Oracle Workflow Guide - Oracle Documentation

Oracle Workflow Guide - Oracle Documentation
Oracle WorkflowT Guide
Release 2.0.3
Part No. A56104–01
Oracle Workflow Guide, Release 2.0.3
Part No. A56104–01
Copyright E 1997 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Siu Chang
Contributors: George Buzsaki, George Kellner, Rama Kocherlakota, Kevin Hudson, David
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Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About This User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Do Not Use Database Tools to Modify Oracle Applications
Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Information Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related User’s Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thank You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
viii
ix
xii
xii
Chapter 1
Overview of Oracle Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to Oracle Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major Features and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1–1
1–2
1–3
1–6
Chapter 2
Setting Up Oracle Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oracle Workflow Hardware and Software Requirements . . . . . .
Implementing Oracle Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Set Up Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optional Set Up Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Workflow Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying the Version of Your Oracle Workflow Server . . .
Setting Up an Oracle Workflow Directory Service . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predefined Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2–1
2–2
2–4
2–4
2–5
2–5
2–6
2–7
2 – 10
Contents
v
vi
vii
i
Creating the WF_LANGUAGES View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the WF_RESOURCES Environment Variable . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow . . .
Identifying the Oracle Workflow Administration Role . . . . . . . .
Setting Up the Workflow Monitor and Oracle Workflow’s
Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secure the Workflow Database Connection Descriptor (DCD) . .
Implementing the Notification Mailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Your Message Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Background Workflow Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Custom Icons to Oracle Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Oracle Workflow Access Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a Default Access Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Workflow Definitions Loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 – 19
2 – 21
2 – 25
2 – 36
2 – 43
2 – 47
2 – 48
2 – 52
2 – 54
Chapter 3
Defining Workflow Process Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Oracle Workflow Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Navigator Tree Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the Navigator Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Process Definitions in Oracle Workflow Builder . . . . . .
Opening and Saving Item Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Item Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allowing Access to an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lookup Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–1
3–2
3–3
3–4
3–6
3–8
3 – 14
3 – 24
3 – 26
3 – 30
3 – 41
Chapter 4
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Fonts in Oracle Workflow Builder . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Shortcut Icon for a Workflow Process . . . . . . . . . .
Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4–1
4–2
4 – 13
4 – 14
4 – 16
Chapter 5
Predefined Workflow Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 – 1
Standard Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 – 2
Default Error Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 – 16
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Oracle Workflow Guide
2 – 13
2 – 14
2 – 15
2 – 18
Chapter 6
Defining PL/SQL Procedures for Oracle Workflow . . . . . . . . . .
Standard API for PL/SQL Procedures Called by Function
Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard API for an Item Type Selector or Callback Function . .
Standard API for a ”PL/SQL” Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6–2
6–5
6–9
Chapter 7
Oracle Workflow APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oracle Workflow Procedures and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of the Workflow Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Engine APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Core APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Purge APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Directory Services APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Monitor APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oracle Workflow Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Notification APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notification Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notification APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7–1
7–2
7–3
7–8
7 – 34
7 – 42
7 – 49
7 – 58
7 – 62
7 – 67
7 – 67
7 – 69
Chapter 8
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Notification Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing Notifications in the Notification Viewer
(for Oracle Applications Users Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing Notifications via Electronic Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Notifications from a Web Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing a Summary of Your Notifications via
Electronic Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Rules for Automatic Notification Handling . . . . . .
Accessing the Oracle Workflow Home Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8–1
8–2
8 – 18
8 – 20
8 – 27
Chapter 9
Monitoring Workflow Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Workflow Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Status Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workflow Monitor Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9–1
9–2
9–2
9–3
9–8
Chapter 10
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process . . . . . . . . . . . 10 – 1
Requisition Approval Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 – 2
Contents
6–1
8–2
8–6
8 – 12
iii
Installing the Demonstration Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying a Process Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Workflow Demonstration Item Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of the Requisition Approval Process . . . . . . . . . . .
Requisition Approval Process Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of the Notify Approver Subprocess . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notify Approver Subprocess Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initiating the Requisition Approval Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Function Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Select Approver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Verify Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Notification Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Notify Requisition Approval Required . . . . . . . . .
10 – 3
10 – 5
10 – 6
10 – 8
10 – 10
10 – 15
10 – 16
10 – 18
10 – 26
10 – 26
10 – 29
10 – 32
10 – 32
Chapter 11
Workflow Administration Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 – 1
Miscellaneous SQL Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 – 2
Appendix A
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus and Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . A – 1
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A – 2
Oracle Workflow Builder Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A – 6
Appendix B
Oracle Applications Embedded Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B – 1
Predefined Workflows Embedded in Oracle Applications
and Oracle Self–Service Web Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B – 2
Glossary
Index
iv
Oracle Workflow Guide
Preface
Welcome to the Oracle Workflow Guide.
This guide includes the information you need to work with Oracle
Workflow effectively. It contains detailed information about the
following:
• Overview and reference information
• Oracle Workflow implementation suggestions
• Oracle Workflow functions and features
This preface explains how this guide is organized and introduces other
sources of information that can help you.
Preface
v
About This User’s Guide
This guide is the primary source of information about Oracle Workflow.
It contains overviews as well as task and reference information. This
guide includes the following chapters:
• Chapter 1 provides an overview of Oracle Workflow.
• Chapter 2 describes how to implement Oracle Workflow for your
site.
• Chapter 3 describes how to define the components necessary to
build a workflow process.
• Chapter 4 describes how to draw and define a workflow process
diagram.
• Chapter 5 describes the standard activities provided with Oracle
Workflow.
• Chapter 6 describes the standard APIs for the PL/SQL functions
that can be called by Oracle Workflow.
• Chapter 7 provides detailed information about Oracle
Workflow’s APIs.
• Chapter 8 discusses how a user can view and act on a workflow
notification.
• Chapter 9 describes how to use the Workflow Monitor to
administer or view the status of a workflow process.
• Chapter 10 describes the demonstration workflow process
included with the standalone version of Oracle Workflow.
• Chapter 11 describes the miscellaneous administrative SQL
scripts included with Oracle Workflow.
• Appendix A describes the Oracle Workflow Builder menus and
toolbar.
• Appendix B lists the predefined workflow processes that are
included with the Oracle Applications–embedded version of
Oracle Workflow.
This guide is available online
The paper and online versions of this manual have identical content;
use whichever format is most convenient.
vi
Oracle Workflow Guide
If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, note that this guide is available online, in Windows Help,
HTML and Adobe Acrobat format.
The Windows Help version of this book is optimized for onscreen
reading, and lets you follow hypertext links to various topics. The
Windows Help is available from the Oracle Workflow Builder Help
menu.
The HTML version of this book is optimized for onscreen reading, and
lets you follow hypertext links for easy access to books across our
entire library. The HTML documentation is available from the Oracle
Applications toolbar, or from a URL provided by your system
administrator.
You can also order an Oracle Applications Documentation Library CD
containing Adobe Acrobat versions of each manual in the Oracle
Applications documentation set. Using this CD, you can search for
information, read it onscreen, and print individual pages, sections, or
entire books. When you print from Adobe Acrobat, the resulting
printouts look just like pages from an Oracle Applications hardcopy
manual.
Note: There may be additional material that was not available
when this user’s guide was printed. To learn if there is a
documentation update for this product, look at the main menu
on this product’s HTML help.
If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, note that
this guide is available online, in both Windows Help and HTML
format.
The Windows Help is available from the Oracle Workflow Builder Help
menu.
The HTML documentation is available from a URL provided by your
system administrator.
Assumptions
This guide assumes you have a working knowledge of the principles
and customary practices of your business area. If you have never used
Oracle Workflow, we suggest you attend an Oracle Workflow training
class available through Oracle Education. (See Other Information
Sources for more information about Oracle Workflow and Oracle
training.)
Preface
vii
This guide also assumes you have a basic understanding of operating
system concepts and familiarity with Oracle7 or Oracle8, PL/SQL, and
Oracle WebServer/Oracle Application Server technology. If you have
not yet been introduced to any of these systems, we suggest you attend
one or more classes available through Oracle Education.
Do Not Use Database Tools to Modify Oracle Applications Data
Oracle provides powerful tools you can use to create, store, change,
retrieve and maintain information in an Oracle database. But if you use
Oracle tools like SQL*Plus to modify Oracle Workflow data, you risk
destroying the integrity of your data and you lose the ability to audit
changes to your data.
Because Oracle Workflow tables are interrelated, any change you make
using an Oracle Workflow user interface or API can update many
tables at once. But when you modify Oracle Workflow data using
anything other than an Oracle Workflow user interface or API, you may
change a row in one table without making corresponding changes in
related tables. If your tables get out of synchronization with each other,
you risk retrieving erroneous information and you risk unpredictable
results throughout Oracle Workflow.
When you use Oracle Workflow user interfaces or APIs to modify your
data, Oracle Workflow automatically checks that your changes are
valid. But, if you enter information into database tables using database
tools, you may store invalid information.
Consequently, we STRONGLY RECOMMEND that you never use
SQL*Plus, Oracle Data Browser, database triggers, or any other tool to
modify Oracle Workflow tables, unless we tell you to do so in our
manuals.
Other Information Sources
You can choose from many sources of information, including
documentation, training, and support services, to increase your
knowledge and understanding of Oracle Workflow.
If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, most Oracle Applications documentation is available in
Adobe Acrobat format on the Oracle Applications Documentation Library
CD. We supply this CD with every software shipment.
viii
Oracle Workflow Guide
If this manual refers you to other Oracle Applications documentation,
use only the Release 11 versions of those manuals unless we specify
otherwise.
Related User’s Guides
Oracle Workflow is used by other Oracle Applications products to
provided embedded workflows. Therefore, you may want to refer to
other user’s guides to learn more about the embedded workflows.
If you do not have the hardcopy versions of these manuals, you can
read them by choosing Library from the Help menu, or by reading
from the Oracle Applications Document Library CD, or by using a web
browser with a URL that your system administrator provides.
Oracle General Ledger User’s Guide
Use this manual when you plan and define your chart of accounts,
accounting period types and accounting calendar, functional currency,
and set of books. It also describes how to define journal entry sources
and categories so you can create journal entries for your general ledger.
If you use multiple currencies, use this manual when you define
additional rate types, and enter daily rates. This manual also includes
complete information on implementing Budgetary Control.
Oracle Purchasing User’s Guide
If you install Oracle Purchasing, refer to this user’s guide to read about
entering and managing the purchase orders to which you match
invoices.
Oracle HRMS User’s Guide
This manual explains how to enter your employees, so you can enter
expense reports for them. It also explains how to set up organizations
and site locations.
Oracle Receivables User’s Guide
Use this manual to learn how to implement flexible address formats for
different countries. You can use flexible address formats in the
suppliers, banks, invoices, and payments windows.
Preface
ix
Oracle Projects User’s Guide
If you install Oracle Projects, use this user’s guide to learn how to enter
expense reports in Projects that you import into Payables to create
invoices. You can also use this manual to see how to create Project
information in Projects which you can then record for an invoice or
invoice distribution.
Oracle Financials Open Interfaces Guide
This guide is a compilation of all open interface discussions in all
Oracle Financial Applications user’s guides.
Oracle Applications Implementation Wizard User’s Guide
If you are implementing more than one Oracle product, you can use the
Oracle Applications Implementation Wizard to coordinate your setup
activities. This guide describes how to use the wizard.
Oracle Applications Developer’s Guide
This guide contains the coding standards followed by the Oracle
Applications development staff. It describes the Oracle Application
Object Library components needed to implement the Oracle
Applications user interface described in the Oracle Applications User
Interface Standards. It also provides information to help you build your
custom Developer/2000 forms so that they integrate with Oracle
Applications.
Installation and System Administration
Oracle Applications Installation Manual
This manual and the accompanying release notes provide information
you need to successfully install Oracle Financials, Oracle Public Sector
Financials, Oracle Manufacturing, or Oracle Human Resources in your
specific hardware and operating system software environment.
Oracle Applications Upgrade Manual
This manual explains how to prepare your Oracle Applications
products for an upgrade. It also contains information on finishing the
upgrade procedure for each product. Refer to this manual and the
Oracle Applications Installation Manual when you plan to upgrade your
products.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Oracle Applications System Administrator’s Guide
This manual provides planning and reference information for the
Oracle Applications System Administrator. It contains information on
how to define security, customize menus and online help, and manage
processing.
Oracle Application Object Library Technical Reference Manual
The Oracle Applications Object Library Technical Reference Manual contains
database diagrams and a detailed description of Oracle Application
Object Library and Oracle Workflow and related applications database
tables, forms, reports, and programs.
You can order a technical reference manual for any product you have
licensed. Technical reference manuals are available in paper format
only.
Other Information
Training
Oracle Education offers a complete set of training courses to help you
and your staff master Oracle Applications. We can help you develop a
training plan that provides thorough training for both your project
team and your end users. We will work with you to organize courses
appropriate to your job or area of responsibility.
Training professionals can show you how to plan your training
throughout the implementation process so that the right amount of
information is delivered to key people when they need it the most. You
can attend courses at any one of our many Educational Centers, or you
can arrange for our trainers to teach at your facility. In addition, we
can tailor standard courses or develop custom courses to meet your
needs.
Support
From on–site support to central support, our team of experienced
professionals provides the help and information you need to keep
Oracle Workflow working for you. This team includes your Technical
Representative, Account Manager, and Oracle’s large staff of
consultants and support specialists with expertise in your business
area, managing an Oracle server, and your hardware and software
environment.
Preface
xi
About Oracle
Oracle Corporation develops and markets an integrated line of
software products for database management, applications
development, decision support, and office automation, as well as
Oracle Applications, an integrated suite of more than 45 software
modules for financial management, supply chain management,
manufacturing, project systems, human resources, and sales and
service management.
Oracle products are available for mainframes, minicomputers, personal
computers, network computers, and personal digital assistants,
allowing organizations to integrate different computers, different
operating systems, different networks, and even different database
management systems, into a single, unified computing and information
resource.
Oracle is the world’s leading supplier of software for information
management, and the world’s second largest software company.
Oracle offers its database, tools, and applications products, along with
related consulting, education, and support services, in over 140
countries around the world.
Thank You
Thank you for using Oracle Workflow and this guide.
We value your comments and feedback. At the end of this manual is a
Reader’s Comment Form you can use to explain what you like or
dislike about Oracle Workflow or this user’s guide. Mail your
comments to the following address or call us directly at (650) 506–7000.
Oracle Applications Documentation Manager
Oracle Corporation
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
U.S.A.
Or, send electronic mail to [email protected]
xii
Oracle Workflow Guide
CHAPTER
1
Overview of Oracle
Workflow
T
his chapter introduces you to the concept of a workflow process
and to the major features of Oracle Workflow. These features include:
• Oracle Workflow Builder, a graphical tool that lets you create
business process definitions.
• The Workflow Engine, which implements process definitions at
runtime.
• The Notifications System, which sends notifications to and
processes responses from users in a workflow.
• Graphical Monitoring Tool, which allows you to track your
workflow process using a Web Browser.
Overview of Oracle Workflow
1–1
Introduction to Oracle Workflow
Business processes today involve getting many types of information to
multiple people according to rules that are constantly changing. Oracle
Workflow lets you automate and continuously improve business
processes, routing information of any type according to business rules
you can easily change to people both inside and outside your enterprise.
See: Major Features and Definitions: page 1 – 3.
Routing Information
With so much information available, and in so many different forms,
how do you get the right information to the right people? Oracle
Workflow lets you provide each person with all the information they
need to act. Oracle Workflow can route supporting information to each
decision maker in a business process.
Defining and Modifying Business Rules
Oracle Workflow lets you define and continuously improve your
business processes using a drag–and–drop process designer.
Unlike workflow systems that simply route documents from one user to
another with some approval steps, Oracle Workflow lets you model
sophisticated business processes. You can define processes that loop,
branch into parallel flows and then rendezvous, decompose into
subflows, and more. Because Oracle Workflow can decide which path
to take based on the result of a stored procedure, you can use the full
power of PL/SQL, the language of the Oracle7 Server, to express any
business rule that affects a workflow process. See: Workflow Processes:
page 1 – 6.
Delivering Electronic Notifications
Oracle Workflow extends the reach of business process automation
throughout the enterprise and beyond to include any E–mail or Internet
user. Oracle Workflow lets people receive notifications of items
awaiting their attention via E–mail, and act based on their E–mail
responses. You can even view your list of things to do, including
necessary supporting information, and respond using a standard Web
browser or an Oracle Applications Notification form.
1–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
Major Features and Definitions
Oracle Workflow Builder
Oracle Workflow Builder lets you create, view, or modify a business
process with simple drag and drop operations. Using the Workflow
Builder, you can create and modify all workflow objects, including
activities, item types, and messages. See: Workflow Processes: page
1 – 6.
At any time you can add, remove, or change workflow activities, or set
up new prerequisite relationships among activities. You can easily work
with a summary–level model of your workflow, expanding activities
within the workflow as needed to greater levels of detail. And, you can
operate Oracle Workflow Builder from a desktop PC or from a
disconnected laptop PC.
Workflow Engine
The Workflow Engine embedded in the Oracle7 server monitors
workflow states and coordinates the routing of activities for a process.
Changes in workflow state, such as the completion of workflow
activities, are signaled to the engine via a PL/SQL API. Based on
flexibly–defined workflow rules, the engine determines which activities
are eligible to run, and then runs them. The Workflow Engine supports
sophisticated workflow rules, including looping, branching, parallel
flows, and subflows.
Workflow Definitions Loader
The Workflow Definitions Loader is a utility program that moves
workflow definitions between database and corresponding flat file
representations. You can use it to move workflow definitions from a
development to a production database, or to apply upgrades to existing
definitions. In addition to being a standalone server program, the
Workflow Definitions Loader is also integrated into Oracle Workflow
Builder, allowing you to open and save workflow definitions in both a
database and file.
Complete Programmatic Extensibility
Oracle Workflow lets you include your own PL/SQL procedures as
activities in your workflows. Without modifying your application code,
you can have your own program run whenever the Workflow Engine
detects that your program’s prerequisites are satisfied.
Overview of Oracle Workflow
1–3
Electronic Notifications
Oracle Workflow lets you include users in your workflows to handle
activities that cannot be automated, such as approvals for requisitions or
sales orders. Electronic notifications are routed to a role, which can be
an individual user or a group of users. Any user associated with that
role can act on the notification.
Each notification includes a message associated with it, which contains
all the information a user needs to make a decision, as well as possible
responses. Oracle Workflow interprets each response and moves on to
the next workflow activity.
Personal Inbox
Users who connect to Oracle Applications can see all the notifications
awaiting their attention in a common Notification Viewer form, or
Personal Inbox. Choosing a notification takes users to a Notification
Details window that describes any actions they need to take. The
Notification Details window can take users directly to an Oracle
Applications form where they can perform the necessary action.
Electronic Mail Integration
Electronic mail (E–mail) users can receive notifications of outstanding
work items and can respond to those notifications using their E–mail
application of choice. An E–mail notification can include an HTML
attachment that provides another means of responding to the
notification.
Internet–Enabled Workflow
Any user with access to a standard Web browser can be included in a
workflow. Web users can access a Notification Web page to see their
outstanding work items, then navigate to additional pages to see more
details or provide a response.
Monitoring and Administration
Workflow administrators and users can view the progress of a work
item in a workflow process by connecting to the Workflow Monitor
using a standard Web browser that supports Java. The Workflow
Monitor displays an annotated view of the process diagram for a
particular instance of a workflow process, so that users can get a
graphical depiction of their work item status. The Workflow Monitor
1–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
also displays a separate status summary for the work item, the process,
and each activity in the process.
Overview of Oracle Workflow
1–5
Workflow Processes
Oracle Workflow manages business processes according to rules that
you define. The rules, which we call a workflow process definition,
include the activities that occur in the process and the relationship
between those activities. An activity in a process definition can be an
automated function defined by a PL/SQL stored procedure, a
notification to a user or role that may optionally request a response, or a
subflow that itself is made up of a more granular set of activities.
A workflow process is initiated when an application calls a set of Oracle
Workflow Engine APIs. The Workflow Engine takes over by driving
the relevant work item defined by the application, through a specific
workflow process definition. According to the workflow process
definition, the Workflow Engine performs automated steps and invokes
appropriate agents when external processing is required.
The following diagram depicts a simplified workflow process definition
that routes a requisition to a manager or set of managers for approval.
We refer to the whole drawing as a process or process diagram. The
icons represent activities, and the arrows represent the transitions
between the activities. In the above example, new items are created for
1–6
Oracle Workflow Guide
the process when a user creates and submits a requisition in the
appropriate application.
This process contains several workflow activities implemented as
PL/SQL stored procedures, including:
• Select Approver—to select, according to your business rules, who
should approve the requisition.
• Verify Authority—to verify that a selected approver has the
spending authority to approve the requisition.
Overview of Oracle Workflow
1–7
CHAPTER
2
Setting Up Oracle
Workflow
T
his chapter describes the requirements for Oracle Workflow and
provides the steps necessary to set up Oracle Workflow at your site.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2–1
Oracle Workflow Hardware and Software Requirements
The components of Oracle Workflow require the following hardware
and software configurations:
• Oracle Workflow Builder is installed using Oracle Installer and
requires the installation of SQL*Net V2 (included). You should
install Oracle Workflow Builder on an IBM, Compaq or 100%
compatible personal computer with the following:
– A 486 processor or better
– Clock speed of 66 Mhz or greater (90 Mhz or greater is
recommended)
– Network card
– SVGA color monitor
– Modem configured with dial–in access for use by Oracle
Worldwide Customer Support. At least one PC at your site
should be configured with a modem.
– Dual speed, ISO 9660 format CD–ROM available as a logical
drive
– Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows NT
– At least 17.3 MB of available disk space to install Oracle
Installer, Oracle Workflow Builder, and SQL*Net V2.
в�ћ
Attention: SQL*Net requires and only supports the use of
Microsoft’s TCP/IP drivers.
• The Workflow Server requires Oracle WebServer to be previously
installed.
• The Notification Viewer form, also known as the ”Personal
Inbox”, runs on any Oracle Applications–supported client and is
installed along with Oracle Application Object Library.
• The E–mail notifications component contains a program that can
send mail through Oracle Office/InterOffice, UNIX Sendmail, or
a Windows NT MAPI–compliant mail application. Oracle
Workflow can also send mail to other E–mail applications as long
as you install the appropriate Oracle Office/InterOffice or UNIX
gateway product to communicate with your E–mail application
of choice.
• To send and respond to E–mail notifications with HTML
attachments, your E–mail application should support HTML
2–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
attachments and you should have a Web browser application
that supports JavaScript and Frames to view the attachment.
• The Web notifications and Workflow Monitor components
require Oracle WebServer to be installed first. To view
notifications you need a Web browser application that supports
JavaScript and Frames. To view the Workflow Monitor you need
a Web browser that supports Java Development Kit (JDK),
Version 1.1.4 and Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT).
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2–3
Implementing Oracle Workflow
After you install Oracle Workflow, you implement it for your site by
setting up the roles, icons, notification templates, background engines,
and access levels appropriate for your enterprise.
Required Set Up Steps
вќ‘ Step 1: If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow,
you must map Oracle Workflow’s directory service to the users and
roles currently defined in your organization’s directory repository
by constructing views based on those database tables. The
Notification System uses these views to send notifications to the
performers specified in your activities. Your roles can be either
individual users or a group of users. Oracle Workflow provides
example directory services views that you can modify and reload.
See: Setting Up an Oracle Workflow Directory Service: page 2 – 7.
вќ‘ Step 2: If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow,
you must create a view called WF_LANGUAGES that identifies the
languages defined in your Oracle7 installation. Oracle Workflow
uses this view to create in its translation tables, a row that maps to
a row found in its non–translated base table for each installed
language. See: Creating the WF_LANGUAGES View: page 2 – 13.
вќ‘ Step 3: If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow,
you must define an environment variable called WF_RESOURCES.
See: Setting the WF_RESOURCES Environment Variable: page
2 – 14.
вќ‘ Step 4: After you install and configure Oracle WebServer, identify
the Web Agent to be used by Oracle Workflow. See: Identifying the
Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page 2 – 15.
вќ‘ Step 5: Once you define your Oracle Workflow directory service,
you need to identify the role that should have access to Oracle
Workflow’s administration features such as the Find Processes web
page. See: Identifying the Oracle Workflow Administration Role:
page 2 – 18.
вќ‘ Step 6: Configure Oracle WebServer to point to the Java code
required to run the Workflow Monitor and optionally customize
the company logo that appears in Oracle Workflow’s web pages.
See: Setting Up the Workflow Monitor and Oracle Workflow’s Web
Pages: page 2 – 19.
2–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
вќ‘ Step 7: If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow,
secure your Workflow database connection using Oracle WebServer
security. See: Secure the Workflow Database Connection
Descriptor: page 2 – 21.
вќ‘ Step 8: Set up the Notification Mailer program so that users can
receive notifications by E–mail if that is an option you are
providing to your users. See: Implementing the Notification
Mailer: page 2 – 25.
вќ‘ Step 9: Set up background Workflow Engines to control the load
and throughput of the primary Workflow Engine on your system.
You can specify the cost threshold level of your primary and
background engines to determine the activities an engine processes
and the activities an engine defers. See: Setting Up Background
Workflow Engines: page 2 – 43.
Optional Set Up Steps
вќ‘ Step 10: You can modify the templates for your electronic mail
notifications. See: Modifying Your Message Templates: page 2 – 36.
вќ‘ Step 11: You can include additional icons to your Oracle Workflow
Icons subdirectory to customize the diagrammatic representation of
your workflow processes. Use custom icons to provide meaningful
symbols for each activity you define. See: Adding Custom Icons to
Oracle Workflow: page 2 – 47.
Other Workflow Features
Before deploying Oracle Workflow and custom process definitions to
other branches of your enterprise, you can protect your data from
further modification by determining the level of access your users have
to the data. See: Overview of Oracle Workflow Access Protection: page
2 – 48.
You can also use the Workflow Definitions Loader to load workflow
process definitions from flat files to the database without using Oracle
Workflow Builder. See: Using the Workflow Definitions Loader: page
2 – 54.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2–5
Identifying the Version of Your Oracle Workflow Server
If you ever need to determine the version of the Oracle Workflow
server you are running, you can connect to your Workflow server
account using SQL*PLUS and run a script called wfver.sql. See:
wfver.sql: page 11 – 7.
2–6
Oracle Workflow Guide
Setting Up an Oracle Workflow Directory Service
Oracle Workflow offers you flexibility in defining who your workflow
users and roles are. You determine the directory repository you want
Oracle Workflow to reference for users and roles information by
creating three views based on the database tables that make up that
repository. The views are: WF_USERS, WF_ROLES, and
WF_USER_ROLES.
In addition, Oracle Workflow provides three local tables called
WF_LOCAL_USERS, WF_LOCAL_ROLES, and
WF_LOCAL_USER_ROLES which you can use to add information
about users and roles not included in your existing directory repository.
Note: Currently you must use SQL*PLUS or create your own
custom application interface to enter data into these
WF_LOCAL tables.
WF_USERS
The WF_USERS view should reference information about all the
individuals in your organization who may receive workflow
notifications. Create this view, making sure it contains the following
columns:
• Name—The internal name of the user as referenced by the
Workflow Engine and Notification System. For example, an
internal name for a user can be mbeech or 009, where 009
represents the user’s employee ID.
в�ћ
Attention: The Name column must be sourced from a column
that is less than 30 characters long and is all uppercase. If your
source table does not have a column that meets these criteria,
DO NOT use string functions to force these restrictions.
Instead, define the Name column to be
<orig_system>:<orig_system_id> so that Oracle Workflow can
reference the original base table where users are stored and a
unique user in that table. For example, ”PER_PEOPLE:009”
represents a user whose employee ID is 009 and is stored in the
personnel table called PER_PEOPLE.
• Display_Name—The display name of the user. An example of a
display name can be ’Beech, Matthew’.
• Description—An optional description of the user.
• Notification_Preference—Indicate how this user prefers to
receive notifications. A value of MAILTEXT or MAILHTML allows
users to receive and respond to notifications by E–mail or by
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2–7
E–mail with HTML attachments, respectively. A value of QUERY
allows users to query notifications from the Notifications Web
page or Notification Viewer form. Finally, a value of SUMMARY
allows users to get periodic E–mail summaries of their open
notifications. However, to respond to the individual
notifications, they have to query the notification from the
Notification Web page or Notification Viewer form. See:
Overview of Notification Handling: page 8 – 2.
Note: A notification preference of MAILTEXT or MAILHTML
also allows users to query their notifications from the
Notifications Web page or Notification Viewer form.
• Language—The value of the Oracle7 NLS_LANGUAGE
initialization parameter that specifies the default
language–dependent behavior of the user’s notification session.
Refer to your Oracle7 user’s guide or installation manual for the
list of supported language conventions.
• Territory—The value of the Oracle7 NLS_TERRITORY
initialization parameter that specifies the default
territory–dependant date and numeric formatting used in the
user’s notification session. Refer to your Oracle7 user’s guide or
installation manual for the list of supported territory
conventions.
• Email_Address—A valid electronic mail address for this user or
a mail distribution list defined by your electronic mail system.
• Fax—A Fax number for the user.
• Orig_System—A code that you assign to the directory repository
that this view is based on. For example, if this view is based on
the personnel data stored in a Human Resource Management
System, Orig_System can be defined as PER.
• Orig_System_ID—The primary key that identifies the user in this
repository system. For example, Orig_System_ID can be defined
as the value stored in a column called PERSON_ID in a Human
Resources database table called PER_PEOPLE.
• Status—The availability of the user to participate in a workflow
process. The possible statuses are: active (ACTIVE), unavailable
for an extended period (EXTLEAVE), permanently unavailable
(INACTIVE), and temporarily unavailable (TMPLEAVE). These
statuses are also stored in the lookup type called
WFSTD_AVAILABILITY_STATUS.
2–8
Oracle Workflow Guide
WF_ROLES
The WF_ROLES view should reference information about all the roles in
your organization who may receive workflow notifications. Create this
view, making sure it contains the following columns pertaining to the
roles in your repository, similar to those described for WF_USERS:
в�ћ
Attention: We require that you also define each user
identified by WF_USERS as a role.
Note: If a user is a member of a role and the user information
is different from the role information, the role information will
override the user information when the Notification System
delivers a notification to the role. For example, suppose a user
has a notification preference of ’SUMMARY’, and the user is
also a member of a multi–user role, whose notification
preference is ’MAILHTML’. When a notification is assigned to
the multi–user role, the user will receive a single notification
message addressed to the role, as opposed to a summary
message that includes that notification in it.
• *Name
• *Display_Name
• Description
• *Notification_Preference
• *Language
• *Territory
• *Email_Address
• *Fax
• Orig_System
• Orig_System_ID
в�ћ
Attention: The Name column must be sourced from a column
that is less than 30 characters long and is all uppercase. If your
source table does not have a column that meets these criteria,
DO NOT use string functions to force these restrictions.
Instead, define the Name column to be
<orig_system>:<orig_system_id> so that Oracle Workflow can
reference the original base table where roles are stored and a
unique role in that table. For example, ”PER_POSITION:009”
represents a position whose ID is 009 and is stored in the
personnel table called PER_POSITION.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2–9
WF_USER_ROLES
The WF_USER_ROLES view is an intersection of the users and roles in
WF_USERS and WF_ROLES. Create this view, making sure it contains
the following columns:
• User_Name—The internal name of the user as listed in the view
WF_USERS.
• User_Orig_System—A code that you assign to the user directory
repository as listed in the view WF_USERS.
• User_Orig_System_ID—The primary key that identifies the user
in the user directory repository as listed in the view WF_USERS.
• Role_Name—The internal name of the role as listed in the view
WF_ROLES.
• Role_Orig_System—A code that you assign to the role directory
repository as listed in the view WF_ROLES.
• Role_Orig_System_ID—The primary key that identifies the role
in the role directory repository as listed in the view WF_ROLES.
в�ћ
Attention: To take advantage of unique indexes when
querying users, make sure you initially enter the usernames in
your database in uppercase only. Forcing the usernames to
uppercase in your view definition results in poor performance
when accessing these views.
Warning: Avoid making a join to a view that contains a union
as this results in poor database performance. Oracle7 is
currently unable to preserve the indexes in that view when you
make such a join. The workflow directory services views you
create will most likely contain unions, therefore you should not
join to them directly. If you need to retrieve data from any of
the three directory services views, use the appropriate
directory services API. See: Workflow Directory Services APIs:
page 7 – 49.
Predefined Directory Services
Oracle Workflow provides scripts for you to implement any one of
three directory service environments. If you are using the version of
Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications you automatically:
• Integrate your Oracle Workflow directory service with a unified
Oracle Applications environment.
2 – 10
Oracle Workflow Guide
If you are using the standalone version Oracle Workflow, you can
choose to implement one of the following two directory services or
create your own:
• A directory services with native Oracle users.
• A directory services with local workflow users.
You can customize any of these directory services environments further
by editing and rerunning their scripts against your Workflow Server.
в�ћ
Attention: If you create your own directory service or edit
any of the predefined directory services listed above, you
should run the script wfdirchk.sql to validate your directory
service data model. The script is located on your server in the
Oracle Workflow admin/sql subdirectory for the standalone
version of Oracle Workflow, or in the sql subdirectory under
$FND_TOP for the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in
Oracle Applications. See: Wfdirchk.sql: page 11 – 7.
Integrating Oracle Workflow Directory Services with a Unified
Oracle Applications Environment
If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, your Oracle Workflow directory service views are
automatically based on a unified Oracle Applications environment.
The unified environment includes joins to tables in Oracle Human
Resources, Oracle Application Object Library, and various other Oracle
Applications, as well as to the WF_LOCAL tables.
Oracle Workflow provides a sql script that defines the WF_USERS,
WF_ROLES, and WF_USER_ROLES views to map to this unified
environment. When you install Oracle Applications, you automatically
install this script to create the unified environment. However, if you
should need to edit and rerun this script for whatever reason, the script
is called wfdirhrv.sql and is located on your server in the sql
subdirectory under $FND_TOP.
Aside from the users and roles stored in WF_LOCAL_USERS and
WF_LOCAL_ROLES, the default notification preference for all
workflow users and roles in the unified environment is set to
’MAILHTML’.
Integrating Oracle Workflow Directory Services with Native Oracle
Users
If you plan to use the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, you can
map your directory service to the native users and roles in the Oracle
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 11
RDMBS. You base your views on the tables DBA_USERS and
DBA_ROLES.
Oracle Workflow provides a script you can use to setup the views. Use
the wfdirouv.sql script in the Oracle Workflow sql subdirectory on your
server. This script creates three views.
The WF_USERS view creates a workflow user for each DBA user. The
originating system is called ORACLE, and the USERNAME column in
DBA_USERS is the originating system ID. The default notification
preference is MAILHTML.
The WF_ROLES view includes all users in the WF_USERS view and all
roles defined in the DBA_ROLES table as workflow roles. The
originating system is ORACLE and the originating system ID is the ROLE
column in DBA_ROLES.
The WF_USER_ROLES view consists of the names and originating
system information of both users and roles in WF_USERS and
WF_ROLES.
Integrating Oracle Workflow Directory Services with Local Workflow
Users
If you plan to use the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, you can
map your directory service to the local workflow users and roles stored
in the WF_LOCAL_USERS and WF_LOCAL_ROLES tables.
Oracle Workflow provides a script you can use to setup the views. Use
the wfdircsv.sql script in the Oracle Workflow sql subdirectory on your
server. This script creates three views. You can customize the views in
this script to incorporate the users and roles from you custom directory
repository.
The originating system in the WF_USERS view is called WF_LOCAL,
and the originating system ID is 0.
The WF_ROLES view includes all users in WF_LOCAL_USERS and all
roles defined in WF_LOCAL_ROLES. The originating system is
WF_LOCAL and the originating system ID is 0.
The WF_USER_ROLES view consists of the names and originating
system information of both users and roles in WF_USERS and
WF_ROLES.
2 – 12
Oracle Workflow Guide
Creating the WF_LANGUAGES View
The field values in the property pages of Oracle Workflow Builder and
the workflow notifications delivered to your users can be translated to
the languages defined in your Oracle installation. However, in order
for this to be possible, you must create a view called
WF_LANGUAGES that identifies the languages defined in your Oracle
installation. Oracle Workflow uses this view to create in its translatable
tables, a row for each language that maps to a row found in its
non–translated base table.
The WF_LANGUAGES view must include the following columns:
• Code—The language code.
• Display_Name—The display name of the language.
• NLS_Language—The value of the Oracle NLS_LANGUAGE
initialization parameter that specifies the default
language–dependent behavior of a session.
• NLS_Territory—The value of the Oracle NLS_TERRITORY
initialization parameter that specifies the default
territory–dependant date and numeric formatting of a session.
• NLS_Codeset—The code set for the language.
• Installed_Flag—Flag to indicate if the language is installed and
available for use.
A sample WF_LANGUAGES view is included in the script of each of
the predefined directory services that Oracle Workflow provides.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 13
Setting the WF_RESOURCES Environment Variable
If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, you must
set an environment variable called WF_RESOURCES to point to the
language–dependent Oracle Workflow resource file (wf<language>.res).
The resource file generally resides under the res subdirectory of your
Oracle Workflow server directory structure.
You do not need to set this environment variable if you are using the
version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications. For
Oracle Applications, the path of the language–dependent Oracle
Workflow resource file is $FND_TOP/$APPLRSC/wf<language>.res.
2 – 14
Oracle Workflow Guide
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow
Oracle WebServer must be installed before installing Oracle Workflow.
Once you finish installing and configuring Oracle WebServer, you must
identify the Oracle Web Agent that Oracle Workflow should use to
access its Web components.
"
To Identify a Web Agent for Oracle Workflow
1.
Edit the file wfcfg.msg as follows:
0 <your_web_agent_here>
WFTKN WF_WEB_AGENT
Replace <your_web_agent_here> with the base URL of the Oracle
Web Agent you defined for Oracle Workflow in Oracle WebServer.
The base URL should look similar to this:
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path>
<server.com:portID> represents the server and TCP/IP port
number on which your Web Listener accepts requests and
<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> represents the application virtual path
of your Oracle Workflow PL/SQL agent. Each PL/SQL agent you
configure connects to a particular database schema. See your
Oracle WebServer documentation for more information.
Note: If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow
embedded in Oracle Applications, the file wfcfg.msg is located
in the resource/<language> subdirectory under $FND_TOP. If
you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, the
file is located in the Oracle Workflow server res/<language>
subdirectory.
2.
"
Run the Workflow Resource Generator to load the contents of
wfcfg.msg into the table WF_RESOURCES. See: To run the
Workflow Resource Generator: 2 – 15
To run the Workflow Resource Generator:
For the standalone version of Oracle Workflow:
1.
The Workflow Resource Generator program is located in the bin
subdirectory of the Oracle Workflow directory structure.
2.
Run the program from your operating system prompt as follows:
• To generate a binary resource file from a source file (.msg), type:
wfresgen [–v] –f <resourcefile> <source_file>
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 15
Replace <resourcefile> with the full path and name of the
resource file you want to generate, and <source_file> with the
full path and name of your source file. The optional –v flag
causes the program to validate the source file against the binary
resource file.
• To upload seed data from a source file (.msg) to the database
table WF_RESOURCES, type:
wfresgen [–v] –d <username/[email protected]>
<source_file>
Replace <username/[email protected]> with the username,
password and SQL*Net connect string or alias to your database
and <source_file> with the full path and name of the source file
you want to upload. The optional –v flag causes the program to
validate the source file against the database.
For Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications:
1.
The Workflow Resource Generator program is registered as a
concurrent program. You can run the Workflow Resource
Generator concurrent program from the Submit Requests form or
from the command line.
2.
To run the concurrent program from the Submit Requests form,
navigate to the Submit Requests form.
Note: Your system administrator needs to add this concurrent
program to a request security group for the responsibility that
you want to run this program from. See: Overview of
Concurrent Programs and Requests, Oracle Applications System
Administrator’s Guide
2 – 16
Oracle Workflow Guide
3.
Submit the Workflow Resource Generator concurrent program as a
request. See: Submitting a Request, Oracle Applications User’s Guide.
4.
In the Parameters window, enter values for the following
parameters:
Destination Type
Specify ”Database”, to upload seed data to the
database table WF_RESOURCES from a source file
(.msg), or ”File”, to generate a resource file from a
source file.
Destination
If you specify ”File” for Destination Type, then
enter the full path and name of the resource file
you wish to generate. If you specify ”Database”
for Destination Type, then the program
automatically uses the current database account as
its destination.
Specify the full path and name of your source file.
Source
5.
Choose OK to close the Parameters window.
6.
When you finish modifying the print and run options for this
request, choose Submit to submit the request.
7.
Rather than use the Submit Requests form, you can also run the
Workflow Resource Generator concurrent program from the
command line using one of two commands. To generate a resource
file from a source file, type:
WFRESGEN apps/pwd 0 Y FILE res_file source_file
To upload seed data to the database table WF_RESOURCES from a
source file, type:
WFRESGEN apps/pwd 0 Y DATABASE source_file
Replace apps/pwd with the username and password to the APPS
schema, replace res_file with the file specification of a
resource file, and replace source_file with the file specification
of a source file (.msg). A file specification is specified as:
@<application_short_name> :[<dir>/.../]file.ext
or
<native path>
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 17
Identifying the Oracle Workflow Administration Role
You can specify who has administrator privileges in Oracle Workflow
by defining an Oracle Workflow administration role. Any user in the
administration role can run the Oracle Workflow Find Processes web
page, which provides full access to Oracle Workflow’s administration
features. In addition, any user in the administration role can view any
other user’s notifications. See: Setting Up an Oracle Workflow
Directory Service: page 2 – 7.
"
To define the Oracle Workflow administration role
1.
Edit the file wfcfg.msg as follows:
WFTKN WF_ADMIN_ROLE
0 <role_name>
Replace <role_name> with the internal name of a role defined in the
Oracle Workflow directory service. For example:
WFTKN WF_ADMIN_ROLE
0 SYSADMIN
Any user associated with this role will have full workflow
administration privileges.
Note: If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow
embedded in Oracle Applications, the file wfcfg.msg is located
in the resource/<language> subdirectory under $FND_TOP. If
you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, the
file is located in the Oracle Workflow server res/<language>
subdirectory.
2.
If you want all users and roles to have workflow administration
privileges, such as in a development environment, replace
<role_name> with an asterisk (*) as follows:
WFTKN WF_ADMIN_ROLE
3.
2 – 18
Oracle Workflow Guide
0 *
Run the Workflow Resource Generator to load the contents of
wfcfg.msg into the table WF_RESOURCES. See: To run the
Workflow Resource Generator: 2 – 15.
Setting Up the Workflow Monitor and Oracle Workflow’s Web Pages
To use Oracle Workflow’s web pages and the Workflow Monitor at
your site, you must first install Oracle WebServer. Refer to your Oracle
WebServer documentation for additional information.
Once Oracle WebServer is installed, you can customize the company
logo that appears on Oracle Workflow’s web pages. In addition, you
must configure Oracle WebServer to point to the Java code required to
run the Workflow Monitor.
Use a web browser that supports JavaScript to connect to the
Notification Web page or a web browser that supports Java
Development Kit (JDK), Version 1.1.4 and Abstract Windowing Toolkit
(AWT) to connect to the Workflow Monitor.
"
To Set Up Oracle Workflow’s Web Components:
1.
Copy or rename your company logo file (in .gif format) to
WFLOGO.gif located in the appropriate directory.
For the standalone version of Oracle Workflow:
/<ORACLE_HOME>/wf/java/oracle/wf/
/<ORACLE_HOME>/wf/java
represents your <java_directory_path>.
For the Oracle Applications–embedded version of Oracle
Workflow:
<java_directory_path> /oracle/wf/
2.
Connect to the Oracle WebServer home page. The URL to use is
specific to your installation, but is typically a specific port on the
server machine where you installed Oracle WebServer:
http://<servername>:<portID>/
If you are using Oracle WebServer 2.x, complete Steps 3 through 8.
If your are using Oracle WebServer 3.x, complete Steps 9 through
15.
3.
Choose WebServer Manager to go to the Oracle WebServer
Administration page.
4.
Choose Oracle Web Listener from the Oracle WebServer
Administration page to go to the Oracle Web Listener
Administration page. Enter the username and password for your
Admin Server.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 19
5.
Scroll towards the bottom of the page to the Oracle Web Listeners
list and locate the listener that you configured for the Oracle
Workflow Server. Choose CONFIGURE for that Listener.
6.
In the Oracle Web Listener Administration Server Advanced
Configuration page, scroll to the Oracle Web Listener
Configuration Parameters section and choose Directory Mappings
to go to the Directory Mappings section.
7.
Add the following entry in the Directory Mappings section to map
the directory structure where java is located to a directory
structure where the Java code exists:
File–System Directory
Flag
/<java_directory path>/
NR
Virtual Directory
/wfjava/
8.
Choose Modify Listener.
9.
Enter the username and password for your Oracle Web Application
Server.
10. Choose Web Application Server Manager to go to the
Administration home page.
11. Choose Oracle Web Listener from the Administration home page to
go to the Oracle Web Listener Administration page.
12. Scroll towards the bottom of the page to the Oracle Web Listeners
list and locate the listener that you configured for the Oracle
Workflow Server. Choose CONFIGURE for that Listener.
13. In the Oracle Web Listener Advanced Configuration page, choose
the Directory link from the list of links on the left hand frame to go
to the Directory Mappings section.
14. Add the following entry in the Directory Mappings section to map
the directory structure where java is located to a directory
structure where the Java code exists:
File–System Directory
Flag
/<java_directory path>/
NR
Virtual Directory
/wfjava/
15. Choose Modify Listener.
See Also
Viewing Notifications from a Web Browser: page 8 – 12
Workflow Monitor: page 9 – 3
2 – 20
Oracle Workflow Guide
Secure the Workflow Database Connection Descriptor (DCD)
If you are not using Oracle Self–Service Web Applications with Oracle
Workflow, then Oracle Workflow’s web pages must rely on the user
authentication feature of Oracle WebServer to provide security. To
ensure that only authorized users can access workflow processes, the
URLs that generate Oracle Workflow’s web pages must be protected by
the Oracle WebServer authentication feature. This feature requires
users to enter a username and password before accessing theses pages
by protecting the Oracle Workflow database connection descriptor
(DCD). Follow the steps listed:
• To protect the DCD in Oracle WebServer 2.x
or
• To protect the DAD in Oracle WebServer 3.x
Note: The database access descriptor (DAD) in Oracle
WebServer 3.x is synonymous to the database connection
descriptor (DCD) in Oracle WebServer 2.x.
"
To protect the DCD in Oracle WebServer 2.x:
1.
Connect to the Oracle WebServer Administration page.
2.
Choose the Oracle Web Listener link.
3.
Choose Configure for the appropriate listener.
4.
Choose Security: Access Control and Encryption.
5.
Enter usernames and passwords in either the Basic or Digest
Authentication sections.
Basic authentication allows you to assign passwords to users,
assign users to groups, and define sets of users and groups, called
”realms.” You can then assign the users, groups, and realms to
specific files and directories, requiring requestors to provide a
username and password to gain access. Basic authentication sends
unencrypted passwords across the network, making this method
subject to subversion. Basic authentication is not recommended
when security is critical.
Digest authentication is the same as basic authentication except
that it sends passwords encrypted across the network in the form
of a cryptographic checksum, also called a ”digest.” You should use
this scheme whenever authentication is required, although some
older web browsers may not support it.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 21
6.
Assign your users to a group for the appropriate authentication
method.
7.
Assign the group to a realm for the appropriate authentication
method.
8.
Choose the Modify Listener button to save your changes.
9.
Navigate back to the Listener Administration page.
10. Choose Web Request Broker and choose the Modify link.
11. Scroll to the Protecting Applications section.
12. Enter the following values in the fields:
Virtual Path
<virtual_path>
Scheme
<Basic/Digest/>
Realm
<realm_name>
<virtual_path> represents the virtual path of the PL/SQL agent’s
shared files, as defined in the Applications and Directories section
of the Web Request Broker Administration page. Specify the
scheme as either Basic or Digest. <realm_name> represents the
realm name that you specified for your authentication scheme.
13. Choose Modify WRB Configuration to save your changes.
14. Restart the listener.
Note: You must set protection in the Web Request Broker
section and not the Protection section of the Listener
Administration page.
"
To protect the DAD in Oracle WebServer 3.x:
1.
Connect to the Oracle Web Application Server Administration
page.
2.
Choose the Oracle Web Application Server link.
3.
Choose the Authorization Server link.
4.
Select either the Basic, Digest, or Database authentication scheme
by choosing the appropriate link.
Basic authentication allows you to assign passwords to users,
assign users to groups, and define sets of users and groups, called
”realms.” You can then assign the users, groups, and realms to
specific files and directories, requiring requestors to provide a
username and password to gain access. Basic authentication sends
unencrypted passwords across the network, making this method
subject to subversion. Basic authentication is not recommended
when security is critical.
2 – 22
Oracle Workflow Guide
Digest authentication is the same as basic authentication except
that it sends passwords encrypted across the network in the form
of a cryptographic checksum, also called a ”digest.” You should use
this scheme whenever authentication is required, although some
older web browsers may not support it.
