BENDIX AD-4 Installation guide

BENDIX AD-4 Installation guide
SD-08-2407
В®
BendixВ® AD-4в„ў Air Dryer
UPPER
BRACKET
UPPER
BRACKET
LOWER
BRACKET
LOWER
BRACKET
SUPPLY
PORT
CONTROL
PORT
SUPPLY
PORT
THERMOSTAT
TERMINAL
PURGE
EXHAUST
EXTENDED PURGE AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
DELIVERY PORT
PURGE
EXHAUST
STANDARD AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
FIGURE 1 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER MODELS
DESCRIPTION
The function of the AD-4в„ў air dryer is to collect and remove
air system contaminants in solid, liquid and vapor form before they enter the brake system. It provides clean, dry air
to the components of the brake system which increases
the life of the system and reduces maintenance costs. Daily
manual draining of the reservoirs is eliminated.
The AD-4в„ў air dryer consists of a desiccant cartridge and a
die cast aluminum end cover secured to a cylindrical steel
outer shell with eight cap screws and nuts. The end cover
contains a check valve assembly, a safety valve, purge valve
mechanism, a cast-in heater element with a replaceable
thermostat assembly and three threaded air connections.
The three air connections are identified with embossed
numbers and lettering. The identification and function of each
is as follows:
Port l.D.
Function/Connection
CON 4 ................ Control Port
(from unloader port on governor).
SUP 11 .............. Supply Port (air in).
DEL 2 ................ Delivery Port (air out).
A cast-in heater element and replaceable thermostat with
an external terminal are provided.
The voltage and wattage requirements of the heater and
thermostat are shown with embossed numbers and letters
in the recess adjacent to the control port marked “CON.”
1
CHECK
VALVE
ORIFICE
PURGE VOLUME
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
DESICCANT
BED
OIL SEPARATOR
CHECK
VALVE
DELIVERY
PORT
HEATER
EXHAUST
PORT
CONTROL
GOVERNOR
PURGE
VALVE
COMPRESSOR
SUPPLY RESERVOIR
FIGURE 2 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER CHARGE CYCLE
OPERATION OF THE AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
The AD-4в„ў air dryer alternates between two operational
modes or “cycles” during operation: the charge cycle and
the purge cycle. The following description of operation is
separated into these “cycles” of operation.
CHARGE CYCLE (refer to Figure 2)
When the compressor is loaded (compressing air)
compressed air, along with oil, oil vapor, water and water
vapor flows through the compressor discharge line to the
supply port of the air dryer end cover. The flow velocity or the
speed at which the air and its contaminants travel down the
discharge line is reduced substantially as it enters the air
dryer end cover baffle system behind the supply port. As air
travels through the baffle system, its direction of flow changes
by 180 degrees several times, reducing the temperature,
causing contaminants to condense and drop to the bottom
or sump of the air dryer end cover.
After exiting the end cover baffle system, the air flows into
the desiccant cartridge. Once in the desiccant cartridge air
first flows through an oil separator which removes water in
liquid form as well as oil, oil vapor and solid contaminants.
2
Air exits the oil separator and enters the desiccant drying
bed. Air flowing through the column of desiccant becomes
progressively dryer as water vapor adheres to the desiccant
material in a process known as “adsorption”. The desiccant
cartridge using the adsorption process typically removes
95% of the water vapor from the pressurized air.
The majority of dry air exits the desiccant cartridge through
its integral single check valve to fill the purge volume between
the desiccant cartridge and outer shell. Some air will also
exit the desiccant cartridge through the purge orifice adjacent
to the check valve.
Dry air flows out of the purge volume through the single
check valve assembly and out the delivery port to the first
(supply) reservoir of the air system.
The air dryer will remain in the charge cycle until air brake
system pressure builds to the governor cutout setting.
PURGE CYCLE (refer to Figure 3)
When air brake system pressure reaches the cutout setting
of the governor, the compressor unloads (air compression
stopped) and the purge cycle of the air dryer begins. The
CHECK
VALVE
ORIFICE
PURGE VOLUME
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
DESICCANT
BED
OIL SEPARATOR
CHECK
VALVE
DELIVERY
PORT
EXHAUST
PORT
CONTROL
GOVERNOR
HEATER
PURGE
VALVE
COMPRESSOR
SUPPLY RESERVOIR
FIGURE 3 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER PURGE CYCLE
line connecting the governor unloader port to the AD-4в„ў air
dryer end cover control port is pressurized when the governor
unloads the compressor. Air pressure at the AD-4в„ў air dryer
end cover control port is also present on the purge valve
piston. The purge piston moves in response to air pressure
causing the purge valve to open to atmosphere.
Contaminants in the end cover sump are expelled
immediately when the purge valve opens. Also, air which
was flowing through the desiccant cartridge changes direction
and begins to flow toward the open purge valve. Oil, water
and solid contaminants collected by the oil separator are
removed by air flowing from the desiccant drying bed to the
open purge valve.
The initial purge and desiccant cartridge decompression lasts
only a few seconds and is evidenced by an audible burst of
air at the AD-4в„ў air dryer exhaust.
The actual reactivation of the desiccant drying bed begins
as dry air flows from the purge volume through the desiccant
cartridge purge orifice and into the desiccant drying bed.
Pressurized air from the purge volume expands after passing
through the purge orifice; its pressure is lowered and its
volume increased. The flow of dry air through the drying bed
reactivates the desiccant material by removing the water
vapor adhering to it. Generally 15-30 seconds are required
for the entire purge volume of a standard AD-4в„ў air dryer to
flow through the desiccant drying bed.
The end cover single check valve assembly prevents air
pressure in the brake system from returning to the air dryer
during the purge cycle. After the 30 second purge cycle is
complete, the air dryer is ready for the next charge cycle to
begin.
The purge valve will remain open after the purge cycle is
complete and will not close until air brake system pressure
is reduced and the governor signals the compressor to
charge.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Important: Review the warranty policy before performing
any intrusive maintenance procedures. An extended warranty
may be voided if intrusive maintenance is performed during
this period.
Because no two vehicles operate under identical conditions,
maintenance and maintenance intervals will vary. Experience
is a valuable guide in determining the best maintenance
interval for any one particular operation.
3
CHECK
VALVE
PURGE
ORIFICE
PURGE VOLUME
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
DESICCANT
BED
CHECK VALVE
ASSEMBLY
PERFORATED PLATE
OIL SEPARATOR
NUT
SEALING RING
WASHER
SEALING RING
SEALING RING
SEALING RING
END COVER
SPECIAL
WASHER
HEX HEAD
SCREW
SPRING
DELIVERY
PORT
PURGE
VALVE
EXHAUST
DIAPHRAGM
PURGE PISTON
EXHAUST
COVER
SUPPLY
PORT
O-RING
FIGURE 4 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER SECTIONAL VIEW
Every 900 operating hours or 25,000 miles or every three
(3) months:
1. Check for moisture in the air brake system by opening
reservoirs, drain cocks, or valves and checking for
presence of water. If moisture is present, the desiccant
may require replacement; however, the following
conditions can also cause water accumulation and
should be considered before replacing the desiccant:
A. An outside air source has been used to charge the
system. This air did not pass through the drying bed.
B. Air usage is exceptionally high and not normal for a
highway vehicle. This may be due to accessory air
demands or some unusual air requirement that does
not allow the compressor to load and unload
(compressing and non-compressing cycle) in a
normal fashion. Check for high air system leakage.
