nailhead
1
40
2-11
2-12.
Items 2-11 through 2,414'are related to
figure 1A.
If a certain fprce is applied to the
small piston, what are the relationships
between pressuies in various parts of
the system?
The pressure on the small piston is
1.
greater than the pressure on the
large piston
The pressure on the small cylinder
2.
is the same as the pressuDE-Acting
against the small piston and is
greater than the pressure in the
large cylinder
The pressure in the connecting tube
3.
is the same as the pressure in the
small cylinder and is greater than
the pressure in the large cylinder
The pressure is the same on all parts
4.
of all surfacee-.that enclose the
liquid
If the weight onk'the large piston just
balances the weight on the small piston
it follows that the
1, force per unit of area is the same
on both pistons
weights onythe two pistons are equal
2.
force on the large piston equals that
3.
on the small piston
pressure is greater below the small
4.
piston than it is below the large
piston
t-
2-17.
Heat is defined as the flow of thermal
energy.
2-18.
How many calories are there in 25 Britis
thermal units?
2.
25
252
3.
4.
2,520
6,300
1.
2-19.
In which of thsofollowi4 forms of matter
are the molecu!s closest together?
1.
Steel
2.
Boiling water
3.
Gas
4.
Chilled water
21 0
8
4
.
2-20.
2-21.
A block of ice at 32° F is allowed to
melt into water at 32° F.
The thermal
energy needed to bring about this change
of state is referred to as
1.
internal heat
2.
specific heat
3.
latent heat of fusion
sensible heat
H
of
\. Z.
3.
4.
2-22.
2-24.
V-25.
All of the following are products_ of
combustion except
1. .sulphur dioxide
2.
carbon dioxide
3.
nitrogen
0
4.
oxygen
2-29.
,The com4eteness wit4( which fuer,oil burns
in the cylinders of a dieeel engine
depends on
1.
how well the fuel is mixed with air.
2.
how much air is present in the
cylinder
3.
how much time
ime the fuel-aiy mixture
is allqwed to burn
4.
all lie above factors
'44
much heat is required to change 10 lb
ce at 32° E to water at 50° F?
180 Btu
,440 Btu
1,620 Btu
16,200 Btu
How much heat is required to change 10 lb
of water at 82° F to steam at 212°
1.
82 Btu
2.
130 Btu
3.
1,300 Btu
4.
11,000.0tu
F?
2-23.
.
2-28.
When ice is changed tolisteam, the greatest
amount of heat is required for
1.- changing the ice at 32° F to water at
32° F
2.
heating the water from 32° F to 150° F..
3.
heating the water from 150° F to
212' F
4.
changing the water at 212° F to steam
at 212' F
The amount o heat released by steam when
it changes in
water at the same
temperature is c led
1.
sensible heat
2.
latent heat of condensation
3.
latent heat of vaporization
4.
latent heat Of fusion
,
2-30.
2-31.
A reading of 77° F is equivalent to
1.
23' C
2.
25° C
3.
27° C
4.
29° C
2 -27.
A Fahrenheit thermometer and a Celsius
thermometer are placed into water that
contains melting ice. What are the
Towest possible temperature readings to
be expected?
1.
0° on Celsius and 32° on Fahrenheit
2.
0° on Celsius and 0° onFahrenheit
3.
32° on Celsius and 0° on Fahrenheit
4.
32° on Celsius and 32° on Fahrenheit
At 1 pressure of 110 psi absolute, water
boils at 335° F.
What is the actual
temperature of superheated steam at
110 psi absolute when it has 200° F of
superheat?
1.
310° F
2.
3.
4.
2-32.
A reading of 75' C is equivalent to
1.
160° F
2.
163° F
3.
167° F
4.
170° F
2-26
If water is placed in a closed container
and boiledLt,e steam, will be saturated,
when the
.1.
pressure in the container increases
'2.
temperature of the water rises above
212° F
3.
temperature of the steam risk above
212° F
4.
water changes Completely to steam at
the temperature of boiling water
412° F
535° F
665° F
If you hammer a sheet of copper intgithe
shape of a hollow bowl, you are taking
advantage of what property of the metal?
1.
Strength
2.
Malleability
3.
Hardness
4.
Toughness
"
2-33.
What property of a metal permit it to
be shaped into wire form or sheets?
1.
Strength
2.
Ductility
3.
Hardness
4.
Toughness
2-34,
All of the following are ways to reduce
7
corrosion to steel except
1.
adding nickel or chromium pr both
2.
chogaing a better grade of base metal
3.
pa4Sting the surface with a good
grade of_paint.
4!
coating the surface with ir.;<[ofide
?
0
0
2-35.
You can determine whether a metal is
ferrous or nonferrous by using a magnet
c
because most metals containing
iron are
magnetic.
2-41:
What technique is used in marking a steel
bar according to the continuous Identification marking system?
1.
A continuous strip of specified4Lidth
is painted along the entire length
Po
of the bar
2.
The appropriate marking is painted on
with heavy ink at specified intervals
along the bar's length
3.
The appropriatsjiarking is punched on
with a metal Olfter at specified
intervals along the bar's length
4.
The appropriate symbol of specified
color is painted on each end of the
bar
The strut, stern. tube, and line sha
bearings funceion to support the m
shaft and keep it aligned.
Learning,Ohjective:
Identify the
various'types of propulsion units.
Textbook pages 4 through 36.
15W
F
One
f, the main differencekibetwe
-a
urbine
tur oelectric drive and a Para
dri e is that the former uses
a46maller Vatio.toreduce.turbine
'1.
speed to propeller)! speed AL
2., a laraer'ratio to q.Uuce turbine
speed to propeller speed
3.
a cruising turbine to reduce turbine
speed' to propeller speed
4.
0-
Learning Objective: Recognize the
basic principles of ship propulsion.
Textbook pages 31 through 33.
an electrical means instead of a
turbine element to reverse propeller
shaft rotation
2-43." By which of the foilowing is the speed.
of a diesel d=c electric-driyen
increased?
""%e:101KI,
1.
Increasing generator'vortage
2.
Increasing,engine speed.
3.
Combining changes inagenerator
voltage and engine si$011
4.
Any of the above ,'
t' L
2-37:
,4
What type of force (thrust) is developed
against the velocity imparting devices
shipboard) and causes the ship to move
thrbugh the water?
1.
Acceleration
2.
Inertia
3.
Reaction
4. "TorqUe
2-44.
In diesel d-c electric-diiven ships the
direction of rotation of the propeller
is reversed by
1.'
using reverse.gears
2.
reversing the flow of current through
the motor
reversing the direction of rotation
3.
of the diesel engine
4: reversing the pitch of the propeller
blades
2-45.
Advantage(s) of the diesel engine over
the gasoline engine as the prime mover
In answering ithms 2-38 through 2-41,
refer to. figure 4-1 of your textrok.
2-38.
The thrust on the propeller is transmitted
to the ship by means of the
1.
strut
2.
main shaft
3.
high - pressure turbine
4.
math reduction gear.
of a propulsion...unit for a naval vessel
1
include
1.
less dan er:of fire "
2-39. fThe prime mover of the ship's propulsion
unit shown 1.1.1 the figure consists of a
1.
2.
3.
ter
2-40.
geared turbine
diesel engine
generator and turbine
generator and diesel engine
cheaper fuel
3:1--standardiz4 fuels
4.
all of the above
2.
The reactive force along the axis of the
main shaft is absorbed by the
1.'.slrut bearing
2.
stern tube bearing
line shaft bearings
3.
4
thrust bearing.,-
10
21.8
2-52.
Learning Objective:
Identify reduction
gears and clutch°, used to convert power
to drive. Textbook paqs 38 through
47.
..
2-46.
.
By what means are low propeller-shaft
speedo obtained in ship° driven by high-
.
.speed diesel, engines?
1.
2.
3.
.4.
2-47.
.
.
2-48.
2-49.
Clutcheo
Reverse gears
Reduction gears
Pitch-changing devices
2-53.
How are the opeeds of turbineo and propellers related when a proputsion plant
io operating at maximum efficiency?
1.
Turbines are operating At high speeds;
propellers at low speeds
Propellers are -operating at high
speeds; turbines at low speeds
3
Both turbines and propellers are
operating at high speeds
4.
Both propellers and turbines fire
operating at low speeds
1.
Dry-type, single-diok
2.
3.
Dry-typo, twin -diok
4.
Wet-type, single-diok
Wet-type, twin-dick'
.
End thrust imparted to b shaft by, reducticin gearing can be eliminated through
the use of
1.
single-helical gears
2.
do4ble-helical geais
3.
spur gears
4.
worm wheels
2-54.
An astern operation of the ohaft and .
propeller driven by the Gray Marine
engine is'accompliohed by
1.
reveroing the crankshaft rotation
2.
using separate dicks and gear train
3.
reversing the forward disk rotation
4.
reversing the bock plate
2 -5.
With Joe's clutch a d reverse geavothe
crankshaft rotation o transmitted Co
the redUction gear ohaft through the
1.
crankshaft driV'e gear extenoipn
2.
first reduction gear
3.
locked train gearing
4.
clutch and reverse gear unit
A
.
That isvpical about a double reduction
2-56.
.
2-51.
What type of clutch in uoed in the clutch
aoaembly of the Gray Marina tranomiooion
mechaniom2,
propulsi
gear arrangement?
1.
Each double helical gear used does
the work of tt
single- helical gears
Turbine speed is twice propeller
speed
3.
The rpm pro&ced by the turbine is
reduced in YWo steps
4.
Its efficiency is doUble that oL s
single-teduction gear
2-50.
Which of the following statement° Obout
clutcheo io faloe?
1.. Friction clutcheo con be cl000ificd
as diok or band and wet or dry
2.
Simple friction clutcheo may be used
alone in engine° with power ratings
ao high ao 2,000 hp
3.
Wear occuro on a wet clutch during
engagement, dioengagement, and
operation
4.