Database authentication allows you to authenticate the username
and password pair against a database by using the username and
password to logon to an Oracle RDBMS. The realm of database
authentication consists of two parts: a Database Access Descriptor
(DAD) and optionally a database role. The DAD identifies the
database to check against. The username and password, if
available in the DAD, is ignored. The database role allows that
only a subset of database users (those who have the privilege to
assume the role) be authenticated.
5.
If you select either Basic or Digest authentication, enter usernames
and passwords for your users, assign your users to a group, then
assign the group to a realm for your authentication method.
If you select Database authentication, assign groups to a realm,
then for each group, specify the DAD to check against, and
optionally specify the roles to be authenticated.
6.
Choose Modify to save your changes.
7.
Navigate back to the Oracle Web Application Server
Administration page.
8.
Choose Cartridge Administration, then Cartridge Summary (Web
Request Broker).
9.
Choose the Protection link in the frame on the left side of the page
to go to the Protecting Applications section.
10. Enter the following values in these fields to protect your realm:
Virtual Path
<virtual_path>
Scheme
<Basic/Digest/
Basic_Oracle>
Realm
<realm_name>
<virtual_path> represents the virtual path of the PL/SQL
cartridge’s shared files, as defined in the Applications and
Directories section of the Web Request Broker Administration page.
Specify the scheme as either Basic, Digest, or Basic_Oracle (for the
Database scheme). <realm_name> represents the realm name that
you specified in Step 5.
11. Choose Modify WRB Configuration to save your changes.
12. Restart the listener.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 23
See Also
Viewing Notifications from a Web Browser: page 8 – 12
2 – 24
Oracle Workflow Guide
Implementing the Notification Mailer
The Notification Mailer is a program that performs E–mail send and
response processing for the Oracle Workflow Notification System. It
polls the database for messages that have to be sent, and performs the
following action for each message:
• Resolves the recipient role to a single E–mail address, which
itself can be a mail list.
• Switches its database session to the role’s preferred language and
territory as defined by the directory service.
• Generates the message and any optional attachments using the
appropriate message template.
• Sends the message via UNIX Sendmail, Oracle
Office/InterOffice, or any MAPI–compliant mail application on
Windows NT.
The Notification Mailer also processes responses by interpreting the
text of messages mailed to its response mail account and calling the
appropriate notification response function to complete the notification.
Once you set up the Notification Mailer to run, it continually polls the
database for messages to send and checks its response mail account for
responses to process. You do not have to do anything else unless you
have a need to shut it down and restart it again with different
parameters.
в�ћ
Attention: The Notification Mailer will shut itself down if a
database failure is encountered or if the PL/SQL package state
for the session is invalid due to dropping or replacing of
package definitions. If you are using the standalone version of
Oracle Workflow, you can restart the Notification Mailer
manually or run a shell script that restarts the Notification
Mailer if it ever exits with a failure. See: To Run a Perpetual
Shell Script for the Notification Mailer: page 2 – 33. If you are
using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, you can use the concurrent manager to restart the
Notification Mailer program manually or schedule it to restart
periodically.
You can install and set up the Notification Mailer to run against UNIX
Sendmail, Oracle Office/InterOffice, or a MAPI–compliant mail
application on Windows NT. However, before doing so, you must set
up a least one mail account for the Notification Mailer in one of these
three mail applications. You must also define three folders or files in
your mail account to use response processing.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 25
See Also
Reviewing Notifications via Electronic Mail: page 8 – 6
Starting the Notification Mailer
"
To start the Notification Mailer for UNIX Sendmail or Oracle
Office/InterOffice:
For the standalone version of Oracle Workflow:
1.
The Notification Mailer resides on your server in the bin
subdirectory of your Oracle Workflow directory structure. Type
the following command at your operating system prompt:
wfmail.<xxx> –f <config_file>
Replace <xxx> with ofc to use the Oracle Office/InterOffice
version of the Notification Mailer or with snd to use the UNIX
Sendmail version. Replace <config_file> with the full path and
name of the configuration file that contains the parameters you
want to run with the Notification Mailer.
2.
Alternatively, you can specify the parameters for the Notification
Mailer as arguments on the command line rather than in a
configuration file, by typing the following command:
wfmail.<xxx> <arg1> <arg2> ...
Or, you can specify a configuration file, but override certain
parameter values in the configuration file by specifying command
line values:
wfmail.<xxx> –f <config_file> <arg1> <arg2> ...
Replace <arg1> <arg2> ... with any number of optional
parameters and values, using the format parameter=value.
For the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications:
2 – 26
Oracle Workflow Guide
1.
The Notification Mailer program is registered as a concurrent
program. You can run the Notification Mailer concurrent program
from the Submit Requests form or from the command line.
2.
To run the concurrent program from the Submit Requests form,
navigate to the Submit Requests form.
Note: Your system administrator needs to add this concurrent
program to a request security group for the responsibility that
you want to run this program from. See: Overview of
Concurrent Programs and Requests, Oracle Applications System
Administrator’s Guide
3.
Submit the Notification Mailer concurrent program as a request.
See: Submitting a Request, Oracle Applications User’s Guide.
4.
In the Parameters window, enter the path and filename of a
configuration file. The configuration file contains the parameters
you want to run with the Notification Mailer.
5.
Choose OK to close the Parameters window.
6.
When you finish modifying the print and run options for this
request, choose Submit to submit the request.
7.
Rather than use the Submit Requests form, you can also run the
Notification Mailer concurrent program from the command line.
Enter:
WFMAIL apps/pwd 0 Y FILE config_file
Replace apps/pwd with username and password to the APPS
schema, replace config_file with the file specification of the
configuration file that contains the parameters you want to run
with the Notification Mailer.
A file specification is specified as:
@<application_short_name> :[<dir>/.../]file.ext
or
<native path>
"
To start the Notification Mailer for MAPI–compliant Mail
Applications:
1.
Install the Notification Mailer for MAPI–compliant mail
applications on your Windows NT PC using Oracle Installer. The
Notification Mailer program resides in
<drive>:\<ORACLE_HOME>\wf20\bin.
2.
Start the Notification Mailer program by entering the following
command in an MS–DOS prompt window:
<drive>:\<ORACLE_HOME>\wf20\bin\wfmlr20.exe –f
<config_file>
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 27
Replace <config_file> with the full path and name of the
configuration file that contains the parameters you want to run
with the Notification Mailer.
Note: You can also double–click on the Oracle Workflow
Notification Mailer icon in the Oracle for Windows NT
program group to start the program, but you must first edit the
properties of the icon to include the above command as its
target.
3.
Alternatively, if you want to specify the parameters for the
Notification Mailer as arguments on the command line rather than
in a configuration file, you can type the following command:
wfmlr20.exe <arg1> <arg2> ...
Or, you can specify a configuration file, but override certain
parameter values in the configuration file by specifying command
line values:
wfmlr20.exe –f <config_file> <arg1> <arg2> ...
Replace <arg1> <arg2> ... with the required and optional
parameters and values, using the format parameter=value.
"
To create a configuration file for the Notification Mailer:
1.
Oracle Workflow provides an example configuration file, called
wfmail.cfg. If you are using the standalone version of Oracle
Workflow, the file resides in your Oracle Workflow server directory
structure, under the subdirectory res. For the version of Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications, the file resides in the
resource subdirectory under $FND_TOP on your server. The file
also resides on your PC in the
<drive>:\<ORACLE_HOME>\wf20\data subdirectory.
2.
The content of the configuration file is formatted as follows:
#Description
PARAMETER1=<value1>
#Description
PARAMETER2=<value2>
...
Any text preceded by # is not interpreted and can be used for
including comments. List each parameter name on the left side of
the equal sign (=) and specify a value for each parameter on the
right.
2 – 28
Oracle Workflow Guide
3.
The parameters are as follows:
CONNECT
(Required) The information to connect to the
database account where the Oracle Workflow
server is installed, using the format,
username/[email protected]_string (or
alias).
ACCOUNT
(Required) The information to connect to the mail
account that the program uses to send notification
messages. For MAPI–compliant mail programs,
the account information is the mail account profile
name and mail account password. For Oracle
Office/InterOffice, the account information would
an Oracle Office/InterOffice database account of
the format,
username/[email protected]_string (or
alias). For Sendmail, the account information
would be the full path of the outgoing mail spool
account file, which also corresponds to the account
from which you start the Notification Mailer.
в�ћ
Attention: If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow
embedded in Oracle Applications, and want to start the
Sendmail version of the Notification Mailer concurrent
program, then the Account parameter must be set to the
account from which you start the Concurrent Manager.
NODE
(Required) The node identifier name. You can
have multiple workflow databases route messages
through the same mail account. By defining an
identifying node name for each Notification Mailer
running against each database, responses can be
routed back to the correct database without
requiring database connection information to be
included in the message. The node name is
included with the outgoing notification ID. The
default name is main.
FROM
The value that appears in the From: field of the
message header when a notification message is
delivered to a user.
SUMMARYONLY (Required) Indicate whether this Notification
Mailer processes only notifications assigned to
users/roles with a notification preference of
’SUMMARY’ or whether it only processes
notifications for users/roles with a notification
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 29
preference of ’MAILTEXT’ or ’MAILHTML’. Valid
values are Y or N. The default is N. You should set
up at least two Notification Mailers, one where
SUMMARYONLY=Y and one where
SUMMARYONLY=N if any of your workflow
users or roles have a notification preference of
’MAILTEXT’, ’MAILHTML’, or ’SUMMARY’. See:
Setting Up Users and Roles from a Directory
Repository: 2 – 7.
в�ћ
2 – 30
Oracle Workflow Guide
Attention: If you set SUMMARYONLY=Y, then the
Notification Mailer will shut itself down after it polls the
database and deliveries any appropriate notification
summaries. You must therefore schedule the Notification
Mailer to run at the frequency you want notification summaries
to be delivered. We recommend you run the summary
Notification Mailer once a day, since the summary includes all
open notifications. For Oracle Workflow running in the
standalone environment, this would involve creating a
operating system script, such as a cron job in UNIX, to
schedule the Notification Mailer. For the version of Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications, this simply
involves scheduling the Notification Mailer concurrent
program in the Submit Request form.
IDLE
The number of seconds to wait before checking for
messages to send. The value must be an integer
greater than or equal to zero. The default is 60.
LOG
The name of a log file to record activity. A valid
value would be a filename. This parameter is valid
only for the standalone version of the Notification
Mailer. For the concurrent program version of the
Notification Mailer, the activity output goes to the
concurrent manager log file.
SHUTDOWN
The name of a file that cues the Notification Mailer
to shut down. This lets you safely shut down the
Notification Mailer without killing the process.
The Notification Mailer always looks for the
shutdown file in its current working directory
before looking for notifications to process. If the
file exists, then the Notification Mailer shuts down.
You must remove the shutdown file to restart the
Notification Mailer again. The default filename is
shutdown.
For the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, the
Notification Mailer’s current working directory is
the directory from which you start the Notification
Mailer. For the version of Oracle Workflow
embedded in Oracle Applications, the current
working directory is the $APPLCSF/$APPLLOG
directory. If you have not set the $APPLCSF
environment variable, then place the shutdown file
in the $FND_TOP/$APPLLOG directory.
FAILCOMMAND The command to run if the Notification Mailer
encounters a fatal error.
DEBUG
Indicate whether to print debugging information in
the log. Valid values include Y or N. The default is
N.
TEST_ADDRESS Indicate a test E–mail address to direct all outgoing
E–mail notifications. The test address overrides
each recipient’s E–mail address so that you can test
a workflow process without having to change each
recipient’s E–mail address to access the test
notifications.
REPLYTO
A default E–mail address to reply to, if the E–mail
account that processes responses is different from
the E–mail account that sends outgoing
notifications.
HTMLAGENT
The base URL that identifies the HTML Web Agent
that handles HTML notification responses. This
URL is required to support E–mail notifications
with HTML attachments. The default URL is
derived from the token WF_WEB_AGENT stored
in the WF_RESOURCES table, but you can
override this default by entering a different value
for this parameter. See: Identifying the Oracle Web
Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page 2 – 15.
HTMLFILE
The filename of the default attachment. The
default is attach.html.
HTMLDESC
A description of the default attachment. The
default is HTML.
HTMLTYPE
The html attachment type number. This argument
is required only if you are using Oracle
Office/InterOffice and want to include an HTML
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 31
attachment with your E–mail notification. The
default is 10003.
DISCARD
The name of the mail folder or full path name of
the mail file to put discarded messages. A ’–’
preceding the name causes the Notification Mailer
to truncate the folder or file on startup. The
default is discard.
PROCESS
The name of the mail folder or full path name of
the mail file to put processed notification messages.
A ’–’ preceding the name causes the Notification
Mailer to truncate the folder or file on startup. The
default is processed.
UNPROCESS
The name of the mail folder or the full path name
of the mail file to put unprocessed notification
messages. A ’–’ preceding the name causes the
Notification Mailer to truncate the folder or file on
startup. The default is unprocessed.
TAGFILE
The full path and name of a tag file. The tag file
lists strings of text found in unusual messages and
the mail status you want to assign to a message
response if it contains any of those strings.
Unusual messages include bounced or returned
messages, auto–reply messages such as those sent
by vacation daemons, mass mailing lists, and so
on. Since different mail systems vary in how they
identify bounced, undeliverable, or otherwise
invalid messages, you can use a tag file to specify
how your mail system identifies those stray
messages and how you want the Notification
Mailer to handle those messages should it come
across them.
Attention: It is important that you uniquely
identify bounced messages from normal responses
so that Oracle Workflow does not mistaken a
bounced message as an invalid response or a
legitimate response as a bounced message.
The format used in the tag file is
Mail_status ”Matching string”
where Mail_status can be the value: ERROR,
INVALID, IGNORE, or UNAVAIL and
”Matching string” is the text to look for in the
From: line, Subject: line, or body of the message. If
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Oracle Workflow Guide
a message is marked IGNORE, the Notification
Mailer ignores the message and moves it to the
processed mail folder/file. If the message is
marked with any other mail status, no further
processing occurs on the message.
For example, if you want to mark all message
responses that contain the string ”–– Unsent
message follows ––” in the subject or body of the
message as an error, you can include the following
line in your tag file:
ERROR ”–– Unsent message follows ––”
Oracle Workflow provides an example tag file
called wfmail.tag. For the standalone version of
Oracle Workflow, the file resides in your Oracle
Workflow server directory structure in the
subdirectory res. For the version of Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications, the
file resides on your server in the resource
subdirectory under $FND_TOP.
"
To Run a Perpetual Shell Script for the Notification Mailer
1.
If you are running the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, you
need to set up a perpetual shell script that restarts the Notification
Mailer if it shuts down due to failure. Oracle Workflow provides a
sample shell script to restart the UNIX Sendmail or Oracle
Office/InterOffice Notification Mailer. The script is called
wfmail.csh and it is located in the Oracle Workflow bin subdirectory
on your server.
Note: Use a similar technique to restart the Window NT
Notification Mailer.
2.
Enter the following command at your operating script prompt to
run the shell script:
wfmail.csh –f <config_file>
Replace <config_file> with the full path name of the
configuration file that contains the parameters you want to run
with the Notification Mailer. The shell script passes all command
line arguments directly to the Notification Mailer executable.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 33
Response Processing
You must create three folders or files in your response mail account
before starting the Notification Mailer to process responses. The three
folders or files serve to hold discarded, unprocessed, and processed
messages.
The Notification Mailer does the following to check for response
messages:
• Logs into the response mail account.
• Checks for messages. If a message exists, it reads the message,
checking for the notification ID and node identifier.
• If the message is not a notification, it moves it to the discard
folder.
• If the message is a notification for the current node, it moves the
message to the unprocessed folder.
• If the message is a notification, but for the wrong node, it does
not move the message so that the Notification Mailer for the
correct node can read it later.
The Notification Mailer then opens the unprocessed folder to process
each response. For each message, it:
• Retrieves the notification ID.
• Checks to see if the message bounced by referring to a specified
tag file, if any. If the message bounced, it reroutes it or updates
the notification’s status and stops any further processing
depending on the specifications of the tag file.
• Checks the Oracle Workflow database for this notification.
– If the notification does not exist, it moves it to the discard
folder.
– If the notification exists, but is closed or canceled, it moves
it to the discard folder.
– If the notification exists and is open, it verifies the response
values with the definition of the message’s response
attributes in the database. If a response is invalid, it sends
an Workflow Invalid Mail message to the recipient role. If
the responses are valid, it calls a Respond function to
complete the notification response and saves the change to
the database.
2 – 34
Oracle Workflow Guide
• Moves the message for the completed notification to the
processed folder and closes the unprocessed folder.
The Notification Mailer then truncates the discard and processed
folders, if a ’–’ precedes the discard and process parameters specified
in the configuration file, and logs out of the mail and database
accounts.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 35
Modifying Your Message Templates
Use the System: Mailer item type in Oracle Workflow Builder to
configure the templates that Oracle Workflow uses to send E–mail
notifications. The System: Mailer item type has attributes that
represent every part of the notification message. You can reorganize
the layout of these attributes in each template to customize the E–mail
messages sent by the Notification system.
The messages of the System: Mailer item type are not true messages;
rather they act as templates for any E–mail messages the Notification
system sends. System: Mailer messages determine the basic format of
an E–mail notification, including what header information to include,
or whether and where to include details such as the message due date
and priority.
Warning: Do not add new attributes or delete existing
attributes from the messages templates in the System: Mailer
item type.
Workflow Open Mail Message
The Notification system uses the Workflow Open Mail message as a
template for all E–mail notifications that require a response. The
template includes generic instructions on how to respond to a
notification. It also includes the following information about a
message: message priority, date that a response is due, or if the
notification is forwarded from another user, and any comments from
the sender or forwarder of the message.
The Workflow Open Mail message has the following message
attributes. The values are drawn from the message definition
associated with a notification activity.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
START_DATE
The date the message is sent.
TO
The role the notification is sent to; the performer.
SUBJECT
The subject line defined in the message.
BODY
The text of the body defined in the message.
COMMENT
Comments added by the sender or the forwarder.
PRIORITY
The priority of the notification message.
DUE_DATE
The date by which a response is required, specified
in the notification activity.
NOTIFICATION
Required notification code used to identify the
information in the notification.
RESPONSE
The user response section as defined by the
Respond message attributes in the actual
notification message definition.
You can customize the boilerplate text that appears in the body of the
Workflow Open Mail template. The body of the Workflow Open Mail
template contains the following default text, where attributes preceded
by an ampersand (&) are token substituted with runtime values when
the notification is sent:
Oracle Workflow Notification
&COMMENT
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Response Instructions for &NOTIFICATION
To submit your response, reply to this message, including
this note with your reply. The first lines of your reply
must be your responses to the notification questions.
Instructions below detail exactly what should be placed on
each line of your reply.
&RESPONSE
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Notification Details:
&BODY
Due Date: &DUE_DATE
See Also
To Create a Message: page 3 – 31
Workflow Open FYI Mail Message
The Notification system uses the Workflow Open FYI Mail message as
a template for all E–mail notifications that do not require a response.
The template indicates that the notification is for your information
(FYI) and does not require a response. In addition to the message, the
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 37
template also includes any comments from the sender or forwarder of
the message.
The Workflow Open FYI Mail message has the following message
attributes. The values are drawn from the message definition
associated with a notification activity.
START_DATE
The date the message is sent.
TO
The role the notification is sent to; the performer.
SUBJECT
The subject line defined in the message.
BODY
The text of the body defined in the message.
COMMENT
Comments added by the sender or the forwarder.
PRIORITY
The priority of the notification message.
DUE_DATE
The date by which a response is required, specified
in the notification activity.
NOTIFICATION
Required notification code used to identify the
information in the notification.
You can customize the text that appears in the body of the Workflow
Open Mail template. The body of the Workflow Open Mail template
initially contains the following default text, where attributes preceded
by an ampersand (&) are token substituted with runtime values when
the notification is sent:
Oracle Workflow Notification (FYI)
&COMMENT
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
&BODY
Workflow Canceled Mail Message
The Workflow Canceled Mail message informs the recipient that a
previously sent notification is cancelled. It has the following message
attributes, with values that are drawn from the message definition
associated with the cancelled notification activity:
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Oracle Workflow Guide
START_DATE
The date the original message was sent.
TO
The role the notification is sent to; the performer.
SUBJECT
The subject line of the original message.
BODY
The text of the original message.
COMMENT
Comments added by the sender or the forwarder.
PRIORITY
The priority of the notification message.
DUE_DATE
The date by which a response is required, specified
in the notification activity.
NOTIFICATION
Required notification code used to identify the
information in the notification.
The body of the Workflow Canceled Mail template initially contains the
following customizable text:
You earlier received the notification shown below. That
notification is now canceled, and no longer requires your
response. You may simply delete it along with this message.
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
&BODY
Workflow Invalid Mail Message
The Workflow Invalid Mail message gets sent to a user when a user
responds incorrectly to a notification. The message describes how to
respond to the notification correctly. The message attributes are as
follows:
START_DATE
The date the original message was sent.
TO
The role the notification is sent to; the performer.
SUBJECT
The subject line of the original message.
BODY
The text of the original message.
COMMENT
Comments added by the sender or the forwarder.
PRIORITY
The priority of the notification message.
DUE_DATE
The date by which a response is required, specified
by the notification activity.
NOTIFICATION
Required notification code used to identify the
information in the notification.
RESPONSE
The user response section as defined by the
Respond message attributes in the original message
definition.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 39
MAIL_ERROR_
MESSAGE
An error message that the mail program generates
if an error occurs upon processing the response.
MAIL_ERROR_
STACK
An error stack of arguments that the mail program
generates if an error occurs upon processing the
response. You can provide this information to your
support representative if the problem cannot be
resolved with a corrected response.
The body of the Workflow Invalid Mail template initially contains the
following customizable text:
Oracle Workflow Notification
&COMMENT
NOTE: Your previous response to this message was
invalid (see error message below). Please resubmit your
response.
Error Message: &MAIL_ERROR_MESSAGE
Error Stack: &MAIL_ERROR_STACK
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Response Instructions for &NOTIFICATION
To submit your response, reply to this message, including
this original with your reply. This note contains a special
NID string that is required to process the response. The
first lines of your reply must be your responses to the
notification questions. You should enter one line for each
response required by the notification, any additional lines
will be ignored. You may leave a line blank to accept the
default value for that specific response. You must supply a
value or a blank line for each question asked. Instructions
below detail exactly what should be placed on each line of
your reply.
&RESPONSE
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Notification Details:
&BODY
Due Date: &DUE_DATE
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Workflow Closed Mail Message
The Workflow Closed Mail message informs the recipient that a
previously sent notification is now closed. It has the following message
attributes, with values that are drawn from the message definition
associated with the closed notification activity:
START_DATE
The date the original message was sent.
TO
The role the notification is sent to; the performer.
SUBJECT
The subject line of the original message.
BODY
The text of the original message.
COMMENT
Comments added by the sender or the forwarder.
PRIORITY
The priority of the notification message.
DUE_DATE
The date by which a response is required, specified
in the notification activity.
NOTIFICATION
Required notification code used to identify the
information in the notification.
The body of the Workflow Closed Mail template initially contains the
following customizable text:
You earlier received the notification shown below. That
notification is now closed, and no longer requires your
response. You may simply delete it along with this message.
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
&BODY
Workflow Summary Mail Message
The Notification system uses the Workflow Summary Mail message as
a template to send a summary of workflow notifications to users and
roles that have their notification preference set to ’SUMMARY’ in the
Oracle Workflow directory service. The Workflow Summary Mail
message summarizes all currently open notifications for a given
user/role. It has the following message attributes, with values that are
drawn from the message definition associated with the open
notification activity:
BODY
The subject line of the notification.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 41
USER_NAME
The user/role the notification summary is sent to;
the performer.
SYSDATE
The current date.
The body of the Workflow Summary Mail template initially contains
the following customizable text:
NOTE: Please use a Web browser or Notification form to view
notification details.
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Summary of Notifications for ’&USER_NAME’
&SUMMARY
Workflow Warning Mail Message
The Notification system uses the Workflow Warning Mail message as a
template to send a message to user if it receives unsolicited mail from
that user. The Workflow Warning Mail message has the message
attribute SYSDATE, which identifies the current date.
The body of the Workflow Warning Mail template initially contains the
following customizable text, where the last portion of the text includes
the mail originally received from the user:
Messages sent to this account are processed automatically by
the Oracle Workflow Notification Mailer. The message you
sent did not appear to be in response to a notification. If
you are responding to a notification, please use the
response template that was included with your notification.
Take care to include the ’NID’ line of the template in your
reply. If you are not responding to a notification, please
do not send mail to this account.
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
From: &UFROM
Subject: &USUBJECT
&UBODY
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Setting Up Background Workflow Engines
When the Workflow Engine initiates and performs a process, it
completes all necessary activities before continuing to the next eligible
activity. In some cases, an activity can require a large amount of
processing resource or time to complete. Oracle Workflow lets you
manage the load on the Workflow Engine by setting up supplemental
engines to run these costly activities as background tasks. In these
cases, the costly activity is deferred by the Workflow Engine and run
later by a background engine. The main Workflow Engine can then
continue to the next available activity, which may occur on some other
parallel branch of the process.
A background engine must also be set up to handle timed out
notification activities. When the Workflow Engine comes across a
notification activity that requires a response, it calls the Notification
System to send the notification to the appropriate performer, then sets
the notification activity to a status of ’NOTIFIED’ until the performer
completes the notification activity. Meanwhile, a background engine
set up to handle timed out activities periodically checks for
’NOTIFIED’ activities and whether these activities have time out values
specified. If a ’NOTIFIED’ activity does have a time out value, and the
current date and time exceeds that time out value, the background
engine marks that activity as timed out and calls the Workflow Engine.
The Workflow Engine then resumes by trying to execute a <Timeout>
transition activity.
You can define and start up as many background engines as you like to
check for deferred and timed out activities. Background engines can be
restricted to handle activities associated with specific item types, and
within specific cost ranges. A background engine runs until it
completes all eligible activities at the time it was initiated. Generally,
you should set the background engine up to run periodically by either
using a script to restart the background engine periodically (for the
standalone version of Oracle Workflow), or scheduling the Background
Process concurrent program to resubmit periodically (for the version of
Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications).
See Also
Activity Cost: page 3 – 43
Timeout Transitions: page 4 – 3
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 43
To Start a Background Engine
If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, then use
the WF_ENGINE.BACKGROUND( ) API to start up a background
engine. Sample scripts that repeatedly run the background engine are
provided with the standalone version of Oracle Workflow. See:
Background: page 7 – 19.
If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, you can start a background engine by submitting the
Background Process concurrent program using the Submit Requests
form. See: To Schedule Background Engines: page 2 – 44
Note: Make sure you have a least one background engine that
can check for timed out activities and one that can process
deferred activities. At a minimum, you need to set up one
background engine that can handle both timed out and
deferred activities.
To Schedule Background Engines
If you are using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, you can submit the background engine procedure as a
concurrent program to schedule different background engines to run at
different times. Use the Submit Requests window in Oracle
Applications to submit the Workflow Background Process.
"
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Oracle Workflow Guide
To Run a Workflow Background Process as a Concurrent Program:
1.
Navigate to the Submit Requests form.
2.
Submit the Workflow Background Process concurrent program as a
request. See: Submitting a Request, Oracle Applications User’s Guide.
3.
In the Parameters window, enter values for the following
parameters:
Item Type
Specify an item type to restrict this engine to
activities associated with that item type. If you do
not specify an item type, the engine processes any
deferred activity regardless of its item type.
Minimum
Threshold
Specify the minimum cost that an activity must
have for this background engine to execute it, in
hundredths of a second.
Maximum
Threshold
Specify the maximum cost an activity can have for
this background engine to execute it, in hundredths
of a second.
By using Minimum Threshold and Maximum
Threshold you can create multiple background
engines to handle very specific types of activities.
The default values for these arguments are 0 and
100 so that the background engine runs activities
regardless of cost.
Process Deferred
Specify whether this background engine checks for
deferred activities. Setting this parameter to
’Yes’ allows the engine to check for deferred
activities.
Process Timeout
Specify whether this background engine checks for
activities that have timed out. Setting this
parameter to ’Yes’ allows the engine to check for
timed out activities.
Note: Make sure you have a least one background engine that
can check for timed out activities and one that can process
deferred activities. At a minimum, you need to set up one
background engine that can handle both timed out and
deferred activities.
4.
Choose OK to close the Parameters window.
5.
When you finish modifying the run options to define the schedule
for the background engine, choose Submit to submit the request.
See Also
Overview of Concurrent Programs and Requests, Oracle Applications
System Administrator’s Guide
Using Standard Request Submission, Oracle Applications User’s Guide.
To Set Engine Thresholds
To set the thresholds of background engines, specify the minthreshold
and maxthreshold arguments when starting the engine. The
background engine then only processes activities with costs within
your specifications.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 45
The main Workflow Engine threshold is set at 50. Activities with a cost
higher than 50 are deferred for background engines to process.
In some cases, you may want to force the engine to defer an activity
although the activity’s cost is less than fifty. You can do this by altering
the Workflow Engine threshold in the PL/SQL stored procedure for a
function activity.
The engine threshold is set in an externalized constant called
THRESHOLD. Include the following line in your PL/SQL procedure to
set the WF Engine threshold to a different value:
WF_ENGINE.THRESHOLD := n;
You should reset the threshold value afterwards in SQL*PLUS or in the
next function activity so that other activities are processed as expected.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Adding Custom Icons to Oracle Workflow
Oracle Workflow Builder looks for icons in the Icon subdirectory of the
Oracle Workflow area on your PC. The Icon subdirectory is defined in
the registry of Oracle Workflow Builder. The Oracle Workflow area is
typically the WF20 subdirectory within your ORACLE_HOME for
Windows 95 or NT directory structure.
Workflow provides a variety of icons that you can use with your
activities and processes. You can add any icon files to this area as long
as they are Windows icon files with the .ico suffix.
If you want the custom icons that you include in your Oracle Workflow
Builder process definition to appear in the Workflow Monitor when
you view the process, you must do the following:
• Convert the custom icon files (.ico) to gif format (.gif).
• Copy the .gif files to a directory where the Workflow Monitor
can access them:
– For the standalone version of Oracle Workflow —
/<ORACLE_HOME>/wf/java/oracle/wf/icons
– For the Oracle Applications–embedded version of Oracle
Workflow — <java_directory_path>/oracle/wf/icons
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 47
Overview of Oracle Workflow Access Protection
Access protection is a feature that prevents workflow seed data created
by a ’seed data provider’ from being modified by a ’seed data
consumer’. Here, a ’seed data provider’ is any organization that
creates ’seed data’ for other organizations (’seed data consumers’) to
use in defining and customizing workflow process. In Oracle
Workflow, seed data refers to either of the following:
• Workflow object definitions that can and should be customized
to meet a certain consumer’s needs.
• Workflow object definitions protected against customization
because they represent standards that may also be upgraded in
the future by the provider.
For example, the Oracle Workflow development team is a provider of
seed data called the Standard item type. The Standard item type
contains standard activities that can be dropped into any custom
workflow process. The development team at your organization’s
headquarters may create a custom workflow process definition that
references activities from the Standard item type. This makes the
headquarters team a consumer of the Standard item type seed data.
Now suppose the headquarters team wants to deploy the custom
workflow definition that it created to teams at other regional offices.
The headquarters team, as seed data providers, may want to do the
following:
• Identify certain workflow objects in its custom workflow
definition as corporate standards that the regional teams should
adhere to and not modify.
• Designate certain objects in its deployed process as customizable
for the regional offices to alter to their offices’ needs.
The headquarters team can satisfy both requirement using the access
protection feature in Oracle Workflow. Access protection lets seed data
providers protect certain data as ’read–only’, while allowing other data
to be customized. Also during a seed data upgrade, access protection
lets the seed data provider overwrite any existing protected seed data
with new versions of that seed data, while preserving any
customizations made to customizable seed data.
Oracle Workflow assigns a protection and customization level to every
workflow object definition stored in the database and requires every
user of Oracle Workflow to operate at a certain access level. The
combination of protection, customization, and access levels make up
the access protection feature and determines whether a user can
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Oracle Workflow Guide
modify a given workflow object. The level in all three cases, is a
numeric value ranging from 0 to 1000 that indicates the relationship
between different organizations as providers and consumers of seed
data.
The following range of levels are presumed by Oracle Workflow:
0–9
Oracle Workflow
10–19
Oracle Application Object Library
20–99
Oracle Applications development
100–999
Customer organization. You can determine how
you want this range to be interpreted. For
example, 100 can represent headquarters, while 101
can represent a regional office, and so on.
1000
Public
Access Level
Each user of Oracle Workflow operates the system at a certain access
level according to the range of levels listed above. A ”user of Oracle
Workflow” in this case, represents someone who is operating Oracle
Workflow Builder, or the Workflow Definitions Loader program, which
loads workflow process definitions from a file into a database. As a
seed data provider, you should always operate Oracle Workflow
Builder at the same consistent access level because the level you work
at affects the protection level of the seed data you create.
You can view your access level as follows:
• In Oracle Workflow Builder, select About Workflow from the
Help menu.
• If you are going to run the Workflow Definitions Loader
program, check the value for the environment variable
WF_ACCESS_LEVEL on your workflow server. See: Using the
Workflow Definitions Loader: page 2 – 54.
Note: The Workflow Definitions Loader program references
the access level stored in the environment variable called
WF_ACCESS_LEVEL, which you must define when you install
Oracle Workflow on your server. If you do not define this
environment variable, the Workflow Definitions Loader simply
assumes a default access level of 100.
Note: When you install the standalone version of Oracle
Workflow on your server, you need to define this variable in an
environment file. The default environment file is
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 49
APPLSYS.env. If you do not define this environment variable,
the Workflow Definitions Loader simply assumes a default
access level of 100. Refer to your Oracle Applications
Installation Manual for more information about environment
files.
Protection Level
Whenever you create a workflow object in Oracle Workflow Builder,
you have the option of protecting the object at a certain level. An
object’s protection level controls whether other users can modify the
object based on their access levels.
To change the protection level of an object, display the Access tab of the
object’s property page. The protection level that you set for an object is
dependent on your current access level. You can control access to an
object in one of four ways:
• Allow access to everyone—By default, all users are allowed
access to an object if both ”Preserve Customizations’ and ’Lock
at this Access Level’ are unchecked in the Access tab, that is the
protection level is equal to 1000.
• Limit access to users with access levels equal to your own or
higher—If you check ’Preserve Customizations’ in the Options
region of the Access tab, you designate the object as being
customizable by anyone with an access level equal to or higher
than your current access level. You should only mark objects as
customizable if you are sure that you will not be providing
upgraded versions of this object in the future that would
overwrite other user’s customizations to it.
• Limit access to users with access levels equal to your own or
lower—If you check ’Lock at this Access Level’, you protect the
object and ensure that the object may only be modified by users
with an access level equal to or lower than your current access
level. Users operating at a higher access level will see a small
lock on the workflow object’s icon, indicating that the object can
be used but not modified. Protect any objects that you want to
define as standard components that will not change unless you
provide a global upgrade. For this reason, it is important that
you always operate at the same consistent access level.
• Limit access to users with access levels equal to your own—If
you check both ’Lock at this Level’ and ’Preserve
Customizations’ you ensure that the object cannot be modified
by anyone other than users operating at your current access
level.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Preserve
Customizations
Lock at this
Access Level
Access Level applied to Object
Object may be updated by any
access level.
Object may only be updated by
users with access levels equal to
or higher than your current
access level.
X
X
X
Object may only be updated by
users with access levels equal to
or lower than your current access
level.
X
Object cannot be updated by any
access level except for your
current access level.
Table 2 – 1 (Page 1 of 1)
в�ћ
Attention: If you have installed the beta version of Microsoft’s
Internet Explorer on your PC, which automatically installs an
early version of a file called comctl32.dll, you may not see the
lock icons appear on the locked objects in Oracle Workflow
Builder. To correct this problem, install the production version
of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer to replace comctl32.dll with the
latest copy.
The protection and access levels in Oracle Workflow are present to
remind you that certain workflow objects should not be modified or
should only be modified by someone accessing the tool at an
authorized access level. It is not intended as a means of securing or
source controlling your workflow objects.
в�ћ
Attention: Most workflow objects provided by Oracle
Workflow have a protection level of 0, which means the objects
can only be modified by the Oracle Workflow team, operating
at an access level of 0. If you attempt to alter your access level
to 0 and modify the data anyway, your customizations will not
be supported, especially if Oracle Workflow provides an
upgrade to the seed data that may overwrite the modifications
you make to the originally protected data.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 51
Customization Level
Every workflow object, in addition to having a protection level, also
records a customization level equal to your access level when you
modify the object and save it to a database or file. For example, if a
workflow object is customizable (protection level is 1000), and you
customize it at an access level of 100, you now mark the object as
having a customization level of 100. The customization level indicates
that the object can only be further modified by someone operating at an
access level equal to or higher than the customization level. So in this
example, you can only customize the object further if your access level
is 100 or higher. If you are operating at an access level lower than an
object’s customization level, you will see a small lock on that workflow
object’s icon, indicating that the object can be used but not modified
This ensures that a customizable object that has been customized never
gets overwritten during a seed data upgrade because the upgrade
always occurs with the Workflow Definitions Loader operating at an
access level below the customized object’s customization level.
Setting Up a Default Access Level
When you install Oracle Workflow Builder on a Microsoft Windows 95
or Windows NT PC, Oracle Installer assigns a default access level that
is global to the PC and the operating system you are installing on.
Oracle Installer references a file called level.vrf to define the default
access level for the installation. You can also assign an access level to
each individual user on the PC, which overrides the default access level
set for the PC. If a user does not have an access level defined, Oracle
Workflow Builder assumes the value of the default access level for the
PC. The access levels are stored in the Microsoft Windows registry.
If you are deploying Oracle Workflow Builder and workflow seed data
to users in other parts of your organization, and you wish to
discourage those users from modifying the seed data that you provide,
you can have them operate Oracle Workflow Builder at an access level
that is higher than the data’s protection level. For example if you, as a
seed data provider are operating at an access level of 100 and the seed
data you create is protected at a level of 100, then you should set the
default access level for your users or seed data consumers to be 101 or
higher.
You can set your user’s default access level in one of two ways in
Oracle Workflow Builder:
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Oracle Workflow Guide
• If you are installing Oracle Workflow Builder over a LAN, you
can edit the file level.vrf located in the Windows95 or NT
wrkflw20 installation subdirectory. Change the access level in
that file to a level that is higher than your seed data protection
level, then have your users install Oracle Workflow Builder. The
new default access level is automatically set.
• If your users are installing Oracle Workflow Builder directly
from the installation CD, then after installing Oracle Workflow
Builder, have them choose About Oracle Workflow Builder...
from the Edit menu. In the About Oracle Workflow Builder
window, change the Access Level field to a number higher than
your seed data protection level, then choose OK.
For the Workflow Definitions Loader program, you set the default
access level that the program operates at for downloading process
definitions to a file, by defining an environment variable called
WF_ACCESS_LEVEL and setting its value using the appropriate
operating system command.
Caution: Although you can modify your access level, Oracle
Workflow does not support any customizations to seed data
originally protected at a level 99 or lower. We STRONGLY
RECOMMEND that you not change your access level to an
unauthorized level for modifying protected data.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 53
Using the Workflow Definitions Loader
Rather than use the File Save or File Open menu options in Oracle
Workflow Builder, you can also run a program called Workflow
Definitions Loader to save or load process definitions from a database
or flat file.
When you upgrade your database, use the Workflow Definitions
Loader to preserve and back up your process definitions to a flat file.
When the database upgrade is complete, use the Loader program again
to upload the definitions back into your database. You can also use the
Loader program to upgrade your database with a newer version of a
process definition or to transfer process definitions to other databases.
The Workflow Definitions Loader program accepts several parameters
that vary depending on the mode that you run the Loader program.
Following is a summary of the Loader program’s various modes and
behavior.
Workflow Definitions Loader Behavior
Mode
Data Transfer
Data Protected at
Access Level Less
Than Loader
Access Level
Customized Data
UPGRADE
File to Database
Preserved
Preserved
UPLOAD
File to Database
Preserved
Overwritten
FORCE
File to Database
Overwritten
Overwritten
DOWNLOAD
Database to File
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Table 2 – 2 (Page 1 of 1)
"
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Oracle Workflow Guide
To run the Workflow Definitions Loader for the standalone version
of Oracle Workflow:
1.
The Workflow Definitions Loader program is located on your
server in the bin subdirectory of the Oracle Workflow directory
structure.
2.
Run the program from your operating system prompt as follows
(replacing <username/[email protected]> with the username,
password and SQL*Net connect string or alias to your database):
• To apply a seed data upgrade to a database from an input file,
type:
wfload <username/[email protected]> <input_file>
By using the default upgrade behavior, the Workflow Definitions
Loader assumes the access level of the file’s creator (seed data
provider) and overwrites any objects protected at a level equal to
or above the upgrade file’s access level. During an upgrade, the
Loader program preserves any customizations made to
customizable seed data in the database. <input_file>
represents the name and full path of the upgrade file you are
loading.
• To upload process definitions from an input file to a database,
type:
wfload –u <username/[email protected]> <input_file>
The upload mode is useful to someone who is developing a
workflow process. It allows the developer to save definitions to
the database without concern that accidental customizations to
existing objects might prevent the upload of some process
definition elements. The Workflow Definitions Loader uses the
access level specified in the input file. <input_file> represents
the name and full path of the input file you want to upload from.
• To force an upload of the process definitions from an input file to
a database regardless of an object’s protection level, type:
wfload –f <username/[email protected]> <input_file>
<input_file> represents the name and full path of the input file
you want to upload from. When using the force option, you
should be certain that the process definition in the file is correct
as it overwrites the entire process stored in the database. The
force option is useful for fixing data integrity problems in a
database with a known, reliable file backup. The force option is
also useful for loading .wft files from Oracle Workflow Release
1.0 or 1.0.1, which reflect an older data model.
Note: When using the force option to load a .wft file from
Oracle Workflow Release 1.0 or 1.0.1 into a database, you must
also complete a manual step once the .wft file is loaded. You
must associate the lookup types that you load with an item
type. To do this, in the Navigator window of Oracle Workflow
Builder, drag the lookup types from the independent Lookup
Types branch to a Lookup Types branch associated with an
item type.
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 55
• To download the process definition of one or more item types
from a database to an output file, type:
wfload [–d <date>] <username/[email protected]>
<output_file> <item_type1> <item_type2> ...<item_typeN>
<output_file> represents the name and full path of the output
file you want to write to, and <item_typeN> represents the
internal name of each item type you want to download. You can
also replace <item_typeN> with ’*’ to represent all item types
(make sure you enclose the asterisk in single quotes). If you
specify the –d option with a date (omitting the square brackets),
you can download the process definition that was effective at
that date. The date must be supplied in the following format:
YYYY/MM/DD HH24:MI:SS.
Your output file should have the extension .wft. When you
download a process definition, the Loader program sets the
output file’s access level to be the value stored in the
WF_ACCESS_LEVEL environment variable.
"
To run the Workflow Definitions Loader for the version of Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications:
1.
Navigate to the Submit Requests form in Oracle Applications to
submit the Workflow Definitions Loader concurrent program.
When you install and set up Oracle Applications and Oracle
Workflow, your system administrator needs to add this concurrent
program to a request security group for the responsibility that you
want to run this program from. See: Overview of Concurrent
Programs and Requests, Oracle Applications System Administrator’s
Guide
2.
Submit the Workflow Definitions Loader concurrent program as a
request. See: Submitting a Request, Oracle Applications User’s Guide.
3.
In the Parameters window, enter values for the following
parameters:
Mode
Specify ”Download” to download a process
definition from the database to a flat file.
Specify ”Upgrade” to apply a seed data upgrade to
a database from an input file. The Workflow
Definitions Loader assumes the access level of the
file’s creator (seed data provider) and overwrites
any objects protected at a level equal to or above
the upgrade file’s access level. The Loader
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Oracle Workflow Guide
program preserves any customizations made to
customizable seed data in the database.
Specify ”Upload” to load a process definition from
a flat file into the database. The upload mode is
useful to someone who is developing a workflow
process. It allows the developer to save definitions
to the database without concern that accidental
customizations to existing objects might prevent
the upload of some process definition elements.
The Workflow Definitions Loader uses the access
level defined by the input file to upload the process
definitions from the file and therefore will
overwrite objects in the database that are protected
at a level equal to or higher than that file’s access
level.
Specify ”Force” to force an upload of the process
definitions from an input file to a database
regardless of an object’s protection level You
should be certain that the process definition in the
file is correct as it overwrites the entire process
stored in the database. The Force mode is useful
for fixing data integrity problems in a database
with a known, reliable file backup and for loading
.wft files from Oracle Workflow Release 1.0 or
1.0.1, which reflect an older data model.
Note: When using the Force mode to load a .wft file from
Oracle Workflow Release 1.0 or 1.0.1 into a database, you must
also complete a manual step once the .wft file is loaded. You
must associate the lookup types that you load with an item
type. To do this, in the Navigator window of Oracle Workflow
Builder, drag the lookup types from the independent Lookup
Types branch to a Lookup Types branch associated with an
item type.
File
Specify the full path and name of the file that you
want to download a process definition to, or
upgrade or upload a process definition from.
Item Type
If you set Mode to ”Download”, use the List button
to choose the item type for the process definition
you want to download.
Note: When you submit the Workflow Definitions Loader
from the Submit Requests form to download process
definitions to a file, you can only specify to download one item
Setting Up Oracle Workflow
2 – 57
type at a time. If you wish to download multiple or all item
types simultaneously, you should submit the Workflow
Definitions Loader concurrent program from the command
line. See Step 6 below for details.
4.
Choose OK to close the Parameters window.
5.
When you finish modifying the print and run options for this
request, choose Submit to submit the request.
6.
Rather than use the Submit Requests form, you can also run the
Workflow Definitions Loader concurrent program from the
command line by entering the following commands:
To upgrade—
WFLOAD apps/pwd 0 Y UPGRADE file.wft
To upload—
WFLOAD apps/pwd 0 Y UPLOAD file.wft
To force—
WFLOAD apps/pwd 0 Y FORCE file.wft
To download— WFLOAD apps/pwd 0 Y DOWNLOAD
file.wft ITEMTYPE1 [ITEMTYPE2 ...
ITEMTYPEN]
Replace apps/pwd with username and password to the APPS
schema, replace file.wft with the file specification of a workflow
process definition file, and replace ITEMTYPE1, ITEMTYPE2,
... ITEMTYPEN with the one or more item type(s) you want to
download. You can also download all item types
simultaneously by replacing ITEMTYPE1 with ’*’ (make sure
you enclose the asterisk in single quotes).
A file specification is specified as:
@<application_short_name> :[<dir>/.../]file.ext
or
<native path>
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Oracle Workflow Guide
CHAPTER
3
Defining Workflow
Process Components
T
his chapter tells you how to use Oracle Workflow Builder to
define the components necessary to compose a workflow process
diagram.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3–1
Overview of Oracle Workflow Builder
Oracle Workflow Builder is a graphical tool for creating, viewing, and
modifying workflow process definitions. It contains a Navigator
window that you use to define the activities and components of your
business process. You then assemble the activities in a process window
to create a process diagram. See: Creating Process Definitions in Oracle
Workflow Builder: page 3 – 6.
Note: When you use Copy from the Edit menu to copy objects
from Navigator window to the clipboard, then exit Oracle
Workflow Builder and restart it again, you will no longer be
able to paste the object from the clipboard back into the
Navigator.
Note: If you maximize the Navigator window or any process
window in Oracle Workflow Builder, you will not be able to
access the menu from your keyboard using the Alt key.
3–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
The Navigator Tree Structure
The Navigator window displays a navigator tree hierarchy for each
data store that you open or load into Oracle Workflow Builder. A data
store (primary branch) is a database connection or flat file that holds
your workflow process definition. Within each data store, there is at
least one item type heading (secondary branch) that represents the
grouping of a particular set of processes and its components. The
following six tertiary branches appear beneath each item type branch:
• Attributes—lists the attributes for the current item type. Item
type attributes describe features of an item type. For example, if
an item type is a purchase order requisition, then an item type
attribute can be the requisition amount or the requisition ID.
See: Item Type Attributes: page 3 – 14.
• Processes—lists the process activities or workflow process
definitions for the current item type. See: Process Window: page
4 – 2 and Activities: page 3 – 41.
• Notifications—lists the notification activities associated with the
current item type. A notification activity sends a message to a
user or role. The message may prompt for a response or may
simply provide information. See: Activities: page 3 – 41.
• Functions—lists the function activities associated with the
current item type. A function activity represents a PL/SQL
stored procedure that the Workflow Engine executes
automatically. A function activity can also have activity
attributes associated with it. See: Activities: page 3 – 41.
• Messages—lists the messages that a notification activity
associated with the current item type can send to a user or role.
A message can have message attributes associated with it. See:
Messages: page 3 – 30.