If the vehicle vocation has changed it may be
necessary to upgrade the compressor size. Refer to
Appendix A, Table A and the column entitled Vehicle
Vocation.
4
C. The air dryer has been installed in a system that
has been previously used without an air dryer. This
type system will be saturated with moisture and
several weeks of operation may be required to dry it
out.
D. Location of the air dryer is too close to the air
compressor. Refer to Locating AD-4в„ў Air Dryer On
Vehicle section and Appendix A, Table A, column 2
for discharge line length.
E. In areas where more than a 30 degree range of
temperature occurs in one day, small amounts of
water can accumulate in the air brake system due
to condensation. Under these conditions, the
presence of small amounts of moisture is normal
and should not be considered as an indication that
the dryer is not performing properly.
Note: A small amount of oil in the system may be normal
and should not, in itself, be considered a reason to
replace the desiccant; oil stained desiccant can function
adequately.
2. Check mounting bolts for tightness. Retorque to 270385 inch pounds.
3. Perform the Operation & Leakage Tests listed in this
publication.
6. Check the operation of the end cover heater and
thermostat assembly during cold weather operation as
follows:
A. Electric Power to the Dryer
With the ignition or engine kill switch in the ON
position, check for power at the dryer’s electrical
terminal using a voltmeter or test light. On a single
terminal AD-4™ air dryer’s disconnect the lead wire
at the end cover terminal post. Place the test leads
on the lead wire and a GOOD vehicle ground. On
dual terminal AD-4™ air dryer’s disconnect both lead
wires at the end cover terminal posts. If there is no
voltage indicated, look for a blown fuse, broken wires,
or corrosion in the vehicle wiring harness. Check to
see if a good ground path exists.
Every 10,800 hours or 300,000 miles or 36 months:
1. Rebuild the air dryer including the desiccant cartridge.
Note: The desiccant change interval may vary from vehicle
to vehicle. Although typical desiccant cartridge life is three
years, many will perform adequately for a longer period of
time. In order to take maximum advantage of desiccant life
and assure that replacement occurs only when necessary,
it is important that Operation & Leakage Tests be performed.
WARNING!
This air dryer is intended to remove moisture and other
contaminants normally found in the air brake system.
Do not inject alcohol, anti-freeze, or other de-icing
substances into or upstream of the air dryer. Alcohol
is removed by the dryer, but reduces the effectiveness
of the device to dry air. Use of other substances can
damage the air dryer and may void the warranty.
B. Thermostat and Heater Operation
Turn off the ignition switch and cool the end cover
assembly to below 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Using an
ohmmeter, check the resistance between the
electrical terminal and the metal end cover (see Figure
5). (Note: On the dual terminal end cover, check the
resistance between the two terminals.) The
OPERATION & LEAKAGE TESTS
1. Test the outlet port check valve assembly by building
the air system to governor cut-out and observing a test
air gauge installed in the supply reservoir. A rapid loss of
pressure could indicate a failed outlet port check valve.
(Note: Purge valve will be open when governor cut-out
pressure is reached. Allow 45 seconds after governor
cut-out occurs to complete the purge cycle before testing
the check valve.) Coat the exhaust with a soap solution.
Leakage should not exceed a 1" bubble in 1 second.
2. Check for excessive leakage around the purge valve.
With the compressor in loaded mode (compressing air),
apply a soap solution to the purge valve housing
assembly exhaust port and observe that leakage does
not exceed a 1" bubble in 1 second. If the leakage
exceeds the maximum specified, service the purge valve
housing assembly.
3. Close all reservoir drain cocks. Build up system pressure
to governor cut-out and note that AD-4в„ў air dryer purges
with an audible escape of air. “Fan” the service brakes
to reduce system air pressure to governor cut-in. Note
that the system once again builds to full pressure and is
followed by an AD-4в„ў air dryer purge.
4. Check the operation of the safety valve by pulling the
exposed stem while the compressor is loaded
(compressing air). There must be an exhaust of air while
the stem is held and the valve should reseat when the
stem is released.
5. Check all lines and fittings leading to and from the air
dryer for leakage and integrity.
HEATER POST
1
9
8
9
A
10
7
B
11
6
THERMOSTAT
COVER
1
5
4
3
1
2
SINGLE WIRE SYSTEM
BOLD NUMBERS ARE ITEMS IN MAINTENANCE KITS
1
9
11
10
8
7
6
5
BOOT
4
3
2
1
BOOT
CONNECTIONS FOR POWER
AND INSULATED RETURN
DUAL WIRE SYSTEM
FIGURE 5 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER SINGLE AND DUAL
TERMINAL THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLIES
5
resistance should be 2.0 to 4.0 ohms for the 12 volt,
60 watt end cover and 4.0 - 7.0 ohms for the 24 volt,
120 watt end cover. These resistance values apply
to either single or dual terminal air dryer end covers.
Warm the end cover assembly to over 90 degrees
Fahrenheit and again check the resistance as above.
The resistance should exceed 1000 ohms for both
single and dual terminal air dryers. If the resistance
values obtained are within the stated limits, the
thermostat and heater assembly is operating properly.
If the resistance values obtained are outside the
stated limits, proceed to Step C to determine the
cause.
C. Heater Element Inspection
With the ignition or engine control switch “off”, remove
the thermostat cover (see Figure 5). Using an
ohmmeter, check the resistance between the metal
end cover and the heater post (see Figure 5). (Note:
On the dual terminal end cover, check the resistance
between the two terminals.) For a 12 volt, 60 watt
end cover, the resistance should be 2.0 - 2.8 ohms
and for a 24 volt, 120 watt end cover, 4.0 - 5.6 ohms.
These resistance values apply to either single or dual
terminal air dryer end covers. If the heater resistance
value obtained is outside the stated limits, a new or
remanufactured end cover should be installed, since
the heater element cannot be serviced. Check that
a good ground path exists between the air dryer end
cover casting and the vehicle chassis. Correct if
needed. If the heater resistance value obtained is
within the stated limits the thermostat should be
replaced (Kit Number 102657) or a new or
remanufactured end cover installed. Note: The dual
terminal air dryer cover requires kit number 103982.
D. Reassembly
Reinstall the thermostat cover as illustrated in Figure
5. Take special care to assure the rubber spacer
and the gasket are correctly installed, to assure
proper operation.
REBUILDING THE AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
GENERAL
If, after completing the routine operation and leakage tests,
it has been determined that one or more components of the
air dryer requires replacement or maintenance, refer to the
following list to find the appropriate kit(s).
When rebuilding or replacing components of the air dryer
use only genuine Bendix parts. For ease in servicing the
AD-4 в„ў air dryer desiccant cartridge assembly, it is
recommended that the air dryer be removed from the vehicle.
6
MAINTENANCE KITS AVAILABLE:
103817 Major Maintenance Kit
This kit contains the parts necessary to completely
rebuild the AD-4в„ў air dryer (desiccant cartridge
included) and includes kit 103980.
103818 AD-4в„ў Air Dryer Purge Valve Maintenance Kit
This kit contains the parts necessary to rebuild the
AD-4в„ў air dryer end cover purge valve only.
103879 AD-4в„ў Air Dryer Seal Kit
This kit contains the outlet port check valve and the
o-rings and seals required when removing the end
cover assembly. This kit is included with kits 103980
and 103981.
103980 End Cover Maintenance Kit
This kit contains the parts necessary to rebuild the
end cover of the AD-4в„ў air dryer and includes kit
103818.