Coot iron ourfaceo are good for
friction clutches becauce they
reoiot ocoring and ocuffing
Most diesel-driven ships and boats are
backe&down by reversing the
1.
pitch of the propeller
2.
direction of rotation of the propeller
ohaft
3.
position of the engine relative to
the propeller shaft
4.
rotation of the engine crankshaft
2 -57'
Regardless of type or aize'df inatallanon, the arrangements of clutch, reverse'
gear, and reduction gear are the same.
What happens when compressed air (100 psi)
is admitted into the flexible tire of an
airflex clutch while it rotates at,engine
spe0.?
1.
The clutch moves out'of contact with
the engine flywheel'
2.
The clutch make:I-contact with the
engine flywheel,
3.
Friction blocks on the inner tired
surface make,contact with a clutchdrum
4.
Friction bloCka on the inner tire
surface move out of contact with a
clutch drum
What is one of the adyentageo of fluid
drives over mechanicgl clutches?
1. /lippage is completely eliminated
2.
No mechanical connection is needed
between the engine and the reduction
gear)
3.
Power loss is only 1 percent
4.
Driving fluid doeb not absorb power
loss
11
"
2-58.
What function io served by the dog clutch
when it in used in addition to the
friction clutch?
Engagingait juot before engaging
1.
friction clutch speedo up the action
of the friction clutch
2.
Engaging it after the friction clutch
has equalized the speed of the two
nhafts prevents slipping and minisizes wear of the' rictionoclutch
Engaging it at the same time the
3.
friction clutch in,engaged provides
for smoother transfer from one speed
to another
Engaging it during and after engaging
4.
the friction clutch helps to quicken
the change from one speed to another
and makes for greater smoothness of
operation
Suppose you boil the water in two
A io an open
containero, A and B.
container and exposed to atmospheric
pressure, whereas B io a cloned container
in which the pressure io greater than
the atmosphere. What in the,relationohip
4. between the temperatures of the water
boiling in the containern?
The water tempeuture in A is higher
1.
than that in D
The water temperature in A in lower
2.
than that fn D
The water temperature in A in 212° y,
3.
which in the same an that in 13 \
The water temperature in A in 212° F.
4.
which in greater than that in
2-62.
the/
2-63.
What in the purpone(n) of the nuaerheater
furnace shown in the textbook fiihre
5-2?
02-59.
2-60.
The reaction forcedeveloped by the force
of the water being moved astern by a
propeller acts on what part of the propeller?
1.
The back
2.
The leading edge
S3.
me root
4.
The face
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
the feed
prennure
2-65.
What energy conversion takCs place after
steam enters the turbine of a oteamdriven ship?
Heat energy to electrical energy
1,
Mechanical energy to heat energy
2.
Heat energy to mechanical energy
3.
Electrical energy to heat energy
4.
2-66.
stallation
If your ship's main turbin
k figure
is like that shown in text
5-1, steam from the boilete4o expanded
varies ',from two to four
Co., roll7lable pitch propellers are of
the Mingle casting type
Left-hand helical propellers, as
viewe4 from astern, trn clockwise
to mov41 the ship forward
The amouni.of latent heat required to"
change boiling water to steam is the same
regardless of the pressure in the generating container.
from the
For which of the following reasons are
naval boilers designed to produce both
saturated and superheated steam?
Because superheated steam for propul1.
sion in more efficient than saturated
steam
Because most auxiliary machinery
2.
operaten on saturated steam
Both 1 and 2 above
3.
Because propulsion and auxiliary
4.
machinery operate on saturated and
superheated steam and frequently
switch from the use of one to the
use of the other
Recognize the
Learning Objective:
ation of the basic
(our areas
steam cycles. Text ook Pages 49
through 53.
2-61.
the maturated
2-64.
Which of the following statements with
regard to propellers in true?
Direction of propeller thrust can
1.
be changed on.some propellers by
changing the pitch of the blades
The number of blades on ship propellers
2.
3.
Raise the temperature of
steam
Draw the saturated steam
generating furnace
Raise the temperature of
water without increasing
Do each of the above
.
in the
tt,
1.
2.
3.
4.
22 0
.
cruising turbine
hl,gh- pressure turbine
slow- pressure turbine
cruising, high-pressure, and lowpressure turbines
Porgy itemo 2-67 through 2-70, refer to
2-/1.
The diccharge preasure of a main feed
pup diacharging to a boiler operettas
at 600 poi lo approximately
1.
55C poi
2.
700 poi
3.
750 poi
4.
1,000 poi
2-72.
Watpr io preheated in the oconotiter by
1.
heating it with a ouperhooter located
directly under tho economizer
2.
circulating it in tubeo ourrounded
by tho got= of combuotion
3.
mixing it with jeto of hot air that
are pumped into the economizer
4.
mixing it with hot water dioeharged
from the main feed piping oyotem
2-73.
The main difference between the auxiliary
oteam cycle and the main nee= cycle io
that the auxiliary doco NOT include the
1.
condenoer
2.
&lactating feed tank
3.
ouperheater
4.
economizer'
figure 5-1 in your textbook.
2-67.
In which port of the oteam cycle Jo air
removed from the condenoato?
1.
A
2.
3.
C
4.
D
2-68.
The dotted linoo onelooing C and D Dhow
that tho deaerating tank belongs to which
'part° of the otoam cycle?
1.
Generation and feed
2.
Feed and condenoato
,3.
Expanoion and generation
Condenoato and expanoion
2-69.
The deaerating tank in the oteam cycle
io uoed for which of the Allowing
purpooeo?
1.
To remor any trapped oxygen or air
from the condenoate
2.
To preheat the water before it g000.
to the economizer
3.
To verve ao a otorage tank for
reocrve feed water and for ourpluo
-condenooto
4.
All the obovo
2-70.
The condenoato from part C of the otoom
cycle firot become° feed water in the
1.
economizer
2.
top section of the deaerating tank
3.
otorago ()action of the deaerating
tank
4.
piping between the main and b000tor
.
feed pump()
El
.221
13
7
Assignment 3
3Boiler°, Steam Turbine°
Textbook Aseigntent:
and Reduction Gear°
Chapter°, 6 and 7
3-6.
z
Identify major
Learning Objective:
component° of naval boiler° and
state their functions. Textbook
page° 56 through 71.
Refractory material is uoed to line the
°teal caning of d boiler furnace in order
to
1.
prevent excepoive loaaeo of furnace
2.
heat
help maintotAn high furnace temperatures.
3._ protect the caning from the intense
heat in the furnace
4.
do all of the above
3-1.
3-2.
'Pk
The °teem drum of a boiler aerve° as all
of the following except a
1.
reaervgir for the ateam generated in
the tube°
°operator of moiature from the °team
2.
%generated in the tube°
3. .'otorage apace for boiler water which
is diatributed to downcomera
separator of air from the °team
4.
generated in the tube°
3-7.
1: Air preheater
_2.
3.
4.
Finn on economizer tube° nerve to
1.
decrease the right of the tube°
2.
absorb the heat from combuotion gage°
speed the flow of combuotion genes
3.
increase the capacity of the tubes to
4.
hold steam
3-9.
Each end of a horizontal superheater tube
is connected to a
vertical superheater header
1.
horizontal superheater header
2.
3.
vertical sidewall header
4.
horizontal aidewell header
tubea?'
1.
3.
4.
3-3.
Steam drum and economizer
Downcomera and economizer
Water drum and sidewall hedder
Sidewall tutie° and aidewell header
The generator tubes in a boiler are 1 to
2 inches in diameter instead of 3 to 4
inches becauao smaller tube° absorb more
hjat from the hot gape° circulating around
3 -10.
them.
3-4.
In addition to d&recting the flow of steam
from the eidewell header to the °team drum,
the tidewell generating tubes nerve to
direct the flow of water from the
1.
°team drum to the aidewell header
protect the sidewall from the intense
2.
heat in the furnace
dietribute water equally to the down3.
camera
direct the flow of combuotion gases
4.
around the economizer tubes
What type of atomizer is Most common and
uoed on most older °hips?
1.
2.
3.
4.
3-11.
Downcomers are uced to direct the flow of
,water from the steam drum into, the
economizer
1.
water drum
2.
aidewell header
3.
water drum and sidewall header
4.
222
Return -flow
4
Straight-steam
Steam- ssiat
Str ght-through-flow
Which part or parta,of an air regioter in
a burner assembly impart a whirling motion
to inrualling air?
1.
2.
3.
4.
3-5.
Economizer
Deaerating feed-heater
Header
3-8.
Which part° of a boiler function to
distribute water equally to the generating
2.
What boiler component utilize° heat from
combuotion gat= to heat incoming feed
water?
Air doors
Diffuner plate
Air foila
Air doors and diffuser plate
SO
v....1)08e of the tangential oloto in a
3 -]
3-19
The baoic typed of auxiliary boilero used
by the Navy include
1.
fire-tube boilero
2.
water-tube natural circulation
boilero
3.
water-tube forced circulati9n boilero
4,
all of the above
3-20
Boilers operating at 700 poi burn leoo
fuel for a given shaft horsepower than do
boilero that operate at lower preooureo.
3-21.
When working in"a fireroom aboard ohip)
oprayer plate are to
1.
form the cone ohaped spray
.
2.
break up the.oil into fine particles
3.
impart a rotational velocity to
the oil
4.
mix the fuel with air
3-13.
Fire-tube boilers have been replacedby
water-,tube boilero on most naval ships
because
1.
fire-tube boilers have a higher
concentration of scale-forming salts
than water-tube boilers
2.
fire-tube boilers are more difficult
to examine than water-tube boilero
3.
fire-tube boiltrs are not able to
meet the demand for rapid changes in
load that water-tube boilers can
4.
fire-tube boilers have more complicated construction than water-tube
boilers
3-14.
you should keep your shirtmleeveo rolled
down at all times.
3-22.
Before lighting off a boiler you should
remove some of the water from the economizer by using the emergency feed pump.
3-23.
0
You are preparing to put a boiler into
operation. Before lighting off the firot
saturated burner you should be oure to
I
blow down the gage glasses
purge the furnace
leave disconnected atomizers in place
4.
remove the atomizers from the regiotero
3-24.
Which of the following safety precautiono
applies to the securing of a boiler?