• Lookup Types—lists the lookup types associated with the
current item type. A lookup type has one or more values called
lookup codes associated with it. A lookup type is a list of values
that can be referenced by a message, or by a notification,
function, or process as its possible result type. See: Lookup
Types: page 3 – 26.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3–3
Viewing the Navigator Tree
The navigator tree is organized much like the hierarchy of a file system,
where you can expand branches that begin with a plus sign (+) to
further sub–branches until you find your component of interest.
Sub–branches appear indented below the branches from which they are
expanded. Branches that are expanded are preceded by a minus sign
(–). You can expand no further when a branch displays neither a plus
nor minus sign. You can use either your mouse or the arrow keys on
your keyboard to expand or collapse the navigator tree.
The Navigator window also contains a toolbar that you can use to
perform actions within the Navigator window. See: Navigator Toolbar:
page 0 – 6.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
"
To Find an Object in the Navigator Tree
1.
Choose Find... from the Edit menu to display a Search window that
lets you specify search criteria to find an object in the navigator
tree.
2.
Enter the text to search for in the Search Text field. The search is
case insensitive and looks for the text pattern that you specify in
the field that you specify.
3.
Specify to search for this text in the Display Name or Internal
Name field of the object’s property page.
4.
Specify the object type to restrict this search to or check All Objects
to search for the text within the property pages of all objects.
5.
Choose Search.
6.
You can choose Find Again from the Edit menu to repeat the search
using the search criteria previously defined in the Search window.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3–5
Creating Process Definitions in Oracle Workflow Builder
Before using Oracle Workflow Builder, you should plan what your
process needs to accomplish. In particular, determine what activities
need to happen, the order of the activities, what results dictate the
different branches of the process, who needs to be informed and what
they need to know. For an example of a predefined process, see:
Requisition Approval: page 10 – 2.
Versioning and Dates of Effectivity
When you create a process definition, Oracle Workflow Builder assigns
a new version number to an activity if you make changes to it. It saves
the new version of the activity to the database without overwriting
older versions of the activity. In Oracle Workflow, activities also have
dates of effectivity so that at any point in time, only one version of the
activity is ”in effect”. If a process is running, Oracle Workflow uses the
version of the activity that was in effect when the process was initiated.
It does not switch versions of the activity mid–way through the
process. Note that a process itself is an activity, so a process definition
always remains constant until the process instance completes.
Oracle Workflow Builder also supports the concept of saving and
loading process definitions according to an effective date. For example,
you can load a definition into Oracle Workflow Builder that was
effective at an earlier point in time. You can also save a definition to
the database to be effective at some point in the future.
Note that Oracle Workflow Builder does not maintain version
information for objects such as item types, item type attributes,
messages and lookup types. For these objects, their latest definition
always apply, so you should always consider whether a change to any
of these objects is backwards compatible. If the modification affects
existing processes, you should create a new object rather than edit the
existing object.
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page
When you create an object in Oracle Workflow Builder, you must enter
information in the object’s property page to define the object. Some of
the information you provide can be selected from a list of values. If a
poplist field yields values that are themselves defined from other
property pages in Oracle Workflow Builder, an Edit button will appear
to the right of that poplist. When you select a value in the poplist, you
can choose its Edit button to display and edit the source property
page(s) of the value. When you are done with the source property
3–6
Oracle Workflow Guide
page(s) and choose OK or Cancel, you return to the original property
page you were working on.
For example, if you create a notification activity, you must specify a
Result Type for the activity. The value you enter can be <None> or any
lookup type that is loaded in your current data store. These lookup
types are presented to you in a poplist in the Result Type field. If you
select a lookup type, you can then choose the Edit button next to the
Result Type field to display the property page for that lookup type.
When you finish viewing or editing the property page for that lookup
type, you can choose OK or Cancel to return to the notification activity
property page.
"
To create or modify a process definition:
1.
To start Oracle Workflow Builder, double–click on the Oracle
Workflow Builder icon in the Oracle for Windows NT or Oracle for
Windows 95 program group. If you are using Windows 95 or NT
4.0, you can also select the Oracle Workflow Builder icon from the
appropriate program folder from the Start menu.
2.
Choose New from the File menu to create a workspace for your
new process definition or open a connection to the database or file
that contains the process definition you want to modify: page
3 – 9.
3.
Create a new item type: page 3 – 17 or select and expand the item
type associated with the process definition you want to modify.
Create an item type that classifies the work item to be managed by
the process. You can also define item type attributes to fully
describe your item and have the activities in your process refer to
these attributes for information about the item. See: To Define an
Item Type or Activity Attribute: page 3 – 19.
4.
Create new lookup types: page 3 – 27.
Before you define an activity, define the lookup type that represents
your activity’s Result Type. After defining a lookup type and an
activity, you can drag the lookup onto an activity in the navigator
tree to assign that lookup as the activity’s result type. Lookup
types can also be referenced by item type, activity, or message
attributes.
5.
Create new messages: page 3 – 31.
Before you define a notification activity, create the message that
you want the notification activity to send. You can drag a new
message onto a notification activity in the navigator tree to assign
Defining Workflow Process Components
3–7
the message to that activity. See: To Define a Message Attribute:
page 3 – 34.
6.
Create a new process activity, notification activity or function
activity.
You need to define at least one process activity that represents your
high level process diagram. The process diagram establishes the
relationship of all the activities in your process. See: Activities:
page 3 – 41 and To Define an Item Type or Activity Attribute: page
3 – 19.
7.
Diagram the process: page 4 – 4.
Display the Process window for your process activity to diagram
the activities and transitions that define your workflow process.
You can drag activities from the navigator tree into the Process
window.
8.
In a database accessible by your Oracle Workflow server, create the
PL/SQL stored procedures called by your function activities. You
can do this through SQL*PLUS or the Oracle Procedure Builder.
See: Workflow APIs: page 7 – 3.
Opening and Saving Item Types
All processes are associated with an item type. An item type can
include one or more processes. You can save an item type to a database
or to a flat file. When you save your work to a database, you actually
save everything in the current data store that has been modified. When
you save your work to a flat file, you actually save everything in the
current data store to the file. You can also load an item type into Oracle
Workflow Builder from a database or flat file. Opening an item type
automatically retrieves all the attributes, messages, lookups,
notifications, functions and processes associated with that item type.
в�ћ
3–8
Oracle Workflow Guide
Attention: Always save a copy of your workflow process
definition as a flat file and check that file into a source control
system to maintain a working version of your process
definition. Avoid using the process definition stored in your
database as your source controlled version, as others with
access to the database can update the definition.
"
To Access Process Definitions in an Existing Data Store:
1.
To start Oracle Workflow Builder, double–click on the Oracle
Workflow Builder icon in the Oracle for Windows NT or Oracle for
Windows 95 program group. If you are using Windows 95 or NT
4.0, you can also select the Oracle Workflow Builder icon from the
appropriate program folder from the Start menu. In Oracle
Workflow Builder, select Open... from the File menu.
2.
Select database or file to connect to the source containing the item
type that your process definition is associated with.
3.
To open a File: Provide the complete file path and choose OK, or
use Browse to locate and open the file (extension .wft).
Note: You can also drag and drop a .wft file from the
Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 Explorer or
Microsoft Windows NT File Manager into the navigator tree to
open that file in Oracle Workflow Builder.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3–9
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Oracle Workflow Guide
4.
To open a Database connection: Enter the username and password
for the database. Enter the name of the database alias or connect
string and choose OK.
5.
If you wish to retrieve a process definition that was effective at a
particular point in time, you can specify a date and time in the
Effective field and have Oracle Workflow Builder retrieve that data
from the database. The format that you use to specify the date and
time depends on the date and time preferences defined in the
Regional Settings of your Windows Control Panel.
6.
If multiple item types exist in the data store, the Show Item Types
window appears. Select from the Hidden list, the item type(s) you
want to view, and choose <<Show to move it into the Visible list.
Choose OK to load these item types into the navigator tree.
7.
If at any time you want to view and modify item types that are
hidden in the current data store, you can double–click on the
Hidden Item Types branch in the navigator tree to display the
Show Item Types window and select the item types you want to
show. You can also choose Show/Hide Item Types from the File
menu to display the Show Item Types window.
8.
When you finish working, choose Save from the File menu to
preserve your changes and make them effective immediately.
When you use the Save command, you save all modified objects in
the currently selected data store (even those that are hidden) back
to that data store. If you want to save only specific item types, then
you must create a new data store, and copy the specific item types
you want to save into the new store and save the new store.
Note: When you copy item types to the new store, you may
get validation errors due to foreign key references. You should
pay attention to these errors as they may indicate that you need
to also copy other item types into the new store to resolve the
foreign key references.
в�ћ
Attention: Oracle Workflow Builder can save your work to
the database using one of two modes. In the ”About Oracle
Workflow Builder” dialog box from the Help menu, there is a
check box called ”Allow modifications of customized objects”.
If you check this check box, Oracle Workflow Builder saves
your edits in ’upload’ mode, overwriting any protected objects
that you have access to modify and as well as any previously
customized objects. If you uncheck this check box, Oracle
Workflow Builder runs in ’upgrade’ mode and will only save
edits to protected objects that you have access to change and
will not overwrite objects that have been previously
customized. These two modes match the upgrade and upload
behavior of the Workflow Definitions Loader program. See: To
Set the Access Level for an Object: page 3 – 25 and Using the
Workflow Definitions Loader: page 2 – 54.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 11
9.
If you want to save your work to a different data store (database or
flat file), or if you want to save it to a database with an effective
date other than the current system date, then choose Save As...
from the File menu. Use the Save As window to specify the file or
database you want to save your process definition to, and the date
when you want your process definition to take effect in the
database. You can leave the Effective field blank to save and make
the changes effective immediately. See: Version/Effective Date:
page 7 – 6.
Note: If you save your work to a database with a future
effective date, and then in the same Oracle Workflow Builder
session, continue to modify your process and later choose Save
from the File menu, you automatically save the process
definition to the same database using the previously specified
effective date.
10. Use Close Store from the File menu to close your connection to the
current database or file data store. You are prompted to save your
work.
3 – 12
Oracle Workflow Guide
11. Choose Exit from the File menu to exit Oracle Workflow Builder.
в�ћ
"
Attention: The Close Store and Exit options from the File
menu are enabled only when the Navigator window is the
current window.
To Start Oracle Workflow Builder from the MS–DOS Prompt:
Rather than starting Oracle Workflow Builder by double–clicking on its
Windows icon, you can also type in a command at the MS–DOS
prompt and specify the file or database to connect to.
1.
In an MS–DOS prompt window, type the following command to
start Oracle Workflow Builder with a specific workflow data file,
where <filename.wft> represents the full path and name of the
data file:
wfbldr20 <filename.wft>
2.
To start Oracle Workflow Builder with a specific database
connection, type the following command at the MS–DOS prompt,
where <username/[email protected]> represents the database
account information to connect to:
wfbldr20 –c <username/[email protected]>
Note: If you run Oracle Workflow Builder in Microsoft
Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0, you can also double–click on
a workflow data file (.wft) from the Windows Explorer to
automatically open that file and start Oracle Workflow Builder.
3.
To start Oracle Workflow Builder and open a specified item type in
a data store, append the following to the appropriate command
shown in Step 1 or 2, where <item_type> represents the internal
name of the item type you want to open:
–E <item_type>
For example:
wfbldr20 wfdemo.wft –E wfdemo
4.
To start Oracle Workflow Builder and open a specified process
diagram in a data store, append the following to the appropriate
command shown in Step 1 or 2, where <item_type:process>
represents the internal names of the item type and process you
want to open:
–E <item_type:process>
For example:
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 13
wfbldr20 wfdemo.wft –E WFDEMO:NOTIFYAPPROVER
See Also
Using the Workflow Definitions Loader: page 2 – 54
Creating a Shortcut to a Workflow Process: page 4 – 14
Item Types
An item type is a classification of the components that make up a
workflow process. You must associate any component that you create
for a process, such as a function activity or a message, with a particular
item type. Often times it makes sense to define an item type so that it
describes the item being managed by your workflow process. For
example, a purchase order requisition can be an item type while a
purchase order requisition identified by a particular ID number is an
item of that item type. See: To Create an Item Type: page 3 – 17.
Item Type Attributes
An item type attribute is a property associated with a given item type.
It acts as a global variable that can be referred or updated by any
activity within a process. An item type attribute often provides
information about an item that is necessary for the workflow process to
properly manage the item. For example, the ”Workflow
Demonstration” item type has an item type attribute called
”Requisition Amount.” An activity in our example Requisition
Approval process requires the value of this item type attribute to
determine if a selected approver has the authority to approve a
requisition of that amount.
Applications as well as function activities can reference and set item
type attributes using the Oracle Workflow Engine APIs. You can define
and maintain as many item type attributes as necessary for an item
type. You should define as an item type attribute, any information that
will be required by an activity in your process, or any information that
will need to be sent in a notification message. See: To Define a Message
Attribute: page .
3 – 14
Oracle Workflow Guide
Attribute Types
There are nine types of attributes, as shown below. The type
determines what values are acceptable and how the attribute is used.
Text
The attribute value is a string of text.
Number
The attribute is a number with the optional format
mask you specify.
Date
The attribute value is a date with the optional
format mask you specify.
Lookup
The attribute value is one of the lookup code
values in a specified lookup type.
Form
The attribute value is the Oracle Applications
internal function name of a form and any optional
form parameters. This attribute type is not
relevant for the standalone version of Oracle
Workflow. It is useful only if you have the Oracle
Applications Notifications Viewer form.
The value must be entered using the following
format:
function_name:parameter1=value1 parameter2=value2
... parameterN=valueN
valueN can be a text string, enclosed in quotes (” ”)
or can be token substituted with another
predefined item type attribute in any of the
following ways:
• parameterN=”&item_type_attribute”
• parameterN=”Value &item_type_attribute” where
&item_type_attribute represents the rest of the
value.
A form attribute is passed to the Notification
Viewer window to let a user drill down to the form
to complete an activity or to see additional
information related to the activity. See: Overview
of Menus and Function Security, Oracle Applications
Developer’s Guide.
URL
The attribute value is a Universal Resource Locator
(URL) to a network location that a user can access
when viewing notifications from the Notifications
Web page. The user can complete an activity or see
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 15
additional information related to the activity by
accessing that URL.
Document
The attribute value is an attached document. You
specify the name of the document management
system and a document reference. In the future,
you can specify any of the following document
types in the default value field:
• PL/SQL—a document representing data from
the database, generated from a PL/SQL
procedure. Specify as
plsql:<procedure>/<document_identifier>. The
PL/SQL procedure must follow a standard API
format. See:Standard API for a ”PL/SQL”
Document: page 6 – 9.
• Http—a standard URL. Specify as
http://<host>/<document_path>.
• File—a file accessible from the Oracle Workflow
server filesystem. Specify as file:<file_path>.
• External document management system—a
document managed by an external document
management system. Specify as
<doc_management_system>:<document_reference>.
в�ћ
Attention: Only the PL/SQL document type is currently
supported.
Role
The attribute value is a role name. You must
initially load the roles from the database to display
a list of roles to choose from. See: Roles: page
4 – 16.
Attribute
The attribute value is the name of another existing
item type attribute that you want to maintain
references to in a process.
Item Type Selector Function
If your item type has or will have more than one process activity
associated with it, define a PL/SQL function that will determine which
process activity to run in a particular situation. For example, you may
have two different requisition approval process activities associated
with the same item type. The process that Oracle Workflow executes
may vary depending on how and where the requisition originates.
3 – 16
Oracle Workflow Guide
Your selector function would determine which process would be
appropriate in any situation.
You can also extend the Selector function to be a general callback
function so that item type context information can be reset as needed
during the execution of a process. See: Standard API for an Item Type
Selector or Callback Function: page 6 – 5.
"
To Create an Item Type
1.
If you do not already have a data store open, select New from the
File menu to create a new data store to define this new item type.
Then define a new item type in the navigator tree by choosing New
Item Type from the Edit menu. An Item Type property page
appears.
2.
Every item type has an all–uppercase internal name, which is a
maximum of eight characters long. All Oracle Workflow APIs, SQL
scripts, and PL/SQL procedures refer to the internal name when
identifying an item type.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name for an item
type once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 17
3.
The translatable Display Name should be longer and more
descriptive. You can also supply a description of the item type.
4.
If your item type has or will have more than one workflow process
associated with it, you may specify a selector function using the
syntax <package_name>.<procedure_name>. The selector
function is a PL/SQL stored procedure that automatically identifies
the specific process definition the Workflow Engine should execute
when a workflow is initiated for this item type. You can also
extend the selector function to be a general callback function that
resets context information each time the Workflow Engine
establishes a new database session to execute activities. See:
Standard API for an Item Type Selector or Callback Function: page
6 – 5.
5.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
6.
Select the Roles tab page to specify the roles that have access to this
item type. (This functionality will be supported in a future release.)
7.
Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this item type. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
8.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
9.
A secondary branch appears in the navigator tree that represents
the item type you just created. You can review or edit the
properties of this item type at any time by double–clicking on the
item type in the navigator tree or by selecting the item type and
choosing Properties from the Edit menu.
10. Define as many item type attributes as necessary to use as global
variables in your process. You use these item type attributes to
pass values to your function and notification activities. See: To
Define an Item Type or Activity Attribute: page 3 – 19.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
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Oracle Workflow Guide
"
To Define an Item Type or Activity Attribute
1.
To create an item type attribute, select an item type in the navigator
tree, then choose New Attribute from the Edit menu.
To create an activity attribute, select an activity in the navigator
tree and choose New Attribute from the Edit menu.
An Attribute property page appears in both cases.
2.
Provide an Internal Name in all uppercase with no spaces. All
Oracle Workflow APIs, SQL scripts, and PL/SQL procedures refer
to the internal name when identifying an attribute.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name for an
attribute once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
3.
Enter the Display Name. This is the name that appears in the
navigator tree.
4.
Enter an optional description.
5.
Select the data type of the attribute.
6.
Depending on the Type of your attribute, provide the following
information:
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 19
Text
Specify the maximum length of the text attribute.
Number
Optionally provide a format mask for your
number.
Date
Optionally supply a format mask for the date.
Lookup
Choose the name of a predefined Lookup Type
from which to draw values.
URL
Specify a Universal Resource Locator (URL) to a
network location in the Default Value field.
Form
This attribute is relevant only with the version of
Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications.
Specify the developer function name of a form and
any optional form parameters in the Default Value
field. See: Overview of Menus and Function
Security, Oracle Applications Developer’s Guide. The
default value must be entered using the following
format:
function_name:parameter1=value1 parameter2=value2
... parameterN=valueN
valueN can be a text string, enclosed in quotes (” ”)
or can be token substituted with the value from
another predefined item type or message attribute
in any of the following ways:
• parameterN=”&item_type_attribute”
• parameterN=”Value &item_type_attribute” where
&item_type_attribute represents the rest of the
value.
Document
Enter the name of the document management
system and a document reference. In the future,
you can specify any one of the following document
types in the default value field:
• PL/SQL—a document representing data from
the database, generated from a PL/SQL
procedure. Specify as
<procedure>/<document_identifier>. The PL/SQL
procedure must follow a standard API format.
See:Standard API for a ”PL/SQL” Document:
page 6 – 9.
3 – 20
Oracle Workflow Guide
• Http—a standard URL. Specify as
http://<host>/<document_path>.
• File—a file accessible from the Oracle Workflow
server filesystem. Specify as <file_path>.
• External document management system—a
document managed by an external document
management system. Specify as
<doc_management_system>:<document_reference>.
в�ћ
Attention: Currently, only the PL/SQL document type is
supported.
Role
Specify a role name. You must initially load the
roles from the database to display a list of roles to
choose from. See: Roles: page 4 – 16.
Attribute
Specify the name of an item type attribute that you
want to maintain references to in a process by
choosing from the list of existing item type
attributes.
7.
For item type attributes, you may specify a default value that is a
constant.
For activity attributes, the default value may be a constant or an
item type attribute. If the default references a value from an item
type attribute, choose Item Attribute, then use the poplist field to
choose an item type attribute. The item type attribute you select
must be associated with the same item type that the activity itself is
associated with. The item type attribute you select must also be of
the same data type as the activity attribute.
Note: An activity attribute type of ’Text’ is compatible with
any item attribute type, but all other activity attribute types
must match the item attribute type exactly.
Note: For attributes of type Lookup, the default value must be
a lookup code belonging to that lookup type.
8.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
9.
If you are defining an item type attribute, select the Access tab page
to set the access levels allowed to modify this attribute. Activity
attributes assume the access/protection level of their parent
activity. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
10. Choose Apply to save your changes.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 21
11. Any item type attribute you create appears beneath the Attributes
branch in the navigator tree. Any function activity attribute you
define appears beneath the function activity you defined it for in
the navigator tree. You can review or edit the properties of an
attribute at any time by double–clicking on the attribute in the
navigator tree or by selecting the attribute and choosing Properties
from the Edit menu.
в�ћ
Attention: The order that you list these attributes in the
navigator tree correlate to the order in which they appear in
any list of values that draw upon these attributes. You can use
the drag and drop feature of the navigator tree to reorder a set
of attributes, or select an attribute and choose Move Attribute
Up or Move Attribute Down from the Edit menu.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
"
To Copy an Item Type
1.
Select the item type to copy in the navigator tree.
2.
Drag the item type, holding down your select mouse button, to the
data store or workspace you want to copy it to.
You can also use the Copy and Paste commands in the Edit menu.
3.
If you copy this item type back to the same data store, you get
prompted to enter a new internal and display name for the item
type in the Item Type property page. This is because every item
type must have a unique internal and display name. When you are
done, choose OK.
Note that when you copy an item type, you also copy all the
components associated with the item type. Since most components
must also have unique internal and display names, you may get
prompted to update those components’ internal and display names
in their property pages as well.
4.
If you copy an item type to a data store where a previous version of
the same item type already exists, you update the existing version
of the item type in that target data store with the changes in the
version of the item type you are copying.
в�ћ
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Attention: The order in which you drag two or more item
types to a new store is important. For example, suppose an
item type references objects in the Standard item type. If you
plan to copy that item type and the Standard item type to a
new data store, you should first drag the Standard item type to
the new data store before dragging the other item type over,
otherwise the other item type will have unresolved references
to the Standard item type.
"
To Copy an Attribute
1.
Select the attribute to copy in the navigator tree.
2.
Drag the attribute, holding down your select mouse button, to the
component branch you want to copy it to.
3.
If you copy an attribute to a component associated with the same
item type, the property page for the attribute appears.
Enter a new unique internal name and display name for the
attribute.
When you are done, choose OK.
Note: You can also use the Copy and Paste options in the Edit
menu.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 23
Allowing Access to an Object
In the Access tab page, the ’Range of Editable Access Levels’ indicator
bar provides a relative indication of the range of access levels that can
edit the object. The shaded area represents the access levels that can
edit the object, while the vertical bar represents your current access
level. See: Overview of Oracle Workflow Access Protection: page
2 – 48.
The indicator bar can be shaded solid red, or shaded with any
combination of solid red and crosshatch red. If the ”Allow
modifications of customized objects” checkbox in the ”About Oracle
Workflow Builder” dialog box of the Help menu is:
• Checked—The range of editable access levels can appear as a
combination of solid red and crosshatch red areas. The levels
depicted by red crosshatches represent levels that usually cannot
modify customized objects, but can now do so because Oracle
Workflow Builder is operating in ’upload’ mode. Upload mode
means that Oracle Workflow Builder can save your edits,
overwriting any protected objects that you have access to modify
as well as any previously customized objects.
• Unchecked—The range of editable access levels appears as a
solid red area. This indicates that when you save your work,
Oracle Workflow Builder is operating in ’upgrade’ mode, only
3 – 24
Oracle Workflow Guide
saving edits to protected objects that you have access to change
and leaving objects that have been previously customized
untouched.
These two modes match the upgrade and upload behavior of the
Workflow Definitions Loader program. See: To Set the Access
Level for an Object: page 3 – 25 and Using the Workflow
Definitions Loader: page 2 – 54.
"
To Set the Access Level for an Object
1.
In the Options region, use the ’Preserve Customizations’ and ’Lock
at this Access Level’ check boxes to define the access levels that can
modify this object. The options that you check in this region
directly affect the values that appear in the Levels region.
The following table illustrates how the customization and
protection levels of an object are affected when you check different
combinations of these options. This table assumes that the user
setting the options has an access level of 100.
Selected
Checkbox
Resulting Levels
Levels Allowed to
Modify the Object
NONE—Object
can be updated
at any time, by
anyone.
Customization = 0
Object may be updated by
Access = 100
Protection = 1000 any access level (0–1000).
Preserve
Customizations
—Disallow
customized
objects from
being
overwritten
during a
workflow
definition
upgrade.
Object may only be
updated by access levels
from 100–1000. If, the
”Allow modifications of
Customization = 100 customized objects”
Access = 100 checkbox is checked,
Protection = 1000 customized objects can
also be updated by access
levels 0–99, as represented
by red crosshatches in the
indicator bar.
Table 3 – 1 (Page 1 of 2)
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 25
Selected
Checkbox
Resulting Levels
Levels Allowed to
Modify the Object
Lock at this
Access
Level—Protect
the object at the
current access
level and do not
allow the object
to be
customized.
Customization = 0 Object may only be
Access = 100 updated by access levels
Protection = 100 from 0–100.
BOTH—Object
can only be
updated by the
access level at
which the object
is protected.
Object cannot be updated
by any access level other
than 100. If, the
”Allow modifications of
Customization = 100 customized objects”
Access = 100 checkbox is checked,
Protection = 100 customized objects can
also be updated by access
levels 0–99, as represented
by red crosshatches in the
indicator bar.
Table 3 – 1 (Page 2 of 2)
2.
Choose the Apply button to save your changes.
Note: An object appears with a small red lock over its icon in
the navigator tree to indicate that it is a read–only if you are
operating at an access level that does not have permission to
edit an object, that is, your access level is in a white area of the
’Range of Editable Access Levels’ indicator bar.
Lookup Types
A lookup type is a static list of values. These lists can be referenced by
activities and by item type, message or activity attributes. For
example, an activity can reference a lookup type for its possible result
values, while a message attribute can reference a lookup type as a
means of providing a list of possible responses to the performer of a
notification.
When you define a lookup type, you associate it with an particular item
type. However, when you create an activity or an attribute, you can
3 – 26
Oracle Workflow Guide
reference any lookup type in your current data store, regardless of the
item type that the lookup type is associated with. See: To Create
Lookup Types: page 3 – 27.
"
To Create Lookup Types
1.
Select an item type from the navigator tree and choose New
Lookup Type from the Edit menu. A Lookup Type property page
appears.
2.
Lookup types have an all–uppercase Internal Name with no spaces
and a translatable Display Name. All Oracle Workflow APIs, SQL
scripts, and PL/SQL procedures refer to the internal name when
identifying a lookup type.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name for a lookup
type once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
You can supply an optional description for this lookup type.
3.
Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this lookup type. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 27
"
4.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
5.
The lookup type you just defined now appears beneath the Lookup
Types branch in the navigator tree. You can review or edit the
properties of this lookup type at any time by double–clicking on the
lookup type in the navigator tree or by selecting the lookup type
and choosing Properties from the Edit menu.
6.
Now define the lookup codes for your lookup type. See: To Create
Lookup Codes for a Lookup Type: page 3 – 28.
To Create Lookup Codes for a Lookup Type
1.
Select a lookup type from the navigator tree and choose New
Lookup Code from the Edit menu. A Lookup Code property page
appears.
2.
Enter an Internal Name with no spaces and a Display Name for the
lookup code. You can also enter an optional description. All
Oracle Workflow APIs, SQL scripts, and PL/SQL procedures refer
to the internal name when identifying a lookup code.
в�ћ
3 – 28
Oracle Workflow Guide
Attention: You cannot update the internal name for a lookup
code once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
"
3.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
4.
The lookup code you just defined now appears beneath the lookup
type you created it for in the navigator tree. You can review or edit
the properties of this lookup code at any time by double–clicking
on the lookup code in the navigator tree or by selecting the lookup
code and choosing Properties from the Edit menu.
5.
Repeat step 1 if you wish to create additional lookup codes for a
specific lookup type.
To Copy a Lookup Type
1.
Select the lookup type to copy in the navigator tree.
2.
Use the Copy and Paste options in the Edit menu to copy the
lookup type back to the same item type or to a different data store.
Its property page appears for you to enter a unique internal and
display name for the lookup type. When you are done, choose OK.
Note: Copying a lookup type also copies any lookup codes
assigned to it.
Note: If you drag and drop a lookup type back to the same
item type or to a different data store, the behavior in Step 2
occurs. If you drag and drop a lookup type to another data
store, you actually move it to the new data store.
"
To Copy a Lookup Code
1.
Select the lookup code to copy in the navigator tree.
2.
Hold down your mouse select button as you drag the lookup code
to the lookup type you want to copy it to.
3.
If you drag the lookup code to the same lookup type or to a lookup
type where this code already exists, then when you release your
mouse button, a properties page appears for you to enter a unique
internal and display name the new lookup code. When you are
done, choose OK.
Note: You can also use the Copy and Paste options in the Edit
menu.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 29
Messages
The Messages branch of the navigator tree lists all available workflow
messages for the current item type. See: To Create a Message: page
3 – 31.
A message is what a notification activity sends to a role in a workflow
process. A message can prompt a user for a reply or an action to take
that determines what the next activity in the process should be. The
recipient of a workflow message is called the performer.
Each message is associated with a particular item type. This allows the
message to reference the item type’s attributes as tokens that are
replaced with runtime values when the message is delivered.
When you define a message, you can include message attributes that
reference item type attributes in the subject and body text. In addition,
you can create message attributes that generate a response section
unique to the message. As an example, you can create a message
attribute called RESULT that prompts a recipient for a response value.
The Workflow Engine then uses that response value to determine what
the next eligible activity in the process is. See: To Define a Message
Attribute: page 3 – 34.
You can drag a message onto the Notifications branch to create a new
notification activity that sends that message. You can also drag a
message directly onto an existing notification activity to update the
activity to use that message.
Send and Respond Message Attributes
Once you create a message, you can define as many message attributes
as necessary for that message. Message attributes are listed beneath a
message in the navigator tree.
The source (Send or Respond) of a message attribute determines how
the message attribute is used. Message attributes defined with a source
of ’Send’ are generally included in the message’s subject and/or body
to provide information when the message is sent. Specify the data type
of the message attribute. The value of a ’Send’ message attribute can
be a constant or can be a value returned by an item type attribute of
that same data type. To include a message attribute in a message’s
subject or body so that it gets token substituted with a runtime value
when the message is sent, specify the internal name of the message
attribute using the format &MESGATTR within the subject or body
text.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
A message attribute defined with a source of ’Respond’ constitutes the
response section of a message. A ’Respond’ message attribute provides
instructions that prompts a recipient for a response. When you define a
’Respond’ message attribute, you must specify the data type of the
attribute and you can provide an optional default value for the
response. The default value can be a constant or a value returned from
an item type attribute of the same data type.
Note that if a notification activity has a Result Type defined, that is, it
expects a result that determines what the next eligible activity is, you
must define a special ’Respond’ message attribute in the message that
the notification sends. This special ’Respond’ message attribute must
have an internal name called RESULT, and must be a lookup type to
provide a list of possible response values. The response values should
originate from the same lookup type used to define the activity’s Result
Type. This ensures that the response value returned by RESULT is
identical to one of the possible results that the notification activity can
branch on.
"
To Create a Message
1.
Select the item type that you want to create a message for in the
navigator tree, and choose New Message from the Edit menu. A
Message property page appears.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 31
2.
Provide an internal name for the message that is all uppercase with
no spaces and provide a display name. You may also enter an
optional description. All Oracle Workflow APIs, SQL scripts, and
PL/SQL procedures refer to the internal name when identifying a
message.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name of a message
once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
3.
Enter a value between 1 (high) and 99 (low) for the default priority
of the message. The priority is for the recipient’s information only.
It does not affect the processing or delivery of the message.
Note: You can override this default priority value with a
priority value that is dynamically set at runtime. See: To
Dynamically Set the Priority of a Notification Activity: page
3 – 39.
3 – 32
Oracle Workflow Guide
4.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
5.
Select the Roles tab page to specify the roles that have access to this
message. (This functionality will be supported in a future release.)
6.
Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this message. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
7.
Select the Body tab to display the Body property page of the
message.
8.
Enter a description of the message in the Subject field. The subject
can include message attributes that get replaced with runtime
values when the message is delivered. To include a message
attribute, use an ”&” followed by the message attribute’s internal
name. See: Send and Respond Message Attributes: page 3 – 30 and
To Define a Message Attribute: page 3 – 34.
Suggestion: For clarity, you can give a message attribute the
same name as the item type attribute it references.
9.
Enter the message body in the Body field. This is the text of the
message delivered to the recipient.
You can include message attributes that get replaced with runtime
values when the message is delivered. Use an ”&” followed by the
message attribute’s internal name.
10. Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
11. The message you just defined now appears beneath the Message
branch in the navigator tree. You can review or edit the properties
of this message at any time by double–clicking on the message in
the navigator tree or by selecting the message and choosing
Properties from the Edit menu.
12. You must now define all the message attributes that you have
included in the subject and body of this message.
13. To create a message attribute that references an item type attribute,
select the referenced item type attribute in the navigator tree, and
hold down your mouse select button as you drag the item type
attribute to your message.
Edit the property page that appears, making sure the message
attribute has the proper source set. In the Default Value region,
select Item Attribute, then use the poplist icon to select the name of
the item type attribute that this message attribute references.
14. You can also create message attributes that are not based on
existing item type attributes. See: To Define a Message Attribute:
page 3 – 34.
в�ћ
Attention: If you want your message to prompt the recipient
for a response and that response determines what the next
eligible activity in the process is, then you must define a special
message attribute that has an internal name called RESULT.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 33
RESULT should have a source of ’Respond’ and should be of
type Lookup, where its Lookup Type is the same as the
notification activity’s Result Type. This ensures that a response
to the notification is identified as the notification activity’s
result.
"
To Define a Message Attribute
1.
To create a message attribute that does not reference an existing
item type attribute, select a message in the navigator tree and
choose New Attribute from the Edit menu.
An Attribute property page appears.
2.
Provide an Internal Name in all uppercase with no spaces. All
Oracle Workflow APIs, SQL scripts, and PL/SQL procedures refer
to the internal name when identifying an attribute.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name for an
attribute once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
3.
3 – 34
Oracle Workflow Guide
Enter a Display Name. This is the name that appears in the
navigator tree. If this message attribute is going to have a source of
’Respond’, then this display name is also used as the prompt for a
response value.
4.
Enter an optional description. If this message attribute is going to
have a source of ’Respond’, then use this field to elaborate on
response instructions.
5.
Select the data type of the attribute.
6.
Depending on the Type of your attribute, provide the following
information:
Text
Specify the maximum length of the text attribute.
Number
Optionally provide a format mask for your
number.
Date
Optionally supply a format mask for the date.
Lookup
Choose the name of a predefined Lookup Type
from which to draw values.
URL
Specify a Universal Resource Locator (URL) to a
network location in the Default Value field.
Form
This attribute is relevant only with the version of
Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications.
Specify the developer function name of a form and
any optional form parameters in the Default Value
field. See: Overview of Menus and Function
Security, Oracle Applications Developer’s Guide. The
default value must be entered using the following
format:
function_name:parameter1=value1 parameter2=value2
... parameterN=valueN
valueN can be a text string, enclosed in quotes (” ”)
or can be token substituted with the value from
another predefined item type or message attribute
in any of the following ways:
• parameterN=”&item_type_attribute”
• parameterN=”Value &item_type_attribute” where
&item_type_attribute represents the rest of the
value.
Document
Enter the name of the document management
system and a document reference. In the future,
you can specify any one of the following document
types in the default value field:
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 35
• PL/SQL—a document representing data from
the database, generated from a PL/SQL
procedure. Specify as
<procedure>/<document_identifier>. The PL/SQL
procedure must follow a standard API format.
See:Standard API for a ”PL/SQL” Document:
page 6 – 9.
• Http—a standard URL. Specify as
http://<host>/<document_path>.
• File—a file accessible from the Oracle Workflow
server filesystem. Specify as <file_path>.
• External document management system—a
document managed by an external document
management system. Specify as
<doc_management_system>:<document_reference>.
в�ћ
Attention: Currently, only the PL/SQL document type is
supported.
Role
Specify a role name. You must initially load the
roles from the database to display a list of roles to
choose from. See: Roles: page 4 – 16.
Attribute
Specify the name of an item type attribute that you
want to maintain references to in a process by
choosing from the list of existing item type
attributes.
в�ћ
7.
Attention: Do not specify a message attribute’s data type as
Attribute, as it serves no purpose in a notification message and
is also not supported by the Workflow Notification System.
Specify ’Send’ or ’Respond’ in the Source field to indicate whether
this attribute should supply information or prompt a notification
message recipient for a response, respectively.
For ’Send’ message attributes, the Display Name of the attribute
appears in the notification only if the attribute is of type URL to
describe what the URL drills down to.
For ’Respond’ message attributes, the Display Name and
Description of the attribute make up the Response section of the
notification message. Use the Description field to describe the
response expected, and the Display Name field to specify the
response prompt.
’Respond’ message attributes of type Date, Number, Text,
Document or Role prompt the notification recipient to respond
3 – 36
Oracle Workflow Guide
with a date, number, text value, role (internal or display name), or
document, respectively.
’Respond’ message attributes of type Lookup prompt the
notification recipient to select a response from a list of values.
’Send’ and ’Respond’ message attributes of type URL appear only
when a notification is viewed using the Notification Web page. A
’Respond’ message attribute of type URL prompts the notification
recipient to link to another HTML page to complete the notification
response. The HTML document that the URL links to takes over
the entire browser page, and must include a call to the Workflow
Engine CompleteActivity( ) API to inform the workflow engine when
the notification response is complete.
’Send’ and ’Respond’ message attributes of type Form appear only
when a notification is viewed using the Notification Viewer form in
Oracle Applications. The Reference button on the Notification
Viewer form is enabled if a notification message includes a ’Send’
message attribute of type Form. The notification recipient can
choose the Reference button to drill down to the form defined by
the message attribute.
If a message includes a ’Respond’ message attribute of type Form,
the Respond button in the Notification Viewer form drills down
directly to the designated form. This form must be coded with a
call to the Workflow Engine CompleteActivity( ) API to inform the
Workflow Engine that the notification response is complete. See:
Workflow Engine APIs: page 7 – 8.
8.
For message attributes, the default value may be a constant or an
item type attribute. If the default references a value from an item
type attribute, choose Item Attribute, then use the poplist field to
choose an item type attribute. The item type attribute you select
must be associated with the same item type that the message itself
is associated with. The item type attribute you select must also be
of the same data type as the message attribute.
Note: A message attribute type of ’Text’ is compatible with
any item attribute type, but all other message attribute types
must match the item attribute type exactly.
9.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
Message attributes assume the access/protection level of their
parent message.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 37
10. Any message attribute you define appears beneath the respective
message you defined it for in the navigator tree. You can review or
edit the properties of an attribute at any time by double–clicking on
the attribute in the navigator tree or by selecting the attribute and
choosing Properties from the Edit menu. Respond message
attribute icons in the Navigator tree have a red question mark
overlay to help you distinguish them from Send message attribute
icons.
в�ћ
Attention: The order that you list ’Respond’ message
attributes in the navigator tree correlate to the order in which
they appear in the response section of the notification message.
You can use the drag and drop feature of the navigator tree to
reorder a set of attributes, or select an attribute and choose
Move Attribute Up or Move Attribute Down from the Edit
menu.
11. Following is an example of how the Notification System uses a
template to generate the Response section of an E–mail notification
using a sample set of ’Respond’ message attributes.
Sample ’Respond’ Message Attributes
Internal
Name
Type
Format/Lookup
Type
Display
Name
Description
RESULT
lookup
WFSTD_APPROVAL
Action
Do you approve?
COMMENT
text
2000
Review
Comments
REQDATE
date
DD–MON–YYYY
Required
Date
If there is no required
date, leave this blank.
MAXAMT
number
Maximum
Amount
This is the maximum
approved amount.
Table 3 – 2 (Page 1 of 1)
This boilerplate text is used to generate the Response section:
Enter the <Display Name> on line <Sequence>. <Description>
<Type_Hint>
<Display Name> is replaced with the Display Name of the message
attribute. <Sequence> is replaced with the relative sequence number
of the ’Respond’ message attribute as it appears in the Navigator tree
among all ’Respond’ message attributes (that is, the presence of ’Send’
message attributes is ignored when determining the sequence).
<Description> is replaced with the Description of the message
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Oracle Workflow Guide
attribute. In addition, <Type_Hint> is replaced with one of the
following statements, if the message attribute matches one of these data
types:
Type
Lookup
Date
Number
Text
Type_Hint
Value must be one of the following:
<list of lookup codes>
Value must be a date [in the form ”<format>”].
Value must be a number [in the form ”<format>”].
Value must be <format> bytes or less.
Resulting Response Section in an E–mail Notification
Enter the Action on line 1. Do you approve? Value must be one of the following:
Approve
Reject
Enter the Review Comments on line 2. Value must be 2000 bytes or less.
Enter the Required Date on line 3. If there is no required date, leave this blank. Value
must be a date in the form ”DD–MON–YYYY”.
Enter the Maximum Amount on line 4. This is the maximum approved amount. Value
must be a number.
Table 3 – 3 (Page 1 of 1)
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
To Respond to a Notification by E–mail: page 8 – 7
"
To Dynamically Set the Priority of a Notification Activity
1.
Create an item type attribute of type number which represents the
priority of your notification activity. See: Item Type Attributes:
page 3 – 14 and To Define an Item Type or Activity Attribute: page
3 – 19.
2.
Create a new activity attribute for the notification activity that you
want to dynamically set a priority for. Select the notification
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 39
activity in the navigator tree, then choose New Attribute from the
Edit menu.
3.
In the Attribute property page that appears, enter #PRIORITY in
the Internal Name field (all uppercase with no spaces). When the
Workflow Engine sees a notification activity attribute called
#PRIORITY, it uses that attribute’s value as the priority of that
notification’s message. If such an attribute does not exist or if its
value is null, it uses the default priority defined in the message’s
property page.
4.
Enter a Display Name. This is the name that appears in the
navigator tree.
5.
Enter an optional description.
6.
Select number in the Type field. You can leave the format field
blank.
7.
For the Default Value, choose Item Attribute, then use the poplist
field to choose the item type attribute that you defined in step 1.
Since this activity attribute references an item type attribute, its
value can be dynamically set at runtime.
8.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
"
To Copy a Message
1.
Select the message to copy in the navigator tree.
2.
Hold down your mouse select button as you drag the message to
the item type branch you want to copy to.
3.
When you release your mouse button, a property page appears for
the new message.
Note: You can also use the Copy and Paste options in the Edit
menu.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
4.
Enter a new internal name and display name.
5.
Make any additional modifications to the properties of the
message.
6.
When you are done, choose OK.
Note: Copying a message also copies any message attributes
assigned to it.
Activities
An activity is a unit of work that contributes toward the
accomplishment of a process. An activity can be a notification, a
function, or a process. A notification activity sends a message to a
workflow user. The message may simply provide the user with
information or request the user to take some action. A function activity
calls a PL/SQL stored procedure to perform an automated function. A
process activity is a modelled workflow process, which can be included
as an activity in other processes to represent a sub–process.
Activities are organized beneath their respective headings in the
navigator tree. You can create, edit, and delete activity definitions in
the navigator tree, and drag an activity from the tree into a Process
window to create a new usage of that activity in a process.
Each activity is depicted as an icon in a process diagram. Ideally, a
process diagram should contain different activities that are represented
by different icons.
Oracle Workflow provides an item type called Standard that includes
generic activities you can use in any process you define. For example,
some of the activities perform standard functions such as comparing
two values. See: Standard Activities: page 5 – 2.
Oracle Workflow also provides an item type called System:Error that
includes activities you can use to create a custom error process. You
can assign your custom error process to a process activity, so that if an
error occurs, Oracle Workflow knows what to do to handle the error.
See: Default Error Process: page 5 – 16.
Notification Activity
When the workflow engine reaches a notification activity, it issues a
Send( ) API call to the Notification System to send the message to an
assigned performer. You define the message that the notification sends.
The message can be an informative note or it can prompt the performer
for a response. When a performer responds to a notification activity
that requires a response, the Notification System processes the response
and informs the workflow engine that the notification activity is
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 41
complete so that it can continue processing the next eligible activity.
See: To Create a Notification Activity: page 3 – 44.
You must specify the performer of a notification activity in the Process
window when you include the notification as an activity node in the
process. You can either designate the performer to be a specific role or
an item type attribute that dynamically returns the name of a role. See:
To Define Nodes: page 4 – 7.
When you define a notification activity, you have the option of
expanding the role that you send the notification to. If you do not
expand the role for a notification activity, Oracle Workflow sends one
copy of the notification message to the assigned performer role and
that notification is visible in the notification queue of all the users in
that role. However, if one user in that role responds or closes that
notification, the notification will be removed from the notification
queue of all other users in that role.
If you expand the role for a notification activity, Oracle Workflow sends
an individual copy of that notification message to each user in the role
and that notification will remain in any user’s notification queue until
that user responds or closes the notification. Generally, you want to
expand the role for a notification activity if the activity sends out a
broadcast–type message that you want all users of that role to see. You
can also use the Expand Roles feature to create your own custom vote
tallying activity. Voting Activity: page 5 – 8.
Function Activity
A function activity is defined by the PL/SQL stored procedure that it
calls and is executed directly by the Workflow Engine. Function
activities are typically used to perform fully automated steps in the
process, and as PL/SQL stored procedures, they accept standard
arguments and can return a completion result. See: To Create a
Function Activity: page 3 – 46.
If you externalize a parameter for the stored procedure, you can expose
that parameter as an activity attribute. The activity attribute’s value
can be set in the Process window when you define that activity as a
node in your process. Note that these activity attributes can be
accessed only by the current activity and are not global like item type
attributes. See: To Define Activity Attribute Values: page 4 – 9.
Process Activity
A process activity represents a collection of activities in a specific
relationship. When a process activity is contained in another process it
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Oracle Workflow Guide
is called a sub–process. In other words, activities in a process can also
be processes themselves. There is no restriction on the depth of this
hierarchy. See: To Create a Process Activity: page 3 – 48.
Activity Cost
Each function activity has a cost associated with it. The cost is a value
representing the number of seconds it takes for the Workflow Engine to
execute the activity. If you do not know how long it takes for the
engine to perform the activity, you can enter an estimated cost and
update it later as you accumulate more information about its
performance. Generally, you should assign complex, long running
activities a high cost.
в�ћ
Attention: Although the cost is entered and displayed in
seconds in Oracle Workflow Builder, it is actually converted
and stored in the database as hundredths of a second.
In normal processing, the Workflow Engine completes the execution of
a single activity before continuing to a subsequent activity. In some
cases, an activity might take so long to process that background
processing would be more appropriate.
You can define your workflow engine to defer activities with costs
higher than a designated threshold to a background process. The
engine then continues processing the next pending eligible activity that
may occur in another parallel branch of the process.
The default threshold for the Workflow Engine is 50 hundredths of a
second. Activities with a cost higher than this are deferred to
background engines. A background engine can be customized to
execute only certain types of activities. You can set the workflow
engine threshold through SQL*Plus. See: Setting Up Background
Workflow Engines: page 2 – 43 and To Set Engine Thresholds: page
2 – 45.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 43
"
To Create a Notification Activity
1.
Select the item type that you want to create a notification for in the
navigator tree, then choose New Notification from the Edit menu.
Define your notification activity in the Activity property page that
appears.
You can also select a message in the navigator tree and drag and
drop the message into the Notifications branch of the same item
type to display the Activity property page.
2.
A notification activity must have an Internal Name (all uppercase
and no spaces) and a Display Name, which is the translatable name
that appears in your process diagram. Use the description to
provide an explanation about this activity.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name of an activity
once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
3.
3 – 44
Oracle Workflow Guide
Indicate the result type (a predefined Lookup Type) of this activity.
Result types list the possible results returned by this activity. Your
workflow diagram may branch depending on the value returned
by your completed activity. See: To Create Lookup Types: page
3 – 27.
You can choose <None> as the result type if your activity does not
return a value, or if your workflow process does not depend on the
value returned.
4.
Choose an icon that identifies your activity. You can use any icon,
as long as the icon is stored in a .ico file, to symbolize the action of
an activity. See: Adding Custom Icons to Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 47.
Choose Browse to view the icon files listed in the workflow icons
subdirectory.
You can also drag and drop icon files from the Windows Explorer
or File Manager onto an activity in your navigator tree to assign
that icon to the activity.
5.
Select the name of the message you want this notification to send.
See: To Create a Message: page 3 – 31.
6.
If you plan to assign this notification to a role consisting of multiple
users and you want to send an individual copy of this notification
to each user in the role, then check Expand Roles. If you uncheck
Expand Roles, then only one copy of the notification is delivered to
the role as a whole. See: Notification Activity: page 3 – 41.
If you check Expand Roles and you assign a message to this
notification activity that includes a message attribute with a source
of Respond, you see an additional Function field appear. Use this
Function field to specify the name of a custom PL/SQL stored
procedure that tallies the responses you get back from each of the
recipients of this notification. Specify the procedure using the
format: <package_name>.<procedure_name>. See: Voting Activity:
page 5 – 8.