103981 Desiccant Cartridge Replacement Kit
This kit contains the parts necessary to change
the desiccant cartridge only.
102657 Thermostat Maintenance Kit (single terminal
models)
This kit contains the parts necessary to rebuild a
single terminal thermostat assembly in the AD-4в„ў
air dryer.
103982 Thermostat Maintenance Kit (dual terminal
models)
This kit contains the parts necessary to rebuild a
two terminal thermostat assembly (insulated
ground).
288918 Thermostat Cover Replacement Kit (single
terminal models)
This kit contains the necessary components for
replacing the non-metallic thermostat cover.
104964 Thermostat Cover Replacement Kit (dual terminal
models)
This kit contains the necessary components for
replacing the non-metallic thermostat cover.
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS TO AVOID
PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following
general precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and always block the wheels.
Always wear safety glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When
working in the engine compartment, the engine
should be shut off and the ignition key should be
removed. Where circumstances require that the
engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should
be used to prevent personal injury resulting from
contact with moving, rotating, leaking, heated or
electrically charged components.
MOUNTING STRAP
LOCKWASHER
CAP SCREW
5/16” X 4-1/2”
NUT
SEALING RING
BRACKET
MOUNTING STRAP
LOCKWASHER
CAP SCREW
5/16” X 4-1/2”
BRACKET
SEALING PLATE
NUT
MOUNTING BRACKET HOOK
(4) DESICCANT CARTRIDGE
CAP SCREW
& LOCKWASHER
(8) LOCK NUT
(8) SPECIAL
WASHER
SEALING RING
AIR DRYER
HOUSING
SEALING RING
PURGE PISTON
O-RING
SPRING
CONTROL
PORT
CHECK VALVE
ASSEMBLY
SUPPLY PORT
DELIVERY
PORT
END COVER
HEATER
VOLTAGE
SHOWN
SPECIAL
WASHER
(8) CAP SCREW 3/8”
SAFETY
VALVE
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
PURGE VALVE
EXHAUST
DIAPHRAGM
1/2” CAP SCREW
EXHAUST COVER
SCREW
SEALING RING
THERMOSTAT
ASSEMBLY
FIGURE 6 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER ASSEMBLY
7
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or
assemble a component until you have read and
thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air
brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized air
systems, make certain to drain the air pressure from
all reservoirs before beginning ANY work on the
vehicle. If the vehicle is equipped with an AD-ISв„ў
air dryer system or a dryer reservoir module, be
sure to drain the purge reservoir.
5. Following
the
vehicle
manufacturer’s
recommended procedures, deactivate the electrical
system in a manner that safely removes all
electrical power from the vehicle.
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended
pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove a
component or plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix В® replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment and
be designed specifically for such applications and
systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired. Do
not attempt repairs requiring machining or welding
unless specifically stated and approved by the
vehicle and component manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make
certain all components and systems are restored to
their proper operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Antilock Traction Control (ATC),
the ATC function must be disabled (ATC indicator
lamp should be ON) prior to performing any vehicle
maintenance where one or more wheels on a
drive axle are lifted off the ground and moving.
в„ў
AD-4 AIR DRYER REMOVAL
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and prevent movement
by means other than the brakes.
2. Drain all reservoirs to 0 p.s.i. (0 kPa).— Caution:
Compressor discharge line may still contain residual
pressure.
3. Identify and disconnect the three air lines from the end
cover and note the position of end cover ports relative to
the vehicle.
4. Pull boot from the thermostat and heater cover and slide
it onto the wire to expose the connection. Remove nut
and disconnect electrical wire from the terminal. Note:
Vehicles with insulated ground (2 wire) system will have
two boots and two terminals to be disconnected. (See
Figures 5 & 8.)
5. Loosen the 5/16" X 4-1/2" hex bolt securing the upper
and lower mounting straps. Disengage the mounting
8
LOWER RIGHT ANGLE
BRACKET
END
COVER
LOCK NUT
EXTRA
LONG
CAP SCREW
SPECIAL
WASHER
FIGURE 7 - LOWER BRACKET INSTALLATION
bracket hook from the end cover (Refer to Figure 6.)
Note: If the AD-4в„ў air dryer being serviced has a right
angle bracket instead of a lower mounting strap and
safety hook, proceed to step 6, otherwise proceed to
step 7.
6. Remove, retain and mark the two 3/8" end cover cap
screws, lock nuts and four special washers that retain
the lower mounting bracket to the end cover, also mark
these two holes of the end cover. (These bolts are longer
than the other 6 bolts.)
7. Remove the AD-4в„ў air dryer from its mounting brackets
on the vehicle.
DISASSEMBLY
The following disassembly and assembly procedure is
presented for reference purposes and presupposes that a
major rebuild of the AD-4в„ў air dryer is being undertaken.
Several replacement parts and maintenance kits are available
which do not require full disassembly. The instructions
provided with these parts and kits should be followed in lieu
of the instructions presented here. Refer to Figure 6 during
disassembly.
Caution: While performing service on the AD-4в„ў air
dryer, it is not recommended that a clamping device
(vise, C-clamp, etc.) be used to hold any die cast
aluminum component as damage may result. To hold
the end cover, install a pipe nipple in the supply port
and clamp the nipple into a vise.
1. Remove the remaining 3/8" lock nuts, special washers
and cap screws from the flange of the air dryer and
separate the end cover from the air dryer outer housing.
Separate the desiccant cartridge and sealing plate from
the end cover. Remove and discard the three sealing
rings. One sealing ring is located in the groove on the
sealing plate and the other two are in grooves in the end
cover.
2. Remove 1/4" cap screw from the bottom of the purge
valve and remove the diaphragm washer, exhaust
diaphragm and purge valve. Discard the exhaust
diaphragm and purge valve. Remove purge piston. Note:
Hold piston down when removing cap screw due to spring
tension.
3. Remove and discard the check valve assembly in the
recess at the delivery port of the end cover.
4. Remove the safety valve from the end cover (only if it has
been determined that it needs replacement during service
checks).
5. To remove the thermostat see the appropriate section in
this manual (only if it has been determined that it needs
replacement during service checks).
6. Remove purge piston and spring from the top side of the
cover.
7. Remove o-ring from the purge piston and discard the
o-ring.
8. Remove the four 1/4" cap screws and lockwashers that
secure the sealing plate to the desiccant cartridge.
Separate the sealing plate from the desiccant cartridge
and discard the sealing ring at the base of the cartridge.
CLEANING & INSPECTION
1. Using mineral spirits or an equivalent solvent, clean and
thoroughly dry all metal parts.
2. Inspect the interior and exterior of all metal parts that
will be reused for severe corrosion, pitting and cracks.
Superficial corrosion and or pitting on the exterior portion
of the upper and lower body halves is acceptable.
3. Inspect the bores of both the end cover for deep scuffing
or gouges.
4. Make certain that all purge valve housing and end cover
passages are open and free of obstructions.
5. Inspect the pipe threads in the end cover. Make certain
they are clean and free of thread sealant.
6. Inspect the purge valve housing bore and seat for
excessive wear and scuffing.
7. Inspect the purge valve piston seat for excessive wear.
8. Inspect all air line fittings for corrosion. Clean all old
thread sealant from the pipe threads.
9. All o-rings removed should be discarded and replaced
with new o-rings provided in appropriate kit(s).