1.
Closing_the openings to the furnace as
soon as the atomizers have been put
The circulation of water in natural circulation boilers depends on the difference
between the density of rising steam-free
water and the density of falling hot.water
and oteam.
3-15. "Water is made to run faster in accelerated
natural circulation boilers than in free
natural circulation boilers by
1.
wider nozzles of generating water
tubes
2.
tubes connecting steam drum to water
drum sloping at a steeper angle
3.
application of more heat
4.
an increased number of downcomers
out
2.
3.
S
A.
3-16.
Where are downcomers installed on accel.erated natural circulation boilers?
1.
In the furnace area
2.
Between the steam drum and water
drums outside the furnace
3.
Between the sidewall tubes and inner
4.
3-17.
'
2.
3.
4.
3-18.
Learning Objective:
Recognize the
principles of operation of naval steam
turbines and identify major components
and their functions. Textbook pages
72 through 81.
casing
Between the economizer and the superheater
The superheater tubes in convection-type
superheaters are protected from the
radiant heat'of the furnace by
1.
Bringing the water level in the gage
glass to the point where it shows
three-fourths full
Closing the master oil valve"after the
fuel oil pump is secured
Each of the above
3-25.
In addition,, to direction of steam flow,
in which way may turbine types be classified?
,baffles
1.
water screen tubes
downcomers
generating tubes
3.
The way in which the steam makes the
turbine rotor rotate
Type of staging and compounding of
steam pressure and velocity
Division of steam flow
4.
All of the aboy ways
2.
The steam from a pressure-fired boiler
installed on a 1040-class destroyer
escort is used exclusively for
1.
propelling the ship
2.
distilling sea water
3.
heating the crew's berthing spaces
4.
laundering
15
2 2a
3-31.
The function of the otationary bladed in
a velocity-compOunded impuloe turbine io
to
1.
2.
3.
4.
3-32.
The efficiency of a single -stage impabla
turbine is increased by adding
1.
rows of moving blades to the rotor
wheel
2.
simple impulse stages in the oame
casing
3.
either 1 or 2 above
4.
rows of fixed blades to the casing
3-33
A reaction turbine is driven by the
reaction of the force required to
increase the velocity of steam as'it
passes through the nozzles.
3-34
The length of the blades of a reactiontype turbine is increased at each succeeding stage in order to accommodate the
1.
higher turbine speeds
2.
steam condensate
3.
increased steam pressure
4.
increased volume of,the steam
Figure 3A.-Diagram of Hero's engine.
3-26.
3-27.
In figure 3A, the steam escaping from
the nozzles causes the engine to
1.
remain stationary
2.
turn clockwise around point X
3.
turn counterclockwise around point X
4.
turn alternately clockwise and
counterclockwise around point X
Which of the following devices operates
most nearly according to the impulse
turbine principle?
1.
Hero's
2.
An elect ic fan
3.
A windmill
4.
A jet pump
3-33.
.
3-28.
3-29.
a
What happens to the ste4 that passes
through the steam nozzles of an impulse
turbine?
1.
It loses pressure and gains velocity
2.
It loses pressure and loses velocity
3.
It gains pressure and loses velocity
4.
It gains pressure and gains velocity
3-36.
What happens to the energy in pressurized
steam as it emerges from the nozzles of
an impulse turbine?
1.
Kinetic energy converts to potential
energy
2.
Potential energy converts to kinetic
energy
3.
Kinetic energy converts to thermal
energy
4.
Potential energy converts to mechanical
energy
What happens
through each
1.
It gains
2.
It gains
3.
It loses
4.
It loses
to the steam that passes
stag& of-a reaction turbine?
pressure and loses velocity.
pressure and velocity
pressure and velocity
pt4ssure and gains velocity
To permit a turbine to expand and contract
on its foundation, the turbine is usually
installed by securing its
1.
forward end rigidly and allowing some
freedom of movement to the after end
2.
forward and after ends in separate
grooves Olowing each end to move
independently
3.
forward and after ends to a sliding
sunken plate
4.
after end rigidly and allowing some
freedom of movement to the forward
end
3-37.
3-30.
increase the velocity of oteam
direct the flow of oteam
decrease the velocity of oteam
increase oteam pressure without loss
in velocity
How are the blades arranged in a velocitycompounded impulse turbine?
1.
Two or more rows of revolving blades
are followed by a like number of rows
of stationary jets
2.
One row of stationary blades follows
each two rows of revolving blades
3.
Revolving and stationary blades are
installed in alternate rows
4.
Both revolving and stationary blades
are provided on each row
16
224/
Which of the folowing metals is used in
the making of turbine casings and rotors
to enable them to withstand the effects
of superheated 700° F steam?
1.
Carbon steel
2.
Carbon molybdenum steel
3.
4.
Cast irorf.
Bronze
3-38:
3-39.
Which bearings aro used in 'a propulsion
turbine to carry the weight of the rotor
and to maintain the proper radial clearance between the rotor and the caoiig?
Ball or roller bearings
I.
2.
Spherical - seated sleeve bearings
3.
Cylindrical sleeve bearings 4.
Spherical-seated or cylindrical
sleeve bearings
3-41.
3-44.
Which type of double reduction gearing
(if any) do moot auxiliary ships use
for main propulsion?
1.
Nested
2.
Articulated
3.
Locked train
4.
None
3-45.
Wiat type of metal is used for the teeth
in the,ptnion gears of the main reduction
gears?
1.
Bronze
2.
Cast steel
3.
Forged steel ,
4.
Copper-nickel
3-46.
Bull gears are usually secured to their
shafts by means of
1.
spot welds
Propeller thrust bearings and turbine
thrust bearings differ chiefly in
1.
design
2.
size
3.
materials from which they are made
function
4.
3-40.
Learning Objective: Recognize the
common form of reduction gears used
in shipboard machinery. Textbook pages .
81 through 83.
A function of the turbine rotor-shaft
glands is to prevent
1.
lubricating ail from leaking into
the turbine casing
2.
lubricating oil from leaking into
the engineroom
3.
steam from leaking out of the turbine
casing
4.
any of the above from happening
When carbon and Labyrinth packing are
used in one turbine rotor-shaft gland,
how are they arranged?
1.
Carbon packing is us
in the highpressufe area and
yrinth infthe
low-pressure are.
2.
Labyrinth packing is used in the
high-pressure area and carbon packing
is used in the low-pressure area
3.
Carbon and labyrinth packing are
used interchangeably
4.
When temperatures are to go over
650° F, only labyrinth packing is
used
3.
keyo
locking nuts
4.
keys and locking nuts
2.
3-47.
The base section of a bull gear casing is
used for several purposes, one of which
is to support the
1.
main thrust bearing
2.
bearing housing for the intermediate
pinions
3.
bearing housing for the intermediate
gears
4.
bearing housing for the high ope
pinions
3-42.
By what means are low pressure turbine
glands sealed at all times to keep air
from entering the condenser?
.1.
By passing auxiliary exhaust steam
to the glands
2.
By increasing the pressure inside the
steam chest
3.
By decreasing the temperature inside
the steam chest
4.
By lubricating the glands will low-,
viscosity oil
3-48.
.
3-43.
In low pressure turbines, and gland sealing steam pressure is maintained at
approximately
1.
0 to 1 psi
2.
1/2 to 2 psi
3.
2 to 3 psi
4.
1/2 to 4 psi
17
225
Which gears are used in transmittin
motion from a turbine to the shaft 9f a
condensate pump and in reducing turbine
speed to pump speed?
1.
Pinion and single helical gear
2.
Two bevel gears
3.
Worm and worm wheel
4.
Pinion and double helicargear
ssv
3 -53.
Which of the folloqing valve° io uacd to
prevent excessive piteobure in.thecd1
feed lines of a lube oil pump protem?
1.
Governor
2.
Throttlg
3.
Reducing
4.
Relief
3-54.
How do you regulate the temperat r
the oil flowing around the tubes o_.,a
tube-in-shell type of oil cooler?
1.
By regulating the amount of oil flowing around the tubes
2.
By regulating the amount of sea water
flowing through the
bes
3.
By doing both of t e a..ve
4. By regulating the
circulating around
3-55.
'ssume that you notice n su en; decided
drop in the pressure gage in the oil feed
line to the turbine bearings. The Chief
Machinist's Mate will immediately order
0
you to
1.
slow down the engine until cressure
Learning Objective: Recognize the
characteristics and purposes of
lubricating oils and greases used
in the Nally.
Textbook pages 84 through
87.
3-49.
3-50.
3-51.
3-52.
Which of the following 1.8 the beat
definition of friction?
A
1.
Friction is the amount of pre:inure,
with which one surface is pressed
against another surface
2.
Friction is the amount of heat
generated between two sliding
surfaces
3.
Friction is the resistance that one
surface offers to its movement over
another surface
4.
Friction is the ratio of the roughness of one surface to the roughness
of another surface
Under ideal conditions, what kind of
friction occurs when a main shaft rotates
in a properly oiled main journal?
1.
Fluid friction between the molecules
of the oil and.the suspended foreign
matter in the oil
2.
Fluid friction between. the molecules
of the oil and between the film of
oil on the shaft and the film on
the journal
3.
Sliding friction between the main
shaft and the main journal
4.
Rolling friction between the main
shaft and the main journal
builds- up.again
stop the engine
deCiease the pressure in the co ,ling
2.
3.
,
4.
tubes
increase the pressure in the cooling
tubes
3-56.
3-57.
If the correct lubricating oil is replaced
by an oil of a higher viscosity, a bearing will be subject to
1.
increase in pressure and in operating
temperature
2.
increase in friction and in operating
temperature
3.
decrease in friction but increase in
operating temperature
4'4.
increase in friction but decrease in
operating temperature
Mineral lubricating oils can withstand
the effects of high temperatures and
'speeds better than either animal or
Vegetable oil.
Assume that 60 clof a class 3 oil at a,
temperature of 130° F require 3 minutes
to pass through the Saybolt viscosimeter.
Which of the following symbol numbers
.,would be used to designate the oil?
1.