7.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
8.
Select the Details tab to display and modify the Details property
page of the activity. See: To Define Optional Activity Details: page
3 – 50.
9.
Select the Roles tab page to specify the roles that have access to this
notification activity. (This functionality will be supported in a
future release.)
10. Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this notification. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
11. If you wish to dynamically set the priority of the message that this
notification sends (and override the message’s default priority),
create a special activity attribute whose internal name is
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 45
#PRIORITY. See: To Dynamically Set the Priority of a Notification
Activity: page 3 – 39.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
"
To Create a Function Activity
1.
Select the item type that you want to create a function for in the
navigator tree, then choose New Function from the Edit menu.
Define your function activity in the Activity property page that
appears.
2.
A function activity must have an Internal Name (all uppercase and
no spaces) and a Display Name, which is the translatable name that
appears in your process diagram. Use the description to provide
an explanation about this activity.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name of an activity
once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
3 – 46
Oracle Workflow Guide
3.
Enter the name of the PL/SQL stored procedure you want this
function activity to execute, using the format:
<package_name>.<procedure_name>. See: Standard API for PL/SQL
Procedures Called by Function Activities: page 6 – 2.
4.
Indicate the result type (a predefined Lookup Type) of this activity.
Result types list the possible results returned by this activity. Your
workflow diagram may branch depending on the value returned
by your completed activity. See: To Create Lookup Types: page
3 – 27.
You can choose <None> as the result type if your activity does not
return a value, or if your workflow process does not depend on the
value returned.
5.
Choose an icon that identifies your activity. You can use any icon,
as long as the icon is stored in a .ico file, to symbolize the action of
an activity. See: Adding Custom Icons to Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 47.
Choose Browse to view the icon files listed in the workflow icons
subdirectory.
You can also drag and drop icon files from the Windows Explorer
or File Manager onto an activity in your navigator tree to assign
that icon to the activity.
6.
Specify the cost of this function activity. See: Activity Cost: page
3 – 43.
7.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
8.
Select the Details tab to display and modify the Details property
page of the activity. See: To Define Optional Activity Details: page
3 – 50.
9.
Select the Roles tab page to specify the roles that have access to this
function activity. (This functionality will be supported in a future
release.)
10. Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this function. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
11. If you externalize a parameter for the PL/SQL stored procedure
that your function activity calls, you can expose that parameter in
Oracle Workflow Builder as an attribute of the function activity.
Function activity attributes behave as parameters whose values
you can modify for each usage of the activity in a process.
Function activity attributes are specific to a function activity and
are not global to a process. See: To Define an Item Type or Activity
Attribute: page 3 – 19.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 47
When you include a function activity in a process, you can assign a
value to that function activity’s attribute by displaying the
Attribute Values properties page for that specific instance of the
function activity. See: To Define Activity Attribute Values: page
4 – 9.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
"
To Create a Process Activity
Before you can draw a workflow process diagram, you must first create
a process activity in the navigator tree. Double–click on the process
activity to display its Process window. You can then drag and drop
activities from the navigator tree into the Process window to create
your workflow diagram. See: Process Window: page 4 – 2.
3 – 48
Oracle Workflow Guide
1.
Select the item type that you want to create a process activity for in
the navigator tree, then choose New Process from the Edit menu.
Define your process activity in the Activity property page that
appears.
2.
A process activity must have an Internal Name (all uppercase and
no spaces) and a Display Name, which is the translatable name that
appears in your process diagram. Use the description to provide
an explanation about this activity.
в�ћ
Attention: You cannot update the internal name of an activity
once it is defined.
Caution: Do not include colons ”:” or spaces in your internal
name.
3.
Indicate the result type (a predefined Lookup Type) of this activity.
Result types list the possible results returned by this process. See:
To Create Lookup Types: page 3 – 27.
You can choose <None> as the result type if you do not need to
record any specific result for the completion of your process.
4.
Choose an icon that identifies your activity. You can use any icon,
as long as the icon is stored in a .ico file, to symbolize the action of
an activity. See: Adding Custom Icons to Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 47.
Choose Browse to view the icon files listed in the workflow icons
subdirectory.
You can also drag and drop icon files from the Windows Explorer
or File Manager onto an activity in your navigator tree to assign
that icon to the activity.
5.
Check Runnable so that the process that this activity represents can
be called by the Workflow Engine CreateProcess API and be run as
an independent process. If your process activity represents a
subprocess that should only be executed if it is called from a higher
level process, then uncheck Runnable. See: CreateProcess: page
7 – 9.
6.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
7.
Select the Details tab to display and modify the Details property
page of the activity. See: To Define Optional Activity Details: page
3 – 50.
8.
Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this process. The access you set for a process activity determines
who has access to edit its process diagram. See: Allowing Access
to an Object: page 3 – 24.
See Also
Using the Edit Button in a Property Page: page 3 – 6
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 49
"
To Define Optional Activity Details
1.
If you are creating a process activity, specify the internal name of
the error process activity to execute if an error occurs in the
process. See: Default Error Process: page 5 – 16.
2.
You can specify any combination of days, hours and minutes before
a notification activity times out. If the notification activity is not
completed by the specified time, you can redirect the process to
transition to a different activity. See: Timeout Transitions: page
4 – 3.
3.
The Effective date tells you when this version of the activity is
available for the Workflow Engine to execute.
You set the effective date when you save your changes using the
Save As option in the File menu. All your activity modifications
share the same effective date when you save.
4.
If Loop Reset is not checked, the activity can only be executed once,
even if it is transitioned to more than once in a process.
If Loop Reset is checked, the activity is executed every time it is
transitioned to, however, with every visit, the other activities that
are a part of this loop (or transitioned to, after this activity) are
reset. See: Looping: page 7 – 5.
3 – 50
Oracle Workflow Guide
5.
The version number identifies which revision of the activity you
are examining. The engine ensures that it uses the most recent
updates to an activity by using the latest effective version number
of that activity.
6.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
7.
The Roles tab page is reserved for a future release.
8.
Select the Access tab page to set the access levels allowed to modify
this activity. See: Allowing Access to an Object: page 3 – 24.
9.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
10. The activity now appears beneath the appropriate activity heading
you defined it for in the navigator tree. You can review or edit the
properties of this activity at any time by double–clicking on the
activity in the navigator tree or by selecting the activity and
choosing Properties from the Edit menu.
"
To Copy an Activity
1.
Select the activity to copy in the navigator tree.
2.
Hold down your mouse select button as you drag the activity to
the item type branch you want to copy it to.
3.
If you copy the activity within the same item type, a property page
will appear prompting you for a new unique internal and display
name for the copied activity.
Note: You can also use the Copy and Paste options in the Edit
menu.
4.
When you are done, choose OK.
Note: Copying a function activity or a notification activity also
copies any attributes or message associated with it,
respectively.
Defining Workflow Process Components
3 – 51
CHAPTER
4
Defining a Workflow
Process Diagram
T
his chapter tells you how to use Oracle Workflow Builder to
define a workflow process diagram and how to load roles from the
database so you can assign notification activities to specific roles.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4–1
Process Window
The Process window in Oracle Workflow Builder graphically represents
the activities (icons) and transitions (arrows) for a particular process.
Each activity is a node, a logical step that contributes toward the
completion of a process.
You can drag and drop activities from the navigator tree into the
Process window. The properties for an activity node may be viewed or
edited by double clicking on the node in the Process window with the
select mouse button. You define transitions between activities by
drawing arrows from one activity to the next using the secondary
mouse button.
Notification, function, and process activities make up the nodes of a
process. If a process contains a process activity in its diagram, that
process activity is known as a subprocess. There is no restriction on the
depth of this hierarchy. To display the subprocess diagram in a Process
window, double–click on the subprocess activity node in the parent
Process window.
Transitions
Transitions appear as arrows in your diagram and represent the
completion of one activity and the activation of another. For an activity
that completes with a result type of <None>, any transition that you
draw from it simply appears as an arrow to the next activity, indicating
that as long as the originating activity completes, the process
transitions to the next activity.
For an activity that has a defined result type, you must associate the
transition arrow that you create with one of the activity’s possible
results. The result that the activity returns when it completes then
determines what the next eligible activity is, as defined by the
results–based transitions that originate from the completed activity.
For example, ”Notify Approver” with a result of ’REJECTED’
transitions to ”Reject Requisition.” See: Requisition Approval Process
Activities: page 10 – 10.
You can also create a <Default> or <Timeout> transition for an activity
that has a defined result type. The Workflow Engine follows a
<Default> transition if no other transition matching the completion
result exists. The Workflow Engine follows a <Timeout> transition if
the notification activity times out before completion. See: Setting Up
Background Workflow Engines: page 2 – 43.
4–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
Activities can also have multiple transitions for a single result, creating
parallel branches.
Timeout Transitions
Draw a <Timeout> transition from one activity to another to force the
process to perform another activity if the original notification activity is
not completed by a specified period of time. See: To Define Optional
Activity Details: page 3 – 50.
When an activity times out, Oracle Workflow marks the activity as
timed out and then cancels any notification associated with the timed
out activity. The Notification System sends a cancellation message to
the performer only if the cancelled notification was expecting a
response and the performer normally gets notifications via E–mail.
Processing then continues along the <Timeout> transition as indicated
by your process definition. If a timed out activity does not have a
<Timeout> transition originating from it, Oracle Workflow executes
instead, the error process associated with the timed out activity or its
parent process(es).
Note: You must have a background engine set up to process
timed out activities. See: Setting Up Background Workflow
Engines: page 2 – 43.
Creating Multiple Transitions to a Single Activity
You can create multiple transitions to a single activity in a process
diagram. Sometimes these multiple transitions indicate that there are
multiple ways that the process can transition to this one node,
especially if there are results–based or parallel branches occurring
further upstream from this node. In these cases, you want the activity
to execute just once.
In other cases, the multiple transitions may indicate that the activity
may be transitioned to multiple times because it is the starting point of
a loop. In these cases, you want the activity to be reexecuted each time
it is revisited.
The Loop Reset flag for an activity determines whether the activity (a
function, notification or process) reexecutes when it is revisited more
than once. Loop Reset is set in an activity’s Details property page.
If Loop Reset is unchecked, the activity runs once and only once. If it is
transitioned to a second time, the workflow engine ignores this activity.
If Loop Reset is checked, the activity executes every time it is visited,
however, with every visit, this activity as well as all other activities that
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4–3
are a part of this loop are reset. You can also use the standard Loop
Counter activity as the initial activity in a loop to control how many
times a process can transition through a loop. See: Looping: page 7 – 5
and Loop Counter Activity: page 5 – 5.
Suggestion: If you have multiple incoming transitions from
parallel branches, you should always use an AND, OR, or
custom join activity to merge those branches. This is especially
true if after merging the parallel branches, you want to create a
loop in your process. By using a joining activity to merge
parallel branches and designating the following activity as the
start of the loop, you create a less complicated process for the
engine to execute. See: Standard Activities: page 5 – 2.
Designating Start and End Activities
Each process has to have a Start activity that identifies the beginning
point of the process. You may designate any node from which it is
logical to begin the process as a Start activity. When initiating a
process, the Workflow engine begins at the Start activity with no IN
transitions (no arrows pointing to the activity). If more than one Start
activity qualifies, the engine runs each possible Start activity and
transitions through the process until an End result is reached. The
engine may execute acceptable Start activities in any order. Processes
may contain multiple branches that each have an End activity. When
the Workflow Engine reaches an End activity, the entire process ends
even if there are parallel branches still in progress.
An End activity should return a result that represents the completion
result of the process. The result is one of the possible values from that
process activity’s result type.
Start activities are marked with a small green arrow, and End activities
by a red arrow that appear in the lower right of the activity node’s icon
in the Process window.
Initiating a Process
A workflow process begins when an application calls the Workflow
Engine CreateProcess( ) and StartProcess( ) APIs. A subprocess is started
when the Workflow Engine transitions to a process activity that
represents the subprocess. See: Workflow Engine APIs: page 7 – 8.
Diagramming a Process
This section discusses how to draw and define a workflow process in
the Process window:
4–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
• To Add Nodes to a Workflow Process: page 4 – 5
• To Define Nodes: page 4 – 7
• To Define Activity Attribute Values: page 4 – 9
• To Create and Edit a Transition: page 4 – 10
• To Display a Process Overview: page 4 – 11
• To Print a Process: page 4 – 12
• To Copy a Process Diagram to the Clipboard: page 4 – 12
• To Validate a Process Definition: page 4 – 12
"
To Add Nodes to a Workflow Process
1.
Double–click on a process activity on the navigator tree, or select
the process activity and choose Process Details from the Edit menu.
A Process window opens with the name of your process in the
window title.
2.
Create a new node in a process by dragging and dropping a
notification, function, or process activity from the navigator tree
into the Process window. The activity you drag must belong to the
same data store as the process you are dragging it to. You can also
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4–5
choose Create Activity from the right mouse button menu while
your cursor is in the Process window to create a new activity node.
Note: If you want to drag an activity into a process, where the
activity is in a different data store than the process you are
dragging it to, then you must first copy the item type that the
activity belongs to into the same data store as the process.
Suppose you are modifying a process that is stored in a file
called wfexample.wft and you want to add some standard
activities into the process that are stored in wfstd.wft. First
you need to open both files as data stores in Oracle Workflow
Builder, then you need to copy the item type called Standard in
wfstd and paste it into the wfexample data store. Now you can
drag any standard activity in the wfexample data store into
your process.
3.
You can also create a new node using the New Activity mouse
button menu option. An Activities property page appears for you
to select the activity for this node. See: To Define Nodes in a
Process: page 4 – 7.
4.
Create an arrow (transition) between two activity nodes by holding
down your right mouse button and dragging your mouse from a
source activity to destination activity.
5.
If the source activity has no result code associated with it, then by
default, no label appears on the transition. If you specifically
choose to show the label for such a transition, the label <Default>
appears. See: To Create and Edit a Transition: page 4 – 10.
If the source activity has a result code associated with it, then a list
of lookup values appears when you attempt to create a transition to
the destination activity. Select a value to assign to the transition.
You can also select the values <Default> or <Timeout> to define a
transition to take if the activity returns a result that does not match
the result of any other transition, or if the activity times out,
respectively.
You can also drag and drop a lookup code from the navigator tree
onto an existing transition in the Process window to change the
result of that transition. The lookup code you drag and drop must
belong to the same data store and same lookup type as the lookup
code you replace.
6.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
You can select an entire region of a process diagram, containing
multiple activity nodes and transitions, and make a copy of the
selection by holding down the Control or Shift key as you drag the
selection to a new position in the Process window.
See Also
• Process Window Toolbar: page 0 – 7
"
To Define Nodes in a Process
1.
If you use the right mouse button menu option New Activity in the
Process window to create a new node, the property pages for the
node appears. Select the name of the item type and activity in the
Activities property page. If you create a node by dragging and
dropping an activity from the navigator tree into the process
window, then double–click on the node to display the property
pages so you can further specify the details of the node.
2.
Since an activity can be used more than once in any given process,
the Label field lets you give a unique name to the instance of this
particular activity in the process. By default the label name is the
activity name, but if the activity is used more than once in the
process, –N is appended to the activity name, where N represents
the ’Nth’ instance of the activity in use.
в�ћ
Attention: Most APIs pass the activity’s label to the workflow
engine and not the activity name. See: Workflow Engine APIs:
page 7 – 8.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4–7
3.
Indicate if the current node is a start or end activity in your
process, by choosing ’START’ or ’End’, respectively. ’NORMAL’ is
the default if it is neither. You may have multiple START and END
nodes in your process.
A Start activity is marked (Start) and has a small green arrow in its
activity icon, and an End activity is marked (End) and has a red
arrow in its activity icon.
4.
For an END node, you must also select a value for the final process
result if the overall process activity has a result type associated
with it. The list of values for the final process result derive from
the lookup type defined as the process activity’s result type.
5.
You can provide a comment to yourself about this node.
6.
For notification activities, specify the performer of the activity, that
is, the role to whom the notification is sent. You may either enter a
role name or specify an item type attribute that dynamically
determines a role at runtime. See: Roles: page 4 – 16.
Note: When you assign a notification to a multi–user role, the
Workflow Engine keeps track of the individual from that role
that actually responds to the notification. See: Respond API:
page 7 – 77.
7.
Choose Apply to save your changes.
8.
If the node is a function activity and the function activity has
activity attributes, you can assign values to those activity attributes
by choosing the Attribute Values tab to display the Attribute Values
property page.
9.
If the node is a process activity, then a small subprocess overlay
icon appears over the upper right corner of process activity icon.
The subprocess overlay icon identifies the node as a subprocess
within the process diagram.
10. You should turn on grid snap from the View menu to snap your
activity icons to the grid when you complete your diagram. Grid
snap is initially turned on by default until you change the setting,
at which point the latest setting becomes your default.
See Also
• To Find an Object in the Navigator Tree: page 3 – 5
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Oracle Workflow Guide
"
To Define Activity Attribute Values
Function activity attribute values are used by the PL/SQL stored
procedure that the function activity calls. See: To Define an Item Type
or Activity Attribute: page 3 – 19.
1.
Double–click on an activity node in the Process window to display
its properties. Display the Attribute Values property page.
2.
Select an attribute.
3.
In the Value region, enter the value for this attribute. The value can
be a constant or a value stored in an item type attribute.
The value you enter must match the data type of the activity
attribute, and for the actual activity parameter itself as it is defined
in the PL/SQL function associated with the activity. The attribute
type is displayed along with the name, description, value type, and
value of each attribute in the attributes summary region.
4.
Choose Apply to save your changes, OK to save your changes and
close the property page or Cancel to cancel your changes and close
the property page.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4–9
"
To Create and Edit a Transition
1.
To create a transition between two activities, hold down your right
mouse button and drag your mouse from a source activity to a
destination activity.
2.
To edit a transition, select the transition.
3.
To reposition a transition label, simply select the label with your
mouse and drag it to its new position. The label snaps onto the
transition.
4.
You can bring up the following menu of editing options at any time
by selecting a transition with your mouse and clicking on the right
mouse button:
• Delete Transition—deletes the selected transition.
• Locked—toggles between locking and unlocking the transition
from further edits. If a transition is locked, you cannot add or
delete vertex points along the transition, but you can delete the
transition.
• Hidden Label—toggles between displaying and hiding the
transition label.
• Straighten—straightens the transition by removing the extra
vertex points that can cause bends in the transition.
• Results...—if the transition has a result assigned to it, use this
option to change the result label on the transition. An additional
menu appears that lists the possible result labels you can choose.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
5.
To bend a transition, create a vertex point by selecting the
transition and dragging the transition as you hold down your left
mouse button. You can reposition any vertex point to create a bend
in the transition.
6.
You can create a transition that loops back to its source activity
node. From a source activity node, create a transition to another
arbitrary activity node. Add a vertex point to create a bend in the
transition. Then select and drag the arrowhead of the transition
back to the source activity node. Create additional vertex points as
necessary to improve the visual display of the looping transition.
7.
To remove a single vertex point from a transition, select the vertex
and drag it over another vertex to combine the two points.
"
To Display a Process Overview
1.
Place your cursor in the Process window and choose Overview
from the right mouse button menu.
2.
An Overview dialog window of your process appears.
The upper pane of the window shows a size–reduced sketch of
your entire process, while the bottom pane is a list of the activities
in your process.
3.
You can resize the Overview dialog window to get a better view of
the process sketch.
4.
A cross hairs cursor that you can drag appears in the process
sketch pane. Use the cross hairs cursor to pinpoint an area in your
process that you want the Process window to display.
5.
Single click on an activity in the lower pane to move the cross hairs
cursor to that activity within the sketch. Choose OK to close the
dialog window and to jump to that activity in the Process window.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4 – 11
You can also drag and double–click on the cross hairs cursor in the
upper pane to close the dialog window and to jump to the resulting
region in the Process window.
"
To Print a Process
1.
Display the Process window containing the process you wish to
print.
2.
With the Process window being the active window, choose Print
Diagram from the File menu or from the right mouse button menu.
The Print Diagram option captures your process diagram as a
picture (metafile), enlarges it to the correct size to print and sends it
to a printer. If your diagram is large, it may span more that one
page when printed. However, depending on the printer driver you
use, you may get a Print dialog box that lets you scale your image
down to one page for printing.
Note: If your process diagram uses a font that the printer
cannot find, your printer driver may either substitute a similar
font or not print any text.
"
To Copy a Process Diagram to the Clipboard
1.
Display and make the Process window containing the process you
wish to copy active.
2.
Choose Copy Design from the Edit menu or from the right mouse
button menu.
This copies the process to the clipboard in the form of a metafile
and a bitmap diagram.
3.
To paste the metafile–version or bitmap–version of the process
diagram into another application window, you should consult the
other application’s documentation on how to paste metafiles or
bitmaps.
To edit a bitmap image, you must paste the image into an
application that can edit bitmaps.
"
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Oracle Workflow Guide
To Validate a Process Definition
1.
Choose Verify from the File menu to validate all process definitions
for the currently selected data store.
2.
The following list is an example of some of the validation that the
Verify command performs:
• Checks that a process has at least one Start and one End activity.
• Verifies that a process does not contain itself as a process activity.
• Validates that all possible activity results are modelled as
outgoing transitions. If an activity completes with a result that is
not associated with an outgoing transition, and a <Default>
transition doesn’t exist for that activity, the activity enters an
’ERROR’ state.
• Validates that activity nodes marked as END nodes do not have
any outgoing transitions.
• Validates that a notification activity’s result type matches the
lookup type defined for the message’s ’RESULT’ message
attribute.
в�ћ
Attention: You should always validate any new process
definition you create as it helps you to identify any potential
problems with the definition that might prevent it from
executing successfully.
Modifying Fonts in Oracle Workflow Builder
You can modify the font that is used by the windows in Oracle
Workflow Builder. Any change you make applies to all windows
within the program.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4 – 13
"
To Modify Fonts
1.
Choose Font from the View menu to display the Fonts properties
page.
2.
Select the font to use as the label for your icons. This font is used
for all icons in Workflow Builder. The Sample region shows the
appearance of the font you select.
3.
Choose the font style: Regular, Bold, Italic or Bold Italic. Some
fonts have a limited selection of font styles.
4.
Indicate the font size to use. Some fonts have a limited selection of
font sizes.
5.
Select the Underline or Strikeout check boxes to apply that effect.
6.
Choose OK when you are done. These font settings take effect
immediately and are also used the next time you start Oracle
Workflow Builder.
Creating a Shortcut Icon for a Workflow Process
You can create a shortcut to Oracle Workflow Builder on your
Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 desktop. The shortcut can start
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Oracle Workflow Builder by automatically connecting to a designated
data store and opening specific Process windows from that data store.
"
To Create an Oracle Workflow Builder Shortcut
1.
Start Oracle Workflow Builder.
2.
Choose Open from the File menu to open a data store.
3.
Optionally expand the Process branch and double–click on one or
more process activities to open the Process windows for those
processes.
4.
Choose Create Shortcut from the File menu.
5.
Enter a name for the shortcut, as you want it to appear on your
desktop.
6.
When you double–click on the new shortcut icon on your desktop,
it automatically starts Oracle Workflow Builder opening the data
store that was selected and any process windows that were open
when you created the shortcut.
If the data store for the shortcut is a database, the shortcut will
prompt you for the password to the database.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4 – 15
Roles
Oracle Workflow roles are stored in the database, in the Oracle
Workflow directory service. Currently, new workflow roles cannot be
created in Oracle Workflow Builder, but Oracle Workflow Builder can
reference the roles stored in a database.
One example of how roles are referenced in Oracle Workflow Builder is
when you include a notification activity in a process. You must assign
that activity to a performer. The performer can be a designated role or
an item type attribute that dynamically returns a role. To assign a
performer to a role, you must initially load the roles from your Oracle
Workflow database into your Oracle Workflow Builder session. See:
Setting Up an Oracle Workflow Directory Service: page 2 – 7 and To
Define Nodes in a Process: page 4 – 7.
Note: Referencing roles in a workflow process is currently
supported in Oracle Workflow Builder, although the Roles tab
page seen in the property pages of certain workflow objects
will not be supported until a future release. The purpose of the
Roles tab page is to give a role access to a certain object.
"
To Load Roles
1.
If you are not connected to an Oracle Workflow database, choose
Open from the File menu to connect to the database and open your
item type.
2.
Choose from the File menu, Load Roles from Database. A Role
Selection window appears. You can enter search criteria in the Find
Roles field to find a subset of roles, or just choose Find without
specifying any search criteria to identify all roles. The Role
Selection window finds the roles you specify and displays them in
the Query Results list box.
Enter standard SQL query syntax as search criteria in the Find
Roles field. The field automatically appends % to the end of any
search criteria.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
3.
Select the roles you want to load from the Query Results list and
choose Add to add them to the Loaded Roles list. Alternatively,
just choose Add All to add all the roles in the Query Results list to
the Loaded Roles list. Choose OK to load the selected roles into
Oracle Workflow Builder and make them available to the objects in
your open item type.
The objects that need to reference role information contain specific
fields in their property pages. These fields are poplist fields that
display the list of roles you loaded from the database, as shown in
the following Process Activity property page.
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4 – 17
4.
When you select a role from one of these poplist fields, you can also
choose the Edit button to the right of the field to display the
property sheet of the selected role.
5.
The Role property page lists read–only information about that role.
Note: When you reopen a saved process definition in Oracle
Workflow Builder, any role information that the process
references automatically gets loaded even if you open the
process definition from a file and are not connected to the
database.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Defining a Workflow Process Diagram
4 – 19
CHAPTER
5
Predefined Workflow
Activities
T
his chapter tells you how to use Oracle Workflow’s predefined
activities.
Predefined Workflow Activities
5–1
Standard Activities
Oracle Workflow provides some generic activities you can use to
control your process. The activities are associated with the Standard
item type but can be used within any process you define. The Standard
item type is automatically installed on your Oracle Workflow server.
You can also access the Standard item type from the file wfstd.wft
located on your PC in the Oracle Workflow 2.0 data subdirectory.
Note: Predefined activities are also available for the
predefined workflows shipped with Oracle Applications and
Oracle Self–Service Web Applications. For more information
on Oracle Applications–specific workflow activities, consult the
documentation or help for that specific Oracle Application
product.
Note: If you want to drag an activity into a process, where the
activity is in a different data store than the process you are
dragging it to, then you must first copy the item type that the
activity belongs to into the same data store as the process.
Suppose you are modifying a process that is stored in
wfexample.wft and you want to add some standard activities
into the process that are stored in wfstd.wft. First you need to
open both files as data stores in Oracle Workflow Builder, then
you need to copy the Standard item type in wfstd and paste it
into the wfexample data store. Now you can drag any
standard activity in the wfexample data store into your
process.
And/Or Activities
In cases where multiple parallel branches transition to a single node,
you can decide whether that node should transition forward when any
of those parallel branches complete or when all of the parallel branches
complete. Use the And activity as the node for several converging
branches to ensure that all branches complete before continuing. Use
the Or activity as the node for several converging branches to allow the
process to continue whenever any one of the branches completes.
5–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
And
Completes when the activities from all converging
branches complete. Calls a PL/SQL procedure
named WF_STANDARD.ANDJOIN.
Or
Completes when the activities from at least one
converging branch complete. Calls a PL/SQL
procedure named WF_STANDARD.ORJOIN.
Comparison Activities
The comparison activities provide a standard way to compare two
numbers, dates, or text strings.
Compare Date
Use to compare the value of an item type attribute
of type Date with a constant date.
Compare
Number
Use to compare the value of an item type attribute
of type Number with a constant number.
Compare Text
Use to compare the value of two item type
attributes of type Text.
All the Comparison activities call a PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.COMPARE.
Activity Attributes
Each comparison activity has two activity attributes. The first activity
attribute requires as its value, a item type attribute of type Number,
Date, or Text. The second activity attribute takes as its value, a
constant number, date, or text string, respectively. See: To Define
Activity Attribute Values: page 4 – 9.
The comparison activities use the Comparison lookup type for a result
code. Possible values are ”Greater Than,” ”Less Than,” ”Equal,” or
”Null,” if the item type attribute is null. You can guide your workflow
process based on how the value of an item type attribute compares to a
given value that you set.
Wait Activity
The Wait activity pauses the process for the time you specify. You can
either wait until:
• a specific date
• a given day of the month
• a given day of the week
• a period of time after this activity is encountered
This activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.WAIT.
Predefined Workflow Activities
5–3
Activity Attributes
The Wait activity has six activity attributes:
• Wait Mode—use this attribute to specify how to calculate the
wait. You can choose one of the following wait modes:
– Absolute Date—to pause the activity until the date specified
in the Absolute Date activity attribute is reached.
– Relative Time—to pause the activity until the number of
days specified in the Relative Time activity attribute passes.
– Day of Month—to pause the activity until a specified day of
the month, as indicated in the Day of Month activity
attribute.
– Day of Week—to pause the activity until a specified day of
the week, as indicated in the Day of Week activity attribute.
• Absolute Date—If Wait Mode is set to Absolute Date, enter an
absolute date.
• Relative Time—If Wait Mode is set to Relative Date, enter a
relative time expressed in <days>.<fraction of days>.
• Day of Month—If Wait Mode is set to Day of Month, choose a
day of the month from the list. If the day you choose has already
passed in the current month, then the activity waits until that
day in the following month.
• Day of Week—If Wait Mode is set to Day of Week, choose a day
of the week from the list. If the day you choose has already
passed in the current week, then the activity waits until that day
in the following week.
• Time of Day—The Wait activity always pauses until midnight of
the time specified, unless you use this Time of Day activity
attribute to specify a time other than midnight that the Wait
activity should pause until.
See: To Define Activity Attribute Values: page 4 – 9.
Block Activity
The Block activity lets you pause a process until some external program
or manual step completes and makes a call to the CompleteActivity
Workflow Engine API. Use the Block activity to delay a process until
some condition is met, such as the completion of a concurrent program.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Make sure your program issues a CompleteActivity call when it
completes to resume the process at the Block activity. See:
CompleteActivity: page 7 – 28
This activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.BLOCK.
Noop Activity
The Noop activity acts as a place holder activity that performs no
action. You can use this activity anywhere you want to place a node
without performing an action. You can change the display name of this
activity to something meaningful when you include it in a process, so
that it reminds you of what you want this activity to do in the future.
This activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.NOOP.
Loop Counter Activity
Use the Loop Counter activity to limit the number of times the
Workflow Engine transitions through a particular path in a process.
The Loop Counter activity can have a result of Loop or Exit.
This Loop Counter activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.LOOPCOUNTER.
Activity Attribute
The Loop Counter activity has an activity attribute called Loop Limit.
If the number of times that the Workflow Engine transitions to the
Loop Counter activity is less than the value specified in Loop Limit, the
Loop Counter activity will complete with a result of Loop and the
engine will take the ’Loop’ transition to the next activity. If the number
of times that the Workflow Engine transitions to the Loop Counter
activity exceeds the value of Loop Limit, the activity will complete with
a result of Exit and the engine will take the ’Exit’ transition to an
alternative activity.
For example, suppose your workflow process contains a branch of
activities that can be transitioned to from multiple source activities, and
you want to ensure that that particular branch of activities gets
executed just once in the process. Include a Loop Counter activity as
the first activity in that branch and specify the Loop Limit activity
Predefined Workflow Activities
5–5
attribute value as 1. Also draw an ’Exit’ transition from the Loop
Counter activity to an activity that you want the engine to execute if
the Loop Counter activity is visited more than once, as shown in the
diagram below.
In a similar example as shown in the diagram below, you can include a
Loop Counter activity as the initial activity in a loop. The value you
specify for the Loop Limit activity attribute will designate the number
of times the engine is allowed to traverse through the loop. If the
number of visits to the Loop Counter activity exceeds the value set in
Loop Limit, then the process moves along the ’Exit’ transition to the
designated activity. See: To Define Activity Attribute Values: page
4 – 9.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Start Activity
The Start activity marks the start of a process and does not perform any
action. Although it is not necessary, you may include it in your process
diagram to visually mark the start of a process as a separate node. This
activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named WF_STANDARD.NOOP.
End Activity
The End activity marks the end of a process and does not perform any
action. You can use it to return a result for a completed process by
specifying a Result Type for the activity. Although it is not necessary,
you may include it in your process diagram to visually mark the end of
your process as a separate node. This activity calls the PL/SQL
procedure named WF_STANDARD.NOOP.
Role Resolution Activity
The Role Resolution activity lets you identify a single user from a role
comprised of multiple users. In a process diagram, place the Role
Resolution activity in front of a notification activity and specify the
performer of that notification activity to be a role consisting of several
users. The Role Resolution activity selects a single user from that role
and assigns the notification activity to that user.
This activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.ROLERESOLUTION.
Activity Attributes
Use the Method activity attribute in the Role Resolution activity to
specify how you want to resolve the role. A value of ”Load Balance”
compares how many open notifications from that activity each
qualified user has and selects the user with the fewest open
notifications from that activity. A value of ”Sequential” selects a user
from the role sequentially by determining the user that experienced the
longest interval of time since last receiving a notification from that
activity. See: To Define Activity Attribute Values: page 4 – 9.
Predefined Workflow Activities
5–7
Voting Activity
The Voting activity lets you send a notification to a group of users in a
role and tally the responses from those users. The results of the tally
determine the activity that the process transitions to next.
In general, an activity can either send a notification message or perform
a PL/SQL function. The special Voting activity, classified as a
notification activity, does both by first sending a notification message to
a group of users and then performing a PL/SQL function to tally the
users’ responses (votes).
The following four fields in the Activity properties page of the Voting
activity determine how the Voting activity behaves:
• Message field
• Result Type field
• Expand Roles check box
• Function field
Message Field
This field lists Default Voting Message as the message that the activity
sends. The Default Voting Message includes a Respond message
attribute with an Internal Name called RESULT. This attribute prompts
the recipient to reply to the message using one of the possible responses
listed in the lookup type specified.
You can edit the Default Voting Message or use your own custom
message as long as you associate a Respond message attribute called
RESULT with the message. Similarly, you can customize or use a
different lookup type associated with RESULT to offer other possible
responses to the recipient.
Result Type Field
This field contains the lookup type that lists the possible responses that
the Voting activity would tally. You can update this field to use any
lookup type as long as the lookup type matches the lookup type
specified for the Respond message attribute called RESULT. The
default lookup type is Yes/No.
Expand Roles Check Box
When Expand Roles is checked, an additional Function field appears.
A checked value tells the Workflow Engine to poll for responses from
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Oracle Workflow Guide
the multiple users in a role rather than just from the first user that
replies, as is typically the case.
в�ћ
Attention: The Expand Roles Check Box should also be
checked when sending FYI Notifications.
Function Field
This field lists the function that is used to tally the responses from
users. The Voting activity calls the PL/SQL procedure
WF_STANDARD.VOTEFORRESULTTYPE as the default function.
WF_STANDARD.VOTEFORRESULTTYPE is a generic tallying
function. The Result Type that you specify for the activity defines the
possible responses for the function to tally and the activity attributes
you define determine how the function tallies the responses.
Activity Attributes
When you use the Voting activity, you must define a custom activity
attribute of type Number for each possible voting response. Note that
each possible voting response is actually a lookup code associated with
the Voting activity’s result type. Hence, when you define your custom
activity attribute, the internal name of the activity attribute must match
the internal name of the lookup code, that is, the response value.
The value of the activity attribute can either be blank or a number that
represents the percentage of votes required for a particular result. If
you provide a percentage, then the result is matched if the actual tallied
percentage for that response is greater than your specified percentage.
If you leave an activity attribute value blank, then the Workflow Engine
treats the response for that activity attribute as a default. In other
words, if no particular percentage is satisfied after the votes are tallied,
then the response that received the highest number of votes among
those associated with a blank activity attribute becomes the result.
Note: If the tallied votes do not satisfy any response
percentages and there are no default responses (blank activity
attributes) specified, the result is #NOMATCH. If a <Default>
transition from the Voting activity exists, then the Workflow
Engine will take this transition, otherwise, it will raise an error
that no transition for the result is available
(ERROR:#NOTRANSITION).
Note: If the tallied votes satisfy more than one response
percentage or if no response percentage is satisfied, but a tie
occurs among the default responses, the result is #TIE. If a
<Default> transition from the Voting activity exists, then the
Predefined Workflow Activities
5–9
Workflow Engine will take this transition, otherwise, it will
raise an error that no transition for the result is available
(ERROR:#NOTRANSITION).
Note: If you have something specific in mind that you would
like to happen if a tie or no match occurs in a Voting activity,
you can model that into a custom activity and create a
<Default> transition from the Voting activity to that custom
activity.
In addition to defining your set of custom activity attributes, you must
also set an activity attribute called Voting Option, whose internal name
must be VOTING_OPTION, to specify how the votes are tallied. You
can set Voting Option to one of three values:
• ”Wait for All Votes”—the Workflow Engine waits until all votes
are cast before tallying the results as a percentage of all the users
notified. If a timeout condition occurs, the Workflow Engine
calculates the resulting votes as a percentage of the total votes
cast before the timeout occurred.
• ”Tally on Every Vote”—the Workflow Engine keeps a running
tally of the cumulative responses as a percentage of all the users
notified. If a timeout condition occurs, then the responses are
tallied as a percentage of the total number of votes cast. Note
that this option is meaningless if any of the custom response
activity attributes have a blank value.
• ”Require All Votes”—the Workflow Engine evaluates the
responses as a percentage of all users notified only after all votes
are cast. If a timeout condition occurs, the Workflow Engine
progresses along the standard timeout transition, or if none is
available, raises an error, and does not tally any votes.
Example Voting Methods
1.
Simple Majority
Response
Custom Response Activity Attribute Value
A
50
B
50
C
50
Table 5 – 1 (Page 1 of 1)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
The result is any response that gets more than fifty percent of the
votes. If no response gets more than fifty percent, the result is that
no match is found (#NOMATCH).
2.
Simple Majority with Default
Response
Custom Response Activity Attribute Value
A
50
B
50
C
blank
Table 5 – 2 (Page 1 of 1)
If response A gets more than fifty percent of the votes, A is the
result. Similarly if response B gets more than fifty percent of the
votes, B is the result. If neither response A nor B gets more than
fifty percent of the votes, then C is the result.
3.
Simple Majority with Multiple Defaults
Response
Custom Response Activity Attribute Value
A
50
B
blank
C
blank
Table 5 – 3 (Page 1 of 1)
If response A gets more than fifty percent of the votes, A is the
result. If A gets fifty percent of the votes, or less, then response B
or C is the result depending on which of the two received the
higher number of votes. If A gets fifty percent of the votes, or less,
and both B and C receive the same number of votes, then the result
is a tie (#TIE).
4.
Popularity
Predefined Workflow Activities
5 – 11
Response
Custom Response Activity Attribute Value
A
blank
B
blank
C
blank
Table 5 – 4 (Page 1 of 1)
The result is the response that gets the highest number of votes.
5.
Black Ball
Response
Custom Response Activity Attribute Value
YES
100
NO
blank
Table 5 – 5 (Page 1 of 1)
Any vote for response NO makes NO the result.
6.
Jury
Response
Custom Response Activity Attribute Value
GUILTY
100
NOT_GUILTY
100
Table 5 – 6 (Page 1 of 1)
A unanimous response is required, otherwise no match is found
(#NOMATCH).
Master/Detail Coordination Activities
The Master/Detail coordination activities let you coordinate the flow of
master and detail processes. For example, a master process may spawn
detail processes that need to be coordinated such that the master
process continues only when each detail process reaches a certain point
in its flow or vice versa.
5 – 12
Oracle Workflow Guide
When you spawn a detail process from a master process in Oracle
Workflow, you need to define the master/detail relationship between
the two processes by making a call to the workflow Engine
SetItemParent API when you create the detail process. See:
SetItemParent: page 7 – 33.
You can then use the two activities described below to coordinate the
flow in the master and detail processes. One activity lets you pause a
process and the other signals the halted process to continue. To use
these activities, you place one activity in the master process and the
other in each detail process.
Both activities contain two activity attributes that you use to identify
the coordinating activity in the other process(es).
Wait for Flow Activity
Place this activity in a master or detail process to pause the flow until
the other corresponding detail or master process completes a specified
activity. This activity calls a PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.WAITFORFLOW.
Activity Attributes
Use the ”Continuation Flow” activity attribute to specify whether this
activity is waiting for a corresponding ”Master” or ”Detail” process to
complete. Use the ”Continuation Activity” activity attribute to specify
the label of the activity node that must complete in the corresponding
process before the current process continues. The default value for the
”Continuation Activity” activity attribute is CONTINUEFLOW. You
can specify the value of the activity attribute in the Process window.
See: To Define Activity Attribute Values: page 4 – 9.
Continue Flow
Use this activity to mark the position in the corresponding detail or
master process where, upon completion, you want the halted process to
continue. This activity calls a PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.CONTINUEFLOW.
Activity Attributes
Use the ”Waiting Flow” activity attribute to specify whether the halted
process that is waiting for this activity to complete is a ”Master” or
”Detail” flow. Use the ”Waiting Activity” activity attribute to specify
Predefined Workflow Activities
5 – 13
the label of the activity node in the halted process that is waiting for
this activity to complete. You can specify the value of the activity
attribute in the Process window. See: To Define Activity Attribute
Values: page 4 – 9.
Example
The following figures show an example of how these coordination
activities can be used. In the master process below, the Start Detail
Flows activity initiates several detail processes. The master process
then completes Activity 1 before it pauses at the Wait For Flow activity.
Wait For Flow is defined to wait for all its detail processes to complete
a Continue Flow activity before allowing the master process to
transition to Activity 2. An example of one of the detail processes
below shows that when the detail process begins, it completes Activity
A. When it reaches the Continue Flow activity, it signals to the
Workflow Engine that the master process can now continue from the
Wait For Flow activity. The detail process itself then transitions to
Activity B.
Master Process
Detail Process
Note: You can include a Wait for Flow activity in a master
process without using a Continue Flow activity in one or more
of its corresponding detail process. The Workflow Engine
simply continues the master process as soon as all the other
detail processes that do contain a Continue Flow activity
complete the Continue Flow activity.
If it does not matter when any of the detail processes complete
before a master process continues (or when a master process
5 – 14
Oracle Workflow Guide
completes before all the detail processes continue), then you
simply omit both of the coordination activities from your
master/detail processes.
в�ћ
Attention: If you include a Continue Flow activity in a
process, you must also include a Wait for Flow activity in its
corresponding master or detail process as defined by the
activity attributes in the Continue Flow activity.
Assign Activity
The Assign activity lets you assign a value to an item attribute. This
activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named WF_STANDARD.ASSIGN.
Activity Attributes
The Assign activity has an activity attribute called Item Attribute. Use
Item Attribute to choose the item attribute that you want to assign a
value to. Depending on the item attribute’s format type, use the Date
Value, Numeric Value, or Text Value activity attribute to specify the
value that you want to assign to the item attribute.
Get Monitor URL
The Get Monitor URL activity generates the URL for the Workflow
Monitor diagram window and stores it in an item attribute that you
specify. This activity calls the PL/SQL procedure named
WF_STANDARD.GETURL.
Activity Attributes
Use the activity attribute called Item Attribute to choose the name of
the item attribute that you want to use to store the URL for the
Workflow Monitor window. Use the activity attribute called
Administration Mode to determine how the URL displays the
Workflow Monitor window. If you set Administration Mode to ”Yes”,
the URL displays the Workflow Monitor in ’ADMIN’ mode, otherwise
it displays the Workflow Monitor in ’USER’ mode.
Predefined Workflow Activities
5 – 15
Default Error Process
Oracle Workflow includes an item type designed specifically for error
processing called System: Error. To view the details of this item type,
choose Open from the File menu, then connect to the database and
select the System: Error item type or connect to a file called wferror.wft
in the Workflow 2.0 data subdirectory. The System: Error item type has
a list of item type attributes and the following components associated
with it:
• Default Error Process—a process that notifies a performer that
an error has occurred. If you edit this process, you see that it
includes two activities: Default Error Notification and End Error
Process.
• End Error Process function activity—a function activity that
represents the end activity of the error process.
• Reset Error—a function activity that allows you to rerun the
originally errored activity again after the error process
completes. This activity includes two activity attributes,
COMMAND and RESULT. The possible values for COMMAND
are ”Retry”, ”Reset”, or ”Skip” to rerun, reset, or skip the
activity, respectively. The value for RESULT is the result you
want to assign to the error activity if you set COMMAND to
”Skip”. This activity can be added to the Default Error Process
or to any custom error process. See: To Define Activity Attribute
Values: page 4 – 9.
• Default Error Notification—a notification activity that sends a
message called Workflow Default Error Message. The message
includes the following ’Send’ message attributes to provide
information about the activity in error:
– Error Item Type
– Error Item Key
– Error Name
– Error Message
– Error Stack
– Error Activity ID
– Error Activity Label
(of the format <process_name>:<instance_label>)
– Error Result Code
– Error Notification ID
5 – 16
Oracle Workflow Guide
– Error Assigned User
Oracle Workflow allows you to customize the Default Error Process to
handle errors in your workflow process. You can also create your own
custom error processes using the activities associated with the System:
Error item type. Once you define an error process, you can assign it to
any process or activity. See: To Define Optional Activity Details: page
3 – 50.
Note: Rather than use the Default Error Process, you should
try to handle errors due to business rule incompatibilities by
modelling those situations into your workflow process
definition. For example, if a function activity can potentially
encounter an error because a business prerequisite is not met,
you might model your process to send a notification to an
appropriate role to correct that situation if it occurs, so that the
workflow process can progress forward. If you do not model
this situation into your workflow process, and instead rely on
the error to activate the Default Error Process, the entire
workflow process will have an ’Error’ status and will halt until
a workflow administrator handles the error.
See Also
Workflow Core APIs: page 7 – 34
Predefined Workflow Activities
5 – 17
CHAPTER
6
Defining PL/SQL
Procedures for Oracle
Workflow
T
his chapter describes the standard APIs to use for Oracle
Workflow PL/SQL procedures.
Defining PL/SQL Procedures for Oracle Workflow
6–1
Standard API for PL/SQL Procedures Called by Function Activities
All PL/SQL stored procedures that are called by function activities in
an Oracle Workflow process should follow a standard API format. You
should also use this API when you define any custom PL/SQL stored
procedures for your workflow processes so that the Workflow Engine
can properly execute your activity.
The example in this section is numbered with the notation 1вћњ for easy
referencing. The numbers and arrows themselves are not part of the
procedure.
1вћњ
procedure <procedure name>
2вћњ
<local declarations>
3вћњ
begin
(
itemtype
in varchar2,
itemkey
in varchar2,
actid
in number,
funcmode
in varchar2,
result
out varchar2 ) is
if ( funcmode = ’RUN’ ) then
<your RUN executable statements>
resultout := ’COMPLETE:<result>’;
return;
endif;
4вћњ
if ( funcmode = ’CANCEL’ ) then
<your CANCEL executable statements>
resultout := ’COMPLETE’;
return;
end if;
5вћњ
if ( funcmode = ’<other funcmode>’ ) then
resultout := ’ ’;
return;
endif;
6вћњ
exception
when others then
WF_CORE.CONTEXT (’<package name>’, ’<procedure name>’, <itemtype>, <itemkey>,
to_char(<actid>), <funcmode>);
raise;
7вћњ
6–2
end <procedure name>;
Oracle Workflow Guide
1вћњ When the Workflow Engine calls a stored procedure for a function
activity, it passes four parameters to the procedure and may expect a
result when the procedure completes. The parameters are defined here:
itemtype
The internal name for the item type. Item types are
defined in the Oracle Workflow Builder.
itemkey
A string that represents a primary key generated
by the workflow–enabled application for the item
type. The string uniquely identifies the item within
an item type.
actid
The ID number of the activity that this procedure is
called from.
funcmode
The execution mode of the function activity. Either
’RUN’, ’CANCEL’, or ’TIMEOUT’. Other
execution modes may be added in the future.
result
If a result type is specified in the Activities
properties page for the activity in the Oracle
Workflow Builder, this parameter represents the
expected result that is returned when the
procedure completes. The possible results are:
COMPLETE:<result_code>—activity completes
with the indicated result code. The result code
must match one of the result codes specified in the
result type of the function activity.
WAITING—activity is set to wait a specified
period of time before it completes. A background
engine continually checks for when the activity
wait period completes, at which point it processes
the activity as complete.
DEFERRED:<date>—activity is deferred to a
background engine for execution until a given date.
<date> must be of the format:
to_char(<date_string>, wf_engine.date_format)
NOTIFIED:<notification_id>:<assigned_user>—
an external entity is notified that an action must be
performed. A notification ID and an assigned user
can optionally be returned with this result. Note
that the external entity must call
CompleteActivity( ) to inform the Workflow engine
when the action completes.
Defining PL/SQL Procedures for Oracle Workflow
6–3
ERROR:<error_code>—activity encounters an
error and returns the indicated error code.
2вћњ This section declares any local arguments that are used within the
procedure.
3вћњ The procedure body begins in this section with an IF statement.
This section contains one or more executable statements that run if the
value of funcmode is ’RUN’. One of the executable statements can
return a result for the procedure. For example, a result can be
’COMPLETE:APPROVED’.