Any component exhibiting a condition described in step 1
to 8 should be replaced.
ASSEMBLY
Prior to assembly, coat all o-rings, o-ring grooves, and bores
with a generous amount of barium base lubricant.
Important Note: The single exception to prelubrication
is the sealing ring between the desiccant cartridge and
sealing plate. Refer to step number 8 for proper
installation of this sealing ring. Refer to Figure 6 during
assembly unless otherwise advised.
1. Place return spring into cavity in the center of top side of
end cover.
2. Install the purge piston o-ring on the purge piston and
place the purge piston inside the return spring installed
in Step 2.
3. Turn end cover over on a flat clean surface (making sure
purge piston and return spring remain in proper position.)
Compress the return spring by pushing down on the end
cover and align square shank of purge piston into mating
hole in the end cover.
4. Place the diaphragm washer, diaphragm, and purge valve
onto the 1/4" cap screw.
5. Install the 1/4" cap screw with parts on it into exhaust
cover and torque to 60-80 inch pounds.
6. Install safety valve (if removed) and torque to 120-400
inch pounds, making sure that the exhaust hole is
pointed downward when the dryer is installed.
7. Install thermostat (if removed). Refer to instructions
pertaining to thermostat installation under section
Thermostat Assembly.
8. Place sealing ring on bottom of desiccant cartridge. The
desiccant cartridge, sealing ring and sealing plate should
be wiped and free of lubricant prior to this assembly
procedure. Attach cartridge to plate (smooth side of plate
opposite cartridge) with four 1/4" socket head cap screws
and lockwashers. Torque to 80-100 inch pounds.
9. Install the two sealing rings in the recesses of the end
cover.
10. Install the check valve assembly into the end cover
making sure the tang on the check valve assembly fits
into the mating recess in the end cover.
11. Place desiccant cartridge and sealing plate assembly
onto end cover. (Taking care not to displace sealing rings.)
The large hole in the sealing plate must line up with the
check valve and spiral pins in the sealing plate must
enter corresponding holes in the end cover.
12. Install the outer sealing ring on the sealing plate. Place
the outer housing over the desiccant cartridge (lining up
marks made on the outer housing and end cover prior to
disassembly) and retain with eight 3/8" hex head bolts,
special washers, and lock nuts. Refer to Figure 8 for
torque pattern. Torque to 270-385 inch pounds. Note: If
9
3/8" bolts require replacement, insure that the
replacement bolts are grade 5 minimum and the same
length as the original bolts. Use of inferior bolts can
compromise the integrity of the air dryer and lead to
premature failure. Where a lower, right angle mounting
bracket (instead of a lower mounting strap) is used; line
up the marks made on the outer housing and end cover.
Install the six (standard) 3/8" cap screws, lock nuts and
twelve special washers. The two longer 3/8" cap screws
will be used to secure the AD-4в„ў air dryer to the right
angle mounting bracket.
Note: If during the Operation & Leakage Tests it was
determined that the thermostat was inoperative, use the
following procedure for repair or replacement. It is not
necessary to replace this unit each time the end cover
is rebuilt. Use thermostat maintenance kit 102657 for
single terminal application. For dual terminal application,
use kit #103982. (See Figure 5.)
5. Cut uninsulated thermostat wire at Point B, remove and
discard thermostat and terminal assembly (1).
6. Clean remaining wire attached to heater terminal.
7. Clean thermostat “pocket” in end cover (9).
THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY (Refer to Figure 5)
1. Cut uninsulated lead of new thermostat (1) at Point A.
2. Install thermostat in end cover pocket and position
uninsulated leads next to each other.
3. Using a soldering heat sink, clamp uninsulated leads at
Point B and solder leads with straight rosin core solder.
Do not use acid core solder as corrosion can result.
Clean excess solder off end cover.
4. Install thermostat terminal (1) in cover (6).
THERMOSTAT DISASSEMBLY (Refer to Figures 5
5. Install o-ring (5), washer (4), and nut (2). Torque nut to
20-30 inch pounds. Then install lockwasher (3) and nut
(2) finger tight to allow for reconnection of electrical wire
when reinstalled on vehicle.
and 8)
6. Install spacer (11) over thermostat (1).
1. Remove nut (2), then lockwasher (3), plain washer (4),
nut (2) and o-rings (5). Discard o-ring and retain other
parts.
7. Install gasket (7) and thermostat cover (6) and secure
thermostat cover to end cover (9) using screws (7) and
lockwashers (8).
2. Remove and retain four Phillips head screws (7) and
cover (6).
8. Torque to 20-30 inch pounds.
A. At a temperature above 90 degrees Fahrenheit,
check resistance between thermostat terminal (1)
and end cover (9). Resistance should be 1,000 ohms
or greater; if not, check for solder “path” short.
3. Remove and discard gasket (10).
4. Remove and retain spacer (11).
DELIVERY
PORT
SAFETY
VALVE
6
9. Test thermostat as follows:
2
HEATER
VOLTS/WATTS
EMBOSSED
HERE
CONTROL
PORT
B. Chill entire end cover assembly to 40 degrees
Fahrenheit or below and check resistance again.
Resistance should be 2-4 ohms for a 12 volt, 60 watt
end cover and 4-7 ohms for a 24 volt, 120 watt end
cover.
4
5
UNLOADER
“UNL”
PORT
SUPPLY
PORT
1&9
3
7
AD-4в„ў
AIR
DRYER
SUP
8
MOUNTING
BRACKET
HOOK
FIGURE 8 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER END COVER WITH TORQUE
PATTERN
10
COMPRESSOR
GOVERNOR
RESERVOIR
“RES”
PORT
CON
8-10 AMP FUSE
TO IGNITION
DEL
SUPPLY
RESERVOIR
FIGURE 9 - AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER INSTALLATION SCHEMATIC
RE-INSTALLATION
1. Install the assembled AD-4в„ў air dryer (if an AD-4в„ў air
dryer with a lower right angle bracket instead of a lower
mounting strap is being serviced proceed to step #2) on
the vehicle by sliding it into mounting brackets until
mounting bracket hook catches under the lip of the cover.
Proceed to step #3.
2. Install the assembled AD-4в„ў air dryer back onto the
vehicle by slipping it into the upper mounting bracket.
Align the two unused holes in the end cover with the
bottom mounting bracket such that the bottom bracket
supports air dryer. The AD-4в„ў air dryer end cover should
rest on the bracket. Using the remaining two 3/8" cap
screws, four special washers, and two locknuts, secure
the air dryer to the lower bracket. Tighten, then torque
the two remaining cap screws to 270-385 in. Ibs.
3. Tighten the 5/16" x 4-1/2" bolt and nut on the upper
mounting bracket. Torque to 80-120 in Ibs.
4. Reconnect the three airlines to the proper ports on the
end cover (identified during disassembly).
5. Reconnect the thermostat and heater wire and place
boot in position to protect connection by forcing it over
knob on plastic cover.
6. Before placing vehicle back into service, perform the
Operation and Leakage Tests stated elsewhere in this
manual.
RETROFITTING THE AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
GENERAL
The following retrofit instructions are presented for reference
purposes only since Bendix aftermarket retrofit and
replacement air dryers are packaged with the most up-todate installation instructions. The instructions packaged with
the AD-4в„ў air dryer should be followed in lieu of those
presented here.
The preceding portion of this manual deals with “in-service”
repair and or replacement of the AD-4в„ў air dryer. The portion
of the manual that follows is concerned with installing an
AD-4в„ў air dryer on a vehicle not previously equipped with
one.