1300
2.
1803
3.
3003
4.
3180
3-58.
Whefe are Zerk fittings used?
1.
On rotary water pumps
2.
On turbine bearings
3.
On lube oil pumps
4.
On bearings with a heavy load
3-59.
18
226
Why does a,,2190TEP oil provide reduction
gears more protection than a 2190 oil?
1.
It resists corrosion better
2.
It protects better against the effects
of water
3.
It can withstand heavier loads
4.
It does all of the above
What type of grease is used as a general
purpose grease for light loads and ordinary operating temperatures?
1.
Graphite grease
2.
Soda soap grease
1.
Lime soap grease
4.
Lead oleate soap grease
,
3-60.
Which of the following lubricating greasier)
contains a (menial additive to prevent
meting at high temperatpren?
Lead oleate grease
2.
Extreme prenoure greaoe
3.
Graphite grease
4.
Oxidation inhibitor greaoe
1.
3-61.
3-62.
If a lubricating chart has not been Mode
up for a certain unit of machinery Aboard
ship, you should determine the type of
lube oil opecified lor the unit by conealting the manuface4pr's technical
manual.
Hard grades of greaoe are used for lubrication of part° used at
1.
high opeedo under light pressure
2.
medium opeedo under medium pressure
3.
plow speeds under hpavy pressure
4.
high opeedo under heavy pressure
.
19
227
Assignment 4
Auxiliary Machinery and Instruments, Pumps, Valves, and Piping
Textbook Assignment:
Chapters 8, 9, and 10
4-5.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
location and functions of shipboard
auxiliary machinery and equipment.
Textbook pages 89 through 99.
0-
4
4-1.
ThS vapor compression refrigeration-system
is used on naval ships for which of the
following applications?,
1: Refrigerated cargo
2.
Refrigerated ship's stores
3.
Ship's service store equipment
4.
All of the above
4-2.
For Navy ships designed after 1950, the
freeze room and chill,rts are kept at
which of the following te peratures?
1.
0° F and 33° F, respectively
2.
-5° F and 20° F, respectively
3.
-10° F and 10° F, respectively
4.
-20° F and 5° F, respectively
4-3.
The purpose of air.
seawater
4-6.
When there are two soloshell double-effect
evaporator plants aboard a destroyer,
they are located in the aft engineroom.
4 -7
The two types of steering gear used by
the Navy are electromechanical and
electrohydraulic.
4-8
In which of the following respects is
electrohydraulic steering gear superior
to electromechanical steering gear?
1.
it and flexibility
Depend
2.
Saving' In weight and space occupied
3.
Less friction between moving parts
and quicker responses to movements of
the steering wheel
4.
All of the above respects
aboard
naval ships is to
1.
provide comfort for the crew 1
2.
protect equipment from high temperatures
3.
increase personnel efficiency
4.
do all of the above
4-4.'
.
In the vapor compression distilling plant,
the source of energy used t heat sea
water is
1.
steam
2.
boiling water
3.
electricity
4.
furnace gases
4T9.
4-10.
)
How is fresh water obtained from the
vertical basket type of steam-operated
distilling plant?
1.
By vaporizing preheated feed water
over and over again and,then condensing the feed water vapdr
2.
By using steam to boil sea water and
then condensing the fresh water vapor
given off by the boiling sea water
3.
By using combustion gases from a
boiler furnace to boil feed water in
a coil and then condensing the fresh
water vapor glen off by the boiling'
feed water
4.
By using combustion gases froin a
boiler furnace to boil sea water in a'
coil and then condensing the fresh
water vapor given off by the boiling
228
20
To meet Navy requirements, an anchor
windlase must be equipped with brakes and
'a means of reversing direction.
The capstan shown
is used for
1.
heaving-in on
2.
paying-out on
3.
heaving-in on
4.
lifting boats
in textbook figure 8-7
anchor chain
anchor chain
heavy mooring lines
'
4.
4-11.
P
The three wings on the tubular-type of
oil purifier serve to
le keep the oil rotating at the speed
of,the,bowl
A
2.
collect the sediment or other impuri-
Learning Objective: Recognize the
principles of operation and uses of
engineering measuring instruments.
Textbook pilges 100 through 115.
4
ties
3.
4.
separate the oil into three layers
help accelerate the rotation of the
bowl
t4-18.
4-12.
Aboard Navy ships, compressed air is used
fob
X.
2.
3.
4.
4-13.
4-14.
4-15.
4-16.
4-17.
charging and firing torpedos
starting diesel engines
operating pneumatic tools
all of the above
Which type of air compressor is used most
in the Navy?
1.
Centrifugal, turbine-drive
2.
Reciprocating, electric-drive
3.
Rotary, diesel-drive
4.
Rotary, electric-drive
The gages and other measuring instruments
in a shipboard engineering plant enable
operating personnel to
1.
determine operating efficienOy of,
)he plant
' 2. bbtain data for records and reports
3.
detect abnormal operating conditions
in a system
4.
go all the above
In items 4-19 through 4-4, select the type of
measuring instrument from column B that provides
the kind'
measurement in column A
Medium pressure air compressors are those
with discharge pressures that range
between
-*
1.
51 and
100 psi
2.
101 and
150 psi
3.
151 and 1,000 psi
4.
1,001 and 1,200 psi
Measurements
B.
Instruments
4-19.
Height in inches
1.
Pressure gages
4-20.
Turns per minute
2- Liquid level
A.
indicators
If pressure fails in the high-pr Abure
tank of a direct plunger lift elevator,
what devices check the elevator's fall?
1.
Mechanical locks
2.
Guide rails
3.
Special control valves
4.
Automatic quick closing valves in the
oil line
4-21.
Total gallons
4 -22.
Pounds per square
inch
The speed of the gypsy head of an electrohydraulic winch is controlled b7
1.
regulating the operating curtsnt of
its a-c motor
2.
regulating the operating voltage of
its a-c motor
3.
adjusting the stroke of its hydraulic
pump
4z
adjusting the clearance between the
friction surfaces of its brake
Revolution
counters
4.
Fluid flow
meters
4-23.
On what principle does a Bowdon tube
gage work?
1.
Volume changes in a str ght elastic
tube tend to expand the tube
2.
Volume changes in a coi ed elastic
tube tend to collapse t
3. Pressdre in a straight elastic tube
tends to bend the tube
4.
Pressure in a curved elastic tube
tends to straighten the tube
4-24.
The tube in a simplex Bourdon tube gage
is connected to a pressure source and
to an indicating mechanism. The ends
of the tube are fastened to a
1.
stationary base and a connecting link,
respectively
2.
stationary base and a connecting
lever, respectively
3.
connecting link and a connecting
The galley equipment aboard modern naval
ships include all of the following except
1.
toasters
2.
mixing machines
3.
extractors
4.
refrigerators
4.
229
21
3.
Aver, respectively
movement support and a gear sector,
respectively
/
4-25. ,,When the press a being measured with the
gage shown irr,t ctbook figure 9-2 is
increased, the Lnkage end of the Bourdon
tube has a tend icy to move so as to
cause the
gear sector teeth to disengage from
4 -32.
The element of a bimetallic dial thermom-%
eter responds to a rise in temperature
by
1.
expanding outward, thereby 'leasing
against the wall of the retaining
tube
2.
unwinding, thereby twisting the free
end of the element
3.
contracting lengthwise, thereby pulling the free end of the element
inward
4.
expanding lengthwise, thereby, pushing the free end of the elemdht
outward
4-33.
Which component is the sensing element
e pinion zar"
to bect ae more curved.
2.
3.
p
4,
4-26.
ter to tun cl
er to tun c unterclockwise
Which
the following measurements is
taken w th a simplex Bourdon ttiBt gage?
1.
Depth of water in a ship's fresh
water tanks
2.
Amount of fuel oil flowing through a
valve
3.
Pressure in a cOmpiessed air system
4.
Pressure drop between inlet and outlet
sides of a lube oil strainer
of a distant-reading mercury - filled
thermometer?
1.
2.
3.
4-27. 'The duplex Bourdon tube gage .can be
thought of as two simplex gages in ong.
4.
,
However, the duplex gage ups a'single
1.
gear mechanism
2.
dial
3.
pointer
tube
4.
4-28.
'4-34.
The type of gage whose.indicating mechanism is shown in figure 9-6 of your
textbook is used for measuringkressures
that range between
1.
0 and 15 psi gage
2.
16 and 30 psi gage
3.
31 and 50 psi gage
4.
51 and 100 psi gage
6
Which type of instrument is best for
measuring air pressure in the space
between the inner and outer casings of
a boiler?
1.
Duplex Bourdon tube gate
2.
Compound Bourdon tube gage
3.
Bellows gage
4.
Diaphragm gage
'..)
2.
3.
In thestatic head gaging system, the
amount of liquid in a tank is determined
by means of a-direct measurement and
'
conversion to another unit of measure.
Which direct measurement and conversion
is used to determine the amount of oil
in a fuel oil storage tank?
1.
The depth of oil is measured directly
in feet and is converted to gallons
of oil'
2.
-..
Most liquid-in-glass thermometers -in
s
pboard engineering plants are filled
1.
The metals that makeup the actuatiriki
element of a pYrometar tespond to a
rise in temperature by converting heat
energy into
1.
chemical energy,
2.
luminous energy »
3.
electrical energy
4.
mechanical energy
..
36.
4 -30.' Which of the following parts is the
essential element of a manometer?
1.
Bellows
2.
Bimetallic strip
3.
Diaphragm-covered chamber
4.
Liquid-filled U-tube
4-31.
Which of the following types of thermometers indicates temperature change as
a result of pressure-volume changes?
1.
Bimetallic
2. liistant-reading
3.
Liquid-in-glass
4.
Pyrometers
ts`
4-35.
,
4-29.
Mercury bulb
Capillary tubing
Flexible cable
Bourdon-tube pressure gage
3.
hyl alcohol
be ine
mercury
dyed water
4.