4вћњ This section clears the activity and can contain executable
statements that run if the value of funcmode is ’CANCEL’. Often
times, this section contains no executable statements to simply return a
null value, but this section also provides you with the chance to ’undo’
something if necessary. An activity can have a funcmode of ’CANCEL’
in these special cases:
• The activity is part of a loop that is being revisited.
The first activity in a loop must always have the Loop Reset flag
checked in the Activities properties Detail page. When the
Workflow Engine encounters an activity that has already run, it
verifies whether the activity’s Loop Reset flag is set. If the flag is
set, the engine then identifies the activities that belong in that
loop and sets funcmode to ’CANCEL’ for those activities. Next,
the engine transitions through the loop in reverse order and
executes each activity in ’CANCEL’ mode to clear all prior
results for the activities so they can run again. See: Looping:
page 7 – 5 and Loop Counter Activity: page 5 – 5.
• The activity is part of a process that has been cancelled by a call
to the AbortProcess Workflow Engine API. You may want to
cancel a process to clear its current results. See: AbortProcess:
page 7 – 18.
5➜This section handles execution modes other than ’RUN’ or
’CANCEL’. Currently ’TIMEOUT’ is the only other execution mode
available, but others may be added in the future. Since your activity
does not need to implement any of these other possible modes, it
should simply return null.
6вћњThis section calls WF_CORE.CONTEXT( ) if an exception occurs, so
that you can include context information in the error stack to help you
locate the source of an error. See: CONTEXT: page 7 – 39.
6–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
Standard API for an Item Type Selector or Callback Function
For any given item type, you can define a single function that operates
as both a selector and a callback function. A selector function is a
PL/SQL procedure that automatically identifies the specific process
definition to execute when a workflow is initiated for a particular item
type but no process name is provided. Oracle Workflow also supports
using a callback function to reset or test item type context information.
You can define one PL/SQL procedure that includes both selector and
callback functionality by following a standard API.
Oracle Workflow can call the selector/callback function with the
following commands:
• RUN—to select the appropriate process to start when either of
the following two conditions occur:
– A process is not explicitly passed to
WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess.
– A process is implicitly started by
WF_ENGINE.CompleteActivity with no prior call to
WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess.
• SET_CTX—to establish any context information that a function
activity in an item type will need to execute, just before it
executes a function activity in a new database session.
• TEST_CTX—to determine if a form can be launched with the
current context information just before the Oracle Applications
Notification Viewer form launches a reference form. If the
context is incorrect, the form cannot be launched and a message
is displayed to that effect. See: Reviewing Notifications in the
Notification Viewer Form: page 8 – 2.
The standard API for the selector/callback function is as follows. This
section is numbered with the notation 1вћњ for easy referencing. The
numbers and arrows themselves are not part of the procedure.
Defining PL/SQL Procedures for Oracle Workflow
6–5
1вћњ
procedure <procedure name>
2вћњ
<local declarations>
3вћњ
begin
(
item_type
in varchar2,
item_key
in varchar2,
activity_id
in number,
command
in varchar2,
result
in out varchar2) is
if ( command = ’RUN’ ) then
<your RUN executable statements>
resultout := ’<Name of process to run>’;
return;
endif;
4вћњ
if ( command = ’SET_CTX’ ) then
<your executable statements for establishing context information>
return;
end if;
5вћњ
if ( command = ’TEST_CTX’ ) then
<your executable statements for testing the validity of the current context information>
resultout := ’<TRUE or FALSE> ’;
return;
endif;
6вћњ
if ( command = ’<other command>’ ) then
resultout := ’ ’;
return;
endif;
7вћњ
exception
when others then
WF_CORE.CONTEXT (’<package name>’, ’<procedure name>’, <itemtype>, <itemkey>,
to_char(<actid>), <command>);
raise;
8вћњ
end <procedure name>;
1вћњ When the Workflow Engine calls the selector/callback function, it
passes four parameters to the procedure and may expect a result when
the procedure completes. The parameters are defined here:
itemtype
6–6
Oracle Workflow Guide
The internal name for the item type. Item types are
defined in the Oracle Workflow Builder.
itemkey
A string that represents a primary key generated
by the workflow–enabled application for the item
type. The string uniquely identifies the item within
an item type.
actid
The ID number of the activity that this procedure is
called from. Note that this parameter is always
null if the procedure is called with the ’RUN’
command to execute the selector functionality.
command
The command that determines how to execute the
selector/callback function. Either ’RUN’,
’SET_CTX’, or ’TEST_CTX’. Other
commands may be added in the future.
result
A result may be returned depending on the
command that is used to call the selector/callback
function.
If the function is called with ’RUN’, the name of
the process to run must be returned through the
result parameter. If the function is called with
’SET_CTX’, then no return value is expected. If
the function is called with ’TEST_CTX’, then the
code must return ’TRUE’ if the context is correct or
’FALSE’ if the context is incorrect. If any other
value is returned, Oracle Workflow assumes that
this command is not implemented by the callback.
2вћњ This section declares any local arguments that are used within the
procedure.
3вћњ The procedure body begins in this section with an IF statement.
This section contains one or more executable statements that make up
your selector function. It executes if the value of command is ’RUN’.
One of the executable statements should return a result for the
procedure that reflects the process to run. For example, a result can be
’REQUISITION_APPROVAL’, which is the name of a process activity.
4вћњ .This section contains one or more executable statements that set
item type context information if the value of command is ’SET_CTX’.
The Workflow Engine calls the selector/callback function with this
command just before it begins to execute a function activity in a new
database session. This command is useful when you need to set item
type context in a database session before the activities in that session
can execute as intended. For example, you might need to set up the
responsibility and organization context for function activities that are
sensitive to multi–organization data.
Defining PL/SQL Procedures for Oracle Workflow
6–7
5вћњ .This section contains one or more executable statements that
validate item type context information if the value of command is
’TEST_CTX’. The Workflow Engine calls the selector/callback
function with this command to validate that the current database
session context is acceptable before the Workflow Engine executes an
activity. For example, this callback functionality executes when the
Oracle Applications Notification Viewer form is just about to launch a
reference form. The code in this section should return ’TRUE’ if the
context is correct, and ’FALSE’ if the context is incorrect. If the
context is incorrect, you can raise an exception and place a message in
the WF_CORE error system to indicate the reason the context is
invalid. The raised exception is also printed in an error message in the
form.
5➜This section handles execution modes other than ’RUN’,
’SET_CTX’ or ’TEST_CTX’ as others may be added in the future.
Since your function does not need to implement any of these other
possible commands, it should simply return null.
6вћњThis section calls WF_CORE.CONTEXT( ) if an exception occurs, so
that you can include context information in the error stack to help you
locate the source of an error. See: CONTEXT: page 7 – 39.
6–8
Oracle Workflow Guide
Standard API for a ”PL/SQL” Document
You can integrate a document into a workflow process by defining the
document as an attribute for an item type, message, or activity. One
type of document that Oracle Workflow supports is a ”PL/SQL”
document. Oracle Workflow constructs a dynamic call to a PL/SQL
procedure that generates the document. The PL/SQL procedure must
have the following standard API:
procedure <procedure name>
(
document_id
in varchar2,
display_type
in varchar2,
document
in out varchar2,
document_type
in out varchar2)
The arguments for the procedure are as follows:
document_id
A string that uniquely identifies a document. This
is the same string as the document identifier that
you specify in the default value field of the
Attribute property page for a ”PL/SQL” document
(plsql:<procedure>/<document_identifier>).
display_type
One of three values that represents the content type
used for the notification presentation, also referred
to as the requested type.:
text/plain—the document is embedded inside a
plain text representation of the notification as
viewed from an E–mail message. The entire email
message must be less than or equal to 32K, so
depending on how large your E–mail template is,
some of the plain text document that the procedure
generates may get truncated. See: Modifying Your
Message Templates: page 2 – 36.
text/html—the document is embedded inside an
HTML representation of the notification as viewed
from the Notification Web page, or the HTML
attachment to an E–mail message. The procedure
must generate a HTML representation of the
document of up to 32K, but should not include top
level HTML tags like <HTML> or <BODY> since
the HTML page that the document is being
inserted into already contains these tags. Note that
the procedure can alternatively generate a plain
text document, as the notification system can
Defining PL/SQL Procedures for Oracle Workflow
6–9
automatically surround plain text with the
appropriate HTML tags to preserve formatting.
6 – 10
Oracle Workflow Guide
document
The outbound text buffer where up to 32K of
document text is returned.
document_type
The outbound text buffer where the document
content type is returned. Also referred to as the
returned type. If no type is supplied, then
’text/plain’ is assumed.
CHAPTER
7
Oracle Workflow APIs
T
his chapter describes the APIs for Oracle Workflow. The APIs
consists of views and PL/SQL functions and procedures that you can
use to access the Workflow Engine, the Notification System, and
workflow data.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7–1
Oracle Workflow Procedures and Functions
Oracle Workflow supplies a list of public PL/SQL procedures and
functions that you can use to set up a workflow process. They are
grouped within the following packages:
• WF_ENGINE: page 7 – 8
• WF_CORE: page 7 – 34
• WF_PURGE: page 7 – 42
• WF_DIRECTORY: page 7 – 49
• WF_MONITOR: page 7 – 58
• Oracle Workflow Views: page 7 – 62
• WF_NOTIFICATIONS: page 7 – 67
7–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
Overview of the Workflow Engine
The Workflow Engine manages all automated aspects of a workflow
process for each item. The engine is implemented in server–side
PL/SQL and is activated whenever a call to a workflow procedure or
function is made.
Additionally, Workflow Engines can be set up as background tasks to
perform activities that are too costly to execute in real time.
The Workflow Engine performs the following services for a client
application:
• It manages the state of all activities for an item, and in particular,
determines which new activity to transition to whenever a
prerequisite activity completes.
• It automatically executes function activities (execution is either
immediate or else is deferred to a background engine) and sends
notifications.
• It maintains a history of an activity’s status.
• It detects error conditions and executes error processes.
The state of a workflow item is defined by the various states of all
activities that are part of the process for that item. The engine changes
activity states in response to an API call to update the activity family of
calls. The API calls that update activity states are:
• CreateProcess
• StartProcess
• CompleteActivity
• AssignActivity
• HandleError
• SuspendProcess
• ResumeProcess
• AbortProcess
Based on the result of a previous activity, the engine also attempts to
execute the next activity directly. An activity may have the following
status:
• Active
• Complete
• Waiting
Oracle Workflow APIs
7–3
• Notified
• Deferred
• Error
• Suspended
Completion Processing
Engine processing is triggered whenever a process activity completes
and calls the Workflow Engine API. The engine then attempts to
execute (or mark for deferred execution) all activities that are
dependent on the completed activity.
Note: A process as a whole can complete but still contain
activities that were visited but not yet completed. For example,
a completed process may contain a standard Wait activity that
is not complete because the designated length of time to wait
has not yet elapsed. When the process as a whole completes,
the Workflow Engine marks these incomplete activities as
having a status of COMPLETE and a result of #FORCE. This
distinction is important if you need to include this information
in your process status reports.
Deferred Processing
The engine has a deferred processing feature that allows long–running
tasks to be handled by background engines instead of in real time.
Deferring the execution of activity functions to background engines
allows the Workflow Engine to move forward to process other
activities that are currently active. The engine can be set up to operate
anywhere on a continuum between processing all eligible work
immediately, to processing nothing and marking all transitions as
deferred.
Associated with each activity is a user–defined processing cost. This
cost may be small if the activity merely sets an item attribute, or it may
be very high if the activity performs a resource–intensive operation.
Since the engine operates within the CompleteActivity procedure call, its
execution is synchronous, meaning the engine must finish processing
before control returns to the caller (for example, a form). If the result of
a completed activity triggers the execution of a costly function, the
caller might want to defer the execution of that costly function to a
background engine.
To implement the deferred behavior, the engine recognizes a threshold
cost above which it will simply mark an activity as DEFERRED rather
7–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
than attempting to execute it. A background engine can be set up to
poll for deferred activities and to process them. Some sites may have
multiple background engines operating at different thresholds, so that
there would be no chance of tying up all background processing with
long operations.
Error Processing
Errors that occur during workflow execution cannot be directly
returned to the caller, since the caller generally does not know how to
respond to the error (in fact, the caller may be a background engine
with no human operator). You can use Oracle Workflow Builder to
define the events you want to occur in case of an error. Use Oracle
Workflow Builder to modify the Default Error Process associated with
the System:Error item type or create your own custom error process.
See: Default Error Process: page 5 – 16.
The error process can include branches based on error codes, send
notifications, and attempt to deal with the error using automated rules
for resetting, retrying, or skipping the failed activity. Once you define
an error process, you can associate it with any activity. The error
process is then initiated whenever an error occurs for that activity. See:
To Define Optional Activity Details: page 3 – 50.
The Workflow Engine traps errors produced by function activities by
setting a savepoint before each function activity. If an activity produces
an unhandled exception, or returns an invalid result, the engine
performs a rollback to the savepoint, and sets the activity to the
ERROR status.
Note: For this reason, you should never commit within the
PL/SQL procedure of a function activity. In general, the
Workflow Engine never issues a commit as it is the
responsibility of the calling application to commit.
The Workflow Engine then attempts to locate an error process to run by
starting with the activity which caused the error, and then checking
each parent process activity until an associated error process is located.
Looping
Looping occurs when the completion of an activity causes a transition
to another activity that has already been completed. This can be
handled in two ways: 1) Ignore the transition (a ”run once” activity) or
2) Reset the process to the loop point (undo the activities within the
loop). Every activity has a Loop Reset check box in Oracle Workflow
Oracle Workflow APIs
7–5
Builder so the you can specify the behavior for the activity if a loop
occurs.
Turning Loop Reset off is useful for implementing activities that should
only run once, even though they can be transitioned to from multiple
sources. For example, this mode allows the implementation of a
”logical OR” activity, which is transitioned to multiple times, but
completes after the first transition. This mode would only be useful in
user defined activities when implementing some other OR–like
function.
Turning Loop Reset on for an activity causes the engine, upon
transitioning to that completed activity, to transition backwards
through the completed loop and reset that part of the process so that
the engine can begin execution again from the reset point. An example
of this behavior is if a process contained a loop where a purchase order
were returned to the requester for modification and resubmission.
The engine clears the activities in a loop by:
• Building a list of all activities visited following the loop reset
point, and
• Traversing the list in reverse order, cancelling each activity and
resetting its status.
Cancelling an activity is similar to running the activity, except that the
activity is executed in ”CANCEL” mode instead of in ”RUN” mode.
The activity can then reverse any operation it performed to allow for
reexecuting the loop. For example, if an activity sent out a notification,
the notification would be canceled.
Version / Effective Date
Activities and processes are marked with a version number so that
more than one version of an activity or a process definition can be in
use at any one time. An effective date controls which version of the
definition the engine uses when executing a process (the engine uses
the latest eligible version). When you edit a process and save it to the
database, you can save it with an immediate or future effective date.
The version number is then increased by one. See: Retrieving and
Saving Item Types: page 3 – 8.
Item Type Attributes
A set of item type attributes is defined at both design–time and runtime
for each item. These attributes provide information to the function and
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Oracle Workflow Guide
notification activities used in the processes associated with the item
type.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7–7
Workflow Engine APIs
The following APIs can be called by an application program or a
workflow function in the runtime phase to communicate with the
engine and to change the status of each of the activities. These APIs are
defined in a PL/SQL package called WF_ENGINE.
See Also
Standard API for PL/SQL Procedures Called by a Function Activities:
page 6 – 2
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Oracle Workflow Guide
CreateProcess
Syntax
procedure CreateProcess
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
process in varchar2 default ’’);
Description
Creates a new runtime process for an application item.
For example, a Requisition item type may have a Requisition Approval
Process as a top level process. When a particular requisition is created,
an application calls CreateProcess to set up the information needed to
start the defined process.
Arguments (input)
itemtype
A valid item type. Item types are defined in the
Workflow Builder.
itemkey
A string derived from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the new process and must be
passed to all subsequent API calls for that process.
process
An optional argument that allows the selection of a
particular process for that item. Provide the
process internal name. If process is null, the item
type’s selector function is used to determine the
top level process to run. This argument defaults to
null.
Caution: Although you can make a call to CreateProcess( ) and
StartProcess( ) from a database trigger to initiate a workflow
process, you should avoid doing so in certain circumstances.
For example, if a database entity has headers, lines and details,
and you initiate a workflow process from an AFTER INSERT
trigger at the header–level of that entity, your workflow
process may fail because some subsequent activity in the
process may require information from the entity’s lines or
details level that is not yet populated.
Caution: The Workflow Engine always issues a savepoint
before executing each activity so that it can rollback to the
previous activity in case an error occurs. Because of this
feature, you should avoid initiating a workflow process from a
database trigger because savepoints and rollbacks are not
allowed in a database trigger.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7–9
If you must initiate a workflow process from a database trigger,
you must immediately defer the initial start activities to a
background engine, so that they are no longer executing from a
database trigger. To accomplish this:
– Set the cost of the process start activities to a value greater
than the Workflow Engine threshold (default value is 0.05
second).
or
– Set the Workflow Engine threshold to be less than 0 before
initiating the process:
begin
WF_ENGINE.threshold := –1;
WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess(...);
WF_ENGINE.StartProcess(...);
end
(This method has the same effect as the previous method,
but is more secure as the initial start activities are always
deferred even if the activities’ costs change.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
SetItemUserKey
Syntax
procedure SetItemUserKey
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
userkey in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Lets you set a user–friendly identifier for an item in a process, which is
initially identified by an item type and item key. The user key is
intended to be a user–friendly identifier to locate items in the Workflow
Monitor and other components of Oracle Workflow.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the item in a process. See:
CreateProcess: page 7 – 9.
userkey
The user key to assign to the item identified by the
specified item type and item key.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 11
GetActivityLabel
Syntax
function GetActivityLabel
(actid in number)
return varchar2;
Description
Returns the instance label of an activity, given the internal activity
instance ID. The label returned has the following format, which is
suitable for passing to other Workflow Engine APIs, such as
CompleteActivity and HandleError, that accept activity labels as
arguments:
<process_name>:<instance_label>
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
actid
An activity instance ID.
SetItemOwner
Syntax
procedure SetItemOwner
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
owner in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
A procedure to set the owner of existing items. The owner must be a
valid role.
itemtype
A valid item type. Item types are defined in the
Workflow Builder.
itemkey
A string derived from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the new process and must be
passed to all subsequent API calls for that process.
owner
A valid role.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 13
StartProcess
Syntax
procedure StartProcess
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Begins execution of the specified process. The engine locates the
activity marked as START and then executes it. CreateProcess( ) must
first be called to define the itemtype and itemkey before calling
StartProcess( ).
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string derived from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
Caution: Although you can make a call to CreateProcess( ) and
StartProcess( ) from a trigger to initiate a workflow process, you
should avoid doing so in certain circumstances. For example,
if a database entity has headers, lines and details, and you
initiate a workflow process from an AFTER INSERT trigger at
the header–level of that entity, your workflow process may fail
because some subsequent activity in the process may require
information from the entity’s lines or details level that is not yet
populated.
Caution: The Workflow Engine always issues a savepoint
before executing each activity so that it can rollback to the
previous activity in case an error occurs. Because of this
feature, you should avoid initiating a workflow process from a
database trigger because savepoints and rollbacks are not
allowed in a database trigger.
If you must initiate a workflow process from a database trigger,
you must immediately defer the initial start activities to a
background engine, so that they are no longer executing from a
database trigger. To accomplish this:
– Set the cost of the process start activities to a value greater
than the Workflow Engine threshold (default value is 0.05
second).
or
– Set the Workflow Engine threshold to be less than 0 before
initiating the process:
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Oracle Workflow Guide
begin
WF_ENGINE.threshold := –1;
WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess(...);
WF_ENGINE.StartProcess(...);
end
(This method has the same effect as the previous method,
but is more secure as the initial start activities are always
deferred even if the activities’ costs change.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 15
SuspendProcess
Syntax
procedure SuspendProcess
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
process in varchar2 default ’’);
Description
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Suspends process execution so that no new transitions occur.
Outstanding notifications can complete by calling CompleteActivity( ),
but the workflow does not transition to the next activity. Restart
suspended processes by calling ResumeProcess( ).
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
process
An optional argument that allows the selection of a
particular subprocess for that item. Provide the
process activity’s label name. If the process
activity label name does not uniquely identify the
subprocess you can precede the label name with
the internal name of its parent process. For
example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>. If this
argument is null, the top level process for the item
is suspended. This argument defaults to null.
ResumeProcess
Syntax
procedure ResumeProcess
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
process in varchar2 default ’’);
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns a suspended process to normal execution status. Any activities
that were transitioned to while the process was suspended are now
executed.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
process
An optional argument that allows the selection of a
particular subprocess for that item type. Provide
the process activity’s label name. If the process
activity label name does not uniquely identify the
subprocess you can precede the label name with
the internal name of its parent process. For
example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>. If this
argument is null, the top level process for the item
is resumed. This argument defaults to null.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 17
AbortProcess
Syntax
procedure AbortProcess
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
process in varchar2 default ’’,
result_code in varchar2 default eng_force);
Description
Arguments (input)
Aborts process execution and cancels outstanding notifications. The
process is considered complete, with a status specified by the
result_code argument.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
process
An optional argument that allows the selection of a
particular subprocess for that item type. Provide
the process activity’s label name. If the process
activity label name does not uniquely identify the
subprocess you can precede the label name with
the internal name of its parent process. For
example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>. If this
argument is null, the top level process for the item
is aborted. This argument defaults to null.
result_code
A status assigned to the aborted process. The
result code must be one of the values defined in the
process Result Type, or one of the following
standard engine values:
eng_exception
eng_timeout
eng_force
eng_mail
eng_null
This argument defaults to ”eng_force”.
7 – 18
Oracle Workflow Guide
Background
Syntax
procedure Background
(itemtype in varchar2,
minthreshold in number default null,
maxthreshold in number default null,
process_deferred in boolean default TRUE,
process_timeout in boolean default TRUE);
Description
Runs a background engine for processing deferred and/or timed out
activities using the parameters specified. The background engine
executes all activities that satisfy the given arguments at the time that
the background engine is invoked. This procedure does not remain
running long term, so you must restart this procedure periodically.
Any activities that are newly deferred or timed out after the current
background engine starts is processed by the next background engine
that is invoked. You may run a script called wfbkgchk.sql to get a list
of the activities waiting to be processed by the next background engine
run. See: Wfbkgchk.sql: page 11 – 3.
If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, you can
use one of the sample background engine looping scripts described
below or create your own script to make the background engine
procedure loop indefinitely. If you are using the version of Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications, you can use the
concurrent program version of this procedure and take advantage of
the concurrent manager to schedule the background engine to run
periodically. To Schedule Background Engines: page 2 – 44
Arguments (input)
itemtype
A valid item type. If the item type is null the
Workflow engine will run for all item types.
minthreshold
Optional minimum cost threshold for an activity
that this background engine processes, in
hundredths of a second. There is no minimum cost
threshold if this parameter is null.
maxthreshold
Optional maximum cost threshold for an activity
that this background engine processes in
hundredths of a second. There is no maximum
cost threshold if this parameter is null.
process_deferred
Specify TRUE or FALSE to indicate whether to run
deferred processes. Defaults to TRUE.
process_timeout
Specify TRUE or FALSE to indicate whether to run
timed out processes. Defaults to TRUE.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 19
Example Background
Engine Looping
Scripts
For the standalone version of Oracle Workflow you can use one of two
example scripts to repeatedly run the background engine regularly.
The first example is a sql script stored in a file called wfbkg.sql and is
available on your server in the Oracle Workflow admin/sql subdirectory.
To run this script, go to the directory where the file is located and type
the following command at your operating system prompt:
sqlplus <username/password> @wfbkg <min> <sec>
Replace <username/password> with the Oracle7 database account
username and password where you want to run the background
engine. Replace <min> with the number of minutes you want the
background engine to run and replace <sec> with the number of
seconds you want the background engine to sleep between calls.
The second example is a shell script stored in a file called wfbkg.csh and
is available on your server in the Oracle Workflow bin subdirectory. To
run this script, go to the directory where the file is located and type the
following command at your operating system prompt:
wfbkg.csh <username/password>
Replace <username/password> with the Oracle7 database account
username and password where you want to run the background
engine.
7 – 20
Oracle Workflow Guide
AddItemAttr
Syntax
procedure AddItemAttr
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Adds an empty item type attribute variable to the process. Although
most item type attributes are defined at design time, developers can
create new attributes at runtime for a specific process.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
aname
The internal name of the item type attribute.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 21
SetItemAttribute
Syntax
procedure SetItemAttrText
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2,
avalue in varchar2);
procedure SetItemAttrNumber
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2,
avalue in number);
procedure SetItemAttrDate
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2,
avalue in date);
Description
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Sets the value of an item type attribute in a process. Use the correct
procedure for your attribute type. All attribute types except number
and date use SetItemAttrText.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
aname
The internal name of an item type attribute.
avalue
The value for an item type attribute.
GetItemAttribute
Syntax
function GetItemAttrText
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2) return varchar2;
function GetItemAttrNumber
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2) return number;
function GetItemAttrDate
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
aname in varchar2) return date;
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns the value of an item type attribute in a process. Use the correct
function for your attribute type. All attribute types except number and
date use GetItemAttrText.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
aname
The internal name of an item type attribute.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 23
GetItemAttrInfo
Syntax
procedure GetItemAttrInfo
(itemtype in varchar2,
aname in varchar2,
atype out varchar2,
subtype out varchar2,
format out varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns information about an item type attribute, such as its type and
format, if any is specified. Subtype information is not available for
item type attributes. If the attribute is used as a message attribute, then
this procedure returns the message attribute subtype, that is, whether
the message attribute has a source of ’SEND’ or ’RESPOND’.
itemtype
A valid item type.
aname
The internal name of a item type attribute.
GetActivityAttrInfo
Syntax
procedure GetActivityAttrInfo
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
actid in number,
aname in varchar2,
atype out varchar2,
subtype out varchar2,
format out varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns information about an activity attribute, such as its type and
format, if any is specified. This procedure currently does not return
any subtype information for activity attributes.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
actid
The activity ID for a particular usage of an activity
in a process definition.
aname
The internal name of an activity attribute.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 25
GetActivityAttribute
Syntax
function GetActivityAttrText
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
actid in number,
aname in varchar2) return varchar2;
function GetActivityAttrNumber
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
actid in number,
aname in varchar2) return number;
function GetActivityAttrDate
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
actid in number,
aname in varchar2) return date;
Description
Returns the value of an activity attribute in a process. Use the correct
function for your attribute type. If the attribute is a Number or Date
type, then the appropriate function translates the number/date value to
a text–string representation using the attribute format.
Note: Use GetActivityAttrText for Form, URLs, lookups and
document attribute types.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process. See: CreateProcess:
page 7 – 9.
actid
The activity ID for a particular usage of an activity
in a process definition.
aname
The internal name of an activity attribute.
BeginActivity
Syntax
procedure BeginActivity
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
activity in varchar2);
Description
Determines if the specified activity can currently be performed on the
process item and raises an exception if it cannot.
The CompleteActivity() procedure automatically performs this function
as part of its validation. However, you can use BeginActivity to verify
that the activity you intend to perform is currently allowed before
actually calling it. See: CompleteActivity: page 7 – 28.
Arguments (input)
Example
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process.
activity
The process activity to perform. Provide the
process activity’s label name. If the process
activity label name does not uniquely identify the
activity you can preceed the label name with the
internal name of its parent process. For example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>.
/*Verify that a credit check can be performed on an order.
If it is allowed, perform the credit check, then notify the
Workflow Engine when the credit check completes.*/
begin
wf_engine.BeginActivity(’ORDER’,
to_char(order_id),’CREDIT_CHECK’)
OK = TRUE
exception
when others then
WF_CORE.Clear
OK = FALSE
end;
if OK then
–– perform activity ––
wf_engine.CompleteActivity(’ORDER’, to_char(order_id),
’CREDIT_CHECK’ :result_code);
endif;
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 27
CompleteActivity
Syntax
procedure CompleteActivity
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
activity in varchar2,
result_code in varchar2);
Description
Notifies the workflow engine that the specified activity has been
completed for a particular item. This procedure can be called for the
following situations:
• To create a new item—Call CompleteActivity for a START
activity to create a new item. START activities are designated as
the beginning of a process in the Workflow Builder. The item
type and key specified in this call must be passed to all
subsequent calls that operate on this item.
• To indicate a completed activity with an optional result—This
signals the Workflow Engine that an asynchronous activity has
been completed. This procedure requires that the activity
currently has a status of ’Active’ or ’Notified’. An optional
activity completion result can also be passed. The result can
determine what transition the process takes next.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process.
activity
The name of the process activity that is completed.
Provide the process activity’s label name. If the
process activity label name does not uniquely
identify the subprocess you can preceed the label
name with the internal name of its parent process.
For example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>.
result_code
An optional activity completion result. Possible
values are determined by the process activity’s
Result Type, or one of the engine standard results.
See: AbortProcess: page 7 – 18.
Example 1
/*Complete the ’ENTER ORDER’ activity for the ’ORDER’ item
type. The ’ENTER ORDER’ activity allows creation of new
items since it is the start of a workflow, so the item is
created by this call as well.*/
wf_engine.CompleteActivity(’ORDER’, to_char(order.order_id),
’ENTER_ORDER’, NULL);
Example 2
/*Complete the ’LEGAL REVIEW’ activity with status
’APPROVED’. The item must already exist.*/
wf_engine.CompleteActivity(’ORDER’, ’1003’, ’LEGAL_REVIEW’,
’APPROVED’);
Example 3
/*Complete the BLOCK activity which is used in multiple
subprocesses in parallel splits.*/
wf_engine.CompleteActivity(’ORDER’, ’1003’,
’ORDER_PROCESS:BLOCK–3’,
’null’);
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 29
AssignActivity
Syntax
procedure AssignActivity
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
activity in varchar2,
performer in varchar2);
Description
Assigns or reassigns an activity to another performer. This procedure
may be called before the activity is transitioned to. For example, a
function activity earlier in the process may determine the performer of
a later activity.
If a new user is assigned to a notification activity that already has an
outstanding notification, the outstanding notification is canceled and a
new notification is generated for the new user.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process.
activity
The label name of the process activity. If the
process activity label name does not uniquely
identify the activity you can preceed the label name
with the internal name of its parent process. For
example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>.
performer
The name of the user who will perform the activity
(the user who receives the notification). The name
should be a role name from the Oracle Workflow
directory services.
HandleError
Syntax
procedure HandleError
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
activity in varchar2,
command in varchar2,
result in varchar2);
Description
This procedure can be called from an activity in an ERROR process to
handle any process activity that has encountered an error.
You can also call this procedure for any arbitrary activity in a process,
to rollback part of your process to that activity. The activity that you
call this procedure with can have any status and does not have to have
been executed. The activity can also be in a subprocess, if the process
activity label is not unique within the process you may preceed the
activity label name with the internal name of its parent process. For
example, <parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>.
This procedure clears the activity specified and all activities following
it that have already been transitioned to by reexecuting each activity in
’Cancel’ mode, as in the case of loop reset. See: Looping: page 7 – 5.
For an activity in the ’Error’ state, there are no other executed activities
following it, so the procedure simply clears the errored activity.
Once the activities are cleared, this procedure resets any parent
processes of the specified activity to a status of ’Active’, if they are not
already active.
The procedure then handles the specified activity based on the
command you provide: SKIP or RETRY.
Arguments (input)
item_type
A valid item type.
item_key
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process.
activity
The process activity that encountered the error or
that you want to undo. Provide the label name of
the process activity. If the process activity label
name does not uniquely identify the subprocess
you can preceed the label name with the internal
name of its parent process. For example,
<parent_process_internal_name>:<label_name>.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 31
command
One of two commands that determine how to
handle the process activity:
SKIP—mark the activity as complete with the
supplied result and continue execution of the
process from that activity.
RETRY—reexecute the activity and continue
execution of the process from that activity.
result
The result you wish to supply if the command is
SKIP.
Note: An item’s active date and the version number of the
process that the item is transitioning through can never change
once an item is created. Occasionally, however, you may want
to use HandleError to manually make changes to your process
for an existing item.
If the changes you make to a process are minor, you can use
HandleError to manually push an item through activities that
will error or redirect the item to take different transitions in the
process.
If the changes you want to make to a process are extensive,
then you need to perform at least the following steps:
– Abort the process by calling WF_ENGINEAbortProcess( ).
– Purge the existing item by calling WF_ENGINE.Items( ).
– Revise the process.
– Recreate the item by calling WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess( ).
– Restart the revised process at the appropriate activity by
calling WF_ENGINE.HandleError( ).
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Oracle Workflow Guide
SetItemParent
Syntax
procedure SetItemParent
(itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
parent_itemtype in varchar2,
parent_itemkey in varchar2,
parent_context in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Defines the parent/child relationship for a master process and a detail
process. This API must be called by any detail process spawned from a
master process to define the parent/child relationship between the two
processes. You make a call to this API after you call the CreateProcess
API, but before you call the StartProcess API for the detail process.
itemtype
A valid item type.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the child process.
parent_itemtype
A valid item type for the parent process.
parent_itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key to uniquely identify the item within
the parent item type. The parent item type and key
together identify the parent process.
parent_context
Context information about the parent.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 33
Workflow Core APIs
PL/SQL procedures called by function activities can use a set of core
Oracle Workflow APIs to raise and catch errors.
When a PL/SQL procedure called by a function activity either raises an
unhandled exception, or returns a result beginning with ’ERROR:’, the
Workflow Engine sets the function activity’s status to ERROR and sets
the columns ERROR_NAME, ERROR_MESSAGE, and ERROR_STACK
in the table WF_ITEM_ACTIVITY_STATUSES to reflect the error.
The columns ERROR_NAME and ERROR_MESSAGE get set to either
the values returned by a call to WF_CORE.RAISE( ), or to the SQL error
name and message if no call to RAISE( ) is found. The column
ERROR_STACK gets set to the contents set by a call to
WF_CORE.CONTEXT( ), regardless of the error source.
Note: The columns ERROR_NAME, ERROR_MESSAGE, and
ERROR_STACK are also defined as item type attributes for the
System: Error predefined item type. You can reference from
the error process that you associate with an activity, the
information in these columns. See: Default Error Process: page
5 – 16.
The following APIs can be called by an application program or
workflow function in the runtime phase to handle error processing.
These APIs are stored in the PL/SQL package called WF_CORE.
See Also
Standard API for an Oracle Workflow PL/SQL Stored Procedure: page
6–2
7 – 34
Oracle Workflow Guide
CLEAR
Syntax
Description
procedure CLEAR;
Clears the error buffers.
See Also
GET_ERROR: page 7 – 36
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 35
GET_ERROR
Syntax
procedure GET_ERROR
(err_name out varchar2,
err_message out varchar2
err_stack out varchar2);
Description
Example 1
Returns the name of a current error message and the token substituted
error message. Also clears the error stack. Returns null if there is no
current error.
/*Handle unexpected errors in your workflow code by raising
WF_CORE exceptions. When calling any public Workflow API,
include an exception handler to deal with unexpected
errors.*/
declare
errname varchar2(30);
errmsg varchar2(2000);
errstack varchar2(32000);
begin
...
Wf_Engine.CompleteActivity(itemtype, itemkey, activity,
result_code);
...
exception
when others then
wf_core.get_error(err_name, err_msg, err_stack);
if (err_name is not null) then
wf_core.clear;
–– Wf error occurred. Signal error as appropriate.
else
–– Not a wf error. Handle otherwise.
end if;
end;
See Also
CLEAR: page 7 – 35
7 – 36
Oracle Workflow Guide
TOKEN
Syntax
procedure TOKEN
(token_name in varchar2,
token_value in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Defines an error token and substitutes it with a value. Calls to
TOKEN( ) and RAISE( ) raise predefined errors for Oracle Workflow
that are stored in the WF_RESOURCES table. The error messages
contain tokens that need to be replaced with relevant values when the
error message is raised. This is an alternative to raising PL/SQL
standard exceptions or custom–defined exceptions.
token_name
Name of the token.
token_value
Value to substitute for the token.
See Also
RAISE: page 7 – 38
CONTEXT: page 7 – 39
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 37
RAISE
Syntax
procedure RAISE
(name in varchar2);
Description
Raises an exception to the caller by supplying a correct error number
and token substituted message for the name of the error message
provided.
Calls to TOKEN( ) and RAISE( ) raise predefined errors for Oracle
Workflow that are stored in the WF_RESOURCES table. The error
messages contain tokens that need to be replaced with relevant values
when the error message is raised. This is an alternative to raising
PL/SQL standard exceptions or custom–defined exceptions.
Error messages for Oracle Workflow are initially defined in message
files (.msg). The message files are located in the res/<language>
subdirectory of the Oracle Workflow server directory structure for the
standalone version of Oracle Workflow or on your server in the
resource/<language> subdirectory under $FND_TOP for the Oracle
Applications–embedded version of Oracle Workflow. During the
installation of the Oracle Workflow server, a program called Workflow
Resource Generator takes the designated message files and imports the
messages into the WF_RESOURCES table.
Arguments (input)
name
Internal name of the error message as stored in the
table WF_RESOURCES.
See Also
TOKEN: page 7 – 37
CONTEXT: page 7 – 39
To run the Workflow Resource Generator: page 2 – 15
7 – 38
Oracle Workflow Guide
CONTEXT
Syntax
procedure CONTEXT
(pkg_name
proc_name
arg1
arg2
arg3
arg4
arg5
Description
Arguments (input)
Example 1
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
VARCHAR2,
VARCHAR2,
VARCHAR2 DEFAULT
VARCHAR2 DEFAULT
VARCHAR2 DEFAULT
VARCHAR2 DEFAULT
VARCHAR2 DEFAULT
’*none*’,
’*none*’,
’*none*’,
’*none*’,
’*none*’);
Adds an entry to the error stack to provide context information that
helps locate the source of an error. Use this procedure with predefined
errors raised by calls to TOKEN( ) and RAISE( ), with custom–defined
exceptions, or even without exceptions whenever an error condition is
detected.
pkg_name
Name of the procedure package.
proc_name
Procedure or function name.
arg1
First IN argument.
argn
nth IN argument.
/*PL/SQL procedures called by function activities can use
the WF_CORE APIs to raise and catch errors the same way the
Workflow Engine does.*/
package My_Package is
procedure MySubFunction(
arg1 in varchar2,
arg2 in varchar2)
is
...
begin
if (<error condition>) then
Wf_Core.Token(’ARG1’, arg1);
Wf_Core.Token(’ARG2’, arg2);
Wf_Core.Raise(’ERROR_NAME’);
end if;
...
exception
when others then
Wf_Core.Context(’My_Package’, ’MySubFunction’, arg1,
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 39
arg2);
raise;
end MySubFunction;
procedure MyFunction(
itemtype in varchar2,
itemkey in varchar2,
actid in number,
funcmode in varchar2,
result out varchar2)
is
...
begin
...
begin
MySubFunction(arg1, arg2);
exception
when others then
if (Wf_Core.Error_Name = ’ERROR_NAME’) then
–– This is an error I wish to ignore.
Wf_Core.Clear;
else
raise;
end if;
end;
...
exception
when others then
Wf_Core.Context(’My_Package’, ’MyFunction’, itemtype,
itemkey, to_char(actid), funmode);
raise;
end MyFunction;
See Also
TOKEN: page 7 – 37
RAISE: page 7 – 38
7 – 40
Oracle Workflow Guide
TRANSLATE
Syntax
function TRANSLATE
(tkn_name IN VARCHAR2)
return VARCHAR2;
Description
Arguments (input)
Translates the string value of a token.
tkn_name
Token name.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 41
Workflow Purge APIs
The following APIs can be called by an application program or
workflow function in the runtime phase to purge obsolete runtime
data. These APIs are defined in the PL/SQL package called
WF_PURGE.
WF_PURGE can be used to purge obsolete runtime data about
completed items and processes, and also to purge information about
obsolete activity versions that are no longer in use. You may want to
periodically purge this obsolete data from your system to increase
performance. The 3 most commonly used procedures are:
WF_PURGE.ITEMS – purge all runtime data associated with
completed items, their processes, and notifications sent by them
WF_PURGE.ACTIVITIES – purge obsolete versions of activities that
are no longer in use by any item.
WF_PURGE.TOTAL – purge both item data and activity data
The other auxiliary routines purge only certain tables or classes of data,
and can be used in circumstances where a full purge is not desired.
See Also
Standard API for an Oracle Workflow PL/SQL Stored Procedure: page
6–2
7 – 42
Oracle Workflow Guide
Item_Activity_Statuses
Syntax
procedure Item_Activity_Statuses
(itemtype in varchar2 default null,
itemkey in varchar2,
enddate in date default sysdate);
Description
Arguments (input)
Deletes from the tables WF_ITEM_ACTIVITY_STATUSES and
WF_ITEM_ACTIVITY_STATUSES_H all rows of data associated with
the specified item type and whose value for END_DATE is less than or
equal to the specified end date.
itemtype
Item type associated with the activity statuses you
want to delete. Leave this argument null to delete
activity statuses for all item types.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. If null, the procedure
purges all items in the specified itemtype.
enddate
Specified date to delete up to.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 43
Items
Syntax
procedure Items
(itemtype in varchar2 default null,
itemkey in varchar2,
enddate in date default sysdate);
Description
Arguments (input)
7 – 44
Oracle Workflow Guide
Deletes all items for the specified item type and end date using
Item_Activity_Statuses( ). Deletes from the tables
WF_ITEM_ATTRIBUTE_VALUES and WF_ITEMS all rows of data
associated with the specified item type and whose value for
END_DATE is less than or equal to the specified end date.
itemtype
Item type to delete. Leave this argument null to
delete all item types.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. If null, the procedure
purges all items in the specified itemtype.
enddate
Specified date to delete up to.
Activities
Syntax
procedure Activities
(itemtype in varchar2 default null,
enddate in date default sysdate);
Description
Deletes old versions of activities from the tables
WF_ACTIVITY_ATTR_VALUES, WF_ACTIVITY_TRANSITIONS,
WF_PROCESS_ACTIVITIES, WF_ACTIVITY_ATTRIBUTES_TL,
WF_ACTIVITY_ATTRIBUTES, WF_ACTIVITIES_TL, and
WF_ACTIVITIES associated with the specified item type, have an
END_DATE less than or equal to the specified end date and are not
referenced by an existing item as either a process or activity.
Note: You should call Items( ) before calling Activities( ) to
avoid having obsolete item references prevent obsolete
activities from being deleted.
Arguments (input)
itemtype
Item type associated with the activities you want to
delete. Leave this argument null to delete activities
for all item types.
enddate
Specified date to delete up to.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 45
Notifications
Syntax
procedure Notifications
(itemtype in varchar2 default null,
enddate in date default sysdate);
Description
Deletes old notifications from the tables
WF_NOTIFICATION_ATTRIBUTES and WF_NOTIFICATIONS
associated with the specified item type, have an END_DATE less than
or equal to the specified end date and are not referenced by an existing
item.
Note: You should call Items( ) before calling Notifications( ) to
avoid having obsolete item references prevent obsolete
notifications from being deleted.
Arguments (input)
7 – 46
Oracle Workflow Guide
itemtype
Item type associated with the notifications you
want to delete. Leave this argument null to delete
notifications for all item types.
enddate
Specified date to delete up to.
Item_Notifications
Syntax
procedure Item_Notifications
(itemtype in varchar2 default null,
itemkey in varchar2 default null,
enddate in date default sysdate);
Description
Deletes notifications sent by a particular item from the tables
WF_NOTIFICATION_ATTRIBUTES and WF_NOTIFICATIONS
associated with the specified item type, have an END_DATE less than
or equal to the specified end date and are not referenced by an existing
item.
Note: You should call Items( ) before calling Item_Notifications(
) to avoid having obsolete item references prevent obsolete
notifications from being deleted.
Arguments (input)
itemtype
Item type associated with the notifications you
want to delete. Leave this argument null to delete
notifications for all item types.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. If null, the procedure
purges all items in the specified itemtype.
enddate
Specified date to delete up to.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 47
Total
Syntax
procedure Total
(itemtype in varchar2 default null,
itemkey in varchar2,
enddate in date default sysdate);
Description
Arguments (input)
7 – 48
Oracle Workflow Guide
Deletes all obsolete runtime item type and activity data associated with
the specified item type and have an END_DATE less than or equal to
the specified end date.
itemtype
Item type associated with the obsolete runtime
data you want to delete. Leave this argument null
to delete obsolete runtime data for all item types.
itemkey
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. If null, the procedure
purges all items in the specified itemtype.
enddate
Specified date to delete up to.
Workflow Directory Services APIs
The following APIs can be called by an application program or a
workflow function in the runtime phase to retrieve information about
the users and roles in the Oracle Workflow directory services. These
APIs are defined in a PL/SQL package called WF_DIRECTORY.
See Also
Standard API for an Oracle Workflow PL/SQL Stored Procedure: page
6–2
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 49
GetRoleUsers
Syntax
procedure GetRoleUsers
(role in varchar2,
users out UserTable);
Description
Arguments (input)
7 – 50
Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns a table of users for a given role.
role
A valid role name.
GetUserRoles
Syntax
procedure GetUserRoles
(user in varchar2,
roles out RoleTable);
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns a table of roles that a given user is assigned to.
user
A valid username.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 51
GetRoleInfo
Syntax
procedure GetRoleInfo
(Role in varchar2,
Display_Name out varchar2,
Email_Address out varchar2,
Notification_Preference out varchar2,
Language out varchar2,
Territory out varchar2);
Description
Returns the following information about a role:
• Display name
• Email address
• Notification Preference (’QUERY’, ’MAILTEXT’, ’MAILHTML’,
’SUMMARY’)
• Language
• Territory
Arguments (input)
7 – 52
Oracle Workflow Guide
role
A valid role name.
IsPerformer
Syntax
function IsPerformer
(user in varchar2,
role in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns true or false to identify whether a user is a performer of a role.
user
A valid username.
role
A valid role name.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 53
CurrentUser
Syntax
function CurrentUser
return varchar2;
Description
7 – 54
Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns the current Application Object Library username. This
function is useful only for the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in
Oracle Applications.
UserActive
Syntax
function UserActive
(username in varchar2)
return boolean;
Description
Determines if a user is currently active and available to participate in a
workflow. Returns TRUE if the user is active, otherwise it returns
FALSE.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 55
GetUserName
Syntax
procedure GetUserName
(p_orig_system in varchar2,
p_orig_system_id in varchar2,
p_name out varchar2,
p_display_name out varchar2 );
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns a Workflow display name and username for a user given the
system information from the original user and roles repository.
p_orig_system
Code that identifies the original repository table.
p_orig_system_id ID of a row in the original repository table.
7 – 56
Oracle Workflow Guide
GetRoleName
Syntax
procedure GetRoleName
(p_orig_system in varchar2,
p_orig_system_id in varchar2,
p_name out varchar2,
p_display_name out varchar2 );
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns a Workflow display name and role name for a role given the
system information from the original user and roles repository.
p_orig_system
Code that identifies the original repository table.
p_orig_system_id ID of a row in the original repository table.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 57
Workflow Monitor APIs
Call the following APIs to generate a complete URL to access the
various pages of the Workflow Monitor. The APIs are defined in the
PL/SQL package called WF_MONITOR.
в�ћ
Attention: The GetURL API from earlier versions of Oracle
Workflow is now replaced by the GetEnvelopeURL and
GetDiagramURL APIs. The functionality of the previous
GetURL API correlates directly with the new GetDiagramURL.
API. The current version of Oracle Workflow still recognizes
the GetURL API, but moving forward, you should only use the
two new APIs where appropriate.
GetDiagramURL
Syntax
function GetDiagramURL
(x_agent in varchar2,
x_item_type in varchar2,
x_item_key in varchar2,
x_admin_mode in varchar2 default ’NO’)
return varchar2;
Description
Can be called by an application to return a URL that allows access to
the Workflow Monitor with an attached access key password. The
URL displays the diagram for a specific instance of a workflow process
in the Workflow Monitor operating in either ’ADMIN’ or ’USER’ mode.
The URL returned by the function WF_MONITOR.GetDiagramURL( )
looks as follows:
<webagent>/wf_monitor.html?x_item_type=
<item_type>&x_item_key=<item_key>&x_admin_mode=<YES or NO>
&x_access_key=<access_key>
<webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent used by
Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> . See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 15.
wf_monitor.html represents the name of the PL/SQL package
procedure that generates the Workflow Monitor diagram of the process
instance.
7 – 58
Oracle Workflow Guide
The wf_monitor.html procedure requires four arguments.
<item_type> and <item_key> represent the internal name of the item
type and the item key that uniquely identify an instance of a process. If
<YES or NO> is YES, the monitor runs in ’ADMIN’ mode and if NO, the
monitor runs in ’USER’ mode. <access_key> represents the access key
password that determines whether the monitor is run in ’ADMIN’ or
’USER’ mode.
Arguments (input)
x_agent
The base web agent string defined for Oracle
Workflow or Oracle Self–Service Web Applications
in Oracle WebServer. The base web agent string
should be stored in the WF_RESOURCES table,
and looks something like:
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_path>
When calling this function, your application must
first retrieve the web agent string from the
WF_RESOURCES token WF_WEB_AGENT by
calling WF_CORE.TRANSLATE( ). See: Identifying
the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow:
page 2 – 15.