VEHICLE APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS
The basic application requirements presented here apply to
a standard air dryer installation. The majority of highway
vehicles in use today will meet these basic requirements
however, some may not. Examples of vehicles that may not
meet the requirements include bulk trailer unloading
operations and other high air consumption/continuous flow
systems. While the AD-4в„ў air dryer can be used on these
vehicles the standard installation procedure presented in
this manual may require modification to assure proper
operation and service life. Consult your local authorized
Bendix parts outlet or sales representative for additional
information.
1. Charge Cycle Time - The AD-4в„ў air dryer is designed to
provide clean, dry air for the brake system. When a
vehicle’s air system is used to operate non-brake air
accessories it is necessary to determine that during
normal, daily operation the compressor should recover
from governor “cut-in” to governor “cut-out” (usually 100
psi to 120 psi) in 90 seconds or less at engine RPMs
commensurate with the vehicle vocation. If the recovery
time consistently exceeds this limit, it may be
necessary to “bypass” the air accessory responsible for
the high air usage. Consult your local authorized Bendix
parts outlet or sales representative for additional
information.
2. Purge Cycle Time - During normal vehicle operation, the
air compressor must remain unloaded for a minimum
of 20 seconds for the standard AD-4в„ў air dryer or 30
seconds for the extended purge model. These
minimum purge times are required to ensure complete
regeneration of the desiccant material. If the purge time
is occasionally shorter than the times specified, no
permanent ill effect should be expected, however, if the
purge time is consistently less than the minimum, an
accessory by-pass system must be installed.
3. European Air Brake Systems - Brake systems that
incorporate compressors without integral unloading
mechanisms and/or utilize a compressor discharge line
unloader valve have special AD-4в„ў air dryer installation
requirements. Consult your local authorized Bendix parts
outlet or sales representative for additional information.
4. Air Compressor Size - Although the AD-4в„ў air dryer can
be used in conjunction with larger compressors, it was
designed primarily for units rated for up to 17 CFM. It is
recommended that when using the AD-4в„ў air dryer with
a compressor which has a rated displacement exceeding
17 CFM that an authorized Bendix parts outlet or Bendix
marketing representative be contacted for assistance.
5. Holset “E or QE” Type Air Compressors - In order for the
AD-4в„ў air dryer to function properly when installed with
the Holset Type “E or QE” compressor, several
specialized Holset components are required. Consult
your local authorized Holset parts outlet or sales
representative for additional information.
6. Use of Standard or Extended Purge AD-4в„ў Air Dryer Use the following guidelines:
Total Vehicle Reservoir
Volume
Requirement
Less than 9,000 cu. in. ................... Standard AD-4в„ў Air Dryer
9,000 - 12,500 cu. in. ............................ Extended Purge AD-4в„ў
Air Dryer
Greater than 12,500 cu. in. ............. Contact Bendix Rep. or
Bendix Engineering
11
VEHICLE PREPARATION
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and prevent movement
by means other than the brakes.
2. Drain all reservoirs to 0 p.s.i. (0 kPa).
LOCATING AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER ON VEHICLE
1. The AD-4в„ў air dryer must be mounted vertically (purge
exhaust toward road surface) outside the engine
compartment in an area of air flow while the vehicle is in
motion. The AD-4в„ў air dryer must not be exposed to
direct wheel splash (located behind axle mud flap is
acceptable).
2. Locate the AD-4в„ў air dryer as close to the first (supply)
reservoir as possible.
3. Do not locate the AD-4в„ў air dryer near heat producing
components such as the vehicle exhaust and make
certain adequate clearance from moving components
(e.g. drive shaft, suspension, pitman arm, etc.) is
provided.
4. Locate the AD-4в„ў air dryer on vehicle so that a minimum
of 11 inches (28 cm) clearance below the end cover is
available to allow servicing. Alternatively, provide access
to the bracket bolts so the unit may be removed for
servicing.
5. When choosing the mounting location for the AD-4в„ў air
dryer, note the discharge line length requirements stated
under the heading Connecting the Air Lines, elsewhere
in this instruction sheet.
Important Note: Under normal operating conditions, the
maximum inlet air temperature for the AD-4в„ў air dryer is
160 degrees Fahrenheit.
MOUNTING THE AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
1. Assemble the mounting strap and mounting bracket as
illustrated in Figures 5 & 6 using the 5/16" screws, nuts
and lock washers. Make certain the mounting bracket
hook is installed on the 5/16" screw of the lower mounting
bracket and that it engages the AD-4в„ў air dryer end cover.
Make certain that the inside surface of the top mounting
strap bears entirely on the cylindrical surface of the dryer
shell and that it does not overlap the domed top. The
brackets should be a minimum of 5.5 inches apart. After
positioning the mounting straps according to the
installation requirements, torque both 5/16" screws to
80-120 inch pounds.
Note: The mounting bracket at the base of the AD-4в„ў air
dryer can be of two types. The one described above or a
single piece right angle bracket. (See Figure 7.) To install
the single piece lower mounting bracket, remove and
discard two of the bolts and nuts that retain the end
cover. Install the lower mounting bracket as shown in
Figure 7. Utilizing the bolts and lock nuts provided with
12
the bracket and placing the washers removed in proper
sequence, torque to 270-330 inch pounds. To determine
which end cover bolts to utilize to attach the bracket,
take into consideration the piping connections required
to install the AD-4в„ў air dryer and use those that will best
position the unit for ease of installation.
2. A universal mounting plate (Pc. No. 248478) is available
to facilitate the mounting of the AD-4в„ў air dryer. It is not
included in kits but can be obtained through an authorized
Bendix parts outlet.
3. Use 3/8" bolts (grade 5 min.) and washers (not furnished)
to mount the AD-4в„ў air dryer to the vehicle. Torque to 25
ft. Ibs. (300 inch pounds).
CONNECTING THE AIR LINES
PURGE CONTROL LINE
1. Install a purge control air line having a minimum inside
diameter of 3/16 inches between the AD-4в„ў air dryer
end cover control port and an unused unloader port on
the governor. The control line must be plumbed direct to
the governor and not in series with automatic drain valves,
lubrication systems, etc.
2. The control line should slope downward to the end cover
without forming potential water traps.
DISCHARGE LINE
General:
Refer to Appendix A, Table A for recommended discharge
line lengths and sizes for various vehicle applications and
vocations.
PURGE EXHAUST LINE
1. If it is necessary to direct AD-4в„ў air dryer discharge
contaminants away from vehicle components a 1.5 inch
(38.1 mm) I.D. hose can be clamped on the AD-4в„ў air
dryer exhaust cover.
WIRING THE HEATER/THERMOSTAT
1. Note the required voltage and wattage for the AD-4в„ў air
dryer heater by checking the end cover as shown in
Figure 8.
2. Remove the rubber boot covering the single electrical
terminal of the standard AD-4в„ў air dryer end cover. Install
a 16 gauge wire between the “on” position of the vehicle
ignition or engine “kill” switch and the heater/thermostat
electrical terminal. An 8-10 amp fuse is required in this
line regardless of voltage.
3. For AD-4в„ў air dryer end covers with a dual terminal (See
Figure 6) heater connections, the power and insulated
return wires may be connected to either terminal. An
8-10 amp fuse should be installed in the power carrying
wire. Use 16 gauge wire for both power and return.