7
22
230,
The pressure of the oil at the tank
bottom is measured in inches of
mercury and the pressure is converted
.
to.gallons of oil
The temperature of the oil at the
tank is measured, directly in degrees
and the temperature is converted to
gallons of oil
The volume is measured directly in
cubic feet and volume is converted
to gallons of oil
t,
FIRST READING
SECOND READING
Figure 4A.-4ound reading registers.
4-37.
The two meter readings of figure 4A were
taken 1 hour apart. How much liquid was
measured during the hour?
1.
699 gal
2.
869 gal
3.
938 gal
4.
1,129 gal
4-38.
Which quantity is measured directly with
icYrevolution counter?
2.
r
3.
4.
4-39.
4-40.
4-41.
Which of the followin& types of tachometers an be used to
asure the speed
of a rotor when there is no access to
its rotating shaft?
1.
Centrifugal
2.
Chronometric
3.
Resonant
4.
Any of the above
4-42.
Which type of tachometer is used to t
obtain speed readings continuously instead
of intermittently?
1.
Portable centrifugal
2.
Portable chronometric
3.
Revolution counter
4.
Resonant reed tachometer
4-43.
The superheater temperature alarm on a
boiler is actuated by an electric microswitch.
The force that throws the
microswitch is provided by a
1.
pressure that is exerted by a rise in
temperature
2.
cantilever arm that moves when mercury
expands in a spiralzwound Bourdon
Rotational speed of a turbine
Rate at which oil flows through a
pipe
Total number of turns made by a shaft
Rotational speed of a pump
What instrument is commonly used to
measure the rotational speed of a shaft?
1.
Manometer
2.
Tachometer
3,
Hydrometer
Barometer
Withhich kind of tachom f
make direc't contact w
a
do you
LacABg
P
shaft to obtain instantaneoug vAITO
of speed on a dial face?
1.
Centrifugal
2.
Chronometric
Both 1 and 2 are correct
3.
4.
Resonant
tube
3.
4.
4-44.
revolving gear that meshes with the
microswitch
torque that is exerted when a bimetallic element is heated
-
Which signal is an indication of low ,
pressure at the bearing located farthest
from the lube oil, pump?
1.
2.
3.
4.
23
231
Steady red light on a control board
Ringing bell or loud siren
Intermittent buzzing sound
White light flashing on and off
e throttleman warned if he tries
to open the ahead throttle valve when the
engine ordef telegraph indicates "astern"?
1.
By smoke coming deankfro;the pert.,
scope smoke indicator
2.
By a flashing light on the throttleboard
3.
By a loud signal coming from the
wrong direction alarm
4.
By a burting sound coming, from the
static head gaging system
Itg
4-51.
4-52.
Learning Objective: Identify some
principles of pump operation and
specify the ways of classifying pumps,
giving essential construction features
of different components. Textbook
pages 116 through 123.
4-46.
In which, pump is the Movement of fluid
due to a plunger that moves up and down
inside a cylinder?
1'.
Rotary
2.
Reciprocating
3.
Catrifugal
4.
Propeller
.
Why, are reciprocating pumps used for
emergency feed water pumps on naval
vessels?
1.
They are easy to operate
2.,
The are reliable starters under cold
conditions
3.
They can be started safely even by
personnel having little experience
4.
Al) of the above reasons
What is the name for a device which is
le to move a fly frem one place to
any her through the use of an Tmernal
po
source to Apply a force to the
flui
1.
2.
3.
4.
4-47:
4
or
urbine
Pump
Valve
.
Pumps supply the sea water in a ship's
firemain system. ValvesAn the system
furnish the means of controlling'ihe
directidh that .the sea water flows
A
2.
amount of seawater flowing
3.
pressure of the set water
4.
direction of flaw, amount, and pressure of "he sea' water
Figure O.-Double-acting pump.
4-53.
°
4.
4-54,
4-48.
Which of the following pumps is classi-.
fled according to,the- type of movement,
that causes it to pump?
1.
Variable stroke pump
2.
Positive displacement pump
Self-priming pump
3.
4.
Jet pump
4-49.
Which of the following pairs of words
refer to the same end of a pump?
1.
Power end and fluid end
2.
Liquid end and pump end
3.
Power end and pump end
.4.
Pump end and Ateam'end
4-50.
Aboard ship, you might refer to the power
enl of a fireroom pump drivetkby an
auxiliary turbine as the
1.
u
4.
valves C and 'D
How do the valves move when piston P in
the pump shqr in figure 4B moves upward?
1.
Valves A and C close; valves B and D
open
2.
Valves A and D open; valves B and C
close
I- Valves A and \p close; -valves B and C
-open
4.
Valves A aqd
open; valves .0 and D\
close
rotorend
2.. turbine end
3.
impulse end
r
In the pump'shown in figure 4B, fluid is
discharged on the dowdAtroke'through
1.
valve B
"..
2.
vafve D
Valvds B and D
z
steam -end
b
gV
24
'232
STEAM CHEST
A
8
Figure 4C.-Operating
principle of D-phaped
slide valve of a reciprocating
pump.
4-55.
Figura 40.-Simplo goar pump.
The D-valve in the pump, figure 4C
is
moved up and down by the
1.
pressure in the steam chest
2.
piston rod through a mechanical
linkage
3.
movement of exhaust
steam through the
cylinder ports
4.
difference in pressure betwejk the
4-60.
upper, and lower halves of the
steam
chest
'
4-56.
Aftei- first closing the throttle
in the
process of securing
aoreciprocating pump,
the next step you take is to
1.
close the exhaust valve
2.
cloSe theralves in the discharge
3.
open the drain valveh
close the valves in the suction line
lines
ft
4.
4-57.
The movement that causes a variable
stroke pump to actually pump and by
which
the pump is classified
is brought about
by
1.
2.
3.
4.
4-58.
The
4-61.
a tilting block rotating
inside a
cylinder
pistons reciprocating inside cylinders
propellers rotating inside cylinders
an impeller rotating inside a casing
of a aterbury
variable
stroke pum is determined by
they
1.
size of the cylinder
2.
tilt of the angle plate'
3.
speed of the motor
4.
direction of oil flow
4-59.
Which condition'eiiiits when the tilting
box is at right angles to the drive
shaft
while the pump is rotating?
1.
The pistons reciprocate
2.
Liquid is pumped
3.
No liquid is pumped
4.. Power is
transmitted hydraulically
L
25
233
Aasame that the gear pump of figure
4D...is
used for lubricating
oil service. Now
does the oil pass through the pump?
1.
011 moves into the pump through
suction side A, passes around the
gears in,the spaces between the pump
case and he gear teeth and
discharges
through ditlet B
2.
Oil moves into the pump through
suction side A, passes through tE.
two
gears, and discharges
through outlet B
3.
Oil moves into the pump through
syction side B, passes around the
gears in the spaces between pump
case and the gear teeth, an4 discharges through outlet A
4.
Oil moves into the pump through
suction side B, passes thrpugh the
two gears, and discharges
through
outlet A
Positive displacement
of the following exceptpumps include all
1.
Screw
2.
Reciprocating
3.
Centrifugal
4.
Variable stroke
$
Assignment 5
Pumpo, .Valveo; Piing, and Shipboard Electrical Equipment
TentbOok Apoignment:
Chaptoro 10 and 11
5-6.
.
Iden$,ify the
Learning Objeative:
location and functions of ohipboard
auxiliary machinery and equipment.
Textbook pagan 122 through 126.
Jet pumps are Clapp/fled ao ejectors or
eductorn deco dim to whethetooteam or
voter io used to entr in and move fluido.
'l
5-1., The,,ocroc pump io similar to the gear pump
in that both are
"
pooitive diopladement rotary pumpo
1.
variable capacity pumps
2.
pooitive dioplacement centrifugal
3.
pumpo
non -self- priming pump°
4.
5-2.
Fluid entering the inlet pipe of a contrifpgal pump in firot,directed into the
center of the cooing,
1.
,vane o of the impeller
2.
3.
,
4.
5-3.
E
opac6 between the impeller vaned and
thd cooing
volute diffuoer
ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
What precaution muot be taken in the
inntallatipn of a centrifugal pump to
enoure ffilt it Will become primed hen
its
1.
2.
3.
4.
lake
pipeln open?
e intake pipe only in above the
urface of the liquid to be pumped
The intake pipe only in below the ourface of the liquid to be pumped
The entire pump io above the'ourface
of the liquid to be pumped
The entire pump in below the Surface
Figure 5A
of the liquid to be pumped
5-4.
A propeller pump pueheo liquid in a
direction perpendicular to the ohaft.
5-5.
Which feature of jet pump::: makeo them
5-7.
different from all Other pumpo claonified
acqording to the type of movement causing
'the pumping action?
HigH auction lift
1.
No moving parts
2.
Self priming
3.
Positive displacement
4.
26
23 i
Why in pumping action
Refer tq'f/gure 5A.
m4ablid,heti after °team lower° the prensure'in C by forcing fluid into E?
Velocity increase at B drawn fluid
1.
from A and diochargeo it through ,B
Pressure difference between cand
2.
atmoopheee lifts fluid /Tao C and
through A
PresstA difference between C and the
3.
atmosphere lifts fluid into C and
through E
44Velocity increase at B draws fl
from A and discharges it throu
5-0.
On new combatant nhipo, the primary meann
of dewatoring comparCmontn through the
drainage ayatem are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-9.
5-14.
plug wave when tho handle io turned to
open tho valvo?
1.
A dick lift° oft its °eating ourface
2.
A ball-ohaped piece float° off a
owning ring
3.
4 poo0Ogovay in an othorwioo solid
piece linen up with the porto in the
valve body
4.
A wedgo-ohaped piece ri000 to create
an opening in the parmageway through
the valve body
fire and blip pump°
fixed-type cOuctor°
centrifugal tiro pumpa
Watorbury variable-volume pump° ,
If a conotant-pronouro pump governor in
attached to a gear pump, the governor in
connected to-the
1.
driving gear
2.
driven guar
3.
suction lino
4.
diochargo line
Learning Objective:
Identify the
various kind° and type° of chipboard
valvoo, including construction
feature°, their location°, and
functiono.