Example
x_item_type
A valid item type.
x_item_key
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process to report on.
x_admin_mode
A value of YES or NO. YES directs the function to
retrieve the access key password that runs the
monitor in ’ADMIN’ mode. NO retrieves the
access key password that runs the monitor in
’USER’ mode.
Following is an example of how you can call the GetDiagramUrl. This
example returns a URL that displays the Workflow Monitor diagram
for a process instance identified by the item type WFDEMO and item
key 10022, in ’USER’ mode:
URL := WF_MONITOR.GetDiagramURL
(WF_CORE.Translate(’WF_WEB_AGENT’),
’WFDEMO’,
’10022’,
’NO’);
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 59
See Also
TRANSLATE: page 7 – 41
GetEnvelopeURL
Syntax
function GetEnvelopeURL
(x_agent in varchar2,
x_item_type in varchar2,
x_item_key in varchar2,
x_admin_mode in varchar2 default ’NO’)
return varchar2;
Description
Can be called by an application to return a URL that allows access to
the Workflow Monitor Notifications List with an attached access key
password. The URL displays the Notifications List for a specific
instance of a workflow process in the Workflow Monitor.
The URL returned by the function WF_MONITOR.GetEnvelopeURL( )
looks as follows:
<webagent>/wf_monitor.envelope?x_item_type=
<item_type>&x_item_key=<item_key>&x_admin_mode=<YES or NO>
&x_access_key=<access_key>
<webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent used by
Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> . See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 15.
wf_monitor.envelope represents the name of the PL/SQL package
procedure that generates the Workflow Monitor Notifications List for
the process instance.
The wf_monitor.envelope procedure requires four arguments.
<item_type> and <item_key> represent the internal name of the item
type and the item key that uniquely identify an instance of a process. If
<YES or NO> is YES, the monitor runs in ’ADMIN’ mode and if NO, the
monitor runs in ’USER’ mode. <access_key> represents the access key
password that determines whether the monitor is run in ’ADMIN’ or
’USER’ mode.
7 – 60
Oracle Workflow Guide
Arguments (input)
x_agent
The base web agent string defined for Oracle
Workflow or Oracle Self–Service Web Applications
in Oracle WebServer. The base web agent string
should be stored in the WF_RESOURCES table,
and looks something like:
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_path>
When calling this function, your application must
first retrieve the web agent string from the
WF_RESOURCES token WF_WEB_AGENT by
calling WF_CORE.TRANSLATE( ). See: Identifying
the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow:
page 2 – 15.
x_item_type
A valid item type.
x_item_key
A string generated from the application object’s
primary key. The string uniquely identifies the
item within an item type. The item type and key
together identify the process to report on.
x_admin_mode
A value of YES or NO. YES directs the function to
retrieve the access key password that runs the
monitor in ’ADMIN’ mode. NO retrieves the
access key password that runs the monitor in
’USER’ mode.
See Also
TRANSLATE: page 7 – 41
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 61
Oracle Workflow Views
Public views are available for accessing workflow data. If you are
using the version of Oracle Workflow embedded in Oracle
Applications, these views are installed in the APPS account. If you are
using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, these view are
installed in the same account as the Oracle Workflow server.
WF_ITEM_ACTIVITY_STATUSES_V
This view contains denormalized information about a workflow
process and its activities’ statuses. Use this view to create custom
queries and reports on the status of a particular item or process. The
column descriptions of the view are as follows:
Name
Null?
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––
ROW_ID
SOURCE
ITEM_TYPE
ITEM_TYPE_DISPLAY_NAME
ITEM_TYPE_DESCRIPTION
ITEM_KEY
USER_KEY
ITEM_BEGIN_DATE
ITEM_END_DATE
ACTIVITY_ID
ACTIVITY_LABEL
ACTIVITY_NAME
ACTIVITY_DISPLAY_NAME
ACTIVITY_DESCRIPTION
ACTIVITY_TYPE_CODE
ACTIVITY_TYPE_DISPLAY_NAME
EXECUTION_TIME
ACTIVITY_BEGIN_DATE
ACTIVITY_END_DATE
ACTIVITY_STATUS_CODE
ACTIVITY_STATUS_DISPLAY_NAME
ACTIVITY_RESULT_CODE
ACTIVITY_RESULT_DISPLAY_NAME
ASSIGNED_USER
ASSIGNED_USER_DISPLAY_NAME
NOTIFICATION_ID
7 – 62
Oracle Workflow Guide
Type
––––
ROWID
CHAR(1)
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(80)
VARCHAR2(240)
VARCHAR2(240)
VARCHAR2(240)
DATE
DATE
NUMBER
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(80)
VARCHAR2(240)
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(80)
NUMBER
DATE
DATE
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(80)
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(2000)
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(2000)
NUMBER
ERROR_NAME
ERROR_MESSAGE
ERROR_STACK
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(2000)
VARCHAR2(2000)
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 63
WF_NOTIFICATION_ATTR_RESP_V
This view contains information about the Respond message attributes
for a notification group. If you plan to create a custom ”voting”
activity, use this view to create the function that tallies the responses
from the users in the notification group. See: Voting Activity: page
5 – 8.
The column descriptions of the view are as follows:
Name
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
GROUP_ID
RECIPIENT_ROLE
RECIPIENT_ROLE_DISPLAY_NAME
ATTRIBUTE_NAME
ATTRIBUTE_DISPLAY_NAME
ATTRIBUTE_VALUE
ATTRIBUTE_DISPLAY_VALUE
MESSAGE_TYPE
MESSAGE_NAME
7 – 64
Oracle Workflow Guide
Null?
––––––––
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
Type
––––
NUMBER
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(2000)
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(80)
VARCHAR2(2000)
VARCHAR2(2000)
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(30)
WF_RUNNABLE_PROCESSES_V
This view contains a list of all runnable workflow processes in the
ACTIVITIES table.
The column descriptions of the view are as follows:
Name
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
ITEM_TYPE
PROCESS_NAME
DISPLAY_NAME
Null?
––––––––
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
Type
––––
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(80)
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 65
WF_ITEMS_V
This view is a select only version of the WF_ITEMS table.
The column descriptions of the view are as follows:
Name
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
ITEM_TYPE
ITEM_KEY
ROOT_ACTIVITY
ROOT_ACTIVITY_VERSION
OWNER_ROLE
PARENT_ITEM_TYPE
PARENT_ITEM_KEY
PARENT_CONTEXT
BEGIN_DATE
END_DATE
7 – 66
Oracle Workflow Guide
Null?
––––––––
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
NOT NULL
Type
––––
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(240)
VARCHAR2(30)
NUMBER
VARCHAR2(30)
VARCHAR2(8)
VARCHAR2(240)
VARCHAR2(2000)
NOT NULL DATE
DATE
Overview of Notification APIs
Oracle Workflow communicates with users by sending notifications.
Notifications may request users to take some type of action and/or
provide users with information. You define the notification activity
and the message that the notification activity sends in the Workflow
Builder. The messages may have optional attributes that can specify
additional resources and request responses.
Users can query their notifications online using either the Notification
Viewer in Oracle Applications or the Notifications web page in an
HTML browser. Alternatively, a user can receive notifications via
E–mail. E–mail notifications can include HTML pages as optional
attachments. The Notification System delivers the messages and
processes the incoming responses.
Notification Model
The notification activities in a workflow process use a list of
design–time messages and message attributes. In addition, there are a
number of runtime named values called item type attributes from
which the message attributes draw their values.
The Workflow Engine moves through the process, evaluating each
activity in turn. Once a notification activity is encountered, the engine
makes a call to the Notification System Send( ) or SendGroup( ) API to
handle the notification.
The Send( ) or SendGroup( ) API looks up the message attributes for the
message associated with the current activity. If a particular attribute is
of source SEND, its value is looked up from the item type attribute
associated with that message attribute as defined in the Workflow
Builder. If no item type attribute can be found, the default value of the
message attribute is used, if available. If the attribute is of source
RESPOND, the procedure checks to see if it has a default value
assigned to it.
The message Subject and Body may include message attributes of
source SEND, which the Send( ) or SendGroup( ) API replaces with the
attributes’ current values when creating the notification. If a
performer’s notification preference is ’MAIL’ or ’MAILHTML’, the
Send( ) or SendGroup( ) API also creates a notification E–mail message.
Otherwise, a performer can always view notifications from a Web
browser.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 67
If the message includes message attributes of source RESPOND, which
are used to prompt the performer for a response, the Send( ) or
SendGroup( ) API creates a response section in the notification.
After a user responds, HTML browser or parsing mail agent analyzes
the response and updates the respond value by calling the notification
Respond( ) API to pass the respond values to the Workflow Engine. The
engine then updates the corresponding item type attributes. Also, if
one of the RESPOND message attributes is named ’RESULT’, its value
becomes the actual result of the notification activity.
Respond( ) then calls the Workflow Engine CompleteActivity( ) API to
inform the engine that the notification activity is complete and it can
now transition to the next qualified activity, as long as a callback
function is defined in Send( ).
Note: If a notification activity sends a message that is for the
performer’s information only, where there are no Respond
message attributes associated with it, the notification activity
gets marked as complete as soon as the Notification System
delivers the message.
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Notification APIs
The following APIs can be called by a notification agent to manage
notifications for a notification activity. The APIs are stored in the
PL./SQL package called WF_NOTIFICATION.
Send
Syntax
function SEND
(role in varchar2,
msg_type in varchar2,
msg_name in varchar2,
due_date in date default null,
callback in varchar2 default null,
context in varchar2 default null,
send_comment in varchar2 default null
priority in number default null)
return number;
Description
This function sends the specified message to a role, returning a
notification ID if successful. The notification ID must be used in all
future references to the notification.
If your message has message attributes of source SEND or RESPOND,
the procedure looks up the values of the attributes from the message
attribute table or it can use an optionally supplied callback interface
function to get the value from the item type attributes table. A callback
function can also be used when a notification is responded to. The
syntax of the callback function should follow the example described
below.
Arguments (input)
role
The role name assigned as the performer of the
notification activity.
msg_type
The item type associated with the message.
msg_name
The message internal name.
due_date
The date that a response is required. This optional
due date is only for the recipient’s information; it
has no effect on processing.
callback
The callback function name used for
communication of SEND and RESPOND source
message attributes.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 69
context
Context information passed to the callback
function.
send_comment
A comment presented with the message.
priority
The priority of the message, as derived from the
#PRIORITY notification activity attribute. If
#PRIORITY does not exist or if the value is null,
the Workflow Engine uses the default priority of
the message.
The callback function must have the following specifications:
procedure <name in callback argument>
(command in varchar2,
context in varchar2,
attr_name in varchar2,
attr_type in varchar2,
text_value in out varchar2,
number_value in out number,
date_value in out date);
Arguments (input)
command
Specify GET, SET, COMPLETE or ERROR. Use
GET to get the value of an attribute, SET to set the
value of an attribute, COMPLETE to indicate that
the response is complete and ERROR to set the
associated notification activity to a status of
’ERROR’.
context
The context passed to SEND( ). The format is
<itemtype>:<itemkey>:<activityid>.
attr_name
An attribute name.
attr_type
An attribute type.
text_value
Value of a text attribute.
number_value
Value of a number attribute.
date_value
Value of a date attribute.
When a notification is sent, the system calls the specified callback
function once for each SEND attribute (to get the attribute value).
Example 1
For each SEND attribute, call:
your_callback(’GET’, context, ’BUGNO’)
Example 2
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Oracle Workflow Guide
When the user responds to the notification, the callback is called again,
once for each RESPOND attribute.
your_callback(’SET’, context, ’STATUS’);
Example 3
Then finally use the ’COMPLETE’ command to indicate the response is
complete.
your_callback(’COMPLETE’, context);
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 71
SendGroup
Syntax
function SendGroup
(role in varchar2,
msg_type in varchar2,
msg_name in varchar2,
due_date in date default null,
callback in varchar2 default null,
context in varchar2 default null,
send_comment in varchar2 default null
priority in number default null)
return number;
Description
This function sends a separate notification to all the users assigned to a
specific role and returns a number called a notification group ID, if
successful. The notification group ID identifies that group of users and
the notification they each received.
If your message has message attributes of source SEND or RESPOND,
the procedure looks up the values of the attributes from the message
attribute table or it can use an optionally supplied callback interface
function to get the value from the item type attributes table. A callback
function can also be used when a notification is responded to. See:
Send: page 7 – 69.
Generally, this function is called only if a notification activity has
’Expanded Roles’ checked in its properties page. If Expanded Roles is
not checked, then the Send( ) function is called instead. See: Voting
Activity: page 5 – 8.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
role
The role name assigned as the performer of the
notification activity.
msg_type
The item type associated with the message.
msg_name
The message internal name.
due_date
The date that a response is required. This optional
due date is only for the recipient’s information; it
has no effect on processing.
callback
The callback function name used for
communication of SEND and RESPOND source
message attributes.
context
Context information passed to the callback
function.
send_comment
A comment presented with the message.
priority
The priority of the message, as derived from the
#PRIORITY notification activity attribute. If
#PRIORITY does not exist or if the value is null,
the Workflow Engine uses the default priority of
the message.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 73
Forward
Syntax
procedure FORWARD
(nid in number,
new_role in varchar2,
forward_comment in varchar2 default null);
Description
Arguments (input)
This procedure reassigns a notification to a new role. A comment can
be supplied to explain why the forward is taking place. The
notification will then be delivered to the new role. Existing notification
attributes (including due date) are not refreshed or otherwise changed.
The Reassign feature in the Notification System calls this procedure.
nid
The notification id.
new_role
The role name of the person the note is reassigned
to.
forward_comment An optional forwarding comment.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Cancel
Syntax
procedure CANCEL
(nid in number,
cancel_comment in varchar2 default null);
Description
This procedure may be invoked by the sender or administrator to
cancel a notification. The notification status is then changed to
’CANCELED’ but the row is not removed from the
WF_NOTIFICATIONS table until a purge operation is performed.
If the notification was delivered via e–mail and expects a response, a
’Canceled’ e–mail is sent to the original recipient as a warning that the
notification is no longer valid.
Arguments (input)
nid
The notification id.
cancel_comment
An optional comment on the cancellation.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 75
CancelGroup
Syntax
procedure CancelGroup
(gid in number,
cancel_comment in varchar2 default null);
Description
This procedure may be invoked by the sender or administrator to
cancel the individual copies of a specific notification sent to all users in
a notification group. The notifications are identified by the notification
group ID (gid). The notification status is then changed to
’CANCELED’ but the rows are not removed from the
WF_NOTIFICATIONS table until a purge operation is performed.
If the notification was delivered via e–mail and expects a response, a
’Canceled’ e–mail is sent to the original recipient as a warning that the
notification is no longer valid.
Generally, this function is called only if a notification activity has
’Expanded Roles’ checked in its properties page. If Expanded Roles is
not checked, then the Cancel( ) function is called instead. See: Voting
Activity: page 5 – 8.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
gid
The notification group id.
cancel_comment
An optional comment on the cancellation.
Respond
Syntax
procedure
RESPOND
(nid in number,
respond_comment in varchar2 default null,
responder in varchar2 default null);
Description
This procedure may be invoked by the notification agent (Notification
Viewer, Notification Web page, or E–mail agent) when the performer
completes the response to the notification. The procedure marks the
notification as ’CLOSED’ and communicates RESPOND attributes back
to the database via the callback function (if supplied). If one of the
RESPOND attributes is named ’RESULT’, that RESPOND attribute’s
value is instead used as the result of the associated notification activity.
This procedure also accepts the name of the individual that actually
responded to the notification. This may be useful to know especially if
the notification is assigned to a multi–user role. The information is
stored in the RESPONDER column of the WF_NOTIFICATIONS table.
The value stored in this column depends on how the user responds to
the notification.
Response Mechanism
Arguments (input)
Value Stored
Web
Web login username
Oracle Applications Notifications
Viewer Form
Oracle Applications login
username
E–Mail
E–mail username as displayed in
the mail response.
nid
The notification id
comment
An optional comment on the response
responder
The user who responded to the notification.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 77
Responder
Syntax
function
RESPONDER
(nid in number)
returns varchar2;
Description
This function returns the responder of a closed notification.
If the notification was closed using the Notification Viewer form or
Web Notification interface the value returned will be a valid role
defined in the view WF_ROLES. If the Notification was closed using
the E–mail interface then the value returned will be an E–mail address.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
nid
The notification id
VoteCount
Syntax
procedure VoteCount
(gid in number,
ResultCode in varchar2,
ResultCount out number,
PercentOfTotalPop out number,
PercentOfVotes out number);
Description
Counts the number of responses for a specified result code.
Use this procedure only if you are writing your own custom Voting
activity. See: Voting Activity: page 5 – 8.
Arguments (input)
gid
The notification group id.
ResultCode
Result code to be tallied.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 79
OpenNotificationsExist
Syntax
function OpenNotificationsExist
(gid in number)
return boolean;
Description
This function returns a value of ’TRUE’ if any notification associated
with the specified notification group ID is ’OPEN’, otherwise it returns
a value of ’FALSE’.
Use this procedure only if you are writing your own custom Voting
activity. See: Voting Activity: page 5 – 8.
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
gid
The notification group id.
AddAttr
Syntax
procedure AddAttr
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Adds a new runtime notification attribute. You should perform
validation and insure consistency in the use of the attribute, as it is
completely unvalidated by Oracle Workflow.
nid
The notification id.
aname
The attribute name.
avalue
The attribute value.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 81
SetAttribute
Syntax
procedure SetAttrText
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2,
avalue in varchar2);
procedure SetAttrNumber
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2,
avalue in number);
procedure SetAttrDate
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2,
avalue in date);
Description
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Used at both send and respond time to set the value of notification
attributes. The notification agent (sender) may set the value of SEND
attributes. The performer (responder) may set the value of RESPOND
attributes.
nid
The notification id.
aname
The attribute name.
avalue
The attribute value.
GetAttrInfo
Syntax
procedure GetAttrInfo
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2,
atype out varchar2,
subtype out varchar2,
format out varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
Returns information about a notification attribute, such as its type,
subtype, and format, if any is specified. The subtype is always SEND
or RESPOND to indicate the attribute’s source.
nid
The notification id.
aname
The attribute name.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 83
GetInfo
Syntax
procedure GetInfo
(nid in number,
role out varchar2,
message_type out varchar2,
message_name out varchar2,
priority out number,
due_date out date,
status out varchar2);
Description
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns various attributes for the specified notification.
nid
The notification id.
role
Role name of the performer assigned to the
notification activity.
message_type
The item type associated with the message.
message_name
The message name.
priority
The notification priority.
due_date
The due date of the notification.
status
The current status of the notification:
OPEN, CLOSED, CANCELED or ERROR.
GetText
Syntax
function GetText
(some_text in varchar2,
nid in number)
return varchar2;
Description
Arguments (input)
Substitutes tokens in an arbitrary text string using token values from a
particular notification. If an error is detected, this function returns
some_text unsubstituted rather than raise exceptions.
some_text
Text to be substituted.
nid
Notification ID of notification to use for token
values.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 85
GetAttribute
Syntax
function GetAttrText
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2)
return varchar2;
function GetAttrNumber
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2)
return number;
function GetAttrDate
(nid in number,
aname in varchar2)
return date;
Description
Arguments (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns the value of the specified message attribute.
nid
The notification id.
aname
The message attribute name.
GetSubject
Syntax
function GetSubject
(nid in number)
return varchar2
Description
Argument (input)
Returns the subject line for the notification message. Any message
attribute in the subject is token substituted with the value of the
corresponding message attribute.
nid
The notification id
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 87
GetBody
Syntax
function GetBody
(nid in number)
return varchar2;
Description
Argument (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns the message body for the notification. Any message attribute
in the body is token substituted with the value of the corresponding
message attribute. This text is not formatted; it should be
wordwrapped as appropriate for the output device. Body text may
contain tabs (which indicate indentation) and newlines (which
indication paragraph termination).
nid
The notification id
AccessCheck
Syntax
function AccessCheck
(access_str in varchar2)
return varchar2;
Description
Argument (input)
Returns a username if the notification access string is valid and the
notification is open, otherwise it returns null. The access string is used
to verify the authenticity of both text and HTML versions of E–mail
notifications.
access_str
The access string, in the format:
nid/nkey
where nid is the notification ID and nkey is the
notification key.
Oracle Workflow APIs
7 – 89
WorkCount
Syntax
function WorkCount
(username in varchar2)
return number;
Description
Argument (input)
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Returns the number of open notifications assigned to a role.
username
The internal name of a role.
CHAPTER
8
Viewing Notifications
and Processing
Responses
T
his chapter discusses the different ways people involved in a
workflow process can view and respond to workflow notifications.
This chapter also describes how you can define rules to have Oracle
Workflow automatically handle your notifications.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8–1
Overview of Notification Handling
Oracle Workflow sends a notification to a role when the Workflow
Engine executes a notification activity in a workflow process. The
notification activity may designate the role as being responsible for
performing some human action or may simply relay process–related
information to the role. To successfully deliver a notification to a role,
the role must be defined in the Oracle Workflow directory service.
As a member of a role, you can view a notification using any one of
four interfaces depending on your role’s notification preference setting
in the Oracle Workflow directory service. You can receive an E–mail
for each individual notification, receive a single E–mail summarizing
all your notifications, query the Workflow Notifications Web page or
query the Workflow Notification Viewer form (for Oracle Applications
users only) for your notifications. See: Setting Up an Oracle Workflow
Directory Service: page 2 – 7.
Each notification message can include context–sensitive information
about the process and directions on how to respond to the notification,
if a response is required. The message can also include pointers to Web
URLs and references to Oracle Applications forms that allow the user
to get additional information related to the notification.
As a notification recipient, there may be occasions when you will not be
able to view or respond to your notifications in a timely manner.
Rather than create a bottleneck in a workflow process, you can take
advantage of the Automatic Notification Handler to define rules that
direct Oracle Workflow to automatically handle the notifications for
you.
Reviewing Notifications in the Notification Viewer (for Oracle Applications
Users Only)
The Notification Viewer is an Oracle Applications form function. To
display the Notification Viewer (or ”Personal Inbox”), an Oracle
Applications System Administrator or Oracle Applications developer
must add this form function to the Navigate menu of a user’s
responsibility or call this form function from another Oracle
Applications form. The Notification Viewer developer form name is
FNDWFNOT and its function name is FND_FNDWFNOT. See:
Overview of Function Security, Oracle Applications System
Administrator’s Guide and Overview of Menus and Function Security,
Oracle Applications Developer’s Guide.
8–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
The Notifications Summary window lists all the notifications sent to
you. By default, the window queries only open notifications, but you
can choose to show all of your notifications.
The fields and prompts on this folder window can be customized. You
can drill down on the current record indicator to view details of an
individual notification. The body of the message appears in the
overflow region at the bottom of the screen. See: Customizing the
Presentation of Data in a Folder, Oracle Applications User’s Guide.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8–3
When you select a notification record in the Notifications Summary
window, the Notifications window appears, listing the details of that
notification. From the Notifications window you can:
• Reassign the notification to another user.
• Respond to the notification or close the notification if it does not
require a response.
• Drill down to another Oracle Applications window associated
with the notification if icons exist in the References region.
If the notification was reassigned or forwarded from another user, the
Comment field may include comments entered by that user.
"
8–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
To Reassign a Notification to Another User
1.
Navigate to the Notifications Summary window, also known as
your ”Personal Inbox”. Select the notification to reassign.
2.
In the Comment field, enter any comments you wish to pass along
with the notification. Note that these comments are associated only
with the notification and are not passed on as information to other
activities in the workflow process.
3.
Choose Reassign in either the Notifications Summary or
Notifications window.
"
4.
Choose the role name to whom you want to reassign the
notification.
5.
Choose OK.
To Respond to a Notification
1.
Navigate to the Notifications Summary window. Select the
notification you want to respond to. The Notifications window
appears.
2.
Choose Respond to open the Notification Response window if the
notification requires a response.
If the notification does not require a response, choose Close to close
the notification, so that it does not appear when you query for open
or new notifications in the future.
If the notification requires a response, the Notification Response
window may require you to supply one or more response values in
the fields provided or it may require you to take action in a form.
3.
To respond to a notification, enter the information as indicated in
the window and choose OK, or complete the action required in the
designated form and save your changes.
Once you respond to or close an open notification, you can query
for the closed notification again by unchecking the Query Only
Open Notifications check box before querying the Notifications
Summary window.
You can also choose the View Response button to display the
response provided for that notification.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8–5
"
To Drill Down to a Form or URL Associated With a Notification:
1.
Navigate to the Notifications Summary window.
2.
Double–click on the current record indicator for a notification. The
Notifications window appears.
3.
In the References region, choose the icon for the reference form or
reference URL to which you wish to navigate.
4.
When you finish, close the form to return to the Notifications
window.
Reviewing Notifications via Electronic Mail
You can have your workflow notifications delivered to you as E–mail
messages if your notification preference is set to ’MAILTEXT’ or
’MAILHTML’ in the Oracle Workflow directory service views. If your
E–mail tool supports attachments, an E–mail notification may include
an HTML attachment with the content and response fields of the
notification formatted in a Web page. The user may respond either by
replying to the E–mail as specified by the directions included in the
E–mail, or by activating the HTML attachment and filling in the
requested information in the resulting Web page.
You can receive E–mail notifications using any mail application that is
MAPI–compliant running on Windows NT or that Oracle
Office/InterOffice or UNIX Sendmail can provide a gateway to. The
following example shows a notification received through Oracle Office.
8–6
Oracle Workflow Guide
The E–mail notification is based on a standard template defined in
Oracle Workflow Builder. It describes the syntax the reply should
follow, and lists the information needed to confirm the notification.
The message also identifies any custom site information, specifies the
due date of the message, and details any information necessary to
process the response. See: Modifying Your Message Templates: page
2 – 36.
"
To Respond to a Notification by E–mail
1.
Use the appropriate command in your mail application to reply to
the E–mail notification, including the original message in the reply.
This ensures that the Notification ID (NID) and the notification
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8–7
access key is within the text of your reply. The Oracle Workflow
Notification Mailer can process your response properly only if you
include the correct NID and access key combination with your
response.
Note: The notification access key is a distinct random key that
the Notification System generates for each NID. The access key
serves as a password and prevents users from responding to
the notification unless the notification was actually mailed to
them since they would not be able to guess the valid NID and
access key combination.
2.
Follow the syntax instructions in the mail note carefully when
formatting your reply. The response values must be within the first
lines of your reply, where each line represents a separate response
value.
If a response value requires more than one line, then the entire
response value must be enclosed in double quotes (” ”) and
everything enclosed in the double quotes is counted as one line.
The Notification System interprets your response values literally, so
a value in uppercase is interpreted differently from the same value
in lowercase.
If a response prompt provides a default response value, you can
accept the default value by leaving the appropriate response line
blank.
Warning: Turn off automatic signatures when you reply to
notifications, as they may be interpreted incorrectly as response
values. For example, suppose a notification expects four
response values to be returned and you specify three response
values in the first three lines and then leave the fourth line
blank to accept the default value. If you include an automatic
signature in the response, the Notification Mailer may
incorrectly interpret your signature as the fourth response
value.
3.
Example
8–8
Oracle Workflow Guide
If you send an invalid response, the Notification System sends you
an ”invalid response” message. If you respond to a notification
that has been canceled, you get a message informing you that the
notification was canceled. Similarly, if you respond to a
notification that was already previously responded to, you get a
message informing you that the notification is closed.
Following is a set of response instructions and examples of three
possible responses.
Response Instructions
Enter the Action on line 1. Do you approve? Value must be one of the following (default
is ”Reject”:
Approve
Reject
Enter the Review Comments on line 2. Value must be 2000 bytes or less.
Enter the Required Date on line 3. If there is no required date, leave this blank. Value
must be a date in the form ”DD–MON–YYYY”.
Enter the Maximum Amount on line 4. This is the maximum approved amount. Value
must be a number. Default is 1500.
Table 8 – 1 (Page 1 of 1)
Valid Response A – Approve
Approve
Let me know if this item meets expectations.
01–JAN–1998
1000.00
Table 8 – 2 (Page 1 of 1)
Valid Response B – Reject
Too expensive.
Table 8 – 3 (Page 1 of 1)
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8–9
Valid Response C – Reject
”This item is too expensive. Please find a replacement that is of lower cost, or else
include additional justification for why this item should be approved.”
01–JAN–1998
1000.00
Table 8 – 4 (Page 1 of 1)
"
To Respond to a Notification Using the HTML Attachment
1.
Open the attached document using a Web browser that supports
JavaScript and Frames.
Note that when you first open the attached page, it automatically
attempts to establish a web session with Oracle WebServer. In
doing so, it authenticates your access and verifies that the
notification is still open and provides a message if it is otherwise.
8 – 10
Oracle Workflow Guide
"
2.
The attached Web page contains two frames. The top frame
contains detailed information about the notification, and the
bottom frame contains the response section of the notification. The
detail frame may contain links to additional reference URLs that
provide information related to the current notification. You can
navigate to a reference URL by clicking on a link to open another
Web browser window.
3.
Supply the information requested in the response frame to
complete and submit your response.
To Reassign a Notification to Another User:
H
Use the ”Forward” feature in your mail application to forward or
reassign an E–mail notification to another user. Do not use the
”Reassign” button on the HTML attachment.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 11
Viewing Notifications from a Web Browser
You can use any Web browser that supports JavaScript and Frames to
view and respond to your notifications.
"
To View Notifications from a Web Browser
1.
If you are using Oracle Self–Service Web Applications, log on using
the Oracle Self–Service Web Applications login page and choose the
appropriate link to display the Notifications Worklist page. Skip to
Step 10.
2.
If you are not using Oracle Self–Service Web Applications, you can
access your worklist directly by entering one of the following
URLs.
To display your complete worklist, enter:
<webagent>/wfa_html.worklist[?orderkey=<orderkey>
&status=<status>&user=<user>]
To go to the Find Notifications web page where you can presort
and display a subset of your worklist, enter:
<webagent>/wfa_html.find
The portion of the Worklist URL in square brackets [] represents
optional arguments that you can pass (by omitting the square
brackets).
Replace the bracketed italicized text in these URLs as follows:
• <webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent
used by Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> . See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow:
page 2 – 15.
• <orderkey> represents the key with which to order the list of
notifications. Valid values include PRIORITY, MESSAGE_TYPE,
SUBJECT, BEGIN_DATE, DUE_DATE, END_DATE, and
STATUS. If you leave <orderkey> null, then the default value is
PRIORITY.
• <status> represents the status of the notifications you wish to
display. Valid values include OPEN, CLOSED, CANCELED,
and ERROR. If you leave <status> null, the URL will display
notifications of any status.
• <user> represents the internal name of the role to query
notifications for. You can only include this argument if you are
8 – 12
Oracle Workflow Guide
logged in to the current web session as a role with workflow
administrator privileges. If your role does not have
administrator privileges or if you leave <user> blank, the URL
displays notifications for your current role. See: Identifying the
Oracle Workflow Administrator Role: page 2 – 18.
Note: You can also access the Notifications Worklist and Find
Notifications web pages from the Oracle Workflow home page.
See: Accessing the Oracle Workflow Home Page: page 8 – 27.
3.
If you are accessing either of these URLs for the first time in your
web browser session, Oracle WebServer prompts you for a valid
username and password to log on, as these URLs are protected.
See: Secure the Workflow Database Connection Descriptor (DCD):
page 2 – 21.
4.
Enter your username and password.
5.
Choose OK. If you have made an error, you can clear the values
and start over.
If you used the wfa_html.worklist URL skip to the Notification
Worklist section: page 8 – 15.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 13
Find Notifications
6.
A Find Notifications window appears. Use the Order By field to
specify how you wish to order the notifications in the Worklist
window. You can choose:
• Closed – Orders by date for closed processes followed by
remaining processes.
• Due – Orders by due date.
• Priority – Orders by priority.
• Sent – Orders by date sent.
• Status – Lists Open process first followed by closed processes
and finally cancelled processes.
• Subject – Ordered alphabetically using the Subject column.
• Type – Ordered alphabetically using the Type column.
7.
You can use the Status field to restrict the notifications that appear
in the Worklist to those that have a specific status. You can choose:
• All – Displays all processes.
• Cancelled – Displays only Cancelled processes.
• Closed – Displays only Closed processes.
• Invalid Reply – Displays only processes with Invalid Replies.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
• Open – Displays only Open processes.
8.
If you log on as a role that has workflow administrator privileges,
you get an additional field called User ID in the Find Notifications
window. You can enter a username in this field to access another
user’s Worklist. See: Identifying the Oracle Workflow
Administration Role: page 2 – 18
9.
Choose the Submit button to open the Worklist window.
Notification Worklist
10. The Notifications Summary page appears. You can click on ”Show
all notifications”/”Show open notifications only” on the top of the
page to toggle between displaying all your notifications or just
those that have a status of ’Open’, respectively.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 15
The following information is listed depending on whether you are
displaying all notifications or just open notifications:
• Priority—a value that represents the importance of the message.
• Type—the item type that the workflow process and notification
is associated with.
• Subject—a description of the notification.
• Sent—date and time when the notification was delivered.
• Due—date and time by which the notification should be
completed.
• Closed—date and time when notification is completed and
closed.
• Status—value that indicates whether the notification is open or
closed.
11. Click on any of the column headings to sort your notifications by
that column in ascending order.
12. Select a notification by clicking on a notification subject.
Notifications that you have previously viewed in the current
session appear in different color text in the Subject field.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
13. A new page appears that displays the details of the notification in
an upper frame, and the response section of the notification in a
lower frame. You can scroll through or resize either of these
frames.
14. The Response section may look as follows:
• If a notification requires a response, but none of the responses
affect the result of the notification activity, the response prompts
all appear as fields and/or poplists. When you are done entering
your response values, submit your response by choosing the
Submit button.
• If a notification requires a response, and one of the responses
becomes the result of the notification activity, then that
determining response will appear as a set of buttons to choose
from as shown in the figure above. The determining response
also appears as the last prompt in the Response section. All
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 17
other response prompts, if any, appear as fields or poplists above
that prompt. When you choose a button for that last response
prompt, you also submit your response for the notification.
• If a notification does not require a response, choose Close in the
Response section to close the notification so that it does not
appear in your notification summary list the next time you query
for open notifications.
Note: You can click on any response prompt to link to a page
that displays more information about the response attribute.
15. If you revisit a notification that you just Responded to or Closed in
the same session, the Response section shows the past response if
one was required.
"
To Reassign a Notification to Another User
1.
Select the notification you want to reassign in your notification
summary page.
2.
In the Response section of the notification detail page, choose
Reassign.
3.
In the Notification Reassignment region, enter the username you
want to reassign the notification to and enter any comments you
want to pass along to that person. Choose Reassign.
4.
A confirmation message appears below the notification detail
section.
5.
If you revisit a notification that you just reassigned to another user,
a ”Request Failed” message appears to indicate that the notification
no longer exists in your list.
If you reload the notification summary page, the reassigned
notification no longer appears in your summary list.
Reviewing a Summary of Your Notifications via Electronic Mail
You can have a summary of your workflow notifications delivered to
you as a single E–mail message if your notification preference is set to
’SUMMARY’ in the Oracle Workflow directory service. The frequency
that you receive notification summaries depends on how frequently
your Notification Mailer for notification summaries is scheduled to
run. See: Starting the Notification Mailer: 2 – 26.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
You can receive your E–mail notification summary using any mail
application that is MAPI–compliant or that Oracle Office/InterOffice or
UNIX Sendmail can provide a gateway to. The following example
shows a notification summary received through Oracle Office.
The E–mail notification summary is based on a standard template
defined in Oracle Workflow Builder. The summary identifies the
recipient, notification ID, subject, priority and due date of each
notification. See: Modifying Your Message Templates: page 2 – 36.
It also indicates that if you wish to view the details of the notification
or respond or close the notification, you should use the Notification
Web page or the Notification Viewer form.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 19
Defining Rules for Automatic Notification Handling
Use the Oracle Workflow Automatic Notification Handler to
automatically forward your notifications to another role or respond to
incoming notifications with a predefined response when you are not
available to manage your notifications directly, such as when you are
on vacation.
The Notification Routing Rules web page lets you define the rules for
the automatic notification handling. Each rule is specific to a role and
can apply to any or all messages of a specific item type and/or message
name. A rule can perform any one of the following actions: Forward,
Respond, or No Action.
Each time the Notification System sends or reassigns a notification to a
role, the Automatic Notification Handler tests the notification against
that role’s list of rules for the most specific match based on the criteria
in the order listed below:
ROLE = <role> and:
1.
MESSAGE_TYPE = <type> and MESSAGE_NAME = <name>
2.
MESSAGE_TYPE = <type> and MESSAGE_NAME is null
3.
MESSAGE_TYPE is null and MESSAGE_NAME is null
As soon as it finds a match, the Automatic Notification Handler applies
the rule and discontinues any further rule matching.
If a rule has an action of Forward, the Automatic Notification Handler
performs rule matching again against the new recipient role’s list of
rules. The Automatic Notification Handler maintains a count of the
number of times it forwards a notification to detect perpetual
forwarding cycles. If a notification is automatically forwarded more
than ten times, the Automatic Notification Handler assumes a
forwarding cycle has occurred and ceases executing any further
forwarding rules, marking the notification as being in error.
"
To Define a Rule for Automatic Notification Routing
1.
Use a web browser to connect to one of two URLs.
To display the list of routing rules for your current role, enter:
<webagent>/wf_route.list[?user=<rolename>]
This URL can include an optional argument, as denoted by the
square brackets []. You should omit the square brackets to pass the
optional argument.
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Replace the bracketed italicized text in the above URL as follows:
• <webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent
used by Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> . See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow:
page 2 – 15.
• <rolename> represents an internal role name that you want to
query routing rules for. Note, however, that you can query for
roles other than your current role only if your current role has
workflow administrator privileges. See: Identifying the Oracle
Workflow Administration Role: page 2 – 18.
To display a web page that lets you find the routing rules for a
specified role, enter:
<webagent>/wf_route.find
Note: You can also access the Find Notification Routing Rules
web pages from the Oracle Workflow home page. See:
Accessing the Oracle Workflow Home Page: page 8 – 27.
в�ћ
Attention: Both of these URLs access secured pages, so if you
have not yet logged on as valid user in the current web session,
you will be prompted to do so before the page appears. See:
Secure the Workflow Database Connection Descriptor: page
2 – 21.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 21
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Oracle Workflow Guide
2.
The Notification Routing Rules page for the role appears, listing all
existing rules for the current role. Choose Create Rule.
3.
In the Type poplist field, choose the item type to which this rule
applies or choose Default if you want this rule to apply to
notifications associated with any item type.
4.
In the Message field, enter the internal name or display name of the
message to which this rule applies. If Type is specified, but
Message is blank, this rule applies to all notifications of the
indicated item type. If Type is set as Default and Message is blank,
this rule applies to all notification messages.
Note: If the intent of this rule is to automatically respond to a
set of messages, then you must specify the name of the item
type and message to which this rule applies, as different
notification messages require different response values.
5.
In the Action poplist field, choose the action that you want this rule
to perform:
• Forward—forward the notification to a designated role.
• Respond—respond to the message with a set of predefined
response values.
• No Action—leave the notification in the your inbox and do
nothing. You can define a rule with this action to exclude a
certain subset of notifications from a more encompassing rule.
For example, suppose you have a rule that forwards all your
notification messages to another role, but you want to exclude a
subset of notifications from that rule. To accomplish this, you
can define a new rule that applies only to that subset of
notifications, whose action is No Action.
6.
Choose Create Rule to display the Update Routing Rule page. The
fields in this page vary depending on your rule’s action.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 23
7.
Enter values in the Begin Date Active and End Date Active fields to
specify the period that this rule should be active. Specify the date,
using the default date format of your database. If you leave Begin
Date Active blank, the rule is effective immediately. If you leave
End Date Active blank, the rule is effective indefinitely.
Warning: Since you can define different rules for the same
notification(s) to be effective at different times, the
Notifications Routing Rules web page does not prevent you
from defining multiple rules for the same notification(s). You
should be careful to ensure that rules for the same
notification(s) do not overlap in their effective dates. If
multiple rules are effective for the same notification, the
Automatic Notification Handler picks one rule at random to
apply.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
8.
In the Comments field, enter any text that you want to append to
the notification when the rule is applied. The comments appear in
a special ”Prior comments” field.
9.
If your rule action is ”Forward”, enter the role display name that
you want to forward the notifications to in the Forward To field
that appears.
If your rule action is ”Respond”, set the response values that you
want to automatically reply with in the Response section that
appears for that message.
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 25
10. Choose Update Rule when you finish defining your rule.
11. Once the rule is processed, choose the Return to Notification
Routing Rules link to display an updated list of your role’s routing
rules.
"
To Update or Delete an Automatic Notification Routing Rule
1.
Connect to the URL for the Notification Routing Rules web page:
<webagent>/wf_route.list
<webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent
used by Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> . See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 15.
2.
The Notification Routing Rules page for the role appears. Click on
the action for the rule you wish to update or delete.
3.
In the Update Routing Rule web page make your changes to the
rule and choose Update Rule.
You can also choose Reset before choosing Update Rule to undo
your changes and reset the rule back its most recently saved state.
If you wish to delete the rule, choose Delete Rule.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Accessing the Oracle Workflow Home Page
Use the Oracle Workflow home page to link to all of Oracle Workflow’s
web–based features. This page centralizes your access to the features
so you do not have to remember individual URLs.
"
To Access the Oracle Workflow Home Page
1.
Use a web browser to connect to the URL for the home page:
<webagent>/wfa_html.home[?message=<message>]
<webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent
used by Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path> . See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 15.
You can also append an optional message argument (without the
square brackets []) where <message> represents any message text
that you want to appear on the home page above the bulleted list of
HTML links. Note that if the message string is more than one
word, you need to enter the string as word1+word2+...+wordn,
where the plus sign (+) represents a space.
в�ћ
2.
Attention: This is a secured page, so if you have not yet
logged on as valid user in the current web session, you will be
prompted to do so before the page appears. See: Secure the
Workflow Database Connection Descriptor: page 2 – 21.
The web page appears as follows:
Viewing Notifications and Processing Responses
8 – 27
This page identifies the current version of Oracle Workflow, the
role you are currently logged in as, and whether the role has
workflow administrator privileges. See: Identifying the Oracle
Workflow Administration Role: page 2 – 18.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
3.
Choose the Worklist link to access your list of workflow
notifications. This link also provides a count of how many open
notifications you have. See: Notification Worklist: page 8 – 15.
4.
Choose the Find Notifications link to access the web page that lets
you specify criteria to presort and display a subset of your
notification worklist. See: Find Notifications: page 8 – 14.
5.
Choose the Notification Routing Rules link to access the web page
for defining automatic notification routing rules. If you are logged
in as a role with workflow administrator privileges, you get a Find
Notification Routing Rules link that takes you to the web page that
locates the routing rules for the role you specify. See: To Define a
Rule for Automatic Notification Routing: page 8 – 20.
6.
Choose the Find Processes link to access the web page that lets you
query for a list of workflow process instances that match certain
search criteria. Once you find a specific process instance, you can
view its status details in the Workflow Monitor. See: Using the
Find Processes Web Page: page 9 – 9.
CHAPTER
9
Monitoring Workflow
Processes
T
his chapter discusses how to monitor an instance of a workflow
process.
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9–1
Overview of Workflow Monitoring
Once a workflow has been initiated for a work item, it may be
necessary to check on its status to ensure that it is progressing forward,
or to identify the activity currently being executed for the work item.
Oracle Workflow provides an Oracle Applications Workflow Status
form (for Oracle Applications users), a Java–based Workflow Monitor
tool, and a view called WF_ITEM_ACTIVITY_STATUSES_V to access
status information regarding for an instance of a workflow process.
See Also
Oracle Workflow Views: page 7 – 62
Workflow Status Form
The Workflow Status form is an Oracle Applications form that can be
called by any other Oracle Applications form to display status
information about an instance of a workflow process.
Your form should use FND_FUNCTION.EXECUTE to call the Oracle
Workflow Status form function (the developer form name and function
name are FNDWFIAS and FND_FNDWFIAS, respectively) and pass it
the following parameters:
ITEM_TYPE=<item_type> ITEM_KEY=<item_key>
Replace <item_type> with the internal name of the item type that the
workflow process is associated with and replace <item_key> with the
item key that uniquely identifies the work item in that process. See:
Overview of Menus and Function Security, Oracle Applications
Developer’s Guide.
9–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
The Workflow Status form is a folder form that displays a list of the
activities for an instance of a workflow process and identifies each
activity’s type, status, result, start date, and end date. See:
Customizing the Presentation of Data in a Folder, Oracle Applications
User’s Guide.
To present a process’ activities in the order of execution, you should set
the Workflow Status folder form to order by Activity_Start_Date and
Execution_Time (already done by default), both in ascending order.
Workflow Monitor
The Workflow Monitor is a tool that allows you to view and administer
the status of a specific instance of a workflow process. You can use the
point–and–click interface to display detailed status information about
activities in the process as well as about the process as a whole. The
Workflow Monitor can be run in ’USER’ or ’ADMIN’ mode, where
’ADMIN’ mode provides additional details and functionality pertinent
only to a workflow administrator. See: Workflow Monitor Access: page
9 – 8.
The Workflow Monitor consists of the following sections:
• Process Title
• Process Diagram Window
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9–3
• Detail Tab Window
• Administration Buttons
Process Title
The process title appears in the upper left of the Workflow Monitor and
displays the name of the workflow process and the name of the item
type and user key that uniquely identify a running instance of that
process in the process diagram window. If no user has been set, then
the item key is displayed instead. If you drill down into a subprocess
in the process diagram window, the process title updates to display the
subprocess name.
Click on the process title to deselect any selected activity in the process
diagram window and to direct the detail tab window to display
information about that process or subprocess as a whole.
Process Diagram Window
The process diagram window is a scrolling canvas that displays the
diagram of the workflow process or subprocess currently listed in the
process title. This diagram is identical to the diagram created in Oracle
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Workflow Builder. Note, however, that you cannot use the Workflow
Monitor to edit this diagram.
The process diagram window provides graphical cues about the status
of the process and its activities:
• An activity icon may be highlighted with a colored box to
indicate that it is in an ”interesting” state:
Color of Box
State
Possible Status Code
Red
Error
ERROR
Green
Active/In Progress
ACTIVE, NOTIFIED, DEFERRED
Yellow
Suspended
HOLD
<none>
Normal
COMPLETE, WAITING, NULL
Table 9 – 1 (Page 1 of 1)
• Any transition (arrow) that has been traversed appears with a
thick green line, while an untraversed transition appears with a
thin black line.
• Click on an activity icon in the diagram to select it and update
the detail tab window to display information about the activity.
• Click on any empty space in the process diagram to deselect the
currently selected activity icon and to refresh the detail tab
window to display information about the current process as a
whole.
• Double–click on an activity icon that represents a subprocess to
drill down to the subprocess’ diagram. This action automatically
updates the process title to reflect the name of the subprocess
and updates the detail tab window to display information about
the subprocess as a whole.
Alternatively, you can select the subprocess activity and choose
Zoom In to drill down to the subprocess’ diagram. Choose
Zoom Out to navigate back to the process at the previous level.
Detail Tab Window
The detail tab window, which appears below the process diagram, is a
vertically scrollable display area that provides information about a
selected process or activity.
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9–5
The information appears as follows for each tab, where rows preceded
by an asterisk (*) or values shown in bold parentheses ( ) appear only
when the monitor is run in ’ADMIN’ mode:
Definition Tab
Process Display Name: Activity Display Name
Item Type:
Item Type display name
(internal name)
Activity Name:
Activity display name
(internal name)
Description:
Activity description
Activity Type:
Process, Notification, or Function
Message:
Message internal name
Function:
Name of PL/SQL procedure called by activity
Result Type:
Result type display name
(internal name)
Timeout:
Timeout value in days, hours, minutes
*Cost:
Function activity cost in seconds
*Loop Mode:
IGNORE or RESET
*Error Process: Error process assigned to activity, if any
Usage Tab
Process Display Name: Activity Display Name
Start/End:
No, Start, or End
(process result)
Performer:
Role name or item attribute internal name
*Comment:
Comments for the process activity node
Status Tab
Process Display Name: Activity Display Name
Status:
Activity status
Result:
Activity result
(result code)
Begin Date:
Date activity begins
End Date:
Date activity ends
*Notification:
Notification ID
Assigned User:
Role name or item attribute internal name
(shown only if Activity Status is ’ERROR’)
*Error Name:
Name of error
Error Message:
Error message
*Error Stack:
Error stack
Notification Tab
Process Display Name: Activity Display Name
*ID:
Notification ID
Recipient:
Recipient of notification
Status:
Notification status
Begin Date:
Date notification is delivered
End Date:
Date notification is closed
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Oracle Workflow Guide
(If the selected activity is a Voting activity, then instead
of displaying the above information, this tab displays the
results of the vote. This tab displays for each recipient,
the notification status and voting result.)