4. All electrical connections must be waterproofed.
5. Tie wrap or support all electrical wire leading to the
AD-4в„ў air dryer at 6 - 8 inch intervals. Note: Wires should
have sufficient slack and not be completely taught.
TESTING THE AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER
Before placing the vehicle in service, perform the following
tests:
1. Close all reservoir drain cocks.
2. Build up system pressure to governor cut-out and note
that the AD-4в„ў air dryer purges with an audible escape
of air.
3. “Fan” the service brakes to reduce system air pressure
to governor cut-in. Note that the system once again builds
to full pressure and is followed by a purge at the AD-4в„ў
air dryer exhaust.
4. It is recommended that the following items be tested for
leakage to assure that the AD-4в„ў air dryer will not cycle
excessively.
(A) Total air system leakage (See Bendix publication
BW-5057 “Air Brake Handbook”).
(B) Compressor unloader mechanism.
(C) Governor.
(D) Drain cock and safety valve in first (supply) reservoir.
(E) All air connections leading to and from the first
(supply) reservoir.
13
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
SYMPTOMS
1. Dryer is constantly
“cycling” or purging.
Dryer purges frequently
(every 4 minutes or less
while vehicle is idling).
CAUSE
A. Excessive system
leakage.
IMPORTANT: Note whether
air pressure loss is shown
on dash gauge(s). Pressure
loss shown on gauges is
caused by service brake
system or component
leakage. Pressure loss NOT
SHOWN on gauges is
caused by supply system or
component leakage.
REMEDY
A. If leakage IS SHOWN on gauges test for
excessive service brake system leakage.
Allowable leakage:
Single vehicle - 1 psi/minute either service
reservoir.
Tractor trailer - 3 psi/minute either service
reservoir. Repair and retest as required.
B. If leakage is NOT SHOWN on gauges test for
excessive supply system leakage.
Remove drain cock or valve in supply reservoir (wet
tank) and install air gauge. Build system pressure,
allow air dryer to purge and observe air gauge in
supply reservoir. Pressure drop should not exceed 1
psi per minute. Perform tests 1 to 6 in the order
presented.
14
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
REMEDY
1. Test fittings, hoses, lines and connections.
Apply soap solution to detect excessive
leakage. Tighten or replace as needed then
repeat the air dryer charge-purge cycle and
observe the gauge installed in the supply
reservoir. If leakage is within limits remove gauge
from reservoir and replace drain cock or valve. If
excessive leakage is detected, continue testing.
2. Test accessories connected to supply reservoir.
Drain all air pressure from system, disconnect
all air lines leading to accessories (fan clutch,
wipers, air seats, etc.) and plug the reservoir at
disconnection point. Build air system pressure
until air dryer purges and observe supply
reservoir gauge. If leakage is no longer
excessive, repair or replace leaking accessory. If
excessive leakage is detected, continue testing.
3. Test governor leakage. Build system pressure to
governor cut-out, turn off engine and apply soap
solution to governor exhaust port and around
cap. Leakage should not exceed a 1" bubble in
5 seconds. Reduce system pressure to 80 psi
or less, and re-apply soap solution. Leakage
should not exceed a 1" bubble in 5 seconds. If
excessive leakage is detected in either test,
repair or replace governor.
4. Test compressor unloader leakage. Drain all air
pressure from system and remove the governor
from the compressor. Temporarily plug the
governor unloader port or air line that mated with,
or connected to, the compressor. Build air
system pressure until air dryer purges then
IMMEDIATELY SHUT OFF THE ENGINE.
Observe the air gauge in the supply reservoir. If
leakage is within limits, replace the compressor
unloaders. Re-connect the governor to the
compressor (after removing plug installed in
governor) and retest while observing supply
reservoir gauge. If excessive leakage is
detected, continue testing.
5. Test air dryer purge valve and outlet (delivery)
check valve. Drain all air pressure from system,
remove the control line connection at the air
dryer and plug the end of the air line leading to
the governor (not the air dryer control port). Build
system pressure to governor cut-out and observe
air gauge. If little or no pressure drop is observed
replace the air dryer check valve. If pressure
drop continues apply soap solution to air dryer
purge exhaust and purge control port (where the
control line was removed). Leakage should not
exceed a 1" bubble in 5 seconds. If leakage is
excessive repair or replace purge valve
assembly.
15
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
REMEDY
6. With gauge installed at RES port of governor,
pressure should not drop below ”Cut-In” pressure
at the onset of the compressor “Unloaded”
cycle. If pressure drops, check for “kinks” or
restrictions in line connected to RES port. Line
connected to RES port on governor must be
same diameter, or preferably larger than, lines
connected to UNL port(s) on governor.
B. Leaking purge valve in air
dryer end cover (control
side).
B. Remove end cover. Apply 120 psi at control port.
Soap both sides around purge valve to test for
control piston leakage. Leakage should not
exceed a 1" bubble in less than 5 seconds.
C. Holset “E” type
compressor.
C. Test the Holset E Compressor unloader system
with feedback line and check valve for proper
operation. Make certain Holset ECON is not
used with the drop-in version of the air dryer, if
so, remove and retest.
When installing a Bendix Drop-In air dryer in a
system equipped with a Holset E or QE
compressor, remove the Holset ECON valve along
with its feed back and governor control line.
2. Water and/or Oil in
Supply or Service
Reservoir.
16
A. Improper discharge line
length or improper line
material. Maximum air
dryer inlet temperature is
exceeded.
A. Refer to section entitled Connecting the Air Lines
as well as Appendix A, Table A columns 1 & 2
then and check line size and length.
B. Air system charged from
outside air source
(outside air not passing
through air dryer).
B. If system must have outside air fill provision,
outside air should pass through air dryer. This
practice should be minimized.
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
2. Water and/or Oil in
Supply or Service
Reservoir (continued).
CAUSE
REMEDY
C. Air dryer not purging
(see Symptom #5).
C. See Symptom #5.
D. Purge (air exhaust) time
insufficient due to
excessive system
leakage (see causes for
Symptom #1).
D. Check causes and remedies for Symptom #1.
E. Excessive air usage,
duty cycle too high - Air
dryer not compatible
with vehicle air system
requirement (Improper air
dryer/vehicle
application).
E. See Appendix A, Table A, column 1, for
recommended compressor sizes. If the
compressor is “too small” for the vehicle vocation
(for example, where a vehicle’s vocation has
changed or service conditions exceed the original
vehicle or engine OE spec’s) then upgrade the
compressor. Note: The costs incurred (e.g.
installing a larger capacity compressor, etc.) are
not covered under original compressor warranty.
NOTE: Duty Cycle is the
ratio of time the compressor
spends building air to total
engine running time. Air
compressors are designed
to build air (run “loaded”) up
to 25% of the time. Higher
duty cycles cause
conditions that affect air
brake charging system
performance which may
require additional
maintenance. Factors that
add to the duty cycle are: air
suspension, additional air
accessories, use of an
undersized compressor,
frequent stops, excessive
leakage from fittings,
connections, lines,
chambers or valves, etc.
Charge Cycle Time - The AD-4в„ў air dryer is
designed to provide clean, dry air for the brake
system. When a vehicle’s air system is used to
operate non-brake air accessories it is necessary
to determine that; during normal, daily operation
the compressor should recover from governor
“cut-in” to governor “cut-out” (usually 100 psi to
120 psi) in 90 seconds or less at engine RPM’s
commensurate with the vehicle vocation. If the
recovery time consistently exceeds this limit, it
may be necessary to “bypass” the air accessory
responsible for the high air usage. An example of
where a by-pass system would be required is
when the compressor is used to pressurize a
tank trailer for purposes of off-loading product.