Textbook page° 127 through
Tho plug valv; may be uped ao a
1.
throttle valve
2.
aoloctqr valve
3.
neodlo valve
4.. chock valve
5-16.
What typo of valve in wed in a lino
/ whore the flow of fluid through an opening cunt bo regulated gradually and
exactly?
1.
Pioton
2.
Needle
3.
Gate
4.
Globe
5-17.
You can rortii; a fully opened butterfly
-valve to its fully cloned pooition by
1. doprepoing a pushbutton
2.
turning the handle to the opPIPoite
pooition
3.
lifting up on the handle
4.
turning the handle ono-fourth a turn
5-18.
The owing check valve opono only when the
1.
inlet pm:lour() in greater than outlet
'preonure
2.
outlet pronnuro in greater than inlet
prepoure
1.
inlet prepoure in greater than spring
tenoion
4.
outlet prennure in greater than opting
tenoion
5-19.
Whethof a ollap-check valve act° ao a otop
valve or ao a check valve depend° on the
1.
pooition of the control lover
2.
direction of flow
3.
typo of dick inotalled
4.
pooition of the stem
5,-20.
The double-poppet throttle valve in
actuated by
1.
manual force and power from an
electric motor
/2.
mapUal force and power from a hydraulic
motor
3..
steam preooure within the valve and
manual force
4.
oteam prenoure within the valve and
power from a hydraulic motor"
134.
tJ
5-10.
5-11.
5-12.
Refer tp textbook figure 10-14. Which
parto of the globe valve move when the
handwheel in turned counterelockwioe?
1.
Stem and dick
2.
Gland and flange
3.
Bonnet and bushing
4.
Packing and otop ring
The special dooign of back °eating valved
makeo it p000ible to operate them fully
opened with no leakage pant the packing.
Fluid io permitted to flow through the
body of a globe otop valve by turning
the handwheel in the direction which will
cause the
1.
dick to lift off the valve neat
2.
dick to fit tightly againot the valve
coat
3,
4.
5-13.
stem to pull away from the packing
stem to make contact with the packing
gland
In which way doe° a gate valve differ from
a globe valve?
1.
Path of the fluid through the gate
valve in straight, through the gI'obe
valve the path in not straight
2.
Flow in regulated by degree° through
the gate v lve but not through the
globe valv
3.
The gate alvo workn well ao a throttle.
valve, the glObe valve doeol.not
4.
The gate valve in uped in, fuel linen
only, the 'globe valve in water linen
What tattoo place inolde /cho body of a
,1
5-21.
IA rol(of valvo lo'a typo of
surecontrol valve that io docti6 d to open
automitically when lino projeuro lo too
Learning Objeetivo: Delineate
chipboard piping, including pipe
definition°, pipe cntOrialo, pipe
fitting°, socket° and packing,
°trainer°, otcam trope, and drain°.
Textbook page° 135 through 141.
high.
5-22.
Uhothor a relief valve iD of the dick
typo or ball type, it lo kept eloped by
the
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-23.
compreoolon of a °tool spring
woight of ito valvo body
annual forco with which ito stem lo
turned
reactive force opposing the manual
force uped to turn its stem
5-26.
Pipe deoignationo that refer to the wall
thickn000 on the pipe include
1.
otandard
2.
extra otrong
3.
double extra otrong
4.
all of the above
5-27.
If the nominal ID of a auble extra
otrong pipe lo 7 infheo, ito actual ID Jo
1.
leo° than the actual ID of a 7-inch
extra otrong pipe
more than the actual ID of a 7-inch
extra otrong pipe
3.
more than the actual ID of a 7-inch
otandard pipe
4.
more than 7 inches
Reducing valvoo uoed in roduced proaaure
lino° aboard chip are deolgned to
1.
prevent damage to the lineo due to
2.
3.
4.
(=cooly° preaoure
keep operating propoure oqual to
supply prepoure
vary operating proof:Jure according
to demand
provide a °toady proof:Jure lower than
the supply proof:Jure
5-24.
Uhat is one of the factor° that the operation of a reducing valve depend° upon?
1.
The valve maintains outlet prepourn
2.
and inlet prof:Jour° in equilibrium
The valve maintain° outlet prof:Jour°
at one-half the inlet proof:Jure
3.
The inlet preaaure controls the rate
k5-28.
at which outlet oteam woe° throUgh
The °ire of tubing lo generally expressed
in term° of its
1.
actual inside diameter
2.
actual inside circumference
3.
nominal outoide diameter
4.
nominal outoide circumference
the valve
4.
The outlet proof:Jure controlo.the
5-29.
rate at which inlet oteam paopeo
through the valve
5-25.
A relief valve to never installed ac a
safety ualve on the oteam drum of a
boiler.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Steam and fuel
chip are made of
1.
°tea
2.
copper
braoo
copper-nickel alloy
3.
4.
OVfitOMP i.board
Why?
It will not remain open long enough
for blowdown to occur
It will not pop ate °pacified preppure
It will not clooe tightly without
chattering nor remain- closed long
enough after °eating
It io not installed because of all
the above reaoono
5-30.
What type of oteel tubing io ugually
used for high-prpooure, high-te erature
titeam cervico?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-31.
SeaMleao carbon steel
Molybdenum alloy oteel
Chromium alloy steel
Welded carbon steel
The composition of the gaoket material
°elected for use in a piping oyotem
depends upon all of the following except
temperatures to which the fluid
carried in the system will be
oubjected
2.
prof:mum° to which the fluid carried
in the oyotem will be oubjected
3.
kind of fluid carried in the system
4.
number of atrainero installed in the
oyatem
.
2.3 p
28
5-32.
On naval veoosflo, condensate io removed
5-39.
What io the difference between the gyrate=
for delivering current from the a-c
generator and from the d-c generator?
1.
In the d-c generator, current flowo
from the commutator to olip ringo
to the circuit; in the a-c generator,
it flows from the otator to bruoheo
to the circuit
2.
In the d-c generator, current flowo
from the rotor to atator to the
circuit; in the a-c generator, it
flowo from the rotor to the circuit
3.
In the d-c generator, current flowa
from the commutator to bruoheo to
the circuit; in the a-c generator,
it flown from the otator to the
circuit
4.
In the d-c generator, current flown
from thealip rings to the bruahec
to the circuit; in the a-c generator,
it flown from the bruaheo to the
rotor to the circuit
5-40.
Revolving-field generators are superior
to revolving-armature generatora in that
from steam lnea by means of
1.
mechaAical atom crape
2.
thermeotatic oteam trapo
3.
impuloe oteam trapo
4.
drains and mechanical, thermootatic,
and impulse steam traps
Learning Objective:
Recognize the
inherent hazards of electricity
and °beery° all oafety procautiono
when working with or near electrical
ayotems and equipment.
Textbook pages
142 through 154.
5-33.
Which of the following oubotancen offero
the moot reolotance to electric current?
1.
Iron
2.
Mica
3.
Aluminum
4.
Copper
they
5-34.
5-35.
The rate at which a current paoaen
through a lighting circuit is measured in
'1. watto
2.
volta
3
ohms 44z
4.
amperes
1.
2.
3.
A unit of electrical reniatance in the
watp
1.
2.
ogir
3.
ampere
volt
4.
4.
5-41
5-36.
Anaume that a soldering iron is rated at
100 watts. This information tells you
about the
1.
power consumed by the iron
2.
realatance of the iron
3. 'emf of the iron
4.
rate at which current flows through
the iron
5-37.
A shipboard generator operates at greatest
have their load current from the
atator connected to the external
circuit without the uoe of slip rings
need only two clip ring') to supply
excitation to the revolving field
do not have their atator windings
subjected to mechanical stressed due,
to centrifugal'forces
have all the above features
What provision Jo made to prevent a highspeed turbine-driven alternator from
overheating?
1.
A forced ventilation system circulates
air through the stator and rotor
2.
The alternator is used in conjunction
with others and automatically goes
off when it becomes warm
3.
A heat-limiting Overnor controls the
temperature
4.
The alternator parte are encased in a
metal structure that is surrounded by
cold water
efficiency lallen operating
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-38
in eerier, with other generators of
same rated output
at 1$11 rated output
at Yerioda of minimum power demand
with batteries fully charged
5-42.' What is the source of energy for the
turbines that drive a ship's service
generators?
1.
Saturated steam
2.
Superheated steam
Diesel engines
3.
4.
Batteries
t
The rotatiqiRmember of a d-c generator is
usually called the
1.
armature
2.
yoke
3.
field winding
4.
rotor
237
29
5-43.
5-44.
One °pacification that all ohipo oervice
generator° cunt meet Jo that they
1.
oupply at leaot 600 volto of electricity
2.
operate at a conotant °peed
3.
be able to run indefinitely without
shutdown
4.
oupply alternating and direct current
to ohipo circuito
Why are emergency generators aboard Navy
ohipo dieoel driven rather than turbine
driven?
1.
Dieoel engine° can generate tore
power than turbine°
2.
Dieoel engines can °tart faster than
turbine°
3.
Dieoel engine° are copier to operate.
than turbine°
4.
There io leo° danger.e4 fireo from
dieoel engine° than from turbines
5-45.
The control switchboard on a destroyer
hao inotrumento and control° for paralleling the forward and after ohip's
oervice generator° and for equalizing
the load between them.
5-46.
The automatic voltage regulator maintaina
conotant voltage during load change by
varying
1.
armature reoiotance
2.
field excitation
3.
generator opeed
4.
governor °peed
5-47.
Switchboards on Navy ohipo are provided
with fuses instead of automatic tripping
circuit breakers to protect against
voltage failure.
5-48.
Which of the following
cause an ,a-c generator
to trip?
Gun fire
1.
2.
Power reversal
3.4 Short circuit in a
Short circuit in a
4.
5-49.
5-50.
What io used to oupply (1...c power to
the d-c loado on the new ohipo that
have a-c power planto?
1.
Rectifier°
Motor generator°
2.
3.
D-c generatoro
Emergency generator°
4.
5-51.
What device in a ohipboard electrical
oyotem will operate when power io ouddenly
applied to a gun mount and to the anchor
windlaoo at the-oame time?