Item Tab
Process Display Name: Item Type, Item Key (or User Key, if
set)
Owner:
Owner of the item, not implemented yet
Begin Date:
Date workflow process instance is created
End Date:
Date workflow process instance is completed
<Item Attribute>:
<type(format)>
<value>
...
Administration Buttons
The administration buttons appear beneath the detail tab window only
when the Workflow Monitor is run in ’ADMIN’ mode. Each button
allows you to perform a different administrative operation by calling
the appropriate Workflow Engine API. The buttons and their behavior
are as follows:
• Abort Process—Available only if you select the process title or a
process activity. Calls WF_ENGINE.AbortProcess to abort the
selected process and cancel any outstanding notifications.
Prompts for a result to assign to the process you are about to
abort. The process will have a status of Complete, with the
result you specify. See: AbortProcess: page 7 – 18.
• Suspend Process—Available only if you select the process title or
a process activity. Calls WF_ENGINE.SuspendProcess to suspend
the selected process so that no further activities can be
transitioned to. See: SuspendProcess: page 7 – 16.
• Resume Process—Available only if you select a suspended
process. Calls WF_ENGINE.ResumeProcess to resume the
suspended process to normal execution status. Activities that
were transitioned to when the process was suspended are now
executed. See: ResumeProcess: page 7 – 17.
• Reassign—Available only if you select a notification activity.
Calls WF_ENGINE.AssignActivity to reassign a notification
activity to a different performer. Prompts for a role name. See:
AssignActivity: page 7 – 30.
• Expedite—Available if you select the process title, or an activity.
Calls WF_ENGINE.HandleError to alter the state of an errored
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9–7
activity, or to undo the selected activity and all other activities
following it to rollback part of the process. Prompts you to select
Skip, to skip the activity and assign it a specified result, or Retry,
to reexecute the activity. See: HandleError: page 7 – 31.
• Attribute—Always available so that you can change the value of
an item type attribute. The current values appear for each item
type attribute. After changing a value, choose OK to apply the
change.
Workflow Monitor Access
You can control a user’s access to the Workflow Monitor in one of two
ways. You can either depend on the workflow–enabled application to
control access to the Workflow Monitor or provide direct access to the
Find Processes web page.
Application–controlled Access to the Workflow Monitor
Identify within the logic of your application code, the workflow
process instance(s) that a user is allowed to view, and whether to run
the monitor in ’ADMIN’ or ’USER’ mode for that user. You must also
provide a means in your application’s user interface to call a web
browser application that supports Java 1.1.4 and AWT and pass it the
Workflow Monitor URL that gets returned from the function
WF_MONITOR.GeDiagramURL( ). The returned URL will have a
hidden password attached that provides the user access to the
Workflow Monitor in either ’ADMIN’ or ’USER’ mode. See:
GetDiagramUrl: page 7 – 58.
Note: In Oracle Applications, you can call the function
FND_UTILITIES.OPEN_URL to open a web browser and have
it connect to a specified URL. See: FND_UTILITIES:Utility
Routine, Oracle Applications Developer’s Guide.
Provide Access to the Find Processes Web Page
Another way to access the Workflow Monitor is to pass the Find
Processes URL to a web browser that supports Java 1.1.4 and AWT.
The Find Processes page requires user authentication before access.
Depending on whether Oracle Workflow is configured to use Oracle
Self–Service Web Applications or Oracle WebServer security, the user
must log in using the appropriate username and password if he or she
has not done so for the current browser session. If the user has
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Oracle Workflow Guide
workflow administrator privileges, the Find Processes web page that
appears lets the user search for any workflow process instance. If the
user does not have workflow administrator privileges, the Find
Processes web page lets the user search for only processes that the user
owns, as set by a call to the Workflow Engine SetProcessOwner API. The
user can then display the notifications or the process diagram for any
of those process instances in the Workflow Monitor. .
The Find Processes URL looks similar to the following:
<webagent>/wf_monitor.find_instance
<webagent> is the web agent string that you can retrieve from the
WF_WEB_AGENT token in the WF_RESOURCES table by calling
WF_CORE.TRANSLATE( ). See: Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used
by Oracle Workflow: page 2 – 15 and TRANSLATE: page 7 – 41.
Note: In Oracle Applications, you can call the function
FND_UTILITIES.OPEN_URL to open a web browser and have
it connect to a specified URL. See: FND_UTILITIES:Utility
Routine, Oracle Applications Developer’s Guide.
Note: You can also access the Find Processes web page from
the Oracle Workflow home page. See: Accessing the Oracle
Workflow Home Page: page 8 – 27
Using the Find Processes Web Page
The Oracle Workflow Find Processes web page allows you to query for
a list of workflow process instances that match certain search criteria.
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9–9
"
To Specify Search Criteria in the Find Processes Page
1.
You can enter search criteria using any combination of the
following fields to find a subset of workflow process instances:
• Process Status—Specify Any Status, Active, or Complete.
• Item Type—Select the item type of the workflow process
instances you want to find, or select All to find workflow process
instances for all item types.
• Item Key or User Key—Specify an item key or a user key. An
item key presents the internal identifier of an item whereas a
user key is an end–user identifier assigned to an item. A user
key may not necessarily be unique to an item. See:
SetItemUserKey: page 7 – 11.
• Process Name—Specify the display name of a process activity.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
2.
If you log on as a user with Workflow Administrator privileges,
you can search for and display any process instance, even if you do
not own the process. In the Process Owner field, enter the internal
name of any role defined in WF_ROLES to list only processes
owned by that role. Alternatively, leave the field blank to list all
process instances that match your search criteria regardless of the
process owner.
If you do not have Workflow Administrator privileges, then the
Process Owner field reflects the internal name of the role you are
logged in as for the current web session and you are allowed to
search and display only processes that you initiated or are the
primary participant of.
Note: You can set the owner of a process by making a call to
the WF_ENGINE.SetItemOwner API. The owner of a process
is the person who initiated the process or is the primary
participant of the process.
3.
Optionally, you can also find workflow process instances with
activities that are Suspended, In Error, or that have Any Status.
4.
You can find workflow process instances that have activities
waiting for a response from a particular user or role.
5.
You can also identify workflow process instances that have not
progressed for a specified number of days.
6.
When you finish entering your search criteria, choose Find to find
all matching process instances.
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9 – 11
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Oracle Workflow Guide
7.
The Process List provides a summary of all workflow process
instances that match your search criteria.
8.
Choose the Process Name of a particular row in the summary to
display the list Notifications List for the process. The Notifications
List shows all the current notifications that have been sent for a
process. The list also describes what each notification activity is,
who it is assigned to, when it was sent, whether it has been
completed, how many days have passed before completion, and
the result of the activity.
9.
You can choose the user in the Who column to send email to the
user that the notification has been assigned to or choose the View
Diagram button to display the process in the Workflow Monitor. If
you connected to the session as a user with Workflow
Administrator privileges, the Workflow Monitor displays the
process in ’ADMIN’ mode, otherwise the process is displayed in
’USER’ mode. See: Workflow Monitor: page 9 – 3.
See Also
Setting Up an Oracle Workflow directory service: page 2 – 7
Identifying the Oracle Workflow Administration Role: page 2 – 18
Monitoring Workflow Processes
9 – 13
CHAPTER
10
Sample Workflow:
Requisition Approval
Process
T
his chapter examines a sample workflow process definition called
Requisition Approval. Some of the components in the process, such as
item type attributes, messages, functions, and notifications, are
discussed in detail to illustrate how they are integrated into the
process.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 1
Requisition Approval Process
The Requisition Approval process is an example of a workflow process
that gets initiated when you create a new requisition to purchase an
item. The Requisition Approval process is based on two tables that
store approval hierarchy and spending authority information.
When you submit a requisition in this demonstration, the process sends
a notification to the next manager in the approval hierarchy to approve
the requisition. If the spending limit of the approving manager is less
than the requisition amount, the process forwards the requisition to the
next higher manager in the approval hierarchy until it finds a manager
with the appropriate spending limit to approve the requisition. Each
intermediate manager must approve the requisition to move it to the
next higher manager. Once a manager with the appropriate spending
limit approves the requisition, the process ends with a result of
approved.
The process can end with a result of rejected if:
• Any manager rejects the requisition.
• The requisition amount is greater than the highest spending
limit.
• The requisition’s requestor does not have a manager.
You can set up and initiate this example process if you are using the
standalone version of Oracle Workflow. If you are using Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications, you should consider this
process mainly as an example for explanation purposes and not for
demonstration. The files necessary to setup and run this
demonstration are not provided with the version of Oracle Workflow
embedded in Oracle Applications.
в�ћ
Attention: For detailed information about runnable workflow
processes that are integrated with Oracle Applications or
Oracle Self–Service Web Applications, refer to the appropriate
Oracle Applications User’s Guide or online documentation.
See: Predefined Workflow Embedded in Oracle Applications
and Oracle Self–Service Web Applications: page B – 2.
в�ћ
Attention: Oracle Self–Service Web Applications provides a
predefined Requisition Approval Process that is different from
the version of the example process documented here. The
example process documented in this section is for
demonstration purposes only and not for production use.
To run this sample workflow you must install the demonstration data
model. The data model includes two tables with data: one table
10 – 2
Oracle Workflow Guide
maintains an employee approval hierarchy and the other maintains the
spending limit of each employee. These two tables make up the
database application that we use to approve a requisition. In addition,
the data model also includes a directory service that identifies the
Oracle Workflow users and roles in this sample implementation.
There are two ways you can initiate the Requisition Approval process
based on a fictitious requisition: run a script or submit a requisition
using a web–based interface. Both methods require that you provide
the name of the employee who prepared the requisition, the requisition
amount, the requisition number, a requisition description, a requisition
process owner and the name of the workflow process to initiate.
This section describes the Requisition Approval process in detail to
give you an understanding of what each activity in this workflow
accomplishes.
Installing the Demonstration Data Model
The demonstration data model for the sample Requisition Approval
process is available for installation only for the standalone version of
Oracle Workflow. The demonstration data model is installed using
Oracle Installer. Oracle Installer asks if you wish to install the
demonstration data model when you install the Oracle Workflow
server. The files used in the installation are copied to the demo or
demo/<language> subdirectories of your Oracle Workflow server
directory structure.
в�ћ
Attention: For the Requisition Approval process
demonstration to work properly, you should perform the steps
required to set up Oracle Workflow after you install the
demonstration data model. See: Implementing Oracle
Workflow: page 2 – 4.
The installation does the following:
• Calls a script called wfdemoc.sql to create two tables with seed
data. These tables make up the demonstration database
application that is workflow–enabled:
– WF_REQDEMO_EMP_HIERARCHY—maintains the
employee approval hierarchy. The approval chain consists
of these employee userids listed in ascending order with the
employee having the most authority listed last:
JANDERSON, DMCKEE, MBEECH, JRUSH, and JSMITH.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 3
– WF_REQDEMO_EMP_AUTHORITY—maintains the
spending limit for each employee. The limit for each
employee follows the employee’s userid: JANDERSON:500,
DMCKEE:1000, MBEECH:2000, JRUSH:3000, JSMITH:4000.
• The script wfdemoc.sql also inserts the following seed data into
the WF_LOCAL_USERS, WF_LOCAL_ROLES,
WF_LOCAL_USER_ROLES tables:
Roles
Users
ADMIN
SYSADMIN
x
WFADMIN
x
MANAGERS
WORKERS
JANDERSON
x
DMCKEE
x
MBEECH
x
JRUSH
x
JSMITH
x
OTHERS
x
x
Table 10 – 1 (Page 1 of 1)
Each of these users have their E–mail address assigned to
’WFTEST’. This allows you to use one mail account to
check/test their notifications. You can also change each user’s
E–mail address to anything you like by editing the wfdemoc.sql
script and rerunning it.
Also every user except JANDERSON has a Notification
Preference of ’MAILHTML’, which allows them to get individual
notifications via E–mail if a Notification Mailer is set up.
JANDERSON has a Notification Preference of ’SUMMARY’,
which allows him to receive a periodic E–mail summarizing all
the notifications he has received if an appropriate Notification
Mailer is set up. In all cases, users can also always query for
their notifications using a Web browser by connecting to the
Oracle Workflow Notification Web page.
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10 – 4
Oracle Workflow Guide
Attention: Your Oracle Workflow directory service must
include the WF_LOCAL_USERS, WF_LOCAL_ROLES and
WF_LOCAL_USER_ROLES tables for the wfdemoc.sql script to
run properly. See: Setting Up an Oracle Workflow Directory
Service: page 2 – 7.
• Calls the scripts wfdemos.sql and wfdemob.sql to create the
PL/SQL spec and body for a package called WF_REQDEMO.
This package contains:
– The PL/SQL stored procedures called by the function
activities used in the Requisition Approval Process
workflow.
– The PL/SQL procedure WF_REQDEMO.Create_Req called
by the Oracle Workflow web agent to generate the
web–based interface page for the Requisition Approval
process demonstration.
• Runs the Workflow Resource Generator to load messages from
wfdemo.msg into the database. The messages are used by the
web–based interface page for the Requisition Approval process
demonstration.
• Loads the Requisition Approval Process workflow definition
from wfdemo.wft into the database. You can view this process in
Oracle Workflow Builder.
Displaying a Process Window
Once you install the demonstration environment, you can view the
sample processes in a Process window using Oracle Workflow Builder.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 5
"
To Display the Sample Process in Oracle Workflow Builder
1.
Choose Open from the File menu, and connect to the database
where you installed the demonstration data model.
Alternatively, you can connect to the workflow definitions file
wfdemo.wft, located in the Oracle Workflow wf20/data/<language>
subdirectory on your PC.
2.
Expand the data source, then the Workflow Demonstration item
type branch within that data source.
3.
Expand the Processes branch within Workflow Demonstration then
double–click on a process activity to display the diagram of the
process in a Process window.
The Workflow Demonstration Item Type
The Requisition Approval process is associated with an item type
called Workflow Demonstration. This item type identifies all
demonstration workflow processes available. Currently there are two
workflow processes associated with Workflow Demonstration:
Requisition Approval and Notify Approver.
10 – 6
Oracle Workflow Guide
If you examine the property page of Workflow Demonstration, you see
that it calls a selector function named WF_REQDEMO.SELECTOR.
This selector function is an example PL/SQL stored procedure that
returns the name of the process to run when more than one process
exists for a given item type. The selector function in this example
returns Requisition Approval as the process to run.
The Workflow Demonstration item type also has several attributes
associated with it. These attributes reference information in the
demonstration application tables. The attributes are used and
maintained by function activities as well as notification activities
throughout the process.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 7
Workflow Demonstration Item Type Attributes
Display Name
Description
Type
Length/Format/
Lookup Type
Forward From Display
Name
Name of the person that
the requisition is
forwarded from
Text
Forward From Username
Username of the person
that the requisition is
forwarded from
Text
Forward To Display Name
Name of the person that
the requisition is
forwarded to
Text
Forward To Username
Username of the person
that the requisition is
forwarded to
Text
Requestor Display Name
Name of the requisition
preparer
Text
Requestor Username
Username of the
requisition preparer
Text
30
Requisition Amount
Requisition amount
Number
9,999,999,999.99
Requisition Number
Unique identifier of a
requisition
Text
Requisition Description
Unique user identifier of
a requisition
Text
30
Requisition Process
Owner
Username of the
requisition owner
Text
30
Note
Note
Text
Monitor URL
Monitor URL
URL
30
30
Table 10 – 2 (Page 1 of 1)
Summary of the Requisition Approval Process
To view the properties of the Requisition Approval process, select the
process in the navigator tree, then choose Properties from the Edit
menu. The Requisition Approval process has a result type of
Approval, indicating that when the process completes, it has a result of
Approved or Rejected (the lookup codes in the Approval lookup type
10 – 8
Oracle Workflow Guide
associated with the Standard item type). This process activity is also
runnable, indicating that it can be initiated as a top level process to run
by making calls to the Workflow Engine CreateProcess and StartProcess
APIs.
The Details property page of the process activity indicates that the
Requisition Approval process has an error process called
WFDEMO_ERROR_PROCESS associated with it, which gets initiated
only when an error is encountered in the process. For example, if you
attempt to initiate the Requisition Approval process with a requisition
that is created by someone who is not listed in the employee approval
hierarchy, the Workflow Engine would raise an error when it tries to
execute the Select Approver activity. This error would initiate
WFDEMO_ERROR_PROCESS, which is the Demonstration Error
Process. The Demonstration Error Process is associated with the
System:Error item type. Currently the process simply executes the
standard Default Error Notification activity to provide information
associated with the error. You can customize the process further to suit
your needs. See: Default Error Process: page 5 – 16.
When you display the Process window for the Requisition Approval
process, you see that the process consists of 12 unique activities, several
of which are reused to comprise the 15 activity nodes that appear in the
workflow diagram. To examine the activities of the process in more
detail, we have numbered each node for easy referencing below. The
numbers themselves are not part of the process diagram.
The Requisition Approval workflow begins when you run a script
called wfrundemo.sql or submit a requisition using the Requisition
Approval Demonstration web page. In both cases, you must provide a
requisition requestor, requisition number, requisition amount,
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 9
requisition description, and process owner. See: Initiating the
Requisition Approval Workflow: page 10 – 18.
The workflow begins at node 1 with the Start activity.
At node 2, the process attempts to select an approver for the
requisition. If an approver cannot be found for the requisition, the
requestor is notified and the process ends with the final process result
of Rejected. If an approver is found, then the requestor is notified of
who that approver is and a function records in the application that the
requisition is being forwarded to the approver. Both of these activities
must complete before the approver is actually notified in node 8.
Node 8 is a subprocess that requests the approver to approve the
requisition by a specified period of time and if the approver does not
respond by that time, the subprocess performs a timeout activity to
keep sending a reminder to the approver until the approver responds.
If the approver rejects the requisition, the requisition gets updated as
rejected in node 9, and the requestor is notified in node 10. The process
ends at this point with a result of Rejected.
If the approver approves the requisition, the process transitions to node
12 to verify that the requisition amount is within the approver’s
spending limit. If it is, the process approves the requisition in node 13,
and notifies the requestor in node 14. The process ends in this case
with a result of Approved.
Requisition Approval Process Activities
Following is a description of each activity listed by the activity’s
display name. You can create all the components for an activity in the
graphical Oracle Workflow Builder except for the PL/SQL stored
procedures that the function activities call. All function activities
execute PL/SQL stored procedures which you must create and store in
the Oracle RDBMS. The naming convention for the PL/SQL stored
procedures used in the Requisition Approval process is:
WF_REQDEMO.<PROCEDURE>
WF_REQDEMO is the name of the package that groups all the procedures
used by the Requisition Approval process. <PROCEDURE> represents
the name of the procedure.
Several activities are described in greater depth to give you an idea of
how they are constructed. See: Example Function Activities: page
10 – 26 and Example Notification Activities: page 10 – 32.
10 – 10
Oracle Workflow Guide
Start (Node 1)
This is a Standard function activity that simply marks the start of the
process.
Function
WF_STANDARD.NOOP
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
None
Select Approver (Node 2)
This function activity determines who the next approver is for the
requisition by checking the imaginary employee approval hierarchy
table. This activity also saves the name of the previous approver or the
name of the preparer if the requisition was never approved before. If
an approver is found, this procedure returns a value of ’T’, for True,
otherwise it returns a value of ’F’ for False.
Function
WF_REQDEMO.SelectApprover
Result Type
Boolean
Prerequisite
Activities
None
Notify Requestor No Approver Available (Node 3)
This activity notifies the requisition preparer that no appropriate
approver could be found for the requisition. The message includes
’Send’ attributes that display the requisition number, requisition
description, requisition amount, and who the last approver was, if
there was any.
This activity occurs in process node 3. If you display the property page
of the node, you see that the activity is assigned to a performer whose
name is stored in an item type attribute named Requestor Username.
Message
Requisition No Approver Found
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver
Notify Requestor of Forward (Node 5)
This activity notifies the requisition preparer that the requisition was
forwarded for approval. The message includes ’Send’ attributes that
display the requisition number, requisition description, requisition
amount, name of the approver that the requisition is forwarded to,
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 11
name of the previous approver, if any, and the most recent comments
appended to the requisition.
If you display the property page of this node, you see that the activity
is assigned to a performer whose name is stored in an item type
attribute named Requestor Username.
Message
Requisition Forward
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver
Record Requisition Forward (Node 6)
Currently this activity does nothing, however, if you have a
Purchasing/Requisition application that you wish to integrate this
workflow into, you can customize this activity to execute a PL/SQL
stored procedure that updates your purchasing/requisition application
table to indicate that the requisition is being forwarded to the next
approver.
Function
WF_REQDEMO.Forward_Req
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver
And (Node 7)
This Standard function activity merges two or more parallel branches
in the flow only when the activities in all of those branches complete.
Function
WF_STANDARD.ANDJOIN
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Must have at least two separate activities that each
transition into this activity.
Notify Approver (Node 8)
This activity is a subprocess that notifies the approver that an action
needs to be taken to either approve or reject the requisition. To view
the subprocess, double–click on Notify Approver under the Processes
branch in the navigator tree. The subprocess sends a notification to the
approver and if the approver does not respond within a specified time,
sends another reminder notification to the approver to take action. See:
Summary of the Notify Approver Subprocess: page 10 – 15.
10 – 12
Oracle Workflow Guide
Result Type
Approval
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver
Reject Requisition (Node 9)
Currently this activity does nothing, however, if you have a
Purchasing/Requisition application that you wish to integrate this
workflow into, you can customize this activity to execute a PL/SQL
stored procedure that updates your purchasing/requisition application
table to indicate that the requisition is rejected.
Function
WF_REQDEMO.Reject_Req
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver, Notify Approver
Notify Requestor of Rejection (Node 10)
This activity notifies the requisition preparer that the requisition was
rejected. The message includes ’Send’ attributes that display the
requisition number, requisition description, requisition amount, name
of the manager that rejected the requisition, and comments from that
manager.
If you display the property page of this activity node, you see that the
activity is assigned to a performer whose name is stored in an item
type attribute named Requestor Username.
Message
Requisition Rejected
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Notify Approver
Verify Authority (Node 12)
This function activity verifies whether the current approver has
sufficient authority to approve the requisition. The procedure
compares the requisition amount with the approver’s approval limit
amount and returns a value of ’Y’ for Yes or ’N’ for No. If your
business rules are not sensitive to the amount that an approver can
approve, then you can remove this activity to customize the process.
Function
WF_REQDEMO.VerifyAuthority
Result Type
Yes/No
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver and Notify Approver
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 13
Approve Requisition (Node 13)
Currently this activity does nothing, however, if you have a
Purchasing/Requisition application that you wish to integrate this
workflow into, you can customize this activity to execute a PL/SQL
stored procedure that updates your purchasing/requisition application
table to indicate that the requisition is approved.
Function
WF_REQDEMO.Approve_Req
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver, Notify Approver, Verify
Authority
Notify Requestor of Approval (Node 14)
This activity notifies the requisition preparer that the requisition was
approved. The message includes ”Send” attributes that display the
requisition number, requisition description, requisition amount,
approver name, and comments from the approver.
If you display the property page of the activity node, you see that the
activity is assigned to a performer whose name is stored in an item
type attribute named Requestor Username.
Message
Requisition Approved
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver, Notify Approver, Verify
Authority
End (Nodes 4, 11, and 15)
This function activity marks the end of the process. Although the
activity itself does not have a result type, each node of this activity in
the process must have a process result assigned to it. The process
result is assigned in the property page of the activity node. Since the
Requisition Approval process activity has a result type of Approval,
each End activity node must have a process result matching one of the
lookup codes in the Approval lookup type.
10 – 14
Oracle Workflow Guide
Function
WF_STANDARD.NOOP
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Start
Summary of the Notify Approver Subprocess
To view the properties of the Notify Approver subprocess, select its
process activity in the navigator tree, then choose Properties from the
Edit menu. The Notify Approver subprocess has a result type of
Approval, indicating that when the subprocess completes, it has a
result of Approved or Rejected (based on the lookup codes in the
Approval lookup type). It is not runnable, indicating that it cannot be
initiated as a top level process to run, but rather can only be run when
called by another higher level process as a subprocess.
When you display the Process window for the Notify Approver
subprocess, you see that the subprocess consists of 5 unique activities,
several of which are reused to comprise the 7 activity nodes that
appear in the workflow diagram. To examine the activities of the
process in more detail, we have numbered each node for easy
referencing below. The numbers themselves are not part of the process
diagram.
The subprocess begins at node 1 with the Start activity. At node 2, the
process notifies the approver to approve a requisition within a specified
period of time. If the approver approves the requisition, the
subprocess ends at node 6 and returns the result Approved to the top
level Requisition Approval process. Similarly, if the approver rejects
the requisition, the subprocess ends at node 7 and returns the result
Rejected to Requisition Approval process.
If the approver does not respond by the due date, the subprocess takes
the <Timeout> transition to node 3 to send a reminder to the approver
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 15
to approve the requisition. Node 3 also has a timeout value assigned to
it, and if the approver does not respond to the reminder by that time,
the subprocess takes the next <Timeout> transition to loop back to
node 3 to send another reminder to the approver. This loop continues
until the approver approves or rejects the requisition, which would end
the subprocess at node 6 or 7, respectively.
Notify Approver Subprocess Activities
Following is a description of each activity in the Notify Approver
subprocess, listed by the activity’s display name.
Start (Node 1)
This is a Standard function activity that simply marks the start of the
subprocess.
Function
WF_STANDARD.NOOP
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
None
Notify Requisition Approval Required (Node 2)
This activity notifies the approver that the requisition needs to be
approved or rejected. This activity must be completed within 5
minutes, otherwise it times out.
The message includes ’Send’ attributes that display the requisition
number, requisition description, requisition amount, previous approver
name, and preparer name for the requisition when the notification is
sent.
The message includes two ”Respond” attributes that prompt the
approver for responses. One is called Action and it provides the
approver with the values ’APPROVE’ or ’REJECT’ from the lookup
type called Approval. Action has an internal name of Result, which
indicates that the value that the approver selects becomes the result
that determines which activity branch the Workflow Engine transitions
to next.
The other ”Respond” attribute is called Note and this attribute prompts
the approver for any additional comments that he/she wants to include
in the notification response regarding the requisition review.
10 – 16
Oracle Workflow Guide
If you display the property page of this activity node, you see that the
activity is assigned to a performer whose name is stored in an item
type attribute named Forward To Username.
Message
Requisition Approval Required
Result Type
Approval
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver
Reminder–Approval Needed (Node 3)
This activity occurs only if the Notify Requisition Approval Required
activity times out before being completed. This activity sends a
reminder notice to the approver that the requisition needs to be
approved or rejected.
The message includes ’Send’ attributes that display the requisition
number, requisition description, requisition amount, previous approver
name, and preparer name for the requisition when the notification is
sent.
The message includes two ”Respond” attributes that prompt the
approver for responses. One is called Action and it provides the
approver with the values ’APPROVE’ or ’REJECT’ from the lookup
type called Approval. Action has an internal name of Result, which
indicates that the value that the approver selects becomes the result
that determines which activity branch the Workflow Engine transitions
to next.
The other ”Respond” attribute is called Note and this attribute prompts
the approver for any additional comments that he/she wants to include
in the notification response regarding the requisition review.
If you display the property page of this activity node, you see that the
activity is assigned to a performer whose name is stored in an item
type attribute named Forward To Username.
Message
Requisition Approval Required Reminder
Result Type
Approval
Prerequisite
Activities
Select Approver, Notify Requisition Approval
Required
Or (Nodes 4 and 5)
This Standard function activity merges two or more parallel branches
in a flow as soon as an activity in any one of those branches complete.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 17
Function
WF_STANDARD.ORJOIN
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
None
End (Nodes 6 and 7)
This function activity marks the end of the subprocess. Although the
activity itself does not have a result type, each node of this activity in
the subprocess must have a process result assigned to it. The process
result is assigned in the property page of the activity node. Since the
Notify Approver process activity has a result type of Approval, each
End activity node must have a process result matching one of the
lookup codes in the Approval lookup type.
Function
WF_STANDARD.NOOP
Result Type
None
Prerequisite
Activities
Start
Initiating the Requisition Approval Workflow
You can use either of the following methods to initiate the Requisition
Approval workflow:
• Run the script wfrundemo.sql.
• Submit a requisition using the Requisition Approval
Demonstration web page.
You can also create your own custom end–user application interface to
let users create requisitions that automatically initiate the Requisition
Approval process workflow. You must, however, customize the
application interface such that when a user saves the requisition to the
application database, the application calls a PL/SQL stored procedure
similar to WF_REQDEMO.StartProcess that initiates the Requisition
Approval process. See: Sample StartProcess Function: page 10 – 22.
"
To Run wfrundemo.sql
1.
Enter the following command to run the script wfrundemo.sql in
SQL*PLUS:
sqplus <username>/<password>@<alias> @wfrundemo.sql
<req_num> <req_desc> <req_amount> <requestor>
<req_process_owner> <process_int_name> <item_type>
10 – 18
Oracle Workflow Guide
Replace <username>/<password>@<alias> with the username,
password, and alias for the database account where you installed
the demonstration data model.
Replace <req_num> with the requisition number that uniquely
identifies the requisition.
Replace <req_desc> with an end–user defined description that
uniquely identifies the requisition.
Replace <req_amount> with the amount of the requisition,
<requestor> with the name of the requisition requestor (who
should be listed in the employee approval hierarchy),
<req_process_owner> with the name of the requisition process
owner (who should be listed in the employee approval hierarchy),
<process_int_name> with the internal name of the process
activity (in this case, REQUISITION_APPROVAL) and
<item_type> with the internal name of the item type that the
workflow process is associated with.
2.
When this script completes, enter Commit at the SQL> prompt to
save the transaction before quitting from SQL*PLUS.
3.
Based on the approval hierarchy, you can either log on as the
requisition requestor or the requestor’s manager to follow and
respond to the series of notification messages that move the process
to completion. See: Reviewing Notifications Via Electronic Mail:
page 8 – 6 and Viewing Notifications from a Web Browser: page
8 – 12.
You can also access the Workflow Monitor to view the status of the
workflow process. See: Using the Find Processes Web Page: page
9 – 9.
"
To Use the Requisition Approval Demonstration Web Page
1.
Enter the following URL in a web browser to access the Requisition
Approval Demonstration web page:
<webagent>/wf_reqdemo.create_req
<webagent> represents the base URL of the Oracle Web Agent used
by Oracle Workflow. It looks something like
http://<server.com:portID>/<PLSQL_agent_virtual_path>. See:
Identifying the Oracle Web Agent used by Oracle Workflow: page
2 – 15.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 19
10 – 20
Oracle Workflow Guide
2.
The Approval Hierarchy and Spending Authority table
summarizes the contents of the demonstration data model.
Following the table are the input fields you can use to submit a
requisition.
3.
Enter a unique requisition number.
4.
Specify a unique requisition description of 80 characters or less.
5.
Enter a requisition amount. The amount should be a number
without formatting.
6.
Use the poplist fields to specify a requisition requestor and process
owner. The names on these poplists are limited to the names of the
roles in the demonstration data model.
7.
Choose submit to initiate the Requisition Approval process and to
navigate to the Requisition Approval Demonstration confirmation
page.
8.
In addition to telling you what roles you should log in as to view
the process’ notifications, the confirmation page also contains
HTML links to other Oracle Workflow web components:
• Workflow Monitor—this link navigates to the Workflow Monitor
Notifications List where you can choose View Diagram to
display the process diagram for the requisition you submitted in
ADMIN mode. See: Workflow Monitor: page 9 – 3.
• Workflow Home—this link navigates to the Oracle Workflow
Home page for your current role, where you can access links to
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 21
view and respond to the notifications for the process. See:
Accessing the Oracle Workflow Home Page: page 8 – 27.
в�ћ
Attention: Both the Workflow Monitor and Workflow Home
links navigate to secured pages, so if you have not yet logged
on as a valid role in the current web session, you will be
prompted to do so before either page appears. See: Secure the
Workflow Database Connection Descriptor: page 2 – 21.
в�ћ
Attention: To log in as a different user in a web session, you
must first exit your current web browser session, then restart
the web browser and login again as the other user.
9.
Select the Process Timeouts HTML link to have the background
engine look for any timed out notifications and execute the next
activity expected to run in the case of a time out.
Two messages appear below this link informing you of when a
timeout may occur in the process.
10. Select the Create Requisition HTML link if you wish to enter and
submit another requisition in the Requisition Approval
Demonstration web page.
Sample StartProcess Function
Both wfrundemo.sql and the Requisition Approval Demonstration web
page call a PL/SQL stored procedure named
WF_REQDEMO.StartProcess to initiate the Requisition Approval
process.
To examine StartProcess in more detail, we divide the procedure into
several sections and number each section with the notation 1вћњ for easy
referencing. The numbers and arrows themselves are not part of the
procedure.
1вћњ
2вћњ
10 – 22
procedure StartProcess
(RequisitionNumber
in varchar2,
RequisitionDesc
in varchar2,
RequisitionAmount
in number,
RequestorUsername
in varchar2,
ProcessOwner
in varchar2,
Workflowprocess
in varchar2 default
null,
item_type
in varchar2 default
null) is
ItemType
varchar2(30) := nvl(item_type, ’WFDEMO’);
ItemKey
varchar2(30) := RequisitionNumber;
ItemUserKey
varchar2(30) := RequisitionDesc;
Oracle Workflow Guide
3вћњ
begin
wf_engine.CreateProcess
4вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemUserKey
(itemtype => ItemType,
itemkey
=> ItemKey,
process
=> WorkflowProcess );
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
userkey => ItemUserKey);
5вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’REQUISITION_NUMBER’,
avalue => RequisitionNumber);
6вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’REQUISITION_DESCRIPTION’,
avalue => ItemUserKey);
7вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrNumber
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’REQUISITION_AMOUNT’,
avalue => RequisitionAmount);
8вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’REQUESTOR_USERNAME’,
avalue => RequestorUsername);
9вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’REQUESTOR_DISPLAY_NAME’,
avalue => wf_directory.GetRoleDisplayName(RequestorUsername));
10вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_TO_USERNAME’,
avalue => RequestorUsername);
11вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_TO_DISPLAY_NAME’,
avalue => wf_directory.GetRoleDisplayName(RequestorUsername));
12вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’REQUISITION_PROCESS_OWNER’,
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 23
avalue => ProcessOwner);
13вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
aname => ’MONITOR_URL’,
avalue => wf_monitor.GetUrl
(wf_core.translate(’WF_WEB_AGENT’),
itemtype, itemkey, ’NO’));
14вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemOwner
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey
=> itemkey,
owner => ProcessOwner);
15вћњ
wf_engine.StartProcess
(itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey => itemkey );
end StartProcess;
1вћњ This section represents the specification of the procedure, which
includes the list of parameters that must be passed to StartProcess. It
uses the same parameter values that you pass to the wfrundemo.sql
script or to the field values entered in the Requisition Approval
Demonstration web page (WF_REQDEMO.Create_Req).
2вћњ The declarative part of the procedure body begins in this section.
StartProcess consists of calls to various Workflow Engine PL/SQL APIs.
See: Workflow Engine APIs: page 7 – 8.
Since all of these APIs require an item type and item key input, we
define ItemType and ItemKey as local arguments. The argument
ItemType is defined as ’WFDEMO’, which is the internal name for the
Workflow Demonstration item type. The argument ItemKey is the
value of the RequisitionNumber parameter that is passed to the
StartProcess procedure.
3вћњ The executable part of the procedure body begins here. This
section calls the CreateProcess Workflow Engine API. This API creates a
new runtime instance of the Requisition Approval process, whose
internal name is ’WFDEMO’, and is identified by the item type and item
key that is supplied. See: CreateProcess: page 7 – 9.
Note: If you do not pass a value for <process_int_name>
to the wfrundemo.sql script, the selector function for the
Workflow Demonstration item type determines what process to
run.
4вћњ This section calls the SetItemUserKey Workflow Engine API to
mark the new runtime instance of the Requisition Approval process
with an end–user key. The end–user key makes it easier for users to
query and identify the process instance when it is displayed. See:
SetItemUserKey: page 7 – 11.
10 – 24
Oracle Workflow Guide
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13вћњ These sections call either the
SetItemAttributeText or SetItemAttributeNumber Workflow Engine API’s
to set values for the item type attributes defined for this process. The
attributes are REQUISITION_NUMBER, REQUISITION_DESCRIPTION,
REQUISITION_AMOUNT, REQUESTOR_NAME,
REQUESTOR_DISPLAY_NAME, FORWARD_TO_USERNAME,
FORWARD_TO_DISPLAY_NAME, REQUISITION_PROCESS_OWNER,
and MONITOR_URL, respectively. See: SetItemAttribute: page 7 – 22.
14вћњ This section calls the SetItemOwner Workflow Engine API to mark
the new runtime instance of the Requisition Approval process with a
process owner user name. Users can query for process instances by
process owner. See: SetItemOwner: page 7 – 13.
15вћњ This section calls the Oracle Workflow Engine StartProcess API to
invoke the Requisition Approval process for the item type and item key
specified. See: StartProcess: page 7 – 14.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 25
Example Function Activities
In general, function activities must have the following information
specified in its Activity property page:
• Internal name for the activity.
• Display name for the activity.
• Result type for the activity, which can be none or the name of a
predefined lookup type.
• Name of the PL/SQL stored procedure that the activity calls.
Also, the PL/SQL stored procedure that a function activity calls must
comply with a specific API. See: Standard API for PL/SQL Procedures
Called by Function Activities: page 6 – 2.
You can view the scripts that create the WF_REQDEMO stored procedure
package used by the Requisition Approval process in the demo
subdirectory of the Oracle Workflow directory structure on your server.
Example: Select Approver
The Select Approver function activity calls a PL/SQL stored procedure
named WF_REQDEMO.SelectApprover that determines who the next
approver is based on the employee approval hierarchy in the
demonstration data model.
Result Type
This activity expects a response of ’T’ if an approver is found or ’F’ if
an approver is not found. The possible responses are defined in a
lookup type called Boolean, associated with the Standard item type.
PL/SQL Stored
Procedure
The PL/SQL stored procedure that this function activity calls is
described in detail below. Each section in the procedure is numbered
with the notation 1вћњ for easy referencing.
procedure SelectApprover
1вћњ
2вћњ
10 – 26
(
itemtype
in varchar2,
itemkey
in varchar2,
actid
in number,
funcmode
in varchar2,
resultout
out varchar2
l_forward_from_username
varchar2(30);
l_forward_to_username
varchar2(30);
begin
Oracle Workflow Guide
) is
if ( funcmode = ’RUN’ ) then
l_forward_to_username := wf_engine.GetItemAttrText (
itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_TO_USERNAME’);
3вћњ
if (l_forward_to_username is null) then
l_forward_to_username := wf_engine.GetItemAttrText (
itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’REQUESTOR_USERNAME’);
end if;
4вћњ
l_forward_from_username := l_forward_to_username;
5вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype;
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_FROM_USERNAME’;
avalue => l_forward_from_username);
6вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype;
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_FROM_DISPLAY_NAME’;
avalue => wf_directory.GetRoleDisplayName(l_forward_from_username));
7вћњ
l_forward_to_username := wf_reqdemo.GetManager( l_forward_from_username);
8вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype;
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_TO_USERNAME’;
avalue => l_forward_to_username);
9вћњ
wf_engine.SetItemAttrText
(itemtype => itemtype;
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_TO_DISPLAY_NAME’;
avalue => wf_directory.GetRoleDisplayName(l_forward_to_username));
10вћњ
if (l_forward_to_username is null) then
resultout :=’COMPLETE:F’;
else
resultout :=’COMPLETE:T’;
end if;
11вћњ
end if;
12вћњ
if (funcmode = ’CANCEL’) then
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 27
resultout :=’COMPLETE’;
return;
end if;
13вћњ
if (funcmode = ’TIMEOUT’) then
resultout :=’COMPLETE’;
return;
end if;
14вћњ
exception
when others then
wf_core.context(’WF_REQDEMO’,’SelectorApprover’,itemtype,
itemkey,actid,funcmode);
raise;
15вћњ
end SelectApprover;
1вћњ The local arguments l_forward_from_username, and
l_forward_to_username are declared in this section.
2вћњ If the value of funcmode is RUN, then retrieve the name of the last
person that this requisition was forwarded to for approval by assigning
l_forward_to_username to the value of the
FORWARD_TO_USERNAME item type attribute, determined by calling
the Workflow Engine API GetItemAttrText. See: GetItemAttribute: page
7 – 23.
3вћњ If the value of l_forward_to_username is null, then it means
that the requisition has never been forwarded for approval. In this
case, assign it the value of the REQUESTOR_USERNAME item type
attribute, determined by calling the Workflow Engine API
GetItemAttrText.
4вћњ Assign l_forward_from_username to the value of
l_forward_to_username.
5вћњ This section assigns the value of l_forward_from_username to
the FORWARD_FROM_USERNAME item type attribute by calling the
Workflow Engine SetItemAttrText API.
6вћњ This section calls the Directory Service GetRoleDisplayName API to
get the display name of the username stored in
l_forward_from_username and assigns that name to the
FORWARD_FROM_DISPLAY_NAME item type attribute by calling the
Workflow Engine SetItemAttrText API.
7вћњ This section calls the function GetManager to return the manager of
the previous approver stored in l_forward_from_username, from
10 – 28
Oracle Workflow Guide
the WF_REQDEMO_EMP_HIERARCHY table and assigns that
manager’s name to l_forward_to_username.
8вћњ This section assigns the value of l_forward_to_username to the
FORWARD_TO_USERNAME item type attribute by calling the Workflow
Engine SetItemAttrText API.
9вћњ This section calls the Directory Service GetRoleDisplayName API to
get the display name of the username stored in
l_forward_to_username and assigns that name to the
FORWARD_TO_DISPLAY_NAME item type attribute by calling the
Workflow Engine SetItemAttrText API.
10вћњ If l_forward_to_username is null, meaning there is no
manager above the previous approver in the hierarchy, then assign
resultout to be COMPLETE:F. Otherwise, assign resultout to be
COMPLETE:T.
11➜ This ends the check on funcmode =’ RUN’.
12вћњ If the value of funcmode is CANCEL, then assign resultout to
be COMPLETE.
13вћњ If the value of funcmode is TIMEOUT, then assign resultout to
be COMPLETE.
14вћњ This section calls WF_CORE.CONTEXT if an exception occurs.
15вћњ The SelectApprover procedure ends.
Example: Verify Authority
The Verify Authority function activity calls a PL/SQL stored procedure
named WF_REQDEMO.VerifyAuthority to verify whether the
requisition amount is within the approver’s spending limit. This
activity is also another example of an automated function activity that
returns a result based on a business rule that you implement as a stored
procedure.
Result Type
This activity expects a result of ’Yes’ or ’No’ when the procedure
completes to indicate whether the approver has the authority to
approve the requisition. These result values are defined in the lookup
type called Yes/No, associated with the Standard item type.
PL/SQL Stored
Procedure
The PL/SQL stored procedure that this function activity calls is
described in detail below. Each section in the procedure is numbered
with the notation 1вћњ for easy referencing. We also use the convention
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 29
’p_’ to identify parameters that are passed to another procedure and
’l_’ to identify local arguments used within the procedure.
procedure VerifyAuthority
1вћњ
2вћњ
(
itemtype
in varchar2,
itemkey
in varchar2,
actid
in number,
funcmode
in varchar2,
resultout
out varchar2
l_forward_to_username
varchar2(30);
l_requisition_amount
number;
l_spending_limit
number;
) is
begin
if ( funcmode = ’RUN’ ) then
l_requisition_amount := wf_engine.GetItemAttrNumber (
itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’REQUISITION_AMOUNT’);
3вћњ
l_forward_to_username := wf_engine.GetItemAttrText (
itemtype => itemtype,
itemkey => itemkey,
aname => ’FORWARD_TO_USERNAME’);
4вћњ
if (wf_reqdemo.checkSpendingLimit(l_forward_to_username,l_requisition_amount)) then
resultout :=’COMPLETE:Y’;
else
resultout :=’COMPLETE:N’;
end if;
end if;
5вћњ
if (funcmode = ’CANCEL’) then
resultout :=’COMPLETE’;
return;
end if;
6вћњ
if (funcmode = ’TIMEOUT’) then
resultout :=’COMPLETE’;
return;
end if;
7вћњ
exception
when others then
10 – 30
Oracle Workflow Guide
wf_core.context(’WF_REQDEMO’,’VerifyAuthority’,itemtype,
itemkey,actid,funcmode);
raise;
8вћњ
end
VerifyAuthority;
1вћњ The local arguments l_forward_to_username,
l_requisition_amount, and l_spending_limit are declared in
this section.
2вћњ If the value of funcmode is equal to RUN, then assign
l_requisition_amount to the value of the REQUISITION_AMOUNT
item type attribute, determined by calling the Workflow Engine API
GetItemAttrNumber. See: GetItemAttribute: page 7 – 23.
3вћњ This section assigns l_forward_to_username to the value of
the FORWARD_TO_USERNAME item type attribute, determined by calling
the Workflow Engine API GetItemAttrText.
4вћњ This section calls the function CheckSpendingLimit for the current
approver to determine whether the requisition amount is less than or
equal to the approver’s spending limit. If the requisition amount is less
than or equal to the value in l_spending_limit , meaning the
approver has authority to approve, then assign resultout to be
COMPLETE:Y. Otherwise, assign resultout to be COMPLETE:N.
5вћњ If the value of funcmode is CANCEL, then assign resultout to
be COMPLETE.
6вћњ If the value of funcmode is TIMEOUT, then assign resultout to
be COMPLETE.
7вћњ This section calls WF_CORE.CONTEXT if an exception occurs.
8вћњ The VerifyAuthority procedure ends.
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 31
Example Notification Activity
The Requisition Approval process contains several notification
activities that send informative messages to users. The Notify
Approver subprocess, however, also includes notification activities that
request a response from a user.
A notification activity requires the following information be defined in
its Activity property page:
• Internal name for the activity.
• Display name for the activity.
• Result type for the activity, which can be none or the name of a
predefined lookup type.
• Name of a predefined message that the notification sends out.
Example: Notify Requisition Approval Required
The Notify Requisition Approval Required activity sends a message
called Requisition Approval Required to an approving manager. The
message requests that the manager approve or reject a requisition and
provides details about the requisition within the body of the message.
Result Type
The manager’s response determines the activity that the process
transitions to next. The possible responses, ’APPROVED’ or
’REJECTED’ are defined in a lookup type called Approval. These
values are defined by a message attribute called Action, whose internal
name is RESULT. These values are also the possible results of the
notification activity, as defined by the Result Type field in the Activity
property page.
Message
The content of the notification is defined in the message called
Requisition Approval Required:
Subject
Requisition &REQUISITION_NUMBER,
&REQUISITION_DESCRIPTION for
&REQUISITION_AMOUNT requires your
approval
Body
The following requisition requires
your approval:
Requisition Number:
&REQUISITION_NUMBER
10 – 32
Oracle Workflow Guide
Requisition Description:
&REQUISITION_DESCRIPTION
Requisition Amount:
&REQUISITION_AMOUNT
Forwarded From:
&FORWARD_FROM_DISPLAY_NAME
Requestor: &REQUESTOR_DISPLAY_NAME
Note: &NOTE
Item type attributes, preceded by an ampersand ’&’ in the subject line
and body of the message, are token substituted with runtime values
when the notification is sent. However, in order for token substitution
to occur properly, all item type attributes used in the subject line and
body of the message have to be defined as message attributes with a
source of ’Send’.
Other message attributes are also defined for this message:
Action
This message attribute has a source of ’Respond’
and prompts the approver for a response. By
giving this attribute an internal name of
’RESULT’, the response returned by the approver
becomes the result that determines which activity
the process transitions to next.
This message attribute is of the type ’Lookup’
indicating that the approver must respond from a
list of possible values stored in the lookup type
specified. In this case the lookup type is called
Approval and contains the lookup codes
’APPROVED’ and ’REJECTED’.
Note
This message attribute has a source of ’Respond’
and is of the type ’Text’. This attribute prompts the
approver to enter additional comments when
responding to the notification.
Note: To view the content of any message, double–click on the
message in the navigator tree or select the message and choose
Properties from the Edit menu.
Process Node
Properties
If you display the properties of the Notify Requisition Approval
Required activity node in the Notify Approver subprocess diagram you
should see that this node is set to Normal because it is neither the start
nor end activity in the process.
You should also see that the Performer is set to the Forward To
Username item type attribute, indicating that the notification gets sent
to the user whose name is stored in the item type attribute called
Sample Workflow: Requisition Approval Process
10 – 33
’Forward To Username’. The value of ’Forward To Username’
is determined earlier in the Requisition Approval process by the
activity called Select Approver.
10 – 34
Oracle Workflow Guide
CHAPTER
11
Workflow
Administration Scripts
T
his chapter describes the SQL scripts that workflow
administrators can run against an Oracle Workflow server installation.
Workflow Administration Scripts
11 – 1
Miscellaneous SQL Scripts
You can use any of the following administrative scripts to help set up
and maintain various features in Oracle Workflow. For the standalone
version of Oracle Workflow, the scripts are located on your server in
the Oracle Workflow admin/sql subdirectory. For the version of Oracle
Workflow embedded in Oracle Applications, the scripts are located in
the sql subdirectory under $FND_TOP.
• Update translation tables—WFNLADD.sql: page 11 – 2.
• Start a background engine—wfbkg.sql: page 11 – 3.
• Show activities deferred for the next background engine
execution—wfbkgchk.sql: page 11 – 3.
• Show a notification’s status—wfntfsh.sql: page 11 – 4.
• Reset the protection level for objects—wfprot.sql: page 11 – 4.
• Handle errored activities—wfretry.sql: page 11 – 4.
• Remove data from Oracle Workflow tables
– wfrmall.sql: page 11 – 5.
– wfrmitms.sql: page 11 – 5.
– wfrmitt.sql: page 11 – 5.
– wfrmtype.sql: page 11 – 6.
– wfrmita.sql: page 11 – 6.
• Run a workflow process—wfrun.sql: page 11 – 6.
• Display a status report for an item
– wfstatus.sql: page 11 – 7.
– wfstat.sql: page 11 – 7.
• Display the version of the Oracle Workflow server—wfver.sql:
page 11 – 7.
• Check the directory service data model—wfdirchk.sql: page
11 – 7.
WFNLADD.sql
If you define a new language in your Oracle installation, use
WFNLADD.sql to add the missing rows for that language to the Oracle
11 – 2
Oracle Workflow Guide
Workflow translation tables. See: Creating the WF_LANGUAGES
View: page 2 – 13.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @WFNLADD
Wfbkg.sql
If you are using the standalone version of Oracle Workflow, you can
use wfbkg.sql to start a background engine. This script calls the
WF_ENGINE Background API to run a background engine for the
indicated number of minutes.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfbkg <minutes> <seconds>
Replace <minutes> with the number of minutes you want the
background engine to run, and replace <seconds> with the number of
seconds you want the background engine to wait between queries.
See Also
Background: page 7 – 19
Setting up Background Workflow Engines: page 2 – 43
Wfbkgchk.sql
Use wfbkgchk.sql to get a list of all activities waiting to be processed by
the background engine the next time it runs.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfbkgchk
See Also
Background: page 7 – 19
Setting up Background Workflow Engines: page 2 – 43
Workflow Administration Scripts
11 – 3
Wfntfsh.sql
Use wfntfsh.sql to display status information about a particular
notification, given its notification ID.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfntfsh <notification_id>
Wfprot.sql
Use wfprot.sql to reset the protection level of all objects associated with
a specified item type.
в�ћ
Attention: If you reset the protection level for all objects in an
item type, then none of those objects in the item type will be
customizable by users operating at an access level higher than
the new protection level.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfprot <item_type> <protection_level>
Replace <Item_type> with the item type that you want to reset the
protection level for, and replace <protection_level> with the new
protection level.
Wfretry.sql
Use wfretry.sql to display a list of activities that have encountered an
error for a given process instance and then specify whether to skip,
retry, or reset any one of those errored activities.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfretry <item_type> <item_key>
Provide an item type and item key to uniquely identify an item or
process instance. The script first returns the list of errored activities by
label name. The script then prompts you for the label name of an
activity that you wish to skip, retry, or reset. If you choose skip, then
you must also specify the result that you want the skipped activity to
have.
в�ћ
11 – 4
Oracle Workflow Guide
Attention: This script calls the WF_ENGINE HandleError
API, so you can actually specify the label name of any activity
associated with the specified item type and item key to
perform a rollback. See: HandleError: page 7 – 31.
Wfrmall.sql
Use wfrmall.sql to delete all data in all Oracle Workflow runtime and
design time tables.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfrmall
Warning: This script deletes ALL workflow definitions. Do
not use this script unless you are absolutely sure you want to
remove all workflow data from your runtime and design time
tables.
Once you run this script, you should also reload the workflow
definitions for the Standard, System:Mailer, and System:Error
item types stored in the files wfstd.wft, wfmail.wft, and
wferror.wft, respectively.
Wfrmitms.sql
Use wfrmitms.sql to delete status information in Oracle Workflow
runtime tables for a particular item. This script prompts you to choose
between deleting all data associated with a specified item type and
item key or deleting only data for the completed activities of the
specified item type and item key.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfrmitms <item_type> <item_key>
Wfrmitt.sql
Use wfrmitt.sql to delete all data in all Oracle Workflow design time
and runtime tables for a particular item type. This script prompts you
for an item type from a list of valid item types.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfrmitt
Workflow Administration Scripts
11 – 5
Warning: This script deletes ALL workflow data for a
specified item type.
Wfrmtype.sql
Use wfrmtype.sql to delete runtime data associated with a given item
type. This script prompts you for an item type to purge, from a list of
valid item type, then asks you to choose between deleting all data
associated with a specified item type or deleting only data for the
completed activities and items of the specified item type.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfrmtype
Wfrmita.sql
Use wfrmita.sql to delete all workflow data for a specified item type
attribute. Currently you can use Oracle Workflow Builder to delete
item type attributes saved in a file, but not in a database. If you need to
delete item type attributes from a database, use this script instead. This
script prompts you for the item type and the name of the attribute to
delete.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfrmita
Wfrun.sql
Use wfrun.sql to create and start a specified process.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfrun <item_type> <item_key> <process_name>
11 – 6
Oracle Workflow Guide
Wfstatus.sql
Use wfstatus.sql to display an end user status report for an indicated
item. The output is 132 characters per line.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfstatus <item_type> <item_key>
Wfstat.sql
Use wfstat.sql to display a developer status report for an indicated
item. The output is 132 characters per line.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfstat <item_type> <item_key>
Wfver.sql
Use wfver.sql to display the version of the Oracle Workflow server, the
status and version of the Oracle Workflow PL/SQL packages, and the
version of the Oracle Workflow views installed.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfver
Wfdirchk.sql
Use wfdirchk.sql to check for the following conditions in your
directory service data model:
• Invalid internal names that contain the characters ’#’, ’:’, or ’/’ in
WF_USERS.
• Invalid compound names in WF_USERS or WF_ROLES.
• Duplicate names in WF_USERS or WF_ROLES.
• Multiple names in WF_USERS or WF_ROLES linked to the same
row in the original repository.
• Missing display names in WF_USERS or WF_ROLES.
Workflow Administration Scripts
11 – 7
• Invalid Notification Preference or null email address if the
Notification Preference is MAILTEXT, MAILHTML, or
SUMMARY in WF_USERS or WF_ROLES.
• Invalid Status in WF_USERS.
• Rows in WF_USERS that do not have a corresponding row in
WF_ROLES.
• Invalid internal names in WF_ROLES that contain the characters
’#’ or ’/’ or have a length greater than 30 characters.
• Invalid user/role foreign key in WF_USER_ROLES.
• Missing user/role in WF_USER_ROLES (every user must
participate in its own role).
• Duplicate rows in WF_USER_ROLES.
Wfdirchk.sql should return no rows to ensure that your directory
service data model is correct.
Use the script as follows:
sqlplus <user/pwd> @wfdirchk
11 – 8
Oracle Workflow Guide
APPENDIX
A
Oracle Workflow
Builder Menus and
Toolbars
T
his appendix provides you with a description of the menus and
toolbars in Oracle Workflow Builder.
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus and Toolbars
A–1
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus
The Oracle Workflow Builder main menu bar includes the following
menus:
• File
• Edit
• View
• Window
• Help
File Menu
The File menu lets you perform several actions.
A–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
New
Creates a new workspace for you to define an item
type.
Open
Opens a data store by prompting you to connect to
a database or a file.
Close Store
Closes the selected data store. This menu option is
available only if the Navigator is the active
window.
Save
Saves changes to the currently connected database
or file.
Save As
Save changes to the file or database you specify
with an optional effective date.
Create Shortcut
Creates a shortcut icon on your desktop of the
current Oracle Workflow Builder session. Prompts
for a shortcut name. The shortcut runs Oracle
Workflow Builder and automatically connects to
the data store that was selected at the time you
created the shortcut, loading in the item types and
opening the process windows that were loaded
and open at the time. If the data store is a
database, the shortcut prompts for the database
password before starting Oracle Workflow Builder.
This feature is available only when you run Oracle
Workflow Builder in Microsoft Windows 95 or
Windows NT 4.0 or higher. Earlier versions of
Microsoft Windows NT do not support the concept
of shortcuts.
Verify
Validates all process definitions in the current data
store.
Print Design
Prints the process diagram displayed in the active
process window.
Show/Hide Item
Types...
Displays the Show Item Types window to
determine which item types in the current data
store to show or hide in the navigator tree.
Load Roles from
Database
Loads the Oracle Workflow directory service roles
from the current database store into Oracle
Workflow Builder and makes them viewable from
any property page poplist field that references
roles. This menu option is available only if the
current data store is a database.
Exit
Exits Oracle Workflow Builder.
Edit Menu
The Edit menu varies depending on whether you select the Navigator
window or a process window. The following menu options appear
only when you select the Navigator window and apply only to the
Navigator window:
New
Creates a new item type, function activity, process
activity, notification activity, message, lookup type,
lookup code, or attribute by displaying its property
page(s).
Copy
Copies the selected object in the navigator tree.
Paste
Pastes the object from the clipboard into the
selected branch of the navigator tree.
Delete
Deletes the selected object from the navigator tree.
Find
Displays the Search window so you can enter
search criteria to find an object in the navigator
tree.
Find Again
Finds an object in the navigator tree using the same
criteria defined previously in the Search window.
Properties
Shows the property pages of the selected object.
Process Detail
Opens the process window of the selected process
activity.
Move Attribute
Reorders the attributes listed in the current branch
of the navigator tree by moving the selected
attribute up or down the list.
The following menu options appear only when you select a process
window and apply only to the selected process window:
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus and Toolbars
A–3
Delete Selection
Deletes the selected object(s) from the process
window.
Properties
Shows the property pages of the selected activity
node.
Copy Design
Copies the process diagram displayed in the active
process window to the clipboard.
View Menu
The View menu lets you alter the display of Oracle Workflow Builder.
A–4
Oracle Workflow Guide
Font
Displays the Fonts property page. Use the
property page to change the font settings of the text
that appear in the Navigator and process windows.
Changes apply to all future sessions of Oracle
Workflow Builder.
Grid Snap
Toggles grid snap on or off for all process
windows.
Log –> Show
Toggles between displaying and hiding the Log
window. The Message Log window displays
messages from the Workflow Builder that are not
error–related.
Log –> Detailed
Toggles the debug mode of Oracle Workflow
Builder on and off. When you check Detailed, you
turn the debug mode on and cause Oracle
Workflow Builder to write more extensive
messages to the Log window. You should not
check Detailed unless instructed to do so by your
Oracle customer support representative, as this
mode significantly slows down the Oracle
Workflow Builder.
Log –>To File
Writes all future content of the Message Log
window to a file. Select Log Show from the View
menu to determine the location and name of the
log file.
Log –> Bring to
Front
Brings the Message Log window to the front as the
active window.
Show Label
submenu
A submenu of options that let you control the
information displayed in an activity’s label.
Choose either Display Name in Designer,
Performer in Designer, or Comment in Designer.
Show Label –>
Display Name in
Designer
Uses the display name as the label for activities in a
process diagram. This setting persists for all
process diagrams and for all sessions of Oracle
Workflow Builder until you specifically make a
change.
Show Label –>
Performer in
Designer
Uses the activity performer as the label for
activities in a process diagram. Function and
process activities that do not have performers do
not have a label. This setting persists for all
process diagrams and for all sessions of Oracle
Workflow Builder until you specifically make a
change.
Show Label –>
Comment in
Designer
Uses the activity’s comment as the label for
activities in a process diagram. Activities that do
not have a comment do not have a label. This
setting persists for all process diagrams and for all
sessions of Oracle Workflow Builder until you
specifically make a change.
Show Label –>
Internal Name in
Navigator
Toggles between showing and hiding the internal
name of all components in the Navigator window.
The internal name, if shown, appears after the
display name as (<INTERNAL_NAME>).
If the Navigator window is the active window, then the following
menu option also appears:
Split Window
Splits the Navigator window horizontally or
vertically.
If a process window is the active window, then the following menu
options also appear:
Overview
Displays the process Overview window.
Show Process in
Navigator
For the current process displayed in the process
diagram window, this menu option locates its
corresponding process activity in the Navigator
window.
Window Menu
The Windows menu displays the names of all open application
windows. Select a window name to make that window active. The
following menu choices are also available:
Cascade
Displays any open windows in a ”cascaded”
(overlapping) fashion.
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus and Toolbars
A–5
Displays any open windows in a ”tiled”
(non–overlapping) fashion.
Tile
Help Menu
The Help menu lets you invoke help about using Oracle Workflow.
Contents
Displays help on how to use Oracle Workflow.
About Oracle
Workflow...
Displays the current version and access level of
Oracle Workflow Builder. You can also edit your
access level in the Access Level field and apply
your change by choosing OK.
Oracle Workflow Builder Toolbars
Oracle Workflow Builder displays a toolbar in both the Navigator
window and Process window.
Navigator Toolbar
The Navigator toolbar includes the following buttons which apply only
to objects selected from the navigator tree:
New Store—Creates a new data store branch in the
navigator tree.
Open—Displays the Open window to open stored item
types from a file or database.
Save—Saves any changes in the selected data store to the
currently connected database or file. Displays the Open window to
let you connect to a database or file if the selected data store is not
connected to a database or file.
Delete—Deletes the selected object.
Properties—Shows the property pages of the selected
object.
Copy—Copy the selected object.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Paste—Paste the copied object into the current object
branch.
Find—Display the Search window to specify the search
criteria to locate an object in the navigator tree.
Help—Displays help on how to use Oracle Workflow.
New Object—Creates a new object depending on the
object branch you select (item type, Processes, Notifications,
Functions, Messages, or Lookup Types) by displaying the property
page for that object type.
Process Window Toolbar
The process window toolbar includes the following buttons which
apply only to objects selected the current process window:
New Store—Creates a new data store branch in the
navigator tree.
Open—Displays the Open window to open stored item
types from a file or database.
Save—Saves any changes in the selected data store to the
currently connected database or file. Displays the Open window to
let you connect to a database or file if the selected data store is not
connected to a database or file.
Delete—Deletes the selected object.
Properties—Shows the property pages of the selected
object.
Find—Displays the process Overview window.
Help—Displays help on how to use Oracle Workflow.
Oracle Workflow Builder Menus and Toolbars
A–7
APPENDIX
B
Oracle Applications
Embedded Workflows
T
his appendix lists the workflows that are embedded in Oracle
Applications and Oracle Self–Service Web Applications.
Oracle Applications Embedded Workflows
B–1
Predefined Workflows Embedded in Oracle Applications and Oracle
Self–Service Web Applications
You can use Oracle Workflow to customize these predefined workflow
processes. A full description of each workflow is documented in the
respective product’s User’s Guide.
Application Implementation Wizard
Application Implementation Wizard provides a set of workflow
processes that guide you through the setup and implementation of
Oracle Applications. The Application Implementation Wizard helps
you through the tasks and interdependencies of configuring Oracle
Applications for your installation. To make your implementation job
easier, the Application Implementation Wizard logically groups similar
setup tasks.
The sequence of steps that the Wizard takes you through are contingent
on the application modules you install. This obviates running
duplicate setup steps when implementing multiple application
modules.
The details and usage of the workflow processes can be obtained from
the Application Implementation Wizard User’s Guide.
Oracle Web Employees
Expense Reporting Workflow—Used by Oracle Web Employees and
Oracle Payables to process both manager approval and accounting
review of Web Employees–entered expense reports. The process
controls if Web Employees–entered expense reports can be imported
from the Invoice Import Interface tables into Oracle Payables invoice
tables for payment. It also notifies employees at key events during the
workflow.
Candidate Offer Approval Process—Submits an offer made using the
Candidate Offers option in Line Manager Direct Access to the
appropriate managers in the approval hierarchy. When the last
approver in the hierarchy approves the offer, the process notifies
Human Resources to print, sign and post the offer letter to the
candidate and waits for the candidate’s response. Once the candidate
responds to the offer, the originating manager is notified and the
process completes. The process keeps the originating manager
informed of the offer status throughout the process.
Employee Direct Access—Includes processes that allow employees to
view and update their personal details on the Web, including:
B–2
Oracle Workflow Guide
• Name
• Address
• Phone Numbers
• Contact Persons
• Marital Status
• Resume
• Qualifications
• Personal Competence Profile
• School and College Attendances
• Work Choices
• Succession Plan
Also includes processes to allow employees to enroll in a class and
apply for a job. Three of the processes (Change Marital Status, Enroll
in a Class, and Apply for a Job) include a standard approvals
subprocess so that the relevant managers or Human Resources
personnel can check the employee’s entry before it is committed to the
database. You can add this standard approvals subprocess to other
processes, as required.
Person Search Process—Controls how a user navigates between
entering search criteria and producing lists of people based on the
criteria.
Person Suitability Match Process—Controls how a person navigates
between entering matching criteria, showing list of people who match
the criteria and displaying bar chart representations of their skills.
Career Management Reviews Process—Sends notifications to
reviewers for Appraisals and Assessments.
360 Degree Assessment Process—Sends a notification to a set of
people to indicate that they should perform an assessment as part of a
group. Also handles the responses once the assessments are complete.
Receipt Confirmation Process—This process allows you to confirm
receipts on the web.
Requisition Approval Process—Submits a requisition created from
Web Requisitions to the appropriate managers for approval and
updates the status of the requisition.
Oracle Web Customers
Customer Self–Service Registration Approval Process—Oracle Web
Customers allows a guest to logon and register as a customer contact
Oracle Applications Embedded Workflows
B–3
for a company. This process routes a notification to the appropriate
account approver, as defined by the Web Store owner, to verify and
approve the registration. If the account approver approves the
registration, the guest’s account for both the Web User Logon and the
Order Entry System Customer Account is activated. If the account
approver rejects the registration, both accounts are deactivated. If the
guest has been identified as a possible duplicate contact in the
customer registry, the process allows the account administrator of the
Web Store to associate the request with an existing contact, accept the
request as a new contact registration or reject the request all together.
Order Entry Review Process—Oracle Web Customers allows you to set
up a reviewer to verify order entry on the Web. This process routes an
order notification to the reviewer for approval. If approved, the quote
is booked and the order status is changed to ’Saved’, otherwise, the
order is rejected. In either case, appropriate notifications are sent to the
customer or to the sales representative who prepared the order for the
customer.
Oracle Web Suppliers
Supplier Self–Service Registration Approval Process—Oracle Web
Suppliers allows a guest to logon and register as a supplier contact for
a company. This process routes a notification to the appropriate
account approver to verify and approve the registration. If the
approver approves the registration, the Supplier Web User account is
activated. If the account approver rejects the registration, the account
is deactivated.
Oracle Engineering
Engineering Change Orders—Submits an engineering change order to
the appropriate people for approval.
Oracle General Ledger
Journal Approval Process—Journals can now be approved before
posting. Create an approval hierarchy and define authorization limits
for each user. The Journal Approval process automatically routes
journals to the appropriate user, based on the approval hierarchy.
Oracle Payables
AP Open Interface Import Process—Automates verification and
validation of data in the Open Interface tables. For example, this
process can be modified to validate all accounting code combinations
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Oracle Workflow Guide
in the Open Interface tables. Notification of any invalid code
combinations can be sent to a specified user for correction. Optionally
the process can be set up to override any invalid code combinations
with a designated default value. You can use Oracle Workflow to
include additional workflow rules that meet the specific requirements
of a business. Once an invoice has passed this process it is ready to be
imported into the Oracle Payables application tables.
Credit Card Transaction Employee Workflow—Notifies and confirms
credit card transactions with a card holder. Oracle Payables initiates
this process after you submit the Credit Card Transaction Validation
and Exception Report. The process notifies an employee of
transactions created by the employee’s credit card, and confirms the
transaction information with the employee.
Credit Card Transaction Manager Workflow—Notifies and confirms
credit card transactions with a card holder’s manager. Oracle Payables
initiates this process when the Credit Card Transaction Employee
Workflow executes. The Credit Card Transaction Manager Workflow
notifies a manager of transactions created by the employee’s credit
card, and determines if the manager needs to approve the transactions.
Expense Reporting Workflow—Used by Oracle Web Employees and
Oracle Payables to process both manager approval and accounting
review of Web Employees–entered expense reports. The process
controls if Web Employees–entered expense reports can be imported
from the Invoice Import Interface tables into Oracle Payables invoice
tables for payment. It also notifies employees at key events during the
workflow.
Oracle Projects
Project Approval and Status Change Process—Routes a project and
notifies appropriate users of any project status change. For example,
you can submit the project for approval, or notify appropriate people
upon project closure. You select which workflow to use for the
appropriate status change, as well as determining the person(s) to route
the project to.
Budget Approval Process—Routes a project budget for approval and
baseline. You select which workflow to use for the budget type, as well
as determining the person(s) to route the budget to.
Oracle Purchasing
Document Approval Process—Performs all approval related activities
that existed in Oracle Purchasing. These include, but are not limited to,
document submission, approval, forwarding, approval notifications,
and reject.
Oracle Applications Embedded Workflows
B–5
Automatic Document Creation Process—Automatically creates
Standard Purchase Orders or Releases against Blanket Agreements
using approved Purchase Requisition lines, if the requisition lines have
the required sourcing information.
Change Orders Process—Part of the overall Procurement Workflow.
This process allows you to control which changes require purchasing
documents to be reapproved and which changes increment the
document revision.
The Procurement Workflow is a lights–out, hands–off transaction
processing system that is truly flexible and extensible to all members of
your supply chain. It is one of the key enablers in the shift towards
more strategic sourcing and procurement activities.
Oracle Service
Service Request Process—Routes a service request to individuals in
the organization for resolution. Customize the process to select and
notify service personnel, as well as to transfer and escalate service
requests automatically based on your organization’s service rules and
guidelines.
Service Request Actions and Dispatch Process—Routes a service
request action to individuals in the organization for resolution and in
addition, notify with instructions, appropriate service personnel who
need to be dispatched to a field site. Customize the process to manage,
transfer or escalate dispatch requests.
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Oracle Workflow Guide
Glossary
Access Level A numeric value ranging from 0
to 1000. Every workflow user operates at a
specific access level. The access level
defines whether the user can modify certain
workflow data. You can only modify data
that is protected at a level equal to or
higher than your access level.
Activity A unit of work performed during a
business process.
Activity Attribute A parameter that has been
externalized for a function activity that
controls how the function activity operates.
You define an activity attribute by
displaying the activity’s Attributes
properties page in the Activities window.
You assign a value to an activity attribute
by displaying the activity node’s Attribute
Values properties page in the Process
window.
Attribute See Activity Attribute, Item Type
Attribute, or Message Attribute.
Background Engines A supplemental
Workflow Engine that processes deferred or
timed out activities.
Cost A relative value that you can assign to a
function or notification activity to inform
the Workflow Engine how much processing
is required to complete the activity. Assign
a higher cost to longer running, complex
activities. The Workflow Engine can be set
to operate with a threshold cost. Any
activity with a cost above the Workflow
Engine threshold cost gets set to
’DEFERRED’ and is not processed. A
background engine can be set up to poll for
and process deferred activities.
Directory Services A mapping of Oracle
Workflow users and roles to a site’s
directory repository.
Function A PL/SQL stored procedure that
can define business rules, perform
automated tasks within an application, or
retrieve application information. The
stored procedure accepts standard
arguments and returns a completion result.
Function Activity An automated unit of work
that is defined by a PL/SQL stored
procedure.
Glossary – 1
Item A specific process, document, or
transaction that is managed by a workflow
process. For example, the item managed by
the Requisition Approval Process workflow
is a specific requisition created by Oracle
Internet Commerce’s Web Requisitions
page.
Item Attribute See Item Type Attribute.
Item Type A grouping of all items of a
particular category that share the same set
of item attributes. For example, PO
Requisition is an item type used to group
all requisitions created by Oracle Internet
Commerce’s Web Requisitions page. Item
type is also used as a high level grouping
for processes.
Item Type Attribute A feature associated with
a particular item type, also known as an
item attribute. An item type attribute is
defined as a variable whose value can be
looked up and set by the application that
maintains the item. An item type attribute
and its value is available to all activities in a
process.
Lookup Code An internal name of a value
defined in a lookup type.
Lookup Type A predefined list of values.
Each value in a lookup type has an internal
and a display name.
Message The information that is sent by a
notification activity. A message must be
defined before it can be associated with a
notification activity. A message contains a
subject, a priority, a body, and possibly one
or more message attributes.
Glossary – 2
Oracle Workflow Guide
Message Attribute A variable that you define
for a particular message to either provide
information or prompt for a response when
the message is sent in a notification. You
can use a predefine item type attribute as a
message attribute. Defined as a ’Send’
source, a message attribute gets replaced
with a runtime value when the message is
sent. Defined as a ’Respond’ source, a
message attribute prompts a user for a
response when the message is sent.
Node An instance of an activity in a process
diagram as shown in the Process window.
Notification An instance of a message
delivered to a user.
Notification Activity A unit of work that
requires human intervention. A
notification activity sends a message to a
user containing the information necessary
to complete the work.
Notification Mailer A concurrent program
that sends E–mail notifications to users via
a mail application, and processes E–mail
responses.
Notification Web Page A Web page that you
can view from any Web browser to query
and respond to workflow notifications.
Performer A user or role assigned to perform
a human activity (notification). Notification
activities that are included in a process
must be assigned to a performer.
Process A set of activities that need to be
performed to accomplish a business goal.
Process Definition A workflow process as
defined in Oracle Workflow Builder.
Process Activity A process modelled as an
activity so that it can be referenced by other
processes.
Protection Level A numeric value ranging
from 0 to 1000 that represents who the data
is protected from for modification. When
workflow data is defined, it can either be
set to customizable (1000), meaning anyone
can modify it or it can be assigned a
protection level that is equal to the access
level of the user defining the data. In the
latter case, only users operating at an access
level equal to or lower than the data’s
protection level can modify the data.
Result Code The internal name of a result
value, as defined by the result type.
Result Type The name of the lookup type that
contains an activity’s possible result values.
Result Value The value returned by a
completed activity.
Role One or more users grouped by a
common responsibility or position.
Timeout The amount of time during which a
notification activity must be performed
before the Workflow Engine transitions to
an error process or an alternate activity if
one is defined.
Transition The relationship that defines the
completion of one activity and the
activation of another activity within a
process. In a process diagram, the arrow
drawn between two activities represents a
transition.
Workflow Definitions Loader A concurrent
program that lets you upload and
download workflow definitions between a
flat file and a database.
Workflow Engine The Oracle Workflow
component that implements a workflow
process definition. The Workflow Engine
manages the state of all activities for an
item, automatically executes functions and
sends notifications, maintains a history of
completed activities, and detects error
conditions and starts error processes. The
Workflow Engine is implemented in server
PL/SQL and activated when a call to an
engine API is made.
Glossary – 3
Index
A
AbortProcess( ), 7 – 18
Access Level, 2 – 49
default, 2 – 52
Access level indicator, 3 – 24
Access property page, 3 – 24
Access protection
See also Access level; Protection level
preserving customizations, 3 – 25
AccessCheck( ), 7 – 89
ACCOUNT parameter, 2 – 29
ACTID, 6 – 3, 6 – 7
Activities, 3 – 8, 3 – 41
accessing from different data stores, 4 – 6, 5 –
2
copy, 3 – 51
cost, 3 – 43
create, 3 – 44, 3 – 46, 3 – 48
deferred, 3 – 43
effective date, 3 – 50
error process, 3 – 50
for an error process, 5 – 16
function, 3 – 41, 3 – 42
icons, 2 – 47, 3 – 45, 3 – 47, 3 – 49
in a loop, 3 – 50
in the Notify Approver subprocess, 10 – 16
in the Requisition Approval process, 10 – 10
joining branches, 4 – 4
notification, 3 – 41
optional details, 3 – 50
process, 3 – 41, 3 – 42
processing cost, 7 – 4
result type, 3 – 44, 3 – 47, 3 – 49
Standard, 3 – 41, 5 – 2
statuses, 7 – 3
System: Error, 3 – 41
timing out, 3 – 50
version number, 3 – 51
Activities( ), 7 – 45
Activity attributes
See also Function activity attributes
setting values for, 4 – 8
Activity nodes
in the Notify Approver subprocess, 10 – 16
in the Requisition Approval process, 10 – 10
AddAttr( ), 7 – 81
AddItemAttr( ), 7 – 21
Administrator privileges, 2 – 18
And activity, 5 – 2
APIs, 7 – 3
Arrows, 4 – 2
Assign activity, 5 – 15
AssignActivity( ), 7 – 30
Attributes
copy, 3 – 23
type, 3 – 15, 3 – 19, 3 – 35, 3 – 40
Automatic Notification Handler, 8 – 20
Automatic responses, 8 – 20
Automatic routing, 8 – 20
B
Background engine, scripts, 11 – 3
Background Engines
about, 2 – 43
Index – 1
scripts, 11 – 3
starting, 2 – 44
submitting, 2 – 44
Background( ), 7 – 19
BeginActivity( ), 7 – 27
Block activity, 5 – 4
C
Callback functions, 6 – 5
command, 6 – 7
for item types, 3 – 17
Cancel( ), 7 – 75
CancelGroup( ), 7 – 76
CLEAR( ), 7 – 35
Compare Date activity, 5 – 3
Compare Number activity, 5 – 3
Compare Text activity, 5 – 3
Comparison activities, 5 – 3
CompleteActivity( ), 7 – 28
Concurrent programs
Notification Mailer, 2 – 25, 2 – 26
Workflow Background Process, 2 – 44
Workflow Definitions Loader, 2 – 56
Workflow Resource Generator, 2 – 15
CONNECT parameter, 2 – 29
CONTEXT( ), 7 – 39
Continue Flow activity, 5 – 13
Coordinating master/detail activities, 5 – 12
Copy, limitation, 3 – 2
Cost threshold, 3 – 43
CreateProcess( ), 7 – 9
CurrentUser( ), 7 – 54
Custom logos, in the Notification Web page, 2
– 19
Customization Level, 2 – 52
for activities, 3 – 18, 3 – 21, 3 – 27, 3 – 32, 3 –
45, 3 – 47, 3 – 49, 3 – 51
D
DAD, 2 – 21
Index – 2
Oracle Workflow Guide
Database Access Descriptor, 2 – 21
Database Connection Descriptor, 2 – 21
DCD, 2 – 21
DEBUG parameter, 2 – 31
Deferred activities, 2 – 43, 3 – 43
Deferred processing, 2 – 43, 7 – 4
Delete
all workflow data, 11 – 5
data for an item type, 11 – 5
item type attributes, 11 – 6
runtime data for an item type, 11 – 6
workflow status information, 11 – 5
Detail process, 5 – 13
Diagram arrows, 4 – 2
Directory repository, 2 – 7
Directory services, 2 – 7
checking the data model, 2 – 11, 11 – 7
integrating with local workflow users, 2 – 12
integrating with native Oracle users, 2 – 11
integrating with Oracle HR, 2 – 11
Directory Services APIs, 7 – 49
DISCARD parameter, 2 – 32
Document integration, 3 – 16, 3 – 20, 3 – 35, 6 –
9
Dynamic priority, 3 – 39
E
E–mail
HTML attachments, 8 – 10
with HTML attachments, 8 – 6
E–mail notifications, 1 – 4, 2 – 25
and HTML attachments, 2 – 2
example response template, 8 – 8
modifying mail templates, 2 – 36
requirements, 2 – 2
summaries, 8 – 18
templates for, 8 – 7
Edit menu, A – 3
Effective dates, 3 – 10, 3 – 12, 3 – 50, 7 – 6
Effectivity, dates of, 3 – 6
END activities, 4 – 4
End Activity, 5 – 7
Engine thresholds, 2 – 45
Environment variables
WF_ACCESS_LEVEL, 2 – 49, 2 – 53
WF_RESOURCES, 2 – 14
Error activities, 5 – 16
Error handling, 7 – 31
Error process, 3 – 50, 5 – 16
Error Processing, 7 – 5
Errored activities, retrying, 11 – 4
Example function activity
Select Approver, 10 – 26
Verify Authority, 10 – 29
Example process, Requisition Approval
Process, 10 – 2
F
FAILCOMMAND parameter, 2 – 31
File menu, A – 2
FND_FNDWFIAS, 9 – 2
FND_FNDWFNOT, 8 – 2
Fonts
modifying, 4 – 13
setting, 4 – 13
Forward( ), 7 – 74
FROM parameter, 2 – 29
FUNCMODE, 6 – 3, 6 – 4
Function activities, 3 – 42
create, 3 – 46
standard PL/SQL API, 6 – 2
Function activity attributes, 3 – 19, 3 – 47
Functions, 3 – 8
See also PL/SQL procedures
GetAttrDate( ), 7 – 86
GetAttrInfo( ), 7 – 83
GetAttrNumber( ), 7 – 86
GetAttrText( ), 7 – 86
GetBody( ), 7 – 88
GetDiagramURL( ), 7 – 58
GetEnvelopeURL( ), 7 – 60
GetInfo( ), 7 – 84
GetItemAttrDate( ), 7 – 23
GetItemAttrInfo( ), 7 – 24
GetItemAttrNumber( ), 7 – 23
GetItemAttrText( ), 7 – 23
GetRoleInfo( ), 7 – 52
GetRoleName( ), 7 – 57
GetRoleUsers( ), 7 – 50
GetSubject( ), 7 – 87
GetText( ), 7 – 85
GetUserName( ), 7 – 56
GetUserRoles( ), 7 – 51
Global variables, 3 – 14
H
HandleError( ), 7 – 31
Hardware requirements, 2 – 2
Help menu, A – 6
Home page, 8 – 27
HTMLAGENT parameter, 2 – 31
HTMLDESC parameter, 2 – 31
HTMLFILE parameter, 2 – 31
HTMLTYPE parameter, 2 – 31
I
G
Get Monitor URL activity, 5 – 15
GET_ERROR( ), 7 – 36
GetActivityAttrDate( ), 7 – 26
GetActivityAttrInfo( ), 7 – 25
GetActivityAttrNumber( ), 7 – 26
GetActivityAttrText( ), 7 – 26
GetActivityLabel( ), 7 – 12
Icons, 2 – 47
viewing, 3 – 45, 3 – 47, 3 – 49
IDLE parameter, 2 – 30
Initiating a workflow process, 10 – 18
IsPerformer( ), 7 – 53
Item type attributes, 3 – 14, 3 – 18, 3 – 19, 7 – 6
Workflow Demonstration, 10 – 6
Item types, 3 – 7, 3 – 14
callback function, 3 – 17
Index – 3
context reset, 6 – 5
copy, 3 – 22
creation, 3 – 17
loading, 3 – 8, 3 – 9
saving, 3 – 8
selector functions, 3 – 16, 6 – 5
Standard, 5 – 2
System: Error, 5 – 16
System: Mailer, 2 – 36
Workflow Demonstration, 10 – 6
Item_Activity_Statuses( ), 7 – 43
Item_Notifications( ), 7 – 47
ITEMKEY, 6 – 3, 6 – 7
Items( ), 7 – 44
ITEMTYPE, 6 – 3, 6 – 6
J
Java monitor tool, 9 – 3
JavaScript, support in a Web browser, 2 – 2
Joining activities, 4 – 4
L
Load balancing, 5 – 7
Loading item types, 3 – 9
LOG parameter, 2 – 30
Lookup codes, copy, 3 – 29
Lookup types, 3 – 7, 3 – 26
copy, 3 – 29
creation, 3 – 27
Loop Counter activity, 5 – 5
Loop Reset, 4 – 3, 7 – 5
Loops, 3 – 50, 6 – 4, 7 – 5
M
Master process, 5 – 13
Master/Detail coordination activities, 5 – 12
notes on usage, 5 – 14
Menus, Oracle Workflow Builder, A – 2
Index – 4
Oracle Workflow Guide
Message attributes, 3 – 30, 3 – 33, 3 – 34, 10 –
33
for Workflow Cancelled Mail message, 2 – 38
for Workflow Closed Mail message, 2 – 41
for Workflow Invalid Mail message, 2 – 39
for Workflow Open FYI Mail message, 2 – 38
for Workflow Open Mail message, 2 – 37
for Workflow Summary Mail message, 2 – 41
for Workflow Warning Mail message, 2 – 42
Respond, 3 – 31, 3 – 36, 3 – 38
RESULT, 10 – 33
Send, 3 – 30, 3 – 36
source, 3 – 30, 3 – 36
Message templates, for E–mail notifications, 2
– 36
Messages, 3 – 7
body, 3 – 33, 10 – 32
copy, 3 – 40
creation, 3 – 31
priority, 3 – 39
subject, 3 – 33, 10 – 32
viewing, 10 – 33
Messages window, 3 – 30
Monitoring
Workflow Monitor, 9 – 3
Workflow Status form, 9 – 2
workitems, 1 – 4
Multilingual support, 11 – 2
N
Naming conventions, PL/SQL stored
procedures, 10 – 10
Navigator Toolbar, A – 6
Navigator tree, finding objects in, 3 – 5
NODE parameter, 2 – 29
Nodes
adding to a process, 4 – 5
start and end, 4 – 7
NOOP activity, 5 – 5
Notification, status, 11 – 4
Notification access keys, 8 – 7
Notification activities, 3 – 41
create, 3 – 44
dynamic priority, 3 – 39
Notify Requisition Approval Required, 10 –
32
Notification APIs, 7 – 67, 7 – 69
Notification IDs, 8 – 7
Notification Mailer
about, 2 – 25
configuration file, 2 – 28
response processing, 2 – 34
script to restart, 2 – 33
starting, 2 – 26
starting for MAPI–compliant applications, 2
– 27
starting for Oracle Office, 2 – 26
starting for UNIX Sendmail, 2 – 26
Notification method, 8 – 2
Notification summaries, via E–mail, 8 – 18
Notification System, 2 – 25, 7 – 67
Notification templates, for E–mail
notifications, 2 – 36
Notification Viewer form, requirements, 2 – 2
Notification Web page, 1 – 4
reassigning notifications, 8 – 18
Notifications, 8 – 2
dependence on directory services, 8 – 2
drill down to a form, 8 – 6
drill down to a URL reference, 8 – 11
identifying the responder, 7 – 77
load balancing, 5 – 7
reassign in Notification Viewer, 8 – 4
reassign in Notification Web page, 8 – 18
reassign via E–mail, 8 – 11
respond in Notification Viewer, 8 – 5
responding by E–mail, 8 – 7
responding by E–mail HTML attachment, 8 –
10
responding with Notification Web page, 8 –
18
via E–mail, 2 – 25, 8 – 6
via Notification Viewer, 8 – 3
via Notification Web page, 8 – 12
Notifications( ), 7 – 46
Notify Approver, example notification
activities, 10 – 32
Notify Approver subprocess activities
End, 10 – 18
Notify Requisition Approval Required, 10 –
16
Or, 10 – 17
Reminder–Approval Needed, 10 – 17
Start, 10 – 16
Notify Requisition Approval Required, 10 – 32
O
OpenNotificationsExist( ), 7 – 80
Or activity, 5 – 2
Oracle Office, 2 – 25
required folders, 2 – 32
Oracle WebServer
identifying the workflow web agent, 2 – 15
modifying workflow web templates, 2 – 19
securing workflow web pages, 2 – 21
setting up the Workflow Monitor, 2 – 19
Oracle Workflow, implementation issues, 2 – 4
Oracle Workflow Builder, 1 – 3
Loader functionality, 3 – 11
overview, 3 – 2
requirements, 2 – 2
save modes, 3 – 11, 3 – 24
starting from command line, 3 – 13
Oracle Workflow views, 7 – 62
P
Personal Inbox, 1 – 4
See also Notification Viewer form
PL/SQL, 1 – 3
document, 6 – 9
PL/SQL APIs
for a ’PL/SQL’ document, 6 – 9
for a selector or callback function, 6 – 5
for function activities, 6 – 2
PL/SQL stored procedures
creating, 10 – 10
naming conventions, 10 – 10
scripts, 10 – 10
Preferred notification method, 8 – 2
Index – 5
Preserving customizations, for an activity, 3 –
25
Process activities, 3 – 42
create, 3 – 48
Process diagram
adding nodes, 4 – 5
drawing, 4 – 2, 4 – 5
Process rollback, 7 – 31
Process window, 4 – 2
editing, 4 – 2
Process Window Toolbar, A – 7
Processes
activity transitions, 4 – 2
copying to clipboard, 4 – 12
creation, 3 – 6
editing, 3 – 8
loops, 6 – 4, 7 – 5
overview, 4 – 11
printing, 4 – 12
starting, 4 – 4
verify, 4 – 12
Protection level, 2 – 50
reset, 11 – 4
Protection level locking. See Access protection
R
RAISE( ), 7 – 38
Reassign notifications
in Notification Viewer, 8 – 4
in Notification Web page, 8 – 18
via E–mail, 8 – 11
REPLYTO parameter, 2 – 31
Requirements, hardware and software, 2 – 2
Requisition Approval Demonstration, web
page, 10 – 18
Requisition Approval Process, 10 – 2
example function activities, 10 – 26
installing, 10 – 3
Requisition Approval process, initiating, 10 –
18
Index – 6
Oracle Workflow Guide
Requisition Approval process activities
Approve Requisition, 10 – 14
End, 10 – 14
Notify Approver, 10 – 12
Notify Preparer No Approver Available, 10 –
11
Notify Requestor of Approval, 10 – 14
Notify Requestor of Forward, 10 – 11
Notify Requestor of Rejection, 10 – 13
Record Requisition Forward, 10 – 12
Reject Requisition, 10 – 13
Select Approver, 10 – 11
Start, 10 – 11
Verify Authority, 10 – 13
Reset process. See Rollback
RESPOND, 7 – 68
Respond attributes, 2 – 37
Respond to notification
in Notification Viewer, 8 – 5
via E–mail, 8 – 7
via Notification Web page, 8 – 12
Respond( ), 7 – 77
Responder, 7 – 77
Responder( ), 7 – 78
Response processing, by Notification Mailer, 2
– 34
RESULT, 6 – 3, 6 – 7
Result type, for activities, 3 – 44, 3 – 47, 3 – 49
ResumeProcess( ), 7 – 17
Role
administrator, 2 – 18
property page, 4 – 18
Role Resolution activity, 5 – 7
Roles, 4 – 16
loading into the Workflow Builder, 4 – 16
tab page, 4 – 16
Rollback, of process, 7 – 31
Routing, automatic, 8 – 20
Routing rules
deleting, 8 – 26
for a role, 8 – 21
listing, 8 – 20
overriding, 8 – 23
updating, 8 – 26
S
T
Select Approver function activity, 10 – 26
Selector functions, 3 – 16, 6 – 5
SEND, 7 – 67
Send( ), 7 – 69
SendGroup( ), 7 – 72
SetAttrDate( ), 7 – 82
SetAttrNumber( ), 7 – 82
SetAttrText( ), 7 – 82
SetItemAttrDate( ), 7 – 22
SetItemAttrNumber( ), 7 – 22
SetItemAttrText( ), 7 – 22
SetItemOwner( ), 7 – 13
SetItemParent API, 5 – 13
SetItemParent( ), 7 – 33
SetItemUserKey( ), 7 – 11
Shortcuts, 4 – 14
Shutdown files, 2 – 30
SHUTDOWN parameter, 2 – 30
Software requirements, 2 – 2
SQL*Net, 2 – 2
Standard activities, 5 – 2
Standard APIs
for ”PL/SQL documents”, 6 – 9
for function activities, 6 – 2
for selector/callback functions, 6 – 5
Standard item type, 5 – 2
START activities, 4 – 4
Start activity, 5 – 7
StartProcess function, for demonstration, 10 –
22
StartProcess( ), 7 – 14
Status report
developer, 11 – 7
end user, 11 – 7
SUMMARYONLY parameter, 2 – 29
SuspendProcess( ), 7 – 16
System: Error item type, 5 – 16
System: Mailer item type, 2 – 36
Tag files, 2 – 32
TAGFILE parameter, 2 – 32
TCP/IP drivers, 2 – 2
TEST_ADDRESS parameter, 2 – 31
Timed out processes, 2 – 43
Timeout transitions, 4 – 3
Timeouts, 3 – 50
TOKEN( ), 7 – 37
Toolbars, Oracle Workflow Builder, A – 6
Total( ), 7 – 48
Transitions, 4 – 2
creating, 4 – 10
editing, 4 – 10
TRANSLATE( ), 7 – 41
Translation, 2 – 13
U
UNIX Sendmail, 2 – 25
UNPROCESS parameter, 2 – 32
URLs
for Find Notifications Routing Rules web
page, 8 – 21
for Find Notifications web page, 8 – 12
for Find Processes web page, 9 – 9
for Notifications Routing Rules web page, 8
– 20
for Oracle Workflow home page, 8 – 27
for Requisition Approval Demonstration
web page, 10 – 19
for the Workflow Monitor, 9 – 8
for Worklist web page, 8 – 12
UserActive( ), 7 – 55
V
Vacation forwarding, 8 – 20
Verify Authority function activity, 10 – 29
Version, 2 – 6, 7 – 6, 11 – 7
Version number, for activities, 3 – 51
Versioning, 3 – 6
Index – 7
View menu, A – 4
View notifications
E–mail summary, 8 – 18
electronic mail, 8 – 6
Notification Viewer, 8 – 3
Notification Web page, 8 – 12
web browser, 8 – 12
Views, Oracle Workflow, 7 – 62
VoteCount( ), 7 – 79
Voting activity, 5 – 8
W
Wait activity, 5 – 3
Wait for Flow activity, 5 – 13
Web agent, for Oracle Workflow, 2 – 15
Web home page, 8 – 27
Web notifications, requirements, 2 – 3
WF_ACCESS_LEVEL, 2 – 49, 2 – 53
WF_ADMIN_ROLE, 2 – 18
WF_ENGINE.AbortProcess, 6 – 4
WF_ENGINE.BACKROUND, 2 – 44
WF_ITEM_ACTIVITY_STATUSES_V, 7 – 62
WF_LANGUAGES view, 2 – 13
WF_NOTIFICATION_ATTR_RESP_V, 7 – 64
WF_REQDEMO.SelectApprover, 10 – 11, 10 –
26
WF_REQDEMO.StartProcess, 10 – 18
WF_REQDEMO.VerifyAuthority, 10 – 13, 10 –
29
WF_RESOURCES, environment variable, 2 –
14
WF_ROLES, view, 2 – 9
WF_STANDARD.NOOP, 10 – 11, 10 – 16, 10 –
18
WF_USER_ROLES, view, 2 – 10
WF_USERS, view, 2 – 7
WF_WEB_AGENT, 2 – 15
Wfbkg.sql, 11 – 3
Wfbkgchk.sql, 11 – 3
Wfdirchk.sql, 11 – 7
wfmail.cfg, 2 – 28
Index – 8
Oracle Workflow Guide
WFNLADD.sql, 11 – 2
Wfntfsh.sql, 11 – 4
Wfprot.sql, 11 – 4
Wfretry.sql, 11 – 4
Wfrmall.sql, 11 – 5
Wfrmita.sql, 11 – 6
Wfrmitms.sql, 11 – 5
Wfrmitt.sql, 11 – 5
Wfrmtype.sql, 11 – 6
Wfrun.sql, 11 – 6
WFRUNDEMO.SQL, 10 – 18
Wfstat.sql, 11 – 7
Wfstatus.sql, 11 – 7
Wfver.sql, 11 – 7
Windows menu, A – 5
WorkCount( ), 7 – 90
Workflow, sample, 10 – 3
Workflow administrator, 2 – 18
Workflow Builder menus, A – 2
Workflow Cancelled Mail message template, 2
– 38
Workflow Closed Mail message template, 2 –
41
Workflow definitions
loading, 1 – 3
source control, 3 – 8
transferring, 2 – 54
Workflow Definitions Loader, 1 – 3, 2 – 54
concurrent program, 2 – 56
Workflow Designer. See Oracle Workflow
Builder
Workflow Engine, 1 – 3
calling after activity completion, 7 – 4
calling for activity initiation, 7 – 3
CANCEL mode, 7 – 6
core APIs, 7 – 34, 7 – 42
cost threshold, 3 – 43
deferred activities, 7 – 4
directory services, 7 – 49
error processing, 7 – 5
looping, 7 – 5
master/detail processes, 7 – 33
requirements, 2 – 2
RUN mode, 7 – 6
threshold cost, 2 – 45, 7 – 4
Workflow Engine APIs, 7 – 3, 7 – 8
Workflow Invalid Mail message template, 2 –
39
Workflow Monitor, 9 – 3
Administration buttons, 9 – 7
Detail Tab window, 9 – 5
Process Diagram window, 9 – 4
Process title, 9 – 4
setup, 2 – 19
Workflow Open Mail message template, 2 – 36,
2 – 37
Workflow processes
creating and starting, 11 – 6
monitoring, 9 – 3
Workflow Report API, 7 – 58
Workflow Resource Generator, 2 – 15
concurrent program, 2 – 16
Workflow roles, 2 – 7
Workflow Status form, 9 – 2
Workflow Summary Mail message template, 2
– 41
Workflow users, 2 – 7
Workflow Warning Mail message template, 2 –
42
Workflow web pages, modifying template, 2 –
19
Workitems. See Items
Index – 9
Reader’s Comment Form
Oracle Workflow Guide
A56104–01
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