Consult your local authorized Bendix parts outlet
or sales representative for additional information.
Purge Cycle Time - During normal vehicle
operation, the air compressor must remain
unloaded for a minimum of 30 seconds. This
minimum purge time is required to ensure
complete regeneration of the desiccant material.
If the purge time is consistently less than the
minimum, an accessory by-pass system must be
installed. Consult your local authorized Bendix
parts outlet or sales representative for additional
information.
Air Compressor Size - Although the AD-4в„ў air
dryer can be used in conjunction with larger
compressors, it was designed primarily for units
rated for up to 30 CFM. It is recommended that
when using the AD-4в„ў air dryer with a
compressor which has a rated displacement
exceeding 30 CFM that an authorized Bendix
parts outlet or Bendix marketing representative
be contacted for assistance.
17
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
2. Water and/or Oil in
Supply or Service
Reservoir (continued).
CAUSE
F. Air compressor
discharge and/or air
dryer inlet temperature
too high.
REMEDY
F. Restricted discharge line. See Appendix A,
Table A, column 1 & 2 for recommended sizes.
If discharge line is restricted or more than 1/16"
carbon build up is found, replace the discharge
line. Replace as necessary.
Discharge Line Freeze-Up The discharge line must
maintain a constant slope down from the
compressor to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low
points where ice may form and block the flow. If,
instead, ice blockages occur at the air dryer inlet,
insulation may be added here, or if the inlet fitting is
a typical 90 degree fitting, it may be changed to a
straight or 45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, see
Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21 and TCH-08-22. Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be required
in cold climates.
Insufficient coolant flow through compressor.
Inspect coolant line. Replace as necessary (I.D.
is 1/2" min.). Inspect the coolant lines for kinks
and restrictions and fittings for restrictions.
Replace as necessary. Verify coolant lines go
from engine block to compressor and back to the
water pump. Repair as necessary.
Restricted air inlet (not enough air to
compressor). Check compressor air inlet line for
restrictions, brittleness, soft or sagging hose
conditions etc. Repair as necessary. Inlet line
size is 3/4 ID. Maximum restriction requirement
for compressors is 25 inches of water. Check the
engine air filter and service if necessary (if
possible, check the air filter usage indicator).
Poorly filtered inlet air (poor air quality to
compressor). Check for leaking, damaged or
malfunctioning compressor air inlet components
(e.g. induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter bodies,
etc.). Repair inlet components as needed. Note:
Dirt ingestion will damage compressor and is not
covered under warranty.
If you found excessive oil present in the service
reservoir and you did not find any issues above,
the compressor may be passing oil.
Replace compressor. If still under warranty, follow
normal warranty process.
G. Compressor malfunction.
G. If you found excessive oil present in the service
reservoir and you did not find any issues above,
the compressor may be passing oil. Test the
compressor using the BASIC cup method as
described in the Bendix compressor service
manual and referred to in Appendix A, Table A,
column 5.
Replace compressor. If still under warranty, follow
normal warranty process.
18
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
CAUSE
REMEDY
H. Air by-passes desiccant
cartridge assembly.
H. If vehicle uses Holset compressor, inspect
feedback check valve for proper installation and
operation.
SYMPTOMS
When replacing the desiccant cartridge, make
sure desiccant cartridge assembly is properly
installed and sealing rings are in place on
mounting surface of desiccant cartridge.
I.
Desiccant requires
replacement.
I.
Replace desiccant cartridge assembly. Refer to
Appendix A, Table A columns 3 & 4 for
recommended intervals.
3. Oil present at air dryer
purge exhaust or
cartridge during
maintenance.
A. Air brake charging
system is functioning
normally.
A. Air dryers remove water and oil from the air
brake charging system. A small amount of oil is
normal. Check that regular maintenance is
being performed and that the amount of oil in the
air tanks (reservoirs) is within the acceptable
range shown on the BASIC cup (see also
column 5 of Appendix A, Table A). Replace the
air dryer cartridge as needed and return the
vehicle to service.
4. Safety valve on air dryer
“popping off” or
exhausting air.
A. Restriction between air
dryer and supply (first)
reservoir.
A. Check to determine if air is reaching supply
reservoir. Inspect for kinked tubing or hose.
Check for undrilled or restricted hose or tubing
fittings and repair or replace as needed.
B. Air dryer safety valve
malfunction.
B. Verify relief pressure is at vehicle or component
manufacturer specifications. Replace if
malfunctioning.
C. Desiccant cartridge
maintenance required.
C. Refer to Appendix A Table A and column 3.
Check compressor for excessive oil passing
and/or correct compressor installation. Repair or
replace as necessary. Replace desiccant
cartridge.
D. Malfunctioning discharge
check valve in end cover
of the AD-4в„ў air dryer.
D. Test to determine if air is passing through check
valve. Repair or replace.
E. Excessive pressure
pulsations from
compressor. (Typical
single cylinder type).
E. Increase volume in discharge line by increasing
length or diameter. Add a ping tank (small
reservoir).
19
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
5. Constant exhaust of air
at air dryer purge valve
exhaust. (Charge
mode.)
6. Can not build system air
pressure.
7. Air dryer does not purge
or exhaust air.
20
CAUSE
REMEDY
F. Governor malfunction.
Missing or restricted
governor control line
installation.
F. Test governor operation and/or inspect the
control line leading from the governor UNL
(unloader) port to the air dryer control port.
A. Air dryer purge valve
leaking excessively.
A. With compressor loaded, apply soap solution
on purge valve exhaust, to test for excessive
leakage. Repair purge valve as necessary.
B. Compressor fails to
unload (stop
compressing air) and air
dryer purge exhaust
makes “sputtering” or
“popping” sound.
B. Confirm failure to unload by increasing &
decreasing engine RPM and noting change in
the rate of leakage and intensity of
accompanying leakage sound. Repair/replace
compressor unloaders.
C. Purge control line
connected to reservoir or
exhaust port of governor.
C. Purge control line must be connected to
unloader port of governor.
D. Purge valve frozen open malfunctioning heater
and thermostat, wiring,
blown fuse.
D. Test heater and thermostat as described in
Preventative Maintenance Section.
E. Excessive system
leakage.
E. See Symptom #1.
F. Purge valve stays open supply air leaks to
control side.
F. Repair purge valve and housing.
A. Inlet and outlet air
connections reversed.
A. Connect compressor discharge to air dryer
supply port. Reconnect lines properly.
B. Check valve between air
dryer and first reservoir.
B. Test check valve for proper operation. Repair or
replace as necessary.
C. Kinked or blocked
(plugged) discharge line.
C. Check to determine if air passes through
discharge line. Check for kinks, bends,
excessive carbon deposits, or ice blockage.
D. Excessive bends in
discharge line (water
collects and freezes).
D. Discharge line should be constantly sloping from
compressor to air dryer with as few bends as
possible.
E. Refer to Symptom 4,
causes E & F.
E. Refer to Symptom #4, Remedies E & F.
A. Missing, broken, kinked,
frozen, plugged or
disconnected purge
control line.
A. Inspect control line from governor UNL (unloader)
port to control port of air dryer. Test to determine
air flows through purge control line when
compressor unloaded. Check for undrilled
fittings. (See Symptom #4, Remedy C.)