Circuit breaker
1.
2.
3.
4.
troubles will
circuit breaker
Rheootat
Voltage regulator.
Emergency generator
5-52.
Although °team Jo readily available
aboard moot °hip° to drive auxiliary
machinery, electric power ie uoed for
moot equipment located outoide the
machinery °paces. Electric cable io
superior to °team piping for transmitting
power because it io
more eaoily controlled, leoo eaoily
1.
damaged, and more durable
more durable, more eaoily repaired,
2.
and more convenient
less eaoily damaged, Gofer, and more
3.
easily controlled
more eaoily controlled, Gofer, and
4.
more convenient
5-53.
Which of the following piecea of equipment may be equipped with electric
broken?
1.
Anchor windlass
2.
Switchboards
3.
Generators
4.
Auxiliary pumps
5-54.
Shipboard motor controllers are used for
starting and stopping motors
1.
2.
increasing and decreasing motor
speeds
3.
lighting circuit
fresh water pump
4.
Emergency generators provide electric
power to
4
emergency lighting
1.
limited lighting and vital auxiliaries
2.
3.
limited auxiliaries
4.
fireroom auxiliaries
5-55.
5-56.
reversing the direction of rotating
motor shafts
all the above purposes
The presence of salt water in the electrolyte of a battery can set up a
chemical reaction that is damagng to the
Battery.
Assume that you are assigned to a shiplo
If you see the
boat as boat engineer.
bowhook poudding on a steel bolt with a
steel hammer in the vicinity of the
battery compartment, you should stop him
immediately in order to prevent
1.
damage to the battery case
serious inidry from spilled electro2.
lyte
3.
4.
30
238
electrical shock
a possible battery explosion
1
4
5-57.
5-58.
The roloy-oporoted bottle lantorn in on
emergency lighting ,circuit
automatically whon the
I.
emergency switchboard is energized
2.
relay Jo connected to the circuit
3.
power to the circuit Jo phut off
4.
switchboard emergency circuit is
clooed
Rand (battle) lanterns installed throughout the ship that pro not connected to
relays are used for
1.
explooion proof light when needed in
newly opeRld voids
2.
nocesoary lighting when shifting
generators
3.
Droop not covered by the lighting
5-61.
n
4:
5-59.
5-60.
oroua
ighting diotribution oyotemo have
larger cobloo
5-62.
If o ohipio service generators furnish
current at 445 volts, what devices are
used to atop down the voltage to operate
110- to 120-volt equipment?
1.
Rheostats
2.
Controllers
3.
Transformers
4.
Voltage regulotora
5-63.
Only Electrician'o Mateo or I. C. Electriciano ohould topoir electrical equipment aboard a Arlo.
5-64.
You are repairing a motor-driven pump.
The motor circuit contains o switch.
You will be observing electrical safety
precautions' when you have an electrician
1.
disconnect the motor from the circuit
by opening the switch
2.
attach a warning tag to the switch
3.
connect the motor to the circuit by
closing the switch after the repair
work is done
4.
do all the above
distribution (*Totem
4.
Power and lighting distribution (*lot=
vary in that the
1.
oyotems have different power sources
2.
over diotribution systems carry
h her voltages
3.
power diotribution systems are more
emergency use only
Portable power tools in use on Navy ships
are provided with three conductors, the
third conductor is to
1.
provide heavier loads for heavier
work
2.
protect operators from shock
3.
permit reversing of dud-tool
4.
provide emergency service if one of
the conductors is damaged
Normally, electric current for the lights
in a ship's machinery spaces is conveyed
by
power distribution system,
It
31
239
Assignment 6
Internal Combustion EnAineo and Engineering Watches
Textbook Asoignment:
Chapters 12 and 13
6-5.
Learning objective: Recognize the
aoic principles of internal comib
bustion engines. Textbook pages
156 through 158.
6-6.
.6-1.
6-2.
An internal combustion engine converts
1.
thermal energy to mechanical energy
through the use of steam
2.
mechanical energy to thermal energy
through the burning of fuel in
cylinders
3.
thermal energy to mechanical energy
through the burning of a fuel-air
mixture in cylinders
4.
mechanical energy to thermal energy
through the use of steam
Which of the following events in the
operating cycle of a diesel engine does
not take place in the operating cycle of
a gasoline engine?
1.
Injection of fuel
2.
Compression of air
3.
Expanoion of gases
4.
Removal of burned gases
6-8.
With respect to which factor must 2-strokecycle diesel engines differ from 4-strokecycle diesel engines?
1.
Number of pistons
2.
Piston arrangement
3.
Number of piston strokes in a complete
cycle
4.
Distance a piston travels during a
stroke
in B
6-3.
The one-way distance a piston travels
between its upper and lower limits of
travel in a cylinder is referred to as a
1,7cycl
at
3.
4.
6-4.
6-9.
ke
s roke-cycle
revolution
When the piston nears the bottom of the
power stroke in the 2-stroke-cycle engine,
what is forced through the cylinder intake
ports?
1.
Fuel oil
2.
Scavenging air
3.
Lubricating oil
4.
Cooling water
During the intake stroke of a piston in a
4-stroke-cycle diesel engine, the piston
moves downward and draws a charge of air
into the cylinder through open intake
valves while exhaust valves remain closed.
.10
Power
6-7.
a spark in A and by expansion of
compressed gases in B
2i0
32
/?
During which of the following piston
otrokeo is power furnished to the crankshaft by the piston?
1.
Intake, compression, power, and
exhaust
2.
Intake, compression, and power
3.
Compression and power
4.
Combustion takes place in (A) a diesel
engine and (B) a gasoline engine as a
result of ignition by
1.
expansion of compressed gases in A and
by a spark in B
2.
heat of compression in A and by a spark
in B
3.
a spark in A and by heat of compression
4.
In the operation of a gasoline engine,
the force that puoheo the piston downward
io the
1.
compression of fuel-air mixture
2.
intake of fuel-air mixture
3.
expansion of burning gapes
4.
removal of burned [poen
A
6-10.
Which of tho'following reasons partially
accounts for the failure of a 2-atrokecycle engine to produce twice the power
of a 4- stroke -cycle engine of the came
aloe?
1.
1!,
6-13.
flat?
1.
A
2.
B
3.
C
Some power developeq, the 2-atrokecycle engine io used to force air
4.
C) into each cylinder
2.
Lean than all the combuotion,ganea
are scavenged from each cylinder of
the 2-atroke-cycle engine
3.
For a given air-fuel mixture, leas
fuel and air enter the cylinders of
the 2-atroke-cycle engine
4.
Any of the above reasons
Learning Objeei,ive:
The exhaust valvea in the cylinders of a
diesel engine are opened by action of the
1.
crankshaft
2.
connecting rode
3.
valve apring
I
4.
camshaft
6-15.
The motion of the cam in a diesel engine
is tranamitted to the exhaust valves-by
the action of the
1.
rocker arm and the bridge
2.
rocker lever shaft and the bridge
Identify the
indicate the r fpnctiono.
pages 159 through 164.
fOXtbook
6-16.
6-12.
The combustion chamber of a one-cylinder
diesel engine io sealed off from the
crankdaae by
1.
a piston and its rings
2.
an exhaust valve and an intake valve
3.
a piston and an exhaust valve
4. a piston and an intake valve
D
6-14.
Alain componentortbe.dieuel.crigine
6-11.
Which letter of figure 6A refers to the
part of a can that io known ao the cam
6-17.
The part of a diesel engine used to
change rotary motion to intermittent
reciprocating motion is the
1.
crankshaft
2.
driveshaft
3.
bearing
4. camshaft.
3.
rocker. lever shaft and the cam. roller
4.
rocker arm and valve guide
In a 2.-stroke-cycle engine, how many times
does the camshaft turn as the crankshaft
makes 16 turns?
1.
8
2.
16
3.
32
4.
64
The speed of a reciprocating engine is
the same as the speed of the engine's
crankshaft. Relative to engine speed,
how fast does the camshaft of an
8-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle engine turn?
1.
One-eighth as fast
2.
One-fourth as fast
3.
One-half as fast
4.
6-18.
-
6-19
Twice as fat
During the intake stroke of a 4-strokecycle engine, air is forced into the
cylinder by
1.
atmospheric pressure
2.
the pressure of exhaust gases
3.
rotary blowers
4.
unit injector
Describp the changes in the temperature
arid volume of the air in a cylinder of a
reciprocating engine during the compression. stroke of a piston.
1.
2.
3.
Temperature increases; volume
decreases
Both temperature and volume increase
Temperature detreases; volume
increases
Both temperature and votume decrease
.
4.
Figure 6A
241
33
4
6-20.
Which-of the following compression rttios
io typical of diesel engines?
1.
4:1
2.
5:1
3.
10:1
4.
5:1
6-26.
Fresh water and salt Water are both used
as coolinwagents in a type of diesel
engine.
In this engine the function of
the sea water is to
1.
cool the fresh water after it circulates through the engine
2.
replace the fresh water when its
temperaturF:exceeds 212° F
3.
supplement the supply of fresh water
lost due to evaporation
4.
sloW,down the cooling process when
higher engine operating temperatures
are desired
6-27.
How long may the electric starter
motor for a diesel engine be
operated?
Items 6-21 through 6-23 refer to the fuel""
auppl ayotem of texthlbok figure
.
6-21.
6-22.
6-23.
6-24.
Which c mponent functions to meter,
pressurize, and atomize the fuel?
Fuel pump
1.
2.
Inlet manifold
3.
Injector
4.
Outlet manifold
Which component &there for the last time
the fuel that enters the combustion
chamber of the engine?
Primary filter
1.
2.
Secondary filter
3.
Fuel pump
4.
Injector
1.
2.
3.
4.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
main components of the gasoline
engine and indicate their functions.
Textbook pages 165 through 169.
The speed of the engine is controlled by
varying the amount of fuel in ected into
the cylinders of the engine.
The fuel
charge is varied by
1.
rotating the plungers in he unit
injectors
t.
2.
enlarging the holes in the injector
nozzles
er47
3.
increasing the capacity of the fuel
pump
4.
changing the compression ratio of the
engine
Which of the following types of action
would most likely be necessary if the
lubrication system of an internal combustion engine should fail?
1.
Main oil line should be flushed out
2.
Oil pYessure gage should be replaced
3.
Camshaft gear and crankshoft gear
should be cleaned
4.
Engine should be completely overhauled
6-28.
In a gasoline engine carburetor the
mixture ratio is the number of
1.
pounds of gasoline vapor mixed with
each pound of air
2.
cubic feet of air mixed with each
cubic foot of gasoline vapor
3.
pounds of air mixed with each pound
of gasoline vapor
cubic feet of gasoline, vapor mixed
4.
with each cubic foot of air
6-29
Which of_the components of a gasoline
engine ignition system belong to the
secondary circuit of the system?
Battery, ignition switch, and breaker
1.
points
2.
6-25.
30 to 0 .seconds
30 se onds
2 to
minutes
3 to 5 minutes
The engine should be secured until the
trouble is located and corrected if
the oil pressure should drop to lower
1.
than normal
2.
the temperature"of the oil should
rise abnormally3.
either 1 or 2 above should occur
4.
the oil strainer should become clogged
3.
4.
64-30.
The device that serves as a selector
switch for channeling electricity to the
individual cylinders of a gasoline engine
is the
1.
condenser
2.
ignition switch
3.
distributor
4.
34
242
Distributor cap, distributor rotor,
and spark plugs
Battery, spark plugs, and condenser
Distributor cap, breaker points, and
coil
ignitiodcoil
A
6-31.
In the primary circuit of a gasoline
engine ignition bystem, current flows
from the ignition coil directly to the
1.
spark plugs
2.
distributor rotor
3.
breaker points
4.
battery
6-32
The breaker points of a gasoline engine
are protected from burning by
1.. a condenser
2.
a coil
3.
a ground to the engine frame
4.
ins
tors
6-33.
A recommended method of cleaning.fouled
spark plugs is to
1.
soak'them in cleaning fluid
2.
wirebrush or sandblast them
3.
rub them with an emery cloth
4.
scrub them with warm soapy water
Learning Objective: Identify the
main components of the gas turbine
engine and indicate their functions.
Textbook pages 167 through 169.
6-34.
6-35.
6-36.
6-37.
6-38.
Advantages of the gas turbine engine over
the diesel, engine include all of the
folibwin except
1.
less
bration at full power
2.
smalle number of components
3.
faster adjustment to varying loads
4.
smaller components for air inlet and
exhaust
6-39.
Which events occur in the forward section
of the gas-turbine engine?
1.
Compression and combustion
2.
Compression and expansion
3.
Combustion and expansion
4.
CombustiOn, compression, and expansion
6-40.
Which of the following parts are
in the power 9tput section of a gas
turbine?
1.
Compressor
2.
Burner
3.
Reduction gear
4.
Nozzle
6-41.
All of the following gas-turbine engine
accessories are driven by the rotor
except the
1.
fuel pump
2.
governor
3.
oil pump
4.
overspeed switch
Gas turbines are like reciprocating
engines in which of the following
respects?
1.
Air is compressed
2.
A fuel-air mixture is burned
3.
Combustion gases are ended in
4.
developing power
All of the above respects
Learning Objective: Recognize safe
procedures in the operation of small
boat engines. Textbook pages 169
and 170.
In gas turbine engines compression, combustion, and expansion take place in
three separate components while in
reciprocating engines these events occur
in only one component.
Which component serves the gas turbine
engine as the pistonjerves the reciprocating engine?
1.
Burner
2.
Turbine
3.
Rotor
4.
Compressor
6-42.
You are the engineer of a ship's small
boat and the coxswain rings three bells.
What does this signal mean?
1.
Full speed n the direction in which
you are
ng
2.
Ahead
ow
Rever
3.
4.
Neu al
6-43.
After ou start a cold diesel engine,
your next step is to run it at
1.
low speed until it warms up
2. ,low speed for a minute so you can
check the supply of lubricating oil
3.
top speed so you can check the fuel
and cooling systems for leaks
4.
top speed so you can check the oil
pressure
One advantage the gasoline engine has
over the gas turbine is that the gasoline
/
engine
1.
uses less explosive fuel
2.
consumes fuel at a slower rate
3.
needs fewer moving parts
4.
accelerates rapidly from cold starts
a.
35
243
6-44.
6-45.
If you find that the ex1aust of the diesel
engine of a small boat indicates no suction by the water pump during warm-up,
you.should
1.
stop the engine
pheck,the cooling systeni for clogged
2.
strainers
check the cooling system for closed
3.
sea valves
4.
do all the above
is
2.
3.
4.
6-47.
What is the maximum time lapse between
routine entries in the operating log?
1.
One half-hour
2.
One hour
3.
Four hours
Twenty-four hours
4.
6-50.
If a ship's workday ends at 1600, when
is the most likely time period for standing the sounding and, security watch?
1.
1600 to 2000
2.
1600 to 2400
1600 to 0400
3.
4.
1600 to 0800
6-51.
A sounding tube is generally constructed
A diesel engine has stopped running
because fuel is not'xreaching the engine
cylinders. Enciligh fuel remains in the
A possible cause of engine failure
tank.
1.
6-46.
6-49.
an accummulation of water in the
strainers
a plugged vent in the tank filler cap
a lack of either oil or cooling water
either 1 or 2 abov)
of
1.
2.
3.
4.
When a gasoline-powered boat is being
driven, which of the following precautions is needed in addition to those
that apply to a diesel-powered boat?
Being sure that there is enough
1.
cooling water
Being sure that the vent in the fuel
2.
tank filler cap is not plugged
Seeing that the engine compartment is
3.
ventilated so as to pievent an accumulation of flammable vapors
Seeing that there is an adequate
4.
supply of lubricating oil
^6-52.
6-53.
The cause of fuel system failure in a
diesel driven boat is often found to
2.
3.
4.
I-1-
4
Why are some sounding tubes constructed
so that they terminate in risers extending about three feet above the ship's
compartment to be served?
1.
They are unable to be extended to
the upper decks
They are straight
2.
3.
They have an upper end terminating
in a flush deck plate
They have a closed threaded plug
4.
Assume that a sounding tape shows a reading of one foo of liquid in a normally
dry compartment.
What action should be
Wait until the next time you take
soundings to see if the level has
increased
Notify the main engineroom so that,
2.
the level of liquid can be recorded
Pass the word about the liquid level
3.
to your relief
4. 'Notify'your watch supervisor
immediately
1.
improper cooling
water in the strainers
an ungrounded fueling hose
faulty spark plugs
Learning Objective: Recognize the
duties and responsibilities of
the FIREMAN standing engineering
watches in port and underway.
Textbook pages 170 through 176.
6-48.
pipr
taken?
be
1.
1/2-inch pipe
-iech
1 1/2-inch pipe
2
-inch pipe
1
6-54.
Why should you coat a sounding rod wfih
white chalk bef e taking a sounding of a
water tank?
To enable the rod to slip through the
1.
sounding tube without bending
To make it easier to see the dividing
2.
point between the dry and wet parts
of the rod
To facilitate leering the rod in the
3.
sounding tube
1
To keep the rod from hitting the
4.
bottom of the tank with enough force
to damage the rod
r
Which assignment is usually carried out
by the messenger of the watch during close
maneuvering conditions with other ships?
Shaft alley watchstander
1.
Telephone talker on the engineering
2.
JV circuit
Evaporator operator
3.
Throttleman
4.
2i4
36
6-55:
6-56.
6-57.
6-58-c
Assume dint you are on a cold=iron watch
and-you find that a welder is welding
in your area without a fire watch. What
action should you take first?
1.
Stop the welding
2.
Report to the OOD
3.
Station a fire watch
4:
Bring a fire extinguisher to the area
6-64.
6-65.,4ich watchstander in the engineroom is
responsible for keeping both the standby
main feed pump and standby lube oil pump
ready for instant,mse?
1.
Pumpman
2.
Upper level watchstander "
3.
Shaft alley watchstander
4.
Evaporator watchstander
When your ship is in drydock, feed water
may not be shifted without permission
from the
1.
officer of the deck
2.
chief machinist's mate
3.
engineer officer
4.
chief boiler technician
Which of the following jobs will a
burnerMan carry out on a shakedown CrU
while his ship is maneuvering?
1.
Control forced draft blower
2.
Warming up standby fuel oil pumps
3.
Performing routine maintenance
4.
Cutting burners in and out
6-66.
Who is responsible for maintainiqg the
proper water lever-in a deaerating feed
tank located in the engineroom
1.
Pumpman
2.
Upper level watchstander
3.
Checkman
4.
Evaporator watchstander
6-67.
A Fireman Apprentice should learn his
duty stations under various conditions
of battle readiness by
1.
checking with his division. officer
frequently
2.
memorizing the duties of his watch
3.
followit!g the ordeN of the petty
f the watch
4.
checking the Watch, Quarter, and
Station,dill frequently
ir
DurIng'regular steaming operations, which
watchstanders in the fireroom must
cooperate with -each other in mars
that concern the burning of fuel oil?
1. :Blowerman and burnerman
2.
Checkman and burnerman
3.
Messenger and blowerman
4.
'Messenger and checkman
In items 6-59 through 6-63, select from column B
the fireroom-watchs nder who performs the job
listed in column
Assume that.feed water is
being controlled
ually.
A.
Job
6-59.
Adjusting the
air registers
6-60.
Maintaining the
proper water
You can ldarn how a normal reading of a
throttleboard differs from an abnn
reading.by studying the throttleh
d
and asking the throttleman questions.
1
Watchstantler
1.
Mess
2.
Burnerman
3.
Blowerman
4.
Checkman
lakrel in the
boiler
6-61.
Regulating fuel
oil pressure at
the burners
6-62.
Recording temperature and pressure
readings in the
operating log
6-63.
Controlling the
C
forced 'draft blowers
ir US GOVERNMENT PRINTING 0I-FICL
19/b- 641-277:30
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