B. Faulty air dryer purge
valve.
B. After determining air reaches purge valve
(Remedy A above), repair purge valve.
C. See Causes, B, E, G for
Symptom #4.
C. Refer to Remedies B, E, G for Symptom #4.
AD-4в„ў AIR DRYER TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
REMEDY
8. Desiccant material being
expelled from air dryer
purge valve exhaust
(may look like whitish
liquid or paste or small
beads.)
A. This symptom is almost
always accompanied by
one or more of
Symptoms 1, 2, 3, 4 and
5. See related causes for
these Symptoms above.
A. See Causes and Remedies for Symptoms 1, 2,
3, 4 and 5.
B. Air dryer not securely
mounted. (Excessive
vibration.)
B. Vibration should be held to minimum. Add
bracket supports or change air dryer mounting
location if necessary.
C. Malfunctioning or
saturated desiccant
cartridge.
C. Replace desiccant cartridge assembly.
D. Compressor passing
excessive oil.
E. Desiccant cartridge not
assembled properly to
end cover. (Loose
attachment)
D. Check for proper compressor installation; if
symptoms persist, replace compressor.
A. Single cylinder
compressor with high
pulse cycles.
A. A slight “pinging” sound may be heard during
system build up when a single cylinder
compressor is used. If this sound is deemed
objectionable, it can be reduced substantially
by increasing the discharge line volume.
- OR Unsatisfactory desiccant
life.
9. “Pinging” noise
excessive during
compressor loaded
cycle.
E. Check the torque on the desiccant cartridge
to end cover attachment. Refer to assembly
section of this data sheet.
This can be accomplished by adding an
additional four feet of discharge line or adding a
90 cubic inch reservoir between the compressor
and the AD-4в„ў air dryer. IMPORTANT: Do not
exceed the line lengths requirements specified
in this manual.
10. Constant seepage of air
at air dryer purge valve
exhaust (non-charging
mode.)
11. The air dryer purge
piston cycles rapidly in
the compressor
unloaded (noncompressing) mode.
A. Defective check valve
assembly in AD-4в„ў air
dryer end cover.
A. Refer to Remedy C, Symptom #1.
B. Leaking Turbo Cutoff
valve.
B. Repair or replace purge valve assembly.
C. Leaking purge valve
control piston o-ring.
C. Repair or replace purge valve assembly.
A. Compressor fails to
“unload”.
A. Faulty governor installation; no air line from
governor to compressor or line is kinked or
restricted. Install or repair air line.
21
Appendix A
Table A: Maintenance Schedule and Usage Guidelines
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most important factor in maintaining the air brake charging system.
Column 1
Vehicle Used for:
Typical
Compressors
No. of
Spec'd
Axles
Column 2
Discharge
Line
I.D.
Length
1/2 in.
6 ft.
Column 3
Recommended
Air Dryer
Cartridge
Replacement 1
Column 4
Recommended
Reservoir
Drain
Schedule2
Column 5
Acceptable
Reservoir
Oil Contents3
at Regular
Drain Interval
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. Line haul single trailer
with air suspension,
school bus.
5
or
less
High Air Use
e.g. Double/triple trailer, open
highway coach/RV, (most)
pick-up & delivery, yard or
terminal jockey, off-highway,
construction, loggers, concrete
mixer, dump truck, fire truck.
8
or
less
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. City transit bus, refuse,
bulk unloaders, low boys,
urban region coach, central
tire inflation.
22
12
or
less
BendixВ® Tu-FloВ® 750 air compressor
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
9 ft.
Every 3
Years
1/2 in.
9 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
1/2 in.
5/8 in.
Recommended
Every
Month Max of every
90 days
12 ft.
For the
BASIC
Test Kit:
Order
Bendix
P/N
5013711
Every 2
Years
15 ft.
Every
Month
5/8 in.
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
3/4 in.
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
3 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
BendixВ® BA-922в„ў, or DuraFloв„ў 596 air
compressor
e.g. Line haul single trailer
w/o air suspension, air over
hydraulic brakes.
5
or
less
BendixВ® BA-921в„ў air compressor
Compressor with less than 15% duty
cycle
BendixВ® Tu-FloВ® 550 air compressor
Low Air Use
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
5 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
Every
Year
15 ft.
Footnotes:
1 With increased air demand the air dryer cartridge needs to be replaced more often.
2 Use the drain valves to slowly drain all reservoirs to zero psi.
3 Allow the oil/water mixture to fully settle before measuring oil quantity.
4 To counter above normal temperatures at the air dryer inlet, (and resultant oil-vapor passing
upstream in the air system) replace the discharge line with one of a larger diameter and/or
longer length. This helps reduce the air's temperature. If sufficient cooling occurs, the oilvapor condenses and can be removed by the air dryer. Discharge line upgrades are not
covered under warranty. Note: To help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, shorter discharge
line lengths or insulation may be required in cold climates. (See Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21
and TCH-08-22, included in Appendix B, for more information.)
5 For certain vehicles/applications, where turbo-charged inlet air is used, a smaller size
compressor may be permissible.
Note: Compressor and/or air dryer
upgrades are recommended in cases
where duty cycle is greater than the
normal range (for the examples above).
For BendixВ® Tu-FloВ® 550 and 750
compressors, unloader service is
recommended every 250,000 miles.
Appendix B
Additional Troubleshooting Information
The troubleshooting procedure presented on the following pages has been excerpted from a laminated card entitled:
Troubleshooting Charging and Air Supply Systems. The complete card can be obtained from authorized Bendix parts
outlets under literature number BW1779. It is presented here because of the air dryers connection to the supply air system
and for convenience. The procedure is not all inclusive but rather represents the most commonly encountered complaints.
STANDARD SINGLE CHECK VALVE
(USED W/INTEGRAL PURGE AIR
DRYERS)
GOVERNOR
LOW PRESSURE
INDICATOR
DASH
GAUGE
CONVENTIONAL
SUPPLY SYSTEM
& INTEGRAL PURGE
AIR DRYER
REAR
SAFETY
VALVE
SUPPLY
TWO CYL.
COMPRESSOR
AIR DRYER
FRONT
STANDARD SINGLE
CHECK VALVE
SAFETY
VALVE
GOVERNOR
HOLSET TYPE
"E & QE"
COMPRESSOR
WITH ECON
VALVE
AIR
DRYER
REAR
LOW
PRESSURE
INDICATOR
SUPPLY
HOLSET
“E OR QE”
COMPRESSOR
FRONT
HOLSET
ECON VALVE
SPECIAL
SINGLE CHECK
("CHOKE" IN INLET)
STANDARD SINGLE
CHECK VALVE
SAFETY
VALVE
GOVERNOR
HOLSET TYPE
"E & QE"
COMPRESSOR
W/O ECON
VALVE
DASH
GAUGE
AIR DRYER
DRAIN COCK
LOW PRESSURE
INDICATOR
REAR
DASH
GAUGE
SUPPLY
HOLSET
“E OR QE”
COMPRESSOR
SPECIAL
SINGLE CHECK
("CHOKE" IN INLET)
SINGLE CHECK PROTECTION VALVE
(USED W/SYSTEM
PURGE AIR DRYERS)
FRONT
SINGLE CHECK VALVE (USED
W/INTEGRAL PURGE AIR DRYERS)
23
24
BW1450 В© 2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC All rights reserved. 10/2004 Printed in U.S.A.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement